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1

Sensory afferent segregation in three-eared frogs resemble the dominance columns observed in three-eyed frogs.  

PubMed

The formation of proper sensory afferent connections during development is essential for brain function. Activity-based competition is believed to drive ocular dominance columns (ODC) in mammals and in experimentally-generated three-eyed frogs. ODC formation is thus a compromise of activity differences between two eyes and similar molecular cues. To gauge the generality of graphical map formation in the brain, we investigated the inner ear projection, known for its well-defined and early segregation of afferents from vestibular and auditory endorgans. In analogy to three eyed-frogs, we generated three-eared frogs to assess to what extent vestibular afferents from two adjacent ears could segregate. Donor ears were transplanted either in the native orientation or rotated by 90 degrees. These manipulations should result in either similar or different induced activity between both ears, respectively. Three-eared frogs with normal orientation showed normal swimming whereas those with a rotated third ear showed aberrant behaviors. Projection studies revealed that only afferents from the rotated ears segregated from those from the native ear within the vestibular nucleus, resembling the ocular dominance columns formed in three-eyed frogs. Vestibular segregation suggests that mechanisms comparable to those operating in the ODC formation of the visual system may act on vestibular projection refinements. PMID:25661240

Elliott, Karen L; Houston, Douglas W; Fritzsch, Bernd

2015-01-01

2

What does the dominant eye dominate? A brief and somewhat contentious review  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine a set of implicit and explicit claims about the concept of eye dominance that have been made over the years and\\u000a note that the new literature on eye dominance does not reflect the old literature from the first half of the last century.\\u000a We argue that the visual and oculomotor function of the dominant eye—defined by such criteria

Alistair P. Mapp; Hiroshi Ono; Raphael Barbeito

2003-01-01

3

Real-time modulation of perceptual eye dominance in humans.  

PubMed

Ocular dominance (OD) has long served as the model for neural plasticity. The shift of OD has been demonstrated by monocular deprivation in animals only during early visual development. Here, for the first time, we show that perceptual eye dominance can be modulated in real time in normal human adults by varying the spatial image content of movies seen dichoptically by the two eyes over a period as short as 2.5 h. Unlike OD shifts seen in early visual development, this modulation in human eye dominance is not simply a consequence of reduced interocular correlation (e.g. synchronicity) or overall contrast energy, but due to the amplitude reductions of specific image components in one eye's view. The spatial properties driving this eye dominance change suggest that the underlying mechanism is binocular but not orientationally selective, therefore uniquely locating it to layer 4 B of area V1. PMID:25274364

Zhou, Jiawei; Reynaud, Alexandre; Hess, Robert F

2014-11-22

4

Pax6 in the sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes: evidence for a role in eye, sensory organ and brain development  

E-print Network

Pax6 in the sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes: evidence for a role in eye, sensory organ and brain of a Pax6 orthologue from the sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes and its developmental expression pattern Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Pax6; Squid; Euprymna scolopes; Eye; Sensory

McFall-Ngai, Margaret

5

Effects of monocular viewing and eye dominance on spatial attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Observations in primates and patients with unilateral spatial neglect have suggested that patching of the eye ipsilateral to the injury and contralateral to the neg- lected space can sometimes improve attention to the neglected space. Investigators have generally attributed the effects of monocular eye patching to activation of subcortical centers that interact with cortical attentional systems. Eye patching is

Heidi L. Roth; Andrea N. Lora; Kenneth M. Heilman

2002-01-01

6

Discovery of some 400 million year-old sensory structures in the compound eyes of trilobites  

PubMed Central

Fossilised arthropod compound eyes have frequently been described. Among the oldest known are those from the lower Cambrian of the Chengjiang Lagerstätte (China, c 525?Ma). All these compound eyes, though often excellently preserved, however, represent just the outer shells, because soft tissues, or even individual cells, usually do not fossilise. Using modern techniques, including ?ct-scanning and synchrotron radiation analysis we present the discovery of the sensory cell system of compound eyes, belonging to trilobites around 400 million years old, which allows their description and analysis. They are interpreted as forming part of an apposition-like ommatidium, which is a basic functional type of compound eye present in arthropods of today. Considered in greater detail, it is similar to the compound eye of the horseshoe crab Limulus, generally regarded as a ‘living fossil’, which probably retained this ancient basal system successfully until today. PMID:23492459

Schoenemann, Brigitte; Clarkson, Euan N. K.

2013-01-01

7

Social dominance and migratory restlessness in the dark-eyed junco ( Junco hyemalis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

I investigated the effect of restricted food and social dominance on nocturnal migratory activity (Zugunruhe) in dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) in late fall and winter. Highly restricted food tended to increase Zugunruhe in both dominant and subordinate members of pairs, however, subordinates showed significantly more migratory activity than dominants or solitary controls. Further, subordinate birds continued Zugunruhe after dominants and

Scott B. Terrill

1987-01-01

8

Author's personal copy Eye color predicts but does not directly influence perceived dominance in men  

E-print Network

different colors spanning from dark brown to light blue, the overall shape is horizontally prolonged, etc brown-eyed children (Rosenberg & Kagan, 1987, 1989). Blue iris color also covaries with infant highAuthor's personal copy Eye color predicts but does not directly influence perceived dominance

Flegr, Jaroslav

9

Using an auditory sensory substitution device to augment vision: evidence from eye movements.  

PubMed

Sensory substitution devices convert information normally associated with one sense into another sense (e.g. converting vision into sound). This is often done to compensate for an impaired sense. The present research uses a multimodal approach in which both natural vision and sound-from-vision ('soundscapes') are simultaneously presented. Although there is a systematic correspondence between what is seen and what is heard, we introduce a local discrepancy between the signals (the presence of a target object that is heard but not seen) that the participant is required to locate. In addition to behavioural responses, the participants' gaze is monitored with eye-tracking. Although the target object is only presented in the auditory channel, behavioural performance is enhanced when visual information relating to the non-target background is presented. In this instance, vision may be used to generate predictions about the soundscape that enhances the ability to detect the hidden auditory object. The eye-tracking data reveal that participants look for longer in the quadrant containing the auditory target even when they subsequently judge it to be located elsewhere. As such, eye movements generated by soundscapes reveal the knowledge of the target location that does not necessarily correspond to the actual judgment made. The results provide a proof of principle that multimodal sensory substitution may be of benefit to visually impaired people with some residual vision and, in normally sighted participants, for guiding search within complex scenes. PMID:25511162

Wright, Thomas D; Margolis, Aaron; Ward, Jamie

2015-03-01

10

SPTLC1 and RAB7 mutation analysis in dominantly inherited and idiopathic sensory neuropathies  

PubMed Central

Objective: To screen persons with dominantly inherited HSAN I and others with idiopathic sensory neuropathies for known mutations of SPTLC1 and RAB7. Patients: DNA was examined from well characterised individuals of 25 kindreds with adult onset HSAN I for mutations of SPTLC1 and RAB7; 92 patients with idiopathic sensory neuropathy were also screened for known mutations of these genes. Results: Of the 25 kindreds, only one had a mutation (SPTLC1 399T?G). This kindred, and 10 without identified mutations, had prominent mutilating foot injuries with peroneal weakness. Of the remainder, 12 had foot insensitivity with injuries but no weakness, one had restless legs and burning feet, and one had dementia with hearing loss. No mutation of RAB7 was found in any of these. No known mutations of SPTLC1 or RAB7 were found in cases of idiopathic sensory neuropathy. Conclusions: Adult onset HSAN I is clinically and genetically heterogeneous and further work is required to identify additional genetic causes. Known SPTLC1or RAB7 mutations were not found in idiopathic sensory neuropathy. PMID:15965219

Klein, C; Wu, Y; Kruckeberg, K; Hebbring, S; Anderson, S; Cunningham, J; Dyck, P; Klein, D; Thibodeau, S; Dyck, P

2005-01-01

11

Costs of switching social groups for dominant and subordinate dark-eyed juncos ( Junco hyemalis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

I quantified the costs of switching from a familiar to an unfamiliar flock for captive dark-eyed juncos (Junco h. hyemalis) by measuring several physiological and behavioral variables before and after flock switching. Birds that were initially dominant dropped in status in unfamiliar flocks, and experienced increased metabolic rates, while subordinate birds appeared to undergo less physiological change when switching flocks.

Daniel A. Cristoll

1995-01-01

12

Changes in Sensory Dominance during Childhood: Converging Evidence from the Colavita Effect and the Sound-Induced Flash Illusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In human adults, visual dominance emerges in several multisensory tasks. In children, auditory dominance has been reported up to 4 years of age. To establish when sensory dominance changes during development, 41 children (6-7, 9-10, and 11-12 years) were tested on the Colavita task (Experiment 1) and 32 children (6-7, 9-10, and 11-12 years) were…

Nava, Elena; Pavani, Francesco

2013-01-01

13

Effects of eye dominance (left vs. right) and cannabis use on intermanual coordination and negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients.  

PubMed

Based on the previous findings, it has been assumed that in schizophrenia patients, eye dominance and cannabis use will affect negative symptoms and intermanual coordination (IMC), an index of interhemispheric communication. But eye dominance, specifically the clinical findings for it, has been neglected in schizophrenia research. We therefore investigated its effects in 52 right-handed (36 right-eyed and 16 left-eyed) and 51 left-handed (35 left-eyed and 16 right-eyed) schizophrenia in-patients without and with drug use. Eye dominance affected IMC in all schizophrenia patients. When comparing right- and left-handers, we found that this result was only significant in the right-handed patients and in the smaller subgroup without drug use. In the right-handers, left eye dominance-like left-handedness-was associated with higher values in IMC and less pronounced manifestation of negative symptoms, right eye dominance was not. Thus, left-eyed right-handers may be more closely related to left-handers than to right-handers. In accordance with the results from the literature, we suggest that these findings are due to better interhemispheric connections and less impairment of white matter structures, especially in right-hemispheric regions. Moreover, cannabis use was related to higher scores in IMC and less pronounced negative symptoms, but only in the right-eyed and not in the left-eyed right-handers or in the left-handers. Hence, differences in eye dominance and handedness may be partially responsible for different results in interhemispheric connections among cannabis users. In conclusion, both eye dominance and use of cannabis should be taken into account when assessing clinical symptoms in schizophrenia patients. PMID:24792218

Gorynia, Inge; Schwaiger, Markus; Heinz, Andreas

2014-12-01

14

Monocular tool control, eye dominance, and laterality in new caledonian crows.  

PubMed

Tool use, though rare, is taxonomically widespread, but morphological adaptations for tool use are virtually unknown [1]. We focus on the New Caledonian crow (NCC, Corvus moneduloides), which displays some of the most innovative tool-related behavior among nonhumans [2-6]. One of their major food sources is larvae extracted from burrows with sticks held diagonally [7] in the bill, oriented with individual, but not species-wide, laterality [8, 9]. Among possible behavioral [10] and anatomical adaptations for tool use [5, 11-15], NCCs possess unusually wide binocular visual fields (up to 60°), suggesting that extreme binocular vision may facilitate tool use [5]. Here, we establish that during natural extractions, tool tips can only be viewed by the contralateral eye. Thus, maintaining binocular view of tool tips is unlikely to have selected for wide binocular fields; the selective factor is more likely to have been to allow each eye to see far enough across the midsagittal line to view the tool's tip monocularly [5, 16]. Consequently, we tested the hypothesis that tool side preference follows eye preference and found that eye dominance does predict tool laterality across individuals. This contrasts with humans' species-wide motor laterality and uncorrelated motor-visual laterality [17], possibly because bill-held tools are viewed monocularly and move in concert with eyes, whereas hand-held tools are visible to both eyes and allow independent combinations of eye preference and handedness. This difference may affect other models of coordination between vision and mechanical control, not necessarily involving tools. PMID:25484292

Martinho, Antone; Burns, Zackory T; von Bayern, Auguste M P; Kacelnik, Alex

2014-12-15

15

Anim. Behav., 1989,37,498-506 Does dominance determine how far dark-eyed juncos, Junco hyemulis,  

E-print Network

. The outcomes of interactions within dyads of dark-eyed juncos, Junco hyemalis, were observed. Each dyadAnim. Behav., 1989,37,498-506 Does dominance determine how far dark-eyed juncos, Junco hyemulis consisted of a junco caught in winter in Michigan matched with another of the same sex-age class caught

Theimer, Tad

16

Diagnosis of dyslexia by means of a new indicator of eye dominance.  

PubMed Central

Many dyslexic children are unable accurately to control the movements of their eyes even when they are not trying to read. This immaturity helps to explain their visual confusions. It may result from failure to develop dependable associations between retinal and ocular motor signals these are essential to fix the true, as opposed to retinotopic, locations of objects in the outside world. We have used a new test to study retinal/ocular motor correspondence in dyslexic children and age/IQ matched normal readers. Over half the dyslexics showed unstable ocular motor dominance. PMID:7074007

Stein, J F; Fowler, S

1982-01-01

17

The relationship between spatial cognition and walking trajectory for passing through a doorway: Evident in individuals with dominant right eye?  

PubMed

When individuals attempt to walk through the center of a doorway (i.e., spatial bisection), the body's midpoint at crossing can deviate from its true center. Such deviation could result from asymmetry in spatial cognition. However, previous studies failed to find a significant correlation between bisection performance during walking and that during line/spatial bisection. We investigated whether such failure would result from different effectors being used for bisection (i.e., body midpoint or finger/laser pointer). We also investigated whether the difference in an individual's eye dominance would affect the relationship. Thirty-two young adults (16 of them with right-eye dominance) participated. For a walking task, participants walked through the perceived center of a wide doorway. For a spatial bisection task, they observed the same doorway under two distance conditions (about 0.5 and 2 m) and aligned their body midpoint with the perceived center in the sagittal dimension. Both tasks were performed under three visual occlusion conditions (dominant eye, non-dominant eye, and no occlusion). The results showed that, for the spatial bisection task, occluding the dominant eye caused deviation of the bisected point to the contralateral side. However, for the walking task, such an effect was observed only in participants with a dominant right eye. Consequently, directional biases in both tasks were significantly correlated only for right-eye-dominant participants. These results suggest that, for right-eye-dominant individuals only, use of the same effector for both tasks showed a clear relationship between the two tasks. Possible explanations for these findings were discussed. PMID:25432626

Kitayama, Seiya; Fujikake, Hiroya; Kokubu, Masahiro; Higuchi, Takahiro

2015-03-01

18

Binocular Neurons in Parastriate Cortex: Interocular ‘Matching’ of Receptive Field Properties, Eye Dominance and Strength of Silent Suppression  

PubMed Central

Spike-responses of single binocular neurons were recorded from a distinct part of primary visual cortex, the parastriate cortex (cytoarchitectonic area 18) of anaesthetized and immobilized domestic cats. Functional identification of neurons was based on the ratios of phase-variant (F1) component to the mean firing rate (F0) of their spike-responses to optimized (orientation, direction, spatial and temporal frequencies and size) sine-wave-luminance-modulated drifting grating patches presented separately via each eye. In over 95% of neurons, the interocular differences in the phase-sensitivities (differences in F1/F0 spike-response ratios) were small (?0.3) and in over 80% of neurons, the interocular differences in preferred orientations were ?10°. The interocular correlations of the direction selectivity indices and optimal spatial frequencies, like those of the phase sensitivies and optimal orientations, were also strong (coefficients of correlation r ?0.7005). By contrast, the interocular correlations of the optimal temporal frequencies, the diameters of summation areas of the excitatory responses and suppression indices were weak (coefficients of correlation r ?0.4585). In cells with high eye dominance indices (HEDI cells), the mean magnitudes of suppressions evoked by stimulation of silent, extra-classical receptive fields via the non-dominant eyes, were significantly greater than those when the stimuli were presented via the dominant eyes. We argue that the well documented ‘eye-origin specific’ segregation of the lateral geniculate inputs underpinning distinct eye dominance columns in primary visual cortices of mammals with frontally positioned eyes (distinct eye dominance columns), combined with significant interocular differences in the strength of silent suppressive fields, putatively contribute to binocular stereoscopic vision. PMID:24927276

Wang, Chun; Dreher, Bogdan

2014-01-01

19

Binocular Summation and Other Forms of Non-Dominant Eye Contribution in Individuals with Strabismic Amblyopia during Habitual Viewing  

PubMed Central

Background Adults with amblyopia (‘lazy eye’), long-standing strabismus (ocular misalignment) or both typically do not experience visual symptoms because the signal from weaker eye is given less weight than the signal from its fellow. Here we examine the contribution of the weaker eye of individuals with strabismus and amblyopia with both eyes open and with the deviating eye in its anomalous motor position. Methodology/Results The task consisted of a blue-on-yellow detection task along a horizontal line across the central 50 degrees of the visual field. We compare the results obtained in ten individuals with strabismic amblyopia with ten visual normals. At each field location in each participant, we examined how the sensitivity exhibited under binocular conditions compared with sensitivity from four predictions, (i) a model of binocular summation, (ii) the average of the monocular sensitivities, (iii) dominant-eye sensitivity or (iv) non-dominant-eye sensitivity. The proportion of field locations for which the binocular summation model provided the best description of binocular sensitivity was similar in normals (50.6%) and amblyopes (48.2%). Average monocular sensitivity matched binocular sensitivity in 14.1% of amblyopes’ field locations compared to 8.8% of normals’. Dominant-eye sensitivity explained sensitivity at 27.1% of field locations in amblyopes but 21.2% in normals. Non-dominant-eye sensitivity explained sensitivity at 10.6% of field locations in amblyopes but 19.4% in normals. Binocular summation provided the best description of the sensitivity profile in 6/10 amblyopes compared to 7/10 of normals. In three amblyopes, dominant-eye sensitivity most closely reflected binocular sensitivity (compared to two normals) and in the remaining amblyope, binocular sensitivity approximated to an average of the monocular sensitivities. Conclusions Our results suggest a strong positive contribution in habitual viewing from the non-dominant eye in strabismic amblyopes. This is consistent with evidence from other sources that binocular mechanisms are frequently intact in strabismic and amblyopic individuals. PMID:24205005

Barrett, Brendan T.; Panesar, Gurvinder K.; Scally, Andrew J.; Pacey, Ian E.

2013-01-01

20

A push-pull treatment for strengthening the 'lazy eye' in amblyopia.  

PubMed

Almost all individuals exhibit sensory eye dominance, one neural basis of which is unequal interocular inhibition. Sensory eye dominance can impair binocular functions that depend on both excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms. We developed a 'push-pull' perceptual learning protocol that simultaneously affects the excitatory and inhibitory networks to reduce sensory eye dominance and improve stereopsis in adults with otherwise normal vision. The push-pull protocol provides a promising clinical paradigm for treating the extreme sensory eye dominance in amblyopia ('lazy eye'). The prevailing standard of care does not directly treat sensory eye dominance; instead, selected excitatory functions in the amblyopic eye are stimulated while the strong eye is patched, on the assumption that recovery of the weak eye's excitatory functions rebalances the eyes. Patching the strong eye does not directly address interocular inhibition; in contrast, the push-pull protocol by design excites the weak eye, while completely inhibiting the strong eye's perception to recalibrate the interocular balance of excitatory and inhibitory interactions. Here, we show that three adult amblyopes who trained on the push-pull protocol gained longstanding improvements in interocular balance and stereopsis. Our findings provide a proof-of-concept and evidence that push-pull learning leads to long-term plasticity. PMID:23618663

Ooi, Teng Leng; Su, Yong R; Natale, Danielle M; He, Zijiang J

2013-04-22

21

KCNQ4, a novel potassium channel expressed in sensory outer hair cells, is mutated in dominant deafness.  

PubMed

Potassium channels regulate electrical signaling and the ionic composition of biological fluids. Mutations in the three known genes of the KCNQ branch of the K+ channel gene family underlie inherited cardiac arrhythmias (in some cases associated with deafness) and neonatal epilepsy. We have now cloned KCNQ4, a novel member of this branch. It maps to the DFNA2 locus for a form of nonsyndromic dominant deafness. In the cochlea, it is expressed in sensory outer hair cells. A mutation in this gene in a DFNA2 pedigree changes a residue in the KCNQ4 pore region. It abolishes the potassium currents of wild-type KCNQ4 on which it exerts a strong dominant-negative effect. Whereas mutations in KCNQ1 cause deafness by affecting endolymph secretion, the mechanism leading to KCNQ4-related hearing loss is intrinsic to outer hair cells. PMID:10025409

Kubisch, C; Schroeder, B C; Friedrich, T; Lütjohann, B; El-Amraoui, A; Marlin, S; Petit, C; Jentsch, T J

1999-02-01

22

AGONISTIC SENSORY EFFECTS OF AIRBORNE CHEMICALS IN MIXTURES: ODOR, NASAL PUNGENCY, AND EYE IRRITATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Threshold responses of odor, nasal pungency (irritation), and eye irritation were measured for single chemicals (1-propanol, 1-hexanol, ethyl acetate, heptyl acetate, 2-pentanone, 2-heptanone, toluene, ethyl benzene, and propyl benzene) and mixtures of them (two three-component m...

23

Deletion of Ten-m3 Induces the Formation of Eye Dominance Domains in Mouse Visual Cortex  

PubMed Central

The visual system is characterized by precise retinotopic mapping of each eye, together with exquisitely matched binocular projections. In many species, the inputs that represent the eyes are segregated into ocular dominance columns in primary visual cortex (V1), whereas in rodents, this does not occur. Ten-m3, a member of the Ten-m/Odz/Teneurin family, regulates axonal guidance in the retinogeniculate pathway. Significantly, ipsilateral projections are expanded in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and are not aligned with contralateral projections in Ten-m3 knockout (KO) mice. Here, we demonstrate the impact of altered retinogeniculate mapping on the organization and function of V1. Transneuronal tracing and c-fos immunohistochemistry demonstrate that the subcortical expansion of ipsilateral input is conveyed to V1 in Ten-m3 KOs: Ipsilateral inputs are widely distributed across V1 and are interdigitated with contralateral inputs into eye dominance domains. Segregation is confirmed by optical imaging of intrinsic signals. Single-unit recording shows ipsilateral, and contralateral inputs are mismatched at the level of single V1 neurons, and binocular stimulation leads to functional suppression of these cells. These findings indicate that the medial expansion of the binocular zone together with an interocular mismatch is sufficient to induce novel structural features, such as eye dominance domains in rodent visual cortex. PMID:22499796

Merlin, Sam; Horng, Sam; Marotte, Lauren R.; Sur, Mriganka; Sawatari, Atomu

2013-01-01

24

Ocular Dominance and Visual Function Testing  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To show the distribution of ocular dominance as measured with sensory and eye sighting methods and its potential relationship with high and low contrast LogMAR visual acuity in presbyopic subjects. Method. Forty-four presbyopes (48.5 ± 3.5 years) participated in this study. Ocular dominance was determined by eye sighting (hole-in-card) and sensorial (+1.50?D lens induced blur) methods. According to the dominance detected with each method (RE: right eye or LE: left eye), patients were classified in dominance type 1 (RE/RE), type 2 (RE/LE), type 3 (LE/RE) and type 4 (LE/LE). Results. Baseline refractive error (MSE) was RE:?0.36 ± 1.67?D and LE:?0.35 ± 1.85?D (P = 0.930). RE was the dominant eye in 61.4% and 70.5% of times as obtained from sensorial and sighting methods, respectively. Most frequent dominance was of type 1 (52.3%), in this case the RE showed statistically significant better distance low contrast LogMAR VA (0.04 LogMAR units) compared to the LE (P < 0.05). Conclusions. The dominance was more frequent in RE in this sample. The eye sighting and sensorial methods to define ocular dominance agreed in more than half of cases. Amount of MSE was not significantly different between dominant and non-dominant eye. But in case of right dominance, the RE presented better distance low contrast VA compared to the LE. PMID:24319677

Lopes-Ferreira, D.; Neves, H.; Queiros, A.; Faria-Ribeiro, M.; Peixoto-de-Matos, S. C.; González-Méijome, J. M.

2013-01-01

25

Dominance of local sensory signals over inter-segmental effects in a motor system: experiments.  

PubMed

Legged locomotion requires that information local to one leg, and inter-segmental signals coming from the other legs are processed appropriately to establish a coordinated walking pattern. However, very little is known about the relative importance of local and inter-segmental signals when they converge upon the central pattern generators (CPGs) of different leg joints. We investigated this question on the CPG of the middle leg coxa-trochanter (CTr)-joint of the stick insect which is responsible for lifting and lowering the leg. We used a semi-intact preparation with an intact front leg stepping on a treadmill, and simultaneously stimulated load sensors of the middle leg. We found that middle leg load signals induce bursts in the middle leg depressor motoneurons (MNs). The same local load signals could also elicit rhythmic activity in the CPG of the middle leg CTr-joint when the stimulation of middle leg load sensors coincided with front leg stepping. However, the influence of front leg stepping was generally weak such that front leg stepping alone was only rarely accompanied by switching between middle leg levator and depressor MN activity. We therefore conclude that the impact of the local sensory signals on the levator-depressor motor system is stronger than the inter-segmental influence through front leg stepping. PMID:22290138

Borgmann, Anke; Toth, Tibor I; Gruhn, Matthias; Daun-Gruhn, Silvia; Büschges, Ansgar

2012-01-31

26

Dominance of local sensory signals over inter-segmental effects in a motor system: modeling studies.  

PubMed

Recent experiments, reported in the accompanying paper, have supplied key data on the impact afferent excitation has on the activity of the levator-depressor motor system of an extremity in the stick insect. The main finding was that, stimulation of the campaniform sensillae of the partially amputated middle leg in an animal where all other but one front leg had been removed, had a dominating effect over that of the stepping ipsilateral front leg. In fact, the latter effect was minute compared to the former. In this article, we propose a local network that involves the neuronal part of the levator-depressor motor system and use it to elucidate the mechanisms that underlie the generation of neuronal activity in the experiments. In particular, we show that by appropriately modulating the activity in the neurons of the central pattern generator of the levator-depressor motor system, we obtain activity patterns of the motoneurons in the model that closely resemble those found in extracellular recordings in the stick insect. In addition, our model predicts specific properties of these records which depend on the stimuli applied to the stick insect leg. We also discuss our results on the segmental mechanisms in the context of inter-segmental coordination. PMID:22290139

Daun-Gruhn, Silvia; Tóth, Tibor I; Borgmann, Anke

2012-01-31

27

FLOCK STABILITY IN RELATION TO SOCIAL DOMINANCE AND AGONISTIC BEHAVIOR IN WINTERING DARK-EYED JUNCOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines some consequences of changes in the membership and lo- cation of winter flocks of Dark-eyed Juncos (Junco hyemalis). Among captives, intragroup social relationships seldom were affected by separation from or subsequent reunion with another portion of the home flock, by amalgamation with or separation from a foreign flock, or by changes in flock location. Foreign flock members

MARTHA HATCH BALPH

28

Virally mediated knock-down of NR2 subunits ipsilateral to the deprived eye blocks ocular dominance plasticity.  

PubMed

NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are important in developmental plasticity in the visual cortex. The NR2A and NR2B subunits of this receptor develop with different time courses, suggesting that they play different roles in plasticity. To understand the role of the NR2B subunit, we knocked-down NR2B gene expression in visual cortex by injecting a recombinant adenovirus containing an antisense NR2B oligonucleotide. To assess knock-down, we injected the recombinant adenovirus into the right visual cortex of rats (p22) or mice (p30). Eight days later we perfused the animals and processed the visual cortex for NMDAR subunit immunoreactivity (IR). NR2B-IR was depleted dramatically in the neuropil near the injection. Depletion was more modest in the neuronal somata. Surprisingly, NR2A-IR was also reduced, but NR1-IR was not reduced. To assess the functional effects of depletion, we measured ocular dominance plasticity with monocular deprivation (MD). We compared mice receiving the NR2B antisense virus with mice receiving virus containing only the GFP sequence and mice receiving no injection. All injections were between p26 and p29 in the right cortex and bilateral recordings were performed 6-8 days later. Animals receiving the antisense virus lost plasticity if the right eye was deprived. If the left eye was deprived, the cortex was normally plastic bilaterally. Injection of control virus had no effect on plasticity. The data indicate that ocular dominance plasticity requires normal NMDARs in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the deprived eye but not in the hemisphere contralateral to the deprived eye. PMID:16944113

Cao, Zhiping; Liu, Lijuan; Lickey, Marvin; Graves, Aundrea; Pham, Tony; Gordon, Barbara

2007-02-01

29

Pterygotus eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Like many modern and fossil arthropods, eurypterids had compound eyes and other sensory devices. Many eurypterids display small, bean-shaped eyes which are oriented for side viewing. The large bulbous eyes of Pterygotus are located on the edge of the head and were probably useful for looking both laterally and vertically.

2001-03-01

30

Evolution of an adaptive behavior and its sensory receptors promotes eye regression in blind cavefish: response to Borowsky (2013)  

PubMed Central

Vibration attraction behavior (VAB) is the swimming of fish toward an oscillating object, a behavior that is likely adaptive because it increases foraging efficiency in darkness. VAB is seen in a small proportion of Astyanax surface-dwelling populations (surface fish) but is pronounced in cave-dwelling populations (cavefish). In a recent study, we identified two quantitative trait loci for VAB on Astyanax linkage groups 2 and 17. We also demonstrated that a small population of superficial neuromast sensors located within the eye orbit (EO SN) facilitate VAB, and two quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for EO SN that were congruent with those for VAB. Finally, we showed that both VAB and EO SN are negatively correlated with eye size, and that two (of several) QTL for eye size overlap VAB and EO SN QTLs. From these results, we concluded that the adaptive evolution of VAB and EO SN has contributed to the indirect loss of eyes in cavefish, either as a result of pleiotropy or tight physical linkage of the mutations underlying these traits. In a subsequent commentary, Borowsky argues that there is poor experimental support for our conclusions. Specifically, Borowsky states that: (1) linkage groups (LGs) 2 and 17 harbor QTL for many traits and, therefore, no evidence exists for an exclusive interaction among the overlapping VAB, EO SN and eye size QTL; (2) some of the QTL we identified are too broad (>20 cM) to support the hypothesis of correlated evolution due to pleiotropy or hitchhiking; and (3) VAB is unnecessary to explain the indirect evolution of eye-loss since the negative polarity of numerous eye QTL is consistent with direct selection against eyes. Borowsky further argues that (4) it is difficult to envision an evolutionary scenario whereby VAB and EO SN drive eye loss, since the eyes must first be reduced in order to increase the number of EO SN and, therefore, VAB. In this response, we explain why the evidence of one trait influencing eye reduction is stronger for VAB than other traits, and provide further support for a scenario whereby elaboration of VAB in surface fish may precede complete eye-loss. PMID:23844745

2013-01-01

31

Through the Eye of the Cyclops: Evaluating a Multi-Sensory Intervention Programme for People with Complex Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the effectiveness with two individuals with severe mental retardation of Odyssey Now (ON), a multi-sensory program designed for use with people with mental retardation. Increases in interaction and engagement were observed during the ON sessions. Both individuals interacted more with their environment during ON sessions.…

Mitchell, Jillian R.; van der Gaag, Anna

2002-01-01

32

Does dominance of crossing retinal ganglion cells make the eyes cross? The temporal retina in the origin of infantile esotropia – a neuroanatomical and evolutionary analysis.  

PubMed

A closer look at the evolution of the eye and the brain provides a possible explanation for both the origin of infantile esotropia and its motor characteristics. In the course of evolution, the eyes have moved from a lateral to a frontal position. Consequently, the monocular visual fields started to overlap resulting in a binocular visual field. In lateral-eyed animals, the retinae project to the contralateral visual cortices only. These projections are also found in binocular mammals and birds with binocular visual fields but in addition there are uncrossed projections from the temporal retinae to the visual cortex. The partial chiasmal decussation and the corpus callosum provide the necessary structure that allows binocular vision to develop. Disruption of normal binocular development causes a loss of binocularity in the primary visual cortex and beyond. Beyond the primary visual cortex, the contralateral eye dominates while the temporal retinal signal appears to lose influence. Loss or absence of binocular vision in infantile esotropia may be caused by inadequate retinotopic matching between the nasal and temporal retinal signals like in albinism with an abnormal or asymmetric chiasmal decussation or agenesis of the corpus callosum. Dominance of the crossing retinal signal might also explain the motor characteristics of infantile esotropia (asymmetric OKN, latent nystagmus, DVD). A normal binocular cortical signal will predominate over the evolutionary older, originally non-binocular, retinal projections to the superior colliculi (CS) and the accessory optic system (AOS). A suppressed temporal retinal signal paves the way for the re-emergence of eye movements driven by one eye, as in lateral-eyed non-binocular animals. PMID:25259397

ten Tusscher, Marcel P M

2014-09-01

33

Fear and power-dominance drive motivation: neural representations and pathways mediating sensory and mnemonic inputs, and outputs to premotor structures.  

PubMed

Based on the available literature on activation of brain structures by fear- and anger-inducing stimuli, on the effects of electrical and chemical stimulation and lesions of candidate structures, and on connectional data, we propose that both the fear and power-dominance drives are represented in four distinct locations: the medial hypothalamus, lateral/dorsolateral periaqueductal gray, midline thalamic nuclei, and medial prefrontal cortex. The hypothalamic fear representation is located in the dorsomedial and posterior hypothalamic nuclei, the midbrain representation in the caudal part of the lateral/dorsolateral periaqueductal gray, the thalamic representation primarily in parts of the paraventricular and reuniens thalamic nuclei, and the cortical representation in prelimbic cortex. The hypothalamic power-dominance representation is located in the anterior hypothalamic nucleus, dorsomedial aspect of the ventromedial nucleus, and in adjacent parts of the medial preoptic area. The corresponding midbrain representation occurs in rostral part of the lateral/dorsolateral periaqueductal gray, and the thalamic representation in parts of the paraventricular, parataenial, and reuniens thalamic nuclei. We discuss sensory/mnemonic inputs to these representations, and outputs to premotor structures in the medulla, caudate-putamen, and cortex, and their differential contributions to involuntary, learned sequential, and voluntary motor acts. We examine potential contributions of neuronal activities in these representations to the subjective awareness of fear and anger. PMID:12367590

Sewards, Terence V; Sewards, Mark A

2002-08-01

34

Neural representations for sensory-motor control, I: Head-centered 3-D target positions from opponent eye commands.  

PubMed

This article describes how corollary discharges from outflow eye movement commands can be transformed by two stages of opponent neural processing into a head-centered representation of 3-D target position. This representation implicitly defines a cyclopean coordinate system whose variables approximate the binocular vergence and spherical horizontal and vertical angles with respect to the observer's head. Various psychophysical data concerning binocular distance perception and reaching behavior are clarified by this representation. The representation provides a foundation for learning head-centered and body-centered invariant representations of both foveated and non-foveated 3-D target positions. It also enables a solution to be developed of the classical motor equivalence problem, whereby many different joint configurations of a redundant manipulator can all be used to realize a desired trajectory in 3-D space. PMID:8475762

Greve, D; Grossberg, S; Guenther, F; Bullock, D

1993-03-01

35

Signaling by Sensory Receptors  

PubMed Central

Sensory systems detect small molecules, mechanical perturbations, or radiation via the activation of receptor proteins and downstream signaling cascades in specialized sensory cells. In vertebrates, the two principal categories of sensory receptors are ion channels, which mediate mechanosensation, thermosensation, and acid and salt taste; and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which mediate vision, olfaction, and sweet, bitter, and umami tastes. GPCR-based signaling in rods and cones illustrates the fundamental principles of rapid activation and inactivation, signal amplification, and gain control. Channel-based sensory systems illustrate the integration of diverse modulatory signals at the receptor, as seen in the thermosensory/pain system, and the rapid response kinetics that are possible with direct mechanical gating of a channel. Comparisons of sensory receptor gene sequences reveal numerous examples in which gene duplication and sequence divergence have created novel sensory specificities. This is the evolutionary basis for the observed diversity in temperature- and ligand-dependent gating among thermosensory channels, spectral tuning among visual pigments, and odorant binding among olfactory receptors. The coding of complex external stimuli by a limited number of sensory receptor types has led to the evolution of modality-specific and species-specific patterns of retention or loss of sensory information, a filtering operation that selectively emphasizes features in the stimulus that enhance survival in a particular ecological niche. The many specialized anatomic structures, such as the eye and ear, that house primary sensory neurons further enhance the detection of relevant stimuli. PMID:22110046

Julius, David; Nathans, Jeremy

2012-01-01

36

Advanced optics in a jellyfish eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cubozoans, or box jellyfish, differ from all other cnidarians by an active fish-like behaviour and an elaborate sensory apparatus. Each of the four sides of the animal carries a conspicuous sensory club (the rhopalium), which has evolved into a bizarre cluster of different eyes. Two of the eyes on each rhopalium have long been known to resemble eyes of higher

Dan-E. Nilsson; Lars Gislén; Melissa M. Coates; Charlotta Skogh; Anders Garm

2005-01-01

37

Distinctive features of adult ocular dominance plasticity  

PubMed Central

Sensory experience profoundly shapes neural circuitry of juvenile brain. Although the visual cortex of adult rodents retains a capacity for plasticity in response to monocular visual deprivation, the nature of this plasticity and the neural circuit changes that accompany it remain enigmatic. Here we investigate differences between adult and juvenile ocular dominance plasticity using Fourier optical imaging of intrinsic signals in mouse visual cortex. This comparison reveals that adult plasticity takes longer than in the juvenile mouse, is of smaller magnitude, has a greater contribution from the increase in response to the open eye, and has less effect on the hemisphere ipsilateral to the deprived eye. Binocular deprivation also causes different changes in the adult. Adult plasticity is similar to juvenile plasticity in its dependence on signaling through NMDA receptors. We propose that adult ocular dominance plasticity arises from compensatory mechanisms that counterbalance the loss of afferent activity caused by visual deprivation. PMID:18842887

Sato, Masaaki; Stryker, Michael P.

2008-01-01

38

Dominant localization of prostaglandin D receptors on arachnoid trabecular cells in mouse basal forebrain and their involvement in the regulation of non-rapid eye movement sleep  

PubMed Central

Infusion of prostaglandin (PG) D2 into the lateral ventricle of the brain induced an increase in the amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep in wild-type (WT) mice but not in mice deficient in the PGD receptor (DP). Immunofluorescence staining of WT mouse brain revealed that DP immunoreactivity was dominantly localized in the leptomeninges (LM) of the basal forebrain but that PGD synthase immunoreactivity was widely distributed in the LM of the entire brain. Electron microscopic observation indicated that DP-immunoreactive particles were predominantly located on the plasma membranes of arachnoid trabecular cells of the LM. The region with the highest DP immunoreactivity was clearly defined as bilateral wings in the LM of the basal forebrain located lateral to the optic chiasm in the proximity of the ventrolateral preoptic area, one of the putative sleep centers, and the tuberomammillary nucleus, one of the putative wake centers. The LM of this region contained DP mRNA 70-fold higher than that in the cortex as judged from the results of quantitative reverse transcription–PCR. PGD2 infusion into the subarachnoid space of this region increased the extracellular adenosine level more than 2-fold in WT mice but not in the DP-deficient mice. These results indicate that DPs in the arachnoid trabecular cells of the basal forebrain mediate an increase in the extracellular adenosine level and sleep induction by PGD2. PMID:11562489

Mizoguchi, Akira; Eguchi, Naomi; Kimura, Kazushi; Kiyohara, Yoshimoto; Qu, Wei-Min; Huang, Zhi-Li; Mochizuki, Takatoshi; Lazarus, Michael; Kobayashi, Takuya; Kaneko, Takeshi; Narumiya, Shuh; Urade, Yoshihiro; Hayaishi, Osamu

2001-01-01

39

Eye Allergies  

MedlinePLUS

... Eye Health News Consumer Alerts What Are Eye Allergies? Tweet Eye allergies, called allergic conjunctivitis , are a common condition that ... spread from person to person. What Are Eye Allergies? Eye Allergy Symptoms What Causes Eye Allergies? Eye ...

40

Intrinsic-signal optical imaging reveals cryptic ocular dominance columns in primary visual cortex of New World owl monkeys.  

PubMed

A significant concept in neuroscience is that sensory areas of the neocortex have evolved the remarkable ability to represent a number of stimulus features within the confines of a global map of the sensory periphery. Modularity, the term often used to describe the inhomogeneous nature of the neocortex, is without a doubt an important organizational principle of early sensory areas, such as the primary visual cortex (V1). Ocular dominance columns, one type of module in V1, are found in many primate species as well as in carnivores. Yet, their variable presence in some New World monkey species and complete absence in other species has been enigmatic. Here, we demonstrate that optical imaging reveals the presence of ocular dominance columns in the superficial layers of V1 of owl monkeys (Aotus trivirgatus), even though the geniculate inputs related to each eye are highly overlapping in layer 4. The ocular dominance columns in owl monkeys revealed by optical imaging are circular in appearance. The distance between left eye centers and right eye centers is approximately 650 mum. We find no relationship between ocular dominance centers and other modular organizational features such as orientation pinwheels or the centers of the cytochrome oxidase blobs. These results are significant because they suggest that functional columns may exist in the absence of obvious differences in the distributions of activating inputs and ocular dominance columns may be more widely distributed across mammalian taxa than commonly suggested. PMID:18974855

Kaskan, Peter M; Lu, Haidong D; Dillenburger, Barbara C; Roe, Anna W; Kaas, Jon H

2007-10-15

41

Eye redness  

MedlinePLUS

Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral infection; Conjunctival infection ... There are many possible causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are cause for concern; some are medical emergencies. Others are nothing to worry about. How red the eye appears ...

42

Healthy Eyes  

MedlinePLUS

... los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Healthy Eyes Listen Having a comprehensive dilated eye exam is ... or contact lenses. What is a comprehensive dilated eye exam? A comprehensive dilated eye exam is a ...

43

Healthy Eyes  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking ... have a comprehensive dilated eye exam. Who Performs Eye Exams? An eye care professional is either an ...

44

Hawk Eyes I: Diurnal Raptors Differ in Visual Fields and Degree of Eye Movement  

E-print Network

Hawk Eyes I: Diurnal Raptors Differ in Visual Fields and Degree of Eye Movement Colleen T. O specific demands on sensory modalities. We studied visual field configuration, degree of eye movement, and orbit orientation in three diurnal raptors belonging to the Accipitridae and Falconidae families

Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

45

Visual fields, eye movements, and scanning behavior of a sit-and-wait predator, the black phoebe ( Sayornis nigricans )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foraging mode influences the dominant sensory modality used by a forager and likely the strategies of information gathering\\u000a used in foraging and anti-predator contexts. We assessed three components of visual information gathering in a sit-and-wait\\u000a avian predator, the black phoebe (Sayornis nigricans): configuration of the visual field, degree of eye movement, and scanning behavior through head-movement rates. We found\\u000a that

Megan D. Gall; Esteban Fernández-Juricic

2010-01-01

46

Eye Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

47

Brain waves and brain wiring: the role of endogenous and sensory-driven neural activity in development.  

