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1

A New Interocular Suppression Technique for Measuring Sensory Eye Dominance  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Recently devised tests have implemented forms of interocular suppression (e.g., binocular rivalry) to assess eye dominance. In an effort to combine the strengths of these tests, the authors introduce a new technique for quantifying the magnitude of interocular suppression by using an easily administered psychophysical test. Methods. Eighty-eight observers participated in the interocular suppression test, which involved dichoptic presentation of dynamic noise to one eye and a target stimulus to the other. Observers made a form-discrimination judgment once the target emerged from suppression. The authors reasoned that the dominant eye is less susceptible to interocular suppression and as a result, perception and thus, form discrimination would be faster when the target is presented to the dominant eye as opposed to the nondominant eye. Observers' sighting dominance, acuity, contrast sensitivity, and test–retest reliability were also assessed. Results. There were significant interocular differences in mean reaction times within and across observers. Of the observers, 68% and 32% observers were categorized as right eye dominant and left eye dominant, respectively, according to the test. Moreover, 38% of observers showed strong eye dominance. Observers' discrimination accuracy (98%) and test–retest reliability (r = 0.52–0.67) were high. Consistent with results in previous studies, statistical correlations were weak between the sighting dominance test, acuity scores, contrast sensitivity measures, and the interocular suppression test. Conclusions. This interocular suppression technique offers an efficient, reliable, quantitative method of evaluating eye dominance and may be useful in making decisions about differential refractive correction of the two eyes.

Blake, Randolph; McDonald, James E.

2010-01-01

2

Eye dominance effects in conjunction search.  

PubMed

We previously found a dominant eye perceptional advantage in feature search (Vision Research, 2006). We now ask if this advantage extends to difficult conjunction search, which requires focused attention and depends on different cortical hierarchy levels. We determined eye dominance by the Hole-in-the-Card test. Using red-green glasses, subjects viewed a briefly presented, backward-masked, array of red/green dotted squares and filled circles. On half of the trials a filled square target replaced one dotted square. There was significantly better performance when the target was seen by the dominant eye, suggesting its visual processing priority in slow, as in rapid search, perhaps including augmented attention to dominant eye representations. Binocular conjunction targets were found faster than monocular targets, though binocularity--as utrocular information--was insufficient to support reasonable detection levels. PMID:18541282

Shneor, Einat; Hochstein, Shaul

2008-07-01

3

Ecological constraints on sensory systems: compound eye size in Daphnia is reduced by resource limitation.  

PubMed

Eye size is an indicator of visual capability, and macroevolutionary patterns reveal that taxa inhabiting dim environments have larger eyes than taxa from bright environments. This suggests that the light environment is a key driver of variation in eye size. Yet other factors not directly linked with visual tasks (i.e., non-sensory factors) may influence eye size. We sought to jointly investigate the roles of sensory (light) and non-sensory factors (food) in determining eye size and ask whether non-sensory factors could constrain visual capabilities. We tested environmental influences on eye size in four species of the freshwater crustacean Daphnia, crossing bright and dim light levels with high and low resource levels. We measured absolute eye size and eye size relative to body size in early and late adulthood. In general, Daphnia reared on low resources had smaller eyes, both absolutely and relatively. In contrast to the dominant macroevolutionary pattern, phenotypic plasticity in response to light was rarely significant. These patterns of phenotypic plasticity were true for overall diameter of the eye and the diameter of individual facets. We conclude that non-sensory environmental factors can influence sensory systems, and in particular, that resource availability may be an important constraint on visual capability. PMID:24865992

Brandon, Christopher S; Dudycha, Jeffry L

2014-08-01

4

Sensory dominance in combinations of audio, visual and haptic stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participants presented with auditory, visual, or bi-sensory audio–visual stimuli in a speeded discrimination task, fail to\\u000a respond to the auditory component of the bi-sensory trials significantly more often than they fail to respond to the visual\\u000a component—a ‘visual dominance’ effect. The current study investigated further the sensory dominance phenomenon in all combinations\\u000a of auditory, visual and haptic stimuli. We found

David Hecht; Miriam Reiner

2009-01-01

5

Sensory compensation in sound localization in people with one eye.  

PubMed

Some blind people are better at locating sounds than people with normal vision indicating cross-modal plasticity. People who have lost one eye have a unique form of visual deprivation that reduces visual afferent signals by half and can potentially also lead to cross-modal (as well as intra-modal) plasticity. To look for evidence of auditory-visual cross-modal compensation, we measured binaural and monaural sound localization in one-eyed people and compared them with normally sighted controls. One-eyed people showed significantly better binaural sound localization than controls in the central region of space (±78° from straight ahead), but they mislocalized sounds in the far periphery (on both the blind and intact side) by up to 15° towards the centre. One-eyed people showed significantly better monaural sound localization compared with controls. Controls' performance became asymmetric when they had one eye patched. Patching improved accuracy in the viewing field but decreased accuracy in the occluded field. These results are discussed in terms of cross-modal sensory compensation and the possible contribution of visual depth to interpreting sound localization cues. PMID:22130779

Hoover, Adria E N; Harris, Laurence R; Steeves, Jennifer K E

2012-02-01

6

Functional magnetic resonance imaging of eye dominance at 4 tesla.  

PubMed

We studied eye dominance in visual cortex and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at a very high magnetic field (4 tesla). Eight normal volunteers were studied with fMRI at 4 tesla during alternating monocular visual stimulation. The acquisition was repeated twice in 4 subjects to confirm reproducibility. In addition, magnetic resonance signal intensities during three conditions (right eye stimulation, left eye stimulation, and control condition) were compared to determine whether the observed area was truly or relatively monocular in 2 subjects. In both the individual and group analyses, the anterior striate cortex was consistently activated by the contralateral eye more than the ipsilateral eye. Additionally, we found evidence that there were areas in the bilateral LGN which were more active during the stimulation of the contralateral eye than during the stimulation of the ipsilateral eye. The activated areas were reproducible, and the mean ratio of the overlapping area was 0.71 for the repeated scans. The additional experiment revealed that the area in the anterior visual cortex could be divided into two parts, one truly monocular and the other relatively monocular. Our finding confirmed previous fMRI results at 1.5 tesla showing that eye dominance was observed in the contralateral anterior visual cortex. However, the eye dominance in the visual cortex was found not only in the most anterior area corresponding to the monocular temporal crescent but also in the more posterior area, presumably showing the greater sensitivity of the temporal visual field (nasal retina) as compared with the nasal visual field (temporal retina) in the peripheral visual field (peripheral retina). In addition, it is suggested that the nasotemporal asymmetry of the retina and the visual fields is represented in the LGN as well as in the visual cortex. PMID:11586061

Miki, A; Liu, G T; Englander, S A; van Erp, T G; Bonhomme, G R; Aleman, D O; Liu, C S; Haselgrove, J C

2001-01-01

7

Eye position and cross-sensory learning both contribute to prism adaptation of auditory space.  

PubMed

Optical prisms shift visual space, and through adaptation over time, generate a compensatory realignment of sensory-motor reference frames. In humans, prism-induced lateral shifts of visual space produce a corresponding shift in sound localization. We recently reported that sound localization shifts towards eccentric eye position, approaching approximately 40% of gaze over several minutes. Given that eye position affects sound localization directly, prism adaptation may well reflect contributions of both eye position and sensory adaptation; while the visual world is shifted by the prisms, the eyes must also shift simply to gaze ahead. To test this new concept of prism adaptation, 10 young (18-27 year) adults localized sound targets before and after 4 h of adaptation to base-right or base-left prisms that induced an 11.4 degrees shift left or right, respectively. In separate sessions subjects were exposed to: (1) natural binaural hearing; (2) diotically presented inputs devoid of meaningful spatial cues; or (3) attenuated hearing to simulate hearing loss. These preliminary results suggest that the prism adaptation of auditory space is dependent on two independent influences: (1) the effect of displaced mean eye position induced by the prisms, which occurs without cross-sensory experience; and (2) true cross-sensory learning in response to an imposed offset between auditory and visual space. PMID:18718311

Cui, Qi N; Bachus, Laura; Knoth, Eva; O'Neill, William E; Paige, Gary D

2008-01-01

8

Discovery of some 400 million year-old sensory structures in the compound eyes of trilobites  

PubMed Central

Fossilised arthropod compound eyes have frequently been described. Among the oldest known are those from the lower Cambrian of the Chengjiang Lagerstätte (China, c 525?Ma). All these compound eyes, though often excellently preserved, however, represent just the outer shells, because soft tissues, or even individual cells, usually do not fossilise. Using modern techniques, including ?ct-scanning and synchrotron radiation analysis we present the discovery of the sensory cell system of compound eyes, belonging to trilobites around 400 million years old, which allows their description and analysis. They are interpreted as forming part of an apposition-like ommatidium, which is a basic functional type of compound eye present in arthropods of today. Considered in greater detail, it is similar to the compound eye of the horseshoe crab Limulus, generally regarded as a ‘living fossil’, which probably retained this ancient basal system successfully until today.

Schoenemann, Brigitte; Clarkson, Euan N. K.

2013-01-01

9

Sensory Eye Irritation in Humans Exposed to Mixtures of Volatile Organic Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight subjects participated in a controlled eyes-only exposure study of human sensory irritation in ocular mucosal tissue. The authors investigated dose-response properties and the additive effects of three mixtures of volatile organic compounds. The dose-response relationships for these mixtures showed increases in response intensity as concentration increased. Replication of exposure did not result in significantly different dose- response relationships. Moreover,

Anne Hempel-Jørgensen; Sren K. Kjærgaard; Lars Mølhave; Kenneth H. Hudnell

1999-01-01

10

Palmoplantar keratoderma, nail dystrophy, and hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy: an autosomal dominant trait.  

PubMed Central

Autosomal dominant inheritance of a syndrome comprising palmoplantar keratoderma, nail dystrophy, and hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) was observed in three generations of one family. Nail dystrophy affected the toe and fingernails; it was present at birth or developed during early childhood. Palmoplantar keratoderma became apparent in later childhood. Each subject with nail dystrophy and keratoderma also had clinical or electrophysiological evidence of axonal neuropathy. Images

Tolmie, J L; Wilcox, D E; McWilliam, R; Assindi, A; Stephenson, J B

1988-01-01

11

Prox 1 in eye degeneration and sensory organ compensation during development and evolution of the cavefish Astyanax  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated expression of the homeobox gene Prox 1 during eye degeneration and sensory organ compensation in cavefish embryos. The teleost Astyanax mexicanus consists of sighted surface-dwelling forms (surface fish) and several populations of blind cave-dwelling forms (cavefish),\\u000a which have evolved independently. Eye formation is initiated during cavefish development, but the lens vesicle undergoes apoptosis,\\u000a and the eye subsequently

William R. Jeffery; Allen G. Strickler; Stephanie Guiney; Deidre G. Heyser; Stanislav I. Tomarev

2000-01-01

12

Looking at eye dominance from a different angle: is sighting strength related to hand preference?  

PubMed

Sighting dominance (the behavioural preference for one eye over the other under monocular viewing conditions) has traditionally been thought of as a robust individual trait. However, Khan and Crawford (2001) have shown that, under certain viewing conditions, eye preference reverses as a function of horizontal gaze angle. Remarkably, the reversal of sighting from one eye to the other depends on which hand is used to reach out and grasp the target. Their procedure provides an ideal way to measure the strength of monocular preference for sighting, which may be related to other indicators of hemispheric specialisation for speech, language and motor function. Therefore, we hypothesised that individuals with consistent side preferences (e.g., right hand, right eye) should have more robust sighting dominance than those with crossed lateral preferences. To test this idea, we compared strength of eye dominance in individuals who are consistently right or left sided for hand and foot preference with those who are not. We also modified their procedure in order to minimise a potential image size confound, suggested by Banks et al. (2004) as an explanation of Khan and Crawford's results. We found that the sighting dominance switch occurred at similar eccentricities when we controlled for effects of hand occlusion and target size differences. We also found that sighting dominance thresholds change predictably with the hand used. However, we found no evidence for relationships between strength of hand preference as assessed by questionnaire or by pegboard performance and strength of sighting dominance. Similarly, participants with consistent hand and foot preferences did not show stronger eye preference as assessed using the Khan and Crawford procedure. These data are discussed in terms of indirect relationships between sighting dominance, hand preference and cerebral specialisation for language and motor control. PMID:23357202

Carey, David P; Hutchinson, Claire V

2013-10-01

13

Development of a sensory neuronal cell model for the estimation of mild eye irritation.  

PubMed

In an attempt to improve the in vitro test strategy for the estimation of eye irritation, a neuronal cell model has been developed, with cells expressing vanilloid receptor type 1 (VR1) nociceptors. The currently accepted method for measuring eye irritancy is the ethically and scientifically criticised Draize rabbit eye test, despite the fact that alternative in vitro methods are available which have proved to be reliable and reproducible for predicting severe ocular toxicity. However, no alternative tests for measuring neuronal stimulation have yet been developed, and the prediction of eye irritation in the mild range is therefore insufficient. VR1 is a nociceptor localised in C-fibre neurons innervating the cornea and the surrounding tissue, and it responds to potentially damaging stimuli by releasing Ca2+ into the cytoplasm. As a sensory endpoint, [Ca2+]i was measured in VR1 transfected cells, as well as in control cells. Short-term cell cytotoxicity studies (cell membrane rupture and morphological divergence) were used to determine the non-corrosive concentrations of the test chemicals. Preliminary results indicated that hygiene products used daily may induce eye irritation via VR1 nociceptors. The lowest toxic concentration (0.025%) of liquid hand soap, as determined by morphologic divergences of cells, generated an 80% increase in [Ca2+]i over the basal [Ca2+]i in VR1 transfected cells, whereas the non-specific [Ca2+]i increased by 33%. Furthermore, all the endpoints studied indicated that shampoo for children was less active than shampoo for adults. If this method is successfully validated with standardised reference chemicals, the model could complete the test battery of in vitro alternatives, resulting in the saving of thousands of laboratory animals. PMID:15651917

Lilja, Johanna; Forsby, Anna

2004-10-01

14

Variation, Signal, and Noise in Cerebellar Sensory-Motor Processing for Smooth-Pursuit Eye Movements  

PubMed Central

Neural responses are variable, yet motor performance can be quite precise. To ask how neural signal and noise are processed in the brain during sensory–motor behavior, we have evaluated the trial-by-trial variation of Purkinje cell (PC) activity in the floccular complex of the cerebellum, an intermediate stage in the neural circuit for smooth-pursuit eye movements. We find strong correlations between small trial-by-trial variations in the simple spike activity of individual PCs and the eye movements at the initiation of pursuit. The correlation is lower but still present during steady-state pursuit. Recordings from a few pairs of PCs verified the predictions of a model of the PC population, that there is a transition from highly covariant PC activity during movement initiation to more independent activity later on. Application to the data of a theoretical and computational analysis suggests that variation in pursuit initiation arises mostly from variation in visual motion signals that provide common inputs to the PC population. Variation in eye movement during steady-state pursuit can be attributed primarily to signal-dependent motor noise that arises downstream from PCs.

Medina, Javier F.; Lisberger, Stephen G.

2009-01-01

15

Hand-Eye Dominance and Depth Perception Effects in Performance on a Basic Laparoscopic Skills Set  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Our study determined whether depth perception defects and hand-eye dominance affect an individual's ability to perform laparoscopic skills. Methods: The study cohort comprised 104 third-year medical students from LSU School of Medicine who completed a questionnaire including information on handedness and were tested for eye dominance and depth perception by using standardized methods. Training sessions involved an initial recorded performance, a 20-minute practice session, followed by a final recorded performance. Recorded sessions were randomized and rated by using a visual analog scale (maximal possible score = 16) based on overall performance (OPS) and depth perception (DPS). A general linear model was used to correlate depth perception defects and hand-eye dominance with assessment scores for OPS and DPS. Results: Students with depth perception defects scored significantly lower on their initial performance than did those with normal depth perception (OPS, 4.80 vs. 7.16, P=0.0008; DPS, 5.25 vs. 6.93, P=0.0195). After training, the depth perception defect group continued to have lower scores compared with the normal depth perception group. However, the 2 groups showed similar increases in pre- to posttraining performance scores (OPS, 3.84 vs. 3.18, P=0.0732). Hand-eye dominance did not significantly affect scores. Conclusions: Depth perception defects appear to compromise an individual's ability to perform basic laparoscopic skills. Individuals with defects can improve their skills by a proportion comparable to that of people with uncompromised depth perception. Differences in hand-eye dominance do not correlate with performance differences in basic laparoscopic skills. Although further research is necessary, the findings indicate that training can be tailored for individuals with depth perception defects to improve laparoscopic performance.

Suleman, Rabiya; Yang, Tong; Paige, John; Chauvin, Sheila; Alleyn, Jaime; Brewer, Martha; Johnson, Stephen I.

2010-01-01

16

Changes in Sensory Dominance during Childhood: Converging Evidence from the Colavita Effect and the Sound-Induced Flash Illusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In human adults, visual dominance emerges in several multisensory tasks. In children, auditory dominance has been reported up to 4 years of age. To establish when sensory dominance changes during development, 41 children (6-7, 9-10, and 11-12 years) were tested on the Colavita task (Experiment 1) and 32 children (6-7, 9-10, and 11-12 years) were…

Nava, Elena; Pavani, Francesco

2013-01-01

17

Prevalence of Mutations in eyeGENE Probands With a Diagnosis of Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To screen samples from patients with presumed autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) for mutations in 12 disease genes as a contribution to the research and treatment goals of the National Ophthalmic Disease Genotyping and Phenotyping Network (eyeGENE). Methods. DNA samples were obtained from eyeGENE. A total of 170 probands with an intake diagnosis of adRP were tested through enrollment in eyeGENE. The 10 most common genes causing adRP (IMPDH1, KLHL7, NR2E3, PRPF3/RP18, PRPF31/RP11, PRPF8/RP13, PRPH2/RDS, RHO, RP1, and TOPORS) were chosen for PCR-based dideoxy sequencing, along with the two X-linked RP genes, RPGR and RP2. RHO, PRPH2, PRPF31, RPGR, and RP2 were completely sequenced, while only mutation hotspots in the other genes were analyzed. Results. Disease-causing mutations were identified in 52% of the probands. The frequencies of disease-causing mutations in the 12 genes were consistent with previous studies. Conclusions. The Laboratory for Molecular Diagnosis of Inherited Eye Disease at the University of Texas in Houston has thus far received DNA samples from 170 families with a diagnosis of adRP from the eyeGENE Network. Disease-causing mutations in autosomal genes were identified in 48% (81/170) of these families while mutations in X-linked genes accounted for an additional 4% (7/170). Of the 55 distinct mutations detected, 19 (33%) have not been previously reported. All diagnostic results were returned by eyeGENE to participating patients via their referring clinician. These genotyped samples along with their corresponding phenotypic information are also available to researchers who may request access to them for further study of these ophthalmic disorders. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00378742.)

Sullivan, Lori S.; Bowne, Sara J.; Reeves, Melissa J.; Blain, Delphine; Goetz, Kerry; NDifor, Vida; Vitez, Sally; Wang, Xinjing; Tumminia, Santa J.; Daiger, Stephen P.

2013-01-01

18

Dominant defects in Drosophila eye pigmentation resulting from a euchromatin-heterochromatin fusion gene.  

PubMed Central

We have isolated a dominant mutation, pugilistDominant (pugD), that causes variegated reductions in pteridine and ommochrome pigmentation of the Drosophila eye. The effect of pugD on pteridine pigmentation is most dramatic: the only remaining pigment consists of a thin ring of pigment around the periphery of the eye with a few scattered spots in the center. The pugD mutation disrupts a gene that encodes a Drosophila homolog of the trifunctional enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD; E.C.1.5.1.5, E.C.3.5. 4.9, E.C.6.3.4.3). This enzyme produces a cofactor that is utilized in purine biosynthesis. Because pteridines are derived from GTP, the pigment defect may result from an impairment in the production of purines. The mutant allele consists of a portion of the MTHFD coding region fused to approximately 1 kb of highly repetitive DNA. Transcription and translation of both parts are required for the phenotype. The repetitive DNA consists of approximately 140 nearly perfect repeats of the sequence AGAGAGA, a significant component of centric heterochromatin. The unusual nature of the protein produced by this gene may be responsible for its dominance. The repetitive DNA may also account for the variegated aspect of the phenotype. It may promote occasional association of the pugD locus with centric heterochromatin, accompanied by inactivation of pugD, in a manner similar to the proposed mode of action for brownDominant.

Rong, Y S; Golic, K G

1998-01-01

19

Relation of eye dominancy with color vision discrimination performance ability in normal subjects  

PubMed Central

AIM To evaluate the performance of dominant eye (DE) for color vision discrimination ability among the medical students with normal color vision. METHODS Total of 50 students studying at Ba?kent University Faculty of Medicine, including 31 males (62%) and 19 females (38%), with visual acuity of 20/20 and without congenital color vision deficiency (CCVD) evaluated by Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plate test (IPPT) were recruited for this prospective comparative study upon their voluntary participation. DE was determined by the Gündo?an Method. The color discrimination ability was examined with the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue (FM100) test. Test was applied by two days interval to all subjects for the three times while two eyes (TE), right eye (RE) and left eye (LE) were seeing for detecting red-green (r/g), blue-yellow (b/y) local color spectral regions error scores. The error scores were evaluated for both in DE and non-dominant (NDE). P values below 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS The students aged 21.18±2.52 years (mean±SD). Without sex difference the RE and the LE dominancy were found 22 (44%) and 28 (56%) respectively and FM 100 test total error scores of DE in both r/g-b/y regions were found without gender difference 24.12±14.70, 34.68±18.95, respectively. For the NDE in both, r/g-b/y regions error scores without gender difference were 32.20±19.21, 36.24±17.56, respectively. The difference of total error scores between the DE and NDE was found as 58.80±29.92, 68.44±31.46. The statistical differences among the DE and the NDE in r/g local region and total error scores were found significant in both genders (P<0.05, P<0.001). CONCLUSION The color vision discrimination performance ability was found prominent for DE. This superiority was attributed to higher sensitivity of the r/g local color spectral region. We conclude that DE has priority in r/g color spectral region, probably including inhibition of NDE.

Koctekin, Belk?s; Gundogan, Nimet Unay; Alt?ntas, Ays Gul Kocak; Yaz?c?, Ayse Canan

2013-01-01

20

Binocular Neurons in Parastriate Cortex: Interocular 'Matching' of Receptive Field Properties, Eye Dominance and Strength of Silent Suppression  

PubMed Central

Spike-responses of single binocular neurons were recorded from a distinct part of primary visual cortex, the parastriate cortex (cytoarchitectonic area 18) of anaesthetized and immobilized domestic cats. Functional identification of neurons was based on the ratios of phase-variant (F1) component to the mean firing rate (F0) of their spike-responses to optimized (orientation, direction, spatial and temporal frequencies and size) sine-wave-luminance-modulated drifting grating patches presented separately via each eye. In over 95% of neurons, the interocular differences in the phase-sensitivities (differences in F1/F0 spike-response ratios) were small (?0.3) and in over 80% of neurons, the interocular differences in preferred orientations were ?10°. The interocular correlations of the direction selectivity indices and optimal spatial frequencies, like those of the phase sensitivies and optimal orientations, were also strong (coefficients of correlation r ?0.7005). By contrast, the interocular correlations of the optimal temporal frequencies, the diameters of summation areas of the excitatory responses and suppression indices were weak (coefficients of correlation r ?0.4585). In cells with high eye dominance indices (HEDI cells), the mean magnitudes of suppressions evoked by stimulation of silent, extra-classical receptive fields via the non-dominant eyes, were significantly greater than those when the stimuli were presented via the dominant eyes. We argue that the well documented ‘eye-origin specific’ segregation of the lateral geniculate inputs underpinning distinct eye dominance columns in primary visual cortices of mammals with frontally positioned eyes (distinct eye dominance columns), combined with significant interocular differences in the strength of silent suppressive fields, putatively contribute to binocular stereoscopic vision.

Wang, Chun; Dreher, Bogdan

2014-01-01

21

Left hemisphere dominance in reading the sensory qualities of others’ pain?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeing or imagining others in pain may activate both the sensory and affective components of the neural network (pain matrix) that is activated during the personal experience of pain. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), proved adept at highlighting the sensorimotor side of empathy for pain in studies where mere observation of needles penetrating body parts of a human model brought about

Ilaria Minio-Paluello; Alessio Avenanti; Salvatore M. Aglioti

2006-01-01

22

A push-pull treatment for strengthening the 'lazy eye' in amblyopia.  

PubMed

Almost all individuals exhibit sensory eye dominance, one neural basis of which is unequal interocular inhibition. Sensory eye dominance can impair binocular functions that depend on both excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms. We developed a 'push-pull' perceptual learning protocol that simultaneously affects the excitatory and inhibitory networks to reduce sensory eye dominance and improve stereopsis in adults with otherwise normal vision. The push-pull protocol provides a promising clinical paradigm for treating the extreme sensory eye dominance in amblyopia ('lazy eye'). The prevailing standard of care does not directly treat sensory eye dominance; instead, selected excitatory functions in the amblyopic eye are stimulated while the strong eye is patched, on the assumption that recovery of the weak eye's excitatory functions rebalances the eyes. Patching the strong eye does not directly address interocular inhibition; in contrast, the push-pull protocol by design excites the weak eye, while completely inhibiting the strong eye's perception to recalibrate the interocular balance of excitatory and inhibitory interactions. Here, we show that three adult amblyopes who trained on the push-pull protocol gained longstanding improvements in interocular balance and stereopsis. Our findings provide a proof-of-concept and evidence that push-pull learning leads to long-term plasticity. PMID:23618663

Ooi, Teng Leng; Su, Yong R; Natale, Danielle M; He, Zijiang J

2013-04-22

23

Deletion of Ten-m3 induces the formation of eye dominance domains in mouse visual cortex.  

PubMed

The visual system is characterized by precise retinotopic mapping of each eye, together with exquisitely matched binocular projections. In many species, the inputs that represent the eyes are segregated into ocular dominance columns in primary visual cortex (V1), whereas in rodents, this does not occur. Ten-m3, a member of the Ten-m/Odz/Teneurin family, regulates axonal guidance in the retinogeniculate pathway. Significantly, ipsilateral projections are expanded in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and are not aligned with contralateral projections in Ten-m3 knockout (KO) mice. Here, we demonstrate the impact of altered retinogeniculate mapping on the organization and function of V1. Transneuronal tracing and c-fos immunohistochemistry demonstrate that the subcortical expansion of ipsilateral input is conveyed to V1 in Ten-m3 KOs: Ipsilateral inputs are widely distributed across V1 and are interdigitated with contralateral inputs into eye dominance domains. Segregation is confirmed by optical imaging of intrinsic signals. Single-unit recording shows ipsilateral, and contralateral inputs are mismatched at the level of single V1 neurons, and binocular stimulation leads to functional suppression of these cells. These findings indicate that the medial expansion of the binocular zone together with an interocular mismatch is sufficient to induce novel structural features, such as eye dominance domains in rodent visual cortex. PMID:22499796

Merlin, Sam; Horng, Sam; Marotte, Lauren R; Sur, Mriganka; Sawatari, Atomu; Leamey, Catherine A

2013-04-01

24

AGONISTIC SENSORY EFFECTS OF AIRBORNE CHEMICALS IN MIXTURES: ODOR, NASAL PUNGENCY, AND EYE IRRITATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Threshold responses of odor, nasal pungency (irritation), and eye irritation were measured for single chemicals (1-propanol, 1-hexanol, ethyl acetate, heptyl acetate, 2-pentanone, 2-heptanone, toluene, ethyl benzene, and propyl benzene) and mixtures of them (two three-component m...

25

Multiple manifestations of microstimulation in the optic tectum: eye movements, pupil dilations, and sensory priming.  

PubMed

It is well established that the optic tectum (or its mammalian homologue, the superior colliculus) is involved in directing gaze toward salient stimuli. However, salient stimuli typically induce orienting responses beyond gaze shifts. The role of the optic tectum in generating responses such as pupil dilation, galvanic responses, or covert shifts is not clear. In the present work, we studied the effects of microstimulation in the optic tectum of the barn owl (Tyto alba) on pupil diameter and on eye shifts. Experiments were conducted in lightly anesthetized head-restrained barn owls. We report that low-level microstimulation in the deep layers of the optic tectum readily induced pupil dilation responses (PDRs), as well as small eye movements. Electrically evoked PDRs, similar to acoustically evoked PDRs, were long-lasting and habituated to repeated stimuli. We further show that microstimulation in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus also induced PDRs. Finally, in experiments in which tectal microstimulations were coupled with acoustic stimuli, we show a tendency of the microstimulation to enhance pupil responses and eye shifts to previously habituated acoustic stimuli. The enhancement was dependent on the site of stimulation in the tectal spatial map; responses to sounds with spatial cues that matched the site of stimulation were more enhanced compared with sounds with spatial cues that did not match. These results suggest that the optic tectum is directly involved in autonomic orienting reflexes as well as in gaze shifts, highlighting the central role of the optic tectum in mediating the body responses to salient stimuli. PMID:20427617

Netser, Shai; Ohayon, Shay; Gutfreund, Yoram

2010-07-01

26

Response variability of frontal eye field neurons modulates with sensory input and saccade preparation but not visual search salience.  

PubMed

Discharge rate modulation of frontal eye field (FEF) neurons has been identified with a representation of visual search salience (physical conspicuity and behavioral relevance) and saccade preparation. We tested whether salience or saccade preparation are evident in the trial-to-trial variability of discharge rate. We quantified response variability via the Fano factor in FEF neurons recorded in monkeys performing efficient and inefficient visual search tasks. Response variability declined following stimulus presentation in most neurons, but despite clear discharge rate modulation, variability did not change with target salience. Instead, we found that response variability was modulated by stimulus luminance and the number of items in the visual field independently of attentional demands. Response variability declined to a minimum before saccade initiation, and presaccadic response variability was directionally tuned. In addition, response variability was correlated with the response time of memory-guided saccades. These results indicate that the trial-by-trial response variability of FEF neurons reflects saccade preparation and the strength of sensory input, but not visual search salience or attentional allocation. PMID:22956785

Purcell, Braden A; Heitz, Richard P; Cohen, Jeremiah Y; Schall, Jeffrey D

2012-11-01

27

Gender and Facial Dominance in Gaze Cuing: Emotional Context Matters in the Eyes That We Follow  

PubMed Central

Gaze following is a socio-cognitive process that provides adaptive information about potential threats and opportunities in the individual’s environment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential interaction between emotional context and facial dominance in gaze following. We used the gaze cue task to induce attention to or away from the location of a target stimulus. In the experiment, the gaze cue either belonged to a (dominant looking) male face or a (non-dominant looking) female face. Critically, prior to the task, individuals were primed with pictures of threat or no threat to induce either a dangerous or safe environment. Findings revealed that the primed emotional context critically influenced the gaze cuing effect. While a gaze cue of the dominant male face influenced performance in both the threat and no-threat conditions, the gaze cue of the non-dominant female face only influenced performance in the no-threat condition. This research suggests an implicit, context-dependent follower bias, which carries implications for research on visual attention, social cognition, and leadership.

Ohlsen, Garian; van Zoest, Wieske; van Vugt, Mark

2013-01-01

28

Short-term monocular deprivation strengthens the patched eye's contribution to binocular combination.  

PubMed

Binocularity is a fundamental property of primate vision. Ocular dominance describes the perceptual weight given to the inputs from the two eyes in their binocular combination. There is a distribution of sensory dominance within the normal binocular population with most subjects having balanced inputs while some are dominated by the left eye and some by the right eye. Using short-term monocular deprivation, the sensory dominance can be modulated as, under these conditions, the patched eye's contribution is strengthened. We address two questions: Is this strengthening a general effect such that it is seen for different types of sensory processing? And is the strengthening specific to pattern deprivation, or does it also occur for light deprivation? Our results show that the strengthening effect is a general finding involving a number of sensory functions, and it occurs as a result of both pattern and light deprivation. PMID:23599416

Zhou, Jiawei; Clavagnier, Simon; Hess, Robert F

2013-01-01

29

Is binocular fusion of "cortical yellow" an illusion, contingent upon abstraction of coherent sensory information from the two eyes?  

PubMed

This research on the binocular fusion of phenomenal yellow, given red-filtered flashes of light in one eye and green-filtered flashes of light in the other, directly compared the effects of wider-bandwidth and narrow-bandwidth filtering. 20 male college students with normal stereopsis, Mage = 19.3 yr., SD = 2.2, were tested for the binocular perception of flashing yellow sensations given wider-bandwidth versus narrow-bandwidth filtering of light flashes which, monocularly, were experienced as red sensations in one eye and as green sensations in the other. When 3 wide-bandwidth tests for binocular yellow fusion were alternated with 3 narrow-bandwidth tests, simultaneous flashes of red-filtered light in one eye and green-filtered light in the other were binocularly perceived as yellowish on 25% of the wide-bandwidth tests (SD = 40%)--as yellow on 8% of the tests, orange on 12% of the tests, yellow-green on 5% of the tests-and were binocularly perceived as yellowish on 0% of the narrow-bandwidth tests. When wider-bandwidth and narrow-bandwidth testing were separated spatially and conducted contemporaneously, the red-filtered flashes in one eye and green-filtered flashes in the other were binocularly experienced as yellowish sensations by 80% of all participants under wider-bandwidth conditions--as yellow by 55%, orange by 10%, yellow-green by 15%--and as yellowish sensations by 0% of the participants under narrow-bandwidth conditions. PMID:17450991

Kunzendorf, Robert G

2007-02-01

30

The Evolution of Eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eyes are the preeminent source of sensory information for the brain in most species, and many features of eyes reflect evolutionary solutions to particular selective pressures, both from the nonbiological environment and from other animals. As a result, the evolution of eyes, among all the sense organs, has attracted considerable attention from scientists. Paired eyes in the three major phyla,

Russell D. Fernald

1997-01-01

31

Learning to breathe: control of the inspiratory-expiratory phase transition shifts from sensory- to central-dominated during postnatal development in rats  

PubMed Central

The hallmark of the dynamic regulation of the transitions between inspiration and expiration is the timing of the inspiratory off-switch (IOS) mechanisms. IOS is mediated by pulmonary vagal afferent feedback (Breuer–Hering reflex) and by central interactions involving the Kölliker–Fuse nuclei (KFn). We hypothesized that the balance between these two mechanisms controlling IOS may change during postnatal development. We tested this hypothesis by comparing neural responses to repetitive rhythmic vagal stimulation, at a stimulation frequency that paces baseline breathing, using in situ perfused brainstem preparations of rats at different postnatal ages. At ages < P15 (P, postnatal days), phrenic nerve activity (PNA) was immediately paced and entrained to the afferent input and this pattern remained unchanged by repetitive stimulations, indicating that vagal input stereotypically dominated the control of IOS. In contrast, PNA entrainment at > P15 was initially insignificant, but increased after repetitive vagal stimulation or lung inflation. This progressive adaption of PNA to the pattern of the sensory input was accompanied by the emergence of anticipatory centrally mediated IOS preceding the stimulus trains. The anticipatory IOS was blocked by bilateral microinjections of NMDA receptor antagonists into the KFn and PNA was immediately paced and entrained, as it was seen at ages < P15. We conclude that as postnatal maturation advances, synaptic mechanisms involving NMDA receptors in the KFn can override the vagally evoked IOS after ‘training’ using repetitive stimulation trials. The anticipatory IOS may imply a hitherto undescribed form of pattern learning and recall in convergent sensory and central synaptic pathways that mediate IOS.

Dutschmann, Mathias; Morschel, Michael; Rybak, Ilya A; Dick, Thomas E

2009-01-01

32

The Effect of Sensory Uncertainty Due to Amblyopia (Lazy Eye) on the Planning and Execution of Visually-Guided 3D Reaching Movements  

PubMed Central

Background Impairment of spatiotemporal visual processing in amblyopia has been studied extensively, but its effects on visuomotor tasks have rarely been examined. Here, we investigate how visual deficits in amblyopia affect motor planning and online control of visually-guided, unconstrained reaching movements. Methods Thirteen patients with mild amblyopia, 13 with severe amblyopia and 13 visually-normal participants were recruited. Participants reached and touched a visual target during binocular and monocular viewing. Motor planning was assessed by examining spatial variability of the trajectory at 50–100 ms after movement onset. Online control was assessed by examining the endpoint variability and by calculating the coefficient of determination (R2) which correlates the spatial position of the limb during the movement to endpoint position. Results Patients with amblyopia had reduced precision of the motor plan in all viewing conditions as evidenced by increased variability of the reach early in the trajectory. Endpoint precision was comparable between patients with mild amblyopia and control participants. Patients with severe amblyopia had reduced endpoint precision along azimuth and elevation during amblyopic eye viewing only, and along the depth axis in all viewing conditions. In addition, they had significantly higher R2 values at 70% of movement time along the elevation and depth axes during amblyopic eye viewing. Conclusion Sensory uncertainty due to amblyopia leads to reduced precision of the motor plan. The ability to implement online corrections depends on the severity of the visual deficit, viewing condition, and the axis of the reaching movement. Patients with mild amblyopia used online control effectively to compensate for the reduced precision of the motor plan. In contrast, patients with severe amblyopia were not able to use online control as effectively to amend the limb trajectory especially along the depth axis, which could be due to their abnormal stereopsis.

Niechwiej-Szwedo, Ewa; Goltz, Herbert C.; Chandrakumar, Manokaraananthan; Wong, Agnes M. F.

2012-01-01

33

Signaling by Sensory Receptors  

PubMed Central

Sensory systems detect small molecules, mechanical perturbations, or radiation via the activation of receptor proteins and downstream signaling cascades in specialized sensory cells. In vertebrates, the two principal categories of sensory receptors are ion channels, which mediate mechanosensation, thermosensation, and acid and salt taste; and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which mediate vision, olfaction, and sweet, bitter, and umami tastes. GPCR-based signaling in rods and cones illustrates the fundamental principles of rapid activation and inactivation, signal amplification, and gain control. Channel-based sensory systems illustrate the integration of diverse modulatory signals at the receptor, as seen in the thermosensory/pain system, and the rapid response kinetics that are possible with direct mechanical gating of a channel. Comparisons of sensory receptor gene sequences reveal numerous examples in which gene duplication and sequence divergence have created novel sensory specificities. This is the evolutionary basis for the observed diversity in temperature- and ligand-dependent gating among thermosensory channels, spectral tuning among visual pigments, and odorant binding among olfactory receptors. The coding of complex external stimuli by a limited number of sensory receptor types has led to the evolution of modality-specific and species-specific patterns of retention or loss of sensory information, a filtering operation that selectively emphasizes features in the stimulus that enhance survival in a particular ecological niche. The many specialized anatomic structures, such as the eye and ear, that house primary sensory neurons further enhance the detection of relevant stimuli.

Julius, David; Nathans, Jeremy

2012-01-01

34

The PROM1 Mutation p.R373C Causes an Autosomal Dominant Bull's Eye Maculopathy Associated with Rod, Rod-Cone, and Macular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To characterize in detail the phenotype of five unrelated families with autosomal dominant bull's eye maculopathy (BEM) due to the R373C mutation in the PROM1 gene. Methods. Forty-one individuals of five families of Caribbean (family A), British (families B, D, E), and Italian (family C) origin, segregating the R373C mutation in PROM1, were ascertained. Electrophysiological assessment, fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging, fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were performed in available subjects. Mutation screening of PROM1 was performed. Results. The R373C mutant was present heterozygously in all affected patients. The age at onset was variable and ranged between 9 and 58 years, with most of the individuals presenting with reading difficulties. Subjects commonly had a mild to moderate reduction in visual acuity except for members of family C who experienced markedly reduced central vision. The retinal phenotype was characterized by macular dystrophy, with retinal pigment epithelial mottling in younger subjects, progressing to typical BEM over time, with the development of macular atrophy in older patients. In addition, all members of family C had typical features of RP. The electrophysiological findings were variable both within and between families. Conclusions. Mutations in PROM1 have been described to cause a severe form of autosomal recessive RP in two families of Indian and Pakistani descent. The results of this study have demonstrated that a distinct redundant PROM1 mutation (R373C) can also produce an autosomal dominant, fully penetrant retinopathy, characterized by BEM with little inter- and intrafamilial variability, and retinal dystrophy with variable rod or rod–cone dysfunction and marked intra- and interfamilial variability, ranging from isolated maculopathy without generalized photoreceptor dysfunction to maculopathy associated with very severe rod–cone dysfunction.

Michaelides, Michel; Gaillard, Marie-Claire; Escher, Pascal; Tiab, Leila; Bedell, Matthew; Borruat, Francois-Xavier; Barthelmes, Daniel; Carmona, Ruben; Zhang, Kang; White, Edward; McClements, Michelle; Robson, Anthony G.; Holder, Graham E.; Bradshaw, Keith; Hunt, David M.; Webster, Andrew R.; Moore, Anthony T.; Schorderet, Daniel F.; Munier, Francis L.

2010-01-01

35

Water-soluble polymers, solid polymer membranes, and coated fibres as smart sensory materials for the naked eye detection and quantification of TNT in aqueous media.  

PubMed

This study developed sensory polymeric materials for the colorimetric sensing of TNT in aqueous media. Solid films and coated fabrics permitted the detection of TNT, through colour change, and its quantification, by taking a picture of the materials and processing their RGB parameters to define the evolved colour. PMID:24457981

Pablos, Jesús L; Trigo-López, Miriam; Serna, Felipe; García, Félix C; García, José M

2014-03-01

36

Eye Allergies  

MedlinePLUS

... Eye Health News Consumer Alerts What Are Eye Allergies? Tweet Eye allergies, called allergic conjunctivitis , are a common condition that ... spread from person to person. What Are Eye Allergies? Eye Allergy Symptoms What Causes Eye Allergies? Eye ...

37

Eye redness  

MedlinePLUS

Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral infection; Conjunctival infection ... There are many possible causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are cause for concern; some are medical emergencies. Others are nothing to worry about. How red the eye appears ...

38

Intrinsic-signal optical imaging reveals cryptic ocular dominance columns in primary visual cortex of New World owl monkeys.  

PubMed

A significant concept in neuroscience is that sensory areas of the neocortex have evolved the remarkable ability to represent a number of stimulus features within the confines of a global map of the sensory periphery. Modularity, the term often used to describe the inhomogeneous nature of the neocortex, is without a doubt an important organizational principle of early sensory areas, such as the primary visual cortex (V1). Ocular dominance columns, one type of module in V1, are found in many primate species as well as in carnivores. Yet, their variable presence in some New World monkey species and complete absence in other species has been enigmatic. Here, we demonstrate that optical imaging reveals the presence of ocular dominance columns in the superficial layers of V1 of owl monkeys (Aotus trivirgatus), even though the geniculate inputs related to each eye are highly overlapping in layer 4. The ocular dominance columns in owl monkeys revealed by optical imaging are circular in appearance. The distance between left eye centers and right eye centers is approximately 650 mum. We find no relationship between ocular dominance centers and other modular organizational features such as orientation pinwheels or the centers of the cytochrome oxidase blobs. These results are significant because they suggest that functional columns may exist in the absence of obvious differences in the distributions of activating inputs and ocular dominance columns may be more widely distributed across mammalian taxa than commonly suggested. PMID:18974855

Kaskan, Peter M; Lu, Haidong D; Dillenburger, Barbara C; Roe, Anna W; Kaas, Jon H

2007-10-15

39

Dominant role of an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)-like vasodilator in the ciliary vascular bed of the bovine isolated perfused eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 The roles of the endothelium-derived nitric oxide, prostacyclin and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) in mediating vasodilator responses to acetylcholine and bradykinin were assessed in the ciliary vascular bed of the bovine isolated perfused eye preparation. 2 Vasodilatation to acetylcholine or bradykinin was unaÄected by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NAME (100 mM), or the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, flurbiprofen (30 mM),

Alister J. McNeish; William S. Wilson; William Martin

2001-01-01

40

Dry Eye  

MedlinePLUS

... in the surface of the eye, as in thyroid disease when the eye protrudes forward; cosmetic surgery, ... area of the eye is increased, as in thyroid disease when the eye protrudes forward or after ...

