Sample records for sensory eye dominance

  1. Sensory afferent segregation in three-eared frogs resemble the dominance columns observed in three-eyed frogs.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Karen L; Houston, Douglas W; Fritzsch, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    The formation of proper sensory afferent connections during development is essential for brain function. Activity-based competition is believed to drive ocular dominance columns (ODC) in mammals and in experimentally-generated three-eyed frogs. ODC formation is thus a compromise of activity differences between two eyes and similar molecular cues. To gauge the generality of graphical map formation in the brain, we investigated the inner ear projection, known for its well-defined and early segregation of afferents from vestibular and auditory endorgans. In analogy to three eyed-frogs, we generated three-eared frogs to assess to what extent vestibular afferents from two adjacent ears could segregate. Donor ears were transplanted either in the native orientation or rotated by 90 degrees. These manipulations should result in either similar or different induced activity between both ears, respectively. Three-eared frogs with normal orientation showed normal swimming whereas those with a rotated third ear showed aberrant behaviors. Projection studies revealed that only afferents from the rotated ears segregated from those from the native ear within the vestibular nucleus, resembling the ocular dominance columns formed in three-eyed frogs. Vestibular segregation suggests that mechanisms comparable to those operating in the ODC formation of the visual system may act on vestibular projection refinements. PMID:25661240

  2. Sighting versus sensory ocular dominance

    PubMed Central

    Pointer, Jonathan S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose An indication of the laterality of ocular dominance (OD) informs the clinical decision making process when considering certain ophthalmic refractive and surgical interventions. Can predictive reliance be assured regardless of OD technique or is the indication of a dominant eye method-dependent? Methods Two alternative OD test formats were administered to a group of 72 emmetropic healthy young adult subjects: the ‘hole-in-card’ test for sighting dominance and the ‘+1.50D blur’ test for sensory dominance. Both techniques were chosen as being likely familiar to the majority of ophthalmic clinicians; to promote and expedite application during the examination routine neither test required specialist training nor equipment. Results Right eye dominance was indicated in 71% of cases by the sighting test but in only 54% of subjects using the sensory test. The laterality of OD indicated for the individual subject by each technique was in agreement on only 50% of occasions. Conclusions Reasons are considered for the poor intra-individual agreement between OD tests, along with an item of procedural advice for the clinician.

  3. Eye dominance effects in conjunction search.

    PubMed

    Shneor, Einat; Hochstein, Shaul

    2008-07-01

    We previously found a dominant eye perceptional advantage in feature search (Vision Research, 2006). We now ask if this advantage extends to difficult conjunction search, which requires focused attention and depends on different cortical hierarchy levels. We determined eye dominance by the Hole-in-the-Card test. Using red-green glasses, subjects viewed a briefly presented, backward-masked, array of red/green dotted squares and filled circles. On half of the trials a filled square target replaced one dotted square. There was significantly better performance when the target was seen by the dominant eye, suggesting its visual processing priority in slow, as in rapid search, perhaps including augmented attention to dominant eye representations. Binocular conjunction targets were found faster than monocular targets, though binocularity--as utrocular information--was insufficient to support reasonable detection levels. PMID:18541282

  4. Eye Movement as an Indicator of Sensory Components in Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckner, Michael; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigated Neuro-Linguistic Programming eye movement model's claim that specific eye movements are indicative of specific sensory components in thought. Agreement between students' (N=48) self-reports and trained observers' records support visual and auditory portions of model; do not support kinesthetic portion. Interrater agreement supports…

  5. The role of sensory ocular dominance on through-focus visual performance in monovision presbyopia corrections.

    PubMed

    Zheleznyak, Len; Alarcon, Aixa; Dieter, Kevin C; Tadin, Duje; Yoon, Geunyoung

    2015-05-01

    Monovision presbyopia interventions exploit the binocular nature of the visual system by independently manipulating the optical properties of the two eyes. It is unclear, however, how individual variations in ocular dominance affect visual function in monovision corrections. Here, we examined the impact of sensory ocular dominance on visual performance in both traditional and modified monovision presbyopic corrections. We recently developed a binocular adaptive optics vision simulator to correct subjects' native aberrations and induce either modified monovision (1.5?D anisometropia, spherical aberration of +0.1 and -0.4 ?m in distance and near eyes, respectively, over 4 mm pupils) or traditional monovision (1.5 D anisometropia). To quantify both the sign and the degree of ocular dominance, we utilized binocular rivalry to estimate stimulus contrast ratios that yield balanced dominance durations for the two eyes. Through-focus visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were measured under two conditions: (a) assigning dominant and nondominant eye to distance and near, respectively, and (b) vice versa. The results revealed that through-focus visual acuity was unaffected by ocular dominance. Contrast sensitivity, however, was significantly improved when the dominant eye coincided with superior optical quality. We hypothesize that a potential mechanism behind this observation is an interaction between ocular dominance and binocular contrast summation, and thus, assignment of the dominant eye to distance or near may be an important factor to optimize contrast threshold performance at different object distances in both modified and traditional monovision. PMID:26024464

  6. The role of sensory ocular dominance on through-focus visual performance in monovision presbyopia corrections

    PubMed Central

    Zheleznyak, Len; Alarcon, Aixa; Dieter, Kevin C.; Tadin, Duje; Yoon, Geunyoung

    2015-01-01

    Monovision presbyopia interventions exploit the binocular nature of the visual system by independently manipulating the optical properties of the two eyes. It is unclear, however, how individual variations in ocular dominance affect visual function in monovision corrections. Here, we examined the impact of sensory ocular dominance on visual performance in both traditional and modified monovision presbyopic corrections. We recently developed a binocular adaptive optics vision simulator to correct subjects' native aberrations and induce either modified monovision (1.5?D anisometropia, spherical aberration of +0.1 and ?0.4 ?m in distance and near eyes, respectively, over 4 mm pupils) or traditional monovision (1.5 D anisometropia). To quantify both the sign and the degree of ocular dominance, we utilized binocular rivalry to estimate stimulus contrast ratios that yield balanced dominance durations for the two eyes. Through-focus visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were measured under two conditions: (a) assigning dominant and nondominant eye to distance and near, respectively, and (b) vice versa. The results revealed that through-focus visual acuity was unaffected by ocular dominance. Contrast sensitivity, however, was significantly improved when the dominant eye coincided with superior optical quality. We hypothesize that a potential mechanism behind this observation is an interaction between ocular dominance and binocular contrast summation, and thus, assignment of the dominant eye to distance or near may be an important factor to optimize contrast threshold performance at different object distances in both modified and traditional monovision. PMID:26024464

  7. Hemispheric Dominance, Conservation Reasoning and the Dominant Eye.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Anton E.; Wollman, Warren T.

    This study was based on the following assumptions: (1) functioning of the brain's left hemisphere, because of its logical, verbal mode, facilitates conservation reasoning; (2) functioning of the brain's right hemisphere, because of its nonverbal, spatial mode, inhibits conservation reasoning; (3) visual input from the left eye will reach the left…

  8. The dominant Drop eye mutations of Drosophila melanogaster define two loci implicated in normal eye development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rick Tearle; Andrew Tomlinson; Robert Saint

    1994-01-01

    The three existing dominant gain-of-function Drop alleles, Dr1, DrMioand DrWe, previously assumed to define a single locus, severely disrupt eye development. Genetic analysis of ethylmethanesulphonate (EMS) and irradiation-induced revertants revealed that the Drop mutations define two loci: the Drop locus, which is defined by the Dr1 and DrMio mutants, and a separate locus defined by the DrWe mutation, which has

  9. Two cases of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement (HMSN-P).

    PubMed

    Mori, Chiaki; Saito, Tomoko; Saito, Toshio; Fujimura, Harutoshi; Sakoda, Saburo

    2015-01-01

    We, herein, report two independent cases with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement (HMSN-P) inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. Their common clinical features are slowly progressive proximal dominant muscular atrophy, fasciculations and mild to moderate distal sensory disturbance with areflexia. Nerve conduction study revealed an absence of sensory nerve action potentials, in contrast to almost normal compound muscle action potentials. Gene analysis in both patients elucidated heterozygous mutation (c.854C>T, p.Pro285Leu) in the TFG, which is an identical mutation, already described by Ishiura et al. Okinawa and Shiga are two foci of HMSN-P in Japan. Eventually, one patient is from Okinawa and the other is from a mountain village in Shiga prefecture. When we see a patient who has symptoms suggestive of motor neuron disease with sensory neuropathy, HMSN-P should be considered as a differential diagnosis despite the patient's actual resident place. PMID:26103812

  10. ENDOGENOUS EYE BLINKS, ERP CORRELATES OF EARLY SENSORY PROCESSING AND MORNING NUTRITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Processes associated with spontaneously occurring eye blinks have been shown to play an active role in information processing and performance. In this report we consider whether a blink-related influence on ERPs reflecting early sensory processing could be shown and if these processes are influenced...

  11. Discovery of some 400 million year-old sensory structures in the compound eyes of trilobites

    PubMed Central

    Schoenemann, Brigitte; Clarkson, Euan N. K.

    2013-01-01

    Fossilised arthropod compound eyes have frequently been described. Among the oldest known are those from the lower Cambrian of the Chengjiang Lagerstätte (China, c 525?Ma). All these compound eyes, though often excellently preserved, however, represent just the outer shells, because soft tissues, or even individual cells, usually do not fossilise. Using modern techniques, including ?ct-scanning and synchrotron radiation analysis we present the discovery of the sensory cell system of compound eyes, belonging to trilobites around 400 million years old, which allows their description and analysis. They are interpreted as forming part of an apposition-like ommatidium, which is a basic functional type of compound eye present in arthropods of today. Considered in greater detail, it is similar to the compound eye of the horseshoe crab Limulus, generally regarded as a ‘living fossil’, which probably retained this ancient basal system successfully until today. PMID:23492459

  12. Discovery of some 400 million year-old sensory structures in the compound eyes of trilobites.

    PubMed

    Schoenemann, Brigitte; Clarkson, Euan N K

    2013-01-01

    Fossilised arthropod compound eyes have frequently been described. Among the oldest known are those from the lower Cambrian of the Chengjiang Lagerstätte (China, c 525 Ma). All these compound eyes, though often excellently preserved, however, represent just the outer shells, because soft tissues, or even individual cells, usually do not fossilise. Using modern techniques, including ?ct-scanning and synchrotron radiation analysis we present the discovery of the sensory cell system of compound eyes, belonging to trilobites around 400 million years old, which allows their description and analysis. They are interpreted as forming part of an apposition-like ommatidium, which is a basic functional type of compound eye present in arthropods of today. Considered in greater detail, it is similar to the compound eye of the horseshoe crab Limulus, generally regarded as a 'living fossil', which probably retained this ancient basal system successfully until today. PMID:23492459

  13. The dominant Drop eye mutations of Drosophila melanogaster define two loci implicated in normal eye development.

    PubMed

    Tearle, R; Tomlinson, A; Saint, R

    1994-08-15

    The three existing dominant gain-of-function Drop alleles, Dr1, DrMio and DrWe, previously assumed to define a single locus, severely disrupt eye development. Genetic analysis of ethylmethanesulphonate (EMS) and irradiation-induced revertants revealed that the Drop mutations define two loci: the Drop locus, which is defined by the Dr1 and DrMio mutants, and a separate locus defined by the DrWe mutation, which has been renamed Wedge. The majority of the Dr1 and DrMio revertants are embryonic lethal in trans, mutant embryos exhibiting trachea that fail to join the Filzkörper, thus revealing a role for the Drop gene in embryogenesis. Clonal analysis of lethal revertant alleles suggests a role for both genes in eye development. In the Drop homozygous mutant clones, the outer photoreceptor cells R1-R6 develop aberrantly. Wedge, however, is not required by the developing photoreceptor cells but its absence does disrupt normal ommatidial alignment. Although the Drop and nearby string loci were shown to be genetically distinct, both Dr1 and DrMio were found to interact in trans with lesions at the string locus, causing loss and derangement of bristles and loss of neuromuscular coordination. PMID:8078468

  14. Shared sensory estimates for human motion perception and pursuit eye movements.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Trishna; Battifarano, Matthew; Simoncini, Claudio; Osborne, Leslie C

    2015-06-01

    Are sensory estimates formed centrally in the brain and then shared between perceptual and motor pathways or is centrally represented sensory activity decoded independently to drive awareness and action? Questions about the brain's information flow pose a challenge because systems-level estimates of environmental signals are only accessible indirectly as behavior. Assessing whether sensory estimates are shared between perceptual and motor circuits requires comparing perceptual reports with motor behavior arising from the same sensory activity. Extrastriate visual cortex both mediates the perception of visual motion and provides the visual inputs for behaviors such as smooth pursuit eye movements. Pursuit has been a valuable testing ground for theories of sensory information processing because the neural circuits and physiological response properties of motion-responsive cortical areas are well studied, sensory estimates of visual motion signals are formed quickly, and the initiation of pursuit is closely coupled to sensory estimates of target motion. Here, we analyzed variability in visually driven smooth pursuit and perceptual reports of target direction and speed in human subjects while we manipulated the signal-to-noise level of motion estimates. Comparable levels of variability throughout viewing time and across conditions provide evidence for shared noise sources in the perception and action pathways arising from a common sensory estimate. We found that conditions that create poor, low-gain pursuit create a discrepancy between the precision of perception and that of pursuit. Differences in pursuit gain arising from differences in optic flow strength in the stimulus reconcile much of the controversy on this topic. PMID:26041919

  15. Using an auditory sensory substitution device to augment vision: evidence from eye movements.

    PubMed

    Wright, Thomas D; Margolis, Aaron; Ward, Jamie

    2015-03-01

    Sensory substitution devices convert information normally associated with one sense into another sense (e.g. converting vision into sound). This is often done to compensate for an impaired sense. The present research uses a multimodal approach in which both natural vision and sound-from-vision ('soundscapes') are simultaneously presented. Although there is a systematic correspondence between what is seen and what is heard, we introduce a local discrepancy between the signals (the presence of a target object that is heard but not seen) that the participant is required to locate. In addition to behavioural responses, the participants' gaze is monitored with eye-tracking. Although the target object is only presented in the auditory channel, behavioural performance is enhanced when visual information relating to the non-target background is presented. In this instance, vision may be used to generate predictions about the soundscape that enhances the ability to detect the hidden auditory object. The eye-tracking data reveal that participants look for longer in the quadrant containing the auditory target even when they subsequently judge it to be located elsewhere. As such, eye movements generated by soundscapes reveal the knowledge of the target location that does not necessarily correspond to the actual judgment made. The results provide a proof of principle that multimodal sensory substitution may be of benefit to visually impaired people with some residual vision and, in normally sighted participants, for guiding search within complex scenes. PMID:25511162

  16. Eye Dominance Predicts fMRI Signals in Human Retinotopic Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Mendola, Janine D.; Conner, Ian P.

    2009-01-01

    There have been many attempts to define eye dominance in normal subjects, but limited consensus exists, and relevant physiological data is scarce. In this study, we consider two different behavioral methods for assignment of eye dominance, and how well they predict fMRI signals evoked by monocular stimulation. Sighting eye dominance was assessed with two standard tests, the Porta Test, and a ‘hole in hand’ variation of the Miles Test. Acuity dominance was tested with a standard eye chart and with a computerized test of grating acuity. We found limited agreement between the sighting and acuity methods for assigning dominance in our individual subjects. We then compared the fMRI response generated by dominant eye stimulation to that generated by non-dominant eye, according to both methods, in 7 normal subjects. The stimulus consisted of a high contrast hemifield stimulus alternating with no stimulus in a blocked paradigm. In separate scans, we used standard techniques to label the borders of visual areas V1, V2, V3, VP, V4, V3A, and MT. These regions of interest (ROIs) were used to analyze each visual area separately. We found that percent change in fMRI BOLD signal was stronger for the dominant eye as defined by the acuity method, and this effect was significant for areas located in the ventral occipital territory (V1v, V2v, VP, V4). In contrast, assigning dominance based on sighting produced no significant interocular BOLD differences. We conclude that interocular BOLD differences in normal subjects exist, and may be predicted by acuity measures. PMID:17194544

  17. Development of a sensory neuronal cell model for the estimation of mild eye irritation.

    PubMed

    Lilja, Johanna; Forsby, Anna

    2004-10-01

    In an attempt to improve the in vitro test strategy for the estimation of eye irritation, a neuronal cell model has been developed, with cells expressing vanilloid receptor type 1 (VR1) nociceptors. The currently accepted method for measuring eye irritancy is the ethically and scientifically criticised Draize rabbit eye test, despite the fact that alternative in vitro methods are available which have proved to be reliable and reproducible for predicting severe ocular toxicity. However, no alternative tests for measuring neuronal stimulation have yet been developed, and the prediction of eye irritation in the mild range is therefore insufficient. VR1 is a nociceptor localised in C-fibre neurons innervating the cornea and the surrounding tissue, and it responds to potentially damaging stimuli by releasing Ca2+ into the cytoplasm. As a sensory endpoint, [Ca2+]i was measured in VR1 transfected cells, as well as in control cells. Short-term cell cytotoxicity studies (cell membrane rupture and morphological divergence) were used to determine the non-corrosive concentrations of the test chemicals. Preliminary results indicated that hygiene products used daily may induce eye irritation via VR1 nociceptors. The lowest toxic concentration (0.025%) of liquid hand soap, as determined by morphologic divergences of cells, generated an 80% increase in [Ca2+]i over the basal [Ca2+]i in VR1 transfected cells, whereas the non-specific [Ca2+]i increased by 33%. Furthermore, all the endpoints studied indicated that shampoo for children was less active than shampoo for adults. If this method is successfully validated with standardised reference chemicals, the model could complete the test battery of in vitro alternatives, resulting in the saving of thousands of laboratory animals. PMID:15651917

  18. Looking at eye dominance from a different angle: is sighting strength related to hand preference?

    PubMed

    Carey, David P; Hutchinson, Claire V

    2013-10-01

    Sighting dominance (the behavioural preference for one eye over the other under monocular viewing conditions) has traditionally been thought of as a robust individual trait. However, Khan and Crawford (2001) have shown that, under certain viewing conditions, eye preference reverses as a function of horizontal gaze angle. Remarkably, the reversal of sighting from one eye to the other depends on which hand is used to reach out and grasp the target. Their procedure provides an ideal way to measure the strength of monocular preference for sighting, which may be related to other indicators of hemispheric specialisation for speech, language and motor function. Therefore, we hypothesised that individuals with consistent side preferences (e.g., right hand, right eye) should have more robust sighting dominance than those with crossed lateral preferences. To test this idea, we compared strength of eye dominance in individuals who are consistently right or left sided for hand and foot preference with those who are not. We also modified their procedure in order to minimise a potential image size confound, suggested by Banks et al. (2004) as an explanation of Khan and Crawford's results. We found that the sighting dominance switch occurred at similar eccentricities when we controlled for effects of hand occlusion and target size differences. We also found that sighting dominance thresholds change predictably with the hand used. However, we found no evidence for relationships between strength of hand preference as assessed by questionnaire or by pegboard performance and strength of sighting dominance. Similarly, participants with consistent hand and foot preferences did not show stronger eye preference as assessed using the Khan and Crawford procedure. These data are discussed in terms of indirect relationships between sighting dominance, hand preference and cerebral specialisation for language and motor control. PMID:23357202

  19. Monocular tool control, eye dominance, and laterality in New Caledonian crows.

    PubMed

    Martinho, Antone; Burns, Zackory T; von Bayern, Auguste M P; Kacelnik, Alex

    2014-12-15

    Tool use, though rare, is taxonomically widespread, but morphological adaptations for tool use are virtually unknown. We focus on the New Caledonian crow (NCC, Corvus moneduloides), which displays some of the most innovative tool-related behavior among nonhumans. One of their major food sources is larvae extracted from burrows with sticks held diagonally in the bill, oriented with individual, but not species-wide, laterality. Among possible behavioral and anatomical adaptations for tool use, NCCs possess unusually wide binocular visual fields (up to 60°), suggesting that extreme binocular vision may facilitate tool use. Here, we establish that during natural extractions, tool tips can only be viewed by the contralateral eye. Thus, maintaining binocular view of tool tips is unlikely to have selected for wide binocular fields; the selective factor is more likely to have been to allow each eye to see far enough across the midsagittal line to view the tool's tip monocularly. Consequently, we tested the hypothesis that tool side preference follows eye preference and found that eye dominance does predict tool laterality across individuals. This contrasts with humans' species-wide motor laterality and uncorrelated motor-visual laterality, possibly because bill-held tools are viewed monocularly and move in concert with eyes, whereas hand-held tools are visible to both eyes and allow independent combinations of eye preference and handedness. This difference may affect other models of coordination between vision and mechanical control, not necessarily involving tools. PMID:25484292

  20. Influence of refractive correction on ocular dominance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Nanami; Kawamorita, Takushi; Uozato, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the effects of refractive correction and refractive defocus on the assessment of sensory ocular dominance. In 25 healthy subjects (4 males and 21 females) aged between 20 and 31 years, a quantitative measurement of sensory ocular dominance was performed with refractive correction and the addition of a positive lens on the dominant eye. Sensory ocular dominance was measured with a chart using binocular rivalry targets. The reversal point changed after the addition of a +1.00 D lens on the dominant eye in all subjects. However, sighting ocular dominance and stereopsis did not change after the addition of a positive lens on the dominant eye ( P > 0:05, Wilcoxon test). These results suggest that refractive correction affects sensory ocular dominance, indicating the possible development of a new type of occlusion for amblyopia in the future.

  1. Changes in Sensory Dominance during Childhood: Converging Evidence from the Colavita Effect and the Sound-Induced Flash Illusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nava, Elena; Pavani, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    In human adults, visual dominance emerges in several multisensory tasks. In children, auditory dominance has been reported up to 4 years of age. To establish when sensory dominance changes during development, 41 children (6-7, 9-10, and 11-12 years) were tested on the Colavita task (Experiment 1) and 32 children (6-7, 9-10, and 11-12 years) were…

  2. Pax6 in the sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes: evidence for a role in eye, sensory organ and brain development.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, B; Lee, P N; Kang, Y Y; Tomarev, S; de Couet, H G; Callaerts, P

    2003-02-01

    The cloning of a Pax6 orthologue from the sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes and its developmental expression pattern are described. The data are consistent with the presence of a single gene encoding a protein with highly conserved DNA-binding paired and homeodomains. A detailed expression analysis by in situ hybridization and immunodetection revealed Pax6 mRNA and protein with predominantly nuclear localization in the developing eye, olfactory organ, brain lobes (optic lobe, olfactory lobe, peduncle lobe, superior frontal lobe and dorsal basal lobe), arms and mantle, suggestive of a role in eye, brain, and sensory organ development. PMID:12559490

  3. Changes in sensory dominance during childhood: converging evidence from the colavita effect and the sound-induced flash illusion.

    PubMed

    Nava, Elena; Pavani, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    In human adults, visual dominance emerges in several multisensory tasks. In children, auditory dominance has been reported up to 4 years of age. To establish when sensory dominance changes during development, 41 children (6-7, 9-10, and 11-12 years) were tested on the Colavita task (Experiment 1) and 32 children (6-7, 9-10, and 11-12 years) were tested on the sound-induced flash illusion (Experiment 2). In both experiments, an auditory dominance emerged in 6- to 7-year-old children compared to older children. Adult-like visual dominance started to emerge from 9 to 10 years of age, and consolidated in 11- to 12-year-old children. These findings show that auditory dominance persists up to 6 years, but switches to visual dominance during the first school years. PMID:23006060

  4. The relationship between spatial cognition and walking trajectory for passing through a doorway: evident in individuals with dominant right eye?

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Seiya; Fujikake, Hiroya; Kokubu, Masahiro; Higuchi, Takahiro

    2015-03-01

    When individuals attempt to walk through the center of a doorway (i.e., spatial bisection), the body's midpoint at crossing can deviate from its true center. Such deviation could result from asymmetry in spatial cognition. However, previous studies failed to find a significant correlation between bisection performance during walking and that during line/spatial bisection. We investigated whether such failure would result from different effectors being used for bisection (i.e., body midpoint or finger/laser pointer). We also investigated whether the difference in an individual's eye dominance would affect the relationship. Thirty-two young adults (16 of them with right-eye dominance) participated. For a walking task, participants walked through the perceived center of a wide doorway. For a spatial bisection task, they observed the same doorway under two distance conditions (about 0.5 and 2 m) and aligned their body midpoint with the perceived center in the sagittal dimension. Both tasks were performed under three visual occlusion conditions (dominant eye, non-dominant eye, and no occlusion). The results showed that, for the spatial bisection task, occluding the dominant eye caused deviation of the bisected point to the contralateral side. However, for the walking task, such an effect was observed only in participants with a dominant right eye. Consequently, directional biases in both tasks were significantly correlated only for right-eye-dominant participants. These results suggest that, for right-eye-dominant individuals only, use of the same effector for both tasks showed a clear relationship between the two tasks. Possible explanations for these findings were discussed. PMID:25432626

  5. [Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement (HMSN-P) is caused by a mutation in TFG].

    PubMed

    Ishiura, Hiroyuki; Tsuji, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement (HMSN-P) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by proximal predominant weakness and muscle atrophy accompanied by distal sensory disturbance. Linkage analysis using 4 families identified a region on chromosome 3 showing a LOD score exceeding 4. Further refinement of candidate region was performed by haplotype analysis using high-density SNP data, resulting in a minimum candidate region spanning 3.3 Mb. Exome analysis of an HMSN-P patient revealed a mutation (c.854C>T, p.Pro285Leu) in TRK-fused gene (TFG). The identical mutation was found in the four families, which cosegregated with the disease. The mutation was neither found in Japanese control subjects nor public databases. Detailed haplotype analysis suggested two independent origins of the mutation. These findings indicate that the mutation in TFG causes HMSN-P. PMID:24291930

  6. Binocular Neurons in Parastriate Cortex: Interocular ‘Matching’ of Receptive Field Properties, Eye Dominance and Strength of Silent Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chun; Dreher, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Spike-responses of single binocular neurons were recorded from a distinct part of primary visual cortex, the parastriate cortex (cytoarchitectonic area 18) of anaesthetized and immobilized domestic cats. Functional identification of neurons was based on the ratios of phase-variant (F1) component to the mean firing rate (F0) of their spike-responses to optimized (orientation, direction, spatial and temporal frequencies and size) sine-wave-luminance-modulated drifting grating patches presented separately via each eye. In over 95% of neurons, the interocular differences in the phase-sensitivities (differences in F1/F0 spike-response ratios) were small (?0.3) and in over 80% of neurons, the interocular differences in preferred orientations were ?10°. The interocular correlations of the direction selectivity indices and optimal spatial frequencies, like those of the phase sensitivies and optimal orientations, were also strong (coefficients of correlation r ?0.7005). By contrast, the interocular correlations of the optimal temporal frequencies, the diameters of summation areas of the excitatory responses and suppression indices were weak (coefficients of correlation r ?0.4585). In cells with high eye dominance indices (HEDI cells), the mean magnitudes of suppressions evoked by stimulation of silent, extra-classical receptive fields via the non-dominant eyes, were significantly greater than those when the stimuli were presented via the dominant eyes. We argue that the well documented ‘eye-origin specific’ segregation of the lateral geniculate inputs underpinning distinct eye dominance columns in primary visual cortices of mammals with frontally positioned eyes (distinct eye dominance columns), combined with significant interocular differences in the strength of silent suppressive fields, putatively contribute to binocular stereoscopic vision. PMID:24927276

  7. Genotypes & Sensory Phenotypes in 2 New X-Linked Neuropathies (CMTX3 and dSMAX) and Dominant CMT\\/HMN Overlap Syndromes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Garth Nicholson; Marina Kennerson; Megan Brewer; James Garbern; Michael Shy

    \\u000a Classification of neuropathies into Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome (CMT, hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy) or purely\\u000a motor neuropathies is relatively easy in single patients but subtle sensory findings can vary in different affected individuals\\u000a in a family. We examined the extent of sensory involvement in different individuals in two new X-linked neuropathy syndromes\\u000a (CMTX3 and dSMAX) and in some dominantly inherited mainly

  8. Binocular Summation and Other Forms of Non-Dominant Eye Contribution in Individuals with Strabismic Amblyopia during Habitual Viewing

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Brendan T.; Panesar, Gurvinder K.; Scally, Andrew J.; Pacey, Ian E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Adults with amblyopia (‘lazy eye’), long-standing strabismus (ocular misalignment) or both typically do not experience visual symptoms because the signal from weaker eye is given less weight than the signal from its fellow. Here we examine the contribution of the weaker eye of individuals with strabismus and amblyopia with both eyes open and with the deviating eye in its anomalous motor position. Methodology/Results The task consisted of a blue-on-yellow detection task along a horizontal line across the central 50 degrees of the visual field. We compare the results obtained in ten individuals with strabismic amblyopia with ten visual normals. At each field location in each participant, we examined how the sensitivity exhibited under binocular conditions compared with sensitivity from four predictions, (i) a model of binocular summation, (ii) the average of the monocular sensitivities, (iii) dominant-eye sensitivity or (iv) non-dominant-eye sensitivity. The proportion of field locations for which the binocular summation model provided the best description of binocular sensitivity was similar in normals (50.6%) and amblyopes (48.2%). Average monocular sensitivity matched binocular sensitivity in 14.1% of amblyopes’ field locations compared to 8.8% of normals’. Dominant-eye sensitivity explained sensitivity at 27.1% of field locations in amblyopes but 21.2% in normals. Non-dominant-eye sensitivity explained sensitivity at 10.6% of field locations in amblyopes but 19.4% in normals. Binocular summation provided the best description of the sensitivity profile in 6/10 amblyopes compared to 7/10 of normals. In three amblyopes, dominant-eye sensitivity most closely reflected binocular sensitivity (compared to two normals) and in the remaining amblyope, binocular sensitivity approximated to an average of the monocular sensitivities. Conclusions Our results suggest a strong positive contribution in habitual viewing from the non-dominant eye in strabismic amblyopes. This is consistent with evidence from other sources that binocular mechanisms are frequently intact in strabismic and amblyopic individuals. PMID:24205005

  9. The TRK-fused gene is mutated in hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement.

    PubMed

    Ishiura, Hiroyuki; Sako, Wataru; Yoshida, Mari; Kawarai, Toshitaka; Tanabe, Osamu; Goto, Jun; Takahashi, Yuji; Date, Hidetoshi; Mitsui, Jun; Ahsan, Budrul; Ichikawa, Yaeko; Iwata, Atsushi; Yoshino, Hiide; Izumi, Yuishin; Fujita, Koji; Maeda, Kouji; Goto, Satoshi; Koizumi, Hidetaka; Morigaki, Ryoma; Ikemura, Masako; Yamauchi, Naoko; Murayama, Shigeo; Nicholson, Garth A; Ito, Hidefumi; Sobue, Gen; Nakagawa, Masanori; Kaji, Ryuji; Tsuji, Shoji

    2012-08-10

    Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement (HMSN-P) is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by widespread fasciculations, proximal-predominant muscle weakness, and atrophy followed by distal sensory involvement. To date, large families affected by HMSN-P have been reported from two different regions in Japan. Linkage and haplotype analyses of two previously reported families and two new families with the use of high-density SNP arrays further defined the minimum candidate region of 3.3 Mb in chromosomal region 3q12. Exome sequencing showed an identical c.854C>T (p.Pro285Leu) mutation in the TRK-fused gene (TFG) in the four families. Detailed haplotype analysis suggested two independent origins of the mutation. Pathological studies of an autopsied patient revealed TFG- and ubiquitin-immunopositive cytoplasmic inclusions in the spinal and cortical motor neurons. Fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus, a frequent finding in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, was also observed in the motor neurons with inclusion bodies. Moreover, TAR DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43)-positive cytoplasmic inclusions were also demonstrated. In cultured cells expressing mutant TFG, cytoplasmic aggregation of TDP-43 was demonstrated. These findings indicate that formation of TFG-containing cytoplasmic inclusions and concomitant mislocalization of TDP-43 underlie motor neuron degeneration in HMSN-P. Pathological overlap of proteinopathies involving TFG and TDP-43 highlights a new pathway leading to motor neuron degeneration. PMID:22883144

  10. Sensory Impairment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Keating; R. Neill Hadder

    Anthropological studies of sensory impairment address biological conditions and cultural disablement while contributing to theoretical discussions of cultural competence, communicative practices, the role of narrative, and features of identity, ideologies, and technology. As boundary cases, impairments can disclose essential aspects of the senses in human life. Sensory impairment studies navigate the complexities of comparing dominant sensory discourses with individual sense

  11. Sensory Impairment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Keating; R. Neill Hadder

    2010-01-01

    Anthropological studies of sensory impairment address biological conditions and cultural disablement while contributing to theoretical discussions of cultural competence, communicative practices, the role of narrative, and features of identity, ideologies, and technology. As boundary cases, impairments can disclose essential aspects of the senses in human life. Sensory impairment studies navigate the complexities of comparing dominant sensory discourses with individual sense

  12. Ocular Dominance and Visual Function Testing

    PubMed Central

    Lopes-Ferreira, D.; Neves, H.; Queiros, A.; Faria-Ribeiro, M.; Peixoto-de-Matos, S. C.; González-Méijome, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To show the distribution of ocular dominance as measured with sensory and eye sighting methods and its potential relationship with high and low contrast LogMAR visual acuity in presbyopic subjects. Method. Forty-four presbyopes (48.5 ± 3.5 years) participated in this study. Ocular dominance was determined by eye sighting (hole-in-card) and sensorial (+1.50?D lens induced blur) methods. According to the dominance detected with each method (RE: right eye or LE: left eye), patients were classified in dominance type 1 (RE/RE), type 2 (RE/LE), type 3 (LE/RE) and type 4 (LE/LE). Results. Baseline refractive error (MSE) was RE:?0.36 ± 1.67?D and LE:?0.35 ± 1.85?D (P = 0.930). RE was the dominant eye in 61.4% and 70.5% of times as obtained from sensorial and sighting methods, respectively. Most frequent dominance was of type 1 (52.3%), in this case the RE showed statistically significant better distance low contrast LogMAR VA (0.04 LogMAR units) compared to the LE (P < 0.05). Conclusions. The dominance was more frequent in RE in this sample. The eye sighting and sensorial methods to define ocular dominance agreed in more than half of cases. Amount of MSE was not significantly different between dominant and non-dominant eye. But in case of right dominance, the RE presented better distance low contrast VA compared to the LE. PMID:24319677

  13. Multiple manifestations of microstimulation in the optic tectum: eye movements, pupil dilations, and sensory priming.

    PubMed

    Netser, Shai; Ohayon, Shay; Gutfreund, Yoram

    2010-07-01

    It is well established that the optic tectum (or its mammalian homologue, the superior colliculus) is involved in directing gaze toward salient stimuli. However, salient stimuli typically induce orienting responses beyond gaze shifts. The role of the optic tectum in generating responses such as pupil dilation, galvanic responses, or covert shifts is not clear. In the present work, we studied the effects of microstimulation in the optic tectum of the barn owl (Tyto alba) on pupil diameter and on eye shifts. Experiments were conducted in lightly anesthetized head-restrained barn owls. We report that low-level microstimulation in the deep layers of the optic tectum readily induced pupil dilation responses (PDRs), as well as small eye movements. Electrically evoked PDRs, similar to acoustically evoked PDRs, were long-lasting and habituated to repeated stimuli. We further show that microstimulation in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus also induced PDRs. Finally, in experiments in which tectal microstimulations were coupled with acoustic stimuli, we show a tendency of the microstimulation to enhance pupil responses and eye shifts to previously habituated acoustic stimuli. The enhancement was dependent on the site of stimulation in the tectal spatial map; responses to sounds with spatial cues that matched the site of stimulation were more enhanced compared with sounds with spatial cues that did not match. These results suggest that the optic tectum is directly involved in autonomic orienting reflexes as well as in gaze shifts, highlighting the central role of the optic tectum in mediating the body responses to salient stimuli. PMID:20427617

  14. Increased Prevalences of Left-handedness and Left-eye Sighting Dominance in Individuals with Williams-Beuren Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Van Strien; G. C. Lagers-Van Haselen; J. M. Van Hagen; I. F. M. De Coo; M. A. Frens; J. N. Van Der Geest

    2005-01-01

    Handedness and eye sighting dominance were assessed in a sample of 50 individuals (25 male, 25 female; aged 5–38 years) with Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS). The prevalences of left-handedness and left-eyedness were compared to the normative prevalences in the general population. We found significantly higher prevalences of left-handedness and left-eyedness in the WBS sample. The higher prevalences were more salient in

  15. Autosomal dominant hereditary sensory neuropathy with chronic cough and gastro-oesophageal reflux: clinical features in two families linked to chromosome 3p22-p24

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Penelope J. Spring; Cindy Kok; Garth A. Nicholson; Alvin J. Ing; Judith M. Spies; Mark L. Bassett; John Cameron; Paul Kerlin; Simon Bowler; Roger Tuck; John D. Pollard

    2005-01-01

    Autosomal dominant hereditary sensory neuropathy (HSN I) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders, and in some families it is due to mutations in the serine palmitoyltransferase (SPTLC1) gene. We have characterized two families with HSN I associated with cough and gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR). From a large Australian family, 27 individuals and from a smaller family, 11 individuals

  16. Evolution of an adaptive behavior and its sensory receptors promotes eye regression in blind cavefish: response to Borowsky (2013).

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Masato; O'Quin, Kelly E; Jeffery, William R

    2013-01-01

    Vibration attraction behavior (VAB) is the swimming of fish toward an oscillating object, a behavior that is likely adaptive because it increases foraging efficiency in darkness. VAB is seen in a small proportion of Astyanax surface-dwelling populations (surface fish) but is pronounced in cave-dwelling populations (cavefish). In a recent study, we identified two quantitative trait loci for VAB on Astyanax linkage groups 2 and 17. We also demonstrated that a small population of superficial neuromast sensors located within the eye orbit (EO SN) facilitate VAB, and two quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for EO SN that were congruent with those for VAB. Finally, we showed that both VAB and EO SN are negatively correlated with eye size, and that two (of several) QTL for eye size overlap VAB and EO SN QTLs. From these results, we concluded that the adaptive evolution of VAB and EO SN has contributed to the indirect loss of eyes in cavefish, either as a result of pleiotropy or tight physical linkage of the mutations underlying these traits. In a subsequent commentary, Borowsky argues that there is poor experimental support for our conclusions. Specifically, Borowsky states that: (1) linkage groups (LGs) 2 and 17 harbor QTL for many traits and, therefore, no evidence exists for an exclusive interaction among the overlapping VAB, EO SN and eye size QTL; (2) some of the QTL we identified are too broad (>20 cM) to support the hypothesis of correlated evolution due to pleiotropy or hitchhiking; and (3) VAB is unnecessary to explain the indirect evolution of eye-loss since the negative polarity of numerous eye QTL is consistent with direct selection against eyes. Borowsky further argues that (4) it is difficult to envision an evolutionary scenario whereby VAB and EO SN drive eye loss, since the eyes must first be reduced in order to increase the number of EO SN and, therefore, VAB. In this response, we explain why the evidence of one trait influencing eye reduction is stronger for VAB than other traits, and provide further support for a scenario whereby elaboration of VAB in surface fish may precede complete eye-loss. PMID:23844745

  17. Mutations in the yeast LCB1 and LCB2 genes, including those corresponding to the hereditary sensory neuropathy type I mutations, dominantly inactivate serine palmitoyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Gable, Ken; Han, Gongshe; Monaghan, Erin; Bacikova, Dagmar; Natarajan, Mukil; Williams, Robert; Dunn, Teresa M

    2002-03-22

    It was recently demonstrated that mutations in the human SPTLC1 gene, encoding the Lcb1p subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), cause hereditary sensory neuropathy type I . As a member of the subfamily of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate enzymes known as the alpha-oxoamine synthases, serine palmitoyltransferase catalyzes the committed step of sphingolipid synthesis. The residues that are mutated to cause hereditary sensory neuropathy type I reside in a highly conserved region of Lcb1p that is predicted to be a catalytic domain of Lcb1p on the basis of alignments with other members of the alpha-oxoamine synthase family. We found that the corresponding mutations in the LCB1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae reduce serine palmitoyltransferase activity. These mutations are dominant and decrease serine palmitoyltransferase activity by 50% when the wild-type and mutant LCB1 alleles are coexpressed. We also show that serine palmitoyltransferase is an Lcb1p small middle dotLcb2p heterodimer and that the mutated Lcb1p proteins retain their ability to interact with Lcb2p. Modeling studies suggest that serine palmitoyltransferase is likely to have a single active site that lies at the Lcb1p small middle dotLcb2p interface and that the mutations in Lcb1p reside near the lysine in Lcb2p that is expected to form the Schiff's base with the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate cofactor. Furthermore, mutations in this lysine and in a histidine residue that is also predicted to be important for pyridoxal 5'-phosphate binding to Lcb2p also dominantly inactivate SPT similar to the hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1-like mutations in Lcb1p. PMID:11781309

  18. Does dominance of crossing retinal ganglion cells make the eyes cross? The temporal retina in the origin of infantile esotropia – a neuroanatomical and evolutionary analysis.

    PubMed

    ten Tusscher, Marcel P M

    2014-09-01

    A closer look at the evolution of the eye and the brain provides a possible explanation for both the origin of infantile esotropia and its motor characteristics. In the course of evolution, the eyes have moved from a lateral to a frontal position. Consequently, the monocular visual fields started to overlap resulting in a binocular visual field. In lateral-eyed animals, the retinae project to the contralateral visual cortices only. These projections are also found in binocular mammals and birds with binocular visual fields but in addition there are uncrossed projections from the temporal retinae to the visual cortex. The partial chiasmal decussation and the corpus callosum provide the necessary structure that allows binocular vision to develop. Disruption of normal binocular development causes a loss of binocularity in the primary visual cortex and beyond. Beyond the primary visual cortex, the contralateral eye dominates while the temporal retinal signal appears to lose influence. Loss or absence of binocular vision in infantile esotropia may be caused by inadequate retinotopic matching between the nasal and temporal retinal signals like in albinism with an abnormal or asymmetric chiasmal decussation or agenesis of the corpus callosum. Dominance of the crossing retinal signal might also explain the motor characteristics of infantile esotropia (asymmetric OKN, latent nystagmus, DVD). A normal binocular cortical signal will predominate over the evolutionary older, originally non-binocular, retinal projections to the superior colliculi (CS) and the accessory optic system (AOS). A suppressed temporal retinal signal paves the way for the re-emergence of eye movements driven by one eye, as in lateral-eyed non-binocular animals. PMID:25259397

  19. Eye closure enhances dark night perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Brodoehl, Stefan; Klingner, Carsten M.; Witte, Otto W.

    2015-01-01

    We often close our eyes when we explore objects with our fingers to reduce the dominance of the visual system over our other senses. Here we show that eye closure, even in complete darkness, results in improved somatosensory perception due to a switch from visual predominance towards a somatosensory processing mode. Using a tactile discrimination task and functional neuroimaging (fMRI) data were acquired from healthy subjects with their eyes opened and closed in two environments: under ambient light and in complete darkness. Under both conditions the perception threshold decreased when subjects closed their eyes, and their fingers became more sensitive. In complete darkness, eye closure significantly increased occipital blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) activity in the somatosensory and secondary visual processing areas. This change in brain activity was associated with enhanced coupling between the sensory thalamus and somatosensory cortex; connectivity between the visual and somatosensory areas decreased. The present study demonstrates that eye closure improves somatosensory perception not merely due to the lack of visual signals; instead, the act of closing the eyes itself alters the processing mode in the brain: with eye closure the brain switches from thalamo-cortical networks with visual dominance to a non-visually dominated processing mode. PMID:26012706

  20. Eye regression in blind Astyanax cavefish may facilitate the evolution of an adaptive behavior and its sensory receptors.

    PubMed

    Borowsky, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The forces driving the evolutionary loss or simplification of traits such as vision and pigmentation in cave animals are still debated. Three alternative hypotheses are direct selection against the trait, genetic drift, and indirect selection due to antagonistic pleiotropy. Recent work establishes that Astyanax cavefish exhibit vibration attraction behavior (VAB), a presumed behavioral adaptation to finding food in the dark not exhibited by surface fish. Genetic analysis revealed two regions in the genome with quantitative trait loci (QTL) for both VAB and eye size. These observations were interpreted as genetic evidence that selection for VAB indirectly drove eye regression through antagonistic pleiotropy and, further, that this is a general mechanism to account for regressive evolution. These conclusions are unsupported by the data; the analysis fails to establish pleiotropy and ignores the numerous other QTL that map to, and potentially interact, in the same regions. It is likely that all three forces drive evolutionary change. We will be able to distinguish among them in individual cases only when we have identified the causative alleles and characterized their effects. PMID:23844714

  1. The Effect of Sensory Uncertainty Due to Amblyopia (Lazy Eye) on the Planning and Execution of Visually-Guided 3D Reaching Movements

    PubMed Central

    Niechwiej-Szwedo, Ewa; Goltz, Herbert C.; Chandrakumar, Manokaraananthan; Wong, Agnes M. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Impairment of spatiotemporal visual processing in amblyopia has been studied extensively, but its effects on visuomotor tasks have rarely been examined. Here, we investigate how visual deficits in amblyopia affect motor planning and online control of visually-guided, unconstrained reaching movements. Methods Thirteen patients with mild amblyopia, 13 with severe amblyopia and 13 visually-normal participants were recruited. Participants reached and touched a visual target during binocular and monocular viewing. Motor planning was assessed by examining spatial variability of the trajectory at 50–100 ms after movement onset. Online control was assessed by examining the endpoint variability and by calculating the coefficient of determination (R2) which correlates the spatial position of the limb during the movement to endpoint position. Results Patients with amblyopia had reduced precision of the motor plan in all viewing conditions as evidenced by increased variability of the reach early in the trajectory. Endpoint precision was comparable between patients with mild amblyopia and control participants. Patients with severe amblyopia had reduced endpoint precision along azimuth and elevation during amblyopic eye viewing only, and along the depth axis in all viewing conditions. In addition, they had significantly higher R2 values at 70% of movement time along the elevation and depth axes during amblyopic eye viewing. Conclusion Sensory uncertainty due to amblyopia leads to reduced precision of the motor plan. The ability to implement online corrections depends on the severity of the visual deficit, viewing condition, and the axis of the reaching movement. Patients with mild amblyopia used online control effectively to compensate for the reduced precision of the motor plan. In contrast, patients with severe amblyopia were not able to use online control as effectively to amend the limb trajectory especially along the depth axis, which could be due to their abnormal stereopsis. PMID:22363549

  2. A database of 629 English compound words: ratings of familiarity, lexeme meaning dominance, semantic transparency, age of acquisition, imageability, and sensory experience.