PubMed

Neural activity is critical for sculpting the intricate circuits of the nervous system from initially imprecise neuronal connections. Disrupting the formation of these precise circuits may underlie many common neurodevelopmental disorders, ranging from subtle learning disorders to pervasive developmental delay. The necessity for sensory-driven activity has been widely recognized as crucial for infant brain development. Recent experiments in neurobiology now point to a similar requirement for endogenous neural activity generated by the nervous system itself before sensory input is available. Here we use the formation of precise neural circuits in the visual system to illustrate the principles of activity-dependent development. Competition between the projections from lateral geniculate nucleus neurons that receive sensory input from the two eyes shapes eye-specific connections from an initially diffuse projection into ocular dominance columns. When the competition is altered during a critical period for these changes, by depriving one eye of vision, the normal ocular dominance column pattern is disrupted. Before ocular dominance column formation, the highly ordered projection from retina to lateral geniculate nucleus develops. These connections form before the retina can respond to light, but at a time when retinal ganglion cells spontaneously generate highly correlated bursts of action potentials. Blockade of this endogenous activity, or biasing the competition in favor of one eye, results in a severe disruption of the pattern of retinogeniculate connections. Similar spontaneous, correlated activity has been identified in many locations in the developing central nervous system and is likely to be used during the formation of precise connections in many other neural systems. Understanding the processes of activity-dependent development could revolutionize our ability to identify, prevent, and treat developmental disorders resulting from disruptions of neural activity that interfere with the formation of precise neural circuits. PMID:10203134

Penn, A A; Shatz, C J

1999-04-01

48

Eye to Eye (Illuminations)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this two-day lesson plan students collect, display, and analyze data about the eye color of their classmates. On day one, students display the eye color data in a pictograph and discuss what questions can and cannot be answered using this graph. On the second day of the lesson, data from a partner class is used to create a second pictograph. Students then compare these graphs and determine what questions can and cannot be answered using these two graphs. Questions and extension suggestions (including making a circle graph to represent data) are also included in the lesson plan.

2008-01-01

49

Brief article Multisensory spatial representations in eye-centered  

E-print Network

of the eyes in the orbit and the position of the head with respect to the trunk. As illustrated in Fig. 1Brief article Multisensory spatial representations in eye-centered coordinates for reaching across sensory modalities. The location of reaching targets is also encoded in eye-centered coordinates

Pouget, Alexandre

50

The injured eye  

PubMed Central

Eye injuries come at a high cost to society and are avoidable. Ocular blast injuries can be primary, from the blast wave itself; secondary, from fragments carried by the blast wind; tertiary; due to structural collapse or being thrown against a fixed object; or quaternary, from burns and indirect injuries. Ballistic eye protection significantly reduces the incidence of eye injuries and should be encouraged from an early stage in Military training. Management of an injured eye requires meticulous history taking, evaluation of vision that measures the acuity and if there is a relative pupillary defect as well as careful inspection of the eyes, under anaesthetic if necessary. A lateral canthotomy with cantholysis should be performed immediately if there is a sight-threatening retrobulbar haemorrhage. Systemic antibiotics should be prescribed if there is a suspected penetrating or perforating injury. A ruptured globe should be protected by an eye shield. Primary repair of ruptured globes should be performed in a timely fashion. Secondary procedures will often be required at a later date to achieve sight preservation. A poor initial visual acuity is not a guarantee of a poor final result. The final result can be predicted after approximately 3–4 weeks. Future research in eye injuries attempts to reduce scarring and neuronal damage as well as to promote photoreceptor rescue, using post-transcriptional inhibition of cell death pathways and vaccination to promote neural recovery. Where the sight has been lost sensory substitution of a picture from a spectacle mounted video camera to the touch receptors of the tongue can be used to achieve appreciation of the outside world. PMID:21149360

Scott, Robert

2011-01-01

51

Eye Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... infants are treated with antibiotic eye ointment or drops in the delivery room. Such infections must be ... Eye infections are very contagious. Except to administer drops or ointment, you should avoid direct contact with ...

52

Eye Anatomy  

MedlinePLUS

Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a friend by filling out the fields below: Your name: ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

53

Dry Eye  

MedlinePLUS

... lipid or oily part of tears that slows evaporation and keeps the tears stable. Dry eye can ... that have side shields can help slow tear evaporation from the eye surfaces. Indoors, an air cleaner ...

54

LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes During Pregnancy Computer Usage & Eye Strain Maintaining Your Sight with ... Eye Protection Eyesight Risks for Smokers Veterans & Eye Health More Lifestyle Topics > EyeSmart Tips Opening Champagne Bottles ...

55

Night Eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor, night-time activity, learners discover how to spot eye-shine (reflection of light from an animal's eyes) by using a flashlight to play a simulation game. Using the spotting technique they learn in the game, learners locate mysterious eyes, stalk the creatures, and observe the animal's behavior.

Lawrence Hall of Science

1981-01-01

56

Eyes for Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vision is the dominant sense, and the eyes are connected with almost every other part of the brain. If the vision system is poorly developed, children trying to learn suffer. Without good up close vision, students are handicapped even if no one knows or suspects it--they may not even know it themselves. Students do not know that the way they see…

Orfield, Antonia

2008-01-01

57

Eye development.  

PubMed

The eye has been one of the most intensively studied organs in Drosophila. The wealth of knowledge about its development, as well as the reagents that have been developed, and the fact that the eye is dispensable for survival, also make the eye suitable for genetic interaction studies and genetic screens. This article provides a brief overview of the methods developed to image and probe eye development at multiple developmental stages, including live imaging, immunostaining of fixed tissues, in situ hybridizations, and scanning electron microscopy and color photography of adult eyes. Also summarized are genetic approaches that can be performed in the eye, including mosaic analysis and conditional mutation, gene misexpression and knockdown, and forward genetic and modifier screens. PMID:24784530

Baker, Nicholas E; Li, Ke; Quiquand, Manon; Ruggiero, Robert; Wang, Lan-Hsin

2014-06-15

58

Using Eye Makeup  

MedlinePLUS

... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Using Eye Makeup Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... over the battery and always wear safety goggles. Eye Protection Works Wearing the proper protective eyewear for ...

59

Smoking and Eye Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Smoking and Eye Health Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... over the battery and always wear safety goggles. Eye Protection Works Wearing the proper protective eyewear for ...

60

Toxoplasmosis (and the Eye)  

MedlinePLUS

... Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus ... Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus ...

61

Watery eyes  

MedlinePLUS

... vision You have a severe injury to the eye Also, contact your health care provider if you have: A ... often does it happen? Does it affect both eyes? Do you have vision problems? Do you wear contacts or glasses? Does the tearing happen after an ...

62

The cellular eye lens and crystallins of cubomedusan jellyfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrastructure and major soluble proteins of the transparent eye lens of two cubomedusan jellyfish,Tripedalia cystophora andCarybdea marsupialis, have been examined. Each species has two complex eyes (one large and one small) on four sensory structures called rhopalia. The lenses consist of closely spaced cells with few organelles. The lens is situated next to the retina, with only an acellular

Joram Piatigorsky; Joseph Horwitz; Toichiro Kuwabara; Charles E. Cutress

1989-01-01

63

Sequential Dominance  

E-print Network

We review the mechanism of sequential right-handed neutrino dominance proposed in the framework of the type I see-saw mechanism to account for bi-large neutrino mixing and a neutrino mass hierarchy in a natural way. We discuss how sequential dominance may also be applied to the right-handed charged leptons, which alternatively allows bi-large lepton mixing from the charged lepton sector. We review how such sequential dominance models may be upgraded to include type II see-saw contributions, resulting in a partially degenerate neutrino mass spectrum with bi-large lepton mixing arising from sequential dominance. We also summarise the model building applications and the phenomenological implications of sequential dominance.

Stefan Antusch; S. F. King

2004-05-27

64

Eye dilation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The iris is the colored part of the eye. The pupil is the dark circle in the middle of the iris. The iris causes the pupil to expand or contract depending on the amount of light in a given area. Once light passes through the pupil, a structure called the lens that is directly behind the pupil focuses the light at the back of the eye. The optic nerve, located at the back of the eye, takes the focused message and relays it to the brain where it is processed into an image.

Greyson Orlando (None; )

2006-12-11

65

Bidirectional ocular dominance plasticity of inhibitory networks: recent advances and unresolved questions  

E-print Network

Monocular visual deprivation (MD) produces profound changes in the ocular dominance (OD) of neurons in the visual cortex. MD shifts visually evoked responses away from the deprived eye and toward domination by the open-eye. ...

Smith, Gordon B.

66

The cortex is in overall control of 'voluntary' eye movement.  

PubMed

The neural circuits that control eye movements are complex and distributed in brainstem, basal ganglia, cerebellum, and multiple areas of cortex. The anatomical function of the substrates implicated in eye movements has been studied for decades in numerous countries, laboratories, and clinics. The modest goal of this brief review is twofold. (1) To present a focused overview of the knowledge about the role of the cerebral cortex in voluntary control of eye movements. (2) To very briefly mention two findings showing that the accepted hierarchy between the frontal and the occipital sensory areas involved in sensory-motor transformation might not be so trivial to reconcile, and to interpret in the context of eye movement command. This presentation has been part of the 44th Cambridge Ophthalmological Symposium, on ocular motility, 3 September 2014 to 5 November 2014.Eye advance online publication, 5 December 2014; doi:10.1038/eye.2014.284. PMID:25475239

Pouget, P

2014-12-01

67

Eyes - bulging  

MedlinePLUS

... sign. It should be checked immediately. Hyperthyroidism (particularly Graves disease ) is the most common cause of bulging eyes. ... Glaucoma Graves disease Hemangioma Histiocytosis Hyperthyroidism ... Neuroblastoma Orbital cellulitis or periorbital cellulitis ...

68

Dry eyes  

MedlinePLUS

... dry eyes include: Aging Dry environment or workplace (wind, air conditioning) Sun exposure Smoking or second-hand ... Don't smoke. Avoid second-hand smoke, direct wind, and air conditioning. Use a humidifier, especially in ...

69

Novel automatic eye detection and tracking algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eye is not only one of the most complex but also the most important sensory organ of the human body. Eye detection and eye tracking are basement and hot issue in image processing. A non-invasive eye location and eye tracking is promising for hands-off gaze-based human-computer interface, fatigue detection, instrument control by paraplegic patients and so on. For this purpose, an innovation work frame is proposed to detect and tracking eye in video sequence in this paper. The contributions of this work can be divided into two parts. The first contribution is that eye filters were trained which can detect eye location efficiently and accurately without constraints on the background and skin colour. The second contribution is that a framework of tracker based on sparse representation and LK optic tracker were built which can track eye without constraint on eye status. The experimental results demonstrate the accuracy aspects and the real-time applicability of the proposed approach.

Ghazali, Kamarul Hawari; Jadin, Mohd Shawal; Jie, Ma; Xiao, Rui

2015-04-01

70

Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IE  

MedlinePLUS

... addition of methyl groups, consisting of one carbon atom and three hydrogen atoms, to DNA molecules. In particular, the enzyme helps ... understanding hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IE? atom ; autonomic nervous system ; autosomal ; autosomal dominant ; cell ; cytosine ; ...

71

Electrotactile and vibrotactile displays for sensory substitution systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensory substitution systems provide their users with environmental information through a human sensory channel (eye, ear, or skin) different from that normally used or with the information processed in some useful way. The authors review the methods used to present visual, auditory, and modified tactile information to the skin and discuss present and potential future applications of sensory substitution, including tactile vision substitution (TVS), tactile auditory substitution, and remote tactile sensing or feedback (teletouch). The relevant sensory physiology of the skin, including the mechanisms of normal touch and the mechanisms and sensations associated with electrical stimulation of the skin using surface electrodes (electrotactile, or electrocutaneous, stimulation), is reviewed. The information-processing ability of the tactile sense and its relevance to sensory substitution is briefly summarized. The limitations of current tactile display technologies are discussed.

Kaczmarek, Kurt A.; Webster, John G.; Bach-Y-rita, Paul; Tompkins, Willis J.

1991-01-01

72

Animals Eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Web site from BioMedia (1) is a fascinating look (no pun intended) at the eyes of other animals. Various images of eyeballs link to essays that explain such questions as how animals can see underwater and how many times the eye independently evolved in the animal kingdom. The next site (2) is based on a PBS Nova documentary about nocturnal animals. Visitors can click on an image of an eye to learn more about the animal that uses it to see in the dark. The San Diego Natural History Museum provides the kid-friendly Web site, which does a terrific job of explaining the anatomy and function of different types of eyes (3). The next site, provided by Tufts University, offers photos of how squirrels, sharks, turtles, and bees might see the world compared with human vision (4). Andrew Giger, a neuroscientist working on bee vision at the Australian National University, wrote the program B-EYE for his research. Visitors to his Web site (5) can see what a selection of grey-scale images might look like from a bee's perspective. The next site (6) is provided by about.com, offering a detailed article about bird vision. Similarly, the next Web site from the North American Hunting Retriever Association contains an extensive review of an article that appeared in the Journal of the Veterinary Medical Association about dog vision (7). Finally, the last site is a page from Micscape - the online monthly magazine of Microscopy UK - showing how the eyes of various mollusks look under the microscope (8).

Sohmer, Rachel.

2002-01-01

73

Eye choice for acquisition of targets in alternating strabismus.  

PubMed

In strabismus, potentially either eye can inform the brain about the location of a target so that an accurate saccade can be made. Sixteen human subjects with alternating exotropia were tested dichoptically while viewing stimuli on a tangent screen. Each trial began with a fixation cross visible to only one eye. After the subject fixated the cross, a peripheral target visible to only one eye flashed briefly. The subject's task was to look at it. As a rule, the eye to which the target was presented was the eye that acquired the target. However, when stimuli were presented in the far nasal visual field, subjects occasionally performed a "crossover" saccade by placing the other eye on the target. This strategy avoided the need to make a large adducting saccade. In such cases, information about target location was obtained by one eye and used to program a saccade for the other eye, with a corresponding latency increase. In 10/16 subjects, targets were presented on some trials to both eyes. Binocular sensory maps were also compiled to delineate the portions of the visual scene perceived with each eye. These maps were compared with subjects' pattern of eye choice for target acquisition. There was a correspondence between suppression scotoma maps and the eye used to acquire peripheral targets. In other words, targets were fixated by the eye used to perceive them. These studies reveal how patients with alternating strabismus, despite eye misalignment, manage to localize and capture visual targets in their environment. PMID:25355212

Economides, John R; Adams, Daniel L; Horton, Jonathan C

2014-10-29

74

New Angles on Motor and Sensory Coordination in Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of presentations that were included in the Medical Symposium at the 1998 Learning Disabilities Association conference. The symposium addressed vestibular control and eye movement, postural sway and balance, cerebellar dysfunction, the role of the frontal lobe, developmental coordination disorder, and sensory integration…

Goldey, Ellen S.

1998-01-01

75

Neural Cartography: Sensory and Motor Maps in the Superior Colliculus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sudden onset of a novel or behaviorally significant stimulus usually triggers responses that orient the eyes, external ears, head and\\/or body toward the source of the stimulus. As a consequence, the reception of additional signals originating from the source and the sensory guidance of appropriate limb and body movements are facilitated. Converging lines of evidence, derived from anatomical, electrophysiological

David L. Sparks

1988-01-01

76

Googly Eyes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beverage take-out trays are funky in their form and function. In this article, the author describes how to make googly eye masks out of discarded take-out trays and other common recycled or discarded materials. (Contains 1 online resource.)

Boss, Susan

2009-01-01

77

NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SENSORY SYSTEMS'  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to many neurotoxic compounds has been shown to produce a sensory system dysfunction. Neurophysiological assessment of sensory function in humans and animal models often uses techniques known as sensory evoked potentials. Because both humans and animals show analogous res...

78

Females competing to reproduce: Dominance matters but testosterone may not  

E-print Network

dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) had shown that experimental elevation of T increases social status rights reserved. Keywords: Challenge hypothesis; Dark-eyed junco; Junco hyemalis; Intrasexual aggression concentrations of T associated with dominance status in captive female juncos? Does dominance status influence

79

Eye Movement Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are: Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

80

Eye contricks  

PubMed Central

Pictorial images are icons as well as eye-cons: they provide distillations of objects or ideas into simpler shapes. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimensions of depth and motion are missing from icons, and these alone introduce all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as exploring the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons can also be illusions—tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is physically presented. Pictorial images can be spatialised or stylised; spatialised images generally share some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons, but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional. Icons as stylised words and spatialised images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte in a series of pipe paintings, and this theme is here alluded to. Most of visual science is now concerned with icons—two-dimensional displays on computer monitors. Is vision now the science of eye-cons? PMID:23145240

Wade, Nicholas J

2011-01-01

81

Human sensory subsystems emulator.  

PubMed

Last year this author presented his design for a computerized human nervous system function emulator for use in an android robot. This paper describes that emulator's sensory subsystems in more detail and adds new functions. Topics covered include sensor types, signal conditioning, data handling in the afferent pathways and interpretation of sensory information. Physiological sensory modalities (including: temperature, pressure, acceleration, humidity, sound and light stimuli) as well as nonphysiological (including: magnetic, radio, infrared, ultrasound and satellite GPS) are elucidated. The relationship of a primitive stimulus (i.e.: heat) to a high level sensation (i.e.: pain) is explored. PMID:11347421

Frenger, P

2001-01-01

82

Sensory Characteristics in ASD  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we review evidence regarding differences in the types of sensory experiences of persons with ASD with respect to both unisensory and multisensory processing. We discuss selfreports, carer questionnaires as well as perceptual processing differences found in the laboratory. Incoming information is processed through one or more of our senses and fundamental differences in the processing of information from any sensory modality or combination of sensory modalities are likely to have cascading effects on the way individuals with ASD experience the world around them, effects that can have both positive and negative impact on a individual with ASD’s quality of life. PMID:21264053

Stewart, Mary E.; Russo, Natalie; Banks, Jennifer; Miller, Louisa; Burack, Jacob A.

2009-01-01

83

Neuromorphic sensory systems.  

PubMed

Biology provides examples of efficient machines which greatly outperform conventional technology. Designers in neuromorphic engineering aim to construct electronic systems with the same efficient style of computation. This task requires a melding of novel engineering principles with knowledge gleaned from neuroscience. We discuss recent progress in realizing neuromorphic sensory systems which mimic the biological retina and cochlea, and subsequent sensor processing. The main trends are the increasing number of sensors and sensory systems that communicate through asynchronous digital signals analogous to neural spikes; the improved performance and usability of these sensors; and novel sensory processing methods which capitalize on the timing of spikes from these sensors. Experiments using these sensors can impact how we think the brain processes sensory information. PMID:20493680

Liu, Shih-Chii; Delbruck, Tobi

2010-06-01

84

Motion perception correlates with volitional but not reflexive eye movements.  

PubMed

Visually-driven actions and perception are traditionally ascribed to the dorsal and ventral visual streams of the cortical processing hierarchy. However, motion perception and the control of tracking eye movements both depend on sensory motion analysis by neurons in the dorsal stream, suggesting that the same sensory circuits may underlie both action and perception. Previous studies have suggested that multiple sensory modules may be responsible for the perception of low- and high-level motion, or the detection versus identification of motion direction. However, it remains unclear whether the sensory processing systems that contribute to direction perception and the control of eye movements have the same neuronal constraints. To address this, we examined inter-individual variability across 36 observers, using two tasks that simultaneously assessed the precision of eye movements and direction perception: in the smooth pursuit task, observers volitionally tracked a small moving target and reported its direction; in the ocular following task, observers reflexively tracked a large moving stimulus and reported its direction. We determined perceptual-oculomotor correlations across observers, defined as the correlation between each observer's mean perceptual precision and mean oculomotor precision. Across observers, we found that: (i) mean perceptual precision was correlated between the two tasks; (ii) mean oculomotor precision was correlated between the tasks, and (iii) oculomotor and perceptual precision were correlated for volitional smooth pursuit, but not reflexive ocular following. Collectively, these results demonstrate that sensory circuits with common neuronal constraints subserve motion perception and volitional, but not reflexive eye movements. PMID:25073044

Price, N S C; Blum, J

2014-09-26

85

Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions  

MedlinePLUS

... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... over the battery and always wear safety goggles. Eye Protection Works Wearing the proper protective eyewear for ...

86

Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Adults 40 to 60 Adults Over 60 Babies, Children & Teenagers Computer Usage Diabetes Diet & Nutrition Eye Injuries Eye Screening Guidelines Home Remedies for Simple Eye Problems Medical Marijuana for Glaucoma Pregnancy Preventing Eye ... It is not easy to recognize amblyopia (lazy eye) in children. A child may not be aware of having ...

87

Visual fields, eye movements, and scanning behavior of a sit-and-wait predator, the black phoebe (Sayornis nigricans).  

PubMed

Foraging mode influences the dominant sensory modality used by a forager and likely the strategies of information gathering used in foraging and anti-predator contexts. We assessed three components of visual information gathering in a sit-and-wait avian predator, the black phoebe (Sayornis nigricans): configuration of the visual field, degree of eye movement, and scanning behavior through head-movement rates. We found that black phoebes have larger lateral visual fields than similarly sized ground-foraging passerines, as well as relatively narrower binocular and blind areas. Black phoebes moved their eyes, but eye movement amplitude was relatively smaller than in other passerines. Black phoebes may compensate for eye movement constraints with head movements. The rate of head movements increased before attacking prey in comparison to non-foraging contexts and before movements between perches. These findings suggest that black phoebes use their lateral visual fields, likely subtended by areas of high acuity in the retina, to track prey items in a three-dimensional space through active head movements. These head movements may increase depth perception, motion detection and tracking. Studying information gathering through head movement changes, rather than body posture changes (head-up, head-down) as generally presented in the literature, may allow us to better understand the mechanisms of information gathering from a comparative perspective. PMID:19921207

Gall, Megan D; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

2010-01-01

88

The optic chiasm: a turning point in the evolution of eye/hand coordination  

PubMed Central

The primate visual system has a uniquely high proportion of ipsilateral retinal projections, retinal ganglial cells that do not cross the midline in the optic chiasm. The general assumption is that this developed due to the selective advantage of accurate depth perception through stereopsis. Here, the hypothesis that the need for accurate eye-forelimb coordination substantially influenced the evolution of the primate visual system is presented. Evolutionary processes may change the direction of retinal ganglial cells. Crossing, or non-crossing, in the optic chiasm determines which hemisphere receives visual feedback in reaching tasks. Each hemisphere receives little tactile and proprioceptive information about the ipsilateral hand. The eye-forelimb hypothesis proposes that abundant ipsilateral retinal projections developed in the primate brain to synthesize, in a single hemisphere, visual, tactile, proprioceptive, and motor information about a given hand, and that this improved eye-hand coordination and optimized the size of the brain. If accurate eye-hand coordination was a major factor in the evolution of stereopsis, stereopsis is likely to be highly developed for activity in the area where the hands most often operate. The primate visual system is ideally suited for tasks within arm’s length and in the inferior visual field, where most manual activity takes place. Altering of ocular dominance in reaching tasks, reduced cross-modal cuing effects when arms are crossed, response of neurons in the primary motor cortex to viewed actions of a hand, multimodal neuron response to tactile as well as visual events, and extensive use of multimodal sensory information in reaching maneuvers support the premise that benefits of accurate limb control influenced the evolution of the primate visual system. The eye-forelimb hypothesis implies that evolutionary change toward hemidecussation in the optic chiasm provided parsimonious neural pathways in animals developing frontal vision and visually guided forelimbs, and also suggests a new perspective on vision convergence in prey and predatory animals. PMID:23866932

2013-01-01

89

Eye muscle repair - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... Resection and recession - discharge; Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... eyes. The medical term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children usually receive general anesthesia for this surgery. ...

90

Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)  

MedlinePLUS

... publications and references used throughout site. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) One Page Overview Pink, itchy eyes? Conjunctivitis – ... Crusting of eyelids or lashes sometimes occurs Pink Eye: What To Do Discusses causes and treatment, suggestions ...

91

Laser Eye Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... vision so they no longer need glasses or contact lenses. Laser eye surgery reshapes the cornea, the clear front part of the eye. This changes its focusing power. There are different types of laser eye surgery. ...

92

Eye Movements of Flatfish for Different Gravity Condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On Earth, gravity sensation plays a basic role for all of physiological phenomena in every creature. In microgravity, loss of gravity input causes many functional disorders in animals and humans. During adaptation to microgravity, otolith-mediated response such as eye movements would alter. Flatfish provide a natural model for the study of adaptive changes in the vestibuloocular reflex. During metamorphosis, vestibular and oculomotor coordinate of flatfish displaced 90 degrees about the longitudinal body axis. Therefore, it is expected that microgravity induce the sensory mismatch in adult flatfish. In this study, we analyzed the eye movements of normal and otolith removed flatfish for body tilting and the eye movements of normal flatfish during microgravity produced by parabolic aircraft flight. The fish was fixed on the tilting table controlled by computer. The eye movements for body tilting along the different body axis were video-recorded. The vertical and torsional eye rotations were analyzed frame by frame. In normal flatfish, torsional eye movements were larger for head up or head down tilting than leftward or rightward tilting. On the other hand, vertical eye movements were larger for leftward or rightward tilting than head up or head down tilting. After removal of left side utlicular otolith, the vertical eye movement for 180 degrees body tilting disappeared. For the changes of gravity, vertical eye movements were observed. These results suggested that eye movements of flatfish adapted to Earth's gravity condition and sacculus and lagena might play important role for otolith-ocular eye movements.

Iwata, Kaori; Takabayashi, Akira; Imada, Hideki; Miyachi, Ei-Ichi

93

When Is Dominance Related to Smiling? Assigned Dominance, Dominance Preference, Trait Dominance, and Gender as Moderators  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated gender and different types of dominance measures as potential moderators of the relation between dominance and smiling. We asked participants about their preference for either a dominant or a subordinate role (dominance preference), randomly assigned one of these roles to them (assigned dominance), and assessed trait dominance, felt dominance, and perceived dominance. Participants had two 8-min dyadic interactions

MarianneSchmid Mast; Judith A. Hall

2004-01-01

94

Efficacy of Eye Movement Integration Therapy: A novel therapy for rapid, ecological integration of traumatic memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

To incorporate multisensory information into the healing process, we offered a novel therapy, Eye Movement Integration (EMI), to traumatized clients who had already undergone other treatments without resolution. EMI, developed by Connirae and Steve Andreas, is based on the principle that eye movements that are naturally associated with accessing sensory, cognitive and affective information can be guided externally to facilitate

Danie Beaulieu

95

Environmental Awareness (Sensory Awareness).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Capitalizing on the resources available within a city block, this resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) describes methods and procedures for developing sensory awareness in the urban out-of-doors. Conceptual focus is on interdependency ("living things are interdependent"). Involvement in the environment (observing, thinking, doing)…

Carpenter, Marian

96

Recording Sensory Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From children's viewpoints, what they experience in the world is what the world is like--for everyone. "What do others experience with their senses when they are in the same situation?" is a question that young children can explore by collecting data as they use a "feely box," or take a "sensory walk." There are many ways to focus the children's…

Ashbrook, Peggy

2007-01-01

97

Structured Sensory Trauma Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features the National Institute of Trauma and Loss in Children (TLC), a program that has demonstrated via field testing, exploratory research, time series studies, and evidence-based research studies that its Structured Sensory Intervention for Traumatized Children, Adolescents, and Parents (SITCAP[R]) produces statistically…

Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan

2010-01-01

98

Understanding Sensory Integration. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief paper summarizes what is known about sensory integration and sensory integration dysfunction (DSI). It outlines evaluation of DSI, treatment approaches, and implications for parents and teachers, including compensatory strategies for minimizing the impact of DSI on a child's life. Review of origins of sensory integration theory in the…

DiMatties, Marie E.; Sammons, Jennifer H.

99

Sensory Integration in Mental Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lorna Jean King is interviewed concerning the present status of sensory integration as a treatment modality in the area of mental health. Topics covered are: use of sensory integration techniques with adults and adolescents in both chronic and acute mental health settings; goals and expected outcomes of using sensory integration techniques; cost-effectiveness of these techniques; differences between occupational therapy and

Barbara W. Posthuma

1983-01-01

100

Measurement of human eye irritation using a CO{sub 2} reference scale  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a combined system for human eye exposure and sensory evaluation. The system was developed as part of a research program which is focused on development of biological response models to be used for prediction of the potential of emissions from building materials to cause sensory irritation in the indoor environment. The method describes in this paper measures air pollutants potential to cause sensory eye irritation using a master scale (the sensory irritation caused by the emissions ar measured in terms of concentration of a reference irritant.). The purpose of this study was to test the exposure equipment, the exposure procedure, the evaluation procedure, and the statistical method. The principle of the combined system is that subjects compare the intensity of sensory irritation in one eye which is exposed to polluted air with the intensity of sensory irritation in the other eye, which is exposed to a reference gas. This left-right eye comparison was chosen because it is quicker to perform than having subjects first exposed to the pollutant gas bilaterally and afterwards exposed to the reference gas bilaterally. Moreover, by making the comparison simultaneously, the subject does not have to remember the impression of the previous exposure. In this study, CO{sub 2} was used both as a simulation of the air pollution and as the reference gas.

Hempel-Joergensen, A.; Kjaergaard, S.K.; Moelhave, L. [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Inst. for Environmental and Occupational Medicine

1996-12-31

101

Sensory analysis of lipstick.  

PubMed

Sensory analysis of lipstick product by trained panellists started with recruiting female panels who are lipstick users, in good health condition and willing to be a part of sensory members. This group of people was further scrutinized with duo-trio method using commercial lipstick samples that are commonly used among them. About 40% of the 15 panels recruited were unable to differentiate the lipstick samples they usually use better than chance. The balance of nine panels that were corrected at least with 65% across all trials in panels screening process was formed a working group to develop sensory languages as a means of describing product similarities and differences and a scoring system. Five sessions with each session took about 90 min were carried out using 10 types of lipsticks with different waxes mixture ratio in the formulation together with six commercial lipsticks that are the most common to the panels. First session was focus on listing out the panels' perception towards the characteristic of the lipstick samples after normal application on their lips. Second session was focus on the refining and categorizing the responses gathered from the first session and translated into sensory attributes with its definition. Third session was focus on the scoring system. Fourth and fifth sessions were repetition of the third session to ensure consistency. In a collective effort of the panels, sensory attributes developed for lipstick were Spreadability, Off flavour, Hardness, Smoothness, Moist, Not messy, Glossy and Greasy. Analysis of variance was able to provide ample evidence on gauging the panel performance. A proper panels selecting and training was able to produce a reliable and sensitive trained panel for evaluating the product based on the procedures being trained. PMID:21272038

Yap, K C S; Aminah, A

2011-06-01

102

Hawk Eyes I: Diurnal Raptors Differ in Visual Fields and Degree of Eye Movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDifferent strategies to search and detect prey may place specific demands on sensory modalities. We studied visual field configuration, degree of eye movement, and orbit orientation in three diurnal raptors belonging to the Accipitridae and Falconidae families.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe used an ophthalmoscopic reflex technique and an integrated 3D digitizer system. We found inter-specific variation in visual field configuration and degree of

Colleen T. ORourke; Margaret I. Hall; Todd Pitlik; Esteban Fernández-Juricic

2010-01-01

103

Eye Injuries in Sports  

MedlinePLUS

... most eye injuries, followed by water sports and racquet sports. When it comes to eye injuries, sports can be classified as low risk, high ... baseball, basketball, hockey, football, lacrosse, tennis and other racquet sports, ... eye injuries? Common types of eye injuries are blunt trauma, ...

104

Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Adults 40 to 60 Adults Over 60 Babies, Children & Teenagers Computer Usage Diabetes Diet & Nutrition Eye Injuries Eye Screening Guidelines Home Remedies for Simple Eye Problems Medical Marijuana for Glaucoma Pregnancy Preventing Eye Injuries ... It is not easy to recognize amblyopia. A child may not be aware of having one strong ...

105

Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Adults 40 to 60 Adults Over 60 Babies, Children & Teenagers Computer Usage Diabetes Diet & Nutrition Eye Injuries Eye Screening Guidelines Home Remedies for Simple Eye Problems Medical Marijuana for Glaucoma Pregnancy Preventing Eye Injuries ... or treatment should begin as soon as possible so that the child’s visual system can develop properly. Amblyopia: What Is ...

106

The eyes of a tiny 'Orsten' crustacean - a compound eye at receptor level?  

PubMed

Among the oldest fossil crustaceans are those of the Late Cambrian (Furongian 499 ± 0.3-488.3 ± 1.7 Ma) of Västergötland, central Sweden and the lower Ordovician (Tremadocian 488.3 and 478.6 Ma) of the island of ?land. These are three-dimensionally preserved in nodules from the so called 'stinkstone' ('Orsten') limestone. 'Orsten'-like fossils represent tiny, often meiobenthic organsisms (Haug, Maas, & Waloszek, 2009) smaller than 2mm, which mainly were arthropods, especially crustaceans close to the stemline. As a result of phosphatisation, hairs, bristles and even cellular structures up to 0.3 ?m are preserved (Walossek, 1993), especially compound eyes, as typical for all visually orientated crustaceans (Schoenemann et al., 2011). We show a miniscule prototype of a compound eye (?40 ?m) in a small crustacean, which lived almost half a billion years ago. The eye is close to but comfortably established above being limited in its resolving power by diffraction, but it is too small to be an apposition eye, normally regarded as the basal form of all compound eyes, as is found in bees, dragonflies, crustaceans and many other arthropods still living today. The facets of this compound eye are ?8 ?m in size, the surface structure indicates the relicts of a tiny lens covering each facet. In order to work functionally and to ensure that that diffraction and waveguide problems were avoided, it seems reasonable to suppose that the compound eye consisted of visual units, each with a single photoreceptor cell directly below a weak lens for capturing and slightly focusing the light. The entire unit has a diameter similar to that of a normal sensory cell as found in compound eyes. Thus, the early compound eye analysed here may be interpreted as a prototype representing the earliest stages of the evolution of crustacean compound eyes. PMID:23123806

Schoenemann, Brigitte

2013-01-14

107

The interaction of Bayesian priors and sensory data and its neural circuit implementation in visually-guided movement  

PubMed Central

Sensory-motor behavior results from a complex interaction of noisy sensory data with priors based on recent experience. By varying the stimulus form and contrast for the initiation of smooth pursuit eye movements in monkeys, we show that visual motion inputs compete with two independent priors: one prior biases eye speed toward zero; the other prior attracts eye direction according to the past several days’ history of target directions. The priors bias the speed and direction of the initiation of pursuit for the weak sensory data provided by the motion of a low-contrast sine wave grating. However, the priors have relatively little effect on pursuit speed and direction when the visual stimulus arises from the coherent motion of a high-contrast patch of dots. For any given stimulus form, the mean and variance of eye speed co-vary in the initiation of pursuit, as expected for signal-dependent noise. This relationship suggests that pursuit implements a trade-off between movement accuracy and variation, reducing both when the sensory signals are noisy. The tradeoff is implemented as a competition of sensory data and priors that follows the rules of Bayesian estimation. Computer simulations show that the priors can be understood as direction specific control of the strength of visual-motor transmission, and can be implemented in a neural-network model that makes testable predictions about the population response in the smooth eye movement region of the frontal eye fields. PMID:23223286

Yang, Jin; Lee, Joonyeol; Lisberger, Stephen G.

2012-01-01

108

Dominant frequency content of ocular microtremor from normal subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocular microtremor (OMT) is a high frequency tremor of the eyes present during fixation and probably related to brainstem activity (Coakley, D. (1983). Minute eye movement and brain stem function. CRC Press, FL.). Published observations on the frequency of OMT have varied widely. Ocular microtremor was recorded in 105 normal healthy subjects using the Piezoelectric strain gauge technique. The dominant

Ciaran Bolger; Stana Bojanic; Noirin F. Sheahan; Davis Coakley; James F. Malone

1999-01-01

109

Genes for Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathies: A Genotype-Phenotype Correlation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders characterized by axonal atrophy and degeneration, exclusively or predominantly affecting the sensory and autonomic neurons. So far, disease-associated mutations have been identified in seven genes: two genes for autosomal dominant ("SPTLC1"…

Rotthier, Annelies; Baets, Jonathan; De Vriendt, Els; Jacobs, An; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Levy, Nicolas; Bonello-Palot, Nathalie; Kilic, Sara Sebnem; Weis, Joachim; Nascimento, Andres; Swinkels, Marielle; Kruyt, Moyo C.; Jordanova, Albena; De Jonghe, Peter; Timmerman, Vincent

2009-01-01

110

Sensory Perception: Lessons from Synesthesia  

PubMed Central

Synesthesia, the conscious, idiosyncratic, repeatable, and involuntary sensation of one sensory modality in response to another, is a condition that has puzzled both researchers and philosophers for centuries. Much time has been spent proving the condition’s existence as well as investigating its etiology, but what can be learned from synesthesia remains a poorly discussed topic. Here, synaesthesia is presented as a possible answer rather than a question to the current gaps in our understanding of sensory perception. By first appreciating the similarities between normal sensory perception and synesthesia, one can use what is known about synaesthesia, from behavioral and imaging studies, to inform our understanding of “normal” sensory perception. In particular, in considering synesthesia, one can better understand how and where the different sensory modalities interact in the brain, how different sensory modalities can interact without confusion ? the binding problem ? as well as how sensory perception develops. PMID:23766741

Harvey, Joshua Paul

2013-01-01

111

The Electroretinogram of the Horseshoe Crab, Limulus polyphemus: A Laboratory Exercise in Sensory Physiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The eye of the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus represents an easily-excised and durable preparation for investigating various parameters of a typical sensory system. One can study the time course of dark adaptation as well as the dependence of response amplitude and latency on stimulus intensity in both the dark-adapted and light-adapted eye. Requirements for specialized, technical equipment are minimal.

Robert A. Linsenmeier (Northwestern University;); Charles M. Yancey (Northwestern University;); Wesley W. Ebert (Northwestern University;)

2009-09-01

112

The Electroretinogram of the Horseshoe Crab, Limulus polyphemus: A Laboratory Exercise in Sensory Physiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The eye of the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus represents an easily-excised and durable preparation for investigating various parameters of a typical sensory system. One can study the time course of dark adaptation as well as the dependence of response amplitude and latency on stimulus intensity in both the dark-adapted and light-adapted eye. Requirements for specialized, technical equipment are minimal. Suitable for undergraduates in advanced general biology, physiology, and special projects.

Robert A. Linsenmeier (Northwestern University;); Charles M. Yancey (Northwestern University;); Wesley W. Ebert (Northwestern University;)

2008-04-11

113

Measurement in Sensory Modulation: The Sensory Processing Scale Assessment  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE. Sensory modulation issues have a significant impact on participation in daily life. Moreover, understanding phenotypic variation in sensory modulation dysfunction is crucial for research related to defining homogeneous groups and for clinical work in guiding treatment planning. We thus evaluated the new Sensory Processing Scale (SPS) Assessment. METHOD. Research included item development, behavioral scoring system development, test administration, and item analyses to evaluate reliability and validity across sensory domains. RESULTS. Items with adequate reliability (internal reliability >.4) and discriminant validity (p < .01) were retained. Feedback from the expert panel also contributed to decisions about retaining items in the scale. CONCLUSION. The SPS Assessment appears to be a reliable and valid measure of sensory modulation (scale reliability >.90; discrimination between group effect sizes >1.00). This scale has the potential to aid in differential diagnosis of sensory modulation issues. PMID:25184464

Miller, Lucy J.; Sullivan, Jillian C.

2014-01-01

114

Pinwheel stabilization by ocular dominance segregation.  

PubMed

We present an analytical approach for studying the coupled development of ocular dominance and orientation preference columns. Using this approach we demonstrate that ocular dominance segregation can induce the stabilization and even the production of pinwheels by their crystallization in two types of periodic lattices. Pinwheel crystallization depends on the overall dominance of one eye over the other, a condition that is fulfilled during early cortical development. Increasing the strength of intermap coupling induces a transition from pinwheel-free stripe solutions to intermediate and high pinwheel density states. PMID:19519077

Reichl, Lars; Löwel, Siegrid; Wolf, Fred

2009-05-22

115

Dilating Eye Drops  

MedlinePLUS

... the eye allows for a more accurate measurementof refractive error (need for glasses) in children. Finally, dilating eye ... lasting drops than do adults to accurately measure refractive error. Weaker drops are used for premature babies and ...

116

Diabetic Eye Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... de los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Diabetic Eye Disease Listen View this module and educate yourself, family, and friends about diabetic eye disease. This module includes descriptive audio and ...

117

Diabetic Eye Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... too high. Over time, this can damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It ... light-sensitive tissue at the back of your eye. You need a healthy retina to see clearly. ...

118

Eye Disease Simulations  

MedlinePLUS

... Research at NEI Education Programs Training and Jobs Eye Disease Simulations Listen Age-Related Macular Degeneration Cataract ... information page Back to top Diabetic Retinopathy Diabetic Eye Disease information page Back to top Glaucoma Glaucoma ...

119

Eye Injuries (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... and comfortable as possible until help arrives. Continue Chemical Exposure Many chemicals, even those found around the house, can damage an eye. If your child gets a chemical in the eye and you know what it ...

120

Change in dexterity with sensory awareness training: a randomised controlled trial.  

PubMed

The role of sensory awareness in movement control is receiving increasing interest in sports and clinical literature as a feed-forward and feedback mechanism. The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility and effect of training in sensory awareness on dexterity in healthy adults. 29 healthy students were randomly allocated to a single-group, sensory awareness lesson with the dominant hand, the same lesson with the nondominant hand, or to a sham control group. Dexterity measures included the Purdue Pegboard Test, a grip-lift manipulandum, and perceived changes using a questionnaire. The sensory awareness lesson with the dominant hand produced a statistically significant improvement in mean dexterity compared to the control group, but not between the other two pairs of groups. The sensory awareness training paradigm is feasible and a single session improved dexterity in healthy adults. PMID:21853767

Bitter, Felicity; Hillier, Susan; Civetta, Lauren

2011-06-01

121

Changes in sensory activity of ocular surface sensory nerves during allergic keratoconjunctivitis.  

PubMed

Peripheral neural mechanisms underlying the sensations of irritation, discomfort, and itch accompanying the eye allergic response have not been hitherto analyzed. We explored this question recording the changes in the electrical activity of corneoconjunctival sensory nerve fibers of the guinea pig after an ocular allergic challenge. Sensitization was produced by i.p. ovalbumin followed by repeated application in the eye of 10% ovalbumin on days 14 to 18. Blinking and tearing rate were measured. Spontaneous and stimulus-evoked (mechanical, thermal, chemical) impulse activity was recorded from mechanonociceptor, polymodal nociceptor and cold corneoscleral sensory afferent fibers. After a single (day 14) or repeated daily exposures to the allergen during the following 3 to 4days, tearing and blinking rate increased significantly. Also, sensitization was observed in mechanonociceptors (transient reduction of mechanical threshold only on day 14) and in polymodal nociceptors (sustained enhancement of the impulse response to acidic stimulation). In contrast, cold thermoreceptors showed a significant decrease in basal ongoing activity and in the response to cooling. Treatment with the TRPV1 and TRPA1 blockers capsazepine and HC-030031 reversed the augmented blinking. Only capsazepine attenuated tearing rate increase and sensitization of the polymodal nociceptors response to CO2. Capsazepine also prevented the decrease in cold thermoreceptor activity caused by the allergic challenge. We conclude that changes in nerve impulse activity accompanying the ocular allergic response, primarily mediated by activation of nociceptor's TRPV1 and to a lesser degree by activation of TRPA1 channels, explain the eye discomfort sensations accompanying allergic episodes. PMID:23867735

Acosta, M Carmen; Luna, Carolina; Quirce, Susana; Belmonte, Carlos; Gallar, Juana

2013-11-01

122

Cortical oscillations and sensory predictions.  

PubMed

Many theories of perception are anchored in the central notion that the brain continuously updates an internal model of the world to infer the probable causes of sensory events. In this framework, the brain needs not only to predict the causes of sensory input, but also when they are most likely to happen. In this article, we review the neurophysiological bases of sensory predictions of "what' (predictive coding) and 'when' (predictive timing), with an emphasis on low-level oscillatory mechanisms. We argue that neural rhythms offer distinct and adapted computational solutions to predicting 'what' is going to happen in the sensory environment and 'when'. PMID:22682813

Arnal, Luc H; Giraud, Anne-Lise

2012-07-01

123

Driver eye height measurement  

E-print Network

and Cumulative Distribution of Driver Eye Heights. 24 TABLE 5, ? Passenger Vehicles: Frequency of Driver Eye Heights. 25 TABLE 6. ? Passenger Vehicles: Cumulative Distributions of Driver Eye Heights 26 TABLE 7. ? Summary Results f rom Analysis of Variance... the driver eye height and the height of an assumed object are required in these computations. Format and style based cn the Transportation En ineering Journal of hg A + ' S ~fC~1 Guaranteeing drivers a safe stopping distance on horizontal curves requires...