41

Dominant role of an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)-like vasodilator in the ciliary vascular bed of the bovine isolated perfused eye  

PubMed Central

The roles of the endothelium-derived nitric oxide, prostacyclin and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) in mediating vasodilator responses to acetylcholine and bradykinin were assessed in the ciliary vascular bed of the bovine isolated perfused eye preparation.Vasodilatation to acetylcholine or bradykinin was unaffected by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NAME (100??M), or the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, flurbiprofen (30??M), but was virtually abolished following treatment with a high concentration of KCl (30?mM), or by damaging the endothelium with the detergent, CHAPS (0.3%, 2?min).Acetylcholine-induced vasodilatation was unaffected by glibenclamide (10??M), an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive K+ channels (K+ATP), but was significantly attenuated by TEA (10?mM), a non-selective inhibitor of K+ channels.The small conductance calcium-sensitive K+ channel (SK+Ca) inhibitor, apamin (100?nM), and the large conductance calcium-sensitive K+ channel (BK+Ca) inhibitor, iberiotoxin (50?nM), had no significant effect on acetylcholine-induced vasodilatation. In contrast, the intermediate (IK+Ca)/large conductance calcium-sensitive K+ channel inhibitor, charybdotoxin (50?nM), powerfully blocked these vasodilator responses, and uncovered a vasoconstrictor response.The combination of apamin (100?nM) with a sub-threshold concentration of charybdotoxin (10?nM) significantly attenuated acetylcholine-induced vasodilatation, but the combination of apamin (100?nM) with iberiotoxin (50?nM) had no effect.In conclusion, blockade by a high concentration of KCl, by charybdotoxin, or by the combination of apamin with a sub-threshold concentration of charybdotoxin, strongly suggests that vasodilatation in the bovine isolated perfused eye is mediated by an EDHF.

McNeish, Alister J; Wilson, William S; Martin, William

2001-01-01

42

Dynamic Fusional Vergence Eye Movements in Congenital Esotropia  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To evaluate whether a selected group of 9 children with history of congenital esotropia is capable of producing vergence eye responses to fusional disparity stimuli. Methods: Nine children with history of congenital esotropia and 5 age-matched children with normal binocular vision were examined. Using a full-field target, vergence responses to base out 3 prism diopters placed in front of both eyes were recorded. Results: In five patients, the initial response was a saccade generated by the dominant eye, followed by a disconjugate movement of one or both eyes. In two patients with long standing uncorrected strabismus, the responses were almost purely saccadic, while in two other patients, in whom early surgery resulted in fusional abilities, smooth vergence movements were recorded. Conclusion: This study adds further evidence that patients with history of congenital esotropia patients are capable of producing vergence eye movements in response to fusional disparity. The responses usually start with a saccade followed by a vergence response. The preference for initial saccadic or vergence response is correlated with sensorial tests of stereopsis and motor fusion and may be related to the size of the suppression scotoma in the deviating eye, the duration of misalignment, or both.

Morad, Yair; Lee, Horace; Westall, Carol; Kraft, Stephen P; Panton, Carole; Sapir-Pichhadze, Ruth; Eizenman, Moshe

2008-01-01

43

Imaging Systems of Human Eye: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eyes are complex sensory organs and are designed to optimize vision under conditions of varying light. There are a number\\u000a of eye disorders that can influence vision. Eye disorders among the elderly are a major health problem. With advancing age,\\u000a the normal function of eye tissues decreases and there is an increased incidence of ocular pathology. The most common

U. Rajendra Acharya; Wong Li Yun; E. Y. K. Ng; Wenwei Yu; Jasjit S. Suri

2008-01-01

44

Eye Emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

... Emergencies Cardiac Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Eye Emergencies Marfan syndrome significantly increases your risk of ... light-sensitive membrane in the back of the eye (the retina) from its supporting layers. It is ...

45

Eye emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

... Calm and reassure the person. Wash your hands. Bandage both eyes. If the object is large, place ... both eyes with a clean cloth or sterile dressing. Even if only one eye is affected, covering ...

46

Eye to Eye (Illuminations)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this two-day lesson plan students collect, display, and analyze data about the eye color of their classmates. On day one, students display the eye color data in a pictograph and discuss what questions can and cannot be answered using this graph. On the second day of the lesson, data from a partner class is used to create a second pictograph. Students then compare these graphs and determine what questions can and cannot be answered using these two graphs. Questions and extension suggestions (including making a circle graph to represent data) are also included in the lesson plan.

2008-01-01

47

Neurophysiological Diagnosis of Acquired Sensory Ganglionopathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined 29 patients with chronic progressive ganglionopathy of different etiology. Neurophysiological abnormalities were dominated by a widespread decrease in sensory nerve action potential amplitudes, which involved both upper and lower limb nerves, even in patients with asymmetrical or patchy clinical presentation. This impairment of sensory nerve conduction, reflecting a nonlength-dependent pattern of peripheral axon degeneration, should be considered the

Giuseppe Lauria; Davide Pareyson; Angelo Sghirlanzoni

2003-01-01

48

Eye Protection  

PubMed Central

Eye injuries frequently occur in the home, at work and at play. Many result in legally blind eyes, and most are preventable. Awareness of potential hazards is essential to preventing eye injuries, particularly in children. In addition, protective devices must be used appropriately. We have developed eye protectors that have proved effective in reducing both the overall incidence and the severity of sports eye injuries. ImagesFigures 2a, bFigure 3Figures 4a, b, c, dFigure 5

Pashby, Tom

1986-01-01

49

Eye Anatomy  

MedlinePLUS

Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a friend by filling out the fields below: Your name: ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

50

Your Eyes  

MedlinePLUS

... the eye and keeps it healthy. Back Continue Light, Lens, Action These next parts are really cool, ... the eye. Back Continue Rods and Cones Process Light The retina uses special cells called rods and ...

51

Eye Examinations  

MedlinePLUS

... Description: An eye care professional uses a trial frame and lens to determine a patient’s eyeglass prescription. ... 3M, TIFF) Description: A patient wears a trial frame and lens. Credit: National Eye Institute, National Institutes ...

52

The injured eye  

PubMed Central

Eye injuries come at a high cost to society and are avoidable. Ocular blast injuries can be primary, from the blast wave itself; secondary, from fragments carried by the blast wind; tertiary; due to structural collapse or being thrown against a fixed object; or quaternary, from burns and indirect injuries. Ballistic eye protection significantly reduces the incidence of eye injuries and should be encouraged from an early stage in Military training. Management of an injured eye requires meticulous history taking, evaluation of vision that measures the acuity and if there is a relative pupillary defect as well as careful inspection of the eyes, under anaesthetic if necessary. A lateral canthotomy with cantholysis should be performed immediately if there is a sight-threatening retrobulbar haemorrhage. Systemic antibiotics should be prescribed if there is a suspected penetrating or perforating injury. A ruptured globe should be protected by an eye shield. Primary repair of ruptured globes should be performed in a timely fashion. Secondary procedures will often be required at a later date to achieve sight preservation. A poor initial visual acuity is not a guarantee of a poor final result. The final result can be predicted after approximately 3–4 weeks. Future research in eye injuries attempts to reduce scarring and neuronal damage as well as to promote photoreceptor rescue, using post-transcriptional inhibition of cell death pathways and vaccination to promote neural recovery. Where the sight has been lost sensory substitution of a picture from a spectacle mounted video camera to the touch receptors of the tongue can be used to achieve appreciation of the outside world.

Scott, Robert

2011-01-01

53

Eye Examinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of simple activities not only illustrates how our eyes work but also dramatically shows how the brain interprets the eyes' information. Uses these activities to introduce a study of the eye to elementary students and to motivate their interest. (Author/RK)

Headley, Dale C.

1978-01-01

54

Peripheral Prism Glasses: Effects of Dominance, Suppression and Background  

PubMed Central

Purpose Unilateral peripheral prisms for homonymous hemianopia (HH) place different images on corresponding peripheral retinal points, a rivalrous situation in which local suppression of the prism image could occur and thus limit device functionality. Detection with peripheral prisms has primarily been evaluated using conventional perimetry where binocular rivalry is unlikely to occur. We quantified detection over more visually complex backgrounds and examined the effects of ocular dominance. Methods Detection rates of 8 participants with HH or quadranopia and normal binocularity wearing unilateral peripheral prism glasses were determined for static perimetry targets briefly presented in the prism expansion area (in the blind hemifield) and the seeing hemifield, under monocular and binocular viewing, over uniform gray and more complex patterned backgrounds. Results Participants with normal binocularity had mixed sensory ocular dominance, demonstrated no difference in detection rates when prisms were fitted on the side of the HH or the opposite side (p>0.2), and had detection rates in the expansion area that were not different for monocular and binocular viewing over both backgrounds (p>0.4). However, two participants with abnormal binocularity and strong ocular dominance demonstrated reduced detection in the expansion area when prisms were fitted in front of the non-dominant eye. Conclusions We found little evidence of local suppression of the peripheral prism image for HH patients with normal binocularity. However, in cases of strong ocular dominance, consideration should be given to fitting prisms before the dominant eye. Although these results are promising, further testing in more realistic conditions including image motion is needed.

Ross, Nicole C.; Bowers, Alex R.; Optom, M.C.; Peli, Eli

2012-01-01

55

Fresnel prism treatment of sensory exotropia with restoration of sensory and motor fusion.  

PubMed

Anterior segment surgeons may treat patients with long-standing media opacities or uncorrected aphakia who have developed sensory strabismus. These patients are at risk for diplopia after surgery to clear the visual axis and restore emmetropia. This report describes 2 patients who regained comfortable single binocular vision without strabismus surgery. Sensory fusion was restored with Fresnel prisms, which were weaned and ultimately discarded as the patients' motor fusion was re-engaged after decades of disuse. Surgeons who restore vision in an eye with manifest sensory strabismus should be aware of this noninvasive, well-tolerated treatment option. Collaboration with an orthoptist or strabismologist may be helpful. PMID:10079453

Brown, S M

1999-03-01

56

Autosomal dominant  

MedlinePLUS

... parents should also be tested for the abnormal gene. Examples of autosomal dominant disorders include Huntington's disease and neurofibromatosis-1 . See also: Autosomal recessive Heredity and disease Sex-linked dominant Sex-linked recessive

57

Eye development.  

PubMed

The eye has been one of the most intensively studied organs in Drosophila. The wealth of knowledge about its development, as well as the reagents that have been developed, and the fact that the eye is dispensable for survival, also make the eye suitable for genetic interaction studies and genetic screens. This article provides a brief overview of the methods developed to image and probe eye development at multiple developmental stages, including live imaging, immunostaining of fixed tissues, in situ hybridizations, and scanning electron microscopy and color photography of adult eyes. Also summarized are genetic approaches that can be performed in the eye, including mosaic analysis and conditional mutation, gene misexpression and knockdown, and forward genetic and modifier screens. PMID:24784530

Baker, Nicholas E; Li, Ke; Quiquand, Manon; Ruggiero, Robert; Wang, Lan-Hsin

2014-06-15

58

Multisensory perceptual learning and sensory substitution.  

PubMed

One of the most exciting recent findings in neuroscience has been the capacity for neural plasticity in adult humans and animals. Studies of perceptual learning have provided key insights into the mechanisms of neural plasticity and the changes in functional neuroanatomy that it affords. Key questions in this field of research concern how practice of a task leads to specific or general improvement. Although much of this work has been carried out with a focus on a single sensory modality, primarily visual, there is increasing interest in multisensory perceptual learning. Here we will examine how advances in perceptual learning research both inform and can be informed by the development and advancement of sensory substitution devices for blind persons. To allow 'sight' to occur in the absence of visual input through the eyes, visual information can be transformed by a sensory substitution device into a representation that can be processed as sound or touch, and thus give one the potential to 'see' through the ears or tongue. Investigations of auditory, visual and multisensory perceptual learning can have key benefits for the advancement of sensory substitution, and the study of sensory deprivation and sensory substitution likewise will further the understanding of perceptual learning in general and the reverse hierarchy theory in particular. It also has significant importance for the developing understanding of the brain in metamodal terms, where functional brain areas might be best defined by the computations they carry out rather than by their sensory-specific processing role. PMID:23220697

Proulx, Michael J; Brown, David J; Pasqualotto, Achille; Meijer, Peter

2014-04-01

59

Eye cosmetics.  

PubMed

There are many eye cosmetics available to enhance the beauty or improve the appearance of the face. To prevent infection, most eye cosmetics contain preservatives. Fragrance is usually absent to keep the products as safe as possible. Hypoallergenic products contain fewer ingredients and may be more appropriate for patients with sensitive skin. PMID:11059371

O'Donoghue, M N

2000-10-01

60

Eye pain  

MedlinePLUS

... irritation, or injury such as a corneal abrasion ) Eye surgery Glaucoma Migraines Sinus problems Stye Viral infections such ... an immune system deficiency You have had recent surgery You have ... pressure in the eyes that does not go away -- particularly if it ...

61

What's Dominant?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a class discussion format, the teacher presents background information about basic human genetics. The number of chromosomes in both body cells and egg and sperm cells is covered, as well as the concept of dominant and recessive alleles. Students determine whether or not they possess the dominant allele for the tongue-rolling gene as an example.

Engineering K-Ph.d. Program

62

Ocular conditions and sensory perception deficit.  

PubMed

The loss of sensory perception in the geriatric population is common and expected. This phenomenon is a part of the natural aging process. We often are complacent with the inevitable and ignore sensory deprivation when it occurs. This does not negate the fact that the lack of adequate stimuli of these systems can lead to an adverse or irreparable impact to the eye. Educating the senior patient regarding expectations that happen in normal sensory loss is important. Inform them how to take certain precautions when delivering ophthalmic care. Explain to them which medications or medical conditions may cause a deficit in the sensory sharpness. Above all, they should be taught to strive for optimal ophthalmic care regardless of the difficulties of administering eye care. If they are in need of assistance administering medications or experience discomfort when using them, encourage them to contact their physician or other health care provider. It is never okay to discontinue drops without medical authorization. Many senior adults often make an independent decision to stop using their drops relative to difficulties encountered while administering their medications. As the ophthalmic patient's advocate or caregiver, we must watch for signs of sensory impairments, determine the extent of sensory loss, and institute an action plan for rehabilitative treatment. Inquire about difficulties; patients rarely volunteer this information. Take time to teach them the importance of following through with the physician-prescribed treatment and address any other identifiable sensory need. Involvement of the patient, physician, family and nurse will insure that the best ophthalmic treatment is being given at the appropriate time. PMID:19534228

Dansby-Kelly, Annquinetta F

2009-01-01

63

Black Eye  

MedlinePLUS

... Reduced Vision Tearing See all Symptoms > Glasses, Contacts & LASIK Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Eyeglasses IOLs Refractive Surgery & LASIK Sunglasses Living EyeSmart About Ophthalmologists Adults Under 40 ...

64

Eye Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... following symptoms: sudden appearance of spots and strings floating in your field of vision; flashes of light ... experiencing eye pain, and do you see dark, floating spots? You may have an inflammation inside the ...

65

Eye Complications  

MedlinePLUS

... and strikes the back of the eye, the retina. The retina records the images focused on it and converts ... brain receives and decodes. One part of the retina is specialized for seeing fine detail. This tiny ...

66

Dry eyes  

MedlinePLUS

... dry eyes include: Aging Dry environment or workplace (wind, air conditioning) Sun exposure Smoking or second-hand ... Don't smoke. Avoid second-hand smoke, direct wind, and air conditioning. Use a humidifier, especially in ...

67

Bi-sensory, striped representations: comparative insights from owl and platypus.  

PubMed

Bi-sensory striped arrays are described in owl and platypus that share some similarities with the other variant of bi-sensory striped array found in primate and carnivore striate cortex: ocular dominance columns. Like ocular dominance columns, the owl and platypus striped systems each involve two different topographic arrays that are cut into parallel stripes, and interdigitated, so that higher-order neurons can integrate across both arrays. Unlike ocular dominance stripes, which have a separate array for each eye, the striped array in the middle third of the owl tectum has a separate array for each cerebral hemisphere. Binocular neurons send outputs from both hemispheres to the striped array where they are segregated into parallel stripes according to hemisphere of origin. In platypus primary somatosensory cortex (S1), the two arrays of interdigitated stripes are derived from separate sensory systems in the bill, 40,000 electroreceptors and 60,000 mechanoreceptors. The stripes in platypus S1 cortex produce bimodal electrosensory-mechanosensory neurons with specificity for the time-of-arrival difference between the two systems. This "thunder-and-lightning" system would allow the platypus to estimate the distance of the prey using time disparities generated at the bill between the earlier electrical wave and the later mechanical wave caused by the motion of benthic prey. The functional significance of parallel, striped arrays is not clear, even for the highly-studied ocular dominance system, but a general strategy is proposed here that is based on the detection of temporal disparities between the two arrays that can be used to estimate distance. PMID:15477026

Pettigrew, John D

2004-01-01

68

Eye Drop Tips  

MedlinePLUS

... Putting in Eye Drops Prescription eye drops for glaucoma help maintain the pressure in your eye at ... a "Best Technique" for Putting in Eye Drops? Glaucoma Eye Drops: Suggestions on Use Glaucoma and the ...

69

LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes During Pregnancy Computer Usage & Eye Strain Maintaining Your Sight with ... Video LASIK (Femtosecond) 0:50 Subscribe for Eye Health Info Sign up for our monthly e-mail ...

70

Human Sensory Functions. Part 1: Visual Functions Zintuiglijke Functies van de Mens. Deel 1: Visuele Functies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A contribution to a handbook on psychonomy relating to sensory functions is presented. The properties of the human eye are described, including optical image formation, image quality, the retina, photometry, light and dark adaptation, and color vision.

J. J. Vos

1974-01-01

71

Apical dominance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apical dominance is the control exerted by the apical portions of the shoot over the outgrowth of the lateral buds. The classical\\u000a explanations for correlative inhibition have focused on hormone\\/nutrient hypotheses. The remarkable progress that has been\\u000a made in the technology of endogenous hormone quantification in plant tissue has not been accompanied by comparable progress\\u000a in the elucidation of mechanisms

Morris G. Cline

1991-01-01

72

Electrotactile and vibrotactile displays for sensory substitution systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensory substitution systems provide their users with environmental information through a human sensory channel (eye, ear, or skin) different from that normally used or with the information processed in some useful way. The authors review the methods used to present visual, auditory, and modified tactile information to the skin and discuss present and potential future applications of sensory substitution, including tactile vision substitution (TVS), tactile auditory substitution, and remote tactile sensing or feedback (teletouch). The relevant sensory physiology of the skin, including the mechanisms of normal touch and the mechanisms and sensations associated with electrical stimulation of the skin using surface electrodes (electrotactile, or electrocutaneous, stimulation), is reviewed. The information-processing ability of the tactile sense and its relevance to sensory substitution is briefly summarized. The limitations of current tactile display technologies are discussed.

Kaczmarek, Kurt A.; Webster, John G.; Bach-Y-rita, Paul; Tompkins, Willis J.

1991-01-01

73

Googly Eyes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beverage take-out trays are funky in their form and function. In this article, the author describes how to make googly eye masks out of discarded take-out trays and other common recycled or discarded materials. (Contains 1 online resource.)

Boss, Susan

2009-01-01

74

Sensory Conversion Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human body has five basic sensory functions: touch, vision, hearing, taste, and smell. The effectiveness of one or more of these human sensory functions can be impaired as a result of trauma, congenital defects, or the normal ageing process. Converting one type of function into another, or translating a function to a different part of the body, could result in a better quality of life for a person with diminished sensorial capabilities.

Medelius, Pedro

75

Eye Injuries (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... chemicals something embedded in the eye severe eye pain blood in the eye nausea or vomiting after an eye injury Think Prevention! Kids who play sports should wear protective goggles or unbreakable glasses as ...

76

Why Do Eyes Water?  

MedlinePLUS

... out of your nose. Continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides crying. Anything ... can still bug your eyes. Eyes might also water if you're around an onion that's being ...

77

Eye contricks  

PubMed Central

Pictorial images are icons as well as eye-cons: they provide distillations of objects or ideas into simpler shapes. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimensions of depth and motion are missing from icons, and these alone introduce all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as exploring the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons can also be illusions—tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is physically presented. Pictorial images can be spatialised or stylised; spatialised images generally share some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons, but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional. Icons as stylised words and spatialised images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte in a series of pipe paintings, and this theme is here alluded to. Most of visual science is now concerned with icons—two-dimensional displays on computer monitors. Is vision now the science of eye-cons?

Wade, Nicholas J

2011-01-01

78

Neural Cartography: Sensory and Motor Maps in the Superior Colliculus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sudden onset of a novel or behaviorally significant stimulus usually triggers responses that orient the eyes, external ears, head and\\/or body toward the source of the stimulus. As a consequence, the reception of additional signals originating from the source and the sensory guidance of appropriate limb and body movements are facilitated. Converging lines of evidence, derived from anatomical, electrophysiological

David L. Sparks

1988-01-01

79

NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SENSORY SYSTEMS'  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to many neurotoxic compounds has been shown to produce a sensory system dysfunction. Neurophysiological assessment of sensory function in humans and animal models often uses techniques known as sensory evoked potentials. Because both humans and animals show analogous res...

80

Sensory nerve action potentials and sensory perception in women with arthritis of the hand  

PubMed Central

Background Arthritis of the hand can limit a person’s ability to perform daily activities. Whether or not sensory deficits contribute to the disability in this population remains unknown. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if women with osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of the hand have sensory impairments. Methods Sensory function in the dominant hand of women with hand OA or RA and healthy women was evaluated by measuring sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) from the median, ulnar and radial nerves, sensory mapping (SM), and vibratory and current perception thresholds (VPT and CPT, respectively) of the second and fifth digits. Results All SNAP amplitudes were significantly lower for the hand OA and hand RA groups compared with the healthy group (p?sensory fibers in the median, ulnar and radial nerves. Less apparent were losses in conduction speed or sensory perception.

2012-01-01

81

Eye movement-related modulation of trigeminal neuron activity during active sleep and wakefulness.  

PubMed

The amplitude of electrically-evoked mass action potentials recorded in the spinal cord and brainstem has been reported to decrease only during eye movement events of active sleep. In contrast, we have reported that the response of trigeminal sensory neurons to peripheral stimuli is modulated throughout the behavioral state of active sleep. It is unclear whether eye movement events contribute to the modulation of trigeminal sensory neuron activity during active sleep. In the present study, eye movement events were demarcated in order to investigate how these events affect peripheral input to trigeminal sensory neurons in chronic, intact, behaving cats. When compared with wakefulness, the mean response of 45 trigeminal sensory neurons to low-intensity electrical stimulation of the canine tooth pulp was significantly suppressed by 28% during periods of active sleep where no eye movement activity was present and by 41% during periods of active sleep with eye movement events. Hence, during active sleep, tooth pulp-evoked responses were significantly decreased by 16% during eye movement events when compared with non-eye movement active sleep. To investigate whether presynaptic inhibition played a role in this phenomenon, the excitability of eight individual tooth pulp afferent terminals during eye movement periods was compared with non-eye movement periods of active sleep. No evidence of eye movement-related depolarization of tooth pulp terminals was detected. When compared to wakefulness, the responses of six trigeminal sensory neurons to air puff stimulation of facial hair mechanoreceptors were significantly increased by 96% during periods of active sleep where no eye movement activity was present but were significantly decreased by 15% during eye movement events when compared with non-eye movement active sleep. The results of the present study indicate that neuronal responses to both tooth pulp and facial hair mechanoreceptor stimulation are significantly attenuated during eye movement events of active sleep. PMID:12763598

Cairns, Brian E; Kiang, Tony; McErlane, Shelly A; Fragoso, Miguel C; Soja, Peter J

2003-06-13

82

Effects of eye position on saccadic eye movements and on the neuronal responses to auditory and visual stimuli in cat superior colliculus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many neurons in the deeper layers of the superior colliculus (SC) respond to multiple sensory inputs — visual, auditory, and somatic — as well as provide signals essential for saccadic eye movements to targets in different modalities. When the eyes and pinnae are in primary position, the neural map of auditory space is in rough topographic alignment with the map

Carol K. Peck; John A. Baro; Stephanie M. Warder

1995-01-01

83

Down Syndrome: Eye Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... eye problems. Do children with Down syndrome have eye problems? Individuals with Down syndrome are at increased ... When should children with Down syndrome receive an eye exam? The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that ...

84

Eye muscle repair  

MedlinePLUS

... The condition is more commonly known as "crossed eyes." Surgery may be recommended when strabismus does not improve ... Eye muscle surgery does not fix the poor vision of a lazy (amblyopic) eye. The child may have to ...

85

The dorsomedial frontal cortex: eye and forelimb fields.  

PubMed

This review yields three conclusions: first, the eye field as described using unit recording and electrical stimulation on behaving monkeys trained to fixate visual targets is much larger than the 4 mm2 area originally described. Second, the eye field and forelimb field share a similar neural space within the dorsomedial frontal cortex (DMFC); thus the electrophysiogical studies that have been conducted on visually guided and sensory-triggered forelimb movements must be re-evaluated, since none of these studies controlled eye movement and eye position independently. Third, a topographic map representing eye position in orbit has been discovered in the DMFC; it is proposed that this topographic map records the order of positions of the eyes and forelimbs during the acquisition of visually guided movement sequences. PMID:7779289

Tehovnik, E J

1995-03-01

86

The optic chiasm: a turning point in the evolution of eye/hand coordination.  

PubMed

The primate visual system has a uniquely high proportion of ipsilateral retinal projections, retinal ganglial cells that do not cross the midline in the optic chiasm. The general assumption is that this developed due to the selective advantage of accurate depth perception through stereopsis. Here, the hypothesis that the need for accurate eye-forelimb coordination substantially influenced the evolution of the primate visual system is presented. Evolutionary processes may change the direction of retinal ganglial cells. Crossing, or non-crossing, in the optic chiasm determines which hemisphere receives visual feedback in reaching tasks. Each hemisphere receives little tactile and proprioceptive information about the ipsilateral hand. The eye-forelimb hypothesis proposes that abundant ipsilateral retinal projections developed in the primate brain to synthesize, in a single hemisphere, visual, tactile, proprioceptive, and motor information about a given hand, and that this improved eye-hand coordination and optimized the size of the brain. If accurate eye-hand coordination was a major factor in the evolution of stereopsis, stereopsis is likely to be highly developed for activity in the area where the hands most often operate.The primate visual system is ideally suited for tasks within arm's length and in the inferior visual field, where most manual activity takes place. Altering of ocular dominance in reaching tasks, reduced cross-modal cuing effects when arms are crossed, response of neurons in the primary motor cortex to viewed actions of a hand, multimodal neuron response to tactile as well as visual events, and extensive use of multimodal sensory information in reaching maneuvers support the premise that benefits of accurate limb control influenced the evolution of the primate visual system. The eye-forelimb hypothesis implies that evolutionary change toward hemidecussation in the optic chiasm provided parsimonious neural pathways in animals developing frontal vision and visually guided forelimbs, and also suggests a new perspective on vision convergence in prey and predatory animals. PMID:23866932

Larsson, Matz

2013-01-01

87

Mental Imagery as Revealed by Eye Movements and Spoken Predicates: A Test of Neurolinguistic Programming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested Bandler and Grinder's proposal that eye movement direction and spoken predicates are indicative of sensory modality of imagery. Subjects reported images in the three modes, but no relation between imagery and eye movements or predicates was found. Visual images were most vivid and often reported. Most subjects rated themselves as visual,…

Elich, Matthew; And Others

1985-01-01

88

Cerebrocerebellar Circuits for the Perceptual Cancellation of Eye-movement-induced Retinal Image Motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite smooth pursuit eye movements, we are unaware of resultant retinal image motion. This example of perceptual invariance is achieved by comparing retinal image slip with an internal reference signal predicting the sensory consequences of the eye movement. This prediction can be manipulated experimentally, allowing one to vary the amount of self-induced image motion for which the reference signal compensates

Axel Lindner; Thomas Haarmeier; Michael Erb; Wolfgang Grodd; Peter Thier

2006-01-01

89

Sex-linked dominant  

MedlinePLUS

Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... on the type of chromosome affected (autosomal or sex chromosome). It also depends on whether the trait ...

90

Ultrastructure of Arthropod Sensory Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ultrastructure studies of the anterior sensory organs of the house fly larva (Musca domestica) are reported. Ultrastructure studies of the sensory setae and Haller's organ are reported for a hard tick Amblyomma americanum and a soft tick Argas arboreus. C...

R. C. Axtell

1971-01-01

91

Temporal Sensory Integration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sensory systems, in particular those of vision and hearing, are known to mimic some of the characteristics of a linear, temporal energy integrator. Experiments conducted on the project have demonstrated that the sense of touch is endowed with the same pro...

J. J. Zwislocki

1970-01-01

92

Structured Sensory Trauma Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features the National Institute of Trauma and Loss in Children (TLC), a program that has demonstrated via field testing, exploratory research, time series studies, and evidence-based research studies that its Structured Sensory Intervention for Traumatized Children, Adolescents, and Parents (SITCAP[R]) produces statistically…

Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan

2010-01-01

93

Environmental Awareness (Sensory Awareness).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Capitalizing on the resources available within a city block, this resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) describes methods and procedures for developing sensory awareness in the urban out-of-doors. Conceptual focus is on interdependency ("living things are interdependent"). Involvement in the environment (observing, thinking, doing)…

Carpenter, Marian

94

Hawk Eyes I: Diurnal Raptors Differ in Visual Fields and Degree of Eye Movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDifferent strategies to search and detect prey may place specific demands on sensory modalities. We studied visual field configuration, degree of eye movement, and orbit orientation in three diurnal raptors belonging to the Accipitridae and Falconidae families.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe used an ophthalmoscopic reflex technique and an integrated 3D digitizer system. We found inter-specific variation in visual field configuration and degree of

Colleen T. ORourke; Margaret I. Hall; Todd Pitlik; Esteban Fernández-Juricic

2010-01-01

95

Understanding Sensory Integration. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief paper summarizes what is known about sensory integration and sensory integration dysfunction (DSI). It outlines evaluation of DSI, treatment approaches, and implications for parents and teachers, including compensatory strategies for minimizing the impact of DSI on a child's life. Review of origins of sensory integration theory in the…

DiMatties, Marie E.; Sammons, Jennifer H.

96

Sensory Integration in Mental Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lorna Jean King is interviewed concerning the present status of sensory integration as a treatment modality in the area of mental health. Topics covered are: use of sensory integration techniques with adults and adolescents in both chronic and acute mental health settings; goals and expected outcomes of using sensory integration techniques; cost-effectiveness of these techniques; differences between occupational therapy and

Barbara W. Posthuma

1983-01-01

97

Quantitative sensory testing.  

PubMed

Quantitative sensory testing is a reliable way of assessing large and small sensory nerve fiber function. Sensory deficits may be quantified and the data used in parametric statistical analysis in research studies and drug trials. It is an important addition to the neurophysiologic armamentarium, because conventional sensory nerve conduction tests only the large fibers. QST is a psychophysical test and lacks the objectivity of NCS. The results are subject to changes owing to distraction, boredom, mental fatigue, drowsiness, or confusion. When patients are consciously or unconsciously biased toward an abnormal QST result, no psychophysical testing can reliably distinguish these patients from those with organic disease. QST tests the integrity of the entire sensory neuraxis and is of no localizing value. Dysfunction of the peripheral nerves or central nervous system may give rise to abnormalities in QST. As is true for other neurophysiologic tests, QST results should always be interpreted in light of the patient's clinical presentation. Quantitative sensory testing has been shown to be reasonably reproducible over a period of days or weeks in normal subjects. Because longitudinal QST studies of patients in drug trials are usually performed over a period of several months to a few years, reproducibility studies on the placebo-control group should be included. For individual patients, more studies are needed to determine the maximum allowable difference between two QSTs that can be attributed to experimental error. The reproducibility of thermal thresholds may not be as good as that of vibration threshold. Different commercially available QST instruments have different specifications (thermode size, stimulus characteristics), testing protocols, algorithms, and normal values. Only QST instruments and their corresponding methodologies that have been shown to be reproducible should be used for research and patient care. The data in the literature do not allow conclusions regarding the superiority of any QST instruments. The future of QST is promising; however, many factors can affect QST results. As is true for other neurophysiologic tests, QST is susceptible to many extraneous factors and to misuse when not properly interpreted by the clinician. PMID:12795516

Siao, Peter; Cros, Didier P

2003-05-01

98

Hereditary sensory radicular neuropathy: defective neurogenic inflammation.  

PubMed

Hereditary sensory radicular neuropathy exhibits autosomal dominant inheritance with complete penetrance in males and incomplete penetrance in females. Newer tests of small sensory nerve function were used in screening 8 family members aged between 14 and 66 years. All exhibited some frequent features of the disorder with an onset in the 2nd or 3rd decade, foot ulceration, foot callus, loss of pin prick, thermal and light touch sensation, and some reduction in vibration acuity and proprioception in the lower limbs. The hands were involved in 3 of 8, muscle involvement was present in 5 of 8, but deafness was not detected by audiometry. Nerve conduction velocity, sensory action potentials, latency and amplitude, thermal acuity, vibration acuity and axon reflex flares were measured in all patients. One sural nerve biopsy confirmed the presence of peripheral fibre loss in this predominantly sensory neuropathy. Chemically evoked axon reflex tests were used to evaluate the extent of primary sensory nerve fibre involvement. All patients were tested using a Moor MBF 3-D dual channel laser Doppler velocimeter. Acetylcholine or phenylephrine iontophoretically applied as 16 mC doses evoked absent or tiny axon reflexes in areas of impaired pin prick sensation. By contrast, direct microvascular dilator responses to nitroprusside (smooth muscle dependent) and acetylcholine (endothelium-dependent) were present but somewhat reduced in areas with defective neurogenic inflammation. These results differ significantly from the responses obtained in age-matched healthy controls (P < 0.05). Foot pressure analysis was performed for orthoses in 2 affected members with foot ulceration using the Musgrave Footprint system.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1343862

Westerman, R A; Block, A; Nunn, A; Delaney, C A; Hahn, A; Dennett, X; Carr, R W

1992-01-01

99

Sensory Perception: Lessons from Synesthesia  

PubMed Central

Synesthesia, the conscious, idiosyncratic, repeatable, and involuntary sensation of one sensory modality in response to another, is a condition that has puzzled both researchers and philosophers for centuries. Much time has been spent proving the condition’s existence as well as investigating its etiology, but what can be learned from synesthesia remains a poorly discussed topic. Here, synaesthesia is presented as a possible answer rather than a question to the current gaps in our understanding of sensory perception. By first appreciating the similarities between normal sensory perception and synesthesia, one can use what is known about synaesthesia, from behavioral and imaging studies, to inform our understanding of “normal” sensory perception. In particular, in considering synesthesia, one can better understand how and where the different sensory modalities interact in the brain, how different sensory modalities can interact without confusion ? the binding problem ? as well as how sensory perception develops.

Harvey, Joshua Paul

2013-01-01

100

The interaction of bayesian priors and sensory data and its neural circuit implementation in visually guided movement.  

PubMed

Sensory-motor behavior results from a complex interaction of noisy sensory data with priors based on recent experience. By varying the stimulus form and contrast for the initiation of smooth pursuit eye movements in monkeys, we show that visual motion inputs compete with two independent priors: one prior biases eye speed toward zero; the other prior attracts eye direction according to the past several days' history of target directions. The priors bias the speed and direction of the initiation of pursuit for the weak sensory data provided by the motion of a low-contrast sine wave grating. However, the priors have relatively little effect on pursuit speed and direction when the visual stimulus arises from the coherent motion of a high-contrast patch of dots. For any given stimulus form, the mean and variance of eye speed covary in the initiation of pursuit, as expected for signal-dependent noise. This relationship suggests that pursuit implements a trade-off between movement accuracy and variation, reducing both when the sensory signals are noisy. The tradeoff is implemented as a competition of sensory data and priors that follows the rules of Bayesian estimation. Computer simulations show that the priors can be understood as direction-specific control of the strength of visual-motor transmission, and can be implemented in a neural-network model that makes testable predictions about the population response in the smooth eye movement region of the frontal eye fields. PMID:23223286

Yang, Jin; Lee, Joonyeol; Lisberger, Stephen G

2012-12-01

101

Genes for Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathies: A Genotype-Phenotype Correlation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders characterized by axonal atrophy and degeneration, exclusively or predominantly affecting the sensory and autonomic neurons. So far, disease-associated mutations have been identified in seven genes: two genes for autosomal dominant ("SPTLC1"…

Rotthier, Annelies; Baets, Jonathan; De Vriendt, Els; Jacobs, An; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Levy, Nicolas; Bonello-Palot, Nathalie; Kilic, Sara Sebnem; Weis, Joachim; Nascimento, Andres; Swinkels, Marielle; Kruyt, Moyo C.; Jordanova, Albena; De Jonghe, Peter; Timmerman, Vincent

2009-01-01

102

Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis)  

MedlinePLUS

... conjunctivitis with redness of the eye and mucoid debris on the eyelashes. Overview Pink eye (conjunctivitis) is ... Inflammatory causes such as chemicals, fumes, dust, and debris Allergies Injuries Oral genital contact with someone who ...

103

Common Eye Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... to amblyopia include strabismus, an imbalance in the positioning of the two eyes; more nearsighted, farsighted, or ... Page Strabismus Strabismus involves an imbalance in the positioning of the two eyes. Strabismus can cause the ...

104

Get Your Eyes Tested  

MedlinePLUS

... Find Services Near You National Health Observances Health Care Reform Adults Women and Pregnant Women Children Related Resources En español Home > Health Topics A to Z > Doctor Visits > Screening Tests > Get Your Eyes Tested Get Your Eyes Tested ...

105

LASIK eye surgery  

MedlinePLUS

LASIK is eye surgery that permanently changes the shape of the cornea (the clear covering on the ... cornea (curvature) and the length of the eye. LASIK uses an excimer laser (an ultraviolet laser) to ...

106

Diabetic Eye Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... this can damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It is a leading cause ... surgery, with follow-up care. Two other eye problems can happen to people with diabetes. A cataract ...

107

Normal Eye Anatomy  

MedlinePLUS

... the way an image focuses on the retina. Credit: National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health Ref#: ... adult lens in cross section (slit lamp picture). Credit: National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health Ref#: ...

108

Eye Disease Images  

MedlinePLUS

... dpi (5M, TIFF) Description: A fundus photo showing neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Credit: National Eye Institute, ... dpi (4M, TIFF) 300 dpi (4M, TIFF) Description: Neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Credit: National Eye Institute, ...

109

Eye Care Following Disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The needs of ophthalmologic casualties mirror these general patterns of casualty care following disasters. The number of ophthalmologic casualties, however, may be large. In humans, the eyes account for only 0.1 % of the total body surface area, yet during an explosion as many as 10% of survivors may suffer eye trauma (3). Acute eye injuries during a disaster often

Michael G Weddle

110

Eye Injuries in Sports  

MedlinePLUS

... protection for your specific sport. When can an athlete with an eye injury return to play? Athletes with a serious eye injury should be examined ... should feel comfortable and have adequate vision. The athlete should wear eye protection. For a less serious ...

111

Dwarf Eye Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Johns Hopkins researchers at the Wilmer Eye Institute have discovered what appears to be the first human gene mutation that causes extreme farsightedness. The researchers report that nanophthalmos, Greek for "dwarf eye," is a rare, potentially blinding disorder caused by an alteration in a gene called MFRP that helps control eye growth and…

Science Teacher, 2005

2005-01-01

112

Lasik eye surgery - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

LASIK is eye surgery that permanently changes the shape of the cornea (the clear covering on the front of the eye) in ... improves. At the first doctor visit after the surgery, the eye shield will be removed and the doctor will ...

113

Phenomenological dimensions of sensory gating.  

PubMed

Contemporary sensory gating definitions are generally tied to the perceptual and attentional phenomenology described by McGhie and Chapman, including abnormalities in the quality of sensory input, heightened awareness of background noises, and poor selective attention reported by individuals with schizophrenia. Despite these explicit phenomenological origins, little is known about the experiential phenomena underlying contemporary operationalizations of the sensory gating construct, such as whether the construct is restricted to experiences associated with the modulation of sensory percepts includes selective attention and distractibility or even whether the construct is accessible via self-report. Because clarification of these issues has important implications for the development and testing of psychological theories and the study of psychopathology, a series of studies was conducted to (a) empirically identify the major dimensions of sensory gating-like perceptual and attentional phenomenology in healthy young adults and (b) develop a psychometrically sound self-report rating scale to capture these dimensions, the Sensory Gating Inventory (SGI). Factor analyses of Likert items measuring a broad range of sensory gating-like subjective experiences revealed 1 primary factor that encompassed anomalies of perceptual modulation (eg, perceptions of heightened stimulus sensitivity and sensory inundation) and 3 other factors measuring disturbances in the processes of focal and radial attention as well as exacerbation of sensory gating-like anomalies by fatigue and stress. Psychometrically, the SGI demonstrated strong reliability and validity. An empirically based conceptual demarcation of the sensory gating construct is offered, and directions for future research are described. PMID:20525773

Hetrick, William P; Erickson, Molly A; Smith, David A

2012-01-01

114

Phenomenological Dimensions of Sensory Gating  

PubMed Central

Contemporary sensory gating definitions are generally tied to the perceptual and attentional phenomenology described by McGhie and Chapman, including abnormalities in the quality of sensory input, heightened awareness of background noises, and poor selective attention reported by individuals with schizophrenia. Despite these explicit phenomenological origins, little is known about the experiential phenomena underlying contemporary operationalizations of the sensory gating construct, such as whether the construct is restricted to experiences associated with the modulation of sensory percepts includes selective attention and distractibility or even whether the construct is accessible via self-report. Because clarification of these issues has important implications for the development and testing of psychological theories and the study of psychopathology, a series of studies was conducted to (a) empirically identify the major dimensions of sensory gating–like perceptual and attentional phenomenology in healthy young adults and (b) develop a psychometrically sound self-report rating scale to capture these dimensions, the Sensory Gating Inventory (SGI). Factor analyses of Likert items measuring a broad range of sensory gating–like subjective experiences revealed 1 primary factor that encompassed anomalies of perceptual modulation (eg, perceptions of heightened stimulus sensitivity and sensory inundation) and 3 other factors measuring disturbances in the processes of focal and radial attention as well as exacerbation of sensory gating–like anomalies by fatigue and stress. Psychometrically, the SGI demonstrated strong reliability and validity. An empirically based conceptual demarcation of the sensory gating construct is offered, and directions for future research are described.

Hetrick, William P.; Smith, David A.

2012-01-01

115

Sensory, motor, and combined contexts for context-specific adaptation of saccade gain in humans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Saccadic eye movements can be adapted in a context-specific manner such that their gain can be made to depend on the state of a prevailing context cue. We asked whether context cues are more effective if their nature is primarily sensory, motor, or a combination of sensory and motor. Subjects underwent context-specific adaptation using one of three different context cues: a pure sensory context (head roll-tilt right or left); a pure motor context (changes in saccade direction); or a combined sensory-motor context (head roll-tilt and changes in saccade direction). We observed context-specific adaptation in each condition; the greatest degree of context-specificity occurred in paradigms that used the motor cue, alone or in conjunction with the sensory cue. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

Shelhamer, Mark; Clendaniel, Richard

2002-01-01

116

Eye movements in depth to visual illusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perceive the three-dimensional (3D) environment that surrounds us with deceptive effortlessness. In fact, we are far from comprehending how the visual system provides us with this stable perception of the (3D) world around us. This thesis will focus on the interplay between visual perception of depth and its closely related action system, eye movements in depth. The human visual system is comprised of a sensory (input) and an output (motor) system. Processed information from the sensory system can result in two explicit measurable response types: conscious visual perception and ocular motor behavior. It is still a matter of debate whether conscious visual perception and action (including hand- and arm-movements) use the same information or whether the visual system has separate channels processing information for perception and action. In this thesis, we study (1) if separate channels, one for eye movements and one for conscious visual perception, indeed exist, and (2) if so, if there is a direct input from the perceptual pathway to the motor pathway. Assuming that either eye movements and conscious visual perception are based on information from a common source (a negative answer to issue 1) or perception can directly influence, or guide, eye movements (an affirmative answer to research question 2), (eye) movements reflect our conscious visual perception. If so, eye movements could provide us with an alternative method to probe our conscious visual perception, making explicit perceptual reports superfluous. In this thesis we focus on depth perception and the two types of eye movements that are closest related to depth perception, namely vergence (an eye movement that gets a certain depth plane into focus) and saccades (a rapid eye movement to change gaze direction). Over the last 20 years it has been shown that depth perception is based on a weighted combination of depth cues available such as linear perspective, occlusion and binocular disparity. How eye movements are planned, however, is still unclear. Several studies have reported that eye movements are, to varying degrees, correlated with perception and thus concluded that perception guides eye movements. However, in most of these studies depth perception was correlated to the depth cues and a clear distinction between cues and perception could not be made. A way to make a dissociation between cues and perception, is to make use of depth reversal illusions: stimuli that can induce multiple equally likely depth interpretations while the stimulus cues remain the same. That means that perception can alternate, while cues remain constant leading to a dissociation between perception and cues. In several different studies we show that in the case of vergence, eye movements are planned based on depth cues (mainly disparity) and are uncorrelated to perception. In the case of saccades, we show that the direction of saccades is highly correlated to perception, but seems to be subserved by a separate system combining cues using very similar weights as for perception.

