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A New Method to Assess Eye Dominance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People usually show a stable preference for one of their eyes when monocular viewing is required ("sighting dominance") or under dichoptic stimulation conditions ("sensory eye-dominance"). Current procedures to assess this "eye dominance" are prone to error. Here we present a new method that provides a continuous measure of eye dominance and…

Valle-Inclan, Fernando; Blanco, Manuel J.; Soto, David; Leiros, Luz



Autosomal dominant sensory ataxia: a neuroaxonal dystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal dominant sensory ataxia (ADSA), a rare hereditary ataxia, is characterized by progressive dysfunction of central\\u000a sensory pathways. Its pathological features have not been previously documented. We report a case of a 61-year-old man with\\u000a ADSA who died of congestive heart failure. Autopsy specimens of brain, thoracolumbar spinal cord, peripheral nerve and skeletal\\u000a muscle were examined. There was no abnormality

Jeremy J. Moeller; Robert J. B. Macaulay; Paul N. Valdmanis; Lyle E. Weston; Guy A. Rouleau; Nicolas Dupré



Real-time modulation of perceptual eye dominance in humans.  


Ocular dominance (OD) has long served as the model for neural plasticity. The shift of OD has been demonstrated by monocular deprivation in animals only during early visual development. Here, for the first time, we show that perceptual eye dominance can be modulated in real time in normal human adults by varying the spatial image content of movies seen dichoptically by the two eyes over a period as short as 2.5 h. Unlike OD shifts seen in early visual development, this modulation in human eye dominance is not simply a consequence of reduced interocular correlation (e.g. synchronicity) or overall contrast energy, but due to the amplitude reductions of specific image components in one eye's view. The spatial properties driving this eye dominance change suggest that the underlying mechanism is binocular but not orientationally selective, therefore uniquely locating it to layer 4 B of area V1. PMID:25274364

Zhou, Jiawei; Reynaud, Alexandre; Hess, Robert F



Eye color predicts but does not directly influence perceived dominance in men  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on the relationship between eye color, gender, and psychological characteristics perceived from the human face. Photographs of 40 male and 40 female students were rated for perceived dominance and attractiveness. Attractiveness showed no relation with eye color. In contrast, eye color had a significant effect on perceived dominance in males: brown-eyed men were rated as more dominant

Karel Kleisner; Tomáš Ko?nar; Anna Rubešová; Jaroslav Flegr



Lateralization of speech production starts in sensory cortices--a possible sensory origin of cerebral left dominance for speech.  


Speech production is a left-lateralized brain function, which could arise from a left dominance either in speech executive or sensory processes or both. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects, we show that sensory cortices already lateralize when speaking is intended, while the frontal cortex only lateralizes when speech is acted out. The sequence of lateralization, first temporal then frontal lateralization, suggests that the functional lateralization of the auditory cortex could drive hemispheric specialization for speech production. PMID:20833698

Kell, Christian Alexander; Morillon, Benjamin; Kouneiher, Frederique; Giraud, Anne-Lise



Author's personal copy Eye color predicts but does not directly influence perceived dominance in men  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Eye color predicts but does not directly influence perceived dominance no relation with eye color. In contrast, eye color had a significant effect on perceived dominance in males. The eye color had no effect on perceived dom- inance. This suggests that some other facial features

Flegr, Jaroslav


Ectopic eyes outside the head in Xenopus tadpoles provide sensory data for light-mediated learning  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY A major roadblock in the biomedical treatment of human sensory disorders, including blindness, has been an incomplete understanding of the nervous system and its ability to adapt to changes in sensory modality. Likewise, fundamental insight into the evolvability of complex functional anatomies requires understanding brain plasticity and the interaction between the nervous system and body architecture. While advances have been made in the generation of artificial and biological replacement components, the brain's ability to interpret sensory information arising from ectopic locations is not well understood. We report the use of eye primordia grafts to create ectopic eyes along the body axis of Xenopus tadpoles. These eyes are morphologically identical to native eyes and can be induced at caudal locations. Cell labeling studies reveal that eyes created in the tail send projections to the stomach and trunk. To assess function we performed light-mediated learning assays using an automated machine vision and environmental control system. The results demonstrate that ectopic eyes in the tail of Xenopus tadpoles could confer vision to the host. Thus ectopic visual organs were functional even when present at posterior locations. These data and protocols demonstrate the ability of vertebrate brains to interpret sensory input from ectopic structures and incorporate them into adaptive behavioral programs. This tractable new model for understanding the robust plasticity of the central nervous system has significant implications for regenerative medicine and sensory augmentation technology. PMID:23447666

Blackiston, Douglas J.; Levin, Michael



Time Course of Sensory Eye Irritation in Humans Exposed to N-Butanol and 1-Octene  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated the time course effect of sensory eye irritation in 16 subjects exposed (i.e., eye only) to n-butanol and 1-octene. Half the subjects were exposed to n-butanol, and the remaining subjects were exposed to 1-octene. Each subject was studied on 5 different days; during each day each subject was exposed in three runs (i.e., run 1,

Anne Hempel-Jørgensen; S. K. Kjaergaard; L. Môlhave; H. K. Hudnell



Discovery of some 400 million year-old sensory structures in the compound eyes of trilobites  

PubMed Central

Fossilised arthropod compound eyes have frequently been described. Among the oldest known are those from the lower Cambrian of the Chengjiang Lagerstätte (China, c 525?Ma). All these compound eyes, though often excellently preserved, however, represent just the outer shells, because soft tissues, or even individual cells, usually do not fossilise. Using modern techniques, including ?ct-scanning and synchrotron radiation analysis we present the discovery of the sensory cell system of compound eyes, belonging to trilobites around 400 million years old, which allows their description and analysis. They are interpreted as forming part of an apposition-like ommatidium, which is a basic functional type of compound eye present in arthropods of today. Considered in greater detail, it is similar to the compound eye of the horseshoe crab Limulus, generally regarded as a ‘living fossil’, which probably retained this ancient basal system successfully until today. PMID:23492459

Schoenemann, Brigitte; Clarkson, Euan N. K.



Discovery of some 400 million year-old sensory structures in the compound eyes of trilobites.  


Fossilised arthropod compound eyes have frequently been described. Among the oldest known are those from the lower Cambrian of the Chengjiang Lagerstätte (China, c 525 Ma). All these compound eyes, though often excellently preserved, however, represent just the outer shells, because soft tissues, or even individual cells, usually do not fossilise. Using modern techniques, including ?ct-scanning and synchrotron radiation analysis we present the discovery of the sensory cell system of compound eyes, belonging to trilobites around 400 million years old, which allows their description and analysis. They are interpreted as forming part of an apposition-like ommatidium, which is a basic functional type of compound eye present in arthropods of today. Considered in greater detail, it is similar to the compound eye of the horseshoe crab Limulus, generally regarded as a 'living fossil', which probably retained this ancient basal system successfully until today. PMID:23492459

Schoenemann, Brigitte; Clarkson, Euan N K



Palmoplantar keratoderma, nail dystrophy, and hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy: an autosomal dominant trait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal dominant inheritance of a syndrome comprising palmoplantar keratoderma, nail dystrophy, and hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) was observed in three generations of one family. Nail dystrophy affected the toe and fingernails; it was present at birth or developed during early childhood. Palmoplantar keratoderma became apparent in later childhood. Each subject with nail dystrophy and keratoderma also had clinical

J L Tolmie; D E Wilcox; R McWilliam; A Assindi; J B Stephenson



Social dominance and migratory restlessness in the dark-eyed junco ( Junco hyemalis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

I investigated the effect of restricted food and social dominance on nocturnal migratory activity (Zugunruhe) in dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) in late fall and winter. Highly restricted food tended to increase Zugunruhe in both dominant and subordinate members of pairs, however, subordinates showed significantly more migratory activity than dominants or solitary controls. Further, subordinate birds continued Zugunruhe after dominants and

Scott B. Terrill



Keep your head on straight: Facilitating sensori-motor transformations for eye-hand coordination.  


In many day-to-day situations humans manifest a marked tendency to hold the head vertical while performing sensori-motor actions. For instance, when performing coordinated whole-body motor tasks, such as skiing, gymnastics or simply walking, and even when driving a car, human subjects will strive to keep the head aligned with the gravito-inertial vector. Until now, this phenomenon has been thought of as a means to limit variations of sensory signals emanating from the eyes and inner ears. Recent theories suggest that for the task of aligning the hand to a target, the CNS compares target and hand concurrently in both visual and kinesthetic domains, rather than combining sensory data into a single, multimodal reference frame. This implies that when sensory information is lacking in one modality, it must be 'reconstructed' based on information from the other. Here we asked subjects to reach to a visual target with the unseen hand. In this situation, the CNS might reconstruct the orientation of the target in kinesthetic space or reconstruct the orientation of the hand in visual space, or both. By having subjects tilt the head during target acquisition or during movement execution, we show a greater propensity to perform the sensory reconstruction that can be achieved when the head is held upright. These results suggest that the reason humans tend to keep their head upright may also have to do with how the brain manipulates and stores spatial information between reference frames and between sensory modalities, rather than only being tied to the specific problem of stabilizing visual and vestibular inputs. PMID:23732231

Tagliabue, M; Arnoux, L; McIntyre, J



Social transmission of the sensory benefits of eye widening in fear expressions.  