Abrahamson, Anthony Daniel

1978-01-01

124

Eye Care Following Disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The needs of ophthalmologic casualties mirror these general patterns of casualty care following disasters. The number of ophthalmologic casualties, however, may be large. In humans, the eyes account for only 0.1 % of the total body surface area, yet during an explosion as many as 10% of survivors may suffer eye trauma (3). Acute eye injuries during a disaster often

Michael G Weddle

125

Dwarf Eye Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Johns Hopkins researchers at the Wilmer Eye Institute have discovered what appears to be the first human gene mutation that causes extreme farsightedness. The researchers report that nanophthalmos, Greek for "dwarf eye," is a rare, potentially blinding disorder caused by an alteration in a gene called MFRP that helps control eye growth and…

Science Teacher, 2005

2005-01-01

126

STATUS SIGNALING IN DARK-EYED JUNCOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRCT.--Rohwer (1975, 1977) has proposed that members of certain variably-plumaged avian species may use plumage traits to signal potential dominance status to flockmates. Further, he suggests that plumage variability is maintained because cheaters on the system are detected and persecuted. Data reported herein imply that certain external and noticeable traits of Dark- eyed Juncos (Junco hyemalis) are fairly accurate indicators

ELLEN D. KETTERSON

2004-01-01

127

Molecular analysis of the amphioxus frontal eye unravels the evolutionary origin of the retina and pigment cells of the vertebrate eye  

PubMed Central

The origin of vertebrate eyes is still enigmatic. The “frontal eye” of amphioxus, our most primitive chordate relative, has long been recognized as a candidate precursor to the vertebrate eyes. However, the amphioxus frontal eye is composed of simple ciliated cells, unlike vertebrate rods and cones, which display more elaborate, surface-extended cilia. So far, the only evidence that the frontal eye indeed might be sensitive to light has been the presence of a ciliated putative sensory cell in the close vicinity of dark pigment cells. We set out to characterize the cell types of the amphioxus frontal eye molecularly, to test their possible relatedness to the cell types of vertebrate eyes. We show that the cells of the frontal eye specifically coexpress a combination of transcription factors and opsins typical of the vertebrate eye photoreceptors and an inhibitory Gi-type alpha subunit of the G protein, indicating an off-responding phototransductory cascade. Furthermore, the pigmented cells match the retinal pigmented epithelium in melanin content and regulatory signature. Finally, we reveal axonal projections of the frontal eye that resemble the basic photosensory-motor circuit of the vertebrate forebrain. These results support homology of the amphioxus frontal eye and the vertebrate eyes and yield insights into their evolutionary origin. PMID:22949670

Vopalensky, Pavel; Pergner, Jiri; Liegertova, Michaela; Benito-Gutierrez, Elia; Arendt, Detlev; Kozmik, Zbynek

2012-01-01

128

Finding an Eye Care Professional  

MedlinePLUS

Finding an Eye Care Professional Listen Finding an Eye Care Professional PDF* The National Eye Institute does not provide referrals or recommend specific eye care professionals. However, you may wish to consider the ...

129

Hawk Eyes I: Diurnal Raptors Differ in Visual Fields and Degree of Eye Movement  

PubMed Central

Background Different strategies to search and detect prey may place specific demands on sensory modalities. We studied visual field configuration, degree of eye movement, and orbit orientation in three diurnal raptors belonging to the Accipitridae and Falconidae families. Methodology/Principal Findings We used an ophthalmoscopic reflex technique and an integrated 3D digitizer system. We found inter-specific variation in visual field configuration and degree of eye movement, but not in orbit orientation. Red-tailed Hawks have relatively small binocular areas (?33°) and wide blind areas (?82°), but intermediate degree of eye movement (?5°), which underscores the importance of lateral vision rather than binocular vision to scan for distant prey in open areas. Cooper's Hawks' have relatively wide binocular fields (?36°), small blind areas (?60°), and high degree of eye movement (?8°), which may increase visual coverage and enhance prey detection in closed habitats. Additionally, we found that Cooper's Hawks can visually inspect the items held in the tip of the bill, which may facilitate food handling. American Kestrels have intermediate-sized binocular and lateral areas that may be used in prey detection at different distances through stereopsis and motion parallax; whereas the low degree eye movement (?1°) may help stabilize the image when hovering above prey before an attack. Conclusions We conclude that: (a) there are between-species differences in visual field configuration in these diurnal raptors; (b) these differences are consistent with prey searching strategies and degree of visual obstruction in the environment (e.g., open and closed habitats); (c) variations in the degree of eye movement between species appear associated with foraging strategies; and (d) the size of the binocular and blind areas in hawks can vary substantially due to eye movements. Inter-specific variation in visual fields and eye movements can influence behavioral strategies to visually search for and track prey while perching. PMID:20877645

O'Rourke, Colleen T.; Hall, Margaret I.; Pitlik, Todd; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

2010-01-01

130

Risk assessment of sensory irritants in indoor air—a case study in a French school  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to airborne pollutants can result in adverse health effects. Acute symptoms can for instance comprise of irritation of the eyes or of the respiratory tract (called sensory irritation). In a recent case, health problems were reported in a French school and supposedly attributed to the presence of airborne irritant pollutants. Based on measured concentrations, the risk of developing the

Roman Meininghaus; Amin Kouniali; Corinne Mandin; André Cicolella

2003-01-01

131

The Intelligent Eye.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the premise that perception is a continual series of simple hypotheses about the external world which are built up and selected by sensory experiences, this book explores in detail some of the major findings in perception and speculates about interconnections between sensory experiences, brain function, perception, and language and…

Gregory, R. L.

132

Sensory properties of fruit skins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensory characteristics of fruit skins were determined for a range of produce including large fruit (apples, pears, and tomatoes) and small fruit (grapes, strawberries, blueberries, and cherry tomatoes). These results provided a context within which to study the sensory properties of skins from novel kiwifruit (Actinidia). The kiwifruit skins ranged from the edible skins of grape-sized Actinidia arguta through

Rachel L. Amos

2007-01-01

133

Sensory-motor transformations for speech occur bilaterally  

PubMed Central

Historically, the study of speech processing has emphasized a strong link between auditory perceptual input and motor production output1–4. A kind of ‘parity’ is essential, as both perception- and production-based representations must form a unified interface to facilitate access to higher order language processes such as syntax and semantics, believed to be computed in the dominant, typically left hemisphere5,6. While various theories have been proposed to unite perception and production2,7, the underlying neural mechanisms are unclear. Early models of speech and language processing proposed that perceptual processing occurred in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke’s area) and motor production processes occurred in the left inferior frontal gyrus (Broca’s area)8,9. Sensory activity was proposed to link to production activity via connecting fiber tracts, forming the left lateralized speech sensory-motor system10. While recent evidence indicates that speech perception occurs bilaterally11–13, prevailing models maintain that the speech sensory-motor system is left lateralized11,14–18 and facilitates the transformation from sensory-based auditory representations to motor-based production representations11,15,16. Evidence for the lateralized computation of sensory-motor speech transformations is, however, indirect and primarily comes from lesion patients with speech repetition deficits (conduction aphasia) and studies using covert speech and hemodynamic functional imaging16,19. Whether the speech sensory-motor system is lateralized like higher order language processes, or bilateral, like speech perception is controversial. Here, using direct neural recordings in subjects performing sensory-motor tasks involving overt speech production, we show that sensory-motor transformations occur bilaterally. We demonstrate that electrodes over bilateral inferior frontal, inferior parietal, superior temporal, premotor, and somatosensory cortices exhibit robust sensory-motor neural responses during both perception and production in an overt word repetition task. Using a non-word transformation task, we show that bilateral sensory-motor responses can perform transformations between speech perception- and production-based representations. These results establish a bilateral sublexical speech sensory-motor system. PMID:24429520

Cogan, Gregory B.; Thesen, Thomas; Carlson, Chad; Doyle, Werner; Devinsky, Orrin; Pesaran, Bijan

2014-01-01

134

Sensory receptors in monotremes.  

PubMed Central

This is a summary of the current knowledge of sensory receptors in skin of the bill of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, and the snout of the echidna, Tachyglossus aculeatus. Brief mention is also made of the third living member of the monotremes, the long-nosed echidna, Zaglossus bruijnii. The monotremes are the only group of mammals known to have evolved electroreception. The structures in the skin responsible for the electric sense have been identified as sensory mucous glands with an expanded epidermal portion that is innervated by large-diameter nerve fibres. Afferent recordings have shown that in both platypuses and echidnas the receptors excited by cathodal (negative) pulses and inhibited by anodal (positive) pulses. Estimates give a total of 40,000 mucous sensory glands in the upper and lower bill of the platypus, whereas there are only about 100 in the tip of the echidna snout. Recording of electroreceptor-evoked activity from the brain of the platypus have shown that the largest area dedicated to somatosensory input from the bill, S1, shows alternating rows of mechanosensory and bimodal neurons. The bimodal neurons respond to both electrosensory and mechanical inputs. In skin of the platypus bill and echidna snout, apart from the electroreceptors, there are structures called push rods, which consist of a column of compacted cells that is able to move relatively independently of adjacent regions of skin. At the base of the column are Merkel cell complexes, known to be type I slowly adapting mechanoreceptors, and lamellated corpuscles, probably vibration receptors. It has been speculated that the platypus uses its electric sense to detect the electromyographic activity from moving prey in the water and for obstacle avoidance. Mechanoreceptors signal contact with the prey. For the echidna, a role for the electrosensory system has not yet been established during normal foraging behaviour, although it has been shown that it is able to detect the presence of weak electric fields in water. Perhaps the electric sense is used to detect moving prey in moist soil. PMID:9720114

Proske, U; Gregory, J E; Iggo, A

1998-01-01

135

The development of fine-grained sensitivity to eye contact after 6 years of age  

E-print Network

The development of fine-grained sensitivity to eye contact after 6 years of age Mark D. Vida that eye contact triggers theory-of-mind computations, which support inferences about others' interests, threat, or dominance, whereas deviations from eye contact can signal avoidance, deception, or attention

Maurer, Daphne M.

136

In vivo visualization of CaMKII activity in ocular dominance plasticity  

E-print Network

Alterations in sensory experience can persistently modify the responses of cortical neurons. Ocular dominance (OD) plasticity, a process in which alternation of visual input induces a shift in cortical responsiveness, is ...

Kwok, Show Ming

2009-01-01

137

Stance duration under sensory conflict conditions in patients with hemiplegia.  

PubMed

Standing balance was evaluated in ten subjects with hemiplegia using a sensory organization balance test (SOT). The SOT is a timed balance test which evaluates somatosensory, visual, and vestibular function for maintenance of upright posture. The duration of bilateral stance was assessed using combinations of three visual and two support surface conditions. Stance time was measured with eyes open, eyes closed, and with each patient wearing a visual dome to produce inaccurate visual information. The support surface conditions involved stance on a hard flat floor followed by attempted stance on a compliant foam surface. Visual deprivation or visual conflict conditions did not cause a loss of balance when stance was performed on a stable surface. However, a lower stance duration was found when patients stood on a compliant surface (p less than .05). Visual compensation was evident during the compliant-surface condition because stance duration showed the greatest reductions with eyes closed and with the visual dome. These findings suggest that the ability to integrate somatosensory information from the lower extremities for balance is compromised after cerebrovascular disease. The implications for diagnosing the specific cause of balance dysfunction and for developing sensory-specific therapeutic interventions are discussed. PMID:2009045

Di Fabio, R P; Badke, M B

1991-04-01

138

Salinibacter Sensory Rhodopsin  

PubMed Central

Halobacterium salinarum sensory rhodopsin I (HsSRI), a dual receptor regulating both negative and positive phototaxis in haloarchaea, transmits light signals through changes in protein-protein interactions with its transducer, halobacterial transducer protein I (HtrI). Haloarchaea also have another sensor pigment, sensory rhodopsin II (SRII), which functions as a receptor regulating negative phototaxis. Compared with HsSRI, the signal relay mechanism of SRII is well characterized because SRII from Natronomonus pharaonis (NpSRII) is much more stable than HsSRI and HsSRII, especially in dilute salt solutions and is much more resistant to detergents. Two genes encoding SRI homologs were identified from the genome sequence of the eubacterium Salinibacter ruber. Those sequences are distantly related to HsSRI (?40% identity) and contain most of the amino acid residues identified as necessary for its function. To determine whether those genes encode functional protein(s), we cloned and expressed them in Escherichia coli. One of them (SrSRI) was expressed well as a recombinant protein having all-trans retinal as a chromophore. UV-Vis, low-temperature UV-Vis, pH-titration, and flash photolysis experiments revealed that the photochemical properties of SrSRI are similar to those of HsSRI. In addition to the expression system, the high stability of SrSRI makes it possible to prepare large amounts of protein and enables studies of mutant proteins that will allow new approaches to investigate the photosignaling process of SRI-HtrI. PMID:18566451

Kitajima-Ihara, Tomomi; Furutani, Yuji; Suzuki, Daisuke; Ihara, Kunio; Kandori, Hideki; Homma, Michio; Sudo, Yuki

2008-01-01

139

Sex and Caste-Specific Variation in Compound Eye Morphology of Five Honeybee Species  

PubMed Central

Ranging from dwarfs to giants, the species of honeybees show remarkable differences in body size that have placed evolutionary constrains on the size of sensory organs and the brain. Colonies comprise three adult phenotypes, drones and two female castes, the reproductive queen and sterile workers. The phenotypes differ with respect to tasks and thus selection pressures which additionally constrain the shape of sensory systems. In a first step to explore the variability and interaction between species size-limitations and sex and caste-specific selection pressures in sensory and neural structures in honeybees, we compared eye size, ommatidia number and distribution of facet lens diameters in drones, queens and workers of five species (Apis andreniformis, A. florea, A. dorsata, A. mellifera, A. cerana). In these species, male and female eyes show a consistent sex-specific organization with respect to eye size and regional specialization of facet diameters. Drones possess distinctly enlarged eyes with large dorsal facets. Aside from these general patterns, we found signs of unique adaptations in eyes of A. florea and A. dorsata drones. In both species, drone eyes are disproportionately enlarged. In A. dorsata the increased eye size results from enlarged facets, a likely adaptation to crepuscular mating flights. In contrast, the relative enlargement of A. florea drone eyes results from an increase in ommatidia number, suggesting strong selection for high spatial resolution. Comparison of eye morphology and published mating flight times indicates a correlation between overall light sensitivity and species-specific mating flight times. The correlation suggests an important role of ambient light intensities in the regulation of species-specific mating flight times and the evolution of the visual system. Our study further deepens insights into visual adaptations within the genus Apis and opens up future perspectives for research to better understand the timing mechanisms and sensory physiology of mating related signals. PMID:23460896

Streinzer, Martin; Brockmann, Axel; Nagaraja, Narayanappa; Spaethe, Johannes

2013-01-01

140

The evolution of eyes and visually guided behaviour  

PubMed Central

The morphology and molecular mechanisms of animal photoreceptor cells and eyes reveal a complex pattern of duplications and co-option of genetic modules, leading to a number of different light-sensitive systems that share many components, in which clear-cut homologies are rare. On the basis of molecular and morphological findings, I discuss the functional requirements for vision and how these have constrained the evolution of eyes. The fact that natural selection on eyes acts through the consequences of visually guided behaviour leads to a concept of task-punctuated evolution, where sensory systems evolve by a sequential acquisition of sensory tasks. I identify four key innovations that, one after the other, paved the way for the evolution of efficient eyes. These innovations are (i) efficient photopigments, (ii) directionality through screening pigment, (iii) photoreceptor membrane folding, and (iv) focusing optics. A corresponding evolutionary sequence is suggested, starting at non-directional monitoring of ambient luminance and leading to comparisons of luminances within a scene, first by a scanning mode and later by parallel spatial channels in imaging eyes. PMID:19720648

Nilsson, Dan-Eric

2009-01-01

141

INTEGR. COMP. BIOL., 43:531541 (2003) To See or Not to See: Evolution of Eye Degeneration in Mexican Blind Cavefish1  

E-print Network

to advantages in losing eyesight. As ex- claimed in Darwin's famous quotation, the actual ben- efits of eyesight to energy conservation, citing the high cost of making an eye, or to enhancement of other sensory

Meyers, Ron

142

Modeling of the First Layers in the Fly's Eye  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increased autonomy of robots would yield significant advantages in the exploration of space. The shortfalls of computer vision can, however, pose significant limitations on a robot's potential. At the same time, simple insects which are largely hard-wired have effective visual systems. The understanding of insect vision systems thus may lead to improved approaches to visual tasks. A good starting point for the study of a vision system is its eye. In this paper, a model of the sensory portion of the fly's eye is presented. The effectiveness of the model is briefly addressed by a comparison of its performance to experimental data.

Moya, J. A.; Wilcox, M. J.; Donohoe, G. W.

1997-01-01

143

Autosomal dominant juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a form of chronic motor neuron disease characterized by combined upper and lower motor neuron symptoms and signs with onset prior to age 25 years. We report the clinical and electrodiagnostic findings in 49 affected family members and neuropathological findings from two autopsies of a Maryland kindred with autosomal dominant juvenile ALS linked to the chromosome 9q34 region (ALS4). Patients ranged in age from 12 to 85 years (mean 45 years) and the mean age of onset was 17 years. Distal weakness and atrophy was associated with pyramidal signs (43/49) and normal sensation (44/49). Motor conduction studies (n = 8) showed reduced evoked amplitudes and normal conduction parameters. Sensory conduction studies (n = 8), quantitative sensory testing (n = 4) and intracutaneous sensory fibres in skin biopsies (n = 6) were normal in all patients tested. Electromyography showed distal more than proximal chronic partial denervation and reinnervation (n = 8). Post-mortem spinal cord tissue demonstrated atrophic spinal cords with marked loss of anterior horn cells and degeneration of corticospinal tracts, as well as loss of neurons in the dorsal root ganglia and degeneration of the posterior columns. Axonal spheroids were present in the grey matter of the spinal cord, the dorsal root entry zones and the peripheral nerves. Motor and sensory roots, as well as peripheral nerves, showed significant axonal loss. Swellings were prominent around motor neurons, probably representing changes in presynaptic terminals. These studies define autosomal dominant juvenile ALS linked to the chromosome 9q34 region (ALS4) and extend the clinical, pathological and genetic heterogeneity of familial ALS and juvenile ALS. PMID:10430837

Rabin, B A; Griffin, J W; Crain, B J; Scavina, M; Chance, P F; Cornblath, D R

1999-08-01

144

Prevention of Eye Injuries  

PubMed Central

In Canada 30,000 people are registered as blind; in one third of these, blindness might have been avoided. Prevention is the key to reducing the number of eye injuries and blind eyes. The role of the family physician in early identification of treatable conditions and in the education of patients is discussed, but responsibility for prevention belongs to all physicians. The success of prevention is seen in the great reduction in eye injuries in industry and sports since eye protectors have been commonly used. However, many dangers to the eyes are either not recognized or are not taken seriously enough. This paper discusses some of the common causes of serious eye injuries in the home, in sports and in industry. Imagesp464-aFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:21289691

Pashby, Tom

1981-01-01

145

Physiological Targets of Artificial Gravity: The Sensory-Motor System. Chapter 4  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This chapter describes the pros and cons of artificial gravity applications in relation to human sensory-motor functioning in space. Spaceflight creates a challenge for sensory-motor functions that depend on gravity, which include postural balance, locomotion, eye-hand coordination, and spatial orientation. The sensory systems, and in particular the vestibular system, must adapt to weightlessness on entering orbit, and again to normal gravity upon return to Earth. During this period of adaptation, which persists beyond the actual gravity-level transition itself the sensory-motor systems are disturbed. Although artificial gravity may prove to be beneficial for the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems, it may well have negative side effects for the neurovestibular system, such as spatial disorientation, malcoordination, and nausea.

Paloski, William; Groen, Eric; Clarke, Andrew; Bles, Willem; Wuyts, Floris; Paloski, William; Clement, Gilles

2006-01-01

146

Eye drop neurology.  

PubMed

Eye drops can help to diagnose and prevent complications of neurological disorders. Guttae ophthalmicae (eye drops) are generally safe because the drugs rarely achieve significant systemic concentrations, although there are rare exceptions. This article covers contemporary pharmacological pupil testing; how to dilate a pupil safely; common reasons why pupils do not respond to drops; and corneal lubrication to prevent complications of weak eye closure. PMID:24520179

Bennetto, Luke; Guly, Catherine; Ormerod, Ian; Plant, Gordon T

2014-06-01

147

MAC-EYE: a Tendon Driven Fully Embedded Robot Eye  

E-print Network

MAC-EYE: a Tendon Driven Fully Embedded Robot Eye Dario Biamino, Giorgio Cannata, Marco Maggiali the possibility of designing a robot eye with kinematics and actuation similar to those of the human eye. In particular, we tried to exploit the spherical shape of the eye and to study the feasibility of a tendon based

Cannata, Giorgio

148

Minority Eye Health: Know Your Risks  

MedlinePLUS

... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Minority Eye Health: Know Your Risks Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... over the battery and always wear safety goggles. Eye Protection Works Wearing the proper protective eyewear for ...

149

Laterality in avian vigilance: do sparrows have a favourite eye?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual scanning for predators is one of a bird's most basic means of avoiding predation while feeding, and the detection of an approaching predator may present a difficult visual task. If birds have a dominant hemisphere for processing visual information, then given the nearly complete optic nerve crossover in the avian brain, the eye contralateral to that dominant hemisphere should

William E. Franklin; Steven L. Lima

2001-01-01

150

Sensory Ecology, Winter 2011 Stuart Thompson  

E-print Network

vision in mate selection in fishes Adaptations for seeing at very low light levels The role of visual on the adaptations of sensory systems to aquatic life and on the importance of sensory systems to the ecology will study the role of sensory adaptations in behavior and ecology. TOPICS The sensory world The kinds

151

The Efficacy of Sensory Integration Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to report on the status of research which has been de- signed to determine the effectiveness of occupational and physical therapy using sensory integration (SI) procedures. Sensory integration efficacy is the extent to which sensory integra- tion procedures have proven to be beneficial. (A reference list of sensory integration efficacy studies is available from

Sharon A. Cermak; Anne Henderson

152

Ocular dominance, cognitive strategy, and sex differences in spatial ability.  

PubMed

Ocular dominance, handedness, and cognitive strategy were assessed in relation to performance by 146 undergraduates on the Vandenberg Mental Rotation Test. Higher spatial scores were found for right-eyed subjects, right-handed subjects, and males. These higher scoring groups reported using similar cognitive strategies. The counted blocks less, used their hands less, and pictured in their minds more than the left-eyed, left-handed and female subjects. Results confirm previous findings. PMID:7255075

Freedman, R J; Rovegno, L

1981-04-01

153

Optical Prosthetics Mimicking the Eye  

E-print Network

Optical Prosthetics Mimicking the Eye Abstract The eye is a complex optical system that, like other still being in its infancy. Introduction The eye consists of many parts. · Sclera: The majority of the eye, it forms the white shell and the basic shape of the eyeball. · Cornea: The frontal 1/6 of the eye

La Rosa, Andres H.

154

Treatment of Diabetic Sensory Polyneuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  No current disease-modifying treatments have been shown definitively in randomized clinical trials to reduce or reverse diabetic\\u000a sensory polyneuropathy (DSP). It is increasingly recognized that individuals with “prediabetes” or impaired glucose regulation\\u000a can already have a “small-fiber” neuropathy, or mild DSP, in which sensory axons of both small and larger diameter are damaged.\\u000a Small-fiber neuropathy is frequently associated with

Lindsay Zilliox; James W. Russell

2011-01-01

155

Autosomal dominant pseudoxanthoma elasticum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two families are described, each with a unique clinical variant of pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) inherited in autosomal dominant fashion. Dominant type I PXE is characterized by a classical flexurally distributed rash, severe and frequent angina of effort, intermittent claudication and hypertension, and a very severe choroidoretinitis, often complicated by blindness. Dominant type II PXE, on the other hand, is a

F. M. Pope

1974-01-01

156

Acetylcholine and lobster sensory neurones  

PubMed Central

Experiments are presented in support of the hypothesis that acetylcholine functions as a sensory transmitter in the lobster nervous system. 1. Several different peripheral sensory structures incorporate radioactive choline into acetylcholine. The preparation most enriched in sensory as opposed to other nervous elements (the antennular sense organs of the distal outer flagellum) does not incorporate significant amounts of glutamate, tyrosine or tryptophan into any of the other major transmitter candidates. 2. There is a parallel between the distribution of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase and the proportion of sensory fibres in nervous tissue from many parts of the lobster nervous system. 3. Isolated sensory axons contain at least 500 times as much choline acetyltransferase per cm of axon as do efferent excitatory and inhibitory fibres. 4. Abdominal ganglia and root stumps show a decline in the rate of incorporation of choline into acetylcholine 2 to 8 weeks after severing the first and second roots bilaterally (leaving the connectives and third roots intact). Extracts of the root stumps exhibit a significantly lower level of choline acetyltransferase 2 weeks after this operation. 5. Curare and atropine partially block an identified sensory synapse in the lobster abdominal ganglion. ImagesText-fig. 4Text-fig. 5Plate 1 PMID:4343316

Barker, David L.; Herbert, Edward; Hildebrand, John G.; Kravitz, Edward A.

1972-01-01

157

Autologous serum eye drops for dry eye  

PubMed Central

Background Theoretically, autologous serum eye drops (AS) have a potential advantage over traditional therapies based on the assumption that AS serve not only as a lacrimal substitute to provide lubrication, but also contain other biochemical components mimicking natural tears more closely. The application of AS in dry eye treatment has gained popularity as a second-line therapy in the treatment of dry eye. Published studies on the subject indicate that autologous serum could be an effective treatment for dry eye. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of AS compared to artificial tears for treating dry eye. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 3), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLD MEDLINE, (January 1950 to April 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to April 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to April 2013), the meta Register of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We also searched the Science Citation Index Expanded database (September 2013) and reference lists of included studies. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 15 April 2013. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which AS was compared to artificial tears in the treatment of dry eye in adults. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently screened all titles and abstracts and assessed full-text articles of potentially eligible trials. Two review authors extracted data and assessed the methodological quality and characteristics of the included trials.We contacted investigators for missing data. For both primary and secondary outcomes, we reported mean differences with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for continuous outcomes. Main results We identified four eligible RCTs in which AS was compared with artificial tear treatment or saline in individuals (n = 72 participants) with dry eye of various etiologies (Sjögren’s syndrome-related dry eye, non-Sjögren’s syndrome dry eye and postoperative dry eye induced by laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK)). The quality of the evidence provided by these trials was variable. A majority of the risk of bias domains were judged to have an unclear risk of bias in two trials owing to insufficient reporting of trial characteristics. One trial was considered to have a low risk of bias for most domains while another was considered to have a high risk of bias for most domains. Incomplete outcome reporting and heterogeneity in the participant populations and follow-up periods prevented the inclusion of these trials in a summary meta-analysis. For the primary outcome, improvement in participant-reported symptoms at one month, one trial (12 participants) showed no difference in participant-reported symptoms between 20% AS and artificial tears. Based on the results of two trials in 32 participants, 20% AS may provide some improvement in participant-reported symptoms compared to traditional artificial tears after two weeks of treatment. One trial also showed positive results with a mean difference in tear breakup time (TBUT) of 2.00 seconds (95% CI 0.99 to 3.01 seconds) between 20% AS and artificial tears after two weeks, which were not similar to findings from the other trials. Based on all other objective clinical assessments included in this review, AS was not associated with improvements in aqueous tear production measured by Schirmer’s test (two trials, 33 participants), ocular surface condition with fluorescein (four trials, 72 participants) or Rose Bengal staining (three trials, 60 participants), and epithelial metaplasia by impression cytology compared to artificial tea

Pan, Qing; Angelina, Adla; Zambrano, Andrea; Marrone, Michael; Stark, Walter J; Heflin, Thomas; Tang, Li; Akpek, Esen K

2014-01-01

158

Dry eye diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the most effective objective tests, applied singly or in combination in the diagnosis of dry eye disease. Two groups of subjects—41 with dry eye and 32 with no ocular surface disease—had symptoms, tear film quality, evaporation, tear turnover rate (TTR), volume and osmolarity, and meibomian gland dropout score assessed.

Khanal Santosh; Alan Tomlinson; Angus McFadyen; Charles J. M. Diaper; Kanna Ramaesh

2008-01-01

159

Eyes in arhinencephalic syndromes.  

PubMed Central

The ocular features of eight cases of arhinencephaly have been described. Prediction of the degree of brain involvement from the eye defects could not be made, but eye abnormalities were present in all cases. The relationship of these syndromes to chromosomal abnormalities is emphasized. In the less severe cases treatable endocrine dysgenesis must be excluded. Images PMID:812548

Karseras, A G; Laurence, K M

1975-01-01

160

Foreign Body in Eye  

MedlinePLUS

... there. Most corneal abrasions heal within 48 hours. Glass shards, other sharp objects and objects that entered the eye at high speed are more likely to cause damage. An object that penetrates the eye may lead to severe vision loss. Additional Info American Academy ...

161

Autonomic control of the eye.  

PubMed

The autonomic nervous system influences numerous ocular functions. It does this by way of parasympathetic innervation from postganglionic fibers that originate from neurons in the ciliary and pterygopalatine ganglia, and by way of sympathetic innervation from postganglionic fibers that originate from neurons in the superior cervical ganglion. Ciliary ganglion neurons project to the ciliary body and the sphincter pupillae muscle of the iris to control ocular accommodation and pupil constriction, respectively. Superior cervical ganglion neurons project to the dilator pupillae muscle of the iris to control pupil dilation. Ocular blood flow is controlled both via direct autonomic influences on the vasculature of the optic nerve, choroid, ciliary body, and iris, as well as via indirect influences on retinal blood flow. In mammals, this vasculature is innervated by vasodilatory fibers from the pterygopalatine ganglion, and by vasoconstrictive fibers from the superior cervical ganglion. Intraocular pressure is regulated primarily through the balance of aqueous humor formation and outflow. Autonomic regulation of ciliary body blood vessels and the ciliary epithelium is an important determinant of aqueous humor formation; autonomic regulation of the trabecular meshwork and episcleral blood vessels is an important determinant of aqueous humor outflow. These tissues are all innervated by fibers from the pterygopalatine and superior cervical ganglia. In addition to these classical autonomic pathways, trigeminal sensory fibers exert local, intrinsic influences on many of these regions of the eye, as well as on some neurons within the ciliary and pterygopalatine ganglia. © 2015 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 5: 439-473, 2015. PMID:25589275

McDougal, David H; Gamlin, Paul D

2015-01-01

162

Eye disorders in neurofibromatosis (NF1).  

PubMed

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF 1) is an autosomal dominant disorder with high index of spontaneous mutations and extremely varied and impredictible clinical manifestations. The aim of this work was to give an account of eye disorders in NF1. 132 patients of age 0-16 years with NF1 were followed up for 15 years. They were checked repeatedly for ophthalmologic disorders. Frequent eye disorders were: Lisch nodules (Iris hamartomas, IH) 78%, hyperthelorism 19.7%, bulbomotoric disorders 15.9%, disorders of the optic disc 16.7% and optic gliomas (18.9%). The highest incidence of eye disorders by NF1 patients showed Lisch nodules (IH). Its ease of clinical recognition and if present with other diagnostic signs (for instance café au lait patches) could be deemed as reliable diagnostic criterion of NF1 in childhood. PMID:16193672

Kordi?, Rajko; Sabol, Zlatko; Cerovski, Branimir; Katusi?, Damir; Juki?, Tomislav

2005-01-01

163

The social dominance paradox.  

PubMed

Dominant individuals report high levels of self-sufficiency, self-esteem, and authoritarianism. The lay stereotype suggests that such individuals ignore information from others, preferring to make their own choices. However, the nonhuman animal literature presents a conflicting view, suggesting that dominant individuals are avid social learners, whereas subordinates focus on learning from private experience. Whether dominant humans are best characterized by the lay stereotype or the animal view is currently unknown. Here, we present a "social dominance paradox": using self-report scales and computerized tasks, we demonstrate that socially dominant people explicitly value independence, but, paradoxically, in a complex decision-making task, they show an enhanced reliance (relative to subordinate individuals) on social learning. More specifically, socially dominant people employed a strategy of copying other agents when the agents' responses had a history of being correct. However, in humans, two subtypes of dominance have been identified [1]: aggressive and social. Aggressively dominant individuals, who are as likely to "get their own way" as socially dominant individuals but who do so through the use of aggressive or Machiavellian tactics, did not use social information, even when it was beneficial to do so. This paper presents the first study of dominance and social learning in humans and challenges the lay stereotype in which all dominant individuals ignore others' views [2]. The more subtle perspective we offer could have important implications for decision making in both the boardroom and the classroom. PMID:25454588

Cook, Jennifer Louise; den Ouden, Hanneke E M; Heyes, Cecilia M; Cools, Roshan

2014-12-01

164

Medicare Benefits and Your Eyes  

MedlinePLUS

Medicare benefits and your eyes Eye Health is Important! As you age, your risk for vision impairment ... on the arrows below for detailed information about Medicare benefits and your eyes. Request a Free Copy ...

165

Eye muscle repair - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Strabismus (crossed eyes) is caused by a lack of muscle coordination between the eyes, causing the eyes ... unable to focus simultaneously on a single point. Strabismus may result from problems with the extraocular muscles ( ...

166

Financial Aid for Eye Care  

MedlinePLUS

... Programs Training and Jobs Financial Aid for Eye Care Listen Financial Aid for Eye Care PDF* Many state and national resources regularly provide ... research, does not help individuals pay for eye care. However, if you are in need of financial ...

167

Electroconvulsive therapy and determination of cerebral dominance  

PubMed Central

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) often results in a number of short- and long-time side effects including memory impairment for past and current events, which can last for several months after ECT treatment. It has been suggested that unilateral ECT (uECT) with electrodes placed over the non-dominant (typically right) hemisphere significantly reduces side effects, especially memory disturbances. It is important to note that cerebral dominance equates to speech dominance and avoiding this area of the brain also reduces speech dysfunction after ECT. Traditionally, the routine clinical determination of cerebral dominance has been through the assessment of hand, foot and eye dominance, which is an easy and inexpensive approach that, however, does not ensure accuracy. This review of literature on different methods and techniques for determination of cerebral dominance and provides evidence that functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) represents a valid and safe alternative to invasive techniques for identifying speech lateralisation. It can be concluded that fTCD, notwithstanding its costs, could be used as a standard procedure prior to uECT treatment to determine cerebral dominance, thereby further reducing cognitive side-effects of ECT and possibly making it more acceptable to both patients and clinicians. PMID:15306035

Dragovic, Milan; Allet, Lindsay; Janca, Aleksandar

2004-01-01

168

The neuroecology of cartilaginous fishes: sensory strategies for survival.  

PubMed

As apex predators, chondrichthyans, or cartilaginous fishes, hold an important position within a range of aquatic ecosystems and influence the balance between species' abundance and biodiversity. Having been in existence for over 400 million years and representing the earliest stages of the evolution of jawed vertebrates, this group also covers a diverse range of eco-morphotypes, occupying both marine and freshwater habitats. The class Chondrichthyes is divided into two subclasses: the Elasmobranchii (sharks, skates, and rays) and the Holocephali (elephant sharks and chimaeras). However, many of their life history traits, such as low fecundity, the production of small numbers of highly precocious young, slow growth rates, and late maturity, make them highly susceptible to human exploitation. To mitigate the negative effects of human impacts, it is important that we understand the sensory strategies that elasmobranchs use for navigating within their environment, forming reproductive aggregations, feeding, and even communicating. One approach to investigate the sensory bases of their behavior is to examine the peripheral sense organs mediating vision, olfaction, gustation, lateral line, electroreception, and audition in a large range of species in order to identify specific adaptations, the range of sensitivity thresholds, and the compromise between sensory spatial resolution and sensitivity. In addition, we can quantitatively assess the convergence of sensory input to the central nervous system and the relative importance of different sensory modalities. Using a comparative approach and often a combination of anatomical, electrophysiological, and molecular techniques, significant variation has been identified in the spatial and chromatic sampling of the photoreceptors in the eye, the surface area and the number of olfactory lamellae within the nasal cavity, the level of gustatory sampling within the oral cavity, the type and innervation of neuromasts of the lateral line system, the distribution of electroreceptive pores over the head, and the morphology of the inner ear. These results are presented in the context of predictions of sensory capabilities for species living in a range of ecological niches, what further research is needed, and how this sensory input may be a predictor of behavior. PMID:22986825

Collin, Shaun P

2012-01-01

169

Sensory Transduction in Caenorhabditis elegans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans has a well-defined and comparatively simple repertoire of sensory-guided behaviors, all of which rely on its ability to detect chemical, mechanical or thermal stimuli. In this chapter, we review what is known about the ion channels that mediate sensation in this remarkable model organism. Genetic screens for mutants defective in sensory-guided behaviors have identified genes encoding channel proteins, which are likely transducers of chemical, thermal, and mechanical stimuli. Such classical genetic approaches are now being coupled with molecular genetics and in vivo cellular physiology to elucidate how these channels are activated in specific sensory neurons. The ion channel superfamilies implicated in sensory transduction in C. elegans - CNG, TRP, and DEG/ENaC - are conserved across phyla and also appear to contribute to sensory transduction in other organisms, including vertebrates. What we learn about the role of these ion channels in C. elegans sensation is likely to illuminate analogous processes in other animals, including humans.

Brown, Austin L.; Ramot, Daniel; Goodman, Miriam B.

170

Improving eye cursor's stability for eye pointing tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve the stability of eye cursor, we introduce three methods, force field (FF), speed reduction (SR), and warping to target center (TC) to modulate eye cursor trajectories by counteracting eye jitter, which is the main cause of destabilizing the eye cursor. We evaluate these methods using two controlled experiments. One is an attention task experiment, which indicates

Xinyong Zhang; Xiangshi Ren; Hongbin Zha

2008-01-01

171

Effects of Ocular Dominance on Contrast Sensitivity in Middle-Aged People  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Our aim was to compare contrast sensitivity values of the dominant and nondominant eyes of healthy middle-aged subjects. Material and Methods. Ninety eyes of 45 healthy middle-aged subjects (30 males and 15 females) were included in this study. Patients were aged between 40 and 60 years, having uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) of 20/25 or better (Snellen chart). Ocular dominance was determined by hole-in-the-card test. Functional acuity contrast testing (F.A.C.T.) was measured using the Optec 6500 vision testing system (Stereo Optical Co. Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) under both photopic and mesopic conditions. Results. At all spatial frequencies (1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 18?cpd), under mesopic conditions, the contrast sensitivity values of the dominant eyes were slightly greater than those of the nondominant eyes; but only 18?cpd spatial frequency measurements' difference was statistically significant (P = 0.035). Under photopic conditions, the contrast sensitivity values of the dominant eyes and non-dominant eyes were similar at all spatial frequencies (P > 0.05). Conclusions. The photopic and mesopic contrast sensitivity values of dominant and nondominant eyes of healthy middle-aged people were similar at all spatial frequencies, except at mesopic 18?cpd spatial frequency. PMID:24734197

Pekel, Gökhan; Alagöz, Ne?e; Pekel, Evre; Alagöz, Cengiz; Y?lmaz, Ömer Faruk

2014-01-01

172

Effects of diminished and conflicting sensory information on balance in patients with cerebellar deficits.  

PubMed

We studied the effects of altered sensory information on standing balance in 25 patients with cortical cerebellar atrophy (CCA), nine patients with olivoponto-cerebellar atrophy (OPCA), and 10 normal subjects. The total sway path and its components, the anteroposterior (AP) sway path and the lateral sway path, were measured under six conditions: (1) standing on a fixed platform with the eyes open and visual surroundings fixed, (2) standing on a fixed platform with the eyes closed, (3) standing on a fixed platform with the eyes open and visual surroundings AP sway referenced, (4) standing on an AP sway-referenced platform with the eyes open and visual surroundings fixed, (5) standing on an AP sway-referenced platform with the eyes closed, and (6) standing on an AP sway-referenced platform with the eyes open and visual surroundings AP sway referenced. Patients swayed more than normal subjects during normal stance (condition 1), when the visual information was absent (condition 2) or distorted (condition 3), and when the proprioceptive information from the ankles was distorted (condition 4). Patients swayed much more than normal, and most fell, when two sensory modalities were affected under condition 5 (proprioceptive information distorted and visual information absent) and condition 6 (both proprioceptive information and visual information distorted). When the patients' sway was normalized to that of the first condition, however, only their lateral sway was greater than the sway in normal subjects. Unlike in normal subjects, the patients' lateral sway varied with the AP sway to approximately the same degree in each condition for conditions 1-5. Clinical ratings of gait and balance were highly correlated with the sway measures. Quantitative testing of standing balance with altered sensory information has better sensitivity than normal stance testing. PMID:8914091

Gatev, P; Thomas, S; Lou, J S; Lim, M; Hallett, M

1996-11-01

173

Eye to I  

E-print Network

This is the story of the language of eyes - what they say about our emotions, what they reveal about our intentions, how they interact with our face, and how they connect us to one another. The story follows our experience ...

Brunstein, Ada

2007-01-01

174

Anatomy of the Eye  

MedlinePLUS

External (Extraocular) Anatomy Extraocular Muscles: There are six muscles that are present in the orbit (eye socket) that attach to the ... on which contact lenses are placed. Internal (Intraocular)Anatomy Anterior chamber: The anterior chamber is a fluid ( ...

175

Dry eye syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... of dry eyes include: Dry environment or workplace (wind, air conditioning) Sun exposure Smoking or second-hand ... t smoke and avoid second-hand smoke, direct wind, and air conditioning. Use a humidifier, especially in ...

176

Welder eye injuries.  

PubMed

During 1985, welders submitted 21% of all claims for eye injuries received by the Workers' Compensation Board of Alberta. Since then the proportion of similar claims has remained high. A descriptive study of welder eye injury claims reveals that, although most injuries are reversible (55% of workers return to work in less than 2 days and 95% in less than 7 days), some workers sustain permanent visual impairment. Eye injuries occur most frequently in metal-work industries, and cold particles, most often metal, are the most common source of injury. Preventive measures should stress the importance of wearing eye protection constantly while working with metal pieces and in metal industries. Goggles probably should not be removed upon extinguishing the welding torch. PMID:2533251

Reesal, M R; Dufresne, R M; Suggett, D; Alleyne, B C

1989-12-01

177

Multimodal eye recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multimodal biometrics use more than one means of biometric identification to achieve higher recognition accuracy, since sometimes a unimodal biometric is not good enough used to do identification and classification. In this paper, we proposed a multimodal eye recognition system, which can obtain both iris and sclera patterns from one color eye image. Gabor filter and 1-D Log-Gabor filter algorithms have been applied as the iris recognition algorithms. In sclera recognition, we introduced automatic sclera segmentation, sclera pattern enhancement, sclera pattern template generation, and sclera pattern matching. We applied kernelbased matching score fusion to improve the performance of the eye recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed eye recognition method can achieve better performance compared to unimodal biometric identification, and the accuracy of our proposed kernel-based matching score fusion method is higher than two classic linear matching score fusion methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).

Zhou, Zhi; Du, Yingzi; Thomas, N. L.; Delp, Edward J., III

2010-04-01

178

Sensory irritation as a basis for setting occupational exposure limits.  

