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1

A New Method to Assess Eye Dominance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People usually show a stable preference for one of their eyes when monocular viewing is required ("sighting dominance") or under dichoptic stimulation conditions ("sensory eye-dominance"). Current procedures to assess this "eye dominance" are prone to error. Here we present a new method that provides a continuous measure of eye dominance and…

Valle-Inclan, Fernando; Blanco, Manuel J.; Soto, David; Leiros, Luz

2008-01-01

2

Ocular dominancy in conjugate eye movements at reading distance.  

PubMed

We recorded conjugate eye movements to elucidate whether ocular dominancy was present at reading distance in 21 normal volunteers with the right-handedness by using a video-oculographic (VOG) measurement. This included the velocity of smooth pursuits, and the latency and velocity of saccades. We defined the dominant eye for each subject by means of the near-far alignment test and 20 subjects showed the right dominant eyes. Although the ocular dominancy was not found in the velocity of smooth pursuit and vertical saccades, the velocity of horizontal saccades in the dominant eyes was faster than that in the non-dominant eyes. These results suggest that the dominant eye is functionally activated prior to non-dominant eye in horizontal saccades at reading distance, which thus indicates the functional dominancy of the dominant eye in conjugate eye movements. PMID:15878211

Oishi, Ayame; Tobimatsu, Shozo; Arakawa, Kenji; Taniwaki, Takayuki; Kira, Jun-ichi

2005-07-01

3

Sensory dominance in combinations of audio, visual and haptic stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participants presented with auditory, visual, or bi-sensory audio–visual stimuli in a speeded discrimination task, fail to\\u000a respond to the auditory component of the bi-sensory trials significantly more often than they fail to respond to the visual\\u000a component—a ‘visual dominance’ effect. The current study investigated further the sensory dominance phenomenon in all combinations\\u000a of auditory, visual and haptic stimuli. We found

David Hecht; Miriam Reiner

2009-01-01

4

Eye Movement as an Indicator of Sensory Components in Thought.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated Neuro-Linguistic Programming eye movement model's claim that specific eye movements are indicative of specific sensory components in thought. Agreement between students' (N=48) self-reports and trained observers' records support visual and auditory portions of model; do not support kinesthetic portion. Interrater agreement supports…

Buckner, Michael; And Others

1987-01-01

5

Strabismus and sensory-motor function of eye muscles.  

PubMed

Paul Bach-y-Rita and coworkers at the Smith-Kettlewell Institute of Visual Science of San Francisco were among the first to record activity in the muscle fibers of the eye muscles in animals. With their newly developed methods, they could describe fast and slow muscle fibers types and present possible patterns of recruitment of the fibers in different eye movements. These studies have been critical for continued animal research on eye muscle fibers and motor units in different species and in animals of different ages. Bach-y-Rita and coworkers also recorded from receptors in the muscles and demonstrated stretch reflexes different from those of skeletal muscles. Further research in animals revealed that it was difficult to delineate the functional role of the muscle receptors in oculomotor control. However, recent studies on sensory functions of human extra ocular muscles have suggested that proprioception participates in space localization, and the functions may differ in normal and strabismic subjects. The eye muscle studies initiated by Bach-y-Rita have enabled analysis of the sensory-motor components of strabismus or squint in greater detail than before. PMID:16385639

Lennerstrand, Gunnar

2005-12-01

6

Real-time modulation of perceptual eye dominance in humans.  

PubMed

Ocular dominance (OD) has long served as the model for neural plasticity. The shift of OD has been demonstrated by monocular deprivation in animals only during early visual development. Here, for the first time, we show that perceptual eye dominance can be modulated in real time in normal human adults by varying the spatial image content of movies seen dichoptically by the two eyes over a period as short as 2.5 h. Unlike OD shifts seen in early visual development, this modulation in human eye dominance is not simply a consequence of reduced interocular correlation (e.g. synchronicity) or overall contrast energy, but due to the amplitude reductions of specific image components in one eye's view. The spatial properties driving this eye dominance change suggest that the underlying mechanism is binocular but not orientationally selective, therefore uniquely locating it to layer 4 B of area V1. PMID:25274364

Zhou, Jiawei; Reynaud, Alexandre; Hess, Robert F

2014-11-22

7

A Study of the Possible Distinction Between "Controlling Eye" and "Dominant Eye" and the Effect of Both, with Hand Dominance, on Reading Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study was a replication of two disparate studies, one of dominance and one of control, which had as subjects 277 seventh- and eighth-grade pupils remaining from an original dominance study of over 500. Eye dominance was determined through hole-in-paper and V-scope; eye control at near and far point, through the telebinocular;…

Boos, Robert W.; Hillerich, Robert L.

8

Sensory mechanisms of eye cleaning behavior in the cricket Gryllus campestris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical stimulation of the compound eye of the cricketGryllus campestris induces an eye cleaning response which involves coordinated movements of the head and the forelegs. Interommatidial bristles and campaniform sensilla provide the sensory input for the behavior. The axons of these receptors project through a sidebranch of the nervus tegumentarius into the suboesophageal and prothoracic ganglion. Recordings from this nerve

H.-W. Honegger; H. Reif; W. Müller

1979-01-01

9

ENDOGENOUS EYE BLINKS, ERP CORRELATES OF EARLY SENSORY PROCESSING AND MORNING NUTRITION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Processes associated with spontaneously occurring eye blinks have been shown to play an active role in information processing and performance. In this report we consider whether a blink-related influence on ERPs reflecting early sensory processing could be shown and if these processes are influenced...

10

Discovery of some 400 million year-old sensory structures in the compound eyes of trilobites  

PubMed Central

Fossilised arthropod compound eyes have frequently been described. Among the oldest known are those from the lower Cambrian of the Chengjiang Lagerstätte (China, c 525?Ma). All these compound eyes, though often excellently preserved, however, represent just the outer shells, because soft tissues, or even individual cells, usually do not fossilise. Using modern techniques, including ?ct-scanning and synchrotron radiation analysis we present the discovery of the sensory cell system of compound eyes, belonging to trilobites around 400 million years old, which allows their description and analysis. They are interpreted as forming part of an apposition-like ommatidium, which is a basic functional type of compound eye present in arthropods of today. Considered in greater detail, it is similar to the compound eye of the horseshoe crab Limulus, generally regarded as a ‘living fossil’, which probably retained this ancient basal system successfully until today. PMID:23492459

Schoenemann, Brigitte; Clarkson, Euan N. K.

2013-01-01

11

The relationship between relative eye usage and ocular dominance shifts in cat visual cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel modification of the alternate monocular deprivation paradigm was used to quantitatively define the relationship between relative eye usage and the shift in visual cortical ocular dominance toward the advantaged eye. Both eyes of cats were alternately occluded by contact lenses during daily visual exposure sessions with varying ratios of relative eye usage: 1:1, 1.7:1, 3:1, 7:1, 50:1, 100:0.

George D. Mower

2005-01-01

12

Evolution of an adaptive behavior and its sensory receptors promotes eye regression in blind cavefish  

PubMed Central

Background How and why animals lose eyesight during adaptation to the dark and food-limited cave environment has puzzled biologists since the time of Darwin. More recently, several different adaptive hypotheses have been proposed to explain eye degeneration based on studies in the teleost Astyanax mexicanus, which consists of blind cave-dwelling (cavefish) and sighted surface-dwelling (surface fish) forms. One of these hypotheses is that eye regression is the result of indirect selection for constructive characters that are negatively linked to eye development through the pleiotropic effects of Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling. However, subsequent genetic analyses suggested that other mechanisms also contribute to eye regression in Astyanax cavefish. Here, we introduce a new approach to this problem by investigating the phenotypic and genetic relationships between a suite of non-visual constructive traits and eye regression. Results Using quantitative genetic analysis of crosses between surface fish, the Pachón cavefish population and their hybrid progeny, we show that the adaptive vibration attraction behavior (VAB) and its sensory receptors, superficial neuromasts (SN) specifically found within the cavefish eye orbit (EO), are genetically correlated with reduced eye size. The quantitative trait loci (QTL) for these three traits form two clusters of congruent or overlapping QTL on Astyanax linkage groups (LG) 2 and 17, but not at the shh locus on LG 13. Ablation of EO SN in cavefish demonstrated a major role for these sensory receptors in VAB expression. Furthermore, experimental induction of eye regression in surface fish via shh overexpression showed that the absence of eyes was insufficient to promote the appearance of VAB or EO SN. Conclusions We conclude that natural selection for the enhancement of VAB and EO SN indirectly promotes eye regression in the Pachón cavefish population through an antagonistic relationship involving genetic linkage or pleiotropy among the genetic factors underlying these traits. This study demonstrates a trade-off between the evolution of a non-visual sensory system and eye regression during the adaptive evolution of Astyanax to the cave environment. PMID:23270452

2012-01-01

13

Social dominance and migratory restlessness in the dark-eyed junco ( Junco hyemalis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

I investigated the effect of restricted food and social dominance on nocturnal migratory activity (Zugunruhe) in dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) in late fall and winter. Highly restricted food tended to increase Zugunruhe in both dominant and subordinate members of pairs, however, subordinates showed significantly more migratory activity than dominants or solitary controls. Further, subordinate birds continued Zugunruhe after dominants and

Scott B. Terrill

1987-01-01

14

Objectives -Eye and Ear these are special sensory systems, i.e., part of the nervous system  

E-print Network

Objectives - Eye and Ear these are special sensory systems, i.e., part of the nervous system Eye, choroid, sclera, optic nerve, lacrimal gland, lacrimal duct Ear cochlear vs vestibular systems chambers external, middle, and inner ear parts of ear to know: pinna, external auditory meatus, tympanic membrane

Houde, Peter

15

Using an auditory sensory substitution device to augment vision: evidence from eye movements.  

PubMed

Sensory substitution devices convert information normally associated with one sense into another sense (e.g. converting vision into sound). This is often done to compensate for an impaired sense. The present research uses a multimodal approach in which both natural vision and sound-from-vision ('soundscapes') are simultaneously presented. Although there is a systematic correspondence between what is seen and what is heard, we introduce a local discrepancy between the signals (the presence of a target object that is heard but not seen) that the participant is required to locate. In addition to behavioural responses, the participants' gaze is monitored with eye-tracking. Although the target object is only presented in the auditory channel, behavioural performance is enhanced when visual information relating to the non-target background is presented. In this instance, vision may be used to generate predictions about the soundscape that enhances the ability to detect the hidden auditory object. The eye-tracking data reveal that participants look for longer in the quadrant containing the auditory target even when they subsequently judge it to be located elsewhere. As such, eye movements generated by soundscapes reveal the knowledge of the target location that does not necessarily correspond to the actual judgment made. The results provide a proof of principle that multimodal sensory substitution may be of benefit to visually impaired people with some residual vision and, in normally sighted participants, for guiding search within complex scenes. PMID:25511162

Wright, Thomas D; Margolis, Aaron; Ward, Jamie

2015-03-01

16

Social transmission of the sensory benefits of eye widening in fear expressions.  

PubMed

Facial expressions may have originated from a primitive sensory regulatory function that was then co-opted and further shaped for the purposes of social utility. In the research reported here, we tested such a hypothesis by investigating the functional origins of fear expressions for both the expresser and the observer. We first found that fear-based eye widening enhanced target discrimination in the available visual periphery of the expresser by 9.4%. We then found that fear-based eye widening enhanced observers' discrimination of expressers' gaze direction and facilitated observers' responses when locating eccentric targets. We present evidence that this benefit was driven by neither the perceived emotion nor attention but, rather, by an enhanced physical signal originating from greater exposure of the iris and sclera. These results highlight the coevolution of sensory and social regulatory functions of emotional expressions by showing that eye widening serves to enhance processing of important environmental events in the visual fields of both expresser and observer. PMID:23620549

Lee, Daniel H; Susskind, Joshua M; Anderson, Adam K

2013-06-01

17

Eye Dominance Predicts fMRI Signals in Human Retinotopic Cortex  

PubMed Central

There have been many attempts to define eye dominance in normal subjects, but limited consensus exists, and relevant physiological data is scarce. In this study, we consider two different behavioral methods for assignment of eye dominance, and how well they predict fMRI signals evoked by monocular stimulation. Sighting eye dominance was assessed with two standard tests, the Porta Test, and a ‘hole in hand’ variation of the Miles Test. Acuity dominance was tested with a standard eye chart and with a computerized test of grating acuity. We found limited agreement between the sighting and acuity methods for assigning dominance in our individual subjects. We then compared the fMRI response generated by dominant eye stimulation to that generated by non-dominant eye, according to both methods, in 7 normal subjects. The stimulus consisted of a high contrast hemifield stimulus alternating with no stimulus in a blocked paradigm. In separate scans, we used standard techniques to label the borders of visual areas V1, V2, V3, VP, V4, V3A, and MT. These regions of interest (ROIs) were used to analyze each visual area separately. We found that percent change in fMRI BOLD signal was stronger for the dominant eye as defined by the acuity method, and this effect was significant for areas located in the ventral occipital territory (V1v, V2v, VP, V4). In contrast, assigning dominance based on sighting produced no significant interocular BOLD differences. We conclude that interocular BOLD differences in normal subjects exist, and may be predicted by acuity measures. PMID:17194544

Mendola, Janine D.; Conner, Ian P.

2009-01-01

18

The eye dominates in guiding attention during simultaneous eye and hand movements  

E-print Network

for Neuroscience Studies, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada, & The Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Institute. Using a 4-AFC shape discrimination task, we investigated attentional allocation during the planning discrimination was better when the probe appeared at the goal of the impending movement than when it appeared

Song, Joo-Hyun

19

Costs of switching social groups for dominant and subordinate dark-eyed juncos ( Junco hyemalis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

I quantified the costs of switching from a familiar to an unfamiliar flock for captive dark-eyed juncos (Junco h. hyemalis) by measuring several physiological and behavioral variables before and after flock switching. Birds that were initially dominant dropped in status in unfamiliar flocks, and experienced increased metabolic rates, while subordinate birds appeared to undergo less physiological change when switching flocks.

Daniel A. Cristoll

1995-01-01

20

Hand-Eye Dominance and Depth Perception Effects in Performance on a Basic Laparoscopic Skills Set  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Our study determined whether depth perception defects and hand-eye dominance affect an individual's ability to perform laparoscopic skills. Methods: The study cohort comprised 104 third-year medical students from LSU School of Medicine who completed a questionnaire including information on handedness and were tested for eye dominance and depth perception by using standardized methods. Training sessions involved an initial recorded performance, a 20-minute practice session, followed by a final recorded performance. Recorded sessions were randomized and rated by using a visual analog scale (maximal possible score = 16) based on overall performance (OPS) and depth perception (DPS). A general linear model was used to correlate depth perception defects and hand-eye dominance with assessment scores for OPS and DPS. Results: Students with depth perception defects scored significantly lower on their initial performance than did those with normal depth perception (OPS, 4.80 vs. 7.16, P=0.0008; DPS, 5.25 vs. 6.93, P=0.0195). After training, the depth perception defect group continued to have lower scores compared with the normal depth perception group. However, the 2 groups showed similar increases in pre- to posttraining performance scores (OPS, 3.84 vs. 3.18, P=0.0732). Hand-eye dominance did not significantly affect scores. Conclusions: Depth perception defects appear to compromise an individual's ability to perform basic laparoscopic skills. Individuals with defects can improve their skills by a proportion comparable to that of people with uncompromised depth perception. Differences in hand-eye dominance do not correlate with performance differences in basic laparoscopic skills. Although further research is necessary, the findings indicate that training can be tailored for individuals with depth perception defects to improve laparoscopic performance. PMID:20529525

Suleman, Rabiya; Yang, Tong; Paige, John; Chauvin, Sheila; Alleyn, Jaime; Brewer, Martha; Johnson, Stephen I.

2010-01-01

21

Changes in Sensory Dominance during Childhood: Converging Evidence from the Colavita Effect and the Sound-Induced Flash Illusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In human adults, visual dominance emerges in several multisensory tasks. In children, auditory dominance has been reported up to 4 years of age. To establish when sensory dominance changes during development, 41 children (6-7, 9-10, and 11-12 years) were tested on the Colavita task (Experiment 1) and 32 children (6-7, 9-10, and 11-12 years) were…

Nava, Elena; Pavani, Francesco

2013-01-01

22

Pax6 in the sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes: evidence for a role in eye, sensory organ and brain development.  

PubMed

The cloning of a Pax6 orthologue from the sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes and its developmental expression pattern are described. The data are consistent with the presence of a single gene encoding a protein with highly conserved DNA-binding paired and homeodomains. A detailed expression analysis by in situ hybridization and immunodetection revealed Pax6 mRNA and protein with predominantly nuclear localization in the developing eye, olfactory organ, brain lobes (optic lobe, olfactory lobe, peduncle lobe, superior frontal lobe and dorsal basal lobe), arms and mantle, suggestive of a role in eye, brain, and sensory organ development. PMID:12559490

Hartmann, B; Lee, P N; Kang, Y Y; Tomarev, S; de Couet, H G; Callaerts, P

2003-02-01

23

Prevalence of Mutations in eyeGENE Probands With a Diagnosis of Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To screen samples from patients with presumed autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) for mutations in 12 disease genes as a contribution to the research and treatment goals of the National Ophthalmic Disease Genotyping and Phenotyping Network (eyeGENE). Methods. DNA samples were obtained from eyeGENE. A total of 170 probands with an intake diagnosis of adRP were tested through enrollment in eyeGENE. The 10 most common genes causing adRP (IMPDH1, KLHL7, NR2E3, PRPF3/RP18, PRPF31/RP11, PRPF8/RP13, PRPH2/RDS, RHO, RP1, and TOPORS) were chosen for PCR-based dideoxy sequencing, along with the two X-linked RP genes, RPGR and RP2. RHO, PRPH2, PRPF31, RPGR, and RP2 were completely sequenced, while only mutation hotspots in the other genes were analyzed. Results. Disease-causing mutations were identified in 52% of the probands. The frequencies of disease-causing mutations in the 12 genes were consistent with previous studies. Conclusions. The Laboratory for Molecular Diagnosis of Inherited Eye Disease at the University of Texas in Houston has thus far received DNA samples from 170 families with a diagnosis of adRP from the eyeGENE Network. Disease-causing mutations in autosomal genes were identified in 48% (81/170) of these families while mutations in X-linked genes accounted for an additional 4% (7/170). Of the 55 distinct mutations detected, 19 (33%) have not been previously reported. All diagnostic results were returned by eyeGENE to participating patients via their referring clinician. These genotyped samples along with their corresponding phenotypic information are also available to researchers who may request access to them for further study of these ophthalmic disorders. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00378742.) PMID:23950152

Sullivan, Lori S.; Bowne, Sara J.; Reeves, Melissa J.; Blain, Delphine; Goetz, Kerry; NDifor, Vida; Vitez, Sally; Wang, Xinjing; Tumminia, Santa J.; Daiger, Stephen P.

2013-01-01

24

Dominant defects in Drosophila eye pigmentation resulting from a euchromatin-heterochromatin fusion gene.  

PubMed

We have isolated a dominant mutation, pugilistDominant (pugD), that causes variegated reductions in pteridine and ommochrome pigmentation of the Drosophila eye. The effect of pugD on pteridine pigmentation is most dramatic: the only remaining pigment consists of a thin ring of pigment around the periphery of the eye with a few scattered spots in the center. The pugD mutation disrupts a gene that encodes a Drosophila homolog of the trifunctional enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD; E.C.1.5.1.5, E.C.3.5. 4.9, E.C.6.3.4.3). This enzyme produces a cofactor that is utilized in purine biosynthesis. Because pteridines are derived from GTP, the pigment defect may result from an impairment in the production of purines. The mutant allele consists of a portion of the MTHFD coding region fused to approximately 1 kb of highly repetitive DNA. Transcription and translation of both parts are required for the phenotype. The repetitive DNA consists of approximately 140 nearly perfect repeats of the sequence AGAGAGA, a significant component of centric heterochromatin. The unusual nature of the protein produced by this gene may be responsible for its dominance. The repetitive DNA may also account for the variegated aspect of the phenotype. It may promote occasional association of the pugD locus with centric heterochromatin, accompanied by inactivation of pugD, in a manner similar to the proposed mode of action for brownDominant. PMID:9832531

Rong, Y S; Golic, K G

1998-12-01

25

Binocular Neurons in Parastriate Cortex: Interocular ‘Matching’ of Receptive Field Properties, Eye Dominance and Strength of Silent Suppression  

PubMed Central

Spike-responses of single binocular neurons were recorded from a distinct part of primary visual cortex, the parastriate cortex (cytoarchitectonic area 18) of anaesthetized and immobilized domestic cats. Functional identification of neurons was based on the ratios of phase-variant (F1) component to the mean firing rate (F0) of their spike-responses to optimized (orientation, direction, spatial and temporal frequencies and size) sine-wave-luminance-modulated drifting grating patches presented separately via each eye. In over 95% of neurons, the interocular differences in the phase-sensitivities (differences in F1/F0 spike-response ratios) were small (?0.3) and in over 80% of neurons, the interocular differences in preferred orientations were ?10°. The interocular correlations of the direction selectivity indices and optimal spatial frequencies, like those of the phase sensitivies and optimal orientations, were also strong (coefficients of correlation r ?0.7005). By contrast, the interocular correlations of the optimal temporal frequencies, the diameters of summation areas of the excitatory responses and suppression indices were weak (coefficients of correlation r ?0.4585). In cells with high eye dominance indices (HEDI cells), the mean magnitudes of suppressions evoked by stimulation of silent, extra-classical receptive fields via the non-dominant eyes, were significantly greater than those when the stimuli were presented via the dominant eyes. We argue that the well documented ‘eye-origin specific’ segregation of the lateral geniculate inputs underpinning distinct eye dominance columns in primary visual cortices of mammals with frontally positioned eyes (distinct eye dominance columns), combined with significant interocular differences in the strength of silent suppressive fields, putatively contribute to binocular stereoscopic vision. PMID:24927276

Wang, Chun; Dreher, Bogdan

2014-01-01

26

AGONISTIC SENSORY EFFECTS OF AIRBORNE CHEMICALS IN MIXTURES: ODOR, NASAL PUNGENCY, AND EYE IRRITATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Threshold responses of odor, nasal pungency (irritation), and eye irritation were measured for single chemicals (1-propanol, 1-hexanol, ethyl acetate, heptyl acetate, 2-pentanone, 2-heptanone, toluene, ethyl benzene, and propyl benzene) and mixtures of them (two three-component m...

27

Deletion of Ten-m3 Induces the Formation of Eye Dominance Domains in Mouse Visual Cortex  

PubMed Central

The visual system is characterized by precise retinotopic mapping of each eye, together with exquisitely matched binocular projections. In many species, the inputs that represent the eyes are segregated into ocular dominance columns in primary visual cortex (V1), whereas in rodents, this does not occur. Ten-m3, a member of the Ten-m/Odz/Teneurin family, regulates axonal guidance in the retinogeniculate pathway. Significantly, ipsilateral projections are expanded in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and are not aligned with contralateral projections in Ten-m3 knockout (KO) mice. Here, we demonstrate the impact of altered retinogeniculate mapping on the organization and function of V1. Transneuronal tracing and c-fos immunohistochemistry demonstrate that the subcortical expansion of ipsilateral input is conveyed to V1 in Ten-m3 KOs: Ipsilateral inputs are widely distributed across V1 and are interdigitated with contralateral inputs into eye dominance domains. Segregation is confirmed by optical imaging of intrinsic signals. Single-unit recording shows ipsilateral, and contralateral inputs are mismatched at the level of single V1 neurons, and binocular stimulation leads to functional suppression of these cells. These findings indicate that the medial expansion of the binocular zone together with an interocular mismatch is sufficient to induce novel structural features, such as eye dominance domains in rodent visual cortex. PMID:22499796

Merlin, Sam; Horng, Sam; Marotte, Lauren R.; Sur, Mriganka; Sawatari, Atomu

2013-01-01

28

Head-eye tracking in two-dimensional pursuit tasks. [sensory feedback control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The neurological control systems for the eye and head are studied by investigating dynamic eye and head rotations in two degrees of freedom using bandlimited, white noise stimuli, nominally wide field of view stimulus presentations of + or - 10 deg and power spectral analysis of the data to produce input/output transfer and coherence functions. Determined were frequency response characteristics of these systems, the linearity of the transfer functions in both coupled and decoupled vertical and horizontal stimulus/response reference axes and the amount of cross axis coupling present in system responses. A comparative study was also conducted to assess the differences in response characteristics between single axis and dual axis visual stimulation for the same subject.

Shirachi, D. K.; Black, J. H., Jr.

1975-01-01

29

Ocular Dominance and Visual Function Testing  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To show the distribution of ocular dominance as measured with sensory and eye sighting methods and its potential relationship with high and low contrast LogMAR visual acuity in presbyopic subjects. Method. Forty-four presbyopes (48.5 ± 3.5 years) participated in this study. Ocular dominance was determined by eye sighting (hole-in-card) and sensorial (+1.50?D lens induced blur) methods. According to the dominance detected with each method (RE: right eye or LE: left eye), patients were classified in dominance type 1 (RE/RE), type 2 (RE/LE), type 3 (LE/RE) and type 4 (LE/LE). Results. Baseline refractive error (MSE) was RE:?0.36 ± 1.67?D and LE:?0.35 ± 1.85?D (P = 0.930). RE was the dominant eye in 61.4% and 70.5% of times as obtained from sensorial and sighting methods, respectively. Most frequent dominance was of type 1 (52.3%), in this case the RE showed statistically significant better distance low contrast LogMAR VA (0.04 LogMAR units) compared to the LE (P < 0.05). Conclusions. The dominance was more frequent in RE in this sample. The eye sighting and sensorial methods to define ocular dominance agreed in more than half of cases. Amount of MSE was not significantly different between dominant and non-dominant eye. But in case of right dominance, the RE presented better distance low contrast VA compared to the LE. PMID:24319677

Lopes-Ferreira, D.; Neves, H.; Queiros, A.; Faria-Ribeiro, M.; Peixoto-de-Matos, S. C.; González-Méijome, J. M.

2013-01-01

30

Multiple manifestations of microstimulation in the optic tectum: eye movements, pupil dilations, and sensory priming.  

PubMed

It is well established that the optic tectum (or its mammalian homologue, the superior colliculus) is involved in directing gaze toward salient stimuli. However, salient stimuli typically induce orienting responses beyond gaze shifts. The role of the optic tectum in generating responses such as pupil dilation, galvanic responses, or covert shifts is not clear. In the present work, we studied the effects of microstimulation in the optic tectum of the barn owl (Tyto alba) on pupil diameter and on eye shifts. Experiments were conducted in lightly anesthetized head-restrained barn owls. We report that low-level microstimulation in the deep layers of the optic tectum readily induced pupil dilation responses (PDRs), as well as small eye movements. Electrically evoked PDRs, similar to acoustically evoked PDRs, were long-lasting and habituated to repeated stimuli. We further show that microstimulation in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus also induced PDRs. Finally, in experiments in which tectal microstimulations were coupled with acoustic stimuli, we show a tendency of the microstimulation to enhance pupil responses and eye shifts to previously habituated acoustic stimuli. The enhancement was dependent on the site of stimulation in the tectal spatial map; responses to sounds with spatial cues that matched the site of stimulation were more enhanced compared with sounds with spatial cues that did not match. These results suggest that the optic tectum is directly involved in autonomic orienting reflexes as well as in gaze shifts, highlighting the central role of the optic tectum in mediating the body responses to salient stimuli. PMID:20427617

Netser, Shai; Ohayon, Shay; Gutfreund, Yoram

2010-07-01

31

Autosomal dominant hereditary sensory neuropathy with chronic cough and gastro-oesophageal reflux: clinical features in two families linked to chromosome 3p22-p24  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal dominant hereditary sensory neuropathy (HSN I) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders, and in some families it is due to mutations in the serine palmitoyltransferase (SPTLC1) gene. We have characterized two families with HSN I associated with cough and gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR). From a large Australian family, 27 individuals and from a smaller family, 11 individuals

Penelope J. Spring; Cindy Kok; Garth A. Nicholson; Alvin J. Ing; Judith M. Spies; Mark L. Bassett; John Cameron; Paul Kerlin; Simon Bowler; Roger Tuck; John D. Pollard

2005-01-01

32

FLOCK STABILITY IN RELATION TO SOCIAL DOMINANCE AND AGONISTIC BEHAVIOR IN WINTERING DARK-EYED JUNCOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines some consequences of changes in the membership and lo- cation of winter flocks of Dark-eyed Juncos (Junco hyemalis). Among captives, intragroup social relationships seldom were affected by separation from or subsequent reunion with another portion of the home flock, by amalgamation with or separation from a foreign flock, or by changes in flock location. Foreign flock members

MARTHA HATCH BALPH

33

Pterygotus eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Like many modern and fossil arthropods, eurypterids had compound eyes and other sensory devices. Many eurypterids display small, bean-shaped eyes which are oriented for side viewing. The large bulbous eyes of Pterygotus are located on the edge of the head and were probably useful for looking both laterally and vertically.

2001-03-01

34

Varying occurrence of vocal cord paralysis in a family with autosomal dominant hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy.  

PubMed

A white British family with the axonal form of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN, type II) contained one member who developed a recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy at the age of 41 years, in addition to 4 years of symptomatic polyneuropathy and an abducens nerve palsy. Neither of the other family members (the mother and sister) with electrophysiologically confirmed polyneuropathy had any neuropathic symptoms in the limbs or laryngeal or respiratory muscle involvement. An autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance is likely. This is a second report of this rare form of HMSN (type IIC) in which there is associated laryngeal or respiratory muscle weakness. This family differs from the two previously reported pedigrees in which laryngeal or diaphragm weakness had commenced within the first two decades. The discovery of asymptomatic family members attests to the diagnostic value of clinical and electrophysiological study of first-degree relatives when laryngeal or bulbar symptoms develop in the context of chronic axonal polyneuropathy. HMSN type IIC should be distinguished from the more common forms of HMSN - type IIA, in which axonal polyneuropathy is restricted to the limbs, and type IIB, which is of early onset and associated with foot ulceration. PMID:10463355

Donaghy, M; Kennett, R

1999-07-01

35

Does dominance determine how far dark-eyed juncos, Junco hyemulis, migrate into their winter range?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavioural dominance hypothesis suggests that differential migration among individuals of a species of bird is due solely to social interactions that force subordinate individuals (often a class, e.g. female or young birds) to migrate farther into the winter range than dominant individuals (often a class, e.g. male or old birds). Here, this hypothesis was tested with two experiments. In

CHRISTOPHER M. ROGERS; TAD L. THEIMER; VAL NOLAN JR; ELLEN D. KETTERSON

1989-01-01

36

Pax6 in the sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes: evidence for a role in eye, sensory organ and brain development  

E-print Network

-swimming and behaviorally sophisti- cated cephalopods. The cephalopod brain is comparable in complexity to the vertebrate molluscan classes. The eyes of cephalopods represent one of the major types of complex photoreceptor organs alongside the vertebrate and arthropod eyes (Salvini- Plawen and Mayr, 1977). Thus, the cephalopods provide

McFall-Ngai, Margaret

37

Autosomal dominant hereditary sensory neuropathy with chronic cough and gastro-oesophageal reflux: clinical features in two families linked to chromosome 3p22-p24.  

PubMed

Autosomal dominant hereditary sensory neuropathy (HSN I) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders, and in some families it is due to mutations in the serine palmitoyltransferase (SPTLC1) gene. We have characterized two families with HSN I associated with cough and gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR). From a large Australian family, 27 individuals and from a smaller family, 11 individuals provided clinical information and blood for genetic analysis. Affected individuals had an adult onset of paroxysmal cough, GOR and distal sensory loss. Cough could be triggered by noxious odours or by pressure in the external auditory canal (Arnold's ear-cough reflex). Other features included throat clearing, hoarse voice, cough syncope and sensorineural hearing loss. Neurophysiological and pathological studies demonstrated a sensory axonal neuropathy. Gastric emptying studies were normal, and autonomic function and sweat tests were either normal or showed distal hypohidrosis. Cough was likely to be due to a combination of denervation hypersensitivity of the upper airways and oesophagus, and prominent GOR. Most affected individuals were shown on 24 h ambulatory oesophageal pH monitoring to have multiple episodes of GOR, closely temporally associated with coughing. Hoarse voice was probably attributable to acid-induced laryngeal damage, and there was no evidence of vocal cord palsy. No other cause for cough was found on most respiratory or otorhinological studies. Linkage to chromosome 3p22-p24 has been found in both families, with no evidence of linkage to loci for known HSN I, autosomal dominant hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, hereditary GOR or triple A syndrome. These families represent a genetically novel variant of HSN I, with a distinctive cough owing to involvement of the upper aerodigestive tract. PMID:16311270

Spring, Penelope J; Kok, Cindy; Nicholson, Garth A; Ing, Alvin J; Spies, Judith M; Bassett, Mark L; Cameron, John; Kerlin, Paul; Bowler, Simon; Tuck, Roger; Pollard, John D

2005-12-01

38

Varying occurrence of vocal cord paralysis in a family with autosomal dominant hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A white British family with the axonal form of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN, type II) contained one member\\u000a who developed a recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy at the age of 41 years, in addition to 4 years of symptomatic polyneuropathy\\u000a and an abducens nerve palsy. Neither of the other family members (the mother and sister) with electrophysiologically confirmed\\u000a polyneuropathy

Michael Donaghy; Robin Kennett

1999-01-01

39

Does dominance of crossing retinal ganglion cells make the eyes cross? The temporal retina in the origin of infantile esotropia – a neuroanatomical and evolutionary analysis  

PubMed Central

A closer look at the evolution of the eye and the brain provides a possible explanation for both the origin of infantile esotropia and its motor characteristics. In the course of evolution, the eyes have moved from a lateral to a frontal position. Consequently, the monocular visual fields started to overlap resulting in a binocular visual field. In lateral-eyed animals, the retinae project to the contralateral visual cortices only. These projections are also found in binocular mammals and birds with binocular visual fields but in addition there are uncrossed projections from the temporal retinae to the visual cortex. The partial chiasmal decussation and the corpus callosum provide the necessary structure that allows binocular vision to develop. Disruption of normal binocular development causes a loss of binocularity in the primary visual cortex and beyond. Beyond the primary visual cortex, the contralateral eye dominates while the temporal retinal signal appears to lose influence. Loss or absence of binocular vision in infantile esotropia may be caused by inadequate retinotopic matching between the nasal and temporal retinal signals like in albinism with an abnormal or asymmetric chiasmal decussation or agenesis of the corpus callosum. Dominance of the crossing retinal signal might also explain the motor characteristics of infantile esotropia (asymmetric OKN, latent nystagmus, DVD). A normal binocular cortical signal will predominate over the evolutionary older, originally non-binocular, retinal projections to the superior colliculi (CS) and the accessory optic system (AOS). A suppressed temporal retinal signal paves the way for the re-emergence of eye movements driven by one eye, as in lateral-eyed non-binocular animals. PMID:25259397

ten Tusscher, Marcel P M

2014-01-01

40

Does dominance of crossing retinal ganglion cells make the eyes cross? The temporal retina in the origin of infantile esotropia – a neuroanatomical and evolutionary analysis.  

PubMed

A closer look at the evolution of the eye and the brain provides a possible explanation for both the origin of infantile esotropia and its motor characteristics. In the course of evolution, the eyes have moved from a lateral to a frontal position. Consequently, the monocular visual fields started to overlap resulting in a binocular visual field. In lateral-eyed animals, the retinae project to the contralateral visual cortices only. These projections are also found in binocular mammals and birds with binocular visual fields but in addition there are uncrossed projections from the temporal retinae to the visual cortex. The partial chiasmal decussation and the corpus callosum provide the necessary structure that allows binocular vision to develop. Disruption of normal binocular development causes a loss of binocularity in the primary visual cortex and beyond. Beyond the primary visual cortex, the contralateral eye dominates while the temporal retinal signal appears to lose influence. Loss or absence of binocular vision in infantile esotropia may be caused by inadequate retinotopic matching between the nasal and temporal retinal signals like in albinism with an abnormal or asymmetric chiasmal decussation or agenesis of the corpus callosum. Dominance of the crossing retinal signal might also explain the motor characteristics of infantile esotropia (asymmetric OKN, latent nystagmus, DVD). A normal binocular cortical signal will predominate over the evolutionary older, originally non-binocular, retinal projections to the superior colliculi (CS) and the accessory optic system (AOS). A suppressed temporal retinal signal paves the way for the re-emergence of eye movements driven by one eye, as in lateral-eyed non-binocular animals. PMID:25259397

ten Tusscher, Marcel P M

2014-09-01

41

Signaling by Sensory Receptors  

PubMed Central

Sensory systems detect small molecules, mechanical perturbations, or radiation via the activation of receptor proteins and downstream signaling cascades in specialized sensory cells. In vertebrates, the two principal categories of sensory receptors are ion channels, which mediate mechanosensation, thermosensation, and acid and salt taste; and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which mediate vision, olfaction, and sweet, bitter, and umami tastes. GPCR-based signaling in rods and cones illustrates the fundamental principles of rapid activation and inactivation, signal amplification, and gain control. Channel-based sensory systems illustrate the integration of diverse modulatory signals at the receptor, as seen in the thermosensory/pain system, and the rapid response kinetics that are possible with direct mechanical gating of a channel. Comparisons of sensory receptor gene sequences reveal numerous examples in which gene duplication and sequence divergence have created novel sensory specificities. This is the evolutionary basis for the observed diversity in temperature- and ligand-dependent gating among thermosensory channels, spectral tuning among visual pigments, and odorant binding among olfactory receptors. The coding of complex external stimuli by a limited number of sensory receptor types has led to the evolution of modality-specific and species-specific patterns of retention or loss of sensory information, a filtering operation that selectively emphasizes features in the stimulus that enhance survival in a particular ecological niche. The many specialized anatomic structures, such as the eye and ear, that house primary sensory neurons further enhance the detection of relevant stimuli. PMID:22110046

Julius, David; Nathans, Jeremy

2012-01-01

42

Advanced optics in a jellyfish eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cubozoans, or box jellyfish, differ from all other cnidarians by an active fish-like behaviour and an elaborate sensory apparatus. Each of the four sides of the animal carries a conspicuous sensory club (the rhopalium), which has evolved into a bizarre cluster of different eyes. Two of the eyes on each rhopalium have long been known to resemble eyes of higher

Dan-E. Nilsson; Lars Gislén; Melissa M. Coates; Charlotta Skogh; Anders Garm

2005-01-01

43

The PROM1 Mutation p.R373C Causes an Autosomal Dominant Bull's Eye Maculopathy Associated with Rod, Rod–Cone, and Macular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To characterize in detail the phenotype of five unrelated families with autosomal dominant bull's eye maculopathy (BEM) due to the R373C mutation in the PROM1 gene. Methods. Forty-one individuals of five families of Caribbean (family A), British (families B, D, E), and Italian (family C) origin, segregating the R373C mutation in PROM1, were ascertained. Electrophysiological assessment, fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging, fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were performed in available subjects. Mutation screening of PROM1 was performed. Results. The R373C mutant was present heterozygously in all affected patients. The age at onset was variable and ranged between 9 and 58 years, with most of the individuals presenting with reading difficulties. Subjects commonly had a mild to moderate reduction in visual acuity except for members of family C who experienced markedly reduced central vision. The retinal phenotype was characterized by macular dystrophy, with retinal pigment epithelial mottling in younger subjects, progressing to typical BEM over time, with the development of macular atrophy in older patients. In addition, all members of family C had typical features of RP. The electrophysiological findings were variable both within and between families. Conclusions. Mutations in PROM1 have been described to cause a severe form of autosomal recessive RP in two families of Indian and Pakistani descent. The results of this study have demonstrated that a distinct redundant PROM1 mutation (R373C) can also produce an autosomal dominant, fully penetrant retinopathy, characterized by BEM with little inter- and intrafamilial variability, and retinal dystrophy with variable rod or rod–cone dysfunction and marked intra- and interfamilial variability, ranging from isolated maculopathy without generalized photoreceptor dysfunction to maculopathy associated with very severe rod–cone dysfunction. PMID:20393116

Michaelides, Michel; Gaillard, Marie-Claire; Escher, Pascal; Tiab, Leila; Bedell, Matthew; Borruat, François-Xavier; Barthelmes, Daniel; Carmona, Ruben; Zhang, Kang; White, Edward; McClements, Michelle; Robson, Anthony G.; Holder, Graham E.; Bradshaw, Keith; Hunt, David M.; Webster, Andrew R.; Moore, Anthony T.; Schorderet, Daniel F.; Munier, Francis L.

2010-01-01

44

Black Eye  

MedlinePLUS

... Eye Health News Consumer Alerts What Is a Black Eye? Tweet Black eye is a phrase used to describe bruising ... dark bruising in the tissue. What Is a Black Eye? Black Eye Symptoms What Causes a Black ...

45

Expressing fear enhances sensory acquisition.  

PubMed

It has been proposed that facial expression production originates in sensory regulation. Here we demonstrate that facial expressions of fear are configured to enhance sensory acquisition. A statistical model of expression appearance revealed that fear and disgust expressions have opposite shape and surface reflectance features. We hypothesized that this reflects a fundamental antagonism serving to augment versus diminish sensory exposure. In keeping with this hypothesis, when subjects posed expressions of fear, they had a subjectively larger visual field, faster eye movements during target localization and an increase in nasal volume and air velocity during inspiration. The opposite pattern was found for disgust. Fear may therefore work to enhance perception, whereas disgust dampens it. These convergent results provide support for the Darwinian hypothesis that facial expressions are not arbitrary configurations for social communication, but rather, expressions may have originated in altering the sensory interface with the physical world. PMID:18552843

Susskind, Joshua M; Lee, Daniel H; Cusi, Andrée; Feiman, Roman; Grabski, Wojtek; Anderson, Adam K

2008-07-01

46

Eye Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Eye Cancer: Overview Request Permissions Print to PDF Eye Cancer: Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... trained to treat intraocular cancer. Parts of the eye The eye is the organ that collects light ...