Wismeijer, D. A.

2009-10-01

117

Eye health and adolescence.  

PubMed

Complete development of eyes occurs between 8 and 11 years, though longitudinal growth of axial length may occur up to 13 years (approximately). Except a few, most of the eye diseases affecting adolescence age group are similar to adult type. Diseases like myopia, keratoconus, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, juvenile diabetic retinopathy and injuries to eye are exclusively diseases of adolescence that are commonly encountered. Psychologically, impact of eye disease on adolescent mind may be profound, thinking they might lose their eyesight. Early detection of diseases, prevention of injuries, health education and frequent eye check-up are essential. PMID:16570772

Biswas, P N; Baidya, K P; Nandi, K

2005-11-01

118

Bi-sensory, striped representations: comparative insights from owl and platypus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bi-sensory striped arrays are described in owl and platypus that share some similarities with the other variant of bi-sensory striped array found in primate and carnivore striate cortex: ocular dominance columns. Like ocular dominance columns, the owl and platypus striped systems each involve two different topographic arrays that are cut into parallel stripes, and interdigitated, so that higher-order neurons can

John D. Pettigrew

2004-01-01

119

Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy with autonomic crises: a Turkish variant of familial dysautonomia?  

PubMed

Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies have different phenotypes. We report 2 cousins with differing clinical courses of a hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy. The progressive disease in case 1 is dominated by loss of sensation, autonomic crises, and pain. Case 2 shows loss of sensation, mental retardation, and deafness, clinically similar to patients with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II. Detailed molecular studies in case 1 for all known genes that are associated with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies were negative. However, the occurrence of the 2 cases within 1 kindred makes a common genetic background likely. We, therefore, propose a Turkish variant of familial dysautonomia in these 2 patients. PMID:22140130

Koy, Anne; Freynhagen, Rainer; Mayatepek, Ertan; Tibussek, Daniel

2012-02-01

120

[Morphology of the antennal sensory cone in insect larvae from various orders].  

PubMed

This article describes the morphology of antennae in larvae of three species of beetles from the families Cerambycidae and Chrysomelidae; one species of the caddis fly from the family Limnephilidae; and four species of dipterans from the families Culicidae, Chironomidae, and Muscidae. In all investigated species, the antenna has a sensory cone on it. Larvae of the caddis fly, longhorn beetles, and leaf beetles have on their antenna solitary sensillae and the sensory cone. This proves the advanced evolution of these species. Despite reduction of the head capsule, the antennal sensory cone in +-9/58 larvae of higher dipterans has become the dominant sensory structure. PMID:22117421

Akent'eva, N A

2011-01-01

121

Interactions Dominate the Dynamics of Visual Cognition  

PubMed Central

Many cognitive theories have described behavior as the summation of independent contributions from separate components. Contrasting views have emphasized the importance of multiplicative interactions and emergent structure. We describe a statistical approach to distinguishing additive and multiplicative processes and apply it to the dynamics of eye movements during classic visual cognitive tasks. The results reveal interaction-dominant dynamics in eye movements in each of the three tasks, and that fine-grained eye movements are modulated by task constraints. These findings reveal the interactive nature of cognitive processing and are consistent with theories that view cognition as an emergent property of processes that are broadly distributed over many scales of space and time rather than a componential assembly line.

Stephen, Damian G.; Mirman, Daniel

2010-01-01

122

Learning Conflict Among Mixed-Dominance Left-Handed Individuals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the hypothesis that it is mixed-dominance among left handers (i.e. left handedness and right eye and/or foot dominance), that is related to academic learning difficulties among such individuals, rather than the generally held notion that their difficulties stem from the fact that they are left handers in a "right handed…

Blai, Boris, Jr.

123

Ratio between the amplitude of sensory evoked potentials at the wrist in both hands of left-handed subjects.  

PubMed Central

Maximum sensory conduction velocity, duration and amplitude of the sensory evoked potentials at the wrist on stimulating digits 1, 2, 3 and 5, were determined bilaterally in 21 left-handed subjects with an age range from 6 to 47 years. The amplitude of the sensory evoked potential at the wrist was larger in the right hand. This asymmetry is the reverse of the one previously observed in right-handed infants and adults. It could be physiological and suggests a difference in density of sensory innervation between the two hands. Asymmetry of sensory innervation can be helpful in the study of hand dominance.

Martinez, A C; Conde, M C; Campo, F D; Mingo, P; Ferrer, M T

1980-01-01

124

Hawk Eyes I: Diurnal Raptors Differ in Visual Fields and Degree of Eye Movement  

PubMed Central

Background Different strategies to search and detect prey may place specific demands on sensory modalities. We studied visual field configuration, degree of eye movement, and orbit orientation in three diurnal raptors belonging to the Accipitridae and Falconidae families. Methodology/Principal Findings We used an ophthalmoscopic reflex technique and an integrated 3D digitizer system. We found inter-specific variation in visual field configuration and degree of eye movement, but not in orbit orientation. Red-tailed Hawks have relatively small binocular areas (?33°) and wide blind areas (?82°), but intermediate degree of eye movement (?5°), which underscores the importance of lateral vision rather than binocular vision to scan for distant prey in open areas. Cooper's Hawks' have relatively wide binocular fields (?36°), small blind areas (?60°), and high degree of eye movement (?8°), which may increase visual coverage and enhance prey detection in closed habitats. Additionally, we found that Cooper's Hawks can visually inspect the items held in the tip of the bill, which may facilitate food handling. American Kestrels have intermediate-sized binocular and lateral areas that may be used in prey detection at different distances through stereopsis and motion parallax; whereas the low degree eye movement (?1°) may help stabilize the image when hovering above prey before an attack. Conclusions We conclude that: (a) there are between-species differences in visual field configuration in these diurnal raptors; (b) these differences are consistent with prey searching strategies and degree of visual obstruction in the environment (e.g., open and closed habitats); (c) variations in the degree of eye movement between species appear associated with foraging strategies; and (d) the size of the binocular and blind areas in hawks can vary substantially due to eye movements. Inter-specific variation in visual fields and eye movements can influence behavioral strategies to visually search for and track prey while perching.

O'Rourke, Colleen T.; Hall, Margaret I.; Pitlik, Todd; Fernandez-Juricic, Esteban

2010-01-01

125

Non-dominant suppression in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the cat: laminar differences and class specificity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Binocular non-dominant suppression (NDS) in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNd) of the cat was studied by recording from single neurons in the LGNd of anaesthetized, paralysed cats while stimulating the non-dominant eye with a moving light bar. The maintained discharge rate of LGNd neurons was varied by stimulating the dominant eye in various ways: by varying the size or

Chun Wang; B. Dreher; W. Burke

1994-01-01

126

Cutaneous sensory disorder.  

PubMed

Cutaneous sensory disorder (CSD) represents a heterogeneous clinical situation where the patient presents with either disagreeable skin sensations (ie, itching, burning, stinging) or pain (ie, allodynia) and/or negative sensory symptoms (ie, numbness, hypoaesthesia). These patients have no apparent diagnosable dermatologic or medical condition that explains the cutaneous symptom, and typically have negative findings upon medical workup. Skin regions that normally have a greater density of epidermal innervation tend to be more susceptible to the development of CSD. CSDs can affect any body region but generally tend to be confined to the face, scalp and perineum, and have been referred to in the literature with region-specific terms such as burning mouth syndrome, glossodynia and vulvodynia. Symptoms such as pruritus with unexplained hyperhidrosis may occur during sleep, as a result of heightened sympathetic tone. Sleep deprivation and insomnia can play a moderating role in CSD. Somatization and dissociation can play a central role in the pathogenesis of CSDs. A review of the literature suggests that CSDs represent a complex, and often poorly understood interplay between neurobiological factors associated with neuropathic pain, neuropathic itch and neurologic/neuropsychiatric states (eg, radiculopathies, stroke, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder). These neurologic/neuropsychiatric states can modulate pain and itch perception by potentially affecting the pain and itch pathways at a structural and/or functional level. PMID:24049969

Gupta, Madhulika A; Gupta, Aditya K

2013-06-01

127

Eye movements: The past 25 years  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the past 25 of research on eye movements (1986–2011). Emphasis is on three oculomotor behaviors: gaze control, smooth pursuit and saccades, and on their interactions with vision. Focus over the past 25 years has remained on the fundamental and classical questions: What are the mechanisms that keep gaze stable with either stationary or moving targets? How does the motion of the image on the retina affect vision? Where do we look – and why – when performing a complex task? How can the world appear clear and stable despite continual movements of the eyes? The past 25 years of investigation of these questions has seen progress and transformations at all levels due to new approaches (behavioral, neural and theoretical) aimed at studying how eye movements cope with real-world visual and cognitive demands. The work has led to a better understanding of how prediction, learning and attention work with sensory signals to contribute to the effective operation of eye movements in visually rich environments.

Kowler, Eileen

2011-01-01

128

Sensory nerves, neurogenic inflammation and pain: missing components of alternative irritation strategies? A review and a potential strategy.  

PubMed

The eyes and skin are highly innervated by sensory nerves; stimulation of these nerves by irritants may give rise to neurogenic inflammation, leading to sensory irritation and pain. Few in vitro models of neurogenic inflammation have been described in conjunction with alternative skin and eye irritation methods, despite the fact that the sensory innervation of these organs is well-documented. To date, alternative approaches to the Draize skin and eye irritation tests have proved largely successful at classifying severe irritants, but are generally poor at discriminating between agents with mild to moderate irritant potential. We propose that the development of in vitro models for the prediction of sensory stimulation will assist in the re-classification of the irritant potential of agents that are under-predicted by current in vitro strategies. This review describes the range of xenobiotics known to cause inflammation and pain through the stimulation of sensory nerves, as well as the endogenous mediators and receptor types that are involved. In particular, it focuses on the vanilloid receptor, its activators and its regulation, as these receptors function as integrators of responses to numerous noxious stimuli. Cell culture models and ex vivo preparations that have the potential to serve as predictors of sensory irritation are also described. In addition, as readily available sensory neuron cell line models are few in number, stem cell lines (with the capacity to differentiate into sensory neurons) are explored. Finally, a preliminary strategy to enable assessment of whether incorporation of a sensory component will enhance the predictive power of current in vitro eye and skin testing strategies is proposed. PMID:15612874

Garle, Michael J; Fry, Jeffrey R

2003-01-01

129

Sensory receptors in monotremes.  

PubMed Central

This is a summary of the current knowledge of sensory receptors in skin of the bill of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, and the snout of the echidna, Tachyglossus aculeatus. Brief mention is also made of the third living member of the monotremes, the long-nosed echidna, Zaglossus bruijnii. The monotremes are the only group of mammals known to have evolved electroreception. The structures in the skin responsible for the electric sense have been identified as sensory mucous glands with an expanded epidermal portion that is innervated by large-diameter nerve fibres. Afferent recordings have shown that in both platypuses and echidnas the receptors excited by cathodal (negative) pulses and inhibited by anodal (positive) pulses. Estimates give a total of 40,000 mucous sensory glands in the upper and lower bill of the platypus, whereas there are only about 100 in the tip of the echidna snout. Recording of electroreceptor-evoked activity from the brain of the platypus have shown that the largest area dedicated to somatosensory input from the bill, S1, shows alternating rows of mechanosensory and bimodal neurons. The bimodal neurons respond to both electrosensory and mechanical inputs. In skin of the platypus bill and echidna snout, apart from the electroreceptors, there are structures called push rods, which consist of a column of compacted cells that is able to move relatively independently of adjacent regions of skin. At the base of the column are Merkel cell complexes, known to be type I slowly adapting mechanoreceptors, and lamellated corpuscles, probably vibration receptors. It has been speculated that the platypus uses its electric sense to detect the electromyographic activity from moving prey in the water and for obstacle avoidance. Mechanoreceptors signal contact with the prey. For the echidna, a role for the electrosensory system has not yet been established during normal foraging behaviour, although it has been shown that it is able to detect the presence of weak electric fields in water. Perhaps the electric sense is used to detect moving prey in moist soil.

Proske, U; Gregory, J E; Iggo, A

1998-01-01

130

Ocular dominance columns in New World monkeys.  

PubMed

Squirrel monkeys normally lack ocular dominance columns in V1. This study shows that squirrel monkeys can exhibit clear ocular dominance columns if they are made strabismic within a few weeks of birth. Columns were seen only in layer 4C beta and were coarser than the overlying blob pattern in the same animal. In physiological recordings from layer 4C of a normal squirrel monkey, single units were mostly monocular, but units driven by the two eyes were intermixed. These results suggest that in squirrel monkeys activity-dependent mechanisms do normally segregate geniculate inputs from the two eyes, but on a much finer scale than in Old World primates. Strabismic owl monkeys also showed ocular dominance columns; normal owl monkeys showed variable expression. Because ocular dominance columns, when present in New World monkeys, tend to occur in later-maturing parts of layer 4C, I hypothesize that a difference in the relative timing of the maturation of geniculocortical inputs and intracortical lateral connectivity explains the variability of ocular dominance column expression in New World monkeys. PMID:8604053

Livingstone, M S

1996-03-15

131

Sensory analysis of pet foods.  

PubMed

Pet food palatability depends first and foremost on the pet and is related to the pet food sensory properties such as aroma, texture and flavor. Sensory analysis of pet foods may be conducted by humans via descriptive or hedonic analysis, pets via acceptance or preference tests, and through a number of instrumental analysis methods. Sensory analysis of pet foods provides additional information on reasons behind palatable and unpalatable foods as pets lack linguistic capabilities. Furthermore, sensory analysis may be combined with other types of information such as personality and environment factors to increase understanding of acceptable pet foods. Most pet food flavor research is proprietary and, thus, there are a limited number of publications available. Funding opportunities for pet food studies would increase research and publications and this would help raise public awareness of pet food related issues. This mini-review addresses current pet food sensory analysis literature and discusses future challenges and possibilities. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24497160

Koppel, Kadri

2014-08-01

132

Eye drop neurology.  

PubMed

Eye drops can help to diagnose and prevent complications of neurological disorders. Guttae ophthalmicae (eye drops) are generally safe because the drugs rarely achieve significant systemic concentrations, although there are rare exceptions. This article covers contemporary pharmacological pupil testing; how to dilate a pupil safely; common reasons why pupils do not respond to drops; and corneal lubrication to prevent complications of weak eye closure. PMID:24520179

Bennetto, Luke; Guly, Catherine; Ormerod, Ian; Plant, Gordon T

2014-06-01

133

Excitatory synaptic feedback from the motor layer to the sensory layers of the superior colliculus.  

PubMed

Neural circuits that translate sensory information into motor commands are organized in a feedforward manner converting sensory information into motor output. The superior colliculus (SC) follows this pattern as it plays a role in converting visual information from the retina and visual cortex into motor commands for rapid eye movements (saccades). Feedback from movement to sensory regions is hypothesized to play critical roles in attention, visual image stability, and saccadic suppression, but in contrast to feedforward pathways, motor feedback to sensory regions has received much less attention. The present study used voltage imaging and patch-clamp recording in slices of rat SC to test the hypothesis of an excitatory synaptic pathway from the motor layers of the SC back to the sensory superficial layers. Voltage imaging revealed an extensive depolarization of the superficial layers evoked by electrical stimulation of the motor layers. A pharmacologically isolated excitatory synaptic potential in the superficial layers depended on stimulus strength in the motor layers in a manner consistent with orthodromic excitation. Patch-clamp recording from neurons in the sensory layers revealed excitatory synaptic potentials in response to glutamate application in the motor layers. The location, size, and morphology of responsive neurons indicated they were likely to be narrow-field vertical cells. This excitatory projection from motor to sensory layers adds an important element to the circuitry of the SC and reveals a novel feedback pathway that could play a role in enhancing sensory responses to attended targets as well as visual image stabilization. PMID:24828636

Ghitani, Nima; Bayguinov, Peter O; Vokoun, Corinne R; McMahon, Shane; Jackson, Meyer B; Basso, Michele A

2014-05-14

134

Salinibacter Sensory Rhodopsin  

PubMed Central

Halobacterium salinarum sensory rhodopsin I (HsSRI), a dual receptor regulating both negative and positive phototaxis in haloarchaea, transmits light signals through changes in protein-protein interactions with its transducer, halobacterial transducer protein I (HtrI). Haloarchaea also have another sensor pigment, sensory rhodopsin II (SRII), which functions as a receptor regulating negative phototaxis. Compared with HsSRI, the signal relay mechanism of SRII is well characterized because SRII from Natronomonus pharaonis (NpSRII) is much more stable than HsSRI and HsSRII, especially in dilute salt solutions and is much more resistant to detergents. Two genes encoding SRI homologs were identified from the genome sequence of the eubacterium Salinibacter ruber. Those sequences are distantly related to HsSRI (?40% identity) and contain most of the amino acid residues identified as necessary for its function. To determine whether those genes encode functional protein(s), we cloned and expressed them in Escherichia coli. One of them (SrSRI) was expressed well as a recombinant protein having all-trans retinal as a chromophore. UV-Vis, low-temperature UV-Vis, pH-titration, and flash photolysis experiments revealed that the photochemical properties of SrSRI are similar to those of HsSRI. In addition to the expression system, the high stability of SrSRI makes it possible to prepare large amounts of protein and enables studies of mutant proteins that will allow new approaches to investigate the photosignaling process of SRI-HtrI.

Kitajima-Ihara, Tomomi; Furutani, Yuji; Suzuki, Daisuke; Ihara, Kunio; Kandori, Hideki; Homma, Michio; Sudo, Yuki

2008-01-01

135

The evolution of eyes and visually guided behaviour  

PubMed Central

The morphology and molecular mechanisms of animal photoreceptor cells and eyes reveal a complex pattern of duplications and co-option of genetic modules, leading to a number of different light-sensitive systems that share many components, in which clear-cut homologies are rare. On the basis of molecular and morphological findings, I discuss the functional requirements for vision and how these have constrained the evolution of eyes. The fact that natural selection on eyes acts through the consequences of visually guided behaviour leads to a concept of task-punctuated evolution, where sensory systems evolve by a sequential acquisition of sensory tasks. I identify four key innovations that, one after the other, paved the way for the evolution of efficient eyes. These innovations are (i) efficient photopigments, (ii) directionality through screening pigment, (iii) photoreceptor membrane folding, and (iv) focusing optics. A corresponding evolutionary sequence is suggested, starting at non-directional monitoring of ambient luminance and leading to comparisons of luminances within a scene, first by a scanning mode and later by parallel spatial channels in imaging eyes.

Nilsson, Dan-Eric

2009-01-01

136

Modeling of the First Layers in the Fly's Eye  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increased autonomy of robots would yield significant advantages in the exploration of space. The shortfalls of computer vision can, however, pose significant limitations on a robot's potential. At the same time, simple insects which are largely hard-wired have effective visual systems. The understanding of insect vision systems thus may lead to improved approaches to visual tasks. A good starting point for the study of a vision system is its eye. In this paper, a model of the sensory portion of the fly's eye is presented. The effectiveness of the model is briefly addressed by a comparison of its performance to experimental data.

Moya, J. A.; Wilcox, M. J.; Donohoe, G. W.

1997-01-01

137

Rapid eye movement during sleep considered as nystagmus.  

PubMed

Based on supportive evidence, it is proposed in this paper that rapid eye movements during paradoxical sleep actually represent nystagmus, the latter due to the occurrence of conflicting perceptions of bodily position in space. During rapid eye movements in sleep, the brain's perception of bodily position in a dream is opposed to the sensory perception of the dreamer's sleeping position. The split in perception triggers nystagmus, a physiological mechanism known to accompany motion sickness and other waking forms of spatial sense distortion. Supportive evidence from studies on motion sickness, nystagmus, and sleep is presented. A number of experiments are suggested to lend validity to the hypothesis. PMID:3774465

DiPrete, J

1986-10-01

138

Sex and caste-specific variation in compound eye morphology of five honeybee species.  

PubMed

Ranging from dwarfs to giants, the species of honeybees show remarkable differences in body size that have placed evolutionary constrains on the size of sensory organs and the brain. Colonies comprise three adult phenotypes, drones and two female castes, the reproductive queen and sterile workers. The phenotypes differ with respect to tasks and thus selection pressures which additionally constrain the shape of sensory systems. In a first step to explore the variability and interaction between species size-limitations and sex and caste-specific selection pressures in sensory and neural structures in honeybees, we compared eye size, ommatidia number and distribution of facet lens diameters in drones, queens and workers of five species (Apis andreniformis, A. florea, A. dorsata, A. mellifera, A. cerana). In these species, male and female eyes show a consistent sex-specific organization with respect to eye size and regional specialization of facet diameters. Drones possess distinctly enlarged eyes with large dorsal facets. Aside from these general patterns, we found signs of unique adaptations in eyes of A. florea and A. dorsata drones. In both species, drone eyes are disproportionately enlarged. In A. dorsata the increased eye size results from enlarged facets, a likely adaptation to crepuscular mating flights. In contrast, the relative enlargement of A. florea drone eyes results from an increase in ommatidia number, suggesting strong selection for high spatial resolution. Comparison of eye morphology and published mating flight times indicates a correlation between overall light sensitivity and species-specific mating flight times. The correlation suggests an important role of ambient light intensities in the regulation of species-specific mating flight times and the evolution of the visual system. Our study further deepens insights into visual adaptations within the genus Apis and opens up future perspectives for research to better understand the timing mechanisms and sensory physiology of mating related signals. PMID:23460896

Streinzer, Martin; Brockmann, Axel; Nagaraja, Narayanappa; Spaethe, Johannes

2013-01-01

139

Sex and Caste-Specific Variation in Compound Eye Morphology of Five Honeybee Species  

PubMed Central

Ranging from dwarfs to giants, the species of honeybees show remarkable differences in body size that have placed evolutionary constrains on the size of sensory organs and the brain. Colonies comprise three adult phenotypes, drones and two female castes, the reproductive queen and sterile workers. The phenotypes differ with respect to tasks and thus selection pressures which additionally constrain the shape of sensory systems. In a first step to explore the variability and interaction between species size-limitations and sex and caste-specific selection pressures in sensory and neural structures in honeybees, we compared eye size, ommatidia number and distribution of facet lens diameters in drones, queens and workers of five species (Apis andreniformis, A. florea, A. dorsata, A. mellifera, A. cerana). In these species, male and female eyes show a consistent sex-specific organization with respect to eye size and regional specialization of facet diameters. Drones possess distinctly enlarged eyes with large dorsal facets. Aside from these general patterns, we found signs of unique adaptations in eyes of A. florea and A. dorsata drones. In both species, drone eyes are disproportionately enlarged. In A. dorsata the increased eye size results from enlarged facets, a likely adaptation to crepuscular mating flights. In contrast, the relative enlargement of A. florea drone eyes results from an increase in ommatidia number, suggesting strong selection for high spatial resolution. Comparison of eye morphology and published mating flight times indicates a correlation between overall light sensitivity and species-specific mating flight times. The correlation suggests an important role of ambient light intensities in the regulation of species-specific mating flight times and the evolution of the visual system. Our study further deepens insights into visual adaptations within the genus Apis and opens up future perspectives for research to better understand the timing mechanisms and sensory physiology of mating related signals.

Streinzer, Martin; Brockmann, Axel; Nagaraja, Narayanappa; Spaethe, Johannes

2013-01-01

140

Visual-shift adaptation is composed of separable sensory and task-dependent effects  

PubMed Central

Visuomotor coordination requires both the accurate alignment of spatial information from different sensory streams and the ability to convert these sensory signals into accurate motor commands. Both of these processes are highly plastic, as illustrated by the rapid adaptation of goal-directed movements following exposure to shifted visual feedback. Although visual-shift adaptation is a widely used model of sensorimotor learning, the multi-faceted adaptive response is typically poorly quantified. We present an approach to quantitatively characterizing both sensory and task-dependent components of adaptation. Sensory after-effects are quantified with “alignment tests” that provide a localized, two-dimensional measure of sensory recalibration. These sensory effects obey a precise form of “additivity”, in which the shift in sensory alignment between vision and the right hand is equal to the vector sum of the shifts between vision and the left hand and between the right and left hands. This additivity holds at the exposure location and at a second generalization location. These results support a component transformation model of sensory coordination, in which eye-hand and hand-hand alignment relies on a sequence of shared sensory transformations. We also ask how these sensory effects compare to the after-effects measured in target reaching and tracking tasks. We find that the after-effect depends on both the task performed during feedback-shift exposure and on the testing task. The results suggest the presence of both a general sensory recalibration and task-dependent sensorimotor effect. The task-dependent effect is observed in highly stereotyped reaching movements, but not in the more variable tracking task.

Simani, M.C.; McGuire, L.M.M.; Sabes, P.N.

2008-01-01

141

Visual dominance and attention: The Colavita effect revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under many conditions, humans display a robust tendency to rely more on visual information than on other forms of sensory\\u000a information. Colavita (1974) illustrated this visual dominance effect by showing that naive observers typically fail to respond\\u000a to clearly suprathreshold tones if these are presented simultaneously with a visual target flash. In the present study, we\\u000a demonstrate that visual dominance

Scott Sinnett; Charles Spence; Salvador Soto-Faraco

2007-01-01

142

Cross-sensory modulation of primary sensory cortex is developmentally regulated by early sensory experience.  

PubMed

The presence of cross-sensory influences on neuronal responses in primary sensory cortex has been observed previously using several different methods. To test this idea in rat S1 barrel cortex, we hypothesized that auditory stimuli combined with whisker stimulation ("cross-sensory" stimuli) may modify response levels to whisker stimulation. Since the brain has been shown to have a remarkable capacity to be modified by early postnatal sensory activity, manipulating postnatal sensory experiences would be predicted to alter the degree of cross-sensory interactions. To test these ideas, we raised rats with or without whisker deprivation and with or without postnatal exposure to repeated auditory clicks. We recorded extracellular responses under urethane anesthesia from barrel cortex neurons in response to principal whisker stimulation alone, to auditory click stimulation alone, or to a cross-sensory stimulus. The responses were compared statistically across different stimulus conditions and across different rearing groups. Barrel neurons did not generate action potentials in response to auditory click stimuli alone in any rearing group. However, in cross-sensory stimulus conditions the response magnitude was facilitated in the 0-15 ms post-whisker-stimulus epoch in all rearing conditions, whereas modulation of response magnitude in a later 15-30 ms post-whisker-stimulus epoch was significantly different in each rearing condition. The most significant cross-sensory effect occurred in rats that were simultaneously whisker deprived and click reared. We conclude that there is a modulatory type of cross-sensory auditory influence on normal S1 barrel cortex, which can be enhanced by early postnatal experiences. PMID:21325520

Ghoshal, Ayan; Tomarken, Andrew; Ebner, Ford

2011-02-16

143

Multistability in perception: binding sensory modalities, an overview.  

PubMed

This special issue presents research concerning multistable perception in different sensory modalities. Multistability occurs when a single physical stimulus produces alternations between different subjective percepts. Multistability was first described for vision, where it occurs, for example, when different stimuli are presented to the two eyes or for certain ambiguous figures. It has since been described for other sensory modalities, including audition, touch and olfaction. The key features of multistability are: (i) stimuli have more than one plausible perceptual organization; (ii) these organizations are not compatible with each other. We argue here that most if not all cases of multistability are based on competition in selecting and binding stimulus information. Binding refers to the process whereby the different attributes of objects in the environment, as represented in the sensory array, are bound together within our perceptual systems, to provide a coherent interpretation of the world around us. We argue that multistability can be used as a method for studying binding processes within and across sensory modalities. We emphasize this theme while presenting an outline of the papers in this issue. We end with some thoughts about open directions and avenues for further research. PMID:22371612

Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Grimault, Nicolas; Hupé, Jean-Michel; Moore, Brian C J; Pressnitzer, Daniel

2012-04-01

144

An Eye for Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a hands-on activity as an excellent starting point for investigations related to the eye. Involves making a simple model of the vertebrate eye to illustrate the formation of an upside-down image on the retina by the lens. Links to investigations in numerous science disciplines including astronomy, genetics, biology, earth science, and…

Ostwald, Thomas

1995-01-01

145

High-speed sensory-motor fusion for robotic grasping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a new high-speed vision device and its application to a grasp system is proposed, and we discuss a processing architecture for grasping based on visual and tactile feedback designed with real-time control in mind. First, we describe a high-speed vision chip that serves as a robotic eye that includes a general-purpose parallel processing array along with a photo-detector all on a single silicon chip. Next, we present a grasping algorithm based on real-time visual and tactile feedback, and a high-speed sensory-motor fusion system for robotic grasping. We then describe a grasping experiment using high-speed vision, and finally, based on these results, the effectiveness of high-speed sensory-motor fusion for robotic grasping is discussed.

Namiki, Akio; Komuro, Takashi; Ishikawa, Masatoshi

2002-11-01

146

The average eye.  

PubMed

For statistical and other purposes one needs to be able to determine an average eye. An average of refractive errors is readily calculated as an average of dioptric power matrices. A refractive error, however, is not so much a property of the eye as a property of the compensating lens in front of the eye. As such, it ignores other aspects of the optical character of the eye. This paper discusses the difficulties of finding a suitable average that fully accounts for the first-order optics of a set of optical systems. It proposes an average based on ray transferences and logarithms and exponentials of matrices. Application to eyes in particular is discussed. PMID:15491486

Harris, W F

2004-11-01

147

Electroconvulsive therapy and determination of cerebral dominance  

PubMed Central

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) often results in a number of short- and long-time side effects including memory impairment for past and current events, which can last for several months after ECT treatment. It has been suggested that unilateral ECT (uECT) with electrodes placed over the non-dominant (typically right) hemisphere significantly reduces side effects, especially memory disturbances. It is important to note that cerebral dominance equates to speech dominance and avoiding this area of the brain also reduces speech dysfunction after ECT. Traditionally, the routine clinical determination of cerebral dominance has been through the assessment of hand, foot and eye dominance, which is an easy and inexpensive approach that, however, does not ensure accuracy. This review of literature on different methods and techniques for determination of cerebral dominance and provides evidence that functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) represents a valid and safe alternative to invasive techniques for identifying speech lateralisation. It can be concluded that fTCD, notwithstanding its costs, could be used as a standard procedure prior to uECT treatment to determine cerebral dominance, thereby further reducing cognitive side-effects of ECT and possibly making it more acceptable to both patients and clinicians.

Dragovic, Milan; Allet, Lindsay; Janca, Aleksandar

2004-01-01

148

Proximal sensory neuropathies of the Leg.  

PubMed

This article addresses the proximal sensory neuropathies of the leg, concentrating on those nerves that are purely sensory or have a predominately sensory onset. These include the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve, the ilioinguinal nerve, the genitofemoral nerve, and the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve. The obturator and femoral nerves are also summarily mentioned with respect to their sensory symptoms. PMID:10393758

Reid, V; Cros, D

1999-08-01

149

Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness profiles associated with ocular laterality and dominance.  

PubMed

Although human anatomy is arranged symmetrically based on a central vertical axis, the majority of persons will use one side of their body more readily than the other. Interestingly, these lateral body dominances including ocular dominance are all rightward. The asymmetry in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness between the right and left eyes in healthy subjects has been reported in several studies, and the reason for this structural difference between right and left eyes is unclear. In the manuscript, we hypothesized that the characteristics of ocular dominance are reflected in the RNFL profile and may be related to inter-ocular structural differences between right and left eyes. In this study, ocular dominance occurred mostly in right eyes (right vs. left: 78.77% vs. 21.22%; P<0.001). According to ocular dominance and laterality, different relationships between the inferior and superior RNFLs were observed. The right eyes had a thicker RNFL, except in the superior quadrant, than the left eyes. Regardless of laterality, inferior RNFL was thicker than superior RNFL in the dominant eyes. To our knowledge, this paper is the first report demonstrating the RNFL characteristics associated with ocular dominance. PMID:24240009

Choi, Jin A; Kim, Jung-Sub; Park, Hae-Young Lopilly; Park, Hana; Park, Chan Kee

2014-01-13

150

Advocacy for eye care  

PubMed Central

The effectiveness of eye care service delivery is often dependant on how the different stakeholders are aligned. These stakeholders range from the ministries of health who have the capacity to grant government subsidies for eye care, down to the primary healthcare workers who can be enrolled to screen for basic eye diseases. Advocacy is a tool that can help service providers draw the attention of key stakeholders to a particular area of concern. By enlisting the support, endorsement and participation of a wider circle of players, advocacy can help to improve the penetration and effectiveness of the services provided. There are several factors in the external environmental that influence the eye care services – such as the availability of trained manpower, supply of eye care consumables, government rules and regulations. There are several instances where successful advocacy has helped to create an enabling environment for eye care service delivery. Providing eye care services in developing countries requires the support – either for direct patient care or for support services such as producing trained manpower or for research and dissemination. Such support, in the form of financial or other resources, can be garnered through advocacy.

Ravilla, Thulasiraj D; Ramasamy, Dhivya

2012-01-01

151

Why is allergic eye disease a problem for eye workers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why is allergic eye disease, and vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) in particular, a problem for eye workers and patients in hot climates? A large number of children are affected Over a quarter of 2,250 children seen at a tertiary referral paediatric eye clinic in East Africa had vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Even more came flocking to screening clinics complaining of itchy eyes. This

Anthony Hall

2005-01-01

152

Auditory spatial perception dynamically realigns with changing eye position.  

PubMed

Audition and vision both form spatial maps of the environment in the brain, and their congruency requires alignment and calibration. Because audition is referenced to the head and vision is referenced to movable eyes, the brain must accurately account for eye position to maintain alignment between the two modalities as well as perceptual space constancy. Changes in eye position are known to variably, but inconsistently, shift sound localization, suggesting subtle shortcomings in the accuracy or use of eye position signals. We systematically and directly quantified sound localization across a broad spatial range and over time after changes in eye position. A sustained fixation task addressed the spatial (steady-state) attributes of eye position-dependent effects on sound localization. Subjects continuously fixated visual reference spots straight ahead (center), to the left (20 degrees), or to the right (20 degrees) of the midline in separate sessions while localizing auditory targets using a laser pointer guided by peripheral vision. An alternating fixation task focused on the temporal (dynamic) aspects of auditory spatial shifts after changes in eye position. Localization proceeded as in sustained fixation, except that eye position alternated between the three fixation references over multiple epochs, each lasting minutes. Auditory space shifted by approximately 40% toward the new eye position and dynamically over several minutes. We propose that this spatial shift reflects an adaptation mechanism for aligning the "straight-ahead" of perceived sensory-motor maps, particularly during early childhood when normal ocular alignment is achieved, but also resolving challenges to normal spatial perception throughout life. PMID:17881531

Razavi, Babak; O'Neill, William E; Paige, Gary D

2007-09-19

153

Diabetes - Eye Complications  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... can be prevented or delayed through good diabetes management. When they occur, these diseases can be treated ... as retinopathy, cataract, and glaucoma. Prevention through successful management of diabetes helps prevent and delay these eye ...

154

Eye Injuries at Home  

MedlinePLUS

... Reduced Vision Tearing See all Symptoms > Glasses, Contacts & LASIK Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Eyeglasses IOLs Refractive Surgery & LASIK Sunglasses Living EyeSmart About Ophthalmologists Adults Under 40 ...

155

Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Reduced Vision Tearing See all Symptoms > Glasses, Contacts & LASIK Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Eyeglasses IOLs Refractive Surgery & LASIK Sunglasses Living EyeSmart About Ophthalmologists Adults Under 40 ...

156

What Is Dry Eye?  

MedlinePLUS

... Reduced Vision Tearing See all Symptoms > Glasses, Contacts & LASIK Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Eyeglasses IOLs Refractive Surgery & LASIK Sunglasses Living EyeSmart About Ophthalmologists Adults Under 40 ...

157

Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Reduced Vision Tearing See all Symptoms > Glasses, Contacts & LASIK Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Eyeglasses IOLs Refractive Surgery & LASIK Sunglasses Living EyeSmart About Ophthalmologists Adults Under 40 ...

158

Using Eye Makeup  

MedlinePLUS

... Reduced Vision Tearing See all Symptoms > Glasses, Contacts & LASIK Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Eyeglasses IOLs Refractive Surgery & LASIK Sunglasses Living EyeSmart About Ophthalmologists Adults Under 40 ...

159

Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Reduced Vision Tearing See all Symptoms > Glasses, Contacts & LASIK Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Eyeglasses IOLs Refractive Surgery & LASIK Sunglasses Living EyeSmart About Ophthalmologists Adults Under 40 ...

160

Multimodal eye recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multimodal biometrics use more than one means of biometric identification to achieve higher recognition accuracy, since sometimes a unimodal biometric is not good enough used to do identification and classification. In this paper, we proposed a multimodal eye recognition system, which can obtain both iris and sclera patterns from one color eye image. Gabor filter and 1-D Log-Gabor filter algorithms have been applied as the iris recognition algorithms. In sclera recognition, we introduced automatic sclera segmentation, sclera pattern enhancement, sclera pattern template generation, and sclera pattern matching. We applied kernelbased matching score fusion to improve the performance of the eye recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed eye recognition method can achieve better performance compared to unimodal biometric identification, and the accuracy of our proposed kernel-based matching score fusion method is higher than two classic linear matching score fusion methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).

Zhou, Zhi; Du, Yingzi; Thomas, N. L.; Delp, Edward J., III

2010-04-01

161

Eye Injuries at Work  

MedlinePLUS

... happen in the fields of manufacturing, construction and mining, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. ... Providers EyeWiki contact us sitemap Reproducing text or images from this website is strictly prohibited by US ...

162

Dry eye syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... of dry eyes include: Dry environment or workplace (wind, air conditioning) Sun exposure Smoking or second-hand ... t smoke and avoid second-hand smoke, direct wind, and air conditioning. Use a humidifier, especially in ...

163

Exploring the mammalian sensory space: co-operations and trade-offs among senses.  

PubMed

The evolution of a particular sensory organ is often discussed with no consideration of the roles played by other senses. Here, we treat mammalian vision, olfaction and hearing as an interconnected whole, a three-dimensional sensory space, evolving in response to ecological challenges. Until now, there has been no quantitative method for estimating how much a particular animal invests in its different senses. We propose an anatomical measure based on sensory organ sizes. Dimensions of functional importance are defined and measured, and normalized in relation to animal mass. For 119 taxonomically and ecologically diverse species, we can define the position of the species in a three-dimensional sensory space. Thus, we can ask questions related to possible trade-off vs. co-operation among senses. More generally, our method allows morphologists to identify sensory organ combinations that are characteristic of particular ecological niches. After normalization for animal size, we note that arboreal mammals tend to have larger eyes and smaller noses than terrestrial mammals. On the other hand, we observe a strong correlation between eyes and ears, indicating that co-operation between vision and hearing is a general mammalian feature. For some groups of mammals we note a correlation, and possible co-operation between olfaction and whiskers. PMID:24043357

Nummela, Sirpa; Pihlström, Henry; Puolamäki, Kai; Fortelius, Mikael; Hemilä, Simo; Reuter, Tom

2013-12-01

164

The Draize eye test.  

PubMed

Hundreds of substances are used daily that can damage eyesight. People's eyes are open to accidental or intentional exposure during the production, transportation, use, and disposal of chemical preparations. Ensuring the safety of consumer products was born during the mid twentieth century in the aftermath of chemical warfare research, and was motivated by the hazards of unsafe cosmetics. Justified by an exigency for public protection, the Draize eye test became a governmentally endorsed method to evaluate the safety of materials meant for use in or around the eyes. The test involves a standardized protocol for instilling agents onto the cornea and conjunctiva of laboratory animals. A sum of ordinal-scale items of the outer eye gives an index of ocular morbidity. Advances in ocular toxicology are challenging the validity, precision, relevance, and need of the Draize eye test. Preclinical product-safety tests with rabbits and other mammals also raise ethical concerns of animal wellbeing. Some use the Draize test as a rallying point for how animals are treated in science and industry. A battery of cellular systems and computer models aim to reduce and ultimately to replace whole-animal testing. Molecular measures of ocular toxicity may eventually allow comprehensive screening in humans. The Draize eye test was created and refined for humanitarian reasons and has assuredly prevented harm. Its destiny is to be progressively supplanted as in vitro and clinical alternatives emerge for assessing irritancy of the ocular surface. PMID:11425356

Wilhelmus, K R

2001-01-01

165

Eye Protection in Educational Institutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to help reduce the number of school eye injuries in New Jersey, this document begins with a brief review of existing legislation regarding eye protection in educational institutions and a list of elements essential in an eye safety program. Second, eye protection equipment is examined in terms of: the advantages of safety spectacles over…

New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Div. of Vocational Education.

166

Effects of ocular dominance on contrast sensitivity in middle-aged people.  

PubMed

Purpose. Our aim was to compare contrast sensitivity values of the dominant and nondominant eyes of healthy middle-aged subjects. Material and Methods. Ninety eyes of 45 healthy middle-aged subjects (30 males and 15 females) were included in this study. Patients were aged between 40 and 60 years, having uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) of 20/25 or better (Snellen chart). Ocular dominance was determined by hole-in-the-card test. Functional acuity contrast testing (F.A.C.T.) was measured using the Optec 6500 vision testing system (Stereo Optical Co. Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) under both photopic and mesopic conditions. Results. At all spatial frequencies (1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 18?cpd), under mesopic conditions, the contrast sensitivity values of the dominant eyes were slightly greater than those of the nondominant eyes; but only 18?cpd spatial frequency measurements' difference was statistically significant (P = 0.035). Under photopic conditions, the contrast sensitivity values of the dominant eyes and non-dominant eyes were similar at all spatial frequencies (P > 0.05). Conclusions. The photopic and mesopic contrast sensitivity values of dominant and nondominant eyes of healthy middle-aged people were similar at all spatial frequencies, except at mesopic 18?cpd spatial frequency. PMID:24734197

Pekel, Gökhan; Alagöz, Ne?e; Pekel, Evre; Alagöz, Cengiz; Y?lmaz, Omer Faruk

2014-01-01

167

Effects of Ocular Dominance on Contrast Sensitivity in Middle-Aged People  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Our aim was to compare contrast sensitivity values of the dominant and nondominant eyes of healthy middle-aged subjects. Material and Methods. Ninety eyes of 45 healthy middle-aged subjects (30 males and 15 females) were included in this study. Patients were aged between 40 and 60 years, having uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) of 20/25 or better (Snellen chart). Ocular dominance was determined by hole-in-the-card test. Functional acuity contrast testing (F.A.C.T.) was measured using the Optec 6500 vision testing system (Stereo Optical Co. Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) under both photopic and mesopic conditions. Results. At all spatial frequencies (1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 18?cpd), under mesopic conditions, the contrast sensitivity values of the dominant eyes were slightly greater than those of the nondominant eyes; but only 18?cpd spatial frequency measurements' difference was statistically significant (P = 0.035). Under photopic conditions, the contrast sensitivity values of the dominant eyes and non-dominant eyes were similar at all spatial frequencies (P > 0.05). Conclusions. The photopic and mesopic contrast sensitivity values of dominant and nondominant eyes of healthy middle-aged people were similar at all spatial frequencies, except at mesopic 18?cpd spatial frequency.

Pekel, Gokhan; Alagoz, Nese; Pekel, Evre; Alagoz, Cengiz; Y?lmaz, Omer Faruk

2014-01-01

168

Iron Dominated Magnets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These two lectures on iron dominated magnets are meant for the student of accelerator science and contain general treatments of the subjects design and construction. The material is arranged in the categories: General Concepts and Cost Considerations, Pro...