PubMed

There is a need of guidance on how local irritancy data should be incorporated into risk assessment procedures, particularly with respect to the derivation of occupational exposure limits (OELs). Therefore, a board of experts from German committees in charge of the derivation of OELs discussed the major challenges of this particular end point for regulatory toxicology. As a result, this overview deals with the question of integrating results of local toxicity at the eyes and the upper respiratory tract (URT). Part 1 describes the morphology and physiology of the relevant target sites, i.e., the outer eye, nasal cavity, and larynx/pharynx in humans. Special emphasis is placed on sensory innervation, species differences between humans and rodents, and possible effects of obnoxious odor in humans. Based on this physiological basis, Part 2 describes a conceptual model for the causation of adverse health effects at these targets that is composed of two pathways. The first, "sensory irritation" pathway is initiated by the interaction of local irritants with receptors of the nervous system (e.g., trigeminal nerve endings) and a downstream cascade of reflexes and defense mechanisms (e.g., eyeblinks, coughing). While the first stages of this pathway are thought to be completely reversible, high or prolonged exposure can lead to neurogenic inflammation and subsequently tissue damage. The second, "tissue irritation" pathway starts with the interaction of the local irritant with the epithelial cell layers of the eyes and the URT. Adaptive changes are the first response on that pathway followed by inflammation and irreversible damages. Regardless of these initial steps, at high concentrations and prolonged exposures, the two pathways converge to the adverse effect of morphologically and biochemically ascertainable changes. Experimental exposure studies with human volunteers provide the empirical basis for effects along the sensory irritation pathway and thus, "sensory NOAEChuman" can be derived. In contrast, inhalation studies with rodents investigate the second pathway that yields an "irritative NOAECanimal." Usually the data for both pathways is not available and extrapolation across species is necessary. Part 3 comprises an empirical approach for the derivation of a default factor for interspecies differences. Therefore, from those substances under discussion in German scientific and regulatory bodies, 19 substances were identified known to be human irritants with available human and animal data. The evaluation started with three substances: ethyl acrylate, formaldehyde, and methyl methacrylate. For these substances, appropriate chronic animal and a controlled human exposure studies were available. The comparison of the sensory NOAEChuman with the irritative NOAECanimal (chronic) resulted in an interspecies extrapolation factor (iEF) of 3 for extrapolating animal data concerning local sensory irritating effects. The adequacy of this iEF was confirmed by its application to additional substances with lower data density (acetaldehyde, ammonia, n-butyl acetate, hydrogen sulfide, and 2-ethylhexanol). Thus, extrapolating from animal studies, an iEF of 3 should be applied for local sensory irritants without reliable human data, unless individual data argue for a substance-specific approach. PMID:25182421

Brüning, Thomas; Bartsch, Rüdiger; Bolt, Hermann Maximillian; Desel, Herbert; Drexler, Hans; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Hartwig, Andrea; Jäckh, Rudolf; Leibold, Edgar; Pallapies, Dirk; Rettenmeier, Albert W; Schlüter, Gerhard; Stropp, Gisela; Sucker, Kirsten; Triebig, Gerhard; Westphal, Götz; van Thriel, Christoph

2014-10-01

179

The watery eye.  

PubMed

The surface of the eye needs to be wet constantly to ensure its integrity in maintaining ocular comfort, clear vision, and ocular health. This article presents new findings in the tear dynamics of the human eye, with an emphasis on the tear meniscus and tear film through the day and in response to punctual occlusion and wearing of contact lenses. Recent advances in imaging technique are briefly discussed. PMID:21302004

Wang, Jianhua; Shen, Meixiao; Cui, Lele; Wang, Michael R

2011-06-01

180

Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes  

MedlinePLUS

... cause painful damage called snow blindness . The Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes Summer Sun Eye Safety Winter Sun Eye Safety Indoor Tanning Eye Safety Solar Eclipse Eye Safety Snow Blindness Who is at ...

181

Sensory Neuronopathy and Autoimmune Diseases  

PubMed Central

Sensory neuronopathies (SNs) are a specific subgroup of peripheral nervous system diseases characterized by primary degeneration of dorsal root ganglia and their projections. Multifocal sensory symptoms often associated to ataxia are the classical features of SN. Several different etiologies have been described for SNs, but immune-mediated damage plays a key role in most cases. SN may herald the onset of some systemic autoimmune diseases, which further emphasizes how important the recognition of SN is in clinical practice. We have thus reviewed available clinical, neurophysiological, and therapeutic data on autoimmune disease-related SN, namely, in patients with Sjögren's syndrome, autoimmune hepatitis, and celiac disease. PMID:22312482

Martinez, Alberto R. M.; Nunes, Marcelo B.; Nucci, Anamarli; França, Marcondes C.

2012-01-01

182

Genetic Dominance & Cellular Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In learning genetics, many students misunderstand and misinterpret what "dominance" means. Understanding is easier if students realize that dominance is not a mechanism, but rather a consequence of underlying cellular processes. For example, metabolic pathways are often little affected by changes in enzyme concentration. This means that…

Seager, Robert D.

2014-01-01

183

Eye Development and Retinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Three embryonic tissue sources—the neural ectoderm, the surface ectoderm, and the periocular mesenchyme—contribute to the formation of the mammalian eye. For this reason, the developing eye has presented an invaluable system for studying the interactions among cells and, more recently, genes, in specifying cell fate. This article describes how the eye primordium is specified in the anterior neural plate by four eye field transcription factors and how the optic vesicle becomes regionalized into three distinct tissue types. Specific attention is given to how cross talk between the optic vesicle and surface ectoderm contributes to lens and optic cup formation. This article also describes how signaling networks and cell movements set up axes in the optic cup and establish the multiple cell fates important for vision. How multipotent retinal progenitor cells give rise to the six neuronal and one glial cell type in the mature retina is also explained. Finally, the history and progress of cellular therapeutics for the treatment of degenerative eye disease is outlined. Throughout this article, special attention is given to how disruption of gene function causes ocular malformation in humans. Indeed, the accessibility of the eye has contributed much to our understanding of the basic processes involved in mammalian development. PMID:23071378

Heavner, Whitney; Pevny, Larysa

2012-01-01

184

Eye Protection in Educational Institutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to help reduce the number of school eye injuries in New Jersey, this document begins with a brief review of existing legislation regarding eye protection in educational institutions and a list of elements essential in an eye safety program. Second, eye protection equipment is examined in terms of: the advantages of safety spectacles over…

New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Div. of Vocational Education.

185

New Analyses of the Sensory Organization Test Compared to the Clinical Test of Sensory Integration and Balance in Patients with Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) of the computerized dynamic posturography battery or the Clinical Test of Sensory Integration and Balance (CTSIB) is more likely to indicate balance disorders in people with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Study design Normal controls were compared to patients with unilateral benign paroxysmal positional vertigo of the posterior semicircular canal (BPPV). Methods Subjects performed tests with eyes open or closed on stable and unstable surfaces, with head still or with head moving at 0.33 Hz in pitch or yaw. Dependent variables were the percent time of the standard duration each subject could perform the task, the number of head motions made, and kinematic variables measured with head- and torso-mounted inertial motion units. Results Because equilibrium scores of normals improved significantly over repeated trials on SOT patients were given only 1 trial per condition. For percent time between-group differences were found on CTSIB with eyes closed, on foam, head moving in yaw showing significantly reduced performance by BPPV subjects compared to controls. Compared to controls patients made significantly fewer head movements on CTSIB, eyes closed, on foam, head still, pitch and yaw. Kinematic data also differed between the groups on tests with eyes closed, unstable surfaces with different head movement combinations, indicating increased instability in BPPV patients. Conclusion For screening, CTSIB with head movements is more likely than SOT to indicate balance deficits, especially when dependent measures include percent time as well as head movement counts and kinematic measures. PMID:23553110

Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Cohen, Helen S.; Peters, Brian T.; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

2013-01-01

186

Effectiveness of sensory integration therapy on smooth pursuits and organization time in children.  

PubMed

In this study the effect of sensory integration (SI) therapy on smooth pursuit eye movements, tracking and learning time was evaluated in 21 children diagnosed with sensory integration dysfunction. A control group of 11 normal children, matched for age and sex was also tested. Electrooculograph (EOG) recordings were inspected for number of saccadic intrusions during smooth pursuit movements. Prior to therapy the children in the SI treatment group exhibited significantly more saccadic intrusions during smooth pursuit movements and took significantly longer to perform the task than the normal control group. After 6-9 months of SI therapy one hour a week, there was a significant reduction in the number of saccades in the treatment group. The treatment group demonstrated a reduction in the time necessary to accomplish smooth pursuits and organizational time. The etiology of these improvements may be related to the subcortical substrated utilized in SI therapy as well as in the generation of smooth pursuit eye movements. PMID:8202321

Horowitz, L J; Oosterveld, W J; Adrichem, R

1993-01-01

187

Age-related changes in human posture control: Sensory organization tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Postural control was measured in 214 human subjects ranging in age from 7 to 81 years. Sensory organization tests measured the magnitude of anterior-posterior body sway during six 21 s trials in which visual and somatosensory orientation cues were altered (by rotating the visual surround and support surface in proportion to the subject's sway) or vision eliminated (eyes closed) in various combinations. No age-related increase in postural sway was found for subjects standing on a fixed support surface with eyes open or closed. However, age-related increases in sway were found for conditions involving altered visual or somatosensory cues. Subjects older than about 55 years showed the largest sway increases. Subjects younger than about 15 years were also sensitive to alteration of sensory cues. On average, the older subjects were more affected by altered visual cues whereas younger subjects had more difficulty with altered somatosensory cues.

Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

1989-01-01

188

Making Sense of Sensory Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of caregivers requires that they continuously assess the needs and performance of children and provide the support necessary for them to achieve their potential. A thorough understanding of child development, including the role and impact of sensory development, is critical for caregivers to properly evaluate and assist these children.…

Hendrix, Marie

2010-01-01

189

The Emphasis Is on Integration, Not Sensory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a response to a critique of studies on the use of sensory integration therapy with mentally retarded persons, the article criticizes the original authors for finding fault with the theory of sensory integration rather than reviewing research on sensory integration. (DB)

Kimball, Judith G.

1988-01-01

190

Exploring Sensory Integrative Treatment in Chronic Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of the efficacy of sensory integrative treatment of the psychiatric status and physical functioning of patients with chronic schizophrenia is reported. Patients were involved in sequenced sensory integrative treatment over a seventeen week period. Significant improvement was found in scores of the NOSIE-30 as well as on some of the usual idicators of sensory integrative status: thumb-finger opposition,

Judith E. Reisman; Anne B. Blakeney

1991-01-01

191

USE OF SENSORY EVOKED POTENTIALS IN TOXICOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The rationale for studying sensory systems as an integral part of neurotoxicological examinations is presented. The role of evoked potentials in assessing brain dysfunction in general and sensory systems in particular is also presented. Four types of sensory evoked potentials (br...

192

Sensory gardens: Assessing their design and use  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the design and use of sensory gardens by evaluating their zones and how they are utilized. Preliminary site studies were undertaken in 14 sensory gardens around the UK, followed by more detailed data collection at two case-study sites. The aim was to discover features that enable user behaviours and use of spaces in sensory gardens. The data

Hazreena Hussein

2010-01-01

193

Relative contribution of feedforward excitatory connections to ocular dominance plasticity in layer 4 of visual cortex  

E-print Network

Brief monocular deprivation (MD) shifts ocular dominance (OD) in primary visual cortex by causing depression of responses to the deprived eye. Here we address the extent to which the shift is expressed by a modification ...

Khibnik, Lena A.

194

A neural network approach to motor-sensory relations during postural disturbance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored whether artificial neural networks (ANN) can be used to quantify the motor-sensory relationship during postural disturbance. An ANN model was constructed with seven mechanical stimuli to the visual, vestibular and somatosensory systems (i.e., head angular and linear accelerations, eye–target distance, ankle joint rotation and velocity, as well as normal and shear ground contact forces under the feet)

Ge Wu; Larry Haugh; Marc Sarnow; Juvena Hitt

2006-01-01

195

Robin Teigland Dominic Power  

E-print Network

and Dominic Power 2013 Individual chapters© Respective authors 2013 All rights reserved. No reproduction, copy-1-137-28301-6 This book is printed on paper suitable for recycling and made from fully managed and sustained forest

Brody, James P.

196

Some Genes Are Dominant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive activity, adapted from the Dolan DNA Learning Center, illustrates how Gregor Mendel used pure-bred yellow and green peas to show that some genes are dominant and others are recessive.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-04-19

197

Galileo's eye: a new vision of the senses in the work of Galileo Galilei.  

PubMed

Reflections on the senses, and particularly on vision, permeate the writings of Galileo Galilei, one of the main protagonists of the scientific revolution. This aspect of his work has received scant attention by historians, in spite of its importance for his achievements in astronomy, and also for the significance in the innovative scientific methodology he fostered. Galileo's vision pursued a different path from the main stream of the then contemporary studies in the field; these were concerned with the dioptrics and anatomy of the eye, as elaborated mainly by Johannes Kepler and Christoph Scheiner. Galileo was more concerned with the phenomenology rather than with the mechanisms of the visual process. His general interest in the senses was psychological and philosophical; it reflected the fallacies and limits of the senses and the ways in which scientific knowledge of the world could be gathered from potentially deceptive appearances. Galileo's innovative conception of the relation between the senses and external reality contrasted with the classical tradition dominated by Aristotle; it paved the way for the modern understanding of sensory processing, culminating two centuries later in Johannes Müller's elaboration of the doctrine of specific nerve energies and in Helmholtz's general theory of perception. PMID:18986060

Piccolino, Marco; Wade, Nicholas J

2008-01-01

198

Dominant carpotarsal osteochondromatosis.  

PubMed Central

Dominant carpotarsal osteochondromatosis is a particular disorder of the wrist and tibiotalar joints with abnormal bone proliferation and osteochondromas. Two patients, a mother and son, are described here; a similar condition has previously been described in seven affected members of a family. The upper and the lower limbs are affected in the same patient and the lesion can be bilateral. Autosomal dominant inheritance is a further criterion allowing the diagnosis of dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica. Images PMID:8411062

Maroteaux, P; Le Merrer, M; Bensahel, H; Freisinger, P

1993-01-01

199

Response Properties of a Sensory Hair Excised from Venus's Flytrap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multicellular sensory hairs were excised from the leaf of Venus's flytrap, and the sensory cells were identified by a destructive dissection tech- nique. The sensory layer includes a radially symmetrical rosette of 20-30 ap- parently identical cells, and the sensory cells are organized in a plane normal to the long axis of the sensory hair. The sensory cells were probed

R. M. Benolken; S. L. JACOBSON

1970-01-01

200

Trait Dominance Promotes Reflexive Staring at Masked Angry Body Postures  

PubMed Central

It has been shown that dominant individuals sustain eye-contact when non-consciously confronted with angry faces, suggesting reflexive mechanisms underlying dominance behaviors. However, dominance and submission can be conveyed and provoked by means of not only facial but also bodily features. So far few studies have investigated the interplay of body postures with personality traits and behavior, despite the biological relevance and ecological validity of these postures. Here we investigate whether non-conscious exposure to bodily expressions of anger evokes reflex-like dominance behavior. In an interactive eye-tracking experiment thirty-two participants completed three social dominance tasks with angry, happy and neutral facial, bodily and face and body compound expressions that were masked from consciousness. We confirmed our predictions of slower gaze-aversion from both non-conscious bodily and compound expressions of anger compared to happiness in high dominant individuals. Results from a follow-up experiment suggest that the dominance behavior triggered by exposure to bodily anger occurs with basic detection of the category, but not recognition of the emotional content. Together these results suggest that dominant staring behavior is reflexively driven by non-conscious perception of the emotional content and triggered by not only facial but also bodily expression of anger. PMID:25549321

Hortensius, Ruud; van Honk, Jack; de Gelder, Beatrice; Terburg, David

2014-01-01

201

Molecular restrictions for human eye irritation by chemical vapors  

SciTech Connect

Previous research showed a cut-off along homologous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in their ability to produce acute human mucosal irritation. The present study sought to specify the particular cut-off homolog for sensory eye irritation in an acetate and n-alcohol series. A 1900-ml glass vessel system and a three-alternative forced-choice procedure served to test nonyl, decyl, and dodecyl acetate, and 1-nonanol, 1-decanol, and 1-undecanol. Flowrate to the eye ranged from 2 to 8 L/min and time of exposure from 3 to 24 s. Decyl acetate and 1-undecanol were the shortest homologs that failed to produce eye irritation under all conditions, producing a cut-off effect. Increasing the vapor concentration of decyl acetate and 1-undecanol by 3 and 8 times, respectively, via heating them to 37 deg C made either or both VOCs detectable to only half of the 12 subjects tested, even though the higher vapor concentration was well above a predicted eye irritation threshold. When eye irritation thresholds for homologous acetates and n-alcohols were plotted as a function of the longest unfolded length of the molecule, the values for decyl acetate and 1-undecanol fell within a restricted range of 18 to 19 A. The outcome suggests that the basis for the cut-off is biological, that is, the molecule lacks a key size or structure to trigger transduction, rather than physical, that is, the vapor concentration is too low to precipitate detection.

Cometto-Muniz, J. Enrique [Chemosensory Perception Laboratory, Department of Surgery (Otolaryngology), 9500 Gilman Dr.-Mail Code 0957, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0957 (United States)]. E-mail: ecometto@ucsd.edu; Cain, William S. [Chemosensory Perception Laboratory, Department of Surgery (Otolaryngology), 9500 Gilman Dr.-Mail Code 0957, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0957 (United States); Abraham, Michael H. [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)

2005-09-15

202

Prescription of eye drops  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to assess whether patients have their ocular drops correctly prescribed during non-ophthalmic admissions to hospital. A retrospective review of notes of patients who were admitted to hospital for general medical or surgical care, while on regular eye drops at the time of admission was performed. Twenty two patients were on regular ocular medication when admitted. Only seven out of 22 patients had their eye drops correctly prescribed. Furthermore, six patients had been prescribed topical ?-blockers, yet suffered from medical conditions that may have been aggravated by these drops. These findings demonstrate that the majority of patients on drops do not have their medication correctly prescribed during non-ophthalmic admissions to hospital. Also topical ?-blockers continue to be inappropriately prescribed.???Keywords: eye drops; non-ophthalmic admissions PMID:11571373

O'Sullivan, E; Malhotra, R; Migdal, C

2001-01-01

203

Eye injuries in sport.  

PubMed

Most ocular injuries involve only the external eye. However, in approximately one-third of cases the intraocular structures are damaged with potentially sight threatening consequences. A small number of sports, such as soccer, rugby, hockey and the racquet sports are responsible for most injuries. Sport is responsible for between 25-40% of all eye injuries severe enough to require hospital admission. Most of these are recognised as being largely preventable and methods of reducing the number and severity of such injuries are of prime importance. PMID:20533697

MacEwen, C J; McLatchie, G R

2010-05-01

204

Photorefraction of the Eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photorefraction is a method to easily estimate the refractive state of the eye. The principle of photorefraction involves projecting light into the eye during flash photography and then examining the paths of light that emerge from the pupil after scattering on the back portion of the interior of the eyeball (fundus). We will explain the optical principles underlying the method for eccentric photorefraction and describe how students can perform it using current digital cameras. Our purpose is not to diagnose refractive errors reliably, but to use devices popular among young people that, in combination with an important ophthalmic context, may be successful in improving students' interest for learning optical concepts.

Colicchia, Giuseppe; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

2015-02-01

205

Active inference, eye movements and oculomotor delays.  

PubMed

This paper considers the problem of sensorimotor delays in the optimal control of (smooth) eye movements under uncertainty. Specifically, we consider delays in the visuo-oculomotor loop and their implications for active inference. Active inference uses a generalisation of Kalman filtering to provide Bayes optimal estimates of hidden states and action in generalised coordinates of motion. Representing hidden states in generalised coordinates provides a simple way of compensating for both sensory and oculomotor delays. The efficacy of this scheme is illustrated using neuronal simulations of pursuit initiation responses, with and without compensation. We then consider an extension of the generative model to simulate smooth pursuit eye movements-in which the visuo-oculomotor system believes both the target and its centre of gaze are attracted to a (hidden) point moving in the visual field. Finally, the generative model is equipped with a hierarchical structure, so that it can recognise and remember unseen (occluded) trajectories and emit anticipatory responses. These simulations speak to a straightforward and neurobiologically plausible solution to the generic problem of integrating information from different sources with different temporal delays and the particular difficulties encountered when a system-like the oculomotor system-tries to control its environment with delayed signals. PMID:25128318

Perrinet, Laurent U; Adams, Rick A; Friston, Karl J

2014-12-01

206

VESTA Viticulture Course: Sensory Evaluation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from the Viticulture and Enology Science and Technology Alliance, offers presentations and slides from the lectures of VIN 266: Sensory Evaluation. From the presenter, Ray Johnson, the three lectures included are: Enhancing Winetasting: Decanting, Enhancing Winetasting: Glassware, and Winetasting Methodology Basic Techniques. Users must have Microsoft's Silverlight installed to view the presentations, which vary in length from about 6 minutes to 16 minutes.

2010-11-09

207

The world in an eye [eye image interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of exactly what visual information about the world is embedded within a single image of an eye. It turns out that the cornea of an eye and a camera viewing the eye form a catadioptric imaging system. We refer to this as a corneal imaging system. Unlike a typical catadioptric system, a corneal one

Ko Nishino; Shree K. Nayar

2004-01-01

208

Task Performance & Eye Activity 1 Task Performance and Eye Activity  

E-print Network

the dual task the mean pupil diameter and horizontal vergence increased when subjects performed wellTask Performance & Eye Activity 1 Task Performance and Eye Activity: Predicting Behavior Relating of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA Running Head: Task Performance & Eye Activity Abstract word count: 254

Makeig, Scott

209

Through Our Eyes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through Our Eyes was a multimedia performance created in collaboration with the author's five modern dance students. Through video, sound, and dance, the piece shows some ways race has affected their lives. The author did not set out at the beginning of the semester to make this project in her dance class. It was born out of a hard conversation,…

Narva, Sara

2009-01-01

210

An eye for inspiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery that the eye of a particular mantis shrimp has an achromatic quarter-waveplate that is superior to modern-day devices could be a source of inspiration to those designing optical components. Nature Photonics spoke to Nicholas Roberts, one of the researchers involved in the study.

2009-11-01

211

Through Students' Eyes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies how students perceive racism and its effects on student learning and whether antiracist/multicultural arts (ARMA) curricula can empower students to address racism in schools. Results show racism, through students' eyes, damages learning, attitudes, and behavior. ARMA positively effected students' ability to confront racism within their…

McLean-Donaldson, Karen B.

1994-01-01

212

LASIK eye surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... surgery that permanently changes the shape of the cornea (the clear covering on the front of the ... For clear vision, the eye's cornea and lens must bend (refract) light rays properly. This allows images to be focused on the retina. Otherwise, the images will ...

213

Eye of the Beholder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Art, like beauty, as the adage goes, is in the eye of the beholder. Art also is a living, breathing thing that evolves over time, so what is considered "art" is ever changing--how many of the great artists whose works today sell for fortunes were failures during their lifetime? The 20th century unknowingly gave birth to new variations of art that…

Rogers, Michael

2010-01-01

214

Eye-Tracking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the eye-movement paradigm and refers to recent experiments applying the paradigm to issues of spoken word recognition (e.g., lexical competitor effects), syntactic processing, reference resolution, focus, as well as issues in cross-modality integration that are central to evaluating the modularity hypothesis. (Seven references) (Author/CK)

Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Spivey-Knowlton, Michael J.

1996-01-01

215

Eye Health:Eye Health: What You Should KnowWhat You Should Know  

E-print Network

Eye Health:Eye Health: What You Should KnowWhat You Should Know Holly B. Hindman, MDHolly B of Ophthalmology Flaum Eye InstituteFlaum Eye Institute University of RochesterUniversity of Rochester #12;THE FLAUM EYE INSTITUTE #12;Keeping Your Eyes Healthy · Know about how your eyes work · Most Eye Diseases

Goldman, Steven A.

216

[The effect of "animal hypnosis" on the motor polarization dominant in rabbits].  

PubMed

Influence of "animal hypnosis" on the process of development of motor polarization dominant created by the action of DC anode on the cortical sensorimotor area was studied in rabbits. It was shown that "animal hypnosis" induced at the dominant optimum elicited long-term (up to 2-4 days) inhibition of motor reaction of the "dominant" limb to sensory test stimuli. Motor polarization dominant was inhibited rather than eliminated by the "animal hypnosis", since after extinction of trace processes of "animal hypnosis" the motor "dominant" reaction could be recovered solely by the test stimuli without repeated DC application. PMID:7754683

Rusinova, E V

1995-01-01

217

Kinematics of eye movement control.  

PubMed

In this paper a kinematic description of the restrictions imposed on the eye movements is presented. The restrictions arise from a pattern of nonlinear interactions between desired changes in viewing direction and current eye position. It is shown that various reported relations between eye torsion and viewing direction can be derived by changing only the relative weights of the interactions terms. This descriptive scheme may help to elucidate the control of eye torsion in the brainstem. PMID:7784439

van den Berg, A V

1995-05-22

218

Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care: Antibiotics for Pink Eye  

MedlinePLUS

... Consumer Alerts Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... over the battery and always wear safety goggles. Eye Protection Works Wearing the proper protective eyewear for ...

219

Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care: Antibiotics for Eye Injections  

MedlinePLUS

... Consumer Alerts Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... over the battery and always wear safety goggles. Eye Protection Works Wearing the proper protective eyewear for ...

220

Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care: Punctal Plugs for Dry Eye  

MedlinePLUS

... Consumer Alerts Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... over the battery and always wear safety goggles. Eye Protection Works Wearing the proper protective eyewear for ...

221

Iron dominated magnets  

SciTech Connect

These two lectures on iron dominated magnets are meant for the student of accelerator science and contain general treatments of the subjects design and construction. The material is arranged in the categories: General Concepts and Cost Considerations, Profile Configuration and Harmonics, Magnetic Measurements, a few examples of ''special magnets'' and Materials and Practices. Extensive literature is provided.

Fischer, G.E.

1985-07-01

222

Complexity and diversity of eyes in Early Cambrian ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Here we report exceptionally preserved non-biomineralized compound eyes of a non-trilobite arthropod Cindarella eucalla from the lower Cambrian Chengjiang Lagerstätte, China. The specimen represents the oldest microanatomical evidence confirming the occurrence of highly developed vision in the early Cambrian, over 2,000 ommatidia in each eye. Moreover, a quantitative analysis of the distribution of eyes related to life habit, feeding types, and phyla respectively, from the Chengjiang biota indicates that specimens with eyes mostly belong to the arthropods, and they usually were actively mobile epifaunal and nektonic forms as hunters or scavengers. Arthropods took the lead in evolution of ‘good vision' and domination in Cambrian communities, which supports the hypothesis that the origin and evolution of ‘good vision' was a key trait that promoted preferential diversification and formed the foundation of modern benthic ecosystems in the early Cambrian ocean. PMID:24067397

Zhao, Fangchen; Bottjer, David J.; Hu, Shixue; Yin, Zongjun; Zhu, Maoyan

2013-01-01

223

Eye-Openers in ASL.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes most of what Sign linguists know about the function of the eyes in American Sign Language discourse. Here, "eyes" is taken to cover both opening and closing of the eyes and looking in a particular direction, referred to as the signer's "gaze-direction." Evidence is presented demonstrating that a signer's gaze can be lexically…

Baker, Charlotte

224

The World in an Eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of exactly what visual information about the world is embedded within a sin- gle image of an eye. It turns out that the cornea of an eye and a camera viewing the eye form a catadioptric imaging system. We refer to this as a corneal imaging system. Unlike a typ- ical catadioptric system, a

Ko Nishino; Shree K. Nayar

2004-01-01

225

Relative Eye Size in Elasmobranchs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in relative eye size was investigated in a sample of 46 species of elasmobranch, 32 species of sharks and 14 species of batoids (skates and rays). To get a measure of eye size relative to body size, eye axial diameter was scaled with body mass using least-squares linear regression, using both raw species data, where species are treated as

Thomas J. Lisney; Shaun P. Collin

2007-01-01

226

Biomedical Devices for the Eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students examine the structure and function of the human eye, learning some amazing features about our eyes, which provide us with sight and an understanding of our surroundings. Students also learn about some common eye problems and the biomedical devices and medical procedures that resolve or help to lessen the effects of these vision deficiencies, including vision correction surgery.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

227

Reconstructing the eyes of Urbilateria.  

PubMed Central

The shared roles of Pax6 and Six homologues in the eye development of various bilaterians suggest that Urbilateria, the common ancestors of all Bilateria, already possessed some simple form of eyes. Here, we re-address the homology of bilaterian cerebral eyes at the level of eye anatomy, of eye-constituting cell types and of phototransductory molecules. The most widespread eye type found in Bilateria are the larval pigment-cup eyes located to the left and right of the apical organ in primary, ciliary larvae of Protostomia and Deuterostomia. They can be as simple as comprising a single pigment cell and a single photoreceptor cell in inverse orientation. Another more elaborate type of cerebral pigment-cup eyes with an everse arrangement of photoreceptor cells is found in adult Protostomia. Both inverse larval and everse adult eyes employ rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells and thus differ from the chordate cerebral eyes with ciliary photoreceptors. This is highly significant because on the molecular level we find that for phototransduction rhabdomeric versus ciliary photoreceptor cells employ divergent rhodopsins and non-orthologous G-proteins, rhodopsin kinases and arrestins. Our comparison supports homology of cerebral eyes in Protostomia; it challenges, however, homology of chordate and non-chordate cerebral eyes that employ photoreceptor cells with non-orthologous phototransductory cascades. PMID:11604122

Arendt, D; Wittbrodt, J

2001-01-01

228

Experiments on a Model Eye  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains a laboratory experiment dealing with the optical features of the human eye. Shows how to measure the magnification of the retina and the refractive anomaly of the eye could be used to measure the refractive power of the observer's eye. (GA)

Arell, Antti; Kolari, Samuli

1978-01-01

229

Dominant frequency content of ocular microtremor from normal subjects.  

PubMed

Ocular microtremor (OMT) is a high frequency tremor of the eyes present during fixation and probably related to brainstem activity (Coakley, D. (1983). Minute eye movement and brain stem function. CRC Press, FL.). Published observations on the frequency of OMT have varied widely. Ocular microtremor was recorded in 105 normal healthy subjects using the Piezoelectric strain gauge technique. The dominant frequency content of a signal was determined using the peak counting method. Values recorded ranged from 70 to 103 Hz, the mean frequency being 83.68 Hz (S.D. +/- 5.78 Hz). PMID:10343779

Bolger, C; Bojanic, S; Sheahan, N F; Coakley, D; Malone, J F

1999-06-01

230

Resolving syntactic category ambiguity: An eye-movement analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two experiments, participants' eye movements were monitored as they read sentences containing biased syntactic category ambiguous words with either distinct (e.g., duck) or related (e.g., burn) meanings or unambiguous control words. In Experiment 1, prior context was consistent with either the dominant or subordinate interpretation of the ambiguous word. The subordinate bias effect was absent for the ambiguous words

Angela C. Jones; Jocelyn R. Folk; Stephen M. Brusnighan

2012-01-01

231

Introduction to Symptoms of Eye Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals ... the Eyes Vision Loss, Sudden Other Eye Symptoms Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Eye Disorders > Symptoms of Eye ...

232

Influence of "animal hypnosis" on the motor polarizational dominant in rabbits.  

PubMed

The influence of the state of "animal hypnosis" in rabbits on the course and preservation of the motor polarizational dominant created by the action of a direct current anode on the region of the sensorimotor cortex was investigated. The mechanogram of both forelimbs was recorded. It was demonstrated that the state of "animal hypnosis" induced against the background of the optimum of the dominant inhibits the motor reaction of the "dominant" limb to sensory test stimuli. This inhibition is maintained for a long time, up to two to four days. The motor polarizational dominant does not extinguish under the influence of "animal hypnosis," but is inhibited; after the extinction of the traces of the "hypnosis," the motor dominant reaction recovers under the influence of sensory test stimuli alone, without the repeated use of the direct current. PMID:8782215

Rusinova, E V

1996-01-01

233

[Dominant, motivation and behavior].  

PubMed

It was shown in experiments on cats with elaborated conditioned running to the left (with fresh food) and right (with salted food) feeding troughs that conditioned signals may change the current behaviour in spite of real unconditioned stimuli. The fresh food signal produces a conditioned "freshening" of the salt meat, which may be regarded as a successful physiological model of gustatory illusions. With a free choice of different salinity of food from different cups of each feeding though, behaviour is corrected by unconditioned factors, i.e. real salinity of food. As a result the thresholds of eating salt food from both feeding troughs are equalized. The facts are discussed in the light of the dominant principle, i.e. that central program which is built on the basis of the dominant motivation, of previous experience and current analysis of surroundings. PMID:7164569

Batuev, A S

1982-01-01

234

Nutrition and the eye.  

PubMed

The topic "nutrition and the eye" cannot adequately be covered in a single review article; indeed, dozens of books and hundreds of articles have been written on the subject. This review concentrates on three areas in which specific nutrients are known or theorized to have a major impact on vision and the visual system: vitamin A deficiency; antioxidants and their proposed role in the prevention of age-related cataract and macular degeneration; and nutritional optic neuropathies, including those of the recent Cuban epidemic. In addition, this article touches on nutritional treatments that have been suggested for several less common eye diseases and, finally, considers several less prevalent conditions in which deficiency of or excess exposure to a particular nutrient has been associated with ocular pathology. PMID:10662253

Congdon, N G; West, K P

1999-12-01

235

Pioneers of eye movement research  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in the technology affording eye movement recordings carry the risk of neglecting past achievements. Without the assistance of this modern armoury, great strides were made in describing the ways the eyes move. For Aristotle the fundamental features of eye movements were binocular, and he described the combined functions of the eyes. This was later given support using simple procedures like placing a finger over the eyelid of the closed eye and culminated in Hering's law of equal innervation. However, the overriding concern in the 19th century was with eye position rather than eye movements. Appreciating discontinuities of eye movements arose from studies of vertigo. The characteristics of nystagmus were recorded before those of saccades and fixations. Eye movements during reading were described by Hering and by Lamare in 1879; both used similar techniques of listening to sounds made during contractions of the extraocular muscles. Photographic records of eye movements during reading were made by Dodge early in the 20th century, and this stimulated research using a wider array of patterns. In the mid-20th century attention shifted to the stability of the eyes during fixation, with the emphasis on involuntary movements. The contributions of pioneers from Aristotle to Yarbus are outlined. PMID:23396982

Wade, Nicholas J

2010-01-01

236

Eye preferences in captive chimpanzees  

PubMed Central

Over the last century, the issue of brain lateralization in primates has been extensively investigated and debated, yet no previous study has reported eye preference in great apes. This study examined eye preference in 45 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in response to various stimuli. Eye preference was assessed when animals looked through a hole that only accommodated one eye at an empty box, a mirror, a picture of a dog, a rubber snake, food biscuits, bananas, a rubber duck, and a video camera. Main effects of stimulus type were found for direction of eye preference, number of looks, and looking duration, but not for strength of eye preference. A left-eye bias was found for viewing the rubber snake and a right-eye bias was found for viewing the bananas, supporting theories that emotional valence may affect lateralized behaviors. In addition, a significant shift in eye preference took place from the initial look to subsequent looks when viewing the snake. These results are not consistent with previous reports of human eye preference and may reflect lateralization differences for emotional processing. No relationship between eye preference and previously recorded hand preference was found. PMID:22733385

Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J.

2013-01-01

237

Haemophili from eyes.  

PubMed

The identity of haemophili isolated in our laboratories from eye swabs was investigated. Ten out of 114 strains belonged to capsulated types of H. influenzae. Seventy-six strains were submitted to tests for the identification of H. aegyptius (the Koch-Weeks bacillus), but none was proved to belong to this species. An unexpectedly high proportion of the haemophilus strains, including most of those with capsules, came from patients with lachrymal duct obstruction. PMID:5305825

Ingham, H R; Turk, D C

1969-05-01

238

Eye in the Sky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Geographic website highlights the history and use of satellites and remote-sensing technology to determine the state of the planet. A timeline covers the history of satellites from 1858 to 2000, including both accomplishments and failures. The Eye contains slide shows and images from satellites covering the topics of volcanoes, tornadoes, hurricanes, wildfires, earthquakes, floods, dams, ozone, deforestation, desertification, overpopulation, exploration of space, and human conflict. A section on classroom ideas provides activities for K-12 classrooms.

239

Mirror-sensory synaesthesia: exploring 'shared' sensory experiences as synaesthesia.  

PubMed

Recent research suggests the observation or imagination of somatosensory stimulation in another (e.g., touch or pain) can induce a similar somatosensory experience in oneself. Some researchers have presented this experience as a type of synaesthesia, whereas others consider it an extreme experience of an otherwise normal perception. Here, we present an argument that these descriptions are not mutually exclusive. They may describe the extreme version of the normal process of understanding somatosensation in others. It becomes synaesthesia, however, when this process results in a conscious experience comparable to the observed person's state. We describe these experiences as 'mirror-sensory synaesthesia'; a type of synaesthesia identified by its distinct social component where the induced synaesthetic experience is a similar sensory experience to that perceived in another person. Through the operationalisation of this intriguing experience as synaesthesia, existing neurobiological models of synaesthesia can be used as a framework to explore how mechanisms may act upon social cognitive processes to produce conscious experiences similar to another person's observed state. PMID:21986634

Fitzgibbon, Bernadette M; Enticott, Peter G; Rich, Anina N; Giummarra, Melita J; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie; Bradshaw, John L

2012-01-01

240

Christoph Scheiner's eye studies.  

PubMed

Christoph Scheiner was born in 1573 or 1575. In 1595 he entered into the Order of the Jesuits; he died in 1650. In 1619 his book Oculus, dealing with the optics of the eye, appeared in Innsbruck. The invention of the telescope was of utmost importance for progress in astronomical and physical research. Scheiner himself built telescopes and discovered the sunspots. As a result, an unpleasant priority dispute with Galilei ensued. From 1624 onwards, Scheiner was in Rome, where his main work Rosa Ursina was published in 1630. A part of this book deals with the physiological optics of the eye as well. Some of his discoveries and experiments are taken from these two books: determination of the radius of curvature of the cornea, discovery of the nasal exit of the optic nerve, increase in the radius of curvature of the lens in case of accommodation, Scheiner's procedure (double images with ametropia), refractive indices of various parts of the eye, Scheiner's experiment. Without any doubt, Christoph Scheiner belongs to the foremost scientists of the first half of the 17th century. PMID:1473465

Daxecker, F

1992-01-01

241

Michelangelo's eye disease.  

PubMed

Charged by the Pope Julius II for painting the Cappella Sistina in Rome (between 1508 and 1512), Michelangelo worked in an elevated scaffolding, in an anomalous position with dyes (including poisoning lead salts) and solvents (such as toxic turpentine) dripping on his face and continuously inhaling, in a dim environment illuminated only with oil lamps and candles, as he described himself and sketched in a sonet addressed to Giovanni da Pistoia. In 1510 he began suffering from eye disease: the main symptom was the necessity to elevate the document he was reading up to the level of his eyes. This defect disappeared few months after he finished painting his masterpiece. We hypothesize that the Michelangelo's eyes disease was a form of acquired and transitory nystagmus induced by the many hours he spent in up gaze, with a skew deviation, a form of ocular tilt reaction resulting from the impairment of spatial sensitivity (inversion illusion) due to the persistence of the artist's head in a horizontal position, looking upward. PMID:22425178

Gallenga, P E; Neri, Giampiero; D'Anastasio, Ruggero; Pettorrossi, Vito Enrico; Alfieri, Emilio; Capasso, Luigi

2012-06-01

242

Sensory Impairment Among Older US Workers  

PubMed Central

We used 1997–2004 National Health Interview Survey data to evaluate the prevalence of sensory impairment among US workers 65 years and older. Hearing impairment prevalence was 3 times that of visual impairment (33.4% vs 10.2%), and 38% of older workers reported experiencing either impairment. Farm operators, mechanics, and motor vehicle operators had the highest prevalence of sensory impairment. Workplace screening and accommodations, including sensory protection devices for older workers, are warranted given the greater risk for injuries among the sensory impaired. PMID:19542042

Davila, Evelyn P.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Muennig, Peter; Fleming, Lora E.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.; LeBlanc, William G.; Lam, Byron L.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; McCollister, Kathryn E.; Zheng, Diane; Christ, Sharon L.

2009-01-01

243

Poisoning by organophosphorus insecticides and sensory neuropathy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—Poisoning by organophosphate insecticides causes cholinergic toxicity. Organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP) is a sensory-motor distal axonopathy which usually occurs after ingestion of large doses of certain organophosphate insecticides and has so far only been reported in patients with preceding cholinergic toxicity. Surprisingly, it was recently reported by other authors that an exclusively sensory neuropathy developed in eight patients after repeated unquantified exposures to chlorpyrifos, which did not cause clear-cut cholinergic toxicity. The objective was to assess whether an exclusively sensory neuropathy develops in patients severely poisoned by various OPs.?METHODS—Toxicological studies and electrophysiological measurements were performed in peripheral motor and sensory nerves in 11 patients after acute organophosphate poisoning among which two subjects were poisoned with chlorpyrifos.?RESULTS—Three patients developed OPIDP, including one poisoned by chlorpyrifos. Exclusively sensory neuropathy was never seen after either single or repeated acute organophosphate poisoning. A mild sensory component was associated with a severe motor component in two of the three cases of OPIDP, the other was an exclusively motor polyneuropathy.?CONCLUSION—A sensory-motor polyneuropathy caused by organophosphate insecticides might occur after a severe poisoning and the sensory component, if present, is milder than the motor one. Bearing in mind the toxicological characteristics of these organophosphate insecticides, other causes should be sought for sensory peripheral neuropathies in patients who did not display severe cholinergic toxicity a few weeks before the onset of symptoms and signs.?? PMID:9576536

Moretto, A.; Lotti, M.

1998-01-01

244

Sensory Motor Coordination in Robonaut  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a participant of the year 2000 NASA Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, I worked with the engineers of the Dexterous Robotics Laboratory at NASA Johnson Space Center on the Robonaut project. The Robonaut is an articulated torso with two dexterous arms, left and right five-fingered hands, and a head with cameras mounted on an articulated neck. This advanced space robot, now driven only teleoperatively using VR gloves, sensors and helmets, is to be upgraded to a thinking system that can find, interact with and assist humans autonomously, allowing the Crew to work with Robonaut as a (junior) member of their team. Thus, the work performed this summer was toward the goal of enabling Robonaut to operate autonomously as an intelligent assistant to astronauts. Our underlying hypothesis is that a robot can develop intelligence if it learns a set of basic behaviors (i.e., reflexes - actions tightly coupled to sensing) and through experience learns how to sequence these to solve problems or to accomplish higher-level tasks. We describe our approach to the automatic acquisition of basic behaviors as learning sensory-motor coordination (SMC). Although research in the ontogenesis of animals development from the time of conception) supports the approach of learning SMC as the foundation for intelligent, autonomous behavior, we do not know whether it will prove viable for the development of autonomy in robots. The first step in testing the hypothesis is to determine if SMC can be learned by the robot. To do this, we have taken advantage of Robonaut's teleoperated control system. When a person teleoperates Robonaut, the person's own SMC causes the robot to act purposefully. If the sensory signals that the robot detects during teleoperation are recorded over several repetitions of the same task, it should be possible through signal analysis to identify the sensory-motor couplings that accompany purposeful motion. In this report, reasons for suspecting SMC as the basis for intelligent behavior will be reviewed. A robot control system for autonomous behavior that uses learned SMC will be proposed. Techniques for the extraction of salient parameters from sensory and motor data will be discussed. Experiments with Robonaut will be discussed and preliminary data presented.