47

Healthy Eyes  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking ... have a comprehensive dilated eye exam. Who Performs Eye Exams? An eye care professional is either an ...

48

Eye redness  

MedlinePLUS

Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral infection; Conjunctival infection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies and some are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Others are nothing to ...

49

Sensory exotropia due to keratoconus and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

This case report describes a 17-year-old boy with sensory strabismus due to keratoconus and an ipsilateral nodular lesion of the bulbar conjunctiva. The aligned eye was the right eye and keratoconus in this eye was of late onset. Vision in the left eye was poor and keratoconus was advanced in this eye. Due to the longstanding nature of the keratoconus and its occurrence in a developmentally sensitive period, sensory exotropia had developed in the left eye. There was a nodular lesion of the bulbar conjunctiva in the ipsilateral eye. If keratoconus occurs before the age of 7 years and the prolonged visual loss is not corrected, sensory strabismus can develop, as in this patient. PMID:24204108

Ciftci, Suleyman; Simsek, Ali; Dogan, Eyup; Ciftci, Leyla

2013-01-01

50

Hawk Eyes I: Diurnal Raptors Differ in Visual Fields and Degree of Eye Movement  

E-print Network

Hawk Eyes I: Diurnal Raptors Differ in Visual Fields and Degree of Eye Movement Colleen T. O specific demands on sensory modalities. We studied visual field configuration, degree of eye movement, and orbit orientation in three diurnal raptors belonging to the Accipitridae and Falconidae families

Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

51

Effects of eye muscle proprioceptive activation on eye position in normal and exotropic subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

• Background: Activation of muscle spindles by vibration of eye muscles is known to induce illusory movements of fixated targets, but the effects on eye position have not been studied, either in normal subjects or in patients with exotropia. • Methods: Eye position was recorded from the covered, non-dominant eye with an infrared system in 11 subjects with normal eyes

Gunnar Lennerstrand; Suna Tian; Ying Han

1997-01-01

52

Visual fields, eye movements, and scanning behavior of a sit-and-wait predator, the black phoebe ( Sayornis nigricans )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foraging mode influences the dominant sensory modality used by a forager and likely the strategies of information gathering\\u000a used in foraging and anti-predator contexts. We assessed three components of visual information gathering in a sit-and-wait\\u000a avian predator, the black phoebe (Sayornis nigricans): configuration of the visual field, degree of eye movement, and scanning behavior through head-movement rates. We found\\u000a that

Megan D. Gall; Esteban Fernández-Juricic

2010-01-01

53

Eye Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

54

Eye Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

55

Eye Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

56

Sensory Dysfunction  

MedlinePLUS

... version Sensory Dysfunction Overview Why are smell and taste important? Your senses of smell and taste let you fully enjoy the scents and flavors ... and poisonous chemicals. Is there a difference between taste and flavor? Yes. The basic tastes are salty, ...

57

Sensory analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sensory evaluation can answer questions about a product that instruments cannot. The human subject is the instrument, and data can provide a wealth of information for a product developer, or results can be very variable and erroneous if all the precautions to minimize bias and external noise are no...

58

Eye to Eye (Illuminations)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this two-day lesson plan students collect, display, and analyze data about the eye color of their classmates. On day one, students display the eye color data in a pictograph and discuss what questions can and cannot be answered using this graph. On the second day of the lesson, data from a partner class is used to create a second pictograph. Students then compare these graphs and determine what questions can and cannot be answered using these two graphs. Questions and extension suggestions (including making a circle graph to represent data) are also included in the lesson plan.

2008-01-01

59

Stance width changes how sensory feedback is used for multisegmental balance control.  

PubMed

A multilink sensorimotor integration model of frontal plane balance control was developed to determine how stance width influences the use of sensory feedback in healthy adults. Data used to estimate model parameters came from seven human participants who stood on a continuously rotating surface with three different stimulus amplitudes, with eyes open and closed, and at four different stance widths. Dependent variables included lower body (LB) and upper body (UB) sway quantified by frequency-response functions. Results showed that stance width had a major influence on how parameters varied across stimulus amplitude and between visual conditions. Active mechanisms dominated LB control. At narrower stances, with increasing stimulus amplitude, subjects used sensory reweighting to shift reliance from proprioceptive cues to vestibular and/or visual cues that oriented the LB more toward upright. When vision was available, subjects reduced reliance on proprioception and increased reliance on vision. At wider stances, LB control did not exhibit sensory reweighting. In the UB system, both active and passive mechanisms contributed and were dependent on stance width. UB control changed across stimulus amplitude most in wide stance (opposite of the pattern found in LB control). The strong influence of stance width on sensory integration and neural feedback control implies that rehabilitative therapies for balance disorders can target different aspects of balance control by using different stance widths. Rehabilitative strategies designed to assess or modify sensory reweighting will be most effective with the use of narrower stances, whereas wider stances present greater challenges to UB control. PMID:24760788

Goodworth, Adam D; Mellodge, Patricia; Peterka, Robert J

2014-08-01

60

A novel mutation (ASn244Lys) in the peripherin/RDS gene causing autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa associated with bull's eye maculopathy detected by nonradioisotopic SSCP  

SciTech Connect

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is characterized by night blindness, an eventual loss of visual field, a diminished response on the electroretinogram, and pigmentary retinal degeneration. These features are primarily explained by the degeneration of photoreceptors. The recent development of the molecular genetic approach has enabled the identification of genes responsible for parts of autosomal dominant RP (ADRP). Rhodopsin and peripherin/RDS genes, in particular, have been successfully shown to cosegregate with ADRP. The authors, therefore, screened 42 unrelated Japanese patients with ADRP to search for mutations in the peripherin/RDS gene. The method we employed for screening was a nonradioisotopic modification of single-strand conformation polymorphism. Among 42 unrelated patients with ADRP, the DNA from one patient (SY) showed an abnormal pattern in exon 2 on SSCP. The DNA fragments were then amplified from affected and nonaffected members of the same family as SY. The alteration in the DNA sequence that was commonly found in the affected members of the family was identified as a heterozygous transversional change of C to A at the third nucleotide in codon 244, resulting in the amino acid replacement of asparagine residue with lysine residue. None of unaffected family members or 30 normal control individuals had this alteration.

Kikawa, Emi; Nakazawa, Mitsuru; Chida, Yasushi; Shiono, Takashi; Tamai, Makota (Tohoku Univ. of School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan))

1994-03-01

61

Peculiar Eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

I LABOUR under the peculiar inconvenience of having a right eye of normal power and a short-sighted left eye. The numerals on the face of a clock 5\\/8 of an inch high are visible to the right eye at 12 feet distant; but in order to discern them as clearly with my left eye I require to bring that organ

Jas. Shaw

1891-01-01

62

Brief article Multisensory spatial representations in eye-centered  

E-print Network

of the eyes in the orbit and the position of the head with respect to the trunk. As illustrated in Fig. 1Brief article Multisensory spatial representations in eye-centered coordinates for reaching across sensory modalities. The location of reaching targets is also encoded in eye-centered coordinates

Pouget, Alexandre

63

Sensory processing disorders.  

PubMed

Most people are able to effectively process and respond to the sensory stimuli of daily life. But people who have sensory processing disorders struggle to form meaningful responses to sensory stimuli. As a result these individuals often exhibit problems with coordination, sensory-seeking or sensory-avoiding behaviors, and sensory modulation. The concept of sensory processing disorders stems from the work of occupational therapist Jean Ayres, Ph.D. Her work has launched a sensory-based treatment approach, primarily practiced by occupational therapists. This article outlines the theories supporting the notion of sensory processing disorders, options for assessment and treatment, and research on the efficacy of treatment. PMID:12498067

Reisman, Judith

2002-11-01

64

Teaching through Sensory-Motor Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included in the collection are articles on sensory-motor sequencing experiences in learning by R.G. Heckelman, integrating form perception by Floria Coon-Teters, building patterns of retention by Harold Helms, hand-eye coordination by Shirley Linn, laterality and directionality by Sheila Benyon, body image and body awareness by Grace Petitclerc,…

Arena, John I., Ed.

65

The eyes of Macrosoma sp. (Lepidoptera: Hedyloidea): A nocturnal butterfly with superposition optics  

E-print Network

The eyes of Macrosoma sp. (Lepidoptera: Hedyloidea): A nocturnal butterfly with superposition 2006; accepted 7 June 2006 Abstract The visual system of nocturnal Hedyloidea butterflies eyes of true butterflies (Papilionoidea), and, to gain insights into the sensory ecology

Yack, Jayne E.

66

The injured eye.  

PubMed

Eye injuries come at a high cost to society and are avoidable. Ocular blast injuries can be primary, from the blast wave itself; secondary, from fragments carried by the blast wind; tertiary; due to structural collapse or being thrown against a fixed object; or quaternary, from burns and indirect injuries. Ballistic eye protection significantly reduces the incidence of eye injuries and should be encouraged from an early stage in Military training. Management of an injured eye requires meticulous history taking, evaluation of vision that measures the acuity and if there is a relative pupillary defect as well as careful inspection of the eyes, under anaesthetic if necessary. A lateral canthotomy with cantholysis should be performed immediately if there is a sight-threatening retrobulbar haemorrhage. Systemic antibiotics should be prescribed if there is a suspected penetrating or perforating injury. A ruptured globe should be protected by an eye shield. Primary repair of ruptured globes should be performed in a timely fashion. Secondary procedures will often be required at a later date to achieve sight preservation. A poor initial visual acuity is not a guarantee of a poor final result. The final result can be predicted after approximately 3-4 weeks. Future research in eye injuries attempts to reduce scarring and neuronal damage as well as to promote photoreceptor rescue, using post-transcriptional inhibition of cell death pathways and vaccination to promote neural recovery. Where the sight has been lost sensory substitution of a picture from a spectacle mounted video camera to the touch receptors of the tongue can be used to achieve appreciation of the outside world. PMID:21149360

Scott, Robert

2011-01-27

67

The injured eye  

PubMed Central

Eye injuries come at a high cost to society and are avoidable. Ocular blast injuries can be primary, from the blast wave itself; secondary, from fragments carried by the blast wind; tertiary; due to structural collapse or being thrown against a fixed object; or quaternary, from burns and indirect injuries. Ballistic eye protection significantly reduces the incidence of eye injuries and should be encouraged from an early stage in Military training. Management of an injured eye requires meticulous history taking, evaluation of vision that measures the acuity and if there is a relative pupillary defect as well as careful inspection of the eyes, under anaesthetic if necessary. A lateral canthotomy with cantholysis should be performed immediately if there is a sight-threatening retrobulbar haemorrhage. Systemic antibiotics should be prescribed if there is a suspected penetrating or perforating injury. A ruptured globe should be protected by an eye shield. Primary repair of ruptured globes should be performed in a timely fashion. Secondary procedures will often be required at a later date to achieve sight preservation. A poor initial visual acuity is not a guarantee of a poor final result. The final result can be predicted after approximately 3–4 weeks. Future research in eye injuries attempts to reduce scarring and neuronal damage as well as to promote photoreceptor rescue, using post-transcriptional inhibition of cell death pathways and vaccination to promote neural recovery. Where the sight has been lost sensory substitution of a picture from a spectacle mounted video camera to the touch receptors of the tongue can be used to achieve appreciation of the outside world. PMID:21149360

Scott, Robert

2011-01-01

68

Eye pain  

MedlinePLUS

... may be caused by the wrong eyeglass or contact lens prescription. Sometimes they are due to a problem ... that can cause eye pain are: Infections Inflammation Contact lens problems Dry eye Acute glaucoma Sinus problems Neuropathy ...

69

Eye Allergies  

MedlinePLUS

... 40 to 60 Adults Over 60 Babies, Children & Teenagers Computer Usage Diabetes Diet & Nutrition Eye Injuries Eye ... other environmental triggers, such as pet dander, dust, smoke, perfumes, or even foods. If the exposure is ...

70

LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes During Pregnancy Computer Usage & Eye Strain Maintaining Your Sight with ... Eye Protection Eyesight Risks for Smokers Veterans & Eye Health More Lifestyle Topics > EyeSmart Tips Water & Contacts Don’ ...

71

Night Eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor, night-time activity, learners discover how to spot eye-shine (reflection of light from an animal's eyes) by using a flashlight to play a simulation game. Using the spotting technique they learn in the game, learners locate mysterious eyes, stalk the creatures, and observe the animal's behavior.

Lawrence Hall of Science

1981-01-01

72

Dilating Eye Drops  

MedlinePLUS

... Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus Stye (defined) Vision Screening Vision Screening Recommendations ... Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus Stye (defined) Vision Screening Vision Screening Recommendations ...

73

Smoking and Eye Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Smoking and Eye Health Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... over the battery and always wear safety goggles. Eye Protection Works Wearing the proper protective eyewear for ...

74

Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment Tweet Lazy eye correction or treatment should ... Lazy Eye Diagnosis Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment Lazy eye patch treatment If refractive amblyopia is a problem, ...

75

Using Eye Makeup  

MedlinePLUS

... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Using Eye Makeup Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... over the battery and always wear safety goggles. Eye Protection Works Wearing the proper protective eyewear for ...

76

Mental Imagery as Revealed by Eye Movements and Spoken Predicates: A Test of Neurolinguistic Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bandler and Grinder's proposal that eye movement direction and spoken predicates are indicative of sensory modality of imagery was tested. Subjects reported on modality, sequence, and vividness of images to questions that evoked either no images or visual, auditory, or kinesthetic images. Eye movement direction and spoken predicates were matched with sensory modality of the questions. Subjects reported images in

Matthew Elich; Richard W. Thompson; Laurence Miller

1985-01-01

77

Electrotactile and vibrotactile displays for sensory substitution systems.  

PubMed

Sensory substitution systems provide their users with environmental information through a human sensory channel (eye, ear, or skin) different from that normally used, or with the information processed in some useful way. We review the methods used to present visual, auditory, and modified tactile information to the skin. First, we discuss present and potential future applications of sensory substitution, including tactile vision substitution (TVS), tactile auditory substitution, and remote tactile sensing or feedback (teletouch). Next, we review the relevant sensory physiology of the skin, including both the mechanisms of normal touch and the mechanisms and sensations associated with electrical stimulation of the skin using surface electrodes (electrotactile (also called electrocutaneous) stimulation). We briefly summarize the information-processing ability of the tactile sense and its relevance to sensory substitution. Finally, we discuss the limitations of current tactile display technologies and suggest areas requiring further research for sensory substitution systems to become more practical. PMID:2026426

Kaczmarek, K A; Webster, J G; Bach-y-Rita, P; Tompkins, W J

1991-01-01

78

Bi-sensory, striped representations: comparative insights from owl and platypus.  

PubMed

Bi-sensory striped arrays are described in owl and platypus that share some similarities with the other variant of bi-sensory striped array found in primate and carnivore striate cortex: ocular dominance columns. Like ocular dominance columns, the owl and platypus striped systems each involve two different topographic arrays that are cut into parallel stripes, and interdigitated, so that higher-order neurons can integrate across both arrays. Unlike ocular dominance stripes, which have a separate array for each eye, the striped array in the middle third of the owl tectum has a separate array for each cerebral hemisphere. Binocular neurons send outputs from both hemispheres to the striped array where they are segregated into parallel stripes according to hemisphere of origin. In platypus primary somatosensory cortex (S1), the two arrays of interdigitated stripes are derived from separate sensory systems in the bill, 40,000 electroreceptors and 60,000 mechanoreceptors. The stripes in platypus S1 cortex produce bimodal electrosensory-mechanosensory neurons with specificity for the time-of-arrival difference between the two systems. This "thunder-and-lightning" system would allow the platypus to estimate the distance of the prey using time disparities generated at the bill between the earlier electrical wave and the later mechanical wave caused by the motion of benthic prey. The functional significance of parallel, striped arrays is not clear, even for the highly-studied ocular dominance system, but a general strategy is proposed here that is based on the detection of temporal disparities between the two arrays that can be used to estimate distance. PMID:15477026

Pettigrew, John D

2004-01-01

79

Eye dilation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The iris is the colored part of the eye. The pupil is the dark circle in the middle of the iris. The iris causes the pupil to expand or contract depending on the amount of light in a given area. Once light passes through the pupil, a structure called the lens that is directly behind the pupil focuses the light at the back of the eye. The optic nerve, located at the back of the eye, takes the focused message and relays it to the brain where it is processed into an image.

Greyson Orlando (None; )

2006-12-11

80

The cellular eye lens and crystallins of cubomedusan jellyfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrastructure and major soluble proteins of the transparent eye lens of two cubomedusan jellyfish,Tripedalia cystophora andCarybdea marsupialis, have been examined. Each species has two complex eyes (one large and one small) on four sensory structures called rhopalia. The lenses consist of closely spaced cells with few organelles. The lens is situated next to the retina, with only an acellular

Joram Piatigorsky; Joseph Horwitz; Toichiro Kuwabara; Charles E. Cutress

1989-01-01

81

Eye Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... following symptoms: sudden appearance of spots and strings floating in your field of vision; flashes of light ... experiencing eye pain, and do you see dark, floating spots? You may have an inflammation inside the ...

82

Dry eyes  

MedlinePLUS

... dry eyes include: Aging Dry environment or workplace (wind, air conditioning) Sun exposure Smoking or second-hand ... Don't smoke. Avoid second-hand smoke, direct wind, and air conditioning. Use a humidifier, especially in ...

83

Eye emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

... eye turns black and blue, gradually becoming purple, green, and yellow over several days. The abnormal color ... Brunette DD. Ophthalmology. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al., eds. Rosen’s Emergency Medicine: Concepts ...

84

Eyes, Bulging  

MedlinePLUS

... eyes for redness, sores, and irritation using a slit lamp (an instrument that enables a doctor to ... under high magnification—Fig. 2: What Is a Slit Lamp? ). They check whether the eyelids move as ...

85

Eye Protection  

MedlinePLUS

... and cutting can expose you to visible, infrared (IR), and sometimes UV light radiation. Arc welding exposes ... are designed to protect the eyes from visible, IR and UV rays. Choose the darkest shade that ...

86

Development and Organization of Ocular Dominance Bands in Primary Visual  

E-print Network

to the periodic ocular dominance bands. In this region, inputs serving the contralateral eye were commonly fused anterograde tracer into one eye (Wiesel et al., 1974; Shatz et al., 1977). In the cat, ocular dominance bandsDevelopment and Organization of Ocular Dominance Bands in Primary Visual Cortex of the Sable Ferret

Ruthazer, Edward

87

Eye Injuries at Home  

MedlinePLUS

... Eyes & the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Eye Injuries at Home Tweet You might think that ... the American National Standards Institute eye protection standard.) Eye Injury Risks in the House Using hazardous products ...

88

Novel automatic eye detection and tracking algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eye is not only one of the most complex but also the most important sensory organ of the human body. Eye detection and eye tracking are basement and hot issue in image processing. A non-invasive eye location and eye tracking is promising for hands-off gaze-based human-computer interface, fatigue detection, instrument control by paraplegic patients and so on. For this purpose, an innovation work frame is proposed to detect and tracking eye in video sequence in this paper. The contributions of this work can be divided into two parts. The first contribution is that eye filters were trained which can detect eye location efficiently and accurately without constraints on the background and skin colour. The second contribution is that a framework of tracker based on sparse representation and LK optic tracker were built which can track eye without constraint on eye status. The experimental results demonstrate the accuracy aspects and the real-time applicability of the proposed approach.

Ghazali, Kamarul Hawari; Jadin, Mohd Shawal; Jie, Ma; Xiao, Rui

2015-04-01

89

Balance function and sensory integration after mild traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: This study examined the disparities in balance functions and sensory integration in patients with mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) and healthy controls. Participants: One hundred and seven patients with mTBI and 107 age- and sex-matched controls were recruaited for this study. Primary measures: Symptoms of dizziness, balance functions and the ability to perform daily activities were assessed using the dizziness handicap inventory (DHI). This study also performed the postural-stability test and a modified clinical test of sensory integration by using the Biodex Stability System (BBS). Results: DHI scores (functional, emotional, physical and total self-reported scores) were substantially increased in patients following an mTBI compared with the scores of the controls (p?sensory-integration test index (eyes-open-firm-surface index) (p?=?0.006) were substantially lower in patients with mTBI than in the controls. However, indices of two other postural-stability test indices (overall and medial-lateral) and three other sensory-integration tests indices (eyes-closed-firm-surface, eyes-open-foam-surface and eyes-closed-foam-surface) measured for the mTBI group did not differ from those of the control group. Conclusion: Activities of daily living, balance in postural stability and sensory integration were strongly impaired in patients with mTBI. PMID:25265292

Lin, Li-Fong; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Hu, Chaur-Jong; Ma, Hon-Ping; Ou, Ju-Chi; Chiang, Yung-Hsiao; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Tsai, Shin-Han; Chu, Woei-Chyn

2015-01-01

90

Bidirectional ocular dominance plasticity of inhibitory networks: recent advances and unresolved questions  

E-print Network

Monocular visual deprivation (MD) produces profound changes in the ocular dominance (OD) of neurons in the visual cortex. MD shifts visually evoked responses away from the deprived eye and toward domination by the open-eye. ...

Smith, Gordon B.

91

What's Dominant?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a class discussion format, the teacher presents background information about basic human genetics. The number of chromosomes in both body cells and egg and sperm cells is covered, as well as the concept of dominant and recessive alleles. Students determine whether or not they possess the dominant allele for the tongue-rolling gene as an example.

Engineering K-Ph.D. Program,

92

The Measurement of Ocular Dominance in Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple test of ocular dominance in infants is described. In the test, a small point of light is gradually brought closer to the observer along the medial plane. As the light draws closer, in typical cases, one eye will cease to converge, or frequently, it will break from convergence suddenly. The eye which ceases converging or breaks away from…

Coren, Stanley

93

Electrotactile and vibrotactile displays for sensory substitution systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensory substitution systems provide their users with environmental information through a human sensory channel (eye, ear, or skin) different from that normally used or with the information processed in some useful way. The authors review the methods used to present visual, auditory, and modified tactile information to the skin and discuss present and potential future applications of sensory substitution, including tactile vision substitution (TVS), tactile auditory substitution, and remote tactile sensing or feedback (teletouch). The relevant sensory physiology of the skin, including the mechanisms of normal touch and the mechanisms and sensations associated with electrical stimulation of the skin using surface electrodes (electrotactile, or electrocutaneous, stimulation), is reviewed. The information-processing ability of the tactile sense and its relevance to sensory substitution is briefly summarized. The limitations of current tactile display technologies are discussed.

Kaczmarek, Kurt A.; Webster, John G.; Bach-Y-rita, Paul; Tompkins, Willis J.

1991-01-01

94

Evolution of sensory structures in basal metazoa.  

PubMed

Cnidaria have traditionally been viewed as the most basal animals with complex, organ-like multicellular structures dedicated to sensory perception. However, sponges also have a surprising range of the genes required for sensory and neural functions in Bilateria. Here, we: (1) discuss "sense organ" regulatory genes, including; sine oculis, Brain 3, and eyes absent, that are expressed in cnidarian sense organs; (2) assess the sensory features of the planula, polyp, and medusa life-history stages of Cnidaria; and (3) discuss physiological and molecular data that suggest sensory and "neural" processes in sponges. We then develop arguments explaining the shared aspects of developmental regulation across sense organs and between sense organs and other structures. We focus on explanations involving divergent evolution from a common ancestral condition. In Bilateria, distinct sense-organ types share components of developmental-gene regulation. These regulators are also present in basal metazoans, suggesting evolution of multiple bilaterian organs from fewer antecedent sensory structures in a metazoan ancestor. More broadly, we hypothesize that developmental genetic similarities between sense organs and appendages may reflect descent from closely associated structures, or a composite organ, in the common ancestor of Cnidaria and Bilateria, and we argue that such similarities between bilaterian sense organs and kidneys may derive from a multifunctional aggregations of choanocyte-like cells in a metazoan ancestor. We hope these speculative arguments presented here will stimulate further discussion of these and related questions. PMID:21669752

Jacobs, Dave K; Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Yuan, David; Camara, Anthony; Nichols, Scott A; Hartenstein, Volker

2007-11-01

95

Animals Eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Web site from BioMedia (1) is a fascinating look (no pun intended) at the eyes of other animals. Various images of eyeballs link to essays that explain such questions as how animals can see underwater and how many times the eye independently evolved in the animal kingdom. The next site (2) is based on a PBS Nova documentary about nocturnal animals. Visitors can click on an image of an eye to learn more about the animal that uses it to see in the dark. The San Diego Natural History Museum provides the kid-friendly Web site, which does a terrific job of explaining the anatomy and function of different types of eyes (3). The next site, provided by Tufts University, offers photos of how squirrels, sharks, turtles, and bees might see the world compared with human vision (4). Andrew Giger, a neuroscientist working on bee vision at the Australian National University, wrote the program B-EYE for his research. Visitors to his Web site (5) can see what a selection of grey-scale images might look like from a bee's perspective. The next site (6) is provided by about.com, offering a detailed article about bird vision. Similarly, the next Web site from the North American Hunting Retriever Association contains an extensive review of an article that appeared in the Journal of the Veterinary Medical Association about dog vision (7). Finally, the last site is a page from Micscape - the online monthly magazine of Microscopy UK - showing how the eyes of various mollusks look under the microscope (8).

Sohmer, Rachel.

2002-01-01

96

Eye and orbit ultrasound  

MedlinePLUS

Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound wand (transducer) is placed against the front surface ...

97

Lateral dominance in children with learning disabilities.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to investigate the occurrence of lateral dominance problems in a sample of children with learning disabilities. Ninety-one children (62 boys, 29 girls) who attended a school for children with learning disabilities were selected for the study. The Harris tests of lateral dominance were administered individually, and the children were rated as having right, left, or mixed dominance for hand, eye, and foot. When compared with normative data on dominance in children, the results showed that the occurrence of mixed hand dominance was no more frequent, the occurrence of mixed eye dominance was less frequent, and the occurrence of mixed foot dominance was more frequent in the children with learning disabilities. Results also showed that the occurrence of mixed and crossed eye-hand dominance was significantly different in children with learning disabilities when compared with children without learning disabilities. However, the occurrence of mixed eye-hand dominance was found to be significantly greater in children without learning disabilities than in learning disabled children. Age and sex were not found to affect the occurrence of lateral dominance problems in children with learning disabilities. PMID:6823468

Connolly, B H

1983-02-01

98

Default-Mode Activity during a Passive Sensory Task: Uncoupled from Deactivation but Impacting Activation  

E-print Network

of a demanding ex- ternal task. Examining a passive, block-design sensory task with a standard deactivation the default-mode network are co-active over several minutes of eyes-closed rest and during a passive, block-designDefault-Mode Activity during a Passive Sensory Task: Uncoupled from Deactivation but Impacting

Reber, Paul J.

99

Eye choice for acquisition of targets in alternating strabismus.  

PubMed

In strabismus, potentially either eye can inform the brain about the location of a target so that an accurate saccade can be made. Sixteen human subjects with alternating exotropia were tested dichoptically while viewing stimuli on a tangent screen. Each trial began with a fixation cross visible to only one eye. After the subject fixated the cross, a peripheral target visible to only one eye flashed briefly. The subject's task was to look at it. As a rule, the eye to which the target was presented was the eye that acquired the target. However, when stimuli were presented in the far nasal visual field, subjects occasionally performed a "crossover" saccade by placing the other eye on the target. This strategy avoided the need to make a large adducting saccade. In such cases, information about target location was obtained by one eye and used to program a saccade for the other eye, with a corresponding latency increase. In 10/16 subjects, targets were presented on some trials to both eyes. Binocular sensory maps were also compiled to delineate the portions of the visual scene perceived with each eye. These maps were compared with subjects' pattern of eye choice for target acquisition. There was a correspondence between suppression scotoma maps and the eye used to acquire peripheral targets. In other words, targets were fixated by the eye used to perceive them. These studies reveal how patients with alternating strabismus, despite eye misalignment, manage to localize and capture visual targets in their environment. PMID:25355212

Economides, John R; Adams, Daniel L; Horton, Jonathan C

2014-10-29

100

Googly Eyes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beverage take-out trays are funky in their form and function. In this article, the author describes how to make googly eye masks out of discarded take-out trays and other common recycled or discarded materials. (Contains 1 online resource.)

Boss, Susan

2009-01-01

101

Eye muscle repair - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

102

Preventing Eye Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Preventing Eye Injuries Tweet Protecting your eyes from injury is ... as possible, even if the injury seems minor. Eye Injury Facts and Myths Men are more likely ...

103

National Eye Institute  

MedlinePLUS

... eyes work, and more. Check out our resources Eye Health Infographics Use these graphics to share information ... science. Audacious Goals Translational Research eyeGENE® International Research Eye and Vision Research The latest on NEI research. ...

104

Eye Movement Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are: Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

105

Crossed eyes (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... to as crossed eyes (strabismus). Other more specific medical terms refer to eyes turned either outward or inward, or that are abnormally rotated. Any appearance of crossed eyes in ... evaluated, as should recent onset of crossed eyes in an adult.

106

New Angles on Motor and Sensory Coordination in Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of presentations that were included in the Medical Symposium at the 1998 Learning Disabilities Association conference. The symposium addressed vestibular control and eye movement, postural sway and balance, cerebellar dysfunction, the role of the frontal lobe, developmental coordination disorder, and sensory integration…

Goldey, Ellen S.

1998-01-01

107

Sensory nerve action potentials and sensory perception in women with arthritis of the hand  

PubMed Central

Background Arthritis of the hand can limit a person’s ability to perform daily activities. Whether or not sensory deficits contribute to the disability in this population remains unknown. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if women with osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of the hand have sensory impairments. Methods Sensory function in the dominant hand of women with hand OA or RA and healthy women was evaluated by measuring sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) from the median, ulnar and radial nerves, sensory mapping (SM), and vibratory and current perception thresholds (VPT and CPT, respectively) of the second and fifth digits. Results All SNAP amplitudes were significantly lower for the hand OA and hand RA groups compared with the healthy group (p?sensory fibers in the median, ulnar and radial nerves. Less apparent were losses in conduction speed or sensory perception. PMID:22575001

2012-01-01

108

A Parietal-Temporal Sensory-Motor Integration Area for the Human Vocal Tract: Evidence from an fMRI Study of Skilled Musicians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several sensory-motor integration regions have been identified in parietal cortex, which appear to be organized around motor-effectors (e.g., eyes, hands). We investigated whether a sensory-motor integration area might exist for the human vocal tract. Speech requires extensive sensory-motor integration, as does other abilities such as vocal…

Pa, Judy; Hickok, Gregory

2008-01-01

109

NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SENSORY SYSTEMS'  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to many neurotoxic compounds has been shown to produce a sensory system dysfunction. Neurophysiological assessment of sensory function in humans and animal models often uses techniques known as sensory evoked potentials. Because both humans and animals show analogous res...

110

Eye contricks  

PubMed Central

Pictorial images are icons as well as eye-cons: they provide distillations of objects or ideas into simpler shapes. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimensions of depth and motion are missing from icons, and these alone introduce all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as exploring the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons can also be illusions—tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is physically presented. Pictorial images can be spatialised or stylised; spatialised images generally share some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons, but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional. Icons as stylised words and spatialised images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte in a series of pipe paintings, and this theme is here alluded to. Most of visual science is now concerned with icons—two-dimensional displays on computer monitors. Is vision now the science of eye-cons? PMID:23145240

Wade, Nicholas J

2011-01-01

111

Eye Level  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Eye level is an art blog written by a collaborative team at the Smithsonian American Art Museum (SAAM). According to the site, "... the conversation at Eye Level will be dedicated to American art and the ways in which the nation's art reflects its history and culture." The SAAM collection is meant as a foundation for the conversation on Eye Level. A recent post begins by talking about a road trip through the American West to see site-specific artwork, but at least one of the artists mentioned, Andrea Zittel, has a prior affiliation with SAAM. She was the 2005 Smithsonian Lucelia Artist Award winner, and the post links to prior entries on artwork at SAAM, both in and inspired by the American Southwest. These links were to works such as Robert Smithson's Spiral Jetty (an installation in the Great Salt Lake) and Albert Bierstadt's Among the Sierra Nevada, California, 1868. The February 1 post considers the future of art blogs, and the impact they may have on art criticism, museums, and the art world on the whole.

112

Females competing to reproduce: Dominance matters but testosterone may not  

E-print Network

dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) had shown that experimental elevation of T increases social status rights reserved. Keywords: Challenge hypothesis; Dark-eyed junco; Junco hyemalis; Intrasexual aggression concentrations of T associated with dominance status in captive female juncos? Does dominance status influence

113

The Development of Ocular Dominance Columns: Mechanisms and Models  

E-print Network

patches serving the left and right eyes. "Ocular dominance patches" or "colwnns" are the names given with congenital cataracts in one eye, that had occluded vision from the #12;Chapter 9: DEVELOPMENT OF OCULARCHAPTER 9 The Development of Ocular Dominance Columns: Mechanisms and Models K. D. Miller and M. P

Stryker, Michael

114

BIOLOGICAL CYBERNETICS, 69, 109-118. Topography And Ocular Dominance  

E-print Network

of activity presented simultaneously in both eyes. An important aspect of this model is that ocular dominanceBIOLOGICAL CYBERNETICS, 69, 109-118. Topography And Ocular Dominance: A Model Exploring Positive Edinburgh EH8 9LW UNITED KINGDOM ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § ¨ ¦ © £ ¦ Abstract The map from eye to brain

Sejnowski, Terrence J.

115

Emergence of Ocular Dominance Columns in Cat Visual Cortex  

E-print Network

, cells that respond preferentially to stimulation of one eye or the other are organized in ocular eyes. The emergence of ocular dominance columns during development has been classically viewedEmergence of Ocular Dominance Columns in Cat Visual Cortex by 2 Weeks of Age MICHAEL C. CRAIR,1

Stryker, Michael

116

Comments on the eyes of tardigrades.  

PubMed

A survey is given on the scarce information on the visual organs (eyes or ocelli) of Tardigrada. Many Eutardigrada and some Arthrotardigrada, namely the Echiniscidae, possess inverse pigment-cup ocelli, which are located in the outer lobe of the brain, and probably are of cerebral origin. Occurrence of such organs in tardigrades, suggested as being eyeless, has never been checked. Depending on the species, response to light (photokinesis) is negative, positive or indifferent, and may change during the ontogeny. The tardigrade eyes of the two eutardigrades examined up to now comprise a single pigment cup cell, one or two microvillous (rhabdomeric) sensory cells and ciliary sensory cell(s). In the eyes of the eutardigrade Milnesium tardigradum the cilia are differentiated in an outer branching segment and an inner (dendritic) segment. Because of the scarcity of information on the tardigrade eyes, their homology with the visual organs of other bilaterians is currently difficult to establish and further comparative studies are needed. Thus, the significance of these eyes for the evolution of arthropod visual systems is unclear yet. PMID:18089118

Greven, Hartmut

2007-12-01

117

Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions  

MedlinePLUS

... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... over the battery and always wear safety goggles. Eye Protection Works Wearing the proper protective eyewear for ...

118

Somatosensory cortex dominated by the representation of teeth in the naked mole-rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated naked mole-rat somatosensory cortex to determine how brain areas are modified in mammals with unusual and extreme sensory specializations. Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) have numerous anatomical specializations for a subterranean existence, including rows of sensory hairs along the body and tail, reduced eyes, and ears sensitive to low frequencies. However, chief among their adaptations are behaviorally important, enlarged

Kenneth C. Catania; Michael S. Remple

2002-01-01

119

130 Dispatch Cortical development: With an eye on neurotrophins  

E-print Network

130 Dispatch Cortical development: With an eye on neurotrophins Anirvan Ghosh Recent observations of `ocular dominance' columns in the developing visual cortex (Fig. 1). (Ocular dominance columns are alternating regions of the primary visual cortex that receive input preferentially from one or the other eye

Ghosh, Anirvan

120

[Sensory neuronopathy: diagnostic strategy].  

PubMed

Sensory neuronopathy (SNN) depends on a pathophysiological process that targets the sensory neuron in the posterior root ganglia. These rare diseases are sometimes difficult to diagnose because the site of impairment is not directly assessable by conventional neurophysiological techniques. After recalling the general data concerning SNN, we propose an easy to use clinical and electrophysiological diagnosis criteria and guidelines for clinicians in their search for an etiology in a patient with NNS. PMID:25201592

Camdessanché, Jean-Philippe; Antoine, Jean-Christophe

2014-11-01

121

Visual fields, eye movements, and scanning behavior of a sit-and-wait predator, the black phoebe (Sayornis nigricans).  

PubMed

Foraging mode influences the dominant sensory modality used by a forager and likely the strategies of information gathering used in foraging and anti-predator contexts. We assessed three components of visual information gathering in a sit-and-wait avian predator, the black phoebe (Sayornis nigricans): configuration of the visual field, degree of eye movement, and scanning behavior through head-movement rates. We found that black phoebes have larger lateral visual fields than similarly sized ground-foraging passerines, as well as relatively narrower binocular and blind areas. Black phoebes moved their eyes, but eye movement amplitude was relatively smaller than in other passerines. Black phoebes may compensate for eye movement constraints with head movements. The rate of head movements increased before attacking prey in comparison to non-foraging contexts and before movements between perches. These findings suggest that black phoebes use their lateral visual fields, likely subtended by areas of high acuity in the retina, to track prey items in a three-dimensional space through active head movements. These head movements may increase depth perception, motion detection and tracking. Studying information gathering through head movement changes, rather than body posture changes (head-up, head-down) as generally presented in the literature, may allow us to better understand the mechanisms of information gathering from a comparative perspective. PMID:19921207

Gall, Megan D; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

2010-01-01

122

Bionic Eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Both Web sites come from Science@NASA, an online source for news and information about NASA-funded research. The first article describes the work of researchers at the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space, who are developing artificial bones for long-lasting, pain-free hip and knee replacements. These ceramic bones are touted as "so much like the real thing that they could actually meld with living bone." Earlier this year, researchers at the Space Vacuum Epitaxy Center in Houston experimented with "photosensitive ceramic films that respond to light much as rods and cones do," the subject of the second Web site. Researchers hope these films will eventually be used to restore lost vision in human eyes. Each article is available as an audio file, and includes helpful diagrams and Web links for related articles and information.

Phillips, Tony.

2002-01-01

123

The optic chiasm: a turning point in the evolution of eye/hand coordination  

PubMed Central

The primate visual system has a uniquely high proportion of ipsilateral retinal projections, retinal ganglial cells that do not cross the midline in the optic chiasm. The general assumption is that this developed due to the selective advantage of accurate depth perception through stereopsis. Here, the hypothesis that the need for accurate eye-forelimb coordination substantially influenced the evolution of the primate visual system is presented. Evolutionary processes may change the direction of retinal ganglial cells. Crossing, or non-crossing, in the optic chiasm determines which hemisphere receives visual feedback in reaching tasks. Each hemisphere receives little tactile and proprioceptive information about the ipsilateral hand. The eye-forelimb hypothesis proposes that abundant ipsilateral retinal projections developed in the primate brain to synthesize, in a single hemisphere, visual, tactile, proprioceptive, and motor information about a given hand, and that this improved eye-hand coordination and optimized the size of the brain. If accurate eye-hand coordination was a major factor in the evolution of stereopsis, stereopsis is likely to be highly developed for activity in the area where the hands most often operate. The primate visual system is ideally suited for tasks within arm’s length and in the inferior visual field, where most manual activity takes place. Altering of ocular dominance in reaching tasks, reduced cross-modal cuing effects when arms are crossed, response of neurons in the primary motor cortex to viewed actions of a hand, multimodal neuron response to tactile as well as visual events, and extensive use of multimodal sensory information in reaching maneuvers support the premise that benefits of accurate limb control influenced the evolution of the primate visual system. The eye-forelimb hypothesis implies that evolutionary change toward hemidecussation in the optic chiasm provided parsimonious neural pathways in animals developing frontal vision and visually guided forelimbs, and also suggests a new perspective on vision convergence in prey and predatory animals. PMID:23866932

2013-01-01

124

Down Syndrome: Eye Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... eye problems. Do children with Down syndrome have eye problems? Individuals with Down syndrome are at increased ... When should children with Down syndrome receive an eye exam? The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that ...

125

What Is Dry Eye?  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Search GetEyeSmart.org Diseases & Conditions A to Z Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) Allergies Amblyopia (Lazy Eye) ... Surgery & LASIK Sunglasses Living EyeSmart About Ophthalmologists Adults Under 40 Adults 40 to 60 Adults Over 60 ...

126

Why Do Eyes Water?  

MedlinePLUS

... How the Body Works Main Page Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > Kids > Q&A > Q & A > Why Do ... coming out of your nose. Continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

127

Secondary eyes mediate the response to looming objects in jumping spiders (Phidippus audax, Salticidae)  

PubMed Central

Some species have sensory systems divided into subsystems with morphologically different sense organs that acquire different types of information within the same modality. Jumping spiders (family Salticidae) have eight eyes. Four eyes are directed anteriorly to view objects in front of the spider: a pair of principal eyes track targets with their movable retinae, while the immobile anterior lateral (AL) eyes have a larger field of view and lower resolution. To test whether the principal eyes, the AL eyes, or both together mediate the response to looming stimuli, we presented spiders with a video of a solid black circle that rapidly expanded (loomed) or contracted (receded). Control spiders and spiders with their principal eyes masked were significantly more likely to back away from the looming stimulus than were spiders with their AL eyes masked. Almost no individuals backed away from the receding stimulus. Our results show that the AL eyes alone mediate the loom response to objects anterior to the spider. PMID:23075526

Spano, Lauren; Long, Skye M.; Jakob, Elizabeth M.