G. E. Fischer

1985-01-01

169

Some Genes Are Dominant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive activity, adapted from the Dolan DNA Learning Center, illustrates how Gregor Mendel used pure-bred yellow and green peas to show that some genes are dominant and others are recessive.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-04-19

170

Emergence of disparity tuning during the development of vergence eye movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of behavior for the acquisition of sensory representations has been underestimated in the past. We study this question for the task of learning vergence eye movements allowing proper fixation of objects. We model the development of this skill with an artificial neural network based on reinforcement learning. A biologically plausible reward mechanism that is responsible for driving behavior

Arthur Franz; Jochen Triesch

2007-01-01

171

Emergence of Disparity Tuning during the Development of Vergence Eye Movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of behavior for the acquisition of sensory representations has been underestimated in the past. We study this question for the task of learning vergence eye movements allowing proper fixation of objects. We model the development of this skill with an artificial neural network based on rein- forcement learning. A biologically plausible reward mechanism that is responsible for driving

Arthur Franz; Jochen Triesch

2006-01-01

172

T-cell infiltration in autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy  

PubMed Central

Purpose Autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy (ADNIV) is a familial blinding disease of unknown pathophysiology. The eyes and sera from patients with ADNIV were studied to understand the immune response in this condition. Methods The clinical case of an ADNIV patient was reviewed. Eye specimens from two donors with ADNIV were examined with a panel of standard histopathological stains and immunohistochemical markers. These findings were compared to specimens of noninflammatory eye disease. Sera from twelve patients were also tested against retinal protein western blots for the presence of autoretinal antibodies. Results Each of the ADNIV and control eyes showed degenerative features of phthisis bulbi. Immunohistological stains revealed a supraciliary T-cell infiltrate in ADNIV eyes composed of cluster of differentiation-4 (CD4) positive and cluster of differentiation-8 (CD8)-positive cells. No immunoglobulin or B cells were detected in these eyes. Inflammatory cells were absent from the control eyes. No specific autoretinal antibodies were detected in ADNIV sera. Conclusions Aberrant T-cell-mediated processes may underlie ADNIV, and therapeutics directed at T cells may better manage inflammation in these patients. Genes related to T-cell function are high priority screening candidates.

Mahajan, Vinit B.; Vallone, John G.; Lin, Jonathan H.; Mullins, Robert F.; Ko, Audrey C.; Folk, James C.

2010-01-01

173

Perceptual learning modifies untrained pursuit eye movements.  

PubMed

PERCEPTUAL LEARNING IMPROVES DETECTION AND DISCRIMINATION OF RELEVANT VISUAL INFORMATION IN MATURE HUMANS, REVEALING SENSORY PLASTICITY WHETHER VISUAL PERCEPTUAL LEARNING AFFECTS MOTOR RESPONSES IS UNKNOWN HERE WE IMPLEMENTED A PROTOCOL THAT ENABLED US TO ADDRESS THIS QUESTION WE TESTED A PERCEPTUAL RESPONSE MOTION DIRECTION ESTIMATION, IN WHICH OBSERVERS OVERESTIMATE MOTION DIRECTION AWAY FROM A REFERENCE AND A MOTOR RESPONSE VOLUNTARY SMOOTH PURSUIT EYE MOVEMENTS PERCEPTUAL TRAINING LED TO GREATER OVERESTIMATION AND, REMARKABLY, IT MODIFIED UNTRAINED SMOOTH PURSUIT IN CONTRAST, PURSUIT TRAINING DID NOT AFFECT OVERESTIMATION IN EITHER PURSUIT OR PERCEPTION, EVEN THOUGH OBSERVERS IN BOTH TRAINING GROUPS WERE EXPOSED TO THE SAME STIMULI FOR THE SAME TIME PERIOD A SECOND EXPERIMENT REVEALED THAT ESTIMATION TRAINING ALSO IMPROVED DISCRIMINATION, INDICATING THAT OVERESTIMATION MAY OPTIMIZE PERCEPTUAL SENSITIVITY HENCE, ACTIVE PERCEPTUAL TRAINING IS NECESSARY TO ALTER PERCEPTUAL RESPONSES, AND AN ACQUIRED CHANGE IN PERCEPTION SUFFICES TO MODIFY PURSUIT, A MOTOR RESPONSE: PMID:25002412

Szpiro, Sarit F A; Spering, Miriam; Carrasco, Marisa

2014-01-01

174

Perceptual learning modifies untrained pursuit eye movements  

PubMed Central

Perceptual learning improves detection and discrimination of relevant visual information in mature humans, revealing sensory plasticity. Whether visual perceptual learning affects motor responses is unknown. Here we implemented a protocol that enabled us to address this question. We tested a perceptual response (motion direction estimation, in which observers overestimate motion direction away from a reference) and a motor response (voluntary smooth pursuit eye movements). Perceptual training led to greater overestimation and, remarkably, it modified untrained smooth pursuit. In contrast, pursuit training did not affect overestimation in either pursuit or perception, even though observers in both training groups were exposed to the same stimuli for the same time period. A second experiment revealed that estimation training also improved discrimination, indicating that overestimation may optimize perceptual sensitivity. Hence, active perceptual training is necessary to alter perceptual responses, and an acquired change in perception suffices to modify pursuit, a motor response.

Szpiro, Sarit F. A.; Spering, Miriam; Carrasco, Marisa

2014-01-01

175

Reflexive tracking eye movements and motion perception: one or two neural populations?  

PubMed

Motion-sensitive neurons in the middle temporal (MT) and medial superior temporal (MST) areas perform the sensory analysis required for both motion perception and controlling smooth eye movements. The perceptual and oculomotor systems are characterized by high variability, even when responding to identical stimulus repetitions. If a single population of neurons performs the motion analysis driving perception and eye movements, errors in perception and action might show similar direction-dependent biases, or their variability might be correlated across trials. However, previous studies have produced conflicting reports of the presence of significant single-trial correlations between motion perception and the velocity of smooth pursuit, a volitional tracking eye movement. We studied ocular following, a reflexive tracking eye movement, simultaneously measuring eye movement direction and perceived direction of a moving random dot field. Oculomotor errors were largest for near-cardinal directions, providing the first evidence for cardinal repulsion in reflexive eye movements. Biases in perceptual and oculomotor errors were correlated across test directions, but not across single trials with the same direction. Based on the similar direction-dependent anisotropies in eye movements and perception, there is reason to believe that partially overlapping populations of sensory neurons underlie motion perception and oculomotor behaviors, with independent downstream sources of noise masking trial-by-trial correlations between perception and action. PMID:24648193

Blum, Julieanne; Price, Nicholas S C

2014-01-01

176

Sensory Aids for the Blind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problems of providing sensory aids for the blind are presented and a report on the present status of aids discusses direct translation and recognition reading machines as well as mobility aids. Aspects of required research considered are the following: assessment of needs; vision, audition, taction, and multimodal communication; reading aids,…

National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Committee on Prosthetics Research and Development.

177

[Sensory Awareness through Outdoor Education].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for instruction of emotionally handicapped children and youth, these seven articles present concepts and activities relative to sensory awareness and outdoor education. The first article presents definitions, concepts, detailed methodology, and over 50 activities designed to create awareness of man's five senses. Utilizing the art of…

Farquhar, Carin; And Others

178

Sensory Hierarchical Organization and Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to judge the viability of an operational approach aimed at assessing response styles in reading using the hypothesis of sensory hierarchical organization. A sample of 103 middle-class children from a New York City public school, between the ages of five and seven, took part in a three phase experiment. Phase one…

Skapof, Jerome

179

Making Sense of Sensory Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of caregivers requires that they continuously assess the needs and performance of children and provide the support necessary for them to achieve their potential. A thorough understanding of child development, including the role and impact of sensory development, is critical for caregivers to properly evaluate and assist these children.…

Hendrix, Marie

2010-01-01

180

Texture is a sensory property  

Microsoft Academic Search

Realizing that texture is a sensory property gives proper orientation to facets of texture research. Following the breakthrough in the 1960s and 1970s in surfacing the multi-parameter nature of texture and in defining the general principles of texture acceptability, the field has essentially reverted to commodity work. This paper reviews briefly the state of knowledge and points out specific research

Alina Surmacka Szczesniak

2002-01-01

181

Autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy (ADVIRC).  

PubMed Central

We report the second family recognised to have autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy. The clinical features were (1) autosomal dominant inheritance; (2) peripheral, coarse pigmentary degeneration of the fundus for 360 degrees, with a relatively discrete posterior border in the equatorial region (this finding may be pathognomonic); (3) superficial punctate yellowish-white opacities in the retina; (4) various vascular abnormalities; (5) breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier; (6) retinal neovascularisation; (7) vitreous abnormalities; and (8) choroidal atrophy. Visual reduction was mainly due to macular oedema or vitreous haemorrhage. Images

Blair, N P; Goldberg, M F; Fishman, G A; Salzano, T

1984-01-01

182

Sensory exploitation and sexual conflict  

PubMed Central

Much of the literature on male–female coevolution concerns the processes by which male traits and female preferences for these can coevolve and be maintained by selection. There has been less explicit focus on the origin of male traits and female preferences. Here, I argue that it is important to distinguish origin from subsequent coevolution and that insights into the origin can help us appreciate the relative roles of various coevolutionary processes for the evolution of diversity in sexual dimorphism. I delineate four distinct scenarios for the origin of male traits and female preferences that build on past contributions, two of which are based on pre-existing variation in quality indicators among males and two on exploitation of pre-existing sensory biases among females. Recent empirical research, and theoretical models, suggest that origin by sensory exploitation has been widespread. I argue that this points to a key, but perhaps transient, role for sexually antagonistic coevolution (SAC) in the subsequent evolutionary elaboration of sexual traits, because (i) sensory exploitation is often likely to be initially costly for individuals of the exploited sex and (ii) the subsequent evolution of resistance to sensory exploitation should often be associated with costs due to selective constraints. A review of a few case studies is used to illustrate these points. Empirical data directly relevant to the costs of being sensory exploited and the costs of evolving resistance is largely lacking, and I stress that such data would help determining the general importance of sexual conflict and SAC for the evolution of sexual dimorphism.

Arnqvist, Goran

2006-01-01

183

Galileo's eye: a new vision of the senses in the work of Galileo Galilei.  

PubMed

Reflections on the senses, and particularly on vision, permeate the writings of Galileo Galilei, one of the main protagonists of the scientific revolution. This aspect of his work has received scant attention by historians, in spite of its importance for his achievements in astronomy, and also for the significance in the innovative scientific methodology he fostered. Galileo's vision pursued a different path from the main stream of the then contemporary studies in the field; these were concerned with the dioptrics and anatomy of the eye, as elaborated mainly by Johannes Kepler and Christoph Scheiner. Galileo was more concerned with the phenomenology rather than with the mechanisms of the visual process. His general interest in the senses was psychological and philosophical; it reflected the fallacies and limits of the senses and the ways in which scientific knowledge of the world could be gathered from potentially deceptive appearances. Galileo's innovative conception of the relation between the senses and external reality contrasted with the classical tradition dominated by Aristotle; it paved the way for the modern understanding of sensory processing, culminating two centuries later in Johannes Müller's elaboration of the doctrine of specific nerve energies and in Helmholtz's general theory of perception. PMID:18986060

Piccolino, Marco; Wade, Nicholas J

2008-01-01

184

‘One Receptor’ Rules in Sensory Neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the recent explosion in the characterization of different sensory systems, a general rule is emerging: only one type of sensory receptor molecule is expressed per receptor neuron. The visual system is no exception and, in most cases, photoreceptors express only one visual pigment per cell. However, the mechanisms underlying the exclusion of sensory receptors are poorly understood. As expression

Esteban O. Mazzoni; Claude Desplan; Arzu Çelik

2004-01-01

185

USE OF SENSORY EVOKED POTENTIALS IN TOXICOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The rationale for studying sensory systems as an integral part of neurotoxicological examinations is presented. The role of evoked potentials in assessing brain dysfunction in general and sensory systems in particular is also presented. Four types of sensory evoked potentials (br...

186

Sensory and consumer testing with children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many foods and beverages are developed specifically for children, and must be tested with children. Sensory or consumer tests for children must take into account the range of sensory and cognitive abilities of children from infancy to teen age. This review examines what type of sensory or consumer test may be conducted with children, at what age and for what

Jean-Xavier Guinard

2000-01-01

187

Molecular restrictions for human eye irritation by chemical vapors  

SciTech Connect

Previous research showed a cut-off along homologous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in their ability to produce acute human mucosal irritation. The present study sought to specify the particular cut-off homolog for sensory eye irritation in an acetate and n-alcohol series. A 1900-ml glass vessel system and a three-alternative forced-choice procedure served to test nonyl, decyl, and dodecyl acetate, and 1-nonanol, 1-decanol, and 1-undecanol. Flowrate to the eye ranged from 2 to 8 L/min and time of exposure from 3 to 24 s. Decyl acetate and 1-undecanol were the shortest homologs that failed to produce eye irritation under all conditions, producing a cut-off effect. Increasing the vapor concentration of decyl acetate and 1-undecanol by 3 and 8 times, respectively, via heating them to 37 deg C made either or both VOCs detectable to only half of the 12 subjects tested, even though the higher vapor concentration was well above a predicted eye irritation threshold. When eye irritation thresholds for homologous acetates and n-alcohols were plotted as a function of the longest unfolded length of the molecule, the values for decyl acetate and 1-undecanol fell within a restricted range of 18 to 19 A. The outcome suggests that the basis for the cut-off is biological, that is, the molecule lacks a key size or structure to trigger transduction, rather than physical, that is, the vapor concentration is too low to precipitate detection.

Cometto-Muniz, J. Enrique [Chemosensory Perception Laboratory, Department of Surgery (Otolaryngology), 9500 Gilman Dr.-Mail Code 0957, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0957 (United States)]. E-mail: ecometto@ucsd.edu; Cain, William S. [Chemosensory Perception Laboratory, Department of Surgery (Otolaryngology), 9500 Gilman Dr.-Mail Code 0957, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0957 (United States); Abraham, Michael H. [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)

2005-09-15

188

Iron dominated magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

These two lectures on iron dominated magnets are meant for the student of accelerator science and contain general treatments of magnet design and construction. The areas covered are general concepts and cost considerations, profile configuration and harmonics, magnetic measurements, a few examples of ‘‘special magnets,’’ and materials and practices. An extensive list of references is provided.

G. E. Fischer

1987-01-01

189

Iron dominated magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

These two lectures on iron dominated magnets are meant for the student of accelerator science and contain general treatments of magnet design and construction. The areas covered are general concepts and cost considerations, profile configuration and harmonics, magnetic measurements, a few examples of ``special magnets,'' and materials and practices. An extensive list of references is provided.

G. E. Fischer

1987-01-01

190

Iron dominated magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

These two lectures on iron dominated magnets are meant for the student of accelerator science and contain general treatments of the subjects design and construction. The material is arranged in the categories: General Concepts and Cost Considerations, Profile Configuration and Harmonics, Magnetic Measurements, a few examples of special magnets and Materials and Practices. Extensive literature is provided.

G. E. Fischer

1985-01-01

191

Convection dominated problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper surveys the last ten years of activity of the INME Swansea, dealing with problems of convection dominated flow. The basic explicit/implicit characteristic Galerkin process and its application to adaptive mesh refinement used in the solution of realistic problems is focused on.

Peraire, J.; Morgan, K.; Zienkiewicz, O. C.

1986-01-01

192

Apical Dominance in Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a tentative hypothesis for the control of plant branching (apical dominance). Explores the mechanism by which apical buds inhibit the growth of axillary buds on the same shoot. Presents an up-to-date picture of the problem and gives economic implications of the study. (BR)

Tucker, D. J.

1974-01-01

193

Iron dominated magnets  

SciTech Connect

These two lectures on iron dominated magnets are meant for the student of accelerator science and contain general treatments of the subjects design and construction. The material is arranged in the categories: General Concepts and Cost Considerations, Profile Configuration and Harmonics, Magnetic Measurements, a few examples of ''special magnets'' and Materials and Practices. Extensive literature is provided.

Fischer, G.E.

1985-07-01

194

The Draize Eye Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hundreds of substances are used daily that can damage eyesight. People's eyes are open to accidental or intentional exposure during the production, transportation, use, and disposal of chemical preparations. Ensuring the safety of consumer products was born during the mid twentieth century in the aftermath of chemical warfare research, and was motivated by the hazards of unsafe cosmetics. Justified by

Kirk R Wilhelmus

2001-01-01

195

Eye of the Beholder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Art, like beauty, as the adage goes, is in the eye of the beholder. Art also is a living, breathing thing that evolves over time, so what is considered "art" is ever changing--how many of the great artists whose works today sell for fortunes were failures during their lifetime? The 20th century unknowingly gave birth to new variations of art that…

Rogers, Michael

2010-01-01

196

Through Our Eyes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through Our Eyes was a multimedia performance created in collaboration with the author's five modern dance students. Through video, sound, and dance, the piece shows some ways race has affected their lives. The author did not set out at the beginning of the semester to make this project in her dance class. It was born out of a hard conversation,…

Narva, Sara

2009-01-01

197

Are Eyes ever Autophanous?  

Microsoft Academic Search

COLONEL HERSCHEL'S letter in NATURE of January 18, followed by that of Mr. Hunt, have no doubt interested others besides myself. I do not think that there is any reason to suppose that any animal's eyes are ``autophanous, '' however general the belief to the contrary may be among those not given to accurate observation. I can add to the

C. V. Boys

1912-01-01

198

Administering Eye Medications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on administering eye medications is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. A brief discussion follows of…

Morris, Sara; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

199

Pursuit Eye Movements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When viewing objects, primates use a combination of saccadic and pursuit eye movements to stabilize the retinal image of the object of regard within the high-acuity region near the fovea. Although these movements involve widespread regions of the nervous system, they mix seamlessly in normal behavior. Saccades are discrete movements that quickly direct the eyes toward a visual target, thereby translating the image of the target from an eccentric retinal location to the fovea. In contrast, pursuit is a continuous movement that slowly rotates the eyes to compensate for the motion of the visual target, minimizing the blur that can compromise visual acuity. While other mammalian species can generate smooth optokinetic eye movements - which track the motion of the entire visual surround - only primates can smoothly pursue a single small element within a complex visual scene, regardless of the motion elsewhere on the retina. This ability likely reflects the greater ability of primates to segment the visual scene, to identify individual visual objects, and to select a target of interest.

Krauzlis, Rich; Stone, Leland; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

200

Airbags and Eye Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although airbags measurably reduce the overall risk of injury to adults (including eye injury), and death from motor vehicle accidents, injuries attributed to airbag deployment have been reported. To identify reported cases of ocular trauma related to airbag deployment, a MEDLINE search from 1991 to 2000 was performed. A total of 263 injuries in 101 patients were identified. Patient demographics,

Joel A Pearlman; K. G. Au Eong; Ferenc Kuhn; Dante J Pieramici

2001-01-01

201

Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns  

MedlinePLUS

... required by state law to put drops or ointment in a newborn's eyes to prevent disease. In ... To treat infection, topical antibiotic eye drops and ointments, oral antibiotics, and intravenous (given through a vein) ...

202

Simple Solutions for Dry Eye  

MedlinePLUS

... are more concentrated in the tear film of dry eye patients. In hot weather, sleep with the windows shut and keep cool with air conditioning. • Dry eye patients often develop or aggravate allergies. An ...

203

Protecting Your Eyes at Work  

MedlinePLUS

... significantly more eye protection. They have lenses and frames that are much stronger than regular eyeglasses. Safety ... for the Z87 mark on the lens or frame. Safety glasses provide eye protection for general working ...

204

Eye Bank Association of America  

MedlinePLUS

... to content Skip to Navigation Find an Eye Bank Near You MEMBER LOGIN ALERT (April 11, 2014): ... is the nationally-recognized accrediting body for eye banks. Since 1961, EBAA member banks have restored sight ...

205

[Molecular mechanisms of TRP channels in mechano-sensory transduction].  

PubMed

Channels from the TRP superfamily have essential roles in a wide variety of sensory transductions, especially in mechano-sensation, such as hearing, touch and mechanical pain. TRP channels are also implicated in major channelopathies, including deafness, chronic pain, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and ventricular hypertrophy. As the leading candidates for mechano-sensitive channels, some TRP channels appear to be mechano-receptor, which can be activated by mechanical forces directly, such as C. elegans TRPN homolog TRP-4; whereas others may act as signal modulators, receiving and amplifying signals indirectly. This review is to introduce the function of TRPs in mechano-sensory transduction and to discuss the underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:22499524

Zou, Wen-juan; Huang, Gui-fang; Kang, Li-jun

2012-03-01

206

LIMNOLOGICAL OPTOMETRY: EXAMINING EARTH'S EYE  

EPA Science Inventory

In Thoreau's Walden, a lake is described as the landscape's most expressive feature and the earth's eye. Collectively, scientists are charged by society to assess, monitor, and remedy maladies of earth's eye in the same way optometrists maintain the health of the human eye. This ...

207

Cyclodextrins in Eye Drop Formulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ideally, eye drop formulations are aqueous solutions. Many drugs that are useful in topical application to the eye are not sufficiently water soluble to be dissolved in simple aqueous solutions. This problem is approached through hydrophilic prodrugs, suspensions, lipid based solutions and excipients such as cyclodextrins. Cyclodextrins can be used to form aqueous eye drop solutions with lipophilic drugs, such

Einar Stefánsson; Thorsteinn Loftsson

2002-01-01

208

Reconstructing the eyes of Urbilateria.  

PubMed Central

The shared roles of Pax6 and Six homologues in the eye development of various bilaterians suggest that Urbilateria, the common ancestors of all Bilateria, already possessed some simple form of eyes. Here, we re-address the homology of bilaterian cerebral eyes at the level of eye anatomy, of eye-constituting cell types and of phototransductory molecules. The most widespread eye type found in Bilateria are the larval pigment-cup eyes located to the left and right of the apical organ in primary, ciliary larvae of Protostomia and Deuterostomia. They can be as simple as comprising a single pigment cell and a single photoreceptor cell in inverse orientation. Another more elaborate type of cerebral pigment-cup eyes with an everse arrangement of photoreceptor cells is found in adult Protostomia. Both inverse larval and everse adult eyes employ rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells and thus differ from the chordate cerebral eyes with ciliary photoreceptors. This is highly significant because on the molecular level we find that for phototransduction rhabdomeric versus ciliary photoreceptor cells employ divergent rhodopsins and non-orthologous G-proteins, rhodopsin kinases and arrestins. Our comparison supports homology of cerebral eyes in Protostomia; it challenges, however, homology of chordate and non-chordate cerebral eyes that employ photoreceptor cells with non-orthologous phototransductory cascades.

Arendt, D; Wittbrodt, J

2001-01-01

209

ADAPTIVE EYE MODEL - Poster Paper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose experimental adaptive eye model based on flexible 18-electrode bimorph mirror reproducing human eye aberrations up to 4th radial order of Zernike polynomials at frequency of 10Hz. The accuracy of aberrations reproduction in most cases is better than ?/10 RMS. The model is introduced to aberrometer for human eye aberrations compensation to improve visual acuity test.

Galetskiy, Sergey O.; Kudryashov, Alexey V.

2008-01-01

210

Experiments on a Model Eye  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains a laboratory experiment dealing with the optical features of the human eye. Shows how to measure the magnification of the retina and the refractive anomaly of the eye could be used to measure the refractive power of the observer's eye. (GA)

Arell, Antti; Kolari, Samuli

1978-01-01

211

Biomedical Devices for the Eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students examine the structure and function of the human eye, learning some amazing features about our eyes, which provide us with sight and an understanding of our surroundings. Students also learn about some common eye problems and the biomedical devices and medical procedures that resolve or help to lessen the effects of these vision deficiencies, including vision correction surgery.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

212

Tourist Town: Dominating Sets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use a fictitious map of "Tourist Town" and counters to problem solve how to place ice-cream vans on street intersections so that every other intersection is connected to one that has a van on it. Use this activity to introduce learners to computer science themes including nodes, dominating sets, exponential-time algorithms, polynomial-time algorithms, and NP-complete problems. Variations, extensions, background information, and solutions are included in the PDF.

Bell, Tim; Witten, Ian; Fellows, Mike

1998-01-01

213

Attentional enhancement via selection and pooling of early sensory responses in human visual cortex  

PubMed Central

Summary To characterize the computational processes by which attention improves behavioral performance, we measured activity in visual cortex with functional magnetic resonance imaging as humans performed a contrast-discrimination task with focal and distributed attention. Focal attention yielded robust improvements in behavioral performance that were accompanied by increases in cortical responses. Using a quantitative analysis, we determined that if performance were limited only by the sensitivity of the measured sensory signals, the improvements in behavioral performance would have corresponded to an unrealistically large (approximately 400%) reduction in response variability. Instead, behavioral performance was well characterized by a pooling and selection process for which the largest sensory responses, those most strongly modulated by attention, dominated the perceptual decision. This characterization predicts that high contrast distracters that evoke large sensory responses should have a negative impact on behavioral performance. We tested and confirmed this prediction. We conclude that attention enhanced behavioral performance predominantly by enabling efficient selection of the behaviorally relevant sensory signals.

Pestilli, Franco; Carrasco, Marisa; Heeger, David J.; Gardner, Justin L.

2011-01-01

214

Lymphocyte infiltration in CAPN5 autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe immunohistopathological findings in autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy (ADNIV). Methods An enucleated eye specimen from a patient with Stage V ADNIV was examined using standard histopathological methods and lymphocyte markers. Results A c.731T>C CAPN5 mutation resulted in a p.Leu244Pro substitution in calpain-5. The eye showed exudative retinal detachment and neovascularization, intraocular fibrosis, and features of phthisis bulbi. Chronic inflammatory CD3-positive cell infiltrates were identified throughout the uvea, vitreous and retina, consistent with chronic uveitis. Conclusion Mutations in CAPN5 trigger autoimmune uveitis characterized by inflammatory T-cells and severe neovascularization.

Mahajan, Vinit B; Lin, Jonathan H

2013-01-01

215

Morphology of Electroreceptive Sensory Organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphology of electroreceptive organs in lampreys and their larvae, different fishes, aquatic amphibians, and monotreme\\u000a mammals is described. The sense organs vary from superficial end buds in lampreys, to ampullary organs and tuberous organs\\u000a in many fishes and amphibians, to specialized mucous glands in the monotremes. The sensory cells are quite different. Some\\u000a have a bundle of apical microvilli,

Jørgen Mørup Jørgensen

216

Evolution of Sensory Hair Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The ears of all vertebrate species use sensory hair cells (Fig. 3.1) to convert mechanical energy to electrical signals compatible with the nervous system. However, although the basic structure\\u000a of hair cells is ubiquitous among the vertebrates and hair cells are also found in the lateral line of fishes and aquatic\\u000a amphibians, a growing body of literature has demonstrated considerable

Allison Coffin; Matthew Kelley; Geoffrey A. Manley; Arthur N. Popper

217

VESTA Viticulture Course: Sensory Evaluation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from the Viticulture and Enology Science and Technology Alliance, offers presentations and slides from the lectures of VIN 266: Sensory Evaluation. From the presenter, Ray Johnson, the three lectures included are: Enhancing Winetasting: Decanting, Enhancing Winetasting: Glassware, and Winetasting Methodology Basic Techniques. Users must have Microsoft's Silverlight installed to view the presentations, which vary in length from about 6 minutes to 16 minutes.

2010-11-09

218

Sensory Augmentation for the Blind  

PubMed Central

Common navigational aids used by blind travelers during large-scale navigation divert attention away from important cues of the immediate environment (i.e., approaching vehicles). Sensory augmentation devices, relying on principles similar to those at work in sensory substitution, can potentially bypass the bottleneck of attention through sub-cognitive implementation of a set of rules coupling motor actions with sensory stimulation. We provide a late blind subject with a vibrotactile belt that continually signals the direction of magnetic north. The subject completed a set of behavioral tests before and after an extended training period. The tests were complemented by questionnaires and interviews. This newly supplied information improved performance on different time scales. In a pointing task we demonstrate an instant improvement of performance based on the signal provided by the device. Furthermore, the signal was helpful in relevant daily tasks, often complicated for the blind, such as keeping a direction over longer distances or taking shortcuts in familiar environments. A homing task with an additional attentional load demonstrated a significant improvement after training. The subject found the directional information highly expedient for the adjustment of his inner maps of familiar environments and describes an increase in his feeling of security when exploring unfamiliar environments with the belt. The results give evidence for a firm integration of the newly supplied signals into the behavior of this late blind subject with better navigational performance and more courageous behavior in unfamiliar environments. Most importantly, the complementary information provided by the belt lead to a positive emotional impact with enhanced feeling of security. The present experimental approach demonstrates the positive potential of sensory augmentation devices for the help of handicapped people.

Karcher, Silke M.; Fenzlaff, Sandra; Hartmann, Daniela; Nagel, Saskia K.; Konig, Peter

2012-01-01

219

Introduction to Symptoms of Eye Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals ... the Eyes Vision Loss, Sudden Other Eye Symptoms Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Eye Disorders > Symptoms of Eye ...

220

Eye blink detection based on eye contour extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eye blink detection is one of the important problems in computer vision. It has many applications such as face live detection and driver fatigue analysis. The existing methods towards eye blink detection can be roughly divided into two categories: contour template based and appearance based methods. The former one usually can extract eye contours accurately. However, different templates should be involved for the closed and open eyes separately. These methods are also sensitive to illumination changes. In the appearance based methods, image patches of open-eyes and closed-eyes are collected as positive and negative samples to learn a classifier, but eye contours can not be accurately extracted. To overcome drawbacks of the existing methods, this paper proposes an effective eye blink detection method based on an improved eye contour extraction technique. In our method, eye contour model is represented by 16 landmarks therefore it can describe both open and closed eyes. Each landmark is accurately recognized by fast classifier which is trained from the appearance around this landmark. Experiments have been conducted on YALE and another large data set consisting of frontal face images to extract the eye contour. The experimental results show that the proposed method is capable of affording accurate eye location and robust in closed eye condition. It also performs well in the case of illumination variants. The average time cost of our method is about 140ms on Pentium IV 2.8GHz PC 1G RAM, which satisfies the real-time requirement for face video sequences. This method is also applied in a face live detection system and the results are promising.

Wang, Liting; Ding, Xiaoqing; Fang, Chi; Liu, Changsong; Wang, Kongqiao

2009-02-01

221

Development of Metallic Sensory Alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Existing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are inherently limited by the physical response of the structural material being inspected and are therefore not generally effective at the identification of small discontinuities, making the detection of incipient damage extremely difficult. One innovative solution to this problem is to enhance or complement the NDE signature of structural materials to dramatically improve the ability of existing NDE tools to detect damage. To address this need, a multifunctional metallic material has been developed that can be used in structural applications. The material is processed to contain second phase sensory particles that significantly improve the NDE response, enhancing the ability of conventional NDE techniques to detect incipient damage both during and after flight. Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloys (FSMAs) are an ideal material for these sensory particles as they undergo a uniform and repeatable change in both magnetic properties and crystallographic structure (martensitic transformation) when subjected to strain and/or temperature changes which can be detected using conventional NDE techniques. In this study, the use of a ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) as the sensory particles was investigated.

Wallace Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Horne, Michael R.; Messick, Peter L.

2010-01-01

222

Eye movement abnormalities.  

PubMed

Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem. PMID:22377853

Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

2012-01-01

223

Coevolution of visual signals and eye morphology in Polistes paper wasps.  

PubMed

To be effective, signals must propagate through the environment and be detected by receivers. As a result, signal form evolves in response to both the constraints imposed by the transmission environment and receiver perceptual abilities. Little work has examined the extent to which signals may act as selective forces on receiver sensory systems to improve the efficacy of communication. If receivers benefit from accurate signal assessment, selection could favour sensory organs that improve discrimination of established signals. Here, we provide evidence that visual resolution coevolves with visual signals in Polistes wasps. Multiple Polistes species have variable facial patterns that function as social signals, whereas other species lack visual signals. Analysis of 19 Polistes species shows that maximum eye facet size is positively associated with both eye size and presence of visual signals. Relatively larger facets within the eye's acute zone improve resolution of small images, such as wasp facial signals. Therefore, sensory systems may evolve to optimize signal assessment. Sensory adaptations to facilitate signal detection may represent an overlooked area of the evolution of animal communication. PMID:24789142

Sheehan, Michael J; Jinn, Judy; Tibbetts, Elizabeth A

2014-01-01

224

Ophthalmologist in patients' eyes.  

PubMed

It seems that patient's knowledge about ophthalmologist's work is very insufficient, especially about what type of examination should be undertaken for refraction condition during the "simple" eye check-up and which serious systemic diseases could be discovered thorough eye examinations. The aim of the study was to determine patients' knowledge about ophthalmologist examinations during the check-up for refraction condition, knowledge about differences between ophthalmologists and opticians, main sources of patients' ophthalmologic cognition and the main reasons for coming to special locations. Patients (311) were examined by applying the questionnaire, immediately before the eye check-up at three various refraction units. Statistical analysis used Chi-square test and test of significance between proportions, except for patients' age where Student t-test was used. Differences were statistically significant at p = 0.05. The findings show that the patients' knowledge about eye examination during the check-ups for refraction abnormalities was not satisfactory. Twenty-two percent (22%) of examined patients did not know the differences between ophthalmologists and opticians and 16% believed that after computer testing of refraction further ophthalmologic examinations were not necessary. The main sources of medical cognition were the mass media while twenty percent (20%) of the participating patients named doctor's lectures as the source of their cognition. This study revealed that a lot of work needs to be done to improve patients' education and indirectly for better screening of very serious systemic diseases and blind threatening diseases which could be discovered during the first visit for spectacle prescription. PMID:16193684

Derk, Biljana Andrijevi?; Dapi?, Natasa Kovac; Milinkovi?, Branko; Loncar, Valentina Lacmanovi?; Miji?, Vesna

2005-01-01

225

Eye in the Sky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Geographic website highlights the history and use of satellites and remote-sensing technology to determine the state of the planet. A timeline covers the history of satellites from 1858 to 2000, including both accomplishments and failures. The Eye contains slide shows and images from satellites covering the topics of volcanoes, tornadoes, hurricanes, wildfires, earthquakes, floods, dams, ozone, deforestation, desertification, overpopulation, exploration of space, and human conflict. A section on classroom ideas provides activities for K-12 classrooms.

226

Hypertension and the eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to being the chief cause of death in developed countries, systemic hypertension is also a leading cause of visual\\u000a impairment. The eye is an end arteriolar system and is therefore susceptible to changes in blood pressure. It is also the\\u000a only place where blood vessels can be clearly viewed by noninvasive techniques. This paper reviews current research into

James S. Wolffsohn; Peter G. Hurcomb

2002-01-01

227

Perceptual dominance during binocular rivalry is prolonged by a dynamic surround.  

PubMed

We examined whether dynamic stimulation that surrounds a rival target influences perceptual alternations during binocular rivalry. We presented a rival target surrounded by dynamic random-dot patterns to both eyes, and measured dominance durations for each eye's rival target. We found that rival target dominance durations were longer when surrounds were dynamic than when they were static or absent. Additionally, prolonged dominance durations were more apparent when the dynamic surround was alternately presented between the two eyes than when it was presented simultaneously to both eyes. These results indicate that dynamic stimulation that surrounds a rival target plays a role in maintaining the current perceptual state, and causes less perceptual alternations during binocular rivalry. Our findings suggest that dynamic signals on the retina may suppress rivalry, and thus provide useful information for stabilizing perceptions in daily life. PMID:24041849

Takase, Shinji; Yukumatsu, Shinji; Bingushi, Kazuo

2013-11-01

228

Eye preferences in captive chimpanzees.  

PubMed

Over the last century, the issue of brain lateralization in primates has been extensively investigated and debated, yet no previous study has reported eye preference in great apes. This study examined eye preference in 45 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in response to various stimuli. Eye preference was assessed when animals looked through a hole that only accommodated one eye at an empty box, a mirror, a picture of a dog, a rubber snake, food biscuits, bananas, a rubber duck, and a video camera. Main effects of stimulus type were found for direction of eye preference, number of looks, and looking duration, but not for strength of eye preference. A left-eye bias was found for viewing the rubber snake and a right-eye bias was found for viewing the bananas, supporting theories that emotional valence may affect lateralized behaviors. In addition, a significant shift in eye preference took place from the initial look to subsequent looks when viewing the snake. These results are not consistent with previous reports of human eye preference and may reflect lateralization differences for emotional processing. No relationship between eye preference and previously recorded hand preference was found. PMID:22733385

Braccini, Stephanie N; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Fitch, W Tecumseh

2012-09-01

229

On Homology of Arthropod Compound Eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNOPSIS. Eyes serve as models to understand the evolution of complex traits, with broad implications for the origins of evolutionary novelty. Discussions of eye evolution are relevant at many taxonomic levels, especially within arthropods where compound eye distribution is perplexing. Either compound eyes were lost numerous times or very similar eyes evolved separately in multiple lineages. Arthropod compound eye homology

TODD H. OAKLEY

2003-01-01

230

Characteristics of bilateral hand function in individuals with unilateral dystonia due to perinatal stroke: sensory and motor aspects.  

PubMed

The authors assessed bilateral motor and sensory function in individuals with upper limb dystonia due to unilateral perinatal stroke and explored interrelationships of motor function and sensory ability. Reach kinematics and tactile sensation were measured in 7 participants with dystonia and 9 healthy volunteers. The dystonia group had poorer motor (hold time, reach time, shoulder/elbow correlation) and sensory (spatial discrimination, stereognosis) outcomes than the control group on the nondominant side. On the dominant side, only sensation (spatial discrimination, stereognosis) was poorer in the dystonia group compared with the control group. In the dystonia group, although sensory and motor outcomes were uncorrelated, dystonia severity was related to poorer stereognosis, longer hold and reach times, and decreased shoulder/elbow coordination. Findings of bilateral sensory deficits in dystonia can be explained by neural reorganization. Visual compensation for somatosensory changes in the nonstroke hemisphere may explain the lack of bilateral impairments in reaching. PMID:24396131

de Campos, Ana Carolina; Kukke, Sahana N; Hallett, Mark; Alter, Katharine E; Damiano, Diane L

2014-05-01

231

Somnolence, Akinesia, and Sensory Activation of Motivated Behavior in the Lateral Hypothalamic Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

After lateral hypothalamic damage in rats, somnolence, akinesia, and sensory neglect combine to produce complete aphagia. Only simple automatisms (such as grooming, chewing, licking) are present, but intense stimuli can activate more complex actions (walking, orientation, swimming). In the anorexic stage, tactile stimuli dominate in steering locomotion and ``spontaneous'' locomotion depends on activation from the empty stomach.

David R. Levitt; Philip Teitelbaum

1975-01-01

232

A wire length minimization approach to ocular dominance patterns in mammalian visual cortex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary visual area (V1) of the mammalian brain is a thin sheet of neurons. Because each neuron is dominated by either right or left eye one can treat V1 as a binary mixture of neurons. The spatial arrangement of neurons dominated by different eyes is known as the ocular dominance (OD) pattern. We propose a theory for OD patterns based on the premise that they are evolutionary adaptations to minimize the length of intra-cortical connections. Thus, the existing OD patterns are obtained by solving a wire length minimization problem. We divide all the neurons into two classes: right- and left-eye dominated. We find that if the number of connections of each neuron with the neurons of the same class differs from that with the other class, the segregation of neurons into monocular regions indeed reduces the wire length. The shape of the regions depends on the relative number of neurons in the two classes. If both classes are equally represented we find that the optimal OD pattern consists of alternating stripes. If one class is less numerous than the other, the optimal OD pattern consists of patches of the underrepresented (ipsilateral) eye dominated neurons surrounded by the neurons of the other class. We predict the transition from stripes to patches when the fraction of neurons dominated by the ipsilateral eye is about 40%. This prediction agrees with the data in macaque and Cebus monkeys. Our theory can be applied to other binary cortical systems.

Chklovskii, Dmitri B.; Koulakov, Alexei A.

2000-09-01

233

ECEM (Eye Closure, Eye Movements): application to depersonalization disorder.  

PubMed

Eye Closure, Eye Movements (ECEM) is a hypnotically-based approach to treatment that incorporates eye movements adapted from the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) protocol in conjunction with hypnosis for the treatment of depersonalization disorder. Depersonalization Disorder has been differentiated from post-traumatic stress disorders and has recently been conceptualized as a subtype of panic disorder (Baker et al., 2003; David, Phillips, Medford, & Sierra, 2004; Segui et. al., 2000). During ECEM, while remaining in a hypnotic state, clients self-generated six to seven trials of eye movements to reduce anticipatory anxiety associated with depersonalization disorder. Eye movements were also used to process triggers that elicited breath holding, often followed by episodes of depersonalization. Hypnotic suggestions were used to reverse core symptoms of depersonalization, subjectively described as "feeling unreal" (Simeon et al., 1997). PMID:19862896

Harriet, E Hollander

2009-10-01

234

Food Intake Is Influenced by Sensory Sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Wide availability of highly palatable foods is often blamed for the rising incidence of obesity. As palatability is largely determined by the sensory properties of food, this study investigated how sensitivity to these properties affects how much we eat. Forty females were classified as either high or low in sensory sensitivity based on their scores on a self-report measure of sensory processing (the Adult Sensory Profile), and their intake of chocolate during the experiment was measured. Food intake was significantly higher for high-sensitivity compared to low-sensitivity individuals. Furthermore, individual scores of sensory sensitivity were positively correlated with self-reported emotional eating. These data could indicate that individuals who are more sensitive to the sensory properties of food have a heightened perception of palatability, which, in turn, leads to a greater food intake.

Naish, Katherine R.; Harris, Gillian

2012-01-01

235

Culture of Mouse Olfactory Sensory Neurons  

PubMed Central

Olfactory sensory neurons, located in the nasal epithelium, detect and transmit odorant information to the central nervous system. This requires that these neurons form specific neuronal connections within the olfactory bulb and express receptors and signaling molecules specific for these functions. This protocol describes a primary olfactory sensory neuron culture technique that allows in vitro investigation of olfactory sensory neuron differentiation, axon outgrowth, odorant receptor expression and function. Olfactory epithelium is obtained from the nasal cavity and enzymatically treated to reduce stroma tissue. Dissociated olfactory sensory neurons are cultured directly on a layer of cortical astrocytes to support their survival. Using this method, cultured olfactory sensory neurons maintain their bipolar morphology and express odorant signal transduction molecules which are specific for olfactory sensory neurons.

Gong, Qizhi

2012-01-01

236

The evolution of fidelity in sensory systems.  

PubMed

We investigate the effect that noise has on the evolution of measurement strategies and competition in populations of organisms with sensory systems of differing fidelities. We address two questions motivated by experimental and theoretical work on sensory systems in noisy environments: (1) How complex must a sensory system be in order to face the need to develop adaptive measurement strategies that change depending on the noise level? (2) Does the principle of competitive exclusion for sensory systems force one population to win out over all others? We find that the answer to the first question is that even very simple sensory systems will need to change measurement strategies depending on the amount of noise in the environment. Interestingly, the answer to the second question is that, in general, at most two populations with different fidelity sensory systems may co-exist within a single environment. PMID:18407294

Sornborger, Andrew T; Adams, Malcolm R

2008-07-01

237

Exclusion of serine palmitoyltransferase long chain base subunit 2 ( SPTLC2) as a common cause for hereditary sensory neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently point mutations in the SPTLC1 subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase have been shown to cause the common form of dominant hereditary sensory neuropathy (HSN1). Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) is a heterodimeric molecule made up of two subunits, SPTLC1 and SPTLC2. Twelve index patients from families with presumed genetic sensory neuropathies were screened for SPTLC2 mutations. These families comprised six multigenerational families,

Jennifer L Dawkins; Sonal Brahmbhatt; Michaela Auer-Grumbach; Klaus Wagner; Hans-Peter Hartung; Kristien Verhoeven; Vincent Timmerman; Peter De Jonghe; Marina Kennerson; Eric LeGuern; Garth A Nicholson

2002-01-01

238

A general equation for sensory magnitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the majority of experiments on sensory response, S. S. Stevens’s power law provides a satisfactory description of the\\u000a relationship between stimulus and sensory magnitudes. In its original form, it has proved to be inaccurate near the absolute\\u000a threshold, when the sense organ is not in a neutral state of adaptation, when sensory noise is present, or when the sense

William H. Atkinson; S. S. Stevens

1982-01-01

239

Idiopathic trigeminal sensory neuropathy. A case report.  