Peters, Richard Alan, II

2003-01-01

245

Pathology Case Study: Sensory Abnormalities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This particular case focuses on a 30-year-old man with a history of focal numbness, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and progressive sensory abnormalities. The patientâÂÂs history, images from an MRI, microscopic images of a specimen collected during his laminectomy, and final diagnosis are provided in this case for your review. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

Duggal, Neil; Hammond, Robert R.; Lownie, Steven P.; Smith, Sharyn

2007-12-10

246

Sensory Sensitivities and Performance on Sensory Perceptual Tasks in High-Functioning Individuals with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most reports of sensory symptoms in autism are second hand or observational, and there is little evidence of a neurological basis. Sixty individuals with high-functioning autism and 61 matched typical participants were administered a sensory questionnaire and neuropsychological tests of elementary and higher cortical sensory perception. Thirty-two…

Minshew, Nancy J.; Hobson, Jessica A.

2008-01-01

247

Mechano- and Chemo-Sensory Polycystins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycystins belong to the superfamily of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and comprise five PKD1-like and three PKD2-like (TRPP) subunits. In this chapter, we review the general properties of polycystins and discuss their specific role in both mechanotransduction and chemoreception. The heteromer PKD1/PKD2 expressed at the membrane of the primary cilium of kidney epithelial cells is proposed to form a mechano-sensitive calcium channel that is opened by physiological fluid flow. Dysfunction or loss of PKD1 or PKD2 polycystin genes may be responsible for the inability of epithelial cells to sense mechanical cues, thus provoking autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), one of the most prevalent genetic kidney disorders. pkd1 and pkd2 knock-out mice recapitulate the human disease. Similarly, PKD2 may function as a mechanosensory calcium channel in the immotile monocilia of the developing node transducing leftward flow into an increase in calcium and specifying the left-right axis. pkd2, unlike pkd1 knock-out embryos are characterized by right lung isomerism (situs inversus). Mechanical stimuli also induce cleavage and nuclear translocation of the PKD1 C-terminal tail, which enters the nucleus and initiates signaling processes involving the AP-1, STAT6 and P100 pathways. This intraproteolytic mechanism is implicated in the transduction of a change in renal fluid flow to a transcriptional long-term response. The heteromer PKD1L3/PKD2L1 is the basis for acid sensing in specialised sensory cells including the taste bud cells responsible for sour taste. Moreover, PKD1L3/PKD2L1 may be implicated in the chemosensitivity of neurons surrounding the spinal cord canal, sensing protons in the cerebrospinal fluid. These recent results demonstrate that polycystins fulfill a major sensory role in a variety of cells including kidney epithelial cells, taste buds cells and spinal cord neurons. Such mechanisms are involved in short- and long-term physiological regulation. Alteration of these pathways culminates in severe human pathologies, including ADPKD.

Patel, Amanda; Delmas, Patrick; Honoré, Eric

248

Phylostratigraphic profiles reveal a deep evolutionary history of the vertebrate head sensory systems  

PubMed Central

Background The vertebrate head is a highly derived trait with a heavy concentration of sophisticated sensory organs that allow complex behaviour in this lineage. The head sensory structures arise during vertebrate development from cranial placodes and the neural crest. It is generally thought that derivatives of these ectodermal embryonic tissues played a central role in the evolutionary transition at the onset of vertebrates. Despite the obvious importance of head sensory organs for vertebrate biology, their evolutionary history is still uncertain. Results To give a fresh perspective on the adaptive history of the vertebrate head sensory organs, we applied genomic phylostratigraphy to large-scale in situ expression data of the developing zebrafish Danio rerio. Contrary to traditional predictions, we found that dominant adaptive signals in the analyzed sensory structures largely precede the evolutionary advent of vertebrates. The leading adaptive signals at the bilaterian-chordate transition suggested that the visual system was the first sensory structure to evolve. The olfactory, vestibuloauditory, and lateral line sensory organs displayed a strong link with the urochordate-vertebrate ancestor. The only structures that qualified as genuine vertebrate innovations were the neural crest derivatives, trigeminal ganglion and adenohypophysis. We also found evidence that the cranial placodes evolved before the neural crest despite their proposed embryological relatedness. Conclusions Taken together, our findings reveal pre-vertebrate roots and a stepwise adaptive history of the vertebrate sensory systems. This study also underscores that large genomic and expression datasets are rich sources of macroevolutionary information that can be recovered by phylostratigraphic mining. PMID:23587066

2013-01-01

249

Thermophoretically Dominated Aerosol Coagulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theory of aerosol coagulation due to size-dependent thermophoresis is presented. This previously overlooked effect is important when local temperature gradients are large, the sol population is composed of particles of much greater thermal conductivity than the carrier gas, with mean diameters much greater than the prevailing gas mean free path, and an adequate “spread” in sizes (as in metallurgical mists or fumes). We illustrate this via a population-balance analysis of the evolution of an initially log-normal distribution when this mechanism dominates ordinary Brownian diffusion.

Rosner, Daniel E.; Arias-Zugasti, Manuel

2011-01-01

250

More Than Meets the Eye The Genetics of Eye Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The genetics of eye color are more complex than commonly believed. This interrupted case study uses the story of a blue-eyed couple with a brown-eyed child to explore the possible scenarios that could result in this outcome. The case emphasizes the link between Mendelian genetics and the underlying molecular basis of the phenotype. It is appropriate for upper-level undergraduate biology majors with a good understanding of eukaryotic gene regulation and Mendelian genetics.

Annie Prud?homme Genereux

2011-01-01

251

Age-Dependent Ocular Dominance Plasticity in Adult Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Short monocular deprivation (4 days) induces a shift in the ocular dominance of binocular neurons in the juvenile mouse visual cortex but is ineffective in adults. Recently, it has been shown that an ocular dominance shift can still be elicited in young adults (around 90 days of age) by longer periods of deprivation (7 days). Whether the same is true also for fully mature animals is not yet known. Methodology/Principal Findings We therefore studied the effects of different periods of monocular deprivation (4, 7, 14 days) on ocular dominance in C57Bl/6 mice of different ages (25 days, 90–100 days, 109–158 days, 208–230 days) using optical imaging of intrinsic signals. In addition, we used a virtual optomotor system to monitor visual acuity of the open eye in the same animals during deprivation. We observed that ocular dominance plasticity after 7 days of monocular deprivation was pronounced in young adult mice (90–100 days) but significantly weaker already in the next age group (109–158 days). In animals older than 208 days, ocular dominance plasticity was absent even after 14 days of monocular deprivation. Visual acuity of the open eye increased in all age groups, but this interocular plasticity also declined with age, although to a much lesser degree than the optically detected ocular dominance shift. Conclusions/Significance These data indicate that there is an age-dependence of both ocular dominance plasticity and the enhancement of vision after monocular deprivation in mice: ocular dominance plasticity in binocular visual cortex is most pronounced in young animals, reduced but present in adolescence and absent in fully mature animals older than 110 days of age. Mice are thus not basically different in ocular dominance plasticity from cats and monkeys which is an absolutely essential prerequisite for their use as valid model systems of human visual disorders. PMID:18769674

Lehmann, Konrad; Löwel, Siegrid

2008-01-01

252

Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1  

MedlinePLUS

... Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1 On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... December 2009 What is hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1? Hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1 is a condition ...

253

38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

2014-07-01

254

38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

2013-07-01

255

38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

2010-07-01

256

38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

2012-07-01

257

38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

2011-07-01

258

Sensory Perception and Communication in Electric Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Electric fish of the Amazon Basin and Nile River are equipped with electric-generator-receiver organs for both sensory perception and communication. These fish are superbly adapted for life in turbulent, muddy streams and, therefore, provide and excellent illustration of the input of environmental information into central nervous systems via specialized sensory windows.

Patricia J. DeCoursey (University of South Carolina;)

1993-01-01

259

Amino Acid Odorants Stimulate Microvillar Sensory Neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The olfactory epithelium (OE) of zebrafish is populated with ciliated and microvillar olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Whether distinct classes of odorants specifically activate either of these unique populations of OSNs is unknown. Previously we demonstrated that zebrafish OSNs could be labeled in an activity-dependent fashion by amino acid but not bile acid odorants. To determine which sensory neuron type was

David L. Lipschitz; William C. Michel

2002-01-01

260

Trigeminal sensory neurons of the sea lamprey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intracellular recordings were made from neurons of the trigeminal sensory ganglia of young adult sea lampreys. Receptive fields were mapped, and four classes of sensory cells were identified. Touch cells gave rapidly adapting responses to indentation of the skin. Pressure cells gave slowly adapting responses to indentation of the skin. Pit organ cells gave slowly adapting responses to mechanical stimulation

Gary Matthews; Warren O. Wickelgren

1978-01-01

261

ASIC3 Channels in Multimodal Sensory Perception  

PubMed Central

Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), which are members of the sodium-selective cation channels belonging to the epithelial sodium channel/degenerin (ENaC/DEG) family, act as membrane-bound receptors for extracellular protons as well as nonproton ligands. At least five ASIC subunits have been identified in mammalian neurons, which form both homotrimeric and heterotrimeric channels. The highly proton sensitive ASIC3 channels are predominantly distributed in peripheral sensory neurons, correlating with their roles in multimodal sensory perception, including nociception, mechanosensation, and chemosensation. Different from other ASIC subunit composing ion channels, ASIC3 channels can mediate a sustained window current in response to mild extracellular acidosis (pH 7.3?6.7), which often occurs accompanied by many sensory stimuli. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates that the sustained component of ASIC3 currents can be enhanced by nonproton ligands including the endogenous metabolite agmatine. In this review, we first summarize the growing body of evidence for the involvement of ASIC3 channels in multimodal sensory perception and then discuss the potential mechanisms underlying ASIC3 activation and mediation of sensory perception, with a special emphasis on its role in nociception. We conclude that ASIC3 activation and modulation by diverse sensory stimuli represent a new avenue for understanding the role of ASIC3 channels in sensory perception. Furthermore, the emerging implications of ASIC3 channels in multiple sensory dysfunctions including nociception allow the development of new pharmacotherapy. PMID:22778854

2010-01-01

262

Sensory symptoms in autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

The aim of this review is to summarize the recent literature regarding abnormalities in sensory functioning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including evidence regarding the neurobiological basis of these symptoms, their clinical correlates, and their treatment. Abnormalities in responses to sensory stimuli are highly prevalent in individuals with ASD. The underlying neurobiology of these symptoms is unclear, but several theories have been proposed linking possible etiologies of sensory dysfunction with known abnormalities in brain structure and function that are associated with ASD. In addition to the distress that sensory symptoms can cause patients and caregivers, these phenomena have been correlated with several other problematic symptoms and behaviors associated with ASD, including restrictive and repetitive behavior, self-injurious behavior, anxiety, inattention, and gastrointestinal complaints. It is unclear whether these correlations are causative in nature or whether they are due to shared underlying pathophysiology. The best-known treatments for sensory symptoms in ASD involve a program of occupational therapy that is specifically tailored to the needs of the individual and that may include sensory integration therapy, a sensory diet, and environmental modifications. While some empirical evidence supports these treatments, more research is needed to evaluate their efficacy, and other means of alleviating these symptoms, including possible psychopharmacological interventions, need to be explored. Additional research into the sensory symptoms associated with ASD has the potential to shed more light on the nature and pathophysiology of these disorders and to open new avenues of effective treatments. PMID:24614766

Hazen, Eric P; Stornelli, Jennifer L; O'Rourke, Julia A; Koesterer, Karmen; McDougle, Christopher J

2014-01-01

263

A housefly sensory-motor integration laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Insects have many interesting behaviors that can be observed in an introductory biology laboratory setting. In the present article, we describe several reflexes using the housefly Musca domestica that can be used to introduce students to sensory and motor responses and encourage them to think about the underlying neural circuits and integration of sensory information that mediate the behaviors.

Edwin R. Griff (University of Cincinnati Biological Sciences); Thomas C. Kane (University of Cincinnati)

2010-06-01

264

Sensory characteristics of diverse rice cultivars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lack of a knowledge-base for predicting how genetic, pre-harvest, and post-harvest factors affect the sensory characteristics of rice results in producers and processors not having control over the sensory quality of their products. In this study, differences in the texture and flavor of seventeen ...

265

Examination Accommodations for Students with Sensory Defensiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional examination accommodations include extra time, scribes, and/or separate venues for students with disabilities, which have been proven to be successful for the majority of students. For students with non-apparent disabilities such as sensory defensiveness, where sensitivity to a range of sensory information from the environment can…

Lewis, Kieran; Nolan, Clodagh

2013-01-01

266

The amblyopic eye in subjects with anisometropia show increased saccadic latency in the delayed saccade task  

PubMed Central

The term amblyopia is used to describe reduced visual function in one eye (or both eyes, though not so often) which cannot be fully improved by refractive correction and explained by the organic cause observed during regular eye examination. Amblyopia is associated with abnormal visual experience (e.g., anisometropia) during infancy or early childhood. Several studies have shown prolongation of saccadic latency time in amblyopic eye. In our opinion, study of saccadic latency in the context of central vision deficits assessment, should be based on central retina stimulation. For this reason, we proposed saccade delayed task. It requires inhibitory processing for maintaining fixation on the central target until it disappears—what constitutes the GO signal for saccade. The experiment consisted of 100 trials for each eye and was performed under two viewing conditions: monocular amblyopic/non-dominant eye and monocular dominant eye. We examined saccadic latency in 16 subjects (mean age 30 ± 11 years) with anisometropic amblyopia (two subjects had also microtropia) and in 17 control subjects (mean age 28 ± 8 years). Participants were instructed to look at central (fixation) target and when it disappears, to make the saccade toward the periphery (10°) as fast as possible, either left or the right target. The study results have proved the significant difference in saccadic latency between the amblyopic (mean 262 ± 48 ms) and dominant (mean 237 ± 45 ms) eye, in anisometropic group. In the control group, the saccadic latency for dominant (mean 226 ± 32 ms) and non-dominant (mean 230 ± 29 ms) eye was not significantly different. By the use of LATER (Linear Approach to the Threshold with Ergodic Rate) decision model we interpret our findings as a decrease in accumulation of visual information acquired by means of central retina in subjects with anisometropic amblyopia. PMID:25352790

Perdziak, Maciej; Witkowska, Dagmara; Gryncewicz, Wojciech; Przekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; Ober, Jan

2014-01-01

267

FINE STRUCTURE OF THE EYE OF A CHAETOGNATH  

PubMed Central

Electron microscopy reveals a star-like pigment cell at the center of the eye of the arrow-worm, Sagitta scrippsae. Between the arms of the pigment cell are clusters of photoreceptor cell processes, each process consisting of: (1) a tubular segment containing longitudinally arranged microtubules about 500 A in diameter and 20 µ in length; (2) a remarkable conical body, composed of cords and large granules, situated at the base of the tubular segment; and (3) a connecting piece which, like that of rods and cones, connects the process with the sensory cell proper and through which runs a fibrillar apparatus consisting of nine peripheral double tubules. Beneath the connecting piece lies a typical centriole with a striated rootlet. The receptor cell process is deeply recessed into the sensory cell which may possess a corona of microvilli at its inner surface. A nerve fiber arises from the outer end of the cell and passes into the optic nerve. Additional features are some supporting cells, an external layer of flattened epithelial cells, and an over-all investment of basement membrane and thick fibrous capsule. The fine structure and function of these elements of the eye are discussed in relation to earlier studies with the light microscope. The ciliary nature of the photoreceptor cell process in S. scrippsae points to a probable evolutionary relationship of chaetognaths to echinoderms and chordates. PMID:14154485

Eakin, Richard M.; Westfall, Jane A.

1964-01-01

268

EyeGaze  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

EyeGaze is a British company that has developed video technology that can be used by profoundly and partially deaf people. One example of their services and technology is a remote video interpreting centre. The project is managed by a team of Deaf and hearing individuals with diverse skills and experiences, "which affords us a holistic view of issues surrounding communication, information delivery and the Deaf community." The website provides an overview of their research and services, as well as some information on issues in the deaf community.

269

Sensory extinction and sensory reinforcement principles for programming multiple adaptive behavior change.  

PubMed Central

The role of sensory reinforcement was examined in programming multiple treatment gains in self-stimulation and spontaneous play for developmentally disabled children. Two phases were planned. First, we attempted to identify reinforcers maintaining self-stimulation. Sensory Extinction procedures were implemented in which auditory, proprioceptive, or visual sensory consequences of self-stimulatory behavior were systematically removed and reintroduced in a reversal design. When self-stimulation was decreased or eliminated as a result of removing one of these sensory consequences, the functional sensory consequence was designated as a child's preferred sensory reinforcer. In Phase 2, we assessed whether children would play selectively with toys producing the preferred kind of sensory stimulation. The results showed the following. (1) Self-stimulatory behavior was found to be maintained by sensory reinforcement. When the sensory reinforcer was removed, self-stimulation extinguished. (2) The sensory reinforcers identified for self-stimulatory behavior also served as reinforcers for new, appropriate toy play. (3) The multiple treatment gains observed appeared to be relatively durable in the absence of external reinforcers for play or restraints on self-stimulation. These results illustrate one instance in which multiple behavior change may be programmed in a predictable, lawful fashion by using "natural communities of sensory reinforcement." PMID:489480

Rincover, A; Cook, R; Peoples, A; Packard, D

1979-01-01

270

Sensory sensitivities and performance on sensory perceptual tasks in high-functioning individuals with autism  

PubMed Central

Despite extensive reports of sensory symptoms in autism, there is little empirical support for their neurological basis. Sixty individuals with high-functioning autism and 61 matched typical comparison participants were administered a sensory questionnaire and standardized neuropsychological tests of elementary and higher cortical sensory perception. Thirty-two per cent of participants with autism endorsed more sensory sensitivity items than any of the participants in the comparison group. On the sensory perceptual exam, both groups made few errors on elementary sensory perception items. Controls made few errors on higher cortical sensory perception items, but 30% of the participants with autism made high numbers of errors, though there was no evidence of the neglect syndrome. There was little correlation between the sensory sensitivities and the sensory perceptual deficits, likely due to the low correspondence between the measures. These results support the common occurrence of disturbances in sensory experiences in high functioning individuals with autism based on first person report, and the presence of neurological abnormalities in higher cortical sensory perception. PMID:18302014

Minshew, Nancy J.; Hobson, Jessica A.

2011-01-01

271

When audition dominates vision: evidence from cross-modal statistical learning.  

PubMed

Presenting information to multiple sensory modalities sometimes facilitates and sometimes interferes with processing of this information. Research examining interference effects shows that auditory input often interferes with processing of visual input in young children (i.e., auditory dominance effect), whereas visual input often interferes with auditory processing in adults (i.e., visual dominance effect). The current study used a cross-modal statistical learning task to examine modality dominance in adults. Participants ably learned auditory and visual statistics when auditory and visual sequences were presented unimodally and when auditory and visual sequences were correlated during training. However, increasing task demands resulted in an important asymmetry: Increased task demands attenuated visual statistical learning, while having no effect on auditory statistical learning. These findings are consistent with auditory dominance effects reported in young children and have important implications for our understanding of how sensory modalities interact while learning the structure of cross-modal information. PMID:23047918

Robinson, Christopher W; Sloutsky, Vladimir M

2013-01-01

272

Sensory perception: lessons from synesthesia: using synesthesia to inform the understanding of sensory perception.  

PubMed

Synesthesia, the conscious, idiosyncratic, repeatable, and involuntary sensation of one sensory modality in response to another, is a condition that has puzzled both researchers and philosophers for centuries. Much time has been spent proving the condition's existence as well as investigating its etiology, but what can be learned from synesthesia remains a poorly discussed topic. Here, synaesthesia is presented as a possible answer rather than a question to the current gaps in our understanding of sensory perception. By first appreciating the similarities between normal sensory perception and synesthesia, one can use what is known about synaesthesia, from behavioral and imaging studies, to inform our understanding of "normal" sensory perception. In particular, in considering synesthesia, one can better understand how and where the different sensory modalities interact in the brain, how different sensory modalities can interact without confusion - the binding problem - as well as how sensory perception develops. PMID:23766741

Harvey, Joshua Paul

2013-06-01

273

Relative contribution of feed-forward excitatory connections to expression of ocular dominance plasticity in layer 4 of visual cortex  

E-print Network

Brief monocular deprivation (MD) shifts ocular dominance (OD) in primary visual cortex by causing depression of responses to the deprived eye. Here we address the extent to which the shift is expressed by a modification ...

Khibnik, Lena A.

274

Eye Gaze Processing in Schizophrenia.  

E-print Network

??Accurately perceiving self-referential social signals, particularly eye contact, is critical to social adaptation. Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a severe mental disorder often accompanied by deficits in… (more)

Tso, Ivy F.

2012-01-01

275

Forward Models and State Estimation in Compensatory Eye Movements  

PubMed Central

The compensatory eye movement (CEM) system maintains a stable retinal image, integrating information from different sensory modalities to compensate for head movements. Inspired by recent models of the physiology of limb movements, we suggest that CEM can be modeled as a control system with three essential building blocks: a forward model that predicts the effects of motor commands; a state estimator that integrates sensory feedback into this prediction; and, a feedback controller that translates a state estimate into motor commands. We propose a specific mapping of nuclei within the CEM system onto these control functions. Specifically, we suggest that the Flocculus is responsible for generating the forward model prediction and that the Vestibular Nuclei integrate sensory feedback to generate an estimate of current state. Finally, the brainstem motor nuclei – in the case of horizontal compensation this means the Abducens Nucleus and the Nucleus Prepositus Hypoglossi – implement a feedback controller, translating state into motor commands. While these efforts to understand the physiological control system as a feedback control system are in their infancy, there is the intriguing possibility that CEM and targeted voluntary movements use the same cerebellar circuitry in fundamentally different ways. PMID:19956563

Frens, Maarten A.; Donchin, Opher

2009-01-01

276

Quantification of adaptation to virtual-eye location in see-thru head-mounted displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted on the effect of a prototype see-thru head-mounted display (HMD) on visuo-motor adaptation. When wearing video see-thru HMDs in augmented reality systems, subjects see the world around them through a pair of head-mounted video cameras. The study looked at the effects of sensory rearrangement caused by a HMD design that displaces the user's “virtual” eye position

J. P. Rolland; F. A. Biocca; T. Barlow; Anantha Kancherla

1995-01-01

277

Eye in the Sky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

National Geographic magazine, long known for its educational maps and writing that is easily understood by a variety of readers, has added a feature to its Website. The new online resource from National Geographic, sponsored by the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA), is called Eye in the Sky, and it showcases what we can learn about our planet using satellites. Here, users can read about the history of satellites and remote-sensing technology and choose from a menu of brief lessons on natural disasters, human impacts on Earth, human conflicts, and exploration of Mars. Each lesson page gives photographs, facts, and short movies (RealPlayer or Windows Media Player). The title "Eye in the Sky" is slightly misleading because most of the images featured are taken at ground-level, and it isn't always clear how some of the lessons fit with the idea of remote sensing. Nevertheless, the site is worth a look, and a few satellite images (of floodplains and the ozone hole, for example) pepper the material here.

278

Eye Surgery Light  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During eye surgery, the surgeon uses an illuminating instrument called an opthalmoscope for close examination of the retina or the interior of the eye. Ordinarily, electric power for the head-mounted light is supplied through a cord from an overhead swivel arm or a floor pedestal. Within limits of cord length and swivel arm movement, the surgeon has considerable freedom of motion. But when more than one opthalmoscope is involved, tangling and interference of the power cords becomes a problem. St. Luke's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio asked Lewis Research Center for assistance in finding a solution. Lewis responded with a battery-powered system that totally frees the surgeon of attached cords and swivels. Borrowing from space technology, Lewis used small, lightweight nickel-cadmium batteries that can deliver high intensity light for an hour and can be recharged overnight. The Opthalmoscope Powerpack consists of eight batteries in three containers affixed to a webbed belt, and a novel on-off switch equipped with a spring-loaded plexiglass 'flapper.' The belt pack is worn underneath the surgical gown and the flapper permits the doctor to activate the switch by elbow pressure. Lewis built five units and they have been in service at St. Luke's Hospital for a year. Used for routine examinations as well as for surgery, they have demonstrated excellent reliability.

1978-01-01

279

Eye Surgery Light  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During eye surgery, the surgeon uses an illuminating instrument called an opthalmoscope for close examination of the retina or the interior of the eye. Ordinarily, electric power for the head-mounted light is supplied through a cord from an overhead swivel arm or a floor pedestal. Within limits of cord length and swivel arm movement, the surgeon has considerable freedom of motion. But when more than one opthalmoscope is involved, tangling and interference of the power cords becomes a problem. St. Luke's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio asked Lewis Research Center for assistance in finding a solution. Lewis responded with a battery-powered system that totally frees the surgeon of attached cords and swivels. Borrowing from space technology, Lewis used small, lightweight nickel-cadmium batteries that can deliver high intensity light for an hour and can be recharged overnight. The Opthalmoscope Powerpack consists of eight batteries in three containers affixed to a webbed belt, and a novel on-off switch equipped with a springloaded plexiglass "flapper." The belt pack is worn underneath the surgical gown and the flapper permits the doctor to activate the switch by elbow pressure. Lewis built five units and they have been in service at St. Luke's Hospital for a year. Used for routine examinations as well as for surgery, they have demonstrated excellent reliability.

1978-01-01

280

Peripheral myopization using a dominant design multifocal contact lens  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to characterize the central and peripheral refraction across the horizontal meridian of the visual field without and with a multifocal dominant design soft contact lens of different add powers (+1.00 D to +4.00 D) in emmetropic eyes. Methods Twenty right eyes from 20 emmetropic patients (mean spherical equivalent central refraction –0.06 ± 0.54 D) with a mean age of 21.6 ± 2.3 years were fitted with Proclear Multifocal dominant design (Coopervision, Pleasanton, CA, USA). Lenses had add powers from +1.00 to +4.00 D in 1.00 D steps. The central and peripheral refraction was measured along the horizontal meridian up to 35° of eccentricity in the nasal and temporal retinal area in 5° steps using a open-field autorefractometer. Results Only the +3.00 and +4.00 D add powers generated a significant change in the peripheral refractive pattern compared to central refraction and compared with the no-lens wearing situation. The average myopic increase with these lenses was –3.00 D and –5.00 (p < 0.001) at the margins of inspected nasal and temporal visual field, respectively. Conclusions Multifocal dominant design soft contact lenses are able to change the peripheral refractive profile in emmetropic eyes increasing relative peripheral myopia. Lenses with +3.00 D add power seem to be the best option to create such effect due to significant peripheral myopization.

Lopes-Ferreira, Daniela; Ribeiro, Cláudia; Maia, Raquel; García-Porta, Nery; Queirós, António; Villa-Collar, César; González-Méijome, José Manuel

2011-01-01

281

Protect Their Eyes: An Eye Safety Guide for the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides information on eye safety and aids educators, administrators, and supervisors in the development and implementation of eye safety programs. The American National Standards Institute (AMSI) requirements for both street and safety glasses; essential eyewear for safety in hazardous areas; the National Society to Prevent…

Ohio Society to Prevent Blindness, Columbus.

282

Associations of sire estimated breeding values and objective meat quality measurements with sensory scores in Australian lamb.  

PubMed

The impact of selecting for lean meat yield using breeding values for increased eye muscle depth (PEMD) and decreased fat depth (PFAT) on the consumer acceptance of lamb meat was evaluated. Consumer sensory scores (tenderness, juiciness, flavour, odour, overall liking) were obtained for the longissimus lumborum (loin) and semimembranosus (topside) muscles of 1471 lambs. On average loin samples were more acceptable for consumers. Sensory scores increased with higher IMF levels, with lower shear force levels, and when animals were younger and less muscular. Increasing PEMD decreased tenderness, overall liking and flavour scores in both muscles, and decreasing PFAT reduced tenderness within the loin samples only. This negative impact of PEMD and PFAT is not solely driven through the phenotypic impact of IMF and shear force on sensory scores. Our results confirm the growing concerns that selecting for lean meat yield would reduce consumer eating quality, and highlight that careful monitoring of selection programmes is needed to maintain lamb eating quality. PMID:23968666

Pannier, L; Gardner, G E; Pearce, K L; McDonagh, M; Ball, A J; Jacob, R H; Pethick, D W

2014-02-01

283

Expression of galanin and a galanin receptor in several sensory systems and bone anlage of rat embryos.  

PubMed

Using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry the expression of, respectively, prepro-galanin (pre-pro-GAL) mRNA and GAL receptor-1 mRNA, as well as GAL-like and GAL message-associated peptide-like immunoreactivities, were studied in rats from embryonic day 14 (E14) to postnatal day 1. GAL expression was observed already at E14 in trigeminal and dorsal root ganglion neurons and at E15 in the sensory epithelia in developing ear, eye, and nose, as well as at E19 during bone formation. Also, GAL receptor-1 mRNA was expressed in the sensory ganglia of embryos but appeared later than the ligand. These findings suggest that GAL and/or GAL message-associated peptide may have a developmental role in several sensory systems and during bone formation. PMID:8962153

Xu, Z Q; Shi, T J; Hökfelt, T

1996-12-10

284

Botanical origin, colour, granulation, and sensory properties of the Harenna forest honey, Bale, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

In this study, the Harenna forest honey samples were investigated with respect to their botanical origin, granulation, colour and sensory properties. Sixteen honey samples were collected from two representative sites (Chiri, C, and Wabero, W) using random sampling techniques. Botanical origin was investigated using qualitative pollen analysis by counting 500 pollen grains using harmonised methods of melissopalynology. Granulation, colour, and sensory properties of honey were determined by visual observation, using Pfund grader, acceptability and preference tests, respectively. Honey samples were also tested for tetracycline. Honey obtained from Wabero is originated dominantly from Syzygium guineense while Chiri was multifloral. The colour of honey ranged from 34 to 85 with light amber and extra light amber colours. The honey samples were free from tetracycline residue and form coarse granules slowly. Significant variation (p>0.05) in sensory preference and acceptability tests not observed due to hive types and locations. PMID:25148981

Belay, Abera; Solomon, W K; Bultossa, Geremew; Adgaba, Nuru; Melaku, Samuel

2015-01-15

285

Automated Eye-Movement Protocol Analysis  

E-print Network

Automated Eye-Movement Protocol Analysis Dario D. Salvucci and John R. Anderson Carnegie Mellon analysis of eye-movement protocols. Although eye movements have be- come increasingly popular as a tool an ap- proach to automating eye-movement protocol analysis by means of tracing--re- lating observed eye

Salvucci, Dario D.

286

Eye Health in Sports and Recreation  

MedlinePLUS

... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Eye Health in Sports and Recreation Tweet Tens of thousands of sports ... Updated by David Turbert on Mar. 20, 2014 Sports Eye Injuries by the ... eye MD-reviewed tips and information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Email address ...

287

Beyond words: Sensory properties of depressive thoughts  

PubMed Central

Verbal thoughts (such as negative cognitions) and sensory phenomena (such as visual mental imagery) are usually conceptualised as distinct mental experiences. The present study examined to what extent depressive thoughts are accompanied by sensory experiences and how this is associated with symptom severity, insight of illness and quality of life. A large sample of mildly to moderately depressed patients (N = 356) was recruited from multiple sources and asked about sensory properties of their depressive thoughts in an online study. Diagnostic status and symptom severity were established over a telephone interview with trained raters. Sensory properties of negative thoughts were reported by 56.5% of the sample (i.e., sensation in at least one sensory modality). The highest prevalence was seen for bodily (39.6%) followed by auditory (30.6%) and visual (27.2%) sensations. Patients reporting sensory properties of thoughts showed more severe psychopathological symptoms than those who did not. The degree of perceptuality was marginally associated with quality of life. The findings support the notion that depressive thoughts are not only verbal but commonly accompanied by sensory experiences. The perceptuality of depressive thoughts and the resulting sense of authenticity may contribute to the emotional impact and pervasiveness of such thoughts, making them difficult to dismiss for their holder. PMID:24359124

Hörmann, Claudia Cecile; Schröder, Johanna; Berger, Thomas; Jacob, Gitta A.; Meyer, Björn; Holmes, Emily A.; Späth, Christina; Hautzinger, Martin; Lutz, Wolfgang; Rose, Matthias; Klein, Jan Philipp

2013-01-01

288

Sensory integration therapy: affect or effect.  

PubMed

The results of studies examining the effectiveness of sensory integration therapy were reviewed, using recently developed quantitative methods that treat the literature review process as a unique type of research. Forty-nine studies were located initially. Eight of these studies met the following criteria: (a) they investigated the effect of sensory integration therapy; (b) they included dependent measures of academic achievement, motor or reflex performance, and/or language function; (c) they included a comparison between at least two groups; and (d) they reported quantitative results of the effect of sensory integration therapy. The 8 studies contained a total of 47 statistical hypothesis tests that evaluated the effectiveness of sensory integration therapy. An analysis of these tests, using quantitative reviewing methods, revealed that subjects participating in sensory integration therapy performed significantly better than members in the control groups who did not receive sensory integration therapy. The application of sensory integration therapy to various client populations is discussed in relation to the existing empirical support revealed in the studies reviewed. The advantages of quantitative reviewing procedures are discussed, and use of the procedures with the developing occupational therapy research literature is recommended. PMID:6182800

Ottenbacher, K

1982-09-01

289

Sensory substitution as an artificially acquired synaesthesia.  

PubMed

In this review we explore the relationship between synaesthesia and sensory substitution and argue that sensory substitution does indeed show properties of synaesthesia. Both are associated with atypical perceptual experiences elicited by the processing of a qualitatively different stimulus to that which normally gives rise to that experience. In the most common forms of sensory substitution, perceptual processing of an auditory or tactile signal (which has been converted from a visual signal) is experienced as visual-like in addition to retaining auditory/tactile characteristics. We consider different lines of evidence that support, to varying degrees, the assumption that sensory substitution is associated with visual-like experiences. We then go on to analyse the key similarities and differences between sensory substitution and synaesthesia. Lastly, we propose two testable predictions: firstly that, in an expert user of a sensory substitution device, the substituting modality should not be lost. Secondly that stimulation within the substituting modality, but by means other than a sensory substitution device, should still produce sensation in the normally substituted modality. PMID:22885223

Ward, Jamie; Wright, Thomas

2014-04-01

290

Analytical methods for chemical and sensory characterization of scent-markings in large wild mammals: a review.  

PubMed

In conjoining the disciplines of "ethology" and "chemistry" the field of "Ethochemistry" has been instituted. Ethochemistry is an effective tool in conservation efforts of endangered species and the understanding of behavioral patterns across all species. Chemical constituents of scent-markings have an important, yet poorly understood function in territoriality, reproduction, dominance, and impact on evolutionary biology, especially in large mammals. Particular attention has recently been focused on scent-marking analysis of great cats (Kalahari leopards (Panthera pardus), puma (Puma concolor) snow leopard (Panthera uncia), African lions (Panthera leo), cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), and tigers (Panthera tigris)) for the purpose of conservation. Sensory analyses of scent-markings could address knowledge gaps in ethochemistry. The objective of this review is to summarize the current state-of-the art of both the chemical and sensory analyses of scent-markings in wild mammals. Specific focus is placed on sampling and sample preparation, chemical analysis, sensory analysis, and simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses. Constituents of exocrine and endocrine secretions have been most commonly studied with chromatography-based analytical separations. Odor analysis of scent-markings provides an insight into the animal's sensory perception. A limited number of articles have been published in the area of sensory characterization of scent marks. Simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses with chromatography-olfactometry hyphenation could potentially aid conservation efforts by linking perceived odor, compounds responsible for odor, and resulting behavior. PMID:24603639

Soso, Simone B; Koziel, Jacek A; Johnson, Anna; Lee, Young Jin; Fairbanks, W Sue

2014-01-01

291

Analytical Methods for Chemical and Sensory Characterization of Scent-Markings in Large Wild Mammals: A Review  

PubMed Central

In conjoining the disciplines of “ethology” and “chemistry” the field of “Ethochemistry” has been instituted. Ethochemistry is an effective tool in conservation efforts of endangered species and the understanding of behavioral patterns across all species. Chemical constituents of scent-markings have an important, yet poorly understood function in territoriality, reproduction, dominance, and impact on evolutionary biology, especially in large mammals. Particular attention has recently been focused on scent-marking analysis of great cats (Kalahari leopards (Panthera pardus), puma (Puma concolor) snow leopard (Panthera uncia), African lions (Panthera leo), cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), and tigers (Panthera tigris)) for the purpose of conservation. Sensory analyses of scent-markings could address knowledge gaps in ethochemistry. The objective of this review is to summarize the current state-of-the art of both the chemical and sensory analyses of scent-markings in wild mammals. Specific focus is placed on sampling and sample preparation, chemical analysis, sensory analysis, and simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses. Constituents of exocrine and endocrine secretions have been most commonly studied with chromatography-based analytical separations. Odor analysis of scent-markings provides an insight into the animal's sensory perception. A limited number of articles have been published in the area of sensory characterization of scent marks. Simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses with chromatography-olfactometry hyphenation could potentially aid conservation efforts by linking perceived odor, compounds responsible for odor, and resulting behavior. PMID:24603639

Soso, Simone B.; Koziel, Jacek A.; Johnson, Anna; Lee, Young Jin; Fairbanks, W. Sue

2014-01-01

292

Whisker sensory system - from receptor to decision.  

PubMed

One of the great challenges of systems neuroscience is to understand how the neocortex transforms neuronal representations of the physical characteristics of sensory stimuli into the percepts which can guide the animal's decisions. Here we present progress made in understanding behavioral and neurophysiological aspects of a highly efficient sensory apparatus, the rat whisker system. Beginning with the 1970s discovery of "barrels" in the rat and mouse brain, one line of research has focused on unraveling the circuits that transmit information from the whiskers to the sensory cortex, together with the cellular mechanisms that underlie sensory responses. A second, more recent line of research has focused on tactile psychophysics, that is, quantification of the behavioral capacities supported by whisker sensation. The opportunity to join these two lines of investigation makes whisker-mediated sensation an exciting platform for the study of the neuronal bases of perception and decision-making. Even more appealing is the beginning-to-end prospective offered by this system: the inquiry can start at the level of the sensory receptor and conclude with the animal's choice. We argue that rats can switch between two modes of operation of the whisker sensory system: (1) generative mode and (2) receptive mode. In the generative mode, the rat moves its whiskers forward and backward to actively seek contact with objects and to palpate the object after initial contact. In the receptive mode, the rat immobilizes its whiskers to optimize the collection of signals from an object that is moving by its own power. We describe behavioral tasks that rats perform in these different modes. Next, we explore which neuronal codes in sensory cortex account for the rats' discrimination capacities. Finally, we present hypotheses for mechanisms through which "downstream" brain regions may read out the activity of sensory cortex in order to extract the significance of sensory stimuli and, ultimately, to select the appropriate action. PMID:22683381

Diamond, Mathew E; Arabzadeh, Ehsan

2013-04-01

293

Photographic Screening for Eye Defects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Images of retinas examined for characteristic patterns. Color photographs of retinas taken. Proper alinement of eye obtained by asking subject to gaze at light-emitting diode. "Red-eye" patterns in resulting color photographs examined by trained observers for signs of ocular defects. System used to check power of contact lenses and eyeglasses by taking photographs with these items in place.

Richardson, J.

1985-01-01

294

Miniature curved artificial compound eyes  

PubMed Central

In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L’Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A.; Franceschini, Nicolas

2013-01-01

295

The Eye of the Hurricane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan introduces students to the structure of a hurricane, particularly the eye. It can be used as an introduction to a unit on hurricanes or weather phenomena. Students will view a video about hurricanes, do a simple hurricane simulation, take a tour into the eye of a hurricane, and write reports about their tour.

296

Miniature curved artificial compound eyes.  

PubMed

In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Franceschini, Nicolas

2013-06-01

297

Amblyopia--or lazy eye.  

PubMed

An amblyopia, or lazy eye, is an eye that is healthy in all respects but which has defective vision, even after the fitting of correcting lenses for a refractive error. Amblyopia can be a strongly hereditary condition. The author describes the predisposing conditions and discusses methods of assessment and the effectiveness of its present treatment. PMID:7625935

Fraser, H

1995-06-01

298

Biomimetic microfabricated compound eyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past century, compound eyes in nature have been one of the most studied and intriguing topics in physiological optics due to their unique optical scheme for imaging. Hundreds to ten thousands of integrated optical units called ommatidia are spherically arranged along a curvilinear surface and point in different directions. Each ommatidium collects light within a small angular acceptance and collectively they construct a full image with a wide field-of-view. In this work, artificial compound eye lenses with three-dimensional configuration, which are anatomically and functionally similar to those in nature, have been synthesized using a photosensitive polymer resin by utilizing microlens technology, self-written waveguide process, and soft lithography. Replicated honeycomb packed polymer microlenses as substitute for facet lenses in a natural compound eye was microfabricated with a photoresist melting process for microlens templates and a soft lithographic process for polymer replication. The microtemplate of photoresist microlens arrays (F/1 ˜ F/3, DL = 20 ˜ 50 mum) with low Fresnel number (NF < 10) and high packing density was replicated with different polymers such as UV curable epoxy resin, polydimethylsiloxane elastomer, and a negative tone photoresist. Related to ommatidial optics, the diffraction of a low Fresnel number microlens, the light guiding of a waveguide, and the angular acceptance function of a microlens-waveguide system were theoretically studied with numerical analysis. First, as a prototype microfabricated microlens-waveguide system ( DL = 300 mum), a small angular acceptance (rho A = 1.5°) comparable to that of natural ommatidia was experimentally achieved and compared with the numerical analysis. The system is based on self-written waveguides in a photosensitive polymer resin and replicated elastomer microlens arrays. However, due to the technical difficulties in handling the elastomer membrane with microlenses, it is limited in scaling down to the physical dimensions of natural ommatidium. Second, as an advanced development, self-aligned microlens-waveguide systems comparable to the physical dimensions of natural ommatidia have been developed and integrated in a photosensitive resin. The individual microlens-waveguide systems of about 8,370 were spherically arranged along the circumference of a polymer dome of 2.5 mm in diameter and each points in different directions. The spherical configuration was realized using a replication process of reconfigurable microtemplates, i.e. the polymer replication using the deformed elastomer membrane with microlens patterns under small pressure (5 kPa ˜ 20 kPa). The characterizations of the small scale microlenses (F/1.8 ˜ F/2.9, DL = 25 mum) and waveguides were also carried out with a modified reflection/transmission confocal microscope. The comparative discussion between natural and artificial compound eyes is described and several future directions based on this work are also proposed.

Jeong, Ki-Hun

2005-11-01

299

An eye for discovery  

PubMed Central

Vision research has often led to significant advances in our understanding of biology. There has also been particular success in translating basic research in the eye into breakthrough clinical therapies that mark important milestones for ophthalmology and also for medical research. Anti-VEGF therapy for age-related macular degeneration was named as one of the top ten science advancements of the year 2006. Only two years later, successful transfer of the RPE65 gene into retinal pigment epithelium of patients with Leber congenital amaurosis was noted as one of the most important clinical applications of gene therapy. The articles in this Review series outline current developments in vision research and highlight its continued importance in ophthalmology and medicine. PMID:20811156

Stahl, Andreas; Smith, Lois E.H.

2010-01-01

300

Microoptical telescope compound eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new optical concept for compact digital image acquisition devices with large field of view is developed and proofed experimentally. Archetypes for the imaging system are compound eyes of small insects and the Gabor Superlens. A paraxial 3x3 matrix formalism is used to describe the telescope arrangement of three microlens arrays with different pitch to find first order parameters of the imaging system. A 2mm thin imaging system with 21x3 channels, 70ºx10º field of view and 4.5mm x 0.5mm image size is optimized and analyzed using sequential and non sequential raytracing and fabricated by microoptics technology. Anamorphic lenses, where the parameters are a function of the considered optical channel, are used to achieve a homogeneous optical performance over the whole field of view. Captured images are presented and compared to simulation results.