Facial expressions may have originated from a primitive sensory regulatory function that was then co-opted and further shaped for the purposes of social utility. In the research reported here, we tested such a hypothesis by investigating the functional origins of fear expressions for both the expresser and the observer. We first found that fear-based eye widening enhanced target discrimination in the available visual periphery of the expresser by 9.4%. We then found that fear-based eye widening enhanced observers' discrimination of expressers' gaze direction and facilitated observers' responses when locating eccentric targets. We present evidence that this benefit was driven by neither the perceived emotion nor attention but, rather, by an enhanced physical signal originating from greater exposure of the iris and sclera. These results highlight the coevolution of sensory and social regulatory functions of emotional expressions by showing that eye widening serves to enhance processing of important environmental events in the visual fields of both expresser and observer. PMID:23620549

Lee, Daniel H; Susskind, Joshua M; Anderson, Adam K



Development and sensory acceptability of crackers made from the big-eye fish (Brachydeuterus auritus).  


The big-eye (Brachydeuterus auritus), which is present in a large biomass in the Gulf of Guinea, is generally considered an underutilized fish species. In an attempt to add value, it was used to complement cassava starch (Manihot esculenta Crantz) to produce fish crackers. Three levels of fish (40%, 50%, and 60%) and three levels of starch (60%, 50%, and 40%) were used in the formulations. Proximate analyses and sensory evaluations were carried out. The protein, fat, and ash contents increased with an increase in the proportion of fish. The sensory evaluation tests showed that the most acceptable formulations for the crackers were obtained using 50% fish/50% starch and 40% fish/60% starch combinations. The linear expansion of the fried crackers increased with the increased proportion of fish. Production of fish crackers, apart from its appeal for increasing protein intake, has the potential to support a small regional snack factory in a developing economy. PMID:12362597

King, Modupe Abimbola



Development of a sensory neuronal cell model for the estimation of mild eye irritation.  


In an attempt to improve the in vitro test strategy for the estimation of eye irritation, a neuronal cell model has been developed, with cells expressing vanilloid receptor type 1 (VR1) nociceptors. The currently accepted method for measuring eye irritancy is the ethically and scientifically criticised Draize rabbit eye test, despite the fact that alternative in vitro methods are available which have proved to be reliable and reproducible for predicting severe ocular toxicity. However, no alternative tests for measuring neuronal stimulation have yet been developed, and the prediction of eye irritation in the mild range is therefore insufficient. VR1 is a nociceptor localised in C-fibre neurons innervating the cornea and the surrounding tissue, and it responds to potentially damaging stimuli by releasing Ca2+ into the cytoplasm. As a sensory endpoint, [Ca2+]i was measured in VR1 transfected cells, as well as in control cells. Short-term cell cytotoxicity studies (cell membrane rupture and morphological divergence) were used to determine the non-corrosive concentrations of the test chemicals. Preliminary results indicated that hygiene products used daily may induce eye irritation via VR1 nociceptors. The lowest toxic concentration (0.025%) of liquid hand soap, as determined by morphologic divergences of cells, generated an 80% increase in [Ca2+]i over the basal [Ca2+]i in VR1 transfected cells, whereas the non-specific [Ca2+]i increased by 33%. Furthermore, all the endpoints studied indicated that shampoo for children was less active than shampoo for adults. If this method is successfully validated with standardised reference chemicals, the model could complete the test battery of in vitro alternatives, resulting in the saving of thousands of laboratory animals. PMID:15651917

Lilja, Johanna; Forsby, Anna



Costs of switching social groups for dominant and subordinate dark-eyed juncos ( Junco hyemalis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

I quantified the costs of switching from a familiar to an unfamiliar flock for captive dark-eyed juncos (Junco h. hyemalis) by measuring several physiological and behavioral variables before and after flock switching. Birds that were initially dominant dropped in status in unfamiliar flocks, and experienced increased metabolic rates, while subordinate birds appeared to undergo less physiological change when switching flocks.

Daniel A. Cristoll



Effects of eye dominance (left vs. right) and cannabis use on intermanual coordination and negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients.  


Based on the previous findings, it has been assumed that in schizophrenia patients, eye dominance and cannabis use will affect negative symptoms and intermanual coordination (IMC), an index of interhemispheric communication. But eye dominance, specifically the clinical findings for it, has been neglected in schizophrenia research. We therefore investigated its effects in 52 right-handed (36 right-eyed and 16 left-eyed) and 51 left-handed (35 left-eyed and 16 right-eyed) schizophrenia in-patients without and with drug use. Eye dominance affected IMC in all schizophrenia patients. When comparing right- and left-handers, we found that this result was only significant in the right-handed patients and in the smaller subgroup without drug use. In the right-handers, left eye dominance-like left-handedness-was associated with higher values in IMC and less pronounced manifestation of negative symptoms, right eye dominance was not. Thus, left-eyed right-handers may be more closely related to left-handers than to right-handers. In accordance with the results from the literature, we suggest that these findings are due to better interhemispheric connections and less impairment of white matter structures, especially in right-hemispheric regions. Moreover, cannabis use was related to higher scores in IMC and less pronounced negative symptoms, but only in the right-eyed and not in the left-eyed right-handers or in the left-handers. Hence, differences in eye dominance and handedness may be partially responsible for different results in interhemispheric connections among cannabis users. In conclusion, both eye dominance and use of cannabis should be taken into account when assessing clinical symptoms in schizophrenia patients. PMID:24792218

Gorynia, Inge; Schwaiger, Markus; Heinz, Andreas



Nomen est omen: Investigating the dominance of nouns in word comprehension with eye movement analyses.  

PubMed Central

Although nouns are easily learned in early stages of lexical development, their role in adult word and text comprehension remains unexplored thus far. To investigate the role of different word classes (open-class words: nouns, adjectives, verbs; closed-class words: pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, etc.), 141 participants read a transposed German text while recording eye movements. Subsequently, participants indicated words they found difficult and reproduced the story. Then, participants were presented an untransposed text version while also tracking eye movements. Word difficulty, subjectively assessed by an interview and objectively by eye movement criteria (general fixation rate, number of fixations on specific words), text comprehension scores, and regressive fixations from one word class to another in the transposed text indicated that the noun was the most influential word class in enhancing the comprehension of other words. Developmental, intercultural, and neurophysiological aspects of noun dominance are discussed. PMID:20523853

Furtner, Marco R.; Rauthmann, John F.; Sachse, Pierre



Prevalence of Mutations in eyeGENE Probands With a Diagnosis of Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To screen samples from patients with presumed autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) for mutations in 12 disease genes as a contribution to the research and treatment goals of the National Ophthalmic Disease Genotyping and Phenotyping Network (eyeGENE). Methods. DNA samples were obtained from eyeGENE. A total of 170 probands with an intake diagnosis of adRP were tested through enrollment in eyeGENE. The 10 most common genes causing adRP (IMPDH1, KLHL7, NR2E3, PRPF3/RP18, PRPF31/RP11, PRPF8/RP13, PRPH2/RDS, RHO, RP1, and TOPORS) were chosen for PCR-based dideoxy sequencing, along with the two X-linked RP genes, RPGR and RP2. RHO, PRPH2, PRPF31, RPGR, and RP2 were completely sequenced, while only mutation hotspots in the other genes were analyzed. Results. Disease-causing mutations were identified in 52% of the probands. The frequencies of disease-causing mutations in the 12 genes were consistent with previous studies. Conclusions. The Laboratory for Molecular Diagnosis of Inherited Eye Disease at the University of Texas in Houston has thus far received DNA samples from 170 families with a diagnosis of adRP from the eyeGENE Network. Disease-causing mutations in autosomal genes were identified in 48% (81/170) of these families while mutations in X-linked genes accounted for an additional 4% (7/170). Of the 55 distinct mutations detected, 19 (33%) have not been previously reported. All diagnostic results were returned by eyeGENE to participating patients via their referring clinician. These genotyped samples along with their corresponding phenotypic information are also available to researchers who may request access to them for further study of these ophthalmic disorders. ( number, NCT00378742.) PMID:23950152

Sullivan, Lori S.; Bowne, Sara J.; Reeves, Melissa J.; Blain, Delphine; Goetz, Kerry; NDifor, Vida; Vitez, Sally; Wang, Xinjing; Tumminia, Santa J.; Daiger, Stephen P.



Anim. Behav., 1989,37,498-506 Does dominance determine how far dark-eyed juncos, Junco hyemulis,  

E-print Network

. The outcomes of interactions within dyads of dark-eyed juncos, Junco hyemalis, were observed. Each dyadAnim. Behav., 1989,37,498-506 Does dominance determine how far dark-eyed juncos, Junco hyemulis consisted of a junco caught in winter in Michigan matched with another of the same sex-age class caught

Theimer, Tad


Novel Dominant-Negative Mutation Within the Six Domain of the Conserved Eye Specification Gene sine oculis Inhibits Eye Development in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

The development of the compound eye of Drosophila is controlled, in part, by the concerted actions of several nuclear proteins that form an intricate regulatory system. One member of this network is sine oculis (so), the founding member of the Six gene family. Mutations within so affect the entire visual system, including the compound eye. The vertebrate homologs Six3 and Six6 also appear to play crucial roles in retinal formation. Mutations in Six3 inhibit retinal formation in chickens and fish, whereas those in Six6 are the underlying cause of bilateral anophthalmia in humans. Together, these phenotypes suggest a conserved role for the Six genes in eye development. In this report, we describe the effects of a dominant-negative mutation of sine oculis on the development of the compound eye of Drosophila. The mutation resides within the Six domain and may have implications for eye development and disease. PMID:15704100

Roederer, Kristin; Cozy, Loralyn; Anderson, Jason; Kumar, Justin P.