    PubMed

    Juhasz, Barbara J; Lai, Yun-Hsuan; Woodcock, Michelle L

    2014-11-01

    Since the work of Taft and Forster (1976), a growing literature has examined how English compound words are recognized and organized in the mental lexicon. Much of this research has focused on whether compound words are decomposed during recognition by manipulating the word frequencies of their lexemes. However, many variables may impact morphological processing, including relational semantic variables such as semantic transparency, as well as additional form-related and semantic variables. In the present study, ratings were collected on 629 English compound words for six variables [familiarity, age of acquisition (AoA), semantic transparency, lexeme meaning dominance (LMD), imageability, and sensory experience ratings (SER)]. All of the compound words selected for this study are contained within the English Lexicon Project (Balota et al., 2007), which made it possible to use a regression approach to examine the predictive power of these variables for lexical decision and word naming performance. Analyses indicated that familiarity, AoA, imageability, and SER were all significant predictors of both lexical decision and word naming performance when they were added separately to a model containing the length and frequency of the compounds, as well as the lexeme frequencies. In addition, rated semantic transparency also predicted lexical decision performance. The database of English compound words should be beneficial to word recognition researchers who are interested in selecting items for experiments on compound words, and it will also allow researchers to conduct further analyses using the available data combined with word recognition times included in the English Lexicon Project. PMID:25361864

  3. Signaling by sensory receptors.

    PubMed

    Julius, David; Nathans, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Sensory systems detect small molecules, mechanical perturbations, or radiation via the activation of receptor proteins and downstream signaling cascades in specialized sensory cells. In vertebrates, the two principal categories of sensory receptors are ion channels, which mediate mechanosensation, thermosensation, and acid and salt taste; and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which mediate vision, olfaction, and sweet, bitter, and umami tastes. GPCR-based signaling in rods and cones illustrates the fundamental principles of rapid activation and inactivation, signal amplification, and gain control. Channel-based sensory systems illustrate the integration of diverse modulatory signals at the receptor, as seen in the thermosensory/pain system, and the rapid response kinetics that are possible with direct mechanical gating of a channel. Comparisons of sensory receptor gene sequences reveal numerous examples in which gene duplication and sequence divergence have created novel sensory specificities. This is the evolutionary basis for the observed diversity in temperature- and ligand-dependent gating among thermosensory channels, spectral tuning among visual pigments, and odorant binding among olfactory receptors. The coding of complex external stimuli by a limited number of sensory receptor types has led to the evolution of modality-specific and species-specific patterns of retention or loss of sensory information, a filtering operation that selectively emphasizes features in the stimulus that enhance survival in a particular ecological niche. The many specialized anatomic structures, such as the eye and ear, that house primary sensory neurons further enhance the detection of relevant stimuli. PMID:22110046

  4. Advanced optics in a jellyfish eye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan-E. Nilsson; Lars Gislén; Melissa M. Coates; Charlotta Skogh; Anders Garm

    2005-01-01

    Cubozoans, or box jellyfish, differ from all other cnidarians by an active fish-like behaviour and an elaborate sensory apparatus. Each of the four sides of the animal carries a conspicuous sensory club (the rhopalium), which has evolved into a bizarre cluster of different eyes. Two of the eyes on each rhopalium have long been known to resemble eyes of higher

  5. Dry Eye

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the best person to answer specific questions. Dry Eye Defined What is dry eye? Dry eye occurs when the eye does not ... epitheliopathy (LNE). What are the types of dry eye? 1) Aqueous tear-deficient dry eye is a ...

  6. A family with autosomal dominant mutilating neuropathy not linked to either Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 2B (CMT2B) or hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I) loci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emilia Bellone; Carmelo Rodolico; Antonio Toscano; Emilio Di Maria; Denise Cassandrini; Antonio Pizzuti; Simona Pigullo; Anna Mazzeo; Vincenzo Macaione; Paolo Girlanda; Giuseppe Vita; Franco Ajmar; Paola Mandich

    2002-01-01

    Sensory loss and ulcero-mutilating features have been observed in hereditary sensory neuropathy type I and in hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type IIB, also referred as Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 2B. To date two loci associated with ulcero-mutilating neuropathy have been described: CMT2B at 3q13–q22 and HSN I at 9q22.1–q22.3. We performed linkage analysis with chromosomal markers representing the hereditary sensory

  7. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Healthy Eyes Listen Having a comprehensive dilated eye exam is ... or contact lenses. What is a comprehensive dilated eye exam? A comprehensive dilated eye exam is a ...

  8. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking ... have a comprehensive dilated eye exam. Who Performs Eye Exams? An eye care professional is either an ...

  9. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Eye Cancer: Overview Request Permissions Print to PDF Eye Cancer: Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... trained to treat intraocular cancer. Parts of the eye The eye is the organ that collects light ...

  10. Eye redness

    MedlinePLUS

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral infection; Conjunctival infection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies and some are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Others are nothing to ...

  11. Hawk Eyes I: Diurnal Raptors Differ in Visual Fields and Degree of Eye Movement

    E-print Network

    Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    Hawk Eyes I: Diurnal Raptors Differ in Visual Fields and Degree of Eye Movement Colleen T. O specific demands on sensory modalities. We studied visual field configuration, degree of eye movement, and orbit orientation in three diurnal raptors belonging to the Accipitridae and Falconidae families

  12. Eye Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  13. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  14. A Point Mutation in the Ubiquitin Ligase RNF170 That Causes Autosomal Dominant Sensory Ataxia Destabilizes the Protein and Impairs Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptor-mediated Ca2+ Signaling.

    PubMed

    Wright, Forrest A; Lu, Justine P; Sliter, Danielle A; Dupré, Nicolas; Rouleau, Guy A; Wojcikiewicz, Richard J H

    2015-05-29

    RNF170 is an endoplasmic reticulum membrane ubiquitin ligase that contributes to the ubiquitination of activated inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors, and also, when point mutated (arginine to cysteine at position 199), causes autosomal dominant sensory ataxia (ADSA), a disease characterized by neurodegeneration in the posterior columns of the spinal cord. Here we demonstrate that this point mutation inhibits RNF170 expression and signaling via IP3 receptors. Inhibited expression of mutant RNF170 was seen in cells expressing exogenous RNF170 constructs and in ADSA lymphoblasts, and appears to result from enhanced RNF170 autoubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. The basis for these effects was probed via additional point mutations, revealing that ionic interactions between charged residues in the transmembrane domains of RNF170 are required for protein stability. In ADSA lymphoblasts, platelet-activating factor-induced Ca(2+) mobilization was significantly impaired, whereas neither Ca(2+) store content, IP3 receptor levels, nor IP3 production were altered, indicative of a functional defect at the IP3 receptor locus, which may be the cause of neurodegeneration. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genetic deletion of RNF170 showed that RNF170 mediates the addition of all of the ubiquitin conjugates known to become attached to activated IP3 receptors (monoubiquitin and Lys(48)- and Lys(63)-linked ubiquitin chains), and that wild-type and mutant RNF170 have apparently identical ubiquitin ligase activities toward IP3 receptors. Thus, the Ca(2+) mobilization defect seen in ADSA lymphoblasts is apparently not due to aberrant IP3 receptor ubiquitination. Rather, the defect likely reflects abnormal ubiquitination of other substrates, or adaptation to the chronic reduction in RNF170 levels. PMID:25882839

  15. Stance width changes how sensory feedback is used for multisegmental balance control.

    PubMed

    Goodworth, Adam D; Mellodge, Patricia; Peterka, Robert J

    2014-08-01

    A multilink sensorimotor integration model of frontal plane balance control was developed to determine how stance width influences the use of sensory feedback in healthy adults. Data used to estimate model parameters came from seven human participants who stood on a continuously rotating surface with three different stimulus amplitudes, with eyes open and closed, and at four different stance widths. Dependent variables included lower body (LB) and upper body (UB) sway quantified by frequency-response functions. Results showed that stance width had a major influence on how parameters varied across stimulus amplitude and between visual conditions. Active mechanisms dominated LB control. At narrower stances, with increasing stimulus amplitude, subjects used sensory reweighting to shift reliance from proprioceptive cues to vestibular and/or visual cues that oriented the LB more toward upright. When vision was available, subjects reduced reliance on proprioception and increased reliance on vision. At wider stances, LB control did not exhibit sensory reweighting. In the UB system, both active and passive mechanisms contributed and were dependent on stance width. UB control changed across stimulus amplitude most in wide stance (opposite of the pattern found in LB control). The strong influence of stance width on sensory integration and neural feedback control implies that rehabilitative therapies for balance disorders can target different aspects of balance control by using different stance widths. Rehabilitative strategies designed to assess or modify sensory reweighting will be most effective with the use of narrower stances, whereas wider stances present greater challenges to UB control. PMID:24760788

  16. Finding twinkle in the eyes of a 71-year-old lady: a case report and review of the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of TWINKLE-related dominant disease.

    PubMed

    Van Hove, Johan L K; Cunningham, Vicki; Rice, Cathlin; Ringel, Steven P; Zhang, Qing; Chou, Ping-Chieh; Truong, Cavatina K; Wong, Lee-Jun C

    2009-05-01

    Progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO) can be caused by a disorder characterized by multiple mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions due to mutations in the TWINKLE gene, encoding a mtDNA helicase. We describe a 71-year-old woman who had developed PEO at age 55 years. She had cataracts, diabetes, paresthesias, cognitive defects, memory problems, hearing loss, and sensory ataxia. She had muscle weakness with ragged red fibers on biopsy. MRI showed static white matter changes. A c.908G>A substitution (p.R303Q) in the TWINKLE gene was identified. Multiple mtDNA deletions were detected in muscle but not blood by a PCR-based method, but not by Southern blot analysis. MtDNA copy number was maintained in blood and muscle. A systematic literature search was used to identify the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of dominant TWINKLE-related disease. Patients were adults with PEO and symptoms including myopathy, neuropathy, dysarthria or dysphagia, sensory ataxia, and parkinsonism. Diabetes, cataract, memory loss, hearing loss, and cardiac problems were infrequent. All reported mutations clustered between amino acids 303 and 508 with no mutations at the N-terminal half of the gene. The TWINKLE gene should be analyzed in adults with PEO even in the absence of mtDNA deletions in muscle on Southern blot analysis, and of a family history for PEO. The pathogenic mutations identified 5' beyond the linker region suggest a functional role for this part of the protein despite the absence of a primase function in humans. In our patient, the pathogenesis involved multiple mtDNA deletions without reduction in mtDNA copy number. PMID:19353676

  17. Lateral asymmetry of eye use in Octopus vulgaris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth A. Byrne; Michael Kuba; Ulrike Griebel

    2002-01-01

    The lateralization of sensory and motor functions has been recently demonstrated in various groups of vertebrates. We examined lateral asymmetry of eye use in Octopus vulgaris by behavioural methods. Octopus vulgaris uses monocular vision almost exclusively and can move its eyes independently. The amount of binocular vision is small because the eyes are on the sides of the head. We

  18. Brief article Multisensory spatial representations in eye-centered

    E-print Network

    Pouget, Alexandre

    of the eyes in the orbit and the position of the head with respect to the trunk. As illustrated in Fig. 1Brief article Multisensory spatial representations in eye-centered coordinates for reaching across sensory modalities. The location of reaching targets is also encoded in eye-centered coordinates

  19. Domination Bounds Domination in Graphs

    E-print Network

    Laison, Josh

    Examples Defenitions 1958 - Claude Berge introduced the domination number of a graph. In a graph G, a set) is the minimum size of a dominating set in G. Jose Alvarado Domination in Graphs #12;Intro Domination Domination, the neighbors of a single vertex form a dominating set. Jose Alvarado Domination in Graphs #12;Intro Domination

  20. The eyes of Macrosoma sp. (Lepidoptera: Hedyloidea): A nocturnal butterfly with superposition optics

    E-print Network

    Yack, Jayne E.

    The eyes of Macrosoma sp. (Lepidoptera: Hedyloidea): A nocturnal butterfly with superposition 2006; accepted 7 June 2006 Abstract The visual system of nocturnal Hedyloidea butterflies eyes of true butterflies (Papilionoidea), and, to gain insights into the sensory ecology

  1. The injured eye

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Eye injuries come at a high cost to society and are avoidable. Ocular blast injuries can be primary, from the blast wave itself; secondary, from fragments carried by the blast wind; tertiary; due to structural collapse or being thrown against a fixed object; or quaternary, from burns and indirect injuries. Ballistic eye protection significantly reduces the incidence of eye injuries and should be encouraged from an early stage in Military training. Management of an injured eye requires meticulous history taking, evaluation of vision that measures the acuity and if there is a relative pupillary defect as well as careful inspection of the eyes, under anaesthetic if necessary. A lateral canthotomy with cantholysis should be performed immediately if there is a sight-threatening retrobulbar haemorrhage. Systemic antibiotics should be prescribed if there is a suspected penetrating or perforating injury. A ruptured globe should be protected by an eye shield. Primary repair of ruptured globes should be performed in a timely fashion. Secondary procedures will often be required at a later date to achieve sight preservation. A poor initial visual acuity is not a guarantee of a poor final result. The final result can be predicted after approximately 3–4 weeks. Future research in eye injuries attempts to reduce scarring and neuronal damage as well as to promote photoreceptor rescue, using post-transcriptional inhibition of cell death pathways and vaccination to promote neural recovery. Where the sight has been lost sensory substitution of a picture from a spectacle mounted video camera to the touch receptors of the tongue can be used to achieve appreciation of the outside world. PMID:21149360

  2. Right Sensory Alien Hand Phenomenon from a Left Pontine Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Rafiei, Nastaran

    2009-01-01

    Background Acute onset of a sensory alien hand phenomenon has been observed only from a supratentorial lesion involving the non-dominant hand, mostly from a right posterior cerebral artery infarction. A single acute vascular lesion resulting in a dominant hand sensory alien hand syndrome has not been previously documented. Case Report A 78-year old right-handed woman exhibited right sensory alien hand phenomenon from a left pontine hemorrhage. Disturbance of proprioceptive input and visuospatial perception are likely to play a role in manifesting the sign. Conclusions Dominant-hand sensory alien hand phenomenon may occur in an acute setting from a left pontine hemorrhage. PMID:19513334

  3. Eye Protection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... eye protection equipment? Most farm supply and hardware retailers carry sunglasses, safety glasses, goggles and welding masks ... radiation can lead to the development of cataracts. Growths on parts of the eye and skin cancers ...

  4. Eye emergencies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the eye may also occur. Certain types of skull fractures can cause bruising around the eyes, even without ... Working with toxic chemicals Cycling or participating in sports where there is a high likelihood of injury ...

  5. Peripheral Prism Glasses: Effects of Dominance, Suppression and Background

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Nicole C.; Bowers, Alex R.; Optom, M.C.; Peli, Eli

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Unilateral peripheral prisms for homonymous hemianopia (HH) place different images on corresponding peripheral retinal points, a rivalrous situation in which local suppression of the prism image could occur and thus limit device functionality. Detection with peripheral prisms has primarily been evaluated using conventional perimetry where binocular rivalry is unlikely to occur. We quantified detection over more visually complex backgrounds and examined the effects of ocular dominance. Methods Detection rates of 8 participants with HH or quadranopia and normal binocularity wearing unilateral peripheral prism glasses were determined for static perimetry targets briefly presented in the prism expansion area (in the blind hemifield) and the seeing hemifield, under monocular and binocular viewing, over uniform gray and more complex patterned backgrounds. Results Participants with normal binocularity had mixed sensory ocular dominance, demonstrated no difference in detection rates when prisms were fitted on the side of the HH or the opposite side (p>0.2), and had detection rates in the expansion area that were not different for monocular and binocular viewing over both backgrounds (p>0.4). However, two participants with abnormal binocularity and strong ocular dominance demonstrated reduced detection in the expansion area when prisms were fitted in front of the non-dominant eye. Conclusions We found little evidence of local suppression of the peripheral prism image for HH patients with normal binocularity. However, in cases of strong ocular dominance, consideration should be given to fitting prisms before the dominant eye. Although these results are promising, further testing in more realistic conditions including image motion is needed. PMID:22885783

  6. Flexibility and Stability in Sensory Processing Revealed Using Visual-to-Auditory Sensory Substitution.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Uri; Amedi, Amir

    2015-08-01

    The classical view of sensory processing involves independent processing in sensory cortices and multisensory integration in associative areas. This hierarchical structure has been challenged by evidence of multisensory responses in sensory areas, and dynamic weighting of sensory inputs in associative areas, thus far reported independently. Here, we used a visual-to-auditory sensory substitution algorithm (SSA) to manipulate the information conveyed by sensory inputs while keeping the stimuli intact. During scan sessions before and after SSA learning, subjects were presented with visual images and auditory soundscapes. The findings reveal 2 dynamic processes. First, crossmodal attenuation of sensory cortices changed direction after SSA learning from visual attenuations of the auditory cortex to auditory attenuations of the visual cortex. Secondly, associative areas changed their sensory response profile from strongest response for visual to that for auditory. The interaction between these phenomena may play an important role in multisensory processing. Consistent features were also found in the sensory dominance in sensory areas and audiovisual convergence in associative area Middle Temporal Gyrus. These 2 factors allow for both stability and a fast, dynamic tuning of the system when required. PMID:24518756

  7. Flexibility and Stability in Sensory Processing Revealed Using Visual-to-Auditory Sensory Substitution

    PubMed Central

    Hertz, Uri; Amedi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    The classical view of sensory processing involves independent processing in sensory cortices and multisensory integration in associative areas. This hierarchical structure has been challenged by evidence of multisensory responses in sensory areas, and dynamic weighting of sensory inputs in associative areas, thus far reported independently. Here, we used a visual-to-auditory sensory substitution algorithm (SSA) to manipulate the information conveyed by sensory inputs while keeping the stimuli intact. During scan sessions before and after SSA learning, subjects were presented with visual images and auditory soundscapes. The findings reveal 2 dynamic processes. First, crossmodal attenuation of sensory cortices changed direction after SSA learning from visual attenuations of the auditory cortex to auditory attenuations of the visual cortex. Secondly, associative areas changed their sensory response profile from strongest response for visual to that for auditory. The interaction between these phenomena may play an important role in multisensory processing. Consistent features were also found in the sensory dominance in sensory areas and audiovisual convergence in associative area Middle Temporal Gyrus. These 2 factors allow for both stability and a fast, dynamic tuning of the system when required. PMID:24518756

  8. Using Eye Makeup

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Using Eye Makeup Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... permanent loss of your eyelashes. Hold the Rib Eye Don’t put raw meat on a black ...

  9. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment Tweet Lazy eye correction or treatment should ... Lazy Eye Diagnosis Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment Lazy eye patch treatment If refractive amblyopia is a problem, ...

  10. Eye dilation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Greyson Orlando (None; )

    2006-12-11

    The iris is the colored part of the eye. The pupil is the dark circle in the middle of the iris. The iris causes the pupil to expand or contract depending on the amount of light in a given area. Once light passes through the pupil, a structure called the lens that is directly behind the pupil focuses the light at the back of the eye. The optic nerve, located at the back of the eye, takes the focused message and relays it to the brain where it is processed into an image.

  11. Contextual effects on motion perception and smooth pursuit eye movements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miriam Spering; Karl R. Gegenfurtner

    2008-01-01

    Smooth pursuit eye movements are continuous, slow rotations of the eyes that allow us to follow the motion of a visual object of interest. These movements are closely related to sensory inputs from the visual motion processing system. To track a moving object in the natural environment, its motion first has to be segregated from the motion signals provided by

  12. The cellular eye lens and crystallins of cubomedusan jellyfish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joram Piatigorsky; Joseph Horwitz; Toichiro Kuwabara; Charles E. Cutress

    1989-01-01

    The ultrastructure and major soluble proteins of the transparent eye lens of two cubomedusan jellyfish,Tripedalia cystophora andCarybdea marsupialis, have been examined. Each species has two complex eyes (one large and one small) on four sensory structures called rhopalia. The lenses consist of closely spaced cells with few organelles. The lens is situated next to the retina, with only an acellular

  13. Autosomal dominant optic atrophy with asymptomatic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, R M; Bird, A C; Harding, A E

    1996-01-01

    The association between hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) and optic atrophy has been termed HMSN type VI. The autosomal dominant inheritance of this syndrome is reported. Three generations were affected with optic atrophy, which differed in some respects from classic dominant optic atrophy, and an asymptomatic, mainly sensory, neuropathy. PMID:8708653

  14. Eye Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... following symptoms: sudden appearance of spots and strings floating in your field of vision; flashes of light ... experiencing eye pain, and do you see dark, floating spots? You may have an inflammation inside the ...

  15. Eye Anatomy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from your retina to the optic nerve. These fibers meet at the optic disc. As fluid pressure within your eye increases, it damages these sensitive nerve fibers and they begin to die. As they die, ...

  16. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sports: Keeping Kids Safe Concussions: What to Know Eye Injuries KidsHealth > Parents > First Aid & Safety > Emergencies > Eye ... do not delay flushing the eye first. Black Eyes and Blunt Injuries A black eye is often ...

  17. Novel automatic eye detection and tracking algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Kamarul Hawari; Jadin, Mohd Shawal; Jie, Ma; Xiao, Rui

    2015-04-01

    The eye is not only one of the most complex but also the most important sensory organ of the human body. Eye detection and eye tracking are basement and hot issue in image processing. A non-invasive eye location and eye tracking is promising for hands-off gaze-based human-computer interface, fatigue detection, instrument control by paraplegic patients and so on. For this purpose, an innovation work frame is proposed to detect and tracking eye in video sequence in this paper. The contributions of this work can be divided into two parts. The first contribution is that eye filters were trained which can detect eye location efficiently and accurately without constraints on the background and skin colour. The second contribution is that a framework of tracker based on sparse representation and LK optic tracker were built which can track eye without constraint on eye status. The experimental results demonstrate the accuracy aspects and the real-time applicability of the proposed approach.

  18. Electrotactile and vibrotactile displays for sensory substitution systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaczmarek, Kurt A.; Webster, John G.; Bach-Y-rita, Paul; Tompkins, Willis J.

    1991-01-01

    Sensory substitution systems provide their users with environmental information through a human sensory channel (eye, ear, or skin) different from that normally used or with the information processed in some useful way. The authors review the methods used to present visual, auditory, and modified tactile information to the skin and discuss present and potential future applications of sensory substitution, including tactile vision substitution (TVS), tactile auditory substitution, and remote tactile sensing or feedback (teletouch). The relevant sensory physiology of the skin, including the mechanisms of normal touch and the mechanisms and sensations associated with electrical stimulation of the skin using surface electrodes (electrotactile, or electrocutaneous, stimulation), is reviewed. The information-processing ability of the tactile sense and its relevance to sensory substitution is briefly summarized. The limitations of current tactile display technologies are discussed.

  19. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... ophthalmology department of a hospital or clinic. Your eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound ...

  20. Eye Choice for Acquisition of Targets in Alternating Strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Economides, John R.; Adams, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    In strabismus, potentially either eye can inform the brain about the location of a target so that an accurate saccade can be made. Sixteen human subjects with alternating exotropia were tested dichoptically while viewing stimuli on a tangent screen. Each trial began with a fixation cross visible to only one eye. After the subject fixated the cross, a peripheral target visible to only one eye flashed briefly. The subject's task was to look at it. As a rule, the eye to which the target was presented was the eye that acquired the target. However, when stimuli were presented in the far nasal visual field, subjects occasionally performed a “crossover” saccade by placing the other eye on the target. This strategy avoided the need to make a large adducting saccade. In such cases, information about target location was obtained by one eye and used to program a saccade for the other eye, with a corresponding latency increase. In 10/16 subjects, targets were presented on some trials to both eyes. Binocular sensory maps were also compiled to delineate the portions of the visual scene perceived with each eye. These maps were compared with subjects' pattern of eye choice for target acquisition. There was a correspondence between suppression scotoma maps and the eye used to acquire peripheral targets. In other words, targets were fixated by the eye used to perceive them. These studies reveal how patients with alternating strabismus, despite eye misalignment, manage to localize and capture visual targets in their environment. PMID:25355212

  1. "Healthy" eye in office-like environments.

    PubMed

    Wolkoff, Peder

    2008-11-01

    Eye irritation symptoms, e.g. dry eyes, are common and abundant symptoms reported in office-like environments, e.g. aircraft cabins. To improve the understanding of indoor related eye symptomatology, relevant knowledge from the ophthalmological and indoor environmental science literature has been merged. A number of environmental (relative humidity, temperature, draft), occupational (e.g. visual display unit work), and individual (e.g. gender, use of cosmetics, and medication) risk factors have been identified, which are associated with alteration of the precorneal tear film (PTF); these factors may subsequently exacerbate development of eye irritation symptoms by desiccation. Low relative humidity including reduced atmospheric pressure further increases the water evaporation from an altered PTF; in addition, work with visual display units may destabilize the PTF by lower eye blink frequency and larger ocular surface. Results from epidemiological and clinical studies support that relative humidity >40% is beneficial for the PTF. Only few pollutants reach high enough indoor concentrations to cause sensory irritation of the eyes, while an altered PTF may exacerbate their sensory effect. Sustained low relative humidity causes impairment of the PTF, while its stability, including work performance, is retained by low gaze and intermittent breaks. PMID:18499257

  2. Eye Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to administer drops or ointment, you should avoid direct contact with your child’s eyes or drainage from them until the medication has been used for several days and there is evidence of clearing of the redness. Carefully wash your ...

  3. Introduction Sensory behavior in higher animals depends on the correct

    E-print Network

    Swoboda, Peter

    and processing of signals from the environment or from within the organism, and then on the appropriate reaction mammalian sensory cilia include those in the photoreceptor cells in the eye, in the hair cells in the ear, consists of a microtubular axonemal core enclosed by a membrane, exposed on the cell surface. A convergence

  4. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  5. Preventing Eye Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Preventing Eye Injuries Tweet Protecting your eyes from injury is ... as possible, even if the injury seems minor. Eye Injury Facts and Myths Men are more likely ...

  6. [Sensory Systems of Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero To Three, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This newsletter contains six articles: (1) "Early Flavor Experiences: When Do They Start?" Julie A. Mennella and Gary K. Beauchamp); (2) "Infant Massage" (Tiffany Field); (3) "The Infant's Sixth Sense: Awareness and Regulation of Bodily Processes" (Stephen W. Porges); (4) "Sensory Contributions to Action: A Sensory Integrative Approach" (Marie E.…

  7. Sensory nerves and pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingfu

    2014-01-01

    Sensory nerves are a kind of nerve that conduct afferent impulses from the periphery receptors to the central nervous system (CNS) and are able to release neuromediators from the activated peripheral endings. Sensory nerves are particularly important for microcirculatory response, and stimulation of pancreatic sensory nerves releases a variety of neuropeptides such as substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), etc., leading to neurogenic inflammation characterized as the local vasodilatation and plasma extravasation. Deactivation of sensory nerves often leads to the disturbances of pancreatic microcirculation. Pancreatitis is a common digestive disease that can lead to severe complications and even death if it goes untreated. Experimental studies in animals and tissue analysis in patients with pancreatitis have shown significant changes in sensory nerves supplying the pancreatic gland. Thus making clear the whole mechanism of pancreatitis is essential to treat and cure it. Sensory nerves may have a close correlation with the development of pancreatitis, and knowing more about the role of sensory nerve in pancreatitis is important for the treatment for pancreatitis. This review is aimed to summarize the relationship between sensory nerves and pancreatitis. PMID:25493260

  8. Eye Level

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Eye level is an art blog written by a collaborative team at the Smithsonian American Art Museum (SAAM). According to the site, "... the conversation at Eye Level will be dedicated to American art and the ways in which the nation's art reflects its history and culture." The SAAM collection is meant as a foundation for the conversation on Eye Level. A recent post begins by talking about a road trip through the American West to see site-specific artwork, but at least one of the artists mentioned, Andrea Zittel, has a prior affiliation with SAAM. She was the 2005 Smithsonian Lucelia Artist Award winner, and the post links to prior entries on artwork at SAAM, both in and inspired by the American Southwest. These links were to works such as Robert Smithson's Spiral Jetty (an installation in the Great Salt Lake) and Albert Bierstadt's Among the Sierra Nevada, California, 1868. The February 1 post considers the future of art blogs, and the impact they may have on art criticism, museums, and the art world on the whole.

  9. Eye contricks

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2011-01-01

    Pictorial images are icons as well as eye-cons: they provide distillations of objects or ideas into simpler shapes. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimensions of depth and motion are missing from icons, and these alone introduce all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as exploring the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons can also be illusions—tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is physically presented. Pictorial images can be spatialised or stylised; spatialised images generally share some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons, but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional. Icons as stylised words and spatialised images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte in a series of pipe paintings, and this theme is here alluded to. Most of visual science is now concerned with icons—two-dimensional displays on computer monitors. Is vision now the science of eye-cons? PMID:23145240

  10. The Eye Mouse, an eye communication device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Norris; E. Wilson

    1997-01-01

    The Eye Mouse is a communication aid designed for the severely disabled. Specifically, it provides the user with a means to control an ordinary PC mouse with a combination of eye movements and blinks. By constantly monitoring the electrooculogram signal (EOG) of the user, the Eye Mouse (EM) is able to recognize several intentional eye motions and in turn, control

  11. Anticipatory smooth-pursuit eye movements in man and monkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvana Freyberg; Uwe J. Ilg

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental problem in the generation of goal-directed behaviour is caused by the inevitable latency of biological sensory\\u000a systems. Behaviour which is fully synchronised with the triggering sensory event can only be executed if the occurrence of\\u000a this event can be predicted based on prior information. Smooth-pursuit eye movements are a classical and well-established\\u000a example of goal-directed behaviour. The execution

  12. Hereditary motor-sensory, motor, and sensory neuropathies in childhood.

    PubMed

    Landrieu, Pierre; Baets, Jonathan; De Jonghe, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathies (HN) are categorized according to clinical presentation, pathogenic mechanism based on electrophysiology, genetic transmission, age of occurrence, and, in selected cases, pathological findings. The combination of these parameters frequently orients towards specific genetic disorders. Ruling out a neuropathy secondary to a generalized metabolic disorder remains the first pediatric concern. Primary, motor-sensory are the most frequent HN and are dominated by demyelinating AD forms (CMT1). Others are demyelinating AR forms, axonal AD/AR forms, and forms with "intermediate" electrophysiological phenotype. Pure motor HN represent<10% of HN but exhibit large clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Sensory/dysautonomic HN cover five classical subtypes, each one related to specific genes. However, genetic heterogeneity is largly greater than initially suspected. Syndromic HN distinguish: "purely neurological syndromes", which are multisystemic, usually AD disorders, such as spinocerebellar atrophies +, spastic paraplegias +, etc. Peripheral Neuropathy may be the presenting feature, including in childhood. Clearly degenerative, AR forms prompt to investigate a large set of pleiotropic genes. Other syndromes, expressed in the perinatal period and comprising malformative features, are mainly developmental disorders, sometimes related to specific transcription factors. Altogether, >40 genes with various biological functions have been found responsible for HN. Many are responsible for various phenotypes, including some without the polyneuropathic trait: for the pediatric neurologist, phenotype/genotype correlations constitute a permanent bidirectional exercise. PMID:23622364

  13. The optic chiasm: a turning point in the evolution of eye/hand coordination

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The primate visual system has a uniquely high proportion of ipsilateral retinal projections, retinal ganglial cells that do not cross the midline in the optic chiasm. The general assumption is that this developed due to the selective advantage of accurate depth perception through stereopsis. Here, the hypothesis that the need for accurate eye-forelimb coordination substantially influenced the evolution of the primate visual system is presented. Evolutionary processes may change the direction of retinal ganglial cells. Crossing, or non-crossing, in the optic chiasm determines which hemisphere receives visual feedback in reaching tasks. Each hemisphere receives little tactile and proprioceptive information about the ipsilateral hand. The eye-forelimb hypothesis proposes that abundant ipsilateral retinal projections developed in the primate brain to synthesize, in a single hemisphere, visual, tactile, proprioceptive, and motor information about a given hand, and that this improved eye-hand coordination and optimized the size of the brain. If accurate eye-hand coordination was a major factor in the evolution of stereopsis, stereopsis is likely to be highly developed for activity in the area where the hands most often operate. The primate visual system is ideally suited for tasks within arm’s length and in the inferior visual field, where most manual activity takes place. Altering of ocular dominance in reaching tasks, reduced cross-modal cuing effects when arms are crossed, response of neurons in the primary motor cortex to viewed actions of a hand, multimodal neuron response to tactile as well as visual events, and extensive use of multimodal sensory information in reaching maneuvers support the premise that benefits of accurate limb control influenced the evolution of the primate visual system. The eye-forelimb hypothesis implies that evolutionary change toward hemidecussation in the optic chiasm provided parsimonious neural pathways in animals developing frontal vision and visually guided forelimbs, and also suggests a new perspective on vision convergence in prey and predatory animals. PMID:23866932

  14. Eye Injuries at Work

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the Job Fireworks Eye Safety The personal and economic toll of eye injuries at work is alarming. ... if the eye injury appears minor. Delaying medical attention can result in permanent vision loss or blindness. ...

  15. Down Syndrome: Eye Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 11/2013 Eye Terms & Conditions Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy ... Screening Vision Screening Recommendations Loading... Most Common Searches Adult ... Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy ...

  16. Fluorescein eye stain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... test that uses orange dye (fluorescein) and a blue light to detect foreign bodies in the eye. This ... eye. The health care provider then shines a blue light at your eye. Any problems on the surface ...

  17. Crossed eyes (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    People are very sensitive to other individuals' eye positions. By looking at another person's eye position, one can very effectively gauge where they are looking. People are also sensitive to eyes that are ...

  18. Eye Movements of Flatfish for Different Gravity Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Kaori; Takabayashi, Akira; Imada, Hideki; Miyachi, Ei-Ichi

    On Earth, gravity sensation plays a basic role for all of physiological phenomena in every creature. In microgravity, loss of gravity input causes many functional disorders in animals and humans. During adaptation to microgravity, otolith-mediated response such as eye movements would alter. Flatfish provide a natural model for the study of adaptive changes in the vestibuloocular reflex. During metamorphosis, vestibular and oculomotor coordinate of flatfish displaced 90 degrees about the longitudinal body axis. Therefore, it is expected that microgravity induce the sensory mismatch in adult flatfish. In this study, we analyzed the eye movements of normal and otolith removed flatfish for body tilting and the eye movements of normal flatfish during microgravity produced by parabolic aircraft flight. The fish was fixed on the tilting table controlled by computer. The eye movements for body tilting along the different body axis were video-recorded. The vertical and torsional eye rotations were analyzed frame by frame. In normal flatfish, torsional eye movements were larger for head up or head down tilting than leftward or rightward tilting. On the other hand, vertical eye movements were larger for leftward or rightward tilting than head up or head down tilting. After removal of left side utlicular otolith, the vertical eye movement for 180 degrees body tilting disappeared. For the changes of gravity, vertical eye movements were observed. These results suggested that eye movements of flatfish adapted to Earth's gravity condition and sacculus and lagena might play important role for otolith-ocular eye movements.

  19. Secondary eyes mediate the response to looming objects in jumping spiders (Phidippus audax, Salticidae)

    PubMed Central

    Spano, Lauren; Long, Skye M.; Jakob, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Some species have sensory systems divided into subsystems with morphologically different sense organs that acquire different types of information within the same modality. Jumping spiders (family Salticidae) have eight eyes. Four eyes are directed anteriorly to view objects in front of the spider: a pair of principal eyes track targets with their movable retinae, while the immobile anterior lateral (AL) eyes have a larger field of view and lower resolution. To test whether the principal eyes, the AL eyes, or both together mediate the response to looming stimuli, we presented spiders with a video of a solid black circle that rapidly expanded (loomed) or contracted (receded). Control spiders and spiders with their principal eyes masked were significantly more likely to back away from the looming stimulus than were spiders with their AL eyes masked. Almost no individuals backed away from the receding stimulus. Our results show that the AL eyes alone mediate the loom response to objects anterior to the spider. PMID:23075526

  20. Mental Imagery as Revealed by Eye Movements and Spoken Predicates: A Test of Neurolinguistic Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elich, Matthew; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Tested Bandler and Grinder's proposal that eye movement direction and spoken predicates are indicative of sensory modality of imagery. Subjects reported images in the three modes, but no relation between imagery and eye movements or predicates was found. Visual images were most vivid and often reported. Most subjects rated themselves as visual,…

  1. Positive and negative regulatory inputs restrict pax-6\\/vab-3 transcription to sensory organ precursors in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan W. Johnson; Helen M. Chamberlin

    2008-01-01

    The Pax-6 gene encodes a transcription factor essential for the development of eyes and other sensory organs in species ranging from planaria to mice. Because Pax-6 activity can be both necessary and sufficient for eye organogenesis, much work has focused on PAX-6 function and regulation of target genes. However, less is known about the genetic mechanisms that establish the Pax-6

  2. Eye muscle repair - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ... The extraocular muscles of the eye (external to the eyeball) control the positioning of the eyes. They coordinate of the eye ...

  3. Genetic Testing and Eye Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... News Consumer Alerts In Focus: Genetic Testing and Eye Disease Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... permanent loss of your eyelashes. Hold the Rib Eye Don’t put raw meat on a black ...

  4. Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries Tweet When an eye injury does occur, ... serious eye injury yourself. How to recognize an eye injury If you notice any of these signs ...

  5. Design and development of an eye surgery simulator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. K. Lam; K. Sundaraj

    2010-01-01

    Eye is one of the most important sensory organs in our human body. Ophthalmologists are ineligible to carry any mistakes during surgical operations since it will end up patients lost their sight forever. The rising of surgical simulator which provides high-fidelity platform allows professional surgeons and medical practitioners have another alternative to sharpen their surgical skills. This paper addressed the

  6. Neural control of three-dimensional eye and head movements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JD Crawford; JC Martinez-Trujillo; EM Klier

    2003-01-01

    Although the eyes and head can potentially rotate about any three-dimensional axis during orienting gaze shifts, behavioral recordings have shown that certain lawful strategies — such as Listing’s law and Donders’ law — determine which axis is used for a particular sensory input. Here, we review recent advances in understanding the neuromuscular mechanisms for these laws, the neural mechanisms that

  7. Sensory marketing: the multi-sensory brand-experience concept

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bertil Hultén

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the multi-sensory brand-experience concept in relation to the human mind and senses. It also seeks to propose a sensory marketing (SM) model of the multi-sensory brand-experience hypothesis. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper applies exploratory and explanatory approaches to investigating the multi-sensory brand-experience concept within the context of discovery. The qualitative study

  8. Journal of Insect Physiology 52 (2006) 240248 The eyes of a patrolling butterfly: Visual field and eye structure in the

    E-print Network

    Rutowski, Ronald L.

    2006-01-01

    Journal of Insect Physiology 52 (2006) 240­248 The eyes of a patrolling butterfly: Visual field November 2005; accepted 9 November 2005 Abstract Sensory information plays a critical role in determining an animal's behavior on both proximate and evolutionary timescales. Butterflies, like many other insects

  9. Structured Sensory Trauma Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan

    2010-01-01

    This article features the National Institute of Trauma and Loss in Children (TLC), a program that has demonstrated via field testing, exploratory research, time series studies, and evidence-based research studies that its Structured Sensory Intervention for Traumatized Children, Adolescents, and Parents (SITCAP[R]) produces statistically…

  10. [The main evolutionary trends in sensory organs and questing behavior of parasitiform ticks and mites (Parasitiformes)].

    PubMed

    Leonovich, S A

    2013-01-01

    Studies of sensory organs in parasitiform mites by methods of scanning and transmitting electron microscopy and electrophysiology in Russia were initiated by Yu. S. Balashov. A review of the material accumulated since that time allows revealing the main trends in evolution of the morphology the main complicated sense organs (the Haller's organ, palpal and tarsal organs, and eyes). Tight correlation between the evolution of the questing behavior and of sensory organs was demonstrated. PMID:24455904

  11. Sensory prediction for autonomous robots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryo Saegusa; Francesco Nori; Giulio Sandini; Giorgio Metta; Sophie Sakka

    2007-01-01

    For a complex autonomous robotic system such as a humanoid robot, the learning-based sensory prediction is considered effective to develop a perceptual environment model by itself. We developed a learning system for an autonomous robot to predict the next sensory information from the current sensory information and the expected action. The system we consider contains a learning procedure and a

  12. Sensory Integration in Mental Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara W. Posthuma

    1983-01-01

    Lorna Jean King is interviewed concerning the present status of sensory integration as a treatment modality in the area of mental health. Topics covered are: use of sensory integration techniques with adults and adolescents in both chronic and acute mental health settings; goals and expected outcomes of using sensory integration techniques; cost-effectiveness of these techniques; differences between occupational therapy and

  13. Switch of rhodopsin expression in terminally differentiated Drosophila sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Sprecher, Simon G.; Desplan, Claude

    2009-01-01

    Specificity of sensory neurons requires restricted expression of one sensory receptor gene and the exclusion of all others within a given cell. In the Drosophila retina, functional identity of photoreceptors depends on light-sensitive Rhodopsins (Rhs). The much simpler larval eye (Bolwig organ) is composed of about 12 photoreceptors, eight of which are green-sensitive (Rh6) and four blue-sensitive (Rh5)1. The larval eye becomes the adult extraretinal ‘eyelet’ composed of four green-sensitive (Rh6) photoreceptors2,3. Here we show that, during metamorphosis, all Rh6 photoreceptors die, whereas the Rh5 photoreceptors switch fate by turning off Rh5 and then turning on Rh6 expression. This switch occurs without apparent changes in the programme of transcription factors that specify larval photoreceptor subtypes. We also show that the transcription factor Senseless (Sens) mediates the very different cellular behaviours of Rh5 and Rh6 photoreceptors. Sens is restricted to Rh5 photoreceptors and must be excluded from Rh6 photoreceptors to allow them to die at metamorphosis. Finally, we show that Ecdysone receptor (EcR) functions autonomously both for the death of larval Rh6 photoreceptors and for the sensory switch of Rh5 photoreceptors to express Rh6. This fate switch of functioning, terminally differentiated neurons provides a novel, unexpected example of hard-wired sensory plasticity. PMID:18594514

  14. Genes for Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathies: A Genotype-Phenotype Correlation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotthier, Annelies; Baets, Jonathan; De Vriendt, Els; Jacobs, An; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Levy, Nicolas; Bonello-Palot, Nathalie; Kilic, Sara Sebnem; Weis, Joachim; Nascimento, Andres; Swinkels, Marielle; Kruyt, Moyo C.; Jordanova, Albena; De Jonghe, Peter; Timmerman, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders characterized by axonal atrophy and degeneration, exclusively or predominantly affecting the sensory and autonomic neurons. So far, disease-associated mutations have been identified in seven genes: two genes for autosomal dominant ("SPTLC1"…

  15. Quantitative sensory testing.

    PubMed

    Siao, Peter; Cros, Didier P

    2003-05-01

    Quantitative sensory testing is a reliable way of assessing large and small sensory nerve fiber function. Sensory deficits may be quantified and the data used in parametric statistical analysis in research studies and drug trials. It is an important addition to the neurophysiologic armamentarium, because conventional sensory nerve conduction tests only the large fibers. QST is a psychophysical test and lacks the objectivity of NCS. The results are subject to changes owing to distraction, boredom, mental fatigue, drowsiness, or confusion. When patients are consciously or unconsciously biased toward an abnormal QST result, no psychophysical testing can reliably distinguish these patients from those with organic disease. QST tests the integrity of the entire sensory neuraxis and is of no localizing value. Dysfunction of the peripheral nerves or central nervous system may give rise to abnormalities in QST. As is true for other neurophysiologic tests, QST results should always be interpreted in light of the patient's clinical presentation. Quantitative sensory testing has been shown to be reasonably reproducible over a period of days or weeks in normal subjects. Because longitudinal QST studies of patients in drug trials are usually performed over a period of several months to a few years, reproducibility studies on the placebo-control group should be included. For individual patients, more studies are needed to determine the maximum allowable difference between two QSTs that can be attributed to experimental error. The reproducibility of thermal thresholds may not be as good as that of vibration threshold. Different commercially available QST instruments have different specifications (thermode size, stimulus characteristics), testing protocols, algorithms, and normal values. Only QST instruments and their corresponding methodologies that have been shown to be reproducible should be used for research and patient care. The data in the literature do not allow conclusions regarding the superiority of any QST instruments. The future of QST is promising; however, many factors can affect QST results. As is true for other neurophysiologic tests, QST is susceptible to many extraneous factors and to misuse when not properly interpreted by the clinician. PMID:12795516

  16. Dominant frequency content of ocular microtremor from normal subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ciaran Bolger; Stana Bojanic; Noirin F. Sheahan; Davis Coakley; James F. Malone

    1999-01-01

    Ocular microtremor (OMT) is a high frequency tremor of the eyes present during fixation and probably related to brainstem activity (Coakley, D. (1983). Minute eye movement and brain stem function. CRC Press, FL.). Published observations on the frequency of OMT have varied widely. Ocular microtremor was recorded in 105 normal healthy subjects using the Piezoelectric strain gauge technique. The dominant

  17. Monocular asymmetries in vision: A phenomenal basis for eye signature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clare Porac; Stanley Coren

    1984-01-01

    Explored the conditions under which observers with known sighting dominance characteristics could discriminate eye-of-origin information in 3 experiments with 59 Ss. The nature of phenomenal differences between the 2 monocular channels was also investigated. All Ss were required to have uncorrected visual acuity of 20\\/30 or better in each eye with no differences between eyes and to show strong sighting

  18. The Electroretinogram of the Horseshoe Crab, Limulus polyphemus: A Laboratory Exercise in Sensory Physiology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Robert A. Linsenmeier (Northwestern University; )

    2008-04-11

    The eye of the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus represents an easily-excised and durable preparation for investigating various parameters of a typical sensory system. One can study the time course of dark adaptation as well as the dependence of response amplitude and latency on stimulus intensity in both the dark-adapted and light-adapted eye. Requirements for specialized, technical equipment are minimal. Suitable for undergraduates in advanced general biology, physiology, and special projects.

  19. The Electroretinogram of the Horseshoe Crab, Limulus polyphemus: A Laboratory Exercise in Sensory Physiology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Robert A. Linsenmeier (Northwestern University; )

    2009-09-01

    The eye of the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus represents an easily-excised and durable preparation for investigating various parameters of a typical sensory system. One can study the time course of dark adaptation as well as the dependence of response amplitude and latency on stimulus intensity in both the dark-adapted and light-adapted eye. Requirements for specialized, technical equipment are minimal.