2012-01-01

128

Mental Imagery as Revealed by Eye Movements and Spoken Predicates: A Test of Neurolinguistic Programming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested Bandler and Grinder's proposal that eye movement direction and spoken predicates are indicative of sensory modality of imagery. Subjects reported images in the three modes, but no relation between imagery and eye movements or predicates was found. Visual images were most vivid and often reported. Most subjects rated themselves as visual,…

Elich, Matthew; And Others

1985-01-01

129

Cryptogenic sensory polyneuropathy.  

PubMed

Chronic sensory or sensorimotor polyneuropathy is a common cause for referral to neurologists. Despite extensive diagnostic testing, up to one-third of these patients remain without a known cause, and are referred to as having cryptogenic sensory peripheral neuropathy. Symptoms progress slowly. On examination, there may be additional mild toe flexion and extension weakness. Electrophysiologic testing and histology reveals axonal neuropathy. Prognosis is usually favorable, as most patients maintain independent ambulation. Besides patient education and reassurance, management is focused on pharmacotherapy for neuropathic pain and physical therapy for balance training, and, occasionally, assistive devices. PMID:23642719

Pasnoor, Mamatha; Dimachkie, Mazen M; Barohn, Richard J

2013-05-01

130

Eye muscle repair - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ... The extraocular muscles of the eye (external to the eyeball) control the positioning of the eyes. They coordinate of the eye ...

131

Sensory marketing: the multi-sensory brand-experience concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the multi-sensory brand-experience concept in relation to the human mind and senses. It also seeks to propose a sensory marketing (SM) model of the multi-sensory brand-experience hypothesis. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper applies exploratory and explanatory approaches to investigating the multi-sensory brand-experience concept within the context of discovery. The qualitative study

Bertil Hultén

2011-01-01

132

Eating for Your Eyes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An educational program targeting older adults was developed to increase knowledge regarding nutrition and eye health. With age, the chance for eye disease increases, so prevention is critical. The Eating for Your Eyes program has promoted behavior changes regarding eye health among the participants. This program is easily replicated and use is…

Stastny, Sherri Nordstrom; Garden-Robinson, Julie

2011-01-01

133

When Is Dominance Related to Smiling? Assigned Dominance, Dominance Preference, Trait Dominance, and Gender as Moderators  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated gender and different types of dominance measures as potential moderators of the relation between dominance and smiling. We asked participants about their preference for either a dominant or a subordinate role (dominance preference), randomly assigned one of these roles to them (assigned dominance), and assessed trait dominance, felt dominance, and perceived dominance. Participants had two 8-min dyadic interactions

MarianneSchmid Mast; Judith A. Hall

2004-01-01

134

Sensory Transduction: Getting the Message  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lecture covers the sensory system. More specifically, it provides information about how the sensory system captures, transduces, amplifies, adapts, and passes information from one cell to the next.

A. James Hudspeth, Ph.D., M.D. (Howard Hughes Medical Institute; )

2008-04-18

135

Molecular Basis for Induction of Ocular Dominance Plasticity  

E-print Network

to stimulation of either eye, with varying degrees of ocular dominance. If an animal is allowed to matureMolecular Basis for Induction of Ocular Dominance Plasticity Mark F. Bear, Cynthia D. Rittenhouse- perience-dependent cortical plasticity is the shift in ocular dominance that occurs in visual cortex

Bear, Mark

136

Recording Sensory Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From children's viewpoints, what they experience in the world is what the world is like--for everyone. "What do others experience with their senses when they are in the same situation?" is a question that young children can explore by collecting data as they use a "feely box," or take a "sensory walk." There are many ways to focus the children's…

Ashbrook, Peggy

2007-01-01

137

Environmental Awareness (Sensory Awareness).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Capitalizing on the resources available within a city block, this resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) describes methods and procedures for developing sensory awareness in the urban out-of-doors. Conceptual focus is on interdependency ("living things are interdependent"). Involvement in the environment (observing, thinking, doing)…

Carpenter, Marian

138

Our Sensory World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The booklet explores the role of sensory experiences in the severely developmentally disabled child. Developmental theory is addressed, followed by specific activity suggestions (broken down into developmental levels) for developing tactile sense, auditory sense, gustatory (taste) sense, olfactory sense, visual sense, and kinesthetic sense.…

Liesman, C.; Barringer, M. D.

139

Structured Sensory Trauma Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features the National Institute of Trauma and Loss in Children (TLC), a program that has demonstrated via field testing, exploratory research, time series studies, and evidence-based research studies that its Structured Sensory Intervention for Traumatized Children, Adolescents, and Parents (SITCAP[R]) produces statistically…

Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan

2010-01-01

140

Understanding Sensory Integration. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief paper summarizes what is known about sensory integration and sensory integration dysfunction (DSI). It outlines evaluation of DSI, treatment approaches, and implications for parents and teachers, including compensatory strategies for minimizing the impact of DSI on a child's life. Review of origins of sensory integration theory in the…

DiMatties, Marie E.; Sammons, Jennifer H.

141

The interaction of bayesian priors and sensory data and its neural circuit implementation in visually guided movement.  

PubMed

Sensory-motor behavior results from a complex interaction of noisy sensory data with priors based on recent experience. By varying the stimulus form and contrast for the initiation of smooth pursuit eye movements in monkeys, we show that visual motion inputs compete with two independent priors: one prior biases eye speed toward zero; the other prior attracts eye direction according to the past several days' history of target directions. The priors bias the speed and direction of the initiation of pursuit for the weak sensory data provided by the motion of a low-contrast sine wave grating. However, the priors have relatively little effect on pursuit speed and direction when the visual stimulus arises from the coherent motion of a high-contrast patch of dots. For any given stimulus form, the mean and variance of eye speed covary in the initiation of pursuit, as expected for signal-dependent noise. This relationship suggests that pursuit implements a trade-off between movement accuracy and variation, reducing both when the sensory signals are noisy. The tradeoff is implemented as a competition of sensory data and priors that follows the rules of Bayesian estimation. Computer simulations show that the priors can be understood as direction-specific control of the strength of visual-motor transmission, and can be implemented in a neural-network model that makes testable predictions about the population response in the smooth eye movement region of the frontal eye fields. PMID:23223286

Yang, Jin; Lee, Joonyeol; Lisberger, Stephen G

2012-12-01

142

EFFECTS OF DOMINANCE AND CONTROL ON READING ACHIEVEMENT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TWO DISPARATE STUDIES WERE REPLICATED WITH A PUBLIC SCHOOL POPULATION USED BY HILLERICH IN A 4-YEAR STUDY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF HANDEDNESS AND EYEDNESS. SUBJECTS WERE 273 SEVENTH AND EIGHTH GRADERS WHO REMAINED FROM AN ORIGINAL POPULATION OF 400. TESTS WERE ADMINISTERED TO DETERMINE EYE DOMINANCE, HANDEDNESS, CONTROLLING EYE, READING ACHIEVEMENT,…

BOOS, ROBERT W.; HILLERICH, ROBERT L.

143

Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... Screening Guidelines Home Remedies for Simple Eye Problems Medical Marijuana for Glaucoma Pregnancy Preventing Eye Injuries Smokers Sports Using Eye Makeup Veterans What Is an Ophthalmologist? Your Eyes & the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts ... an eye injury does occur, have an ophthalmologist or other medical doctor examine the eye as soon as possible, ...

144

Sensory Perception: Lessons from Synesthesia  

PubMed Central

Synesthesia, the conscious, idiosyncratic, repeatable, and involuntary sensation of one sensory modality in response to another, is a condition that has puzzled both researchers and philosophers for centuries. Much time has been spent proving the condition’s existence as well as investigating its etiology, but what can be learned from synesthesia remains a poorly discussed topic. Here, synaesthesia is presented as a possible answer rather than a question to the current gaps in our understanding of sensory perception. By first appreciating the similarities between normal sensory perception and synesthesia, one can use what is known about synaesthesia, from behavioral and imaging studies, to inform our understanding of “normal” sensory perception. In particular, in considering synesthesia, one can better understand how and where the different sensory modalities interact in the brain, how different sensory modalities can interact without confusion ? the binding problem ? as well as how sensory perception develops. PMID:23766741

Harvey, Joshua Paul

2013-01-01

145

Genes for Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathies: A Genotype-Phenotype Correlation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders characterized by axonal atrophy and degeneration, exclusively or predominantly affecting the sensory and autonomic neurons. So far, disease-associated mutations have been identified in seven genes: two genes for autosomal dominant ("SPTLC1"…

Rotthier, Annelies; Baets, Jonathan; De Vriendt, Els; Jacobs, An; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Levy, Nicolas; Bonello-Palot, Nathalie; Kilic, Sara Sebnem; Weis, Joachim; Nascimento, Andres; Swinkels, Marielle; Kruyt, Moyo C.; Jordanova, Albena; De Jonghe, Peter; Timmerman, Vincent

2009-01-01

146

Autosomal dominant simple microphthalmos.  

PubMed Central

Congenital bilateral microphthalmos is a rare malformation of the eye, which ranges from extreme to mild reduction of total axial length. Microphthalmos may occur as an isolated ocular abnormality or as part of a systemic disorder, and different classifications of the condition have been attempted. We describe a large pedigree with 14 persons in four generations affected with bilateral microphthalmos without other ocular or systemic signs. An autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance is proposed. Five subjects underwent a complete ophthalmological evaluation. The total axial length was measured by A scan ultrasonography in all persons. Ultrasonography showed a reduction of the total axial length (range 18.4-19.7 mm) and a reduced vitreous cavity length (range 11.4-13.5 mm) in all investigated patients. All the patients had microcornea (range 8-9.7 mm). No other ocular anomalies or associated systemic malformations were found. A review of published reports also suggests that simple, partial, posterior, pure microphthalmos and nanophthalmos are similar clinical entities sharing total axial length and vitreous cavity length reduction. Therefore, the term simple microphthalmos is proposed to identify these clinical conditions. Images PMID:7815444

Vingolo, E M; Steindl, K; Forte, R; Zompatori, L; Iannaccone, A; Sciarra, A; Del Porto, G; Pannarale, M R

1994-01-01

147

Instabilities in sensory processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In any organism there are different kinds of sensory receptors for detecting the various, distinct stimuli through which its external environment may impinge upon it. These receptors convey these stimuli in different ways to an organism's information processing region enabling it to distinctly perceive the varied sensations and to respond to them. The behavior of cells and their response to stimuli may be captured through simple mathematical models employing regulatory feedback mechanisms. We argue that the sensory processes such as olfaction function optimally by operating in the close proximity of dynamical instabilities. In the case of coupled neurons, we point out that random disturbances and fluctuations can move their operating point close to certain dynamical instabilities triggering synchronous activity.

Balakrishnan, J.

2014-07-01

148

Tactile sensory substitution studies.  

PubMed

Forty years ago a project to explore late brain plasticity was initiated that was to lead into a broad area of sensory substitution studies. The questions at that time were: Can a person who has never seen learn to see as an adult? Is the brain sufficiently plastic to develop an entirely new sensory system? The short answer to both questions is yes, first clearly demonstrated in 1969 ((Bach-y-Rita et al., 1969)). To reach that conclusion, it was first necessary to find a way to get visual information to the brain. That took many years and is still the most challenging aspect of the research and the development of practical sensory substitution and augmentation systems. The sensor array is not a problem: a TV camera for blind persons; an accelerometer for persons with vestibular loss; a microphone for deaf persons. These are common and fully developed devices. The problem is the brain-machine interface (BMI). In this short report, only two substitution systems are discussed, vision and vestibular substitution. PMID:15194608

Bach-y-Rita, Paul

2004-05-01

149

The Electroretinogram of the Horseshoe Crab, Limulus polyphemus: A Laboratory Exercise in Sensory Physiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The eye of the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus represents an easily-excised and durable preparation for investigating various parameters of a typical sensory system. One can study the time course of dark adaptation as well as the dependence of response amplitude and latency on stimulus intensity in both the dark-adapted and light-adapted eye. Requirements for specialized, technical equipment are minimal.

Robert A. Linsenmeier (Northwestern University; )

2009-09-01

150

The Electroretinogram of the Horseshoe Crab, Limulus polyphemus: A Laboratory Exercise in Sensory Physiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The eye of the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus represents an easily-excised and durable preparation for investigating various parameters of a typical sensory system. One can study the time course of dark adaptation as well as the dependence of response amplitude and latency on stimulus intensity in both the dark-adapted and light-adapted eye. Requirements for specialized, technical equipment are minimal. Suitable for undergraduates in advanced general biology, physiology, and special projects.

Robert A. Linsenmeier (Northwestern University; )

2008-04-11

151

Sensory, motor, and combined contexts for context-specific adaptation of saccade gain in humans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Saccadic eye movements can be adapted in a context-specific manner such that their gain can be made to depend on the state of a prevailing context cue. We asked whether context cues are more effective if their nature is primarily sensory, motor, or a combination of sensory and motor. Subjects underwent context-specific adaptation using one of three different context cues: a pure sensory context (head roll-tilt right or left); a pure motor context (changes in saccade direction); or a combined sensory-motor context (head roll-tilt and changes in saccade direction). We observed context-specific adaptation in each condition; the greatest degree of context-specificity occurred in paradigms that used the motor cue, alone or in conjunction with the sensory cue. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

Shelhamer, Mark; Clendaniel, Richard

2002-01-01

152

Toxoplasmosis (and the Eye)  

MedlinePLUS

... of known infected babies. What happens to the eyes of babies born with congenital toxoplasmosis? The infection ... or systemic steroids may further reduce the inflammation. Eye Terms & Conditions Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia ...

153

Eye Disease Simulations  

MedlinePLUS

... Research at NEI Education Programs Training and Jobs Eye Disease Simulations Listen Age-Related Macular Degeneration Cataract ... information page Back to top Diabetic Retinopathy Diabetic Eye Disease information page Back to top Glaucoma Glaucoma ...

154

Diabetic Eye Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... too high. Over time, this can damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It ... light-sensitive tissue at the back of your eye. You need a healthy retina to see clearly. ...

155

Eye Injuries (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... and comfortable as possible until help arrives. Continue Chemical Exposure Many chemicals, even those found around the house, can damage an eye. If your child gets a chemical in the eye and you know what it ...

156

Eye Drop Tips  

MedlinePLUS

... in your eye. Having Trouble Holding Onto The Bottle? If the eye drop bottle feels too small to hold (in cases where ... used and the drop comes directly from the bottle), try wrapping something (like a paper towel) around ...

157

Sex-linked dominant  

MedlinePLUS

Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... type of chromosome that is affected (autosomal or sex chromosome). It also depends on whether the trait ...

158

Measurement in sensory modulation: the sensory processing scale assessment.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. Sensory modulation issues have a significant impact on participation in daily life. Moreover, understanding phenotypic variation in sensory modulation dysfunction is crucial for research related to defining homogeneous groups and for clinical work in guiding treatment planning. We thus evaluated the new Sensory Processing Scale (SPS) Assessment. METHOD. Research included item development, behavioral scoring system development, test administration, and item analyses to evaluate reliability and validity across sensory domains. RESULTS. Items with adequate reliability (internal reliability >.4) and discriminant validity (p < .01) were retained. Feedback from the expert panel also contributed to decisions about retaining items in the scale. CONCLUSION. The SPS Assessment appears to be a reliable and valid measure of sensory modulation (scale reliability >.90; discrimination between group effect sizes >1.00). This scale has the potential to aid in differential diagnosis of sensory modulation issues. PMID:25184464

Schoen, Sarah A; Miller, Lucy J; Sullivan, Jillian C

2014-01-01

159

Interaction of active and passive slow eye movement systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Independent target and background motions have been used to generate conflicting activity within the pursuit and optokinetic systems. Subjects were required to pursue a small target against a structured background which moved independently. Selective enhancement of the response to the target generated high-gain active pursuit which dominated the eye movements. Passive eye movements induced during relative target and background motion

Ralph Worfolk; Graham R. Barnes

1992-01-01

160

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy or hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathological changes generally considered to distinguish chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) from hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) are: mononuclear cell infiltrates, prominent endoneurial oedema, and marked fascicle-to-fascicle variability. We evaluated the diagnostic significance of these pathological features which are suggestive of CIDP. Nerve biopsies from 42 dominant HMSN type I cases with a normal disease course were investigated

A. A. W. M. Gabreëls-Festen; F. J. M. Gabreëls; J. E. Hoogendijk; P. A. Bolhuis; P. J. H. Jongen; H. M. Vingerhoets

1993-01-01

161

Difference in Visual Processing Assessed by Eye Vergence Movements  

PubMed Central

Orienting visual attention is closely linked to the oculomotor system. For example, a shift of attention is usually followed by a saccadic eye movement and can be revealed by micro saccades. Recently we reported a novel role of another type of eye movement, namely eye vergence, in orienting visual attention. Shifts in visuospatial attention are characterized by the response modulation to a selected target. However, unlike (micro-) saccades, eye vergence movements do not carry spatial information (except for depth) and are thus not specific to a particular visual location. To further understand the role of eye vergence in visual attention, we tested subjects with different perceptual styles. Perceptual style refers to the characteristic way individuals perceive environmental stimuli, and is characterized by a spatial difference (local vs. global) in perceptual processing. We tested field independent (local; FI) and field dependent (global; FD) observers in a cue/no-cue task and a matching task. We found that FI observers responded faster and had stronger modulation in eye vergence in both tasks than FD subjects. The results may suggest that eye vergence modulation may relate to the trade-off between the size of spatial region covered by attention and the processing efficiency of sensory information. Alternatively, vergence modulation may have a role in the switch in cortical state to prepare the visual system for new incoming sensory information. In conclusion, vergence eye movements may be added to the growing list of functions of fixational eye movements in visual perception. However, further studies are needed to elucidate its role. PMID:24069140

Solé Puig, Maria; Puigcerver, Laura; Aznar-Casanova, J. Antonio; Supèr, Hans

2013-01-01

162

Dwarf Eye Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Johns Hopkins researchers at the Wilmer Eye Institute have discovered what appears to be the first human gene mutation that causes extreme farsightedness. The researchers report that nanophthalmos, Greek for "dwarf eye," is a rare, potentially blinding disorder caused by an alteration in a gene called MFRP that helps control eye growth and…

Science Teacher, 2005

2005-01-01

163

Finding an Eye Care Professional  

MedlinePLUS

Finding an Eye Care Professional Listen Finding an Eye Care Professional PDF* The National Eye Institute does not provide referrals or recommend specific eye care professionals. However, you may wish to consider the ...

164

Genetic Testing and Eye Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts In Focus: Genetic Testing and Eye Disease Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics ... a History of Eye Disease, Do You Need Genetic Testing? Thanks to news coverage, many people know that ...

165

STATUS SIGNALING IN DARK-EYED JUNCOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRCT.--Rohwer (1975, 1977) has proposed that members of certain variably-plumaged avian species may use plumage traits to signal potential dominance status to flockmates. Further, he suggests that plumage variability is maintained because cheaters on the system are detected and persecuted. Data reported herein imply that certain external and noticeable traits of Dark- eyed Juncos (Junco hyemalis) are fairly accurate indicators

ELLEN D. KETTERSON

2004-01-01

166

Changes in sensory activity of ocular surface sensory nerves during allergic keratoconjunctivitis.  

PubMed

Peripheral neural mechanisms underlying the sensations of irritation, discomfort, and itch accompanying the eye allergic response have not been hitherto analyzed. We explored this question recording the changes in the electrical activity of corneoconjunctival sensory nerve fibers of the guinea pig after an ocular allergic challenge. Sensitization was produced by i.p. ovalbumin followed by repeated application in the eye of 10% ovalbumin on days 14 to 18. Blinking and tearing rate were measured. Spontaneous and stimulus-evoked (mechanical, thermal, chemical) impulse activity was recorded from mechanonociceptor, polymodal nociceptor and cold corneoscleral sensory afferent fibers. After a single (day 14) or repeated daily exposures to the allergen during the following 3 to 4days, tearing and blinking rate increased significantly. Also, sensitization was observed in mechanonociceptors (transient reduction of mechanical threshold only on day 14) and in polymodal nociceptors (sustained enhancement of the impulse response to acidic stimulation). In contrast, cold thermoreceptors showed a significant decrease in basal ongoing activity and in the response to cooling. Treatment with the TRPV1 and TRPA1 blockers capsazepine and HC-030031 reversed the augmented blinking. Only capsazepine attenuated tearing rate increase and sensitization of the polymodal nociceptors response to CO2. Capsazepine also prevented the decrease in cold thermoreceptor activity caused by the allergic challenge. We conclude that changes in nerve impulse activity accompanying the ocular allergic response, primarily mediated by activation of nociceptor's TRPV1 and to a lesser degree by activation of TRPA1 channels, explain the eye discomfort sensations accompanying allergic episodes. PMID:23867735

Acosta, M Carmen; Luna, Carolina; Quirce, Susana; Belmonte, Carlos; Gallar, Juana

2013-11-01

167

Hawk Eyes I: Diurnal Raptors Differ in Visual Fields and Degree of Eye Movement  

PubMed Central

Background Different strategies to search and detect prey may place specific demands on sensory modalities. We studied visual field configuration, degree of eye movement, and orbit orientation in three diurnal raptors belonging to the Accipitridae and Falconidae families. Methodology/Principal Findings We used an ophthalmoscopic reflex technique and an integrated 3D digitizer system. We found inter-specific variation in visual field configuration and degree of eye movement, but not in orbit orientation. Red-tailed Hawks have relatively small binocular areas (?33°) and wide blind areas (?82°), but intermediate degree of eye movement (?5°), which underscores the importance of lateral vision rather than binocular vision to scan for distant prey in open areas. Cooper's Hawks' have relatively wide binocular fields (?36°), small blind areas (?60°), and high degree of eye movement (?8°), which may increase visual coverage and enhance prey detection in closed habitats. Additionally, we found that Cooper's Hawks can visually inspect the items held in the tip of the bill, which may facilitate food handling. American Kestrels have intermediate-sized binocular and lateral areas that may be used in prey detection at different distances through stereopsis and motion parallax; whereas the low degree eye movement (?1°) may help stabilize the image when hovering above prey before an attack. Conclusions We conclude that: (a) there are between-species differences in visual field configuration in these diurnal raptors; (b) these differences are consistent with prey searching strategies and degree of visual obstruction in the environment (e.g., open and closed habitats); (c) variations in the degree of eye movement between species appear associated with foraging strategies; and (d) the size of the binocular and blind areas in hawks can vary substantially due to eye movements. Inter-specific variation in visual fields and eye movements can influence behavioral strategies to visually search for and track prey while perching. PMID:20877645

O'Rourke, Colleen T.; Hall, Margaret I.; Pitlik, Todd; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

2010-01-01

168

Test of the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis that eye-movements relate to processing imagery.  

PubMed

Bandler and Grinder's hypothesis that eye-movements reflect sensory processing was examined. 28 volunteers first memorized and then recalled visual, auditory, and kinesthetic stimuli. Changes in eye-positions during recall were videotaped and categorized by two raters into positions hypothesized by Bandler and Grinder's model to represent visual, auditory, and kinesthetic recall. Planned contrast analyses suggested that visual stimulus items, when recalled, elicited significantly more upward eye-positions and stares than auditory and kinesthetic items. Auditory and kinesthetic items, however, did not elicit more changes in eye-position hypothesized by the model to represent auditory and kinesthetic recall, respectively. PMID:3503261

Wertheim, E H; Habib, C; Cumming, G

1986-04-01

169

Non-sensory factors in sensory science research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decisions about what food to buy, eat and serve for one’s family and friends are complex and influenced by many factors other than sensory quality. It is widely agreed that while taste and other sensory qualities are very important, they only partially account for consumers’ food related behaviours. This paper considers the role of several other factors: convenience, price, production

Sara R. Jaeger

2006-01-01

170

Neuroscience Letters 421 (2007) 173177 Inter-individual variability in sensory weighting of a plantar  

E-print Network

of a plantar pressure-based, tongue-placed tactile biofeedback for controlling posture Nicolas Vuillerme the sensory weighting of a plantar pressure-based, tongue-placed tactile biofeedback for controlling posture asked to stand as immobile as possible with their eyes closed in two conditions of No-biofeedback

Payan, Yohan

171

The Effects of Sensory Deprivation on Sleep and Other Regulatory Processes in Adult Cat  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that human subjects deprived of meaningful visual, auditory and somatosensory stimulation (sensory deprivation), spend a larger portion of their time asleep (increased Stage I & II) than when in a normal environment. Furthermore, that phase of sleep which is characterized by the presence of rapid eye movements (REM sleep) is altered under these conditions, with REM density

Charles Breckenridge

1978-01-01

172

Sensory Changes in Later Life. A Pacific Northwest Extension Publication. PNW 196. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is designed to help persons who have elderly family members or who work with older adults understand and help compensate for the sensory changes that occur in later life. It contains sections on vision, hearing, taste and smell, and touch. Discussed in the section on vision are the following: common age-related changes, eye diseases…

Schmall, Vicki L.

173

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Sensory Responses during Sleep in Primate Primary and  

E-print Network

responses to acoustic stimulation were present during both slow-wave and rapid-eye movement sleep, were,anovelpatternofactivation/deactivationappearsacrossneurons.Becausetheneuralsignalreachesasfarassecondary auditory cortex, this leaves open the possibility of altered sensory processing of auditory information, 2003a) and that activity in cortex during sleep is mainly internal (Braun et al.,1997), resulting from

Wang, Xiaoqin

174

Eye movements: The past 25 years  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the past 25 of research on eye movements (1986–2011). Emphasis is on three oculomotor behaviors: gaze control, smooth pursuit and saccades, and on their interactions with vision. Focus over the past 25 years has remained on the fundamental and classical questions: What are the mechanisms that keep gaze stable with either stationary or moving targets? How does the motion of the image on the retina affect vision? Where do we look – and why – when performing a complex task? How can the world appear clear and stable despite continual movements of the eyes? The past 25 years of investigation of these questions has seen progress and transformations at all levels due to new approaches (behavioral, neural and theoretical) aimed at studying how eye movements cope with real-world visual and cognitive demands. The work has led to a better understanding of how prediction, learning and attention work with sensory signals to contribute to the effective operation of eye movements in visually rich environments. PMID:21237189

Kowler, Eileen

2011-01-01

175

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Distinctive Features of Adult Ocular Dominance Plasticity  

E-print Network

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Distinctive Features of Adult Ocular Dominance Plasticity Masaaki Sato to the open eye, and has less effect on the hemisphere ipsilateral to the deprived eye. Binocular deprivation dependence on signaling through NMDA receptors. We propose that adult ocular dominance plasticity arises from

Stryker, Michael

176

Excitatory Synaptic Feedback from the Motor Layer to the Sensory Layers of the Superior Colliculus  

PubMed Central

Neural circuits that translate sensory information into motor commands are organized in a feedforward manner converting sensory information into motor output. The superior colliculus (SC) follows this pattern as it plays a role in converting visual information from the retina and visual cortex into motor commands for rapid eye movements (saccades). Feedback from movement to sensory regions is hypothesized to play critical roles in attention, visual image stability, and saccadic suppression, but in contrast to feedforward pathways, motor feedback to sensory regions has received much less attention. The present study used voltage imaging and patch-clamp recording in slices of rat SC to test the hypothesis of an excitatory synaptic pathway from the motor layers of the SC back to the sensory superficial layers. Voltage imaging revealed an extensive depolarization of the superficial layers evoked by electrical stimulation of the motor layers. A pharmacologically isolated excitatory synaptic potential in the superficial layers depended on stimulus strength in the motor layers in a manner consistent with orthodromic excitation. Patch-clamp recording from neurons in the sensory layers revealed excitatory synaptic potentials in response to glutamate application in the motor layers. The location, size, and morphology of responsive neurons indicated they were likely to be narrow-field vertical cells. This excitatory projection from motor to sensory layers adds an important element to the circuitry of the SC and reveals a novel feedback pathway that could play a role in enhancing sensory responses to attended targets as well as visual image stabilization. PMID:24828636

Ghitani, Nima; Bayguinov, Peter O.; Vokoun, Corinne R.; McMahon, Shane

2014-01-01

177

Submitted to NIPS 2000. Competition and Arbors in Ocular Dominance  

E-print Network

and left eye; (right) sum difference across showing the net ocularity for each . Here, ¼ ¾, Á ¼ ¼ , ÍSubmitted to NIPS 2000. Competition and Arbors in Ocular Dominance Peter Dayan Gatsby Computational and humans exibit ocular dominance stripes, which are alternating areas of primary visual cortex devoted

Dayan, Peter

178

Competition and Arbors in Ocular Dominance Peter Dayan  

E-print Network

in the connections W = W R W L from right and left eye; (right) sum difference across b showing the net ocularityCompetition and Arbors in Ocular Dominance Peter Dayan Gatsby Computational Neuroscience Unit, UCL, and humans exibit ocular dominance stripes, which are alternating areas of primary visual cortex devoted

Dayan, Peter

179

Learning Conflict Among Mixed-Dominance Left-Handed Individuals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the hypothesis that it is mixed-dominance among left handers (i.e. left handedness and right eye and/or foot dominance), that is related to academic learning difficulties among such individuals, rather than the generally held notion that their difficulties stem from the fact that they are left handers in a "right handed…

Blai, Boris, Jr.

180

No evidence of genetic heterogeneity in dominant optic atrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal dominant optic atrophy (OPA, MIM 165500) is an eye disease causing a variable reduction of visual acuity with an insidious onset in the first six years of life. It is associated with a central scotoma and an acquired blue-yellow dyschromatopsia. A gene for dominant optic atrophy (OPA1) has recently been mapped to chromosome 3q in three large Danish pedigrees.

D Bonneau; E Souied; S Gerber; J M Rozet; E DHaens; H Journel; G Plessis; J Weissenbach; A Munnich; J Kaplan

1995-01-01

181

Sensory adaptation for timing perception  

PubMed Central

Recent sensory experience modifies subjective timing perception. For example, when visual events repeatedly lead auditory events, such as when the sound and video tracks of a movie are out of sync, subsequent vision-leads-audio presentations are reported as more simultaneous. This phenomenon could provide insights into the fundamental problem of how timing is represented in the brain, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that the effect of recent experience on timing perception is not just subjective; recent sensory experience also modifies relative timing discrimination. This result indicates that recent sensory history alters the encoding of relative timing in sensory areas, excluding explanations of the subjective phenomenon based only on decision-level changes. The pattern of changes in timing discrimination suggests the existence of two sensory components, similar to those previously reported for visual spatial attributes: a lateral shift in the nonlinear transducer that maps relative timing into perceptual relative timing and an increase in transducer slope around the exposed timing. The existence of these components would suggest that previous explanations of how recent experience may change the sensory encoding of timing, such as changes in sensory latencies or simple implementations of neural population codes, cannot account for the effect of sensory adaptation on timing perception. PMID:25788590

Roseboom, Warrick; Linares, Daniel; Nishida, Shin'ya

2015-01-01

182

Sensory adaptation for timing perception.  

PubMed

Recent sensory experience modifies subjective timing perception. For example, when visual events repeatedly lead auditory events, such as when the sound and video tracks of a movie are out of sync, subsequent vision-leads-audio presentations are reported as more simultaneous. This phenomenon could provide insights into the fundamental problem of how timing is represented in the brain, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that the effect of recent experience on timing perception is not just subjective; recent sensory experience also modifies relative timing discrimination. This result indicates that recent sensory history alters the encoding of relative timing in sensory areas, excluding explanations of the subjective phenomenon based only on decision-level changes. The pattern of changes in timing discrimination suggests the existence of two sensory components, similar to those previously reported for visual spatial attributes: a lateral shift in the nonlinear transducer that maps relative timing into perceptual relative timing and an increase in transducer slope around the exposed timing. The existence of these components would suggest that previous explanations of how recent experience may change the sensory encoding of timing, such as changes in sensory latencies or simple implementations of neural population codes, cannot account for the effect of sensory adaptation on timing perception. PMID:25788590

Roseboom, Warrick; Linares, Daniel; Nishida, Shin'ya

2015-04-22

183

Sex and Caste-Specific Variation in Compound Eye Morphology of Five Honeybee Species  

PubMed Central

Ranging from dwarfs to giants, the species of honeybees show remarkable differences in body size that have placed evolutionary constrains on the size of sensory organs and the brain. Colonies comprise three adult phenotypes, drones and two female castes, the reproductive queen and sterile workers. The phenotypes differ with respect to tasks and thus selection pressures which additionally constrain the shape of sensory systems. In a first step to explore the variability and interaction between species size-limitations and sex and caste-specific selection pressures in sensory and neural structures in honeybees, we compared eye size, ommatidia number and distribution of facet lens diameters in drones, queens and workers of five species (Apis andreniformis, A. florea, A. dorsata, A. mellifera, A. cerana). In these species, male and female eyes show a consistent sex-specific organization with respect to eye size and regional specialization of facet diameters. Drones possess distinctly enlarged eyes with large dorsal facets. Aside from these general patterns, we found signs of unique adaptations in eyes of A. florea and A. dorsata drones. In both species, drone eyes are disproportionately enlarged. In A. dorsata the increased eye size results from enlarged facets, a likely adaptation to crepuscular mating flights. In contrast, the relative enlargement of A. florea drone eyes results from an increase in ommatidia number, suggesting strong selection for high spatial resolution. Comparison of eye morphology and published mating flight times indicates a correlation between overall light sensitivity and species-specific mating flight times. The correlation suggests an important role of ambient light intensities in the regulation of species-specific mating flight times and the evolution of the visual system. Our study further deepens insights into visual adaptations within the genus Apis and opens up future perspectives for research to better understand the timing mechanisms and sensory physiology of mating related signals. PMID:23460896

Streinzer, Martin; Brockmann, Axel; Nagaraja, Narayanappa; Spaethe, Johannes

2013-01-01

184

Sex and caste-specific variation in compound eye morphology of five honeybee species.  

PubMed

Ranging from dwarfs to giants, the species of honeybees show remarkable differences in body size that have placed evolutionary constrains on the size of sensory organs and the brain. Colonies comprise three adult phenotypes, drones and two female castes, the reproductive queen and sterile workers. The phenotypes differ with respect to tasks and thus selection pressures which additionally constrain the shape of sensory systems. In a first step to explore the variability and interaction between species size-limitations and sex and caste-specific selection pressures in sensory and neural structures in honeybees, we compared eye size, ommatidia number and distribution of facet lens diameters in drones, queens and workers of five species (Apis andreniformis, A. florea, A. dorsata, A. mellifera, A. cerana). In these species, male and female eyes show a consistent sex-specific organization with respect to eye size and regional specialization of facet diameters. Drones possess distinctly enlarged eyes with large dorsal facets. Aside from these general patterns, we found signs of unique adaptations in eyes of A. florea and A. dorsata drones. In both species, drone eyes are disproportionately enlarged. In A. dorsata the increased eye size results from enlarged facets, a likely adaptation to crepuscular mating flights. In contrast, the relative enlargement of A. florea drone eyes results from an increase in ommatidia number, suggesting strong selection for high spatial resolution. Comparison of eye morphology and published mating flight times indicates a correlation between overall light sensitivity and species-specific mating flight times. The correlation suggests an important role of ambient light intensities in the regulation of species-specific mating flight times and the evolution of the visual system. Our study further deepens insights into visual adaptations within the genus Apis and opens up future perspectives for research to better understand the timing mechanisms and sensory physiology of mating related signals. PMID:23460896

Streinzer, Martin; Brockmann, Axel; Nagaraja, Narayanappa; Spaethe, Johannes

2013-01-01

185

HIV Associated Sensory Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Background: In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, sensory neuropathies have increased in prevalence. We have documented the frequency and profile of the two most common forms of sensory neuropathies associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and looked into clinicoelectrophysiological correlates to differentiate the two entities. Methods: The study population comprised of all consecutive patients detected to be HIV positive and attending the Neurology outpatient department (from March 2011 to March 2012) who were aged ? 18 years and were able to give informed consent. The data were collected from the patient records (including CD4 counts and treatment details) and questionnaire based interview with each patient. All patients underwent detailed clinical examination and nerve conduction studies (NCSs). Results: Among the total study population of 50 patients, there were 31 men and 19 women. Thirty two patients were in age range of 21 - 40 years and rest were above 40 years. 25 were on antiretroviral therapy (18 on regimen containing zidovudine; seven on regimen containing stavudine). The mean duration of antiretroviral therapy was 16.6±8.4 months. Low CD4 counts (<200) were noted in 24 patients (13 of these were on antiretroviral therapy). Clinically, the patients were classified as asymptomatic (n=34) and symptomatic (n=16). Among the symptomatic patients, nine were on antiretroviral therapy since less than one year (seven of these were on regimen containing stavudine). Ten patients aged more than 40-years had symptomatic neuropathy. No significant correlation was found between low CD4 counts and symptomatic neuropathy (p=0.21). Impaired vibration (100%) and absent ankle jerks (75%) were commoner than reduced pin sensitivity (46.6%). Twenty two patients had abnormal NCS results (18 of these were on antiretroviral therapy). Axonal distal symmetrical sensory neuropathy was the commonest pattern noted in 14 patients who were receiving antiretroviral therapy. Subclinical involvement as evidenced by abnormal NCSs was noted in 5 asymptomatic patients who were all on antiretroviral therapy. Conclusion: Symptomatic neuropathy was seen predominantly in HIV patients who were on antiretroviral therapy. All patients receiving stavudine containing regimen had severe symptomatic neuropathy within 1 year. There was an increase in the likelihood of symptomatic neuropathy among patients aged > 40 years. Subclinical neuropathy was common in those on antiretroviral therapy. Axonal neuropathy was the commonest pattern noted in patients who were receiving antiretroviral therapy and demyelinating neuropathy in patients not on antiretroviral therapy. Surprisingly no significant correlation was found between low CD4 counts and symptomatic neuropathy. PMID:25177587

S, Praveen-kumar; B, Nataraju; BS, Nagaraja

2014-01-01

186

Sensory analysis of pet foods.  

PubMed

Pet food palatability depends first and foremost on the pet and is related to the pet food sensory properties such as aroma, texture and flavor. Sensory analysis of pet foods may be conducted by humans via descriptive or hedonic analysis, pets via acceptance or preference tests, and through a number of instrumental analysis methods. Sensory analysis of pet foods provides additional information on reasons behind palatable and unpalatable foods as pets lack linguistic capabilities. Furthermore, sensory analysis may be combined with other types of information such as personality and environment factors to increase understanding of acceptable pet foods. Most pet food flavor research is proprietary and, thus, there are a limited number of publications available. Funding opportunities for pet food studies would increase research and publications and this would help raise public awareness of pet food related issues. This mini-review addresses current pet food sensory analysis literature and discusses future challenges and possibilities. PMID:24497160

Koppel, Kadri

2014-08-01

187

Modeling of the First Layers in the Fly's Eye  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increased autonomy of robots would yield significant advantages in the exploration of space. The shortfalls of computer vision can, however, pose significant limitations on a robot's potential. At the same time, simple insects which are largely hard-wired have effective visual systems. The understanding of insect vision systems thus may lead to improved approaches to visual tasks. A good starting point for the study of a vision system is its eye. In this paper, a model of the sensory portion of the fly's eye is presented. The effectiveness of the model is briefly addressed by a comparison of its performance to experimental data.

Moya, J. A.; Wilcox, M. J.; Donohoe, G. W.

1997-01-01

188

Sensory sea slugs  

PubMed Central

Molluscs are a large and diverse group of aquatic and terrestrial animals that rely heavily on chemical communication. Aplysia is an excellent model in which to investigate and develop breakthrough principles into the molecular aspects of chemoreception in molluscs. We recently identified a large family of rhodopsin-like G-protein coupled receptors expressed in the chemosensory rhinophore of Aplysia that may be key components of sensory detection. Here, we summarize these findings and provide further insight into the molecular olfactory toolkit used by Aplysia, by taking advantage of our knowledge of their attraction pheromones. Our characterization of rhinophore genes upregulated following pheromone stimulation helps explain the dynamics of olfactory gene expression following chemical stimulation. PMID:21057630

Degnan, Bernard M

2010-01-01

189

MAC-EYE: a Tendon Driven Fully Embedded Robot Eye  

E-print Network

MAC-EYE: a Tendon Driven Fully Embedded Robot Eye Dario Biamino, Giorgio Cannata, Marco Maggiali the possibility of designing a robot eye with kinematics and actuation similar to those of the human eye. In particular, we tried to exploit the spherical shape of the eye and to study the feasibility of a tendon based

Cannata, Giorgio

190

THE AGING EYE EYE INSTITUTE OF NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE  

E-print Network

and glaucoma. Ocular Stem Cell Research Program Through the Center for the Aging Eye, we plan to advanceCENTER FOR THE AGING EYE EYE INSTITUTE OF NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE The Center for the Aging Eye within the Eye Institute will unite and advance a group of translational researchers who are dedicated

Engman, David M.

191

Anesthesia for Adults Having Eye Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus Stye (defined) Vision Screening Vision Screening Recommendations ... Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus Stye (defined) Vision Screening Vision Screening Recommendations ...

192

Minority Eye Health: Know Your Risks  

MedlinePLUS

... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Minority Eye Health: Know Your Risks Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... over the battery and always wear safety goggles. Eye Protection Works Wearing the proper protective eyewear for ...

193

In vivo visualization of CaMKII activity in ocular dominance plasticity  

E-print Network

Alterations in sensory experience can persistently modify the responses of cortical neurons. Ocular dominance (OD) plasticity, a process in which alternation of visual input induces a shift in cortical responsiveness, is ...

Kwok, Show Ming

2009-01-01

194

Optical Prosthetics Mimicking the Eye  

E-print Network

Optical Prosthetics Mimicking the Eye Abstract The eye is a complex optical system that, like other still being in its infancy. Introduction The eye consists of many parts. · Sclera: The majority of the eye, it forms the white shell and the basic shape of the eyeball. · Cornea: The frontal 1/6 of the eye

La Rosa, Andres H.