PubMed

Idiopathic trigeminal sensory neuropathy is a rare clinical condition characterized by sensory disturbances on the face. Its symptoms may be permanent or temporary and a wide variety of diagnostic procedures is usually required to establish the diagnosis. Frequently, it is the first manifestation of a systemic disorder. In the majority of cases causal treatment is not possible, even though patients with trigeminal sensory neuropathy should be carefully monitored by physicians. PMID:24166572

Szczudlik, P; Kierdaszuk, B; Bako?, L; Maj, E; Kami?ska, A

2013-01-01

240

Sensory changes after tongue reduction for macroglossia.  

PubMed

We report sensory changes after tongue reduction by the Harada-Enomoto method for macroglossia in a 20-year-old woman with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Sensory tests were performed before surgery and 1 week and 2 months after surgery. We assessed the static tactile threshold, vibration sense, static 2-point discrimination, pain threshold, and taste. No sensory loss of any category tested was observed after tongue reduction. PMID:22901656

Matsumoto, Kanako; Morita, Kei-Ichi; Jinno, Shigeharu; Omura, Ken

2014-01-01

241

Sensory Motor Coordination in Robonaut  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a participant of the year 2000 NASA Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, I worked with the engineers of the Dexterous Robotics Laboratory at NASA Johnson Space Center on the Robonaut project. The Robonaut is an articulated torso with two dexterous arms, left and right five-fingered hands, and a head with cameras mounted on an articulated neck. This advanced space robot, now driven only teleoperatively using VR gloves, sensors and helmets, is to be upgraded to a thinking system that can find, interact with and assist humans autonomously, allowing the Crew to work with Robonaut as a (junior) member of their team. Thus, the work performed this summer was toward the goal of enabling Robonaut to operate autonomously as an intelligent assistant to astronauts. Our underlying hypothesis is that a robot can develop intelligence if it learns a set of basic behaviors (i.e., reflexes - actions tightly coupled to sensing) and through experience learns how to sequence these to solve problems or to accomplish higher-level tasks. We describe our approach to the automatic acquisition of basic behaviors as learning sensory-motor coordination (SMC). Although research in the ontogenesis of animals development from the time of conception) supports the approach of learning SMC as the foundation for intelligent, autonomous behavior, we do not know whether it will prove viable for the development of autonomy in robots. The first step in testing the hypothesis is to determine if SMC can be learned by the robot. To do this, we have taken advantage of Robonaut's teleoperated control system. When a person teleoperates Robonaut, the person's own SMC causes the robot to act purposefully. If the sensory signals that the robot detects during teleoperation are recorded over several repetitions of the same task, it should be possible through signal analysis to identify the sensory-motor couplings that accompany purposeful motion. In this report, reasons for suspecting SMC as the basis for intelligent behavior will be reviewed. A robot control system for autonomous behavior that uses learned SMC will be proposed. Techniques for the extraction of salient parameters from sensory and motor data will be discussed. Experiments with Robonaut will be discussed and preliminary data presented.

Peters, Richard Alan, II

2003-01-01

242

EyeGaze  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

EyeGaze is a British company that has developed video technology that can be used by profoundly and partially deaf people. One example of their services and technology is a remote video interpreting centre. The project is managed by a team of Deaf and hearing individuals with diverse skills and experiences, "which affords us a holistic view of issues surrounding communication, information delivery and the Deaf community." The website provides an overview of their research and services, as well as some information on issues in the deaf community.

243

Cross-sensory transfer of sensory-motor information: visuomotor learning affects performance on an audiomotor task, using sensory-substitution  

PubMed Central

Visual-to-auditory sensory-substitution devices allow users to perceive a visual image using sound. Using a motor-learning task, we found that new sensory-motor information was generalized across sensory modalities. We imposed a rotation when participants reached to visual targets, and found that not only seeing, but also hearing the location of targets via a sensory-substitution device resulted in biased movements. When the rotation was removed, aftereffects occurred whether the location of targets was seen or heard. Our findings demonstrate that sensory-motor learning was not sensory-modality-specific.?We conclude that novel sensory-motor information can be transferred between sensory modalities.

Levy-Tzedek, Shelly; Novick, Itai; Arbel, Roni; Abboud, Sami; Maidenbaum, Shachar; Vaadia, Eilon; Amedi, Amir

2012-01-01

244

Poisoning by organophosphorus insecticides and sensory neuropathy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—Poisoning by organophosphate insecticides causes cholinergic toxicity. Organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP) is a sensory-motor distal axonopathy which usually occurs after ingestion of large doses of certain organophosphate insecticides and has so far only been reported in patients with preceding cholinergic toxicity. Surprisingly, it was recently reported by other authors that an exclusively sensory neuropathy developed in eight patients after repeated unquantified exposures to chlorpyrifos, which did not cause clear-cut cholinergic toxicity. The objective was to assess whether an exclusively sensory neuropathy develops in patients severely poisoned by various OPs.?METHODS—Toxicological studies and electrophysiological measurements were performed in peripheral motor and sensory nerves in 11 patients after acute organophosphate poisoning among which two subjects were poisoned with chlorpyrifos.?RESULTS—Three patients developed OPIDP, including one poisoned by chlorpyrifos. Exclusively sensory neuropathy was never seen after either single or repeated acute organophosphate poisoning. A mild sensory component was associated with a severe motor component in two of the three cases of OPIDP, the other was an exclusively motor polyneuropathy.?CONCLUSION—A sensory-motor polyneuropathy caused by organophosphate insecticides might occur after a severe poisoning and the sensory component, if present, is milder than the motor one. Bearing in mind the toxicological characteristics of these organophosphate insecticides, other causes should be sought for sensory peripheral neuropathies in patients who did not display severe cholinergic toxicity a few weeks before the onset of symptoms and signs.??

Moretto, A.; Lotti, M.

1998-01-01

245

Look beyond the red eyes!  

PubMed Central

This is a case of a 63-year-old gentleman who presented with persistent red eyes to the eye clinic for several months. He had been seen in the eye department on several visits when he was noted to have red ears too. This led to further review in the rheumatology and ear, nose and throat clinic to confirm the diagnosis of relapsing polychondritis. He was treated successfully with systemic steroids.

Kumar, Anupma

2011-01-01

246

Reading between Eye Saccades  

PubMed Central

Background Skilled adult readers, in contrast to beginners, show no or little increase in reading latencies as a function of the number of letters in words up to seven letters. The information extraction strategy underlying such efficiency in word identification is still largely unknown, and methods that allow tracking of the letter information extraction through time between eye saccades are needed to fully address this question. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study examined the use of letter information during reading, by means of the Bubbles technique. Ten participants each read 5,000 five-letter French words sampled in space-time within a 200 ms window. On the temporal dimension, our results show that two moments are especially important during the information extraction process. On the spatial dimension, we found a bias for the upper half of words. We also show for the first time that letter positions four, one, and three are particularly important for the identification of five-letter words. Conclusions/Significance Our findings are consistent with either a partially parallel reading strategy or an optimal serial reading strategy. We show using computer simulations that this serial reading strategy predicts an absence of a word-length effect for words from four- to seven letters in length. We believe that the Bubbles technique will play an important role in further examining the nature of reading between eye saccades.

Blais, Caroline; Fiset, Daniel; Arguin, Martin; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Bub, Daniel; Gosselin, Frederic

2009-01-01

247

Eye Surgery Light  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During eye surgery, the surgeon uses an illuminating instrument called an opthalmoscope for close examination of the retina or the interior of the eye. Ordinarily, electric power for the head-mounted light is supplied through a cord from an overhead swivel arm or a floor pedestal. Within limits of cord length and swivel arm movement, the surgeon has considerable freedom of motion. But when more than one opthalmoscope is involved, tangling and interference of the power cords becomes a problem. St. Luke's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio asked Lewis Research Center for assistance in finding a solution. Lewis responded with a battery-powered system that totally frees the surgeon of attached cords and swivels. Borrowing from space technology, Lewis used small, lightweight nickel-cadmium batteries that can deliver high intensity light for an hour and can be recharged overnight. The Opthalmoscope Powerpack consists of eight batteries in three containers affixed to a webbed belt, and a novel on-off switch equipped with a spring-loaded plexiglass 'flapper.' The belt pack is worn underneath the surgical gown and the flapper permits the doctor to activate the switch by elbow pressure. Lewis built five units and they have been in service at St. Luke's Hospital for a year. Used for routine examinations as well as for surgery, they have demonstrated excellent reliability.

1978-01-01

248

Eye Surgery Light  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During eye surgery, the surgeon uses an illuminating instrument called an opthalmoscope for close examination of the retina or the interior of the eye. Ordinarily, electric power for the head-mounted light is supplied through a cord from an overhead swivel arm or a floor pedestal. Within limits of cord length and swivel arm movement, the surgeon has considerable freedom of motion. But when more than one opthalmoscope is involved, tangling and interference of the power cords becomes a problem. St. Luke's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio asked Lewis Research Center for assistance in finding a solution. Lewis responded with a battery-powered system that totally frees the surgeon of attached cords and swivels. Borrowing from space technology, Lewis used small, lightweight nickel-cadmium batteries that can deliver high intensity light for an hour and can be recharged overnight. The Opthalmoscope Powerpack consists of eight batteries in three containers affixed to a webbed belt, and a novel on-off switch equipped with a springloaded plexiglass "flapper." The belt pack is worn underneath the surgical gown and the flapper permits the doctor to activate the switch by elbow pressure. Lewis built five units and they have been in service at St. Luke's Hospital for a year. Used for routine examinations as well as for surgery, they have demonstrated excellent reliability.

1978-01-01

249

Obesity and Eye Diseases  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many countries. While its impact on overall health is well documented, less is known about the ocular manifestations of obesity. Amongst different eye diseases, obesity has been linked with age-related cataract, glaucoma, age-related maculopathy, and diabetic retinopathy. Numerous population-based and prospective studies support an association between obesity and risk of age-related cataract. However, the nature and strength of these associations, particularly with the different cataract subtypes, remains to be determined. There is strong evidence that obesity is associated with elevated intraocular pressure, but there is no convincing data to support a more direct association between obesity and glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Studies to date have not found a consistent pattern of association between obesity and risk of age-related maculopathy or diabetic retinopathy. Thus, while obesity may be a risk factor for many ocular conditions, the present literature is inadequate to establish any convincing associations. Furthermore, whether weight loss reduces the risk of eye diseases remains unresolved. Because of the potential public health impact of obesity, there is a greater need to understand its ocular effects.

Cheung, Ning; Wong, Tien Y.

2009-01-01

250

Sensory Competition in the Face Processing Areas of the Human Brain  

PubMed Central

The concurrent presentation of multiple stimuli in the visual field may trigger mutually suppressive interactions throughout the ventral visual stream. While several studies have been performed on sensory competition effects among non-face stimuli relatively little is known about the interactions in the human brain for multiple face stimuli. In the present study we analyzed the neuronal basis of sensory competition in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using multiple face stimuli. We varied the ratio of faces and phase-noise images within a composite display with a constant number of peripheral stimuli, thereby manipulating the competitive interactions between faces. For contralaterally presented stimuli we observed strong competition effects in the fusiform face area (FFA) bilaterally and in the right lateral occipital area (LOC), but not in the occipital face area (OFA), suggesting their different roles in sensory competition. When we increased the spatial distance among pairs of faces the magnitude of suppressive interactions was reduced in the FFA. Surprisingly, the magnitude of competition depended on the visual hemifield of the stimuli: ipsilateral stimulation reduced the competition effects somewhat in the right LOC while it increased them in the left LOC. This suggests a left hemifield dominance of sensory competition. Our results support the sensory competition theory in the processing of multiple faces and suggests that sensory competition occurs in several cortical areas in both cerebral hemispheres.

Nagy, Krisztina; Greenlee, Mark W.; Kovacs, Gyula

2011-01-01

251

Cerebellum-dependent motor learning: lessons from adaptation of eye movements in primates.  

PubMed

In order to ameliorate the consequences of ego motion for vision, human and nonhuman observers generate reflexive, compensatory eye movements based on visual as well as vestibular information, helping to stabilize the images of visual scenes on the retina despite ego motion. And in order to fully exploit the advantages of foveal vision, they make saccades to shift the image of an object onto the fovea and smooth pursuit eye movements to stabilize it there despite continuing object movement relative to the observer. With the exception of slow visually driven eye movements, which can be understood as manifestations of relatively straightforward feedback systems, most eye movements require a direct conversion of sensory input into appropriate motor responses in the absence of immediate sensory feedback. Hence, in order to generate appropriate oculomotor responses, the parameters linking input and output must be chosen suitably. Moreover, as the parameters may change from one manifestation of a movement to the next, for instance because of oculomotor fatigue, the choices should also be quickly modifiable. This chapter will present evidence showing that this fast parametric optimization, understood as a functionally distinct example of motor learning, is an accomplishment of specific parts of the cerebellum devoted to the control of eye movements. It will also discuss recent electrophysiological results suggesting how this specific form of motor learning may emerge from information processing in cerebellar circuits. PMID:24916292

Dash, Suryadeep; Thier, Peter

2014-01-01

252

Eye-Centered Representation of Optic Flow Tuning in the Ventral Intraparietal Area  

PubMed Central

Reference frames are important for understanding sensory processing in the cortex. Previous work showed that vestibular heading signals in the ventral intraparietal area (VIP) are represented in body-centered coordinates. In contrast, vestibular heading tuning in the medial superior temporal area (MSTd) is approximately head centered. We considered the hypothesis that visual heading signals (from optic flow) in VIP might also be transformed into a body-centered representation, unlike visual heading tuning in MSTd, which is approximately eye centered. We distinguished among eye-centered, head-centered, and body-centered spatial reference frames by systematically varying both eye and head positions while rhesus monkeys viewed optic flow stimuli depicting various headings. We found that heading tuning of VIP neurons based on optic flow generally shifted with eye position, indicating an eye-centered spatial reference frame. This is similar to the representation of visual heading signals in MSTd, but contrasts sharply with the body-centered representation of vestibular heading signals in VIP. These findings demonstrate a clear dissociation between the spatial reference frames of visual and vestibular signals in VIP, and emphasize that frames of reference for neurons in parietal cortex can depend on the type of sensory stimulation.

Chen, Xiaodong; DeAngelis, Gregory C.

2013-01-01

253

Gallai-type theorems in domination and strong domination parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let G = (V, E) be a graph and u, v ? V. If uv ? E, we say that u and v dominate each other. If uv ? E and deg u ? deg v, we say that u strongly dominates v. A subset D of V is called a dominating set of G if every vertex v ?

V. Swaminathan; P. Thangaraju

2003-01-01

254

Dominant frequencies of resting human brain activity as measured by the electrocorticogram.  

PubMed

The brain's spontaneous, intrinsic activity is increasingly being shown to reveal brain function, delineate large scale brain networks, and diagnose brain disorders. One of the most studied and clinically utilized types of intrinsic brain activity are oscillations in the electrocorticogram (ECoG), a relatively localized measure of cortical synaptic activity. Here we objectively characterize the types of ECoG oscillations commonly observed over particular cortical areas when an individual is awake and immobile with eyes closed, using a surface-based cortical atlas and cluster analysis. Both methods show that [1] there is generally substantial variability in the dominant frequencies of cortical regions and substantial overlap in dominant frequencies across the areas sampled (primarily lateral central, temporal, and frontal areas), [2] theta (4-8 Hz) is the most dominant type of oscillation in the areas sampled with a mode around 7 Hz, [3] alpha (8-13 Hz) is largely limited to parietal and occipital regions, and [4] beta (13-30 Hz) is prominent peri-Rolandically, over the middle frontal gyrus, and the pars opercularis. In addition, the cluster analysis revealed seven types of ECoG spectral power densities (SPDs). Six of these have peaks at 3, 5, 7 (narrow), 7 (broad), 10, and 17 Hz, while the remaining cluster is broadly distributed with less pronounced peaks at 8, 19, and 42 Hz. These categories largely corroborate conventional sub-gamma frequency band distinctions (delta, theta, alpha, and beta) and suggest multiple sub-types of theta. Finally, we note that gamma/high gamma activity (30+ Hz) was at times prominently observed, but was too infrequent and variable across individuals to be reliably characterized. These results should help identify abnormal patterns of ECoG oscillations, inform the interpretation of EEG/MEG intrinsic activity, and provide insight into the functions of these different oscillations and the networks that produce them. Specifically, our results support theories of the importance of theta oscillations in general cortical function, suggest that alpha activity is primarily related to sensory processing/attention, and demonstrate that beta networks extend far beyond primary sensorimotor regions. PMID:23639261

Groppe, David M; Bickel, Stephan; Keller, Corey J; Jain, Sanjay K; Hwang, Sean T; Harden, Cynthia; Mehta, Ashesh D

2013-10-01

255

FINE STRUCTURE OF THE EYE OF A CHAETOGNATH  

PubMed Central

Electron microscopy reveals a star-like pigment cell at the center of the eye of the arrow-worm, Sagitta scrippsae. Between the arms of the pigment cell are clusters of photoreceptor cell processes, each process consisting of: (1) a tubular segment containing longitudinally arranged microtubules about 500 A in diameter and 20 µ in length; (2) a remarkable conical body, composed of cords and large granules, situated at the base of the tubular segment; and (3) a connecting piece which, like that of rods and cones, connects the process with the sensory cell proper and through which runs a fibrillar apparatus consisting of nine peripheral double tubules. Beneath the connecting piece lies a typical centriole with a striated rootlet. The receptor cell process is deeply recessed into the sensory cell which may possess a corona of microvilli at its inner surface. A nerve fiber arises from the outer end of the cell and passes into the optic nerve. Additional features are some supporting cells, an external layer of flattened epithelial cells, and an over-all investment of basement membrane and thick fibrous capsule. The fine structure and function of these elements of the eye are discussed in relation to earlier studies with the light microscope. The ciliary nature of the photoreceptor cell process in S. scrippsae points to a probable evolutionary relationship of chaetognaths to echinoderms and chordates.

Eakin, Richard M.; Westfall, Jane A.

1964-01-01

256

Sensory segmentation with coupled neural oscillators  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a model of sensory segmentation that is based on the generation and processing of temporal tags in the form of oscillations, as suggested by the Dynamic Link Architecture. The model forms the basis for a natural solution to the sensory segmenta- tion problem. It can deal with multiple segments, can integrate different cues and has the potential for

Christoph von der Malsburg; Joachim M. Buhmann

1992-01-01

257

Evolution of sensory configurations for intelligent vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evolutionary design synthesis methodology was introduced with special concern for the design and optimization of distributed embodied systems. Its efficacy was validated in a case study on the design of collective sensory configurations for intelligent vehicles. Candidate sensory configurations were tested in sample traffic scenarios simulated in an embodied and sensor-based simulator, and in more abstracted and computationally efficient

Yizhen Zhang; Alcherio Martinoli; Erik K. Antonsson; Ross D. Olney

2003-01-01

258

Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Sensory Cortex  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acetylcholine release in sensory neocortex contributes to higher-order sensory function, in part by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Molecular studies have revealed a bewildering array of nAChR subtypes and cellular actions; however, there is some consensus emerging about the major nAChR subtypes and their functions in…

Metherate, Raju

2004-01-01

259

Multisensory integration, sensory substitution and visual rehabilitation.  

PubMed

Sensory substitution has advanced remarkably over the past 35 years since first introduced to the scientific literature by Paul Bach-y-Rita. In this issue dedicated to his memory, we describe a collection of reviews that assess the current state of neuroscience research on sensory substitution, visual rehabilitation, and multisensory processes. PMID:24759484

Proulx, Michael J; Ptito, Maurice; Amedi, Amir

2014-04-01

260

Schizophrenia, Sensory Gating, and Nicotinic Receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of human and animal investigations has suggested that altered expression and function of the ?7-nicotinic cholinergic receptor may be responsible for the auditory sensory gating deficit characterized in schizophrenia patients and their relatives as diminished suppression of an auditory-evoked response (P50) to repeated stimuli. This finding, in conjunction with evidence for familial transmission of this sensory gating deficit,

Lawrence E. Adler; Ann Olincy; Merilyne Waldo; Josette G. Harris; Jay Griffith; Karen Stevens; Karen Flach; Herbert Nagamoto; Paula Bickford; Sherry Leonard; Robert Freedman

1998-01-01

261

Sensory Perception and Communication in Electric Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Electric fish of the Amazon Basin and Nile River are equipped with electric-generator-receiver organs for both sensory perception and communication. These fish are superbly adapted for life in turbulent, muddy streams and, therefore, provide and excellent illustration of the input of environmental information into central nervous systems via specialized sensory windows.

Patricia J. DeCoursey (University of South Carolina;)

1993-01-01

262

A housefly sensory-motor integration laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Insects have many interesting behaviors that can be observed in an introductory biology laboratory setting. In the present article, we describe several reflexes using the housefly Musca domestica that can be used to introduce students to sensory and motor responses and encourage them to think about the underlying neural circuits and integration of sensory information that mediate the behaviors.

Edwin R. Griff (University of Cincinnati Biological Sciences); Thomas C. Kane (University of Cincinnati)

2010-06-01

263

Poisoning by organophosphorus insecticides and sensory neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESPoisoning by organophosphate insecticides causes cholinergic toxicity. Organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP) is a sensory-motor distal axonopathy which usually occurs after ingestion of large doses of certain organophosphate insecticides and has so far only been reported in patients with preceding cholinergic toxicity. Surprisingly, it was recently reported by other authors that an exclusively sensory neuropathy developed in eight patients after

Angelo Moretto; Marcello Lotti

1998-01-01

264

Trigeminal sensory neurons of the sea lamprey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intracellular recordings were made from neurons of the trigeminal sensory ganglia of young adult sea lampreys. Receptive fields were mapped, and four classes of sensory cells were identified. Touch cells gave rapidly adapting responses to indentation of the skin. Pressure cells gave slowly adapting responses to indentation of the skin. Pit organ cells gave slowly adapting responses to mechanical stimulation

Gary Matthews; Warren O. Wickelgren

1978-01-01

265

Allergen–Induced Sensory Neuroplasticity in Airways  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the influence of allergic inflammation in airway sensory innervation. We conclude that allergic inflammation in the guinea pig leads to both an increase in excitability, as manifested by an increase in the mechanical sensitivity of the airway nerve endings, and an induction of substance P production in airway sensory neurons. The data are consistent with the hypothesis

Bradley J. Undem; Dawn D. Hunter; Mark Liu; Angela Oakragly; Axel Fischer

1999-01-01

266

Visual Suppression During Passive Eye Movement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Visual suppression associated with rapid eye movements is compared for active (voluntary) eye movements and for passive eye movements elicited by tapping the eye. To eliminate retinal blur, test flashes were always delivered at a time when the eye was sta...

W. Richards

1968-01-01

267

Formation of the hurricane eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation consists of three distinct studies which investigate aspects of eye formation. The first study reviews eye phenomenon in a variety of vortices ranging from simple vortices to the menagerie of geophysical vortices, emphasizing similarities and differences to the eyes formed in hurricanes. The hurricane eye is found to be a paradoxical structure imposed by conservation of angular momentum and the boundaries of the vortex. A comprehensive definition for hurricane eye formation is proposed and various eye formation mechanisms are summarized. The next study presents a simple theoretical argument to isolate the conditions under which a tropical cyclone can rapidly develop a warm-core thermal structure and subsequently approach a steady state. The theoretical argument is based on the balanced vortex model and, in particular, on the associated transverse circulation equation and the geopotential tendency equation. The transverse circulation and the temperature tendency in a tropical vortex depend not only on the diabatic forcing, but also on the spatial distributions of the static stability, the baroclinity, and the inertial stability. The vortex response to diabatic heating depends critically on whether the heating occurs in the low inertial stability region outside the radius of maximum wind or in the high inertial stability region inside the radius of maximum wind. This result suggests that rapid intensification is favored for storms which have at least some of the eyewall convection inside the radius of maximum wind. The development of an eye partially removes diabatic heating from the high inertial stability region of the storm center, yet rapid intensification may continue if the eyewall heating continues to become more efficient. As the warm core matures and static stability increases over the inner core, conditions there become less favorable for deep upright convection and the storm tends to approach a steady state. The final study characterizes the kinematic and thermodynamic changes that occur before, during, and after the initial eye formations of a broad set of Atlantic tropical cyclones. To obtain the requisite structure and intensity parameters, a new data set has been synthesized from the Vortex Data Messages transmitted by routine aircraft reconnaissance from 1989--2008. Intensity ranges are determined for the times when the eye/eyewall structure first appears in aircraft radar and infrared satellite imagery. The mean intensity at which an eye is first observed in both aircraft or satellite imagery is found to be 58 kt, somewhat lower than reported in previous studies. Changes about the time of eye formation are examined for intensity, the radius of maximum winds, the minimum Rossby radius of deformation, eye temperature and dew point temperature depression. Storms are found to intensify most rapidly near the time of eye formation, especially when a persistent eye is observed in infrared satellite imagery. Many storms which are forming eyes are found to undergo a substantial and rapid contraction in the radius of maximum winds during the 24-h period before the eye is observed; once the eye is present, this contraction slows or ceases. Strong warming at lower levels (850 or 700 hPa) of the eye is not observed to correlate well with the time in which the eye is first observed. Finally, observations suggest that the dynamical heating efficiency of the resulting eyewall increases even as the physical scale of the efficient heating region decreases. This allows the storm to continue intensifying even though the total inner core diabatic heating may decrease. The answer to why some storms fail to form eyes may shed light on whether eye formation is a stochastic process involving constructive and destructive mesoscale interactions---or whether it is a manifold attractor of the system sometimes stymied by an unfavorable environment.

Vigh, Jonathan L.

268

An eye for discovery  

PubMed Central

Vision research has often led to significant advances in our understanding of biology. There has also been particular success in translating basic research in the eye into breakthrough clinical therapies that mark important milestones for ophthalmology and also for medical research. Anti-VEGF therapy for age-related macular degeneration was named as one of the top ten science advancements of the year 2006. Only two years later, successful transfer of the RPE65 gene into retinal pigment epithelium of patients with Leber congenital amaurosis was noted as one of the most important clinical applications of gene therapy. The articles in this Review series outline current developments in vision research and highlight its continued importance in ophthalmology and medicine.

Stahl, Andreas; Smith, Lois E.H.

2010-01-01

269

Cat eye syndrome.  

PubMed

A full-term female baby, a product of non-consanguineous marriage, was born at 37?weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 2.08?kg. Antenatal scan at 31?weeks revealed complex congenital heart disease with a hypoplastic right ventricle, pulmonary atresia and an intact septum. Immediately after birth, the infant was shifted to the nursery and was started on intravenous fluids and infusion prostaglandin E1 (Alprostidil). On examination, she had microcephaly, periorbital puffiness, a long philtrum, a broad nasal bridge and retrognathia, up slanting palpebral fissures, widely spaced nipples, a sacral dimple and right upper limb postaxial polydactyly. Postnatal echocardiography confirmed a large ostium secundum atrial septal defect with left to right shunt, right ventricle hypoplasia, pulmonary atresia with an intact septum and a large vertical patent ductus arteriosus. Ophthalmological examination showed a bilateral chorioretinal coloboma sparing disc and fovea. Karyotyping showed an extra small marker chromosome suggestive of the Cat eye syndrome. PMID:24842361

Sharma, Deepak; Murki, Srinivas; Pratap, Tejo; Vasikarla, Madhavi

2014-01-01

270

Eyes of Ganges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

21 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroded, light-toned layered rock outcrops on the side of a large mound in Ganges Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. Perhaps a testament to the inherent human (and primate) ability to pick out faces where partially hidden from view (even when a face is not really there) -- near the top of this picture are two features, each a product of erosion, resembling a pair of human eyes. This picture was acquired in late November 2005.

Location near: 7.1oS, 49.4oW Image width: width: 0.55 km (0.3 mi) Illumination from: left/lower left Season: Southern Summer

2005-01-01

271

Eye of Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The wonderful Eye of Science project began in 1994, and is currently under the direction of Oliver Meckes and Nicole Ottawa. As their philosophic statement on this website states, "Our aim is to combine scientific exactness with aesthetic appearances, and thereby help to bridge the gap between the world of science and the world of art." In order to help serve this mission, they have placed numerous examples of their work online in a series of galleries on this site. Using electron microscopy and a host of other equipment and techniques, the pair has created these fine images of such things as parasites, cross-sections of a lavender leaf, and a rather harrowing photograph of an itch mite. Along with viewing these images, visitors can also learn about the awards they have received and learn about the equipment they use in their work.

272

The Colossal Cosmic Eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eighty-five million years ago on small planet Earth, dinosaurs ruled, ignorant of their soon-to-come demise in the great Jurassic extinction, while mammals were still small and shy creatures. The southern Andes of Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina were not yet formed and South America was still an island continent. Eighty-five million years ago, our Sun and its solar system was 60,000 light years away from where it now stands [1]. Eighty-five million years ago, in another corner of the Universe, light left the beautiful spiral galaxy NGC 1350, for a journey across the universe. Part of this light was recorded at the beginning of the year 2000 AD by ESO's Very Large Telescope, located on the 2,600m high Cerro Paranal in the Chilean Andes on planet Earth. Astronomers classify NGC 1350 as an Sa(r) type galaxy, meaning it is a spiral with large central regions. In fact, NGC 1350 lies at the border between the broken-ring spiral type and a grand design spiral with two major outer arms. It is about 130,000 light-years across and, hence, is slightly larger than our Milky Way. The rather faint and graceful outer arms originate at the inner main ring and can be traced for almost half a circle when they each meet the opposite arm, giving the impression of completing a second outer ring, the "eye". The arms are given a blue tint as a result of the presence of very young and massive stars. The amount of dust, seen as small fragmented dust spirals in the central part of the galaxy and producing a fine tapestry that bear resemblance with blood vessels in the eye, is also a signature of the formation of stars.

2005-09-01

273

Eye trauma in the workplace  

SciTech Connect

A baseline visual acuity should be on record for medical and legal purposes. Identifying an eye injury and referring the person for appropriate treatment can save vision. Immediate eye irrigation in the case of chemical burns can substantially decrease the possibility of permanent vision damage.

Boyd-Monk, H.

1990-10-01

274

Dry eye disease after LASIK  

PubMed Central

LASIK is a surgical tehnique for the correction of refractive errors (myopia, hyperopia, astygmatism). It results in a reshape of the cornea with ocular surface and especially tear film disease. It is a cause for a iatrogenic dry eye syndrome. Neurogenic and inflamatory theory explain this disease. The main therapy of dry eye is the replacement with artificial tears.

Turu, L; Alexandrescu, C; Stana, D; Tudosescu, R

2012-01-01

275

Self-inflicted eye injuries.  

PubMed Central

Five cases of self-inflicted eye injury are described and discussed. A review of the literature shows that several psychiatric diagnoses have been assigned to people who damage their eyes. A variety of mechanisms to explain this phenomenon are described.

Brown, R; al-Bachari, M A; Kambhampati, K K

1991-01-01

276

Eye typing with common cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low cost eye tracking has received an increased attention due to the rapid developments in tracking hardware (video boards, digital camera and CPU's) [Hansen and Pece 2005; OpenEyes 2005]. We present a gaze typing system based on components that can be bought in most consumer hardware stores around the world. These components are for example cameras and graphics cards that

Dan Witzner Hansen; John Paulin Hansen

2006-01-01

277

Evaluation of eye gaze interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eye gaze interaction can provide a convenient and natural addition to user-computer dialogues. We have previously reported on our interaction techniques using eye gaze [10]. While our techniques seemed useful in demonstration, we now investigate their strengths and weaknesses in a controlled setting. In this paper, we present two experiments that compare an interaction technique we developed for object selection

Linda E. Sibert; Robert J. K. Jacob

2000-01-01

278

Miniature curved artificial compound eyes  

PubMed Central

In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories.

Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stephane; Ruffier, Franck; Bruckner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphael; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A.; Franceschini, Nicolas

2013-01-01

279

Thermoelectricity and noncellular sensory transduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sharks and rays possess electrosensors that provide environmental data assisting such tasks as prey detection and mate location. These organs are also incredibly sensitive to minute changes in temperature, and their reaction to temperature is unlike any other thermoreceptor known in nature. We have collected samples of the extracellular gel that fills the electrosensitive organs, and, while characterizing its material properties, we have found an average thermopower of roughly 300 microvolts/Kelvin. We will discuss the implications of these data in terms of a novel, noncellular mode of sensory transduction, in which a thermal fluctuation is translated into an electrical stimulus by the gel. We will also contrast the gel to more established thermoelectric materials.

Brown, Brandon

2003-03-01

280

Integration of Multidisciplinary Sensory Data:  

PubMed Central

The paper provides an overview of neuroinformatics research at Yale University being performed as part of the national Human Brain Project. This research is exploring the integration of multidisciplinary sensory data, using the olfactory system as a model domain. The neuroinformatics activities fall into three main areas: 1) building databases and related tools that support experimental olfactory research at Yale and can also serve as resources for the field as a whole, 2) using computer models (molecular models and neuronal models) to help understand data being collected experimentally and to help guide further laboratory experiments, 3) performing basic neuroinformatics research to develop new informatics technologies, including a flexible data model (EAV/CR, entity-attribute-value with classes and relationships) designed to facilitate the integration of diverse heterogeneous data within a single unifying framework.

Miller, Perry L.; Nadkarni, Prakash; Singer, Michael; Marenco, Luis; Hines, Michael; Shepherd, Gordon

2001-01-01

281

A molecular correlate of ocular dominance columns in the developing mammalian visual cortex.  

PubMed

Ocular dominance (OD) columns, alternating regions of left and right eye input in the visual cortex of higher mammals, have long been thought to develop from an initially intermingled state by an activity-dependent process. While indirect evidence points to potential alternative mechanisms based on molecular cues, direct proof for a molecular difference between left- and right eye columns is missing. Here, we show that heat shock protein 90 alpha (Hsp90?) is expressed in a clustered fashion in the developing cat visual cortex. Clusters of Hsp90?-positive cells are in register with OD columns of the ipsilateral eye as early as postnatal day 16, when OD columns have just appeared. Importantly, a periodic, clustered expression of Hsp90? is already present weeks before OD columns have started to form, suggesting that molecular differences between future left and right eye OD columns may contribute to the segregated termination of eye specific afferents in the developing visual cortex. PMID:22892426

Tomita, Koichi; Sperling, Max; Cambridge, Sidney B; Bonhoeffer, Tobias; Hübener, Mark

2013-11-01

282

Prediction of Eye Safe Separation Distances.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method is given for predicting the distances at which the thermal radiation from nuclear detonations will be hazardous to the unprotected human eye. This method relates calculated retinal exposure to experimentally determined eye effects data. Eye hazar...

E. O. Richey

1966-01-01

283

Genetics Home Reference: Fish-eye disease  

MedlinePLUS

... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Fish-eye disease On this page: Description Genetic changes ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed August 2013 What is fish-eye disease? Fish-eye disease, also called partial ...

284

Facts about Behçet's Disease of the Eye  

MedlinePLUS

... About Behçet’s Disease of the Eye Facts About Behçet’s Disease of the Eye This information was developed ... More Information View Eye Health Organizations and more. Behçet’s Defined What is Behçet's disease? Behçet's disease is ...

285

fMRI Evidence for Multisensory Recruitment Associated With Rapid Eye Movements During Sleep  

PubMed Central

We studied the neural correlates of rapid eye movement during sleep (REM) by timing REMs from video recording and using rapid event-related functional MRI. Consistent with the hypothesis that REMs share the brain systems and mechanisms with waking eye movements and are visually-targeted saccades, we found REM-locked activation in the primary visual cortex, thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), ‘visual claustrum’, retrosplenial cortex (RSC, only on the right hemisphere), fusiform gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex, and the oculomotor circuit that controls awake saccadic eye movements (and subserves awake visuospatial attention). Unexpectedly, robust activation also occurred in non-visual sensory cortices, motor cortex, language areas, and the ascending reticular activating system, including basal forebrain, the major source of cholinergic input to the entire cortex. REM-associated activation of these areas, especially non-visual primary sensory cortices, TRN and claustrum, parallels findings from waking studies on the interactions between multiple sensory data, and their ‘binding’ into a unified percept, suggesting that these mechanisms are also shared in waking and dreaming and that the sharing goes beyond the expected visual scanning mechanisms. Surprisingly, REMs were associated with a decrease in signal in specific periventricular subregions, matching the distribution of the serotonergic supraependymal plexus. REMs might serve as a useful task-free probe into major brain systems for functional brain imaging.

Hong, Charles Chong-Hwa; Harris, James C.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Kim, Jin-Suh; Calhoun, Vince D.; Fallon, James H.; Golay, Xavier; Gillen, Joseph S.; Simmonds, Daniel J.; van Zijl, Peter C.M.; Zee, David S.; Pekar, James J.

2009-01-01

286

Dominant optic atrophy  

PubMed Central

Definition of the disease Dominant Optic Atrophy (DOA) is a neuro-ophthalmic condition characterized by a bilateral degeneration of the optic nerves, causing insidious visual loss, typically starting during the first decade of life. The disease affects primary the retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and their axons forming the optic nerve, which transfer the visual information from the photoreceptors to the lateral geniculus in the brain. Epidemiology The prevalence of the disease varies from 1/10000 in Denmark due to a founder effect, to 1/30000 in the rest of the world. Clinical description DOA patients usually suffer of moderate visual loss, associated with central or paracentral visual field deficits and color vision defects. The severity of the disease is highly variable, the visual acuity ranging from normal to legal blindness. The ophthalmic examination discloses on fundoscopy isolated optic disc pallor or atrophy, related to the RGC death. About 20% of DOA patients harbour extraocular multi-systemic features, including neurosensory hearing loss, or less commonly chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia, myopathy, peripheral neuropathy, multiple sclerosis-like illness, spastic paraplegia or cataracts. Aetiology Two genes (OPA1, OPA3) encoding inner mitochondrial membrane proteins and three loci (OPA4, OPA5, OPA8) are currently known for DOA. Additional loci and genes (OPA2, OPA6 and OPA7) are responsible for X-linked or recessive optic atrophy. All OPA genes yet identified encode mitochondrial proteins embedded in the inner membrane and ubiquitously expressed, as are the proteins mutated in the Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy. OPA1 mutations affect mitochondrial fusion, energy metabolism, control of apoptosis, calcium clearance and maintenance of mitochondrial genome integrity. OPA3 mutations only affect the energy metabolism and the control of apoptosis. Diagnosis Patients are usually diagnosed during their early childhood, because of bilateral, mild, otherwise unexplained visual loss related to optic discs pallor or atrophy, and typically occurring in the context of a family history of DOA. Optical Coherence Tomography further discloses non-specific thinning of retinal nerve fiber layer, but a normal morphology of the photoreceptors layers. Abnormal visual evoked potentials and pattern ERG may also reflect the dysfunction of the RGCs and their axons. Molecular diagnosis is provided by the identification of a mutation in the OPA1 gene (75% of DOA patients) or in the OPA3 gene (1% of patients). Prognosis Visual loss in DOA may progress during puberty until adulthood, with very slow subsequent chronic progression in most of the cases. On the opposite, in DOA patients with associated extra-ocular features, the visual loss may be more severe over time. Management To date, there is no preventative or curative treatment in DOA; severely visually impaired patients may benefit from low vision aids. Genetic counseling is commonly offered and patients are advised to avoid alcohol and tobacco consumption, as well as the use of medications that may interfere with mitochondrial metabolism. Gene and pharmacological therapies for DOA are currently under investigation.

2012-01-01

287

Six1 is a key regulator of the developmental and evolutionary architecture of sensory neurons in craniates  

PubMed Central

Background Various senses and sensory nerve architectures of animals have evolved during adaptation to exploit diverse environments. In craniates, the trunk sensory system has evolved from simple mechanosensory neurons inside the spinal cord (intramedullary), called Rohon-Beard (RB) cells, to multimodal sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) outside the spinal cord (extramedullary). The fish and amphibian trunk sensory systems switch from RB cells to DRG during development, while amniotes rely exclusively on the DRG system. The mechanisms underlying the ontogenic switching and its link to phylogenetic transition remain unknown. Results In Xenopus, Six1 overexpression promoted precocious apoptosis of RB cells and emergence of extramedullary sensory neurons, whereas Six1 knockdown delayed the reduction in RB cell number. Genetic ablation of Six1 and Six4 in mice led to the appearance of intramedullary sensory neuron-like cells as a result of medial migration of neural crest cells into the spinal cord and production of immature DRG neurons and fused DRG. Restoration of SIX1 expression in the neural crest-linage partially rescued the phenotype, indicating the cell autonomous requirements of SIX1 for normal extramedullary sensory neurogenesis. Mouse Six1 enhancer that mediates the expression in DRG neurons activated transcription in Xenopus RB cells earlier than endogenous six1 expression, suggesting earlier onset of mouse SIX1 expression than Xenopus during sensory development. Conclusions The results indicated the critical role of Six1 in transition of RB cells to DRG neurons during Xenopus development and establishment of exclusive DRG system of mice. The study provided evidence that early appearance of SIX1 expression, which correlated with mouse Six1 enhancer, is essential for the formation of DRG-dominant system in mice, suggesting that heterochronic changes in Six1 enhancer sequence play an important role in alteration of trunk sensory architecture and contribute to the evolution of the trunk sensory system.

2014-01-01

288

Combining Cep290 and Mkks ciliopathy alleles in mice rescues sensory defects and restores ciliogenesis  

PubMed Central

Cilia are highly specialized microtubule-based organelles that have pivotal roles in numerous biological processes, including transducing sensory signals. Defects in cilia biogenesis and transport cause pleiotropic human ciliopathies. Mutations in over 30 different genes can lead to cilia defects, and complex interactions exist among ciliopathy-associated proteins. Mutations of the centrosomal protein 290 kDa (CEP290) lead to distinct clinical manifestations, including Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), a hereditary cause of blindness due to photoreceptor degeneration. Mice homozygous for a mutant Cep290 allele (Cep290rd16 mice) exhibit LCA-like early-onset retinal degeneration that is caused by an in-frame deletion in the CEP290 protein. Here, we show that the domain deleted in the protein encoded by the Cep290rd16 allele directly interacts with another ciliopathy protein, MKKS. MKKS mutations identified in patients with the ciliopathy Bardet-Biedl syndrome disrupted this interaction. In zebrafish embryos, combined subminimal knockdown of mkks and cep290 produced sensory defects in the eye and inner ear. Intriguingly, combinations of Cep290rd16 and Mkksko alleles in mice led to improved ciliogenesis and sensory functions compared with those of either mutant alone. We propose that altered association of CEP290 and MKKS affects the integrity of multiprotein complexes at the cilia transition zone and basal body. Amelioration of the sensory phenotypes caused by specific mutations in one protein by removal of an interacting domain/protein suggests a possible novel approach for treating human ciliopathies.

Rachel, Rivka A.; May-Simera, Helen L.; Veleri, Shobi; Gotoh, Norimoto; Choi, Byung Yoon; Murga-Zamalloa, Carlos; McIntyre, Jeremy C.; Marek, Jonah; Lopez, Irma; Hackett, Alice N.; Brooks, Matthew; den Hollander, Anneke I.; Beales, Philip L.; Li, Tiansen; Jacobson, Samuel G.; Sood, Raman; Martens, Jeffrey R.; Liu, Paul; Friedman, Thomas B.; Khanna, Hemant; Koenekoop, Robert K.; Kelley, Matthew W.; Swaroop, Anand

2012-01-01

289

Sensory substitution as an artificially acquired synaesthesia.  

PubMed

In this review we explore the relationship between synaesthesia and sensory substitution and argue that sensory substitution does indeed show properties of synaesthesia. Both are associated with atypical perceptual experiences elicited by the processing of a qualitatively different stimulus to that which normally gives rise to that experience. In the most common forms of sensory substitution, perceptual processing of an auditory or tactile signal (which has been converted from a visual signal) is experienced as visual-like in addition to retaining auditory/tactile characteristics. We consider different lines of evidence that support, to varying degrees, the assumption that sensory substitution is associated with visual-like experiences. We then go on to analyse the key similarities and differences between sensory substitution and synaesthesia. Lastly, we propose two testable predictions: firstly that, in an expert user of a sensory substitution device, the substituting modality should not be lost. Secondly that stimulation within the substituting modality, but by means other than a sensory substitution device, should still produce sensation in the normally substituted modality. PMID:22885223

Ward, Jamie; Wright, Thomas

2014-04-01

290

Beyond words: Sensory properties of depressive thoughts.  