Binocular Neurons in Parastriate Cortex: Interocular 'Matching' of Receptive Field Properties, Eye Dominance and Strength of Silent Suppression  

PubMed Central

Spike-responses of single binocular neurons were recorded from a distinct part of primary visual cortex, the parastriate cortex (cytoarchitectonic area 18) of anaesthetized and immobilized domestic cats. Functional identification of neurons was based on the ratios of phase-variant (F1) component to the mean firing rate (F0) of their spike-responses to optimized (orientation, direction, spatial and temporal frequencies and size) sine-wave-luminance-modulated drifting grating patches presented separately via each eye. In over 95% of neurons, the interocular differences in the phase-sensitivities (differences in F1/F0 spike-response ratios) were small (?0.3) and in over 80% of neurons, the interocular differences in preferred orientations were ?10°. The interocular correlations of the direction selectivity indices and optimal spatial frequencies, like those of the phase sensitivies and optimal orientations, were also strong (coefficients of correlation r ?0.7005). By contrast, the interocular correlations of the optimal temporal frequencies, the diameters of summation areas of the excitatory responses and suppression indices were weak (coefficients of correlation r ?0.4585). In cells with high eye dominance indices (HEDI cells), the mean magnitudes of suppressions evoked by stimulation of silent, extra-classical receptive fields via the non-dominant eyes, were significantly greater than those when the stimuli were presented via the dominant eyes. We argue that the well documented ‘eye-origin specific’ segregation of the lateral geniculate inputs underpinning distinct eye dominance columns in primary visual cortices of mammals with frontally positioned eyes (distinct eye dominance columns), combined with significant interocular differences in the strength of silent suppressive fields, putatively contribute to binocular stereoscopic vision. PMID:24927276

Wang, Chun; Dreher, Bogdan



Binocular Summation and Other Forms of Non-Dominant Eye Contribution in Individuals with Strabismic Amblyopia during Habitual Viewing  

PubMed Central

Background Adults with amblyopia (‘lazy eye’), long-standing strabismus (ocular misalignment) or both typically do not experience visual symptoms because the signal from weaker eye is given less weight than the signal from its fellow. Here we examine the contribution of the weaker eye of individuals with strabismus and amblyopia with both eyes open and with the deviating eye in its anomalous motor position. Methodology/Results The task consisted of a blue-on-yellow detection task along a horizontal line across the central 50 degrees of the visual field. We compare the results obtained in ten individuals with strabismic amblyopia with ten visual normals. At each field location in each participant, we examined how the sensitivity exhibited under binocular conditions compared with sensitivity from four predictions, (i) a model of binocular summation, (ii) the average of the monocular sensitivities, (iii) dominant-eye sensitivity or (iv) non-dominant-eye sensitivity. The proportion of field locations for which the binocular summation model provided the best description of binocular sensitivity was similar in normals (50.6%) and amblyopes (48.2%). Average monocular sensitivity matched binocular sensitivity in 14.1% of amblyopes’ field locations compared to 8.8% of normals’. Dominant-eye sensitivity explained sensitivity at 27.1% of field locations in amblyopes but 21.2% in normals. Non-dominant-eye sensitivity explained sensitivity at 10.6% of field locations in amblyopes but 19.4% in normals. Binocular summation provided the best description of the sensitivity profile in 6/10 amblyopes compared to 7/10 of normals. In three amblyopes, dominant-eye sensitivity most closely reflected binocular sensitivity (compared to two normals) and in the remaining amblyope, binocular sensitivity approximated to an average of the monocular sensitivities. Conclusions Our results suggest a strong positive contribution in habitual viewing from the non-dominant eye in strabismic amblyopes. This is consistent with evidence from other sources that binocular mechanisms are frequently intact in strabismic and amblyopic individuals. PMID:24205005

Barrett, Brendan T.; Panesar, Gurvinder K.; Scally, Andrew J.; Pacey, Ian E.




EPA Science Inventory

Threshold responses of odor, nasal pungency (irritation), and eye irritation were measured for single chemicals (1-propanol, 1-hexanol, ethyl acetate, heptyl acetate, 2-pentanone, 2-heptanone, toluene, ethyl benzene, and propyl benzene) and mixtures of them (two three-component m...


Multiple manifestations of microstimulation in the optic tectum: eye movements, pupil dilations, and sensory priming.  


It is well established that the optic tectum (or its mammalian homologue, the superior colliculus) is involved in directing gaze toward salient stimuli. However, salient stimuli typically induce orienting responses beyond gaze shifts. The role of the optic tectum in generating responses such as pupil dilation, galvanic responses, or covert shifts is not clear. In the present work, we studied the effects of microstimulation in the optic tectum of the barn owl (Tyto alba) on pupil diameter and on eye shifts. Experiments were conducted in lightly anesthetized head-restrained barn owls. We report that low-level microstimulation in the deep layers of the optic tectum readily induced pupil dilation responses (PDRs), as well as small eye movements. Electrically evoked PDRs, similar to acoustically evoked PDRs, were long-lasting and habituated to repeated stimuli. We further show that microstimulation in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus also induced PDRs. Finally, in experiments in which tectal microstimulations were coupled with acoustic stimuli, we show a tendency of the microstimulation to enhance pupil responses and eye shifts to previously habituated acoustic stimuli. The enhancement was dependent on the site of stimulation in the tectal spatial map; responses to sounds with spatial cues that matched the site of stimulation were more enhanced compared with sounds with spatial cues that did not match. These results suggest that the optic tectum is directly involved in autonomic orienting reflexes as well as in gaze shifts, highlighting the central role of the optic tectum in mediating the body responses to salient stimuli. PMID:20427617

Netser, Shai; Ohayon, Shay; Gutfreund, Yoram



Increased Prevalences of Left-handedness and Left-eye Sighting Dominance in Individuals with Williams-Beuren Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Handedness and eye sighting dominance were assessed in a sample of 50 individuals (25 male, 25 female; aged 5–38 years) with Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS). The prevalences of left-handedness and left-eyedness were compared to the normative prevalences in the general population. We found significantly higher prevalences of left-handedness and left-eyedness in the WBS sample. The higher prevalences were more salient in

J. W. Van Strien; G. C. Lagers-Van Haselen; J. M. Van Hagen; I. F. M. De Coo; M. A. Frens; J. N. Van Der Geest



Increased prevalences of left-handedness and left-eye sighting dominance in individuals with Williams-Beuren syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Handedness and eye sighting dominance were assessed in a sample of 50 individuals (25 male, 25 female; aged 5 – 38 years) with Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS). The prevalences of left-handedness and left-eyedness were compared to the normative prevalences in the general population. We found significantly higher prevalences of left-handedness and left-eyedness in the WBS sample. The higher prevalences were more

Strien van J. W



Response variability of frontal eye field neurons modulates with sensory input and saccade preparation but not visual search salience  

PubMed Central

Discharge rate modulation of frontal eye field (FEF) neurons has been identified with a representation of visual search salience (physical conspicuity and behavioral relevance) and saccade preparation. We tested whether salience or saccade preparation are evident in the trial-to-trial variability of discharge rate. We quantified response variability via the Fano factor in FEF neurons recorded in monkeys performing efficient and inefficient visual search tasks. Response variability declined following stimulus presentation in most neurons, but despite clear discharge rate modulation, variability did not change with target salience. Instead, we found that response variability was modulated by stimulus luminance and the number of items in the visual field independently of attentional demands. Response variability declined to a minimum before saccade initiation, and presaccadic response variability was directionally tuned. In addition, response variability was correlated with the response time of memory-guided saccades. These results indicate that the trial-by-trial response variability of FEF neurons reflects saccade preparation and the strength of sensory input, but not visual search salience or attentional allocation. PMID:22956785

Purcell, Braden A.; Heitz, Richard P.; Cohen, Jeremiah Y.




Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines some consequences of changes in the membership and lo- cation of winter flocks of Dark-eyed Juncos (Junco hyemalis). Among captives, intragroup social relationships seldom were affected by separation from or subsequent reunion with another portion of the home flock, by amalgamation with or separation from a foreign flock, or by changes in flock location. Foreign flock members



Pterygotus eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Like many modern and fossil arthropods, eurypterids had compound eyes and other sensory devices. Many eurypterids display small, bean-shaped eyes which are oriented for side viewing. The large bulbous eyes of Pterygotus are located on the edge of the head and were probably useful for looking both laterally and vertically.



Gender and Facial Dominance in Gaze Cuing: Emotional Context Matters in the Eyes That We Follow  

PubMed Central

Gaze following is a socio-cognitive process that provides adaptive information about potential threats and opportunities in the individual’s environment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential interaction between emotional context and facial dominance in gaze following. We used the gaze cue task to induce attention to or away from the location of a target stimulus. In the experiment, the gaze cue either belonged to a (dominant looking) male face or a (non-dominant looking) female face. Critically, prior to the task, individuals were primed with pictures of threat or no threat to induce either a dangerous or safe environment. Findings revealed that the primed emotional context critically influenced the gaze cuing effect. While a gaze cue of the dominant male face influenced performance in both the threat and no-threat conditions, the gaze cue of the non-dominant female face only influenced performance in the no-threat condition. This research suggests an implicit, context-dependent follower bias, which carries implications for research on visual attention, social cognition, and leadership. PMID:23573199

Ohlsen, Garian; van Zoest, Wieske; van Vugt, Mark



Does dominance of crossing retinal ganglion cells make the eyes cross? The temporal retina in the origin of infantile esotropia – a neuroanatomical and evolutionary analysis.  