195

Physiological Targets of Artificial Gravity: The Sensory-Motor System. Chapter 4  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This chapter describes the pros and cons of artificial gravity applications in relation to human sensory-motor functioning in space. Spaceflight creates a challenge for sensory-motor functions that depend on gravity, which include postural balance, locomotion, eye-hand coordination, and spatial orientation. The sensory systems, and in particular the vestibular system, must adapt to weightlessness on entering orbit, and again to normal gravity upon return to Earth. During this period of adaptation, which persists beyond the actual gravity-level transition itself the sensory-motor systems are disturbed. Although artificial gravity may prove to be beneficial for the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems, it may well have negative side effects for the neurovestibular system, such as spatial disorientation, malcoordination, and nausea.

Paloski, William; Groen, Eric; Clarke, Andrew; Bles, Willem; Wuyts, Floris; Paloski, William; Clement, Gilles

2006-01-01

196

Laterality in avian vigilance: do sparrows have a favourite eye?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual scanning for predators is one of a bird's most basic means of avoiding predation while feeding, and the detection of an approaching predator may present a difficult visual task. If birds have a dominant hemisphere for processing visual information, then given the nearly complete optic nerve crossover in the avian brain, the eye contralateral to that dominant hemisphere should

William E. Franklin; Steven L. Lima

2001-01-01

197

Protect Those Eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students design and build prototypes for protective eyewear. They choose different activities or sports that require protective eyewear and design a device for that particular use. Students learn about the many ways in which the eyes can be damaged and how engineers incorporate different features and materials into eyewear designs to best protect the eyes.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

198

An Eye for Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a hands-on activity as an excellent starting point for investigations related to the eye. Involves making a simple model of the vertebrate eye to illustrate the formation of an upside-down image on the retina by the lens. Links to investigations in numerous science disciplines including astronomy, genetics, biology, earth science, and…

Ostwald, Thomas

1995-01-01

199

Eyes in arhinencephalic syndromes.  

PubMed Central

The ocular features of eight cases of arhinencephaly have been described. Prediction of the degree of brain involvement from the eye defects could not be made, but eye abnormalities were present in all cases. The relationship of these syndromes to chromosomal abnormalities is emphasized. In the less severe cases treatable endocrine dysgenesis must be excluded. Images PMID:812548

Karseras, A G; Laurence, K M

1975-01-01

200

Autologous serum eye drops for dry eye  

PubMed Central

Background Theoretically, autologous serum eye drops (AS) have a potential advantage over traditional therapies based on the assumption that AS serve not only as a lacrimal substitute to provide lubrication, but also contain other biochemical components mimicking natural tears more closely. The application of AS in dry eye treatment has gained popularity as a second-line therapy in the treatment of dry eye. Published studies on the subject indicate that autologous serum could be an effective treatment for dry eye. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of AS compared to artificial tears for treating dry eye. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 3), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLD MEDLINE, (January 1950 to April 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to April 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to April 2013), the meta Register of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We also searched the Science Citation Index Expanded database (September 2013) and reference lists of included studies. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 15 April 2013. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which AS was compared to artificial tears in the treatment of dry eye in adults. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently screened all titles and abstracts and assessed full-text articles of potentially eligible trials. Two review authors extracted data and assessed the methodological quality and characteristics of the included trials.We contacted investigators for missing data. For both primary and secondary outcomes, we reported mean differences with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for continuous outcomes. Main results We identified four eligible RCTs in which AS was compared with artificial tear treatment or saline in individuals (n = 72 participants) with dry eye of various etiologies (Sjögren’s syndrome-related dry eye, non-Sjögren’s syndrome dry eye and postoperative dry eye induced by laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK)). The quality of the evidence provided by these trials was variable. A majority of the risk of bias domains were judged to have an unclear risk of bias in two trials owing to insufficient reporting of trial characteristics. One trial was considered to have a low risk of bias for most domains while another was considered to have a high risk of bias for most domains. Incomplete outcome reporting and heterogeneity in the participant populations and follow-up periods prevented the inclusion of these trials in a summary meta-analysis. For the primary outcome, improvement in participant-reported symptoms at one month, one trial (12 participants) showed no difference in participant-reported symptoms between 20% AS and artificial tears. Based on the results of two trials in 32 participants, 20% AS may provide some improvement in participant-reported symptoms compared to traditional artificial tears after two weeks of treatment. One trial also showed positive results with a mean difference in tear breakup time (TBUT) of 2.00 seconds (95% CI 0.99 to 3.01 seconds) between 20% AS and artificial tears after two weeks, which were not similar to findings from the other trials. Based on all other objective clinical assessments included in this review, AS was not associated with improvements in aqueous tear production measured by Schirmer’s test (two trials, 33 participants), ocular surface condition with fluorescein (four trials, 72 participants) or Rose Bengal staining (three trials, 60 participants), and epithelial metaplasia by impression cytology compared to artificial tea

Pan, Qing; Angelina, Adla; Zambrano, Andrea; Marrone, Michael; Stark, Walter J; Heflin, Thomas; Tang, Li; Akpek, Esen K

2014-01-01

201

Symmetry of sensory loss in developing diabetic sensory polyneuropathy.  

PubMed

The medical literature presents diabetic sensory polyneuropathy (DSPN) as an axonal length-dependent symmetric pathology producing a stocking-like pattern of anesthesia in the lower extremities. This has been based on anecdotal reports. Objective research has shown that damage may not occur in a purely length-dependent manner. A stocking distribution of sensory loss is atypical, and plantar sensory loss predominates. A single-blinded, age-matched, control/experimental study was performed of the symmetry of nerve damage in developing DSPN. Control (n = 46) and experimental (n = 83) subjects were examined. The patterns of sensory loss and the severity of axonal damage were evaluated. The right/left symmetry of pathology was recorded for each individual. Although there was not a stocking pattern of anesthesia found in developing DSPN, the pattern and severity of anesthesia were found to be generally symmetric. The severity of sensory impairment was symmetric at the dorsal foot (93%), lateral foot (95%), and plantar foot (69%). The most predominant site of sensory impairment was also symmetric (81%). This argues against a purely metabolic etiology for axonal damage. An anatomic component is implied. Further research will need to include examination of the unique physical characteristics of predominantly affected nerves. PMID:19825745

Rader, Andrew J; Barry, Timothy P

2009-02-01

202

Lateral dominance as a factor in learning selected motor skills.  

PubMed

Lateral dominance, as determined by tests of eye, hand, and foot preference, was investigated as a factor in motor skill acquisition. 3 groups of Ss, classified as right dominant, crossed dominant, or mixed dominant, practiced 3 motor skills for 18 practice sessions. All 3 groups showed significant learning of the 3 motor skills; however, there was no significant difference among the groups in performance or in rate of improvement on the skills. It was concluded that Ss displaying different dominance patterns, as defined in this study, appear equally capable of learning selected new motor skills. PMID:23947378

Tyler, R W

1971-09-01

203

Medicare Benefits and Your Eyes  

MedlinePLUS

Medicare benefits and your eyes Eye Health is Important! As you age, your risk for vision impairment ... on the arrows below for detailed information about Medicare benefits and your eyes. Request a Free Copy ...

204

Financial Aid for Eye Care  

MedlinePLUS

... Programs Training and Jobs Financial Aid for Eye Care Listen Financial Aid for Eye Care PDF* Many state and national resources regularly provide ... research, does not help individuals pay for eye care. However, if you are in need of financial ...

205

Infographic on the Aging Eye  

MedlinePLUS

Aging and Your Eyes What vision changes are normal with age? • • • • Needing glasses to see up close. Having trouble adjusting to glare. Having ... retina. Glaucoma Damage to the optic nerve. Dry eye Eyes do not make enough tears. Low vision ...

206

Functional weakness and sensory disturbance  

PubMed Central

In the diagnosis of functional weakness and sensory disturbance, positive physical signs are as important as absence of signs of disease. Motor signs, particularly Hoover's sign, are more reliable than sensory signs, but none should be used in isolation and must be interpreted in the overall context of the presentation. It should be borne in mind that a patient may have both a functional and an organic disorder. PMID:12185152

Stone, J; Zeman, A; Sharpe, M

2002-01-01

207

Acetylcholine and lobster sensory neurones  

PubMed Central

Experiments are presented in support of the hypothesis that acetylcholine functions as a sensory transmitter in the lobster nervous system. 1. Several different peripheral sensory structures incorporate radioactive choline into acetylcholine. The preparation most enriched in sensory as opposed to other nervous elements (the antennular sense organs of the distal outer flagellum) does not incorporate significant amounts of glutamate, tyrosine or tryptophan into any of the other major transmitter candidates. 2. There is a parallel between the distribution of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase and the proportion of sensory fibres in nervous tissue from many parts of the lobster nervous system. 3. Isolated sensory axons contain at least 500 times as much choline acetyltransferase per cm of axon as do efferent excitatory and inhibitory fibres. 4. Abdominal ganglia and root stumps show a decline in the rate of incorporation of choline into acetylcholine 2 to 8 weeks after severing the first and second roots bilaterally (leaving the connectives and third roots intact). Extracts of the root stumps exhibit a significantly lower level of choline acetyltransferase 2 weeks after this operation. 5. Curare and atropine partially block an identified sensory synapse in the lobster abdominal ganglion. ImagesText-fig. 4Text-fig. 5Plate 1 PMID:4343316

Barker, David L.; Herbert, Edward; Hildebrand, John G.; Kravitz, Edward A.

1972-01-01

208

PAX6 in sensory development  

Microsoft Academic Search

PAX6 function was first identified through aniridia-associated null mutations. Since then, this transcription factor, with a paired domain and a homeodomain, has become a paradigm, illustrating functional conservation in developmental pathways. The Small eye mouse and Drosophila eyeless have served as major model systems in defining the multistage roles for Pax6 in eye and olfactory system development throughout evolution. The

Veronica van Heyningen; Kathleen A. Williamson

2002-01-01

209

Eye injury in sport.  

PubMed

Eye injury sustained during sport is increasing in incidence worldwide, reflecting the rise in popularity of sport as recreation. It can account for up to 25% of severe eye injuries. This paper considers the historical context and demography of sports injuries, and the physical mechanisms and results of various types of ocular trauma in relation to sport. It reviews the specific problems associated with the sports considered to be most important in the epidemiology of eye injuries today. Certain sports, such as boxing, have an intrinsic risk of injury so high that some consider the sport should be banned. The risk of injury in many sports can be mitigated by changes in rules, such as the prevention of high sticking in ice hockey. Other sports with high risk of trauma could be made far safer with the widespread introduction of eye protection, and this applies especially to squash and badminton. The various types of eye protection are discussed. There is an urgent need to increase awareness of the risk of eye injury, to teach safe techniques, and to encourage the use of appropriate ocular protective wear in those at high risk of injury, especially the one-eyed. PMID:2660211

Jones, N P

1989-03-01

210

[Treatment of eye allergies].  

PubMed

Seasonal atopic conjunctivitis is treated with antihistamines, cromoglycate and short courses of corticosteroids, in severe cases with subcutaneous or sublingual immunotherapy. Chronic conjunctivitis requires year-round treatment with mast cell stabilizers, antihistamines or topical corticosteroids. Long-term treatment of atopic blepharoconjunctivitis consists of tacrolimus or pimecrolimus cream. For atopic keratoconjunctivitis corticosteroid and, if necessary, cyclosporine eye drops are needed. First-line therapy of vernal conjunctivitis involves mast cell stabilizers and, if necessary, corticosteroid eye drops. Treatment of non-allergic eosinophilic conjunctivitis involves mast cell stabilizers, corticosteroid and, if necessary, cyclosporine eye drops. PMID:22428383

Kari, Osmo; Saari, K Matti

2012-01-01

211

Driver eye height measurement  

E-print Network

was establish d in the early sixties when passenger vehicles were styled differentl; than tnda; . The changing design of passenger cars has resulted in a considerable lowering in the eye heights of drivers between 1960 and 1978. The objective of this ress rch... of passenger cars now view the road from a height lower than 3. 75 ft but virtually none have driver eye heights less than 3. 25 ft (0. 99'tu). On t'nls basis it is recommended that a new driver eye height standard of 3. 25 ft (0. 99 m), or onc meter...

Abrahamson, Anthony Daniel

1978-01-01

212

Eye-Safe Lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laser infrared radar (lidar) undergoing development harmless to human eyes, consists almost entirely of solid-state components, and offers high range resolution. Operates at wavelength of about 2 micrometers. If radiation from such device strikes eye, almost completely absorbed by cornea without causing damage, even if aimed directly at eye. Continuous-wave light from laser oscillator amplified and modulated for transmission from telescope. Small portion of output of oscillator fed to single-mode fiber coupler, where mixed with return pulses. Intended for remote Doppler measurements of winds and differential-absorption measurements of concentrations of gases in atmosphere.

Byer, Robert L.

1989-01-01

213

Anatomy of the Eye  

MedlinePLUS

... Children Scientists in the Laboratory Visual Acuity Testing Anatomy of the Eye Nearsightedness Illustration of a Normal ... the NEI Website Manager . Department of Health and Human Services | The National Institutes of Health | USA.gov ...

214

Anatomy of the Eye  

MedlinePLUS

... the eye. It is disc shaped with a hole in the middle (the pupil). Muscles in the ... of photoreceptors are rods and cones. Rods perceive black and white and serve night vision primarily. Cones ...

215

Dry eye syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... of dry eyes include: Dry environment or workplace (wind, air conditioning) Sun exposure Smoking or second-hand ... t smoke and avoid second-hand smoke, direct wind, and air conditioning. Use a humidifier, especially in ...

216

Eye Injuries in Sports  

MedlinePLUS

... and severity of eye injuries. Only 3-mm polycarbonate lenses should be used in protective sports eyewear. ... lenses are available in plain and prescription forms. Polycarbonate lenses are impact resistant. They also are the ...

217

Eye Injuries at Work  

MedlinePLUS

... happen in the fields of manufacturing, construction and mining, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. ... Resources EyeWiki contact us sitemap Reproducing text or images from this website is strictly prohibited by US ...

218

Eye to I  

E-print Network

This is the story of the language of eyes - what they say about our emotions, what they reveal about our intentions, how they interact with our face, and how they connect us to one another. The story follows our experience ...

Brunstein, Ada

2007-01-01

219

The social dominance paradox.  

PubMed

Dominant individuals report high levels of self-sufficiency, self-esteem, and authoritarianism. The lay stereotype suggests that such individuals ignore information from others, preferring to make their own choices. However, the nonhuman animal literature presents a conflicting view, suggesting that dominant individuals are avid social learners, whereas subordinates focus on learning from private experience. Whether dominant humans are best characterized by the lay stereotype or the animal view is currently unknown. Here, we present a "social dominance paradox": using self-report scales and computerized tasks, we demonstrate that socially dominant people explicitly value independence, but, paradoxically, in a complex decision-making task, they show an enhanced reliance (relative to subordinate individuals) on social learning. More specifically, socially dominant people employed a strategy of copying other agents when the agents' responses had a history of being correct. However, in humans, two subtypes of dominance have been identified: aggressive and social. Aggressively dominant individuals, who are as likely to "get their own way" as socially dominant individuals but who do so through the use of aggressive or Machiavellian tactics, did not use social information, even when it was beneficial to do so. This paper presents the first study of dominance and social learning in humans and challenges the lay stereotype in which all dominant individuals ignore others' views. The more subtle perspective we offer could have important implications for decision making in both the boardroom and the classroom. PMID:25454588

Cook, Jennifer Louise; den Ouden, Hanneke E M; Heyes, Cecilia M; Cools, Roshan

2014-12-01

220

Single Ca2+ channels and exocytosis at sensory synapses  

PubMed Central

Hair cell synapses in the ear and photoreceptor synapses in the eye are the first synapses in the auditory and visual system. These specialized synapses transmit a large amount of sensory information in a fast and efficient manner. Moreover, both small and large signals with widely variable kinetics must be quickly encoded and reliably transmitted to allow an animal to rapidly monitor and react to its environment. Here we briefly review some aspects of these primary synapses, which are characterized by a synaptic ribbon in their active zones of transmitter release. We propose that these synapses are themselves highly specialized for the task at hand. Photoreceptor and bipolar cell ribbon synapses in the retina appear to have versatile properties that permit both tonic and phasic transmitter release. This allows them to transmit changes of both luminance and contrast within a visual field at different ambient light levels. By contrast, hair cell ribbon synapses are specialized for a highly synchronous form of multivesicular release that may be critical for phase locking to low-frequency sound-evoked signals at both low and high sound intensities. The microarchitecture of a hair cell synapse may be such that the opening of a single Ca2+ channel evokes the simultaneous exocytosis of multiple synaptic vesicles. Thus, the differing demands of sensory encoding in the eye and ear generate diverse designs and capabilities for their ribbon synapses. PMID:23459757

Kim, Mean-Hwan; Li, Geng-Lin; von Gersdorff, Henrique

2013-01-01

221

Eye Development and Retinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Three embryonic tissue sources—the neural ectoderm, the surface ectoderm, and the periocular mesenchyme—contribute to the formation of the mammalian eye. For this reason, the developing eye has presented an invaluable system for studying the interactions among cells and, more recently, genes, in specifying cell fate. This article describes how the eye primordium is specified in the anterior neural plate by four eye field transcription factors and how the optic vesicle becomes regionalized into three distinct tissue types. Specific attention is given to how cross talk between the optic vesicle and surface ectoderm contributes to lens and optic cup formation. This article also describes how signaling networks and cell movements set up axes in the optic cup and establish the multiple cell fates important for vision. How multipotent retinal progenitor cells give rise to the six neuronal and one glial cell type in the mature retina is also explained. Finally, the history and progress of cellular therapeutics for the treatment of degenerative eye disease is outlined. Throughout this article, special attention is given to how disruption of gene function causes ocular malformation in humans. Indeed, the accessibility of the eye has contributed much to our understanding of the basic processes involved in mammalian development. PMID:23071378

Heavner, Whitney; Pevny, Larysa

2012-01-01

222

Modern sports eye injuries  

PubMed Central

Aims: To determine the severity and long term sequelae of eye injuries caused by modern sports that could be responsible for significant ocular trauma in the future. Methods: Prospective observational study of 24 (25 eyes) athletes with sports related ocular injuries from health clubs, war games, adventure, radical and new types of soccer, presenting to an eye emergency department between 1992 and 2002 (10 years). Results: Modern sports were responsible for 8.3% of the 288 total sports eye injuries reported. Squash (29.2%) was the most common cause, followed by paintball (20.8%) and motocross (16.6%). The most common diagnosis during the follow up period was retinal breaks (20%). 18 (75%) patients sustained a severe injury. The final visual acuity remained <20/100 in two paintball players. Conclusions: Ocular injuries resulting from modern sports are often severe. Adequate instruction of the participants in the games, proper use of eye protectors, and a routine complete ophthalmological examination after an eye trauma should be mandatory. PMID:14609827

Capão Filipe, J A; Rocha-Sousa, A; Falcão-Reis, F; Castro-Correia, J

2003-01-01

223

Sensory Transduction in Caenorhabditis elegans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans has a well-defined and comparatively simple repertoire of sensory-guided behaviors, all of which rely on its ability to detect chemical, mechanical or thermal stimuli. In this chapter, we review what is known about the ion channels that mediate sensation in this remarkable model organism. Genetic screens for mutants defective in sensory-guided behaviors have identified genes encoding channel proteins, which are likely transducers of chemical, thermal, and mechanical stimuli. Such classical genetic approaches are now being coupled with molecular genetics and in vivo cellular physiology to elucidate how these channels are activated in specific sensory neurons. The ion channel superfamilies implicated in sensory transduction in C. elegans - CNG, TRP, and DEG/ENaC - are conserved across phyla and also appear to contribute to sensory transduction in other organisms, including vertebrates. What we learn about the role of these ion channels in C. elegans sensation is likely to illuminate analogous processes in other animals, including humans.

Brown, Austin L.; Ramot, Daniel; Goodman, Miriam B.

224

Spatial and Temporal Integration of Visual Motion Signals for Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements in Monkeys  

PubMed Central

To probe how the brain integrates visual motion signals to guide behavior, we analyzed the smooth pursuit eye movements evoked by target motion with a stochastic component. When each dot of a texture executed an independent random walk such that speed or direction varied across the spatial extent of the target, pursuit variance increased as a function of the variance of visual pattern motion. Noise in either target direction or speed increased the variance of both eye speed and direction, implying a common neural noise source for estimating target speed and direction. Spatial averaging was inefficient for targets with >20 dots. Together these data suggest that pursuit performance is limited by the properties of spatial averaging across a noisy population of sensory neurons rather than across the physical stimulus. When targets executed a spatially uniform random walk in time around a central direction of motion, an optimized linear filter that describes the transformation of target motion into eye motion accounted for ?50% of the variance in pursuit. Filters had widths of ?25 ms, much longer than the impulse response of the eye, and filter shape depended on both the range and correlation time of motion signals, suggesting that filters were products of sensory processing. By quantifying the effects of different levels of stimulus noise on pursuit, we have provided rigorous constraints for understanding sensory population decoding. We have shown how temporal and spatial integration of sensory signals converts noisy population responses into precise motor responses. PMID:19657083

Lisberger, Stephen G.

2009-01-01

225

The effects of nicotine on specific eye tracking measures in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The role of neuronal nicotinic receptors in the etiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia has been suggested by postmortem findings as well as by linkage analysis implicating chromosome 15q14, the region where the ?-7 nicotinic receptor gene is located. In addition, drug probe studies show that acute nicotine administration reverses sensory gating and eye-tracking deficits associated with the genetic liability

Jay D Sherr; Carol Myers; Matthew T Avila; Amie Elliott; Teresa A Blaxton; Gunvant K Thaker

2002-01-01

226

TAKE-HOME EXP. # 1 Naked-Eye Observations of Stars and Planets  

E-print Network

few thousand years, what humans have said about the universe based on naked-eye observations of the night and day skies reveals the tentativeness of physical models based solely on sensory perception to arrange it, it can be helpful to have one or two other colleagues to take the measurements with you. MAKE

Pickett, Galen T.

227

Theory of ocular dominance pattern formation O. Scherf, K. Pawelzik, F. Wolf, and T. Geisel  

E-print Network

and right eye are segre- gated into spatially distinct domains called ocular dominance columns ODCs 15Theory of ocular dominance pattern formation O. Scherf, K. Pawelzik, F. Wolf, and T. Geisel Max are contained as limiting cases. As an important example we analyze the formation of ocular dominance patterns

228

Neuron, Vol. 19, 307318, August, 1997, Copyright 1997 by Cell Press Relationship between the Ocular Dominance  

E-print Network

lines of ocular dominance in the cat (Crair et al., 1997). The link between orientation and eye the Ocular Dominance and Orientation Maps in Visual Cortex of Monocularly Deprived Cats Michael C. Crair, Edward S. Ruthazer, along the center lines of ocular dominance bands (Bart- feld and Grinvald, 1992

Crair, Michael C

229

The frontal eyes of crustaceans.  

PubMed

Frontal eyes of crustaceans (previously called nauplius eye and frontal organs) are usually simple eyes that send their axons to a medial brain centre in the anterior margin of the protocerebrum. Investigations of a large number of recent species within all major groups of the Crustacea have disclosed four kinds of frontal eyes correlated with taxonomic groups and named after them as the malacostracan, ostracod-maxillopodan, anostracan, and phyllopodan frontal eyes. The different kinds of eyes have been established using the homology concept coined by Owen [Owen, R., 1843. Lectures on the comparative anatomy and physiology of the invertebrate animals. Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans, London] and the criteria for homology recommended by Remane [Remane, A., 1956. Die Grundlagen des natürlichen Systems, der vergleichenden Anatomie und der Phylogenetik. 2nd ed. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Geest und Portig, Leipzig]. Common descent is not used as a homology criterion. Frontal eyes bear no resemblance to compound eyes and in the absence of compound eyes, as in the ostracod-maxillopodan group, frontal eyes develop into complicated mirror, lens-mirror, and scanning eyes. Developmental studies demonstrate widely different ways to produce frontal eyes in phyllopods and malacostracans. As a result of the studies of recent frontal eyes in crustaceans, it is concluded by extrapolation that in crustacean ancestors four non-homologous frontal eye types evolved that have remained functional in spite of concurrent compound eyes. PMID:18089076

Elofsson, Rolf

2006-12-01

230

Domination Value in Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set $D \\\\subseteq V(G)$ is a \\\\emph{dominating set} of $G$ if every vertex not in $D$ is adjacent to at least one vertex in $D$. A dominating set of $G$ of minimum cardinality is called a $\\\\gamma(G)$-set. For each vertex $v \\\\in V(G)$, we define the \\\\emph{domination value} of $v$ to be the number of $\\\\gamma(G)$-sets to which $v$

Eunjeong Yi

2011-01-01

231

The eye limits the brain's learning potential  

PubMed Central

The concept of a critical period for visual development early in life during which sensory experience is essential to normal neural development is now well established. However recent evidence suggests that a limited degree of plasticity remains after this period and well into adulthood. Here, we ask the question, "what limits the degree of plasticity in adulthood?" Although this limit has been assumed to be due to neural factors, we show that the optical quality of the retinal image ultimately limits the brain potential for change. We correct the high-order aberrations (HOAs) normally present in the eye's optics using adaptive optics, and reveal a greater degree of neuronal plasticity than previously appreciated. PMID:22509464

Zhou, Jiawei; Zhang, Yudong; Dai, Yun; Zhao, Haoxin; Liu, Rong; Hou, Fang; Liang, Bo; Hess, Robert F.; Zhou, Yifeng

2012-01-01

232

New Analyses of the Sensory Organization Test Compared to the Clinical Test of Sensory Integration and Balance in Patients with Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) of the computerized dynamic posturography battery or the Clinical Test of Sensory Integration and Balance (CTSIB) is more likely to indicate balance disorders in people with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Study design Normal controls were compared to patients with unilateral benign paroxysmal positional vertigo of the posterior semicircular canal (BPPV). Methods Subjects performed tests with eyes open or closed on stable and unstable surfaces, with head still or with head moving at 0.33 Hz in pitch or yaw. Dependent variables were the percent time of the standard duration each subject could perform the task, the number of head motions made, and kinematic variables measured with head- and torso-mounted inertial motion units. Results Because equilibrium scores of normals improved significantly over repeated trials on SOT patients were given only 1 trial per condition. For percent time between-group differences were found on CTSIB with eyes closed, on foam, head moving in yaw showing significantly reduced performance by BPPV subjects compared to controls. Compared to controls patients made significantly fewer head movements on CTSIB, eyes closed, on foam, head still, pitch and yaw. Kinematic data also differed between the groups on tests with eyes closed, unstable surfaces with different head movement combinations, indicating increased instability in BPPV patients. Conclusion For screening, CTSIB with head movements is more likely than SOT to indicate balance deficits, especially when dependent measures include percent time as well as head movement counts and kinematic measures. PMID:23553110

Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Cohen, Helen S.; Peters, Brian T.; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

2013-01-01

233

Are both the sensory and the affective dimensions of pain encoded in the face?  

PubMed

The facial expression of pain plays a crucial role in pain communication and pain diagnostics. Despite its importance, it has remained unknown which dimensions of pain (sensory and/or affective) are encoded in the face. To answer this question, we used a well-established cognitive strategy (suggestions) to differentially modulate the sensory and affective dimensions of pain and investigate the effect of this manipulation on facial responses to experimental pain. Twenty-two subjects participated in the study. Their facial expressions, pain intensity, and unpleasantness ratings as well as skin conductance responses to tonic and phasic heat pain were assessed before and after suggestions directed toward increase in affective and sensory qualities of pain, respectively, were provided. Facial expressions were analyzed with the Facial Action Coding system. As expected, suggestions designed to increase the sensory dimension produced a selective increase in pain intensity ratings, whereas suggestions designed to increase pain affect produced increased unpleasantness ratings and elevated skin conductance responses. Furthermore, suggestions for either increased pain affect or pain sensation produced selective modulations in facial response patterns, with facial movements around the eyes mostly encoding sensory aspects, whereas movements of the eyebrows and of the upper lip were closely associated with the affective pain dimension. The facial expression of pain is a multidimensional response system that differentially encodes affective and sensory pain qualities. This differential encoding might have evolved to guarantee that the specific characteristics of one's pain experience are facially communicated, thereby ensuring adequate help and support from others. PMID:22112930

Kunz, Miriam; Lautenbacher, Stefan; LeBlanc, Nadine; Rainville, Pierre

2012-02-01

234

Multimodal Sensory Distortions in Post-partum Exacerbation of Schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Background: Sensory distortions of body image commonly occur during migraine, seizures, non-dominant cortical infarcts and hallucinogen abuse.Methods: We report the case of a 30-year-old woman with paranoid schizophrenia, presenting with post-partum onset multimodal sensory distortions in the absence of any neurological disorders or substance use.Results: Her symptoms involved persistent facial/body metamorphopsia (distorted images) and vocal paracousis (distorted voices), in the absence of visual hallucinations, illusions or agnosia. Neuropsychological assessments revealed deficits on visual processing tasks. Neuroimaging, electroencephalography and ophthalmological evaluation revealed no abnormalities. The multimodal sensory distortions responded to anti-psychotic treatment, paralleling improvement in other schizophrenia psychopathology, over a period of one month.Conclusion: Prominent and persistent multimodal sensory distortions like metamorphopsia and paracousis in the presence of psychotic symptoms warrant a detailed neurological and general medical work-up. These symptoms presenting in the absence of neurological or substance use disorders may be a component of schizophrenia. PMID:24275634

Mehta, Urvakhsh Meherwan; Naveen Kumar, C; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Thirthalli, Jagadisha

2013-11-25

235

Prosthetic and Sensory Aids Service (PSAS)  

MedlinePLUS

... Blind Rehab Chiropractic Service Polytrauma/TBI Prosthetics & Sensory Aids Recreational Therapy More Health Care Veterans Health Administration ... and programs for medical rehabilitation, prosthetic and sensory aids services that promote the health, independence and quality ...

236

Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes  

MedlinePLUS

... Screening Guidelines Home Remedies for Simple Eye Problems Medical Marijuana for Glaucoma Pregnancy Preventing Eye Injuries Smokers Sports Using Eye Makeup Veterans What Is an Ophthalmologist? Your Eyes & the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts ... an Eye on Ultraviolet (UV) Safety Eye medical doctors (ophthalmologists) caution us that too much exposure ...

237

Genetic Dominance & Cellular Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In learning genetics, many students misunderstand and misinterpret what "dominance" means. Understanding is easier if students realize that dominance is not a mechanism, but rather a consequence of underlying cellular processes. For example, metabolic pathways are often little affected by changes in enzyme concentration. This means that…

Seager, Robert D.

2014-01-01

238

Tropical Cyclone Eye Dynamics.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new perspective of the dynamics of a tropical cyclone eye is given in which eye subsidence and the adiabatic warming accompanying it are accounted for directly from the equations of motion. Subsidence is driven by an adverse, axial gradient of perturbation pressure which is associated principally with the decay and/or radial spread of the tangential wind field with height at those levels of the cyclone where the tangential winds are approximately in gradient wind balance. However, this pressure gradient is almost exactly opposed by the buoyancy force field due to adiabatic warming. This corroborates with observational data.The relationship between the present view of eye dynamics and those of Malkus and Kuo and a recent study by Willoughby is discussed in detail.

Smith, R. K.

1980-06-01

239

Prescription of eye drops  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to assess whether patients have their ocular drops correctly prescribed during non-ophthalmic admissions to hospital. A retrospective review of notes of patients who were admitted to hospital for general medical or surgical care, while on regular eye drops at the time of admission was performed. Twenty two patients were on regular ocular medication when admitted. Only seven out of 22 patients had their eye drops correctly prescribed. Furthermore, six patients had been prescribed topical ?-blockers, yet suffered from medical conditions that may have been aggravated by these drops. These findings demonstrate that the majority of patients on drops do not have their medication correctly prescribed during non-ophthalmic admissions to hospital. Also topical ?-blockers continue to be inappropriately prescribed.???Keywords: eye drops; non-ophthalmic admissions PMID:11571373

O'Sullivan, E; Malhotra, R; Migdal, C

2001-01-01

240

Making Sense of Sensory Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of caregivers requires that they continuously assess the needs and performance of children and provide the support necessary for them to achieve their potential. A thorough understanding of child development, including the role and impact of sensory development, is critical for caregivers to properly evaluate and assist these children.…

Hendrix, Marie

2010-01-01

241

Visualizing an Olfactory Sensory Map  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a genetic approach to visualize axons from olfactory sensory neurons expressing a given odorant receptor, as they project to the olfactory bulb. Neurons expressing a specific receptor project to only two topographically fixed loci among the 1800 glomeruli in the mouse olfactory bulb. Our data provide direct support for a model in which a topographic map of

Peter Mombaerts; Fan Wang; Catherine Dulac; Steve K. Chao; Adriana Nemes; Monica Mendelsohn; James Edmondson; Richard Axel

1996-01-01

242

Galileo's eye: a new vision of the senses in the work of Galileo Galilei.  

PubMed

Reflections on the senses, and particularly on vision, permeate the writings of Galileo Galilei, one of the main protagonists of the scientific revolution. This aspect of his work has received scant attention by historians, in spite of its importance for his achievements in astronomy, and also for the significance in the innovative scientific methodology he fostered. Galileo's vision pursued a different path from the main stream of the then contemporary studies in the field; these were concerned with the dioptrics and anatomy of the eye, as elaborated mainly by Johannes Kepler and Christoph Scheiner. Galileo was more concerned with the phenomenology rather than with the mechanisms of the visual process. His general interest in the senses was psychological and philosophical; it reflected the fallacies and limits of the senses and the ways in which scientific knowledge of the world could be gathered from potentially deceptive appearances. Galileo's innovative conception of the relation between the senses and external reality contrasted with the classical tradition dominated by Aristotle; it paved the way for the modern understanding of sensory processing, culminating two centuries later in Johannes Müller's elaboration of the doctrine of specific nerve energies and in Helmholtz's general theory of perception. PMID:18986060

Piccolino, Marco; Wade, Nicholas J

2008-01-01

243

Molecular restrictions for human eye irritation by chemical vapors  

SciTech Connect

Previous research showed a cut-off along homologous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in their ability to produce acute human mucosal irritation. The present study sought to specify the particular cut-off homolog for sensory eye irritation in an acetate and n-alcohol series. A 1900-ml glass vessel system and a three-alternative forced-choice procedure served to test nonyl, decyl, and dodecyl acetate, and 1-nonanol, 1-decanol, and 1-undecanol. Flowrate to the eye ranged from 2 to 8 L/min and time of exposure from 3 to 24 s. Decyl acetate and 1-undecanol were the shortest homologs that failed to produce eye irritation under all conditions, producing a cut-off effect. Increasing the vapor concentration of decyl acetate and 1-undecanol by 3 and 8 times, respectively, via heating them to 37 deg C made either or both VOCs detectable to only half of the 12 subjects tested, even though the higher vapor concentration was well above a predicted eye irritation threshold. When eye irritation thresholds for homologous acetates and n-alcohols were plotted as a function of the longest unfolded length of the molecule, the values for decyl acetate and 1-undecanol fell within a restricted range of 18 to 19 A. The outcome suggests that the basis for the cut-off is biological, that is, the molecule lacks a key size or structure to trigger transduction, rather than physical, that is, the vapor concentration is too low to precipitate detection.

Cometto-Muniz, J. Enrique [Chemosensory Perception Laboratory, Department of Surgery (Otolaryngology), 9500 Gilman Dr.-Mail Code 0957, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0957 (United States)]. E-mail: ecometto@ucsd.edu; Cain, William S. [Chemosensory Perception Laboratory, Department of Surgery (Otolaryngology), 9500 Gilman Dr.-Mail Code 0957, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0957 (United States); Abraham, Michael H. [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)

2005-09-15

244

Relative contribution of feedforward excitatory connections to ocular dominance plasticity in layer 4 of visual cortex  

E-print Network

Brief monocular deprivation (MD) shifts ocular dominance (OD) in primary visual cortex by causing depression of responses to the deprived eye. Here we address the extent to which the shift is expressed by a modification ...

Khibnik, Lena A.

245

Photorefraction of the Eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photorefraction is a method to easily estimate the refractive state of the eye. The principle of photorefraction involves projecting light into the eye during flash photography and then examining the paths of light that emerge from the pupil after scattering on the back portion of the interior of the eyeball (fundus). We will explain the optical principles underlying the method for eccentric photorefraction and describe how students can perform it using current digital cameras. Our purpose is not to diagnose refractive errors reliably, but to use devices popular among young people that, in combination with an important ophthalmic context, may be successful in improving students' interest for learning optical concepts.

Colicchia, Giuseppe; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

2015-02-01

246

Diabetes - Eye Complications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This patient education program explains how diabetes affects eyesight, specifically the prevention and treatment of diabetic retinopathy. It also reviews eye anatomy, other eye problems, and their treatment. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

Patient Education Institute

247

Wayfinding and eye movements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During rectilinear locomotion, the focus of expansion identifies the observer's heading. Eye rotation or curvilinear locomotion annihilates this singularity. Computer simulations of eye rotation during circular translation present possible solutions to heading judgement. Specifically, when gaze direction coincides with circular heading, every velocity vector in the image plane becomes linearized. These velocity vectors are tangent vectors of the corresponding flow lines of optical flow. Moreover, the vectors corresponding to the observer's path are all aligned perpendicularly in the image plane, which in turn can be used to determine the observer's path of locomotion.

Kim, Nam-Gyoon

1997-06-01

248

Sensory exploitation and sexual conflict  

PubMed Central

Much of the literature on male–female coevolution concerns the processes by which male traits and female preferences for these can coevolve and be maintained by selection. There has been less explicit focus on the origin of male traits and female preferences. Here, I argue that it is important to distinguish origin from subsequent coevolution and that insights into the origin can help us appreciate the relative roles of various coevolutionary processes for the evolution of diversity in sexual dimorphism. I delineate four distinct scenarios for the origin of male traits and female preferences that build on past contributions, two of which are based on pre-existing variation in quality indicators among males and two on exploitation of pre-existing sensory biases among females. Recent empirical research, and theoretical models, suggest that origin by sensory exploitation has been widespread. I argue that this points to a key, but perhaps transient, role for sexually antagonistic coevolution (SAC) in the subsequent evolutionary elaboration of sexual traits, because (i) sensory exploitation is often likely to be initially costly for individuals of the exploited sex and (ii) the subsequent evolution of resistance to sensory exploitation should often be associated with costs due to selective constraints. A review of a few case studies is used to illustrate these points. Empirical data directly relevant to the costs of being sensory exploited and the costs of evolving resistance is largely lacking, and I stress that such data would help determining the general importance of sexual conflict and SAC for the evolution of sexual dimorphism. PMID:16612895

Arnqvist, Göran

2006-01-01

249

Double peak sensory responses at submaximal stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of the study was to obtain knowledge about the different physiological situations where a double peak sensory response normally occurs and to better understand the significance of this particular sensory response.Methods: In 14 healthy subjects, conventional orthodromic sensory nerve conduction studies were performed on the median and ulnar nerves using submaximal stimulation. Various stimulus strengths, polarity, electrode

Irene Aprile; Erik Stålberg; Pietro Tonali; Luca Padua

2003-01-01

250

Sensory testing of the human gastrointestinal tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this appraisal is to shed light on the various approaches to screen sensory information in the human gut. Understanding and characterization of sensory symptoms in gastrointestinal disorders is poor. Experimental methods allowing the investigator to control stimulus intensity and modality, as well as using validated methods for assessing sensory response have contributed to the understanding of pain

Christina Brock; Lars Arendt-Nielsen; Oliver Wilder-Smith; Asbjørn Mohr Drewes

2009-01-01

251

Multi-Sensory Intervention Observational Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An observational research study based on sensory integration theory was conducted to examine the observed impact of student selected multi-sensory experiences within a multi-sensory intervention center relative to the sustained focus levels of students with special needs. A stratified random sample of 50 students with severe developmental…

Thompson, Carla J.

2011-01-01

252

Response to Vestibular Sensory Events in Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the response to vestibular sensory events in persons with autism. The data for this study was collected as part of a cross-sectional study that examined sensory processing (using the Sensory Profile) in 103 persons with autism, 3-43 years of age, compared to age- and gender-matched community controls. The…

Kern, Janet K.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Grannemann, Bruce D.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Carmody, Thomas; Andrews, Alonzo A.; Mehta, Jyutika A.

2007-01-01

253

USE OF SENSORY EVOKED POTENTIALS IN TOXICOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The rationale for studying sensory systems as an integral part of neurotoxicological examinations is presented. The role of evoked potentials in assessing brain dysfunction in general and sensory systems in particular is also presented. Four types of sensory evoked potentials (br...

254

Lateral eye movement and handedness as measures of functional brain asymmetry in learning disability.  

PubMed

Evidence is presented which suggests that learning disability is related to lateral asymmetry. Significant differences were found in lateral eye movement and handedness between a learning disabled group and a control group of normal learners. Left lateral eye movement and right handedness was the predominant pattern exhibited in learning disability. These results support Day's notion that left lateral eye movement is associated with educational difficulties. They also provide evidence concerning Orton's hypothesis that mixed cerebral dominance characterizes the learning disabled. PMID:7471763

Stein, G M; Gibbons, R D; Meldman, M J

1980-08-01

255

Predictive eye movements in natural vision  

PubMed Central

In the natural world, the brain must handle inherent delays in visual processing. This is a problem particularly during dynamic tasks. A possible solution to visuo-motor delays is prediction of a future state of the environment based on the current state and properties of the environment learned from experience. Prediction is well known to occur in both saccades and pursuit movements and is likely to depend on some kind of internal visual model as the basis for this prediction. However, most evidence comes from controlled laboratory studies using simple paradigms. In this study, we examine eye movements made in the context of demanding natural behavior, while playing squash. We show that prediction is a pervasive component of gaze behavior in this context. We show in addition that these predictive movements are extraordinarily precise and operate continuously in time across multiple trajectories and multiple movements. This suggests that prediction is based on complex dynamic visual models of the way that balls move, accumulated over extensive experience. Since eye, head, arm, and body movements all co-occur, it seems likely that a common internal model of predicted visual state is shared by different effectors to allow flexible coordination patterns. It is generally agreed that internal models are responsible for predicting future sensory state for control of body movements. The present work suggests that model-based prediction is likely to be a pervasive component in natural gaze control as well. PMID:22183755

McKinney, Travis; Chajka, Kelly; Pelz, Jeff B.