PubMed

Verbal thoughts (such as negative cognitions) and sensory phenomena (such as visual mental imagery) are usually conceptualised as distinct mental experiences. The present study examined to what extent depressive thoughts are accompanied by sensory experiences and how this is associated with symptom severity, insight of illness and quality of life. A large sample of mildly to moderately depressed patients (N = 356) was recruited from multiple sources and asked about sensory properties of their depressive thoughts in an online study. Diagnostic status and symptom severity were established over a telephone interview with trained raters. Sensory properties of negative thoughts were reported by 56.5% of the sample (i.e., sensation in at least one sensory modality). The highest prevalence was seen for bodily (39.6%) followed by auditory (30.6%) and visual (27.2%) sensations. Patients reporting sensory properties of thoughts showed more severe psychopathological symptoms than those who did not. The degree of perceptuality was marginally associated with quality of life. The findings support the notion that depressive thoughts are not only verbal but commonly accompanied by sensory experiences. The perceptuality of depressive thoughts and the resulting sense of authenticity may contribute to the emotional impact and pervasiveness of such thoughts, making them difficult to dismiss for their holder. PMID:24359124

Moritz, Steffen; Hörmann, Claudia Cecile; Schröder, Johanna; Berger, Thomas; Jacob, Gitta A; Meyer, Björn; Holmes, Emily A; Späth, Christina; Hautzinger, Martin; Lutz, Wolfgang; Rose, Matthias; Klein, Jan Philipp

2014-09-01

291

Associations of sire estimated breeding values and objective meat quality measurements with sensory scores in Australian lamb.  

PubMed

The impact of selecting for lean meat yield using breeding values for increased eye muscle depth (PEMD) and decreased fat depth (PFAT) on the consumer acceptance of lamb meat was evaluated. Consumer sensory scores (tenderness, juiciness, flavour, odour, overall liking) were obtained for the longissimus lumborum (loin) and semimembranosus (topside) muscles of 1471 lambs. On average loin samples were more acceptable for consumers. Sensory scores increased with higher IMF levels, with lower shear force levels, and when animals were younger and less muscular. Increasing PEMD decreased tenderness, overall liking and flavour scores in both muscles, and decreasing PFAT reduced tenderness within the loin samples only. This negative impact of PEMD and PFAT is not solely driven through the phenotypic impact of IMF and shear force on sensory scores. Our results confirm the growing concerns that selecting for lean meat yield would reduce consumer eating quality, and highlight that careful monitoring of selection programmes is needed to maintain lamb eating quality. PMID:23968666

Pannier, L; Gardner, G E; Pearce, K L; McDonagh, M; Ball, A J; Jacob, R H; Pethick, D W

2014-02-01

292

Dry eye in LASIK patients  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing age is a known risk factor for developing dry eye. The specific aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of dry eye syndrome (DES) and use of post-operative dry eye medications in a relatively young population presenting for LASIK surgery at an academic ophthalmology clinic. Findings A retrospective, analysis of 948 de-identified patient charts (median age 39 years, not age stratified) was performed to extract pre-LASIK diagnoses and post-LASIK medication lists. Clinical evaluation for DES and the results of Schirmer’s reflex tear flow test were used to assign LASIK patients into Normal, Pre-dry eye (Pre-DES), and Dry Eye Syndrome (DES) groups; which were then compared for use of dry eye medications. Based on pre-operative diagnoses, only 2% (CI: 1.3 – 3.1) of LASIK patients presented with overt DES. Unexpectantly, 25% (CI: 22.2 – 27.6) of LASIK patients labeled Pre-DES were not classified by the clinician as having overt DES, yet they showed poor reflex tear flow rates ? 5 mm before surgery, and frequently used post-operative lubricant dry eye medications. Conclusions Although the number of patients with pre-existing eye conditions was unknown, a sizable portion of relatively young LASIK patients displays poor reflex tear flow without overt DES. Such patients could go on to develop more serious consequences of poor tear flow, such as corneal abrasion and erosion. More specific, dry eye medications may be needed for ideal treatment.

2014-01-01

293

Bevacizumab in Inflammatory Eye Disease  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: To report the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin; Genentech Inc, South San Francisco, California, USA) on visual acuity and macular thickness in patients with inflammatory choroidal neovascularization (CNV) or cystoid macular edema (CME). DESIGN: Retrospective, noncomparative, interventional case series. METHODS: Each eye received 1.25 mg of intravitreal bevacizumab at baseline. Follow-up examinations were scheduled at 1- to 2-month intervals, with additional injections at the discretion of the physician. Comprehensive evaluations, including Snellen best-corrected visual acuity (BVCA) and optical coherence tomography measurements, were performed at each visit. Main outcome measures were BCVA and central subfield thickness (CST), as measured by optical coherence tomography. RESULTS: Thirty-four eyes of 30 patients with inflammatory CNV (n = 21 eyes of 19 patients; 9 male, 10 female) or CME (n = 13 eyes of 11 patients; 4 male, 7 female) were identified. Median ages were 52 years (range, 7 to 83) and 67 years (range, 17 to 83) for the CNV and CME groups, respectively. The median length of follow-up for CNV eyes was 7 months (range, 1 to 28) while the median follow-up for CME eyes was 13 months (range, 1 to 20). Both groups received a median of two injections (range, 1 to 9 for CNV and 1 to 4 for CME). For eyes with CNV, BCVA improved significantly at follow-up month 1, but was not different from baseline thereafter; CST remained unchanged throughout follow-up. For eyes with CME, neither BCVA nor CST changed significantly over the course of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Bevacizumab appears to stabilize BCVA and CST for eyes with inflammatory CNV or CME.

LOTT, MCGREGOR N.; SCHIFFMAN, JOYCE C.; DAVIS, JANET L.

2014-01-01

294

Two membrane forms of guanylyl cyclase found in the eye.  

PubMed Central

The cDNAs for two membrane guanylyl cyclases, designated E (GC-E) and F (GC-F, were isolated from a rat eye cDNA library. Their deduced topographic structures correspond to known members of the guanylyl cyclase receptor family, containing an extracellular domain, a single membrane-spanning domain, a protein kinase-like domain, and a cyclase catalytic domain. GC-E was expressed in the eye and the pineal gland, whereas GC-F expression was confined to the eye. Overproduction of GC-E and GC-F in COS cells resulted in expression of guanylyl cyclase activity, but ligands known to activate other guanylyl cyclase receptors failed to stimulate enzyme activity. Thus, both GC-E and GC-F remain orphan receptors. Amino acid sequence similarity between GC-E and GC-F in the extracellular region and homology with a cyclase expressed in olfactory neurons and retGC, a rod outer-segment-specific cyclase, suggest that there is another subfamily of guanylyl cyclase receptors, possibly restricted to sensory tissues. Images Fig. 4

Yang, R B; Foster, D C; Garbers, D L; Fulle, H J

1995-01-01

295

Somatosensory evoked potentials, sensory nerve potentials and sensory nerve conduction in hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-nine patients from six families with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type I and control subjects were included in this study. A neurological deficit score (NDS) was derived from a neurological examination and compared with neurophysiological test findings. Further, sensory nerve conduction velocities (SNCV) were compared with the motor nerve conduction velocities (MNCV). Five patients whom peaks of N11\\/N13 complex

M. Aramideh; J. E. Hoogendijk; C. M. Aalfs; F. E. Posthumus Meyjes; M. Visser; B. W. Ongerboer De Visser

1992-01-01

296

Analytical Methods for Chemical and Sensory Characterization of Scent-Markings in Large Wild Mammals: A Review  

PubMed Central

In conjoining the disciplines of “ethology” and “chemistry” the field of “Ethochemistry” has been instituted. Ethochemistry is an effective tool in conservation efforts of endangered species and the understanding of behavioral patterns across all species. Chemical constituents of scent-markings have an important, yet poorly understood function in territoriality, reproduction, dominance, and impact on evolutionary biology, especially in large mammals. Particular attention has recently been focused on scent-marking analysis of great cats (Kalahari leopards (Panthera pardus), puma (Puma concolor) snow leopard (Panthera uncia), African lions (Panthera leo), cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), and tigers (Panthera tigris)) for the purpose of conservation. Sensory analyses of scent-markings could address knowledge gaps in ethochemistry. The objective of this review is to summarize the current state-of-the art of both the chemical and sensory analyses of scent-markings in wild mammals. Specific focus is placed on sampling and sample preparation, chemical analysis, sensory analysis, and simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses. Constituents of exocrine and endocrine secretions have been most commonly studied with chromatography-based analytical separations. Odor analysis of scent-markings provides an insight into the animal's sensory perception. A limited number of articles have been published in the area of sensory characterization of scent marks. Simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses with chromatography-olfactometry hyphenation could potentially aid conservation efforts by linking perceived odor, compounds responsible for odor, and resulting behavior.

Soso, Simone B.; Koziel, Jacek A.; Johnson, Anna; Lee, Young Jin; Fairbanks, W. Sue

2014-01-01

297

Clinical and neurophysiologic characterization of an European family with hereditary sensory neuropathy, paroxysmal cough and gastroesophageal reflux.  

PubMed

In 2002, Spring et al reported a family with an autosomal dominant form of hereditary sensory neuropathy; patients also presented adult onset of gastroesophageal reflux and cough. Since then, no further families have been described. Objective: To study a new Portuguese family with these characteristics. Method: To describe the clinical and neurophysiologic characteristics of one family with features of sensory neuropathy associated with cough and gastroesophageal erflux. Results: Three of five siblings presented a similar history of paroxysmal cough (5th decade). About a decade later they experienced numbness and paraesthesia in the feets and in all cases there was evidence of an axonal sensory neuropathy. A history of gastroesophageal reflux of variable severity and age of onset was also present. Discussion: Molecular genetic studies have demonstrated genetic heterogeneity between the hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1 subtypes. The identification of these families is of major importance because further work is required to identify the underlying genetic defect. PMID:24760089

Barros, Pedro; Morais, Hugo; Santos, Catarina; Roriz, José; Coutinho, Paula

2014-04-01

298

Goiter and Laryngeal Sensory Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Objective. Examining the prevalence of laryngeal sensory neuropathy (LSN) in goiter patients versus a control group. Study Design. Cross-sectional study. Methods. 33 Goiter patients were enrolled versus 25 age-matched controls. TSH levels, size of thyroid gland, and presence or absence of thyroid nodules were reported. Subjects were asked about the presence or absence of any of the following symptoms: cough, globus pharyngeus, and/or throat clearing that persistented for more than 6 weeks. The presence of one or more of these symptoms for at least six weeks in the absence of LPRD, allergy, asthma, ACE inhibitor intake, and psychogenic disorder was defined as LSN. Results. For goitrous patients mean age (years) was (41.73 ± 9.47) versus (37.44 ± 10.89) for controls. 82% goitrous patients had known nodules and 27% carried a simultaneous diagnosis of hypothyroidism. Among those with documented size (61%), mean total thyroid volume was 26.996 ± 14.852?cm3, with a range from 9.430 to 67.022?cm3. The overall prevalence of LSN among goitrous patients was 42% versus 12% among controls (P = 0.0187). There was no correlation between LSN, size of thyroid gland, and TSH level. Conclusion. The prevalence of LSN in goitrous patients is significantly higher than that in a nongoitrous population.

Hamdan, Abdul Latif; Jabour, Jad; Azar, Sami T.

2013-01-01

299

Primary reactions of sensory rhodopsins  

PubMed Central

The first steps in the photocycles of the archaeal photoreceptor proteins sensory rhodopsin (SR) I and II from Halobacterium salinarum and SRII from Natronobacterium pharaonis have been studied by ultrafast pump/probe spectroscopy and steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy. The data for both species of the blue-light receptor SRII suggests that their primary reactions are nearly analogous with a fast decay of the excited electronic state in 300–400 fs and a transition between two red-shifted product states in 4–5 ps. Thus SRII behaves similarly to bacteriorhodopsin. In contrast for SRI at pH 6.0, which absorbs in the orange part of the spectrum, a strongly increased fluorescence quantum yield and a drastically slower and biexponential decay of the excited electronic state occurring on the picosecond time scale (5 ps and 33 ps) is observed. The results suggest that the primary reactions are controlled by the charge distribution in the vicinity of the Schiff base and demonstrate that there is no direct connection between absorption properties and reaction dynamics for the retinal protein family.

Lutz, I.; Sieg, A.; Wegener, A. A.; Engelhard, M.; Boche, I.; Otsuka, M.; Oesterhelt, D.; Wachtveitl, J.; Zinth, W.

2001-01-01

300

Sensory optimization by stochastic tuning.  

PubMed

Individually, visual neurons are each selective for several aspects of stimulation, such as stimulus location, frequency content, and speed. Collectively, the neurons implement the visual system's preferential sensitivity to some stimuli over others, manifested in behavioral sensitivity functions. We ask how the individual neurons are coordinated to optimize visual sensitivity. We model synaptic plasticity in a generic neural circuit and find that stochastic changes in strengths of synaptic connections entail fluctuations in parameters of neural receptive fields. The fluctuations correlate with uncertainty of sensory measurement in individual neurons: The higher the uncertainty the larger the amplitude of fluctuation. We show that this simple relationship is sufficient for the stochastic fluctuations to steer sensitivities of neurons toward a characteristic distribution, from which follows a sensitivity function observed in human psychophysics and which is predicted by a theory of optimal allocation of receptive fields. The optimal allocation arises in our simulations without supervision or feedback about system performance and independently of coupling between neurons, making the system highly adaptive and sensitive to prevailing stimulation. PMID:24219849

Jurica, Peter; Gepshtein, Sergei; Tyukin, Ivan; van Leeuwen, Cees

2013-10-01

301

Downregulation of cortical inhibition mediates ocular dominance plasticity during the critical period.  

PubMed

Monocular deprivation (MD) during the critical period (CP) shifts ocular dominance (OD) of cortical responsiveness toward the nondeprived eye. The synaptic mechanisms underlying MD-induced OD plasticity, in particular the contribution of cortical inhibition to the plasticity, have remained unsolved. In this study, using in vivo whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings, we revealed eye-specific excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to layer 4 excitatory neurons in mouse primary visual cortex (V1) at a developmental stage close to the end of CP. We found in normally reared mice that ocular preference is primarily determined by the contralateral bias of excitatory input and that inhibition does not play an active role in shaping OD. MD results in a parallel reduction of excitation and inhibition driven by the deprived eye, while reducing the inhibition but preserving the excitation driven by the nondeprived eye. MD of longer periods causes larger changes in synaptic amplitude than MD of shorter periods. Furthermore, MD resulted in a shortening of onset latencies of synaptic inputs activated by both contralateral and ipsilateral eye stimulation, while the relative temporal relationship between excitation and inhibition driven by the same eye was not significantly affected. Our results suggest that OD plasticity is largely attributed to a reduction of feedforward input representing the deprived eye, and that an unexpected weakening of cortical inhibitory connections accounts for the increased responsiveness to the nondeprived eye. PMID:23825430

Ma, Wen-pei; Li, Ya-tang; Tao, Huizhong Whit

2013-07-01

302

Downregulation of Cortical Inhibition Mediates Ocular Dominance Plasticity during the Critical Period  

PubMed Central

Monocular deprivation (MD) during the critical period (CP) shifts ocular dominance (OD) of cortical responsiveness toward the nondeprived eye. The synaptic mechanisms underlying MD-induced OD plasticity, in particular the contribution of cortical inhibition to the plasticity, have remained unsolved. In this study, using in vivo whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings, we revealed eye-specific excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to layer 4 excitatory neurons in mouse primary visual cortex (V1) at a developmental stage close to the end of CP. We found in normally reared mice that ocular preference is primarily determined by the contralateral bias of excitatory input and that inhibition does not play an active role in shaping OD. MD results in a parallel reduction of excitation and inhibition driven by the deprived eye, while reducing the inhibition but preserving the excitation driven by the nondeprived eye. MD of longer periods causes larger changes in synaptic amplitude than MD of shorter periods. Furthermore, MD resulted in a shortening of onset latencies of synaptic inputs activated by both contralateral and ipsilateral eye stimulation, while the relative temporal relationship between excitation and inhibition driven by the same eye was not significantly affected. Our results suggest that OD plasticity is largely attributed to a reduction of feedforward input representing the deprived eye, and that an unexpected weakening of cortical inhibitory connections accounts for the increased responsiveness to the nondeprived eye.

Ma, Wen-pei; Li, Ya-tang

2013-01-01

303

Operationally realistic validation for prediction of cocoa sensory qualities by high-throughput mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The potential of analytical chemistry to predict sensory qualities of food materials is a major current theme. Standard practice is cross-validation (CV), where a set of chemical and associated sensory data is partitioned so chemometric models can be developed on training subsets, and validated on held-out subsets. CV demonstrates prediction, but is an unlikely scenario for industrial operations, where concomitant data acquisition for model development and test materials would be unwieldy. We evaluated cocoa materials of diverse provenance, and analyzed on different dates to those used in model development. Liquor extracts were analyzed by flow-injection electrospray-mass spectrometry (FIE-MS), a novel method for sensory quality prediction. FIE-MS enabled prediction of sensory qualities described by trained human panelists. Optimal models came from the Weka data-mining algorithm SimpleLinearRegression, which learns a model for the attribute giving minimal training error, which was (-)-epicatechin. This flavonoid likewise dominated partial least-squares (PLS)-regression models. Refinements of PLS (orthogonal-PLS or orthogonal signal correction) gave poorer generalization to different test sets, as did support vector machines, whose hyperparameters could not be optimized in training to avoid overfitting. In conclusion, if chemometric overfitting is avoided, chemical analysis can predict sensory qualities of food materials under operationally realistic conditions. PMID:20557115

Wood, Jacqueline E; Allaway, David; Boult, Emma; Scott, Ian M

2010-07-15

304

Conjunctivitis: What Is Pink Eye?  

MedlinePLUS

... Reduced Vision Tearing See all Symptoms > Glasses, Contacts & LASIK Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Eyeglasses IOLs Refractive Surgery & LASIK Sunglasses Living EyeSmart About Ophthalmologists Adults Under 40 ...

305

Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions  

MedlinePLUS

... Reduced Vision Tearing See all Symptoms > Glasses, Contacts & LASIK Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Eyeglasses IOLs Refractive Surgery & LASIK Sunglasses Living EyeSmart About Ophthalmologists Adults Under 40 ...

306

Genetic Testing and Eye Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Reduced Vision Tearing See all Symptoms > Glasses, Contacts & LASIK Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Eyeglasses IOLs Refractive Surgery & LASIK Sunglasses Living EyeSmart About Ophthalmologists Adults Under 40 ...

307

Microbial contamination of donor eyes.  

PubMed

A total number of 1,516 donor eyes received from various sources during the years 1973-1985 were subjected to the isolation of bacterial contamination. The bacterial cultures taken from the pretreatment eyeball showed culture growth in 366 (24.1%) eyes. Of the 366 positive cultures, 331 (21.8%) were bacterial and 35 (2.3%) were fungal. Amongst the bacterial the major contamination was by staphylococcus aureus and albus and pseudomonas aeruginosa. Gentamicin was found to be the most sensitive antibiotic against a wider group of organisms, the next being chloramphenicol. Thus, treatment of a cadaver eye with a solution of normal saline containing 0.1-0.5 mg/ml of gentamicin is recommended before and after the donor eye is enucleated. PMID:3068389

Panda, A; Angra, S K; Venkateshwarlu, K; Mahajan, V M; Mohan, M

1988-01-01

308

[The structural organization of the sensory system of the statocysts in nudibranch mollusks (Coryphella rufibranchialis)].  

PubMed

Using silver nitrate impregnation after Golgi and Colognier, staining with methylen blue and HRP labelling organization of peripheral and central regions of statocyst sensory system in nudibranch mollusc Coryphella rufibranchialis was investigated. Ramification of processes of the majority of statocyst receptor cells in its wall, adjacent optic and both cerebropleural ganglia was demonstrated. Special attention was drawn to structural bases of possible intersensory interactions between statocyst. Common zone of distribution of afferent fibres from statocysts, eyes, rhinophores and neuron processes of optic ganglia were distinguished and neurons innervating these zones and pedal ganglia were discovered. PMID:10709195

Za?tseva, O V

1999-01-01

309

Neurophysiological Effects of Early Sensory Restriction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Severe restriction of early sensory experience in dogs produces striking abnormalities in their behavior at maturity. There have been no studies, however, of the neurophysiological effects of early restriction. An exploratory study was therefore carried o...

R. Melzack S. K. Burns

1965-01-01

310

Management of thyroid eye disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thyroid eye disease (TED) is the most frequent extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves' disease. In most instances it is mild and non-progressive, but in 3%-5% of cases it is severe. Non-severe TED requires only supportive measures, such as eye ointments, sunglasses and prisms. By contrast, severe TED requires aggressive treatment, either medical (high-dose glucocorticoids, orbital radiotherapy) or surgical (orbital decompression). The

Luigi Bartalena; Claudio Marcocci; Maria Laura Tanda; Aldo Pinchera

2002-01-01

311

Eye-voice-controlled interface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ocular Attention-Sensing Interface System (OASIS) is an innovative human-computer interface which utilizes eye movement and voice commands to communicate messages between the operator and the system. This report initially describes some technical issues relevant to the development of such an interface. The results of preliminary experiments which evaluate alternative eye processing algorithms and feedback techniques are presented. Candidate interface applications are also discussed.

Glenn, Floyd A., III; Iavecchia, Helene P.; Ross, Lorna V.; Stokes, James M.; Weiland, William J.

1986-01-01

312

Prognosis of perforating eye injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of visual function in a series of 130 consecutive patients of perforating eye injuries, revealed that visual acuity of 6\\/12 or better was regained in 63 per cent, between 6\\/60 and 6\\/18 in 9-2 per cent, less than 6\\/60 in 15-3 per cent, and enucleation was necessary in 9-2 per cent. In 3 per cent, the eyes were

H P Adhikary; P Taylor; D J Fitzmaurice

1976-01-01

313

The Cat's Eye Nebula  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows one of the most complex planetary nebulae ever seen, NGC 6543, nicknamed the 'Cat's Eye Nebula.' Hubble reveals surprisingly intricate structures including concentric gas shells, jets of high-speed gas and unusual shock-induced knots of gas. Estimated to be 1,000 years old, the nebula is a visual 'fossil record' of the dynamics and late evolution of a dying star. A preliminary interpretation suggests that the star might be a double-star system. The suspected companion star also might be responsible for a pair of high-speed jets of gas that lie at right angles to this equatorial ring. If the companion were pulling in material from a neighboring star, jets escaping along the companion's rotation axis could be produced. These jets would explain several puzzling features along the periphery of the gas lobes. Like a stream of water hitting a sand pile, the jets compress gas ahead of them, creating the 'curlicue' features and bright arcs near the outer edge of the lobes. The twin jets are now pointing in different directions than these features. This suggests the jets are wobbling, or precessing, and turning on and off episodically. This color picture, taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2, is a composite of three images taken at different wavelengths. (red, hydrogen-alpha; blue, neutral oxygen, 6300 angstroms; green, ionized nitrogen, 6584 angstroms). The image was taken on September 18, 1994. NGC 6543 is 3,000 light- years away in the northern constellation Draco. The term planetary nebula is a misnomer; dying stars create these cocoons when they lose outer layers of gas. The process has nothing to do with planet formation, which is predicted to happen early in a star's life.

1994-01-01

314

Chromosomal localization and genomic organization of genes encoding guanylyl cyclase receptors expressed in olfactory sensory neurons and retina  

SciTech Connect

We recently cloned three membrane guanylyl cyclases, designated GC-D, CG-E, and GC-F, from rat olfactory tissue and eye. Amino acid sequence homology suggests that they may compose a new gene subfamily of guanylyl cyclase receptors specifically expressed in sensory tissues. Their chromosomal localization was determined by mouse interspecific backcross analysis. The GC-D, CG-E, and GC-F genes (Gucy2d, Gucy2e, and Gucy2f) are dispersed through the mouse genome in that they map to chromosomes 7, 11, and X, respectively. Close proximity of the mouse GC-D gene to Omp (olfactory marker protein) and Hbb (hemoglobin {beta}-chain complex) suggests that the human homolog gene maps to 11p15.4 or 11q13.4-q14.1. The human GC-F gene was localized to the long arm of chromosome Xq22 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The genomic organization of the mouse GC-E, and GC-F genomic clones contain identical exon-intron boundaries within their extracellular and cytoplasmic domains, demonstrating the conservation of the gene structures. With respect to human genetic diseases, GC-E mapped to mouse chromosome 11 within a syntenic region on human chromosome 17p13 that has been linked with loci for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa and Leber congenital amaurosis. No apparent disease loci have been yet linked to the locations of the GC-D or GC-F genes. 39 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Yang, Ruey-Bing; Fuelle, H.J.; Garbers, D.L. [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)] [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

1996-02-01

315

Building sensory receptors on the tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurotrophins, neurotrophin receptors and sensory neurons are required for the development of lingual sense organs. For example,\\u000a neurotrophin 3 sustains lingual somatosensory neurons. In the traditional view, sensory axons will terminate where neurotrophin\\u000a expression is most pronounced. Yet, lingual somatosensory axons characteristically terminate in each filiform papilla and\\u000a in each somatosensory prominence within a cluster of cells expressing the p75

Bruce Oakley; Martin Witt

2004-01-01

316

P50 Sensory Gating in Infants  

PubMed Central

Attentional deficits are common in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders including attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, autism, bipolar mood disorder, and schizophrenia. There has been increasing interest in the neurodevelopmental components of these attentional deficits; neurodevelopmental meaning that while the deficits become clinically prominent in childhood or adulthood, the deficits are the results of problems in brain development that begin in infancy or even prenatally. Despite this interest, there are few methods for assessing attention very early in infancy. This report focuses on one method, infant auditory P50 sensory gating. Attention has several components. One of the earliest components of attention, termed sensory gating, allows the brain to tune out repetitive, noninformative sensory information. Auditory P50 sensory gating refers to one task designed to measure sensory gating using changes in EEG. When identical auditory stimuli are presented 500 ms apart, the evoked response (change in the EEG associated with the processing of the click) to the second stimulus is generally reduced relative to the response to the first stimulus (i.e. the response is "gated"). When response to the second stimulus is not reduced, this is considered a poor sensory gating, is reflective of impaired cerebral inhibition, and is correlated with attentional deficits. Because the auditory P50 sensory gating task is passive, it is of potential utility in the study of young infants and may provide a window into the developmental time course of attentional deficits in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. The goal of this presentation is to describe the methodology for assessing infant auditory P50 sensory gating, a methodology adapted from those used in studies of adult populations.

Ross, Anne Spencer; Hunter, Sharon Kay; Groth, Mark A; Ross, Randal Glenn

2013-01-01

317

Sensory circumventricular organs in health and disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circumventricular organs (CVOs) are specialized brain structures located around the third and fourth ventricles. They differ\\u000a from the rest of the brain parenchyma in that they are highly vascularised areas that lack a blood–brain barrier. These neurohaemal\\u000a organs are classified as “sensory”, when they contain neurons that can receive chemical inputs from the bloodstream. This\\u000a review focuses on the sensory

Sílvia Sisó; Martin Jeffrey; Lorenzo González

2010-01-01

318

Sensory Design of Foods for the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims:Elderly persons with dysphagia need food that requires little or no chewing, that is easy to swallow and has attractive sensory characteristics. The aim was to investigate how ingredients varied according to experimental designs influence the perceived sensory, chewing and swallowing characteristics of two types of texture-modified model foods. Methods: Meat- and carrot-based, texture-modified model foods were produced. The following

Gunnar Hall; Karin Wendin

2008-01-01

319

Sensory study in restaurant interior design  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to five senses, sight, smell, taste, hearing, and haptic, sight receives the most attention in restaurant interior design; however, the other senses are significant as well. Since taste is impossible to deliver through interior design, this thesis focuses on the other four senses, which are sight, smell, hearing and haptic, in regard to restaurant sensory design.\\u000aTo impart sensory

Xue Yu

2009-01-01

320

P50 sensory gating in infants.  

PubMed

Attentional deficits are common in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders including attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, autism, bipolar mood disorder, and schizophrenia. There has been increasing interest in the neurodevelopmental components of these attentional deficits; neurodevelopmental meaning that while the deficits become clinically prominent in childhood or adulthood, the deficits are the results of problems in brain development that begin in infancy or even prenatally. Despite this interest, there are few methods for assessing attention very early in infancy. This report focuses on one method, infant auditory P50 sensory gating. Attention has several components. One of the earliest components of attention, termed sensory gating, allows the brain to tune out repetitive, noninformative sensory information. Auditory P50 sensory gating refers to one task designed to measure sensory gating using changes in EEG. When identical auditory stimuli are presented 500 ms apart, the evoked response (change in the EEG associated with the processing of the click) to the second stimulus is generally reduced relative to the response to the first stimulus (i.e. the response is "gated"). When response to the second stimulus is not reduced, this is considered a poor sensory gating, is reflective of impaired cerebral inhibition, and is correlated with attentional deficits. Because the auditory P50 sensory gating task is passive, it is of potential utility in the study of young infants and may provide a window into the developmental time course of attentional deficits in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. The goal of this presentation is to describe the methodology for assessing infant auditory P50 sensory gating, a methodology adapted from those used in studies of adult populations. PMID:24430259

Ross, Anne Spencer; Hunter, Sharon Kay; Groth, Mark A; Ross, Randal Glenn

2013-01-01

321

Research on sensory interaction in the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soviet research on sensory interaction is reviewed under the headings of changes in sensory response under accessory stimulation; some conditions affecting sensory interaction; some theory of sensory interaction (discussion of contiguity, neural excitation, leveling and accentuation, intracentral mediation, ionic balance, autonomic nervous system, green receptors, modification of primary conditions, and conditioning). It is concluded that the 24 years of research

Ivan D. London

1954-01-01

322

Simulation of Ametropic Human Eyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computational simulation of the performance of human eyes is complex because the optical parameters of the eye depend on many factors, including age, gender, race, refractive status (accommodation and near- or far-sightedness). This task is made more difficult by the inadequacy of the population statistical characteristics of these parameters. Previously we simulated ametropic (near- or far-sighted) eyes using three independent variables: the axial length of the eye, the corneal surface curvature, and the intraocular refractive index gradient. The prescription for the correction of an ametropic eye is determined by its second-order coefficients of the wavefront aberrations. These corrections are typically achieved using contact lens, spectacle lens, or laser surgery (LASIK). However, the higher order aberrations, which are not corrected and are likely complicated or enhanced by the lower-order correction, could be important for visual performance in a darkened environment. In this paper, we investigate the higher order wavefront aberrations of synthetic ametropic eyes and compare results with measured data published in the past decade. The behavior of three types of ametropes is discussed.

Tan, Bo; Chen, Ying-Ling; Lewis, James W. L.

2004-11-01

323

The eye and the heart  

PubMed Central

The vasculature of the eye and the heart share several common characteristics. The easily accessible vessels of the eye are therefore—to some extent—a window to the heart. There is interplay between cardiovascular functions and risk factors and the occurrence and progression of many eye diseases. In particular, arteriovenous nipping, narrowing of retinal arteries, and the dilatation of retinal veins are important signs of increased cardiovascular risk. The pressure in the dilated veins is often markedly increased due to a dysregulation of venous outflow from the eye. Besides such morphological criteria, functional alterations might be even more relevant and may play an important role in future diagnostics. Via neurovascular coupling, flickering light dilates capillaries and small arterioles, thus inducing endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated dilation of larger retinal vessels. Risk factors for arteriosclerosis, such as dyslipidaemia, diabetes, or systemic hypertension, are also risk factors for eye diseases such as retinal arterial or retinal vein occlusions, cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, and increases in intraocular pressure (IOP). Functional alterations of blood flow are particularly relevant to the eye. The primary vascular dysregulation syndrome (PVD), which often includes systemic hypotension, is associated with disturbed autoregulation of ocular blood flow (OBF). Fluctuation of IOP on a high level or blood pressure on a low level leads to instable OBF and oxygen supply and therefore to oxidative stress, which is particularly involved in the pathogenesis of glaucomatous neuropathy. Vascular dysregulation also leads to a barrier dysfunction and thereby to small retinal haemorrhages.

Flammer, Josef; Konieczka, Katarzyna; Bruno, Rosa M.; Virdis, Agostino; Flammer, Andreas J.; Taddei, Stefano

2013-01-01

324

Dominant Leadership Style in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dominant leadership style is defined by the situation and the kind of organizational environment and climate. This, however, does not sufficiently define the leadership qualities in school organizations. There are other factors which also determine the dominant leadership style, which are the traits and style, teachers commitments, pass out…

Rajbhandari, Mani Man Singh

2006-01-01

325

Cortical Gating of Oropharyngeal Sensory Stimuli  

PubMed Central

Somatosensory evoked potentials provide a measure of cortical neuronal activation in response to various types of sensory stimuli. In order to prevent flooding of the cortex with redundant information various sensory stimuli are gated cortically such that response to stimulus 2 (S2) is significantly reduced in amplitude compared to stimulus 1 (S1). Upper airway protective mechanisms, such as swallowing and cough, are dependent on sensory input for triggering and modifying their motor output. Thus, it was hypothesized that central neural gating would be absent for paired-air puff stimuli applied to the oropharynx. Twenty-three healthy adults (18–35 years) served as research participants. Pharyngeal sensory evoked potentials (PSEPs) were measured via 32-electrode cap (10–20 system) connected to SynAmps2 Neuroscan EEG System. Paired-pulse air puffs were delivered with an inter-stimulus interval of 500?ms to the oropharynx using a thin polyethylene tube connected to a flexible laryngoscope. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a repeated measures analysis of variance. There were no significant differences found for the amplitudes S1 and S2 for any of the four component PSEP peaks. Mean gating ratios were above 0.90 for each peak. Results supports our hypothesis that sensory central neural gating would be absent for component PSEP peaks with paired-pulse stimuli delivered to the oropharynx. This may be related to the need for constant sensory monitoring necessary for adequate airway protection associated with swallowing and coughing.

Wheeler-Hegland, Karen; Pitts, Teresa; Davenport, Paul W.

2010-01-01

326

Quantitative fractography of fish-eye crack formation under bending–torsion fatigue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents results of the fractographical analysis of fish-eye cracks that were formed in plasma-nitrided steel specimens under symmetrical bending, symmetrical torsion and biaxial in-phase bending–torsion loading combinations. Due to higher strength and compressive residual stresses introduced by plasma nitriding procedure, the subsurface fish-eye cracks were initiated inside the specimen bulk as a dominant failure mechanism. The geometrical characteristics

Karel Sláme?ka; Jaroslav Pokluda; Marta Kianicová; Št?pán Major; Ivan Dvo?ák

2010-01-01

327

Eyes and Ears: Combining Sensory Motor Systems Modelled on Insect Physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrating sensorimotor systems is still a difficult problem for robotics. Biological inspiration, which has been effectively used to address single sensorimotor tasks, could also be applied to this problem. Several studies on the cricket suggest that it integrates an optomotor response to improve its sound localization behaviour. We have taken two existing `biorobots'-one that uses an a VLSI circuit to

Barbara Webb; Reid R. Harrison

2000-01-01

328

Eye mechanics and their implications for eye movement control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The topic of this thesis is the investigation of the mechanical properties of the oculomotor system and the implications of these properties for eye movement control. The investigation was conducted by means of computer models and simulations. This allowed us to combine data from anatomy, physiology and psychophysics with basic principles of physics (mechanics) and mathematics (geometry). In chapter 2 we investigate the degree to which mechanical and neural non-linearities contribute to the kinematic differences between centrifugal and centripetal saccades. On the basis of the velocity profiles of centrifugal and centripetal saccades we calculate the forces and muscle innervations during these eye movements. This was done using an inverted model of the eye plant. Our results indicate that the non-linear force-velocity relationship (i.e. muscle viscosity) of the muscles is probably the cause of the kinematic differences between centrifugal and centripetal saccades. In chapter 3 we calculate the adjustment of the saccadic command that is necessary to compensate for the eye plant non-linearities. These calculations show that the agonist and antagonist muscles require different net saccade signal gain changes. In order to better understand how this gain change is accomplished we use the inverted model of the eye plant (chapter 2) to calculate the muscle innervation profiles of saccades with different starting orientations. Based on these calculations we conclude that the saccade signal gain changes are accomplished primarily by changes in the magnitude of the saccade signal. In chapter 4 we examine the requirements that the oculomotor system must meet for the eye to be able to make desired gaze changes and fixate at various eye orientations. We first determine how the axes of action (i.e. unit moment vectors) of the muscles are related to eye orientation and the location of the effective muscle origin (i.e. the muscle pulleys). Next we show how this relation constrains muscle pulley locations if the eye movements are controlled by specific rules. The two control theories we investigate are: 1. Eye movements that obey Listing's law, and the binocular extension of Listing's law, actively use only the horizontal and vertical muscle pairs. 2. Oculomotor control involves perfect agonist-antagonist muscle alignment. In chapter 5 we test two assumptions that are commonly made in models of the oculomotor plant. The first is the assumption that the antagonistic muscles can be viewed as a single bi-directional muscle. The second is the assumption that the three muscle pairs act in orthogonal directions. On the basis of the geometrical properties governing the muscle paths we show how these assumptions give rise to incorrect predictions for the oculomotor control signals. Using the same muscle activation patterns for eye plant models with and without these assumptions we calculate the eye orientations that are reached. Finally in chapter 6 we discuss some general conclusions concerning the consequences of the mechanics of the eye for oculomotor control.

Koene, Ansgar Roald

2002-11-01

329

Calibration of an eye oximeter with a dynamic eye phantom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of oxygen saturation and flow in the retina can yield information about the eye health and the onset of eye pathologies such as Diabetic Retinopathy. Recently we have realized an instrument capable of measuring oxygenation in the retina using six different wavelengths and capable of measuring blood flow using speckle-based techniques. The calibration of such instrument is particularly difficult due to the layered structure of the eye and the lack of alternative measurement techniques. For this purpose we have realized an in vitro model of the human eye. The artificial eye is composed of four layers: the retina vessels, the choroids, the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), and the sclera. The retina vessels are modeled with 150 ?m tube connected to a micro-pump delivering 34 ?l/min. The micro-tube, the pump, and a blood reservoir were connected in a closed circulatory system; blood oxygenation in the vessel could be modified using an external oxygen reservoir. The optical properties of all other layers were mimicked using titanium dioxide as a scatterer and ink as an absorber. The absorption coefficient ?a and the scattering coefficient µs of these layers were independently measured using an integrating sphere. Absorption and scattering coefficient of all layers were modified before experimental measurements and a Monte Carlo program was finally used to model the experimental results.

Nabili, A.; Bardakci, D.; Helling, K.; Matyas, C.; Muro, S.; Ramella-Roman, J. C.

2008-02-01

330

When the Wheels Touch Earth and the Flight is Through, Pilots Find One Eye is Better Than Two?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study investigated the impact of near to eye displays on both operational and visual performance by employing a human-in-the-loop simulation of straight-in ILS approaches while using a near to eye (NTE) display. The approaches were flown in simulated visual and instrument conditions while using either a biocular NTE or a monocular NTE display on either the dominant or non dominant eye. The pilot s flight performance, visual acuity, and ability to detect unsafe conditions on the runway were tested.

Valimont, Brian; Wise, John A.; Nichols, Troy; Best, Carl; Suddreth, John; Cupero, Frank

2009-01-01

331

Effect of altered sensory conditions on multivariate descriptors of human postural sway  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multivariate descriptors of sway were used to test whether altered sensory conditions result not only in changes in amount of sway but also in postural coordination. Eigenvalues and directions of eigenvectors of the covariance of shnk and hip angles were used as a set of multivariate descriptors. These quantities were measured in 14 healthy adult subjects performing the Sensory Organization test, which disrupts visual and somatosensory information used for spatial orientation. Multivariate analysis of variance and discriminant analysis showed that resulting sway changes were at least bivariate in character, with visual and somatosensory conditions producing distinct changes in postural coordination. The most significant changes were found when somatosensory information was disrupted by sway-referencing of the support surface (P = 3.2 x 10(-10)). The resulting covariance measurements showed that subjects not only swayed more but also used increased hip motion analogous to the hip strategy. Disruption of vision, by either closing the eyes or sway-referencing the visual surround, also resulted in altered sway (P = 1.7 x 10(-10)), with proportionately more motion of the center of mass than with platform sway-referencing. As shown by discriminant analysis, an optimal univariate measure could explain at most 90% of the behavior due to altered sensory conditions. The remaining 10%, while smaller, are highly significant changes in posture control that depend on sensory conditions. The results imply that normal postural coordination of the trunk and legs requires both somatosensory and visual information and that each sensory modality makes a unique contribution to posture control. Descending postural commands are multivariate in nature, and the motion at each joint is affected uniquely by input from multiple sensors.

Kuo, A. D.; Speers, R. A.; Peterka, R. J.; Horak, F. B.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

332

The perception of heading during eye movements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Warren and Hannon (1988, 1990), while studying the perception of heading during eye movements, concluded that people do not require extraretinal information to judge heading with eye/head movements present. Here, heading judgments are examined at higher, more typical eye movement velocities than the extremely slow tracking eye movements used by Warren and Hannon. It is found that people require extraretinal information about eye position to perceive heading accurately under many viewing conditions.

Royden, Constance S.; Banks, Martin S.; Crowell, James A.

1992-01-01

333

Optical coherence tomography of the eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a new technique for high-resolution, cross-sectional imaging of tissue in which the time-of-flight delay of light reflected from internal tissue structures is resolved with high precision using interferometry. Tomographic images are obtained which are analogous to those provided by ultrasound except that image contrast relies on differences in optical rather than acoustic properties of tissue. The use of light rather than sound enables higher resolution (10 ?m) and non-contact imaging. A clinically viable high-sensitivity, fiber-optic based OCT instrument has been constructed based on engineering principles derived from optical communication theory. Computer algorithms have also been developed for quantitative image analysis and restoration. OCT has been used to image patients with a variety of ocular diseases. In patients with macular pathology, OCT images have been correlated with conventional clinical examination and fluorescein angiography. Optical coherence tomograms are effective in staging macular holes, evaluating the vitreoretinal interface in eyes at risk for a macular hole, and providing a structural assessment of macular hole surgery. In eyes with central serous chorioretinopathy, OCT can evaluate sensory retinal separations undetected at the slit-lamp. Serial OCT images of macular edema are able to track both the progression of macular thickening and the resolution of macular edema following laser photocoagulation. In patients with diabetic retinopathy, measurements of macular thickness correlate with visual acuity and OCT is more sensitive to small changes in retinal thickness than slit-lamp biomicroscopy. OCT may provide a novel method of defining occult choroidal neovascular membranes in patients with age-related macular degeneration. OCT can also profile the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer with high resolution which is potentially important for the objective assessment of early glaucoma progression. OCT images have been correlated with visual field performance and optic nerve appearance in a cross- section of patients with various stages of glaucoma. These studies suggest that OCT has the potential to become an important diagnostic tool for the practicing ophthalmologist. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)

Hee, Michael Richard

1997-10-01

334

Sensory stimulation activates both motor and sensory components of the swallowing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volitional swallowing in humans involves the coordination of both brainstem and cerebral swallowing control regions. Peripheral sensory inputs are necessary for safe and efficient swallowing, and their importance to the patterned components of swallowing has been demonstrated. However, the role of sensory inputs to the cerebral system during volitional swallowing is less clear. We used four conditions applied during functional

Soren Y. Lowell; Christopher J. Poletto; Bethany R. Knorr-Chung; Richard C. Reynolds; Kristina Simonyan; Christy L. Ludlow

2008-01-01

335

Sensory stimulation activates both motor and sensory components of the swallowing system  

PubMed Central

Volitional swallowing in humans involves the coordination of both brainstem and cerebral swallowing control regions. Peripheral sensory inputs are necessary for safe and efficient swallowing, and their importance to the patterned components of swallowing has been demonstrated. However, the role of sensory inputs to the cerebral system during volitional swallowing is less clear. We used four conditions applied during functional magnetic resonance imaging to differentiate between sensory, motor planning, and motor execution components for cerebral control of swallowing. Oral air pulse stimulation was used to examine the effect of sensory input, covert swallowing was used to engage motor planning for swallowing, and overt swallowing was used to activate the volitional swallowing system. Breath-holding was also included to determine whether its effects could account for the activation seen during overt swallowing. Oral air pulse stimulation, covert swallowing and overt swallowing all produced activation in the primary motor cortex, cingulate cortex, putamen and insula. Additional regions of the swallowing cerebral system that were activated by the oral air pulse stimulation condition included the primary and secondary somatosensory cortex and thalamus. Although air pulse stimulation was on the right side only, bilateral cerebral activation occurred. On the other hand, covert swallowing minimally activated sensory regions, but did activate the supplementary motor area and other motor regions. Breath-holding did not account for the activation during overt swallowing. The effectiveness of oral-sensory stimulation for engaging both sensory and motor components of the cerebral swallowing system demonstrates the importance of sensory input in cerebral swallowing control.