A closer look at the evolution of the eye and the brain provides a possible explanation for both the origin of infantile esotropia and its motor characteristics. In the course of evolution, the eyes have moved from a lateral to a frontal position. Consequently, the monocular visual fields started to overlap resulting in a binocular visual field. In lateral-eyed animals, the retinae project to the contralateral visual cortices only. These projections are also found in binocular mammals and birds with binocular visual fields but in addition there are uncrossed projections from the temporal retinae to the visual cortex. The partial chiasmal decussation and the corpus callosum provide the necessary structure that allows binocular vision to develop. Disruption of normal binocular development causes a loss of binocularity in the primary visual cortex and beyond. Beyond the primary visual cortex, the contralateral eye dominates while the temporal retinal signal appears to lose influence. Loss or absence of binocular vision in infantile esotropia may be caused by inadequate retinotopic matching between the nasal and temporal retinal signals like in albinism with an abnormal or asymmetric chiasmal decussation or agenesis of the corpus callosum. Dominance of the crossing retinal signal might also explain the motor characteristics of infantile esotropia (asymmetric OKN, latent nystagmus, DVD). A normal binocular cortical signal will predominate over the evolutionary older, originally non-binocular, retinal projections to the superior colliculi (CS) and the accessory optic system (AOS). A suppressed temporal retinal signal paves the way for the re-emergence of eye movements driven by one eye, as in lateral-eyed non-binocular animals. PMID:25259397

ten Tusscher, Marcel P M



Fear and power-dominance drive motivation: neural representations and pathways mediating sensory and mnemonic inputs, and outputs to premotor structures.  


Based on the available literature on activation of brain structures by fear- and anger-inducing stimuli, on the effects of electrical and chemical stimulation and lesions of candidate structures, and on connectional data, we propose that both the fear and power-dominance drives are represented in four distinct locations: the medial hypothalamus, lateral/dorsolateral periaqueductal gray, midline thalamic nuclei, and medial prefrontal cortex. The hypothalamic fear representation is located in the dorsomedial and posterior hypothalamic nuclei, the midbrain representation in the caudal part of the lateral/dorsolateral periaqueductal gray, the thalamic representation primarily in parts of the paraventricular and reuniens thalamic nuclei, and the cortical representation in prelimbic cortex. The hypothalamic power-dominance representation is located in the anterior hypothalamic nucleus, dorsomedial aspect of the ventromedial nucleus, and in adjacent parts of the medial preoptic area. The corresponding midbrain representation occurs in rostral part of the lateral/dorsolateral periaqueductal gray, and the thalamic representation in parts of the paraventricular, parataenial, and reuniens thalamic nuclei. We discuss sensory/mnemonic inputs to these representations, and outputs to premotor structures in the medulla, caudate-putamen, and cortex, and their differential contributions to involuntary, learned sequential, and voluntary motor acts. We examine potential contributions of neuronal activities in these representations to the subjective awareness of fear and anger. PMID:12367590

Sewards, Terence V; Sewards, Mark A



Learning to breathe: control of the inspiratory-expiratory phase transition shifts from sensory- to central-dominated during postnatal development in rats  

PubMed Central

The hallmark of the dynamic regulation of the transitions between inspiration and expiration is the timing of the inspiratory off-switch (IOS) mechanisms. IOS is mediated by pulmonary vagal afferent feedback (Breuer–Hering reflex) and by central interactions involving the Kölliker–Fuse nuclei (KFn). We hypothesized that the balance between these two mechanisms controlling IOS may change during postnatal development. We tested this hypothesis by comparing neural responses to repetitive rhythmic vagal stimulation, at a stimulation frequency that paces baseline breathing, using in situ perfused brainstem preparations of rats at different postnatal ages. At ages < P15 (P, postnatal days), phrenic nerve activity (PNA) was immediately paced and entrained to the afferent input and this pattern remained unchanged by repetitive stimulations, indicating that vagal input stereotypically dominated the control of IOS. In contrast, PNA entrainment at > P15 was initially insignificant, but increased after repetitive vagal stimulation or lung inflation. This progressive adaption of PNA to the pattern of the sensory input was accompanied by the emergence of anticipatory centrally mediated IOS preceding the stimulus trains. The anticipatory IOS was blocked by bilateral microinjections of NMDA receptor antagonists into the KFn and PNA was immediately paced and entrained, as it was seen at ages < P15. We conclude that as postnatal maturation advances, synaptic mechanisms involving NMDA receptors in the KFn can override the vagally evoked IOS after ‘training’ using repetitive stimulation trials. The anticipatory IOS may imply a hitherto undescribed form of pattern learning and recall in convergent sensory and central synaptic pathways that mediate IOS. PMID:19703965

Dutschmann, Mathias; Morschel, Michael; Rybak, Ilya A; Dick, Thomas E



The dominant mutation Glazed is a gain-of-function allele of wingless that, similar to loss of APC, interferes with normal eye development.  


Dominant mutations have served as invaluable tools for Drosophila geneticists. Here we analyze the dominant eye mutation Glazed (Gla) that was described by T. H. Morgan more than 50 years ago. We show that Gla causes the loss of photoreceptor cells during pupal stages, in a process reminiscent of apoptosis, with a concomitant overproduction of eye pigment. This phenotype is very similar to that caused by the loss of D-APC, a negative regulator of Wingless (Wg) signal transduction. Genetic analyses reveal however that the Gla gain-of-function phenotype can be reverted to wild-type. By generating a P-element-induced revertant of Gla we demonstrate that Gla is allelic to wg. The molecular lesion in Gla indicates that the insertion of a roo retrotransposon leads to ectopic expression of wg during pupal stages. We show that the Gla phenotype is similar to that caused by ectopic expression of Wg driven by the sevenless (sev) enhancer. In both cases Wg exerts its effect, at least in part, by negatively regulating the expression of the Pax2 homolog sparkling (spa). Gla represents not only the first dominant allele of wg, but it may also be the first allele ever described for wg. PMID:9986731

Brunner, E; Brunner, D; Fu, W; Hafen, E; Basler, K



The Drosophila T-box transcription factor Midline functions within the Notch-Delta signaling pathway to specify sensory organ precursor cell fates and regulates cell survival within the eye imaginal disc.  


We report that the T-box transcription factor Midline (Mid), an evolutionary conserved homolog of the vertebrate Tbx20 protein, functions within the Notch-Delta signaling pathway essential for specifying the fates of sensory organ precursor (SOP) cells. These findings complement an established history of research showing that Mid regulates the cell-fate specification of diverse cell types within the developing heart, epidermis and central nervous system. Tbx20 has been detected in unique neuronal and epithelial cells of embryonic eye tissues in both mice and humans. However, the mechanisms by which either Mid or Tbx20 function to regulate cell-fate specification or other critical aspects of eye development including cell survival have not yet been elucidated. We have also gathered preliminary evidence suggesting that Mid may play an indirect, but vital role in selecting SOP cells within the third-instar larval eye disc by regulating the expression of the proneural gene atonal. During subsequent pupal stages, Mid specifies SOP cell fates as a member of the Notch-Delta signaling hierarchy and is essential for maintaining cell viability by inhibiting apoptotic pathways. We present several new hypotheses that seek to understand the role of Mid in regulating developmental processes downstream of the Notch receptor that are critical for specifying unique cell fates, patterning the adult eye and maintaining cellular homeostasis during eye disc morphogenesis. PMID:23962751

Das, Sudeshna; Chen, Q Brent; Saucier, Joseph D; Drescher, Brandon; Zong, Yan; Morgan, Sarah; Forstall, John; Meriwether, Andrew; Toranzo, Randy; Leal, Sandra M



Signaling by Sensory Receptors  

PubMed Central

Sensory systems detect small molecules, mechanical perturbations, or radiation via the activation of receptor proteins and downstream signaling cascades in specialized sensory cells. In vertebrates, the two principal categories of sensory receptors are ion channels, which mediate mechanosensation, thermosensation, and acid and salt taste; and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which mediate vision, olfaction, and sweet, bitter, and umami tastes. GPCR-based signaling in rods and cones illustrates the fundamental principles of rapid activation and inactivation, signal amplification, and gain control. Channel-based sensory systems illustrate the integration of diverse modulatory signals at the receptor, as seen in the thermosensory/pain system, and the rapid response kinetics that are possible with direct mechanical gating of a channel. Comparisons of sensory receptor gene sequences reveal numerous examples in which gene duplication and sequence divergence have created novel sensory specificities. This is the evolutionary basis for the observed diversity in temperature- and ligand-dependent gating among thermosensory channels, spectral tuning among visual pigments, and odorant binding among olfactory receptors. The coding of complex external stimuli by a limited number of sensory receptor types has led to the evolution of modality-specific and species-specific patterns of retention or loss of sensory information, a filtering operation that selectively emphasizes features in the stimulus that enhance survival in a particular ecological niche. The many specialized anatomic structures, such as the eye and ear, that house primary sensory neurons further enhance the detection of relevant stimuli. PMID:22110046

Julius, David; Nathans, Jeremy



Distinctive features of adult ocular dominance plasticity  

PubMed Central

Sensory experience profoundly shapes neural circuitry of juvenile brain. Although the visual cortex of adult rodents retains a capacity for plasticity in response to monocular visual deprivation, the nature of this plasticity and the neural circuit changes that accompany it remain enigmatic. Here we investigate differences between adult and juvenile ocular dominance plasticity using Fourier optical imaging of intrinsic signals in mouse visual cortex. This comparison reveals that adult plasticity takes longer than in the juvenile mouse, is of smaller magnitude, has a greater contribution from the increase in response to the open eye, and has less effect on the hemisphere ipsilateral to the deprived eye. Binocular deprivation also causes different changes in the adult. Adult plasticity is similar to juvenile plasticity in its dependence on signaling through NMDA receptors. We propose that adult ocular dominance plasticity arises from compensatory mechanisms that counterbalance the loss of afferent activity caused by visual deprivation. PMID:18842887

Sato, Masaaki; Stryker, Michael P.