2012-01-01

256

Aided Eyes : Eye Activity Sensing for Daily Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our eyes collect a considerable amount of information when we use them to look at objects. In particular, eye movement allows us to gaze at an object and shows our level of interest in the object. In this research, we propose a method that involves real-time measurement of eye movement for human memory enhancement; the method employs gaze-indexed images captured

Yoshio Ishiguro; Adiyan Mujibiya; Takashi Miyaki; Jun Rekimoto

2010-01-01

257

Eye Health:Eye Health: What You Should KnowWhat You Should Know  

E-print Network

Eye Health:Eye Health: What You Should KnowWhat You Should Know Holly B. Hindman, MDHolly B of Ophthalmology Flaum Eye InstituteFlaum Eye Institute University of RochesterUniversity of Rochester #12;THE FLAUM EYE INSTITUTE #12;Keeping Your Eyes Healthy · Know about how your eyes work · Most Eye Diseases

Goldman, Steven A.

258

The Draize Eye Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hundreds of substances are used daily that can damage eyesight. People's eyes are open to accidental or intentional exposure during the production, transportation, use, and disposal of chemical preparations. Ensuring the safety of consumer products was born during the mid twentieth century in the aftermath of chemical warfare research, and was motivated by the hazards of unsafe cosmetics. Justified by

Kirk R Wilhelmus

2001-01-01

259

Through Our Eyes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through Our Eyes was a multimedia performance created in collaboration with the author's five modern dance students. Through video, sound, and dance, the piece shows some ways race has affected their lives. The author did not set out at the beginning of the semester to make this project in her dance class. It was born out of a hard conversation,…

Narva, Sara

2009-01-01

260

The Eyes Have It  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA'S Ames Research Center contracted with SRI international to contract a device that would be able to anticipate, track, and monitor involuntary ocular movement horizontally, vertically, and with respect to depth-of-field. This development helped research institutions to understand the eye. The Eyetracker, manufactured and distributed by Forward Optical Technologies, Inc. is now used in the clinical/medical field.

1999-01-01

261

Pursuit Eye Movements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When viewing objects, primates use a combination of saccadic and pursuit eye movements to stabilize the retinal image of the object of regard within the high-acuity region near the fovea. Although these movements involve widespread regions of the nervous system, they mix seamlessly in normal behavior. Saccades are discrete movements that quickly direct the eyes toward a visual target, thereby translating the image of the target from an eccentric retinal location to the fovea. In contrast, pursuit is a continuous movement that slowly rotates the eyes to compensate for the motion of the visual target, minimizing the blur that can compromise visual acuity. While other mammalian species can generate smooth optokinetic eye movements - which track the motion of the entire visual surround - only primates can smoothly pursue a single small element within a complex visual scene, regardless of the motion elsewhere on the retina. This ability likely reflects the greater ability of primates to segment the visual scene, to identify individual visual objects, and to select a target of interest.

Krauzlis, Rich; Stone, Leland; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

262

Eye of the Beholder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Art, like beauty, as the adage goes, is in the eye of the beholder. Art also is a living, breathing thing that evolves over time, so what is considered "art" is ever changing--how many of the great artists whose works today sell for fortunes were failures during their lifetime? The 20th century unknowingly gave birth to new variations of art that…

Rogers, Michael

2010-01-01

263

Simple Solutions for Dry Eye  

MedlinePLUS

... are more concentrated in the tear film of dry eye patients. In hot weather, sleep with the windows shut and keep cool with air conditioning. • Dry eye patients often develop or aggravate allergies. An ...

264

What is Diabetic Eye Disease?  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... least half will show signs of a diabetic eye disease and the most common of these by far ... vision. Announcer: Diabetic retinopathy is not the only eye disease that may affect people with diabetes. Others include ...

265

Some Genes Are Dominant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive activity, adapted from the Dolan DNA Learning Center, illustrates how Gregor Mendel used pure-bred yellow and green peas to show that some genes are dominant and others are recessive.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2007-04-19

266

Trait Dominance Promotes Reflexive Staring at Masked Angry Body Postures  

PubMed Central

It has been shown that dominant individuals sustain eye-contact when non-consciously confronted with angry faces, suggesting reflexive mechanisms underlying dominance behaviors. However, dominance and submission can be conveyed and provoked by means of not only facial but also bodily features. So far few studies have investigated the interplay of body postures with personality traits and behavior, despite the biological relevance and ecological validity of these postures. Here we investigate whether non-conscious exposure to bodily expressions of anger evokes reflex-like dominance behavior. In an interactive eye-tracking experiment thirty-two participants completed three social dominance tasks with angry, happy and neutral facial, bodily and face and body compound expressions that were masked from consciousness. We confirmed our predictions of slower gaze-aversion from both non-conscious bodily and compound expressions of anger compared to happiness in high dominant individuals. Results from a follow-up experiment suggest that the dominance behavior triggered by exposure to bodily anger occurs with basic detection of the category, but not recognition of the emotional content. Together these results suggest that dominant staring behavior is reflexively driven by non-conscious perception of the emotional content and triggered by not only facial but also bodily expression of anger. PMID:25549321

Hortensius, Ruud; van Honk, Jack; de Gelder, Beatrice; Terburg, David

2014-01-01

267

Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... D Movies Bad for Your Eyes? Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes During ... Eye Protection Eyesight Risks for Smokers Veterans & Eye Health More Lifestyle Topics > EyeSmart Tips Water & Contacts Don’ ...

268

Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care: Antibiotics for Eye Injections  

MedlinePLUS

... Consumer Alerts Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... over the battery and always wear safety goggles. Eye Protection Works Wearing the proper protective eyewear for ...

269

Validity of Sensory Systems as Distinct Constructs  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the validity of sensory systems as distinct measurable constructs as part of a larger project examining Ayres’s theory of sensory integration. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to test whether sensory questionnaire items represent distinct sensory system constructs. Data were obtained from clinical records of two age groups, 2- to 5-yr-olds (n = 231) and 6- to 10-yr-olds (n = 223). With each group, we tested several CFA models for goodness of fit with the data. The accepted model was identical for each group and indicated that tactile, vestibular–proprioceptive, visual, and auditory systems form distinct, valid factors that are not age dependent. In contrast, alternative models that grouped items according to sensory processing problems (e.g., over- or underresponsiveness within or across sensory systems) did not yield valid factors. Results indicate that distinct sensory system constructs can be measured validly using questionnaire data. PMID:25184467

Su, Chia-Ting

2014-01-01

270

LIMNOLOGICAL OPTOMETRY: EXAMINING EARTH'S EYE  

EPA Science Inventory

In Thoreau's Walden, a lake is described as the landscape's most expressive feature and the earth's eye. Collectively, scientists are charged by society to assess, monitor, and remedy maladies of earth's eye in the same way optometrists maintain the health of the human eye. This ...

271

Biomedical Devices for the Eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students examine the structure and function of the human eye, learning some amazing features about our eyes, which provide us with sight and an understanding of our surroundings. Students also learn about some common eye problems and the biomedical devices and medical procedures that resolve or help to lessen the effects of these vision deficiencies, including vision correction surgery.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

272

Reconstructing the eyes of Urbilateria.  

PubMed Central

The shared roles of Pax6 and Six homologues in the eye development of various bilaterians suggest that Urbilateria, the common ancestors of all Bilateria, already possessed some simple form of eyes. Here, we re-address the homology of bilaterian cerebral eyes at the level of eye anatomy, of eye-constituting cell types and of phototransductory molecules. The most widespread eye type found in Bilateria are the larval pigment-cup eyes located to the left and right of the apical organ in primary, ciliary larvae of Protostomia and Deuterostomia. They can be as simple as comprising a single pigment cell and a single photoreceptor cell in inverse orientation. Another more elaborate type of cerebral pigment-cup eyes with an everse arrangement of photoreceptor cells is found in adult Protostomia. Both inverse larval and everse adult eyes employ rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells and thus differ from the chordate cerebral eyes with ciliary photoreceptors. This is highly significant because on the molecular level we find that for phototransduction rhabdomeric versus ciliary photoreceptor cells employ divergent rhodopsins and non-orthologous G-proteins, rhodopsin kinases and arrestins. Our comparison supports homology of cerebral eyes in Protostomia; it challenges, however, homology of chordate and non-chordate cerebral eyes that employ photoreceptor cells with non-orthologous phototransductory cascades. PMID:11604122

Arendt, D; Wittbrodt, J

2001-01-01

273

Evolving eyes RUSSELL D. FERNALD*  

E-print Network

how light can be collected resulting in only eight known optical systems in animal eyes. Surprisingly, development, eye evolution, eye variety Int. J. Dev. Biol. 48: 701-705 (2004) doi: 10.1387/ijdb.041888rf 0214 of adaptations produced by selective pressures for vision in different visual habitats. However

Fernald, Russell

274

Complexity and diversity of eyes in early Cambrian ecosystems.  

PubMed

Here we report exceptionally preserved non-biomineralized compound eyes of a non-trilobite arthropod Cindarella eucalla from the lower Cambrian Chengjiang Lagerstätte, China. The specimen represents the oldest microanatomical evidence confirming the occurrence of highly developed vision in the early Cambrian, over 2,000 ommatidia in each eye. Moreover, a quantitative analysis of the distribution of eyes related to life habit, feeding types, and phyla respectively, from the Chengjiang biota indicates that specimens with eyes mostly belong to the arthropods, and they usually were actively mobile epifaunal and nektonic forms as hunters or scavengers. Arthropods took the lead in evolution of 'good vision' and domination in Cambrian communities, which supports the hypothesis that the origin and evolution of 'good vision' was a key trait that promoted preferential diversification and formed the foundation of modern benthic ecosystems in the early Cambrian ocean. PMID:24067397

Zhao, Fangchen; Bottjer, David J; Hu, Shixue; Yin, Zongjun; Zhu, Maoyan

2013-01-01

275

Complexity and diversity of eyes in Early Cambrian ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Here we report exceptionally preserved non-biomineralized compound eyes of a non-trilobite arthropod Cindarella eucalla from the lower Cambrian Chengjiang Lagerstätte, China. The specimen represents the oldest microanatomical evidence confirming the occurrence of highly developed vision in the early Cambrian, over 2,000 ommatidia in each eye. Moreover, a quantitative analysis of the distribution of eyes related to life habit, feeding types, and phyla respectively, from the Chengjiang biota indicates that specimens with eyes mostly belong to the arthropods, and they usually were actively mobile epifaunal and nektonic forms as hunters or scavengers. Arthropods took the lead in evolution of ‘good vision' and domination in Cambrian communities, which supports the hypothesis that the origin and evolution of ‘good vision' was a key trait that promoted preferential diversification and formed the foundation of modern benthic ecosystems in the early Cambrian ocean. PMID:24067397

Zhao, Fangchen; Bottjer, David J.; Hu, Shixue; Yin, Zongjun; Zhu, Maoyan

2013-01-01

276

[A case with posterior column ataxia associated with cerebellar ataxia and sensory neuropathy].  

PubMed

The patient was a 72-year-old man who had a history of subtotal gastrectomy for gastric ulcer at age of 37 years. He had no familial history of hereditary disorders. In 1980 he noticed mild ataxic gait which exaggerated while he closed eyes. The symptoms increased gradually, and four years later he noticed hypoesthesia of his soles. In 1983 he was admitted to the National Center Hospital for Mental, Nervous and Muscular Disorders for the first time. Neurological examination revealed dysarthria, ataxic gait, disturbance of coordination to a slight degree, and muscle strength of the upper and lower limbs were in normal range. Mild hypoesthesia of pain and temperature sensation, and marked decrease of deep sensation and vibration of the lower extremities were demonstrated. Romberg sign was positive. EMG studies revealed low amplitude of action potential and normal motor nerve conduction velocity. Biopsy of the sural nerve showed marked decrease of both large and small myelinated fibers. In 1998 he was admitted second time for the further examination. Laboratory examination including routine blood examination, blood chemistry including CRP, TPHA, vitamin B1, B2, B12, A, E, K, hexosaminidase A in leucocyte were in normal range. CSF was normal. Genetic studies including SCA 1, 2, 3, 6, DRPLA, CMT1A, CMTX 1 were all negative. MCV of lower limbs was in normal range, though SCV was not evoked in the upper and lower limbs. MRI studies showed mild atrophy of the bilateral lobulus of the cerebellum which was not so much changed in the last 5 years. The clinical symptoms revealed dominant posterior column disturbance, ataxia and sensory neuropathy. These combination was not described in the previous literature, and this case may be a new variant of the spinocerebellar degeneration. PMID:10614159

Kikuchi, Y; Ogawa, M; Shigetoh, H; Kawai, M; Satoyoshi, E

1999-09-01

277

Eye Health in Sports and Recreation  

MedlinePLUS

... Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Eye Health in Sports and Recreation Tweet Tens of thousands of sports ... Eye Injuries in American Sports History High-Risk Sports For all age groups, sports-related eye injuries ...

278

What Happens After Treatment for Eye Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... having eye cancer What happens after treatment for eye cancer? For many people with eye cancer, treatment ... manage them. Follow-up after treatment of uveal (eye) melanoma Your doctor will most likely want to ...

279

The Sensory Neurons of Touch  

PubMed Central

The somatosensory system decodes a wide range of tactile stimuli and thus endows us with a remarkable capacity for object recognition, texture discrimination, sensory-motor feedback and social exchange. The first step leading to perception of innocuous touch is activation of cutaneous sensory neurons called low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs). Here, we review the properties and functions of LTMRs, emphasizing the unique tuning properties of LTMR subtypes and the organizational logic of their peripheral and central axonal projections. We discuss the spinal cord neurophysiological representation of complex mechanical forces acting upon the skin and current views of how tactile information is processed and conveyed from the spinal cord to the brain. An integrative model in which ensembles of impulses arising from physiologically distinct LTMRs are integrated and processed in somatotopically aligned mechanosensory columns of the spinal cord dorsal horn underlies the nervous system’s enormous capacity for perceiving the richness of the tactile world. PMID:23972592

Abraira, Victoria E.; Ginty, David D.

2013-01-01

280

[Applications of 'quantitative sensory testing'].  

PubMed

Quantitative sensory testing (QST) consists of several non-invasive, standardised tests aimed at examining different aspects of the entire somatosensory nervous system. Important advantages of QST over existing supplementary tests such as electromyography are the ability to test the function of thin and unmyelinated nerve fibres as well as the subjective sensation of a somatosensory stimulus. QST is validated in diagnosing small fibre neuropathy, diabetic neuropathy chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy and neuropathic pain. In scientific research, QST is useful in the study into pathophysiological mechanisms of diseases and syndromes with sensory symptoms and in the evaluation of the effect of analgesic treatment on the function of the somatosensory nervous system. In the future, QST could be a useful diagnostic and prognostic test in more forms of neuropathy and in other clinical conditions such as chronic unexplained pain syndromes (e.g. fibromyalgia and whiplash-associated disorder. PMID:23369816

Verberne, Wouter R; Snijders, Tom J; Liem, K Seng; Baakman, Anne Catrien; Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S

2013-01-01

281

Development of Metallic Sensory Alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Existing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are inherently limited by the physical response of the structural material being inspected and are therefore not generally effective at the identification of small discontinuities, making the detection of incipient damage extremely difficult. One innovative solution to this problem is to enhance or complement the NDE signature of structural materials to dramatically improve the ability of existing NDE tools to detect damage. To address this need, a multifunctional metallic material has been developed that can be used in structural applications. The material is processed to contain second phase sensory particles that significantly improve the NDE response, enhancing the ability of conventional NDE techniques to detect incipient damage both during and after flight. Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloys (FSMAs) are an ideal material for these sensory particles as they undergo a uniform and repeatable change in both magnetic properties and crystallographic structure (martensitic transformation) when subjected to strain and/or temperature changes which can be detected using conventional NDE techniques. In this study, the use of a ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) as the sensory particles was investigated.

Wallace Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Horne, Michael R.; Messick, Peter L.

2010-01-01

282

Connecting ears to eye muscles: evolution of a 'simple' reflex arc.  

PubMed

Developmental and evolutionary data from vertebrates are beginning to elucidate the origin of the sensorimotor pathway that links gravity and motion detection to image-stabilizing eye movements--the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). Conserved transcription factors coordinate the development of the vertebrate ear into three functional sensory compartments (graviception/translational linear acceleration, angular acceleration and sound perception). These sensory components connect to specific populations of vestibular and auditory projection neurons in the dorsal hindbrain through undetermined molecular mechanisms. In contrast, a molecular basis for the patterning of the vestibular projection neurons is beginning to emerge. These are organized through the actions of rostrocaudally and dorsoventrally restricted transcription factors into a 'hodological mosaic' within which coherent and largely segregated subgroups are specified to project to different targets in the spinal cord and brain stem. A specific set of these regionally diverse vestibular projection neurons functions as the central element that transforms vestibular sensory signals generated by active and passive head and body movements into motor output through the extraocular muscles. The large dynamic range of motion-related sensory signals requires an organization of VOR pathways as parallel, frequency-tuned, hierarchical connections from the sensory periphery to the motor output. We suggest that eyes, ears and functional connections subserving the VOR are vertebrate novelties that evolved into a functionally coherent motor control system in an almost stereotypic organization across vertebrate taxa. PMID:24776996

Straka, Hans; Fritzsch, Bernd; Glover, Joel C

2014-01-01

283

Spatial frequency dependence of accommodative responses in amblyopic eyes.  

PubMed

Monocular, steady-state accommodative responses were measured as a function of spatial frequency of simple sinusoidal gratings presented at high contrast and target vergence levels in amblyopes, as well as in strabismics without amblyopia and in visually-normal control subjects. In general, spatial frequency dependence of the accommodative response was the rule. However, the amblyopic eyes exhibited markedly reduced accommodative responses over most of the spatial frequency range tested, and this was attributed to reduced accommodative controller gain in the sensory pathways involved in the control of accommodation in the amblyopic eye. Due to the diversity of accommodative response spatial frequency profiles found across all groups, the results suggest that reflex, voluntary, and higher-level perceptual aspects of accommodation may interplay in a complex manner in the act of accommodation on a simple sinusoidal grating. PMID:6666060

Ciuffreda, K J; Hokoda, S C

1983-01-01

284

Eye movement abnormalities.  

PubMed

Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem. PMID:22377853

Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

2012-01-01

285

More than meets the eye: visual attention biases in individuals reporting chronic pain  

PubMed Central

The present study used eye-tracking technology to assess whether individuals who report chronic pain direct more attention to sensory pain-related words than do pain-free individuals. A total of 113 participants (51 with chronic pain, 62 pain-free) were recruited. Participants completed a dot-probe task, viewing neutral and sensory pain-related words while their reaction time and eye movements were recorded. Eye-tracking data were analyzed by mixed-design analysis of variance with group (chronic pain versus pain-free) as the between-subjects factor, and word type (sensory pain versus neutral) as the within-subjects factor. Results showed a significant main effect for word type: all participants attended to pain-related words more than neutral words on several eye-tracking parameters. The group main effect was significant for number of fixations, which was greater in the chronic pain group. Finally, the group by word type interaction effect was significant for average visit duration, number of fixations, and total late-phase duration, all greater for sensory pain versus neutral words in the chronic pain group. As well, participants with chronic pain fixated significantly more frequently on pain words than did pain-free participants. In contrast, none of the effects for reaction time were significant. The results support the hypothesis that individuals with chronic pain display specific attentional biases toward pain-related stimuli and demonstrate the value of eye-tracking technology in measuring differences in visual attention variables. PMID:25285022

Fashler, Samantha R; Katz, Joel

2014-01-01

286

Pioneers of eye movement research  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in the technology affording eye movement recordings carry the risk of neglecting past achievements. Without the assistance of this modern armoury, great strides were made in describing the ways the eyes move. For Aristotle the fundamental features of eye movements were binocular, and he described the combined functions of the eyes. This was later given support using simple procedures like placing a finger over the eyelid of the closed eye and culminated in Hering's law of equal innervation. However, the overriding concern in the 19th century was with eye position rather than eye movements. Appreciating discontinuities of eye movements arose from studies of vertigo. The characteristics of nystagmus were recorded before those of saccades and fixations. Eye movements during reading were described by Hering and by Lamare in 1879; both used similar techniques of listening to sounds made during contractions of the extraocular muscles. Photographic records of eye movements during reading were made by Dodge early in the 20th century, and this stimulated research using a wider array of patterns. In the mid-20th century attention shifted to the stability of the eyes during fixation, with the emphasis on involuntary movements. The contributions of pioneers from Aristotle to Yarbus are outlined. PMID:23396982

Wade, Nicholas J

2010-01-01

287

Eye preferences in captive chimpanzees  

PubMed Central

Over the last century, the issue of brain lateralization in primates has been extensively investigated and debated, yet no previous study has reported eye preference in great apes. This study examined eye preference in 45 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in response to various stimuli. Eye preference was assessed when animals looked through a hole that only accommodated one eye at an empty box, a mirror, a picture of a dog, a rubber snake, food biscuits, bananas, a rubber duck, and a video camera. Main effects of stimulus type were found for direction of eye preference, number of looks, and looking duration, but not for strength of eye preference. A left-eye bias was found for viewing the rubber snake and a right-eye bias was found for viewing the bananas, supporting theories that emotional valence may affect lateralized behaviors. In addition, a significant shift in eye preference took place from the initial look to subsequent looks when viewing the snake. These results are not consistent with previous reports of human eye preference and may reflect lateralization differences for emotional processing. No relationship between eye preference and previously recorded hand preference was found. PMID:22733385

Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J.

2013-01-01

288

Eye in the Sky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Geographic website highlights the history and use of satellites and remote-sensing technology to determine the state of the planet. A timeline covers the history of satellites from 1858 to 2000, including both accomplishments and failures. The Eye contains slide shows and images from satellites covering the topics of volcanoes, tornadoes, hurricanes, wildfires, earthquakes, floods, dams, ozone, deforestation, desertification, overpopulation, exploration of space, and human conflict. A section on classroom ideas provides activities for K-12 classrooms.

289

Tropical Cyclone Eye Thermodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In intense tropical cyclones, sea level pressures at the center are 50-100 hPa lower than outside the vortex, but only 10-30 hPa of the total pressure fall occurs inside the eye between the eyewall and the center. Warming by dry subsidence accounts for this fraction of the total hydrostatic pressure fall. Convection in the eyewall causes the warming by doing

H. E. Willoughby

1998-01-01

290

Through Einstein's Eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through Einstein's Eyes is the online version of a multimedia project based around how things look at relativistic speeds. It is aimed at high school to early university level physics students. There are two sections. One is fun and spectacular, with a relativistic rollercoaster ride and a tour of the solar system. The other explores the physics of special relativity. CD and DVD versions of the material are available, and are helpful because of the large size of some of the video files.

Savage, Craig M.

291

Michelangelo's eye disease.  

PubMed

Charged by the Pope Julius II for painting the Cappella Sistina in Rome (between 1508 and 1512), Michelangelo worked in an elevated scaffolding, in an anomalous position with dyes (including poisoning lead salts) and solvents (such as toxic turpentine) dripping on his face and continuously inhaling, in a dim environment illuminated only with oil lamps and candles, as he described himself and sketched in a sonet addressed to Giovanni da Pistoia. In 1510 he began suffering from eye disease: the main symptom was the necessity to elevate the document he was reading up to the level of his eyes. This defect disappeared few months after he finished painting his masterpiece. We hypothesize that the Michelangelo's eyes disease was a form of acquired and transitory nystagmus induced by the many hours he spent in up gaze, with a skew deviation, a form of ocular tilt reaction resulting from the impairment of spatial sensitivity (inversion illusion) due to the persistence of the artist's head in a horizontal position, looking upward. PMID:22425178

Gallenga, P E; Neri, Giampiero; D'Anastasio, Ruggero; Pettorrossi, Vito Enrico; Alfieri, Emilio; Capasso, Luigi

2012-06-01

292

Lymphocyte infiltration in CAPN5 autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe immunohistopathological findings in autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy (ADNIV). Methods An enucleated eye specimen from a patient with Stage V ADNIV was examined using standard histopathological methods and lymphocyte markers. Results A c.731T>C CAPN5 mutation resulted in a p.Leu244Pro substitution in calpain-5. The eye showed exudative retinal detachment and neovascularization, intraocular fibrosis, and features of phthisis bulbi. Chronic inflammatory CD3-positive cell infiltrates were identified throughout the uvea, vitreous and retina, consistent with chronic uveitis. Conclusion Mutations in CAPN5 trigger autoimmune uveitis characterized by inflammatory T-cells and severe neovascularization. PMID:23861576

Mahajan, Vinit B; Lin, Jonathan H

2013-01-01

293

Altered sensory-weighting mechanisms is observed in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis  

PubMed Central

Background Scoliosis is the most common type of spinal deformity. In North American children, adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) makes up about 90% of all cases of scoliosis. While its prevalence is about 2% to 3% in children aged between 10 to 16 years, girls are more at risk than boys for severe progression with a ratio of 3.6 to 1. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that idiopathic scoliosis interferes with the mechanisms responsible for sensory-reweighting during balance control. Methods Eight scoliosis patients (seven female and one male; mean age: 16.4 years) and nine healthy adolescents (average age 16.5 years) participated in the experiment. Visual and ankle proprioceptive information was perturbed (eyes closed and/or tendon vibration) suddenly and then returned to normal (eyes open and/or no tendon vibration). An AMTI force platform was used to compute centre of pressure root mean squared velocity and sway density curve. Results For the control condition (eyes open and no tendon vibration), adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients had a greater centre of pressure root mean squared velocity (variability) than control participants. Reintegration of ankle proprioception, when vision was either available or removed, led to an increased centre of pressure velocity variability for the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients whereas the control participants reduced their centre of pressure velocity variability. Moreover, in the absence of vision, adolescent idiopathic scoliosis exhibited an increased centre of pressure velocity variability when ankle proprioception was returned to normal (i.e. tendon vibration stopped). The analysis of the sway density plot suggests that adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients, during sensory reintegration, do not scale appropriately their balance control commands. Conclusion Altogether, the present results demonstrate that idiopathic scoliosis adolescents have difficulty in reweighting sensory inputs following a brief period of sensory deprivation. PMID:17052338

Simoneau, Martin; Mercier, Pierre; Blouin, Jean; Allard, Paul; Teasdale, Normand

2006-01-01

294

Effects of aging on eye movements in the real world  

PubMed Central

The effects of aging on eye movements are well studied in the laboratory. Increased saccade latencies or decreased smooth-pursuit gain are well established findings. The question remains whether these findings are influenced by the rather untypical environment of a laboratory; that is, whether or not they transfer to the real world. We measured 34 healthy participants between the age of 25 and 85 during two everyday tasks in the real world: (I) walking down a hallway with free gaze, (II) visual tracking of an earth-fixed object while walking straight-ahead. Eye movements were recorded with a mobile light-weight eye tracker, the EyeSeeCam (ESC). We find that age significantly influences saccade parameters. With increasing age, saccade frequency, amplitude, peak velocity, and mean velocity are reduced and the velocity/amplitude distribution as well as the velocity profile become less skewed. In contrast to laboratory results on smooth pursuit, we did not find a significant effect of age on tracking eye-movements in the real world. Taken together, age-related eye-movement changes as measured in the laboratory only partly resemble those in the real world. It is well-conceivable that in the real world additional sensory cues, such as head-movement or vestibular signals, may partially compensate for age-related effects, which, according to this view, would be specific to early motion processing. In any case, our results highlight the importance of validity for natural situations when studying the impact of aging on real-life performance. PMID:25713524

Dowiasch, Stefan; Marx, Svenja; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Bremmer, Frank

2015-01-01

295

Minus domination in graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce one of many classes of problems which can be defined in terms of 3-valued functions on the vertices of a graph G = (V,E) of the form |:V ? {?1,0,1}. Such a function is said to be a minus dominating function if the sum of its function values over any closed neighborhood is at least one. That is,

Jean E. Dunbar; Stephen T. Hedetniemi; Michael A. Henning; Alice A. Mcrae

1999-01-01

296

Iron dominated magnets  

SciTech Connect

These two lectures on iron dominated magnets are meant for the student of accelerator science and contain general treatments of the subjects design and construction. The material is arranged in the categories: General Concepts and Cost Considerations, Profile Configuration and Harmonics, Magnetic Measurements, a few examples of ''special magnets'' and Materials and Practices. Extensive literature is provided.

Fischer, G.E.

1985-07-01

297

The evolution of fidelity in sensory systems.  

PubMed

We investigate the effect that noise has on the evolution of measurement strategies and competition in populations of organisms with sensory systems of differing fidelities. We address two questions motivated by experimental and theoretical work on sensory systems in noisy environments: (1) How complex must a sensory system be in order to face the need to develop adaptive measurement strategies that change depending on the noise level? (2) Does the principle of competitive exclusion for sensory systems force one population to win out over all others? We find that the answer to the first question is that even very simple sensory systems will need to change measurement strategies depending on the amount of noise in the environment. Interestingly, the answer to the second question is that, in general, at most two populations with different fidelity sensory systems may co-exist within a single environment. PMID:18407294

Sornborger, Andrew T; Adams, Malcolm R

2008-07-01

298

ECEM (Eye Closure, Eye Movements): application to depersonalization disorder.  

PubMed

Eye Closure, Eye Movements (ECEM) is a hypnotically-based approach to treatment that incorporates eye movements adapted from the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) protocol in conjunction with hypnosis for the treatment of depersonalization disorder. Depersonalization Disorder has been differentiated from post-traumatic stress disorders and has recently been conceptualized as a subtype of panic disorder (Baker et al., 2003; David, Phillips, Medford, & Sierra, 2004; Segui et. al., 2000). During ECEM, while remaining in a hypnotic state, clients self-generated six to seven trials of eye movements to reduce anticipatory anxiety associated with depersonalization disorder. Eye movements were also used to process triggers that elicited breath holding, often followed by episodes of depersonalization. Hypnotic suggestions were used to reverse core symptoms of depersonalization, subjectively described as "feeling unreal" (Simeon et al., 1997). PMID:19862896

Harriet, E Hollander

2009-10-01

299

Study on eye gaze estimation.  

PubMed

There are two components to the human visual line-of-sight: pose of human head and the orientation of the eye within their sockets. We have investigated these two aspects but will concentrate on eye gaze estimation. We present a novel approach called the "one-circle" algorithm for measuring the eye gaze using a monocular image that zooms in on only one eye of a person. Observing that the iris contour is a circle, we estimate the normal direction of this iris circle, considered as the eye gaze, from its elliptical image. From basic projective geometry, an ellipse can be back-projected into space onto two circles of different orientations. However, by using a geometric constraint, namely, that the distance between the eyeball's center and the two eye corners should be equal to each other, the correct solution can be disambiguated. This allows us to obtain a higher resolution image of the iris with a zoom-in camera, thereby achieving higher accuracies in the estimation. A general approach that combines head pose determination with eye gaze estimation is also proposed. The searching of the eye gaze is guided by the head pose information. The robustness of our gaze determination approach was verified statistically by the extensive experiments on synthetic and real image data. The two key contributions are that we show the possibility of finding the unique eye gaze direction from a single image of one eye and that one can obtain better accuracy as a consequence of this. PMID:18238131

Wang, Jian-Gang; Sung, E

2002-01-01

300

Sensory changes after tongue reduction for macroglossia.  

PubMed

We report sensory changes after tongue reduction by the Harada-Enomoto method for macroglossia in a 20-year-old woman with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Sensory tests were performed before surgery and 1 week and 2 months after surgery. We assessed the static tactile threshold, vibration sense, static 2-point discrimination, pain threshold, and taste. No sensory loss of any category tested was observed after tongue reduction. PMID:22901656

Matsumoto, Kanako; Morita, Kei-Ichi; Jinno, Shigeharu; Omura, Ken

2014-01-01

301

More Than Meets the Eye The Genetics of Eye Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The genetics of eye color are more complex than commonly believed. This interrupted case study uses the story of a blue-eyed couple with a brown-eyed child to explore the possible scenarios that could result in this outcome. The case emphasizes the link between Mendelian genetics and the underlying molecular basis of the phenotype. It is appropriate for upper-level undergraduate biology majors with a good understanding of eukaryotic gene regulation and Mendelian genetics.

Annie Prud?homme Genereux

2011-01-01

302

Sensory Motor Coordination in Robonaut  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a participant of the year 2000 NASA Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, I worked with the engineers of the Dexterous Robotics Laboratory at NASA Johnson Space Center on the Robonaut project. The Robonaut is an articulated torso with two dexterous arms, left and right five-fingered hands, and a head with cameras mounted on an articulated neck. This advanced space robot, now driven only teleoperatively using VR gloves, sensors and helmets, is to be upgraded to a thinking system that can find, interact with and assist humans autonomously, allowing the Crew to work with Robonaut as a (junior) member of their team. Thus, the work performed this summer was toward the goal of enabling Robonaut to operate autonomously as an intelligent assistant to astronauts. Our underlying hypothesis is that a robot can develop intelligence if it learns a set of basic behaviors (i.e., reflexes - actions tightly coupled to sensing) and through experience learns how to sequence these to solve problems or to accomplish higher-level tasks. We describe our approach to the automatic acquisition of basic behaviors as learning sensory-motor coordination (SMC). Although research in the ontogenesis of animals development from the time of conception) supports the approach of learning SMC as the foundation for intelligent, autonomous behavior, we do not know whether it will prove viable for the development of autonomy in robots. The first step in testing the hypothesis is to determine if SMC can be learned by the robot. To do this, we have taken advantage of Robonaut's teleoperated control system. When a person teleoperates Robonaut, the person's own SMC causes the robot to act purposefully. If the sensory signals that the robot detects during teleoperation are recorded over several repetitions of the same task, it should be possible through signal analysis to identify the sensory-motor couplings that accompany purposeful motion. In this report, reasons for suspecting SMC as the basis for intelligent behavior will be reviewed. A robot control system for autonomous behavior that uses learned SMC will be proposed. Techniques for the extraction of salient parameters from sensory and motor data will be discussed. Experiments with Robonaut will be discussed and preliminary data presented.

Peters, Richard Alan, II

2003-01-01

303

Sensory Impairment Among Older US Workers  

PubMed Central

We used 1997–2004 National Health Interview Survey data to evaluate the prevalence of sensory impairment among US workers 65 years and older. Hearing impairment prevalence was 3 times that of visual impairment (33.4% vs 10.2%), and 38% of older workers reported experiencing either impairment. Farm operators, mechanics, and motor vehicle operators had the highest prevalence of sensory impairment. Workplace screening and accommodations, including sensory protection devices for older workers, are warranted given the greater risk for injuries among the sensory impaired. PMID:19542042

Davila, Evelyn P.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Muennig, Peter; Fleming, Lora E.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.; LeBlanc, William G.; Lam, Byron L.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; McCollister, Kathryn E.; Zheng, Diane; Christ, Sharon L.

2009-01-01

304

Some Rat Sensory Neurons in Culture Express Characteristics of Differentiated Pain Sensory Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensory neurons were dissociated from trigeminal ganglia or from dorsal root ganglia of rats, grown in culture, and examined for expression of properties of pain sensory cells. Many sensory neurons in culture are excited by low concentrations of capsaicin, reportedly a selective stimulus for pain sensory neurons. Many are excited by bradykinin, sensitized by prostaglandin E2, or specifically stained by an antiserum against substance P. These experiments provide a basis for the study of pain mechanisms in cell culture.

Baccaglini, Paola I.; Hogan, Patrick G.

1983-01-01

305

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Complete Pattern of Ocular Dominance Columns in Human  

E-print Network

of the contralateral eye was conspicuous as an oval region without ocular dominancecolumnsBehavioral/Systems/Cognitive Complete Pattern of Ocular Dominance Columns in Human Primary Visual) visual cortices. Mean V1 surface area was 2643 mm2 (range, 1986­3477 mm2 ). Ocular dominance columns were

Vilis, Tutis

306

A wire length minimization approach to ocular dominance patterns in mammalian visual cortex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary visual area (V1) of the mammalian brain is a thin sheet of neurons. Because each neuron is dominated by either right or left eye one can treat V1 as a binary mixture of neurons. The spatial arrangement of neurons dominated by different eyes is known as the ocular dominance (OD) pattern. We propose a theory for OD patterns based on the premise that they are evolutionary adaptations to minimize the length of intra-cortical connections. Thus, the existing OD patterns are obtained by solving a wire length minimization problem. We divide all the neurons into two classes: right- and left-eye dominated. We find that if the number of connections of each neuron with the neurons of the same class differs from that with the other class, the segregation of neurons into monocular regions indeed reduces the wire length. The shape of the regions depends on the relative number of neurons in the two classes. If both classes are equally represented we find that the optimal OD pattern consists of alternating stripes. If one class is less numerous than the other, the optimal OD pattern consists of patches of the underrepresented (ipsilateral) eye dominated neurons surrounded by the neurons of the other class. We predict the transition from stripes to patches when the fraction of neurons dominated by the ipsilateral eye is about 40%. This prediction agrees with the data in macaque and Cebus monkeys. Our theory can be applied to other binary cortical systems.

Chklovskii, Dmitri B.; Koulakov, Alexei A.

2000-09-01

307

Response bias factors and the sensoristatic model of sensory restriction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considers that the sensoristatic model of sensory restriction claims sensory isolation lowers sensory thresholds. Evidence for this claim rests on traditional psychophysical procedures which according to signal detection (TSD) theory may confound pure sensory shifts with motivational factors. A TSD analysis of 1 type of sensory restriction procedure, isolation of a circumscribed area of the skin, revealed that in 9

Paul Gendreau; Faith Carson

1974-01-01

308

History Through Deaf Eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gallaudet University of Washington DC is presenting a travelling exhibition entitled History Through Deaf Eyes. At this Website, readers can learn about the plan, curator, and travel specifics of the exhibition that seeks to place the social history of deaf Americans within the context of better-known aspects of American history and to trace the development of a Deaf identity and language. Contents of the Website are Introduction and Orientation, Formation of Community, An Oral Approach to Education, The War and Post-War Years, Civil Rights Recognition and Access, Information Age, and Choices. Interesting historical photographs accompany the engaging text.

309

EyeGaze  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

EyeGaze is a British company that has developed video technology that can be used by profoundly and partially deaf people. One example of their services and technology is a remote video interpreting centre. The project is managed by a team of Deaf and hearing individuals with diverse skills and experiences, "which affords us a holistic view of issues surrounding communication, information delivery and the Deaf community." The website provides an overview of their research and services, as well as some information on issues in the deaf community.

310

Tourist Town: Dominating Sets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use a fictitious map of "Tourist Town" and counters to problem solve how to place ice-cream vans on street intersections so that every other intersection is connected to one that has a van on it. Use this activity to introduce learners to computer science themes including nodes, dominating sets, exponential-time algorithms, polynomial-time algorithms, and NP-complete problems. Variations, extensions, background information, and solutions are included in the PDF.

2012-07-12

311

Mechano- and Chemo-Sensory Polycystins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycystins belong to the superfamily of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and comprise five PKD1-like and three PKD2-like (TRPP) subunits. In this chapter, we review the general properties of polycystins and discuss their specific role in both mechanotransduction and chemoreception. The heteromer PKD1/PKD2 expressed at the membrane of the primary cilium of kidney epithelial cells is proposed to form a mechano-sensitive calcium channel that is opened by physiological fluid flow. Dysfunction or loss of PKD1 or PKD2 polycystin genes may be responsible for the inability of epithelial cells to sense mechanical cues, thus provoking autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), one of the most prevalent genetic kidney disorders. pkd1 and pkd2 knock-out mice recapitulate the human disease. Similarly, PKD2 may function as a mechanosensory calcium channel in the immotile monocilia of the developing node transducing leftward flow into an increase in calcium and specifying the left-right axis. pkd2, unlike pkd1 knock-out embryos are characterized by right lung isomerism (situs inversus). Mechanical stimuli also induce cleavage and nuclear translocation of the PKD1 C-terminal tail, which enters the nucleus and initiates signaling processes involving the AP-1, STAT6 and P100 pathways. This intraproteolytic mechanism is implicated in the transduction of a change in renal fluid flow to a transcriptional long-term response. The heteromer PKD1L3/PKD2L1 is the basis for acid sensing in specialised sensory cells including the taste bud cells responsible for sour taste. Moreover, PKD1L3/PKD2L1 may be implicated in the chemosensitivity of neurons surrounding the spinal cord canal, sensing protons in the cerebrospinal fluid. These recent results demonstrate that polycystins fulfill a major sensory role in a variety of cells including kidney epithelial cells, taste buds cells and spinal cord neurons. Such mechanisms are involved in short- and long-term physiological regulation. Alteration of these pathways culminates in severe human pathologies, including ADPKD.

Patel, Amanda; Delmas, Patrick; Honoré, Eric

312

Sensory and motor properties of the cerebellar uvula and modulus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The uvula and nodulus (vermal lobules 9 and 10) of the vestibulocerebellum are implicated by behavioral evidence in the control of eye and head movements and in the production of motion sickness. The uvula and nodulus could play a role in these functions through known output pathways. Purkinje cells in both structures project via the fastigial and vestibular nuceli to the ventral horn of the cervical spin cord, to oculomotor neurons, and to the emetic region of the reticular formation (ablation of which abolishes susceptability to motion sickness). Uvula and nodulus Purkinje cells will be analyzed in cats trained to make controlled head movements. The activity of these neurons is expected to modulate well during head and/or eye movements because the uvula and nodulus receive heavy projections from sources of visual, vestibular and neck proprioceptive information. How neuron activity contributes to movement and how different sensory inputs converge to influence this contribution may be determined by characterizing movement related properties of these neurons. A population of neurons that modulates powerfully to the conflict between different head movement signals that can cause motion sickness may be identified.

Robinson, F. R.