  20. Instabilities in sensory processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, J.

    2014-07-01

    In any organism there are different kinds of sensory receptors for detecting the various, distinct stimuli through which its external environment may impinge upon it. These receptors convey these stimuli in different ways to an organism's information processing region enabling it to distinctly perceive the varied sensations and to respond to them. The behavior of cells and their response to stimuli may be captured through simple mathematical models employing regulatory feedback mechanisms. We argue that the sensory processes such as olfaction function optimally by operating in the close proximity of dynamical instabilities. In the case of coupled neurons, we point out that random disturbances and fluctuations can move their operating point close to certain dynamical instabilities triggering synchronous activity.

  1. CRYPTOGENIC SENSORY POLYNEUROPATHY

    PubMed Central

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic sensory or sensorimotor polyneuropathy is a common cause for referral to neurologists. Despite extensive diagnostic testing, up to one-third of these patients remain without a known cause. They are referred to as having cryptogenic sensory peripheral neuropathy (CSPN). The age of onset is variable but usually in the sixth to seventh decade of life, affecting men and women equally. CSPN symptoms progress slowly, most patients present with distal leg paresthesias or pain that progressed over years to involve the hands. On examination, there may be additional mild toe flexion and extension weakness. Electrophysiologic testing and histology reveals axonal neuropathy. Prognosis is usually favorable as most patients maintain independent ambulation. Besides patient education and reassurance, management is focused on pharmacotherapy of neuropathic pain (see Treatment of Painful Peripheral Neuropathy chapter) and physical therapy for balance training and occasionally assistive devices. PMID:23642719

  2. Algal Sensory Chemical Ecology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles D. Amsler

    Sensory chemical ecology is the branch of chemical ecology that focuses on chemical communications between organisms and chemical\\u000a sensing of the environment by organisms. Algae are well known to have numerous physiological responses to variations in their\\u000a chemical environment, particularly with respect to nutrients (Lobban and Harrison 1994). However, with respect to environmental\\u000a sensing it is typical for “chemical ecology”

  3. NGC6543: Cat's Eye and Bull's Eye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Balick; J. M. Wilson

    2000-01-01

    Deep Hubble images of NGC 6543 reveal a series of regularly spaced circular concentric ``rings'' that surround the famous Cat's Eye nebula. The rings seen in the lines of Halpha , [O III], and [N II] but not the continuum. These photoionized rings are almost certainly the result of periodic spherical mass pulsations by the nucleus before the Cat's Eye

  4. The development of gravity sensory systems during periods of altered gravity dependent sensory input.

    PubMed

    Horn, Eberhard R

    2003-01-01

    Gravity related behavior and the underlying neuronal networks are the most suitable model systems to study basic effects of altered gravitational input on the development of neuronal systems. A feature of sensory and motor systems is their susceptibility to modifications of their adequate physical and/or chemical stimuli during development. This discovery led to the formulation about critical periods, which defines the period of susceptibility during post-embryonal development. Critical periods can be determined by long-lasting modifications of the stimulus input for the gravity sensory system (GSS). Techniques include: (1) destruction of the gravity sense organ so that the gravity cannot be detected any longer and the central neuronal network of the GSS is deprived of gravity related information, (2) loading or deloading of parts of the body by weights or counterweights, respectively, which compensates for the gravitational pull, and (3) absence or augmentation of the gravitational environment per se by the exposure of organisms to microgravity during spaceflights or to hypergravity by centrifugation. Most data came from studies on compensatory eye or head movements in the clawed toad Xenopus laevis, the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus, and crickets (Acheta domesticus, Gryllus bimaculatus). The responses are induced by a roll or pitch stimulation of the gravity sense organs, but are also affected by sensory inputs from proprioreceptors and eyes. The development of these compensatory eye and head responses reveals species-specific time courses. Based on experiments using spaceflights, centrifugation, lesion and loading or deloading, all species revealed a significant susceptibility to modifications of the gravity sensory input during development. Behavioral responses were depressed (Xenopus) or augmented (Xenopus, Oreochronis) by microgravity, and depressed by hypergravity except in crickets. In Acheta, however, the sensitivity of its position sensitive neuron PSI was reduced by microgravity. After termination of the period of modified gravity sensory input, all behavioral and physiological modifications disappeared, in some preparations such as the PSI of Acheta or the eye response in Xenopus, however, delayed after exposure to hypergravity. Irreversible modifications were rare; one example were malformations of the body of Xenopus tadpoles caused by lesion induced deprivation. Several periods of life such as the period of hatching or first appearance of gravity related reflexes revealed a specific sensitivity to altered gravity. Although all studies gave clear evidences for a basic sensitivity of developing GSSs to long-lasting modifications of the gravity sensory input, clear arguments for the existence of a critical period in the development of the sense of gravity are still missing. It has to take into consideration that during long-term exposures, adaptation processes take place which are guided by central physiological and genetically determined set points. The International Space Station (ISS) is the necessary platform of excellence if biological research is focussed on the analysis of long-term space effects on organisms. PMID:14631632

  5. Diabetes and eye disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the eye that can lead to blindness Macular edema -- blurry vision due to fluid leaking into the ... in your retina (neovascularization) or you develop macular edema, treatment is usually needed. Eye surgery is the ...

  6. Diabetic Eye Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Diabetic Eye Disease Listen View this module and educate yourself, family, and friends about diabetic eye disease. This module includes descriptive audio and captioning. Diabetic ...

  7. Eye Injuries at Home

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Z Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) Allergies Amblyopia (Lazy Eye) Astigmatism Bacterial Keratitis Bell's Palsy Blepharitis ... Refractive Surgery & LASIK Sunglasses Living EyeSmart About Ophthalmologists Adults Under 40 Adults 40 to 60 Adults Over ...

  8. Smoking and Eye Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Z Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) Allergies Amblyopia (Lazy Eye) Astigmatism Bacterial Keratitis Bell's Palsy Blepharitis ... Refractive Surgery & LASIK Sunglasses Living EyeSmart About Ophthalmologists Adults Under 40 Adults 40 to 60 Adults Over ...

  9. Diabetic Eye Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... too high. Over time, this can damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It ... light-sensitive tissue at the back of your eye. You need a healthy retina to see clearly. ...

  10. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Free Newsletter Get eye MD-reviewed tips and information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy ... or images from this website is strictly prohibited by US and international copyright law. You may link from your website to any ...

  11. Eye Complications in IBD

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Email Print + Share Approximately 10% of people with inflammatory bowel disease experience eye problems. Most of these are treatable ... may resolve on its own as the patient’s inflammatory bowel disease starts to improve. DRY EYES A deficiency in ...

  12. Miniature eye movements enhance fine spatial detail.

    PubMed

    Rucci, Michele; Iovin, Ramon; Poletti, Martina; Santini, Fabrizio

    2007-06-14

    Our eyes are constantly in motion. Even during visual fixation, small eye movements continually jitter the location of gaze. It is known that visual percepts tend to fade when retinal image motion is eliminated in the laboratory. However, it has long been debated whether, during natural viewing, fixational eye movements have functions in addition to preventing the visual scene from fading. In this study, we analysed the influence in humans of fixational eye movements on the discrimination of gratings masked by noise that has a power spectrum similar to that of natural images. Using a new method of retinal image stabilization, we selectively eliminated the motion of the retinal image that normally occurs during the intersaccadic intervals of visual fixation. Here we show that fixational eye movements improve discrimination of high spatial frequency stimuli, but not of low spatial frequency stimuli. This improvement originates from the temporal modulations introduced by fixational eye movements in the visual input to the retina, which emphasize the high spatial frequency harmonics of the stimulus. In a natural visual world dominated by low spatial frequencies, fixational eye movements appear to constitute an effective sampling strategy by which the visual system enhances the processing of spatial detail. PMID:17568745

  13. Dwarf Eye Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Johns Hopkins researchers at the Wilmer Eye Institute have discovered what appears to be the first human gene mutation that causes extreme farsightedness. The researchers report that nanophthalmos, Greek for "dwarf eye," is a rare, potentially blinding disorder caused by an alteration in a gene called MFRP that helps control eye growth and…

  14. The questionably dry eye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Mackie; D. V. Seal

    1981-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the recognition of the dry eye when the clinical diagnosis is in doubt and other external eye diseases may be present. Papillary conjunctivitis is common to the dry eye as well as other pathological conditions and confuses the diagnosis. We have correlated the factors involved in the assessment for dryness. We have shown that particulate

  15. Dry your eyes 1 Running head: DRY YOUR EYES

    E-print Network

    Mataric, Maja J.

    Dry your eyes 1 Running head: DRY YOUR EYES Dry Your Eyes: Examining the Roles of Robots 90089-0781 dfseifer@usc.edu--mataric@usc.edu #12;Dry your eyes 2 Dry Your Eyes: Examining the Roles and relevant issues in childcare, and do not instead distract from those very issues. #12;Dry your eyes 3

  16. Molecular analysis of the amphioxus frontal eye unravels the evolutionary origin of the retina and pigment cells of the vertebrate eye

    PubMed Central

    Vopalensky, Pavel; Pergner, Jiri; Liegertova, Michaela; Benito-Gutierrez, Elia; Arendt, Detlev; Kozmik, Zbynek

    2012-01-01

    The origin of vertebrate eyes is still enigmatic. The “frontal eye” of amphioxus, our most primitive chordate relative, has long been recognized as a candidate precursor to the vertebrate eyes. However, the amphioxus frontal eye is composed of simple ciliated cells, unlike vertebrate rods and cones, which display more elaborate, surface-extended cilia. So far, the only evidence that the frontal eye indeed might be sensitive to light has been the presence of a ciliated putative sensory cell in the close vicinity of dark pigment cells. We set out to characterize the cell types of the amphioxus frontal eye molecularly, to test their possible relatedness to the cell types of vertebrate eyes. We show that the cells of the frontal eye specifically coexpress a combination of transcription factors and opsins typical of the vertebrate eye photoreceptors and an inhibitory Gi-type alpha subunit of the G protein, indicating an off-responding phototransductory cascade. Furthermore, the pigmented cells match the retinal pigmented epithelium in melanin content and regulatory signature. Finally, we reveal axonal projections of the frontal eye that resemble the basic photosensory-motor circuit of the vertebrate forebrain. These results support homology of the amphioxus frontal eye and the vertebrate eyes and yield insights into their evolutionary origin. PMID:22949670

  17. Changes in sensory activity of ocular surface sensory nerves during allergic keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Acosta, M Carmen; Luna, Carolina; Quirce, Susana; Belmonte, Carlos; Gallar, Juana

    2013-11-01

    Peripheral neural mechanisms underlying the sensations of irritation, discomfort, and itch accompanying the eye allergic response have not been hitherto analyzed. We explored this question recording the changes in the electrical activity of corneoconjunctival sensory nerve fibers of the guinea pig after an ocular allergic challenge. Sensitization was produced by i.p. ovalbumin followed by repeated application in the eye of 10% ovalbumin on days 14 to 18. Blinking and tearing rate were measured. Spontaneous and stimulus-evoked (mechanical, thermal, chemical) impulse activity was recorded from mechanonociceptor, polymodal nociceptor and cold corneoscleral sensory afferent fibers. After a single (day 14) or repeated daily exposures to the allergen during the following 3 to 4days, tearing and blinking rate increased significantly. Also, sensitization was observed in mechanonociceptors (transient reduction of mechanical threshold only on day 14) and in polymodal nociceptors (sustained enhancement of the impulse response to acidic stimulation). In contrast, cold thermoreceptors showed a significant decrease in basal ongoing activity and in the response to cooling. Treatment with the TRPV1 and TRPA1 blockers capsazepine and HC-030031 reversed the augmented blinking. Only capsazepine attenuated tearing rate increase and sensitization of the polymodal nociceptors response to CO2. Capsazepine also prevented the decrease in cold thermoreceptor activity caused by the allergic challenge. We conclude that changes in nerve impulse activity accompanying the ocular allergic response, primarily mediated by activation of nociceptor's TRPV1 and to a lesser degree by activation of TRPA1 channels, explain the eye discomfort sensations accompanying allergic episodes. PMID:23867735

  18. Hawk Eyes I: Diurnal Raptors Differ in Visual Fields and Degree of Eye Movement

    PubMed Central

    O'Rourke, Colleen T.; Hall, Margaret I.; Pitlik, Todd; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2010-01-01

    Background Different strategies to search and detect prey may place specific demands on sensory modalities. We studied visual field configuration, degree of eye movement, and orbit orientation in three diurnal raptors belonging to the Accipitridae and Falconidae families. Methodology/Principal Findings We used an ophthalmoscopic reflex technique and an integrated 3D digitizer system. We found inter-specific variation in visual field configuration and degree of eye movement, but not in orbit orientation. Red-tailed Hawks have relatively small binocular areas (?33°) and wide blind areas (?82°), but intermediate degree of eye movement (?5°), which underscores the importance of lateral vision rather than binocular vision to scan for distant prey in open areas. Cooper's Hawks' have relatively wide binocular fields (?36°), small blind areas (?60°), and high degree of eye movement (?8°), which may increase visual coverage and enhance prey detection in closed habitats. Additionally, we found that Cooper's Hawks can visually inspect the items held in the tip of the bill, which may facilitate food handling. American Kestrels have intermediate-sized binocular and lateral areas that may be used in prey detection at different distances through stereopsis and motion parallax; whereas the low degree eye movement (?1°) may help stabilize the image when hovering above prey before an attack. Conclusions We conclude that: (a) there are between-species differences in visual field configuration in these diurnal raptors; (b) these differences are consistent with prey searching strategies and degree of visual obstruction in the environment (e.g., open and closed habitats); (c) variations in the degree of eye movement between species appear associated with foraging strategies; and (d) the size of the binocular and blind areas in hawks can vary substantially due to eye movements. Inter-specific variation in visual fields and eye movements can influence behavioral strategies to visually search for and track prey while perching. PMID:20877645

  19. Sex-linked dominant

    MedlinePLUS

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... type of chromosome that is affected (autosomal or sex chromosome). It also depends on whether the trait ...

  20. Test of the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis that eye-movements relate to processing imagery.

    PubMed

    Wertheim, E H; Habib, C; Cumming, G

    1986-04-01

    Bandler and Grinder's hypothesis that eye-movements reflect sensory processing was examined. 28 volunteers first memorized and then recalled visual, auditory, and kinesthetic stimuli. Changes in eye-positions during recall were videotaped and categorized by two raters into positions hypothesized by Bandler and Grinder's model to represent visual, auditory, and kinesthetic recall. Planned contrast analyses suggested that visual stimulus items, when recalled, elicited significantly more upward eye-positions and stares than auditory and kinesthetic items. Auditory and kinesthetic items, however, did not elicit more changes in eye-position hypothesized by the model to represent auditory and kinesthetic recall, respectively. PMID:3503261

  1. Neurodevelopment and sensory integration.

    PubMed

    Norton, Y

    1975-02-01

    This is the report of a nine-month study of three profoundly retarded, multiply handicapped subjects less than five years of age, who received mother-administered, clinic-supervised treatment for neurodevelopmental sensory integration. The emergence of more advanced postural reactions, changes in affect, and responses to objects were recorded. Trends toward early cognitive emergence are discussed in terms of the development of interest and affect, as related to the concept of "fixation attention" of normal nine-month-old thinking infants. PMID:1115211

  2. Sensory Changes in Later Life. A Pacific Northwest Extension Publication. PNW 196. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmall, Vicki L.

    This booklet is designed to help persons who have elderly family members or who work with older adults understand and help compensate for the sensory changes that occur in later life. It contains sections on vision, hearing, taste and smell, and touch. Discussed in the section on vision are the following: common age-related changes, eye diseases…

  3. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Sensory Responses during Sleep in Primate Primary and

    E-print Network

    Wang, Xiaoqin

    responses to acoustic stimulation were present during both slow-wave and rapid-eye movement sleep, were,anovelpatternofactivation/deactivationappearsacrossneurons.Becausetheneuralsignalreachesasfarassecondary auditory cortex, this leaves open the possibility of altered sensory processing of auditory information, 2003a) and that activity in cortex during sleep is mainly internal (Braun et al.,1997), resulting from

  4. SENSORY SUPPLEMENTATION SYSTEM BASED ON ELECTROTACTILE TONGUE BIOFEEDBACK OF HEAD POSITION

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    FOR BALANCE CONTROL Nicolas VUILLERME1,2 , Nicolas PINSAULT1 , Olivier CHENU1 , Jacques DEMONGEOT1 , Yohan. for various contributions. Key-words: Balance; Biofeedback; Centre of foot pressure; Sensory re. Eight young healthy adults were asked to stand as immobile as possible with their eyes closed on two

  5. Thyroid Eye Disease: Protruding, Irritated Eyes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be possible to completely eliminate all of the consequences of thyroid eye disease, surgery to correct these conditions is generally successful in satisfactorily restoring function, comfort, and cosmetic appearance. Who performs the surgery? Patients are most ...

  6. R828 Dispatch Vision research: Losing sight of eye dominance

    E-print Network

    Aberdeen, University of

    © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Most people are perfectly aware of their preferred hand for skilled activities like handwriting, and many are also aware of their preferred foot for activities like demonstrations of sighting domi- nance, participants have to align a target in peripersonal space with a more

  7. Excitatory Synaptic Feedback from the Motor Layer to the Sensory Layers of the Superior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Ghitani, Nima; Bayguinov, Peter O.; Vokoun, Corinne R.; McMahon, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Neural circuits that translate sensory information into motor commands are organized in a feedforward manner converting sensory information into motor output. The superior colliculus (SC) follows this pattern as it plays a role in converting visual information from the retina and visual cortex into motor commands for rapid eye movements (saccades). Feedback from movement to sensory regions is hypothesized to play critical roles in attention, visual image stability, and saccadic suppression, but in contrast to feedforward pathways, motor feedback to sensory regions has received much less attention. The present study used voltage imaging and patch-clamp recording in slices of rat SC to test the hypothesis of an excitatory synaptic pathway from the motor layers of the SC back to the sensory superficial layers. Voltage imaging revealed an extensive depolarization of the superficial layers evoked by electrical stimulation of the motor layers. A pharmacologically isolated excitatory synaptic potential in the superficial layers depended on stimulus strength in the motor layers in a manner consistent with orthodromic excitation. Patch-clamp recording from neurons in the sensory layers revealed excitatory synaptic potentials in response to glutamate application in the motor layers. The location, size, and morphology of responsive neurons indicated they were likely to be narrow-field vertical cells. This excitatory projection from motor to sensory layers adds an important element to the circuitry of the SC and reveals a novel feedback pathway that could play a role in enhancing sensory responses to attended targets as well as visual image stabilization. PMID:24828636

  8. Navigation Using Sensory Substitution in Real and Virtual Mazes

    PubMed Central

    Chebat, Daniel-Robert; Maidenbaum, Shachar; Amedi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Under certain specific conditions people who are blind have a perception of space that is equivalent to that of sighted individuals. However, in most cases their spatial perception is impaired. Is this simply due to their current lack of access to visual information or does the lack of visual information throughout development prevent the proper integration of the neural systems underlying spatial cognition? Sensory Substitution devices (SSDs) can transfer visual information via other senses and provide a unique tool to examine this question. We hypothesize that the use of our SSD (The EyeCane: a device that translates distance information into sounds and vibrations) can enable blind people to attain a similar performance level as the sighted in a spatial navigation task. We gave fifty-six participants training with the EyeCane. They navigated in real life-size mazes using the EyeCane SSD and in virtual renditions of the same mazes using a virtual-EyeCane. The participants were divided into four groups according to visual experience: congenitally blind, low vision & late blind, blindfolded sighted and sighted visual controls. We found that with the EyeCane participants made fewer errors in the maze, had fewer collisions, and completed the maze in less time on the last session compared to the first. By the third session, participants improved to the point where individual trials were no longer significantly different from the initial performance of the sighted visual group in terms of errors, time and collision. PMID:26039580

  9. The evolution of eyes and visually guided behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2009-01-01

    The morphology and molecular mechanisms of animal photoreceptor cells and eyes reveal a complex pattern of duplications and co-option of genetic modules, leading to a number of different light-sensitive systems that share many components, in which clear-cut homologies are rare. On the basis of molecular and morphological findings, I discuss the functional requirements for vision and how these have constrained the evolution of eyes. The fact that natural selection on eyes acts through the consequences of visually guided behaviour leads to a concept of task-punctuated evolution, where sensory systems evolve by a sequential acquisition of sensory tasks. I identify four key innovations that, one after the other, paved the way for the evolution of efficient eyes. These innovations are (i) efficient photopigments, (ii) directionality through screening pigment, (iii) photoreceptor membrane folding, and (iv) focusing optics. A corresponding evolutionary sequence is suggested, starting at non-directional monitoring of ambient luminance and leading to comparisons of luminances within a scene, first by a scanning mode and later by parallel spatial channels in imaging eyes. PMID:19720648

  10. State-dependent changes in auditory sensory gating in different cortical areas in rats.

    PubMed

    Qi, Renli; Li, Minghong; Ma, Yuanye; Chen, Nanhui

    2015-01-01

    Sensory gating is a process in which the brain's response to a repetitive stimulus is attenuated; it is thought to contribute to information processing by enabling organisms to filter extraneous sensory inputs from the environment. To date, sensory gating has typically been used to determine whether brain function is impaired, such as in individuals with schizophrenia or addiction. In healthy subjects, sensory gating is sensitive to a subject's behavioral state, such as acute stress and attention. The cortical response to sensory stimulation significantly decreases during sleep; however, information processing continues throughout sleep, and an auditory evoked potential (AEP) can be elicited by sound. It is not known whether sensory gating changes during sleep. Sleep is a non-uniform process in the whole brain with regional differences in neural activities. Thus, another question arises concerning whether sensory gating changes are uniform in different brain areas from waking to sleep. To address these questions, we used the sound stimuli of a Conditioning-testing paradigm to examine sensory gating during waking, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and Non-REM (NREM) sleep in different cortical areas in rats. We demonstrated the following: 1. Auditory sensory gating was affected by vigilant states in the frontal and parietal areas but not in the occipital areas. 2. Auditory sensory gating decreased in NREM sleep but not REM sleep from waking in the frontal and parietal areas. 3. The decreased sensory gating in the frontal and parietal areas during NREM sleep was the result of a significant increase in the test sound amplitude. PMID:25928147

  11. State-Dependent Changes in Auditory Sensory Gating in Different Cortical Areas in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Renli; Li, Minghong

    2015-01-01

    Sensory gating is a process in which the brain’s response to a repetitive stimulus is attenuated; it is thought to contribute to information processing by enabling organisms to filter extraneous sensory inputs from the environment. To date, sensory gating has typically been used to determine whether brain function is impaired, such as in individuals with schizophrenia or addiction. In healthy subjects, sensory gating is sensitive to a subject’s behavioral state, such as acute stress and attention. The cortical response to sensory stimulation significantly decreases during sleep; however, information processing continues throughout sleep, and an auditory evoked potential (AEP) can be elicited by sound. It is not known whether sensory gating changes during sleep. Sleep is a non-uniform process in the whole brain with regional differences in neural activities. Thus, another question arises concerning whether sensory gating changes are uniform in different brain areas from waking to sleep. To address these questions, we used the sound stimuli of a Conditioning-testing paradigm to examine sensory gating during waking, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and Non-REM (NREM) sleep in different cortical areas in rats. We demonstrated the following: 1. Auditory sensory gating was affected by vigilant states in the frontal and parietal areas but not in the occipital areas. 2. Auditory sensory gating decreased in NREM sleep but not REM sleep from waking in the frontal and parietal areas. 3. The decreased sensory gating in the frontal and parietal areas during NREM sleep was the result of a significant increase in the test sound amplitude. PMID:25928147

  12. Reliability of modified sensory interaction test as measured with force platform.

    PubMed

    Rugelj, Darja; Hrastnik, Ajda; Sevšek, France; Vauhnik, Renata

    2015-06-01

    The test-retest reliability of the modified sensory interaction test on a force platform was performed in a group of 26 young and 15 elderly females for four sensory conditions: standing on firm and compliant surface with eyes open and closed. The test-retest reliability was good to excellent in both groups, with higher level of test-retest reliability in more demanding conditions. The most reliable time-domain variables for standing on firm surface with eyes open were: sway area from principal components (ICC = 0.77) for young and mean velocity, medio-lateral and total path lengths (ICC = 0.91) for elderly. For eyes closed, the most reliable variables were antero-posterior path length and sway area calculated by Fourier coefficients (ICC = 0.85) for young and medio-lateral path length (ICC = 0.93) for elderly. For compliant surface with open eyes, the most reliable variable was medio-lateral variability (ICC = 0.83) for young and total path length and mean velocity (ICC = 0.92) for elderly participants, whereas for eyes closed the most reliable variables were mean velocity, total and medio-lateral path lengths for young, and mean velocity for elderly group, all with ICC = 0.90. Modified sensory interaction test is therefore a reliable measure for balance and could be recommended as an outcome measure for balance retraining programmes. PMID:25749711

  13. Sensorimotor Integration in Dyslexic Children under Different Sensory Stimulations

    PubMed Central

    Viana, André R.; Razuk, Milena; de Freitas, Paulo B.; Barela, José A.

    2013-01-01

    Dyslexic children, besides difficulties in mastering literacy, also show poor postural control that might be related to how sensory cues coming from different sensory channels are integrated into proper motor activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between sensory information and body sway, with visual and somatosensory information manipulated independent and concurrently, in dyslexic children. Thirty dyslexic and 30 non-dyslexic children were asked to stand as still as possible inside of a moving room either with eyes closed or open and either lightly touching a moveable surface or not for 60 seconds under five experimental conditions: (1) no vision and no touch; (2) moving room; (3) moving bar; (4) moving room and stationary touch; and (5) stationary room and moving bar. Body sway magnitude and the relationship between room/bar movement and body sway were examined. Results showed that dyslexic children swayed more than non-dyslexic children in all sensory condition. Moreover, in those trials with conflicting vision and touch manipulation, dyslexic children swayed less coherent with the stimulus manipulation compared to non-dyslexic children. Finally, dyslexic children showed higher body sway variability and applied higher force while touching the bar compared to non-dyslexic children. Based upon these results, we can suggest that dyslexic children are able to use visual and somatosensory information to control their posture and use the same underlying neural control processes as non-dyslexic children. However, dyslexic children show poorer performance and more variability while relating visual and somatosensory information and motor action even during a task that does not require an active cognitive and motor involvement. Further, in sensory conflict conditions, dyslexic children showed less coherent and more variable body sway. These results suggest that dyslexic children have difficulties in multisensory integration because they may suffer from integrating sensory cues coming from multiple sources. PMID:23977346

  14. Tic Modulation Using Sensory Tricks

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Rebecca Wolf

    2013-01-01

    Background A sensory trick, or geste antagoniste, is defined as a physical gesture (such as a touch on a particular body part) that mitigates the production of an involuntary movement. This phenomenon is most commonly described as a feature of dystonia. Here we present a case of successful modulation of tics using sensory tricks. Case Report A case report and video are presented. The case and video demonstrate a 19-year-old male who successfully controlled his tics with various sensory tricks. Discussion It is underappreciated by movement disorder physicians that sensory tricks can play a role in tics. Introducing this concept to patients could potentially help in tic control. In addition, understanding the pathophysiological underpinnings of sensory tricks could help in the understanding of the pathophysiology of tics. PMID:23532712

  15. Prevention of Eye Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Pashby, Tom

    1981-01-01

    In Canada 30,000 people are registered as blind; in one third of these, blindness might have been avoided. Prevention is the key to reducing the number of eye injuries and blind eyes. The role of the family physician in early identification of treatable conditions and in the education of patients is discussed, but responsibility for prevention belongs to all physicians. The success of prevention is seen in the great reduction in eye injuries in industry and sports since eye protectors have been commonly used. However, many dangers to the eyes are either not recognized or are not taken seriously enough. This paper discusses some of the common causes of serious eye injuries in the home, in sports and in industry. Imagesp464-aFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:21289691

  16. Salivation induced better lacrimal gland function in dry eyes.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, T; Ghising, R

    2009-12-01

    The dry eye syndrome is a common eye symptom causing blurry vision. To meet the demand of the modem world students and professionals are compelled to expose themselves to the computer screen for long stretch of time, which is one of the causes of dry eye. It is not always feasible to instil eyes with artificial tears time to time to protect them from dryness. Rather to adopt any simple physiological process associated with optimum lacrimation is a better option to keep eyes moist during computer works. Volunteers (n = 22) having mild dry eyes participated in this study. Tear production was assessed by Schirmer test by keeping Schirmer strip on ocular surface for 5 minutes and recording the length of the moistened area. Then the subject was allowed to keep a piece of lopsy candy (a sour fruit pulp mixed with sugar that is sweet and sour in taste) in mouth for 5 minutes that caused salivation. During salivation, again tear production was assessed. [It was standardized in such a way that, the length of the moistened strip will be 25 - 30 mm for normal eyes, 15 - 10 mm for dry eye, 06 - 10 mm for mild dry eye, 02 - 05 mm for moderate dryness and 00 - 01 mm for severe dry eye.] Tear production was found to be increased significantly (supported by increased length of moistened area of Schirmer strip) during salivation especially in dry eye in all volunteers. The lacrimal gland is the major contributor to the aqueous layer of the tear film which consists of water, electrolytes and proteins; secretion of which are under tight neural control. Anticholinergic agents play an important role in ocular dryness because of hypo-secretion. The sensory root of facial nucleus contains efferent preganglionic parasympathetic fibers for submandibular and sublingual salivary gland and lacrimal gland. The sensory root conveys gustatory fibers from the presulcul area (anterior two-third) of the tongue via the chorda tympani and via the palatine and greater petrosal nerve, taste fibers from the soft palate; it also carries preganglionic (secretomotor) innervations of the submandibular and sublingual salivary gland, lacrimal gland and gland of nasal and palatine mucosa. The taste sensation from the anterior two-third of the tongue, carried by the seventh cranial nerve, a nerve, parasympathetic in nature that contains efferent preganglionic fibers to lacrimal gland. Being stimulated, seventh cranial nerve helps in secretion of tear from the lacrimal glands and gives a sense of relief to the persons facing the problem of mild dryness of eyes. PMID:20635605

  17. Sensory properties and preferences.

    PubMed

    Risvik, E

    1994-01-01

    Common mistakes are frequent in sensory evaluation of meats and meat products. Conceptual confusion is often observed in triangular tests when add-on questions are included in the testing procedures, and when descriptive and hedonic scales are mixed in profiling exercises. Similar consumer responses are often recorded from trained, and thus biased, panels. Preference for meats seems to be most strongly affected by changes in colour/appearance and texture, and to a lesser extent by changes in flavour (that is when off-flavours are not present). It is difficult to generalise as to whether appearance/colour attributes or texture attributes are the most important. A simplified model for texture understanding is suggested, where water/fat perception and structure perception (described by juiciness and tenderness) are orthogonal phenomena and where most other textural attributes can be explained by this structure. PMID:22061453

  18. Interactions Dominate the Dynamics of Visual Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Damian G.; Mirman, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Many cognitive theories have described behavior as the summation of independent contributions from separate components. Contrasting views have emphasized the importance of multiplicative interactions and emergent structure. We describe a statistical approach to distinguishing additive and multiplicative processes and apply it to the dynamics of eye movements during classic visual cognitive tasks. The results reveal interaction-dominant dynamics in eye movements in each of the three tasks, and that fine-grained eye movements are modulated by task constraints. These findings reveal the interactive nature of cognitive processing and are consistent with theories that view cognition as an emergent property of processes that are broadly distributed over many scales of space and time rather than a componential assembly line. PMID:20070957

  19. Laterality in avian vigilance: do sparrows have a favourite eye?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William E. Franklin; Steven L. Lima

    2001-01-01

    Visual scanning for predators is one of a bird's most basic means of avoiding predation while feeding, and the detection of an approaching predator may present a difficult visual task. If birds have a dominant hemisphere for processing visual information, then given the nearly complete optic nerve crossover in the avian brain, the eye contralateral to that dominant hemisphere should

  20. In vivo visualization of CaMKII activity in ocular dominance plasticity

    E-print Network

    Kwok, Show Ming

    2009-01-01

    Alterations in sensory experience can persistently modify the responses of cortical neurons. Ocular dominance (OD) plasticity, a process in which alternation of visual input induces a shift in cortical responsiveness, is ...

  1. An Eye for Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostwald, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity as an excellent starting point for investigations related to the eye. Involves making a simple model of the vertebrate eye to illustrate the formation of an upside-down image on the retina by the lens. Links to investigations in numerous science disciplines including astronomy, genetics, biology, earth science, and…

  2. Photorefraction of the Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Photorefraction is a method to easily estimate the refractive state of the eye. The principle of photorefraction involves projecting light into the eye during flash photography and then examining the paths of light that emerge from the pupil after scattering on the back portion of the interior of the eyeball (fundus). We will explain the optical…

  3. Eyes in arhinencephalic syndromes.

    PubMed Central

    Karseras, A G; Laurence, K M

    1975-01-01

    The ocular features of eight cases of arhinencephaly have been described. Prediction of the degree of brain involvement from the eye defects could not be made, but eye abnormalities were present in all cases. The relationship of these syndromes to chromosomal abnormalities is emphasized. In the less severe cases treatable endocrine dysgenesis must be excluded. Images PMID:812548

  4. Eye Tracking Denis Leimberg

    E-print Network

    Eye Tracking Denis Leimberg Martin Vester-Christensen LYNGBY 2005 Master Thesis IMM-Thesis-2005 discussions, and for introducing the world of eye tracking. Kaare Brandt Petersen, for sparing a day, during- viding us with excellent poker tricks. Peter Ahrendt, for loosing in Hattrick - Thank you

  5. Dry eye diagnosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khanal Santosh; Alan Tomlinson; Angus McFadyen; Charles J. M. Diaper; Kanna Ramaesh

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the most effective objective tests, applied singly or in combination in the diagnosis of dry eye disease. Two groups of subjects—41 with dry eye and 32 with no ocular surface disease—had symptoms, tear film quality, evaporation, tear turnover rate (TTR), volume and osmolarity, and meibomian gland dropout score assessed.

  6. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the eye nausea or vomiting after an eye injury Think Prevention! Kids who play sports should wear protective goggles or unbreakable glasses as needed. Keep chemicals and other potentially dangerous objects out of the reach of children. Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD Date ... Injuries First Aid: Pinkeye Pinkeye (Conjunctivitis) Corneal Abrasions A ...

  7. Common Eye Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... History Resources Basic Information Fast Facts Common Eye Disorders Eye Health Tips Burden of Vision Loss Comorbid Conditions Health Across Lifespan ... Division of Diabetes Translation , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion ... Index Policies Using this Site Link to Us Social ...

  8. Autologous serum eye drops for dry eye

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qing; Angelina, Adla; Zambrano, Andrea; Marrone, Michael; Stark, Walter J; Heflin, Thomas; Tang, Li; Akpek, Esen K

    2014-01-01

    Background Theoretically, autologous serum eye drops (AS) have a potential advantage over traditional therapies based on the assumption that AS serve not only as a lacrimal substitute to provide lubrication, but also contain other biochemical components mimicking natural tears more closely. The application of AS in dry eye treatment has gained popularity as a second-line therapy in the treatment of dry eye. Published studies on the subject indicate that autologous serum could be an effective treatment for dry eye. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of AS compared to artificial tears for treating dry eye. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 3), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLD MEDLINE, (January 1950 to April 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to April 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to April 2013), the meta Register of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We also searched the Science Citation Index Expanded database (September 2013) and reference lists of included studies. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 15 April 2013. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which AS was compared to artificial tears in the treatment of dry eye in adults. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently screened all titles and abstracts and assessed full-text articles of potentially eligible trials. Two review authors extracted data and assessed the methodological quality and characteristics of the included trials.We contacted investigators for missing data. For both primary and secondary outcomes, we reported mean differences with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for continuous outcomes. Main results We identified four eligible RCTs in which AS was compared with artificial tear treatment or saline in individuals (n = 72 participants) with dry eye of various etiologies (Sjögren’s syndrome-related dry eye, non-Sjögren’s syndrome dry eye and postoperative dry eye induced by laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK)). The quality of the evidence provided by these trials was variable. A majority of the risk of bias domains were judged to have an unclear risk of bias in two trials owing to insufficient reporting of trial characteristics. One trial was considered to have a low risk of bias for most domains while another was considered to have a high risk of bias for most domains. Incomplete outcome reporting and heterogeneity in the participant populations and follow-up periods prevented the inclusion of these trials in a summary meta-analysis. For the primary outcome, improvement in participant-reported symptoms at one month, one trial (12 participants) showed no difference in participant-reported symptoms between 20% AS and artificial tears. Based on the results of two trials in 32 participants, 20% AS may provide some improvement in participant-reported symptoms compared to traditional artificial tears after two weeks of treatment. One trial also showed positive results with a mean difference in tear breakup time (TBUT) of 2.00 seconds (95% CI 0.99 to 3.01 seconds) between 20% AS and artificial tears after two weeks, which were not similar to findings from the other trials. Based on all other objective clinical assessments included in this review, AS was not associated with improvements in aqueous tear production measured by Schirmer’s test (two trials, 33 participants), ocular surface condition with fluorescein (four trials, 72 participants) or Rose Bengal staining (three trials, 60 participants), and epithelial metaplasia by impression cytology compared to artificial tea

  9. Integration of Sensory and Reward Information during Perceptual Decision-Making in Lateral Intraparietal Cortex (LIP) of the Macaque Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Rorie, Alan E.; Gao, Juan; McClelland, James L.; Newsome, William T.

    2010-01-01

    Single neurons in cortical area LIP are known to carry information relevant to both sensory and value-based decisions that are reported by eye movements. It is not known, however, how sensory and value information are combined in LIP when individual decisions must be based on a combination of these variables. To investigate this issue, we conducted behavioral and electrophysiological experiments in rhesus monkeys during performance of a two-alternative, forced-choice discrimination of motion direction (sensory component). Monkeys reported each decision by making an eye movement to one of two visual targets associated with the two possible directions of motion. We introduced choice biases to the monkeys' decision process (value component) by randomly interleaving balanced reward conditions (equal reward value for the two choices) with unbalanced conditions (one alternative worth twice as much as the other). The monkeys' behavior, as well as that of most LIP neurons, reflected the influence of all relevant variables: the strength of the sensory information, the value of the target in the neuron's response field, and the value of the target outside the response field. Overall, detailed analysis and computer simulation reveal that our data are consistent with a two-stage drift diffusion model proposed by Diederich and Bussmeyer [1] for the effect of payoffs in the context of sensory discrimination tasks. Initial processing of payoff information strongly influences the starting point for the accumulation of sensory evidence, while exerting little if any effect on the rate of accumulation of sensory evidence. PMID:20174574

  10. Hereditary sensory ataxic neuropathy associated with proximal muscle weakness in the lower extremities.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Tatsufumi; Fukai, Yuta; Rikimaru, Mitsue; Henmi, Shoji; Ohsawa, Yutaka; Sunada, Yoshihide

    2010-04-15

    We describe three patients from the same family with hereditary sensory ataxic neuropathy followed by proximal muscle weakness in the lower extremities. Sensory ataxic gait began as an initial symptom when patients were in their 50s. Mild proximal weakness in the lower extremities appeared several years later. Serum creatine kinase was mildly elevated. Nerve conduction studies revealed sensory dominant axonal neuropathy, and short sensory evoked potentials showed involvement of the sensory nerve axon, dorsal root ganglia and posterior funiculus of the spinal cord. Needle electromyography showed fibrillation, positive sharp waves, and multiple giant motor unit potentials, suggesting the involvement of anterior horn motor neurons or the anterior root. Autosomal recessive inheritance was considered, because of consanguinity. The disorder described here may be a new clinical entity with unique clinical manifestations. PMID:20083254

  11. Functional weakness and sensory disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Stone, J; Zeman, A; Sharpe, M

    2002-01-01

    In the diagnosis of functional weakness and sensory disturbance, positive physical signs are as important as absence of signs of disease. Motor signs, particularly Hoover's sign, are more reliable than sensory signs, but none should be used in isolation and must be interpreted in the overall context of the presentation. It should be borne in mind that a patient may have both a functional and an organic disorder. PMID:12185152

  12. Advocacy for eye care

    PubMed Central

    Ravilla, Thulasiraj D; Ramasamy, Dhivya

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of eye care service delivery is often dependant on how the different stakeholders are aligned. These stakeholders range from the ministries of health who have the capacity to grant government subsidies for eye care, down to the primary healthcare workers who can be enrolled to screen for basic eye diseases. Advocacy is a tool that can help service providers draw the attention of key stakeholders to a particular area of concern. By enlisting the support, endorsement and participation of a wider circle of players, advocacy can help to improve the penetration and effectiveness of the services provided. There are several factors in the external environmental that influence the eye care services – such as the availability of trained manpower, supply of eye care consumables, government rules and regulations. There are several instances where successful advocacy has helped to create an enabling environment for eye care service delivery. Providing eye care services in developing countries requires the support – either for direct patient care or for support services such as producing trained manpower or for research and dissemination. Such support, in the form of financial or other resources, can be garnered through advocacy. PMID:22944745

  13. Exploring the mammalian sensory space: co-operations and trade-offs among senses.

    PubMed

    Nummela, Sirpa; Pihlström, Henry; Puolamäki, Kai; Fortelius, Mikael; Hemilä, Simo; Reuter, Tom

    2013-12-01

    The evolution of a particular sensory organ is often discussed with no consideration of the roles played by other senses. Here, we treat mammalian vision, olfaction and hearing as an interconnected whole, a three-dimensional sensory space, evolving in response to ecological challenges. Until now, there has been no quantitative method for estimating how much a particular animal invests in its different senses. We propose an anatomical measure based on sensory organ sizes. Dimensions of functional importance are defined and measured, and normalized in relation to animal mass. For 119 taxonomically and ecologically diverse species, we can define the position of the species in a three-dimensional sensory space. Thus, we can ask questions related to possible trade-off vs. co-operation among senses. More generally, our method allows morphologists to identify sensory organ combinations that are characteristic of particular ecological niches. After normalization for animal size, we note that arboreal mammals tend to have larger eyes and smaller noses than terrestrial mammals. On the other hand, we observe a strong correlation between eyes and ears, indicating that co-operation between vision and hearing is a general mammalian feature. For some groups of mammals we note a correlation, and possible co-operation between olfaction and whiskers. PMID:24043357

  14. Hypnosis and eye movements.

    PubMed

    Tebécis, A K; Provins, K A

    1975-07-01

    Eye movements (with closed lids) were studied in a group of highly hypnotizable experimental subjects experienced in self-hypnosis, and compared with a random sample of control subjects that had never been hypnotized and were low in waking suggestibility. Approximately half the experimental subjects rolled their eyes upwards to a greater extent when hypnosis was induced than during eye closure while awake. In some subjects eye flutter occurred during hypnosis, but not in the awake condition. During passive hypnosis the mean rates of rapid eye movements were lower, but those of slow eye movements were higher than during the resting awake condition of the same subjects or the random control subjects. The mean rates of horizontal eye movements during suggestions about begin in a train and watching passing telephone poles were higher for the experimental subjects in the hypnosis and 'imagination' sessions than that of the random control group in the imagination session. A proportion of the experimental subjects made more lateral eye movements during hypnosis than during the imagination session, but an equal proportion did not differ between the two conditions. The mean rates and durations of horizontal eye movements during dreaming about a tennis match were greater during hypnosis ('hypnotic' dream), than during the awake condition a few minutes later ('natural' dream), or the awake condition in the imagination session ('imagination' dream) of the same subjects or random controls. The performance and subjective involvement of the experimental subjects during the Barber suggestibility scale, 'nystagmus' suggestions and 'dreaming' did not differ significantly between the two hypnosis sessions, but in most cases were significantly greater during hypnosis than during the imagination session of the same group or the random control group. PMID:169921

  15. Eye-Safe Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Laser infrared radar (lidar) undergoing development harmless to human eyes, consists almost entirely of solid-state components, and offers high range resolution. Operates at wavelength of about 2 micrometers. If radiation from such device strikes eye, almost completely absorbed by cornea without causing damage, even if aimed directly at eye. Continuous-wave light from laser oscillator amplified and modulated for transmission from telescope. Small portion of output of oscillator fed to single-mode fiber coupler, where mixed with return pulses. Intended for remote Doppler measurements of winds and differential-absorption measurements of concentrations of gases in atmosphere.

  16. Primary eye care management.

    PubMed

    De Beer, Annelize

    2003-01-01

    Due to a financial recession in South Africa, the registered nurses (RNs) at an excimer laser center faced dismissal. In order to continue a career in ophthalmology, these nurses needed to create their own income. To this end, a primary eye care (PEC) clinic was established to provide examination and treatment(s) to the underprivileged community with the assistance of local ophthalmologists. The PEC clinic, which provides basic services for a nominal fee, has bridged the gap between excellent private eye care and inadequate government eye care. Since 1999, 791 patients have been examined and 515 surgical procedures have been performed. PMID:12703249

  17. Driver eye height measurement

    E-print Network

    Abrahamson, Anthony Daniel

    1978-01-01

    was establish d in the early sixties when passenger vehicles were styled differentl; than tnda; . The changing design of passenger cars has resulted in a considerable lowering in the eye heights of drivers between 1960 and 1978. The objective of this ress rch... of passenger cars now view the road from a height lower than 3. 75 ft but virtually none have driver eye heights less than 3. 25 ft (0. 99'tu). On t'nls basis it is recommended that a new driver eye height standard of 3. 25 ft (0. 99 m), or onc meter...

  18. [Skin and eyes].

    PubMed

    Kohl, E; Hillenkamp, J; Landthaler, M; Szeimies, R-M

    2010-03-01

    Numerous diseases affect both skin and eyes due to similar ontogenetic origin. The eye is the second most common site of melanoma after the skin. The eyelids are predisposed for development of toxic and allergic dermatitis as the skin in this region is four times thinner than the other facial skin. The differential diagnosis must include atopic and seborrhoeic eyelid dermatitis. Atopic and vernal keratoconjunctivitis are associated with atopic eczema. Various immunobullous disorders involve the conjunctiva with varying severity. Side effects of dermatologic treatments with glucocorticoids, antimalarials, psoralens, retinoids, or tetracyclines may involve the eye. PMID:20309669

  19. [Skin and eyes].

    PubMed

    Kohl, E; Hillenkamp, J; Landthaler, M; Szeimies, R-M

    2009-01-01

    Numerous diseases affect both skin and eyes due to similar ontogenetic origin. The eye is the second most common site of melanoma after the skin. The eyelids are predisposed for development of toxic and allergic dermatitis as the skin in this region is four times thinner than the other facial skin. The differential diagnosis must include atopic and seborrhoeic eyelid dermatitis. Atopic and vernal keratoconjunctivitis are associated with atopic eczema. Various immunobullous disorders involve the conjunctiva with varying severity. Side effects of dermatologic treatments with glucocorticoids, antimalarials, psoralens, retinoids, or tetracyclines may involve the eye. PMID:19130027

  20. [Treatment of eye allergies].