Eye Allergies  


... Eye Health News Consumer Alerts What Are Eye Allergies? Tweet Eye allergies, called allergic conjunctivitis , are a common condition that ... spread from person to person. What Are Eye Allergies? Eye Allergy Symptoms What Causes Eye Allergies? Eye ...


Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I) is a slowly progressive neurological disorder characterised by prominent predominantly distal sensory loss, autonomic disturbances, autosomal dominant inheritance, and juvenile or adulthood disease onset. The exact prevalence is unknown, but is estimated as very low. Disease onset varies between the 2nd and 5th decade of life. The main clinical feature of HSN I

Michaela Auer-Grumbach



Sensory syndromes.  


Somatosensory deficit syndromes represent a common impairment following stroke and have a prevalence rate of around 80% in stroke survivors. These deficits restrict the ability of survivors to explore and manipulate their environment and are generally associated with a negative impact on quality of life and personal safety. Sensory impairments affect different sensory modalities in diverse locations at varying degrees, ranging from complete hemianesthesia of multiple modalities to dissociated impairment of somatosensory submodalities within a particular region of the body. Sensory impairments induce typical syndromal patterns which can be differentiated by means of a careful neurological examination, allowing the investigator to deduce location and size of the underlying stroke. In particular, a stroke located in the brainstem, thalamus, and the corticoparietal cortex result in well-differentiable sensory syndromes. Sensory function following stroke can be regained during rehabilitation even without specific sensory training. However, there is emerging evidence that specialized sensory interventions can result in improvement of somatosensory and motor function. Herein, we summarize the clinical presentations, examination, differential diagnoses, and therapy of sensory syndromes in stroke. PMID:22377851

Klingner, Carsten M; Witte, Otto W; Günther, Albrecht



Sensory deprivation versus sensory variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared verbal and physiological reactions to sensory deprivation (SD) and extreme sensory variation (SV). 22 male undergraduates were confined to a cubicle for 8 hr. in each condition on 2 different occasions. 2 other 8-hr sessions were spent in a relatively normal, nonconfined condition. Ss found SD more boring, dislikable, and anxiety and depression provoking than SV. More unreality stress

Marvin Zuckerman; Harold Persky; Lynne Miller; Bernard Levine



Eye Cancer  


... Cancer > Eye Cancer: Overview Request Permissions Download PDF Eye Cancer: Overview This section has been reviewed and ... up Eye Cancer - Statistics › f t g e + Eye Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Eye Cancer Overview ...


Black Eye  


... Eye Health News Consumer Alerts What Is a Black Eye? Tweet Black eye is a phrase used to describe bruising ... dark bruising in the tissue. What Is a Black Eye? Black Eye Symptoms What Causes a Black ...


Sensory Jump Test as a measure of sensory (visual) lateralization in dogs ( Canis familiaris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory lateralization in dogs (n = 74) was investigated in this study using our innovation, the Sensory Jump Test. This required the modification of head halters to create three different ocular treatments (binocular, right, and left monocular vision) for eye preference assessment in a jumping task. Ten jumps were recorded as a jump set for each treatment. Measurements recorded included

Lisa M. Tomkins; Kent A. Williams; Peter C. Thomson; Paul D. McGreevy



Healthy Eyes  


... of this page please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking ... have a comprehensive dilated eye exam. Who Performs Eye Exams? An eye care professional is either an ...


Your Eyes  


... eye, you're right! What color is your iris? Your eyes are at work from the moment you wake ... iris, the pupil, and the anterior chamber. The iris (say: EYE-riss) is the colorful part of the eye. ...


Sensory irritation: risk assessment approaches.  


Irritation of eyes and upper airways--sensory irritation--is commonly used as a parameter for setting occupational exposure limits and is a common complaint in occupants of non-industrial buildings. Sensory irritation occurs from stimulation of receptors on trigeminal nerves. In general, chemically reactive compounds are more potent than non-reactive congeners. Animal studies allow prediction of sensory irritation effects in humans; the concentration-effect relationships are often steep. In humans, thresholds and suprathreshold effects can be obtained from short-term ( approximately seconds) exposures and from longer exposures ( approximately hours). Sensory irritation may develop over time and odour cues may influence reported sensory irritation symptoms; generally, the slope of the irritant effect is steeper than the slope of odour cues. A best available no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) should be based on a combined estimate from the three types of study. The NOAEL/5 is considered sufficient to protect individuals not especially sensitive. The present knowledge suggests that especially sensitive individuals may be protected by an additional uncertainty factor (UF) of 2, suggesting a combined UF of 10. In published studies, the combined UF is up to 300, highlighting the need of evidence-based UFs. Combined effects of sensory irritants can be considered additive as a first approximation. PMID:17241726

Nielsen, Gunnar Damgård; Wolkoff, Peder; Alarie, Yves



Visual fields, eye movements, and scanning behavior of a sit-and-wait predator, the black phoebe ( Sayornis nigricans )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foraging mode influences the dominant sensory modality used by a forager and likely the strategies of information gathering\\u000a used in foraging and anti-predator contexts. We assessed three components of visual information gathering in a sit-and-wait\\u000a avian predator, the black phoebe (Sayornis nigricans): configuration of the visual field, degree of eye movement, and scanning behavior through head-movement rates. We found\\u000a that

Megan D. Gall; Esteban Fernández-Juricic



Stance width changes how sensory feedback is used for multisegmental balance control.  


A multilink sensorimotor integration model of frontal plane balance control was developed to determine how stance width influences the use of sensory feedback in healthy adults. Data used to estimate model parameters came from seven human participants who stood on a continuously rotating surface with three different stimulus amplitudes, with eyes open and closed, and at four different stance widths. Dependent variables included lower body (LB) and upper body (UB) sway quantified by frequency-response functions. Results showed that stance width had a major influence on how parameters varied across stimulus amplitude and between visual conditions. Active mechanisms dominated LB control. At narrower stances, with increasing stimulus amplitude, subjects used sensory reweighting to shift reliance from proprioceptive cues to vestibular and/or visual cues that oriented the LB more toward upright. When vision was available, subjects reduced reliance on proprioception and increased reliance on vision. At wider stances, LB control did not exhibit sensory reweighting. In the UB system, both active and passive mechanisms contributed and were dependent on stance width. UB control changed across stimulus amplitude most in wide stance (opposite of the pattern found in LB control). The strong influence of stance width on sensory integration and neural feedback control implies that rehabilitative therapies for balance disorders can target different aspects of balance control by using different stance widths. Rehabilitative strategies designed to assess or modify sensory reweighting will be most effective with the use of narrower stances, whereas wider stances present greater challenges to UB control. PMID:24760788

Goodworth, Adam D; Mellodge, Patricia; Peterka, Robert J



Eye Injuries  


The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...


Eye Cancer  


Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...


Sensory Substitution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea that the cutaneous surface may be employed as a substitute for the eyes and ears is by no means a modern notion. Although the sense of touch has long been considered as a surrogate for both the visual and auditory modalities, the focus of this chapter will be on the efforts to develop a tactile substitute for hearing, especially that of human speech. The visual system is our primary means of processing information about environmental space such as orientation, distance, direction and size. It is much less effective in making temporal discriminations. The auditory system is unparalleled in processing information that involves rapid sequences of temporal events, such as speech and music. The tactile sense is capable of processing both spatial and temporal information although not as effective in either domain as the eye or the ear.

Verrillo, Ronald T.


Eye to Eye (Illuminations)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this two-day lesson plan students collect, display, and analyze data about the eye color of their classmates. On day one, students display the eye color data in a pictograph and discuss what questions can and cannot be answered using this graph. On the second day of the lesson, data from a partner class is used to create a second pictograph. Students then compare these graphs and determine what questions can and cannot be answered using these two graphs. Questions and extension suggestions (including making a circle graph to represent data) are also included in the lesson plan.



Specialist and Generalist Strategies in Sensory Evolution  

E-print Network

and Laryngology Harvard Medical School and Eaton Peabody Laboratory of Auditory Physiology Massachusetts Eye & Ear sensoryevolution, adaptability, spe- cialization, neurocomputation,evo- lutionary robotics Sensors are the conduits the sensory system to include not only the end-organs of sensation, which transduce physical energy

Cariani, Peter


Teaching through Sensory-Motor Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included in the collection are articles on sensory-motor sequencing experiences in learning by R.G. Heckelman, integrating form perception by Floria Coon-Teters, building patterns of retention by Harold Helms, hand-eye coordination by Shirley Linn, laterality and directionality by Sheila Benyon, body image and body awareness by Grace Petitclerc,…

Arena, John I., Ed.


Eye Anatomy  


... that the eye can handle. The Eye With Glaucoma In most types of glaucoma, the eye’s drainage system becomes clogged so the ... with “normal” IOP can experience vision loss from glaucoma. The Fluid Inside Aqueous humor is the clear, ...