1985-01-01

313

Keeping an Eye for HCI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced Human Computer Interaction (HCI) techniques are required to enhance current computer interfaces. In this paper we present an eye gaze tracking system based on a robust low-cost real-time pupil detector, and describe some eye-aware applications being developed to enhance HCI. Pupils are segmented using an active lighting scheme that exploits very particular properties of eyes. Once the pupil is

Carlos Hitoshi Morimoto; David Koons; Arnon Amir; Myron Flickner; Shumin Zhai

1999-01-01

314

FINE STRUCTURE OF THE EYE OF A CHAETOGNATH.  

PubMed

Electron microscopy reveals a star-like pigment cell at the center of the eye of the arrow-worm, Sagitta scrippsae. Between the arms of the pigment cell are clusters of photoreceptor cell processes, each process consisting of: (1) a tubular segment containing longitudinally arranged microtubules about 500 A in diameter and 20 micro in length; (2) a remarkable conical body, composed of cords and large granules, situated at the base of the tubular segment; and (3) a connecting piece which, like that of rods and cones, connects the process with the sensory cell proper and through which runs a fibrillar apparatus consisting of nine peripheral double tubules. Beneath the connecting piece lies a typical centriole with a striated rootlet. The receptor cell process is deeply recessed into the sensory cell which may possess a corona of microvilli at its inner surface. A nerve fiber arises from the outer end of the cell and passes into the optic nerve. Additional features are some supporting cells, an external layer of flattened epithelial cells, and an over-all investment of basement membrane and thick fibrous capsule. The fine structure and function of these elements of the eye are discussed in relation to earlier studies with the light microscope. The ciliary nature of the photoreceptor cell process in S. scrippsae points to a probable evolutionary relationship of chaetognaths to echinoderms and chordates. PMID:14154485

EAKIN, R M; WESTFALL, J A

1964-04-01

315

Eye in the Sky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

National Geographic magazine, long known for its educational maps and writing that is easily understood by a variety of readers, has added a feature to its Website. The new online resource from National Geographic, sponsored by the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA), is called Eye in the Sky, and it showcases what we can learn about our planet using satellites. Here, users can read about the history of satellites and remote-sensing technology and choose from a menu of brief lessons on natural disasters, human impacts on Earth, human conflicts, and exploration of Mars. Each lesson page gives photographs, facts, and short movies (RealPlayer or Windows Media Player). The title "Eye in the Sky" is slightly misleading because most of the images featured are taken at ground-level, and it isn't always clear how some of the lessons fit with the idea of remote sensing. Nevertheless, the site is worth a look, and a few satellite images (of floodplains and the ozone hole, for example) pepper the material here.

316

Laser eye injuries.  

PubMed

Laser instruments are used in many spheres of human activity, including medicine, industry, laboratory research, entertainment, and, notably, the military. This widespread use of lasers has resulted in many accidental injuries. Injuries are almost always retinal, because of the concentration of visible and near-infrared radiation on the retina. The retina is therefore the body tissue most vulnerable to laser radiation. The nature and severity of this type of retinal injury is determined by multiple laser-related and eye-related factors, the most important being the duration and amount of energy delivered and the retinal location of the lesion. The clinical course of significant retinal laser injuries is characterized by sudden loss of vision, often followed by marked improvement over a few weeks, and occasionally severe late complications. Medical and surgical treatment is limited. Laser devices hazardous to the human eye are currently in widespread use by armed forces. Furthermore, lasers may be employed specifically for visual incapacitation on future battlefields. Adherence to safety practices effectively prevents accidental laser-induced ocular injuries. However, there is no practical way to prevent injuries that are maliciously inflicted, as expected from laser weapons. PMID:10906379

Barkana, Y; Belkin, M

2000-01-01

317

Eye Surgery Light  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During eye surgery, the surgeon uses an illuminating instrument called an opthalmoscope for close examination of the retina or the interior of the eye. Ordinarily, electric power for the head-mounted light is supplied through a cord from an overhead swivel arm or a floor pedestal. Within limits of cord length and swivel arm movement, the surgeon has considerable freedom of motion. But when more than one opthalmoscope is involved, tangling and interference of the power cords becomes a problem. St. Luke's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio asked Lewis Research Center for assistance in finding a solution. Lewis responded with a battery-powered system that totally frees the surgeon of attached cords and swivels. Borrowing from space technology, Lewis used small, lightweight nickel-cadmium batteries that can deliver high intensity light for an hour and can be recharged overnight. The Opthalmoscope Powerpack consists of eight batteries in three containers affixed to a webbed belt, and a novel on-off switch equipped with a spring-loaded plexiglass 'flapper.' The belt pack is worn underneath the surgical gown and the flapper permits the doctor to activate the switch by elbow pressure. Lewis built five units and they have been in service at St. Luke's Hospital for a year. Used for routine examinations as well as for surgery, they have demonstrated excellent reliability.

1978-01-01

318

Eye Surgery Light  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During eye surgery, the surgeon uses an illuminating instrument called an opthalmoscope for close examination of the retina or the interior of the eye. Ordinarily, electric power for the head-mounted light is supplied through a cord from an overhead swivel arm or a floor pedestal. Within limits of cord length and swivel arm movement, the surgeon has considerable freedom of motion. But when more than one opthalmoscope is involved, tangling and interference of the power cords becomes a problem. St. Luke's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio asked Lewis Research Center for assistance in finding a solution. Lewis responded with a battery-powered system that totally frees the surgeon of attached cords and swivels. Borrowing from space technology, Lewis used small, lightweight nickel-cadmium batteries that can deliver high intensity light for an hour and can be recharged overnight. The Opthalmoscope Powerpack consists of eight batteries in three containers affixed to a webbed belt, and a novel on-off switch equipped with a springloaded plexiglass "flapper." The belt pack is worn underneath the surgical gown and the flapper permits the doctor to activate the switch by elbow pressure. Lewis built five units and they have been in service at St. Luke's Hospital for a year. Used for routine examinations as well as for surgery, they have demonstrated excellent reliability.

1978-01-01

319

[Muckle-Wells syndrome or association of joint pain attacks, urticarial outbreaks and sensory deafness?].  

PubMed

The Muckle and Well's syndrome corresponding to a transmission of the autosomic dominant type, combines bouts of urticaria, episodes of arthralgias to a shrinking of the ear and a sensory deafness. Sometimes, it evolves into a renal amylosis. Sometimes, as the case presented here, it combines multiple malformations. Its place in nosology is imprecise. It is, at the same time, close to systemic urticaria, sensory deafness, amylosis and specially amylosis of the periodic disease. But the common link between the various elements of the syndrome remains undetermined, for the time being. PMID:3563375

Serratrice, G; Pouget, J

1987-02-01

320

Sensory characteristics of diverse rice cultivars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lack of a knowledge-base for predicting how genetic, pre-harvest, and post-harvest factors affect the sensory characteristics of rice results in producers and processors not having control over the sensory quality of their products. In this study, differences in the texture and flavor of seventeen ...

321

Multiple Output Sensory Trainer (MOST). Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report describes the design, development, and testing of the Multiple Output Sensory Trainer (MOST), a computer-based system which enables the evaluation of students with visual impairments to determine the optimal combination of sensory adaptive aids to meet their needs. The system uses multimedia devices in conjunction with customized…

Automated Functions, Inc., Arlington, VA.

322

Multisensory integration, sensory substitution and visual rehabilitation.  

PubMed

Sensory substitution has advanced remarkably over the past 35 years since first introduced to the scientific literature by Paul Bach-y-Rita. In this issue dedicated to his memory, we describe a collection of reviews that assess the current state of neuroscience research on sensory substitution, visual rehabilitation, and multisensory processes. PMID:24759484

Proulx, Michael J; Ptito, Maurice; Amedi, Amir

2014-04-01

323

ASIC3 Channels in Multimodal Sensory Perception  

PubMed Central

Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), which are members of the sodium-selective cation channels belonging to the epithelial sodium channel/degenerin (ENaC/DEG) family, act as membrane-bound receptors for extracellular protons as well as nonproton ligands. At least five ASIC subunits have been identified in mammalian neurons, which form both homotrimeric and heterotrimeric channels. The highly proton sensitive ASIC3 channels are predominantly distributed in peripheral sensory neurons, correlating with their roles in multimodal sensory perception, including nociception, mechanosensation, and chemosensation. Different from other ASIC subunit composing ion channels, ASIC3 channels can mediate a sustained window current in response to mild extracellular acidosis (pH 7.3?6.7), which often occurs accompanied by many sensory stimuli. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates that the sustained component of ASIC3 currents can be enhanced by nonproton ligands including the endogenous metabolite agmatine. In this review, we first summarize the growing body of evidence for the involvement of ASIC3 channels in multimodal sensory perception and then discuss the potential mechanisms underlying ASIC3 activation and mediation of sensory perception, with a special emphasis on its role in nociception. We conclude that ASIC3 activation and modulation by diverse sensory stimuli represent a new avenue for understanding the role of ASIC3 channels in sensory perception. Furthermore, the emerging implications of ASIC3 channels in multiple sensory dysfunctions including nociception allow the development of new pharmacotherapy. PMID:22778854

2010-01-01

324

A housefly sensory-motor integration laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Insects have many interesting behaviors that can be observed in an introductory biology laboratory setting. In the present article, we describe several reflexes using the housefly Musca domestica that can be used to introduce students to sensory and motor responses and encourage them to think about the underlying neural circuits and integration of sensory information that mediate the behaviors.

Edwin R. Griff (University of Cincinnati Biological Sciences)

2010-06-01

325

Examination Accommodations for Students with Sensory Defensiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional examination accommodations include extra time, scribes, and/or separate venues for students with disabilities, which have been proven to be successful for the majority of students. For students with non-apparent disabilities such as sensory defensiveness, where sensitivity to a range of sensory information from the environment can…

Lewis, Kieran; Nolan, Clodagh

2013-01-01

326

Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Sensory Cortex  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acetylcholine release in sensory neocortex contributes to higher-order sensory function, in part by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Molecular studies have revealed a bewildering array of nAChR subtypes and cellular actions; however, there is some consensus emerging about the major nAChR subtypes and their functions in…

Metherate, Raju

2004-01-01

327

Sensory Perception and Communication in Electric Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Electric fish of the Amazon Basin and Nile River are equipped with electric-generator-receiver organs for both sensory perception and communication. These fish are superbly adapted for life in turbulent, muddy streams and, therefore, provide and excellent illustration of the input of environmental information into central nervous systems via specialized sensory windows.

Patricia J. DeCoursey (University of South Carolina; )

1993-01-01

328

Automated Eye-Movement Protocol Analysis  

E-print Network

Automated Eye-Movement Protocol Analysis Dario D. Salvucci and John R. Anderson Carnegie Mellon analysis of eye-movement protocols. Although eye movements have be- come increasingly popular as a tool an ap- proach to automating eye-movement protocol analysis by means of tracing--re- lating observed eye

Salvucci, Dario D.

329

Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care: Punctal Plugs for Dry Eye  

MedlinePLUS

... Marijuana for Glaucoma Pregnancy Preventing Eye Injuries Smokers Sports Using Eye Makeup Veterans What Is an Ophthalmologist? ... Usage & Eye Strain Maintaining Your Sight with Diabetes Sports and Eye Protection Eyesight Risks for Smokers Veterans & ...

330

Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care: Antibiotics for Pink Eye  

MedlinePLUS

... Marijuana for Glaucoma Pregnancy Preventing Eye Injuries Smokers Sports Using Eye Makeup Veterans What Is an Ophthalmologist? ... Usage & Eye Strain Maintaining Your Sight with Diabetes Sports and Eye Protection Eyesight Risks for Smokers Veterans & ...

331

38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

2012-07-01

332

38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

2010-07-01

333

38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

2011-07-01

334

38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

2013-07-01

335

38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

2014-07-01

336

Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA  

MedlinePLUS

... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA On this page: Description Genetic changes ... definitions Reviewed March 2015 What is hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA? Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA is ...

337

Relative contribution of feed-forward excitatory connections to expression of ocular dominance plasticity in layer 4 of visual cortex  

E-print Network

Brief monocular deprivation (MD) shifts ocular dominance (OD) in primary visual cortex by causing depression of responses to the deprived eye. Here we address the extent to which the shift is expressed by a modification ...

Khibnik, Lena A.

338

Examining and processing eye specimens.  

PubMed

This chapter provides basic and useful information about handling and processing eye specimens as well as diagnosing common diseases encountered by ophthalmic pathologists. Each section is devoted to a specific part of the eye (cornea, conjunctiva, iris and cilliary body, choroid, retina, vitreous, and the optic nerve), providing useful pearls about the basic anatomy, disease processes, special staining, and tissue processing. PMID:25015161

Azari, Amir A; Syed, Nasreen A; Albert, Daniel M

2014-01-01

339

European hair and eye color  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human hair and eye color is unusually diverse in northern and eastern Europe. The many alleles involved (at least seven for hair color) and their independent origin over a short span of evolutionary time indicate some kind of selection. Sexual selection is particularly indicated because it is known to favor color traits and color polymorphisms. In addition, hair and eye

Peter Frost

2006-01-01

340

The Eye of the Hurricane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan introduces students to the structure of a hurricane, particularly the eye. It can be used as an introduction to a unit on hurricanes or weather phenomena. Students will view a video about hurricanes, do a simple hurricane simulation, take a tour into the eye of a hurricane, and write reports about their tour.

341

Miniature curved artificial compound eyes  

PubMed Central

In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L’Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A.; Franceschini, Nicolas

2013-01-01

342

Photographic Screening for Eye Defects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Images of retinas examined for characteristic patterns. Color photographs of retinas taken. Proper alinement of eye obtained by asking subject to gaze at light-emitting diode. "Red-eye" patterns in resulting color photographs examined by trained observers for signs of ocular defects. System used to check power of contact lenses and eyeglasses by taking photographs with these items in place.

Richardson, J.

1985-01-01

343

Penetrating eye injury in war.  

PubMed

The percentage of penetrating eye injuries in war has increased significantly in this century compared with the total number of combat injuries. With the increasing use of fragmentation weapons and possibly laser weapons on the battle-field in the future, the rate of eye injuries may exceed the 13% of the total military injuries found in Operations Desert Storm/Shield. During the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), eye injuries revealed that retained foreign bodies and posterior segment injuries have an improved prognosis in future military ophthalmic surgery as a result of modern diagnostic and treatment modalities. Compared with the increasing penetrating eye injuries on the battlefield, advances in ophthalmic surgery are insignificant. Eye armor, such as visors that flip up and down and protect the eyes from laser injury, needs to be developed. Similar eye protection is being developed in civilian sportswear. Penetrating eye injury in the civilian sector is becoming much closer to the military model and is now comparable for several reasons. PMID:10578588

Biehl, J W; Valdez, J; Hemady, R K; Steidl, S M; Bourke, D L

1999-11-01

344

Miniature curved artificial compound eyes.  

PubMed

In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Franceschini, Nicolas

2013-06-01

345

The National Eye Intramural Research  

E-print Network

ophthalmic diseases. Gene-based therapies are on the horizon to alleviate or circumvent errors causedThe National Eye Institute Intramural Research Program · January 2005 #12;#12;Mission The mission@nei.nih.gov Website: http://www.nei.nih.gov #12;Combating Visual Impairment and Blindess The National Eye Institute

Bandettini, Peter A.

346

Automatic Eye State Recognition and Closed-eye Photo Correction Zhaojie LIU, Haizhou AI  

E-print Network

Automatic Eye State Recognition and Closed-eye Photo Correction Zhaojie LIU, Haizhou AI Department@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn Abstract In this paper, we present an approach for eye state recognition and closed-eye photo correction. For eye state recognition, AdaBoosted cascade open-eye detectors of different scales are trained

Ai, Haizhou

347

In the Eye of the Beholder: A Survey of Models for Eyes and Gaze  

E-print Network

In the Eye of the Beholder: A Survey of Models for Eyes and Gaze Dan Witzner Hansen, Member, IEEE years, eye detection and tracking remains challenging due to the individuality of eyes, occlusion, variability in scale, location, and light conditions. Data on eye location and details of eye movements have

348

Through Our Parents' Eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does an institution help tell the story of the community it is located in? This type of endeavor can take many approaches, and the University of Arizona seems to have found a fantastic way to do so. Working with a variety of organizations and individuals throughout the greater Tucson and Southern Arizona community. Through Our Parents' Eyes: History & Culture of Southern Arizona was started in the mid-1990s. The project was designed to bring together the diverse human experiences of the region by drawing on a wide range of documents, oral histories, historic images, and video clips. The project and this website feature a number of teaching resources, regional histories, and primary documents for use by anyone interested in the region. Some of these resources have been collected into thematic presentations, including "Words & Place: Native Literature of the American Southwest" and "War Relocation Authority Camps in Arizona, 1942-1946".

349

Eye of Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The wonderful Eye of Science project began in 1994, and is currently under the direction of Oliver Meckes and Nicole Ottawa. As their philosophic statement on this website states, "Our aim is to combine scientific exactness with aesthetic appearances, and thereby help to bridge the gap between the world of science and the world of art." In order to help serve this mission, they have placed numerous examples of their work online in a series of galleries on this site. Using electron microscopy and a host of other equipment and techniques, the pair has created these fine images of such things as parasites, cross-sections of a lavender leaf, and a rather harrowing photograph of an itch mite. Along with viewing these images, visitors can also learn about the awards they have received and learn about the equipment they use in their work.

350

Eyes of Ganges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

21 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroded, light-toned layered rock outcrops on the side of a large mound in Ganges Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. Perhaps a testament to the inherent human (and primate) ability to pick out faces where partially hidden from view (even when a face is not really there) -- near the top of this picture are two features, each a product of erosion, resembling a pair of human eyes. This picture was acquired in late November 2005.

Location near: 7.1oS, 49.4oW Image width: width: 0.55 km (0.3 mi) Illumination from: left/lower left Season: Southern Summer

2005-01-01

351

Microoptical telescope compound eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new optical concept for compact digital image acquisition devices with large field of view is developed and proofed experimentally. Archetypes for the imaging system are compound eyes of small insects and the Gabor Superlens. A paraxial 3x3 matrix formalism is used to describe the telescope arrangement of three microlens arrays with different pitch to find first order parameters of the imaging system. A 2mm thin imaging system with 21x3 channels, 70ºx10º field of view and 4.5mm x 0.5mm image size is optimized and analyzed using sequential and non sequential raytracing and fabricated by microoptics technology. Anamorphic lenses, where the parameters are a function of the considered optical channel, are used to achieve a homogeneous optical performance over the whole field of view. Captured images are presented and compared to simulation results.

Duparré, Jacques W.; Schreiber, Peter; Matthes, André; Pshenay–Severin, Ekaterina; Bräuer, Andreas; Tünnermann, Andreas; Völkel, Reinhard; Eisner, Martin; Scharf, Toralf

2005-02-01

352

An eye for discovery.  

PubMed

Vision research has often led to significant advances in our understanding of biology. There has also been particular success in translating basic research in the eye into breakthrough clinical therapies that mark important milestones for ophthalmology and also for medical research. Anti-VEGF therapy for age-related macular degeneration was named as one of the top ten science advancements of the year 2006. Only two years later, successful transfer of the RPE65 gene into retinal pigment epithelium of patients with Leber congenital amaurosis was noted as one of the most important clinical applications of gene therapy. The articles in this Review series outline current developments in vision research and highlight its continued importance in ophthalmology and medicine. PMID:20811156

Stahl, Andreas; Smith, Lois E H

2010-09-01

353

Eye movements in Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

A growing body of literature has investigated changes in eye movements as a result of Alzheimer's disease (AD). When compared to healthy, age-matched controls, patients display a number of remarkable alterations to oculomotor function and viewing behavior. In this article, we review AD-related changes to fundamental eye movements, such as saccades and smooth pursuit motion, in addition to changes to eye movement patterns during more complex tasks like visual search and scene exploration. We discuss the cognitive mechanisms that underlie these changes and consider the clinical significance of eye movement behavior, with a focus on eye movements in mild cognitive impairment. We conclude with directions for future research. PMID:25182738

Molitor, Robert J; Ko, Philip C; Ally, Brandon A

2015-01-01

354

The Colossal Cosmic Eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eighty-five million years ago on small planet Earth, dinosaurs ruled, ignorant of their soon-to-come demise in the great Jurassic extinction, while mammals were still small and shy creatures. The southern Andes of Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina were not yet formed and South America was still an island continent. Eighty-five million years ago, our Sun and its solar system was 60,000 light years away from where it now stands [1]. Eighty-five million years ago, in another corner of the Universe, light left the beautiful spiral galaxy NGC 1350, for a journey across the universe. Part of this light was recorded at the beginning of the year 2000 AD by ESO's Very Large Telescope, located on the 2,600m high Cerro Paranal in the Chilean Andes on planet Earth. Astronomers classify NGC 1350 as an Sa(r) type galaxy, meaning it is a spiral with large central regions. In fact, NGC 1350 lies at the border between the broken-ring spiral type and a grand design spiral with two major outer arms. It is about 130,000 light-years across and, hence, is slightly larger than our Milky Way. The rather faint and graceful outer arms originate at the inner main ring and can be traced for almost half a circle when they each meet the opposite arm, giving the impression of completing a second outer ring, the "eye". The arms are given a blue tint as a result of the presence of very young and massive stars. The amount of dust, seen as small fragmented dust spirals in the central part of the galaxy and producing a fine tapestry that bear resemblance with blood vessels in the eye, is also a signature of the formation of stars.

2005-09-01

355

Peripheral myopization using a dominant design multifocal contact lens  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to characterize the central and peripheral refraction across the horizontal meridian of the visual field without and with a multifocal dominant design soft contact lens of different add powers (+1.00 D to +4.00 D) in emmetropic eyes. Methods Twenty right eyes from 20 emmetropic patients (mean spherical equivalent central refraction –0.06 ± 0.54 D) with a mean age of 21.6 ± 2.3 years were fitted with Proclear Multifocal dominant design (Coopervision, Pleasanton, CA, USA). Lenses had add powers from +1.00 to +4.00 D in 1.00 D steps. The central and peripheral refraction was measured along the horizontal meridian up to 35° of eccentricity in the nasal and temporal retinal area in 5° steps using a open-field autorefractometer. Results Only the +3.00 and +4.00 D add powers generated a significant change in the peripheral refractive pattern compared to central refraction and compared with the no-lens wearing situation. The average myopic increase with these lenses was –3.00 D and –5.00 (p < 0.001) at the margins of inspected nasal and temporal visual field, respectively. Conclusions Multifocal dominant design soft contact lenses are able to change the peripheral refractive profile in emmetropic eyes increasing relative peripheral myopia. Lenses with +3.00 D add power seem to be the best option to create such effect due to significant peripheral myopization.

Lopes-Ferreira, Daniela; Ribeiro, Cláudia; Maia, Raquel; García-Porta, Nery; Queirós, António; Villa-Collar, César; González-Méijome, José Manuel

2011-01-01

356

Six1 is a key regulator of the developmental and evolutionary architecture of sensory neurons in craniates  

PubMed Central

Background Various senses and sensory nerve architectures of animals have evolved during adaptation to exploit diverse environments. In craniates, the trunk sensory system has evolved from simple mechanosensory neurons inside the spinal cord (intramedullary), called Rohon-Beard (RB) cells, to multimodal sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) outside the spinal cord (extramedullary). The fish and amphibian trunk sensory systems switch from RB cells to DRG during development, while amniotes rely exclusively on the DRG system. The mechanisms underlying the ontogenic switching and its link to phylogenetic transition remain unknown. Results In Xenopus, Six1 overexpression promoted precocious apoptosis of RB cells and emergence of extramedullary sensory neurons, whereas Six1 knockdown delayed the reduction in RB cell number. Genetic ablation of Six1 and Six4 in mice led to the appearance of intramedullary sensory neuron-like cells as a result of medial migration of neural crest cells into the spinal cord and production of immature DRG neurons and fused DRG. Restoration of SIX1 expression in the neural crest-linage partially rescued the phenotype, indicating the cell autonomous requirements of SIX1 for normal extramedullary sensory neurogenesis. Mouse Six1 enhancer that mediates the expression in DRG neurons activated transcription in Xenopus RB cells earlier than endogenous six1 expression, suggesting earlier onset of mouse SIX1 expression than Xenopus during sensory development. Conclusions The results indicated the critical role of Six1 in transition of RB cells to DRG neurons during Xenopus development and establishment of exclusive DRG system of mice. The study provided evidence that early appearance of SIX1 expression, which correlated with mouse Six1 enhancer, is essential for the formation of DRG-dominant system in mice, suggesting that heterochronic changes in Six1 enhancer sequence play an important role in alteration of trunk sensory architecture and contribute to the evolution of the trunk sensory system. PMID:24885223

2014-01-01

357

Genetics Home Reference: Fish-eye disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Fish-eye disease On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... Glossary definitions Reviewed August 2013 What is fish-eye disease? Fish-eye disease, also called partial LCAT ...

358

21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and...Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion...

2010-04-01

359

21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and...Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion...

2013-04-01

360

21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and...Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion...

2011-04-01

361

Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble  

MedlinePLUS

Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble email Send this article to a friend by filling out the fields below: ... disease bothers the patient more. What Causes Dry Eye Syndrome? Dry eye can be caused by many ...

362

Find an Eye M.D.  

MedlinePLUS

... Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Find an Eye M.D. Tweet */ #centrecontent { z-index: 100; min- ... local state ophthalmology society (U.S. only) Ask An Eye M.D. Enter your question here... Browse Top ...

363

Botanical origin, colour, granulation, and sensory properties of the Harenna forest honey, Bale, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

In this study, the Harenna forest honey samples were investigated with respect to their botanical origin, granulation, colour and sensory properties. Sixteen honey samples were collected from two representative sites (Chiri, C, and Wabero, W) using random sampling techniques. Botanical origin was investigated using qualitative pollen analysis by counting 500 pollen grains using harmonised methods of melissopalynology. Granulation, colour, and sensory properties of honey were determined by visual observation, using Pfund grader, acceptability and preference tests, respectively. Honey samples were also tested for tetracycline. Honey obtained from Wabero is originated dominantly from Syzygium guineense while Chiri was multifloral. The colour of honey ranged from 34 to 85 with light amber and extra light amber colours. The honey samples were free from tetracycline residue and form coarse granules slowly. Significant variation (p>0.05) in sensory preference and acceptability tests not observed due to hive types and locations. PMID:25148981

Belay, Abera; Solomon, W K; Bultossa, Geremew; Adgaba, Nuru; Melaku, Samuel

2015-01-15

364

Beyond words: Sensory properties of depressive thoughts  

PubMed Central

Verbal thoughts (such as negative cognitions) and sensory phenomena (such as visual mental imagery) are usually conceptualised as distinct mental experiences. The present study examined to what extent depressive thoughts are accompanied by sensory experiences and how this is associated with symptom severity, insight of illness and quality of life. A large sample of mildly to moderately depressed patients (N = 356) was recruited from multiple sources and asked about sensory properties of their depressive thoughts in an online study. Diagnostic status and symptom severity were established over a telephone interview with trained raters. Sensory properties of negative thoughts were reported by 56.5% of the sample (i.e., sensation in at least one sensory modality). The highest prevalence was seen for bodily (39.6%) followed by auditory (30.6%) and visual (27.2%) sensations. Patients reporting sensory properties of thoughts showed more severe psychopathological symptoms than those who did not. The degree of perceptuality was marginally associated with quality of life. The findings support the notion that depressive thoughts are not only verbal but commonly accompanied by sensory experiences. The perceptuality of depressive thoughts and the resulting sense of authenticity may contribute to the emotional impact and pervasiveness of such thoughts, making them difficult to dismiss for their holder. PMID:24359124

Hörmann, Claudia Cecile; Schröder, Johanna; Berger, Thomas; Jacob, Gitta A.; Meyer, Björn; Holmes, Emily A.; Späth, Christina; Hautzinger, Martin; Lutz, Wolfgang; Rose, Matthias; Klein, Jan Philipp

2013-01-01

365

The ‘division of labour’ model of eye evolution  

PubMed Central

The ‘division of labour’ model of eye evolution is elaborated here. We propose that the evolution of complex, multicellular animal eyes started from a single, multi-functional cell type that existed in metazoan ancestors. This ancient cell type had at least three functions: light detection via a photoreceptive organelle, light shading by means of pigment granules and steering through locomotor cilia. Located around the circumference of swimming ciliated zooplankton larvae, these ancient cells were able to mediate phototaxis in the absence of a nervous system. This precursor then diversified, by cell-type functional segregation, into sister cell types that specialized in different subfunctions, evolving into separate photoreceptor cells, shading pigment cells (SPCs) or ciliated locomotor cells. Photoreceptor sensory cells and ciliated locomotor cells remained interconnected by newly evolving axons, giving rise to an early axonal circuit. In some evolutionary lines, residual functions prevailed in the specialized cell types that mirror the ancient multi-functionality, for instance, SPCs expressing an opsin as well as possessing rhabdomer-like microvilli, vestigial cilia and an axon. Functional segregation of cell types in eye evolution also explains the emergence of more elaborate photosensory–motor axonal circuits, with interneurons relaying the visual information. PMID:19720646

Arendt, Detlev; Hausen, Harald; Purschke, Günter

2009-01-01

366

Emerging functions of pannexin 1 in the eye  

PubMed Central

Pannexin 1 (Panx1) is a high-conductance, voltage-gated channel protein found in vertebrates. Panx1 is widely expressed in many organs and tissues, including sensory systems. In the eye, Panx1 is expressed in major divisions including the retina, lens and cornea. Panx1 is found in different neuronal and non-neuronal cell types. The channel is mechanosensitive and responds to changes in extracellular ATP, intracellular calcium, pH, or ROS/nitric oxide. Since Panx1 channels operate at the crossroad of major signaling pathways, physiological functions in important autocrine and paracrine feedback signaling mechanisms were hypothesized. This review starts with describing in depth the initial Panx1 expression and localization studies fostering functional studies that uncovered distinct roles in processing visual information in subsets of neurons in the rodent and fish retina. Panx1 is expressed along the entire anatomical axis from optical nerve to retina and cornea in glia, epithelial and endothelial cells as well as in neurons. The expression and diverse localizations throughout the eye points towards versatile functions of Panx1 in neuronal and non-neuronal cells, implicating Panx1 in the crosstalk between immune and neural cells, pressure related pathological conditions like glaucoma, wound repair or neuronal cell death caused by ischemia. Summarizing the literature on Panx1 in the eye highlights the diversity of emerging Panx1 channel functions in health and disease. PMID:25309318

Kurtenbach, Sarah; Kurtenbach, Stefan; Zoidl, Georg

2014-01-01

367

Qualitative data analysis for an exploratory sensory study of Grechetto wine.  

PubMed

Grechetto is a traditional white-grape vine, widespread in Umbria and Lazio regions in central Italy. Despite the wine commercial diffusion, little literature on its sensory characteristics is available. The present study is an exploratory research conducted with the aim of identifying the sensory markers of Grechetto wine and of evaluating the effect of clone, geographical area, vintage and producer on sensory attributes. A qualitative sensory study was conducted on 16 wines, differing for vintage, Typical Geographic Indication, and clone, collected from 7 wineries, using a trained panel in isolation who referred to a glossary of 133 white wine descriptors. Sixty-five attributes identified by a minimum of 50% of the respondents were submitted to a correspondence analysis to link wine samples to the sensory attributes. Seventeen terms identified as common to all samples are considered as characteristics of Grechetto wine, 10 of which olfactory: fruity, apple, acacia flower, pineapple, banana, floral, herbaceous, honey, apricot and peach. In order to interpret the relationship between design variables and sensory attributes data on 2005 and 2006 wines, the 28 most discriminating descriptors were projected in a principal component analysis. The first principal component was best described by olfactory terms and the second by gustative attributes. Good reproducibility of results was obtained for the two vintages. For one winery, vintage effect (2002-2006) was described in a new principal component analysis model applied on 39 most discriminating descriptors, which globally explained about 84% of the variance. In the young wines the notes of sulphur, yeast, dried fruit, butter, combined with herbaceous fresh and tropical fruity notes (melon, grapefruit) were dominant. During wine aging, sweeter notes, like honey, caramel, jam, become more dominant as well as some mineral notes, such as tuff and flint. PMID:20103144

Esti, Marco; González Airola, Ricardo L; Moneta, Elisabetta; Paperaio, Marina; Sinesio, Fiorella

2010-02-15

368

Electromagnetic Characterization Of Metallic Sensory Alloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy (FSMA) particles undergo changes in both electromagnetic properties and crystallographic structure when strained. When embedded in a structural material, these attributes can provide sensory output of the strain state of the structure. In this work, a detailed characterization of the electromagnetic properties of a FSMA under development for sensory applications is performed. In addition, a new eddy current probe is used to interrogate the electromagnetic properties of individual FSMA particles embedded in the sensory alloy during controlled fatigue tests on the multifunctional material.

Wincheski, Russell A.; Simpson, John; Wallace, Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Leser, Paul; Lahue, Rob

2012-01-01

369

Analytical methods for chemical and sensory characterization of scent-markings in large wild mammals: a review.  

PubMed

In conjoining the disciplines of "ethology" and "chemistry" the field of "Ethochemistry" has been instituted. Ethochemistry is an effective tool in conservation efforts of endangered species and the understanding of behavioral patterns across all species. Chemical constituents of scent-markings have an important, yet poorly understood function in territoriality, reproduction, dominance, and impact on evolutionary biology, especially in large mammals. Particular attention has recently been focused on scent-marking analysis of great cats (Kalahari leopards (Panthera pardus), puma (Puma concolor) snow leopard (Panthera uncia), African lions (Panthera leo), cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), and tigers (Panthera tigris)) for the purpose of conservation. Sensory analyses of scent-markings could address knowledge gaps in ethochemistry. The objective of this review is to summarize the current state-of-the art of both the chemical and sensory analyses of scent-markings in wild mammals. Specific focus is placed on sampling and sample preparation, chemical analysis, sensory analysis, and simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses. Constituents of exocrine and endocrine secretions have been most commonly studied with chromatography-based analytical separations. Odor analysis of scent-markings provides an insight into the animal's sensory perception. A limited number of articles have been published in the area of sensory characterization of scent marks. Simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses with chromatography-olfactometry hyphenation could potentially aid conservation efforts by linking perceived odor, compounds responsible for odor, and resulting behavior. PMID:24603639

Soso, Simone B; Koziel, Jacek A; Johnson, Anna; Lee, Young Jin; Fairbanks, W Sue

2014-01-01

370

Analytical Methods for Chemical and Sensory Characterization of Scent-Markings in Large Wild Mammals: A Review  

PubMed Central

In conjoining the disciplines of “ethology” and “chemistry” the field of “Ethochemistry” has been instituted. Ethochemistry is an effective tool in conservation efforts of endangered species and the understanding of behavioral patterns across all species. Chemical constituents of scent-markings have an important, yet poorly understood function in territoriality, reproduction, dominance, and impact on evolutionary biology, especially in large mammals. Particular attention has recently been focused on scent-marking analysis of great cats (Kalahari leopards (Panthera pardus), puma (Puma concolor) snow leopard (Panthera uncia), African lions (Panthera leo), cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), and tigers (Panthera tigris)) for the purpose of conservation. Sensory analyses of scent-markings could address knowledge gaps in ethochemistry. The objective of this review is to summarize the current state-of-the art of both the chemical and sensory analyses of scent-markings in wild mammals. Specific focus is placed on sampling and sample preparation, chemical analysis, sensory analysis, and simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses. Constituents of exocrine and endocrine secretions have been most commonly studied with chromatography-based analytical separations. Odor analysis of scent-markings provides an insight into the animal's sensory perception. A limited number of articles have been published in the area of sensory characterization of scent marks. Simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses with chromatography-olfactometry hyphenation could potentially aid conservation efforts by linking perceived odor, compounds responsible for odor, and resulting behavior. PMID:24603639

Soso, Simone B.; Koziel, Jacek A.; Johnson, Anna; Lee, Young Jin; Fairbanks, W. Sue

2014-01-01

371

Treatment of Diabetic Sensory Polyneuropathy  

PubMed Central

Opinion statement No current disease-modifying treatments have been shown definitively in randomized clinical trials to reduce or reverse diabetic sensory polyneuropathy (DSP). It is increasingly recognized that individuals with “prediabetes” or impaired glucose regulation can already have a “small-fiber” neuropathy, or mild DSP, in which sensory axons of both small and larger diameter are damaged. Small-fiber neuropathy is frequently associated with pain, and these patients may present to a neurologist for evaluation before the underlying glucose dysregulation has been diagnosed. It is important to identify these individuals, because aggressive diabetic control and lifestyle interventions can delay the onset of diabetes and may reverse small-fiber neuropathy associated with early diabetes mellitus. Although treatment currently focuses on pain associated with DSP, attention should be paid to potential risk factors for neuropathy. For example, glycemic control and hyperlipidemia should be improved with diet, exercise, and medications. Hypertension that is a risk marker for more severe neuropathy should be treated. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers not only treat hypertension but also may directly reduce the progression of neuropathy. Class I or II clinical studies support the use of sodium valproate, pregabalin, duloxetine, amitriptyline, gabapentin, venlafaxine, opioids, and topical capsaicin in treating diabetic neuropathic pain. Pregabalin and gabapentin are relatively well tolerated and have few medication interactions. Sodium valproate has been shown to be effective but is not recommended for use in women of childbearing potential, and patients must be monitored for hepatotoxicity and thrombocytopenia. Tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline are often used for nocturnal pain but require caution in the elderly or anyone with cardiac disease. Venlafaxine and duloxetine successfully treat neuropathic pain independently of their effect on depression. Opioid medications are associated with a high rate of adverse effects but with careful monitoring, they can be effective in treating resistant neuropathic pain. Capsaicin is an effective topical treatment that lacks systemic side effects. The lidocaine patch is effective in relieving pain associated with postherpetic neuralgia, but only class III evidence supports its use for diabetic neuropathic pain. No current Class I or II studies support other treatment modalities. PMID:21274758

Zilliox, Lindsay; Russell, James W.

2011-01-01

372

Keeping our eyes on the eyes: the case of Arcimboldo.  

PubMed

While contemporaries often viewed his reversible composite heads as scherzi (jokes) and modem art connoisseurs as creative masterpieces, Giuseppe Arcimboldo's ingenious paintings served as inspiring stimuli for the present eye-tracking experiment. One group of participants viewed three chosen paintings in an upright, and another in an upside-down, orientation. We compared how participants viewed three selected areas of interest (AOIs) within the painting when these could, and could not, be identified as a face or distinct facial element (eyes and mouth). The obtained results indicate that the participants fixated the parts of the painting which represent faces more in the upright than in the inverted orientation. Furthermore, in the upright orientation the participants focused more on the upper AOls (eyes) than the lower AOIs (mouth). This was not the case for the inverted orientation of two paintings. In conclusion, the face inversion effect occurs even in this artistic context, and the gaze often goes where the eyes are. PMID:25109013

Bubic, Andreja; Susac, Ana; Palmovic, Marijan

2014-01-01

373

SUMOylation of the small GTPase ARL-13 promotes ciliary targeting of sensory receptors  

PubMed Central

Primary cilia serve as cellular antenna for various sensory signaling pathways. However, how the sensory receptors are properly targeted to the ciliary surface remains poorly understood. Here, we show that UBC-9, the sole E2 small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-conjugating enzyme, physically interacts with and SUMOylates the C terminus of small GTPase ARL-13, the worm orthologue of ARL13B that mutated in ciliopathy Joubert syndrome. Mutations that totally abolish the SUMOylation of ARL-13 do not affect its established role in ciliogenesis, but fail to regulate the proper ciliary targeting of various sensory receptors and consequently compromise the corresponding sensory functions. Conversely, constitutively SUMOylated ARL-13 fully rescues all ciliary defects of arl-13–null animals. Furthermore, SUMOylation modification of human ARL13B is required for the ciliary entry of polycystin-2, the protein mutated in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Our data reveal a novel but conserved role for the SUMOylation modification of ciliary small GTPase ARL13B in specifically regulating the proper ciliary targeting of various sensory receptors. PMID:23128241

Li, Yujie; Zhang, Qing; Wei, Qing; Zhang, Yuxia; Ling, Kun

2012-01-01

374

Effect of tongue stimulation on nystagmus eye movements in blind patients.  

PubMed

We have observed dramatic effects of tactile tongue stimulation on nystagmus eye movements in patients with acquired blindness, and we report these results. Six adult subjects (3 subjects with light perception or worse vision and 3 normal subjects) were included in this study. Causes of blindness included traumatic explosion, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, and central retinal artery occlusion. Duration of blindness was 15, 3 and 1.5 years, respectively. A video eye tracking system (Eyelink 1000) was used to record eye movements. The eye movement recording (EMR) was repeated four times in a span of 20 min. Two of the EMRs were performed without tongue stimulation and two with tongue stimulation in randomized order. A tongue stimulus was applied to the surface of the tongue using a Brainport device that produces an electrical tactile stimulus. The nystagmus waveform characteristics and frequency were analyzed. We found that all blind subjects showed continuous jerk nystagmus with slow and quick phases, mainly in horizontal plane in their primary eye positions. The recorded nystagmus waveforms were jerk with linear velocity slow phases. When the tongue stimulus was applied, the frequency of nystagmus was significantly reduced by 47, 40, and 11%, and relative amplitude was reduced by 43, 45, and 6% for three blind subjects, respectively. In conclusion, we think our results that tongue stimulation influences nystagmus eye movements support a link between non-visual sensory input and ocular motor activity. PMID:22350083

Nau, Amy; Hertle, Richard W; Yang, Dongsheng

2012-07-01

375

Goiter and Laryngeal Sensory Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Objective. Examining the prevalence of laryngeal sensory neuropathy (LSN) in goiter patients versus a control group. Study Design. Cross-sectional study. Methods. 33 Goiter patients were enrolled versus 25 age-matched controls. TSH levels, size of thyroid gland, and presence or absence of thyroid nodules were reported. Subjects were asked about the presence or absence of any of the following symptoms: cough, globus pharyngeus, and/or throat clearing that persistented for more than 6 weeks. The presence of one or more of these symptoms for at least six weeks in the absence of LPRD, allergy, asthma, ACE inhibitor intake, and psychogenic disorder was defined as LSN. Results. For goitrous patients mean age (years) was (41.73 ± 9.47) versus (37.44 ± 10.89) for controls. 82% goitrous patients had known nodules and 27% carried a simultaneous diagnosis of hypothyroidism. Among those with documented size (61%), mean total thyroid volume was 26.996 ± 14.852?cm3, with a range from 9.430 to 67.022?cm3. The overall prevalence of LSN among goitrous patients was 42% versus 12% among controls (P = 0.0187). There was no correlation between LSN, size of thyroid gland, and TSH level. Conclusion. The prevalence of LSN in goitrous patients is significantly higher than that in a nongoitrous population. PMID:23818901

Hamdan, Abdul Latif; Jabour, Jad; Azar, Sami T.