Duparré, Jacques W.; Schreiber, Peter; Matthes, André; Pshenay–Severin, Ekaterina; Bräuer, Andreas; Tünnermann, Andreas; Völkel, Reinhard; Eisner, Martin; Scharf, Toralf

2005-02-01

301

Eye of Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The wonderful Eye of Science project began in 1994, and is currently under the direction of Oliver Meckes and Nicole Ottawa. As their philosophic statement on this website states, "Our aim is to combine scientific exactness with aesthetic appearances, and thereby help to bridge the gap between the world of science and the world of art." In order to help serve this mission, they have placed numerous examples of their work online in a series of galleries on this site. Using electron microscopy and a host of other equipment and techniques, the pair has created these fine images of such things as parasites, cross-sections of a lavender leaf, and a rather harrowing photograph of an itch mite. Along with viewing these images, visitors can also learn about the awards they have received and learn about the equipment they use in their work.

302

Microoptical telescope compound eye.  

PubMed

A new optical concept for compact digital image acquisition devices with large field of view is developed and proofed experimentally. Archetypes for the imaging system are compound eyes of small insects and the Gabor-Superlens. A paraxial 3x3 matrix formalism is used to describe the telescope arrangement of three microlens arrays with different pitch to find first order parameters of the imaging system. A 2mm thin imaging system with 21x3 channels, 70 masculinex10 masculine field of view and 4.5mm x 0.5mm image size is optimized and analyzed using sequential and non-sequential raytracing and fabricated by microoptics technology. Anamorphic lenses, where the parameters are a function of the considered optical channel, are used to achieve a homogeneous optical performance over the whole field of view. Captured images are presented and compared to simulation results. PMID:19494951

Duparré, Jacques; Schreiber, Peter; Matthes, André; Pshenay-Severin, Ekaterina; Bräuer, Andreas; Tünnermann, Andreas; Völkel, Reinhard; Eisner, Martin; Scharf, Toralf

2005-02-01

303

ANALYST EYES AND CAMERA EYES: THEORETICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN "SEEING"  

E-print Network

ANALYST EYES AND CAMERA EYES: THEORETICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN "SEEING" THE DETAILS OF CLASSROOM INTERACTION JANE ZUENGLER CECILIA FORD CHRIS FASSNACHT #12;ANALYST EYES AND CAMERA EYES of the Department of Education, OERI, or the Institute on Student Achievement. #12;1 ANALYST EYES AND CAMERA EYES

Sheridan, Jennifer

304

Automatic Eye State Recognition and Closed-eye Photo Correction Zhaojie LIU, Haizhou AI  

E-print Network

Automatic Eye State Recognition and Closed-eye Photo Correction Zhaojie LIU, Haizhou AI Department@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn Abstract In this paper, we present an approach for eye state recognition and closed-eye photo correction. For eye state recognition, AdaBoosted cascade open-eye detectors of different scales are trained

Ai, Haizhou

305

In the Eye of the Beholder: A Survey of Models for Eyes and Gaze  

E-print Network

In the Eye of the Beholder: A Survey of Models for Eyes and Gaze Dan Witzner Hansen, Member, IEEE years, eye detection and tracking remains challenging due to the individuality of eyes, occlusion, variability in scale, location, and light conditions. Data on eye location and details of eye movements have

306

Sagging Eye Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Importance Recognition of sagging eye syndrome (SES) as the cause of chronic or acute acquired diplopia may avert neurologic evaluation and imaging in most cases. Objectives To determine whether SES results from inferior shift of lateral rectus (LR) extraocular muscle (EOM) pulleys and to investigate anatomic correlates of strabismus in SES. Design and Setting We used magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate rectus EOMs, pulleys, and the LR– superior rectus (SR) band ligament at an eye institute. Participants Patients with acquired diplopia suspected of having SES. We studied 56 orbits of 11 men and 17 women (mean [SD] age of 69.4 [11.9] years) clinically diagnosed with SES. Data were obtained from 25 orbits of 14 control participants age-matched to SES and from 52 orbits of 28 younger controls (23[4.6] years). Main Outcome Measures Rectus pulley locations compared with age-matched norms and lengths of the LR-SR band ligament and rectus EOMs. Data were correlated with facial features, binocular alignment, and fundus torsion. Results Patients with SES commonly exhibited blepharoptosis and superior sulcus defect. Significant infero-lateral LR pulley displacement was confirmed in SES, but the spectrum of abnormalities was extended to peripheral displacement of all other rectus pulleys and lateral displacement of the inferior rectus pulley, with elongation of rectus EOMs (P < .001). Symmetrical LR sag was associated with divergence paralysis esotropia and asymmetrical LR sag greater than 1mm with cyclovertical strabismus. The LR-SR band was ruptured in 91% of patients with SES. Conclusions and Relevance Widespread rectus pulley displacement and EOM elongation, associated with LR-SR band rupture, causes acquired vertical and horizontal strabismus. Small-angle esotropia or hypertropia may result from common involutional changes in EOMs and orbital connective tissues that may be suspected from features evident on external examination. PMID:23471194

Chaudhuri, Zia; Demer, Joseph L.

2014-01-01

307

Operationally realistic validation for prediction of cocoa sensory qualities by high-throughput mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The potential of analytical chemistry to predict sensory qualities of food materials is a major current theme. Standard practice is cross-validation (CV), where a set of chemical and associated sensory data is partitioned so chemometric models can be developed on training subsets, and validated on held-out subsets. CV demonstrates prediction, but is an unlikely scenario for industrial operations, where concomitant data acquisition for model development and test materials would be unwieldy. We evaluated cocoa materials of diverse provenance, and analyzed on different dates to those used in model development. Liquor extracts were analyzed by flow-injection electrospray-mass spectrometry (FIE-MS), a novel method for sensory quality prediction. FIE-MS enabled prediction of sensory qualities described by trained human panelists. Optimal models came from the Weka data-mining algorithm SimpleLinearRegression, which learns a model for the attribute giving minimal training error, which was (-)-epicatechin. This flavonoid likewise dominated partial least-squares (PLS)-regression models. Refinements of PLS (orthogonal-PLS or orthogonal signal correction) gave poorer generalization to different test sets, as did support vector machines, whose hyperparameters could not be optimized in training to avoid overfitting. In conclusion, if chemometric overfitting is avoided, chemical analysis can predict sensory qualities of food materials under operationally realistic conditions. PMID:20557115

Wood, Jacqueline E; Allaway, David; Boult, Emma; Scott, Ian M

2010-07-15

308

SUMOylation of the small GTPase ARL-13 promotes ciliary targeting of sensory receptors  

PubMed Central

Primary cilia serve as cellular antenna for various sensory signaling pathways. However, how the sensory receptors are properly targeted to the ciliary surface remains poorly understood. Here, we show that UBC-9, the sole E2 small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-conjugating enzyme, physically interacts with and SUMOylates the C terminus of small GTPase ARL-13, the worm orthologue of ARL13B that mutated in ciliopathy Joubert syndrome. Mutations that totally abolish the SUMOylation of ARL-13 do not affect its established role in ciliogenesis, but fail to regulate the proper ciliary targeting of various sensory receptors and consequently compromise the corresponding sensory functions. Conversely, constitutively SUMOylated ARL-13 fully rescues all ciliary defects of arl-13–null animals. Furthermore, SUMOylation modification of human ARL13B is required for the ciliary entry of polycystin-2, the protein mutated in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Our data reveal a novel but conserved role for the SUMOylation modification of ciliary small GTPase ARL13B in specifically regulating the proper ciliary targeting of various sensory receptors. PMID:23128241

Li, Yujie; Zhang, Qing; Wei, Qing; Zhang, Yuxia; Ling, Kun

2012-01-01

309

21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and...Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion...

2012-04-01

310

21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and...Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion...

2013-04-01

311

21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and...Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion...

2011-04-01

312

21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and...Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion...

2014-04-01

313

Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble  

MedlinePLUS

Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble email Send this article to a friend by filling out the fields below: ... disease bothers the patient more. What Causes Dry Eye Syndrome? Dry eye can be caused by many ...

314

21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and...Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion...

2010-04-01

315

Three dimensional eye movements of squirrel monkeys following postrotatory tilt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three-dimensional squirrel monkey eye movements were recorded during and immediately following rotation around an earth-vertical yaw axis (160 degrees/s steady state, 100 degrees/s2 acceleration and deceleration). To study interactions between the horizontal angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and head orientation, postrotatory VOR alignment was changed relative to gravity by tilting the head out of the horizontal plane (pitch or roll tilt between 15 degrees and 90 degrees) immediately after cessation of motion. Results showed that in addition to post rotatory horizontal nystagmus, vertical nystagmus followed tilts to the left or right (roll), and torsional nystagmus followed forward or backward (pitch) tilts. When the time course and spatial orientation of eye velocity were considered in three dimensions, the axis of eye rotation always shifted toward alignment with gravity, and the postrotatory horizontal VOR decay was accelerated by the tilts. These phenomena may reflect a neural process that resolves the sensory conflict induced by this postrotatory tilt paradigm.

Merfeld, D. M.; Young, L. R.; Paige, G. D.; Tomko, D. L.

1993-01-01

316

Exploratory eye movements and visual hemi-neglect.  

PubMed

The severity of visual hemineglect (VHN), as defined by a VHN Index from scores obtained on letter cancellation and visual matching tests, was compared to eye movement behavior during a visual searching task in a group of right-hemisphere stroke patients and a group of age-matched normal controls. A strong negative correlation was obtained between the VHN Index and eye movement Exploration Time of the left visuospatial field for the stroke patients, but not for the control subjects. Further analyses failed to discriminate Exploration Time performance of stroke patients with mild VHN from the performance of control subjects, but did discriminate stroke patients with marked VHN from each of these two groups. Covarying for the presence of a left-visual-field sensory defect slightly reduced the significance level of this finding. The results and questions raised by this study are discussed in the context of developing an operational definition for VHN using the method of directly monitoring eye movement. PMID:3944247

Johnston, C W; Diller, L

1986-01-01

317

Emerging functions of pannexin 1 in the eye  

PubMed Central

Pannexin 1 (Panx1) is a high-conductance, voltage-gated channel protein found in vertebrates. Panx1 is widely expressed in many organs and tissues, including sensory systems. In the eye, Panx1 is expressed in major divisions including the retina, lens and cornea. Panx1 is found in different neuronal and non-neuronal cell types. The channel is mechanosensitive and responds to changes in extracellular ATP, intracellular calcium, pH, or ROS/nitric oxide. Since Panx1 channels operate at the crossroad of major signaling pathways, physiological functions in important autocrine and paracrine feedback signaling mechanisms were hypothesized. This review starts with describing in depth the initial Panx1 expression and localization studies fostering functional studies that uncovered distinct roles in processing visual information in subsets of neurons in the rodent and fish retina. Panx1 is expressed along the entire anatomical axis from optical nerve to retina and cornea in glia, epithelial and endothelial cells as well as in neurons. The expression and diverse localizations throughout the eye points towards versatile functions of Panx1 in neuronal and non-neuronal cells, implicating Panx1 in the crosstalk between immune and neural cells, pressure related pathological conditions like glaucoma, wound repair or neuronal cell death caused by ischemia. Summarizing the literature on Panx1 in the eye highlights the diversity of emerging Panx1 channel functions in health and disease. PMID:25309318

Kurtenbach, Sarah; Kurtenbach, Stefan; Zoidl, Georg

2014-01-01

318

Sensory Pedagogy: Understanding and Encountering Children through the Senses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present article we aim to explore the link between Merleau-Pontyan phenomenology and what we call sensory pedagogy. The latter connects to recent sensory ethnography as presented by S. Pink ("Sensory ethnography." London: Sage; 2009). We discuss how these thoughts can be put to work in toddler pedagogy. This kind of sensory

Johansson, Eva; Løkken, Gunvor

2014-01-01

319

Eye movement monitoring of memory.  

PubMed

Explicit (often verbal) reports are typically used to investigate memory (e.g. "Tell me what you remember about the person you saw at the bank yesterday."), however such reports can often be unreliable or sensitive to response bias, and may be unobtainable in some participant populations. Furthermore, explicit reports only reveal when information has reached consciousness and cannot comment on when memories were accessed during processing, regardless of whether the information is subsequently accessed in a conscious manner. Eye movement monitoring (eye tracking) provides a tool by which memory can be probed without asking participants to comment on the contents of their memories, and access of such memories can be revealed on-line. Video-based eye trackers (either head-mounted or remote) use a system of cameras and infrared markers to examine the pupil and corneal reflection in each eye as the participant views a display monitor. For head-mounted eye trackers, infrared markers are also used to determine head position to allow for head movement and more precise localization of eye position. Here, we demonstrate the use of a head-mounted eye tracking system to investigate memory performance in neurologically-intact and neurologically-impaired adults. Eye movement monitoring procedures begin with the placement of the eye tracker on the participant, and setup of the head and eye cameras. Calibration and validation procedures are conducted to ensure accuracy of eye position recording. Real-time recordings of X,Y-coordinate positions on the display monitor are then converted and used to describe periods of time in which the eye is static (i.e. fixations) versus in motion (i.e., saccades). Fixations and saccades are time-locked with respect to the onset/offset of a visual display or another external event (e.g. button press). Experimental manipulations are constructed to examine how and when patterns of fixations and saccades are altered through different types of prior experience. The influence of memory is revealed in the extent to which scanning patterns to new images differ from scanning patterns to images that have been previously studied. Memory can also be interrogated for its specificity; for instance, eye movement patterns that differ between an identical and an altered version of a previously studied image reveal the storage of the altered detail in memory. These indices of memory can be compared across participant populations, thereby providing a powerful tool by which to examine the organization of memory in healthy individuals, and the specific changes that occur to memory with neurological insult or decline. PMID:20736919

Ryan, Jennifer D; Riggs, Lily; McQuiggan, Douglas A; McQuiggan, Doug

2010-01-01

320

Stimulus discrimination by the polymodal sensory neuron  

PubMed Central

Polymodal sensory neurons inform organisms about the nature of the physical world around them. The activity of these cells guide behaviors including the withdrawal from nocifensive stimuli such as intense heat or harsh force to feeling the comforting weight of a warm blanket. Molecular and genetic analysis of the channel proteins required for these divers behavioral responses have revealed an elaborate and disparate collection of channel proteins within the polymodal sensory neuron. Recent data supports that the biophysical traits of the channel proteins combined with the collection of channels activated during stimulation is sufficient to describe the nature of the stimulus. It is currently unclear what the functional arrangement of channel proteins are during perception. Specifically, are channel proteins arranged in parallel and function independently during perception, or are these channel proteins arranged in functional sensory networks. We propose a hierarchal functional arrangement of channels within polymodal sensory neurons that incorporates aspects of both parallel and serial arrangements of channel proteins. PMID:23749412

Stockand, James D.; Eaton, Benjamin A.

2013-01-01

321

Variance predicts salience in central sensory processing.  

PubMed

Information processing in the sensory periphery is shaped by natural stimulus statistics. In the periphery, a transmission bottleneck constrains performance; thus efficient coding implies that natural signal components with a predictably wider range should be compressed. In a different regime--when sampling limitations constrain performance--efficient coding implies that more resources should be allocated to informative features that are more variable. We propose that this regime is relevant for sensory cortex when it extracts complex features from limited numbers of sensory samples. To test this prediction, we use central visual processing as a model: we show that visual sensitivity for local multi-point spatial correlations, described by dozens of independently-measured parameters, can be quantitatively predicted from the structure of natural images. This suggests that efficient coding applies centrally, where it extends to higher-order sensory features and operates in a regime in which sensitivity increases with feature variability. PMID:25396297

Hermundstad, Ann M; Briguglio, John J; Conte, Mary M; Victor, Jonathan D; Balasubramanian, Vijay; Tka?ik, Gašper

2014-01-01

322

Sensory properties of menthol and smoking topography  

PubMed Central

Although there is a great deal known about menthol as a flavoring agent in foods and confections, less is known about the particular sensory properties of menthol cigarette smoke. Similarly, although smoking topography (the unique way an individual smokes a cigarette) has been well studied using non-menthol cigarettes, there is relatively less known about how menthol affects smoking behavior. The objective of this review is to assess the sensory properties of menthol tobacco smoke, and smoking topography associated with menthol cigarettes. The cooling, analgesic, taste, and respiratory effects of menthol are well established, and studies have indicated that menthol’s sensory attributes can have an influence on the positive, or rewarding, properties associated smoking, including ratings of satisfaction, taste, perceived smoothness, and perceived irritation. Despite these sensory properties, the data regarding menthol’s effect on smoking topography are inconsistent. Many of the topography studies have limitations due to various methodological issues. PMID:21624149

2011-01-01

323

Sensory Optimization by Stochastic Tuning  

PubMed Central

Individually, visual neurons are each selective for several aspects of stimulation, such as stimulus location, frequency content, and speed. Collectively, the neurons implement the visual system’s preferential sensitivity to some stimuli over others, manifested in behavioral sensitivity functions. We ask how the individual neurons are coordinated to optimize visual sensitivity. We model synaptic plasticity in a generic neural circuit, and find that stochastic changes in strengths of synaptic connections entail fluctuations in parameters of neural receptive fields. The fluctuations correlate with uncertainty of sensory measurement in individual neurons: the higher the uncertainty the larger the amplitude of fluctuation. We show that this simple relationship is sufficient for the stochastic fluctuations to steer sensitivities of neurons toward a characteristic distribution, from which follows a sensitivity function observed in human psychophysics, and which is predicted by a theory of optimal allocation of receptive fields. The optimal allocation arises in our simulations without supervision or feedback about system performance and independently of coupling between neurons, making the system highly adaptive and sensitive to prevailing stimulation. PMID:24219849

Jurica, Peter; Gepshtein, Sergei; Tyukin, Ivan; van Leeuwen, Cees

2013-01-01

324

Sensory circumventricular organs in health and disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circumventricular organs (CVOs) are specialized brain structures located around the third and fourth ventricles. They differ\\u000a from the rest of the brain parenchyma in that they are highly vascularised areas that lack a blood–brain barrier. These neurohaemal\\u000a organs are classified as “sensory”, when they contain neurons that can receive chemical inputs from the bloodstream. This\\u000a review focuses on the sensory

Sílvia Sisó; Martin Jeffrey; Lorenzo González

2010-01-01

325

Asymmetric synthesis and sensory evaluation of sedanenolide.  

PubMed

The synthesis and sensory evaluation of enantiomeric sets of sedanenolide (1) and 3-butylphthalide (3) are described. The asymmetric synthesis was achieved via the intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction of chiral propargylester (5) which was prepared from optically active propargyl alcohol (4) and 2,4-pentadienoic acid. The sensory evaluation of these enantiomers revealed that there were distinct differences between their aroma character and odor threshold. PMID:21821949

Oguro, Daichi; Watanabe, Hidenori

2011-01-01

326

P50 Sensory Gating in Infants  

PubMed Central

Attentional deficits are common in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders including attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, autism, bipolar mood disorder, and schizophrenia. There has been increasing interest in the neurodevelopmental components of these attentional deficits; neurodevelopmental meaning that while the deficits become clinically prominent in childhood or adulthood, the deficits are the results of problems in brain development that begin in infancy or even prenatally. Despite this interest, there are few methods for assessing attention very early in infancy. This report focuses on one method, infant auditory P50 sensory gating. Attention has several components. One of the earliest components of attention, termed sensory gating, allows the brain to tune out repetitive, noninformative sensory information. Auditory P50 sensory gating refers to one task designed to measure sensory gating using changes in EEG. When identical auditory stimuli are presented 500 ms apart, the evoked response (change in the EEG associated with the processing of the click) to the second stimulus is generally reduced relative to the response to the first stimulus (i.e. the response is "gated"). When response to the second stimulus is not reduced, this is considered a poor sensory gating, is reflective of impaired cerebral inhibition, and is correlated with attentional deficits. Because the auditory P50 sensory gating task is passive, it is of potential utility in the study of young infants and may provide a window into the developmental time course of attentional deficits in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. The goal of this presentation is to describe the methodology for assessing infant auditory P50 sensory gating, a methodology adapted from those used in studies of adult populations. PMID:24430259

Ross, Anne Spencer; Hunter, Sharon Kay; Groth, Mark A; Ross, Randal Glenn

2013-01-01

327

A layered network model of sensory cortex  

SciTech Connect

An integrated computational approach to modeling sensory systems which couples realistic layered neural models of sensory cortex and midbrain nuclei to detailed models of the sense organs (e.g., retina or cochlea) is described. The approach is applied to the auditory system. Through an exercise of the model, it is shown that spatial location of sounds may be a natural consequence of the way cochlear response is mapped onto the cortex. 31 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

Travis, B.J.

1986-01-01

328

Anthropogenic noise affects behavior across sensory modalities.  

PubMed

Many species are currently experiencing anthropogenically driven environmental changes. Among these changes, increasing noise levels are specifically a problem for species using acoustic signals (i.e., species relying on signals that use the same sensory modality as anthropogenic noise). Yet many species use other sensory modalities, such as visual and olfactory signals, to communicate. However, we have only little understanding of whether changes in the acoustic environment affect species that use sensory modalities other than acoustic signals. We studied the impact of anthropogenic noise on the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, which uses highly complex visual signals. We showed that cuttlefish adjusted their visual displays by changing their color more frequently during a playback of anthropogenic noise, compared with before and after the playback. Our results provide experimental evidence that anthropogenic noise has a marked effect on the behavior of species that are not reliant on acoustic communication. Thus, interference in one sensory channel, in this case the acoustic one, affects signaling in other sensory channels. By considering sensory channels in isolation, we risk overlooking the broader implications of environmental changes for the behavior of animals. PMID:25226190

Kunc, Hansjoerg P; Lyons, Gillian N; Sigwart, Julia D; McLaughlin, Kirsty E; Houghton, Jonathan D R

2014-10-01

329

Monitoring the eye lens: which dose quantity is adequate?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent epidemiological studies suggest a rather low dose threshold (below 0.5 Gy) for the induction of a cataract of the eye lens. Some other studies even assume that there is no threshold at all. Therefore, protection measures have to be optimized and current dose limits for the eye lens may be reduced in the future. The question of which personal dose equivalent quantity is appropriate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens arises from this situation. While in many countries dosemeters calibrated in terms of the dose equivalent quantity Hp(0.07) have been seen as being adequate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens, this might be questionable in the case of reduced dose limits and, thus, it may become necessary to use the dose equivalent quantity Hp(3) for this purpose. To discuss this question, the dose conversion coefficients for the equivalent dose of the eye lens (in the following eye lens dose) were determined for realistic photon and beta radiation fields and compared with the values of the corresponding conversion coefficients for the different operational quantities. The values obtained lead to the following conclusions: in radiation fields where most of the dose comes from photons, especially x-rays, it is appropriate to use dosemeters calibrated in terms of Hp(0.07) on a slab phantom, while in other radiation fields (dominated by beta radiation or unknown contributions of photon and beta radiation) dosemeters calibrated in terms of Hp(3) on a slab phantom should be used. As an alternative, dosemeters calibrated in terms of Hp(0.07) on a slab phantom could also be used; however, in radiation fields containing beta radiation with the end point energy near 1 MeV, an overestimation of the eye lens dose by up to a factor of 550 is possible.

Behrens, R.; Dietze, G.

2010-07-01

330

Monitoring the eye lens: which dose quantity is adequate?  

PubMed

Recent epidemiological studies suggest a rather low dose threshold (below 0.5 Gy) for the induction of a cataract of the eye lens. Some other studies even assume that there is no threshold at all. Therefore, protection measures have to be optimized and current dose limits for the eye lens may be reduced in the future. The question of which personal dose equivalent quantity is appropriate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens arises from this situation. While in many countries dosemeters calibrated in terms of the dose equivalent quantity H(p)(0.07) have been seen as being adequate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens, this might be questionable in the case of reduced dose limits and, thus, it may become necessary to use the dose equivalent quantity H(p)(3) for this purpose. To discuss this question, the dose conversion coefficients for the equivalent dose of the eye lens (in the following eye lens dose) were determined for realistic photon and beta radiation fields and compared with the values of the corresponding conversion coefficients for the different operational quantities. The values obtained lead to the following conclusions: in radiation fields where most of the dose comes from photons, especially x-rays, it is appropriate to use dosemeters calibrated in terms of H(p)(0.07) on a slab phantom, while in other radiation fields (dominated by beta radiation or unknown contributions of photon and beta radiation) dosemeters calibrated in terms of H(p)(3) on a slab phantom should be used. As an alternative, dosemeters calibrated in terms of H(p)(0.07) on a slab phantom could also be used; however, in radiation fields containing beta radiation with the end point energy near 1 MeV, an overestimation of the eye lens dose by up to a factor of 550 is possible. PMID:20601777

Behrens, R; Dietze, G

2010-07-21

331

Eye acceleration during large horizontal saccades in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pattern of acceleration was recorded during horizontal saccadic eye movements using a lightweight accelerometer fixed\\u000a to a scleral contact lens. Horizontal saccades of 15–20° were dominated by either several pulses of acceleration, with a frequency\\u000a of around 40 Hz, or a single acceleration-deceleration wave followed by lower amplitude polyphasic activity of about 80 Hz.\\u000a These features are unlikely to

P. Brown; B. L. Day

1997-01-01

332

Keeping our eyes on the eyes: the case of Arcimboldo.  

PubMed

While contemporaries often viewed his reversible composite heads as scherzi (jokes) and modem art connoisseurs as creative masterpieces, Giuseppe Arcimboldo's ingenious paintings served as inspiring stimuli for the present eye-tracking experiment. One group of participants viewed three chosen paintings in an upright, and another in an upside-down, orientation. We compared how participants viewed three selected areas of interest (AOIs) within the painting when these could, and could not, be identified as a face or distinct facial element (eyes and mouth). The obtained results indicate that the participants fixated the parts of the painting which represent faces more in the upright than in the inverted orientation. Furthermore, in the upright orientation the participants focused more on the upper AOls (eyes) than the lower AOIs (mouth). This was not the case for the inverted orientation of two paintings. In conclusion, the face inversion effect occurs even in this artistic context, and the gaze often goes where the eyes are. PMID:25109013

Bubic, Andreja; Susac, Ana; Palmovic, Marijan

2014-01-01

333

Dominant optic atrophy  

PubMed Central

Definition of the disease Dominant Optic Atrophy (DOA) is a neuro-ophthalmic condition characterized by a bilateral degeneration of the optic nerves, causing insidious visual loss, typically starting during the first decade of life. The disease affects primary the retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and their axons forming the optic nerve, which transfer the visual information from the photoreceptors to the lateral geniculus in the brain. Epidemiology The prevalence of the disease varies from 1/10000 in Denmark due to a founder effect, to 1/30000 in the rest of the world. Clinical description DOA patients usually suffer of moderate visual loss, associated with central or paracentral visual field deficits and color vision defects. The severity of the disease is highly variable, the visual acuity ranging from normal to legal blindness. The ophthalmic examination discloses on fundoscopy isolated optic disc pallor or atrophy, related to the RGC death. About 20% of DOA patients harbour extraocular multi-systemic features, including neurosensory hearing loss, or less commonly chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia, myopathy, peripheral neuropathy, multiple sclerosis-like illness, spastic paraplegia or cataracts. Aetiology Two genes (OPA1, OPA3) encoding inner mitochondrial membrane proteins and three loci (OPA4, OPA5, OPA8) are currently known for DOA. Additional loci and genes (OPA2, OPA6 and OPA7) are responsible for X-linked or recessive optic atrophy. All OPA genes yet identified encode mitochondrial proteins embedded in the inner membrane and ubiquitously expressed, as are the proteins mutated in the Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy. OPA1 mutations affect mitochondrial fusion, energy metabolism, control of apoptosis, calcium clearance and maintenance of mitochondrial genome integrity. OPA3 mutations only affect the energy metabolism and the control of apoptosis. Diagnosis Patients are usually diagnosed during their early childhood, because of bilateral, mild, otherwise unexplained visual loss related to optic discs pallor or atrophy, and typically occurring in the context of a family history of DOA. Optical Coherence Tomography further discloses non-specific thinning of retinal nerve fiber layer, but a normal morphology of the photoreceptors layers. Abnormal visual evoked potentials and pattern ERG may also reflect the dysfunction of the RGCs and their axons. Molecular diagnosis is provided by the identification of a mutation in the OPA1 gene (75% of DOA patients) or in the OPA3 gene (1% of patients). Prognosis Visual loss in DOA may progress during puberty until adulthood, with very slow subsequent chronic progression in most of the cases. On the opposite, in DOA patients with associated extra-ocular features, the visual loss may be more severe over time. Management To date, there is no preventative or curative treatment in DOA; severely visually impaired patients may benefit from low vision aids. Genetic counseling is commonly offered and patients are advised to avoid alcohol and tobacco consumption, as well as the use of medications that may interfere with mitochondrial metabolism. Gene and pharmacological therapies for DOA are currently under investigation. PMID:22776096

2012-01-01

334

Odyssey of the Eyes: Advanced  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity helps students understand the connections between remote-sensing technology, computer imagery and land cover assessment, and models how a satellite sensor communicates information to a computer. Digital information from a map created through activities found in Odyssey of the Eyes: Beginner and Odyssey of the Eyes: Intermediate is reproduced in this activity and shared with others to process so they can see and identify the image. Odyssey of the Eyes: Beginner, Intermediate and Advanced are learning activities associated with the Land Cover/ Biology chapter of the GLOBE Teachers Guide.

335

Dry eye and Meige's syndrome  

PubMed Central

AIMS—To determine the relation between dry eye and Meige's syndrome.?METHODS—325 patients with dry eye were divided into those responsive to topical and other forms of treatment (n=276) and those who were not (n=49). A neuropsychiatric examination was performed to check for Meige's syndrome in the latter group.?RESULTS—Twenty eight (57%) of the treatment unresponsive patients were diagnosed with Meige's syndrome.?CONCLUSIONS—There is a subgroup of patients with dry eye who do not respond to simple therapy. More than half of these patients have Meige's syndrome and need psychiatric, as well as ophthalmic, care.?? PMID:9274405

Tsubota, K.; Fujihara, T.; Kaido, M.; Mori, A.; Mimura, M.; Kato, M.

1997-01-01

336

Genetic basis of eye and pigment loss in the cave crustacean, Asellus aquaticus  

PubMed Central

Understanding the process of evolution is one of the great challenges in biology. Cave animals are one group with immense potential to address the mechanisms of evolutionary change. Amazingly, similar morphological alterations, such as enhancement of sensory systems and the loss of eyes and pigmentation, have evolved multiple times in a diverse assemblage of cave animals. Our goal is to develop an invertebrate model to study cave evolution so that, in combination with a previously established vertebrate cave system, we can address genetic questions concerning evolutionary parallelism and convergence. We chose the isopod crustacean, Asellus aquaticus, and generated a genome-wide linkage map for this species. Our map, composed of 117 markers, of which the majority are associated with genes known to be involved in pigmentation, eye, and appendage development, was used to identify loci of large effect responsible for several pigmentation traits and eye loss. Our study provides support for the prediction that significant morphological change can be mediated through one or a few genes. Surprisingly, we found that within population variability in eye size occurs through multiple mechanisms; eye loss has a different genetic basis than reduced eye size. Similarly, again within a population, the phenotype of albinism can be achieved by two different genetic pathways—either by a recessive genotype at one locus or doubly recessive genotypes at two other loci. Our work shows the potential of Asellus for studying the extremes of parallel and convergent evolution—spanning comparisons within populations to comparisons between vertebrate and arthropod systems. PMID:21422298

Protas, Meredith E.; Trontelj, Peter; Patel, Nipam H.

2011-01-01

337

Effect of altered sensory conditions on multivariate descriptors of human postural sway  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multivariate descriptors of sway were used to test whether altered sensory conditions result not only in changes in amount of sway but also in postural coordination. Eigenvalues and directions of eigenvectors of the covariance of shnk and hip angles were used as a set of multivariate descriptors. These quantities were measured in 14 healthy adult subjects performing the Sensory Organization test, which disrupts visual and somatosensory information used for spatial orientation. Multivariate analysis of variance and discriminant analysis showed that resulting sway changes were at least bivariate in character, with visual and somatosensory conditions producing distinct changes in postural coordination. The most significant changes were found when somatosensory information was disrupted by sway-referencing of the support surface (P = 3.2 x 10(-10)). The resulting covariance measurements showed that subjects not only swayed more but also used increased hip motion analogous to the hip strategy. Disruption of vision, by either closing the eyes or sway-referencing the visual surround, also resulted in altered sway (P = 1.7 x 10(-10)), with proportionately more motion of the center of mass than with platform sway-referencing. As shown by discriminant analysis, an optimal univariate measure could explain at most 90% of the behavior due to altered sensory conditions. The remaining 10%, while smaller, are highly significant changes in posture control that depend on sensory conditions. The results imply that normal postural coordination of the trunk and legs requires both somatosensory and visual information and that each sensory modality makes a unique contribution to posture control. Descending postural commands are multivariate in nature, and the motion at each joint is affected uniquely by input from multiple sensors.

Kuo, A. D.; Speers, R. A.; Peterka, R. J.; Horak, F. B.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

338

Downregulation of Cortical Inhibition Mediates Ocular Dominance Plasticity during the Critical Period  

PubMed Central

Monocular deprivation (MD) during the critical period (CP) shifts ocular dominance (OD) of cortical responsiveness toward the nondeprived eye. The synaptic mechanisms underlying MD-induced OD plasticity, in particular the contribution of cortical inhibition to the plasticity, have remained unsolved. In this study, using in vivo whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings, we revealed eye-specific excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to layer 4 excitatory neurons in mouse primary visual cortex (V1) at a developmental stage close to the end of CP. We found in normally reared mice that ocular preference is primarily determined by the contralateral bias of excitatory input and that inhibition does not play an active role in shaping OD. MD results in a parallel reduction of excitation and inhibition driven by the deprived eye, while reducing the inhibition but preserving the excitation driven by the nondeprived eye. MD of longer periods causes larger changes in synaptic amplitude than MD of shorter periods. Furthermore, MD resulted in a shortening of onset latencies of synaptic inputs activated by both contralateral and ipsilateral eye stimulation, while the relative temporal relationship between excitation and inhibition driven by the same eye was not significantly affected. Our results suggest that OD plasticity is largely attributed to a reduction of feedforward input representing the deprived eye, and that an unexpected weakening of cortical inhibitory connections accounts for the increased responsiveness to the nondeprived eye. PMID:23825430

Ma, Wen-pei; Li, Ya-tang

2013-01-01

339

The Head-Neck Sensory Motor System  

E-print Network

of insects to allow spatial analysis of the Image perceived via the compound eye (Strausfeld, 1976; Wehner/Eye Movements in the Blowfly Calliphora erythrocephala Roland Hengstenberg Movement and Orientation of Insects in Space A flying insect has all six degrees of freedom to move in space; translations (due to lift

340

Prospect and Markowitz Stochastic Dominance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levy and Levy (2002, 2004) develop the Prospect and Markowitz stochastic dominance theory with S-shaped and reverse S-shaped utility functions for investors. In this paper, we extend Levy and Levy’s Prospect Stochastic Dominance theory (PSD) and Markowitz Stochastic Dominance theory (MSD) to the first three orders and link the corresponding S-shaped and reverse S-shaped utility functions to the first three

Wing-Keung Wong; Raymond H. Chan

2005-01-01

341

Cross-sensory transfer of sensory-motor information: visuomotor learning affects performance on an audiomotor task, using sensory-substitution.  

PubMed

Visual-to-auditory sensory-substitution devices allow users to perceive a visual image using sound. Using a motor-learning task, we found that new sensory-motor information was generalized across sensory modalities. We imposed a rotation when participants reached to visual targets, and found that not only seeing, but also hearing the location of targets via a sensory-substitution device resulted in biased movements. When the rotation was removed, aftereffects occurred whether the location of targets was seen or heard. Our findings demonstrate that sensory-motor learning was not sensory-modality-specific.?We conclude that novel sensory-motor information can be transferred between sensory modalities. PMID:23230514

Levy-Tzedek, Shelly; Novick, Itai; Arbel, Roni; Abboud, Sami; Maidenbaum, Shachar; Vaadia, Eilon; Amedi, Amir

2012-01-01

342

Cross-sensory transfer of sensory-motor information: visuomotor learning affects performance on an audiomotor task, using sensory-substitution  

PubMed Central

Visual-to-auditory sensory-substitution devices allow users to perceive a visual image using sound. Using a motor-learning task, we found that new sensory-motor information was generalized across sensory modalities. We imposed a rotation when participants reached to visual targets, and found that not only seeing, but also hearing the location of targets via a sensory-substitution device resulted in biased movements. When the rotation was removed, aftereffects occurred whether the location of targets was seen or heard. Our findings demonstrate that sensory-motor learning was not sensory-modality-specific.?We conclude that novel sensory-motor information can be transferred between sensory modalities. PMID:23230514

Levy-Tzedek, Shelly; Novick, Itai; Arbel, Roni; Abboud, Sami; Maidenbaum, Shachar; Vaadia, Eilon; Amedi, Amir

2012-01-01

343

Eye Bank Association of America  

MedlinePLUS

... Leadership Forum Awards & Grants Patricia Aiken-O’Neill Scholarship Richard Lindstrom/EBAA Research Fund EBAA Networking Grants ... Sight Award Crystal Cornea Award Jachin Misko Memorial Scholarship for Technical Advancement in Eye Banking About Us ...

344

Genetic Testing and Eye Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Uveitis/Iritis See all Diseases & Conditions > Symptoms Blurriness Dark Curtain Dark Spots Discharge Double Vision Drooping Eyelid Eye Pain ... testing services, whether these are advertised on the web or elsewhere. If you have questions about whether ...

345

Conjunctivitis: What Is Pink Eye?  

MedlinePLUS

... org Diseases & Conditions A to Z Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) Allergies Amblyopia (Lazy Eye) Astigmatism Bacterial Keratitis Bell's Palsy Blepharitis Cataracts Contact Lens-Related Infections Detached & Torn Retina Diabetic ...

346

Biologically Inspired Artificial Compound Eyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents the fabrication of biologically inspired artificial compound eyes. The artificial ommatidium, like that of an insect's compound eyes, consists of a refractive polymer microlens, a light-guiding polymer cone, and a self-aligned waveguide to collect light with a small angular acceptance. The ommatidia are omnidirectionally arranged along a hemispherical polymer dome such that they provide a wide field of view similar to that of a natural compound eye. The spherical configuration of the microlenses is accomplished by reconfigurable microtemplating, that is, polymer replication using the deformed elastomer membrane with microlens patterns. The formation of polymer waveguides self-aligned with microlenses is also realized by a self-writing process in a photosensitive polymer resin. The angular acceptance is directly measured by three-dimensional optical sectioning with a confocal microscope, and the detailed optical characteristics are studied in comparison with a natural compound eye.

Jeong, Ki-Hun; Kim, Jaeyoun; Lee, Luke P.

2006-04-01

347

Econometrics: A Bird's Eye View  

E-print Network

Econometrics: A Bird’s Eye View? John Geweke, Joel Horowitz, and Hashem Pesaran† November 2006 Abstract As a unified discipline, econometrics is still relatively young and has been transforming and expanding very rapidly over the past few decades...

Geweke, John; Horowitz, Joel; Pesaran, M Hashem

348

Carotid Artery and the Eye  

MedlinePLUS

... from any list. Close without sharing. Give Us Feedback The Carotid Artery and the Eye Your name ... Your message: Close without sending Thank you. Your feedback will help us improve this site. Close The ...

349

Loss of Arc renders the visual cortex impervious to the effects of sensory experience or deprivation  

PubMed Central

A myriad of mechanisms are suggested to account for the full richness of visual cortical plasticity. We report that visual cortex lacking Arc is impervious to the effects of deprivation or experience. Using intrinsic signal imaging and chronic visually evoked potential recordings, we find that Arc?/? mice do not exhibit depression of deprived eye responses or a shift in ocular dominance after brief monocular deprivation. Extended deprivation also fails to elicit a shift in ocular dominance or open eye potentiation. Moreover, Arc?/? mice lack stimulus–selective response potentiation. Although Arc?/? mice exhibit normal visual acuity, baseline ocular dominance is abnormal and resembles that observed after dark–rearing. These data suggest that Arc is required for the experience–dependent processes that normally establish and modify synaptic connections in visual cortex. PMID:20228806

McCurry, Cortina L.; Shepherd, Jason D.; Tropea, Daniela; Wang, Kuan H.; Bear, Mark F.; Sur, Mriganka

2010-01-01

350

The Applicability of the Short Sensory Profile for Screening Sensory Processing Disorders among Israeli Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to examine the applicability of the short sensory profile (SSP) for screening sensory processing disorders (SPDs) among typical children in Israel, and to evaluate the relationship between SPDs and socio-demographic parameters. Participants were 395 Israeli children, aged 3 years to 10 years 11 months, with typical…

Engel-Yeger, Batya

2010-01-01

351

Physiological and Behavioral Differences in Sensory Processing: A Comparison of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Sensory Modulation Disorder  

PubMed Central

A high incidence of sensory processing difficulties exists in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and children with Sensory Modulation Disorder (SMD). This is the first study to directly compare and contrast these clinical disorders. Sympathetic nervous system markers of arousal and reactivity were utilized in a laboratory paradigm that administered a series of sensory challenges across five sensory domains. The Short Sensory Profile, a standardized parent-report measure, provided a measure of sensory-related behaviors. Physiological arousal and sensory reactivity were lower in children with ASD whereas reactivity after each sensory stimulus was higher in SMD, particularly to the first stimulus in each sensory domain. Both clinical groups had significantly more sensory-related behaviors than typically developing children, with contrasting profiles. The ASD group had more taste/smell sensitivity and sensory under-responsivity while the SMD group had more atypical sensory seeking behavior. This study provides preliminary evidence distinguishing sympathetic nervous system functions and sensory-related behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Sensory Modulation Disorder. Differentiating the physiology and sensory symptoms in clinical groups is essential to the provision of appropriate interventions. PMID:19915733

Schoen, Sarah A.; Miller, Lucy J.; Brett-Green, Barbara A.; Nielsen, Darci M.

2009-01-01

352

Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care: Preoperative Testing  

MedlinePLUS

... Consumer Alerts Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... over the battery and always wear safety goggles. Eye Protection Works Wearing the proper protective eyewear for ...

353

Simulation of Ametropic Human Eyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computational simulation of the performance of human eyes is complex because the optical parameters of the eye depend on many factors, including age, gender, race, refractive status (accommodation and near- or far-sightedness). This task is made more difficult by the inadequacy of the population statistical characteristics of these parameters. Previously we simulated ametropic (near- or far-sighted) eyes using three independent variables: the axial length of the eye, the corneal surface curvature, and the intraocular refractive index gradient. The prescription for the correction of an ametropic eye is determined by its second-order coefficients of the wavefront aberrations. These corrections are typically achieved using contact lens, spectacle lens, or laser surgery (LASIK). However, the higher order aberrations, which are not corrected and are likely complicated or enhanced by the lower-order correction, could be important for visual performance in a darkened environment. In this paper, we investigate the higher order wavefront aberrations of synthetic ametropic eyes and compare results with measured data published in the past decade. The behavior of three types of ametropes is discussed.

Tan, Bo; Chen, Ying-Ling; Lewis, James W. L.

2004-11-01

354

Eye casualty services in London.  