    PubMed

    Kari, Osmo; Saari, K Matti

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal atopic conjunctivitis is treated with antihistamines, cromoglycate and short courses of corticosteroids, in severe cases with subcutaneous or sublingual immunotherapy. Chronic conjunctivitis requires year-round treatment with mast cell stabilizers, antihistamines or topical corticosteroids. Long-term treatment of atopic blepharoconjunctivitis consists of tacrolimus or pimecrolimus cream. For atopic keratoconjunctivitis corticosteroid and, if necessary, cyclosporine eye drops are needed. First-line therapy of vernal conjunctivitis involves mast cell stabilizers and, if necessary, corticosteroid eye drops. Treatment of non-allergic eosinophilic conjunctivitis involves mast cell stabilizers, corticosteroid and, if necessary, cyclosporine eye drops. PMID:22428383

  1. Sensory evaluation of the texture of steam-cooked table potatoes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Trinette Van Marle; Ria van der Vuurst de Vries; E. Clare Wilkinson; Dogan Yuksel

    1997-01-01

    Summary  The texture of steam-cooked potatoes from ten cultivars was sensory evaluated after two, four and nine months storage for\\u000a three consecutive years. The sensory data were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and regression analysis.\\u000a PCA revealed that the first two principal components explained 95% or more of the variance between the data. The first principal\\u000a component was dominated by

  2. Recent Advances in the Genetics of Hereditary Axonal Sensory-Motor Neuropathies Type 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Senda Ajroud-Driss; Han-Xiang Deng; Teepu Siddique

    2011-01-01

    Hereditary axonal motor and sensory neuropathies or Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (CMT2) are characterized clinically\\u000a by distal muscle weakness and atrophy, sensory loss, and foot deformities. Conduction velocities are usually in the normal\\u000a range or mildly slowed. The majority of CMT2 are autosomal-dominant but autosomal-recessive forms have been described. The\\u000a number of genes associated with CMT2 have significantly increased in

  3. Improving eye cursor's stability for eye pointing tasks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinyong Zhang; Xiangshi Ren; Hongbin Zha

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve the stability of eye cursor, we introduce three methods, force field (FF), speed reduction (SR), and warping to target center (TC) to modulate eye cursor trajectories by counteracting eye jitter, which is the main cause of destabilizing the eye cursor. We evaluate these methods using two controlled experiments. One is an attention task experiment, which indicates

  4. Different topological organization of human brain functional networks with eyes open versus eyes closed.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pengfei; Huang, Ruiwang; Wang, Jinhui; Van Dam, Nicholas T; Xie, Teng; Dong, Zhangye; Chen, Chunping; Gu, Ruolei; Zang, Yu-Feng; He, Yong; Fan, Jin; Luo, Yue-jia

    2014-04-15

    Opening and closing the eyes are fundamental behaviors for directing attention to the external versus internal world. However, it remains unclear whether the states of eyes-open (EO) relative to eyes-closed (EC) are associated with different topological organizations of functional neural networks for exteroceptive and interoceptive processing (processing the external world and internal state, respectively). Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and neural network analysis to investigate the topological properties of functional networks of the human brain when the eyes were open versus closed. The brain networks exhibited higher cliquishness and local efficiency, but lower global efficiency during the EO state compared to the EC state. These properties suggest an increase in specialized information processing along with a decrease in integrated information processing in EO (vs. EC). More importantly, the "exteroceptive" network, including the attentional system (e.g., superior parietal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule), ocular motor system (e.g., precentral gyrus and superior frontal gyrus), and arousal system (e.g., insula and thalamus), showed higher regional nodal properties (nodal degree, efficiency and betweenness centrality) in EO relative to EC. In contrast, the "interoceptive" network, composed of visual system (e.g., lingual gyrus, fusiform gyrus and cuneus), auditory system (e.g., Heschl's gyurs), somatosensory system (e.g., postcentral gyrus), and part of the default mode network (e.g., angular gyrus and anterior cingulate gyrus), showed significantly higher regional properties in EC vs. EO. In addition, the connections across sensory modalities were altered by volitional eye opening. The synchronicity between the visual system and the motor, somatosensory and auditory systems, characteristic of EC, was attenuated in EO. Further, the connections between the visual system and the attention, arousal and subcortical systems were increased in EO. These results may indicate that EO leads to a suppression of sensory modalities (other than visual) to allocate resources to exteroceptive processing. Our findings suggest that the topological organization of human brain networks dynamically switches corresponding to the information processing modes as we open or close our eyes. PMID:24434242

  5. Passive eye displacement alters auditory spatial receptive fields of cat superior colliculus neurons.

    PubMed

    Zella, J C; Brugge, J F; Schnupp, J W

    2001-12-01

    The superior colliculus (SC) is thought to use a set of superimposed, topographically organized neural maps of visual, auditory, somatosensory and motor space to direct the eyes toward novel stimuli. Auditory spatial response fields (SRFs) of SC neurons may change when an animal moves its eyes, presumably to compensate for the resulting misalignment of visual and auditory sensory spatial reference frames, but the mechanisms responsible for these SRF changes remain unknown. Here we report that passive deviation of the eye in anesthetized, paralyzed animals can profoundly affect the auditory responsiveness of SC neurons, but seems insufficient by itself to provide adaptive shifts of auditory SRFs. PMID:11713474

  6. Eye muscle repair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Techniques of strabismus surgery. In: Yanoff M, Duker JS, eds. Ophthalmology . 4th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap 11.14. Olitsky SE, Hug D, Plummer LS, Stass-Isern M. Disorders of eye movement ...

  7. Get Your Eyes Tested

    MedlinePLUS

    ... it hard to see fine details Presbyopia (“prez-bee-OH-bee-uh”) – problems seeing things up close Read more ... Today: Small Steps Protect your eyes from the sun by wearing sunglasses and a hat. Find out ...

  8. National Eye Institute

    MedlinePLUS

    ... our new animation. Watch the video Regenerating the Optic Nerve NEI Audacious Goals Initiative report summarizing input ... also risk factors. Learn more about cataract Healthy Eye Tips Scavenger Hunt NEI will be hosting a ...

  9. The pediatric red eye.

    PubMed

    Wong, Melissa M; Anninger, William

    2014-06-01

    There is a broad differential for the pediatric red eye, which may range from benign conditions to vision- and/or life-threatening conditions. This article presents a systematic differential, red flags for referral, and treatment options. PMID:24852155

  10. Eye to I

    E-print Network

    Brunstein, Ada

    2007-01-01

    This is the story of the language of eyes - what they say about our emotions, what they reveal about our intentions, how they interact with our face, and how they connect us to one another. The story follows our experience ...

  11. Eye Drop Tips

    MedlinePLUS

    ... next drop in. This will keep the first drop from being washed out by the second before it has had time to work. Store eye drops and all medicines out of the reach of children. Steps For Putting ...

  12. The relationship of cervical joint position error to balance and eye movement disturbances in persistent whiplash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Treleaven; Gwendolen Jull; Nancy LowChoy

    2006-01-01

    Cervical joint position error (JPE) has been used as a measure of cervical afferent input to detect disturbances in sensori-motor control as a possible contributor to a neck pain syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between cervical JPE, balance and eye movement control. It was of particular interest whether assessment of cervical JPE alone was sufficient to signal

  13. Broadcast Domination Daniel Lokshtanov

    E-print Network

    Fomin, Fedor V.

    Introduction The Dominating Set [2, 16] problem is probably one of the most studied problems in graph. The Dominating Set problem can be stated as follows: Color the vertices of a graph G black or white so that every N P and N P-completeness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3 Dominating Set and some of its

  14. Some neural correlates of sensorial and cognitive control of behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogmen, Haluk; Prakash, R. V.; Moussa, M.

    1992-07-01

    Development and maintenance of unsupervised intelligent activity relies on an active interaction with the environment. Such active exploratory behavior plays an essential role in both the development and adult phases of higher biological systems including humans. Exploration initiates a self-organization process whereby a coherent fusion of different sensory and motor modalities can be achieved (sensory-motor development) and maintained (adult rearrangement). In addition, the development of intelligence depends critically on an active manipulation of the environment. These observations are in sharp contrast with current attempts of artificial intelligence and various neural network models. In this paper, we present a neural network model that combines internal drives and environmental cues to reach behavioral decisions for the exploratory activity. The vision system consists of an ambient and a focal system. The ambient vision system guides eye movements by using nonassociative learning. This sensory based attentional focusing is augmented by a `cognitive' system using models developed for various aspects of frontal lobe function. The combined system has nonassociative learning, reinforcement learning, selective attention, habit formation, and flexible criterion categorization properties.

  15. Sensory irritation as a basis for setting occupational exposure limits.

    PubMed

    Brüning, Thomas; Bartsch, Rüdiger; Bolt, Hermann Maximillian; Desel, Herbert; Drexler, Hans; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Hartwig, Andrea; Jäckh, Rudolf; Leibold, Edgar; Pallapies, Dirk; Rettenmeier, Albert W; Schlüter, Gerhard; Stropp, Gisela; Sucker, Kirsten; Triebig, Gerhard; Westphal, Götz; van Thriel, Christoph

    2014-10-01

    There is a need of guidance on how local irritancy data should be incorporated into risk assessment procedures, particularly with respect to the derivation of occupational exposure limits (OELs). Therefore, a board of experts from German committees in charge of the derivation of OELs discussed the major challenges of this particular end point for regulatory toxicology. As a result, this overview deals with the question of integrating results of local toxicity at the eyes and the upper respiratory tract (URT). Part 1 describes the morphology and physiology of the relevant target sites, i.e., the outer eye, nasal cavity, and larynx/pharynx in humans. Special emphasis is placed on sensory innervation, species differences between humans and rodents, and possible effects of obnoxious odor in humans. Based on this physiological basis, Part 2 describes a conceptual model for the causation of adverse health effects at these targets that is composed of two pathways. The first, "sensory irritation" pathway is initiated by the interaction of local irritants with receptors of the nervous system (e.g., trigeminal nerve endings) and a downstream cascade of reflexes and defense mechanisms (e.g., eyeblinks, coughing). While the first stages of this pathway are thought to be completely reversible, high or prolonged exposure can lead to neurogenic inflammation and subsequently tissue damage. The second, "tissue irritation" pathway starts with the interaction of the local irritant with the epithelial cell layers of the eyes and the URT. Adaptive changes are the first response on that pathway followed by inflammation and irreversible damages. Regardless of these initial steps, at high concentrations and prolonged exposures, the two pathways converge to the adverse effect of morphologically and biochemically ascertainable changes. Experimental exposure studies with human volunteers provide the empirical basis for effects along the sensory irritation pathway and thus, "sensory NOAEChuman" can be derived. In contrast, inhalation studies with rodents investigate the second pathway that yields an "irritative NOAECanimal." Usually the data for both pathways is not available and extrapolation across species is necessary. Part 3 comprises an empirical approach for the derivation of a default factor for interspecies differences. Therefore, from those substances under discussion in German scientific and regulatory bodies, 19 substances were identified known to be human irritants with available human and animal data. The evaluation started with three substances: ethyl acrylate, formaldehyde, and methyl methacrylate. For these substances, appropriate chronic animal and a controlled human exposure studies were available. The comparison of the sensory NOAEChuman with the irritative NOAECanimal (chronic) resulted in an interspecies extrapolation factor (iEF) of 3 for extrapolating animal data concerning local sensory irritating effects. The adequacy of this iEF was confirmed by its application to additional substances with lower data density (acetaldehyde, ammonia, n-butyl acetate, hydrogen sulfide, and 2-ethylhexanol). Thus, extrapolating from animal studies, an iEF of 3 should be applied for local sensory irritants without reliable human data, unless individual data argue for a substance-specific approach. PMID:25182421

  16. New Analyses of the Sensory Organization Test Compared to the Clinical Test of Sensory Integration and Balance in Patients with Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo

    PubMed Central

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Cohen, Helen S.; Peters, Brian T.; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) of the computerized dynamic posturography battery or the Clinical Test of Sensory Integration and Balance (CTSIB) is more likely to indicate balance disorders in people with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Study design Normal controls were compared to patients with unilateral benign paroxysmal positional vertigo of the posterior semicircular canal (BPPV). Methods Subjects performed tests with eyes open or closed on stable and unstable surfaces, with head still or with head moving at 0.33 Hz in pitch or yaw. Dependent variables were the percent time of the standard duration each subject could perform the task, the number of head motions made, and kinematic variables measured with head- and torso-mounted inertial motion units. Results Because equilibrium scores of normals improved significantly over repeated trials on SOT patients were given only 1 trial per condition. For percent time between-group differences were found on CTSIB with eyes closed, on foam, head moving in yaw showing significantly reduced performance by BPPV subjects compared to controls. Compared to controls patients made significantly fewer head movements on CTSIB, eyes closed, on foam, head still, pitch and yaw. Kinematic data also differed between the groups on tests with eyes closed, unstable surfaces with different head movement combinations, indicating increased instability in BPPV patients. Conclusion For screening, CTSIB with head movements is more likely than SOT to indicate balance deficits, especially when dependent measures include percent time as well as head movement counts and kinematic measures. PMID:23553110

  17. Effects of ocular dominance on contrast sensitivity in middle-aged people.

    PubMed

    Pekel, Gökhan; Alagöz, Ne?e; Pekel, Evre; Alagöz, Cengiz; Y?lmaz, Omer Faruk

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Our aim was to compare contrast sensitivity values of the dominant and nondominant eyes of healthy middle-aged subjects. Material and Methods. Ninety eyes of 45 healthy middle-aged subjects (30 males and 15 females) were included in this study. Patients were aged between 40 and 60 years, having uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) of 20/25 or better (Snellen chart). Ocular dominance was determined by hole-in-the-card test. Functional acuity contrast testing (F.A.C.T.) was measured using the Optec 6500 vision testing system (Stereo Optical Co. Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) under both photopic and mesopic conditions. Results. At all spatial frequencies (1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 18?cpd), under mesopic conditions, the contrast sensitivity values of the dominant eyes were slightly greater than those of the nondominant eyes; but only 18?cpd spatial frequency measurements' difference was statistically significant (P = 0.035). Under photopic conditions, the contrast sensitivity values of the dominant eyes and non-dominant eyes were similar at all spatial frequencies (P > 0.05). Conclusions. The photopic and mesopic contrast sensitivity values of dominant and nondominant eyes of healthy middle-aged people were similar at all spatial frequencies, except at mesopic 18?cpd spatial frequency. PMID:24734197

  18. Introduction --19 Toward a sensorial urbanism

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    a Sensorial Urbanism, a text by Mirko Zardini in Sense of the City: An AlternateIntroduction -- 19 Toward a sensorial urbanism Mirko ZARDINI expose its contradictions. Sense of the City (2005) ­ the first

  19. Tuning Curves, Neuronal Variability, and Sensory Coding

    E-print Network

    Born, Richard

    Tuning Curves, Neuronal Variability, and Sensory Coding Daniel A. Butts1*[ , Mark S. Goldman2[ 1 encoding. Citation: Butts DA, Goldman MS (2006) Tuning curves, neuronal variability, and sensory coding

  20. Can sensory attention focused exercise facilitate the utilization of proprioception for improved balance control in PD?

    PubMed

    Lefaivre, Shannon C; Almeida, Quincy J

    2015-02-01

    Impaired sensory processing in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been argued to contribute to balance deficits. Exercises aimed at improving sensory feedback and body awareness have the potential to ameliorate balance deficits in PD. Recently, PD SAFEx™, a sensory and attention focused rehabilitation program, has been shown to improve motor deficits in PD, although balance control has never been evaluated. The objective of this study was to measure the effects of PD SAFEx™ on balance control in PD. Twenty-one participants with mild to moderate idiopathic PD completed 12 weeks of PD SAFEx™ training (three times/week) in a group setting. Prior to training, participants completed a pre-assessment evaluating balance in accordance with an objective, computerized test of balance (modified clinical test of sensory integration and balance (m-CTSIB) and postural stability testing (PST)) protocols. The m-CTSIB was our primary outcome measure, which allowed assessment of balance in both eyes open and closed conditions, thus enabling evaluation of specific sensory contributions to balance improvement. At post-test, a significant interaction between time of assessment and vision condition (p=.014) demonstrated that all participants significantly improved balance control, specifically when eyes were closed. Balance control did not change from pre to post with eyes open. These results provide evidence that PD SAFEx™ is effective at improving the ability to utilize proprioceptive information, resulting in improved balance control in the absence of vision. Enhancing the ability to utilize proprioception for individuals with PD is an important intermediary to improving balance deficits. PMID:25655836

  1. Development of sensory organs and changes of behavior in larvae of the sutchi catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yukinori MukaiAudrey; Audrey Daning Tuzan; Sitti Raehanah Muhamad Shaleh; Bernardette Mabel Manjaji-Matsumoto

    2010-01-01

    Larvae of the sutchi catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus hatch with morphologically immature features, but sensory organs develop rapidly as the fish grow. By 1 day old, yolk-sac\\u000a larvae showed notochord flexion, and by 2 days old larvae were observed to have consumed a large part of the yolk sac. At\\u000a this stage, larvae had well-developed eyes, olfactory organs with ciliated receptor cells, inner

  2. Molecular restrictions for human eye irritation by chemical vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Cometto-Muniz, J. Enrique [Chemosensory Perception Laboratory, Department of Surgery (Otolaryngology), 9500 Gilman Dr.-Mail Code 0957, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0957 (United States)]. E-mail: ecometto@ucsd.edu; Cain, William S. [Chemosensory Perception Laboratory, Department of Surgery (Otolaryngology), 9500 Gilman Dr.-Mail Code 0957, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0957 (United States); Abraham, Michael H. [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-15

    Previous research showed a cut-off along homologous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in their ability to produce acute human mucosal irritation. The present study sought to specify the particular cut-off homolog for sensory eye irritation in an acetate and n-alcohol series. A 1900-ml glass vessel system and a three-alternative forced-choice procedure served to test nonyl, decyl, and dodecyl acetate, and 1-nonanol, 1-decanol, and 1-undecanol. Flowrate to the eye ranged from 2 to 8 L/min and time of exposure from 3 to 24 s. Decyl acetate and 1-undecanol were the shortest homologs that failed to produce eye irritation under all conditions, producing a cut-off effect. Increasing the vapor concentration of decyl acetate and 1-undecanol by 3 and 8 times, respectively, via heating them to 37 deg C made either or both VOCs detectable to only half of the 12 subjects tested, even though the higher vapor concentration was well above a predicted eye irritation threshold. When eye irritation thresholds for homologous acetates and n-alcohols were plotted as a function of the longest unfolded length of the molecule, the values for decyl acetate and 1-undecanol fell within a restricted range of 18 to 19 A. The outcome suggests that the basis for the cut-off is biological, that is, the molecule lacks a key size or structure to trigger transduction, rather than physical, that is, the vapor concentration is too low to precipitate detection.

  3. Replacing one sense by another: Sensory substitution and the classification of our sensory modalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malika Auvray

    Sensory substitution devices provide a mean to investigate empirically theoretical questions about the distinction between the senses. These systems provide through an unusual sensory modality (the substituting modality, for example audition) access to features of the world that are normally accessed through another sensory modality (the substituted modality, for example vision). The question thus arises of which sensory modality the

  4. A Bayesian Framework for Sensory Adaptation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norberto M. Grzywacz; Rosario M. Balboa

    2002-01-01

    Adaptation allows biological sensory systems to adjust to variations in the environment and thus to deal better with them. In this article, we pro- pose a general framework of sensory adaptation. The underlying princi- ple of this framework is the setting of internal parameters of the system such that certain prespeciéed tasks can be performed optimally. Because sensorial inputs vary

  5. Sensory testing of the human gastrointestinal tract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina Brock; Lars Arendt-Nielsen; Oliver Wilder-Smith; Asbjørn Mohr Drewes

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this appraisal is to shed light on the various approaches to screen sensory information in the human gut. Understanding and characterization of sensory symptoms in gastrointestinal disorders is poor. Experimental methods allowing the investigator to control stimulus intensity and modality, as well as using validated methods for assessing sensory response have contributed to the understanding of pain

  6. Speciation through sensory drive in cichlid fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ole Seehausen; Yohey Terai; Isabel S. Magalhaes; Karen L. Carleton; Hillary D. J. Mrosso; Ryutaro Miyagi; Inke van der Sluijs; Maria V. Schneider; Martine E. Maan; Hidenori Tachida; Hiroo Imai; Norihiro Okada

    2008-01-01

    Theoretically, divergent selection on sensory systems can cause speciation through sensory drive. However, empirical evidence is rare and incomplete. Here we demonstrate sensory drive speciation within island populations of cichlid fish. We identify the ecological and molecular basis of divergent evolution in the cichlid visual system, demonstrate associated divergence in male colouration and female preferences, and show subsequent differentiation at

  7. USE OF SENSORY EVOKED POTENTIALS IN TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rationale for studying sensory systems as an integral part of neurotoxicological examinations is presented. The role of evoked potentials in assessing brain dysfunction in general and sensory systems in particular is also presented. Four types of sensory evoked potentials (br...

  8. Multi-Sensory Intervention Observational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carla J.

    2011-01-01

    An observational research study based on sensory integration theory was conducted to examine the observed impact of student selected multi-sensory experiences within a multi-sensory intervention center relative to the sustained focus levels of students with special needs. A stratified random sample of 50 students with severe developmental…

  9. Relative contribution of feedforward excitatory connections to ocular dominance plasticity in layer 4 of visual cortex

    E-print Network

    Khibnik, Lena A.

    Brief monocular deprivation (MD) shifts ocular dominance (OD) in primary visual cortex by causing depression of responses to the deprived eye. Here we address the extent to which the shift is expressed by a modification ...

  10. Postural control in children with strabismus: effect of eye surgery.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Agathe; Quoc, Emmanuel Bui; Vacher, Sylvette Wiener; Ribot, Jérôme; Lebas, Nicolas; Milleret, Chantal; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2011-08-26

    The purpose of this study was to examine the postural control in children with strabismus before and after eye surgery. Control of posture is a complex multi-sensorial process relying on visual, vestibular and proprioceptive systems. Reduced influence of one of such systems leads to postural adaptation due to a compensation of one of the other systems [3]. Nine children with strabismus (4-8 years old) participated in the study. Ophthalmologic, orthoptic, vestibular and postural tests were done before and twice (2 and 8 weeks) after eye surgery. Postural stability was measured by a platform (TechnoConcept): two components of the optic flux were used for stimulation (contraction and expansion) and two conditions were tested eyes open and eyes closed. The surface area of the center of pressure (CoP), the variance of speed of the CoP and the frequency spectrum of the platform oscillations by fast Fourier transformation were analysed. Before surgery, similar to typically developing children, postural stability was better in the eyes open condition. The frequency analysis revealed that for the low frequency band more energy was spent in the antero-posterior direction compared to the medio-lateral one while the opposite occurred for the middle and the high frequency bands. After surgery, the eye deviation was reduced in all children and their postural stability also improved. However, the energy of the high frequency band in the medio-lateral direction increased significantly. These findings suggest that eye surgery influences somatosensory properties of extra-ocular muscles leading to improvement of postural control and that binocular visual perception could influence the whole body. PMID:21767607

  11. The world in an eye [eye image interpretation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ko Nishino; Shree K. Nayar

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of exactly what visual information about the world is embedded within a single image of an eye. It turns out that the cornea of an eye and a camera viewing the eye form a catadioptric imaging system. We refer to this as a corneal imaging system. Unlike a typical catadioptric system, a corneal one

  12. The eyes of Macrosoma sp. (Lepidoptera: Hedyloidea): a nocturnal butterfly with superposition optics.

    PubMed

    Yack, Jayne E; Johnson, Stephanie E; Brown, Sarah G; Warrant, Eric J

    2007-03-01

    The visual system of nocturnal Hedyloidea butterflies was investigated for the first time, using light and electron microscopy. This study was undertaken to determine whether hedylids possess the classic superposition eye design characteristic of most moths, or apposition eyes of true butterflies (Papilionoidea), and, to gain insights into the sensory ecology of the Hedyloidea. We show that Macrosoma heliconiaria possesses a superposition-type visual mechanism, characterized by long cylindrical crystalline cones, a lack of corneal processes, 8 constricted retinular sense cells, rhabdoms separated from the crystalline cones forming a translucent 'clear zone', and tight networks of trachea that form a tapetum proximal to the retina and which also surround the rhabdoms to form a tracheal sheath. Dark-adapted individuals of M. heliconiaria, M. conifera, and M. rubidinarea exhibited distal retinular pigment migration, forming an eye glow. Correspondingly, light-exposure induced pigment to migrate proximally, causing the eye glow to be replaced by a dark pseudopupil. Other characteristics of the visual system, including relative eye size, facet size, and external morphology of the optic lobes, are mostly 'moth like' and correlate with an active, nocturnal lifestyle. The results are discussed in relation to the evolution of lepidopteran eyes, and the sensory ecology of this poorly understood butterfly superfamily. PMID:18089084

  13. Coordinating one hand with two eyes: optimizing for field of view in a pointing task

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aarlenne Z. Khan; J. Douglas Crawford

    We previously found that subjects switched ocular dominance as a function of horizontal gaze direction in a reaching task (Vision Res. 41 (14) (2001) 1743). Here we extend these findings to show that when subjects pointed to targets across the horizontal binocular field, they aligned the fingertip with a vertical plane located between the eyes and the target. This eye-target

  14. Pursuit Eye Movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauzlis, Rich; Stone, Leland; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    When viewing objects, primates use a combination of saccadic and pursuit eye movements to stabilize the retinal image of the object of regard within the high-acuity region near the fovea. Although these movements involve widespread regions of the nervous system, they mix seamlessly in normal behavior. Saccades are discrete movements that quickly direct the eyes toward a visual target, thereby translating the image of the target from an eccentric retinal location to the fovea. In contrast, pursuit is a continuous movement that slowly rotates the eyes to compensate for the motion of the visual target, minimizing the blur that can compromise visual acuity. While other mammalian species can generate smooth optokinetic eye movements - which track the motion of the entire visual surround - only primates can smoothly pursue a single small element within a complex visual scene, regardless of the motion elsewhere on the retina. This ability likely reflects the greater ability of primates to segment the visual scene, to identify individual visual objects, and to select a target of interest.

  15. Anatomy of the Eye

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lens is suspended from the wall of the eye by many small fibers (zonules) that attach to its capsule. Ciliary Body: ... the place in the brain where the two optic nerves meet. The individual nerve fibers from each nerve are sorted in the chiasm. ...

  16. Airbags and Eye Injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel A Pearlman; K. G. Au Eong; Ferenc Kuhn; Dante J Pieramici

    2001-01-01

    Although airbags measurably reduce the overall risk of injury to adults (including eye injury), and death from motor vehicle accidents, injuries attributed to airbag deployment have been reported. To identify reported cases of ocular trauma related to airbag deployment, a MEDLINE search from 1991 to 2000 was performed. A total of 263 injuries in 101 patients were identified. Patient demographics,

  17. Eyes at the interface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Bolt

    1982-01-01

    There is little dispute that the main channels of intercommunication of people with the world at large are: sight, sound, and touch; and for people with other people: eye-contact, speech, gesture. Advanced human-computer interfaces increasingly implicate speech i\\/o, and touch or some form of manual input.

  18. Through Students' Eyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean-Donaldson, Karen B.

    1994-01-01

    Identifies how students perceive racism and its effects on student learning and whether antiracist/multicultural arts (ARMA) curricula can empower students to address racism in schools. Results show racism, through students' eyes, damages learning, attitudes, and behavior. ARMA positively effected students' ability to confront racism within their…

  19. Diagnosis of Dry Eye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony J Bron

    2001-01-01

    Dry eye disease is characterized by symptoms, ocular surface damage, reduced tear film stability, and tear hyperosmolarity. There are also inflammatory components. These features can be identified by various kinds of diagnostic tests (symptom questionnaires, ocular surface staining, tear break-up time, and osmometry), although there may not be a direct correlation between the number or severity of symptoms and the

  20. Simple Solutions for Dry Eye

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are more concentrated in the tear film of dry eye patients. In hot weather, sleep with the windows shut and keep cool with air conditioning. • Dry eye patients often develop or aggravate allergies. An ...

  1. Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Z Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) Allergies Amblyopia (Lazy Eye) Astigmatism Bacterial Keratitis Bell's Palsy Blepharitis ... be examined by an ophthalmologist (Eye M.D.). Amblyopia What it is: Amblyopia is a term used ...

  2. Genetic Dominance & Cellular Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seager, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    In learning genetics, many students misunderstand and misinterpret what "dominance" means. Understanding is easier if students realize that dominance is not a mechanism, but rather a consequence of underlying cellular processes. For example, metabolic pathways are often little affected by changes in enzyme concentration. This means that…

  3. Brood care in freshwater crayfish and relationship with the offspring's sensory deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Günter; Tolley, Laura

    2004-11-01

    Prolonged brood care is one of the evolutionary clues for the successful colonization of freshwater habitats by freshwater crayfish (Astacida). By means of macrophotography, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy we investigated all phases of brood care in freshwater crayfish, with particular emphasis on the morphological structures involved. We selected the recently discovered parthenogenetic marbled crayfish (species identity not yet known) as a model organism due to its fast reproduction and high resistance to handling stress. In order to examine if there is a causal relationship between brood care and the developmental status of the offspring's sensory apparatus, we additionally investigated major sense organs of juvenile Stages 1-5 in comparison with those of the adults. Brood care in the marbled crayfish is characterized by initial and final "active" phases dominated by specific maternal or juvenile behavior and a medial "passive" phase based more on the action of temporarily developed structures rather than on behavior. The most remarkable feature of this period, which includes permanent carrying of the eggs and the first two juvenile stages under the mother's abdomen, is safeguarding of hatching by a telson thread that keeps the helpless newborn hatchlings linked to the egg cases on the maternal pleopods and thus prevents them from being lost. Further important transient structures are the recurved hooks on the first pereiopods of Stage 1 and 2 juveniles that are used to firmly attach these nonfeeding stages to the mother's abdomen. In hatchlings all sense organs necessary for an independent life, such as eyes, olfactory aesthetascs, gustatory fringed setae, hydrodynamic receptor hairs, and statocysts are not developed or are underdeveloped, making brood care indispensable. Most of these sense organs appear in Stage 2 juveniles, but only from Stage 3, the first freelancing and feeding stage, are all sense organs well developed and operating, thus reducing brood care in this final period to temporary provisioning of shelter. Brooding of the eggs and postembryonic brood care are to some extent also found in other freshwater Decapoda like freshwater crabs and aeglid anomurans, but safeguarding of hatching is confined to the Astacida only. This sophisticated mode of passive brood care is unique in the animal kingdom and is apparently related to the sensory deficiencies of the first juvenile stage. PMID:15376277

  4. Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care: Punctal Plugs for Dry Eye

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Consumer Alerts Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... permanent loss of your eyelashes. Hold the Rib Eye Don’t put raw meat on a black ...

  5. Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care: Antibiotics for Pink Eye

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Consumer Alerts Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... permanent loss of your eyelashes. Hold the Rib Eye Don’t put raw meat on a black ...

  6. Median and ulnar muscle and sensory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Felsenthal, G

    1978-08-01

    The medical literature was reviewed to find suggested clinical applications of the study of the amplitude of evoked muscle action potentials (MAP) and sensory action potentials (SAP). In addition, the literature was reviewed to ascertain the normal amplitude and duration of the evoked MAP and SAP as well as the factors affecting the amplitude: age, sex, temperature, ischemia. The present study determined the normal amplitude and duration of the median and ulnar MAP and SAP in fifty normal subjects. The amplitude of evoked muscle or sensory action potentials depends on multiple factors. Increased skin resistance, capacitance, and impedance at the surface of the recording electrode diminishes the amplitude. Similarly, increased distance from the source of the action potential diminishes its amplitude. Increased interelectrode distance increases the amplitude of the bipolarly recorded sensory action potential until a certain interelectrode distance is exceeded and the diphasic response becomes tri- or tetraphasic. Artifact or poor technique may reduce the potential difference between the recording electrodes or obscure the late positive phase of the action potential and thus diminish the peak to peak amplitude measurement. Intraindividual comparison indicated a marked difference of amplitude in opposite hands. The range of the MAP of the abductor pollicis brevis in one hand was 40.0--100% of the response in the opposite hand. For the abductor digiti minimi, the MAP was 58.5--100% of the response of the opposite hand. The median and ulnar SAP was between 50--100% of the opposite SAP. Consequent to these findings the effect of hand dominance on the amplitude of median and ulnar evoked muscle and sensory action potentials was studied in 41 right handed volunteers. The amplitudes of the median muscle action potential (p less than 0.02) and the median and ulnar sensory action potentials (p less than 0.001) were significantly less in the dominant hand. There was no significant difference between the ulnar muscle action potentials or for the median and ulnar distal motor and sensory latencies in the right and left hands of this group of volunteers. PMID:696811

  7. Coevolution of visual signals and eye morphology in Polistes paper wasps

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, Michael J.; Jinn, Judy; Tibbetts, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    To be effective, signals must propagate through the environment and be detected by receivers. As a result, signal form evolves in response to both the constraints imposed by the transmission environment and receiver perceptual abilities. Little work has examined the extent to which signals may act as selective forces on receiver sensory systems to improve the efficacy of communication. If receivers benefit from accurate signal assessment, selection could favour sensory organs that improve discrimination of established signals. Here, we provide evidence that visual resolution coevolves with visual signals in Polistes wasps. Multiple Polistes species have variable facial patterns that function as social signals, whereas other species lack visual signals. Analysis of 19 Polistes species shows that maximum eye facet size is positively associated with both eye size and presence of visual signals. Relatively larger facets within the eye's acute zone improve resolution of small images, such as wasp facial signals. Therefore, sensory systems may evolve to optimize signal assessment. Sensory adaptations to facilitate signal detection may represent an overlooked area of the evolution of animal communication. PMID:24789142

  8. Eye Location Using Genetic Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey Huang; Harry Wechsler

    1999-01-01

    While there are many eye location methods our technique is the first to approach this location task using naviga- tional routines and to automate the derivation of such rou- tines using learning and evolution rather than manually handcrafting them. The adaptive eye location approach seeks first where salient things are and then what their identity is. Specifically, eye location involves

  9. The World in an Eye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ko Nishino; Shree K. Nayar

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of exactly what visual information about the world is embedded within a sin- gle image of an eye. It turns out that the cornea of an eye and a camera viewing the eye form a catadioptric imaging system. We refer to this as a corneal imaging system. Unlike a typ- ical catadioptric system, a

  10. What Happens After Treatment for Eye Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... having eye cancer What happens after treatment for eye cancer? For many people with eye cancer, treatment ... manage them. Follow-up after treatment of uveal (eye) melanoma Your doctor will most likely want to ...

  11. The Sensory Neurons of Touch

    PubMed Central

    Abraira, Victoria E.; Ginty, David D.

    2013-01-01

    The somatosensory system decodes a wide range of tactile stimuli and thus endows us with a remarkable capacity for object recognition, texture discrimination, sensory-motor feedback and social exchange. The first step leading to perception of innocuous touch is activation of cutaneous sensory neurons called low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs). Here, we review the properties and functions of LTMRs, emphasizing the unique tuning properties of LTMR subtypes and the organizational logic of their peripheral and central axonal projections. We discuss the spinal cord neurophysiological representation of complex mechanical forces acting upon the skin and current views of how tactile information is processed and conveyed from the spinal cord to the brain. An integrative model in which ensembles of impulses arising from physiologically distinct LTMRs are integrated and processed in somatotopically aligned mechanosensory columns of the spinal cord dorsal horn underlies the nervous system’s enormous capacity for perceiving the richness of the tactile world. PMID:23972592

  12. Evolution of Sensory Hair Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allison Coffin; Matthew Kelley; Geoffrey A. Manley; Arthur N. Popper

    \\u000a The ears of all vertebrate species use sensory hair cells (Fig. 3.1) to convert mechanical energy to electrical signals compatible with the nervous system. However, although the basic structure\\u000a of hair cells is ubiquitous among the vertebrates and hair cells are also found in the lateral line of fishes and aquatic\\u000a amphibians, a growing body of literature has demonstrated considerable

  13. Development of Metallic Sensory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Horne, Michael R.; Messick, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    Existing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are inherently limited by the physical response of the structural material being inspected and are therefore not generally effective at the identification of small discontinuities, making the detection of incipient damage extremely difficult. One innovative solution to this problem is to enhance or complement the NDE signature of structural materials to dramatically improve the ability of existing NDE tools to detect damage. To address this need, a multifunctional metallic material has been developed that can be used in structural applications. The material is processed to contain second phase sensory particles that significantly improve the NDE response, enhancing the ability of conventional NDE techniques to detect incipient damage both during and after flight. Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloys (FSMAs) are an ideal material for these sensory particles as they undergo a uniform and repeatable change in both magnetic properties and crystallographic structure (martensitic transformation) when subjected to strain and/or temperature changes which can be detected using conventional NDE techniques. In this study, the use of a ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) as the sensory particles was investigated.

  14. More than meets the eye: visual attention biases in individuals reporting chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Fashler, Samantha R; Katz, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The present study used eye-tracking technology to assess whether individuals who report chronic pain direct more attention to sensory pain-related words than do pain-free individuals. A total of 113 participants (51 with chronic pain, 62 pain-free) were recruited. Participants completed a dot-probe task, viewing neutral and sensory pain-related words while their reaction time and eye movements were recorded. Eye-tracking data were analyzed by mixed-design analysis of variance with group (chronic pain versus pain-free) as the between-subjects factor, and word type (sensory pain versus neutral) as the within-subjects factor. Results showed a significant main effect for word type: all participants attended to pain-related words more than neutral words on several eye-tracking parameters. The group main effect was significant for number of fixations, which was greater in the chronic pain group. Finally, the group by word type interaction effect was significant for average visit duration, number of fixations, and total late-phase duration, all greater for sensory pain versus neutral words in the chronic pain group. As well, participants with chronic pain fixated significantly more frequently on pain words than did pain-free participants. In contrast, none of the effects for reaction time were significant. The results support the hypothesis that individuals with chronic pain display specific attentional biases toward pain-related stimuli and demonstrate the value of eye-tracking technology in measuring differences in visual attention variables. PMID:25285022

  15. Minority Eye Health: Know Your Risks

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Minority Eye Health: Know Your Risks Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... permanent loss of your eyelashes. Hold the Rib Eye Don’t put raw meat on a black ...

  16. Comparing Sensory Experiences Across Individuals: Recent Psychophysical Advances Illuminate Genetic Variation in Taste Perception

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda M. Bartoshuk

    2000-01-01

    Modern psychophysics has traveled considerably beyond the threshold measures that dominated sensory studies in the first half of this century. Current methods capture the range of perceived intensity from threshold to maximum and promise to provide increasingly accurate comparisons of perceived intensities across individuals. The application of new psychophysical tools to genetic variation in taste allowed us to discover supertasters,

  17. Eye preferences in captive chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last century, the issue of brain lateralization in primates has been extensively investigated and debated, yet no previous study has reported eye preference in great apes. This study examined eye preference in 45 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in response to various stimuli. Eye preference was assessed when animals looked through a hole that only accommodated one eye at an empty box, a mirror, a picture of a dog, a rubber snake, food biscuits, bananas, a rubber duck, and a video camera. Main effects of stimulus type were found for direction of eye preference, number of looks, and looking duration, but not for strength of eye preference. A left-eye bias was found for viewing the rubber snake and a right-eye bias was found for viewing the bananas, supporting theories that emotional valence may affect lateralized behaviors. In addition, a significant shift in eye preference took place from the initial look to subsequent looks when viewing the snake. These results are not consistent with previous reports of human eye preference and may reflect lateralization differences for emotional processing. No relationship between eye preference and previously recorded hand preference was found. PMID:22733385

  18. Pioneers of eye movement research

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology affording eye movement recordings carry the risk of neglecting past achievements. Without the assistance of this modern armoury, great strides were made in describing the ways the eyes move. For Aristotle the fundamental features of eye movements were binocular, and he described the combined functions of the eyes. This was later given support using simple procedures like placing a finger over the eyelid of the closed eye and culminated in Hering's law of equal innervation. However, the overriding concern in the 19th century was with eye position rather than eye movements. Appreciating discontinuities of eye movements arose from studies of vertigo. The characteristics of nystagmus were recorded before those of saccades and fixations. Eye movements during reading were described by Hering and by Lamare in 1879; both used similar techniques of listening to sounds made during contractions of the extraocular muscles. Photographic records of eye movements during reading were made by Dodge early in the 20th century, and this stimulated research using a wider array of patterns. In the mid-20th century attention shifted to the stability of the eyes during fixation, with the emphasis on involuntary movements. The contributions of pioneers from Aristotle to Yarbus are outlined. PMID:23396982

  19. PERFECT DOMINATING SETS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marilynn Livingston; Quentin F. Stout

    A dominating set of a graph is perfect if each vertex of is dominated by exactly one vertex in . We study the existence and construction of PDSs in families of graphs arising from the interconnection networks of parallel computers. These include trees, dags, series-parallel graphs, meshes, tori, hypercubes, cube-connected cycles, cube-connected paths, and de Bruijn graphs. For trees, dags,

  20. Through Einstein's Eyes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Savage, Craig M.

    Through Einstein's Eyes is the online version of a multimedia project based around how things look at relativistic speeds. It is aimed at high school to early university level physics students. There are two sections. One is fun and spectacular, with a relativistic rollercoaster ride and a tour of the solar system. The other explores the physics of special relativity. CD and DVD versions of the material are available, and are helpful because of the large size of some of the video files.

  1. Altered sensory-weighting mechanisms is observed in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Simoneau, Martin; Mercier, Pierre; Blouin, Jean; Allard, Paul; Teasdale, Normand

    2006-01-01

    Background Scoliosis is the most common type of spinal deformity. In North American children, adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) makes up about 90% of all cases of scoliosis. While its prevalence is about 2% to 3% in children aged between 10 to 16 years, girls are more at risk than boys for severe progression with a ratio of 3.6 to 1. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that idiopathic scoliosis interferes with the mechanisms responsible for sensory-reweighting during balance control. Methods Eight scoliosis patients (seven female and one male; mean age: 16.4 years) and nine healthy adolescents (average age 16.5 years) participated in the experiment. Visual and ankle proprioceptive information was perturbed (eyes closed and/or tendon vibration) suddenly and then returned to normal (eyes open and/or no tendon vibration). An AMTI force platform was used to compute centre of pressure root mean squared velocity and sway density curve. Results For the control condition (eyes open and no tendon vibration), adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients had a greater centre of pressure root mean squared velocity (variability) than control participants. Reintegration of ankle proprioception, when vision was either available or removed, led to an increased centre of pressure velocity variability for the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients whereas the control participants reduced their centre of pressure velocity variability. Moreover, in the absence of vision, adolescent idiopathic scoliosis exhibited an increased centre of pressure velocity variability when ankle proprioception was returned to normal (i.e. tendon vibration stopped). The analysis of the sway density plot suggests that adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients, during sensory reintegration, do not scale appropriately their balance control commands. Conclusion Altogether, the present results demonstrate that idiopathic scoliosis adolescents have difficulty in reweighting sensory inputs following a brief period of sensory deprivation. PMID:17052338

  2. Effects of aging on eye movements in the real world

    PubMed Central

    Dowiasch, Stefan; Marx, Svenja; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Bremmer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The effects of aging on eye movements are well studied in the laboratory. Increased saccade latencies or decreased smooth-pursuit gain are well established findings. The question remains whether these findings are influenced by the rather untypical environment of a laboratory; that is, whether or not they transfer to the real world. We measured 34 healthy participants between the age of 25 and 85 during two everyday tasks in the real world: (I) walking down a hallway with free gaze, (II) visual tracking of an earth-fixed object while walking straight-ahead. Eye movements were recorded with a mobile light-weight eye tracker, the EyeSeeCam (ESC). We find that age significantly influences saccade parameters. With increasing age, saccade frequency, amplitude, peak velocity, and mean velocity are reduced and the velocity/amplitude distribution as well as the velocity profile become less skewed. In contrast to laboratory results on smooth pursuit, we did not find a significant effect of age on tracking eye-movements in the real world. Taken together, age-related eye-movement changes as measured in the laboratory only partly resemble those in the real world. It is well-conceivable that in the real world additional sensory cues, such as head-movement or vestibular signals, may partially compensate for age-related effects, which, according to this view, would be specific to early motion processing. In any case, our results highlight the importance of validity for natural situations when studying the impact of aging on real-life performance. PMID:25713524

  3. Effects of aging on eye movements in the real world.

    PubMed

    Dowiasch, Stefan; Marx, Svenja; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Bremmer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The effects of aging on eye movements are well studied in the laboratory. Increased saccade latencies or decreased smooth-pursuit gain are well established findings. The question remains whether these findings are influenced by the rather untypical environment of a laboratory; that is, whether or not they transfer to the real world. We measured 34 healthy participants between the age of 25 and 85 during two everyday tasks in the real world: (I) walking down a hallway with free gaze, (II) visual tracking of an earth-fixed object while walking straight-ahead. Eye movements were recorded with a mobile light-weight eye tracker, the EyeSeeCam (ESC). We find that age significantly influences saccade parameters. With increasing age, saccade frequency, amplitude, peak velocity, and mean velocity are reduced and the velocity/amplitude distribution as well as the velocity profile become less skewed. In contrast to laboratory results on smooth pursuit, we did not find a significant effect of age on tracking eye-movements in the real world. Taken together, age-related eye-movement changes as measured in the laboratory only partly resemble those in the real world. It is well-conceivable that in the real world additional sensory cues, such as head-movement or vestibular signals, may partially compensate for age-related effects, which, according to this view, would be specific to early motion processing. In any case, our results highlight the importance of validity for natural situations when studying the impact of aging on real-life performance. PMID:25713524

  4. Stable human standing with lower-limb muscle afferents providing the only sensory input.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, R; Rogers, D K; McCloskey, D I

    1994-01-01

    1. This study investigated the sources of sensory information upon which normal subjects' ability to stand depends. 2. An 'equivalent body' was used to simulate the physical properties of each subject's body during standing. The modulation of ankle torque required to support the equivalent body in an upright position was similar to that required to support the subject's own body when standing. However, when balancing the equivalent body, vestibular inputs were excluded from directing the appropriate changes in ankle torque. Thus, stability of stance could be studied with (normal stance) and without (balancing equivalent body) modulation by vestibular inputs. Vision could be excluded by closing the eyes. Sensory input from the feet and ankles could be removed by local anaesthesia from prolonged ischaemia, induced by occluding blood flow with inflated pneumatic cuffs just above the ankles. With vestibular, visual and peripheral sensory inputs negated, standing could rely only upon remaining sensory inputs, notably those from sensory receptors in the leg muscles. 3. Unlike the human body, the equivalent body used to negate vestibular inputs is not segmented. Therefore, the effects on stability of having a segmented body were determined by splinting subjects during standing so that only ankle movement was possible. This was done in the presence and absence of visual stabilization. 4. For each experimental task, either standing or balancing the equivalent body, sway was recorded while posture was unperturbed. Root mean square values of sway amplitude and power spectra were used to compare conditions. 5. Every subject could balance the equivalent body in a stable way when the eyes were closed, and when the feet were anaesthetized.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:7869254

  5. ECEM (Eye Closure, Eye Movements): application to depersonalization disorder.

    PubMed

    Harriet, E Hollander

    2009-10-01

    Eye Closure, Eye Movements (ECEM) is a hypnotically-based approach to treatment that incorporates eye movements adapted from the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) protocol in conjunction with hypnosis for the treatment of depersonalization disorder. Depersonalization Disorder has been differentiated from post-traumatic stress disorders and has recently been conceptualized as a subtype of panic disorder (Baker et al., 2003; David, Phillips, Medford, & Sierra, 2004; Segui et. al., 2000). During ECEM, while remaining in a hypnotic state, clients self-generated six to seven trials of eye movements to reduce anticipatory anxiety associated with depersonalization disorder. Eye movements were also used to process triggers that elicited breath holding, often followed by episodes of depersonalization. Hypnotic suggestions were used to reverse core symptoms of depersonalization, subjectively described as "feeling unreal" (Simeon et al., 1997). PMID:19862896

  6. Parent and Teacher Report: Comparing Results from the Sensory Profile and the Sensory Profile School Companion

    E-print Network

    Clark, Jessica Saiter

    2008-08-13

    OBJECTIVE. This study investigated the similarities and differences between parent and teacher report on the Sensory Profile and the Sensory Profile School Companion (School Companion). METHOD. Using data gathered during the standardization...