Lateral asymmetry of eye use in Octopus vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lateralization of sensory and motor functions has been recently demonstrated in various groups of vertebrates. We examined lateral asymmetry of eye use in Octopus vulgaris by behavioural methods. Octopus vulgaris uses monocular vision almost exclusively and can move its eyes independently. The amount of binocular vision is small because the eyes are on the sides of the head. We

Ruth A. Byrne; Michael Kuba; Ulrike Griebel



The injured eye  

PubMed Central

Eye injuries come at a high cost to society and are avoidable. Ocular blast injuries can be primary, from the blast wave itself; secondary, from fragments carried by the blast wind; tertiary; due to structural collapse or being thrown against a fixed object; or quaternary, from burns and indirect injuries. Ballistic eye protection significantly reduces the incidence of eye injuries and should be encouraged from an early stage in Military training. Management of an injured eye requires meticulous history taking, evaluation of vision that measures the acuity and if there is a relative pupillary defect as well as careful inspection of the eyes, under anaesthetic if necessary. A lateral canthotomy with cantholysis should be performed immediately if there is a sight-threatening retrobulbar haemorrhage. Systemic antibiotics should be prescribed if there is a suspected penetrating or perforating injury. A ruptured globe should be protected by an eye shield. Primary repair of ruptured globes should be performed in a timely fashion. Secondary procedures will often be required at a later date to achieve sight preservation. A poor initial visual acuity is not a guarantee of a poor final result. The final result can be predicted after approximately 3–4 weeks. Future research in eye injuries attempts to reduce scarring and neuronal damage as well as to promote photoreceptor rescue, using post-transcriptional inhibition of cell death pathways and vaccination to promote neural recovery. Where the sight has been lost sensory substitution of a picture from a spectacle mounted video camera to the touch receptors of the tongue can be used to achieve appreciation of the outside world. PMID:21149360

Scott, Robert



The injured eye.  


Eye injuries come at a high cost to society and are avoidable. Ocular blast injuries can be primary, from the blast wave itself; secondary, from fragments carried by the blast wind; tertiary; due to structural collapse or being thrown against a fixed object; or quaternary, from burns and indirect injuries. Ballistic eye protection significantly reduces the incidence of eye injuries and should be encouraged from an early stage in Military training. Management of an injured eye requires meticulous history taking, evaluation of vision that measures the acuity and if there is a relative pupillary defect as well as careful inspection of the eyes, under anaesthetic if necessary. A lateral canthotomy with cantholysis should be performed immediately if there is a sight-threatening retrobulbar haemorrhage. Systemic antibiotics should be prescribed if there is a suspected penetrating or perforating injury. A ruptured globe should be protected by an eye shield. Primary repair of ruptured globes should be performed in a timely fashion. Secondary procedures will often be required at a later date to achieve sight preservation. A poor initial visual acuity is not a guarantee of a poor final result. The final result can be predicted after approximately 3-4 weeks. Future research in eye injuries attempts to reduce scarring and neuronal damage as well as to promote photoreceptor rescue, using post-transcriptional inhibition of cell death pathways and vaccination to promote neural recovery. Where the sight has been lost sensory substitution of a picture from a spectacle mounted video camera to the touch receptors of the tongue can be used to achieve appreciation of the outside world. PMID:21149360

Scott, Robert



Multisensory perceptual learning and sensory substitution.  


One of the most exciting recent findings in neuroscience has been the capacity for neural plasticity in adult humans and animals. Studies of perceptual learning have provided key insights into the mechanisms of neural plasticity and the changes in functional neuroanatomy that it affords. Key questions in this field of research concern how practice of a task leads to specific or general improvement. Although much of this work has been carried out with a focus on a single sensory modality, primarily visual, there is increasing interest in multisensory perceptual learning. Here we will examine how advances in perceptual learning research both inform and can be informed by the development and advancement of sensory substitution devices for blind persons. To allow 'sight' to occur in the absence of visual input through the eyes, visual information can be transformed by a sensory substitution device into a representation that can be processed as sound or touch, and thus give one the potential to 'see' through the ears or tongue. Investigations of auditory, visual and multisensory perceptual learning can have key benefits for the advancement of sensory substitution, and the study of sensory deprivation and sensory substitution likewise will further the understanding of perceptual learning in general and the reverse hierarchy theory in particular. It also has significant importance for the developing understanding of the brain in metamodal terms, where functional brain areas might be best defined by the computations they carry out rather than by their sensory-specific processing role. PMID:23220697

Proulx, Michael J; Brown, David J; Pasqualotto, Achille; Meijer, Peter



Dry Eye  


... in thyroid disease when the eye protrudes forward; cosmetic surgery, if the eyelids are opened too widely. Frequently ... disease when the eye protrudes forward or after cosmetic surgery if the eyelids are opened too widely, dry ...


Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Distinctive Features of Adult Ocular Dominance Plasticity  

E-print Network

and maintenance of proper function of its sensory systems, and sensory deprivation in early life can exert visual deprivation, the nature of this plasticity and the neural circuit changes that accompany to the open eye, and has less effect on the hemisphere ipsilateral to the deprived eye. Binocular deprivation

Stryker, Michael


Sensory deprivation and balance control in idiopathic scoliosis adolescent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Balance control is influenced by the availability and integrity of sensory inputs as well as the ability of the balance control\\u000a mechanisms to tailor the corrective action to the gravitational torque. In this study, to challenge balance control, visual\\u000a and ankle proprioceptive information were perturbed (eyes closed and\\/or tendon vibration). We masked sensory inputs in order:\\u000a (1) to test the

Martin Simoneau; Nadia Richer; Pierre Mercier; Paul Allard; Nomand Teasdale



Eye Complications  


... the pupil (which is a hole in the iris, the colored part of the eye), and then through a lens that performs more ... will be successful. The best results occur when sight is still normal. In photocoagulation , the eye care professional makes tiny burns on the retina ...


Eye Tracking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When we read, our eyes don't scan the lines at a constant speed. Rather, they move in fits and starts across the page, lingering on unfamiliar words and re-reading confusing phrases or sentences. In this Science Update, you'll hear how scientists can measure the way we process language by observing people's eye movements.

Science Update;



130 Dispatch Cortical development: With an eye on neurotrophins  

E-print Network

-9822 Sensory stimulation profoundly influences the formation of appropriate connections in the developing.) The formation of ocular dominance columns, and their reorganization following monocular deprivation, can underlie the shift in ocular dominance seen after monocular deprivation. Despite the simplicity

Ghosh, Anirvan


The cellular eye lens and crystallins of cubomedusan jellyfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrastructure and major soluble proteins of the transparent eye lens of two cubomedusan jellyfish,Tripedalia cystophora andCarybdea marsupialis, have been examined. Each species has two complex eyes (one large and one small) on four sensory structures called rhopalia. The lenses consist of closely spaced cells with few organelles. The lens is situated next to the retina, with only an acellular

Joram Piatigorsky; Joseph Horwitz; Toichiro Kuwabara; Charles E. Cutress



What's Dominant?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a class discussion format, the teacher presents background information about basic human genetics. The number of chromosomes in both body cells and egg and sperm cells is covered, as well as the concept of dominant and recessive alleles. Students determine whether or not they possess the dominant allele for the tongue-rolling gene as an example.

Engineering K-Ph.d. Program


Eye dilation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The iris is the colored part of the eye. The pupil is the dark circle in the middle of the iris. The iris causes the pupil to expand or contract depending on the amount of light in a given area. Once light passes through the pupil, a structure called the lens that is directly behind the pupil focuses the light at the back of the eye. The optic nerve, located at the back of the eye, takes the focused message and relays it to the brain where it is processed into an image.

Greyson Orlando (None;)



Eyes, Bulging  


... Manuals available in print, online, and as mobile applications. See more at Sections in Patients & ... Sometimes preceded by symptoms of sinusitis CT or MRI A mass in the eye socket such as ...


Sensory Conversion Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human body has five basic sensory functions: touch, vision, hearing, taste, and smell. The effectiveness of one or more of these human sensory functions can be impaired as a result of trauma, congenital defects, or the normal ageing process. Converting one type of function into another, or translating a function to a different part of the body, could result in a better quality of life for a person with diminished sensorial capabilities.

Medelius, Pedro


Eye Drop Tips  


... Putting in Eye Drops Prescription eye drops for glaucoma help maintain the pressure in your eye at ... a "Best Technique" for Putting in Eye Drops? Glaucoma Eye Drops: Suggestions on Use Glaucoma and the ...


Eye Injuries at Home  


... Eyes & the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Eye Injuries at Home Tweet You might think that ... the American National Standards Institute eye protection standard.) Eye Injury Risks in the House Using hazardous products ...


[Sensory Systems of Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter contains six articles: (1) "Early Flavor Experiences: When Do They Start?" Julie A. Mennella and Gary K. Beauchamp); (2) "Infant Massage" (Tiffany Field); (3) "The Infant's Sixth Sense: Awareness and Regulation of Bodily Processes" (Stephen W. Porges); (4) "Sensory Contributions to Action: A Sensory Integrative Approach" (Marie E.…

Zero To Three, 1993



New Angles on Motor and Sensory Coordination in Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of presentations that were included in the Medical Symposium at the 1998 Learning Disabilities Association conference. The symposium addressed vestibular control and eye movement, postural sway and balance, cerebellar dysfunction, the role of the frontal lobe, developmental coordination disorder, and sensory integration…

Goldey, Ellen S.



Binocular neurons of the rabbit's visual cortex: Effects of monocular sensory deprivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Rabbits were reared with the eyelids of one eye sutured closed (monocular sensory deprivation) from birth to approximately six months of age. Single neurons were then recorded from the binocular region of the visual cortex contralateral to the deprived eye. Unlike similar neurons from the cat, these cells showed a) no evidence of lowered spontaneous activity rates or sluggish and

Richard C. Van Sluyters; David L. Stewaet



Eye and orbit ultrasound  


Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... ophthalmology department of a hospital or clinic. Your eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound ...