2013-01-01

376

Goiter and laryngeal sensory neuropathy.  

PubMed

Objective. Examining the prevalence of laryngeal sensory neuropathy (LSN) in goiter patients versus a control group. Study Design. Cross-sectional study. Methods. 33 Goiter patients were enrolled versus 25 age-matched controls. TSH levels, size of thyroid gland, and presence or absence of thyroid nodules were reported. Subjects were asked about the presence or absence of any of the following symptoms: cough, globus pharyngeus, and/or throat clearing that persistented for more than 6 weeks. The presence of one or more of these symptoms for at least six weeks in the absence of LPRD, allergy, asthma, ACE inhibitor intake, and psychogenic disorder was defined as LSN. Results. For goitrous patients mean age (years) was (41.73 ± 9.47) versus (37.44 ± 10.89) for controls. 82% goitrous patients had known nodules and 27% carried a simultaneous diagnosis of hypothyroidism. Among those with documented size (61%), mean total thyroid volume was 26.996 ± 14.852?cm(3), with a range from 9.430 to 67.022?cm(3). The overall prevalence of LSN among goitrous patients was 42% versus 12% among controls (P = 0.0187). There was no correlation between LSN, size of thyroid gland, and TSH level. Conclusion. The prevalence of LSN in goitrous patients is significantly higher than that in a nongoitrous population. PMID:23818901

Hamdan, Abdul Latif; Jabour, Jad; Azar, Sami T

2013-01-01

377

Eye of the Storm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Website showcases materials from the recently published Simon & Schuster book, Eye of the Storm, which details in vivid watercolors, maps, and journal entries, events from the Civil War as witnessed by Union soldier Private Knox Sneden. The site offers 20 selections from Knox's diaries covering from 1861 to December of 1864, each accompanied by a watercolor or map viewable in two sizes, as well as four Flash presentations of these watercolors based around particular incidents Knox witnessed. The watercolors, while not masterpieces, are fine renderings of characteristic events of the war -- a surprise artillery attack by Rebels against an overconfident and underobservant Union fortification, a surrendering of 10,000 troops, views of battles, sabotage operations, and the like. More than anything, they give a sense of the harsh imprint of war upon an otherwise typically bucolic countryside. Knox's dark lines of soldiers, scarred earth, and flames reflected in slow running rivers show that America's bloodiest war touched not only its people, but its landscape as well.

378

The Contributions of Sensory Dominance and Attentional Bias to Cross-modal Enhancement  

E-print Network

-modal effects start at an early, preperceptual stage of sound processing and persist with increasing sound excitability and studied the persistence of effects after sound offset. To this end, we probed the impact differences favor the idea that unlike early effects this late L-sound impact on visual cortex excitability

379

Sensory properties of menthol and smoking topography  

PubMed Central

Although there is a great deal known about menthol as a flavoring agent in foods and confections, less is known about the particular sensory properties of menthol cigarette smoke. Similarly, although smoking topography (the unique way an individual smokes a cigarette) has been well studied using non-menthol cigarettes, there is relatively less known about how menthol affects smoking behavior. The objective of this review is to assess the sensory properties of menthol tobacco smoke, and smoking topography associated with menthol cigarettes. The cooling, analgesic, taste, and respiratory effects of menthol are well established, and studies have indicated that menthol’s sensory attributes can have an influence on the positive, or rewarding, properties associated smoking, including ratings of satisfaction, taste, perceived smoothness, and perceived irritation. Despite these sensory properties, the data regarding menthol’s effect on smoking topography are inconsistent. Many of the topography studies have limitations due to various methodological issues. PMID:21624149

2011-01-01

380

Sensory Ecology, Winter 2011 Stuart Thompson  

E-print Network

guided behaviors UV, IR and polarization detection Olfaction and taste (chemosensation) The distinction in verts and inverts Cellular mechanism of vertebrate hearing ­ the hair cell and sensory transduction

381

Nonlinear amplification by active sensory hair bundles  

E-print Network

vulnerable mechanism. In the cochlea, sensory hair bundles transduce sound-induced vibrations into neural on a hair bundle from the sacculus of the bullfrog with real-time stochastic simulations of hair

Jülicher, Frank

382

Variance predicts salience in central sensory processing.  

PubMed

Information processing in the sensory periphery is shaped by natural stimulus statistics. In the periphery, a transmission bottleneck constrains performance; thus efficient coding implies that natural signal components with a predictably wider range should be compressed. In a different regime--when sampling limitations constrain performance--efficient coding implies that more resources should be allocated to informative features that are more variable. We propose that this regime is relevant for sensory cortex when it extracts complex features from limited numbers of sensory samples. To test this prediction, we use central visual processing as a model: we show that visual sensitivity for local multi-point spatial correlations, described by dozens of independently-measured parameters, can be quantitatively predicted from the structure of natural images. This suggests that efficient coding applies centrally, where it extends to higher-order sensory features and operates in a regime in which sensitivity increases with feature variability. PMID:25396297

Hermundstad, Ann M; Briguglio, John J; Conte, Mary M; Victor, Jonathan D; Balasubramanian, Vijay; Tka?ik, Gašper

2014-01-01

383

Sensory Pedagogy: Understanding and Encountering Children through the Senses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present article we aim to explore the link between Merleau-Pontyan phenomenology and what we call sensory pedagogy. The latter connects to recent sensory ethnography as presented by S. Pink ("Sensory ethnography." London: Sage; 2009). We discuss how these thoughts can be put to work in toddler pedagogy. This kind of sensory…

Johansson, Eva; Løkken, Gunvor

2014-01-01

384

A PDMS Mold with Embedded Sensory Array for Micromolding Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we proposed a monitoring method based on embedded sensory array in micromolding mold to monitor micromolding processes. The sensory array includes a resistive thermal flow sensor and a lot of temperature sensors. We design a set of micromachined processes to embed the sensory array in micromolding mold. During micromolding process, the embedded sensory array measures the fluid

R. C. Ruo; C. F. Lin; C. W. Liu

2006-01-01

385

A layered network model of sensory cortex  

SciTech Connect

An integrated computational approach to modeling sensory systems which couples realistic layered neural models of sensory cortex and midbrain nuclei to detailed models of the sense organs (e.g., retina or cochlea) is described. The approach is applied to the auditory system. Through an exercise of the model, it is shown that spatial location of sounds may be a natural consequence of the way cochlear response is mapped onto the cortex. 31 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

Travis, B.J.

1986-01-01

386

P50 Sensory Gating in Infants  

PubMed Central

Attentional deficits are common in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders including attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, autism, bipolar mood disorder, and schizophrenia. There has been increasing interest in the neurodevelopmental components of these attentional deficits; neurodevelopmental meaning that while the deficits become clinically prominent in childhood or adulthood, the deficits are the results of problems in brain development that begin in infancy or even prenatally. Despite this interest, there are few methods for assessing attention very early in infancy. This report focuses on one method, infant auditory P50 sensory gating. Attention has several components. One of the earliest components of attention, termed sensory gating, allows the brain to tune out repetitive, noninformative sensory information. Auditory P50 sensory gating refers to one task designed to measure sensory gating using changes in EEG. When identical auditory stimuli are presented 500 ms apart, the evoked response (change in the EEG associated with the processing of the click) to the second stimulus is generally reduced relative to the response to the first stimulus (i.e. the response is "gated"). When response to the second stimulus is not reduced, this is considered a poor sensory gating, is reflective of impaired cerebral inhibition, and is correlated with attentional deficits. Because the auditory P50 sensory gating task is passive, it is of potential utility in the study of young infants and may provide a window into the developmental time course of attentional deficits in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. The goal of this presentation is to describe the methodology for assessing infant auditory P50 sensory gating, a methodology adapted from those used in studies of adult populations. PMID:24430259

Ross, Anne Spencer; Hunter, Sharon Kay; Groth, Mark A; Ross, Randal Glenn

2013-01-01

387

Carotid Artery and the Eye  

MedlinePLUS

... included in your message Your e-mail address: Your name: Your friend's e-mail address: Your friend's name: ... Us Feedback The Carotid Artery and the Eye Your name First Name MI Laast Name Your e-mail ...

388

Eye movements when viewing advertisements  

PubMed Central

In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads), before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet). Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research. PMID:24672500

Higgins, Emily; Leinenger, Mallorie; Rayner, Keith

2013-01-01

389

Econometrics: A Bird's Eye View  

E-print Network

Econometrics: A Bird’s Eye View? John Geweke, Joel Horowitz, and Hashem Pesaran† November 2006 Abstract As a unified discipline, econometrics is still relatively young and has been transforming and expanding very rapidly over the past few decades...

Geweke, John; Horowitz, Joel; Pesaran, M Hashem

390

Protecting Your Eyes at Work  

MedlinePLUS

... by using machine guards, work screens or other engineering controls. Use proper eye protection. Keep your safety ... guards, screened or divided work stations, and other engineering controls, using the correct protective eyewear can help ...

391

Computer Tracking of Eye Motions  

E-print Network

This memo is to explain why the Artificial Intelligence group of Project MAC is developing methods for on-line tracking of human eye movements. It also gives a brief resume of results to date and the next steps.

Minsky, Marvin

1967-03-01

392

Eye Bank Association of America  

MedlinePLUS

... Donor Sabbath Awards & Grants Patricia Aiken-O’Neill Scholarship Richard Lindstrom/EBAA Research Fund EBAA Networking Grants ... Sight Award Crystal Cornea Award Jachin Misko Memorial Scholarship for Technical Advancement in Eye Banking About Us ...

393

Eye burning - itching and discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... cotton applicator can also help remove crusts. Using artificial tears 4 - 6 times a day can be ... excessive eye pain or sensitivity to light. Your vision is decreased. You have increased swelling in the ...

394

Portable eye-safe ceilometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developed and tested a simplified version of the definition of the cloud base height of the backscatter signal obtained in the laser meter height of the cloud base with eye-safe level of radiation intensity.

Kryuchkov, A. V.; Grishin, A. I.; Gricuta, A. N.

2014-11-01

395

Money for the big eyes  

E-print Network

Since ancient civilization, humanity has kept its eyes on the heavens, and the invention of telescopes has only increased its scrutiny. As astronomers strive to see the universe with increasing clarity, telescopes have ...

Shen, Fangfei, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01

396

Behavioural consequences of sensory plasticity in guppies  

PubMed Central

Sensory plasticity, whereby individuals compensate for sensory deprivation in one sense by an improvement in the performance of an alternative sense, is a well-documented phenomenon in nature. Despite this, the behavioural and ecological consequences of sensory plasticity have not been addressed. Here we show experimentally that some components (vision and chemoreception) of the sensory system of guppies are developmentally plastic, and that this plasticity has important consequences for foraging behaviour. Guppies reared under low light conditions had a significantly stronger response to chemical food cues encountered in isolation than fish reared at higher light levels. Conversely, they exhibited a weaker response to visual-only cues. When visual and olfactory/gustatory cues were presented together, no difference between the strength of response for fish reared at different light intensities was evident. Our data suggest that guppies can compensate for experience of a visually poor, low light environment via a sensory switch from vision to olfaction/gustation. This switch from sight to chemoreception may allow individuals to carry out the foraging behaviour that is essential to their survival in a visually poor environment. These considerations are especially important given the increasing frequency of anthropogenic changes to ecosystems. Compensatory phenotypic plasticity as demonstrated by our study may provide a hitherto unconsidered buffer that could allow animals to perform fundamental behaviours in the face of considerable change to the sensory environment. PMID:20053643

Chapman, Ben B.; Morrell, Lesley J.; Tosh, Colin R.; Krause, Jens

2010-01-01

397

Neuropathic pain: is quantitative sensory testing helpful?  

PubMed

Neuropathic pain arises as a consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system and is characterised by a combination of positive and negative sensory symptoms. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) examines the sensory perception after application of different mechanical and thermal stimuli of controlled intensity and the function of both large (A-beta) and small (A-delta and C) nerve fibres, including the corresponding central pathways. QST can be used to determine detection, pain thresholds and stimulus-response curves and can thus detect both negative and positive sensory signs, the second ones not being assessed by other methods. Similarly to all other psychophysical tests QST requires standardised examination, instructions and data evaluation to receive valid and reliable results. Since normative data are available, QST can contribute also to the individual diagnosis of neuropathy, especially in the case of isolated small-fibre neuropathy, in contrast to the conventional electrophysiology which assesses only large myelinated fibres. For example, detection of early stages of subclinical neuropathy in symptomatic or asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus can be helpful to optimise treatment and identify diabetic foot at risk of ulceration. QST assessed the individual's sensory profile and thus can be valuable to evaluate the underlying pain mechanisms which occur in different frequencies even in the same neuropathic pain syndromes. Furthermore, assessing the exact sensory phenotype by QST might be useful in the future to identify responders to certain treatments in accordance to the underlying pain mechanisms. PMID:22623149

Krumova, Elena K; Geber, Christian; Westermann, Andrea; Maier, Christoph

2012-08-01

398

Anthropogenic noise affects behavior across sensory modalities.  

PubMed

Many species are currently experiencing anthropogenically driven environmental changes. Among these changes, increasing noise levels are specifically a problem for species using acoustic signals (i.e., species relying on signals that use the same sensory modality as anthropogenic noise). Yet many species use other sensory modalities, such as visual and olfactory signals, to communicate. However, we have only little understanding of whether changes in the acoustic environment affect species that use sensory modalities other than acoustic signals. We studied the impact of anthropogenic noise on the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, which uses highly complex visual signals. We showed that cuttlefish adjusted their visual displays by changing their color more frequently during a playback of anthropogenic noise, compared with before and after the playback. Our results provide experimental evidence that anthropogenic noise has a marked effect on the behavior of species that are not reliant on acoustic communication. Thus, interference in one sensory channel, in this case the acoustic one, affects signaling in other sensory channels. By considering sensory channels in isolation, we risk overlooking the broader implications of environmental changes for the behavior of animals. PMID:25226190

Kunc, Hansjoerg P; Lyons, Gillian N; Sigwart, Julia D; McLaughlin, Kirsty E; Houghton, Jonathan D R

2014-10-01

399

Eye-voice-controlled interface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ocular Attention-Sensing Interface System (OASIS) is an innovative human-computer interface which utilizes eye movement and voice commands to communicate messages between the operator and the system. This report initially describes some technical issues relevant to the development of such an interface. The results of preliminary experiments which evaluate alternative eye processing algorithms and feedback techniques are presented. Candidate interface applications are also discussed.

Glenn, Floyd A., III; Iavecchia, Helene P.; Ross, Lorna V.; Stokes, James M.; Weiland, William J.

1986-01-01

400

1 Dorsal eye selector pannier (pnr) suppresses the eye fate to define dorsal margin of 2 the Drosophila eye  

E-print Network

1 Dorsal eye selector pannier (pnr) suppresses the eye fate to define dorsal margin of 2 the Drosophila eye 3 Sarah M. Oros a,b,1 , Meghana Tare b,1 , Madhuri Kango-Singh a,b,c , Amit Singh a,b,c, 4 xxxx 141516 17 Keywords: 18 Drosophila eye 19 Dorso-ventral eye patterning 20 Pannier 21 GATA-1 22

Singh, Amit

401

Eye movement detector calibration device.  

PubMed

Presented is a device developed for specifically calibrating and validating the operation of Eye Movement Detectors or Monitors. The Calibrator centers on two one inch diameter HPDE spheres representing the eyes. A Laser Module is embedded in the rear of each sphere emitting a beam against a target divided in equal measurement intervals mounted as part of the device. The device moves the "eyes" about its center axes enabling the user to validate any vertical, horizontal, or X-Y combination eye position in a plus or minus fifteen degree range. Although hand controlled, the Calibrator can be motorized with stepper motors or other desired drivers. Anatomically correct sized pupils are imbedded in the front of each "eye," thereby acting as the target for whichever system is under test by the very portable Calibrator. Currently, a simple battery controlled circuit controls the laser modules and other electric requirements with accommodation for additional circuit components if required in the future. Specifically designed for validating the operation of an IR Reflective Differencing Saccadic Eye Movement Measurement System, the Calibrator can also be used with little or no alteration for validation of camera systems and other types of devices. PMID:15133997

Pruchsner, William R; Zenker, Michael; Enderle, John D

2004-01-01

402

Eye Safety At Work Is Everyone's Business.  

E-print Network

Eye Safety At Work Is Everyone's Business. Preventing Work-Related Eye Injuries Each day, about 2,000 U.S. workers receive medical treatment because of eye injuries sustained at work. Workplace injury is a leading cause of eye trauma, vision loss, disability, and blindness, and can interfere with your ability

Baker, Chris I.

403

Pink Eye Conjunctivitis Definition, Symptoms and Causes  

E-print Network

Pink Eye ­ Conjunctivitis Definition, Symptoms and Causes Pink eye is the common name given to inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye. It is otherwise called conjunctivitis. The conjunctiva is the transparent membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the whites of the eyes. Very small, superficial blood

Suzuki, Masatsugu

404

The Human Eye June 4, 2009  

E-print Network

The Human Eye T. Albers June 4, 2009 1 #12;1 Abstract The eyes provide a profound part of the human in my research. The eye is a biological system and, as such, does not lend itself to simplification Introduction Upon researching the human eye I have found it to be an exquisitely engineered piece of equipment

La Rosa, Andres H.

405

Eye injuries from assault with chemicals.  

PubMed Central

Sixty four patients with eye injuries resulting from assault with chemicals were reviewed. In 17 eyes of 16 patients there was total corneal epithelial loss with varying degrees of limbal ischaemia. Nine eyes were effectively blinded and two eyes suffered less severe but permanent impairment of vision. PMID:2393641

Beare, J D

1990-01-01

406

Mapping Eye Movements to Cognitive Processes  

E-print Network

. In recent years researchers have increasingly employed eye movements to study cognition in psychological for identifying fixations in raw eye­movement protocols and provides a working system, EyeTracer, that embodies. The equation­solving studies show how the algorithms can code, or interpret, eye­movement protocols

407

Mapping Eye Movements to Cognitive Processes  

E-print Network

. In recent years researchers have increasingly employed eye movements to study cognition in psychological for identifying fixations in raw eye-movement protocols and provides a working system, EyeTracer, that embodies. The equation-solving studies show how the algorithms can code, or interpret, eye-movement protocols

408

Effect of altered sensory conditions on multivariate descriptors of human postural sway  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multivariate descriptors of sway were used to test whether altered sensory conditions result not only in changes in amount of sway but also in postural coordination. Eigenvalues and directions of eigenvectors of the covariance of shnk and hip angles were used as a set of multivariate descriptors. These quantities were measured in 14 healthy adult subjects performing the Sensory Organization test, which disrupts visual and somatosensory information used for spatial orientation. Multivariate analysis of variance and discriminant analysis showed that resulting sway changes were at least bivariate in character, with visual and somatosensory conditions producing distinct changes in postural coordination. The most significant changes were found when somatosensory information was disrupted by sway-referencing of the support surface (P = 3.2 x 10(-10)). The resulting covariance measurements showed that subjects not only swayed more but also used increased hip motion analogous to the hip strategy. Disruption of vision, by either closing the eyes or sway-referencing the visual surround, also resulted in altered sway (P = 1.7 x 10(-10)), with proportionately more motion of the center of mass than with platform sway-referencing. As shown by discriminant analysis, an optimal univariate measure could explain at most 90% of the behavior due to altered sensory conditions. The remaining 10%, while smaller, are highly significant changes in posture control that depend on sensory conditions. The results imply that normal postural coordination of the trunk and legs requires both somatosensory and visual information and that each sensory modality makes a unique contribution to posture control. Descending postural commands are multivariate in nature, and the motion at each joint is affected uniquely by input from multiple sensors.

Kuo, A. D.; Speers, R. A.; Peterka, R. J.; Horak, F. B.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

409

The eye at altitude.  

PubMed

High altitude retinopathy (HAR) was first described in 1969 as engorgement of retinal veins with occasional papilloedema and vitreous hemorrhage. Since then various studies have attempted to define the incidence, etiology and significance of this phenomenon, usually with small numbers of subjects. Recently studies on relatively large groups of subjects in Nepal, Bolivia and Tibet have confirmed that the retinal vasculature becomes engorged and tortuous in all lowlanders ascending above 2500m. Sometimes this leads to hemorrhages, cotton wool spots and papilloedema, which is the pathological state better known as high altitude retinopathy. These studies have also shown a significant change in both corneal thickness and intraocular pressure at altitude. The retinal blood vessels are the only directly observable vascular system in the human body and also supply some of the most oxygen-demanding tissue, the photoreceptors of the retina. New techniques are being applied in both hypobaric chamber and field expeditions to observe changes in retinal function during conditions of hypobaric hypoxia. This work allows better advice to be given to lowlanders traveling to altitude either if they have pre-existing ocular conditions or if they suffer from visual problems whilst at altitude. This especially applies to the effect of altitude on refractive eye surgery and results of recent studies will be discussed so that physicians can advise their patients using the latest evidence. Retinal hypoxia at sea level accounts for the developed world's largest cause of blindness, diabetic retinopathy. The investigation of retinal response to hypobaric hypoxia in healthy subjects may open new avenues for treatment of this debilitating disease. PMID:17089894

Morris, Daniel S; Somner, John; Donald, Michael J; McCormick, Ian J C; Bourne, Rupert R A; Huang, Suber S; Aspinall, Peter; Dhillon, Baljean

2006-01-01

410

When the Wheels Touch Earth and the Flight is Through, Pilots Find One Eye is Better Than Two?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study investigated the impact of near to eye displays on both operational and visual performance by employing a human-in-the-loop simulation of straight-in ILS approaches while using a near to eye (NTE) display. The approaches were flown in simulated visual and instrument conditions while using either a biocular NTE or a monocular NTE display on either the dominant or non dominant eye. The pilot s flight performance, visual acuity, and ability to detect unsafe conditions on the runway were tested.

Valimont, Brian; Wise, John A.; Nichols, Troy; Best, Carl; Suddreth, John; Cupero, Frank

2009-01-01

411

EyeMusic: Performing Live Music and Multimedia Compositions with Eye Movements  

E-print Network

EyeMusic: Performing Live Music and Multimedia Compositions with Eye Movements Anthony J. Hornof In this project, eye tracking researchers and computer music composers collaborate to create musical compositions that are played with the eyes. A commercial eye tracker (LC Technologies Eyegaze) is connected to a music

Hornof, Anthony

412

EyeDraw: A System for Drawing Pictures with Eye Movements  

E-print Network

EyeDraw: A System for Drawing Pictures with Eye Movements Anthony Hornof, Anna Cavender, and Rob and development of EyeDraw, a software program that will enable children with severe mobility impairments to use an eye tracker to draw pictures with their eyes so that they can have the same creative developmental

Cavender, Anna C.

413

The small eye phenotype in the EPIC-Norfolk eye study  

E-print Network

The small eye phenotype in the EPIC-Norfolk eye study: prevalence and visual impairment. The small eye phenotype in the EPIC-Norfolk eye study: prevalence and visual impairment in microphthalmos at Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, London, UK 2 Department

Guillas, Serge

414

Chapter 17 Eye-head Gaze shifts Oxford Handbook on Eye Movements  

E-print Network

1 Chapter 17 Eye-head Gaze shifts Oxford Handbook on Eye Movements "The Neural Basis of Gaze Shifts" 1. Kinematics of eye-head gaze shifts a. Terminology for describing eye-head gaze shifts b. Variability in eye and head motion during gaze shifts c. Gaze shifts in complex environments d. Bottom

Corneil, Brian D.

415

Eects of eye position on estimates of eye displacement for spatial updating  

E-print Network

E¡ects of eye position on estimates of eye displacement for spatial updating Masaki Tanaka cortex represent spatial memory of visual stimuli in an eye-centered coordinate frame. To preserve spatial stability across eye movements, spatial memory must be updated during each eye movement. Because

Crawford, Doug

416

Normal sensory and absent cognitive electrophysiological responses in functional visual loss following chemical eye burn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To present a unique case of a 34-year-old patient with unilateral functional visual loss after chemical burn with normal visual\\u000a evoked potentials (VEPs) and absent cognitive response (P300 wave).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Visual functions, complete ophthalmic and neurologic examinations including computed tomography of the brain, electrophysiological\\u000a testing of the visual pathway up to the cognitive brain cortex were evaluated. Data were collected prospectively

Nada Jiraskova; Miroslav Kuba; Jan Kremlacek; Pavel Rozsival

2011-01-01

417

Calibration of an eye oximeter with a dynamic eye phantom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of oxygen saturation and flow in the retina can yield information about the eye health and the onset of eye pathologies such as Diabetic Retinopathy. Recently we have realized an instrument capable of measuring oxygenation in the retina using six different wavelengths and capable of measuring blood flow using speckle-based techniques. The calibration of such instrument is particularly difficult due to the layered structure of the eye and the lack of alternative measurement techniques. For this purpose we have realized an in vitro model of the human eye. The artificial eye is composed of four layers: the retina vessels, the choroids, the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), and the sclera. The retina vessels are modeled with 150 ?m tube connected to a micro-pump delivering 34 ?l/min. The micro-tube, the pump, and a blood reservoir were connected in a closed circulatory system; blood oxygenation in the vessel could be modified using an external oxygen reservoir. The optical properties of all other layers were mimicked using titanium dioxide as a scatterer and ink as an absorber. The absorption coefficient ?a and the scattering coefficient µs of these layers were independently measured using an integrating sphere. Absorption and scattering coefficient of all layers were modified before experimental measurements and a Monte Carlo program was finally used to model the experimental results.

Nabili, A.; Bardakci, D.; Helling, K.; Matyas, C.; Muro, S.; Ramella-Roman, J. C.

2008-02-01

418

Finger Enslaving in the Dominant and Non-Dominant Hand  

PubMed Central

During single-finger force production, the non-instructed fingers unintentionally produce force (finger enslaving). In this study, enslaving effects were compared between the dominant and non-dominant hands. The test consisted of a series of maximum voluntary contractions with different finger combinations. Enslaving matrices were calculated by means of training an artificial neural network. The dominant hand was found to be stronger, but there was found to be no difference between the overall enslaving effects in the dominant and non-dominant hands. There was no correlation between the magnitude of finger enslaving and the performance in such tests as the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, the Grooved Pegboard test, and the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function test. Each one of those three tests showed a significant difference between the dominant and non-dominant hand performances. Eleven subjects were retested after two months, and it was found that enslaving effects did not fluctuate significantly between the two testing sessions. While the dominant and non-dominant hands are involved differently in everyday tasks, e.g. in writing or eating, this practice does not cause significant differences in enslaving between the hands. PMID:24360253

Wilhelm, Luke A.; Martin, Joel R.; Latash, Mark L.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.

2014-01-01

419

Learning about Sensory Integration Dysfunction: Strategies to Meet Young Children's Sensory Needs at Home  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Practitioners and parents are seeking ways to help children who are not able to integrate sensory information; this has generated recent media attention. A child's inability to integrate sensory information can have implications for the whole family and their everyday routines. Research conducted by occupational therapists has provided a rich…

Thompson, Stacy D.; Rains, Kari W.

2009-01-01

420

MTH 995-1, Mathematical modeling of human sensory systems I: Fundamentals of human sensory systems  

E-print Network

). They consist of sensory receptors, neural pathways, and parts of the brain involved in sensory perception governing equations for stimulus receptors, neural pathways and brain perceptions so as to understand. Human brain recognizes only electric signals, while external stimuli are chemical, physical, mechanical

421

Control of the gain of visual-motor transmission occurs in visual coordinates for smooth pursuit eye movements  

PubMed Central

Sensory inputs control motor behavior with a strength, or gain, that can be modulated according to the movement conditions. In smooth pursuit eye movements, the response to a brief perturbation of target motion is larger during pursuit of a moving target than during fixation of a stationary target. As a step towards identifying the locus and mechanism of gain modulation, we test whether it acts on signals that are in visual or motor coordinates. Monkeys tracked targets that moved at 15 deg/s in one of 8 directions, including left, right, up, down, and the 4 oblique directions. In eight-ninths of the trials, the target underwent a brief perturbation that consisted of a single cycle of a 10 Hz sine wave of amplitude ±5 deg/s in one of the same 8 directions. Even for oblique directions of baseline target motion, the magnitude of the eye velocity response to the perturbation was largest for a perturbation near the axis of target motion and smallest for a perturbation along the orthogonal axis. Computational modeling reveals that our data are reproduced when the strength of visual-motor transmission is modulated in sensory coordinates, and there is a static motor bias that favors horizontal eye movements. A network model shows how the output from the smooth eye movement region of the frontal eye fields (FEFSEM) could implement gain control by shifting the peak of a visual population response along the axes of preferred image speed and direction. PMID:23719810

Lee, Joonyeol; Yang, Jin; Lisberger, Stephen G.

2013-01-01

422

Peripapillary Retinoschisis in Glaucomatous Eyes  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the structural and clinical characteristics of peripapillary retinoschisis observed in glaucomatous eyes using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods Circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) and macular cross-hair SD-OCT scans and infrared fundus images of the glaucoma patients from the Investigating Glaucoma Progression Study (IGPS) and healthy volunteers were reviewed. Optic disc images obtained using enhanced depth imaging (EDI) SD-OCT were also evaluated. The structural characteristics and clinical course of the retinoschisis associated with glaucoma were investigated. Results Twenty-five retinoschisis areas were found in 22 of the 372 patients (5.9%) included in the IGPS, and in 1 area in 1 of 187 healthy control subjects (0.5%). In the 22 glaucomatous eyes with retinoschisis, the schisis was attached to the optic disc and overlapped with the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defect. The RNFL was the layer most commonly affected by the retinoschisis, either alone or together with other deeper layers. Acquired optic disc pit was identified in 8 eyes on disc photography and/or B-scan images obtained by EDI SD-OCT. Spontaneous resolution of this condition was observed in nine eyes. No retinal detachment or macular involvement of the retinoschisis was observed in any of the eyes. Multivariate analysis showed a significant influence of a higher intraocular pressure at SD-OCT scanning on the presence of retinoschisis (Odds ratio ?=?1.418, P?=?0.001). Conclusions The present study investigated 22 cases of peripapillary retinoschisis in glaucomatous eyes. The retinoschisis was attached to the optic nerve and topographically correlated with RNFL defect. It often resolved spontaneously without causing severe visual disturbance. Care should be taken not to overestimate the RNFL thickness in eyes with retinoschisis, and also not to misinterpret the resolution of retinoschisis as a rapid glaucomatous RNFL deterioration. PMID:24587238

Lee, Eun Ji; Kim, Tae-Woo; Kim, Mijin; Choi, Yun Jeong

2014-01-01

423

Optical coherence tomography of the eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a new technique for high-resolution, cross-sectional imaging of tissue in which the time-of-flight delay of light reflected from internal tissue structures is resolved with high precision using interferometry. Tomographic images are obtained which are analogous to those provided by ultrasound except that image contrast relies on differences in optical rather than acoustic properties of tissue. The use of light rather than sound enables higher resolution (10 ?m) and non-contact imaging. A clinically viable high-sensitivity, fiber-optic based OCT instrument has been constructed based on engineering principles derived from optical communication theory. Computer algorithms have also been developed for quantitative image analysis and restoration. OCT has been used to image patients with a variety of ocular diseases. In patients with macular pathology, OCT images have been correlated with conventional clinical examination and fluorescein angiography. Optical coherence tomograms are effective in staging macular holes, evaluating the vitreoretinal interface in eyes at risk for a macular hole, and providing a structural assessment of macular hole surgery. In eyes with central serous chorioretinopathy, OCT can evaluate sensory retinal separations undetected at the slit-lamp. Serial OCT images of macular edema are able to track both the progression of macular thickening and the resolution of macular edema following laser photocoagulation. In patients with diabetic retinopathy, measurements of macular thickness correlate with visual acuity and OCT is more sensitive to small changes in retinal thickness than slit-lamp biomicroscopy. OCT may provide a novel method of defining occult choroidal neovascular membranes in patients with age-related macular degeneration. OCT can also profile the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer with high resolution which is potentially important for the objective assessment of early glaucoma progression. OCT images have been correlated with visual field performance and optic nerve appearance in a cross- section of patients with various stages of glaucoma. These studies suggest that OCT has the potential to become an important diagnostic tool for the practicing ophthalmologist. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)

Hee, Michael Richard

1997-10-01

424

CorrelationBased Development of OcularlyMatched Orientation and Ocular Dominance Maps: Determination of Required Input  

E-print Network

of ocular dominance requires that an input's correlations with other inputs from the same eye be strongerCorrelation­Based Development of Ocularly­Matched Orientation and Ocular Dominance Maps and Miller --- September 16, 1998 1 Abstract We extend previous models for separate development of ocular

Columbia University

425

Bilateral Sensory Abnormalities in Patients with Unilateral Neuropathic Pain; A Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) Study  

PubMed Central

In patients who experience unilateral chronic pain, abnormal sensory perception at the non-painful side has been reported. Contralateral sensory changes in these patients have been given little attention, possibly because they are regarded as clinically irrelevant. Still, bilateral sensory changes in these patients could become clinically relevant if they challenge the correct identification of their sensory dysfunction in terms of hyperalgesia and allodynia. Therefore, we have used the standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS) to investigate somatosensory function at the painful side and the corresponding non-painful side in unilateral neuropathic pain patients using gender- and age-matched healthy volunteers as a reference cohort. Sensory abnormalities were observed across all QST parameters at the painful side, but also, to a lesser extent, at the contralateral, non-painful side. Similar relative distributions regarding sensory loss/gain for non-nociceptive and nociceptive stimuli were found for both sides. Once a sensory abnormality for a QST parameter at the affected side was observed, the prevalence of an abnormality for the same parameter at the non-affected side was as high as 57% (for Pressure Pain Threshold). Our results show that bilateral sensory dysfunction in patients with unilateral neuropathic pain is more rule than exception. Therefore, this phenomenon should be taken into account for appropriate diagnostic evaluation in clinical practice. This is particularly true for mechanical stimuli where the 95% Confidence Interval for the prevalence of sensory abnormalities at the non-painful side ranges between 33% and 50%. PMID:22629414

Konopka, Karl-Heinz; Harbers, Marten; Houghton, Andrea; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Vliet, Andre; Timmerman, Wia; den Boer, Johan A.; Struys, Michel M.R.F.; van Wijhe, Marten

2012-01-01

426

Bilateral sensory abnormalities in patients with unilateral neuropathic pain; a quantitative sensory testing (QST) study.  

PubMed

In patients who experience unilateral chronic pain, abnormal sensory perception at the non-painful side has been reported. Contralateral sensory changes in these patients have been given little attention, possibly because they are regarded as clinically irrelevant. Still, bilateral sensory changes in these patients could become clinically relevant if they challenge the correct identification of their sensory dysfunction in terms of hyperalgesia and allodynia. Therefore, we have used the standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS) to investigate somatosensory function at the painful side and the corresponding non-painful side in unilateral neuropathic pain patients using gender- and age-matched healthy volunteers as a reference cohort. Sensory abnormalities were observed across all QST parameters at the painful side, but also, to a lesser extent, at the contralateral, non-painful side. Similar relative distributions regarding sensory loss/gain for non-nociceptive and nociceptive stimuli were found for both sides. Once a sensory abnormality for a QST parameter at the affected side was observed, the prevalence of an abnormality for the same parameter at the non-affected side was as high as 57% (for Pressure Pain Threshold). Our results show that bilateral sensory dysfunction in patients with unilateral neuropathic pain is more rule than exception. Therefore, this phenomenon should be taken into account for appropriate diagnostic evaluation in clinical practice. This is particularly true for mechanical stimuli where the 95% Confidence Interval for the prevalence of sensory abnormalities at the non-painful side ranges between 33% and 50%. PMID:22629414

Konopka, Karl-Heinz; Harbers, Marten; Houghton, Andrea; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Vliet, Andre; Timmerman, Wia; den Boer, Johan A; Struys, Michel M R F; van Wijhe, Marten

2012-01-01

427

Videos from the National Eye Institute: Eye Diseases | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... Javascript on. Feature: Vision Videos from the National Eye Institute: Eye Diseases Past Issues / Winter 2012 Table of Contents ... Rachel Bishop, NEI’s Chief of Consult Services, discusses eye health and the importance of comprehensive dilated exams ...

428

Transcriptional regulation of cranial sensory placode development.  

PubMed

Cranial sensory placodes derive from discrete patches of the head ectoderm and give rise to numerous sensory structures. During gastrulation, a specialized "neural border zone" forms around the neural plate in response to interactions between the neural and nonneural ectoderm and signals from adjacent mesodermal and/or endodermal tissues. This zone subsequently gives rise to two distinct precursor populations of the peripheral nervous system: the neural crest and the preplacodal ectoderm (PPE). The PPE is a common field from which all cranial sensory placodes arise (adenohypophyseal, olfactory, lens, trigeminal, epibranchial, otic). Members of the Six family of transcription factors are major regulators of PPE specification, in partnership with cofactor proteins such as Eya. Six gene activity also maintains tissue boundaries between the PPE, neural crest, and epidermis by repressing genes that specify the fates of those adjacent ectodermally derived domains. As the embryo acquires anterior-posterior identity, the PPE becomes transcriptionally regionalized, and it subsequently becomes subdivided into specific placodes with distinct developmental fates in response to signaling from adjacent tissues. Each placode is characterized by a unique transcriptional program that leads to the differentiation of highly specialized cells, such as neurosecretory cells, sensory receptor cells, chemosensory neurons, peripheral glia, and supporting cells. In this review, we summarize the transcriptional and signaling factors that regulate key steps of placode development, influence subsequent sensory neuron specification, and discuss what is known about mutations in some of the essential PPE genes that underlie human congenital syndromes. PMID:25662264

Moody, Sally A; LaMantia, Anthony-Samuel

2015-01-01

429

Sparsity and Compressed Coding in Sensory Systems  

PubMed Central

Considering that many natural stimuli are sparse, can a sensory system evolve to take advantage of this sparsity? We explore this question and show that significant downstream reductions in the numbers of neurons transmitting stimuli observed in early sensory pathways might be a consequence of this sparsity. First, we model an early sensory pathway using an idealized neuronal network comprised of receptors and downstream sensory neurons. Then, by revealing a linear structure intrinsic to neuronal network dynamics, our work points to a potential mechanism for transmitting sparse stimuli, related to compressed-sensing (CS) type data acquisition. Through simulation, we examine the characteristics of networks that are optimal in sparsity encoding, and the impact of localized receptive fields beyond conventional CS theory. The results of this work suggest a new network framework of signal sparsity, freeing the notion from any dependence on specific component-space representations. We expect our CS network mechanism to provide guidance for studying sparse stimulus transmission along realistic sensory pathways as well as engineering network designs that utilize sparsity encoding. PMID:25144745

Barranca, Victor J.; Kova?i?, Gregor; Zhou, Douglas; Cai, David

2014-01-01

430

Best practice eye care models  

PubMed Central

Since the launching of Global Initiative, VISION 2020 “the Right to Sight” many innovative, practical and unique comprehensive eye care services provision models have evolved targeting the underserved populations in different parts of the World. At places the rapid assessment of the burden of eye diseases in confined areas or utilizing the key informants for identification of eye diseases in the communities are promoted for better planning and evidence based advocacy for getting / allocation of resources for eye care. Similarly for detection and management of diabetes related blindness, retinopathy of prematurity and avoidable blindness at primary level, the major obstacles are confronted in reaching to them in a cost effective manner and then management of the identified patients accordingly. In this regard, the concept of tele-ophthalmology model sounds to be the best solution. Whereas other models on comprehensive eye care services provision have been emphasizing on surgical output through innovative scales of economy that generate income for the program and ensure its sustainability, while guaranteeing treatment of the poorest of the poor. PMID:22944741

Qureshi, Babar M; Mansur, Rabiu; Al-Rajhi, Abdulaziz; Lansingh, Van; Eckert, Kristen; Hassan, Kunle; Ravilla, Thulasiraj; Muhit, Mohammad; Khanna, Rohit C; Ismat, Chaudhry

2012-01-01

431

Active inference and oculomotor pursuit: The dynamic causal modelling of eye movements  

PubMed Central

Background This paper introduces a new paradigm that allows one to quantify the Bayesian beliefs evidenced by subjects during oculomotor pursuit. Subjects’ eye tracking responses to a partially occluded sinusoidal target were recorded non-invasively and averaged. These response averages were then analysed using dynamic causal modelling (DCM). In DCM, observed responses are modelled using biologically plausible generative or forward models – usually biophysical models of neuronal activity. New method Our key innovation is to use a generative model based on a normative (Bayes-optimal) model of active inference to model oculomotor pursuit in terms of subjects’ beliefs about how visual targets move and how their oculomotor system responds. Our aim here is to establish the face validity of the approach, by manipulating the content and precision of sensory information – and examining the ensuing changes in the subjects’ implicit beliefs. These beliefs are inferred from their eye movements using the normative model. Results We show that on average, subjects respond to an increase in the ‘noise’ of target motion by increasing sensory precision in their models of the target trajectory. In other words, they attend more to the sensory attributes of a noisier stimulus. Conversely, subjects only change kinetic parameters in their model but not precision, in response to increased target speed. Conclusions Using this technique one can estimate the precisions of subjects’ hierarchical Bayesian beliefs about target motion. We hope to apply this paradigm to subjects with schizophrenia, whose pursuit abnormalities may result from the abnormal encoding of precision. PMID:25583383

Adams, Rick A.; Aponte, Eduardo; Marshall, Louise; Friston, Karl J.