  7. Pathology Case Study: Sensory Abnormalities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Duggal, Neil

    The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This particular case focuses on a 30-year-old man with a history of focal numbness, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and progressive sensory abnormalities. The patientâ??s history, images from an MRI, microscopic images of a specimen collected during his laminectomy, and final diagnosis are provided in this case for your review. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

  8. [Muscle post-effects and upright standing in healthy subjects and patients with sensory-motor integration disorders].

    PubMed

    Talis, V L; Kapitonov, M A; Maksimova, E V

    2011-01-01

    We compared the upright standing in 7 patients with sensory-motor disorders and 7 healthy subjects (control) before and after 30-s involuntary neck muscle contraction. A trajectory of the center of pressure was recorded during 30-s standing with the eyes open, eyes closed and standing on a foam-rubber with the eyes open. As compared to healthy subjects, patients exhibited an increased body sway area during standing with the eyes open on both the firm surface and foam-rubber and a backward shift of the center of pressure during standing with the eyes both open and closed. Closing the eyes affected the upright standing of patients to a lesser extent than standing of healthy subjects. Involuntary neck muscle contraction within 30 s elicited a backward shift of the center of pressure in healthy subjects, especially during standing with the eyes closed, and a decrease in the length of the center-of-pressure trajectory, especially of its frontal component during standing on the foam-rubber. In patients, a post-effect of the neck muscle contraction manifested itself as a decrease in the body sway area during standing on the foam-rubber and relative increase in the frontal component of the center-of-pressure trajectory during standing with the eyes closed. The results suggest that the upright standing of patients with sensory-motor disorders is more sensitive to somatosensory than visual input, and 30-s neck muscle contraction approach their postural stability to the age-matched control. PMID:21961316

  9. The amblyopic eye in subjects with anisometropia show increased saccadic latency in the delayed saccade task

    PubMed Central

    Perdziak, Maciej; Witkowska, Dagmara; Gryncewicz, Wojciech; Przekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; Ober, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The term amblyopia is used to describe reduced visual function in one eye (or both eyes, though not so often) which cannot be fully improved by refractive correction and explained by the organic cause observed during regular eye examination. Amblyopia is associated with abnormal visual experience (e.g., anisometropia) during infancy or early childhood. Several studies have shown prolongation of saccadic latency time in amblyopic eye. In our opinion, study of saccadic latency in the context of central vision deficits assessment, should be based on central retina stimulation. For this reason, we proposed saccade delayed task. It requires inhibitory processing for maintaining fixation on the central target until it disappears—what constitutes the GO signal for saccade. The experiment consisted of 100 trials for each eye and was performed under two viewing conditions: monocular amblyopic/non-dominant eye and monocular dominant eye. We examined saccadic latency in 16 subjects (mean age 30 ± 11 years) with anisometropic amblyopia (two subjects had also microtropia) and in 17 control subjects (mean age 28 ± 8 years). Participants were instructed to look at central (fixation) target and when it disappears, to make the saccade toward the periphery (10°) as fast as possible, either left or the right target. The study results have proved the significant difference in saccadic latency between the amblyopic (mean 262 ± 48 ms) and dominant (mean 237 ± 45 ms) eye, in anisometropic group. In the control group, the saccadic latency for dominant (mean 226 ± 32 ms) and non-dominant (mean 230 ± 29 ms) eye was not significantly different. By the use of LATER (Linear Approach to the Threshold with Ergodic Rate) decision model we interpret our findings as a decrease in accumulation of visual information acquired by means of central retina in subjects with anisometropic amblyopia. PMID:25352790

  10. Autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy (ADVIRC).

    PubMed Central

    Blair, N P; Goldberg, M F; Fishman, G A; Salzano, T

    1984-01-01

    We report the second family recognised to have autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy. The clinical features were (1) autosomal dominant inheritance; (2) peripheral, coarse pigmentary degeneration of the fundus for 360 degrees, with a relatively discrete posterior border in the equatorial region (this finding may be pathognomonic); (3) superficial punctate yellowish-white opacities in the retina; (4) various vascular abnormalities; (5) breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier; (6) retinal neovascularisation; (7) vitreous abnormalities; and (8) choroidal atrophy. Visual reduction was mainly due to macular oedema or vitreous haemorrhage. Images PMID:6689931

  11. Genotypic effects on sensory quality of blackcurrant juice using descriptive sensory profiling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rex M. Brennan; E. Anthony Hunter; D. Donald Muir

    1997-01-01

    A range of 46 Ribes genotypes from the Eucoreosma subgenus, predominantly Ribes nigrum (blackcurrant) was analysed for sensory qualities by descriptive sensory profiling. Using an appropriate vocabulary against a branded product standard, significant genotypic variation was found in all the main sensory characters (appearance, flavour, aroma, mouthfeel and aftertaste), with by far the most important variation detectable in the flavour

  12. Sensory-evoked perturbations of locomotor activity by sparse sensory input: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Bui, Tuan V; Brownstone, Robert M

    2015-04-01

    Sensory inputs from muscle, cutaneous, and joint afferents project to the spinal cord, where they are able to affect ongoing locomotor activity. Activation of sensory input can initiate or prolong bouts of locomotor activity depending on the identity of the sensory afferent activated and the timing of the activation within the locomotor cycle. However, the mechanisms by which afferent activity modifies locomotor rhythm and the distribution of sensory afferents to the spinal locomotor networks have not been determined. Considering the many sources of sensory inputs to the spinal cord, determining this distribution would provide insights into how sensory inputs are integrated to adjust ongoing locomotor activity. We asked whether a sparsely distributed set of sensory inputs could modify ongoing locomotor activity. To address this question, several computational models of locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs) that were mechanistically diverse and generated locomotor-like rhythmic activity were developed. We show that sensory inputs restricted to a small subset of the network neurons can perturb locomotor activity in the same manner as seen experimentally. Furthermore, we show that an architecture with sparse sensory input improves the capacity to gate sensory information by selectively modulating sensory channels. These data demonstrate that sensory input to rhythm-generating networks need not be extensively distributed. PMID:25673740

  13. Eyes on the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Patrick

    Eyes on the Universe is an illustrated history of the telescope, beginning with pre-telescopic observatories and the refractors of Galileo, Lippershey and Digges, and ending with the most modern instruments including - of course - the Hubble Space Telescope. Written by Dr Patrick Moore CBE, to celebrate the 40th Anniversary of the world's longest-running television programme, the BBC's The Sky at Night, the book takes an enthusiastic look at the development of astronomical telescopes. It provides its readers with a fascinating overview of the way astronomical telescopes have evolved with technology during the past 450 years. Amateur and professional astronomers alike will find this book both entertaining and instructive.

  14. Mechano- and Chemo-Sensory Polycystins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Amanda; Delmas, Patrick; Honoré, Eric

    Polycystins belong to the superfamily of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and comprise five PKD1-like and three PKD2-like (TRPP) subunits. In this chapter, we review the general properties of polycystins and discuss their specific role in both mechanotransduction and chemoreception. The heteromer PKD1/PKD2 expressed at the membrane of the primary cilium of kidney epithelial cells is proposed to form a mechano-sensitive calcium channel that is opened by physiological fluid flow. Dysfunction or loss of PKD1 or PKD2 polycystin genes may be responsible for the inability of epithelial cells to sense mechanical cues, thus provoking autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), one of the most prevalent genetic kidney disorders. pkd1 and pkd2 knock-out mice recapitulate the human disease. Similarly, PKD2 may function as a mechanosensory calcium channel in the immotile monocilia of the developing node transducing leftward flow into an increase in calcium and specifying the left-right axis. pkd2, unlike pkd1 knock-out embryos are characterized by right lung isomerism (situs inversus). Mechanical stimuli also induce cleavage and nuclear translocation of the PKD1 C-terminal tail, which enters the nucleus and initiates signaling processes involving the AP-1, STAT6 and P100 pathways. This intraproteolytic mechanism is implicated in the transduction of a change in renal fluid flow to a transcriptional long-term response. The heteromer PKD1L3/PKD2L1 is the basis for acid sensing in specialised sensory cells including the taste bud cells responsible for sour taste. Moreover, PKD1L3/PKD2L1 may be implicated in the chemosensitivity of neurons surrounding the spinal cord canal, sensing protons in the cerebrospinal fluid. These recent results demonstrate that polycystins fulfill a major sensory role in a variety of cells including kidney epithelial cells, taste buds cells and spinal cord neurons. Such mechanisms are involved in short- and long-term physiological regulation. Alteration of these pathways culminates in severe human pathologies, including ADPKD.

  15. Sensory and motor properties of the cerebellar uvula and modulus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, F. R.

    1985-01-01

    The uvula and nodulus (vermal lobules 9 and 10) of the vestibulocerebellum are implicated by behavioral evidence in the control of eye and head movements and in the production of motion sickness. The uvula and nodulus could play a role in these functions through known output pathways. Purkinje cells in both structures project via the fastigial and vestibular nuceli to the ventral horn of the cervical spin cord, to oculomotor neurons, and to the emetic region of the reticular formation (ablation of which abolishes susceptability to motion sickness). Uvula and nodulus Purkinje cells will be analyzed in cats trained to make controlled head movements. The activity of these neurons is expected to modulate well during head and/or eye movements because the uvula and nodulus receive heavy projections from sources of visual, vestibular and neck proprioceptive information. How neuron activity contributes to movement and how different sensory inputs converge to influence this contribution may be determined by characterizing movement related properties of these neurons. A population of neurons that modulates powerfully to the conflict between different head movement signals that can cause motion sickness may be identified.

  16. FINE STRUCTURE OF THE EYE OF A CHAETOGNATH.

    PubMed

    EAKIN, R M; WESTFALL, J A

    1964-04-01

    Electron microscopy reveals a star-like pigment cell at the center of the eye of the arrow-worm, Sagitta scrippsae. Between the arms of the pigment cell are clusters of photoreceptor cell processes, each process consisting of: (1) a tubular segment containing longitudinally arranged microtubules about 500 A in diameter and 20 micro in length; (2) a remarkable conical body, composed of cords and large granules, situated at the base of the tubular segment; and (3) a connecting piece which, like that of rods and cones, connects the process with the sensory cell proper and through which runs a fibrillar apparatus consisting of nine peripheral double tubules. Beneath the connecting piece lies a typical centriole with a striated rootlet. The receptor cell process is deeply recessed into the sensory cell which may possess a corona of microvilli at its inner surface. A nerve fiber arises from the outer end of the cell and passes into the optic nerve. Additional features are some supporting cells, an external layer of flattened epithelial cells, and an over-all investment of basement membrane and thick fibrous capsule. The fine structure and function of these elements of the eye are discussed in relation to earlier studies with the light microscope. The ciliary nature of the photoreceptor cell process in S. scrippsae points to a probable evolutionary relationship of chaetognaths to echinoderms and chordates. PMID:14154485

  17. Bilateral Orientations and Domination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fedor V. Fomin; Martín Matamala; Erich Prisner; Ivan Rapaport

    2001-01-01

    AbstractWe consider the problem of finding the minimum diameter among all strong orientations of a given connected, bridgeless, undirected graph. We obtain some bounds for the smallest diameter for different classes of AT-free graphs and show that these bounds are sharp up to additive constants. Dominating sets and their properties are the main tools in our research.

  18. Aging and dry eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Juan; Sullivan, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Dry eye disease is a prevalent eye disorder that in particular affects the elderly population. One of the major causes of dry eye, meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), shows increased prevalence with aging. MGD is caused by hyperkeratinization of the ductal epithelium of meibomian gland and reduced quantity and/or quality of meibum, the holocrine product that stabilizes and prevents the evaporation of the tear film. Of note, retinoids which are used in current anti-aging cosmetics may promote the development of MGD and dry eye disease. In this review, we will discuss the possible mechanisms of age-related MGD. PMID:22569356

  19. Eye in the Sky

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Geographic magazine, long known for its educational maps and writing that is easily understood by a variety of readers, has added a feature to its Website. The new online resource from National Geographic, sponsored by the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA), is called Eye in the Sky, and it showcases what we can learn about our planet using satellites. Here, users can read about the history of satellites and remote-sensing technology and choose from a menu of brief lessons on natural disasters, human impacts on Earth, human conflicts, and exploration of Mars. Each lesson page gives photographs, facts, and short movies (RealPlayer or Windows Media Player). The title "Eye in the Sky" is slightly misleading because most of the images featured are taken at ground-level, and it isn't always clear how some of the lessons fit with the idea of remote sensing. Nevertheless, the site is worth a look, and a few satellite images (of floodplains and the ozone hole, for example) pepper the material here.

  20. Prevalence of dry eye in Japanese eye centers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Hikichi; A. Yoshida; Y. Fukui; T. Hamano; M. Ri; K. Araki; K. Horimoto; E. Takamura; K. Kitagawa; M. Oyama; Y. Danjo; S. Kondo; H. Fujishima; I. Toda; K. Tsubota

    1995-01-01

    • Background: The purpose of the investigation was to ascertain the prevalence of dry eye in new outpatients. • Methods: A total of 2127 consecutive new outpatients seen in eight Japanese centers from April 1992 to January 1993 underwent comprehensive examinations, including double vital staining and measurement of tear film break-up time, basal tear secretion, and tear clearance. Dry eye

  1. THE AGING EYE EYE INSTITUTE OF NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE

    E-print Network

    Engman, David M.

    the pathogenesis of both macular degeneration and glaucoma. The Center for the Aging Eye will be an outgrowth implications for the management of macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. Our macular and glaucoma. Ocular Stem Cell Research Program Through the Center for the Aging Eye, we plan to advance

  2. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

  3. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

  4. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

  5. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

  6. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA

    MedlinePLUS

    ... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA On this page: Description Genetic changes ... definitions Reviewed March 2015 What is hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA? Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA is ...

  8. Rheology and sensory texture of biopolymer gels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Allen Foegeding

    2007-01-01

    Sensory texture perception is based on food structure and the mastication process. Real-time observations of crack growth and rheological measurements have shown different patterns of microstructural fracture. This has allowed for a reductive approach in consolidating a range of gels into characteristic microstructures and fracture patterns that can be linked to sensory texture.

  9. Evolution of a polymodal sensory response network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jagan Srinivasan; Omer Durak; Paul W Sternberg

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Avoidance of noxious stimuli is essential for the survival of an animal in its natural habitat. Some avoidance responses require polymodal sensory neurons, which sense a range of diverse stimuli, whereas other stimuli require a unimodal sensory neuron, which senses a single stimulus. Polymodality might have evolved to help animals quickly detect and respond to diverse noxious stimuli. Nematodes

  10. Examination Accommodations for Students with Sensory Defensiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kieran; Nolan, Clodagh

    2013-01-01

    Traditional examination accommodations include extra time, scribes, and/or separate venues for students with disabilities, which have been proven to be successful for the majority of students. For students with non-apparent disabilities such as sensory defensiveness, where sensitivity to a range of sensory information from the environment can…

  11. Sensory Perception and Communication in Electric Fish

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patricia J. DeCoursey (University of South Carolina; )

    1993-01-01

    Electric fish of the Amazon Basin and Nile River are equipped with electric-generator-receiver organs for both sensory perception and communication. These fish are superbly adapted for life in turbulent, muddy streams and, therefore, provide and excellent illustration of the input of environmental information into central nervous systems via specialized sensory windows.

  12. SENSORY EVOKED POTENTIALS: MEASURES OF NEUROTOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a need for tests of sensory function to be incorporated in laboratory and toxicity testing. t is clear that sensory dysfunction may frequently occur, but go undetected, in standard animal toxicological testing protocols. ensory evoked potential technology can be employed...

  13. Schizophrenia, Sensory Gating, and Nicotinic Receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence E. Adler; Ann Olincy; Merilyne Waldo; Josette G. Harris; Jay Griffith; Karen Stevens; Karen Flach; Herbert Nagamoto; Paula Bickford; Sherry Leonard; Robert Freedman

    1998-01-01

    A series of human and animal investigations has suggested that altered expression and function of the ?7-nicotinic cholinergic receptor may be responsible for the auditory sensory gating deficit characterized in schizophrenia patients and their relatives as diminished suppression of an auditory-evoked response (P50) to repeated stimuli. This finding, in conjunction with evidence for familial transmission of this sensory gating deficit,

  14. Dorsal eye selector pannier (pnr) suppresses the eye fate to define dorsal margin of the Drosophila eye

    E-print Network

    Kango-Singh, Madhuri

    determination Keywords: Drosophila eye, Dorso-ventral eye patterning, pannier, GATA-1, retinal determination begins with a default ventral fate, on which the dorsal eye fate is established by expression of the GATA

  15. Summation of visual motion across eye movements reflects a non-spatial decision mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Adam P.; Liu, Charles C.; Cropper, Simon J.; Forte, Jason D.; Krekelberg, Bart; Mattingley, Jason B.

    2010-01-01

    Human vision remains perceptually stable even though retinal inputs change rapidly with each eye movement. Although the neural basis of visual stability remains unknown, a recent psychophysical study pointed to the existence of visual feature-representations anchored in environmental rather than retinal coordinates (e.g. ‘spatiotopic’ receptive fields; Melcher, D., and Morrone, M.C. (2003). Spatiotopic temporal integration of visual motion across saccadic eye movements. Nat Neurosci 6, 877-881). In that study, sensitivity to a moving stimulus presented after a saccadic eye movement was enhanced when preceded by another moving stimulus at the same spatial location prior to the saccade. The finding is consistent with spatiotopic sensory integration, but it could also have arisen from a probabilistic improvement in performance due to the presence of more than one motion signal for the perceptual decision. Here we show that this statistical advantage accounts completely for summation effects in this task. We first demonstrate that measurements of summation are confounded by noise related to an observer's uncertainty about motion onset times. When this uncertainty is minimized, comparable summation is observed irrespective of whether two motion signals occupy the same or different locations in space, and whether they contain the same or opposite directions of motion. These results are incompatible with the tuning properties of motion-sensitive sensory neurons and provide no evidence for a spatiotopic representation of visual motion. Instead, summation in this context reflects a decision mechanism that uses abstract representations of sensory events to optimize choice behavior. PMID:20660264

  16. Sensory irritation and multiple chemical sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R C; Anderson, J H

    1999-01-01

    Many of the symptoms described in Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) and multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) resemble the symptoms known to be elicited by airborne irritant chemicals. Irritation of the eye, nose, and throat is common to SBS, MCS, and sensory irritation (SI). Difficulty of breathing is often seen with SBS, MCS, and pulmonary irritation (PI). We therefore asked the question: can indoor air pollutants cause SI and/or PI? In laboratory testing in which mice breathed the dilute volatile emissions of air fresheners, fabric softeners, colognes, and mattresses for 1 h, we measured various combinations of SI and PI as well as airflow decreases (analogous to asthma attacks). Air samples taken from sites associated with repeated human complaints of poor air quality also caused SI, PI, and airflow limitation (AFL) in the mice. In previous publications, we have documented numerous behavior changes in mice (which we formally studied with a functional observational battery) after exposure to product emissions or complaint site air; neurological complaints are a prominent part of SBS and MCS. All together, these data suggest that many symptoms of SBS and MCS can be described as SI, PI, AFL, and neurotoxicity. All these problems can be caused by airborne irritant chemicals such as those emitted by common commercial products and found in polluted indoor air. With some chemical mixtures (e.g., emissions of some fabric softeners, disposable diapers, and vinyl mattress covers) but not others (e.g., emissions of a solid air freshener), the SI response became larger (2- to 4-fold) when we administered a series of two or three 1-h exposures over a 24-h period. Since with each exposure the intensity of the stimulus was constant yet the magnitude of the response increased, we concluded that there was a change in the sensitivity of the mice to these chemicals. The response was not a generalized stress response because it occurred with only some mixtures of irritants and not others; it is a specific response to certain mixtures of airborne chemicals. This is one of the few times in MCS research that one can actually measure both the intensity of the stimulus and the magnitude of the response and thus be allowed to discuss sensitivity changes. The changing SI response of the mice might serve as a model of how people develop increasing sensitivity to environmental pollutants. Intensive study of this system should teach us much about how people respond to and change sensitivity to airborne irritant chemicals. PMID:10416286

  17. Tourist Town: Dominating Sets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Tim Bell

    1998-01-01

    In this activity, learners use a fictitious map of "Tourist Town" and counters to problem solve how to place ice-cream vans on street intersections so that every other intersection is connected to one that has a van on it. Use this activity to introduce learners to computer science themes including nodes, dominating sets, exponential-time algorithms, polynomial-time algorithms, and NP-complete problems. Variations, extensions, background information, and solutions are included in the PDF.

  18. Relative contribution of feed-forward excitatory connections to expression of ocular dominance plasticity in layer 4 of visual cortex

    E-print Network

    Khibnik, Lena A.

    Brief monocular deprivation (MD) shifts ocular dominance (OD) in primary visual cortex by causing depression of responses to the deprived eye. Here we address the extent to which the shift is expressed by a modification ...

  19. Six1 is a key regulator of the developmental and evolutionary architecture of sensory neurons in craniates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Various senses and sensory nerve architectures of animals have evolved during adaptation to exploit diverse environments. In craniates, the trunk sensory system has evolved from simple mechanosensory neurons inside the spinal cord (intramedullary), called Rohon-Beard (RB) cells, to multimodal sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) outside the spinal cord (extramedullary). The fish and amphibian trunk sensory systems switch from RB cells to DRG during development, while amniotes rely exclusively on the DRG system. The mechanisms underlying the ontogenic switching and its link to phylogenetic transition remain unknown. Results In Xenopus, Six1 overexpression promoted precocious apoptosis of RB cells and emergence of extramedullary sensory neurons, whereas Six1 knockdown delayed the reduction in RB cell number. Genetic ablation of Six1 and Six4 in mice led to the appearance of intramedullary sensory neuron-like cells as a result of medial migration of neural crest cells into the spinal cord and production of immature DRG neurons and fused DRG. Restoration of SIX1 expression in the neural crest-linage partially rescued the phenotype, indicating the cell autonomous requirements of SIX1 for normal extramedullary sensory neurogenesis. Mouse Six1 enhancer that mediates the expression in DRG neurons activated transcription in Xenopus RB cells earlier than endogenous six1 expression, suggesting earlier onset of mouse SIX1 expression than Xenopus during sensory development. Conclusions The results indicated the critical role of Six1 in transition of RB cells to DRG neurons during Xenopus development and establishment of exclusive DRG system of mice. The study provided evidence that early appearance of SIX1 expression, which correlated with mouse Six1 enhancer, is essential for the formation of DRG-dominant system in mice, suggesting that heterochronic changes in Six1 enhancer sequence play an important role in alteration of trunk sensory architecture and contribute to the evolution of the trunk sensory system. PMID:24885223

  20. Acute sensory neuropathy in an adolescent girl following BCG vaccination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elaine Hughes; Richard A. C. Hughes

    1999-01-01

    A 13-year-old girl developed a sensory neuropathy following bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination, consistent with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy or acute sensory axonal neuropathy.

  1. Age-Dependent Ocular Dominance Plasticity in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Konrad; Löwel, Siegrid

    2008-01-01

    Background Short monocular deprivation (4 days) induces a shift in the ocular dominance of binocular neurons in the juvenile mouse visual cortex but is ineffective in adults. Recently, it has been shown that an ocular dominance shift can still be elicited in young adults (around 90 days of age) by longer periods of deprivation (7 days). Whether the same is true also for fully mature animals is not yet known. Methodology/Principal Findings We therefore studied the effects of different periods of monocular deprivation (4, 7, 14 days) on ocular dominance in C57Bl/6 mice of different ages (25 days, 90–100 days, 109–158 days, 208–230 days) using optical imaging of intrinsic signals. In addition, we used a virtual optomotor system to monitor visual acuity of the open eye in the same animals during deprivation. We observed that ocular dominance plasticity after 7 days of monocular deprivation was pronounced in young adult mice (90–100 days) but significantly weaker already in the next age group (109–158 days). In animals older than 208 days, ocular dominance plasticity was absent even after 14 days of monocular deprivation. Visual acuity of the open eye increased in all age groups, but this interocular plasticity also declined with age, although to a much lesser degree than the optically detected ocular dominance shift. Conclusions/Significance These data indicate that there is an age-dependence of both ocular dominance plasticity and the enhancement of vision after monocular deprivation in mice: ocular dominance plasticity in binocular visual cortex is most pronounced in young animals, reduced but present in adolescence and absent in fully mature animals older than 110 days of age. Mice are thus not basically different in ocular dominance plasticity from cats and monkeys which is an absolutely essential prerequisite for their use as valid model systems of human visual disorders. PMID:18769674

  2. Severe eye injuries in cricket.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, N P; Tullo, A B

    1986-01-01

    We report five cases of severe eye injury sustained in cricket, including retinal detachment and rupture of the globe. The eye is at particular risk from a rising ball. We comment on the need for appropriate facial protection for batsmen and close fielders. PMID:3814991

  3. Dry eye disease after LASIK

    PubMed Central

    ?uru, L; Alexandrescu, C; Stana, D; Tudosescu, R

    2012-01-01

    LASIK is a surgical tehnique for the correction of refractive errors (myopia, hyperopia, astygmatism). It results in a reshape of the cornea with ocular surface and especially tear film disease. It is a cause for a iatrogenic dry eye syndrome. Neurogenic and inflamatory theory explain this disease. The main therapy of dry eye is the replacement with artificial tears. PMID:22574092

  4. European hair and eye color

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Frost

    2006-01-01

    Human hair and eye color is unusually diverse in northern and eastern Europe. The many alleles involved (at least seven for hair color) and their independent origin over a short span of evolutionary time indicate some kind of selection. Sexual selection is particularly indicated because it is known to favor color traits and color polymorphisms. In addition, hair and eye

  5. Eye Strain from Convergence Insufficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Mahto

    1972-01-01

    Eye strain and headache are common ocular symptoms, and the main cause in persons aged 15 to 40 is convergence insufficiency. It is more common in females than in males. Many patients are supplied with glasses for eye strain without the causative convergence insufficiency being treated. The treatment in most cases is orthoptic exercises.

  6. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes

    PubMed Central

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L’Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A.; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  7. Eye trauma in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Boyd-Monk, H

    1991-01-01

    Immediate eye irrigation in the case of chemical burns can substantially decrease the possibility of permanent vision damage. A baseline visual acuity should be on record for medical and legal purposes. Identifying an eye injury and referring the person for appropriate treatment can save vision. PMID:2061932

  8. Eye trauma in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Boyd-Monk, H

    1990-10-01

    A baseline visual acuity should be on record for medical and legal purposes. Identifying an eye injury and referring the person for appropriate treatment can save vision. Immediate eye irrigation in the case of chemical burns can substantially decrease the possibility of permanent vision damage. PMID:2222583

  9. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  10. The Treatment of Dry Eye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margarita Calonge

    2001-01-01

    The most widely used therapy for dry eye disease is tear replacement by topical artificial tears. Punctal occlusion to prevent the drainage of natural or artificial tears is the most common nonpharmacological treatment. These and other traditional therapies for dry eye disease are only palliative, however, as they replace or conserve the tears without necessarily correcting the underlying disease process.

  11. Eye Injuries Can Be Prevented.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Eleven thousand eye injuries are suffered annually by 5- to-14-year-old youngsters during sports and recreational activities. Baseball-related accidents result in more eye injuries to youth than any other sport. Protective face gear is discussed and recommended. (MT)

  12. Associations of sire estimated breeding values and objective meat quality measurements with sensory scores in Australian lamb.

    PubMed

    Pannier, L; Gardner, G E; Pearce, K L; McDonagh, M; Ball, A J; Jacob, R H; Pethick, D W

    2014-02-01

    The impact of selecting for lean meat yield using breeding values for increased eye muscle depth (PEMD) and decreased fat depth (PFAT) on the consumer acceptance of lamb meat was evaluated. Consumer sensory scores (tenderness, juiciness, flavour, odour, overall liking) were obtained for the longissimus lumborum (loin) and semimembranosus (topside) muscles of 1471 lambs. On average loin samples were more acceptable for consumers. Sensory scores increased with higher IMF levels, with lower shear force levels, and when animals were younger and less muscular. Increasing PEMD decreased tenderness, overall liking and flavour scores in both muscles, and decreasing PFAT reduced tenderness within the loin samples only. This negative impact of PEMD and PFAT is not solely driven through the phenotypic impact of IMF and shear force on sensory scores. Our results confirm the growing concerns that selecting for lean meat yield would reduce consumer eating quality, and highlight that careful monitoring of selection programmes is needed to maintain lamb eating quality. PMID:23968666

  13. Disjoint dominating and total dominating sets in graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Henning; Christian Löwenstein; Dieter Rautenbach; Justin Southey

    2010-01-01

    It has been shown [M.A. Henning, J. Southey, A note on graphs with disjoint dominating and total dominating sets, Ars Combin. 89 (2008) 159–162] that every connected graph with minimum degree at least two that is not a cycle on five vertices has a dominating set D and a total dominating set T which are disjoint. We characterize such graphs

  14. Central projections of sensory systems involved in honey bee dance language communication.

    PubMed

    Brockmann, Axel; Robinson, Gene E

    2007-01-01

    Honey bee dance language is a unique and complex form of animal communication used to inform nest mates in the colony about the specific location of food sources or new nest sites. Five different sensory systems have been implicated in acquiring and communicating the information necessary for dance language communication. We present results from neuronal tracer studies identifying the central projections from four of the five. Sensory neurons of the dorsal rim area of the compound eyes, involved in acquiring sun-compass based information, project to the dorsal-most part of the medulla. Sensory neurons of the neck hair plates, required to transpose sun-compass based information to gravity-based information in the dark hive, project to the dorsal labial neuromere of the subesophageal ganglion. Sensory neurons from the antennal joint hair sensilla and the Johnston's organ, which perceive information on dance direction and distance from mechanostimuli generated by abdomen waggling and wing vibration, project to the deutocerebral dorsal lobe and the subesophageal ganglion, and the posterior protocerebrum, respectively. We found no 'dance-specific' projections relative to those previously described for drone and queen honey bees and other insect species that do not exhibit dance communication. We suggest that the evolution of dance language communication was likely based on the modification of central neural pathways associated with path integration, the capability to calculate distance, and directional information during flight. PMID:17519525

  15. Dominant frequencies of resting human brain activity as measured by the electrocorticogram

    PubMed Central

    Groppe, David M.; Bickel, Stephan; Keller, Corey J.; Jain, Sanjay K.; Hwang, Sean T.; Harden, Cynthia; Mehta, Ashesh D.

    2014-01-01

    The brain’s spontaneous, intrinsic activity is increasingly being shown to reveal brain function, delineate large scale brain networks, and diagnose brain disorders. One of the most studied and clinically utilized types of intrinsic brain activity are oscillations in the electrocorticogram (ECoG), a relatively localized measure of cortical synaptic activity. Here we objectively characterize the types of ECoG oscillations commonly observed over particular cortical areas when an individual is awake and immobile with eyes closed, using a surface-based cortical atlas and cluster analysis. Both methods show that [1] there is generally substantial variability in the dominant frequencies of cortical regions and substantial overlap in dominant frequencies across the areas sampled (primarily lateral central, temporal, and frontal areas), [2] theta (4–8 Hz) is the most dominant type of oscillation in the areas sampled with a mode around 7 Hz, [3] alpha (8–13 Hz) is largely limited to parietal and occipital regions, and [4] beta (13–30 Hz) is prominent peri-Rolandically, over the middle frontal gyrus, and the pars opercularis. In addition, the cluster analysis revealed seven types of ECoG spectral power densities (SPDs). Six of these have peaks at 3, 5, 7 (narrow), 7 (broad), 10, and 17 Hz, while the remaining cluster is broadly distributed with less pronounced peaks at 8, 19, and 42 Hz. These categories largely corroborate conventional sub-gamma frequency band distinctions (delta, theta, alpha, and beta) and suggest multiple sub-types of theta. Finally, we note that gamma/high gamma activity (30+ Hz) was at times prominently observed, but was too infrequent and variable across individuals to be reliably characterized. These results should help identify abnormal patterns of ECoG oscillations, inform the interpretation of EEG/MEG intrinsic activity, and provide insight into the functions of these different oscillations and the networks that produce them. Specifically, our results support theories of the importance of theta oscillations in general cortical function, suggest that alpha activity is primarily related to sensory processing/attention, and demonstrate that beta networks extend far beyond primary sensorimotor regions. PMID:23639261

  16. Eyes of Ganges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    21 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroded, light-toned layered rock outcrops on the side of a large mound in Ganges Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. Perhaps a testament to the inherent human (and primate) ability to pick out faces where partially hidden from view (even when a face is not really there) -- near the top of this picture are two features, each a product of erosion, resembling a pair of human eyes. This picture was acquired in late November 2005.

    Location near: 7.1oS, 49.4oW Image width: width: 0.55 km (0.3 mi) Illumination from: left/lower left Season: Southern Summer

  17. Reflexes and the eye.

    PubMed

    Hunyor, A P

    1994-08-01

    Reflexes are an essential part of protective and homeostatic function, both in general terms and with specific reference to ocular structures. A wide range of stimuli and responses, with varying degrees of central processing, is involved in such reflexes. The simplest reflexes are monosynaptic, such as the stretch or myotatic reflex. More complex polysynaptic reflexes are involved in many regulatory and protective functions--these include autonomic as well as somatic reflexes. Ocular autonomic reflexes include the oculocardiac, pupillary, accommodative and lacrimatory reflexes. Ocular somatic reflexes include eyelid and extra-ocular muscle reflexes (such as Bell's phenomenon, vestibulo-ocular and optokinetic reflexes). An account of the above reflexes is given in the format of an essay, modified from the FRACO Part I Examination in Physiology. The topic was 'Discuss reflex activities with particular reference to the eye'. The content is based on several of the texts recommended for the Part I Examination, as listed under references. PMID:7818872

  18. CubicEye

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    While we were not able to test this new 3D browser (alas, no W2k machines at the Scout Project at the time of publication), we still felt it well worth a mention after viewing some sample screen shots. CubicEye allows users to navigate and move between five browser windows simultaneously: the windows form the sides and bottom of a cube. Based on the demo sequences, it appears that users can easily rotate the panels and drop and drag links between the panels, in addition to other options. Users whose machines meet the requirements may register to become a beta tester and will receive a password and download instructions. The rest of us can still take a peek and offer a few "oohs" and "ahhs."

  19. Cat eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak; Murki, Srinivas; Pratap, Tejo; Vasikarla, Madhavi

    2014-01-01

    A full-term female baby, a product of non-consanguineous marriage, was born at 37?weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 2.08?kg. Antenatal scan at 31?weeks revealed complex congenital heart disease with a hypoplastic right ventricle, pulmonary atresia and an intact septum. Immediately after birth, the infant was shifted to the nursery and was started on intravenous fluids and infusion prostaglandin E1 (Alprostidil). On examination, she had microcephaly, periorbital puffiness, a long philtrum, a broad nasal bridge and retrognathia, up slanting palpebral fissures, widely spaced nipples, a sacral dimple and right upper limb postaxial polydactyly. Postnatal echocardiography confirmed a large ostium secundum atrial septal defect with left to right shunt, right ventricle hypoplasia, pulmonary atresia with an intact septum and a large vertical patent ductus arteriosus. Ophthalmological examination showed a bilateral chorioretinal coloboma sparing disc and fovea. Karyotyping showed an extra small marker chromosome suggestive of the Cat eye syndrome. PMID:24842361

  20. Eye movements in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Molitor, Robert J; Ko, Philip C; Ally, Brandon A

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of literature has investigated changes in eye movements as a result of Alzheimer's disease (AD). When compared to healthy, age-matched controls, patients display a number of remarkable alterations to oculomotor function and viewing behavior. In this article, we review AD-related changes to fundamental eye movements, such as saccades and smooth pursuit motion, in addition to changes to eye movement patterns during more complex tasks like visual search and scene exploration. We discuss the cognitive mechanisms that underlie these changes and consider the clinical significance of eye movement behavior, with a focus on eye movements in mild cognitive impairment. We conclude with directions for future research. PMID:25182738

  1. Anesthesia for Adults Having Eye Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 3/2015 Eye Terms & Conditions Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy ... Screening Vision Screening Recommendations Loading... Most Common Searches Adult ... Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy ...

  2. Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble

    MedlinePLUS

    Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble email Send this article to a friend by filling out the fields below: ... disease bothers the patient more. What Causes Dry Eye Syndrome? Dry eye can be caused by many ...

  3. Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Tweet While contact lenses are safely used ... Video Caring For Your Contact Lenses Find An Eye M.D. Enter zip code here Search by ...

  4. Flood-Related Eye Care Precautions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vision > Flood-Related Eye Care Precautions Flood-Related Eye Care Precautions As flooding continues to expand across ... lens wearers to avoid exposure to flood-related eye infections and complications Avoid contact with flood waters. ...

  5. wizson Bull., 91(3 ), 1979, pp. 371-383 AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR IN WINTERING DARK-EYED

    E-print Network

    Dark-eyed Juncos (./unto hyemalis) residing in central and eastern United States during winter exhibitwizson Bull., 91(3 ), 1979, pp. 371-383 AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR IN WINTERING DARK-EYED JUNCOS 1976). Recent studies indicate that among captive flocks, male juncos tend to dominate females (Balph

  6. [Subacute sensory neuronopathy associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung: a case report].

    PubMed

    Noto, Yuichi; Shiga, Kensuke; Fujinami, Jun; Mizuno, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Masanori; Tanaka, Keiko

    2009-08-01

    We report a 59-year-old man who developed dysesthesia in all extremities with severe loss of deep sensation over three months. A radiating radicular pain was also noted in the extremities. The nerve conduction study barely elicited sensory nerve action potentials both in the median and in the sural nerve. An extensive search for anti-neuronal antibodies including anti-Hu and anti-CV2 antibody was negetive. The biopsy specimen of an enlarged tracheobronchial lymph node revealed squamous cell carcinoma. The subsequent chemotherapy and radiation therapy for the neoplasm improved the radicular pain and the deep sensation to a moderate extent, leading to the diagnosis of paraneoplastic subacute sensory neuropathy (SSN). In general, cases with paraneoplastic SSN are associated mostly with small cell lung cancer, and quite rarely with squamous cell lung cancer. The early detection and the treatment of the primary tumor are crucial in a patient with subacute progression of sensory-dominant neuropathy. PMID:19827601

  7. Analytical Methods for Chemical and Sensory Characterization of Scent-Markings in Large Wild Mammals: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Soso, Simone B.; Koziel, Jacek A.; Johnson, Anna; Lee, Young Jin; Fairbanks, W. Sue

    2014-01-01

    In conjoining the disciplines of “ethology” and “chemistry” the field of “Ethochemistry” has been instituted. Ethochemistry is an effective tool in conservation efforts of endangered species and the understanding of behavioral patterns across all species. Chemical constituents of scent-markings have an important, yet poorly understood function in territoriality, reproduction, dominance, and impact on evolutionary biology, especially in large mammals. Particular attention has recently been focused on scent-marking analysis of great cats (Kalahari leopards (Panthera pardus), puma (Puma concolor) snow leopard (Panthera uncia), African lions (Panthera leo), cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), and tigers (Panthera tigris)) for the purpose of conservation. Sensory analyses of scent-markings could address knowledge gaps in ethochemistry. The objective of this review is to summarize the current state-of-the art of both the chemical and sensory analyses of scent-markings in wild mammals. Specific focus is placed on sampling and sample preparation, chemical analysis, sensory analysis, and simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses. Constituents of exocrine and endocrine secretions have been most commonly studied with chromatography-based analytical separations. Odor analysis of scent-markings provides an insight into the animal's sensory perception. A limited number of articles have been published in the area of sensory characterization of scent marks. Simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses with chromatography-olfactometry hyphenation could potentially aid conservation efforts by linking perceived odor, compounds responsible for odor, and resulting behavior. PMID:24603639

  8. Portrait of an Asian stalk-eyed fly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Motte, Ingrid; Burkhardt, Dietrich

    1983-09-01

    Diopsid flies have eyes set on stalks which are in some cases so long that the distance between the eyes exceeds the body length. These conspicuous structures have given rise to much speculation about their adaptive value, but there are very few actual observations by which to judge these hypotheses. Cyrtodiopsis whitei Curran lives in the tropical rainforest of Malaysia. We describe a number of aspects of its morphology and biology, some functional properties of the eye, and the ritualized fights between males, by which harems are acquired. The evolutionary significance of the eyestalks is discussed: they represent structures subjected to a double selection pressure; they are an adaptation by which a sensory system is better matched to the special problems encountered in a densely structured habitat (in that the field of view is extended and the ability to estimate distance and size and to identify objects at a large distance is improved), also they act as key stimulus for species recognition and as releaser for intraspecific behaviour.