Females competing to reproduce: Dominance matters but testosterone may not  

E-print Network

dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) had shown that experimental elevation of T increases social status rights reserved. Keywords: Challenge hypothesis; Dark-eyed junco; Junco hyemalis; Intrasexual aggression concentrations of T associated with dominance status in captive female juncos? Does dominance status influence


Eye Movement Disorders  


... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are: Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...


Preventing Eye Injuries  


... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Preventing Eye Injuries Tweet Protecting your eyes from injury is ... as possible, even if the injury seems minor. Eye Injury Facts and Myths Men are more likely ...


Smoking and Eye Health  


... Eyes & the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Smoking and Eye Health Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics ... vision may start to occur. Follow Us Avoiding smoking and second hand smoke—or quitting if you ...


Eye Level  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Eye level is an art blog written by a collaborative team at the Smithsonian American Art Museum (SAAM). According to the site, "... the conversation at Eye Level will be dedicated to American art and the ways in which the nation's art reflects its history and culture." The SAAM collection is meant as a foundation for the conversation on Eye Level. A recent post begins by talking about a road trip through the American West to see site-specific artwork, but at least one of the artists mentioned, Andrea Zittel, has a prior affiliation with SAAM. She was the 2005 Smithsonian Lucelia Artist Award winner, and the post links to prior entries on artwork at SAAM, both in and inspired by the American Southwest. These links were to works such as Robert Smithson's Spiral Jetty (an installation in the Great Salt Lake) and Albert Bierstadt's Among the Sierra Nevada, California, 1868. The February 1 post considers the future of art blogs, and the impact they may have on art criticism, museums, and the art world on the whole.


Environmental tobacco smoke: Sensory reactions of occupants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Occupants sat in a thermally-neutral environmental chamber for 2 h at a time and rated the following sensory attributes: magnitude of eye irritation and its acceptability, throat irritation and its acceptability, nose irritation and its acceptability, odor and its acceptability, and overall acceptability. Without the knowledge of the judges, cigarette smoking began at one or another time during occupancy. Smoking rate was tailored to achieve environmentally realistic levels of carbon monoxide, 2 ppm or 5 ppm above ambient background. Although the 2-ppm condition caused significant irritation above baseline, dissatisfaction among the occupants averaged only about 10%. The 5-ppm condition caused steadily increasing irritation and dissatisfaction in excess of 20% over time. Electrostatic precipitation of the paniculate matter diminished the magnitude of irritation and odor consistently, though not dramatically. It had a less consistent effect on dissatisfaction. Blockage of the nose via a noseclip in order to eliminate odor cues had no effect on eye irritation and implied that previous assessments of eye irritation in the presence of the possible biasing cue of odor can be trusted. The degree of dissatisfaction aroused from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) correlates very strongly with perceived intensity of irritation or odor, with overall dissatisfaction deriving almost exclusively from whichever channel (eyes, throat, etc.) is most severely affected.

Cain, William S.; Tosun, Tarik; See, Lai-Chu; Leaderer, Brian


Relationship between eye preference and binocular rivalry, and between eye-hand preference and reading ability in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

One goal of the experiment presented here was to check, in children, the relationship between eye preference when sighting at different angles and eye dominance in binocular rivalry. In addition, since it is sometimes argued that a crossed pattern of eye-hand preference might put children at risk of difficulties in learning to read, we evaluated the relationship between this pattern

J. Fagard; K. Monzalvo-Lopez; P. Mamassian



Comments on the eyes of tardigrades.  


A survey is given on the scarce information on the visual organs (eyes or ocelli) of Tardigrada. Many Eutardigrada and some Arthrotardigrada, namely the Echiniscidae, possess inverse pigment-cup ocelli, which are located in the outer lobe of the brain, and probably are of cerebral origin. Occurrence of such organs in tardigrades, suggested as being eyeless, has never been checked. Depending on the species, response to light (photokinesis) is negative, positive or indifferent, and may change during the ontogeny. The tardigrade eyes of the two eutardigrades examined up to now comprise a single pigment cup cell, one or two microvillous (rhabdomeric) sensory cells and ciliary sensory cell(s). In the eyes of the eutardigrade Milnesium tardigradum the cilia are differentiated in an outer branching segment and an inner (dendritic) segment. Because of the scarcity of information on the tardigrade eyes, their homology with the visual organs of other bilaterians is currently difficult to establish and further comparative studies are needed. Thus, the significance of these eyes for the evolution of arthropod visual systems is unclear yet. PMID:18089118

Greven, Hartmut



Headache Attributable to Disorders of the Eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory innervation to the eye and periocular area arises from the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve. Thus, ocular,\\u000a orbital, and systemic disorders may produce head pain with ocular signs and symptoms. Whereas some of these entities have\\u000a characteristic diagnostic features, others mimic primary headache disorders such as migraine and cluster headache. This article\\u000a reviews common ocular and neuro-ophthalmic conditions

Deborah I. Friedman; Lynn K. Gordon; Peter A. Quiros



Sensory marketing: the multi-sensory brand-experience concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the multi-sensory brand-experience concept in relation to the human mind and senses. It also seeks to propose a sensory marketing (SM) model of the multi-sensory brand-experience hypothesis. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper applies exploratory and explanatory approaches to investigating the multi-sensory brand-experience concept within the context of discovery. The qualitative study

Bertil Hultén



Using Eye Makeup  


... Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes During Pregnancy Computer Usage & Eye Strain Maintaining Your Sight with Diabetes Sports and Eye Protection Eyesight Risks ... the skin of the eyelids. Darkening of the iris (the colored portion of the eye) has also been reported, and this side effect ...


The optic chiasm: a turning point in the evolution of eye/hand coordination  

PubMed Central

The primate visual system has a uniquely high proportion of ipsilateral retinal projections, retinal ganglial cells that do not cross the midline in the optic chiasm. The general assumption is that this developed due to the selective advantage of accurate depth perception through stereopsis. Here, the hypothesis that the need for accurate eye-forelimb coordination substantially influenced the evolution of the primate visual system is presented. Evolutionary processes may change the direction of retinal ganglial cells. Crossing, or non-crossing, in the optic chiasm determines which hemisphere receives visual feedback in reaching tasks. Each hemisphere receives little tactile and proprioceptive information about the ipsilateral hand. The eye-forelimb hypothesis proposes that abundant ipsilateral retinal projections developed in the primate brain to synthesize, in a single hemisphere, visual, tactile, proprioceptive, and motor information about a given hand, and that this improved eye-hand coordination and optimized the size of the brain. If accurate eye-hand coordination was a major factor in the evolution of stereopsis, stereopsis is likely to be highly developed for activity in the area where the hands most often operate. The primate visual system is ideally suited for tasks within arm’s length and in the inferior visual field, where most manual activity takes place. Altering of ocular dominance in reaching tasks, reduced cross-modal cuing effects when arms are crossed, response of neurons in the primary motor cortex to viewed actions of a hand, multimodal neuron response to tactile as well as visual events, and extensive use of multimodal sensory information in reaching maneuvers support the premise that benefits of accurate limb control influenced the evolution of the primate visual system. The eye-forelimb hypothesis implies that evolutionary change toward hemidecussation in the optic chiasm provided parsimonious neural pathways in animals developing frontal vision and visually guided forelimbs, and also suggests a new perspective on vision convergence in prey and predatory animals. PMID:23866932



Studying Sensory Perception.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the vestibular organ's role in balancing the body and stabilizing the visual world using the example of a hunter. Describes the relationship between sensory perception and learning. Recommends using optical illusions to illustrate the distinctions between external realities and internal perceptions. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

Ackerly, Spafford C.



Structured Sensory Trauma Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features the National Institute of Trauma and Loss in Children (TLC), a program that has demonstrated via field testing, exploratory research, time series studies, and evidence-based research studies that its Structured Sensory Intervention for Traumatized Children, Adolescents, and Parents (SITCAP[R]) produces statistically…

Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan



Environmental Awareness (Sensory Awareness).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Capitalizing on the resources available within a city block, this resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) describes methods and procedures for developing sensory awareness in the urban out-of-doors. Conceptual focus is on interdependency ("living things are interdependent"). Involvement in the environment (observing, thinking, doing)…

Carpenter, Marian


Receptive field positions in area MT during slow eye movements.  


Perceptual stability requires the integration of information across eye movements. We first tested the hypothesis that motion signals are integrated by neurons whose receptive fields (RFs) do not move with the eye but stay fixed in the world. Specifically, we measured the RF properties of neurons in the middle temporal area (MT) of macaques (Macaca mulatta) during the slow phase of optokinetic nystagmus. Using a novel method to estimate RF locations for both spikes and local field potentials, we found that the location on the retina that changed spike rates or local field potentials did not change with eye position; RFs moved with the eye. Second, we tested the hypothesis that neurons link information across eye positions by remapping the retinal location of their RFs to future locations. To test this, we compared RF locations during leftward and rightward slow phases of optokinetic nystagmus. We found no evidence for remapping during slow eye movements; the RF location was not affected by eye-movement direction. Together, our results show that RFs of MT neurons and the aggregate activity reflected in local field potentials are yoked to the eye during slow eye movements. This implies that individual MT neurons do not integrate sensory information from a single position in the world across eye movements. Future research will have to determine whether such integration, and the construction of perceptual stability, takes place in the form of a distributed population code in eye-centered visual cortex or is deferred to downstream areas. PMID:21775589

Hartmann, Till S; Bremmer, Frank; Albright, Thomas D; Krekelberg, Bart



Eye Movements of Flatfish for Different Gravity Condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On Earth, gravity sensation plays a basic role for all of physiological phenomena in every creature. In microgravity, loss of gravity input causes many functional disorders in animals and humans. During adaptation to microgravity, otolith-mediated response such as eye movements would alter. Flatfish provide a natural model for the study of adaptive changes in the vestibuloocular reflex. During metamorphosis, vestibular and oculomotor coordinate of flatfish displaced 90 degrees about the longitudinal body axis. Therefore, it is expected that microgravity induce the sensory mismatch in adult flatfish. In this study, we analyzed the eye movements of normal and otolith removed flatfish for body tilting and the eye movements of normal flatfish during microgravity produced by parabolic aircraft flight. The fish was fixed on the tilting table controlled by computer. The eye movements for body tilting along the different body axis were video-recorded. The vertical and torsional eye rotations were analyzed frame by frame. In normal flatfish, torsional eye movements were larger for head up or head down tilting than leftward or rightward tilting. On the other hand, vertical eye movements were larger for leftward or rightward tilting than head up or head down tilting. After removal of left side utlicular otolith, the vertical eye movement for 180 degrees body tilting disappeared. For the changes of gravity, vertical eye movements were observed. These results suggested that eye movements of flatfish adapted to Earth's gravity condition and sacculus and lagena might play important role for otolith-ocular eye movements.