PubMed

The combined pressures of the European Working Time Directive, 4?h waiting time target, and growing rates of unplanned hospital attendances have forced a major consolidation of eye casualty departments across the country, with the remaining units seeing a rapid increase in demand. We examine the effect of these changes on the provision of emergency eye care in Central London, and see what wider lessons can be learned. We surveyed the managers responsible for each of London's 8 out-of-hours eye casualty services, analysed data on attendance numbers, and conducted detailed interviews with lead clinicians. At London's two largest units, Moorfields Eye Hospital and the Western Eye Hospital, annual attendance numbers have been rising at 7.9% per year (to 76?034 patients in 2010/11) and 9.6% per year (to 31?128 patients in 2010/11), respectively. Using Moorfields as a case study, we discuss methods to increase capacity and efficiency in response to this demand, and also examine some of the unintended consequences of service consolidation including patients travelling long distances to geographically inappropriate units, and confusion over responsibility for out-of-hours inpatient cover. We describe a novel 'referral pathway' developed to minimise unnecessary travelling and delay for patients, and propose a forum for the strategic planning of London's eye casualty services in the future. PMID:23370420

Smith, H B; Daniel, C S; Verma, S

2013-03-01

355

The eye and the heart  

PubMed Central

The vasculature of the eye and the heart share several common characteristics. The easily accessible vessels of the eye are therefore—to some extent—a window to the heart. There is interplay between cardiovascular functions and risk factors and the occurrence and progression of many eye diseases. In particular, arteriovenous nipping, narrowing of retinal arteries, and the dilatation of retinal veins are important signs of increased cardiovascular risk. The pressure in the dilated veins is often markedly increased due to a dysregulation of venous outflow from the eye. Besides such morphological criteria, functional alterations might be even more relevant and may play an important role in future diagnostics. Via neurovascular coupling, flickering light dilates capillaries and small arterioles, thus inducing endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated dilation of larger retinal vessels. Risk factors for arteriosclerosis, such as dyslipidaemia, diabetes, or systemic hypertension, are also risk factors for eye diseases such as retinal arterial or retinal vein occlusions, cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, and increases in intraocular pressure (IOP). Functional alterations of blood flow are particularly relevant to the eye. The primary vascular dysregulation syndrome (PVD), which often includes systemic hypotension, is associated with disturbed autoregulation of ocular blood flow (OBF). Fluctuation of IOP on a high level or blood pressure on a low level leads to instable OBF and oxygen supply and therefore to oxidative stress, which is particularly involved in the pathogenesis of glaucomatous neuropathy. Vascular dysregulation also leads to a barrier dysfunction and thereby to small retinal haemorrhages. PMID:23401492

Flammer, Josef; Konieczka, Katarzyna; Bruno, Rosa M.; Virdis, Agostino; Flammer, Andreas J.; Taddei, Stefano

2013-01-01

356

Eye casualty services in London  

PubMed Central

The combined pressures of the European Working Time Directive, 4?h waiting time target, and growing rates of unplanned hospital attendances have forced a major consolidation of eye casualty departments across the country, with the remaining units seeing a rapid increase in demand. We examine the effect of these changes on the provision of emergency eye care in Central London, and see what wider lessons can be learned. We surveyed the managers responsible for each of London's 8 out-of-hours eye casualty services, analysed data on attendance numbers, and conducted detailed interviews with lead clinicians. At London's two largest units, Moorfields Eye Hospital and the Western Eye Hospital, annual attendance numbers have been rising at 7.9% per year (to 76?034 patients in 2010/11) and 9.6% per year (to 31?128 patients in 2010/11), respectively. Using Moorfields as a case study, we discuss methods to increase capacity and efficiency in response to this demand, and also examine some of the unintended consequences of service consolidation including patients travelling long distances to geographically inappropriate units, and confusion over responsibility for out-of-hours inpatient cover. We describe a novel ‘referral pathway' developed to minimise unnecessary travelling and delay for patients, and propose a forum for the strategic planning of London's eye casualty services in the future. PMID:23370420

Smith, H B; Daniel, C S; Verma, S

2013-01-01

357

1 Dorsal eye selector pannier (pnr) suppresses the eye fate to define dorsal margin of 2 the Drosophila eye  

E-print Network

1 Dorsal eye selector pannier (pnr) suppresses the eye fate to define dorsal margin of 2 the Drosophila eye 3 Sarah M. Oros a,b,1 , Meghana Tare b,1 , Madhuri Kango-Singh a,b,c , Amit Singh a,b,c, 4 xxxx 141516 17 Keywords: 18 Drosophila eye 19 Dorso-ventral eye patterning 20 Pannier 21 GATA-1 22

Singh, Amit

358

A sensory integration therapy program on sensory problems for children with autism.  

PubMed

The study was planned to investigate the effect of a sensory integration therapy program on sensory problems of children with autism. This study was conducted at the Trakya University Training and Research Center for Mentally and Physically Handicapped Children in Turkey. The children were separated into two groups, each comprising 15 children between 7 and 11 years of age with autism, according to DSM-IV criteria. The children in each group were assessed initially on a checklist, Sensory Evaluation Form for Children with Autism, developed to evaluate sensory characteristics of children with autism, and at the end of the study, participants were assessed again on the checklist. Statistically significant differences between groups indicated that the sensory integration therapy program positively affected treated children. PMID:18556898

Fazlio?lu, Ye?im; Baran, Gulen

2008-04-01

359

Eye Safety At Work Is Everyone's Business.  

E-print Network

Eye Safety At Work Is Everyone's Business. Preventing Work-Related Eye Injuries Each day, about 2,000 U.S. workers receive medical treatment because of eye injuries sustained at work. Workplace injury is a leading cause of eye trauma, vision loss, disability, and blindness, and can interfere with your ability

Baker, Chris I.

360

The Human Eye June 4, 2009  

E-print Network

The Human Eye T. Albers June 4, 2009 1 #12;1 Abstract The eyes provide a profound part of the human in my research. The eye is a biological system and, as such, does not lend itself to simplification Introduction Upon researching the human eye I have found it to be an exquisitely engineered piece of equipment

La Rosa, Andres H.

361

Pink Eye Conjunctivitis Definition, Symptoms and Causes  

E-print Network

Pink Eye ­ Conjunctivitis Definition, Symptoms and Causes Pink eye is the common name given to inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye. It is otherwise called conjunctivitis. The conjunctiva is the transparent membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the whites of the eyes. Very small, superficial blood

Suzuki, Masatsugu

362

Bilateral Sensory Abnormalities in Patients with Unilateral Neuropathic Pain; A Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) Study  

PubMed Central

In patients who experience unilateral chronic pain, abnormal sensory perception at the non-painful side has been reported. Contralateral sensory changes in these patients have been given little attention, possibly because they are regarded as clinically irrelevant. Still, bilateral sensory changes in these patients could become clinically relevant if they challenge the correct identification of their sensory dysfunction in terms of hyperalgesia and allodynia. Therefore, we have used the standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS) to investigate somatosensory function at the painful side and the corresponding non-painful side in unilateral neuropathic pain patients using gender- and age-matched healthy volunteers as a reference cohort. Sensory abnormalities were observed across all QST parameters at the painful side, but also, to a lesser extent, at the contralateral, non-painful side. Similar relative distributions regarding sensory loss/gain for non-nociceptive and nociceptive stimuli were found for both sides. Once a sensory abnormality for a QST parameter at the affected side was observed, the prevalence of an abnormality for the same parameter at the non-affected side was as high as 57% (for Pressure Pain Threshold). Our results show that bilateral sensory dysfunction in patients with unilateral neuropathic pain is more rule than exception. Therefore, this phenomenon should be taken into account for appropriate diagnostic evaluation in clinical practice. This is particularly true for mechanical stimuli where the 95% Confidence Interval for the prevalence of sensory abnormalities at the non-painful side ranges between 33% and 50%. PMID:22629414

Konopka, Karl-Heinz; Harbers, Marten; Houghton, Andrea; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Vliet, Andre; Timmerman, Wia; den Boer, Johan A.; Struys, Michel M.R.F.; van Wijhe, Marten

2012-01-01

363

Sparsity and Compressed Coding in Sensory Systems  

PubMed Central

Considering that many natural stimuli are sparse, can a sensory system evolve to take advantage of this sparsity? We explore this question and show that significant downstream reductions in the numbers of neurons transmitting stimuli observed in early sensory pathways might be a consequence of this sparsity. First, we model an early sensory pathway using an idealized neuronal network comprised of receptors and downstream sensory neurons. Then, by revealing a linear structure intrinsic to neuronal network dynamics, our work points to a potential mechanism for transmitting sparse stimuli, related to compressed-sensing (CS) type data acquisition. Through simulation, we examine the characteristics of networks that are optimal in sparsity encoding, and the impact of localized receptive fields beyond conventional CS theory. The results of this work suggest a new network framework of signal sparsity, freeing the notion from any dependence on specific component-space representations. We expect our CS network mechanism to provide guidance for studying sparse stimulus transmission along realistic sensory pathways as well as engineering network designs that utilize sparsity encoding. PMID:25144745

Barranca, Victor J.; Kova?i?, Gregor; Zhou, Douglas; Cai, David

2014-01-01

364

Economic Man'' Dominate Social Behavior?  

E-print Network

When Does `` Economic Man'' Dominate Social Behavior? Colin F. Camerer1 * and Ernst Fehr2 challenges this view, raising the question of when `` Economic Man'' dominates the outcome of social a `` noncooperative'' aggregate outcome if their behavior generates incentives for the majority of other

Greer, Julia R.

365

Dominant Leadership Style in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dominant leadership style is defined by the situation and the kind of organizational environment and climate. This, however, does not sufficiently define the leadership qualities in school organizations. There are other factors which also determine the dominant leadership style, which are the traits and style, teachers commitments, pass out…

Rajbhandari, Mani Man Singh

2006-01-01

366

Exact Algorithms for Edge Domination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract An edge dominating set in a graph G = (V, E) is a subset of the edges D ? E such that every edge in E is adjacent or equal to some edge in D. The problem of finding an edge dominating set of minimum,cardinality is NP-hard. We present a faster exact exponential time algorithm for this problem. Our

Johan M. M. Van Rooij; Hans L. Bodlaender

2008-01-01

367

Exact algorithms for dominating set  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measure and conquer approach has proven to be a powerful tool to analyse exact algorithms for combinatorial problems like Dominating Set and Independent Set. This approach is used in this paper to obtain a faster exact algorithm for Dominating Set. We obtain this algorithm by considering a series of branch and reduce algorithms. This series is the result of

Johan M. M. van Rooij; Hans L. Bodlaender

2011-01-01

368

EyePhone: Activating Mobile Phones With Your Eyes Emiliano Miluzzo, Tianyu Wang, Andrew T. Campbell  

E-print Network

EyePhone: Activating Mobile Phones With Your Eyes Emiliano Miluzzo, Tianyu Wang, Andrew T. Campbell are studying new tech- niques to ease the human-mobile interaction. We propose EyePhone, a novel "hand and actions (e.g., wink). EyePhone tracks the user's eye movement across the phone's display using the camera

Campbell, Andrew T.

369

Eects of eye position on estimates of eye displacement for spatial updating  

E-print Network

E¡ects of eye position on estimates of eye displacement for spatial updating Masaki Tanaka cortex represent spatial memory of visual stimuli in an eye-centered coordinate frame. To preserve spatial stability across eye movements, spatial memory must be updated during each eye movement. Because

Crawford, Doug

370

The small eye phenotype in the EPIC-Norfolk eye study  

E-print Network

The small eye phenotype in the EPIC-Norfolk eye study: prevalence and visual impairment. The small eye phenotype in the EPIC-Norfolk eye study: prevalence and visual impairment in microphthalmos at Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, London, UK 2 Department

Guillas, Serge

371

Chapter 17 Eye-head Gaze shifts Oxford Handbook on Eye Movements  

E-print Network

1 Chapter 17 Eye-head Gaze shifts Oxford Handbook on Eye Movements "The Neural Basis of Gaze Shifts" 1. Kinematics of eye-head gaze shifts a. Terminology for describing eye-head gaze shifts b. Variability in eye and head motion during gaze shifts c. Gaze shifts in complex environments d. Bottom

Corneil, Brian D.

372

Peripapillary Retinoschisis in Glaucomatous Eyes  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the structural and clinical characteristics of peripapillary retinoschisis observed in glaucomatous eyes using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods Circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) and macular cross-hair SD-OCT scans and infrared fundus images of the glaucoma patients from the Investigating Glaucoma Progression Study (IGPS) and healthy volunteers were reviewed. Optic disc images obtained using enhanced depth imaging (EDI) SD-OCT were also evaluated. The structural characteristics and clinical course of the retinoschisis associated with glaucoma were investigated. Results Twenty-five retinoschisis areas were found in 22 of the 372 patients (5.9%) included in the IGPS, and in 1 area in 1 of 187 healthy control subjects (0.5%). In the 22 glaucomatous eyes with retinoschisis, the schisis was attached to the optic disc and overlapped with the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defect. The RNFL was the layer most commonly affected by the retinoschisis, either alone or together with other deeper layers. Acquired optic disc pit was identified in 8 eyes on disc photography and/or B-scan images obtained by EDI SD-OCT. Spontaneous resolution of this condition was observed in nine eyes. No retinal detachment or macular involvement of the retinoschisis was observed in any of the eyes. Multivariate analysis showed a significant influence of a higher intraocular pressure at SD-OCT scanning on the presence of retinoschisis (Odds ratio ?=?1.418, P?=?0.001). Conclusions The present study investigated 22 cases of peripapillary retinoschisis in glaucomatous eyes. The retinoschisis was attached to the optic nerve and topographically correlated with RNFL defect. It often resolved spontaneously without causing severe visual disturbance. Care should be taken not to overestimate the RNFL thickness in eyes with retinoschisis, and also not to misinterpret the resolution of retinoschisis as a rapid glaucomatous RNFL deterioration. PMID:24587238

Lee, Eun Ji; Kim, Tae-Woo; Kim, Mijin; Choi, Yun Jeong

2014-01-01

373

Drugs affecting the eye.  

PubMed

This discussion reviews drugs that affect the eye, including antihyperglycemic agents; corticosteroids; antirheumatic drugs (quinolines, indomethacin, and allopurinol); psychiatric drugs (phenothiazine, thioridazine, and chlorpromazine); drugs used in cardiology (practolol, amiodarone, and digitalis gylcosides); drugs implicated in optic neuritis and atrophy, drugs with an anticholinergic action; oral contraceptives (OCs); and topical drugs and systemic effects. Refractive changes, either myopic or hypermetropic, can occur as a result of hyperglycemia, and variation in vision is sometimes a presenting symptom in diabetes mellitus. If it causes a change in the refraction, treatment of hyperglycemia almost always produces a temporary hypermetropia. A return to the original refractive state often takes weeks, sometimes months. There is some evidence that patients adequately treated with insulin improve more rapidly than those taking oral medication. Such patients always should be referred for opthalmological evaluation as other factors might be responsible, but it might not be possible to order the appropriate spectacle correction for some time. The most important ocular side effect of the systemic adiministration of corticosteroids is the formation of a posterior subcapsular cataract. Glaucoma also can result from corticosteroids, most often when they are applied topically. Corticosteroids have been implicated in the production of benign intracranial hypertension, which is paradoxical because they also are used in its treatment. The most important side effect of drugs such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine is an almost always irreversible maculopathy with resultant loss of central vision. Corneal and retinal changes similar to those caused by the quinolines have been reported with indomethacin, but there is some question about a cause and effect relationship. The National Registry of Drug Induced Ocular Side Effects in the US published 30 case histories of cataract suspected to be induced by allopurinol; numerous additional cases have been reported to the registry since. Phenothiazine, with an estimated 3% incidence of side effects, appears to be safer than other antipsychotic drugs, but the rate of ocular effects increases with the duration of therapy. Thioridazine and chlorpromazine are known to cause lens deposits and pigmentary retinopathy. There is a significantly high prevalence of thrombophlebitis and pseudotumor cerebri among women who use OCs and thrombotic retinal vascular disease, such as retinal vein occulsion, might be linked with them. It also is probable that, because of altered hydration of the cornea, there is a decreased tolerance to contact lenses. PMID:2864912

Taylor, F

1985-08-01

374

Classification of children with autism spectrum disorder by sensory subtype: a case for sensory-based phenotypes.  

PubMed

This study examines whether sensory differences can be used to classify meaningful subgroups of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Caregivers of children with ASD aged 2-10 years (n?=?228) completed the Short Sensory Profile. Model-based cluster analysis was used to extract sensory subtypes. The relationship of these subtypes to age, gender, autism symptom severity, and nonverbal intelligence quotient (IQ) was further explored. Four distinct sensory subtypes were identified: (a) sensory adaptive; (b) taste smell sensitive; (c) postural inattentive; and (d) generalized sensory difference. The sensory subtypes differ from each other on two dimensions: (a) the severity of reported sensory differences; and (b) the focus of differences across auditory, taste, smell, vestibular and proprioceptive domains. Examination of the clinical features of each subtype reveals two possible mechanisms of sensory disturbance in autism: (a) sensory hyperreactivity; and (b) difficulties with multisensory processing. Further, the sensory subtypes are not well explained by other variables such as age, gender, IQ, and autism symptom severity. We conclude that classification of children using sensory differences offers a promising method by which to identify phenotypes in ASD. Sensory-based phenotypes may be useful in identifying behavioral features responsive to specific interventions thereby improving intervention effectiveness. Further validation of the sensory-based phenotypes by establishing neural and physiological correlates is recommended. PMID:24639147

Lane, Alison E; Molloy, Cynthia A; Bishop, Somer L

2014-06-01

375

The Integrated Development of Sensory Organization  

PubMed Central

Synopsis The natural environment provides a flux of concurrent stimulation to all our senses, and the integration of information from different sensory systems is a fundamental feature of perception and cognition. How information from the different senses is integrated has long been of concern to several scientific disciplines, including psychology, cognitive science, and the neurosciences, each with different questions and methodologies. In recent years, a growing body of evidence drawn from these various disciplines suggests that the development of early sensory organization is much more plastic and experience-dependent than was previously realized. In this article, I briefly explore some of these recent advances in our understanding of the development of sensory integration and organization and discuss implications of these advances for the care and management of the preterm infant. PMID:22107892

Lickliter, Robert

2011-01-01

376

Sensory dysfunction in children who toe walk.  

PubMed

In order to formulate a hypothesis regarding the etiology of toe walking, the sensory processing abilities of 17 mentally retarded children who toe walk were examined. A galvanic skin response was used to compare reactions of the mentally retarded children and a group of normal children to a variety of sensory stimuli. Galvanic skin response testing did not reveal significant differences between the two groups in processing sensory input. Scores of the mentally retarded children from a postrotary nystagmus test were compared to values for normal children of the same age, and the results indicated that vestibular dysfunction was present in all of the subjects. We hypothesize that children may toe walk to increase somatosensory input to the lateral vestibular nucleus (Deiter's) and the lateral vestibulospinal tract to facilitate support tone in the lower extremities during walking. PMID:693578

Montgomery, P; Gauger, J

1978-10-01

377

Does Chronic Idiopathic Dizziness Reflect an Impairment of Sensory Predictions of Self-Motion?  

PubMed Central

Most patients suffering from chronic idiopathic dizziness do not present signs of vestibular dysfunction or organic failures of other kinds. Hence, this kind of dizziness is commonly seen as psychogenic in nature, sharing commonalities with specific phobias, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety. A more specific concept put forward by Brandt and Dieterich (1) states that these patients suffer from dizziness because of an inadequate compensation of self-induced sensory stimulation. According to this hypothesis self-motion-induced reafferent visual stimulation is interpreted as motion in the world since a predictive signal reflecting the consequences of self-motion, needed to compensate the reafferent stimulus, is inadequate. While conceptually intriguing, experimental evidence supporting the idea of an inadequate prediction of the sensory consequences of own movements has as yet been lacking. Here we tested this hypothesis by applying it to the perception of background motion induced by smooth pursuit eye movements. As a matter of fact, we found the same mildly undercompensating prediction, responsible for the perception of slight illusory world motion (“Filehne illusion”) in the 15 patients tested and their age-matched controls. Likewise, the ability to adapt this prediction to the needs of the visual context was not deteriorated in patients. Finally, we could not find any correlation between measures of the individual severity of dizziness and the ability to predict. In sum, our results do not support the concept of a deviant prediction of self-induced sensory stimulation as cause of chronic idiopathic dizziness. PMID:24265626

Pomper, Jörn K.; Gebert, Lena; Fischer, Matthias; Bunjes, Friedemann; Thier, Peter

2013-01-01

378

Sensory synergy as environmental input integration  

PubMed Central

The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS) remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with nine healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis' sensory system to make the controller simpler. PMID:25628523

Alnajjar, Fady; Itkonen, Matti; Berenz, Vincent; Tournier, Maxime; Nagai, Chikara; Shimoda, Shingo

2015-01-01

379

Deficits in sensory organization for postural stability in children with Tourette syndrome.  

PubMed

Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset developmental disorder characterized by involuntary motor and vocal tics. Previous studies have indicated that children with TS demonstrate postural control anomalies when standing. The aim of this study was to compare postural stability under normal and altered sensory conditions in children with TS and healthy control (HC) children. A convenience sample of twelve children with TS (9 boys and 3 girls; 9.4±1.1yr) and 12 HC age- and gender-matched children (9.2±1.1yr) participated in this study. The Sensory Organization Test (SOT) was used to assess postural stability under six altered sensory conditions (1. normal vision, fixed support; 2. eyes closed, fixed support; 3. vision sway-referenced, fixed support; 4. normal vision, support sway-referenced; 5. eyes closed, support surface sway-referenced; 6. both vision and support surface sway-referenced) using the SMART Balance Master® 8.2 (NeuroCom® International, Inc, Clackamas, OR, USA). The results showed significant differences between the two groups in conditions 5 and 6 (p=0.003 and 0.002, respectively). The mean composite equilibrium score in children with TS was significantly lower than that of HC children (p<0.000). The results suggested that children with TS had greater difficulty in maintaining postural stability, especially when vestibular information was challenged. The results of this study provide supporting evidence for possible deficits in impaired access to vestibular information and sensorimotor integration of postural control in children with TS. PMID:25683311

Liu, Wen-Yu; Ya-TingHsu; Lien, Hen-Yu; Wang, Huei-Shyong; Wong, Alice May-Kuen; Tang, Simon Fuk-Tan; Lin, Yang-Hua

2015-02-01

380

Allergic conjunctivitis and dry eye.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: Differential diagnosis of allergic conjunctivitis or dry eye is sometimes very difficult to diagnose by symptoms and clinical examination alone, especially in older patients. It was hypothesised that clinically allergic patients who were serum antigen specific IgE negative were candidates for dry eye. METHODS: Sixty patients were studied prospectively who were clinically diagnosed with allergic conjunctivitis by their itchy sensation and papilla formation of conjunctiva. They consisted of 30 serum antigen specific IgE positive and 30 IgE negative patients, with no significant differences in age. Dry eye examination and serum total IgE were performed on these two groups. RESULTS: No significant differences were seen between the two groups with regard to age (p = 0.76) and sex ratio. The antibody negative group had lower Schirmer's test scores (p = 0.002), lower tear clearance (p = 0.0001), lower tear function index (p = 0.0001), and lower serum total IgE (p = 0.04) than the antibody positive group. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the evaluation of serum antigen specific IgE and tear dynamics are important for the differential diagnosis of patients with allergic conjunctivitis and dry eye. Clinically diagnosed allergic conjunctivitis with negative serum antigen specific and total IgE can be one form of dry eye. PMID:8976728

Fujishima, H; Toda, I; Shimazaki, J; Tsubota, K

1996-01-01

381

Best practice eye care models  

PubMed Central

Since the launching of Global Initiative, VISION 2020 “the Right to Sight” many innovative, practical and unique comprehensive eye care services provision models have evolved targeting the underserved populations in different parts of the World. At places the rapid assessment of the burden of eye diseases in confined areas or utilizing the key informants for identification of eye diseases in the communities are promoted for better planning and evidence based advocacy for getting / allocation of resources for eye care. Similarly for detection and management of diabetes related blindness, retinopathy of prematurity and avoidable blindness at primary level, the major obstacles are confronted in reaching to them in a cost effective manner and then management of the identified patients accordingly. In this regard, the concept of tele-ophthalmology model sounds to be the best solution. Whereas other models on comprehensive eye care services provision have been emphasizing on surgical output through innovative scales of economy that generate income for the program and ensure its sustainability, while guaranteeing treatment of the poorest of the poor. PMID:22944741

Qureshi, Babar M; Mansur, Rabiu; Al-Rajhi, Abdulaziz; Lansingh, Van; Eckert, Kristen; Hassan, Kunle; Ravilla, Thulasiraj; Muhit, Mohammad; Khanna, Rohit C; Ismat, Chaudhry

2012-01-01

382

Videos from the National Eye Institute: Eye Diseases | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Vision Videos from the National Eye Institute: Eye Diseases Past ... the early detection of eye disease. Share these videos with friends, family and colleagues. www.nei.nih. ...

383

Prospect and Markowitz stochastic dominance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levy and Wiener (J Risk Uncertain 16(2), 147–163, 1998), Levy and Levy (Manage Sci 48(10), 1334–1349, 2002; Rev Fin Stud 17(4), 1015–1041, 2004) develop the prospect and Markowitz stochastic dominance theory with S-shaped and reverse S-shaped utility\\u000a functions for investors. In this paper, we extend their work on prospect stochastic dominance theory (PSD) and Markowitz stochastic\\u000a dominance theory (MSD) to

Wing-Keung Wong; Raymond H. Chan

2008-01-01

384

Attentional enhancement via selection and pooling of early sensory responses in human visual cortex  

PubMed Central

Summary To characterize the computational processes by which attention improves behavioral performance, we measured activity in visual cortex with functional magnetic resonance imaging as humans performed a contrast-discrimination task with focal and distributed attention. Focal attention yielded robust improvements in behavioral performance that were accompanied by increases in cortical responses. Using a quantitative analysis, we determined that if performance were limited only by the sensitivity of the measured sensory signals, the improvements in behavioral performance would have corresponded to an unrealistically large (approximately 400%) reduction in response variability. Instead, behavioral performance was well characterized by a pooling and selection process for which the largest sensory responses, those most strongly modulated by attention, dominated the perceptual decision. This characterization predicts that high contrast distracters that evoke large sensory responses should have a negative impact on behavioral performance. We tested and confirmed this prediction. We conclude that attention enhanced behavioral performance predominantly by enabling efficient selection of the behaviorally relevant sensory signals. PMID:22153378

Pestilli, Franco; Carrasco, Marisa; Heeger, David J.; Gardner, Justin L.

2011-01-01

385

Dietary Sources of Lutein and Zeaxanthin Carotenoids and Their Role in Eye Health  

PubMed Central

The eye is a major sensory organ that requires special care for a healthy and productive lifestyle. Numerous studies have identified lutein and zeaxanthin to be essential components for eye health. Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoid pigments that impart yellow or orange color to various common foods such as cantaloupe, pasta, corn, carrots, orange/yellow peppers, fish, salmon and eggs. Their role in human health, in particular the health of the eye, is well established from epidemiological, clinical and interventional studies. They constitute the main pigments found in the yellow spot of the human retina which protect the macula from damage by blue light, improve visual acuity and scavenge harmful reactive oxygen species. They have also been linked with reduced risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cataracts. Research over the past decade has focused on the development of carotenoid-rich foods to boost their intake especially in the elderly population. The aim of this article is to review recent scientific evidences supporting the benefits of lutein and zexanthin in preventing the onset of two major age-related eye diseases with diets rich in these carotenoids. The review also lists major dietary sources of lutein and zeaxanthin and refers to newly developed foods, daily intake, bioavailability and physiological effects in relation to eye health. Examples of the newly developed high-lutein functional foods are also underlined. PMID:23571649

Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M.; Akhtar, Humayoun; Zaheer, Khalid; Ali, Rashida

2013-01-01

386

Dietary sources of lutein and zeaxanthin carotenoids and their role in eye health.  

PubMed

The eye is a major sensory organ that requires special care for a healthy and productive lifestyle. Numerous studies have identified lutein and zeaxanthin to be essential components for eye health. Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoid pigments that impart yellow or orange color to various common foods such as cantaloupe, pasta, corn, carrots, orange/yellow peppers, fish, salmon and eggs. Their role in human health, in particular the health of the eye, is well established from epidemiological, clinical and interventional studies. They constitute the main pigments found in the yellow spot of the human retina which protect the macula from damage by blue light, improve visual acuity and scavenge harmful reactive oxygen species. They have also been linked with reduced risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cataracts. Research over the past decade has focused on the development of carotenoid-rich foods to boost their intake especially in the elderly population. The aim of this article is to review recent scientific evidences supporting the benefits of lutein and zexanthin in preventing the onset of two major age-related eye diseases with diets rich in these carotenoids. The review also lists major dietary sources of lutein and zeaxanthin and refers to newly developed foods, daily intake, bioavailability and physiological effects in relation to eye health. Examples of the newly developed high-lutein functional foods are also underlined. PMID:23571649

Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Akhtar, Humayoun; Zaheer, Khalid; Ali, Rashida

2013-04-01

387

Moving Ahead With Eye Power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory's collaborated with LC Technologies, Inc., to improve LCT's Eyegaze Communication System, an eye tracker that enables people with severe cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, strokes, brain injuries, spinal cord injuries, and ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) to communicate and control their environment using their eye movements. To operate the system, the user sits in front of the computer monitor while the camera focuses on one eye. By looking at control keys on the monitor for a fraction of a second, the user can 'talk' with speech synthesis, type, operate a telephone, access the Internet and e-mail, and run computer software. Nothing is attached to the user's head or body, and the improved size and portability allow the system to be mounted on a wheelchair. LCT and JPL are working on several other areas of improvement that have commercial add-on potential.

2002-01-01

388

Tracking with the mind's eye  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two components of voluntary tracking eye-movements in primates, pursuit and saccades, are generally viewed as relatively independent oculomotor subsystems that move the eyes in different ways using independent visual information. Although saccades have long been known to be guided by visual processes related to perception and cognition, only recently have psychophysical and physiological studies provided compelling evidence that pursuit is also guided by such higher-order visual processes, rather than by the raw retinal stimulus. Pursuit and saccades also do not appear to be entirely independent anatomical systems, but involve overlapping neural mechanisms that might be important for coordinating these two types of eye movement during the tracking of a selected visual object. Given that the recovery of objects from real-world images is inherently ambiguous, guiding both pursuit and saccades with perception could represent an explicit strategy for ensuring that these two motor actions are driven by a single visual interpretation.

Krauzlis, R. J.; Stone, L. S.

1999-01-01

389

Sensory theories of developmental dyslexia: three challenges for research  

E-print Network

Recent years have seen the publication of a range of new theories suggesting that the basis of dyslexia may be sensory dysfunction. Here, the evidence for and against several prominent sensory theories of dyslexia is closely scrutinized. Contrary...

Goswami, Usha

2014-01-01

390

Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V  

MedlinePLUS

... to feel pain, heat, and cold. Deep pain perception, the feeling of pain from injuries to bones, ... gene ; growth factor ; hereditary ; inherited ; joint ; mutation ; neuropathy ; perception ; protein ; receptor ; recessive ; sensory nerve ; sensory neuropathy ; tissue ; ...

391

Indexical Embodiments : : Sensory Cinema and/as Historical Reenactment  

E-print Network

of sensory anthropology and performance studies offerstudies, performance studies, visual/sensory anthropology,anthropology and history and memory, and an ethnographic research methodology within the fields of performance

Rice, David Andrew

2013-01-01

392

Predicting Cyanobacteria dominance in lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: A controversial precept of aquatic ecology,asserts that low ratios of nitrogen to phosphorus,(N:P) lead to noxious and sometimes,toxic blooms,of Cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria dominance,is a major risk to human,and ecosys- tem health. The stoichiometric control of Cyanobacteria therefore has become,central to freshwater resource manage- ment. This controversial concept is based on observed,Cyanobacteria dominance,in lakes with low N:P and the results of

John A. Downing; Susan B. Watson; Edward McCauley

2001-01-01

393

Exact Algorithms for Edge Domination  

Microsoft Academic Search

An edge dominating set in a graph G=(V,E) is a subset of the edges D?E such that every edge in E is adjacent or equal to some edge in D. The problem of finding an edge dominating set of minimum cardinality is NP-hard. We present a faster exact exponential time\\u000a algorithm for this problem. Our algorithm uses O(1.3226\\u000a n\\u000a ) time

Johan M. M. van Rooij; Hans L. Bodlaender

394

Interaction of age and foam types used in Clinical Test for Sensory Interaction and Balance (CTSIB).  

PubMed

Clinical Test for Sensory Interaction and Balance (CTSIB) is a simplified method for investigating the organization of multiple sensory inputs in postural control. The accuracy of the test is based partly on the foam types. Several types of foam are available, but the validity of these foams on CTSIB and the interaction of age and foam types have not been addressed. In this study, postural sway of young (21.6±3.3 years) and older (53.2±4.9 years) participants were assessed while standing on four types of foam: NeuroCom(®), sponge, Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA), and memory foams. Postural sway during stance on solid floor and foams with eyes open and eyes closed were quantified by root-mean-square (RMS) of center of body mass acceleration in the mediolateral (ML) and anteroposterior (AP) directions using the acceleration-based OPAL system. Physical properties of foams including density, Young's modulus, and indentation force deflection (IFD) were determined. Results demonstrated that RMS-ML in older subjects was larger than younger subjects (p?0.001), especially when standing on the NeuroCom(®) foam with eyes closed (p=0.001). There was an interaction of age and foam types as larger differences in RMS-ML were observed between young and older subjects on the NeuroCom(®) and EVA foams, but not the other foams. The sway characteristics were largest when standing on the NeuroCom(®) foam which demonstrated high density and high compliance. Our findings suggested the importance of foam selection in CTSIB on accurate postural sway analysis and balance assessment. PMID:25300239

Chaikeeree, Nithinun; Saengsirisuwan, Vitoon; Chinsongkram, Butsara; Boonsinsukh, Rumpa

2015-01-01

395

Saccadic eye movement during spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Saccadic eye movements were studied in six subjects during two Space Shuttle missions. Reaction time, peak velocity and accuracy of horizontal, visually-guided saccades were examined preflight, inflight and postflight. Conventional electro-oculography was used to record eye position, with the subjects responding to pseudo-randomly illuminated targets at 0 deg and + or - 10 deg and 20 deg visual angles. In all subjects, preflight measurements were within normal limits. Reaction time was significantly increased inflight, while peak velocity was significantly decreased. A tendency toward a greater proportion of hypometric saccades inflight was also noted. Possible explanations for these changes and possible correlations with space motion sickness are discussed.

Uri, John J.; Linder, Barry J.; Moore, Thomas P.; Pool, Sam L.; Thornton, William E.

1989-01-01

396

Supervision: a 'fresh eyes' approach.  

PubMed

As recent reports question the safety of some maternity services and of the accuracy of identifying risk factors in midwifery practice, this article advocates the use of 'fresh eyes' reviews of our own practice, that of our peers and the practice within our organisations. If, as the literature indicates, there is no evidence of sustained transformational change through compliance as opposed to commitment, then our engagement and motivation to adopt 'fresh eyes' approaches to our practice, may lead to improved patient outcomes, including rates of mortality. PMID:22324129

Paeglis, Carol

2012-01-01

397

Minute eye movement during sleep.  

PubMed

The minute eye movements of 4 sleeping subjects were studied with a piezo-electric strain-gauge transducer. The frequency and amplitude of ocular microtremor activity diminished during sleep. Activity increased after auditory stimulation and with the appearance of a K complex in the EEG. The ocular microtremor activity also increased with the onset of rapid eye movement (REM). Low amplitude 'micronystagmoid' movements were observed at intervals throughout sleep. In contrast to the changes observed during sleep, ocular microtremor activity did not diminish during hypnosis. The transducer was far more sensitive than the conventional EOG recording system. PMID:95706

Coakley, D; Williams, R; Morris, J

1979-08-01

398

The cure for lazy eye.  

PubMed

The use of the term lazy eye blurs the distinction between amblyopia and strabismus, often causing parents to confuse the two problems. Parents often infer a causal explanation from the descriptive term, lazy eye. This misunderstanding causes parents to believe the child may outgrow the disorder. Therefore, an opportunity for early treatment during the important formative years may be lost. The correctly informed and knowledgeable parent will be more active and responsible in making sure that the child, especially the noncompliant child, follows the advised treatment. PMID:2366252

Kaye, B

1990-01-01

399

Eye movements and the eye-hand span in typewriting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid writers require fewer fixations per line, have a larger eye-hand span, and carry the span over the end of the line to a greater degree than do slower writers. Reading copy for typewriting requires more fixations per line and longer fixations than does ordinary reading. An increase in speed of 10 words per minute is accompanied by a significant

R. L. C. Butsch

1932-01-01

400

Improving Maladaptive Behaviors Using Sensory Integration Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the use of sensory integration techniques to reduce the maladaptive behaviors that interfered with the learning of nine high school students with mental impairments attending a special school. Maladaptive behaviors identified included rocking, toe walking, echolalia, resistance to change, compulsive behaviors, aggression,…

Shuman, Theresa

401

A Housefly Sensory-Motor Integration Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Insects have many interesting behaviors that can be observed in an introductory biology laboratory setting. In the present article, we describe several reflexes using the housefly "Musca domestica" that can be used to introduce students to sensory and motor responses and encourage them to think about the underlying neural circuits and integration…

Griff, Edwin R; Kane, Thomas C.

2010-01-01

402

Sensorial countermeasures for vestibular spatial disorientation.  

PubMed

Spatial disorientation is defined as an erroneous body orientation perceived by pilots during flights. Limits of the vestibular system provoke frequent spatial disorientation mishaps. Although vestibular spatial disorientation is experienced frequently in aviation, there is no intuitive countermeasure against spatial disorientation mishaps to date. The aim of this review is to describe the current sensorial countermeasures and to examine future leads in sensorial ergonomics for vestibular spatial disorientation. This work reviews: 1) the visual ergonomics, 2) the vestibular countermeasures, 3) the auditory displays, 4) the somatosensory countermeasures, and, finally, 5) the multisensory displays. This review emphasizes the positive aspects of auditory and somatosensory countermeasures as well as multisensory devices. Even if some aspects such as sensory conflict and motion sickness need to be assessed, these countermeasures should be taken into consideration for ergonomics work in the future. However, a recent development in aviation might offer new and better perspectives: unmanned aerial vehicles. Unmanned aerial vehicles aim to go beyond the physiological boundaries of human sensorial systems and would allow for coping with spatial disorientation and motion sickness. Even if research is necessary to improve the interaction between machines and humans, this recent development might be incredibly useful for decreasing or even stopping vestibular spatial disorientation. PMID:24834571

Paillard, Aurore C; Quarck, Gaëlle; Denise, Pierre

2014-05-01

403

Sensory Abnormalities in Autism: A Brief Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents…

Klintwall Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Hoglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

2011-01-01

404

Sensory Integration: A Home Intervention Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A summer home intervention program provided sensory integration therapy and visual-motor integration tasks to a preschooler with gross and fine motor delays. The child was involved in enjoyable activities and encouraged to talk to himself during his actions. The program was both successful and fun. (CL)

Ainsa, Trisha

1983-01-01

405

Sensory Integration--Myth, Method, and Imperative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a response to a critique of studies on the use of sensory integration therapy with mentally retarded persons, the article suggests that the original authors should have encouraged professionals using this therapy to systematically evaluate outcomes rather than discouraging them from using the therapy. (DB)

Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.

1988-01-01

406

Child's Play: A Sensory-Integrative Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an attempt to demonstrate the direct relationship of physical play to sensory integration, this descriptive study measured fine and gross motor activities, and the repetition and duration of preferred activities among 179 children between 2 and 8 years of age who participated in 3 early childhood programs in California. Data were collected by…

Hartman, Jeanette Allison

407

A physical basis for sensory perception  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is argued that the process of perception takes origin within physics itself. A simple, physical model of a biological sensory receptor unit, a unit which mediates perception at its most elemental level, is developed. This model will be not just a detector of sensory signals (like a light meter or sound level meter), but will transduce these signals to the level of consciousness. The properties of this physical model of the sensory receptor unit are drawn from classical physics. Because of its simplicity, the receptor model allows for perception of only discrete quantities of incident signal energy. My primary goal in presenting this reduced model of perception is to teach concepts without the need for detailed anatomy or physiology. Using the simple mathematical properties of the receptor model, we are able to derive a number of the empirical equations of sensory science. Since the idea has been advanced that the process of perception, at a fundamental level, belongs to physics whose validity is universal, it is suggested that the “laws” of perception of the world manifested by organisms anywhere within the universe will be similar to the laws we observe here on earth.

Norwich, Kenneth H.

2014-11-01

408

Variance predicts salience in central sensory processing  

PubMed Central

Information processing in the sensory periphery is shaped by natural stimulus statistics. In the periphery, a transmission bottleneck constrains performance; thus efficient coding implies that natural signal components with a predictably wider range should be compressed. In a different regime—when sampling limitations constrain performance—efficient coding implies that more resources should be allocated to informative features that are more variable. We propose that this regime is relevant for sensory cortex when it extracts complex features from limited numbers of sensory samples. To test this prediction, we use central visual processing as a model: we show that visual sensitivity for local multi-point spatial correlations, described by dozens of independently-measured parameters, can be quantitatively predicted from the structure of natural images. This suggests that efficient coding applies centrally, where it extends to higher-order sensory features and operates in a regime in which sensitivity increases with feature variability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03722.001 PMID:25396297

Hermundstad, Ann M; Briguglio, John J; Conte, Mary M; Victor, Jonathan D; Balasubramanian, Vijay; Tka?ik, Gašper

2014-01-01

409

What Is the Goal of Sensory Coding?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of recent attempts have been made to describe early sensory coding in terms of a general information processing strategy. In this paper, two strategies are contrasted. Both strategies take advantage of the redundancy in the environment to produce more effective representations. The first is described as a compact coding scheme. A compact code performs a transform that allows

David J. Field

1994-01-01

410

Synchronisation in anticipative sensory-motor schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a model of anticipative sensory-motor schemes, inspired by Jean Piaget and Interactivist theories. The necessity of interactivity in order to provide a real epistemic contact to reality is discussed. We then describe a computer implementation of such schemes, applied to the recognition of musical rhythms, which illustrates these ideas in a more concrete way. Assimilation schemes Assimilation

Jean-Charles Quinton; Christophe Duverger; Jean-Christophe Buisson

411

SENSORY EVALUATION OF SELECTED WALNUT CULTIVARS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensory evaluation study was performed at UC Davis to determine if taste differences could be detected among several English walnut (Juglans regia) cultivars. Differences were tested using the duo-trio method, in which 'Hartley' was compared to seven other cultivars. No differences were found when 'Hartley' was compared to 'Vina', 'Scharsch Franquette' and 'Mayette', however 'Chandler', 'Chico', 'Howard' and 'Sunland'

Chuck Ingels; Gale McGranahan; Ann Noble

412

Combining Sensory Information: Mandatory Fusion Within, but  

E-print Network

Combining Sensory Information: Mandatory Fusion Within, but Not Between, Senses J. M. Hillis,1 * M supply haptic shape information by means of tactile and proprioceptive cues. Combining information across (disparity and texture gradients in vision) are combined, but not when different modalities (vision

413

Temporal Structure in Audiovisual Sensory Selection  

PubMed Central

In natural environments, sensory information is embedded in temporally contiguous streams of events. This is typically the case when seeing and listening to a speaker or when engaged in scene analysis. In such contexts, two mechanisms are needed to single out and build a reliable representation of an event (or object): the temporal parsing of information and the selection of relevant information in the stream. It has previously been shown that rhythmic events naturally build temporal expectations that improve sensory processing at predictable points in time. Here, we asked to which extent temporal regularities can improve the detection and identification of events across sensory modalities. To do so, we used a dynamic visual conjunction search task accompanied by auditory cues synchronized or not with the color change of the target (horizontal or vertical bar). Sounds synchronized with the visual target improved search efficiency for temporal rates below 1.4 Hz but did not affect efficiency above that stimulation rate. Desynchronized auditory cues consistently impaired visual search below 3.3 Hz. Our results are interpreted in the context of the Dynamic Attending Theory: specifically, we suggest that a cognitive operation structures events in time irrespective of the sensory modality of input. Our results further support and specify recent neurophysiological findings by showing strong temporal selectivity for audiovisual integration in the auditory-driven improvement of visual search efficiency. PMID:22829899

Kösem, Anne; van Wassenhove, Virginie

2012-01-01

414

Prolonged sensory-selective nerve blockade.  