  9. The ‘division of labour’ model of eye evolution

    PubMed Central

    Arendt, Detlev; Hausen, Harald; Purschke, Günter

    2009-01-01

    The ‘division of labour’ model of eye evolution is elaborated here. We propose that the evolution of complex, multicellular animal eyes started from a single, multi-functional cell type that existed in metazoan ancestors. This ancient cell type had at least three functions: light detection via a photoreceptive organelle, light shading by means of pigment granules and steering through locomotor cilia. Located around the circumference of swimming ciliated zooplankton larvae, these ancient cells were able to mediate phototaxis in the absence of a nervous system. This precursor then diversified, by cell-type functional segregation, into sister cell types that specialized in different subfunctions, evolving into separate photoreceptor cells, shading pigment cells (SPCs) or ciliated locomotor cells. Photoreceptor sensory cells and ciliated locomotor cells remained interconnected by newly evolving axons, giving rise to an early axonal circuit. In some evolutionary lines, residual functions prevailed in the specialized cell types that mirror the ancient multi-functionality, for instance, SPCs expressing an opsin as well as possessing rhabdomer-like microvilli, vestigial cilia and an axon. Functional segregation of cell types in eye evolution also explains the emergence of more elaborate photosensory–motor axonal circuits, with interneurons relaying the visual information. PMID:19720646

  10. Prominent reflexive eye-movement orienting associated with deafness.

    PubMed

    Bottari, Davide; Valsecchi, Matteo; Pavani, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Profound deafness affects orienting of visual attention. Until now, research focused exclusively on covert attentional orienting, neglecting whether overt oculomotor behavior may also change in deaf people. Here we used the pro- and anti-saccade task to examine the relative contribution of reflexive and voluntary eye-movement control in profoundly deaf and hearing individuals. We observed a behavioral facilitation in reflexive compared to voluntary eye movements, indexed by faster saccade latencies and smaller error rates in pro- than anti-saccade trials, which was substantially larger in deaf than hearing participants. This provides the first evidence of plastic changes related to deafness in overt oculomotor behavior, and constitutes an ecologically relevant parallel to the modulations attributed to deafness in covert attention orienting. Our findings also have implications for designers of real and virtual environments for deaf people and reveal that experiments on deaf visual abilities must not ignore the prominent reflexive eye-movement orienting in this sensory-deprived population. PMID:24168645

  11. Dominating Sets for Outerplanar Graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VAL PINCIU

    We provide lower and upper bounds for the domination numbers and the connected domination numbers for outerplanar graphs. We also provide a recursive algorithm that finds a connected domination set for an outerplanar graph. Finally, we show that for outerplanar graphs where all bounded faces are 3-cycles, the problem of determining the connected domination number is equivalent to an art

  12. Weighted Domination of Cocomparability Graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maw-shang Chang

    1997-01-01

    It is shown in this paper that the weighted domination problem and its three variants, the weighted connected domination, total domination, and dominating clique problems are NP-complete on cobipartite graphs when arbitrary integer vertex weights are allowed and all of them can be solved in polynomial time on cocomparability graphs if vertex weights are integers and less than or equal

  13. Active inference, sensory attenuation and illusions.

    PubMed

    Brown, Harriet; Adams, Rick A; Parees, Isabel; Edwards, Mark; Friston, Karl

    2013-11-01

    Active inference provides a simple and neurobiologically plausible account of how action and perception are coupled in producing (Bayes) optimal behaviour. This can be seen most easily as minimising prediction error: we can either change our predictions to explain sensory input through perception. Alternatively, we can actively change sensory input to fulfil our predictions. In active inference, this action is mediated by classical reflex arcs that minimise proprioceptive prediction error created by descending proprioceptive predictions. However, this creates a conflict between action and perception; in that, self-generated movements require predictions to override the sensory evidence that one is not actually moving. However, ignoring sensory evidence means that externally generated sensations will not be perceived. Conversely, attending to (proprioceptive and somatosensory) sensations enables the detection of externally generated events but precludes generation of actions. This conflict can be resolved by attenuating the precision of sensory evidence during movement or, equivalently, attending away from the consequences of self-made acts. We propose that this Bayes optimal withdrawal of precise sensory evidence during movement is the cause of psychophysical sensory attenuation. Furthermore, it explains the force-matching illusion and reproduces empirical results almost exactly. Finally, if attenuation is removed, the force-matching illusion disappears and false (delusional) inferences about agency emerge. This is important, given the negative correlation between sensory attenuation and delusional beliefs in normal subjects--and the reduction in the magnitude of the illusion in schizophrenia. Active inference therefore links the neuromodulatory optimisation of precision to sensory attenuation and illusory phenomena during the attribution of agency in normal subjects. It also provides a functional account of deficits in syndromes characterised by false inference and impaired movement--like schizophrenia and Parkinsonism--syndromes that implicate abnormal modulatory neurotransmission. PMID:23744445

  14. Cross-frequency interaction of the eye-movement related LFP signals in V1 of freely viewing monkeys.

    PubMed

    Ito, Junji; Maldonado, Pedro; Grün, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have emphasized the functional role of neuronal activity underlying oscillatory local field potential (LFP) signals during visual processing in natural conditions. While functionally relevant components in multiple frequency bands have been reported, little is known about whether and how these components interact with each other across the dominant frequency bands. We examined this phenomenon in LFP signals obtained from the primary visual cortex of monkeys performing voluntary saccadic eye movements (EMs) on still images of natural-scenes. We identified saccade-related changes in respect to power and phase in four dominant frequency bands: delta-theta (2-4 Hz), alpha-beta (10-13 Hz), low-gamma (20-40 Hz), and high-gamma (>100 Hz). The phase of the delta-theta band component is found to be entrained to the rhythm of the repetitive saccades, while an increment in the power of the alpha-beta and low-gamma bands were locked to the onset of saccades. The degree of the power modulation in these frequency bands is positively correlated with the degree of the phase-locking of the delta-theta oscillations to EMs. These results suggest the presence of cross-frequency interactions in the form of phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) between slow (delta-theta) and faster (alpha-beta and low gamma) oscillations. As shown previously, spikes evoked by visual fixations during free viewing are phase-locked to the fast oscillations. Thus, signals of different types and at different temporal scales are nested to each other during natural viewing. Such cross-frequency interaction may provide a general mechanism to coordinate sensory processing on a fast time scale and motor behavior on a slower time scale during active sensing. PMID:23420631

  15. Operationally realistic validation for prediction of cocoa sensory qualities by high-throughput mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wood, Jacqueline E; Allaway, David; Boult, Emma; Scott, Ian M

    2010-07-15

    The potential of analytical chemistry to predict sensory qualities of food materials is a major current theme. Standard practice is cross-validation (CV), where a set of chemical and associated sensory data is partitioned so chemometric models can be developed on training subsets, and validated on held-out subsets. CV demonstrates prediction, but is an unlikely scenario for industrial operations, where concomitant data acquisition for model development and test materials would be unwieldy. We evaluated cocoa materials of diverse provenance, and analyzed on different dates to those used in model development. Liquor extracts were analyzed by flow-injection electrospray-mass spectrometry (FIE-MS), a novel method for sensory quality prediction. FIE-MS enabled prediction of sensory qualities described by trained human panelists. Optimal models came from the Weka data-mining algorithm SimpleLinearRegression, which learns a model for the attribute giving minimal training error, which was (-)-epicatechin. This flavonoid likewise dominated partial least-squares (PLS)-regression models. Refinements of PLS (orthogonal-PLS or orthogonal signal correction) gave poorer generalization to different test sets, as did support vector machines, whose hyperparameters could not be optimized in training to avoid overfitting. In conclusion, if chemometric overfitting is avoided, chemical analysis can predict sensory qualities of food materials under operationally realistic conditions. PMID:20557115

  16. Somatosensory evoked potentials, sensory nerve potentials and sensory nerve conduction in hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Aramideh; J. E. Hoogendijk; C. M. Aalfs; F. E. Posthumus Meyjes; M. Visser; B. W. Ongerboer De Visser

    1992-01-01

    Thirty-nine patients from six families with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type I and control subjects were included in this study. A neurological deficit score (NDS) was derived from a neurological examination and compared with neurophysiological test findings. Further, sensory nerve conduction velocities (SNCV) were compared with the motor nerve conduction velocities (MNCV). Five patients whom peaks of N11\\/N13 complex

  17. Keeping our eyes on the eyes: the case of Arcimboldo.

    PubMed

    Bubic, Andreja; Susac, Ana; Palmovic, Marijan

    2014-01-01

    While contemporaries often viewed his reversible composite heads as scherzi (jokes) and modem art connoisseurs as creative masterpieces, Giuseppe Arcimboldo's ingenious paintings served as inspiring stimuli for the present eye-tracking experiment. One group of participants viewed three chosen paintings in an upright, and another in an upside-down, orientation. We compared how participants viewed three selected areas of interest (AOIs) within the painting when these could, and could not, be identified as a face or distinct facial element (eyes and mouth). The obtained results indicate that the participants fixated the parts of the painting which represent faces more in the upright than in the inverted orientation. Furthermore, in the upright orientation the participants focused more on the upper AOls (eyes) than the lower AOIs (mouth). This was not the case for the inverted orientation of two paintings. In conclusion, the face inversion effect occurs even in this artistic context, and the gaze often goes where the eyes are. PMID:25109013

  18. Genetic basis of eye and pigment loss in the cave crustacean, Asellus aquaticus.

    PubMed

    Protas, Meredith E; Trontelj, Peter; Patel, Nipam H

    2011-04-01

    Understanding the process of evolution is one of the great challenges in biology. Cave animals are one group with immense potential to address the mechanisms of evolutionary change. Amazingly, similar morphological alterations, such as enhancement of sensory systems and the loss of eyes and pigmentation, have evolved multiple times in a diverse assemblage of cave animals. Our goal is to develop an invertebrate model to study cave evolution so that, in combination with a previously established vertebrate cave system, we can address genetic questions concerning evolutionary parallelism and convergence. We chose the isopod crustacean, Asellus aquaticus, and generated a genome-wide linkage map for this species. Our map, composed of 117 markers, of which the majority are associated with genes known to be involved in pigmentation, eye, and appendage development, was used to identify loci of large effect responsible for several pigmentation traits and eye loss. Our study provides support for the prediction that significant morphological change can be mediated through one or a few genes. Surprisingly, we found that within population variability in eye size occurs through multiple mechanisms; eye loss has a different genetic basis than reduced eye size. Similarly, again within a population, the phenotype of albinism can be achieved by two different genetic pathways--either by a recessive genotype at one locus or doubly recessive genotypes at two other loci. Our work shows the potential of Asellus for studying the extremes of parallel and convergent evolution-spanning comparisons within populations to comparisons between vertebrate and arthropod systems. PMID:21422298

  19. Treatment of Diabetic Sensory Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Zilliox, Lindsay; Russell, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Opinion statement No current disease-modifying treatments have been shown definitively in randomized clinical trials to reduce or reverse diabetic sensory polyneuropathy (DSP). It is increasingly recognized that individuals with “prediabetes” or impaired glucose regulation can already have a “small-fiber” neuropathy, or mild DSP, in which sensory axons of both small and larger diameter are damaged. Small-fiber neuropathy is frequently associated with pain, and these patients may present to a neurologist for evaluation before the underlying glucose dysregulation has been diagnosed. It is important to identify these individuals, because aggressive diabetic control and lifestyle interventions can delay the onset of diabetes and may reverse small-fiber neuropathy associated with early diabetes mellitus. Although treatment currently focuses on pain associated with DSP, attention should be paid to potential risk factors for neuropathy. For example, glycemic control and hyperlipidemia should be improved with diet, exercise, and medications. Hypertension that is a risk marker for more severe neuropathy should be treated. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers not only treat hypertension but also may directly reduce the progression of neuropathy. Class I or II clinical studies support the use of sodium valproate, pregabalin, duloxetine, amitriptyline, gabapentin, venlafaxine, opioids, and topical capsaicin in treating diabetic neuropathic pain. Pregabalin and gabapentin are relatively well tolerated and have few medication interactions. Sodium valproate has been shown to be effective but is not recommended for use in women of childbearing potential, and patients must be monitored for hepatotoxicity and thrombocytopenia. Tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline are often used for nocturnal pain but require caution in the elderly or anyone with cardiac disease. Venlafaxine and duloxetine successfully treat neuropathic pain independently of their effect on depression. Opioid medications are associated with a high rate of adverse effects but with careful monitoring, they can be effective in treating resistant neuropathic pain. Capsaicin is an effective topical treatment that lacks systemic side effects. The lidocaine patch is effective in relieving pain associated with postherpetic neuralgia, but only class III evidence supports its use for diabetic neuropathic pain. No current Class I or II studies support other treatment modalities. PMID:21274758

  20. Cutaneous Force Feedback as a Sensory Subtraction Technique in Haptics

    E-print Network

    Siena, Università di

    Cutaneous Force Feedback as a Sensory Subtraction Technique in Haptics Domenico Prattichizzo, Member, IEEE, Claudio Pacchierotti, Student Member, IEEE, and Giulio Rosati Abstract--A novel sensory to this approach as sensory subtraction instead of sensory substitution. A needle insertion scenario is considered

  1. Sensory Pedagogy: Understanding and Encountering Children through the Senses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Eva; Løkken, Gunvor

    2014-01-01

    In the present article we aim to explore the link between Merleau-Pontyan phenomenology and what we call sensory pedagogy. The latter connects to recent sensory ethnography as presented by S. Pink ("Sensory ethnography." London: Sage; 2009). We discuss how these thoughts can be put to work in toddler pedagogy. This kind of sensory

  2. COMPLETE FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SENSORY NEURONS BY SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael C.-K. Wu; Stephen V. David; Jack L. Gallant

    2006-01-01

    System identification is a growing approach to sensory neurophys- iology that facilitates the development of quantitative functional models of sensory processing. This approach provides a clear set of guidelines for combining experimental data with other knowl- edge about sensory function to obtain a description that optimally predicts the way that neurons process sensory information. This pre- diction paradigm provides an

  3. Along Endurance Crater's Inner Wall (Right Eye)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This view from the base of 'Burns Cliff' in the inner wall of 'Endurance Crater' combines several frames taken by Opportunity's navigation camera during the NASA rover's 280th martian day (Nov. 6, 2004). It is the right-eye member of a stereo pair, presented in a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction. The cliff dominates the left and right portions of the image, while the central portion looks down into the crater. The 'U' shape of this mosaic results from the rover's tilt of about 30 degrees on the sloped ground below the cliff. Rover wheel tracks in the left half of the image show some of the slippage the rover experienced in making its way to this point. The site from which this image was taken has been designated as Opportunity's Site 37.

  4. Along Endurance Crater's Inner Wall (Left Eye)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This view from the base of 'Burns Cliff' in the inner wall of 'Endurance Crater' combines several frames taken by Opportunity's navigation camera during the NASA rover's 280th martian day (Nov. 6, 2004). It is the left-eye member of a stereo pair, presented in a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction. The cliff dominates the left and right portions of the image, while the central portion looks down into the crater. The 'U' shape of this mosaic results from the rover's tilt of about 30 degrees on the sloped ground below the cliff. Rover wheel tracks in the left half of the image show some of the slippage the rover experienced in making its way to this point. The site from which this image was taken has been designated as Opportunity's Site 37.

  5. Investment in sensory structures, testis size, and wing coloration in males of a diurnal moth species: trade-offs or correlated growth?

    PubMed

    Shiel, Brett P; Sherman, Craig D H; Elgar, Mark A; Johnson, Tamara L; Symonds, Matthew R E

    2015-04-01

    For dioecious animals, reproductive success typically involves an exchange between the sexes of signals that provide information about mate location and quality. Typically, the elaborate, secondary sexual ornaments of males signal their quality, while females may signal their location and receptivity. In theory, the receptor structures that receive the latter signals may also become elaborate or enlarged in a way that ultimately functions to enhance mating success through improved mate location. The large, elaborate antennae of many male moths are one such sensory structure, and eye size may also be important in diurnal moths. Investment in these traits may be costly, resulting in trade-offs among different traits associated with mate location. For polyandrous species, such trade-offs may also include traits associated with paternity success, such as larger testes. Conversely, we would not expect this to be the case for monandrous species, where sperm competition is unlikely. We investigated these ideas by evaluating the relationship between investment in sensory structures (antennae, eye), testis, and a putative warning signal (orange hindwing patch) in field-caught males of the monandrous diurnal painted apple moth Teia anartoides (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) in southeastern Australia. As predicted for a monandrous species, we found no evidence that male moths with larger sensory structures had reduced investment in testis size. However, contrary to expectation, investment in sensory structures was correlated: males with relatively larger antennae also had relatively larger eyes. Intriguingly, also, the size of male orange hindwing patches was positively correlated with testis size. PMID:25937904

  6. Investment in sensory structures, testis size, and wing coloration in males of a diurnal moth species: trade-offs or correlated growth?

    PubMed Central

    Shiel, Brett P; Sherman, Craig D H; Elgar, Mark A; Johnson, Tamara L; Symonds, Matthew R E

    2015-01-01

    For dioecious animals, reproductive success typically involves an exchange between the sexes of signals that provide information about mate location and quality. Typically, the elaborate, secondary sexual ornaments of males signal their quality, while females may signal their location and receptivity. In theory, the receptor structures that receive the latter signals may also become elaborate or enlarged in a way that ultimately functions to enhance mating success through improved mate location. The large, elaborate antennae of many male moths are one such sensory structure, and eye size may also be important in diurnal moths. Investment in these traits may be costly, resulting in trade-offs among different traits associated with mate location. For polyandrous species, such trade-offs may also include traits associated with paternity success, such as larger testes. Conversely, we would not expect this to be the case for monandrous species, where sperm competition is unlikely. We investigated these ideas by evaluating the relationship between investment in sensory structures (antennae, eye), testis, and a putative warning signal (orange hindwing patch) in field-caught males of the monandrous diurnal painted apple moth Teia anartoides (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) in southeastern Australia. As predicted for a monandrous species, we found no evidence that male moths with larger sensory structures had reduced investment in testis size. However, contrary to expectation, investment in sensory structures was correlated: males with relatively larger antennae also had relatively larger eyes. Intriguingly, also, the size of male orange hindwing patches was positively correlated with testis size. PMID:25937904

  7. Quantitative fractography of fish-eye crack formation under bending–torsion fatigue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karel Sláme?ka; Jaroslav Pokluda; Marta Kianicová; Št?pán Major; Ivan Dvo?ák

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results of the fractographical analysis of fish-eye cracks that were formed in plasma-nitrided steel specimens under symmetrical bending, symmetrical torsion and biaxial in-phase bending–torsion loading combinations. Due to higher strength and compressive residual stresses introduced by plasma nitriding procedure, the subsurface fish-eye cracks were initiated inside the specimen bulk as a dominant failure mechanism. The geometrical characteristics

  8. Facial variations in sensory responses.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Marie; Whittle, Ed; Basketter, David A

    2003-11-01

    Subjective effects such as stinging, itching and burning commonly occur in the absence of any visible irritation and give rise to discomfort, which may be enough to deter an individual from using even the most effective of skin care products. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of different anatomical regions of the face to determine which region displayed the most intense stinging response to the application of lactic acid. The effect of occlusion on the level of response was also investigated. 45 volunteers were treated with 10% lactic acid on the nasolabial fold, forehead, chin and cheek, occluded and unoccluded for 8 min. Sensory reactions were recorded at 2.5, 5 and 8 min. The response levels on the occluded sites were always significantly lower than on the unoccluded sites, despite the dose per unit area being comparable. Females showed a trend towards being more sensitive to the subjective effects elicited by lactic acid than males, but these results were not conclusive. Interestingly, there was not a complete correlation between individuals who reacted on the nasolabial fold and the other sites, particularly the forehead. A positive stinging response on the nasolabial fold may not necessarily predict subjective responses to a product when used on other areas of the face. PMID:14996043

  9. Sensory Optimization by Stochastic Tuning

    PubMed Central

    Jurica, Peter; Gepshtein, Sergei; Tyukin, Ivan; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2013-01-01

    Individually, visual neurons are each selective for several aspects of stimulation, such as stimulus location, frequency content, and speed. Collectively, the neurons implement the visual system’s preferential sensitivity to some stimuli over others, manifested in behavioral sensitivity functions. We ask how the individual neurons are coordinated to optimize visual sensitivity. We model synaptic plasticity in a generic neural circuit, and find that stochastic changes in strengths of synaptic connections entail fluctuations in parameters of neural receptive fields. The fluctuations correlate with uncertainty of sensory measurement in individual neurons: the higher the uncertainty the larger the amplitude of fluctuation. We show that this simple relationship is sufficient for the stochastic fluctuations to steer sensitivities of neurons toward a characteristic distribution, from which follows a sensitivity function observed in human psychophysics, and which is predicted by a theory of optimal allocation of receptive fields. The optimal allocation arises in our simulations without supervision or feedback about system performance and independently of coupling between neurons, making the system highly adaptive and sensitive to prevailing stimulation. PMID:24219849

  10. Goiter and Laryngeal Sensory Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Hamdan, Abdul Latif; Jabour, Jad; Azar, Sami T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Examining the prevalence of laryngeal sensory neuropathy (LSN) in goiter patients versus a control group. Study Design. Cross-sectional study. Methods. 33 Goiter patients were enrolled versus 25 age-matched controls. TSH levels, size of thyroid gland, and presence or absence of thyroid nodules were reported. Subjects were asked about the presence or absence of any of the following symptoms: cough, globus pharyngeus, and/or throat clearing that persistented for more than 6 weeks. The presence of one or more of these symptoms for at least six weeks in the absence of LPRD, allergy, asthma, ACE inhibitor intake, and psychogenic disorder was defined as LSN. Results. For goitrous patients mean age (years) was (41.73 ± 9.47) versus (37.44 ± 10.89) for controls. 82% goitrous patients had known nodules and 27% carried a simultaneous diagnosis of hypothyroidism. Among those with documented size (61%), mean total thyroid volume was 26.996 ± 14.852?cm3, with a range from 9.430 to 67.022?cm3. The overall prevalence of LSN among goitrous patients was 42% versus 12% among controls (P = 0.0187). There was no correlation between LSN, size of thyroid gland, and TSH level. Conclusion. The prevalence of LSN in goitrous patients is significantly higher than that in a nongoitrous population. PMID:23818901

  11. Death-related sensory experiences.

    PubMed

    Ethier, Angela M

    2005-01-01

    A death-related sensory experience (DRSE) is a spiritually transforming experience occurring with the appearance of a messenger beyond the visible observable universe to guide a dying person through the dying process. DRSEs have been reported to occur among those who are dying, most commonly individuals with terminal illness. Known dead family members are most commonly seen, followed by religious beings. Communication takes place between the dying individual and the apparition. Feelings of peace and comfort are reported by the majority of individuals experiencing DRSEs. DRSEs can occur over a period of hours to months before death. They have been referred to as veridical hallucinations, visions of the dying, deathbed visions, and predeath visions. Reported throughout time, among people of all cultures, religions, races, ages, genders, socioeconomic status, and educational levels, DRSEs are intense spiritual experiences. Validating a child's DRSE provides a way to start a dialogue regarding death. Research is needed to more fully understand DRSEs from the perspective of the dying child. PMID:15695352

  12. Sensory neuropathies including painful and toxic neuropathies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John H. J. Wokke; Gert W. van Dijk

    1997-01-01

    In most peripheral neuropathies, dysfunction of motor and sensory nerve fibres is present. However, in some of them either\\u000a pattern may predominate or be exclusively present. In this review we describe the clinical characteristics of sensory neuropathies,\\u000a with emphasis on their possible causes. Guidelines are given for the diagnostic approach in these patients and, where possible,\\u000a suggestions are given for

  13. P50 Sensory Gating in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Anne Spencer; Hunter, Sharon Kay; Groth, Mark A; Ross, Randal Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Attentional deficits are common in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders including attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, autism, bipolar mood disorder, and schizophrenia. There has been increasing interest in the neurodevelopmental components of these attentional deficits; neurodevelopmental meaning that while the deficits become clinically prominent in childhood or adulthood, the deficits are the results of problems in brain development that begin in infancy or even prenatally. Despite this interest, there are few methods for assessing attention very early in infancy. This report focuses on one method, infant auditory P50 sensory gating. Attention has several components. One of the earliest components of attention, termed sensory gating, allows the brain to tune out repetitive, noninformative sensory information. Auditory P50 sensory gating refers to one task designed to measure sensory gating using changes in EEG. When identical auditory stimuli are presented 500 ms apart, the evoked response (change in the EEG associated with the processing of the click) to the second stimulus is generally reduced relative to the response to the first stimulus (i.e. the response is "gated"). When response to the second stimulus is not reduced, this is considered a poor sensory gating, is reflective of impaired cerebral inhibition, and is correlated with attentional deficits. Because the auditory P50 sensory gating task is passive, it is of potential utility in the study of young infants and may provide a window into the developmental time course of attentional deficits in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. The goal of this presentation is to describe the methodology for assessing infant auditory P50 sensory gating, a methodology adapted from those used in studies of adult populations. PMID:24430259

  14. Dopamine gates sensory representations in cortex

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ju

    2014-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) maintains information about relevant sensory stimuli, in a process thought to rely on dopamine release. In a recent paper, Jacob et al. (J Neurosci 33: 13724–13734, 2013) demonstrated one way in which dopamine might facilitate this process. The authors recorded from PFC neurons in monkeys during local application of dopamine. They found that dopamine increases the gain of sensory-evoked responses in putative pyramidal neurons in PFC, potentially by inhibiting local interneurons. PMID:24401705

  15. A layered network model of sensory cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    An integrated computational approach to modeling sensory systems which couples realistic layered neural models of sensory cortex and midbrain nuclei to detailed models of the sense organs (e.g., retina or cochlea) is described. The approach is applied to the auditory system. Through an exercise of the model, it is shown that spatial location of sounds may be a natural consequence of the way cochlear response is mapped onto the cortex. 31 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Biologically inspired artificial compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ki-Hun; Kim, Jaeyoun; Lee, Luke P

    2006-04-28

    This work presents the fabrication of biologically inspired artificial compound eyes. The artificial ommatidium, like that of an insect's compound eyes, consists of a refractive polymer microlens, a light-guiding polymer cone, and a self-aligned waveguide to collect light with a small angular acceptance. The ommatidia are omnidirectionally arranged along a hemispherical polymer dome such that they provide a wide field of view similar to that of a natural compound eye. The spherical configuration of the microlenses is accomplished by reconfigurable microtemplating, that is, polymer replication using the deformed elastomer membrane with microlens patterns. The formation of polymer waveguides self-aligned with microlenses is also realized by a self-writing process in a photosensitive polymer resin. The angular acceptance is directly measured by three-dimensional optical sectioning with a confocal microscope, and the detailed optical characteristics are studied in comparison with a natural compound eye. PMID:16645090

  17. Eye movements when viewing advertisements

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Emily; Leinenger, Mallorie; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads), before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet). Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research. PMID:24672500

  18. Graphs with disjoint dominating and paired-dominating sets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin Southey; Michael A. Henning

    2010-01-01

    A dominating set of a graph is a set of vertices such that every vertex not in the set is adjacent to a vertex in the set,\\u000a while a paired-dominating set of a graph is a dominating set such that the subgraph induced by the dominating set contains\\u000a a perfect matching. In this paper, we show that no minimum degree

  19. A Substance P Antagonist, [D-Pro2, D-Trp7,9]SP, Inhibits Inflammatory Responses in the Rabbit Eye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Holmdahl; R. Hakanson; S. Leander; S. Rosell; K. Folkers; F. Sundler

    1981-01-01

    Neurogenic factors released by antidromic nerve stimulation are thought to be in part responsible for the vasodilation and breakdown of the bloodaqueous barrier that follows trauma to the eye. Substance P is one candidate for the mediation of the inflammatory response since it is thought to be a neurotransmitter in sensory afferents and since exogenous substance P is capable of

  20. Anthropogenic noise affects behavior across sensory modalities.

    PubMed

    Kunc, Hansjoerg P; Lyons, Gillian N; Sigwart, Julia D; McLaughlin, Kirsty E; Houghton, Jonathan D R

    2014-10-01

    Many species are currently experiencing anthropogenically driven environmental changes. Among these changes, increasing noise levels are specifically a problem for species using acoustic signals (i.e., species relying on signals that use the same sensory modality as anthropogenic noise). Yet many species use other sensory modalities, such as visual and olfactory signals, to communicate. However, we have only little understanding of whether changes in the acoustic environment affect species that use sensory modalities other than acoustic signals. We studied the impact of anthropogenic noise on the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, which uses highly complex visual signals. We showed that cuttlefish adjusted their visual displays by changing their color more frequently during a playback of anthropogenic noise, compared with before and after the playback. Our results provide experimental evidence that anthropogenic noise has a marked effect on the behavior of species that are not reliant on acoustic communication. Thus, interference in one sensory channel, in this case the acoustic one, affects signaling in other sensory channels. By considering sensory channels in isolation, we risk overlooking the broader implications of environmental changes for the behavior of animals. PMID:25226190

  1. Videoanalysis of involuntary eye movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skripal, Anatoli V.; Usanova, Tatjana B.; Abramov, Anton V.; Usanov, Dmitry A.

    2002-07-01

    The method for monitoring of involuntary eye motion on the basis of image processing and analysis technology is posed. The efficiency of the program for the object movement analysis by its trajectory and spectrum is demonstrated. The results of measuring of involuntary eye movements of patients with nystagmus are presented. The measuring results characterizing the nystagmus status changing before and after the squint correction is demonstrated.

  2. When the wheels touch Earth and the flight is through, pilots find one eye is better than two

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valimont, Brian; Wise, John A.; Nichols, Troy; Best, Carl; Suddreth, John; Cupero, Frank

    2009-05-01

    This study investigated the impact on near to eye displays on both operational and visual performance employing a human-in-the-loop simulation of straight-in ILS approaches while using a near to eye (NTE) display. The approaches were flown in simulated visual and instrument conditions while using either a binocular NTE or a monocular NTE display on either the dominant or non dominant eye. The pilot's flight performance, visual acuity, and ability to detect unsafe conditions on the runway were tested.

  3. EYE MOVEMENTS IN DAPHNIA PULEX (DE GEER)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. FROST

    1975-01-01

    SUMMARY 1. The various types of eye movement exhibited by the cyclopean eye of Daphnia pulex were studied using high speed motion photography. 2. This rudimentary eye, which consists of only 22 ommatidia, can move through approximately 150° in the sagittal plane and 6o° in the horizontal plane. 3. Four classes of eye movement were found: (1) a high speed

  4. The Human Eye June 4, 2009

    E-print Network

    La Rosa, Andres H.

    The Human Eye T. Albers June 4, 2009 1 #12;1 Abstract The eyes provide a profound part of the human in my research. The eye is a biological system and, as such, does not lend itself to simplification Introduction Upon researching the human eye I have found it to be an exquisitely engineered piece of equipment

  5. Distal attribution and distance perception in sensory substitution.

    PubMed

    Siegle, Joshua H; Warren, William H

    2010-01-01

    In sensory substitution, the user may be directly aware of distal objects, as in everyday perception, or make explicit cognitive inferences based on an awareness of the proximal stimulation. Anecdotal evidence supports the experience of distal attribution, but so far there have been few rigorous experimental tests of the claim. In this study, blindfolded participants observed a target light using a device consisting of a finger-mounted photodiode that drives tactile vibra-tion on the back. With the blindfold off and the target removed, participants moved a reference object to match the perceived egocentric distance of the target. Participants who were instructed to attend to the distal target improved significantly during 2 h of practice, whereas those instructed to attend to proximal variables showed no improvement. Unsigned error increased with ratings of proximal attention, but decreased with ratings of target object solidity, consistent with distal attribution. Performance transferred to the non-dominant arm and to a rotated body orientation, demonstrating that learning did not depend on a joint-specific sensorimotor relationship between target distance and arm configuration. The results experimentally confirm that distal attribution can occur in sensory substitution, based on a perceptual strategy rather than an explicit cognitive strategy. Moreover, they suggest that the informational basis for distal attribution is not a joint-specific sensorimotor relation, but a more abstract spatial invariant. PMID:20402243

  6. Autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features: Defining the phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Winawer, Melodie R.; Hauser, W. Allen; Pedley, Timothy A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors previously reported linkage to chromosome 10q22-24 for autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features. This study describes seizure semiology in the original linkage family in further detail. Auditory hallucinations were most common, but other sensory symptoms (visual, olfactory, vertiginous, and cephalic) were also reported. Autonomic, psychic, and motor symptoms were less common. The clinical semiology points to a lateral temporal seizure origin. Auditory hallucinations, the most striking clinical feature, are useful for identifying new families with this synome. PMID:10851389

  7. The Contributions of Sensory Dominance and Attentional Bias to Cross-modal Enhancement

    E-print Network

    humans (Seifritz et al., 2002) and monkeys (Maier & Ghazanfar, 2007; Ghazanfar, Neuhoff, & Logothetis in monkeys (Maier, Chandrasekaran, & Ghazanfar, 2008; Maier, Neuhoff, Logothetis, & Ghazanfar, 2004) and hu

  8. Eects of eye position on estimates of eye displacement for spatial updating

    E-print Network

    Crawford, Doug

    eye movement signals in the parietal cortex are known to be modulated by eye position in the orbit study was to examine the possible effects of orbital eye positions on the estimates of eye displacement, regardless of the signals used. The present study examines the possible effects of orbital eye position

  9. Chapter 17 Eye-head Gaze shifts Oxford Handbook on Eye Movements

    E-print Network

    Corneil, Brian D.

    1 Chapter 17 Eye-head Gaze shifts Oxford Handbook on Eye Movements "The Neural Basis of Gaze Shifts" 1. Kinematics of eye-head gaze shifts a. Terminology for describing eye-head gaze shifts b. Variability in eye and head motion during gaze shifts c. Gaze shifts in complex environments d. Bottom

  10. Dominance Constraints with Set Operators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denys Duchier; Joachim Niehren

    2000-01-01

    Dominance constraints are widely used in computational linguisticsas a language for talking and reasoning about trees. In this paper,we extend dominance constraints by admitting set operators. We presenta solver for dominance constraints with set operators, which is based onpropagation and distribution rules, and prove its soundness and completeness.

  11. Parameterized Domination in Circle Graphs

    E-print Network

    Bousquet, Nicolas; Mertzios, George B; Paul, Christophe; Sau, Ignasi; Thomassé, Stéphan

    2012-01-01

    A circle graph is the intersection graph of a set of chords in a circle. Keil [Discrete Applied Mathematics, 42(1):51-63, 1993] proved that Dominating Set, Connected Dominating Set, and Total Dominating Set are NP-complete in circle graphs. To the best of our knowledge, nothing was known about the parameterized complexity of these problems in circle graphs. In this paper we prove the following results, which contribute in this direction: - Dominating Set, Independent Dominating Set, Connected Dominating Set, Total Dominating Set, and Acyclic Dominating Set are W[1]-hard in circle graphs, parameterized by the size of the solution. - Whereas both Connected Dominating Set and Acyclic Dominating Set are W[1]-hard in circle graphs, it turns out that Connected Acyclic Dominating Set is polynomial-time solvable in circle graphs. - If T is a given tree, deciding whether a circle graph has a dominating set isomorphic to T is NP-complete when T is in the input, and FPT when parameterized by |V(T)|. We prove that the FP...

  12. Dominating sets in directed graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chaoyi Pang; Rui Zhang; Qing Zhang; Junhu Wang

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of incrementally computing a minimal dominating set of a directed graph after the insertion or deletion of a set of arcs. Earlier results have either focused on the study of the properties that minimum (not minimal) dominating sets preserved or lacked to investigate which update affects a minimal dominating set and in what ways. In this

  13. Weighted Domination on Cocomparability Graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maw-shang Chang

    1995-01-01

    It is shown in this paper that the weighted domination problem and its two variants, the weighted connected domination and weighted total domination problems are NP-complete on cocomparability graphs when arbitrary integer vertex weights are allowed and all of them can be solved in polynomial time if vertex weights are integers and less than or equal to a constant c.

  14. Eye mechanics and their implications for eye movement control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koene, Ansgar Roald

    2002-11-01

    The topic of this thesis is the investigation of the mechanical properties of the oculomotor system and the implications of these properties for eye movement control. The investigation was conducted by means of computer models and simulations. This allowed us to combine data from anatomy, physiology and psychophysics with basic principles of physics (mechanics) and mathematics (geometry). In chapter 2 we investigate the degree to which mechanical and neural non-linearities contribute to the kinematic differences between centrifugal and centripetal saccades. On the basis of the velocity profiles of centrifugal and centripetal saccades we calculate the forces and muscle innervations during these eye movements. This was done using an inverted model of the eye plant. Our results indicate that the non-linear force-velocity relationship (i.e. muscle viscosity) of the muscles is probably the cause of the kinematic differences between centrifugal and centripetal saccades. In chapter 3 we calculate the adjustment of the saccadic command that is necessary to compensate for the eye plant non-linearities. These calculations show that the agonist and antagonist muscles require different net saccade signal gain changes. In order to better understand how this gain change is accomplished we use the inverted model of the eye plant (chapter 2) to calculate the muscle innervation profiles of saccades with different starting orientations. Based on these calculations we conclude that the saccade signal gain changes are accomplished primarily by changes in the magnitude of the saccade signal. In chapter 4 we examine the requirements that the oculomotor system must meet for the eye to be able to make desired gaze changes and fixate at various eye orientations. We first determine how the axes of action (i.e. unit moment vectors) of the muscles are related to eye orientation and the location of the effective muscle origin (i.e. the muscle pulleys). Next we show how this relation constrains muscle pulley locations if the eye movements are controlled by specific rules. The two control theories we investigate are: 1. Eye movements that obey Listing's law, and the binocular extension of Listing's law, actively use only the horizontal and vertical muscle pairs. 2. Oculomotor control involves perfect agonist-antagonist muscle alignment. In chapter 5 we test two assumptions that are commonly made in models of the oculomotor plant. The first is the assumption that the antagonistic muscles can be viewed as a single bi-directional muscle. The second is the assumption that the three muscle pairs act in orthogonal directions. On the basis of the geometrical properties governing the muscle paths we show how these assumptions give rise to incorrect predictions for the oculomotor control signals. Using the same muscle activation patterns for eye plant models with and without these assumptions we calculate the eye orientations that are reached. Finally in chapter 6 we discuss some general conclusions concerning the consequences of the mechanics of the eye for oculomotor control.

  15. Positron-emission tomography studies of cross-modality inhibition in selective attentional tasks: closing the "mind's eye".

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, R; O'Sullivan, B T; Roland, P E

    1995-01-01

    It is a familiar experience that we tend to close our eyes or divert our gaze when concentrating attention on cognitively demanding tasks. We report on the brain activity correlates of directing attention away from potentially competing visual processing and toward processing in another sensory modality. Results are reported from a series of positron-emission tomography studies of the human brain engaged in somatosensory tasks, in both "eyes open" and "eyes closed" conditions. During these tasks, there was a significant decrease in the regional cerebral blood flow in the visual cortex, which occurred irrespective of whether subjects had to close their eyes or were instructed to keep their eyes open. These task-related deactivations of the association areas belonging to the nonrelevant sensory modality were interpreted as being due to decreased metabolic activity. Previous research has clearly demonstrated selective activation of cortical regions involved in attention-demanding modality-specific tasks; however, the other side of this story appears to be one of selective deactivation of unattended areas. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7597062

  16. Sensory Experiences Questionnaire: Discriminating Sensory Features in Young Children with Autism, Developmental Delays, and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baranek, Grace T.; David, Fabian J.; Poe, Michele D.; Stone, Wendy L.; Watson, Linda R.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study describes a new caregiver-report assessment, the Sensory Experiences Questionnaire (SEQ), and explicates the nature of sensory patterns of hyper- and hyporesponsiveness, their prevalence, and developmental correlates in autism relative to comparison groups. Method: Caregivers of 258 children in five diagnostic groups…

  17. The Applicability of the Short Sensory Profile for Screening Sensory Processing Disorders among Israeli Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel-Yeger, Batya

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the applicability of the short sensory profile (SSP) for screening sensory processing disorders (SPDs) among typical children in Israel, and to evaluate the relationship between SPDs and socio-demographic parameters. Participants were 395 Israeli children, aged 3 years to 10 years 11 months, with typical…

  18. Sensory biases produce alternation advantage found in sequential saccadic eye movement tasks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jillian H. Fecteau; Crystal Au; Irene T. Armstrong; Douglas P. Munoz

    2004-01-01

    In two-choice reaction time tasks, participants respond faster when the correct decision switches across consecutive trials. This alternation advantage has been interpreted as the guessing strategies of participants. Because the participants expect that the correct decision will switch across consecutive trials, they respond faster when this expectation is confirmed and they respond more slowly when it is disconfirmed. In this

  19. Eye movements reset visual perception.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Michael A; Meshi, Dar; Pisarcik, Jordan; Levine, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Human vision uses saccadic eye movements to rapidly shift the sensitive foveal portion of our retina to objects of interest. For vision to function properly amidst these ballistic eye movements, a mechanism is needed to extract discrete percepts on each fixation from the continuous stream of neural activity that spans fixations. The speed of visual parsing is crucial because human behaviors ranging from reading to driving to sports rely on rapid visual analysis. We find that a brain signal associated with moving the eyes appears to play a role in resetting visual analysis on each fixation, a process that may aid in parsing the neural signal. We quantified the degree to which the perception of tilt is influenced by the tilt of a stimulus on a preceding fixation. Two key conditions were compared, one in which a saccade moved the eyes from one stimulus to the next and a second simulated saccade condition in which the stimuli moved in the same manner but the subjects did not move their eyes. We find that there is a brief period of time at the start of each fixation during which the tilt of the previous stimulus influences perception (in a direction opposite to the tilt aftereffect)--perception is not instantaneously reset when a fixation starts. Importantly, the results show that this perceptual bias is much greater, with nearly identical visual input, when saccades are simulated. This finding suggests that, in real-saccade conditions, some signal related to the eye movement may be involved in the reset phenomenon. While proprioceptive information from the extraocular muscles is conceivably a factor, the fast speed of the effect we observe suggests that a more likely mechanism is a corollary discharge signal associated with eye movement. PMID:23241264

  20. Eye-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Glaucoma Eye-to-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop Spring 2015 Table of ... new patient comes in because they scratched their eye while working in the yard, or they think ...

  1. Videos from the National Eye Institute: Eye Diseases | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Javascript on. Feature: Vision Videos from the National Eye Institute: Eye Diseases Past Issues / Winter 2012 Table of Contents ... Rachel Bishop, NEI’s Chief of Consult Services, discusses eye health and the importance of comprehensive dilated exams ...

  2. Bilateral Sensory Abnormalities in Patients with Unilateral Neuropathic Pain; A Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) Study

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Karl-Heinz; Harbers, Marten; Houghton, Andrea; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Vliet, Andre; Timmerman, Wia; den Boer, Johan A.; Struys, Michel M.R.F.; van Wijhe, Marten

    2012-01-01

    In patients who experience unilateral chronic pain, abnormal sensory perception at the non-painful side has been reported. Contralateral sensory changes in these patients have been given little attention, possibly because they are regarded as clinically irrelevant. Still, bilateral sensory changes in these patients could become clinically relevant if they challenge the correct identification of their sensory dysfunction in terms of hyperalgesia and allodynia. Therefore, we have used the standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS) to investigate somatosensory function at the painful side and the corresponding non-painful side in unilateral neuropathic pain patients using gender- and age-matched healthy volunteers as a reference cohort. Sensory abnormalities were observed across all QST parameters at the painful side, but also, to a lesser extent, at the contralateral, non-painful side. Similar relative distributions regarding sensory loss/gain for non-nociceptive and nociceptive stimuli were found for both sides. Once a sensory abnormality for a QST parameter at the affected side was observed, the prevalence of an abnormality for the same parameter at the non-affected side was as high as 57% (for Pressure Pain Threshold). Our results show that bilateral sensory dysfunction in patients with unilateral neuropathic pain is more rule than exception. Therefore, this phenomenon should be taken into account for appropriate diagnostic evaluation in clinical practice. This is particularly true for mechanical stimuli where the 95% Confidence Interval for the prevalence of sensory abnormalities at the non-painful side ranges between 33% and 50%. PMID:22629414

  3. Best practice eye care models

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Babar M; Mansur, Rabiu; Al-Rajhi, Abdulaziz; Lansingh, Van; Eckert, Kristen; Hassan, Kunle; Ravilla, Thulasiraj; Muhit, Mohammad; Khanna, Rohit C; Ismat, Chaudhry

    2012-01-01

    Since the launching of Global Initiative, VISION 2020 “the Right to Sight” many innovative, practical and unique comprehensive eye care services provision models have evolved targeting the underserved populations in different parts of the World. At places the rapid assessment of the burden of eye diseases in confined areas or utilizing the key informants for identification of eye diseases in the communities are promoted for better planning and evidence based advocacy for getting / allocation of resources for eye care. Similarly for detection and management of diabetes related blindness, retinopathy of prematurity and avoidable blindness at primary level, the major obstacles are confronted in reaching to them in a cost effective manner and then management of the identified patients accordingly. In this regard, the concept of tele-ophthalmology model sounds to be the best solution. Whereas other models on comprehensive eye care services provision have been emphasizing on surgical output through innovative scales of economy that generate income for the program and ensure its sustainability, while guaranteeing treatment of the poorest of the poor. PMID:22944741

  4. Summation of visual motion across eye movements reflects a nonspatial decision mechanism.

    PubMed

    Morris, Adam P; Liu, Charles C; Cropper, Simon J; Forte, Jason D; Krekelberg, Bart; Mattingley, Jason B

    2010-07-21

    Human vision remains perceptually stable even though retinal inputs change rapidly with each eye movement. Although the neural basis of visual stability remains unknown, a recent psychophysical study pointed to the existence of visual feature-representations anchored in environmental rather than retinal coordinates (e.g., "spatiotopic" receptive fields; Melcher and Morrone, 2003). In that study, sensitivity to a moving stimulus presented after a saccadic eye movement was enhanced when preceded by another moving stimulus at the same spatial location before the saccade. The finding is consistent with spatiotopic sensory integration, but it could also have arisen from a probabilistic improvement in performance due to the presence of more than one motion signal for the perceptual decision. Here we show that this statistical advantage accounts completely for summation effects in this task. We first demonstrate that measurements of summation are confounded by noise related to an observer's uncertainty about motion onset times. When this uncertainty is minimized, comparable summation is observed regardless of whether two motion signals occupy the same or different locations in space, and whether they contain the same or opposite directions of motion. These results are incompatible with the tuning properties of motion-sensitive sensory neurons and provide no evidence for a spatiotopic representation of visual motion. Instead, summation in this context reflects a decision mechanism that uses abstract representations of sensory events to optimize choice behavior. PMID:20660264

  5. Transcriptional regulation of cranial sensory placode development

    PubMed Central

    Moody, Sally A.; LaMantia, Anthony-Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Cranial sensory placodes derive from discrete patches of the head ectoderm, and give rise to numerous sensory structures. During gastrulation, a specialized “neural border zone” forms around the neural plate in response to interactions between the neural and non-neural ectoderm and signals from adjacent mesodermal and/or endodermal tissues. This zone subsequently gives rise to two distinct precursor populations of the peripheral nervous system: the neural crest and the pre-placodal ectoderm (PPE). The PPE is a common field from which all cranial sensory placodes arise (adenohypophyseal, olfactory, lens, trigeminal, epibranchial, otic). Members of the Six family of transcription factors are major regulators of PPE specification, in partnership with co-factor proteins such as Eya. Six gene activity also maintains tissue boundaries between the PPE, neural crest and epidermis by repressing genes that specify the fates of those adjacent ectodermally-derived domains. As the embryo acquires anterior-posterior identity, the PPE becomes transcriptionally regionalized, and it subsequently subdivides into specific placodes with distinct developmental fates in response to signaling from adjacent tissues. Each placode is characterized by a unique transcriptional program that leads to the differentiation of highly specialized cells, such as neurosecretory cells, somatic sensory receptor cells, chemosensory neurons, peripheral glia and supporting cells. In this review, we summarize the transcriptional and signaling factors that regulate key steps of placode development, influence subsequent sensory neuron specification, and discuss what is known about mutations in some of the essential PPE genes that underlie human congenital syndromes. PMID:25662264

  6. Sensory convergence in the parieto-insular vestibular cortex

    PubMed Central

    Shinder, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Vestibular signals are pervasive throughout the central nervous system, including the cortex, where they likely play different roles than they do in the better studied brainstem. Little is known about the parieto-insular vestibular cortex (PIVC), an area of the cortex with prominent vestibular inputs. Neural activity was recorded in the PIVC of rhesus macaques during combinations of head, body, and visual target rotations. Activity of many PIVC neurons was correlated with the motion of the head in space (vestibular), the twist of the neck (proprioceptive), and the motion of a visual target, but was not associated with eye movement. PIVC neurons responded most commonly to more than one stimulus, and responses to combined movements could often be approximated by a combination of the individual sensitivities to head, neck, and target motion. The pattern of visual, vestibular, and somatic sensitivities on PIVC neurons displayed a continuous range, with some cells strongly responding to one or two of the stimulus modalities while other cells responded to any type of motion equivalently. The PIVC contains multisensory convergence of self-motion cues with external visual object motion information, such that neurons do not represent a specific transformation of any one sensory input. Instead, the PIVC neuron population may define the movement of head, body, and external visual objects in space and relative to one another. This comparison of self and external movement is consistent with insular cortex functions related to monitoring and explains many disparate findings of previous studies. PMID:24671533

  7. Finger Enslaving in the Dominant and Non-Dominant Hand

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, Luke A.; Martin, Joel R.; Latash, Mark L.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.