Lowell, Soren Y.; Poletto, Christopher J.; Knorr-Chung, Bethany R.; Reynolds, Richard C.; Simonyan, Kristina; Ludlow, Christy L.

2008-01-01

336

A meme's eye view of speech-language pathology.  

PubMed

In this article, the reason why certain terms, labels, and ideas prevail, whereas others fail to gain acceptance, will be considered. Borrowing the concept of "meme" from the study of evolution of ideas, it will be clear why language-based and phonological disorders have less widespread appeal than, for example, auditory processing and sensory integration disorders. Discussion will also center on why most speech-language pathologists refer to themselves as speech therapists or speech pathologists, and why it is more desirable to have dyslexia than to have a reading disability. In a meme's eye view, science and logic do not always win out because selection favors ideas (memes) that are easy to understand, remember, and copy. An unfortunate consequence of these selection forces is that successful memes typically provide superficially plausible answers for complex questions. PMID:15191323

Kamhi, Alan G

2004-04-01

337

Bilateral Sensory Abnormalities in Patients with Unilateral Neuropathic Pain; A Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) Study  

PubMed Central

In patients who experience unilateral chronic pain, abnormal sensory perception at the non-painful side has been reported. Contralateral sensory changes in these patients have been given little attention, possibly because they are regarded as clinically irrelevant. Still, bilateral sensory changes in these patients could become clinically relevant if they challenge the correct identification of their sensory dysfunction in terms of hyperalgesia and allodynia. Therefore, we have used the standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS) to investigate somatosensory function at the painful side and the corresponding non-painful side in unilateral neuropathic pain patients using gender- and age-matched healthy volunteers as a reference cohort. Sensory abnormalities were observed across all QST parameters at the painful side, but also, to a lesser extent, at the contralateral, non-painful side. Similar relative distributions regarding sensory loss/gain for non-nociceptive and nociceptive stimuli were found for both sides. Once a sensory abnormality for a QST parameter at the affected side was observed, the prevalence of an abnormality for the same parameter at the non-affected side was as high as 57% (for Pressure Pain Threshold). Our results show that bilateral sensory dysfunction in patients with unilateral neuropathic pain is more rule than exception. Therefore, this phenomenon should be taken into account for appropriate diagnostic evaluation in clinical practice. This is particularly true for mechanical stimuli where the 95% Confidence Interval for the prevalence of sensory abnormalities at the non-painful side ranges between 33% and 50%.

Konopka, Karl-Heinz; Harbers, Marten; Houghton, Andrea; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Vliet, Andre; Timmerman, Wia; den Boer, Johan A.; Struys, Michel M.R.F.; van Wijhe, Marten

2012-01-01

338

Bilateral sensory abnormalities in patients with unilateral neuropathic pain; a quantitative sensory testing (QST) study.  

PubMed

In patients who experience unilateral chronic pain, abnormal sensory perception at the non-painful side has been reported. Contralateral sensory changes in these patients have been given little attention, possibly because they are regarded as clinically irrelevant. Still, bilateral sensory changes in these patients could become clinically relevant if they challenge the correct identification of their sensory dysfunction in terms of hyperalgesia and allodynia. Therefore, we have used the standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS) to investigate somatosensory function at the painful side and the corresponding non-painful side in unilateral neuropathic pain patients using gender- and age-matched healthy volunteers as a reference cohort. Sensory abnormalities were observed across all QST parameters at the painful side, but also, to a lesser extent, at the contralateral, non-painful side. Similar relative distributions regarding sensory loss/gain for non-nociceptive and nociceptive stimuli were found for both sides. Once a sensory abnormality for a QST parameter at the affected side was observed, the prevalence of an abnormality for the same parameter at the non-affected side was as high as 57% (for Pressure Pain Threshold). Our results show that bilateral sensory dysfunction in patients with unilateral neuropathic pain is more rule than exception. Therefore, this phenomenon should be taken into account for appropriate diagnostic evaluation in clinical practice. This is particularly true for mechanical stimuli where the 95% Confidence Interval for the prevalence of sensory abnormalities at the non-painful side ranges between 33% and 50%. PMID:22629414

Konopka, Karl-Heinz; Harbers, Marten; Houghton, Andrea; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Vliet, Andre; Timmerman, Wia; den Boer, Johan A; Struys, Michel M R F; van Wijhe, Marten

2012-01-01

339

Sensory reweighting dynamics in human postural control.  

PubMed

Healthy humans control balance during stance by using an active feedback mechanism that generates corrective torque based on a combination of movement and orientation cues from visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems. Previous studies found that the contribution of each of these sensory systems changes depending on perturbations applied during stance and on environmental conditions. The process of adjusting the sensory contributions to balance control is referred to as sensory reweighting. To investigate the dynamics of reweighting for the sensory modalities of vision and proprioception, 14 healthy young subjects were exposed to six different combinations of continuous visual scene and platform tilt stimuli while sway responses were recorded. Stimuli consisted of two components: 1) a pseudorandom component whose amplitude periodically switched between low and high amplitudes and 2) a low-amplitude sinusoidal component whose amplitude remained constant throughout a trial. These two stimuli were mathematically independent of one another and, thus, permitted separate analyses of sway responses to the two components. For all six stimulus combinations, the sway responses to the constant-amplitude sine were influenced by the changing amplitude of the pseudorandom component in a manner consistent with sensory reweighting. Results show clear evidence of intra- and intermodality reweighting. Reweighting dynamics were asymmetric, with slower reweighting dynamics following a high-to-low transition in the pseudorandom stimulus amplitude compared with low-to-high amplitude shifts, and were also slower for inter- compared with intramodality reweighting. PMID:24501263

Assländer, Lorenz; Peterka, Robert J

2014-05-01

340

Double peak sensory responses: effects of capsaicin.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to verify whether degeneration of skin receptors or intradermal nerve endings by topical application of capsaicin modifies the double peak response obtained by submaximal anodal stimulation. Five healthy volunteers topically applied capsaicin to the finger-tip of digit III (on the distal phalanx) four times daily for 4-5 weeks. Before and after local capsaicin applications, we studied the following electrophysiological findings: compound sensory action potential (CSAP), double peak response, sensory threshold and double peak stimulus intensity. Local capsaicin application causes disappearance or decrease of the second component of the double peak, which gradually increases after the suspension of capsaicin. Conversely, no significant differences were observed for CSAP, sensory threshold and double peak stimulus intensity. This study suggests that the second component of the double peak may be a diagnostic tool suitable to show an impairment of the extreme segments of sensory nerve fibres in distal sensory axonopathy in the early stages of damage, when receptors or skin nerve endings are impaired but undetectable by standard nerve conduction studies. PMID:17972041

Aprile, I; Tonali, P; Stalberg, E; Di Stasio, E; Caliandro, P; Foschini, M; Vergili, G; Padua, L

2007-10-01

341

Development and Organization of Ocular Dominance Bands in Primary Visual Cortex of the Sable Ferret  

PubMed Central

Thalamocortical afferents in the visual cortex of the adult sable ferret are segregated into eye-specific ocular dominance bands. The development of ocular dominance bands was studied by transneuronal labeling of the visual cortices of ferret kits between the ages of postnatal day 28 (P28) and P81 after intravitreous injections of either tritiated proline or wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase. Laminar specificity was evident in the youngest animals studied and was similar to that in the adult by P50. In P28 and P30 ferret kits, no modulation reminiscent of ocular dominance bands was detectable in the pattern of labeling along layer IV. By P37 a slight fluctuation in the density of labeling in layer IV was evident in serial reconstructions. By P50, the amplitude of modulation had increased considerably but the pattern of ocular dominance bands did not yet appear mature. The pattern and degree of modulation of the ocular dominance bands resembled that in adult animals by P63. Flat mounts of cortex and serial reconstructions of layer IV revealed an unusual arrangement of inputs serving the two eyes in the region rostral to the periodic ocular dominance bands. In this region, inputs serving the contralateral eye were commonly fused along a mediolateral axis, rostral to which were large and sometimes fused patches of ipsilateral input.

RUTHAZER, E.S.; BAKER, G.E.; STRYKER, M.P.

2008-01-01

342

Tracking with the mind's eye  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two components of voluntary tracking eye-movements in primates, pursuit and saccades, are generally viewed as relatively independent oculomotor subsystems that move the eyes in different ways using independent visual information. Although saccades have long been known to be guided by visual processes related to perception and cognition, only recently have psychophysical and physiological studies provided compelling evidence that pursuit is also guided by such higher-order visual processes, rather than by the raw retinal stimulus. Pursuit and saccades also do not appear to be entirely independent anatomical systems, but involve overlapping neural mechanisms that might be important for coordinating these two types of eye movement during the tracking of a selected visual object. Given that the recovery of objects from real-world images is inherently ambiguous, guiding both pursuit and saccades with perception could represent an explicit strategy for ensuring that these two motor actions are driven by a single visual interpretation.

Krauzlis, R. J.; Stone, L. S.

1999-01-01

343

Visual acuity and the eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sighted individuals take the eye and its processes very much for granted. Within this set of individuals there are many physics students who have little awareness of the optics of the eye. They are usually able to describe its basic structure and resemblance to a camera, and name some of its defects, but they seem to be unaware of the role of the various elements of the eye in the perception of spatial detail, i.e. visual acuity. To give a greater appreciation of human vision the author makes a comparison with other vertebrates and insects. Inevitably, in an article of this kind the picture must be incomplete, but the objective is to whet the appetite of the serious student and encourage him/her to research the subject more clearly.

Beynon, J.

1985-09-01

344

Trade-offs in cavefish sensory capacity.  

PubMed

In caves one repeatedly finds strikingly convergent patterns of evolution in diverse sets of organisms involving 'regressive' traits such as the loss of eyes and pigmentation. Ongoing debate centers around whether these regressive traits arise as the result of neutral evolutionary processes, or rather by natural selection of 'constructive' traits that arise at the expense of eyes and pigmentation. Recent research on cavefish points to the latter, suggesting that the 'constructive' trait vibrational attractive behavior and the reduction of eye size may share a common genetic basis.See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/10/108. PMID:23347449

Gunter, Helen; Meyer, Axel

2013-01-01

345

Looking like mother makes mallard ducklings dominant over their siblings.  

PubMed

Colour variation in time and space among animals may affect social relationships such as pairing and dominance interactions. For instance, some birds are naturally sensitive to leg colour, with some colours being more visible or attractive than others. The colour of the leg-rings used to mark birds may thus be related to behavioural and reproductive variables. Most studies have investigated this effect for adults during reproduction, but leg-ring colour may also affect the behaviour of young birds. We tested the potential effect of leg-ring colours on the within-brood dominance hierarchy of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings while each brood formed a stable and exclusive family unit with its mother. Ducklings did not acquire a within-brood dominance rank according to the colour of their own ring. This result suggests that mallards may not have a sensory bias for a given colouration. However, ducklings wearing a ring of the same colour as one of the two rings of their mother were dominant over their siblings. We discuss the potential behavioural and methodological implications of this result. PMID:19733637

Poisbleau, Maud; Guillemain, Matthieu; Pinaud, David; Demongin, Laurent; Carslake, David; David, Joan

2010-01-01

346

Method of ensuring eye-to eye contact in multi-view video conference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eye-to-eye contact is considered to be important in understanding each other in immersive video conference in the future. In this letter, a new method to guarantee participants eye-to-eye contact is presented. In the method, it is supposed that the listener is directly facing the display screen. So the technique of ensuring eye-to-eye contact can be alternatively carried out by detecting

Li Yixia; Chang Yilin; Zhou Na

2009-01-01

347

Saccadic eye movement during spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Saccadic eye movements were studied in six subjects during two Space Shuttle missions. Reaction time, peak velocity and accuracy of horizontal, visually-guided saccades were examined preflight, inflight and postflight. Conventional electro-oculography was used to record eye position, with the subjects responding to pseudo-randomly illuminated targets at 0 deg and + or - 10 deg and 20 deg visual angles. In all subjects, preflight measurements were within normal limits. Reaction time was significantly increased inflight, while peak velocity was significantly decreased. A tendency toward a greater proportion of hypometric saccades inflight was also noted. Possible explanations for these changes and possible correlations with space motion sickness are discussed.

Uri, John J.; Linder, Barry J.; Moore, Thomas P.; Pool, Sam L.; Thornton, William E.

1989-01-01

348

Radiation effects on eye components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most important water-soluble components of the vertebrate eye (lens proteins, aqueous humor, vitreous, hyaluronic acid, ascorbic acid) have been investigated in aqueous solution, after preceding X- or UV-irradiation. Spectroscopic, chromatographic, electrophoretic, hydrodynamic and analytic techniques have been applied, to monitor several radiation damages such as destruction of aromatic and sulfur-containing amino acids, aggregation, crosslinking, dissociation, fragmentation, and partial unfolding. Various substances were found which were able to protect eye components effectively against radiation, some of them being also of medical relevance.

Durchschlag, H.; Fochler, C.; Abraham, K.; Kulawik, B.

1999-08-01

349

Sussex Eye Hospital sports injuries.  

PubMed Central

To assess the prevalence of sports eye injuries in our area a register was kept over the 18 months from October 1982 to March 1984. Squash, association football, badminton, and tennis were the main offenders. The severest injury was from a golf ball, involving a fractured zygoma. There was one retinal dialysis, and one lens dislocation requiring extraction. Spectacles were broken in six cases and a contact lens in one. Glass fragments needed operative removal in one case, but there were no penetrating injuries. The value of eye protection, not worn by any of our patients, is emphasised.

Gregory, P T

1986-01-01

350

Accurate metacognition for visual sensory memory representations.  

PubMed

The capacity to attend to multiple objects in the visual field is limited. However, introspectively, people feel that they see the whole visual world at once. Some scholars suggest that this introspective feeling is based on short-lived sensory memory representations, whereas others argue that the feeling of seeing more than can be attended to is illusory. Here, we investigated this phenomenon by combining objective memory performance with subjective confidence ratings during a change-detection task. This allowed us to compute a measure of metacognition-the degree of knowledge that subjects have about the correctness of their decisions-for different stages of memory. We show that subjects store more objects in sensory memory than they can attend to but, at the same time, have similar metacognition for sensory memory and working memory representations. This suggests that these subjective impressions are not an illusion but accurate reflections of the richness of visual perception. PMID:24549293

Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R E; Sligte, Ilja G; Barrett, Adam B; Seth, Anil K; Fahrenfort, Johannes J; Lamme, Victor A F

2014-04-01

351

Chronic effects of cannabis on sensory gating.  

PubMed

Chronic cannabis use has been associated with neurocognitive deficits, alterations in brain structure and function, and with psychosis. This study investigated the effects of chronic cannabis use on P50 sensory-gating in regular users, and explored the association between sensory gating, cannabis use history and the development of psychotic-like symptoms. Twenty controls and 21 regular cannabis users completed a P50 paired-click (S1 and S2) paradigm with an inter-pair interval of 9s. The groups were compared on P50 amplitude to S1 and S2, P50 ratio (S2/S1) and P50 difference score (S1-S2). While cannabis users overall did not differ from controls on P50 measures, prolonged duration of regular use was associated with greater impairment in sensory gating as indexed by both P50 ratio and difference scores (including after controlling for tobacco use). Long-term cannabis users were found to have worse sensory gating ratios and difference scores compared to short-term users and controls. P50 metrics did not correlate significantly with any measure of psychotic-like symptoms in cannabis users. These results suggest that prolonged exposure to cannabis results in impaired P50 sensory-gating in long-term cannabis users. While it is possible that these deficits may have pre-dated cannabis use and reflect a vulnerability to cannabis use, their association with increasing years of cannabis use suggests that this is not the case. Impaired P50 sensory-gating ratios have also been reported in patients with schizophrenia and may indicate a similar underlying pathology. PMID:23628289

Broyd, Samantha J; Greenwood, Lisa-Marie; Croft, Rodney J; Dalecki, Anna; Todd, Juanita; Michie, Patricia T; Johnstone, Stuart J; Solowij, Nadia

2013-09-01

352

The Postnatal Development of Spinal Sensory Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanisms by which infants and children process pain should be viewed within the context of a developing sensory nervous system. The study of the neurophysiological properties and connectivity of sensory neurons in the developing spinal cord dorsal horn of the intact postnatal rat has shed light on the way in which the newborn central nervous system analyzes cutaneous innocuous and noxious stimuli. The receptive field properties and evoked activity of newborn dorsal horn cells to single repetitive and persistent innocuous and noxious inputs are developmentally regulated and reflect the maturation of excitatory transmission within the spinal cord. These changes will have an important influence on pain processing in the postnatal period.

Fitzgerald, Maria; Jennings, Ernest

1999-07-01

353

Feldenkrais sensory imagery and forward reach.  

PubMed

To investigate the effect of sensory imagery on subsequent movement, a unilateral Fleldenkrais lesson of imaging a soft bristle brush passing over one half of the body and in which no movement occurred, was given to 12 naive subjects. Forward flexion for each side of the body was measured at a sit-and-reach box. For 8 and 10 subjects who reported the perception of a side as being longer and lighter following the sensory imagery, there was also a significant increase in the forward flexion range on that side. PMID:11153843

Dunn, P A; Rogers, D K

2000-12-01

354

Does Chronic Idiopathic Dizziness Reflect an Impairment of Sensory Predictions of Self-Motion?  

PubMed Central

Most patients suffering from chronic idiopathic dizziness do not present signs of vestibular dysfunction or organic failures of other kinds. Hence, this kind of dizziness is commonly seen as psychogenic in nature, sharing commonalities with specific phobias, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety. A more specific concept put forward by Brandt and Dieterich (1) states that these patients suffer from dizziness because of an inadequate compensation of self-induced sensory stimulation. According to this hypothesis self-motion-induced reafferent visual stimulation is interpreted as motion in the world since a predictive signal reflecting the consequences of self-motion, needed to compensate the reafferent stimulus, is inadequate. While conceptually intriguing, experimental evidence supporting the idea of an inadequate prediction of the sensory consequences of own movements has as yet been lacking. Here we tested this hypothesis by applying it to the perception of background motion induced by smooth pursuit eye movements. As a matter of fact, we found the same mildly undercompensating prediction, responsible for the perception of slight illusory world motion (“Filehne illusion”) in the 15 patients tested and their age-matched controls. Likewise, the ability to adapt this prediction to the needs of the visual context was not deteriorated in patients. Finally, we could not find any correlation between measures of the individual severity of dizziness and the ability to predict. In sum, our results do not support the concept of a deviant prediction of self-induced sensory stimulation as cause of chronic idiopathic dizziness.

Pomper, Jorn K.; Gebert, Lena; Fischer, Matthias; Bunjes, Friedemann; Thier, Peter

2013-01-01

355

Factors contributing to the outcome of sensory testing in patients with anomalous binocular correspondence.  

PubMed

Traditional teaching on anomalous retinal correspondence (ARC) identifies the dissociative quality of a sensory test as the primary factor influencing the outcome of correspondence testing. However, these tests differ also in function and format. This study compared one mildly dissociating test and one highly dissociating test to evaluate the subjective visual direction of both the deviation point and the fovea of the deviating eye in 74 patients with ARC. Subjects were more likely to demonstrate an ARC response, and to do so after a significantly shorter period of time following change in alignment, on the minimally dissociating tests. Eighty-five percent demonstrated the presence of a pseudo-fovea at the deviation point, while only 39% had evidence of rewiring of the deviated fovea. The mean angle of deviation of the latter group was significantly larger than that of the former group (P < 0.001). Exotropic patients were more likely to rewire the fovea than esotropic patients (P < 0.005). The mean time needed to rewire a pre-existing ARC following a change in deviation was 7.7 ± 1 months. Results of this study indicate that variables influencing sensory test results include: a) retinal element evaluated, b) magnitude of the deviation, c) direction of the deviation, and d) age of onset of the strabismus. Results of sensory testing in patients with ARC may be misinterpreted if these factors are not taken into consideration. PMID:21856881

Arnoldi, Kyle

2011-01-01

356

Dual sensory loss: development of a dual sensory loss protocol and design of a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Dual sensory loss (DSL) has a negative impact on health and wellbeing and its prevalence is expected to increase due to demographic aging. However, specialized care or rehabilitation programs for DSL are scarce. Until now, low vision rehabilitation does not sufficiently target concurrent impairments in vision and hearing. This study aims to 1) develop a DSL protocol (for occupational therapists working in low vision rehabilitation) which focuses on optimal use of the senses and teaches DSL patients and their communication partners to use effective communication strategies, and 2) describe the multicenter parallel randomized controlled trial (RCT) designed to test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the DSL protocol. Methods/design To develop a DSL protocol, literature was reviewed and content was discussed with professionals in eye/ear care (interviews/focus groups) and DSL patients (interviews). A pilot study was conducted to test and confirm the DSL protocol. In addition, a two-armed international multi-center RCT will evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the DSL protocol compared to waiting list controls, in 124 patients in low vision rehabilitation centers in the Netherlands and Belgium. Discussion This study provides a treatment protocol for rehabilitation of DSL within low vision rehabilitation, which aims to be a valuable addition to the general low vision rehabilitation care. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR) identifier: NTR2843

2013-01-01

357

Onset timing of cross-sensory activations and multisensory interactions in auditory and visual sensory cortices  

PubMed Central

Here we report early cross-sensory activations and audiovisual interactions at the visual and auditory cortices using magnetoencephalography (MEG) to obtain accurate timing information. Data from an identical fMRI experiment were employed to support MEG source localization results. Simple auditory and visual stimuli (300-ms noise bursts and checkerboards) were presented to seven healthy humans. MEG source analysis suggested generators in the auditory and visual sensory cortices for both within-modality and cross-sensory activations. fMRI cross-sensory activations were strong in the visual but almost absent in the auditory cortex; this discrepancy with MEG possibly reflects influence of acoustical scanner noise in fMRI. In the primary auditory cortices (Heschl’s gyrus) onset of activity to auditory stimuli was observed at 23 ms in both hemispheres, and to visual stimuli at 82 ms in the left and at 75 ms in the right hemisphere. In the primary visual cortex (Calcarine fissure) the activations to visual stimuli started at 43 ms and to auditory stimuli at 53 ms. Cross-sensory activations thus started later than sensory-specific activations, by 55 ms in the auditory cortex and by 10 ms in the visual cortex, suggesting that the origins of the cross-sensory activations may be in the primary sensory cortices of the opposite modality, with conduction delays (from one sensory cortex to another) of 30–35 ms. Audiovisual interactions started at 85 ms in the left auditory, 80 ms in the right auditory, and 74 ms in the visual cortex, i.e., 3–21 ms after inputs from both modalities converged.

Raij, Tommi; Ahveninen, Jyrki; Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Witzel, Thomas; Jaaskelainen, Iiro P.; Letham, Benjamin; Israeli, Emily; Sahyoun, Cherif; Vasios, Christos; Stufflebeam, Steven; Hamalainen, Matti; Belliveau, John W.

2010-01-01

358

Gravity-Induced Vacuum Dominance  

SciTech Connect

It has been widely believed that, except in very extreme situations, the influence of gravity on quantum fields should amount to just small, subdominant contributions. This view seemed to be endorsed by the seminal results obtained over the last decades in the context of renormalization of quantum fields in curved spacetimes. Here, however, we argue that this belief is false by showing that there exist well-behaved spacetime evolutions where the vacuum energy density of free quantum fields is forced, by the very same background spacetime, to become dominant over any classical energy-density component. By estimating the time scale for the vacuum energy density to become dominant, and therefore for backreaction on the background spacetime to become important, we argue that this (infrared) vacuum dominance may bear unexpected astrophysical and cosmological implications.

Lima, William C. C.; Vanzella, Daniel A. T. [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 369, CEP 15980-900, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

2010-04-23

359

Gravity-induced vacuum dominance.  

PubMed

It has been widely believed that, except in very extreme situations, the influence of gravity on quantum fields should amount to just small, subdominant contributions. This view seemed to be endorsed by the seminal results obtained over the last decades in the context of renormalization of quantum fields in curved spacetimes. Here, however, we argue that this belief is false by showing that there exist well-behaved spacetime evolutions where the vacuum energy density of free quantum fields is forced, by the very same background spacetime, to become dominant over any classical energy-density component. By estimating the time scale for the vacuum energy density to become dominant, and therefore for backreaction on the background spacetime to become important, we argue that this (infrared) vacuum dominance may bear unexpected astrophysical and cosmological implications. PMID:20482039

Lima, William C C; Vanzella, Daniel A T

2010-04-23

360

Dietary sources of lutein and zeaxanthin carotenoids and their role in eye health.  

PubMed

The eye is a major sensory organ that requires special care for a healthy and productive lifestyle. Numerous studies have identified lutein and zeaxanthin to be essential components for eye health. Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoid pigments that impart yellow or orange color to various common foods such as cantaloupe, pasta, corn, carrots, orange/yellow peppers, fish, salmon and eggs. Their role in human health, in particular the health of the eye, is well established from epidemiological, clinical and interventional studies. They constitute the main pigments found in the yellow spot of the human retina which protect the macula from damage by blue light, improve visual acuity and scavenge harmful reactive oxygen species. They have also been linked with reduced risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cataracts. Research over the past decade has focused on the development of carotenoid-rich foods to boost their intake especially in the elderly population. The aim of this article is to review recent scientific evidences supporting the benefits of lutein and zexanthin in preventing the onset of two major age-related eye diseases with diets rich in these carotenoids. The review also lists major dietary sources of lutein and zeaxanthin and refers to newly developed foods, daily intake, bioavailability and physiological effects in relation to eye health. Examples of the newly developed high-lutein functional foods are also underlined. PMID:23571649

Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Akhtar, Humayoun; Zaheer, Khalid; Ali, Rashida

2013-04-01

361

Eye-gaze word processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erica is a personal computer operated by eye-gaze. By looking at menu options displayed at different locations on the computer monitor, a disabled user can invoke commands without the need for standard input devices. The design of test entry software for Erica's gaze word processor is described. A basic encoding is accomplished through a static tree-structured menu system, which associates

L. A. Frey; T. E. Hutchison

1990-01-01

362

Ageing changes in the eye  

PubMed Central

Ageing changes occur in all the structures of the eye causing varied effects. This article attempts to review the parameters of what is considered within the “normal limits” of ageing so as to be able to distinguish those conditions from true disease processes. Improving understanding of the ageing changes will help understand some of the problems that the ageing population faces.

Salvi, S M; Akhtar, S; Currie, Z

2006-01-01

363

Stem cells in the eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the adult organism, all tissue renewal and regeneration depends ultimately on somatic stem cells, and the eye is no exception. The importance of limbal stem cells in the maintenance of the corneal epithelium has long been recognised, and such cells are now used clinically for repair of a severely damaged cornea. The slow cycling nature of lens epithelial cells

Mike Boulton; Julie Albon

2004-01-01

364

The Eye of the Camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses the effects of security cameras on prosocial behavior. Results from previous studies indicate that the presence of others can trigger helping behavior, arising from the need for approval of others. Extending these findings, the authors propose that security cameras can likewise trigger such approval-seeking behaviors by implying the presence of a watchful eye. Because people vary in

Rompay van Thomas J. L; Dorette J. Vonk; Marieke L. Fransen

2009-01-01

365

Sustained eye closure slows saccades  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saccadic eye movements rapidly orient the line of sight towards the object of interest. Pre-motor burst neurons (BNs) controlling saccades receive excitation from superior colliculus and cerebellum, but inhibition by omnipause neurons (OPNs) prevents saccades. When the OPNs pause, BNs begin to fire. It has been presumed that part of the BN burst comes from post-inhibitory rebound (PIR). We hypothesized

Aasef G. Shaikh; Aaron L. Wong; Lance M. Optican; Kenichiro Miura; David Solomon; David S. Zee

2010-01-01

366

Adipogenesis in Thyroid Eye Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. Adipogenesis contributes to the pathogenesis of thyroid eye disease (TED). Thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) transcripts are present in orbital fat. This study was conducted to determine whether they are expressed as functional protein, and if so, whether this is restricted to TED orbits or to a particular stage in adipocyte differentiation. METHODS. Samples of fat were obtained from 18 TED-affected

Michele Crisp; Kerry Jo Starkey; Jack Ham; Marian Ludgate

2000-01-01

367

EYE BANKING - NEED AND CHALLENGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

blindness are amenable to preventive health programmes and more rapid access to appropriate ophthalmic medical care. A recent study in Africa demonstrated that corneal transplantation has a greater impact in sighted years in the developing world than does cataract surgery.2 Corneal transplantation is a surgical procedure available with good success rate, the major impediment being collection of donor eyes. This

Rotary Aravind

368

Sussex Eye Hospital sports injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the prevalence of sports eye injuries in our area a register was kept over the 18 months from October 1982 to March 1984. Squash, association football, badminton, and tennis were the main offenders. The severest injury was from a golf ball, involving a fractured zygoma. There was one retinal dialysis, and one lens dislocation requiring extraction. Spectacles were

P T Gregory

1986-01-01

369

Cyanoacrylate Adhesives in Eye Wounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three main sets of experiments are described in this report: (1) tolerance of cyanocacrylate adhesives in rabbit eyes; (2) in vitro tensile strength of corneal stroma-stroma and sclera-silicone rubber adhesive joints; and (3) sealing corneal and choroidal...

M. F. Refojo

1969-01-01

370

Cyanoacrylate Adhesives in Eye Wounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tissue tolerance studies have shown that isobutyl cyanoacrylate, and any of the homologs from n-butyl to n-decyl cyanoacrylate can be used to seal eye perforations. Isobutyl cyanocarylate is the best choice at this time, principally because it is reasonab...

M. F. Refojo

1971-01-01

371

Visual Acuity and the Eye.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows that visual acuity is a function of the structure of the eye and that its limit is set by the structure of the retina, emphasizing the role of lens aberrations and difraction on image quality. Also compares human vision with that of other vertebrates and insects. (JN)

Beynon, J.

1985-01-01

372

Nutrients for the aging eye  

PubMed Central

The incidence of age-related eye diseases is expected to rise with the aging of the population. Oxidation and inflammation are implicated in the etiology of these diseases. There is evidence that dietary antioxidants and anti-inflammatories may provide benefit in decreasing the risk of age-related eye disease. Nutrients of interest are vitamins C and E, ?-carotene, zinc, lutein, zeaxanthin, and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. While a recent survey finds that among the baby boomers (45–65 years old), vision is the most important of the five senses, well over half of those surveyed were not aware of the important nutrients that play a key role in eye health. This is evident from a national survey that finds that intake of these key nutrients from dietary sources is below the recommendations or guidelines. Therefore, it is important to educate this population and to create an awareness of the nutrients and foods of particular interest in the prevention of age-related eye disease.

Rasmussen, Helen M; Johnson, Elizabeth J

2013-01-01

373

Learning from Sensory and Reward Prediction Errors during Motor Adaptation  

PubMed Central

Voluntary motor commands produce two kinds of consequences. Initially, a sensory consequence is observed in terms of activity in our primary sensory organs (e.g., vision, proprioception). Subsequently, the brain evaluates the sensory feedback and produces a subjective measure of utility or usefulness of the motor commands (e.g., reward). As a result, comparisons between predicted and observed consequences of motor commands produce two forms of prediction error. How do these errors contribute to changes in motor commands? Here, we considered a reach adaptation protocol and found that when high quality sensory feedback was available, adaptation of motor commands was driven almost exclusively by sensory prediction errors. This form of learning had a distinct signature: as motor commands adapted, the subjects altered their predictions regarding sensory consequences of motor commands, and generalized this learning broadly to neighboring motor commands. In contrast, as the quality of the sensory feedback degraded, adaptation of motor commands became more dependent on reward prediction errors. Reward prediction errors produced comparable changes in the motor commands, but produced no change in the predicted sensory consequences of motor commands, and generalized only locally. Because we found that there was a within subject correlation between generalization patterns and sensory remapping, it is plausible that during adaptation an individual's relative reliance on sensory vs. reward prediction errors could be inferred. We suggest that while motor commands change because of sensory and reward prediction errors, only sensory prediction errors produce a change in the neural system that predicts sensory consequences of motor commands.

Izawa, Jun; Shadmehr, Reza

2011-01-01

374

Dominant resistance against plant viruses  

PubMed Central

To establish a successful infection plant viruses have to overcome a defense system composed of several layers. This review will overview the various strategies plants employ to combat viral infections with main emphasis on the current status of single dominant resistance (R) genes identified against plant viruses and the corresponding avirulence (Avr) genes identified so far. The most common models to explain the mode of action of dominant R genes will be presented. Finally, in brief the hypersensitive response (HR) and extreme resistance (ER), and the functional and structural similarity of R genes to sensors of innate immunity in mammalian cell systems will be described.

de Ronde, Dryas; Butterbach, Patrick; Kormelink, Richard

2014-01-01

375

Feasibility of sensory tongue stimulation combined with task-specific therapy in people with spinal cord injury: a case study  

PubMed Central

Background Previous evidence suggests the effects of task-specific therapy can be further enhanced when sensory stimulation is combined with motor practice. Sensory tongue stimulation is thought to facilitate activation of regions in the brain that are important for balance and gait. Improvements in balance and gait have significant implications for functional mobility for people with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). The aim of this case study was to evaluate the feasibility of a lab- and home-based program combining sensory tongue stimulation with balance and gait training on functional outcomes in people with iSCI. Methods Two male participants (S1 and S2) with chronic motor iSCI completed 12 weeks of balance and gait training (3 lab and 2 home based sessions per week) combined with sensory tongue stimulation using the Portable Neuromodulation Stimulator (PoNS). Laboratory based training involved 20 minutes of standing balance with eyes closed and 30 minutes of body-weight support treadmill walking. Home based sessions consisted of balancing with eyes open and walking with parallel bars or a walker for up to 20 minutes each. Subjects continued daily at-home training for an additional 12 weeks as follow-up. Results Both subjects were able to complete a minimum of 83% of the training sessions. Standing balance with eyes closed increased from 0.2 to 4.0 minutes and 0.0 to 0.2 minutes for S1 and S2, respectively. Balance confidence also improved at follow-up after the home-based program. Over ground walking speed improved by 0.14 m/s for S1 and 0.07 m/s for S2, and skilled walking function improved by 60% and 21% for S1 and S2, respectively. Conclusions Sensory tongue stimulation combined with task-specific training may be a feasible method for improving balance and gait in people with iSCI. Our findings warrant further controlled studies to determine the added benefits of sensory tongue stimulation to rehabilitation training.

2014-01-01

376

The Eyes Absent Proteins in Development and Disease  

PubMed Central

The Eyes Absent (EYA) proteins, first described in the context of fly eye development, are now implicated in processes as disparate as organ development, innate immunity, DNA damage repair, photoperiodism, angiogenesis, and cancer metastasis. These functions are associated with an unusual combination of biochemical activities; tyrosine phosphatase and threonine phosphatase activities in separate domains, and transactivation potential when associated with a DNA-binding partner. EYA mutations are linked to multi-organ developmental disorders, as well as to adult diseases ranging from dilated cardiomyopathy to late-onset sensori-neural hearing loss. With the growing understanding of EYA biochemical and cellular activity, biological function, and association with disease, comes the possibility that the EYA proteins are amenable to the design of targeted therapeutics. The availability of structural information, direct links to disease states, available animal models, and the fact that they utilize unconventional reaction mechanisms that could allow for specificity, suggest that EYAs are well-positioned for drug discovery efforts. This review provides a summary of EYA structure, activity, and function, as it relates to development and disease, with particular emphasis on recent findings.

Tadjuidje, Emmanuel; Hegde, Rashmi S.

2012-01-01

377

Influence of social dominance on production, welfare and the quality of meat from beef bulls.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of social dominance on some indicators of welfare, production and meat quality of young bulls. A total of 60 bulls of the Gasconne breed, 9 months old, housed indoors were used. Indices of success order were calculated to reflect social dominance of each bull into three ranking categories (low, middle and high). Blood samples were taken to measure cortisol, lactate, glucose, creatine kinase, non-esterified fatty acid and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (N/L). M. longissimus samples were analysed in terms of pH, water holding capacity (WHC), texture, colour and sensorial attributes. Social rank influenced cattle stress response, which had an effect on productive performance but not on meat quality traits, with the exception of the sensory traits. These results emphasize the importance of implementing best management practices during pre-harvest handling of cattle in order to modulate any possible risk factor for social stress. PMID:23618738

Miranda-de la Lama, G C; Pascual-Alonso, M; Guerrero, A; Alberti, P; Alierta, S; Sans, P; Gajan, J P; Villarroel, M; Dalmau, A; Velarde, A; Campo, M M; Galindo, F; Santolaria, M P; Sañudo, C; María, G A

2013-08-01

378

OPTICAL EYE MODEL: Human eye aberrations: 2. Development of a dynamic model of the human eye based on measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A human eye model based on a flexible semipassive bimorph mirror is proposed and experimentally realised. The model can be used for the real-time reproduction of human eye aberrations and their fluctuations. The accuracy of the reproduction of individual Zernike polynomials and of total eye aberrations of inspected patients is discussed.

Galetskii, S. O.; Cherezova, T. Yu; Kudryashov, A. V.

2008-11-01

379

Regional immunity of the eye.  

PubMed

This article reviews molecular mechanism of intraocular inflammation in animal models and in humans, and the immunological defence system of the eye with particular attention to ocular pigment epithelium. In experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), T lymphocytes, particularly CD4(+) T lymphocytes, play a central role in its immunopathogenic mechanisms. In humans, activated CD4(+) T cells also play a central role in the immunopathogenic mechanisms. This notion is demonstrated in two human diseases: one is Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease, and the other is human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) uveitis. Activated CD4(+) T cells infiltrating the eye are harmful to vision-related cells and tissues in the eye and cause sight-threatening conditions. However, the eye has regional defence systems to protect itself from these harmful activated T cells. We focus on ocular pigment epithelium (PE) and demonstrate immunoregulatory activity of iris PE and retinal PE. Iris PE suppresses activated CD4(+) T cells by cell-to-cell contact with a crucial role played by B7-2 molecule on iris PE and CTLA4 on T cells. The actual immunosuppressive factor being membrane bound TGF-beta. In contrast, retinal PE suppresses activated CD4(+) T cells by soluble factors, such as soluble TGF-beta and thrombospondin 1. In addition to the direct T-cell suppression by ocular PE, ocular PE has the capacity to promote activated T cells to regulatory T cells and use them as a tool to amplify the immune down regulation in the eye. The molecular mechanisms of generation of T regulatory cells by iris PE and retinal PE is also discussed. PMID:19900207

Mochizuki, Manabu

2010-05-01

380

What Happens After Treatment for Eye Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... eye cancers such as surgery , radiation therapy , and laser therapy can cause some side effects. Your doctors will check your treated eye for complications and may recommend medicines or operations to help control side effects and ...

381

Understanding Your Vision: The "Imperfect Eye"  

MedlinePLUS

... eye," amblyopia is the most common cause of visual impairment among children. The condition affects about two-to- ... the most common cause of monocular (one-eye) visual impairment among children and young and middle-aged adults. ...

382

Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble  

MedlinePLUS

Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble email Send this article to a friend by filling out the fields below: Your name: Your friend's ... heating and cooling systems. Treating Dry Eye and Glaucoma Usually a combination of treatments is helpful, and ...

383

Eye-Hand Preference in Military Officers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experiment was conducted to determine the prevalence of right-left eye preferences and the relationship of eye preference to handedness and task factors. The experimental task was a sighting task. The independent variables were direction of sighting (t...

H. E. Carroll

1971-01-01

384

The Trajectories of Saccadic Eye Movements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the trajectories of saccadic eye movements, the control signals of the eye, and nature of the mechanisms that generate them, using the techniques of bioengineering in collecting the data. (GA)

Bahill, A. Terry; Stark, Lawrence

1979-01-01

385

Prescriptions for Eye Glasses and Contact Lenses  

MedlinePLUS

... Contact Lenses Related Items The Basics of LASIK Eye Surgery Buying Cosmetic Contact Lenses? Millions of Americans wear ... for the Common Cold The Basics of LASIK Eye Surgery Weight Loss & Fitness Jobs & Making Money Privacy & Identity ...

386

Anesthesia for Children Having Eye Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... kinds of anesthesia are available for children having eye surgery? Anesthesia is necessary during all kinds of surgery to reduce or eliminate pain. Eye surgery is no exception. General anesthesia, which puts the ...

387

21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad is a device that consists...

2013-04-01

388

Increased lipid droplet accumulation associated with a peripheral sensory neuropathy.  

PubMed

Hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1 (HSN-1) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by missense mutations in the SPTLC1 gene. The SPTLC1 protein is part of the SPT enzyme which is a ubiquitously expressed, critical and thus highly regulated endoplasmic reticulum bound membrane enzyme that maintains sphingolipid concentrations and thus contributes to lipid metabolism, signalling, and membrane structural functions. Lipid droplets are dynamic organelles containing sphingolipids and membrane bound proteins surrounding a core of neutral lipids, and thus mediate the intracellular transport of these specific molecules. Current literature suggests that there are increased numbers of lipid droplets and alterations of lipid metabolism in a variety of other autosomal dominant neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. This study establishes for the first time, a significant increase in the presence of lipid droplets in HSN-1 patient-derived lymphoblasts, indicating a potential connection between lipid droplets and the pathomechanism of HSN-1. However, the expression of adipophilin (ADFP), which has been implicated in the regulation of lipid metabolism, was not altered in lipid droplets from the HSN-1 patient-derived lymphoblasts. This appears to be the first report of increased lipid body accumulation in a peripheral neuropathy, suggesting a fundamental molecular linkage between a number of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24711860

Marshall, Lee L; Stimpson, Scott E; Hyland, Ryan; Coorssen, Jens R; Myers, Simon J

2014-04-01

389

Distributed Technology for Global Dominance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flexible, ubiquitous, and universal solution for management of distributed dynamic systems will be presented. It allows us to grasp complex systems on a higher than usual, semantic level, penetrating their infrastructures, also creating and modifying them, while establishing local and global dominance over the system organizations and coordinating their behavior in the way needed. The approach may allow the

Peter Sapaty

2008-01-01

390

Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V  

MedlinePLUS

... to feel pain, heat, and cold. Deep pain perception, the feeling of pain from injuries to bones, ... cell ; congenital ; gene ; growth factor ; joint ; mutation ; neuropathy ; perception ; protein ; receptor ; recessive ; sensory nerve ; sensory neuropathy ; tissue ; ...

391

Brainstem Control of Sensory Information: A Mechanism for Perception.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A theory in which pathways ascending from the brainstem reticular formation control sensory centers in the dorsal thalamus and neocortex has been proposed. We assumed that the sensory messages received at a given level are transformed by a stochastic proc...

E. Harth K. P. Unnikrishnan

1985-01-01

392

Effects of Sensory Stimulation and Remotivation on Schizophrenic Persons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study was undertaken to assess change in schizoprenic persons following 9 weeks of sensory stimulation and remotivation. Topics chosen for remotivation were planned to involve as many sensory modalities as possible. Participants were evaluated using t...

M. T. Beard

1970-01-01

393

Comment entrainer la memoire sensorielle (How to Train Sensory Memory).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the University of Queensland (Australia), second-language instruction techniques involving principles of sensory training are being used experimentally. The method promotes sensory integration of speech events through auditory, visual, and kinesthetic memory. (MSE)

Llorca, Regine

1993-01-01

394

Sensory interaction and descriptions of fabric hand.  

PubMed

82 subjects who viewed and felt fabrics (sensory interaction group) used different categories of terms to describe fabric hand than did 38 subjects who only felt the fabrics. Therefore, the methods used to measure fabric hand that isolate the senses may not accurately assess the way in which subjects describe fabric hand in nonlaboratory settings. PMID:8532445

Burns, L D; Chandler, J; Brown, D M; Cameron, B; Dallas, M J

1995-08-01

395

Sensory abnormalities in autism. A brief report.  