PubMed

Sensory-selective local anesthesia has long been a key goal in local anesthetic development. For example, it allows women to be pain-free during labor without compromising their ability to push. Here we show that prolonged sensory-selective nerve block can be produced by specific concentrations of surfactants-such as are used to enhance drug flux across skin-in combination with QX-314, a lidocaine derivative that has relative difficulty penetrating nerves. For example, injection of 25 mM QX-314 in 30 mM octyltrimethylammonium bromide (OTAB) lasted up to 7 h. Sensory selectivity was imparted to varying degrees by cationic, neutral, and anionic surfactants, and also was achieved with another lidocaine derivative, QX-222. Simultaneous injection of OTAB at a s.c. injection site remote from the sciatic nerve did not result in prolonged sensory-specific nerve blockade from QX-314, suggesting that the observed effect is due to a local interaction between the surfactant and the lidocaine derivative, not a systemic effect. PMID:20133669

Sagie, Itay; Kohane, Daniel S

2010-02-23

415

Sensory and non-sensory factors and the concept of externality in obese subjects.  

PubMed

9 obese and 9 normal subjects performed a psychophysical task in which food- or non-food-related stimuli were briefly flashed tachistoscopically at a speed and intensity near the visual threshold. A signal was presented on one-half the trials and noise only on the other one-half of the trials. Using signal detection theory methodology, separate measures of sensory sensitivity (d') and response bias (beta) were calculated. No differences were noted between obese and normal subjects on measures of sensory sensitivity but significant differences on response bias. Obese subjects had consistently lower response criteria than normal ones. Analysis for subjects categorized by whether they were restrained or unrestrained eaters gave findings identical to those for obese and normal. The importance of using a methodology that separates sensory and non-sensory factors in research on obesity is discussed. PMID:6622165

Gardner, R M; Brake, S J; Reyes, B; Maestas, D

1983-08-01

416

Parent and Teacher Report: Comparing Results from the Sensory Profile and the Sensory Profile School Companion  

E-print Network

. Parents and teachers provided a combination of similar and unique information when evaluating a child using the Sensory Profile and the School Companion thus adding to their construct validity. Therefore, best practice indicates that evaluators should...

Clark, Jessica Saiter

2008-08-13

417

The Eyes Absent Proteins in Development and Disease  

PubMed Central

The Eyes Absent (EYA) proteins, first described in the context of fly eye development, are now implicated in processes as disparate as organ development, innate immunity, DNA damage repair, photoperiodism, angiogenesis, and cancer metastasis. These functions are associated with an unusual combination of biochemical activities; tyrosine phosphatase and threonine phosphatase activities in separate domains, and transactivation potential when associated with a DNA-binding partner. EYA mutations are linked to multi-organ developmental disorders, as well as to adult diseases ranging from dilated cardiomyopathy to late-onset sensori-neural hearing loss. With the growing understanding of EYA biochemical and cellular activity, biological function, and association with disease, comes the possibility that the EYA proteins are amenable to the design of targeted therapeutics. The availability of structural information, direct links to disease states, available animal models, and the fact that they utilize unconventional reaction mechanisms that could allow for specificity, suggest that EYAs are well-positioned for drug discovery efforts. This review provides a summary of EYA structure, activity, and function, as it relates to development and disease, with particular emphasis on recent findings. PMID:22971774

Tadjuidje, Emmanuel; Hegde, Rashmi S.

2012-01-01

418

Sensory Evaluation of Food Cooked in Iron Utensils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of cooking food in iron utensils on sensory attributes was investigated. Hamburger patties and applesauce were cooked in an iron utensil and in a glass utensil with 4 replications. A 16-member trained sensory panel evaluated sensory attributes of the foods using an 8-point intensity rating scale. Duplicate samples of raw and cooked foods were dried, ashed, and analyzed

H. C. Brittin

1998-01-01

419

Sensory Integration and Its Effects on Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides an overview of the literature on sensory integration in young children. First it explains the importance of "sensory integration" in child development and normal functioning. It goes on to note signs of a sensory integration dysfunction (such as hyper-or hypo-sensitivity to touch, poor coordination, and poor behavioral…

Ramirez, Judy

420

Reported Sensory Processing of Children with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigators have identified delays and differences in cognitive, language, motor, and sensory development in children with Down syndrome (DS). The purpose of this study was to determine the parent-reported frequency of sensory processing issues in children with DS aged 3-10 years, and the parent-reported functional impact of those sensory

Bruni, Maryanne; Cameron, Debra; Dua, Shelly; Noy, Sarah

2010-01-01

421

Efficacy of Sensory and Motor Interventions for Children with Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article evaluates the scientific basis (primarily gained through uncontrolled, descriptive studies) of various sensory and motor interventions for children with autism and concludes that most categories of interventions, including sensory integration, sensory stimulation approaches, auditory integration training, and prism lenses, have shown…

Baranek, Grace T.

2002-01-01

422

Comparison of sensory specific satiety and sensory specific desires to eat in children and adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this experiment is to compare sensory specific satiety (SSS) and sensory specific desire to eat (SSD), which can be described as general wanting for certain taste categories and go beyond specific foods, in children and adults and their impact on subsequent food choices. Eighty-seven children (10.3±0.6 years) and 49 adults (31.0±2.0 years) participated in the study. Sweet

Annemarie Olsen; Christian Ritz; Ditte L. Hartvig; Per Møller

2011-01-01

423

Sensory Detection and Responses to Toxic Gases  

PubMed Central

The inhalation of reactive gases and vapors can lead to severe damage of the airways and lung, compromising the function of the respiratory system. Exposures to oxidizing, electrophilic, acidic, or basic gases frequently occur in occupational and ambient environments. Corrosive gases and vapors such as chlorine, phosgene, and chloropicrin were used as warfare agents and in terrorist acts. Chemical airway exposures are detected by the olfactory, gustatory, and nociceptive sensory systems that initiate protective physiological and behavioral responses. This review focuses on the role of airway nociceptive sensory neurons in chemical sensing and discusses the recent discovery of neuronal receptors for reactive chemicals. Using physiological, imaging, and genetic approaches, Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) ion channels in sensory neurons were shown to respond to a wide range of noxious chemical stimuli, initiating pain, respiratory depression, cough, glandular secretions, and other protective responses. TRPA1, a TRP ion channel expressed in chemosensory C-fibers, is activated by almost all oxidizing and electrophilic chemicals, including chlorine, acrolein, tear gas agents, and methyl isocyanate, the highly noxious chemical released in the Bhopal disaster. Chemicals likely activate TRPA1 through covalent protein modification. Animal studies using TRPA1 antagonists or TRPA1-deficient mice confirmed the role of TRPA1 in chemically induced respiratory reflexes, pain, and inflammation in vivo. New research shows that sensory neurons are not merely passive sensors of chemical exposures. Sensory channels such as TRPA1 are essential for maintenance of airway inflammation in asthma and may contribute to the progression of airway injury following high-level chemical exposures. PMID:20601631

Bessac, Bret F.; Jordt, Sven-Eric

2010-01-01

424

Idiopathic toe walking and sensory processing dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Background It is generally understood that toe walking involves the absence or limitation of heel strike in the contact phase of the gait cycle. Toe walking has been identified as a symptom of disease processes, trauma and/or neurogenic influences. When there is no obvious cause of the gait pattern, a diagnosis of idiopathic toe walking (ITW) is made. Although there has been limited research into the pathophysiology of ITW, there has been an increasing number of contemporary texts and practitioner debates proposing that this gait pattern is linked to a sensory processing dysfunction (SPD). The purpose of this paper is to examine the literature and provide a summary of what is known about the relationship between toe walking and SPD. Method Forty-nine articles were reviewed, predominantly sourced from peer reviewed journals. Five contemporary texts were also reviewed. The literature styles consisted of author opinion pieces, letters to the editor, clinical trials, case studies, classification studies, poster/conference abstracts and narrative literature reviews. Literature was assessed and graded according to level of evidence. Results Only one small prospective, descriptive study without control has been conducted in relation to idiopathic toe walking and sensory processing. A cross-sectional study into the prevalence of idiopathic toe walking proposed sensory processing as being a reason for the difference. A proposed link between ITW and sensory processing was found within four contemporary texts and one conference abstract. Conclusion Based on the limited conclusive evidence available, the relationship between ITW and sensory processing has not been confirmed. Given the limited number and types of studies together with the growing body of anecdotal evidence it is proposed that further investigation of this relationship would be advantageous. PMID:20712877

2010-01-01

425

Dorsal eye selector pannier (pnr) suppresses the eye fate to define dorsal margin of the Drosophila eye  

E-print Network

Ã?Ã? Ã? Ã?Ã?Ã? Ã? Ã?Ã? Dorsal eye selector pannier (pnr) suppresses the eye fate to define dorsal margin of the Drosophila eye Sarah M. Oros, Meghana Tare, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Amit Singh PII: S0012-1606(10)00975-9 DOI: Oros, Sarah M., Tare, Meghana, Kango-Singh, Madhuri, Singh, Amit, Dorsal eye selector pannier (pnr

Kango-Singh, Madhuri

426

GRBs and Lobster Eye X-Ray Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large majority of GRBs exhibit X-ray emission. In addition, a dedicated separate group of GRB, the XRFs, exists which emission dominates in the X-ray spectral range. And the third group of GRB related objects (yet hypothetical) are the group of off-axis observed GRBs (orphan afterglows). These facts justify the consideration of an independent experiment for monitoring, detection and analyses of GRBs and others fast X-ray transients in X-rays. We will present and discuss such experiment based on wide-field X-ray telescopes of Lobster Eye type. We show that the wide field and fine sensitivity of Lobster Eye X-ray All-Sky Monitor make such instruments important tools in study of GRBs.

Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Marsikova, V.; Inneman, A.

2013-07-01

427

Antioxidant and sensorial properties of linden honey with dried apricots.  

PubMed

The total phenol (TPh) and flavonoid contents (TFd), and antioxidant and sensorial properties of linden honey (LH) with dried apricots (20, 30, and 40%) were evaluated. TPh increased 4.3 times for LH40 (from 23.96 to 102.87?mg gallic acid equiv./100?g honey), while increase of TFd was slightly lower, ca. 2.9-fold for LH40 (from 18.11 to 51.72?mg rutin equiv./100?g honey). Based on HPLC analysis, the most dominant phenolic compound was gallic acid (11.14?mg/100?g honey in LH and 42.65?mg/100?g honey in LH40). In three different assays, the antioxidant activity increased with increasing concentration of apricots in honey. The values varied from 13.36 for LH to 7.06?mg/ml for LH40; the values ranged from 189.83 for LH to 11.23?mg/ml for LH40; the RP0.5 (reducing power) values ranged from 169.00 for LH to 27.60?mg/ml for LH40. Based on the correlation analysis, it is obvious that TPh and TFd were associated with the antioxidant activities of honey samples. A high degree of correlation existed between antioxidant activities of honey samples and TPh (R from 0.945 to 0.996) and TFd (R from 0.805 to 0.934). Obtained scores for individual sensory properties indicated very good quality of honey with dried apricots. PMID:25408327

?etkovi?, Gordana; ?anadanovi?-Brunet, Jasna; Vuli?, Jelena; Djilas, Sonja; Tumbas Šaponjac, Vesna

2014-11-01

428

Clearing media for the eye.  

PubMed Central

Non-ionic radiological contrast media have a high refractive index and are not toxic to living cells. They can be used as clearing media for unfixed ocular tissues. Corneal opacities in the rabbit could be made transparent, on a temporary basis, by soaking the stroma in contrast media, and no ill effects on the eye were noted. Images PMID:3304411

Maurice, D M

1987-01-01

429

Visual Acuity and the Eye.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows that visual acuity is a function of the structure of the eye and that its limit is set by the structure of the retina, emphasizing the role of lens aberrations and difraction on image quality. Also compares human vision with that of other vertebrates and insects. (JN)

Beynon, J.

1985-01-01

430

Eye injuries and the dentist.  

PubMed

The risk of damage to the eyes of the patient, the dentist and his assistant should be recognized. Protection can be achieved by the wearing of specially designed spectacles using CR 39 plastic tinted lenses. Contact lenses should be removed by patients who are to undergo general anaesthesia. PMID:285665

Colvin, J

1978-12-01

431

Stem cells in the eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the adult organism, all tissue renewal and regeneration depends ultimately on somatic stem cells, and the eye is no exception. The importance of limbal stem cells in the maintenance of the corneal epithelium has long been recognised, and such cells are now used clinically for repair of a severely damaged cornea. The slow cycling nature of lens epithelial cells

Mike Boulton; Julie Albon

2004-01-01

432

Flavonoid Intake and Eye Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the modern era of evidence-based scientific medicine, there is little recognition of centuries of shaman observational evidence. Yet it is extremely difficult to conduct long duration controlled studies of large populations. The controversy surrounding the issue of flavonoid bioactivity and alleged benefits for eye health is also plagued by natural product industry marketing efforts that rely on small, often

Paul E. Milbury

2012-01-01

433

The Eye of the Camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses the effects of security cameras on prosocial behavior. Results from previous studies indicate that the presence of others can trigger helping behavior, arising from the need for approval of others. Extending these findings, the authors propose that security cameras can likewise trigger such approval-seeking behaviors by implying the presence of a watchful eye. Because people vary in

Rompay van Thomas J. L; Dorette J. Vonk; Marieke L. Fransen

2009-01-01

434

Eye Movements during Chinese Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

respects, and for this reason, interest in the nature of the cognitive processes underlying Chinese reading has flourished over recent years. A number of researchers have used eye movement methodology as a measure of on-line processing to understand more about…

Liversedge, Simon P; Hyona, Jukka; Rayner, Keith

2013-01-01

435

Frog eye, ear, and nostril  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You can clearly see the frog's eye. There is an air opening near a black spot on the frog's skin. The opening to the frog's ear is covered by the round, tan membrane to the left in the picture. This membrane is called the tympanum.

Ren West (None;)

2006-08-07

436

Nutrients for the aging eye  

PubMed Central

The incidence of age-related eye diseases is expected to rise with the aging of the population. Oxidation and inflammation are implicated in the etiology of these diseases. There is evidence that dietary antioxidants and anti-inflammatories may provide benefit in decreasing the risk of age-related eye disease. Nutrients of interest are vitamins C and E, ?-carotene, zinc, lutein, zeaxanthin, and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. While a recent survey finds that among the baby boomers (45–65 years old), vision is the most important of the five senses, well over half of those surveyed were not aware of the important nutrients that play a key role in eye health. This is evident from a national survey that finds that intake of these key nutrients from dietary sources is below the recommendations or guidelines. Therefore, it is important to educate this population and to create an awareness of the nutrients and foods of particular interest in the prevention of age-related eye disease. PMID:23818772

Rasmussen, Helen M; Johnson, Elizabeth J

2013-01-01

437

Bologna with Student Eyes, 2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Bologna with Student Eyes" is a survey published by the National Unions of Students in Europe, based on questionnaires sent to national unions across the continent. The survey gives a broad overview of student union perspectives as to national implementations of Bologna Process Action Lines in the period 2005-2007. It addresses the topics of:…

Mikkola, Anne, Ed.; Carapinha, Bruno, Ed.; Tuck, Colin, Ed.; MacSithigh, Daithi, Ed.; Aberg, Nina Gustaffson, Ed.; Brus, Sanja, Ed.

2007-01-01

438

Protecting Your Eyes at Work  

MedlinePLUS

... guards, screened or divided work stations, and other engineering controls, using the correct protective eyewear can help keep you safe from any type of eye hazard. [back to top] Can contact lenses be worn safely for industrial jobs? While contact lenses cannot provide significant protection ...

439

Soccer-Related Eye Injuries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of medical charts of 13 youths (age 8-15) with soccer-related eye injuries identified as causes: a head butt, kicks, the ball. Risks can be lessened by use of polycarbonate eyeguards, properly inflated balls, adequate conditioning and practice before scrimmages, a moderate and balanced practice/playing schedule and good sportsmanship.…

Orlando, Richard G.

1988-01-01

440

Females competing to reproduce: dominance matters but testosterone may not.  

PubMed

The associations among aggression, testosterone (T), and reproductive success have been well studied, particularly in male birds. In many species, males challenged with simulated or real territorial intrusions increase T and levels of aggression, outcomes linked to higher dominance status and greater reproductive success. For females, the patterns are less clear. Females behave aggressively towards one another, and in some species, females respond to a social challenge with increases in T, but in other species they do not. Prior work on female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) had shown that experimental elevation of T increases social status and intrasexual aggression. Here, we conducted two experiments designed to answer three questions: Are endogenous concentrations of T associated with dominance status in captive female juncos? Does dominance status influence readiness to breed in female juncos? And do captive females increase T in response to a challenge? In the first experiment, we introduced two females to a breeding aviary, allowed them to form a dominance relationship and then introduced a male. We found that dominant females were more likely to breed than subordinates, but that dominance status was not predicted by circulating T. In the second experiment, we allowed a resident male and female to establish ownership of a breeding aviary (territory) then introduced a second, intruder female. We found that resident females were aggressive towards and dominant over intruders, but T did not increase during aggressive interactions. We suggest that during the breeding season, intrasexual aggression between females may influence reproductive success, but not be dependent upon fluctuations in T. Selection may have favored independence of aggression from T because high concentrations of T could interfere with normal ovulation or produce detrimental maternal effects. PMID:16226754

Jawor, Jodie M; Young, Rebecca; Ketterson, Ellen D

2006-03-01

441

Overcoming Presbyopia by Manipulating the Eyes' Optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presbyopia, the age-related loss of accommodation, is a visual condition affecting all adults over the age of 45 years. In presbyopia, individuals lose the ability to focus on nearby objects, due to a lifelong growth and stiffening of the eye's crystalline lens. This leads to poor near visual performance and affects patients' quality of life. The objective of this thesis is aimed towards the correction of presbyopia and can be divided into four aims. First, we examined the characteristics and limitations of currently available strategies for the correction of presbyopia. A natural-view wavefront sensor was used to objectively measure the accommodative ability of patients implanted with an accommodative intraocular lens (IOL). Although these patients had little accommodative ability based on changes in power, pupil miosis and higher order aberrations led to an improvement in through-focus retinal image quality in some cases. To quantify the through-focus retinal image quality of accommodative and multifocal IOLs directly, an adaptive optics (AO) IOL metrology system was developed. Using this system, the impact of corneal aberrations in regard to presbyopia-correcting IOLs was assessed, providing an objective measure of through-focus retinal image quality and practical guidelines for patient selection. To improve upon existing multifocal designs, we investigated retinal image quality metrics for the prediction of through-focus visual performance. The preferred metric was based on the fidelity of an image convolved with an aberrated point spread function. Using this metric, we investigated the potential of higher order aberrations and pupil amplitude apodization to increase the depth of focus of the presbyopic eye. Thirdly, we investigated modified monovision, a novel binocular approach to presbyopia correction using a binocular AO vision simulator. In modified monovision, different magnitudes of defocus and spherical aberration are introduced to each eye, thereby taking advantage of the binocular visual system. Several experiments using the binocular AO vision simulator found modified monovision led to significant improvements in through-focus visual performance, binocular summation and stereoacuity, as compared to traditional monovision. Finally, we addressed neural factors, affecting visual performance in modified monovision, such as ocular dominance and neural plasticity. We found that pairing modified monovision with a vision training regimen may further improve visual performance beyond the limits set by optics via neural plasticity. This opens the door to an exciting new avenue of vision correction to accompany optical interventions. The research presented in this thesis offers important guidelines for the clinical and scientific communities. Furthermore, the techniques described herein may be applied to other fields of ophthalmology, such as childhood myopia progression.

Zheleznyak, Leonard A.

442

Understanding Your Vision: The "Imperfect Eye"  

MedlinePLUS

... Issues Feature: Vision Understanding Your Vision: The "Imperfect Eye" Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents For ... including an implanted set of lenses. "Keeping your eyes healthy means learning about them and the conditions ...

443

21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad is a device that consists...

2011-04-01

444

21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad is a device that consists...

2014-04-01

445

21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad is a device that consists...

2013-04-01

446

21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad is a device that consists...

2010-04-01

447

21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad is a device that consists...

2012-04-01

448

The Trajectories of Saccadic Eye Movements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the trajectories of saccadic eye movements, the control signals of the eye, and nature of the mechanisms that generate them, using the techniques of bioengineering in collecting the data. (GA)

Bahill, A. Terry; Stark, Lawrence

1979-01-01

449

Predicting acculturation attitudes of dominant and non-dominant groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, several variables which have been proved in intergroup research to have had influence on the interaction between groups, were examined with regard to their success to distinguish and predict acculturation attitudes. Variables considered were perceived similarity, contact, identification, self-efficacy, perceived outcome, permeability, vitality, and ingroup bias. Discriminant analyses were computed for dominant groups (Germans, Swiss, and Slovaks)

Ursula Piontkowski; Arnd Florack; Paul Hoelker; Peter Obdrzálek

2000-01-01

450

Dominant resistance against plant viruses  

PubMed Central

To establish a successful infection plant viruses have to overcome a defense system composed of several layers. This review will overview the various strategies plants employ to combat viral infections with main emphasis on the current status of single dominant resistance (R) genes identified against plant viruses and the corresponding avirulence (Avr) genes identified so far. The most common models to explain the mode of action of dominant R genes will be presented. Finally, in brief the hypersensitive response (HR) and extreme resistance (ER), and the functional and structural similarity of R genes to sensors of innate immunity in mammalian cell systems will be described. PMID:25018765

de Ronde, Dryas; Butterbach, Patrick; Kormelink, Richard

2014-01-01

451

Anatomical Origins of Ocular Dominance in Mouse Primary Visual Cortex  

PubMed Central

Ocular dominance (OD) plasticity is a classic paradigm for studying the effect of experience and deprivation on cortical development, and is manifested as shifts in the relative strength of binocular inputs to primary visual cortex (V1). The mouse has become an increasingly popular model for mechanistic studies of OD plasticity and, consequently, it is important that we understand how binocularity is constructed in this species. One puzzling feature of the mouse visual system is the gross disparity between the physiological strength of each eye in V1 and their anatomical representation in the projection from retina to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN). While the contralateral-to-ipsilateral (C/I) ratio of visually evoked responses in binocular V1 is ?2:1, the ipsilateral retinal projection is weakly represented in terms of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) density where the C/I ratio is ?9:1. The structural basis for this relative amplification of ipsilateral eye responses between retina and V1 is not known. Here we employed neuroanatomical tracing and morphometric techniques to quantify the relative magnitude of each eye’s input to and output from the binocular segment of dLGN. Our data are consistent with the previous suggestion that a point in space viewed by both eyes will activate 9X as many RGCs in the contralateral retina as in the ipsilateral retina. Nonetheless, the volume of the dLGN binocular segment occupied by contralateral retinogeniculate inputs is only 2.4X larger than the volume occupied by ipsilateral retinogeniculate inputs and recipient relay cells are evenly distributed among the input layers. The results from our morphometric analyses show that this reduction in input volume can be accounted for by a 3-to-1 convergence of contralateral eye RGC inputs to dLGN neurons. Together, our findings establish that the relative density of feed-forward dLGN inputs determines the C/I response ratio of mouse binocular V1. PMID:19327388

Coleman, Jason E.; Law, Karen; Bear, Mark F.

2009-01-01

452

Cytological examination of pink eye afflicted tubers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pink eye is a tuber disorder of undetermined cause that can result in serious processing complications and storage losses throughout North America. Pink eye symptoms progress from ephemeral light pink colorations around bud-end eyes to water-soaked or dried and cracked “corky-patch” periderm. Late s...

453

Corneal Imaging System: Environment from Eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of exactly what visual information about the world is embedded within a single image of an eye. It turns out that the cornea of an eye and a camera viewing the eye form a catadioptric imaging system. We refer to this as a corneal imaging system. Unlike a typical catadioptric system, a corneal one

Ko Nishino; Shree K. Nayar

2006-01-01

454

Eye Examination Findings Among Children. United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reported were extensive statistical data on the prevalence of abnormal eye conditions found on examination, heterophoria test results, and history of eye problems as well as extent of interrelationship of the eye examination and vision test findings among children aged 6 to 11 years in the United States, based on findings from the Health…

Health Services and Mental Health Administration (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

455

The Eye, Hartmann, Shack, and Klaus Biedermann  

E-print Network

The Eye, Hartmann, Shack, and Scheiner Klaus Biedermann The Royal Institute of Technology of the paper are prohibited. 7 #12;7 The Eye, Hartmann, Shack, and Scheiner Klaus Biedermann The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden) The eye and vision were natural topics for optics before

456

BINOCULAR EYE MOVEMENTS DURING ACCOMMODATIVE VERGENCE  

E-print Network

BINOCULAR EYE MOVEMENTS DURING ACCOMMODATIVE VERGENCE ROBERTV. KENYON, KEWETH J. CIUFFREDA; in revised form 4 August 1977) Abstract-Binocular eye position was monitored by the photoelectric technique vergence amplitude in the viewing eye was reduced, on the average. by approximately SSP, with respect

Kenyon, Robert V.

457

Satellite Eye for Galathea 3 -Slutrapport  

E-print Network

Satellite Eye for Galathea 3 - Slutrapport Charlotte Bay Hasager, Peter Brøgger Sørensen, Jacob L Abstract (in English) (max. 2000 char.): The Satellite Eye for Galathea 3 project started on the 10th March August 2006. The expedition lasted in total 256 days (8 months), and the Satelitte Eye project continued

458

Eye Gaze in Creative Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the role of eye gaze in creative sign language. Because eye gaze conveys various types of linguistic and poetic information, it is an intrinsic part of sign language linguistics in general and of creative signing in particular. We discuss various functions of eye gaze in poetic signing and propose a classification of gaze…

Kaneko, Michiko; Mesch, Johanna

2013-01-01

459

Advances in Eye Tracking in Infancy Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2004, McMurray and Aslin edited for "Infancy" a special section on eye tracking. The articles in that special issue revealed the enormous promise of automatic eye tracking with young infants and demonstrated that eye-tracking procedures can provide significant insight into the emergence of cognitive, social, and emotional processing in infancy.…

Oakes, Lisa M.

2012-01-01

460

Infant Eyes: A Window on Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eye-trackers suitable for use with infants are now marketed by several commercial vendors. As eye-trackers become more prevalent in infancy research, there is the potential for users to be unaware of dangers lurking "under the hood" if they assume the eye-tracker introduces no errors in measuring infants' gaze. Moreover, the influx of voluminous…

Aslin, Richard N.

2012-01-01

461

DISSERTATION FORMATION OF THE HURRICANE EYE  

E-print Network

DISSERTATION FORMATION OF THE HURRICANE EYE Submitted by Jonathan L. Vigh Department of Atmospheric OF THE HURRICANE EYE BE ACCEPTED AS FULFILLING IN PART REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY. Schubert Department Head: Richard H. Johnson ii #12;ABSTRACT OF DISSERTATION FORMATION OF THE HURRICANE EYE

Schubert, Wayne H.

462

Telephoto lens system of falconiform eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

VISUAL ACUITY in falconiform birds has been shown to be higher than man. For instance, vultures with eyes similar in size to those of man have a grating detectability of about twice the spatial frequency of man1. This is consistent with measured image quality in an eagle eye similar in size to the human eye2. Recently a falcon (Falco sparverius)

Allan W. Snyder; William H. Miller

1978-01-01

463

On the development of the Agile Eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “Agile Eye” is a high-performance mechanism capable of orienting a camera within a workspace larger than that of a human eye and with velocities and accelerations larger than those of the human eye. The mechanical design, control issues, and experimental results are presented

C. M. Gosselin; E. St. Pierre; M. Gagne

1996-01-01

464

Laser EYE SURGERY LASIK and Excimer Lasers  

E-print Network

Laser EYE SURGERY LASIK and Excimer Lasers Michael Hutchins #12;The PROBLEM opia - near sightedness surgery reposition to follow the eye 400 es per second. #12;Excimer Lasers low absorption depth: 0.1 0.5µm regularly. #12;LASIK Side Effects Surgery induced dry eyes Over or under correction Visual acuity

Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

465

Orienting to Eye Gaze and Face Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author conducted 7 experiments to examine possible interactions between orienting to eye gaze and specific forms of face processing. Participants classified a letter following either an upright or inverted face with averted, uninformative eye gaze. Eye gaze orienting effects were recorded for upright and inverted faces, irrespective of whether…

Tipples, Jason

2005-01-01

466

Trustworthy-Looking Face Meets Brown Eyes  

PubMed Central

We tested whether eye color influences perception of trustworthiness. Facial photographs of 40 female and 40 male students were rated for perceived trustworthiness. Eye color had a significant effect, the brown-eyed faces being perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones. Geometric morphometrics, however, revealed significant correlations between eye color and face shape. Thus, face shape likewise had a significant effect on perceived trustworthiness but only for male faces, the effect for female faces not being significant. To determine whether perception of trustworthiness was being influenced primarily by eye color or by face shape, we recolored the eyes on the same male facial photos and repeated the test procedure. Eye color now had no effect on perceived trustworthiness. We concluded that although the brown-eyed faces were perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones, it was not brown eye color per se that caused the stronger perception of trustworthiness but rather the facial features associated with brown eyes. PMID:23326406

Kleisner, Karel; Priplatova, Lenka; Frost, Peter; Flegr, Jaroslav

2013-01-01

467

Eye movements during sleep in weightlessness.  

PubMed

The number of eye movements during sleep increased during the first sleep period in zero gravity but returned to normal by the second night. These rapid-eye-movement functions in flight may be the first variations of an oscillatory system. The ratio of the higher and lower eye movement frequencies oscillates within normal-gravity limits. PMID:6729480

Quadens, O; Green, H

1984-07-13

468

The Sound of One Eye Clapping: Tapping an Accurate Rhythm With Eye Movements  

E-print Network

The Sound of One Eye Clapping: Tapping an Accurate Rhythm With Eye Movements Anthony J. Hornof, kvessey}@cs.uoregon.edu ABSTRACT As eye-controlled interfaces becomes increasingly viable, there is a need an eye tracking device. Prior research has explored the maximum rate of input from a human to a computer

Hornof, Anthony

469

Eye-Tracking: Characteristics and Methods Eye-Tracking: Research Areas and Applications  

E-print Network

1 Part 1 Eye-Tracking: Characteristics and Methods Part 2 Eye-Tracking: Research Areas. & Bowlin, G. (Eds.) [ PREPRINT, FEB 2004. PLEASE DO NOT QUOTE ] #12;2 Eye-Tracking: Characteristics and Methods Introduction Eye movements are arguably the most frequent of all human movements (Bridgeman, 1992

Richardson, Daniel C.

470

Inferring Intent in Eye-Based Interfaces: Tracing Eye Movements with Process Models  

E-print Network

Inferring Intent in Eye-Based Interfaces: Tracing Eye Movements with Process Models Dario D dario+@cs.cmu.edu ABSTRACT While current eye-based interfaces offer enormous potential for efficient human-computer interaction, they also manifest the difficulty of inferring intent from user eye

Salvucci, Dario D.

471

The Sound of One Eye Clapping: Tapping an Accurate Rhythm With Eye Movements  

E-print Network

The Sound of One Eye Clapping: Tapping an Accurate Rhythm With Eye Movements Anthony J. Hornof USA As eye-controlled interfaces becomes increasingly viable, there is a need to better understand fundamental human-machine interaction capabilities between a human and a computer via an eye tracking device

Hornof, Anthony

472

Early event-related potentials indicate context-specific target processing for eye and hand motor systems?  

PubMed Central

Concurrent eye and hand movements toward a common visual target require different motor programs based on identical visual input. We used event-related brain potentials (ERP) to determine if and when the processing of the visual target differs for the two motor systems. The N2, an index for target evaluation, was more negative for the target of a hand than of an eye movement in two experiments. A possible interpretation for this finding is different visual target processing. Targets for hand movements require a different weighting of visual information, for example concerning features such as surface structure which are important for hand but not for eye movements. In experiment 2, the early C1-component, which had an average maximum at 67 ms following target onset, was significantly more negative when subjects pointed at the stimuli. Traditionally, the C1 has been regarded as a sensory component, but recent studies have linked it to higher order processing, such as attention and expectations. Thus, the present data indicate that target processing for eye or hand movements is already context-specific during early visual information processing. We suggest that differences in a target’s relevance for upcoming movements modify target processing as well as sensory expectations. PMID:23968690

Wehrspaun, Claudia C.; Pfabigan, Daniela M.; Sailer, Uta

2013-01-01

473

Cytochemical localization of acid phosphatase in regenerated and dark-adapted eyes of a snail, Helix aspersa.  

PubMed

The role fo the Golgi apparatus and the Golgi-endoplasmic reticulum-lysosomal complex (GERL) in the formation of lysosomes in the photosensory cells of regenerating and dark-adapted eyes of the garden snail Helix aspersa was examined with use of acid phosphatase as a marker enzyme. In newly regenerated eyes, lead reaction deposit was restricted to the cisternae of GERL, a few small vesicles and some large secondary lysosomes. Dark-adapted sensory cells, on the other hand, were characterized by a heavy reaction product in the hypertrophied Golgi cisternae and GERL. Primary lysosomes were packaged by GERL cisternae in both the regenerating and the degenerating dark-adapted eyes. In the latter, these lysosomes may have been produced also by the Golgi apparatus. No reaction product was found in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, microvilli, or large aggregations of 800 A photic vesicles in either kind of eye. In this study the lytic activity in differentiating sensory cells was significantly lower than that in degenerating cells suggesting that the increase in lysosomal activity in the latter was due to the absence of light. The effects of long dark-adaption appear to be: 1. decrease in the production of photic vesicles; 2. increase in the formation of lysosomes; and 3. breakdown of photic vesicles by lysosomal activity. PMID:922876

Brandenburger, J L

1977-11-01

474

THE RELATION OF A DOMINANT EYE COLOR IN DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER TO THE ASSOCIATED CHROMOSOME REARRANGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility that the developmental effects of genes are influenced by their neighbors in the chromosomes has only recently become accessible to experiment. The first demonstration of such an effect was given by STURTEVANT (1925). Two Bar genes in Drosophila melanogaster, placed in the same chromosome as a result of unequal crossing over, are more effective than two similar genes

JACK SCHULTZ

475

Sensory processing subtypes in autism: association with adaptive behavior.  

PubMed

Children with autism are frequently observed to experience difficulties in sensory processing. This study examined specific patterns of sensory processing in 54 children with autistic disorder and their association with adaptive behavior. Model-based cluster analysis revealed three distinct sensory processing subtypes in autism. These subtypes were differentiated by taste and smell sensitivity and movement-related sensory behavior. Further, sensory processing subtypes predicted communication competence and maladaptive behavior. The findings of this study lay the foundation for the generation of more specific hypotheses regarding the mechanisms of sensory processing dysfunction in autism, and support the continued use of sensory-based interventions in the remediation of communication and behavioral difficulties in autism. PMID:19644746

Lane, Alison E; Young, Robyn L; Baker, Amy E Z; Angley, Manya T

2010-01-01

476

People with Increased Risk of Eye Damage from UV Light  

MedlinePLUS

... Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts People With Increased Risk of Eye Damage from UV Light Tweet ... People with light colored eyes may have an increased risk of certain eye diseases tied to UV ...

477

Three-dimensional system integration for HUD placement on a new tactical airlift platform: design eye point vs. HUD eye box with accommodation and perceptual implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The retrofitting of a cockpit with a Head-Up-Display (HUD) raises potential accommodation and perceptual issues for pilots that must be addressed. For maximum optical efficiency, the goal is to be able to place every pilot's eye into the HUD Eye Motion Box (EMB) given a seat adjustment range. Initially, the Eye Reference Point (ERP) of the EMB should theoretically be located on the aircraft's original cockpit Design Eye Point (DEP), but human postures vary, and HUD systems may not be optimally placed. In reality, there is a distribution of pilot eyes around the DEP (which is dominant eye dependent); therefore, this must be accounted for in order to obtain appropriate visibility of all of the symbology based on photonic characteristics of the HUD. Pilot size and postural variation need to be taken into consideration when positioning the HUD system to ensure proper vision of all HUD symbology in addition to meeting the basic physical accommodation requirements of the cockpit. The innovative process and data collection methods for maximizing accommodation and pilot perception on a new "tactical airlift" platform are discussed as well as the related neurocognitive factors and the effects of information display design on cognitive phenomena.

Harbour, Steven D.; Hudson, Jeffery A.; Zehner, Gregory F.

2012-06-01

478

Locomotor sensory organization test: a novel paradigm for the assessment of sensory contributions in gait.  

PubMed

Feedback based balance control requires the integration of visual, proprioceptive and vestibular input to detect the body's movement within the environment. When the accuracy of sensory signals is compromised, the system reorganizes the relative contributions through a process of sensory recalibration, for upright postural stability to be maintained. Whereas this process has been studied extensively in standing using the Sensory Organization Test (SOT), less is known about these processes in more dynamic tasks such as locomotion. In the present study, ten healthy young adults performed the six conditions of the traditional SOT to quantify standing postural control when exposed to sensory conflict. The same subjects performed these six conditions using a novel experimental paradigm, the Locomotor SOT (LSOT), to study dynamic postural control during walking under similar types of sensory conflict. To quantify postural control during walking, the net Center of Pressure sway variability was used. This corresponds to the Performance Index of the center of pressure trajectory, which is used to quantify postural control during standing. Our results indicate that dynamic balance control during locomotion in healthy individuals is affected by the systematic manipulation of multisensory inputs. The sway variability patterns observed during locomotion reflect similar balance performance with standing posture, indicating that similar feedback processes may be involved. However, the contribution of visual input is significantly increased during locomotion, compared to standing in similar sensory conflict conditions. The increased visual gain in the LSOT conditions reflects the importance of visual input for the control of locomotion. Since balance perturbations tend to occur in dynamic tasks and in response to environmental constraints not present during the SOT, the LSOT may provide additional information for clinical evaluation on healthy and deficient sensory processing. PMID:25224076

Chien, Jung Hung; Eikema, Diderik-Jan Anthony; Mukherjee, Mukul; Stergiou, Nicholas

2014-12-01

479

MATURATION OF SENSORY GATING PERFORMANCE IN CHILDREN WITH AND WITHOUT SENSORY PROCESSING DISORDERS  

PubMed Central

Recent interest in sensory gating in children with and without neuropsychological disorders has resulted in a number of studies and the results regarding the developmental trajectory of sensory gating are inconsistent. We investigated the maturational course of sensory gating in samples of typically developing children and children with sensory processing deficits (SPD) and compared their performance to adults. Besides gating ratios, we also examined the brain responses to conditioning and test click stimuli in the sensory gating paradigm separately to clarify if the changes in click amplitudes could explain the maturational change in the T/C ratio in children. Eighteen adults with no known disorders, 25 typical children, and 28 children with SPD participated in this study. The children ranged in ages between 5 and12 years. The three groups differed in their P50 and N100 ERP components. Both child groups displayed significantly less gating than the adults. Children with SPD demonstrated significantly less gating and more within-group variability compared to typical children. There were significant relationships between age and T/C ratios and between age and peak-to-peak amplitude of the conditioning click in typical children but not in children with SPD. Typical children demonstrated significantly smaller brain response amplitudes to the clicks as compared to adults . These findings suggest that there is a maturational course of sensory gating in typical children and if there is a maturational trajectory in children with SPD it appears to be different than typical children. In addition, children with SPD were found to be lacking in their ability to filter out repeated auditory input and failed to selectively regulate their sensitivity to sensory stimuli. PMID:19146890

Davies, Patricia L.; Chang, Wen-Pin; Gavin, William J.

2009-01-01

480

The Tehran Eye Study: research design and eye examination protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Visual impairment has a profound impact on society. The majority of visually impaired people live in developing countries, and since most disorders leading to visual impairment are preventable or curable, their control is a priority in these countries. Considering the complicated epidemiology of visual impairment and the wide variety of factors involved, region specific intervention strategies are required for every community. Therefore, providing appropriate data is one of the first steps in these communities, as it is in Iran. The objectives of this study are to describe the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in the population of Tehran city; the prevalence of refractive errors, lens opacity, ocular hypertension, and color blindness in this population, and also the familial aggregation of refractive errors, lens opacity, ocular hypertension, and color blindness within the study sample. Methods Design Through a population-based, cross-sectional study, a total of 5300 Tehran citizens will be selected from 160 clusters using a stratified cluster random sampling strategy. The eligible people will be enumerated through a door-to-door household survey in the selected clusters and will be invited. All participants will be transferred to a clinic for measurements of uncorrected, best corrected and presenting visual acuity; manifest, subjective and cycloplegic refraction; color vision test; Goldmann applanation tonometry; examination of the external eye, anterior segment, media, and fundus; and an interview about demographic characteristics and history of eye diseases, eye trauma, diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, and ophthalmologic cares. The study design and eye examination protocol are described. Conclusion We expect that findings from the TES will show the status of visual problems and their causes in the community. This study can highlight the people who should be targeted by visual impairment prevention programs. PMID:12859794

Hashemi, Hassan; Fotouhi, Akbar; Mohammad, Kazem

2003-01-01

481

Inheritance of brown-eye and colourless-eye in the mosquito Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

An autosomal recessive gene bw (probably closely linked to y on chromosome 2) gives a brown eye colour. When this gene and the sex-linked gene re (red-eye) are both homozygous, a colourless-eye results. Brown-eye shows good viability and penetrance, and it has been maintained as a pure stock. Colourless-eye shows 87% penetrance in both sexes, and the females are low in viability and fertility. A colourless-eye stock has been maintained by crossing colourless-eyed males to their heterozygous red-eyed sibs. Crosses indicated no allelism between bw and ru (rust-eye), nor with w (white-eye). However some complementation between bw and w was indicated. PMID:6882068

Ouda, N A; Wood, R J

1983-04-01

482

Speech Perception Dominic W. Massaro  

E-print Network

Speech Perception Dominic W. Massaro This psychological account of speech perception includes and theory indicate that speech perception is a form of pattern recognition that is influenced by multiple of California, Santa Cruz Santa Cruz, California 95060, USA Massaro@ucsc.edu Speech Perception warrants an entry

Massaro, Dominic

483

Dominance and Age in Bilingualism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present article examines the relationship between age and dominance in bilingual populations. Age in bilingualism is understood as the point in development at which second language (L2) acquisition begins and as the chronological age of users of two languages. Age of acquisition (AoA) is a factor in determining which of a bilingual's two…

Birdsong, David

2014-01-01

484

Brutus Dominance Behavior After Capture  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A couple of hours after being immobilized for collaring, Brutus, a wolf being studied by USGS scientists, appears to have fully recovered. He returns to his pack mates and demonstrates dominance behavior over a younger male wolf. Note that Brutus has a stiff, aggressive stance and upright tail, whil...

2009-10-19

485

Keeping an eye on retinoic acid signaling during eye development.  

PubMed

Retinoic acid is a metabolic derivative of vitamin A that plays an essential function in cell-cell signaling by serving as a ligand for nuclear receptors that directly regulate gene expression. The final step in the conversion of retinol to retinoic acid is carried out by three retinaldehyde dehydrogenases encoded by Raldh1 (Aldh1a1), Raldh2 (Aldh1a2), and Raldh3 (Aldh1a3). Mouse Raldh gene knockout studies have been instrumental in understanding the mechanism of retinoic acid action during eye development. Retinoic acid signaling in the developing eye is particularly complex as all three Raldh genes contribute to retinoic acid synthesis in non-overlapping locations. During optic cup formation Raldh2 is first expressed transiently in perioptic mesenchyme, then later Raldh1 and Raldh3 expression begins in the dorsal and ventral retina, respectively, and these sources of retinoic acid are maintained in the fetus. Retinoic acid is not required for dorsoventral patterning of the retina as originally thought, but it is required for morphogenetic movements that form the optic cup, ventral retina, cornea, and eyelids. These findings will help guide future studies designed to identify retinoic acid target genes during eye organogenesis. PMID:18831967

Duester, Gregg

2009-03-16