    2014-01-01

    During single-finger force production, the non-instructed fingers unintentionally produce force (finger enslaving). In this study, enslaving effects were compared between the dominant and non-dominant hands. The test consisted of a series of maximum voluntary contractions with different finger combinations. Enslaving matrices were calculated by means of training an artificial neural network. The dominant hand was found to be stronger, but there was found to be no difference between the overall enslaving effects in the dominant and non-dominant hands. There was no correlation between the magnitude of finger enslaving and the performance in such tests as the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, the Grooved Pegboard test, and the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function test. Each one of those three tests showed a significant difference between the dominant and non-dominant hand performances. Eleven subjects were retested after two months, and it was found that enslaving effects did not fluctuate significantly between the two testing sessions. While the dominant and non-dominant hands are involved differently in everyday tasks, e.g. in writing or eating, this practice does not cause significant differences in enslaving between the hands. PMID:24360253

  8. Finger enslaving in the dominant and non-dominant hand.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Luke A; Martin, Joel R; Latash, Mark L; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M

    2014-02-01

    During single-finger force production, the non-instructed fingers unintentionally produce force (finger enslaving). In this study, enslaving effects were compared between the dominant and non-dominant hands. The test consisted of a series of maximum voluntary contractions with different finger combinations. Enslaving matrices were calculated by means of training an artificial neural network. The dominant hand was found to be stronger, but there was found to be no difference between the overall enslaving effects in the dominant and non-dominant hands. There was no correlation between the magnitude of finger enslaving and the performance in such tests as the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, the Grooved Pegboard test, and the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function test. Each one of those three tests showed a significant difference between the dominant and non-dominant hand performances. Eleven subjects were retested after two months, and it was found that enslaving effects did not fluctuate significantly between the two testing sessions. While the dominant and non-dominant hands are involved differently in everyday tasks, e.g. in writing or eating, this practice does not cause significant differences in enslaving between the hands. PMID:24360253

  9. Dietary Sources of Lutein and Zeaxanthin Carotenoids and Their Role in Eye Health

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M.; Akhtar, Humayoun; Zaheer, Khalid; Ali, Rashida

    2013-01-01

    The eye is a major sensory organ that requires special care for a healthy and productive lifestyle. Numerous studies have identified lutein and zeaxanthin to be essential components for eye health. Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoid pigments that impart yellow or orange color to various common foods such as cantaloupe, pasta, corn, carrots, orange/yellow peppers, fish, salmon and eggs. Their role in human health, in particular the health of the eye, is well established from epidemiological, clinical and interventional studies. They constitute the main pigments found in the yellow spot of the human retina which protect the macula from damage by blue light, improve visual acuity and scavenge harmful reactive oxygen species. They have also been linked with reduced risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cataracts. Research over the past decade has focused on the development of carotenoid-rich foods to boost their intake especially in the elderly population. The aim of this article is to review recent scientific evidences supporting the benefits of lutein and zexanthin in preventing the onset of two major age-related eye diseases with diets rich in these carotenoids. The review also lists major dietary sources of lutein and zeaxanthin and refers to newly developed foods, daily intake, bioavailability and physiological effects in relation to eye health. Examples of the newly developed high-lutein functional foods are also underlined. PMID:23571649

  10. The Integrated Development of Sensory Organization

    PubMed Central

    Lickliter, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis The natural environment provides a flux of concurrent stimulation to all our senses, and the integration of information from different sensory systems is a fundamental feature of perception and cognition. How information from the different senses is integrated has long been of concern to several scientific disciplines, including psychology, cognitive science, and the neurosciences, each with different questions and methodologies. In recent years, a growing body of evidence drawn from these various disciplines suggests that the development of early sensory organization is much more plastic and experience-dependent than was previously realized. In this article, I briefly explore some of these recent advances in our understanding of the development of sensory integration and organization and discuss implications of these advances for the care and management of the preterm infant. PMID:22107892

  11. Eye-movements and ongoing task processing.

    PubMed

    Burke, David T; Meleger, Alec; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Snyder, Jim; Dorvlo, Atsu S S; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2003-06-01

    This study tests the relation between eye-movements and thought processing. Subjects were given specific modality tasks (visual, gustatory, kinesthetic) and assessed on whether they responded with distinct eye-movements. Some subjects' eye-movements reflected ongoing thought processing. Instead of a universal pattern, as suggested by the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis, this study yielded subject-specific idiosyncratic eye-movements across all modalities. Included is a discussion of the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis regarding eye-movements and its implications for the eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing theory. PMID:12929791

  12. Dual sensory loss: development of a dual sensory loss protocol and design of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dual sensory loss (DSL) has a negative impact on health and wellbeing and its prevalence is expected to increase due to demographic aging. However, specialized care or rehabilitation programs for DSL are scarce. Until now, low vision rehabilitation does not sufficiently target concurrent impairments in vision and hearing. This study aims to 1) develop a DSL protocol (for occupational therapists working in low vision rehabilitation) which focuses on optimal use of the senses and teaches DSL patients and their communication partners to use effective communication strategies, and 2) describe the multicenter parallel randomized controlled trial (RCT) designed to test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the DSL protocol. Methods/design To develop a DSL protocol, literature was reviewed and content was discussed with professionals in eye/ear care (interviews/focus groups) and DSL patients (interviews). A pilot study was conducted to test and confirm the DSL protocol. In addition, a two-armed international multi-center RCT will evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the DSL protocol compared to waiting list controls, in 124 patients in low vision rehabilitation centers in the Netherlands and Belgium. Discussion This study provides a treatment protocol for rehabilitation of DSL within low vision rehabilitation, which aims to be a valuable addition to the general low vision rehabilitation care. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR) identifier: NTR2843 PMID:23941667

  13. Sensory synergy as environmental input integration

    PubMed Central

    Alnajjar, Fady; Itkonen, Matti; Berenz, Vincent; Tournier, Maxime; Nagai, Chikara; Shimoda, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS) remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with nine healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis' sensory system to make the controller simpler. PMID:25628523

  14. Chronic effects of cannabis on sensory gating.

    PubMed

    Broyd, Samantha J; Greenwood, Lisa-Marie; Croft, Rodney J; Dalecki, Anna; Todd, Juanita; Michie, Patricia T; Johnstone, Stuart J; Solowij, Nadia

    2013-09-01

    Chronic cannabis use has been associated with neurocognitive deficits, alterations in brain structure and function, and with psychosis. This study investigated the effects of chronic cannabis use on P50 sensory-gating in regular users, and explored the association between sensory gating, cannabis use history and the development of psychotic-like symptoms. Twenty controls and 21 regular cannabis users completed a P50 paired-click (S1 and S2) paradigm with an inter-pair interval of 9s. The groups were compared on P50 amplitude to S1 and S2, P50 ratio (S2/S1) and P50 difference score (S1-S2). While cannabis users overall did not differ from controls on P50 measures, prolonged duration of regular use was associated with greater impairment in sensory gating as indexed by both P50 ratio and difference scores (including after controlling for tobacco use). Long-term cannabis users were found to have worse sensory gating ratios and difference scores compared to short-term users and controls. P50 metrics did not correlate significantly with any measure of psychotic-like symptoms in cannabis users. These results suggest that prolonged exposure to cannabis results in impaired P50 sensory-gating in long-term cannabis users. While it is possible that these deficits may have pre-dated cannabis use and reflect a vulnerability to cannabis use, their association with increasing years of cannabis use suggests that this is not the case. Impaired P50 sensory-gating ratios have also been reported in patients with schizophrenia and may indicate a similar underlying pathology. PMID:23628289

  15. Eye mechanics and their implications for eye movement control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ansgar Roald Koene

    2002-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the investigation of the mechanical properties of the oculomotor system and the implications of these properties for eye movement control. The investigation was conducted by means of computer models and simulations. This allowed us to combine data from anatomy, physiology and psychophysics with basic principles of physics (mechanics) and mathematics (geometry). \\u000aIn chapter 2

  16. Sensory-motor neural loop discovering statistical dependences among imperfect sensory perception and motor response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, Nazareth P.; Makarov, Valeri A.; Patané, Luca; Velarde, Manuel G.

    2007-05-01

    Common design of a robot searching for a target emitting sensory stimulus (e.g. odor or sound) makes use of the gradient of the sensory intensity. However, the intensity may decay rapidly with distance to the source, then weak signal-to-noise ratio strongly limits the maximal distance at which the robot performance is still acceptable. We propose a simple deterministic platform for investigation of the searching problem in an uncertain environment with low signal to noise ratio. The robot sensory layer is given by a differential sensor capable of comparing the stimulus intensity between two consecutive steps. The sensory output feeds the motor layer through two parallel sensory-motor pathways. The first "reflex" pathway implements the gradient strategy, while the second "integrating" pathway processes sensory information by discovering statistical dependences and eventually correcting the results of the first fast pathway. We show that such parallel sensory information processing allows greatly improve the robot performance outside of the robot safe area with high signal to noise ratio.

  17. Transient receptor potential channels on sensory nerves.

    PubMed

    Eid, S R; Cortright, D N

    2009-01-01

    The somatosensory effects of natural products such as capsaicin, mustard oil, and menthol have been long recognized. Over the last decade, the identification of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in primary sensory neurons as the targets for these agents has led to an explosion of research into the roles of "thermoTRPs" TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPA1, and TRPM8 in nociception. In concert, through the efforts of many industrial and academic teams, a number of agonists and antagonists of these channels have been discovered, paving the way for a better understanding of sensory biology and, potentially, for novel treatments for diseases. PMID:19655110

  18. Dominant multi-state systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinsheng Huang; Ming J. Zuo

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a definition of the dominant multi-state system. Under the proposed definition, multi-state systems are divided into two groups without reference to component relevancy conditions: dominant systems, and nondominant systems. Dominant systems can be further divided into two groups: with binary image, and without binary image. A multi-state system with binary image implies that its structure

  19. The Eyes Absent Proteins in Development and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tadjuidje, Emmanuel; Hegde, Rashmi S.

    2012-01-01

    The Eyes Absent (EYA) proteins, first described in the context of fly eye development, are now implicated in processes as disparate as organ development, innate immunity, DNA damage repair, photoperiodism, angiogenesis, and cancer metastasis. These functions are associated with an unusual combination of biochemical activities; tyrosine phosphatase and threonine phosphatase activities in separate domains, and transactivation potential when associated with a DNA-binding partner. EYA mutations are linked to multi-organ developmental disorders, as well as to adult diseases ranging from dilated cardiomyopathy to late-onset sensori-neural hearing loss. With the growing understanding of EYA biochemical and cellular activity, biological function, and association with disease, comes the possibility that the EYA proteins are amenable to the design of targeted therapeutics. The availability of structural information, direct links to disease states, available animal models, and the fact that they utilize unconventional reaction mechanisms that could allow for specificity, suggest that EYAs are well-positioned for drug discovery efforts. This review provides a summary of EYA structure, activity, and function, as it relates to development and disease, with particular emphasis on recent findings. PMID:22971774

  20. Interaction of age and foam types used in Clinical Test for Sensory Interaction and Balance (CTSIB).

    PubMed

    Chaikeeree, Nithinun; Saengsirisuwan, Vitoon; Chinsongkram, Butsara; Boonsinsukh, Rumpa

    2015-01-01

    Clinical Test for Sensory Interaction and Balance (CTSIB) is a simplified method for investigating the organization of multiple sensory inputs in postural control. The accuracy of the test is based partly on the foam types. Several types of foam are available, but the validity of these foams on CTSIB and the interaction of age and foam types have not been addressed. In this study, postural sway of young (21.6 ± 3.3 years) and older (53.2 ± 4.9 years) participants were assessed while standing on four types of foam: NeuroCom(®), sponge, Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA), and memory foams. Postural sway during stance on solid floor and foams with eyes open and eyes closed were quantified by root-mean-square (RMS) of center of body mass acceleration in the mediolateral (ML) and anteroposterior (AP) directions using the acceleration-based OPAL system. Physical properties of foams including density, Young's modulus, and indentation force deflection (IFD) were determined. Results demonstrated that RMS-ML in older subjects was larger than younger subjects (p ? 0.001), especially when standing on the NeuroCom(®) foam with eyes closed (p = 0.001). There was an interaction of age and foam types as larger differences in RMS-ML were observed between young and older subjects on the NeuroCom(®) and EVA foams, but not the other foams. The sway characteristics were largest when standing on the NeuroCom(®) foam which demonstrated high density and high compliance. Our findings suggested the importance of foam selection in CTSIB on accurate postural sway analysis and balance assessment. PMID:25300239

  1. High resolution fMRI of ocular dominance columns within the visual cortex of human amblyopes.

    PubMed

    Goodyear, Bradley G; Nicolle, David A; Menon, Ravi S

    2002-06-01

    Non-human primate models suggest that amblyopia has a neural basis in the form of a massive reduction in binocular neurons, and in some cases, a shift in ocular dominance of neural activity toward the unaffected eye. To date, the resolution of neuroimaging has been insufficient to investigate the neural basis of ocular dominance in human amblyopia. We used high spatial resolution (0.5 x 0.5 x 3 mm) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to obtain maps of ocular dominance within the visual cortex of adult human amblyopes. fMRI maps of ocular dominance were similar in appearance to maps reported in the literature. For each of six adults with early-onset amblyopia, the number of map pixels corresponding to the unaffected eye was greater than the number corresponding to the amblyopic eye. This shift in ocular dominance was not seen for the two adults with later-onset amblyopia, suggesting that a shift in ocular dominance of neural activity occurs only if amblyopia onset is within the critical period of brain development. Our findings demonstrate how fMRI can non-invasively investigate the neural substrates underlying human amblyopia at the cortical column level. PMID:12221492

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to feel pain, heat, and cold. Deep pain perception, the feeling of pain from injuries to bones, ... gene ; growth factor ; hereditary ; inherited ; joint ; mutation ; neuropathy ; perception ; protein ; receptor ; recessive ; sensory nerve ; sensory neuropathy ; tissue ; ...

  3. Clearing media for the eye.

    PubMed Central

    Maurice, D M

    1987-01-01

    Non-ionic radiological contrast media have a high refractive index and are not toxic to living cells. They can be used as clearing media for unfixed ocular tissues. Corneal opacities in the rabbit could be made transparent, on a temporary basis, by soaking the stroma in contrast media, and no ill effects on the eye were noted. Images PMID:3304411

  4. Stem cells in the eye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Boulton; Julie Albon

    2004-01-01

    In the adult organism, all tissue renewal and regeneration depends ultimately on somatic stem cells, and the eye is no exception. The importance of limbal stem cells in the maintenance of the corneal epithelium has long been recognised, and such cells are now used clinically for repair of a severely damaged cornea. The slow cycling nature of lens epithelial cells

  5. Nutrients for the aging eye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of age-related eye diseases is expected to rise with the aging of the population. Oxidation and inflammation are implicated in the etiology of these diseases. There is evidence that dietary antioxidants and anti-inflammatories may provide benefit in decreasing the risk of age-related e...

  6. Bologna with Student Eyes, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikkola, Anne, Ed.; Carapinha, Bruno, Ed.; Tuck, Colin, Ed.; MacSithigh, Daithi, Ed.; Aberg, Nina Gustaffson, Ed.; Brus, Sanja, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Bologna with Student Eyes" is a survey published by the National Unions of Students in Europe, based on questionnaires sent to national unions across the continent. The survey gives a broad overview of student union perspectives as to national implementations of Bologna Process Action Lines in the period 2005-2007. It addresses the topics of:…

  7. The Luminosity of Cats' Eyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Hunt

    1912-01-01

    I HAVE repeatedly observed the brilliancy of cats' eyes in the dark in particularly favourable circumstances. 1 have a brilliant incandescent light in my hall, and several cats on the premises. The entrance drive is in a line with the door and the hall lamp. When I call a cat in the chances are that if there she simply sits

  8. The Pathology of Dry Eye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe Baudouin

    2001-01-01

    Homeostasis of the tear film involves delicate hormonal and neuronal regulatory mechanisms. The eye appears to be a target organ for sex hormones, particularly the androgens, as they modulate the immune system and trophic functions of the lacrimal glands and the functioning of the meibomian glands. The cornea, lacrimal glands, mucous cells, and meibomian glands are all richly innervated, indicating

  9. Tear dynamics and dry eye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuo Tsubota

    1998-01-01

    Tears undergo four processes: production by the lacrimal gland, distribution by blinking, evaporation from the ocular surface and drainage through the nasolacrimal duct. Abnormalities in any of these steps can cause dry eye. There are two kinds of tear production, basic and reflex, which can be distinguished from each other by the Schirmer test with nasal stimulation. Reflex tearing is

  10. Nutrients for the aging eye

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Helen M; Johnson, Elizabeth J

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of age-related eye diseases is expected to rise with the aging of the population. Oxidation and inflammation are implicated in the etiology of these diseases. There is evidence that dietary antioxidants and anti-inflammatories may provide benefit in decreasing the risk of age-related eye disease. Nutrients of interest are vitamins C and E, ?-carotene, zinc, lutein, zeaxanthin, and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. While a recent survey finds that among the baby boomers (45–65 years old), vision is the most important of the five senses, well over half of those surveyed were not aware of the important nutrients that play a key role in eye health. This is evident from a national survey that finds that intake of these key nutrients from dietary sources is below the recommendations or guidelines. Therefore, it is important to educate this population and to create an awareness of the nutrients and foods of particular interest in the prevention of age-related eye disease. PMID:23818772

  11. Network Broadcasting and the Myth of Competition: A Review of the FCC's Investigations of Network Dominance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streeter, Thomas

    In the public eye, three major investigations by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) into the dominance of the broadcast networks have appeared as battles between opposing forces with lively conflicts as the FCC combats monopolistic power in the name of public interest. In spite of the past investigations and the resulting regulations,…

  12. Predictions of Visual Content across Eye Movements and Their Modulation by Inferred Information.

    PubMed

    Ehinger, Benedikt V; König, Peter; Ossandón, José P

    2015-05-13

    The brain is proposed to operate through probabilistic inference, testing and refining predictions about the world. Here, we search for neural activity compatible with the violation of active predictions, learned from the contingencies between actions and the consequent changes in sensory input. We focused on vision, where eye movements produce stimuli shifts that could, in principle, be predicted. We compared, in humans, error signals to saccade-contingent changes of veridical and inferred inputs by contrasting the electroencephalographic activity after saccades to a stimulus presented inside or outside the blind spot. We observed early (<250 ms) and late (>250 ms) error signals after stimulus change, indicating the violation of sensory and associative predictions, respectively. Remarkably, the late response was diminished for blind-spot trials. These results indicate that predictive signals occur across multiple levels of the visual hierarchy, based on generative models that differentiate between signals that originate from the outside world and those that are inferred. PMID:25972169

  13. Perifoveal microcirculation in eyes with epiretinal membranes

    PubMed Central

    Kadonosono, K.; Itoh, N.; Nomura, E.; Ohno, S.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Eyes with epiretinal membranes (ERMs) often have alterations of retinal vessels. The authors studied perifoveal microcirculation in eyes with epiretinal membranes (ERMs) using scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) fluorescein angiography.?METHODS—Mean capillary blood flow velocity (CFV) was measured as an index of perifoveal microcirculation by SLO fluorescein angiography in 26 eyes with ERMs (19 eyes with idiopathic epiretinal membranes, seven eyes with epiretinal membranes after retinal detachment surgery) before and 6 months after vitreous surgery, and in 23 healthy control subjects.?RESULTS—The mean CFV was significantly reduced in eyes with ERMs compared with healthy controls (p=0.012), and the postoperative mean CFV was significantly increased compared with the preoperative mean CFV (p=0.041).?CONCLUSION—Significant changes of capillary blood flow velocity in the perifoveal areas were observed between normal subjects and eyes with epiretinal membranes. This indicates that eyes with ERMs show abnormal haemodynamics in the perifoveal capillaries.?? PMID:10574808

  14. Introduction to Symptoms of Eye Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Unequal Vision, Blurred Vision, Double Changes in the Appearance of the Eyes Vision Loss, Sudden Other Eye Symptoms NOTE: This is the Consumer Version. CONSUMERS: Click here for the Professional Version ...

  15. Could Blue Eyes Raise Odds for Alcoholism?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_153398.html Could Blue Eyes Raise Odds for Alcoholism? Study finds genes ... THURSDAY, July 2, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- People with blue eyes may be more likely to become alcoholics, ...

  16. Children's Eye Injuries: Prevention and Care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Z Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) Allergies Amblyopia (Lazy Eye) Astigmatism Bacterial Keratitis Bell's Palsy Blepharitis ... Refractive Surgery & LASIK Sunglasses Living EyeSmart About Ophthalmologists Adults Under 40 Adults 40 to 60 Adults Over ...

  17. Find an Eye M.D.

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Z Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) Allergies Amblyopia (Lazy Eye) Astigmatism Bacterial Keratitis Bell's Palsy Blepharitis ... Refractive Surgery & LASIK Sunglasses Living EyeSmart About Ophthalmologists Adults Under 40 Adults 40 to 60 Adults Over ...

  18. Understanding Your Vision: The "Imperfect Eye"

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Issues Feature: Vision Understanding Your Vision: The "Imperfect Eye" Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents For ... including an implanted set of lenses. "Keeping your eyes healthy means learning about them and the conditions ...

  19. Eye Protection in Racket Sports: An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterbrook, Michael

    1987-01-01

    A review of the status of the use of protective equipment indicates that seven commercially available eye guards meet Canadian and United States standards recently established to protect squash and racketball players from eye injuries. (Author/CB)

  20. Combining Cep290 and Mkks ciliopathy alleles in mice rescues sensory defects and restores ciliogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rachel, Rivka A.; May-Simera, Helen L.; Veleri, Shobi; Gotoh, Norimoto; Choi, Byung Yoon; Murga-Zamalloa, Carlos; McIntyre, Jeremy C.; Marek, Jonah; Lopez, Irma; Hackett, Alice N.; Brooks, Matthew; den Hollander, Anneke I.; Beales, Philip L.; Li, Tiansen; Jacobson, Samuel G.; Sood, Raman; Martens, Jeffrey R.; Liu, Paul; Friedman, Thomas B.; Khanna, Hemant; Koenekoop, Robert K.; Kelley, Matthew W.; Swaroop, Anand

    2012-01-01

    Cilia are highly specialized microtubule-based organelles that have pivotal roles in numerous biological processes, including transducing sensory signals. Defects in cilia biogenesis and transport cause pleiotropic human ciliopathies. Mutations in over 30 different genes can lead to cilia defects, and complex interactions exist among ciliopathy-associated proteins. Mutations of the centrosomal protein 290 kDa (CEP290) lead to distinct clinical manifestations, including Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), a hereditary cause of blindness due to photoreceptor degeneration. Mice homozygous for a mutant Cep290 allele (Cep290rd16 mice) exhibit LCA-like early-onset retinal degeneration that is caused by an in-frame deletion in the CEP290 protein. Here, we show that the domain deleted in the protein encoded by the Cep290rd16 allele directly interacts with another ciliopathy protein, MKKS. MKKS mutations identified in patients with the ciliopathy Bardet-Biedl syndrome disrupted this interaction. In zebrafish embryos, combined subminimal knockdown of mkks and cep290 produced sensory defects in the eye and inner ear. Intriguingly, combinations of Cep290rd16 and Mkksko alleles in mice led to improved ciliogenesis and sensory functions compared with those of either mutant alone. We propose that altered association of CEP290 and MKKS affects the integrity of multiprotein complexes at the cilia transition zone and basal body. Amelioration of the sensory phenotypes caused by specific mutations in one protein by removal of an interacting domain/protein suggests a possible novel approach for treating human ciliopathies. PMID:22446187

  1. Should females prefer dominant males?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Qvarnström; Elisabet Forsgren

    1998-01-01

    It is generally believed that success in male–male competition genuinely reflects high quality and that female preference for dominant males should therefore be widespread. However, recent studies suggest that male dominance is not always attractive and that it does not necessarily predict superior parental quality, better genes or other forms of benefit to females. In fact, the costs of choosing

  2. Economic Man'' Dominate Social Behavior?

    E-print Network

    Greer, Julia R.

    When Does `` Economic Man'' Dominate Social Behavior? Colin F. Camerer1 * and Ernst Fehr2,3 The canonical model in economics considers people to be rational and self-regarding. However, much evidence challenges this view, raising the question of when `` Economic Man'' dominates the outcome of social

  3. Dominant Leadership Style in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajbhandari, Mani Man Singh

    2006-01-01

    The dominant leadership style is defined by the situation and the kind of organizational environment and climate. This, however, does not sufficiently define the leadership qualities in school organizations. There are other factors which also determine the dominant leadership style, which are the traits and style, teachers commitments, pass out…

  4. Brain Dominance & Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhoft, Franklin O.

    Numerous areas associated with brain dominance have been researched since Bogen and Sperry's work with split-brain patients in the 1960s, but only slight attention has been given to the connection between brain dominance and personality. No study appears in the literature seeking to understand optimal mental health as defined by Maslow's…

  5. Dominating Sets in Web Graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin Cooper; Ralf Klasing; Michele Zito

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we study the size of generalised dominating sets in two graph processes which are widely used to model aspects of the world-wide web. On the one hand, we show that graphs gener- ated this way have fairly large dominating sets (i.e. linear in the size of the graph). On the other hand, we present efficient strategies to

  6. EEMML: the emotional eye movement animation toolkit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zheng Li; Xia Mao

    Eye movement plays an important role in face to face communication in that it conveys nonverbal information and emotional\\u000a intent beyond speech. Being “a window to the mind”, the eye and its behavior are tightly coupled with human cognitive processes.\\u000a In this paper, we proposed an Emotional Eye Movement Markup Language (EEMML) which is an emotional eye movement animation\\u000a scripting

  7. Solving Domination Problems with Mathematical Programming

    E-print Network

    van der Torre, Leon

    of optimization problems 4 Why these problems? Dominating Sets (DS) and its variants Connected Dominating Sets, they are often used to create virtual backbones Why this approach? #12;Definition: Dominating Set 5 A Dominating one member of D by some edge. Dominators Dominatees #12;Definition: Dominating Set 5 A Dominating Set

  8. Sensory Abnormalities in Autism: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintwall Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Hoglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents…

  9. Sensory Food Aversions in Infants and Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatoor, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Sensory Food Aversion is one of the most common feeding disorders during the first 3 years of life, when young children are transitioned to self-feeding, and when issues of autonomy and dependency have to be negotiated between parents and child. In this article, the author discusses "picky eaters" and the importance of distinguishing between…

  10. Opioid receptors on peripheral sensory axons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard E Coggeshall; Shengtai Zhou; Susan M Carlton

    1997-01-01

    Opioid receptors have been demonstrated by light microscopic techniques in fine cutaneous nerves in naive animals. The present study extends these findings by showing that 29 and 38% of unmyelinated cutaneous sensory axons can be immunostained for ?- or ?-opioid receptors respectively. Local cutaneous injection of DAMGO, a ?-opioid ligand, ameliorates the nociceptive behaviors caused by local cutaneous injection of

  11. Sensory Perception, Rationalism and Outdoor Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auer, Matthew R.

    2008-01-01

    There is a strong emphasis on sensory perception and "hands-on" learning in the outdoor environmental education of children. In addition, normative concerns infuse children's environmental curricula, and in particular, the notion that environmental education is not a passive undertaking; when one appreciates the essential value of the environment,…

  12. Volatile and sensory profiling of cocktail bitters.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Arielle J; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E

    2015-07-15

    Aromatic cocktail bitters are derived from the alcoholic extraction of a variety of plant materials and are used as additives in mixed drinks to enhance aroma and flavor. In this study sixteen commercial bitters were analyzed using volatile (GC-MS) and sensory profiling and multivariate statistics including Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS). The samples differed significantly in their citrus, celery, and spice characteristics. 148 volatile compounds were tentatively identified and the composition varied significantly with the type of bitters sample evaluated. PLS analysis showed that the volatile data correlated well overall to the sensory data, explaining 60% of the overall variability in the dataset. Primary aldehydes and phenylpropanoids were most closely related to green and spice-related sensory descriptors. However, the sensory impact of terpenoid compounds was difficult to predict in many cases. This may be due to the wide range of aroma qualities associated with terpenes as well as to concentration, synergistic or masking effects. PMID:25722175

  13. Learning of Sensory Sequences in Cerebellar Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frings, Markus; Boenisch, Raoul; Gerwig, Marcus; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Timmann, Dagmar

    2004-01-01

    A possible role of the cerebellum in detecting and recognizing event sequences has been proposed. The present study sought to determine whether patients with cerebellar lesions are impaired in the acquisition and discrimination of sequences of sensory stimuli of different modalities. A group of 26 cerebellar patients and 26 controls matched for…

  14. Microbial production of sensory-active miraculin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keisuke Ito; Tomiko Asakura; Yuji Morita; Ken-ichiro Nakajima; Ayako Koizumi; Akiko Shimizu-Ibuka; Katsuyoshi Masuda; Masaji Ishiguro; Tohru Terada; Jun-ichi Maruyama; Katsuhiko Kitamoto; Takumi Misaka; Keiko Abe

    2007-01-01

    Miraculin (MCL), a tropical fruit protein, is unique in that it has taste-modifying activity to convert sourness to sweetness, though flat in taste at neutral pH. To obtain a sufficient amount of MCL to examine the mechanism involved in this sensory event at the molecular level, we transformed Aspergillus oryzae by introducing the MCL gene. Transformants were expressed and secreted

  15. Sensory Cues, Visualization and Physics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiner, Miriam

    2009-01-01

    Bodily manipulations, such as juggling, suggest a well-synchronized physical interaction as if the person were a physics expert. The juggler uses "knowledge" that is rooted in bodily experience, to interact with the environment. Such enacted bodily knowledge is powerful, efficient, predictive, and relates to sensory perception of the dynamics of…

  16. Presynaptic Kainate Receptors Regulate Spinal Sensory Transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey A. Kerchner; Timothy J. Wilding; Ping Li; Min Zhuo; James E. Huettner

    Small diameter dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, which in- clude cells that transmit nociceptive information into the spinal cord, are known to express functional kainate receptors. It is well established that exposure to kainate will depolarize C-fiber afferents arising from these cells. Although the role of kainate receptors on sensory afferents is unknown, it has been hypoth- esized that presynaptic

  17. Autism and My Sensory Based World

    E-print Network

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    Autism and My Sensory Based World Temple Grandin #12;· A good teacher is gently insistent · Early disorders (co-morbid) Autism spectrum Dyslexia Learning problems ADHD Asperger Head injury Oppositional Takes longer to shift back and forth between two different things #12;Ami Klin Viewer with Autism (Red

  18. Migration and sensory evaluation of irradiated polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niels H Stoffers; Jozef P. H Linssen; Roland Franz; Frank Welle

    2004-01-01

    The effects on ionising irradiation on polymer additives, monomers and polymers themselves have been investigated. Changes of initial concentrations of certain additives and monomers, a change in their specific migration as well as sensory changes of the polymers were examined. Polymer stabilizers such as Irganox 1076 and Irgafos 168 used in polyethylene were found to be degraded by ionising radiation.

  19. Synchronisation in anticipative sensory-motor schemes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Charles Quinton; Christophe Duverger; Jean-Christophe Buisson

    This paper describes a model of anticipative sensory-motor schemes, inspired by Jean Piaget and Interactivist theories. The necessity of interactivity in order to provide a real epistemic contact to reality is discussed. We then describe a computer implementation of such schemes, applied to the recognition of musical rhythms, which illustrates these ideas in a more concrete way. Assimilation schemes Assimilation

  20. Sensory and non-sensory factors and the concept of externality in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Gardner, R M; Brake, S J; Reyes, B; Maestas, D

    1983-08-01

    9 obese and 9 normal subjects performed a psychophysical task in which food- or non-food-related stimuli were briefly flashed tachistoscopically at a speed and intensity near the visual threshold. A signal was presented on one-half the trials and noise only on the other one-half of the trials. Using signal detection theory methodology, separate measures of sensory sensitivity (d') and response bias (beta) were calculated. No differences were noted between obese and normal subjects on measures of sensory sensitivity but significant differences on response bias. Obese subjects had consistently lower response criteria than normal ones. Analysis for subjects categorized by whether they were restrained or unrestrained eaters gave findings identical to those for obese and normal. The importance of using a methodology that separates sensory and non-sensory factors in research on obesity is discussed. PMID:6622165

  1. Receptors for sensory neuropeptides in human inflammatory diseases: Implications for the effector role of sensory neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Mantyh, P.W.; Catton, M.D.; Boehmer, C.G.; Welton, M.L.; Passaro, E.P. Jr.; Maggio, J.E.; Vigna, S.R. (VA Medical Center-Wadsworth, Los Angeles, CA (USA))

    1989-05-01

    Glutamate and several neuropeptides are synthesized and released by subpopulations of primary afferent neurons. These sensory neurons play a role in regulating the inflammatory and immune responses in peripheral tissues. Using quantitative receptor autoradiography we have explored what changes occur in the location and concentration of receptor binding sites for sensory neurotransmitters in the colon in two human inflammatory diseases, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The sensory neurotransmitter receptors examined included bombesin, calcitonin gene related peptide-alpha, cholecystokinin, galanin, glutamate, somatostatin, neurokinin A (substance K), substance P, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. Of the nine receptor binding sites examined only substance P binding sites associated with arterioles, venules and lymph nodules were dramatically up-regulated in the inflamed tissue. These data suggest that substance P is involved in regulating the inflammatory and immune responses in human inflammatory diseases and indicate a specificity of efferent action for each sensory neurotransmitter in peripheral tissues.

  2. Lazzaro and Mead --Circuit Models of Sensory Transduction in the Cochlea CIRCUIT MODELS OF SENSORY TRANSDUCTION

    E-print Network

    Lazzaro, John

    transduction in the nervous system. Sensory inputs are analog, continuous-time signals with a large dynamic energy present at the eardrum into the first neural representation of the auditory system, the audi- tory

  3. ENU mutagenesis identifies mice modeling Warburg Micro Syndrome with sensory axon degeneration caused by a deletion in Rab18.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chih-Ya; Wu, Jaw-Ching; Tsai, Jin-Wu; Nian, Fang-Shin; Wu, Pei-Chun; Kao, Lung-Sen; Fann, Ming-Ji; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Liou, Ying-Jay; Tai, Chin-Yin; Hong, Chen-Jee

    2015-05-01

    Mutations in the gene of RAB18, a member of Ras superfamily of small G-proteins, cause Warburg Micro Syndrome (WARBM) which is characterized by defective neurodevelopmental and ophthalmological phenotypes. Despite loss of Rab18 had been reported to induce disruption of the endoplasmic reticulum structure and neuronal cytoskeleton organization, parts of the pathogenic mechanism caused by RAB18 mutation remain unclear. From the N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced mutagenesis library, we identified a mouse line whose Rab18 was knocked out. This Rab18(-/-) mouse exhibited stomping gait, smaller testis and eyes, mimicking several features of WARBM. Rab18(-/-) mice were obviously less sensitive to pain and touch than WT mice. Histological examinations on Rab18(-/-) mice revealed progressive axonal degeneration in the optic nerves, dorsal column of the spinal cord and sensory roots of the spinal nerves while the motor roots were spared. All the behavioral and pathological changes that resulted from abnormalities in the sensory axons were prevented by introducing an extra copy of Rab18 transgene in Rab18(-/-) mice. Our results reveal that sensory axonal degeneration is the primary cause of stomping gait and progressive weakness of the hind limbs in Rab18(-/-) mice, and optic nerve degeneration should be the major pathology of progressive optic atrophy in children with WARBM. Our results indicate that the sensory nervous system is more vulnerable to Rab18 deficiency and WARBM is not only a neurodevelopmental but also neurodegenerative disease. PMID:25779931

  4. The Sound of One Eye Clapping: Tapping an Accurate Rhythm With Eye Movements

    E-print Network

    Hornof, Anthony

    The Sound of One Eye Clapping: Tapping an Accurate Rhythm With Eye Movements Anthony J. Hornof USA As eye-controlled interfaces becomes increasingly viable, there is a need to better understand fundamental human-machine interaction capabilities between a human and a computer via an eye tracking device

  5. The Sound of One Eye Clapping: Tapping an Accurate Rhythm With Eye Movements

    E-print Network

    Hornof, Anthony

    The Sound of One Eye Clapping: Tapping an Accurate Rhythm With Eye Movements Anthony J. Hornof, kvessey}@cs.uoregon.edu ABSTRACT As eye-controlled interfaces becomes increasingly viable, there is a need an eye tracking device. Prior research has explored the maximum rate of input from a human to a computer

  6. Inferring Intent in Eye-Based Interfaces: Tracing Eye Movements with Process Models

    E-print Network

    Salvucci, Dario D.

    Inferring Intent in Eye-Based Interfaces: Tracing Eye Movements with Process Models Dario D dario+@cs.cmu.edu ABSTRACT While current eye-based interfaces offer enormous potential for efficient human-computer interaction, they also manifest the difficulty of inferring intent from user eye

  7. Influence of human skin injury on regeneration of sensory neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Taherzadeh; W. R. Otto; U. Anand; J. Nanchahal; P. Anand

    2003-01-01

    The regeneration of sensory nerve fibres is regulated by trophic factors released from their target tissue, particularly the basal epidermis, and matrix molecules. Means to modulate this response may be useful for the treatment of neuromas and painful hypertrophic scars and of sensory deficits in skin grafts and flaps. We have developed an in vitro model of sensory neuron regeneration

  8. Discovering Natural Kinds of Robot Sensory Experiences in Unstructured Environments

    E-print Network

    Wood, Frank

    Discovering Natural Kinds of Robot Sensory Experiences in Unstructured Environments Daniel H to discover categories (or kinds). We demonstrate our method through the learning of sensory kinds from trials and building models of how they would appear to the robot. However, actual sensory information is dictated

  9. Spectral mixing of rhythmic neuronal signals in sensory cortex

    E-print Network

    Kleinfeld, David

    Spectral mixing of rhythmic neuronal signals in sensory cortex Kurt F. Ahrens , Herbert Levine that such mixing is likely to occur in the mammalian nervous system as a means to compare two rhythmic sensory signals, such as occurs in human audition, and as a means to lock an intrinsic rhythm to a sensory input

  10. A revised view of sensory cortical parcellation Mark T. Wallace*

    E-print Network

    Wallace, Mark

    A revised view of sensory cortical parcellation Mark T. Wallace* , Ramnarayan Ramachandran domains populated exclusively by modality-specific neurons (i.e., neurons responsive to sensory stimuli from a single sensory mo- dality). However, the modality-exclusivity of this scheme has recently been

  11. SENSORY THREADS: SONIFYING IMPERCEPTIBLE PHENOMENA IN Robin Fencott

    E-print Network

    Bryan-Kinns, Nick

    there are countless rhythms and processes which we cannot feel or sense. Sensory Threads is an interdiserplinary. In the Sensory Threads experience, participants wear mobile sensing tech- nology (see figure 1, with discussionSENSORY THREADS: SONIFYING IMPERCEPTIBLE PHENOMENA IN THE WILD Robin Fencott Interaction, Media

  12. Sensory stimulation as environmental enrichment for captive animals: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah L. Wells

    2009-01-01

    In the wild, animals are exposed to an ever-changing array of sensory stimuli. The captive environment, by contrast, is generally much more impoverished in terms of the sensory cues it offers the animals housed within. In a bid to remedy this, and promote better welfare, researchers have started to explore the merits of sensory stimulation (i.e. stimulation designed to trigger

  13. Sensory ReEducation after Median Nerve Lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. B. WYNN PARRY; M. SALTER

    1976-01-01

    Technique for re-educating sensory function after median nerve lesions at the wrist is described.Results of re-education of Twenty-three patients are presented. The functional results are good and belie the traditional view of sensory function after nerve suture.Recent advances in sensory neuro-physiology-are discussed which may explain the successes of this technique.

  14. Reported Sensory Processing of Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruni, Maryanne; Cameron, Debra; Dua, Shelly; Noy, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Investigators have identified delays and differences in cognitive, language, motor, and sensory development in children with Down syndrome (DS). The purpose of this study was to determine the parent-reported frequency of sensory processing issues in children with DS aged 3-10 years, and the parent-reported functional impact of those sensory

  15. Brief Report: Further Evidence of Sensory Subtypes in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Alison E.; Dennis, Simon J.; Geraghty, Maureen E.

    2011-01-01

    Distinct sensory processing (SP) subtypes in autism have been reported previously. This study sought to replicate the previous findings in an independent sample of thirty children diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. Model-based cluster analysis of parent-reported sensory functioning (measured using the Short Sensory Profile) confirmed the…

  16. Experiencing Light's Properties within Your Own Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauser, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Seeing the reflection, refraction, dispersion, absorption, polarization, and scattering or diffraction of light within your own eye makes these properties of light truly personal. There are practical aspects of these within the eye phenomena, such as eye tracking for computer interfaces. They also offer some intriguing diversions, for example,…

  17. Eye banking: the business of restoring sight.

    PubMed

    Deluhery, C V

    1999-01-01

    This continuing education article provides an overview of how an eye bank operates, offers general criteria about who can be a donor, and introduces the process by which eye donation takes place. In presenting this information, we hope to bring honor to the memory of all eye donors and thank them, their loved ones and families for this truly philanthropic gift. PMID:11907913

  18. Orienting to Eye Gaze and Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipples, Jason

    2005-01-01

    The author conducted 7 experiments to examine possible interactions between orienting to eye gaze and specific forms of face processing. Participants classified a letter following either an upright or inverted face with averted, uninformative eye gaze. Eye gaze orienting effects were recorded for upright and inverted faces, irrespective of whether…

  19. Differential Diagnosis of Dry Eye Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Pflugfelder

    1996-01-01

    The pre-ocular tear film is a complex biochemical structure produced by the lacrimal glands and epithelial cells on the ocular surface. Clinical syndromes of ocular irritation may result from deficiencies in one or more of these layers. At a recent dry eye workshop at the National Eye Institute, dry eye conditions were classified into those with adequate aqueous tear production

  20. CLINICAL REPORT Dry Eye and Designer Ophthalmics

    E-print Network

    CLINICAL REPORT Dry Eye and Designer Ophthalmics GORDON W. LAURIE, PhD, LESLIE A. OLSAKOVSKY, MD." Surprisingly, only 4 to 5% of these appear to be dysregulated in the three forms of dry eye preliminarily be identified. Future dry eye treatment might include recombinant tear protein rescue as a personalized

  1. Dry eye after laser in situ keratomileusis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ikuko Toda; Naoko Asano-Kato; Yoshiko Komai-Hori; Kazuo Tsubota

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine whether patients undergoing laser in situ keratomileusis have postoperative dry eye.METHODS: In this retrospective, interventional case series, 124 eyes of 64 consecutive patients who underwent laser in situ keratomileusis were examined for a dry eye symptom, Schirmer test with anesthesia, tear clearance rate, tear break-up time, vital staining for ocular surface, corneal sensitivity, and blink rate. All

  2. BINOCULAR EYE MOVEMENTS DURING ACCOMMODATIVE VERGENCE

    E-print Network

    Kenyon, Robert V.

    BINOCULAR EYE MOVEMENTS DURING ACCOMMODATIVE VERGENCE ROBERTV. KENYON, KEWETH J. CIUFFREDA; in revised form 4 August 1977) Abstract-Binocular eye position was monitored by the photoelectric technique vergence amplitude in the viewing eye was reduced, on the average. by approximately SSP, with respect

  3. Automatic Red Eye Removal for Digital Photography

    E-print Network

    Schettini, Raimondo

    Chapter 1 Automatic Red Eye Removal for Digital Photography FRANCESCA GASPARINI DISCo, Dipartimento The red eye effect is a well known problem in photography. It is often seen in amateur shots taken with a built-in flash, but the problem is also well known to professional photographers. Red eye is the red

  4. Eye Shape in Emmetropia and Myopia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Atchison; Catherine E. Jones; Katrina L. Schmid; Nicola Pritchard; James M. Pope; Wendy E. Strugnell; Robyn A. Riley

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSES. To determine axial, vertical, and horizontal eye di- mensions in myopic and emmetropic eyes by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to relate these to different ocular expansion models of myopia development. METHODS. The internal length (cornea to retina), height and width (both retina to retina) were measured in emmetropic and myopic eyes (up to 12 D) of 88

  5. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Adults Over 60 Babies, Children & Teenagers Computer Usage Diabetes Diet & Nutrition Eye Injuries Eye Screening Guidelines Home ... Computer Usage & Eye Strain Maintaining Your Sight with Diabetes Sports and Eye Protection Eyesight Risks for Smokers ...

  6. Three-dimensional system integration for HUD placement on a new tactical airlift platform: design eye point vs. HUD eye box with accommodation and perceptual implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harbour, Steven D.; Hudson, Jeffery A.; Zehner, Gregory F.

    2012-06-01

    The retrofitting of a cockpit with a Head-Up-Display (HUD) raises potential accommodation and perceptual issues for pilots that must be addressed. For maximum optical efficiency, the goal is to be able to place every pilot's eye into the HUD Eye Motion Box (EMB) given a seat adjustment range. Initially, the Eye Reference Point (ERP) of the EMB should theoretically be located on the aircraft's original cockpit Design Eye Point (DEP), but human postures vary, and HUD systems may not be optimally placed. In reality, there is a distribution of pilot eyes around the DEP (which is dominant eye dependent); therefore, this must be accounted for in order to obtain appropriate visibility of all of the symbology based on photonic characteristics of the HUD. Pilot size and postural variation need to be taken into consideration when positioning the HUD system to ensure proper vision of all HUD symbology in addition to meeting the basic physical accommodation requirements of the cockpit. The innovative process and data collection methods for maximizing accommodation and pilot perception on a new "tactical airlift" platform are discussed as well as the related neurocognitive factors and the effects of information display design on cognitive phenomena.