2015-01-01

432

Tracking with the mind's eye  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two components of voluntary tracking eye-movements in primates, pursuit and saccades, are generally viewed as relatively independent oculomotor subsystems that move the eyes in different ways using independent visual information. Although saccades have long been known to be guided by visual processes related to perception and cognition, only recently have psychophysical and physiological studies provided compelling evidence that pursuit is also guided by such higher-order visual processes, rather than by the raw retinal stimulus. Pursuit and saccades also do not appear to be entirely independent anatomical systems, but involve overlapping neural mechanisms that might be important for coordinating these two types of eye movement during the tracking of a selected visual object. Given that the recovery of objects from real-world images is inherently ambiguous, guiding both pursuit and saccades with perception could represent an explicit strategy for ensuring that these two motor actions are driven by a single visual interpretation.

Krauzlis, R. J.; Stone, L. S.

1999-01-01

433

Moving Ahead With Eye Power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory's collaborated with LC Technologies, Inc., to improve LCT's Eyegaze Communication System, an eye tracker that enables people with severe cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, strokes, brain injuries, spinal cord injuries, and ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) to communicate and control their environment using their eye movements. To operate the system, the user sits in front of the computer monitor while the camera focuses on one eye. By looking at control keys on the monitor for a fraction of a second, the user can 'talk' with speech synthesis, type, operate a telephone, access the Internet and e-mail, and run computer software. Nothing is attached to the user's head or body, and the improved size and portability allow the system to be mounted on a wheelchair. LCT and JPL are working on several other areas of improvement that have commercial add-on potential.

2002-01-01

434

The Integrated Development of Sensory Organization  

PubMed Central

Synopsis The natural environment provides a flux of concurrent stimulation to all our senses, and the integration of information from different sensory systems is a fundamental feature of perception and cognition. How information from the different senses is integrated has long been of concern to several scientific disciplines, including psychology, cognitive science, and the neurosciences, each with different questions and methodologies. In recent years, a growing body of evidence drawn from these various disciplines suggests that the development of early sensory organization is much more plastic and experience-dependent than was previously realized. In this article, I briefly explore some of these recent advances in our understanding of the development of sensory integration and organization and discuss implications of these advances for the care and management of the preterm infant. PMID:22107892

Lickliter, Robert

2011-01-01

435

STDP in the Developing Sensory Neocortex.  

PubMed

Spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) has been proposed as a mechanism for optimizing the tuning of neurons to sensory inputs, a process that underlies the formation of receptive field properties and associative memories. The properties of STDP must adjust during development to enable neurons to optimally tune their selectivity for environmental stimuli, but these changes are poorly understood. Here we review the properties of STDP and how these may change during development in primary sensory cortical layers 2/3 and 4, initial sites for intracortical processing. We provide a primer discussing postnatal developmental changes in synaptic proteins and neuromodulators that are thought to influence STDP induction and expression. We propose that STDP is shaped by, but also modifies, synapses to produce refinements in neuronal responses to sensory inputs. PMID:21423495

Larsen, Rylan S; Rao, Deepti; Manis, Paul B; Philpot, Benjamin D

2010-01-01

436

Migration and sensory evaluation of irradiated polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects on ionising irradiation on polymer additives, monomers and polymers themselves have been investigated. Changes of initial concentrations of certain additives and monomers, a change in their specific migration as well as sensory changes of the polymers were examined. Polymer stabilizers such as Irganox 1076 and Irgafos 168 used in polyethylene were found to be degraded by ionising radiation. Decreased concentrations of stabilisers in polyolefins led to lower specific migration, however, not to lower overall migration into food simulants. Irganox 1076 levels in polystyrene did not change up to irradiation doses of 54 kGy. Sensory properties of LDPE, HDPE, PA6 and PA12 worsened, while sensory properties of PS improved with increasing irradiation doses.

Stoffers, Niels H.; Linssen, Jozef P. H.; Franz, Roland; Welle, Frank

2004-09-01

437

STDP in the Developing Sensory Neocortex  

PubMed Central

Spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) has been proposed as a mechanism for optimizing the tuning of neurons to sensory inputs, a process that underlies the formation of receptive field properties and associative memories. The properties of STDP must adjust during development to enable neurons to optimally tune their selectivity for environmental stimuli, but these changes are poorly understood. Here we review the properties of STDP and how these may change during development in primary sensory cortical layers 2/3 and 4, initial sites for intracortical processing. We provide a primer discussing postnatal developmental changes in synaptic proteins and neuromodulators that are thought to influence STDP induction and expression. We propose that STDP is shaped by, but also modifies, synapses to produce refinements in neuronal responses to sensory inputs. PMID:21423495

Larsen, Rylan S.; Rao, Deepti; Manis, Paul B.; Philpot, Benjamin D.

2010-01-01

438

A Bayesian framework for sensory adaptation.  

PubMed

Adaptation allows biological sensory systems to adjust to variations in the environment and thus to deal better with them. In this article, we propose a general framework of sensory adaptation. The underlying principle of this framework is the setting of internal parameters of the system such that certain prespecified tasks can be performed optimally. Because sensorial inputs vary probabilistically with time and biological mechanisms have noise, the tasks could be performed incorrectly. We postulate that the goal of adaptation is to minimize the number of task errors. This minimization requires prior knowledge of the environment and of the limitations of the mechanisms processing the information. Because these processes are probabilistic, we formulate the minimization with a Bayesian approach. Application of this Bayesian framework to the retina is successful in accounting for a host of experimental findings. PMID:11860682

Grzywacz, Norberto M; Balboa, Rosario M

2002-03-01

439

Capsaicin pretreatment prevents disruption of the blood-aqueous barrier in the rabbit eye  

SciTech Connect

Capsaicin, the irritating agent of red pepper, produces ocular inflammation through a neurogenic mechanism. The present study is concerned with the long-term effects of capsaicin pretreatment on the capacity of the eye to respond to different inflammatory stimuli. Following retrobulbar injection of capsaicin to rabbits the aqueous flare response induced by subsequent infrared irradiation (IR) of the iris, subcutaneously administered alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and exogenously administered prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was reduced greatly. In the case of IR and alpha-MSH the reduced responsiveness was manifest for several weeks after capsaicin pretreatment, involving first the capsaicin-treated eye, but later also the contralateral control eye. After 2-3 months the aqueous flare response was normal in both eyes. In the case of PGE2 the responsiveness was reduced for a shorter time; after 3 weeks the response was normal in both eyes. The results indicate that all three stimuli tested are at least partly dependent upon an intact sensory innervation to disrupt the blood-aqueous barrier, but that the mechanism of action of PGE2 is different from that of IR and alpha-MSH.

Bynke, G.

1983-06-01

440

Dietary Sources of Lutein and Zeaxanthin Carotenoids and Their Role in Eye Health  

PubMed Central

The eye is a major sensory organ that requires special care for a healthy and productive lifestyle. Numerous studies have identified lutein and zeaxanthin to be essential components for eye health. Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoid pigments that impart yellow or orange color to various common foods such as cantaloupe, pasta, corn, carrots, orange/yellow peppers, fish, salmon and eggs. Their role in human health, in particular the health of the eye, is well established from epidemiological, clinical and interventional studies. They constitute the main pigments found in the yellow spot of the human retina which protect the macula from damage by blue light, improve visual acuity and scavenge harmful reactive oxygen species. They have also been linked with reduced risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cataracts. Research over the past decade has focused on the development of carotenoid-rich foods to boost their intake especially in the elderly population. The aim of this article is to review recent scientific evidences supporting the benefits of lutein and zexanthin in preventing the onset of two major age-related eye diseases with diets rich in these carotenoids. The review also lists major dietary sources of lutein and zeaxanthin and refers to newly developed foods, daily intake, bioavailability and physiological effects in relation to eye health. Examples of the newly developed high-lutein functional foods are also underlined. PMID:23571649

Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M.; Akhtar, Humayoun; Zaheer, Khalid; Ali, Rashida

2013-01-01

441

Deficits in sensory organization for postural stability in children with Tourette syndrome.  

PubMed

Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset developmental disorder characterized by involuntary motor and vocal tics. Previous studies have indicated that children with TS demonstrate postural control anomalies when standing. The aim of this study was to compare postural stability under normal and altered sensory conditions in children with TS and healthy control (HC) children. A convenience sample of twelve children with TS (9 boys and 3 girls; 9.4±1.1yr) and 12 HC age- and gender-matched children (9.2±1.1yr) participated in this study. The Sensory Organization Test (SOT) was used to assess postural stability under six altered sensory conditions (1. normal vision, fixed support; 2. eyes closed, fixed support; 3. vision sway-referenced, fixed support; 4. normal vision, support sway-referenced; 5. eyes closed, support surface sway-referenced; 6. both vision and support surface sway-referenced) using the SMART Balance Master® 8.2 (NeuroCom® International, Inc, Clackamas, OR, USA). The results showed significant differences between the two groups in conditions 5 and 6 (p=0.003 and 0.002, respectively). The mean composite equilibrium score in children with TS was significantly lower than that of HC children (p<0.000). The results suggested that children with TS had greater difficulty in maintaining postural stability, especially when vestibular information was challenged. The results of this study provide supporting evidence for possible deficits in impaired access to vestibular information and sensorimotor integration of postural control in children with TS. PMID:25683311

Liu, Wen-Yu; Ya-TingHsu; Lien, Hen-Yu; Wang, Huei-Shyong; Wong, Alice May-Kuen; Tang, Simon Fuk-Tan; Lin, Yang-Hua

2015-02-01

442

Sensory synergy as environmental input integration  

PubMed Central

The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS) remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with nine healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis' sensory system to make the controller simpler. PMID:25628523

Alnajjar, Fady; Itkonen, Matti; Berenz, Vincent; Tournier, Maxime; Nagai, Chikara; Shimoda, Shingo

2015-01-01

443

Feasibility of sensory tongue stimulation combined with task-specific therapy in people with spinal cord injury: a case study  

PubMed Central

Background Previous evidence suggests the effects of task-specific therapy can be further enhanced when sensory stimulation is combined with motor practice. Sensory tongue stimulation is thought to facilitate activation of regions in the brain that are important for balance and gait. Improvements in balance and gait have significant implications for functional mobility for people with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). The aim of this case study was to evaluate the feasibility of a lab- and home-based program combining sensory tongue stimulation with balance and gait training on functional outcomes in people with iSCI. Methods Two male participants (S1 and S2) with chronic motor iSCI completed 12 weeks of balance and gait training (3 lab and 2 home based sessions per week) combined with sensory tongue stimulation using the Portable Neuromodulation Stimulator (PoNS). Laboratory based training involved 20 minutes of standing balance with eyes closed and 30 minutes of body-weight support treadmill walking. Home based sessions consisted of balancing with eyes open and walking with parallel bars or a walker for up to 20 minutes each. Subjects continued daily at-home training for an additional 12 weeks as follow-up. Results Both subjects were able to complete a minimum of 83% of the training sessions. Standing balance with eyes closed increased from 0.2 to 4.0 minutes and 0.0 to 0.2 minutes for S1 and S2, respectively. Balance confidence also improved at follow-up after the home-based program. Over ground walking speed improved by 0.14 m/s for S1 and 0.07 m/s for S2, and skilled walking function improved by 60% and 21% for S1 and S2, respectively. Conclusions Sensory tongue stimulation combined with task-specific training may be a feasible method for improving balance and gait in people with iSCI. Our findings warrant further controlled studies to determine the added benefits of sensory tongue stimulation to rehabilitation training. PMID:24906679

2014-01-01

444

The basis of phase dominance.  

PubMed

Phase dominance is a phenomenon that has been widely observed in imaging, visual perception, and other technical areas. Here we show for general images that phase dominance, in terms of exchanging the spectral amplitude and phase of two images, is simply explained by the expected mean square error. PMID:19724506

Millane, R P; Hsiao, W H

2009-09-01

445

Dominant Leadership Style in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dominant leadership style is defined by the situation and the kind of organizational environment and climate. This, however, does not sufficiently define the leadership qualities in school organizations. There are other factors which also determine the dominant leadership style, which are the traits and style, teachers commitments, pass out…

Rajbhandari, Mani Man Singh

2006-01-01

446

Eye-movements and ongoing task processing.  

PubMed

This study tests the relation between eye-movements and thought processing. Subjects were given specific modality tasks (visual, gustatory, kinesthetic) and assessed on whether they responded with distinct eye-movements. Some subjects' eye-movements reflected ongoing thought processing. Instead of a universal pattern, as suggested by the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis, this study yielded subject-specific idiosyncratic eye-movements across all modalities. Included is a discussion of the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis regarding eye-movements and its implications for the eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing theory. PMID:12929791

Burke, David T; Meleger, Alec; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Snyder, Jim; Dorvlo, Atsu S S; Al-Adawi, Samir

2003-06-01

447

Supervision: a 'fresh eyes' approach.  

PubMed

As recent reports question the safety of some maternity services and of the accuracy of identifying risk factors in midwifery practice, this article advocates the use of 'fresh eyes' reviews of our own practice, that of our peers and the practice within our organisations. If, as the literature indicates, there is no evidence of sustained transformational change through compliance as opposed to commitment, then our engagement and motivation to adopt 'fresh eyes' approaches to our practice, may lead to improved patient outcomes, including rates of mortality. PMID:22324129

Paeglis, Carol

2012-01-01

448

Radiation effects on eye components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most important water-soluble components of the vertebrate eye (lens proteins, aqueous humor, vitreous, hyaluronic acid, ascorbic acid) have been investigated in aqueous solution, after preceding X- or UV-irradiation. Spectroscopic, chromatographic, electrophoretic, hydrodynamic and analytic techniques have been applied, to monitor several radiation damages such as destruction of aromatic and sulfur-containing amino acids, aggregation, crosslinking, dissociation, fragmentation, and partial unfolding. Various substances were found which were able to protect eye components effectively against radiation, some of them being also of medical relevance.

Durchschlag, H.; Fochler, C.; Abraham, K.; Kulawik, B.

1999-08-01

449

Dendritic BDNF Synthesis Is Required for Late-phase Spine Maturation and Recovery of Cortical Responses Following Sensory Deprivation  

PubMed Central

Sensory experience in early postnatal life shapes neuronal connections in the brain. Here we report that the local synthesis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in dendrites plays an important role in this process. We found that dendritic spines of layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons of the visual cortex in mutant mice lacking dendritic Bdnf mRNA and thus local BDNF synthesis were normal at 3 weeks of age, but thinner, longer, and more closely spaced (morphological features of immaturity) at 4 months of age than in wild-type (WT) littermates. Layer 2/3 of the visual cortex in these mutant animals also had fewer GABAergic presynaptic terminals at both ages. The overall size and shape of dendritic arbors were, however, similar in mutant and WT mice at both ages. By using optical imaging of intrinsic signals and single-unit recordings, we found that mutant animals failed to recover cortical responsiveness following monocular deprivation (MD) during the critical period, although they displayed normally the competitive loss of responsiveness to an eye briefly deprived of vision. Furthermore, MD still induced a loss of responsiveness to the closed eye in adult mutant mice, but not in adult wild-type mice. These results indicate that dendritic BDNF synthesis is required for spine pruning, late-phase spine maturation, and recovery of cortical responsiveness following sensory deprivation. They also suggest that maturation of dendritic spines is required for the maintenance of cortical responsiveness following sensory deprivation in adulthood. PMID:22492034

Kaneko, Megumi; Xie, Yuxiang; An, Juan Ji; Stryker, Michael P.; Xu, Baoji

2012-01-01

450

A Parietal-Temporal Sensory-Motor Integration Area for the Human Vocal Tract: Evidence from an fMRI Study of Skilled Musicians  

PubMed Central

Several sensory-motor integration regions have been identified in parietal cortex, which appear to be organized around motor-effectors (e.g., eyes, hands). We investigated whether a sensory-motor integration area might exist for the human vocal tract. Speech requires extensive sensory-motor integration, as does other abilities such as vocal musical skills. Recent work found a posterior region, area Spt, has both sensory (auditory) and motor response properties (for both speech and tonal stimuli). Brain activity of skilled pianists was measured with fMRI while they listened to a novel melody and either covertly hummed the melody (vocal tract effectors) or covert played the melody on a piano (manual effectors). Activity in area Spt was significantly higher for the covert hum versus covert play condition. A region in the anterior IPS (aIPS) showed the reverse pattern, suggesting its involvement in sensory-manual transformations. This finding suggests that area Spt is a sensory-motor integration area for vocal tract gestures for, at least, speech and music. PMID:17709121

Pa, Judy; Hickok, Gregory

2008-01-01

451

Communicatedby Richard Durbin and Graeme Mitchison Arbitrary Elastic Topologies and Ocular Dominance  

E-print Network

Communicatedby Richard Durbin and Graeme Mitchison Arbitrary Elastic Topologies and Ocular-preserving maps and ocular dominance stripes (OD), embodies a nearest neighbor topology. A Hebbian account of OD for developing topology-preservingmaps between the eye and brain (or lateral genicu- late nucleus and cortex) due

Dayan, Peter

452

Mutation of the PAX6 gene in patients with autosomal dominant keratitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal dominant keratitis (ADK) is an eye disorder chiefly characterized by corneal opacification and vascularization and by foveal hypoplasia. Aniridia (shown recently to result from mutations in the PAX6 gene) has overlapping clinical findings and a similar pattern of inheritance with ADK. On the basis of these similarities, we used a candidate-gene approach to investigate whether mutations in the PAX6

F. Mirzayans; W. G. Pearce; I. M. MacDonald; M. A. Walter

1995-01-01

453

The anterior segment disorder autosomal dominant keratitis is linked to the Aniridia\\/PAX6 gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal dominant keratitis (ADK) is an eye disease characterized by anterior stromal corneal opacification and vascularization in the peripheral cornea. Progression into the central cornea may compromise visual acuity. Other anterior segment features include minimal radial defects of the iris stroma. Posterior segment involvement is characterized by foveal hypoplasia with minimal effect on visual acuity. Aniridia is a second autosomal

F. Mirzayans; W. G. Pearce; T. S. Mah

1994-01-01

454

Dorsal eye selector pannier (pnr) suppresses the eye fate to define dorsal margin of the Drosophila eye  

E-print Network

Ã?Ã? Ã? Ã?Ã?Ã? Ã? Ã?Ã? Dorsal eye selector pannier (pnr) suppresses the eye fate to define dorsal margin of the Drosophila eye Sarah M. Oros, Meghana Tare, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Amit Singh PII: S0012-1606(10)00975-9 DOI: Oros, Sarah M., Tare, Meghana, Kango-Singh, Madhuri, Singh, Amit, Dorsal eye selector pannier (pnr

Kango-Singh, Madhuri

455

The Eyes Absent Proteins in Development and Disease  

PubMed Central

The Eyes Absent (EYA) proteins, first described in the context of fly eye development, are now implicated in processes as disparate as organ development, innate immunity, DNA damage repair, photoperiodism, angiogenesis, and cancer metastasis. These functions are associated with an unusual combination of biochemical activities; tyrosine phosphatase and threonine phosphatase activities in separate domains, and transactivation potential when associated with a DNA-binding partner. EYA mutations are linked to multi-organ developmental disorders, as well as to adult diseases ranging from dilated cardiomyopathy to late-onset sensori-neural hearing loss. With the growing understanding of EYA biochemical and cellular activity, biological function, and association with disease, comes the possibility that the EYA proteins are amenable to the design of targeted therapeutics. The availability of structural information, direct links to disease states, available animal models, and the fact that they utilize unconventional reaction mechanisms that could allow for specificity, suggest that EYAs are well-positioned for drug discovery efforts. This review provides a summary of EYA structure, activity, and function, as it relates to development and disease, with particular emphasis on recent findings. PMID:22971774

Tadjuidje, Emmanuel; Hegde, Rashmi S.

2012-01-01

456

Interaction of age and foam types used in Clinical Test for Sensory Interaction and Balance (CTSIB).  

PubMed

Clinical Test for Sensory Interaction and Balance (CTSIB) is a simplified method for investigating the organization of multiple sensory inputs in postural control. The accuracy of the test is based partly on the foam types. Several types of foam are available, but the validity of these foams on CTSIB and the interaction of age and foam types have not been addressed. In this study, postural sway of young (21.6 ± 3.3 years) and older (53.2 ± 4.9 years) participants were assessed while standing on four types of foam: NeuroCom(®), sponge, Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA), and memory foams. Postural sway during stance on solid floor and foams with eyes open and eyes closed were quantified by root-mean-square (RMS) of center of body mass acceleration in the mediolateral (ML) and anteroposterior (AP) directions using the acceleration-based OPAL system. Physical properties of foams including density, Young's modulus, and indentation force deflection (IFD) were determined. Results demonstrated that RMS-ML in older subjects was larger than younger subjects (p ? 0.001), especially when standing on the NeuroCom(®) foam with eyes closed (p = 0.001). There was an interaction of age and foam types as larger differences in RMS-ML were observed between young and older subjects on the NeuroCom(®) and EVA foams, but not the other foams. The sway characteristics were largest when standing on the NeuroCom(®) foam which demonstrated high density and high compliance. Our findings suggested the importance of foam selection in CTSIB on accurate postural sway analysis and balance assessment. PMID:25300239

Chaikeeree, Nithinun; Saengsirisuwan, Vitoon; Chinsongkram, Butsara; Boonsinsukh, Rumpa

2015-01-01

457

Testosterone and dominance in men.  

PubMed

In men, high levels of endogenous testosterone (T) seem to encourage behavior intended to dominate--to enhance one's status over--other people. Sometimes dominant behavior is aggressive, its apparent intent being to inflict harm on another person, but often dominance is expressed nonaggressively. Sometimes dominant behavior takes the form of antisocial behavior, including rebellion against authority and low breaking. Measurement of T at a single point in time, presumably indicative of a man's basal T level, predicts many of these dominant or antisocial behaviors. T not only affects behavior but also responds to it. The act of competing for dominant status affects male T levels in two ways. First, T rises in the face of a challenge, as if it were an anticipatory response to impending competition. Second, after the competition, T rises in winners and declines in losers. Thus, there is a reciprocity between T and dominance behavior, each affecting the other. We contrast a reciprocal model, in which T level is variable, acting as both a cause and effect of behavior, with a basal model, in which T level is assumed to be a persistent trait that influences behavior. An unusual data set on Air Force veterans, in which data were collected four times over a decade, enables us to compare the basal and reciprocal models as explanations for the relationship between T and divorce. We discuss sociological implications of these models. PMID:10097017

Mazur, A; Booth, A

1998-06-01

458

Frog eye, ear, and nostril  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You can clearly see the frog's eye. There is an air opening near a black spot on the frog's skin. The opening to the frog's ear is covered by the round, tan membrane to the left in the picture. This membrane is called the tympanum.

Ren West (None; )

2006-08-07

459

The Eye of the Camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses the effects of security cameras on prosocial behavior. Results from previous studies indicate that the presence of others can trigger helping behavior, arising from the need for approval of others. Extending these findings, the authors propose that security cameras can likewise trigger such approval-seeking behaviors by implying the presence of a watchful eye. Because people vary in

Rompay van Thomas J. L; Dorette J. Vonk; Marieke L. Fransen

2009-01-01

460

Nutrients for the aging eye  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The incidence of age-related eye diseases is expected to rise with the aging of the population. Oxidation and inflammation are implicated in the etiology of these diseases. There is evidence that dietary antioxidants and anti-inflammatories may provide benefit in decreasing the risk of age-related e...

461

Soccer-Related Eye Injuries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of medical charts of 13 youths (age 8-15) with soccer-related eye injuries identified as causes: a head butt, kicks, the ball. Risks can be lessened by use of polycarbonate eyeguards, properly inflated balls, adequate conditioning and practice before scrimmages, a moderate and balanced practice/playing schedule and good sportsmanship.…

Orlando, Richard G.

1988-01-01

462

Eye Movements during Chinese Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

respects, and for this reason, interest in the nature of the cognitive processes underlying Chinese reading has flourished over recent years. A number of researchers have used eye movement methodology as a measure of on-line processing to understand more about…

Liversedge, Simon P; Hyona, Jukka; Rayner, Keith

2013-01-01

463

Confocal Microscopy Of The Eye.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laser scanning confocal microscope was used to study the structure of human donor eyes and enucleated rabbit eyes. Reflected light confocal images were obtained with a Leitz water immersion objective (50X, NA 1.0). A drop of bicarbonate Ringer's was placed between the objective and the tissue to optically couple the tissue. The confocal microscope was used to image the following objects within the eye: superficial epithelial cells, super basal and basal epithelial cells, basement membrane, stromal nerve plexus, nerve fibers, nuclei and cell bodies of stromal keratocytes, cell processes of stromal keratocytes, Descemet's membrane, and the endothelial cells. In addition, the ocular lens and excised retina were imaged. The confocal microscope produces images of the eye with the following enhanced features: increased lateral resolution, decreased depth of field, and increased contrast of transparent ocular structures. It is concluded that confocal imaging systems are an improvement over traditional optical instruments, and they may develop into a new tool for basic visual science and clinical ophthalmology.

Masters, Barry R.

1989-12-01

464

Arthropods affecting the human eye.  

PubMed

Ocular infestations by arthropods consist in the parasitization of the human eye, either directly (e.g., some insect larvae causing ophthalmomyiasis) or via arthropods feeding on lachrymal/conjunctival secretions (e.g., some eye-seeking insects, which also act as vectors of eye pathogens). In addition, demodicosis and phthiriasis may also cause eye discomfort in humans. Ophthalmomyiasis by larvae of the families Oestridae, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae, are frequent causative agents of human ocular infestations. Over the last decades, the extensive use of macrocyclic lactones in cattle has reduced the frequency of infestations by Hypoderma bovis and Hypoderma lineatum (family Oestridae), and consequently, human infestations by these species. A prompt diagnosis of ocular myiasis (e.g., by serological tests) is pivotal for positive prognoses, particularly when the larvae are not detectable during the ophthalmologic examination. Molecular diagnoses may also assist physicians and parasitologists in achieving time-efficient diagnoses of infestations by Oestridae causing myiasis. Finally, due to widespread international travel to exotic destinations, cases of myiasis are increasing in non-endemic areas, therefore requiring physicians to acquire a profound knowledge of the clinical symptoms linked to these infestations to prevent costly, inappropriate treatments or severe complications. PMID:25620292

Panadero-Fontán, Rosario; Otranto, Domenico

2015-02-28

465

GRBs and Lobster Eye X-Ray Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large majority of GRBs exhibit X-ray emission. In addition, a dedicated separate group of GRB, the XRFs, exists which emission dominates in the X-ray spectral range. And the third group of GRB related objects (yet hypothetical) are the group of off-axis observed GRBs (orphan afterglows). These facts justify the consideration of an independent experiment for monitoring, detection and analyses of GRBs and others fast X-ray transients in X-rays. We will present and discuss such experiment based on wide-field X-ray telescopes of Lobster Eye type. We show that the wide field and fine sensitivity of Lobster Eye X-ray All-Sky Monitor make such instruments important tools in study of GRBs.

Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Marsikova, V.; Inneman, A.

2013-07-01

466

Introduction Sensory behavior in higher animals depends on the correct  

E-print Network

1923 Introduction Sensory behavior in higher animals depends on the correct recognition cells of the nervous system, the sensory neurons. They create functional compartments for the localization and exposure of the signal reception and transduction machineries. There is considerable diversity

Swoboda, Peter

467

Sensory theories of developmental dyslexia: three challenges for research  

E-print Network

Recent years have seen the publication of a range of new theories suggesting that the basis of dyslexia may be sensory dysfunction. Here, the evidence for and against several prominent sensory theories of dyslexia is closely scrutinized. Contrary...

Goswami, Usha

2014-01-01

468

Analytical and sensory quality characteristics of twelve blueberry cultivars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The analytical and sensory quality characteristics of twelve blueberry cultivars were evaluated to determine what fruit quality characteristics consumers consider important and to evaluate if sensory quality characteristics were correlated to any analytical quality characteristics. Cultivars evaluat...

469

Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V  

MedlinePLUS

... to feel pain, heat, and cold. Deep pain perception, the feeling of pain from injuries to bones, ... gene ; growth factor ; hereditary ; inherited ; joint ; mutation ; neuropathy ; perception ; protein ; receptor ; recessive ; sensory nerve ; sensory neuropathy ; tissue ; ...

470

Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II  

MedlinePLUS

... nervous system ; autosomal ; autosomal recessive ; bud ; cell ; congenital ; digestion ; digestive ; esophagus ; gastroesophageal reflux ; gene ; hereditary ; inherited ; injury ; involuntary ; isoforms ; nervous system ; neuropathy ; prevalence ; protein ; recessive ; reflex ; sensory nerve ; sensory neuropathy ; sign ; spontaneous ; ...

471

Overcoming Presbyopia by Manipulating the Eyes' Optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presbyopia, the age-related loss of accommodation, is a visual condition affecting all adults over the age of 45 years. In presbyopia, individuals lose the ability to focus on nearby objects, due to a lifelong growth and stiffening of the eye's crystalline lens. This leads to poor near visual performance and affects patients' quality of life. The objective of this thesis is aimed towards the correction of presbyopia and can be divided into four aims. First, we examined the characteristics and limitations of currently available strategies for the correction of presbyopia. A natural-view wavefront sensor was used to objectively measure the accommodative ability of patients implanted with an accommodative intraocular lens (IOL). Although these patients had little accommodative ability based on changes in power, pupil miosis and higher order aberrations led to an improvement in through-focus retinal image quality in some cases. To quantify the through-focus retinal image quality of accommodative and multifocal IOLs directly, an adaptive optics (AO) IOL metrology system was developed. Using this system, the impact of corneal aberrations in regard to presbyopia-correcting IOLs was assessed, providing an objective measure of through-focus retinal image quality and practical guidelines for patient selection. To improve upon existing multifocal designs, we investigated retinal image quality metrics for the prediction of through-focus visual performance. The preferred metric was based on the fidelity of an image convolved with an aberrated point spread function. Using this metric, we investigated the potential of higher order aberrations and pupil amplitude apodization to increase the depth of focus of the presbyopic eye. Thirdly, we investigated modified monovision, a novel binocular approach to presbyopia correction using a binocular AO vision simulator. In modified monovision, different magnitudes of defocus and spherical aberration are introduced to each eye, thereby taking advantage of the binocular visual system. Several experiments using the binocular AO vision simulator found modified monovision led to significant improvements in through-focus visual performance, binocular summation and stereoacuity, as compared to traditional monovision. Finally, we addressed neural factors, affecting visual performance in modified monovision, such as ocular dominance and neural plasticity. We found that pairing modified monovision with a vision training regimen may further improve visual performance beyond the limits set by optics via neural plasticity. This opens the door to an exciting new avenue of vision correction to accompany optical interventions. The research presented in this thesis offers important guidelines for the clinical and scientific communities. Furthermore, the techniques described herein may be applied to other fields of ophthalmology, such as childhood myopia progression.

Zheleznyak, Leonard A.

472

Prevent Diabetes Problems: Keep Your Eyes Healthy  

MedlinePLUS

... Info Statistics Research Resources About Us Español National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse Publications Tools and Resources E-News ... Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your eyes healthy Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your eyes healthy On this page: ...

473

Understanding Your Vision: The "Imperfect Eye"  

MedlinePLUS

... Issues Feature: Vision Understanding Your Vision: The "Imperfect Eye" Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents For ... including an implanted set of lenses. "Keeping your eyes healthy means learning about them and the conditions ...

474

The Trajectories of Saccadic Eye Movements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the trajectories of saccadic eye movements, the control signals of the eye, and nature of the mechanisms that generate them, using the techniques of bioengineering in collecting the data. (GA)

Bahill, A. Terry; Stark, Lawrence

1979-01-01

475

21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad is a device...

2010-04-01

476

21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the...

2012-04-01

477

21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the...

2014-04-01

478

21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad is a device that consists...

2011-04-01

479

21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad is a device that consists...

2013-04-01

480

21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad is a device that consists...

2014-04-01

481

21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad is a device that consists...

2012-04-01

482

Sensory acceptability of chocolate with inulina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to study the influence of inulin on the sensory characteristics of chocolate. Three types of chocolate (milk, hazelnut and rice) where sucrose was replaced by inulin and fructose were studied in comparison to corresponding ordinary chocolates. A questionnaire between eighty diabetics and fifty-two random consumers showed that the chocolate with inulin was well accepted.

Terezija GOLOB; Jasna BERTONCELJ; Mojca JAMNIK

483

Sensory Cues, Visualization and Physics Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bodily manipulations, such as juggling, suggest a well-synchronized physical interaction as if the person were a physics expert. The juggler uses "knowledge" that is rooted in bodily experience, to interact with the environment. Such enacted bodily knowledge is powerful, efficient, predictive, and relates to sensory perception of the dynamics of…

Reiner, Miriam

2009-01-01

484

A physical basis for sensory perception  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is argued that the process of perception takes origin within physics itself. A simple, physical model of a biological sensory receptor unit, a unit which mediates perception at its most elemental level, is developed. This model will be not just a detector of sensory signals (like a light meter or sound level meter), but will transduce these signals to the level of consciousness. The properties of this physical model of the sensory receptor unit are drawn from classical physics. Because of its simplicity, the receptor model allows for perception of only discrete quantities of incident signal energy. My primary goal in presenting this reduced model of perception is to teach concepts without the need for detailed anatomy or physiology. Using the simple mathematical properties of the receptor model, we are able to derive a number of the empirical equations of sensory science. Since the idea has been advanced that the process of perception, at a fundamental level, belongs to physics whose validity is universal, it is suggested that the “laws” of perception of the world manifested by organisms anywhere within the universe will be similar to the laws we observe here on earth.

Norwich, Kenneth H.

2014-11-01

485

Autism and My Sensory Based World  

E-print Network

Autism and My Sensory Based World Temple Grandin #12;· A good teacher is gently insistent · Early disorders (co-morbid) Autism spectrum Dyslexia Learning problems ADHD Asperger Head injury Oppositional Takes longer to shift back and forth between two different things #12;Ami Klin Viewer with Autism (Red

Stephens, Graeme L.

486

SENSORY NEURONS: STEM CELLS AND DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The sensory nervous system is the only means we have of communicating,with the surrounding world. The neurons responsible for the sensation of pain, touch, the ability to know the position of our limbs and part of maintenance of body posture are located in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Stem cell biology has, during the recent years greatly enhanced our

Jens HjerlingLeffler

2006-01-01

487

Sensory Cues, Visualization and Physics Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bodily manipulations, such as juggling, suggest a well?synchronized physical interaction as if the person were a physics expert. The juggler uses “knowledge” that is rooted in bodily experience, to interact with the environment. Such enacted bodily knowledge is powerful, efficient, predictive, and relates to sensory perception of the dynamics of objects. This paper describes results of an empirical study in

Miriam Reiner

2009-01-01

488

Sensory Perception, Rationalism and Outdoor Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a strong emphasis on sensory perception and "hands-on" learning in the outdoor environmental education of children. In addition, normative concerns infuse children's environmental curricula, and in particular, the notion that environmental education is not a passive undertaking; when one appreciates the essential value of the environment,…

Auer, Matthew R.

2008-01-01

489

Synchronisation in anticipative sensory-motor schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a model of anticipative sensory-motor schemes, inspired by Jean Piaget and Interactivist theories. The necessity of interactivity in order to provide a real epistemic contact to reality is discussed. We then describe a computer implementation of such schemes, applied to the recognition of musical rhythms, which illustrates these ideas in a more concrete way. Assimilation schemes Assimilation

Jean-Charles Quinton; Christophe Duverger; Jean-Christophe Buisson

490

Sensorial countermeasures for vestibular spatial disorientation.  

PubMed

Spatial disorientation is defined as an erroneous body orientation perceived by pilots during flights. Limits of the vestibular system provoke frequent spatial disorientation mishaps. Although vestibular spatial disorientation is experienced frequently in aviation, there is no intuitive countermeasure against spatial disorientation mishaps to date. The aim of this review is to describe the current sensorial countermeasures and to examine future leads in sensorial ergonomics for vestibular spatial disorientation. This work reviews: 1) the visual ergonomics, 2) the vestibular countermeasures, 3) the auditory displays, 4) the somatosensory countermeasures, and, finally, 5) the multisensory displays. This review emphasizes the positive aspects of auditory and somatosensory countermeasures as well as multisensory devices. Even if some aspects such as sensory conflict and motion sickness need to be assessed, these countermeasures should be taken into consideration for ergonomics work in the future. However, a recent development in aviation might offer new and better perspectives: unmanned aerial vehicles. Unmanned aerial vehicles aim to go beyond the physiological boundaries of human sensorial systems and would allow for coping with spatial disorientation and motion sickness. Even if research is necessary to improve the interaction between machines and humans, this recent development might be incredibly useful for decreasing or even stopping vestibular spatial disorientation. PMID:24834571

Paillard, Aurore C; Quarck, Gaëlle; Denise, Pierre

2014-05-01

491

Sensory neurobiology: demystifying the sick sense.  

PubMed

The vomeronasal organ, a sensory structure within the olfactory system, detects chemical signals that affect social and sexual behaviors and that elicit responses to predator odors. A recent study demonstrates that innate avoidance of sick conspecifics requires an intact vomeronasal organ, expanding the repertoire of biological functions known to be mediated by this olfactory subsystem. PMID:25689911

Bozza, Thomas

2015-02-16

492

Age differences in visual sensory integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous authors have reported that elderly persons are more affected than young adults when submitted to reduced or conflicting sensory inputs conditions. These results, however, do not permit to evaluate whether the elderly suffer from a reduced peripheral sensibility or from a deficit in the central integrative mechanisms responsible for configuring the postural set. The present experiment evaluated the ability

N. Teasdale; G. E. Stelmach; A. Breunig; H. J. Meeuwsen

1991-01-01

493

Mechanisms of sensory transduction in the skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory neurons innervating the skin encode the familiar sensations of temperature, touch and pain. An explosion of progress has revealed unanticipated cellular and molecular complexity in these senses. It is now clear that perception of a single stimulus, such as heat, requires several transduction mechanisms. Conversely, a given protein may contribute to multiple senses, such as heat and touch. Recent

Ellen A. Lumpkin; Michael J. Caterina

2007-01-01

494

A Housefly Sensory-Motor Integration Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Insects have many interesting behaviors that can be observed in an introductory biology laboratory setting. In the present article, we describe several reflexes using the housefly "Musca domestica" that can be used to introduce students to sensory and motor responses and encourage them to think about the underlying neural circuits and integration…

Griff, Edwin R; Kane, Thomas C.

2010-01-01

495

Migration and sensory evaluation of irradiated polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects on ionising irradiation on polymer additives, monomers and polymers themselves have been investigated. Changes of initial concentrations of certain additives and monomers, a change in their specific migration as well as sensory changes of the polymers were examined. Polymer stabilizers such as Irganox 1076 and Irgafos 168 used in polyethylene were found to be degraded by ionising radiation.

Niels H Stoffers; Jozef P. H Linssen; Roland Franz; Frank Welle

2004-01-01

496

Stepping stability: effects of sensory perturbation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Few tools exist for quantifying locomotor stability in balance impaired populations. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a technique for quantifying stability of stepping in healthy people and people with peripheral (vestibular hypofunction, VH) and central (cerebellar pathology, CB) balance dysfunction by means a sensory (auditory) perturbation test. METHODS: Balance impaired and healthy subjects performed

Chris A McGibbon; David E Krebs; Robert Wagenaar

2005-01-01

497

Insect sensory systems inspired computing and communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insects are the most successful group of living things in terms of the number of species, the biomass and their distribution. Entomological research has revealed that the insect sensory systems are crucial for their success. Compared to human brains, the insect central nerve systems are extremely primitive and simple, both structurally and functionally, and are of minimal learning ability. Faced

Axel W. Krings

2009-01-01

498

Learning of Sensory Sequences in Cerebellar Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A possible role of the cerebellum in detecting and recognizing event sequences has been proposed. The present study sought to determine whether patients with cerebellar lesions are impaired in the acquisition and discrimination of sequences of sensory stimuli of different modalities. A group of 26 cerebellar patients and 26 controls matched for…

Frings, Markus; Boenisch, Raoul; Gerwig, Marcus; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Timmann, Dagmar

2004-01-01

499

Sensory Architectures for Biologically Inspired Autonomous Robotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineers have a lot to gain from studying biology. The study of biological neural systems alone pro- vides numerous examples of computational systems that are far more complex than any man-made system and perform real-time sensory and motor tasks in a manner that humbles the most advanced artificial systems. Despite the evolution- ary genesis of these systems and the vast

CHARLES M. HIGGINS

2001-01-01

500

Variance predicts salience in central sensory processing  

PubMed Central

Information processing in the sensory periphery is shaped by natural stimulus statistics. In the periphery, a transmission bottleneck constrains performance; thus efficient coding implies that natural signal components with a predictably wider range should be compressed. In a different regime—when sampling limitations constrain performance—efficient coding implies that more resources should be allocated to informative features that are more variable. We propose that this regime is relevant for sensory cortex when it extracts complex features from limited numbers of sensory samples. To test this prediction, we use central visual processing as a model: we show that visual sensitivity for local multi-point spatial correlations, described by dozens of independently-measured parameters, can be quantitatively predicted from the structure of natural images. This suggests that efficient coding applies centrally, where it extends to higher-order sensory features and operates in a regime in which sensitivity increases with feature variability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03722.001 PMID:25396297

Hermundstad, Ann M; Briguglio, John J; Conte, Mary M; Victor, Jonathan D; Balasubramanian, Vijay; Tka?ik, Gašper

2014-01-01