PubMed

Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents were interviewed systematically about any abnormal sensory reactions in the child. In the whole group, pain and hearing were the most commonly affected modalities. Children in the most typical autism subgroup (nuclear autism with no learning disability) had the highest number of affected modalities. The children who were classified in an "autistic features" subgroup had the lowest number of affected modalities. There were no group differences in number of affected sensory modalities between groups of different cognitive levels or level of expressive speech. The findings provide support for the notion that sensory abnormality is very common in young children with autism. This symptom has been proposed for inclusion among the diagnostic criteria for ASD in the upcoming DSM-V. PMID:21111574

Klintwall, Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Höglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

2011-01-01

396

Improving Maladaptive Behaviors Using Sensory Integration Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the use of sensory integration techniques to reduce the maladaptive behaviors that interfered with the learning of nine high school students with mental impairments attending a special school. Maladaptive behaviors identified included rocking, toe walking, echolalia, resistance to change, compulsive behaviors, aggression,…

Shuman, Theresa

397

Temporal Structure in Audiovisual Sensory Selection  

PubMed Central

In natural environments, sensory information is embedded in temporally contiguous streams of events. This is typically the case when seeing and listening to a speaker or when engaged in scene analysis. In such contexts, two mechanisms are needed to single out and build a reliable representation of an event (or object): the temporal parsing of information and the selection of relevant information in the stream. It has previously been shown that rhythmic events naturally build temporal expectations that improve sensory processing at predictable points in time. Here, we asked to which extent temporal regularities can improve the detection and identification of events across sensory modalities. To do so, we used a dynamic visual conjunction search task accompanied by auditory cues synchronized or not with the color change of the target (horizontal or vertical bar). Sounds synchronized with the visual target improved search efficiency for temporal rates below 1.4 Hz but did not affect efficiency above that stimulation rate. Desynchronized auditory cues consistently impaired visual search below 3.3 Hz. Our results are interpreted in the context of the Dynamic Attending Theory: specifically, we suggest that a cognitive operation structures events in time irrespective of the sensory modality of input. Our results further support and specify recent neurophysiological findings by showing strong temporal selectivity for audiovisual integration in the auditory-driven improvement of visual search efficiency.

Kosem, Anne; van Wassenhove, Virginie

2012-01-01

398

Radiographic association of schwannomas with sensory ganglia  

PubMed Central

Objective Clinical experience suggests that the majority of schwannomas arise within sensory ganglia, suggesting that intraganglionic glial cells represent a potential cell of origin for schwannomas. To support this clinical impression, we reviewed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies performed over a 5 year period at our institution to determine the relationship of cranial and spinal nerve schwannomas with the ganglia of the associated nerves. Study design Retrospective cohort study Setting Tertiary referral center Patients Patients undergoing imaging study at our institution over a 5 year period. Intervention(s) Radiographical images at our institution were reviewed as well as published studies to determine the anatomic location of schwannomas. Main outcome measure(s) Anatomical location of schwannomas Results A total of 372 patients were found over the 5-year study period, 31 of those were diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). Vestibular schwannomas comprised the greatest number of schwannomas, followed by spinal schwannomas. In NF2 patients, spinal schwannomas were the most common tumor, followed by vestibular schwannomas. In NF2 patients and those with sporadic schwannomas, the overwhelming majority of tumors arose in nerves with a sensory component and were associated with sensory ganglia of the nerves (562/607, 92.6%). Very few tumors arose from pure motor nerves. This is supported by review of published articles on anatomic location of schwannomas. Conclusions Schwannomas are strongly associated anatomically with ganglia of sensory nerves. These findings raise the possibility that intraganglionic glial cells give rise to the majority of schwannomas.

Tryggvason, Geir; Barnett, Andrew; Kim, John; Soken, Hakan; Maley, Joan; Hansen, Marlan R.

2012-01-01

399

Eeg Changes in Perceptual and Sensory Deprivation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Observations on changes in the EEG produced by 7-14 days sensory and perceptual deprivation in healthy young adults have been explored and attempts made to correlate the EEG changes with other factors. Continuous exposure to unpatterned light and noise pr...

M. G. Saunders J. P. Zubek

1967-01-01

400

Refractory Period in Human Sensory Nerve Fibres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative and absolute refractory periods were determined in sensory fibres of 24 median nerves and in 19 sural nerves of 30 volunteers aged 20–60 years, who had no sign of a neuromuscular disorder. The critical interval of conduction (absolute refractory period) was found to be about 0.7 msec. In median as well as in sural nerve the relative refractory periods

W. Tackmann; H. J. Lehmann

1974-01-01

401

Age differences in visual sensory integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous authors have reported that elderly persons are more affected than young adults when submitted to reduced or conflicting sensory inputs conditions. These results, however, do not permit to evaluate whether the elderly suffer from a reduced peripheral sensibility or from a deficit in the central integrative mechanisms responsible for configuring the postural set. The present experiment evaluated the ability

N. Teasdale; G. E. Stelmach; A. Breunig; H. J. Meeuwsen

1991-01-01

402

MultiSensory synergies in Humanoid Robotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensing is a key element for any intelligent robotic system. This paper describes current progress of a project in the Intelligent Robotics Research Center at Monash University that has the aim of developing a synergistic set of sensory systems for a humanoid robot. Currently sensing modes for colour vision, stereo vision, active range, smell and airflow are being developed in

R. ANDREW RUSSELL; Geoffrey Taylor; Lindsay Kleeman; Anies Hannawati Purnamadjaja

2004-01-01

403

Learning of Sensory Sequences in Cerebellar Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A possible role of the cerebellum in detecting and recognizing event sequences has been proposed. The present study sought to determine whether patients with cerebellar lesions are impaired in the acquisition and discrimination of sequences of sensory stimuli of different modalities. A group of 26 cerebellar patients and 26 controls matched for…

Frings, Markus; Boenisch, Raoul; Gerwig, Marcus; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Timmann, Dagmar

2004-01-01

404

Description of the CID Sensory Aids Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a detailed description of the experimental design and the subjects of the Central Institute for the Deaf (Missouri) Sensory Aids Study. Thirteen triads of matched children (ages 2 through 12) with hearing impairments (one child wearing a cochlear implant, one wearing a tactile aid and hearing aids, and one wearing only hearing…

Geers, Ann; Moog, Jean

1994-01-01

405

Sex differences in chemosensation: sensory or emotional?  

PubMed

Although the first sex-dependent differences in chemosensory processing were reported in the scientific literature over 60 years ago, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Generally, more pronounced sex-dependent differences are noted with increased task difficulty or with increased levels of intranasal irritation produced by the stimulus. Whether differences between the sexes arise from differences in chemosensory sensitivity of the two intranasal sensory systems involved or from differences in cognitive processing associated with emotional evaluation of the stimulants is still not known. We used simultaneous and complementary measures of electrophysiological (EEG), psychophysiological, and psychological responses to stimuli varying in intranasal irritation and odorousness to investigate whether sex differences in the processing of intranasal irritation are mediated by varying sensitivity of the involved sensory systems or by differences in cognitive and/or emotional evaluation of the irritants. Women perceived all stimulants more irritating and they exhibited larger amplitudes of the late positive deflection of the event-related potential than men. No significant differences in sensory sensitivity, anxiety, and arousal responses could be detected. Our findings suggest that men and women process intranasal irritation differently. Importantly, the differences cannot be explained by variation in sensory sensitivity to irritants, differences in anxiety, or differences in physiological arousal. We propose that women allocate more attention to potentially noxious stimuli than men do, which eventually causes differences in cognitive appraisal and subjective perception. PMID:24133429

Ohla, Kathrin; Lundström, Johan N

2013-01-01

406

A Housefly Sensory-Motor Integration Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Insects have many interesting behaviors that can be observed in an introductory biology laboratory setting. In the present article, we describe several reflexes using the housefly "Musca domestica" that can be used to introduce students to sensory and motor responses and encourage them to think about the underlying neural circuits and integration…

Griff, Edwin R; Kane, Thomas C.

2010-01-01

407

The sensory ecology of nonconsumptive predator effects.  

PubMed

Abstract Nonconsumptive effects (NCEs) have been shown to occur in numerous systems and are regarded as important mechanisms by which predation structures natural communities. Sensory ecology-that is, the processes governing the production, propagation, and masking of cues by ambient noise-provides insights into the strength of NCEs as functions of the environment and modes of information transfer. We discuss how properties of predators are used by prey to encode threat, how the environment affects cue propagation, and the role of single sensory processes versus multimodal sensory processes. We discuss why the present body of literature documents the potential for strong NCEs but does not allow us to easily determine how this potential is expressed in nature or what factors or environments produce strong versus weak NCEs. Many of these difficulties stem from a body of literature in which certain sensory environments and modalities may be disproportionately represented and in which experimental methodologies are designed to show the existence of NCEs. We present a general framework for examining NCEs to identify the factors controlling the number of prey that respond to predator cues and discuss how the properties of predators, prey, and the environment may determine prey perceptive range and the duration and frequency of cue production. We suggest how understanding these relationships provides a schema for determining where, when, why, and how NCEs are important in producing direct and cascading effects in natural communities. PMID:25058276

Weissburg, Marc; Smee, Delbert L; Ferner, Matthew C

2014-08-01

408

Synchronisation in anticipative sensory-motor schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a model of anticipative sensory-motor schemes, inspired by Jean Piaget and Interactivist theories. The necessity of interactivity in order to provide a real epistemic contact to reality is discussed. We then describe a computer implementation of such schemes, applied to the recognition of musical rhythms, which illustrates these ideas in a more concrete way. Assimilation schemes Assimilation

Jean-Charles Quinton; Christophe Duverger; Jean-Christophe Buisson

409

Learning of Sensory Sequences in Cerebellar Patients  

PubMed Central

A possible role of the cerebellum in detecting and recognizing event sequences has been proposed. The present study sought to determine whether patients with cerebellar lesions are impaired in the acquisition and discrimination of sequences of sensory stimuli of different modalities. A group of 26 cerebellar patients and 26 controls matched for age, sex, handedness, musicality, and level of education were tested. Auditory and visual sensory sequences were presented out of different sensory pattern categories (tones with different acoustic frequencies and durations, visual stimuli with different spatial locations and colors, sequential vision of irregular shapes) and different ranges of inter-cue time intervals (fast and slow). Motor requirements were small, with vocal responses and no time restrictions. Perception of visual and acoustic stimuli was generally preserved in patients and controls. The number of errors was significantly higher in the faster tempo of sequence presentation in learning of sequences of tones of different frequencies and in learning of sequences of visual stimuli of different spatial locations and different colors. No difference in tempo between the groups was shown. The total number of errors between the two groups was identical in the sequence conditions. No major disturbances in acquisition or discrimination of various sensory sequences were observed in the group of cerebellar patients. Sequence learning may be impaired only in tasks with significant motor demands.

Frings, Markus; Boenisch, Raoul; Gerwig, Marcus; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Timmann, Dagmar

2004-01-01

410

Sensorial countermeasures for vestibular spatial disorientation.  

PubMed

Spatial disorientation is defined as an erroneous body orientation perceived by pilots during flights. Limits of the vestibular system provoke frequent spatial disorientation mishaps. Although vestibular spatial disorientation is experienced frequently in aviation, there is no intuitive countermeasure against spatial disorientation mishaps to date. The aim of this review is to describe the current sensorial countermeasures and to examine future leads in sensorial ergonomics for vestibular spatial disorientation. This work reviews: 1) the visual ergonomics, 2) the vestibular countermeasures, 3) the auditory displays, 4) the somatosensory countermeasures, and, finally, 5) the multisensory displays. This review emphasizes the positive aspects of auditory and somatosensory countermeasures as well as multisensory devices. Even if some aspects such as sensory conflict and motion sickness need to be assessed, these countermeasures should be taken into consideration for ergonomics work in the future. However, a recent development in aviation might offer new and better perspectives: unmanned aerial vehicles. Unmanned aerial vehicles aim to go beyond the physiological boundaries of human sensorial systems and would allow for coping with spatial disorientation and motion sickness. Even if research is necessary to improve the interaction between machines and humans, this recent development might be incredibly useful for decreasing or even stopping vestibular spatial disorientation. PMID:24834571

Paillard, Aurore C; Quarck, Gaëlle; Denise, Pierre

2014-05-01

411

Sensory Cues, Visualization and Physics Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bodily manipulations, such as juggling, suggest a well-synchronized physical interaction as if the person were a physics expert. The juggler uses "knowledge" that is rooted in bodily experience, to interact with the environment. Such enacted bodily knowledge is powerful, efficient, predictive, and relates to sensory perception of the dynamics of…

Reiner, Miriam

2009-01-01

412

Sensory nerves in lung and airways.  

PubMed

Sensory nerves innervating the lung and airways play an important role in regulating various cardiopulmonary functions and maintaining homeostasis under both healthy and disease conditions. Their activities conducted by both vagal and sympathetic afferents are also responsible for eliciting important defense reflexes that protect the lung and body from potential health-hazardous effects of airborne particulates and chemical irritants. This article reviews the morphology, transduction properties, reflex functions, and respiratory sensations of these receptors, focusing primarily on recent findings derived from using new technologies such as neural immunochemistry, isolated airway-nerve preparation, cultured airway neurons, patch-clamp electrophysiology, transgenic mice, and other cellular and molecular approaches. Studies of the signal transduction of mechanosensitive afferents have revealed a new concept of sensory unit and cellular mechanism of activation, and identified additional types of sensory receptors in the lung. Chemosensitive properties of these lung afferents are further characterized by the expression of specific ligand-gated ion channels on nerve terminals, ganglion origin, and responses to the action of various inflammatory cells, mediators, and cytokines during acute and chronic airway inflammation and injuries. Increasing interest and extensive investigations have been focused on uncovering the mechanisms underlying hypersensitivity of these airway afferents, and their role in the manifestation of various symptoms under pathophysiological conditions. Several important and challenging questions regarding these sensory nerves are discussed. Searching for these answers will be a critical step in developing the translational research and effective treatments of airway diseases. PMID:24692141

Lee, Lu-Yuan; Yu, Jerry

2014-01-01

413

Eye/Brain/Task Testbed And Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eye/brain/task (EBT) testbed records electroencephalograms, movements of eyes, and structures of tasks to provide comprehensive data on neurophysiological experiments. Intended to serve continuing effort to develop means for interactions between human brain waves and computers. Software library associated with testbed provides capabilities to recall collected data, to process data on movements of eyes, to correlate eye-movement data with electroencephalographic data, and to present data graphically. Cognitive processes investigated in ways not previously possible.

Janiszewski, Thomas; Mainland, Nora; Roden, Joseph C.; Rothenheber, Edward H.; Ryan, Arthur M.; Stokes, James M.

1994-01-01

414

Eye Controlled Media: Present and Future State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, the human eye-gaze can be recorded by relatively unobtrusive techniques. This thesis argues that it is possible to use the eye-gaze of a computer user in the interface to aid the control of the application. Care must be taken, though, that eye-gaze tracking data is used in a sensible way, since the nature of human eye-movements is a combination

Arne John Glenstrup; Theo Engell-nielsen

1995-01-01

415

Eye-tracking = reading the mind  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eye activity measures are utilized to make inferences about human activity. While much is known how to use the eye to infer workload, less is known about inferring higher-level cognitive processes from lower-level eye movements. The main question addressed in the workshop is how to use eye activity measures in order to support higher-level cognitive processes. The workshop mainly serves

Tjerk de Greef; Assaf Botzer; Peter-Paul van Maanen

2010-01-01

416

The role of prediction and anticipation on age-related effects on smooth pursuit eye movements.  

PubMed

Externally guided sensory-motor processes deteriorate with increasing age. Internally guided, for example, predictive, behavior usually helps to overcome sensory-motor delays. We studied whether predictive components of visuomotor transformation decline with age. We investigated smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) of 45 healthy subjects with paradigms of different degrees of predictability with respect to target motion onset, type (smoothed triangular, ramp stimulation), and direction by blanking the target at various intervals of the ramp stimulation. Using repetitive trials of SPEM stimulation, we could dissociate anticipatory and predictive components of extraretinal smooth pursuit behavior. The main results suggest that basic motor parameters decline with increasing age, whereas both anticipation and prediction of target motion did not change with age. We suggest that the elderly maintain their capability of using prediction in the immediate control of motor behavior, which might be a way to compensate for age-related delays in sensory-motor transformation, even in the absence of sensory signals. PMID:21950990

Sprenger, Andreas; Trillenberg, Peter; Pohlmann, Jonas; Herold, Kirsten; Lencer, Rebekka; Helmchen, Christoph

2011-09-01

417

Sensory Extinction and Sensory Reinforcement Principles for Programming Multiple Adaptive Behavior Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of sensory reinforcement was examined in programing multiple treatment gains in self-stimulation and spontaneous play for four developmentally disabled children (eight to ten years old). (Author/SBH)

Rincover, Arnold; And Others

1979-01-01

418

Eye investigation with optical microradar techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many problems exist in ophthalmology, where accurate measurements of eye structure and its parameters can be provided using optical radar concept is of remote sensing. Coherent and non-coherent approaches are reviewed aiming cornea shape measurement and measurement of aberration distribution in the elements and media of an eye. Coherent radar techniques are analyzed taking into account non- reciprocity of eye

Vasyl V. Molebny; Ioannis G. Pallikaris; Leonidas P. Naoumidis; Vitalij N. Kurashov; Igor H. Chyzh

1997-01-01

419

Eye aberration analysis with Zernike polynomials  

Microsoft Academic Search

New horizons for accurate photorefractive sight correction, afforded by novel flying spot technologies, require adequate measurements of photorefractive properties of an eye. Proposed techniques of eye refraction mapping present results of measurements for finite number of points of eye aperture, requiring to approximate these data by 3D surface. A technique of wave front approximation with Zernike polynomials is described, using

Vasyl V. Molebny; Igor H. Chyzh; Vjacheslav M. Sokurenko; Ioannis G. Pallikaris; Leonidas P. Naoumidis

1998-01-01

420

The history of the artificial eye.  

PubMed

The history of the artificial eye, from antiquity to the present, is described. Around the beginning of the nineteenth century, glass eyes replaced the earlier metal ones--not always well tolerated. In 1835, cryolite glass was used instead of lead glass; to this day it remains the lightest and most desirable substance for making artificial eyes. PMID:396850

Martin, O; Clodius, L

1979-08-01

421

Eye Movement Analysis of Second Grade Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An investigation was undertaken to measure objectively children's eye movements to determine whether the effect of fatigue of the average school day decreases eye movement efficiency, suggesting that children might benefit more from reading instruction in the morning than in the afternoon. Using a photoelectric instrument designed to graph eye

Hankins, Huana; Thompson, Richard A.

422

Recent studies of eye movements in reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grouping the studies under the general topic headings of techniques of measurement, analysis of the reading process, training to improve eye movements, typography and eye movements, and eye movements and fatigue the author reviews the relevant research literature which has appeared since January, 1945. In general there has been a dimunition of interest in this area. However, there has appeared

Miles A. Tinker

1958-01-01

423

Trustworthy-Looking Face Meets Brown Eyes  

PubMed Central

We tested whether eye color influences perception of trustworthiness. Facial photographs of 40 female and 40 male students were rated for perceived trustworthiness. Eye color had a significant effect, the brown-eyed faces being perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones. Geometric morphometrics, however, revealed significant correlations between eye color and face shape. Thus, face shape likewise had a significant effect on perceived trustworthiness but only for male faces, the effect for female faces not being significant. To determine whether perception of trustworthiness was being influenced primarily by eye color or by face shape, we recolored the eyes on the same male facial photos and repeated the test procedure. Eye color now had no effect on perceived trustworthiness. We concluded that although the brown-eyed faces were perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones, it was not brown eye color per se that caused the stronger perception of trustworthiness but rather the facial features associated with brown eyes.

Kleisner, Karel; Priplatova, Lenka; Frost, Peter; Flegr, Jaroslav

2013-01-01

424

The Eye As A Lens (Part 2)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A Physlet-based simulation demonstrating the accommodation of the eye. A light source can be moved towards and away from the eye. The resulting image is shown. Pressing the "strain" button, makes the eye accommodate and the image forming on the retina.

Spartalian, Kevork

2008-07-19

425

Eye movement analysis for activity recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we investigate eye movement analysis as a new modality for recognising human activity. We devise 90 different features based on the main eye movement characteristics: saccades, fixations and blinks. The features are derived from eye movement data recorded using a wearable electrooculographic (EOG) system. We describe a recognition methodology that combines minimum redundancy maximum relevance feature selection

Andreas Bulling; Jamie A. Ward; Hans Gellersen; Gerhard Tröster

2009-01-01

426

Eye Examination Findings Among Children. United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reported were extensive statistical data on the prevalence of abnormal eye conditions found on examination, heterophoria test results, and history of eye problems as well as extent of interrelationship of the eye examination and vision test findings among children aged 6 to 11 years in the United States, based on findings from the Health…

Health Services and Mental Health Administration (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

427

Infant Eyes: A Window on Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eye-trackers suitable for use with infants are now marketed by several commercial vendors. As eye-trackers become more prevalent in infancy research, there is the potential for users to be unaware of dangers lurking "under the hood" if they assume the eye-tracker introduces no errors in measuring infants' gaze. Moreover, the influx of voluminous…

Aslin, Richard N.

2012-01-01

428

Advances in Eye Tracking in Infancy Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2004, McMurray and Aslin edited for "Infancy" a special section on eye tracking. The articles in that special issue revealed the enormous promise of automatic eye tracking with young infants and demonstrated that eye-tracking procedures can provide significant insight into the emergence of cognitive, social, and emotional processing in infancy.…

Oakes, Lisa M.

2012-01-01

429

Experiencing Light's Properties within Your Own Eye  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seeing the reflection, refraction, dispersion, absorption, polarization, and scattering or diffraction of light within your own eye makes these properties of light truly personal. There are practical aspects of these within the eye phenomena, such as eye tracking for computer interfaces. They also offer some intriguing diversions, for example,…

Mauser, Michael

2011-01-01

430

21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Eye pad. 878.4440 Section 878...MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad is a device that consists...

2009-04-01

431

21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eye pad. 878.4440 Section 878...MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad is a device that consists...

2010-04-01

432

Sensory Feedback Control of Mammalian Vocalizations  

PubMed Central

Somatosensory and auditory feedback mechanisms are dynamic components of the vocal motor pattern generator in mammals. This review explores how sensory cues arising from central auditory and somatosensory pathways actively guide the production of both simple sounds and complex phrases in mammals. While human speech is a uniquely sophisticated example of mammalian vocal behavior, other mammals can serve as examples of how sensory feedback guides complex vocal patterns. Echolocating bats in particular are unique in their absolute dependence on voice control for survival: these animals must constantly adjust the acoustic and temporal patterns of their orientation sounds to efficiently navigate and forage for insects at high speeds under the cover of darkness. Many species of bats also utter a broad repertoire of communication sounds. The functional neuroanatomy of the bat vocal motor pathway is basically identical to other mammals, but the acute significance of sensory feedback in echolocation has made this a profitable model system for studying general principles of sensorimotor integration with regard to vocalizing. Bats and humans are similar in that they both maintain precise control of many different voice parameters, both exhibit a similar suite of responses to altered auditory feedback, and for both the efficacy of sensory feedback depends upon behavioral context. By comparing similarities and differences in the ways sensory feedback influences voice in humans and bats, we may shed light on the basic architecture of the mammalian vocal motor system and perhaps be able to better distinguish those features of human vocal control that evolved uniquely in support of speech and language.

Smotherman, Michael S.

2007-01-01

433

Idiopathic toe walking and sensory processing dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Background It is generally understood that toe walking involves the absence or limitation of heel strike in the contact phase of the gait cycle. Toe walking has been identified as a symptom of disease processes, trauma and/or neurogenic influences. When there is no obvious cause of the gait pattern, a diagnosis of idiopathic toe walking (ITW) is made. Although there has been limited research into the pathophysiology of ITW, there has been an increasing number of contemporary texts and practitioner debates proposing that this gait pattern is linked to a sensory processing dysfunction (SPD). The purpose of this paper is to examine the literature and provide a summary of what is known about the relationship between toe walking and SPD. Method Forty-nine articles were reviewed, predominantly sourced from peer reviewed journals. Five contemporary texts were also reviewed. The literature styles consisted of author opinion pieces, letters to the editor, clinical trials, case studies, classification studies, poster/conference abstracts and narrative literature reviews. Literature was assessed and graded according to level of evidence. Results Only one small prospective, descriptive study without control has been conducted in relation to idiopathic toe walking and sensory processing. A cross-sectional study into the prevalence of idiopathic toe walking proposed sensory processing as being a reason for the difference. A proposed link between ITW and sensory processing was found within four contemporary texts and one conference abstract. Conclusion Based on the limited conclusive evidence available, the relationship between ITW and sensory processing has not been confirmed. Given the limited number and types of studies together with the growing body of anecdotal evidence it is proposed that further investigation of this relationship would be advantageous.

2010-01-01

434

Sensory testing of the human gastrointestinal tract  

PubMed Central

The objective of this appraisal is to shed light on the various approaches to screen sensory information in the human gut. Understanding and characterization of sensory symptoms in gastrointestinal disorders is poor. Experimental methods allowing the investigator to control stimulus intensity and modality, as well as using validated methods for assessing sensory response have contributed to the understanding of pain mechanisms. Mechanical stimulation based on impedance planimetry allows direct recordings of luminal cross-sectional areas, and combined with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, the contribution of different gut layers can be estimated. Electrical stimulation depolarizes free nerve endings non-selectively. Consequently, the stimulation paradigm (single, train, tetanic) influences the involved sensory nerves. Visual controlled electrical stimulation combines the probes with an endoscopic approach, which allows the investigator to inspect and obtain small biopsies from the stimulation site. Thermal stimulation (cold or warm) activates selectively mucosal receptors, and chemical substances such as acid and capsaicin (either alone or in combination) are used to evoke pain and sensitization. The possibility of multimodal (e.g. mechanical, electrical, thermal and chemical) stimulation in different gut segments has developed visceral pain research. The major advantage is involvement of distinctive receptors, various sensory nerves and different pain pathways mimicking clinical pain that favors investigation of central pain mechanisms involved in allodynia, hyperalgesia and referred pain. As impairment of descending control mechanisms partly underlies the pathogenesis in chronic pain, a cold pressor test that indirectly stimulates such control mechanisms can be added. Hence, the methods undoubtedly represent a major step forward in the future characterization and treatment of patients with various diseases of the gut, which provides knowledge to clinicians about the underlying symptoms and treatment of these patients.

Brock, Christina; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Wilder-Smith, Oliver; Drewes, Asbj?rn Mohr

2009-01-01

435

The role of GluA1 in ocular dominance plasticity in the mouse visual cortex.  

PubMed

Ocular dominance plasticity is a widely studied model of experience-dependent cortical plasticity. It has been shown that potentiation of open eye responses resulting from monocular deprivation relies on a homeostatic response to loss of input from the closed eye, but the mechanisms by which this occurs are not fully understood. The role of GluA1 in the homeostatic component of ocular dominance (OD) plasticity has not so far been tested. In this study, we tested the idea that the GluA1 subunit of the AMPA receptor is necessary for open eye potentiation. We found that open eye potentiation did not occur in GluA1 knock-out (GluA1(-/-)) mice but did occur in wild-type littermates when monocular deprivation was imposed during the critical period. We also found that depression of the closed eye response that normally occurs in the monocular as well as binocular zone is delayed, but only in the monocular zone in GluA1(-/-) mice and only in a background strain we have previously shown lacks synaptic scaling (C57BL/6OlaHsd). In adult mice, we found that OD plasticity and facilitation of OD plasticity by prior monocular experience were both present in GluA1(-/-) mice, suggesting that the GluA1-dependent mechanisms only operate during the critical period. PMID:24048851

Ranson, Adam; Sengpiel, Frank; Fox, Kevin

2013-09-18

436

Nonlinear SSVEP responses are sensitive to the perceptual binding of visual hemifields during conventional 'eye' rivalry and interocular 'percept' rivalry  

PubMed Central

We conducted behavioral and EEG experiments to identify physiological correlates of perceptual binding during two types of binocular rivalry: (1) conventional ‘eye’ rivalry where perception alternates between the two monocular images presented one to each eye and (2) interocular ‘percept’ rivalry, where perception alternates between percepts formed by grouping complementary hemifields one from each eye. We employed ‘frequency-tagging’ by flickering a grating in each hemifield of each eye at different frequencies to elicit SSVEP responses specific to each hemifield of each eye. When the gratings in complementary visual fields of the two eyes were congruent in color and orientation, robust interocular ‘percept’ rivalry was observed with roughly equal probability to conventional ‘eye’ rivalry. The SSVEPs evoked by the flickering gratings were enhanced by conscious perception at both posterior and frontal electrodes only during conventional ‘eye’ rivalry and not during interocular ‘percept’ rivalry, suggesting that dominance of one eye is the basis of most previous reports of SSVEP modulation by conscious perception. We also observed nonlinear SSVEP responses at the sums of our four fundamental frequencies. These combination responses were only produced by flicker in complementary visual hemifields – in the same eye or across eyes, but never by incongruent flickering gratings that occupy the same visual field across eyes, suggesting that they are related to the binding of the visual hemifields (monocular or interocular) into a coherent percept. These combination responses were modulated by the type of rivalry experienced by the observer, but not by the specific conscious perception. Neural processes related to perceptual binding of both rival percepts take place during binocular rivalry even when only one percept is consciously perceived. This suggests that conventional ‘eye’ and interocular ‘percept’ rivalry both involve competition between percepts.

Sutoyo, David; Srinivasan, Ramesh

2009-01-01

437

Dual sensory loss and depressive symptoms: the importance of hearing, daily functioning, and activity engagement.  

PubMed

Background: The association between dual sensory loss (DSL) and mental health has been well established. However, most studies have relied on self-report data and lacked measures that would enable researchers to examine causal pathways between DSL and depression. This study seeks to extend this research by examining the effects of DSL on mental health, and identify factors that explain the longitudinal associations between sensory loss and depressive symptoms. Methods: Piecewise linear-mixed models were used to analyze 16-years of longitudinal data collected on up to five occasions from 1611 adults (51% men) aged between 65 and 103?years. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D). Vision loss (VL) was defined by corrected visual acuity >0.3 logMAR in the better eye, blindness, or glaucoma. Hearing loss (HL) was defined by pure-tone average (PTA) >25?dB in the better hearing ear. Analyses were adjusted for socio-demographics, medical conditions, lifestyle behaviors, activities of daily living (ADLs), cognitive function, and social engagement. Results: Unadjusted models indicated that higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with HL (B?=?1.16, SE?=?0.33) and DSL (B?=?2.15, SE?=?0.39) but not VL. Greater rates of change in depressive symptoms were also evident after the onset of HL (B?=?0.16, SE?=?0.06, p?sensory loss were explained by difficulties with ADLs, and social engagement. Conclusion: Vision and HL are highly prevalent among older adults and their co-occurrence may compound their respective impacts on health, functioning, and activity engagement, thereby exerting strong effects on the mental health and wellbeing of those affected. There is therefore a need for rehabilitation programs to be sensitive to the combined effects of sensory loss on individuals. PMID:24379769

Kiely, Kim M; Anstey, Kaarin J; Luszcz, Mary A

2013-01-01

438

The Influence of Sensory Information on Two-Component Coordination During Quiet Stance  

PubMed Central

When standing quietly, human upright stance is typically approximated as a single segment inverted pendulum. In contrast, investigations which perturb upright stance with support surface translations or visual driving stimuli have shown that the body behaves like a two-segment pendulum, displaying both in-phase and anti-phase patterns between the upper and lower body. We have recently shown that these patterns co-exist during quiet stance; in-phase and anti-phase for frequencies below and above 1 Hz respectively. Here we investigated whether the characteristics of these basic patterns were influenced by the addition or removal of sensory information. Ten healthy young subjects stood upright on a rigid platform with different combinations of sensory information: eyes were open or closed with or without light touch contact (< 1 N) of the right index fingertip with a 5 cm diameter rigid force plate. The in-phase and anti-phase pattern co-exist in both the AP and ML directions of sway. The real part of trunk-leg complex coherence decreased with the addition of vision and light touch, corresponding to a transition from the in-phase to anti-phase pattern at a lower frequency. In the AP direction, the decrease was only observed at frequencies below 1 Hz where the in-phase pattern predominates. Additional sensory information had no observable effect at sway frequencies above 1 Hz, where the anti-phase pattern predominates. Both patterns are clearly the result of a double-linked inverted pendulum dynamics, but the coherence of the in-phase pattern is more susceptible to modulation by sensory information than the anti-phase pattern.

Zhang, Yuanfen; Kiemel, Tim; Jeka, John

2007-01-01

439

Dual Sensory Loss and Depressive Symptoms: The Importance of Hearing, Daily Functioning, and Activity Engagement  

PubMed Central

Background: The association between dual sensory loss (DSL) and mental health has been well established. However, most studies have relied on self-report data and lacked measures that would enable researchers to examine causal pathways between DSL and depression. This study seeks to extend this research by examining the effects of DSL on mental health, and identify factors that explain the longitudinal associations between sensory loss and depressive symptoms. Methods: Piecewise linear-mixed models were used to analyze 16-years of longitudinal data collected on up to five occasions from 1611 adults (51% men) aged between 65 and 103?years. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D). Vision loss (VL) was defined by corrected visual acuity >0.3 logMAR in the better eye, blindness, or glaucoma. Hearing loss (HL) was defined by pure-tone average (PTA) >25?dB in the better hearing ear. Analyses were adjusted for socio-demographics, medical conditions, lifestyle behaviors, activities of daily living (ADLs), cognitive function, and social engagement. Results: Unadjusted models indicated that higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with HL (B?=?1.16, SE?=?0.33) and DSL (B?=?2.15, SE?=?0.39) but not VL. Greater rates of change in depressive symptoms were also evident after the onset of HL (B?=?0.16, SE?=?0.06, p?sensory loss were explained by difficulties with ADLs, and social engagement. Conclusion: Vision and HL are highly prevalent among older adults and their co-occurrence may compound their respective impacts on health, functioning, and activity engagement, thereby exerting strong effects on the mental health and wellbeing of those affected. There is therefore a need for rehabilitation programs to be sensitive to the combined effects of sensory loss on individuals.

Kiely, Kim M.; Anstey, Kaarin J.; Luszcz, Mary A.

2013-01-01

440

Sensory profiling data studied by partial least squares regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The statistical analysis of a descriptive sensory profiling data set distributed at the sensometrics meeting is presented. The data set is analysed with focus on the sensory differences between products (cooked potatoes). The data analytical strategy involves a descriptive statistical analysis to obtain an overview of the distribution and standard deviations of the scores for each sensory attribute. Subsequently, three-way

M Martens; W. L. P Bredie; H Martens

2000-01-01

441

38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

2013-07-01

442

Sensory Integration Dysfunction: Implications for Counselors Working with Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sensory Integration Dysfunction (SID), a sensory processing problem that afflicts about 15% of children, sets many children on a developmental trajectory of emotional and social problems. Children with SID often unintentionally alienate parents, peers, and teachers in their efforts to modify the amounts of sensory stimulation they receive. They…

Withrow, Rebecca L.

2007-01-01

443

Sensory changes after treatment of operable breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study has been conducted to compare the nature and severity of post-operative sensory changes (sensory loss, paraesthesiae, and pain) among patients with breast cancer treated by either modified radical mastectomy or a conservative procedure (tumourectomy, axillary clearance, iridium implant, and external radiotherapy). There was a similar incidence of post-operative sensory loss in the two groups, reported by 82% of

I. Karydas; I. S. Fentiman; F. Habib; J. L. Hayward

1986-01-01

444

Three-dimensional system integration for HUD placement on a new tactical airlift platform: design eye point vs. HUD eye box with accommodation and perceptual implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The retrofitting of a cockpit with a Head-Up-Display (HUD) raises potential accommodation and perceptual issues for pilots that must be addressed. For maximum optical efficiency, the goal is to be able to place every pilot's eye into the HUD Eye Motion Box (EMB) given a seat adjustment range. Initially, the Eye Reference Point (ERP) of the EMB should theoretically be located on the aircraft's original cockpit Design Eye Point (DEP), but human postures vary, and HUD systems may not be optimally placed. In reality, there is a distribution of pilot eyes around the DEP (which is dominant eye dependent); therefore, this must be accounted for in order to obtain appropriate visibility of all of the symbology based on photonic characteristics of the HUD. Pilot size and postural variation need to be taken into consideration when positioning the HUD system to ensure proper vision of all HUD symbology in addition to meeting the basic physical accommodation requirements of the cockpit. The innovative process and data collection methods for maximizing accommodation and pilot perception on a new "tactical airlift" platform are discussed as well as the related neurocognitive factors and the effects of information display design on cognitive phenomena.

Harbour, Steven D.; Hudson, Jeffery A.; Zehner, Gregory F.

2012-05-01

445

Paraneoplastic disorders of eye movements  

PubMed Central

Paraneoplastic syndromes affecting the brainstem and cerebellum are reported to cause a variety of abnormalities of eye movements. Recent studies have begun to account for the mechanisms underlying several syndromes, characterized by opsoclonus, slow, or dysmetric saccades, as well as downbeat nystagmus. We provide evidence that upbeat nystagmus in a patient with pancreatic cancer reflected a cerebellar-induced imbalance of otolithic pathways: she showed marked retropulsion, and her nystagmus was dependent on head position, being absent when supine, and suppressed with convergence. In addition to anti-Hu antibodies, we demonstrated antibodies to a novel neuronal cell surface antigen. Taken with other recent studies, our findings suggest that paraneoplastic syndromes arise due to antibodies against surface neuronal antigens, including receptors and channels. Abnormal eye movements in paraneoplastic syndromes offer insights into the pathogenesis of these disorders and the opportunity to test potential therapies, such as new drugs with effects on neuronal channels.

Wray, Shirley H.; Dalmau, Josep; Chen, Athena; King, Susan; Leigh, R. John

2011-01-01

446

Visual fatigue monitoring system based on eye-movement and eye-blink detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we proposed a visual fatigue monitoring system based on eye-movement and eye-blink detection. It analyzes the eye-movement and number of blinks based on the assumption that saccade movement of the eye decreases and the number of eye blink increases when visual fatigue of viewer is accumulated. The proposed system has an infrared single camera and an infrared

Donghyun Kim; Sunghwan Choi; Jaeseob Choi; Hyoungchul Shin; Kwanghoon Sohn

2011-01-01

447

Why do blue-eyed men prefer women with the same eye color?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human eye color blue reflects a simple, predictable, and reliable genetic mechanism of inheritance. Blue-eyed individuals\\u000a represent a unique condition, as in their case there is always direct concordance between the genotype and phenotype. On the\\u000a other hand, heterozygous brown-eyed individuals carry an allele that is not concordant with the observed eye color. Hence,\\u000a eye color can provide a

Bruno Laeng; Ronny Mathisen; Jan-Are Johnsen

2007-01-01

448

Reiterative Use of the EGF Receptor Triggers Differentiation of All Cell Types in the Drosophila Eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Drosophila eye has contributed much to our knowledge of cell differentiation. This understanding has primarily come from the study of the R7 photoreceptor; much less is known about the development of the other classes of photoreceptor or the nonneuronal cone or pigment cells. I have used a dominant-negative form of the Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor (DER) to show

Matthew Freeman

1996-01-01

449

Orthographic and Phonological Processing in Reading Chinese Text: Evidence from Eye Fixations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the use of orthographic and phonologic information in reading Chinese text using an eye-monitoring technique. Results support the position that it is orthography rather than phonology that plays an early and dominant role in reading Chinese. (Author/VWL)

Wong, Kin Fai Ellick; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

1999-01-01

450

Hydrofluoric acid burns of the eye.  

PubMed

A case of hydrofluoric acid (HF) burns of the eye is reported and a review is presented of our investigation into the mechanism of HF toxicity in ocular tissues. A number of therapeutic procedures that have been successful in the treatment of HF skin burns were studied in the rabbit for use in the eye. Immediate single irrigation with water, normal saline or isotonic magnesium chloride solution is the most effective therapy for ocular HF burns. Extrapolation of other skin burn treatments to use in the eye is unacceptable due to the toxicity of these agents in normal eyes and the additive damage caused in burned eyes. PMID:6886845

McCulley, J P; Whiting, D W; Petitt, M G; Lauber, S E

1983-06-01

451

Artificial compound eye zoom camera.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a highly compact image capturing system with variable field of view but without any mechanically moving parts. The camera combines an ultra-thin artificial apposition compound eye with one variable focal length liquid lens. The change of optical power of the liquid lens when applying a voltage results in a change of the magnification of the microlens array imaging system. However, its effect on focusing of the individual microlenses can be neglected due to their small focal length. PMID:19029582

Duparré, Jacques; Wippermann, Frank; Dannberg, Peter; Bräuer, Andreas

2008-12-01

452

Ol' Blue Eyes, in Focus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scholarly books with "identity" and "culture" in the title have loomed large on academic publishing lists for several years. Scholarly books with "Sinatra" in the title are a more recent phenomenon. Despite his six-decade career as the Voice (the 1940s), the Chairman of the Board (the 50s and 60s), and Ol' Blue Eyes (the 70s through his death, in…

Nelson, Michael

2009-01-01

453

Treatment of Thyroid Eye Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Thyroid eye disease (TED) is an autoimmune disease characterized by varying degrees of proptosis, congestion and inflammation\\u000a of the extraocular tissues, and eyelid retraction. It is usually seen in the setting of Graves’ disease, but the severity\\u000a of TED does not necessarily correlate with the level of systemic disease in a given patient. It is very important, nonetheless,\\u000a to

Margaret E. Phillips; Mehrak M. Marzban; Sajeev S. Kathuria

2010-01-01

454

Imaging in the aging eye  

SciTech Connect

Retinal imaging may seem a simple endeavor, given that the eye is far more transparent and accessible than internal organs such as the heart. Optical imaging techniques allow high resolution, with measurements of living tissues reported in microns, in comparison to magnetic resonance imaging. Most retinal imaging techniques are less invasive than endoscopy. There is a long-standing acceptance of retinal imaging as an important set of techniques in research and medicine.(c) 2000 Optical Society of America.

Elsner, Ann E. [Schepens Eye Research Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Remky, Andreas [Augenklinik der RWTH, Aachen, (Germany); Walker, Joseph P. [Schepens Eye Research Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Retinal Consultants of SW Florida, Ft. Meyers, Florida (United States); Wing, Glenn L. [Schepens Eye Research Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Raskauskas, Paul A. [Schepens Eye Research Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Fletcher, Donald C. [Schepens Eye Research Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kelley, Linda M. [Retinal Consultants of SW Florida, Ft. Meyers, Florida (United States); Kiesel, Cheryl [Retinal Consultants of SW Florida, Ft. Meyers, Florida (United States)

2000-07-01

455

Decoupling the actions of the eyes from the hand alters beta and gamma synchrony within SPL.  

PubMed

Eye-hand coordination is crucial for our ability to interact with the world around us. However, much of the visually guided reaches that we perform require a spatial decoupling between gaze direction and hand orientation. These complex decoupled reaching movements are in contrast to more standard eye and hand reaching movements in which the eyes and the hand are coupled. The superior parietal lobule (SPL) receives converging eye and hand signals; however, what is yet to be understood is how the activity within this region is modulated during decoupled eye and hand reaches. To address this, we recorded local field potentials within SPL from two rhesus macaques during coupled vs. decoupled eye and hand movements. Overall we observed a distinct separation in synchrony within the lower 10- to 20-Hz beta range from that in the higher 30- to 40-Hz gamma range. Specifically, within the early planning phase, beta synchrony dominated; however, the onset of this sustained beta oscillation occurred later during eye-hand decoupled vs. coupled reaches. As the task progressed, there was a switch to low-frequency and gamma-dominated responses, specifically for decoupled reaches. More importantly, we observed local field potential activity to be a stronger task (coupled vs. decoupled) and state (planning vs. execution) predictor than that of single units alone. Our results provide further insight into the computations of SPL for visuomotor transformations and highlight the necessity of accounting for the decoupled eye-hand nature of a motor task when interpreting movement control research data. PMID:24598517

Sayegh, Patricia F; Hawkins, Kara M; Neagu, Bogdan; Crawford, J Douglas; Hoffman, Kari L; Sergio, Lauren E

2014-06-01

456

Sleep disorders and the eye.  

PubMed

During the past decade, associations between sleep disorders and certain ophthalmologic disorders have been increasingly recognized. To review the literature on these important associations, we conducted a PubMed search using combinations of the following terms: sleep disorders, sleep apnea, circadian rhythm disorder, continuous positive airway pressure, eye disease, floppy eyelid syndrome, glaucoma, ischemic optic neuropathy, papilledema, nocturnal lagophthalmos, and vision loss. We limited our search to articles publis