  7. Sensory testing of the human gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Christina; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Wilder-Smith, Oliver; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this appraisal is to shed light on the various approaches to screen sensory information in the human gut. Understanding and characterization of sensory symptoms in gastrointestinal disorders is poor. Experimental methods allowing the investigator to control stimulus intensity and modality, as well as using validated methods for assessing sensory response have contributed to the understanding of pain mechanisms. Mechanical stimulation based on impedance planimetry allows direct recordings of luminal cross-sectional areas, and combined with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, the contribution of different gut layers can be estimated. Electrical stimulation depolarizes free nerve endings non-selectively. Consequently, the stimulation paradigm (single, train, tetanic) influences the involved sensory nerves. Visual controlled electrical stimulation combines the probes with an endoscopic approach, which allows the investigator to inspect and obtain small biopsies from the stimulation site. Thermal stimulation (cold or warm) activates selectively mucosal receptors, and chemical substances such as acid and capsaicin (either alone or in combination) are used to evoke pain and sensitization. The possibility of multimodal (e.g. mechanical, electrical, thermal and chemical) stimulation in different gut segments has developed visceral pain research. The major advantage is involvement of distinctive receptors, various sensory nerves and different pain pathways mimicking clinical pain that favors investigation of central pain mechanisms involved in allodynia, hyperalgesia and referred pain. As impairment of descending control mechanisms partly underlies the pathogenesis in chronic pain, a cold pressor test that indirectly stimulates such control mechanisms can be added. Hence, the methods undoubtedly represent a major step forward in the future characterization and treatment of patients with various diseases of the gut, which provides knowledge to clinicians about the underlying symptoms and treatment of these patients. PMID:19132764

  8. Haptic wearables as sensory replacement, sensory augmentation and trainer - a review.

    PubMed

    Shull, Peter B; Damian, Dana D

    2015-01-01

    Sensory impairments decrease quality of life and can slow or hinder rehabilitation. Small, computationally powerful electronics have enabled the recent development of wearable systems aimed to improve function for individuals with sensory impairments. The purpose of this review is to synthesize current haptic wearable research for clinical applications involving sensory impairments. We define haptic wearables as untethered, ungrounded body worn devices that interact with skin directly or through clothing and can be used in natural environments outside a laboratory. Results of this review are categorized by degree of sensory impairment. Total impairment, such as in an amputee, blind, or deaf individual, involves haptics acting as sensory replacement; partial impairment, as is common in rehabilitation, involves haptics as sensory augmentation; and no impairment involves haptics as trainer. This review found that wearable haptic devices improved function for a variety of clinical applications including: rehabilitation, prosthetics, vestibular loss, osteoarthritis, vision loss and hearing loss. Future haptic wearables development should focus on clinical needs, intuitive and multimodal haptic displays, low energy demands, and biomechanical compliance for long-term usage. PMID:26188929

  9. Antioxidant and sensorial properties of linden honey with dried apricots.

    PubMed

    ?etkovi?, Gordana; ?anadanovi?-Brunet, Jasna; Vuli?, Jelena; Djilas, Sonja; Tumbas Šaponjac, Vesna

    2014-11-01

    The total phenol (TPh) and flavonoid contents (TFd), and antioxidant and sensorial properties of linden honey (LH) with dried apricots (20, 30, and 40%) were evaluated. TPh increased 4.3 times for LH40 (from 23.96 to 102.87?mg gallic acid equiv./100?g honey), while increase of TFd was slightly lower, ca. 2.9-fold for LH40 (from 18.11 to 51.72?mg rutin equiv./100?g honey). Based on HPLC analysis, the most dominant phenolic compound was gallic acid (11.14?mg/100?g honey in LH and 42.65?mg/100?g honey in LH40). In three different assays, the antioxidant activity increased with increasing concentration of apricots in honey. The values varied from 13.36 for LH to 7.06?mg/ml for LH40; the values ranged from 189.83 for LH to 11.23?mg/ml for LH40; the RP0.5 (reducing power) values ranged from 169.00 for LH to 27.60?mg/ml for LH40. Based on the correlation analysis, it is obvious that TPh and TFd were associated with the antioxidant activities of honey samples. A high degree of correlation existed between antioxidant activities of honey samples and TPh (R from 0.945 to 0.996) and TFd (R from 0.805 to 0.934). Obtained scores for individual sensory properties indicated very good quality of honey with dried apricots. PMID:25408327

  10. Laminar, columnar and topographic aspects of ocular dominance in the primary visual cortex of Cebus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rosa, M G; Gattass, R; Fiorani, M; Soares, J G

    1992-01-01

    The representation of the two eyes in striate cortex (V1) of Cebus monkeys was studied by electrophysiological single-unit recordings in normal animals and by morphometric analysis of the pattern of ocular dominance (OD) stripes, as revealed by cytochrome oxidase histochemistry in V1 flat-mounts of enucleated animals. Single-unit recordings revealed that the large majority of V1 neurons respond to the stimulation of either eye but are more strongly activated by one of them. As in other species of monkey, neurons with preference for the stimulation of the same eye are grouped in columns 300-400 microns wide, spanning all cortical layers. Monocular neurons are clustered in layer IVc, specially in its deeper half (IVc-beta), and constitute less than 10% of the population of other layers. Neurons with equal responses to each eye are more commonly found in layer V than elsewhere in V1. In the supragranular layers and in granular layer IVc-alpha neurons strongly dominated by one of the eyes tend to be broadly tuned for orientation, while binocularly balanced neurons tend to be sharply tuned for this parameter. No such correlation was detected in the infragranular layers, and most neurons in layer IVc-beta responded regardless of stimulus orientation. Ocular dominance stripes are present throughout most of V1 as long, parallel or bifurcating bands alternately dominated by the ipsi- or the contralateral eye. They are absent from the cortical representations of the blind spot and the monocular crescent. The domains of each eye occupy nearly equal portions of the surface of binocular V1, except for the representation of the periphery, where the contralateral eye has a larger domain, and a narrow strip along the border of V1 with V2, where either eye may predominate. The orderliness of the pattern of stripes and the relationship between stripe arrangement and the representation of the visual meridians vary with eccentricity and polar angle but follow the same rules in different animals. These results demonstrate that the laminar, columnar and topographic distribution of neurons with different degrees of OD in V1 is qualitatively similar in New- and Old World monkeys of similar sizes and suggest that common ancestry, rather than parallel evolution, may account for the OD phenotypes of contemporaneous simians. PMID:1577100

  11. Testosterone and dominance in men.

    PubMed

    Mazur, A; Booth, A

    1998-06-01

    In men, high levels of endogenous testosterone (T) seem to encourage behavior intended to dominate--to enhance one's status over--other people. Sometimes dominant behavior is aggressive, its apparent intent being to inflict harm on another person, but often dominance is expressed nonaggressively. Sometimes dominant behavior takes the form of antisocial behavior, including rebellion against authority and low breaking. Measurement of T at a single point in time, presumably indicative of a man's basal T level, predicts many of these dominant or antisocial behaviors. T not only affects behavior but also responds to it. The act of competing for dominant status affects male T levels in two ways. First, T rises in the face of a challenge, as if it were an anticipatory response to impending competition. Second, after the competition, T rises in winners and declines in losers. Thus, there is a reciprocity between T and dominance behavior, each affecting the other. We contrast a reciprocal model, in which T level is variable, acting as both a cause and effect of behavior, with a basal model, in which T level is assumed to be a persistent trait that influences behavior. An unusual data set on Air Force veterans, in which data were collected four times over a decade, enables us to compare the basal and reciprocal models as explanations for the relationship between T and divorce. We discuss sociological implications of these models. PMID:10097017

  12. National Survey of Sensory Features in Children with ASD: Factor Structure of the Sensory Experience Questionnaire (3.0)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ausderau, Karla; Sideris, John; Furlong, Melissa; Little, Lauren M.; Bulluck, John; Baranek, Grace T.

    2014-01-01

    This national online survey study characterized sensory features in 1,307 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ages 2-12 years using the Sensory Experiences Questionnaire Version 3.0 (SEQ-3.0). Using the SEQ-3.0, a confirmatory factor analytic model with four substantive factors of hypothesized sensory response patterns (i.e.,…

  13. Identification of Eye-Specific Domains and Their Relation to Callosal Connections in Primary Visual Cortex of Long Evans Rats.

    PubMed

    Laing, R J; Turecek, J; Takahata, T; Olavarria, J F

    2014-06-26

    Ocular dominance columns (ODCs) exist in many primates and carnivores, but it is believed that they do not exist in rodents. Using a combination of transneuronal tracing, in situ hybridization for Zif268 and electrophysiological recordings, we show that inputs from both eyes are largely segregated in the binocular region of V1 in Long Evans rats. We also show that, interposed between this binocular region and the lateral border of V1, there lies a strip of cortex that is strongly dominated by the contralateral eye. Finally, we show that callosal connections colocalize primarily with ipsilateral eye domains in the binocular region and with contralateral eye input in the lateral cortical strip, mirroring the relationship between patchy callosal connections and specific sets of ODCs described previously in the cat. Our results suggest that development of cortical modular architecture is more conserved among rodents, carnivores, and primates than previously thought. PMID:24969475

  14. Resolution and sensitivity of the eyes of the Asian honeybees Apis florea, Apis cerana and Apis dorsata.

    PubMed

    Somanathan, Hema; Warrant, Eric J; Borges, Renee M; Wallén, Rita; Kelber, Almut

    2009-08-01

    Bees of the genus Apis are important foragers of nectar and pollen resources. Although the European honeybee, Apis mellifera, has been well studied with respect to its sensory abilities, learning behaviour and role as pollinators, much less is known about the other Apis species. We studied the anatomical spatial resolution and absolute sensitivity of the eyes of three sympatric species of Asian honeybees, Apis cerana, Apis florea and Apis dorsata and compared them with the eyes of A. mellifera. Of these four species, the giant honeybee A. dorsata (which forages during moonlit nights) has the lowest spatial resolution and the most sensitive eyes, followed by A. mellifera, A. cerana and the dwarf honeybee, A. florea (which has the smallest acceptance angles and the least sensitive eyes). Moreover, unlike the strictly diurnal A. cerana and A. florea, A. dorsata possess large ocelli, a feature that it shares with all dim-light bees. However, the eyes of the facultatively nocturnal A. dorsata are much less sensitive than those of known obligately nocturnal bees such as Megalopta genalis in Panama and Xylocopa tranquebarica in India. The differences in sensitivity between the eyes of A. dorsata and other strictly diurnal Apis species cannot alone explain why the former is able to fly, orient and forage at half-moon light levels. We assume that additional neuronal adaptations, as has been proposed for A. mellifera, M. genalis and X. tranquebarica, might exist in A. dorsata. PMID:19617438

  15. Evolution of eye development in the darkness of caves: adaptation, drift, or both?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Animals inhabiting the darkness of caves are generally blind and de-pigmented, regardless of the phylum they belong to. Survival in this environment is an enormous challenge, the most obvious being to find food and mates without the help of vision, and the loss of eyes in cave animals is often accompanied by an enhancement of other sensory apparatuses. Here we review the recent literature describing developmental biology and molecular evolution studies in order to discuss the evolutionary mechanisms underlying adaptation to life in the dark. We conclude that both genetic drift (neutral hypothesis) and direct and indirect selection (selective hypothesis) occurred together during the loss of eyes in cave animals. We also identify some future directions of research to better understand adaptation to total darkness, for which integrative analyses relying on evo-devo approaches associated with thorough ecological and population genomic studies should shed some light. PMID:24079393

  16. 38 CFR 4.79 - Schedule of ratings-eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...6061Anatomical loss of both eyes 1 100 6062No more than light perception in both eyes 1 100 6063Anatomical loss of one eye: 1...other eye 20/40 (6/12) 40 6064No more than light perception in one eye: 1 In the other eye 5/200 (1.5/60)...

  17. 38 CFR 4.79 - Schedule of ratings-eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...6061Anatomical loss of both eyes 1 100 6062No more than light perception in both eyes 1 100 6063Anatomical loss of one eye: 1...other eye 20/40 (6/12) 40 6064No more than light perception in one eye: 1 In the other eye 5/200 (1.5/60)...

  18. 38 CFR 4.79 - Schedule of ratings-eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...6061Anatomical loss of both eyes 1 100 6062No more than light perception in both eyes 1 100 6063Anatomical loss of one eye: 1...other eye 20/40 (6/12) 40 6064No more than light perception in one eye: 1 In the other eye 5/200 (1.5/60)...

  19. 38 CFR 4.79 - Schedule of ratings-eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...6061Anatomical loss of both eyes 1 100 6062No more than light perception in both eyes 1 100 6063Anatomical loss of one eye: 1...other eye 20/40 (6/12) 40 6064No more than light perception in one eye: 1 In the other eye 5/200 (1.5/60)...

  20. 38 CFR 4.79 - Schedule of ratings-eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...6061Anatomical loss of both eyes 1 100 6062No more than light perception in both eyes 1 100 6063Anatomical loss of one eye: 1...other eye 20/40 (6/12) 40 6064No more than light perception in one eye: 1 In the other eye 5/200 (1.5/60)...

  1. An eye model for uncalibrated eye gaze estimation under variable head pose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hnatow, Justin; Savakis, Andreas

    2007-04-01

    Gaze estimation is an important component of computer vision systems that monitor human activity for surveillance, human-computer interaction, and various other applications including iris recognition. Gaze estimation methods are particularly valuable when they are non-intrusive, do not require calibration, and generalize well across users. This paper presents a novel eye model that is employed for efficiently performing uncalibrated eye gaze estimation. The proposed eye model was constructed from a geometric simplification of the eye and anthropometric data about eye feature sizes in order to circumvent the requirement of calibration procedures for each individual user. The positions of the two eye corners and the midpupil, the distance between the two eye corners, and the radius of the eye sphere are required for gaze angle calculation. The locations of the eye corners and midpupil are estimated via processing following eye detection, and the remaining parameters are obtained from anthropometric data. This eye model is easily extended to estimating eye gaze under variable head pose. The eye model was tested on still images of subjects at frontal pose (0 °) and side pose (34 °). An upper bound of the model's performance was obtained by manually selecting the eye feature locations. The resulting average absolute error was 2.98 ° for frontal pose and 2.87 ° for side pose. The error was consistent across subjects, which indicates that good generalization was obtained. This level of performance compares well with other gaze estimation systems that utilize a calibration procedure to measure eye features.

  2. Role of Physical Bolus Properties as Sensory Inputs in the Trigger of Swallowing

    PubMed Central

    Peyron, Marie-Agnès; Gierczynski, Isabelle; Hartmann, Christoph; Loret, Chrystel; Dardevet, Dominique; Martin, Nathalie; Woda, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Background Swallowing is triggered when a food bolus being prepared by mastication has reached a defined state. However, although this view is consensual and well supported, the physical properties of the swallowable bolus have been under-researched. We tested the hypothesis that measuring bolus physical changes during the masticatory sequence to deglutition would reveal the bolus properties potentially involved in swallowing initiation. Methods Twenty normo-dentate young adults were instructed to chew portions of cereal and spit out the boluses at different times in the masticatory sequence. The mechanical properties of the collected boluses were measured by a texture profile analysis test currently used in food science. The median particle size of the boluses was evaluated by sieving. In a simultaneous sensory study, twenty-five other subjects expressed their perception of bolus texture dominating at any mastication time. Findings Several physical changes appeared in the food bolus as it was formed during mastication: (1) in rheological terms, bolus hardness rapidly decreased as the masticatory sequence progressed, (2) by contrast, adhesiveness, springiness and cohesiveness regularly increased until the time of swallowing, (3) median particle size, indicating the bolus particle size distribution, decreased mostly during the first third of the masticatory sequence, (4) except for hardness, the rheological changes still appeared in the boluses collected just before swallowing, and (5) physical changes occurred, with sensory stickiness being described by the subjects as a dominant perception of the bolus at the end of mastication. Conclusions Although these physical and sensory changes progressed in the course of mastication, those observed just before swallowing seem to be involved in swallowing initiation. They can be considered as strong candidates for sensory inputs from the bolus that are probably crucially involved in the triggering of swallowing, since they appeared in boluses prepared in various mastication strategies by different subjects. PMID:21738616

  3. [Exploration on eye needling manipulation].

    PubMed

    Hai, Ying; Tian, Wei-Zhu

    2013-09-01

    The 40-year experiences in the clinical application of eye acupuncture in our hospital are summarized. The manipulation of needle insertion, withdrawal and puncture procedure is analyzed. The keys of the techniques of eye acupuncture are explained. The basic needling manipulations are determined. In the insertion of needle, professor Peng stressed on the stability, accuracy and fast, without lifting, thrusting, rotating, and opening/closing techniques involved. TIAN Wei-zhu emphasizes the gentle insertion, pain avoiding, apparent needling sensation and needling sensation transmission. In terms of acupuncture operation, skin stretching, patient's attention shifting, quick insertion of needle and slow-down moving of needle body are required. The outside orbit transverse needling method is recommended basically. PMID:24298770

  4. Intermediate view synthesis for eye-gazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Eu-Ttuem; Ho, Yo-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Nonverbal communication, also known as body language, is an important form of communication. Nonverbal behaviors such as posture, eye contact, and gestures send strong messages. In regard to nonverbal communication, eye contact is one of the most important forms that an individual can use. However, lack of eye contact occurs when we use video conferencing system. The disparity between locations of the eyes and a camera gets in the way of eye contact. The lock of eye gazing can give unapproachable and unpleasant feeling. In this paper, we proposed an eye gazing correction for video conferencing. We use two cameras installed at the top and the bottom of the television. The captured two images are rendered with 2D warping at virtual position. We implement view morphing to the detected face, and synthesize the face and the warped image. Experimental results verify that the proposed system is effective in generating natural gaze-corrected images.

  5. Designing Eyes-Free Interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Oakley; Jun-seok Park

    2007-01-01

    As the form factors of computational devices diversify, the concept of eyes-free interaction is becoming increasingly relevant:\\u000a it is no longer hard to imagine use scenarios in which screens are inappropriate. However, there is currently little consensus\\u000a about this term. It is regularly employed in different contexts and with different intents. One key consequence of this multiplicity\\u000a of meanings is

  6. Autostereoscopic display with eye tracking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takao Tomono; Kyung Hoon; Yong Soo Ha; Sung-Sik Kim; Jung-Young Son

    2002-01-01

    Auto-stereoscopic 21-inch display with eye tracking having wide viewing zone and bright image was fabricated. The image of display is projected to retinal through several optical components. We calculated optical system for wider viewing zone by using Inverse-Ray Trace Method. The viewing zone of first model is 155mm (theoretical value: 161mm). We could widen viewing zone by controlling paraxial radius

  7. Eye lesions in pet birds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Tsai; J. H. Park; K. Hirai; C. Itakura

    1993-01-01

    Amongst eye lesions in birds that died in quarantine, cataracts were the most common disorders (37\\/241, 15.4%), being prevalent in the annular pads of cockati?els (Nymphicus hollandicus), Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva) and budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). The incidence in male birds was more than twice that in females. Deposition of crystals, mostly in the cornea, was the second most frequent

  8. Sensory processing dysfunction among Saudi children with and without autism

    PubMed Central

    Al-Heizan, Mohammed O.; AlAbdulwahab, Sami S; Kachanathu, Shaji John; Natho, Mohan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] There is a dearth of studies that have examined the occurrence of sensory processing dysfunction and its components in Saudi Arabian children with autism. Therefore, this study investigated the manifestation of sensory processing dysfunction in autism and compared the functional components of sensory processing between Saudi Arabian children with and without autism. [Subjects and Methods] A convenience sample of 46 Saudi Arabian children with autism and 30 children without autism participated in this study. The sensory processing functions of both groups were assessed with the Short Sensory Profile. [Results] The overall findings indicated that 84.8% of children with autism demonstrated definite sensory processing dysfunction. The most prevalent sensory processing dysfunctions involved the under-responsive/seeks sensation (89.13%), auditory filtering (73.90%), and tactile sensitivity (60.87%) domains. Most of the children without autism (66.66%) demonstrated typical sensory function; the most prevalent sensory processing dysfunctions involved the tactile sensitivity (33.3%), under-responsive/seeks sensation (23.33%), and movement sensitivity (20%) domains. [Conclusion] Saudi Arabian children with and without autism have clinically significant sensory dysfunctions. However, the prevalence of those sensory dysfunctions in children with autism is significantly higher than in the children without autism.

  9. Dominating Sets in Planar Graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lesley R. Matheson; Robert Endre Tarjan

    1996-01-01

    Motivated by an application to unstructured multigrid calculations, we consider the problem of asymptotically minimizing the size of dominating sets in triangulated planar graphs. Specifically, we wish to find the smallest?such that, fornsufficiently large, everyn-vertex planar graph contains a dominating set of size at most?n.We prove that 1\\/4

  10. [Perforating eye injuries in children].

    PubMed

    Prado Júnior, J; Alves, M R; Kara José, N; Usuba, F S; Onclix, T M; Marantes, C R

    1996-01-01

    The author studied 140 cases of perforating eye injury in children up to 15 years old admitted at the Clinic Hospital of the Medical College of the University of São Paulo (Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo) from January 1989 to December 1993. These cases represent 24.71% of the total of the perforating eye injuries seen during this period, showing a ratio of 76.42% of males, a ratio of 2/1 in the group from 0 to 6 years old, 7/1 in the group from 7 to 11 years old and a ratio of 3/1 in the group from 12 to 15 years old. The most common perforating eye injuries were due to sharp objects (54.71%), contusion (20%), explosions (7.85%) and flying objects (5.71%). The relation between the severity of the injury and the prognosis is emphasized. Safety precautions should be effective in order to reduce frequence and morbidity of these perforating ocular injuries. PMID:9008931

  11. Targeted high-throughput sequencing identifies mutations in atlastin-1 as a cause of hereditary sensory neuropathy type I.

    PubMed

    Guelly, Christian; Zhu, Peng-Peng; Leonardis, Lea; Papi?, Lea; Zidar, Janez; Schabhüttl, Maria; Strohmaier, Heimo; Weis, Joachim; Strom, Tim M; Baets, Jonathan; Willems, Jan; De Jonghe, Peter; Reilly, Mary M; Fröhlich, Eleonore; Hatz, Martina; Trajanoski, Slave; Pieber, Thomas R; Janecke, Andreas R; Blackstone, Craig; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I) is an axonal form of autosomal-dominant hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy distinguished by prominent sensory loss that leads to painless injuries. Unrecognized, these can result in delayed wound healing and osteomyelitis, necessitating distal amputations. To elucidate the genetic basis of an HSN I subtype in a family in which mutations in the few known HSN I genes had been excluded, we employed massive parallel exon sequencing of the 14.3 Mb disease interval on chromosome 14q. We detected a missense mutation (c.1065C>A, p.Asn355Lys) in atlastin-1 (ATL1), a gene that is known to be mutated in early-onset hereditary spastic paraplegia SPG3A and that encodes the large dynamin-related GTPase atlastin-1. The mutant protein exhibited reduced GTPase activity and prominently disrupted ER network morphology when expressed in COS7 cells, strongly supporting pathogenicity. An expanded screen in 115 additional HSN I patients identified two further dominant ATL1 mutations (c.196G>C [p.Glu66Gln] and c.976 delG [p.Val326TrpfsX8]). This study highlights an unexpected major role for atlastin-1 in the function of sensory neurons and identifies HSN I and SPG3A as allelic disorders. PMID:21194679

  12. Kinematics of Visually-Guided Eye Movements

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Bernhard J. M.; Thomassen, Jakob S.

    2014-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of an eye movement that follows Listing’s law is the half-angle rule that says that the angular velocity of the eye tilts by half the angle of eccentricity of the line of sight relative to primary eye position. Since all visually-guided eye movements in the regime of far viewing follow Listing’s law (with the head still and upright), the question about its origin is of considerable importance. Here, we provide theoretical and experimental evidence that Listing’s law results from a unique motor strategy that allows minimizing ocular torsion while smoothly tracking objects of interest along any path in visual space. The strategy consists in compounding conventional ocular rotations in meridian planes, that is in horizontal, vertical and oblique directions (which are all torsion-free) with small linear displacements of the eye in the frontal plane. Such compound rotation-displacements of the eye can explain the kinematic paradox that the fixation point may rotate in one plane while the eye rotates in other planes. Its unique signature is the half-angle law in the position domain, which means that the rotation plane of the eye tilts by half-the angle of gaze eccentricity. We show that this law does not readily generalize to the velocity domain of visually-guided eye movements because the angular eye velocity is the sum of two terms, one associated with rotations in meridian planes and one associated with displacements of the eye in the frontal plane. While the first term does not depend on eye position the second term does depend on eye position. We show that compounded rotation - displacements perfectly predict the average smooth kinematics of the eye during steady- state pursuit in both the position and velocity domain. PMID:24751602

  13. MATURATION OF SENSORY GATING PERFORMANCE IN CHILDREN WITH AND WITHOUT SENSORY PROCESSING DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Patricia L.; Chang, Wen-Pin; Gavin, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent interest in sensory gating in children with and without neuropsychological disorders has resulted in a number of studies and the results regarding the developmental trajectory of sensory gating are inconsistent. We investigated the maturational course of sensory gating in samples of typically developing children and children with sensory processing deficits (SPD) and compared their performance to adults. Besides gating ratios, we also examined the brain responses to conditioning and test click stimuli in the sensory gating paradigm separately to clarify if the changes in click amplitudes could explain the maturational change in the T/C ratio in children. Eighteen adults with no known disorders, 25 typical children, and 28 children with SPD participated in this study. The children ranged in ages between 5 and12 years. The three groups differed in their P50 and N100 ERP components. Both child groups displayed significantly less gating than the adults. Children with SPD demonstrated significantly less gating and more within-group variability compared to typical children. There were significant relationships between age and T/C ratios and between age and peak-to-peak amplitude of the conditioning click in typical children but not in children with SPD. Typical children demonstrated significantly smaller brain response amplitudes to the clicks as compared to adults . These findings suggest that there is a maturational course of sensory gating in typical children and if there is a maturational trajectory in children with SPD it appears to be different than typical children. In addition, children with SPD were found to be lacking in their ability to filter out repeated auditory input and failed to selectively regulate their sensitivity to sensory stimuli. PMID:19146890

  14. Neural mechanisms of social dominance

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Noriya; Yamamoto, Miyuki

    2015-01-01

    In a group setting, individuals' perceptions of their own level of dominance or of the dominance level of others, and the ability to adequately control their behavior based on these perceptions are crucial for living within a social environment. Recent advances in neural imaging and molecular technology have enabled researchers to investigate the neural substrates that support the perception of social dominance and the formation of a social hierarchy in humans. At the systems' level, recent studies showed that dominance perception is represented in broad brain regions which include the amygdala, hippocampus, striatum, and various cortical networks such as the prefrontal, and parietal cortices. Additionally, neurotransmitter systems such as the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems, modulate and are modulated by the formation of the social hierarchy in a group. While these monoamine systems have a wide distribution and multiple functions, it was recently found that the Neuropeptide B/W contributes to the perception of dominance and is present in neurons that have a limited projection primarily to the amygdala. The present review discusses the specific roles of these neural regions and neurotransmitter systems in the perception of dominance and in hierarchy formation.

  15. Overlapping structures in sensory-motor mappings.

    PubMed

    Earland, Kevin; Lee, Mark; Shaw, Patricia; Law, James

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a biologically-inspired representation technique designed for the support of sensory-motor learning in developmental robotics. An interesting feature of the many topographic neural sheets in the brain is that closely packed receptive fields must overlap in order to fully cover a spatial region. This raises interesting scientific questions with engineering implications: e.g. is overlap detrimental? does it have any benefits? This paper examines the effects and properties of overlap between elements arranged in arrays or maps. In particular we investigate how overlap affects the representation and transmission of spatial location information on and between topographic maps. Through a series of experiments we determine the conditions under which overlap offers advantages and identify useful ranges of overlap for building mappings in cognitive robotic systems. Our motivation is to understand the phenomena of overlap in order to provide guidance for application in sensory-motor learning robots. PMID:24392118

  16. Exploring Sensory Neuroscience Through Experience and Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Wyttenbach, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Many phenomena that we take for granted are illusions — color and motion on a TV or computer monitor, for example, or the impression of space in a stereo music recording. Even the stable image that we perceive when looking directly at the real world is illusory. One of the important lessons from sensory neuroscience is that our perception of the world is constructed rather than received. Sensory illusions effectively capture student interest, but how do you then move on to substantive discussion of neuroscience? This article illustrates several illusions, attempts to connect them to neuroscience, and shows how students can explore and experiment with them. Even when (as is often the case) there is no agreed-upon mechanistic explanation for an illusion, students can form hypotheses and test them by manipulating stimuli and measuring their effects. In effect, students can experiment with illusions using themselves as subjects. PMID:23493966

  17. The gut as a sensory organ.

    PubMed

    Furness, John B; Rivera, Leni R; Cho, Hyun-Jung; Bravo, David M; Callaghan, Brid

    2013-12-01

    The gastrointestinal tract presents the largest and most vulnerable surface to the outside world. Simultaneously, it must be accessible and permeable to nutrients and must defend against pathogens and potentially injurious chemicals. Integrated responses to these challenges require the gut to sense its environment, which it does through a range of detection systems for specific chemical entities, pathogenic organisms and their products (including toxins), as well as physicochemical properties of its contents. Sensory information is then communicated to four major effector systems: the enteroendocrine hormonal signalling system; the innervation of the gut, both intrinsic and extrinsic; the gut immune system; and the local tissue defence system. Extensive endocrine-neuro-immune-organ-defence interactions are demonstrable, but under-investigated. A major challenge is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the integrated responses of the gut to the sensory information it receives. A major therapeutic opportunity exists to develop agents that target the receptors facing the gut lumen. PMID:24061204

  18. Cartography applications for autonomous sensory agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doumit, Sarjoun; Minai, Ali

    This paper proposes a coverage scheme for the rapid mapping of an area's characteristics by a group of mobile and autonomous sensory agents. It is assumed that the agents utilize the wireless medium for communication, and have limited computational, storage and processing capabilities. These wireless sensory agents collaborate among each other in order to optimize their coverage tasks and communications. In this paper, we present a scheme that helps maximize the system's efficiency through an adaptive coverage algorithm, where agents share information and collectively build a spatio-temporal view of the activity patterns of the area. Our scheme is particularly useful in applications where the events of interest exhibit an oscillatory behavior. Relevant applications include distant scouting and exploratory missions where the size and number of the scouting agents are crucial to the success of the mission.

  19. Silence sets on a sensory map.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Mosi K; Reed, Randall R

    2004-05-27

    Recent efforts to understand the contribution of neuronal activity in the creation of the olfactory sensory map have focused on odor-evoked events. In this issue of Neuron, Yu et al. discover a new role for neuronal activity in the organization and maintenance of the olfactory system. Their results highlight the role of spontaneous activity and synaptic transmission in axon outgrowth and olfactory neuron survival. PMID:15157412

  20. Artificial sensory communications via the tactile sense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moshe Solomonow; John Lyman

    1977-01-01

    The electrotactile two point discrimination threshold (TPDT) was considered as a design concept for multichannel artifical\\u000a sensory communication displays. Data relating two point discrimination threshold with frequency for three stimulation codes\\u000a were used for the analysis and specifications of three classes of optimal displays: space optimal, frequency optimal, and\\u000a space-frequency optimal. A table was constructed showing alternative display configurations for

  1. Robot vision and sensory controls, V

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, N.J.

    1985-01-01

    This book covers the expanding and important subjects of robot vision and sensory controls. These advanced industrial techniques are now solving real application problems and improving productivity, quality, reliability and product cost. RoViSeC embraces the whole spectrum of sensing and measurement, including the technologies of machine vision, pattern recognition, artificial intelligence, tactile and other sensing, speech recognition, voice synthesis, sensor based robots, hardware and software. All aspects of the latest research are included while retaining an essentially practical outlook.

  2. Transient Receptor Potential Channels on Sensory Nerves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Eid; D. N. Cortright

    \\u000a The somatosensory effects of natural products such as capsaicin, mustard oil, and menthol have been long recognized. Over\\u000a the last decade, the identification of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in primary sensory neurons as the targets\\u000a for these agents has led to an explosion of research into the roles of “thermoTRPs” TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPA1, and\\u000a TRPM8 in nociception.

  3. Basic and supplementary sensory feedback in handwriting.

    PubMed

    Danna, Jérémy; Velay, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The mastering of handwriting is so essential in our society that it is important to try to find new methods for facilitating its learning and rehabilitation. The ability to control the graphic movements clearly impacts on the quality of the writing. This control allows both the programming of letter formation before movement execution and the online adjustments during execution, thanks to diverse sensory feedback (FB). New technologies improve existing techniques or enable new methods to supply the writer with real-time computer-assisted FB. The possibilities are numerous and various. Therefore, two main questions arise: (1) What aspect of the movement is concerned and (2) How can we best inform the writer to help them correct their handwriting? In a first step, we report studies on FB naturally used by the writer. The purpose is to determine which information is carried by each sensory modality, how it is used in handwriting control and how this control changes with practice and learning. In a second step, we report studies on supplementary FB provided to the writer to help them to better control and learn how to write. We suggest that, depending on their contents, certain sensory modalities will be more appropriate than others to assist handwriting motor control. We emphasize particularly the relevance of auditory modality as online supplementary FB on handwriting movements. Using real-time supplementary FB to assist in the handwriting process is probably destined for a brilliant future with the growing availability and rapid development of tablets. PMID:25750633

  4. The evolution of the complex sensory and motor systems of the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Kaas, Jon H.

    2008-01-01

    Inferences about how the complex sensory and motor systems of the human brain evolved are based on the results of comparative studies of brain organization across a range of mammalian species, and evidence from the endocasts of fossil skulls of key extinct species. The endocasts of the skulls of early mammals indicate that they had small brains with little neocortex. Evidence from comparative studies of cortical organization from small-brained mammals of the six major branches of mammalian evolution supports the conclusion that the small neocortex of early mammals was divided into roughly 20–25 cortical areas, including primary and secondary sensory fields. In early primates, vision was the dominant sense, and cortical areas associated with vision in temporal and occipital cortex underwent a significant expansion. Comparative studies indicate that early primates had 10 or more visual areas, and somatosensory areas with expanded representations of the forepaw. Posterior parietal cortex was also expanded, with a caudal half dominated by visual inputs, and a rostral half dominated by somatosensory inputs with outputs to an array of seven or more motor and visuomotor areas of the frontal lobe. Somatosensory areas and posterior parietal cortex became further differentiated in early anthropoid primates. As larger brains evolved in early apes and in our hominin ancestors, the number of cortical areas increased to reach an estimated 200 or so in present day humans, and hemispheric specializations emerged. The large human brain grew primarily by increasing neuron number rather than increasing average neuron size. PMID:18331903

  5. Free flight maneuvers of stalk-eyed flies: do eye-stalks affect aerial turning behavior?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gal Ribak; John G. Swallow

    2007-01-01

    The eyes of stalk-eyed flies (Diopsidae) are positioned at the end of rigid peduncles projected laterally from the head. In\\u000a dimorphic species the eye-stalks of males exceed the eye-stalks of females and can exceed body length. Eye-stalk length is\\u000a sexually selected in males improving male reproductive success. We tested whether the long eye-stalks have a negative effect\\u000a on free-flight and

  6. Tickle me, I think I might be dreaming! Sensory attenuation, self-other distinction, and predictive processing in lucid dreams.

    PubMed

    Windt, Jennifer M; Harkness, Dominic L; Lenggenhager, Bigna

    2014-01-01

    The contrast between self- and other-produced tickles, as a special case of sensory attenuation for self-produced actions, has long been a target of empirical research. While in standard wake states it is nearly impossible to tickle oneself, there are interesting exceptions. Notably, participants awakened from REM (rapid eye movement-) sleep dreams are able to tickle themselves. So far, however, the question of whether it is possible to tickle oneself and be tickled by another in the dream state has not been investigated empirically or addressed from a theoretical perspective. Here, we report the results of an explorative web-based study in which participants were asked to rate their sensations during self-tickling and being tickled during wakefulness, imagination, and lucid dreaming. Our results, though highly preliminary, indicate that in the special case of lucid control dreams, the difference between self-tickling and being tickled by another is obliterated, with both self- and other produced tickles receiving similar ratings as self-tickling during wakefulness. This leads us to the speculative conclusion that in lucid control dreams, sensory attenuation for self-produced tickles spreads to those produced by non-self dream characters. These preliminary results provide the backdrop for a more general theoretical and metatheoretical discussion of tickling in lucid dreams in a predictive processing framework. We argue that the primary value of our study lies not so much in our results, which are subject to important limitations, but rather in the fact that they enable a new theoretical perspective on the relationship between sensory attenuation, the self-other distinction and agency, as well as suggest new questions for future research. In particular, the example of tickling during lucid dreaming raises the question of whether sensory attenuation and the self-other distinction can be simulated largely independently of external sensory input. PMID:25278861

  7. Evolution of a polymodal sensory response network

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Jagan; Durak, Omer; Sternberg, Paul W

    2008-01-01

    Background Avoidance of noxious stimuli is essential for the survival of an animal in its natural habitat. Some avoidance responses require polymodal sensory neurons, which sense a range of diverse stimuli, whereas other stimuli require a unimodal sensory neuron, which senses a single stimulus. Polymodality might have evolved to help animals quickly detect and respond to diverse noxious stimuli. Nematodes inhabit diverse habitats and most nematode nervous systems are composed of a small number of neurons, despite a wide assortment in nematode sizes. Given this observation, we speculated that cellular contribution to stereotyped avoidance behaviors would also be conserved between nematode species. The ASH neuron mediates avoidance of three classes of noxious stimuli in Caenorhabditis elegans. Two species of parasitic nematodes also utilize the ASH neuron to avoid certain stimuli. We wanted to extend our knowledge of avoidance behaviors by comparing multiple stimuli in a set of free-living nematode species. Results We used comparative behavioral analysis and laser microsurgery to examine three avoidance behaviors in six diverse species of free-living nematodes. We found that all species tested exhibit avoidance of chemo-, mechano- and osmosensory stimuli. In C. elegans, the bilaterally symmetric polymodal ASH neurons detect all three classes of repellant. We identified the putative ASH neurons in different nematode species by their anatomical positions and showed that in all six species ablation of the ASH neurons resulted in an inability to avoid noxious stimuli. However, in the nematode Pristionchus pacificus, the ADL neuron in addition to the ASH neuron contributed to osmosensation. In the species Caenorhabditis sp. 3, only the ASH neuron was required to mediate nose touch avoidance instead of three neurons in C. elegans. These data suggest that different species can increase or decrease the contribution of additional, non-ASH sensory neurons mediating osmosensation and mechanosensation. Conclusion The overall conservation of ASH mediated polymodal nociception suggests that it is an ancestral evolutionarily stable feature of sensation. However, the finding that contribution from non-ASH sensory neurons mediates polymodal nociception in some nematode species suggests that even in conserved sensory behaviors, the cellular response network is dynamic over evolutionary time, perhaps shaped by adaptation of each species to its environment. PMID:19077305

  8. Gain-of-function mutation in Nav1.7 in familial erythromelalgia induces bursting of sensory neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. Dib-Hajj; A. M. Rush; T. R. Cummins; F. M. Hisama; S. Novella; L. Tyrrell; L. Marshall; S. G. Waxman

    2005-01-01

    Erythromelalgia is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by burning pain in response to warm stimuli or moderate exercise. We describe a novel mutation in a family with erythromelalgia in SCN9A, the gene that encodes the Nav1.7 sodium channel. Nav1.7 produces threshold currents and is selectively expressed within sensory neurons including nociceptors. We demonstrate that this mutation, which produces a hyperpolarizing

  9. Effect of gutting on microbiological, chemical, and sensory properties of aquacultured sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax) stored in ice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V Papadopoulos; I Chouliara; A Badeka; I. N Savvaidis; M. G Kontominas

    2003-01-01

    The effect of gutting on microbiological, chemical, and sensory properties of aqua-cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) stored in ice was studied. Pseudomonads and H2S-producing bacteria (including Shewanella putrefaciens) were the dominant bacteria at the end of the 16-day storage period in ice for both whole ungutted and gutted sea bass. Brochothrix thermosphacta and Enterobacteriaceae were also found in the spoilage

  10. Crocodylians evolved scattered multi-sensory micro-organs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During their evolution towards a complete life cycle on land, stem reptiles developed both an impermeable multi-layered keratinized epidermis and skin appendages (scales) providing mechanical, thermal, and chemical protection. Previous studies have demonstrated that, despite the presence of a particularly armored skin, crocodylians have exquisite mechanosensory abilities thanks to the presence of small integumentary sensory organs (ISOs) distributed on postcranial and/or cranial scales. Results Here, we analyze and compare the structure, innervation, embryonic morphogenesis and sensory functions of postcranial, cranial, and lingual sensory organs of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) and the spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus). Our molecular analyses indicate that sensory neurons of crocodylian ISOs express a large repertoire of transduction channels involved in mechano-, thermo-, and chemosensory functions, and our electrophysiological analyses confirm that each ISO exhibits a combined sensitivity to mechanical, thermal and pH stimuli (but not hyper-osmotic salinity), making them remarkable multi-sensorial micro-organs with no equivalent in the sensory systems of other vertebrate lineages. We also show that ISOs all exhibit similar morphologies and modes of development, despite forming at different stages of scale morphogenesis across the body. Conclusions The ancestral vertebrate diffused sensory system of the skin was transformed in the crocodylian lineages into an array of discrete multi-sensory micro-organs innervated by multiple pools of sensory neurons. This discretization of skin sensory expression sites is unique among vertebrates and allowed crocodylians to develop a highly-armored, but very sensitive, skin. PMID:23819918

  11. Hierarchical sparse coding in the sensory system of Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Zaslaver, Alon; Liani, Idan; Shtangel, Oshrat; Ginzburg, Shira; Yee, Lisa; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    Animals with compact sensory systems face an encoding problem where a small number of sensory neurons are required to encode information about its surrounding complex environment. Using Caenorhabditis elegans worms as a model, we ask how chemical stimuli are encoded by a small and highly connected sensory system. We first generated a comprehensive library of transgenic worms where each animal expresses a genetically encoded calcium indicator in individual sensory neurons. This library includes the vast majority of the sensory system in C. elegans. Imaging from individual sensory neurons while subjecting the worms to various stimuli allowed us to compile a comprehensive functional map of the sensory system at single neuron resolution. The functional map reveals that despite the dense wiring, chemosensory neurons represent the environment using sparse codes. Moreover, although anatomically closely connected, chemo- and mechano-sensory neurons are functionally segregated. In addition, the code is hierarchical, where few neurons participate in encoding multiple cues, whereas other sensory neurons are stimulus specific. This encoding strategy may have evolved to mitigate the constraints of a compact sensory system. PMID:25583501

  12. Sensory Features as Diagnostic Criteria for Autism: Sensory Features in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Grapel, Jordan N.; Cicchetti, Domenic V.; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the frequency of sensory-related issues as reported by parents in a large sample of school-age adolescents and adults with autism/autism spectrum disorder (ASD) [1] as compared to a group of individuals receiving similar clinical evaluations for developmental/behavioral difficulties but whose final diagnoses were not on the autism spectrum. In no comparison were the features examined predictive of autism or autism spectrum in comparison to the non-ASD sample. Only failure to respond to noises had sensitivity above .75 in the comparison of the broader autism spectrum group, but specificity was poor. While sensory issues are relatively common in autism/ASD, they are also frequent in other disorders. These results question the rationale for including sensory items as a diagnostic criterion for autism. PMID:25745375

  13. Eye Carduino: A Car Control System using Eye Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Arjun; Nagaraj, Disha; Louzardo, Joel; Hegde, Rajeshwari

    2011-12-01

    Modern automotive systems are rapidly becoming highly of transportation, but can be a web integrated media centre. This paper explains the implementation of a vehicle control defined and characterized by embedded electronics and software. With new technologies, the vehicle industry is facing new opportunities and also new challenges. Electronics have improved the performance of vehicles and at the same time, new more complex applications are introduced. Examples of high level applications include adaptive cruise control and electronic stability programs (ESP). Further, a modern vehicle does not have to be merely a means using only eye movements. The EyeWriter's native hardware and software work to return the co-ordinates of where the user is looking. These co-ordinates are then used to control the car. A centre-point is defined on the screen. The higher on the screen the user's gaze is, the faster the car will accelerate. Braking is done by looking below centre. Steering is done by looking left and right on the screen.

  14. Laser-generated ultrasound in the eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadr, A.; Payne, P. A.; Rosen, E. S.; Dewhurst, R. J.

    1999-12-01

    There is a clinical need for an instrument capable of measuring properties of the eye beyond those presently available. In this paper, a new laser ultrasound technique is discussed for assessing the characteristics of eyes—using a novel form of probe. Laser-ultrasound transients were generated within bovine eyes using a frequency doubled Nd: YAG Q-switched laser pulse. A fibre optic delivery system was used with a PVDF probe attached concentrically to its end. By investigating, under saline, fresh postmortem bovine eyes, it is shown that non-invasive measurement is possible for overall dimensions of the eye, as well as the size of the anterior chamber. Ultrasound features can be identified with different interfaces in the layered structure of the eye, with amplitudes dependant on the relative absorption coefficients across internal interfaces.

  15. Dominant Sets and Pairwise Clustering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massimiliano Pavan; Marcello Pelillo

    2007-01-01

    Abstract—We developa,newgraph-theoretic approach,for pairwise data clustering which is motivated,by the analogies,between,the intuitive concept,of a cluster and that of a dominant set of vertices, a notion introduced here which generalizes that of a maximal,complete,subgraph,to edge-weighted,graphs. We establish a correspondence,between,dominant,sets and the extrema,of a quadratic form over the standard simplex, thereby allowing the use of straightforward and easily implementable,continuous,optimization techniques,from evolutionary game,theory.

  16. Dominant resistance against plant viruses

    PubMed Central

    de Ronde, Dryas; Butterbach, Patrick; Kormelink, Richard

    2014-01-01

    To establish a successful infection plant viruses have to overcome a defense system composed of several layers. This review will overview the various strategies plants employ to combat viral infections with main emphasis on the current status of single dominant resistance (R) genes identified against plant viruses and the corresponding avirulence (Avr) genes identified so far. The most common models to explain the mode of action of dominant R genes will be presented. Finally, in brief the hypersensitive response (HR) and extreme resistance (ER), and the functional and structural similarity of R genes to sensors of innate immunity in mammalian cell systems will be described. PMID:25018765

  17. The Anatomy of the Eye

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Henderson, Tom

    Created by Tom Henderson of the Physics Classroom, this item is devoted to the physics of sight, the author explores how the human eye is able to refract light to produce a focused image. Included are explanations of how the cornea acts as a double convex lens and how the brain converts nerve impulses from incoming light to inverted images on the retina. The inclusion of lens and magnification calculations focuses the material specifically for the physics teacher or learner. This page is part of a larger online collection.

  18. The Eye: Structure and Function

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Donovan, Amy.

    This Web site contains a straightforward lesson plan for 6-8th graders from DiscoverySchool.com. The lesson plan has students conduct online and library research on the diversity of eyes in the animal kingdom. Links to useful Web sites are provided, as is a short glossary. Users can download a printable version of the lesson plan. The lesson plan, which takes 1-2 class periods to complete, includes a student evaluation guide that emphasized research and presentation skills, as well as capacity for group work.

  19. Lung Cancer and Eye Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Lampaki, Sofia; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Lazaridis, George; Syrigos, Konstantinos; Trakada, Georgia; Kakolyris, Stylianos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Rapti, Aggeliki; Zarogoulidis, Paul

    2014-01-01

    It has been observed that lung cancer either non-small cell or small cell is responsible for eye metastases. This form of metastases in several cases was the first manifestation of the disease and further investigation led to the diagnosis of the underlying malignancy. Both types of lung cancer are equally responsible for this demonstration. Furthermore; both chemotherapy and tyrosine kinase inhibitors have shown equal positive results in treating the exophalmos manifestation. Up to date information will be presented in our current work. PMID:25738158

  20. Eyes on target: what neurons must do for the vestibuloocular reflex during linear motion.

    PubMed

    Angelaki, Dora E

    2004-07-01

    A gaze-stabilization reflex that has been conserved throughout evolution is the rotational vestibuloocular reflex (RVOR), which keeps images stable on the entire retina during head rotation. An ethological newer reflex, the translational or linear VOR (TVOR), provides fast foveal image stabilization during linear motion. Whereas the sensorimotor processing has been extensively studied in the RVOR, much less is currently known about the neural organization of the TVOR. Here we summarize the computational problems faced by the system and the potential solutions that might be used by brain stem and cerebellar neurons participating in the VORs. First and foremost, recent experimental and theoretical evidence has shown that, contrary to popular beliefs, the sensory signals driving the TVOR arise from both the otolith organs and the semicircular canals. Additional unresolved issues include a scaling by both eye position and vergence angle as well as the temporal transformation of linear acceleration signals into eye-position commands. Behavioral differences between the RVOR and TVOR, as well as distinct differences in neuroanatomical and neurophysiological properties, raise multiple functional questions and computational issues, only some of which are readily understood. In this review, we provide a summary of what is known about the functional properties and neural substrates for this oculomotor system and outline some specific hypotheses about how sensory information is centrally processed to create motor commands for the VORs. PMID:15212435