Iwata, Kaori; Takabayashi, Akira; Imada, Hideki; Miyachi, Ei-Ichi


Bionic Eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Both Web sites come from Science@NASA, an online source for news and information about NASA-funded research. The first article describes the work of researchers at the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space, who are developing artificial bones for long-lasting, pain-free hip and knee replacements. These ceramic bones are touted as "so much like the real thing that they could actually meld with living bone." Earlier this year, researchers at the Space Vacuum Epitaxy Center in Houston experimented with "photosensitive ceramic films that respond to light much as rods and cones do," the subject of the second Web site. Researchers hope these films will eventually be used to restore lost vision in human eyes. Each article is available as an audio file, and includes helpful diagrams and Web links for related articles and information.

Phillips, Tony.; Price, Steve.



Down Syndrome: Eye Problems  


... eye problems. Do children with Down syndrome have eye problems? Individuals with Down syndrome are at increased ... When should children with Down syndrome receive an eye exam? The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that ...


Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)  


... publications and references used throughout site. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) One Page Overview Pink, itchy eyes? Conjunctivitis – ... Crusting of eyelids or lashes sometimes occurs Pink Eye: What To Do Discusses causes and treatment, suggestions ...


Secondary eyes mediate the response to looming objects in jumping spiders (Phidippus audax, Salticidae).  


Some species have sensory systems divided into subsystems with morphologically different sense organs that acquire different types of information within the same modality. Jumping spiders (family Salticidae) have eight eyes. Four eyes are directed anteriorly to view objects in front of the spider: a pair of principal eyes track targets with their movable retinae, while the immobile anterior lateral (AL) eyes have a larger field of view and lower resolution. To test whether the principal eyes, the AL eyes, or both together mediate the response to looming stimuli, we presented spiders with a video of a solid black circle that rapidly expanded (loomed) or contracted (receded). Control spiders and spiders with their principal eyes masked were significantly more likely to back away from the looming stimulus than were spiders with their AL eyes masked. Almost no individuals backed away from the receding stimulus. Our results show that the AL eyes alone mediate the loom response to objects anterior to the spider. PMID:23075526

Spano, Lauren; Long, Skye M; Jakob, Elizabeth M



Secondary eyes mediate the response to looming objects in jumping spiders (Phidippus audax, Salticidae)  

PubMed Central

Some species have sensory systems divided into subsystems with morphologically different sense organs that acquire different types of information within the same modality. Jumping spiders (family Salticidae) have eight eyes. Four eyes are directed anteriorly to view objects in front of the spider: a pair of principal eyes track targets with their movable retinae, while the immobile anterior lateral (AL) eyes have a larger field of view and lower resolution. To test whether the principal eyes, the AL eyes, or both together mediate the response to looming stimuli, we presented spiders with a video of a solid black circle that rapidly expanded (loomed) or contracted (receded). Control spiders and spiders with their principal eyes masked were significantly more likely to back away from the looming stimulus than were spiders with their AL eyes masked. Almost no individuals backed away from the receding stimulus. Our results show that the AL eyes alone mediate the loom response to objects anterior to the spider. PMID:23075526

Spano, Lauren; Long, Skye M.; Jakob, Elizabeth M.



When Is Dominance Related to Smiling? Assigned Dominance, Dominance Preference, Trait Dominance, and Gender as Moderators  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated gender and different types of dominance measures as potential moderators of the relation between dominance and smiling. We asked participants about their preference for either a dominant or a subordinate role (dominance preference), randomly assigned one of these roles to them (assigned dominance), and assessed trait dominance, felt dominance, and perceived dominance. Participants had two 8-min dyadic interactions

MarianneSchmid Mast; Judith A. Hall




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center


Educational Developmental Labs., Inc., Huntington, NY.


Adaptive control of pursuit, vergence and eye torsion in humans: basic and clinical implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research from our laboratory has been directed at understanding the range of capabilities for adaptive control of eye movements in normal human subjects. For smooth pursuit, different motor responses to the same sensory stimulus (horizontal target motion) can be learned, stored and gated in or out, according to context (vertical eye position). The dynamic properties of the ‘open-loop’ portion

Mineo Takagi; Peter Trillenberg; David S Zee



Sensory Perception: Lessons from Synesthesia  

PubMed Central

Synesthesia, the conscious, idiosyncratic, repeatable, and involuntary sensation of one sensory modality in response to another, is a condition that has puzzled both researchers and philosophers for centuries. Much time has been spent proving the condition’s existence as well as investigating its etiology, but what can be learned from synesthesia remains a poorly discussed topic. Here, synaesthesia is presented as a possible answer rather than a question to the current gaps in our understanding of sensory perception. By first appreciating the similarities between normal sensory perception and synesthesia, one can use what is known about synaesthesia, from behavioral and imaging studies, to inform our understanding of “normal” sensory perception. In particular, in considering synesthesia, one can better understand how and where the different sensory modalities interact in the brain, how different sensory modalities can interact without confusion ? the binding problem ? as well as how sensory perception develops. PMID:23766741

Harvey, Joshua Paul



Design and development of an eye surgery simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eye is one of the most important sensory organs in our human body. Ophthalmologists are ineligible to carry any mistakes during surgical operations since it will end up patients lost their sight forever. The rising of surgical simulator which provides high-fidelity platform allows professional surgeons and medical practitioners have another alternative to sharpen their surgical skills. This paper addressed the

C. K. Lam; K. Sundaraj



Measurement of human eye irritation using a CO{sub 2} reference scale  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a combined system for human eye exposure and sensory evaluation. The system was developed as part of a research program which is focused on development of biological response models to be used for prediction of the potential of emissions from building materials to cause sensory irritation in the indoor environment. The method describes in this paper measures air pollutants potential to cause sensory eye irritation using a master scale (the sensory irritation caused by the emissions ar measured in terms of concentration of a reference irritant.). The purpose of this study was to test the exposure equipment, the exposure procedure, the evaluation procedure, and the statistical method. The principle of the combined system is that subjects compare the intensity of sensory irritation in one eye which is exposed to polluted air with the intensity of sensory irritation in the other eye, which is exposed to a reference gas. This left-right eye comparison was chosen because it is quicker to perform than having subjects first exposed to the pollutant gas bilaterally and afterwards exposed to the reference gas bilaterally. Moreover, by making the comparison simultaneously, the subject does not have to remember the impression of the previous exposure. In this study, CO{sub 2} was used both as a simulation of the air pollution and as the reference gas.

Hempel-Joergensen, A.; Kjaergaard, S.K.; Moelhave, L. [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Inst. for Environmental and Occupational Medicine



Instabilities in sensory processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In any organism there are different kinds of sensory receptors for detecting the various, distinct stimuli through which its external environment may impinge upon it. These receptors convey these stimuli in different ways to an organism's information processing region enabling it to distinctly perceive the varied sensations and to respond to them. The behavior of cells and their response to stimuli may be captured through simple mathematical models employing regulatory feedback mechanisms. We argue that the sensory processes such as olfaction function optimally by operating in the close proximity of dynamical instabilities. In the case of coupled neurons, we point out that random disturbances and fluctuations can move their operating point close to certain dynamical instabilities triggering synchronous activity.

Balakrishnan, J.



Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries  


... Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries Tweet When an eye injury does occur, ... serious eye injury yourself. How to recognize an eye injury If you notice any of these signs ...


Diabetes and eye disease  


... the eye that are weak and can bleed Small scars forming on the retina and in other parts of the eye (the vitreous) ... doctor who is trained to treat diabetic eye diseases. Once your eye ... creates small burns in the retina where there are abnormal ...


Eating for Your Eyes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An educational program targeting older adults was developed to increase knowledge regarding nutrition and eye health. With age, the chance for eye disease increases, so prevention is critical. The Eating for Your Eyes program has promoted behavior changes regarding eye health among the participants. This program is easily replicated and use is…

Stastny, Sherri Nordstrom; Garden-Robinson, Julie



The eyes of a tiny 'Orsten' crustacean - a compound eye at receptor level?  


Among the oldest fossil crustaceans are those of the Late Cambrian (Furongian 499 ± 0.3-488.3 ± 1.7 Ma) of Västergötland, central Sweden and the lower Ordovician (Tremadocian 488.3 and 478.6 Ma) of the island of ?land. These are three-dimensionally preserved in nodules from the so called 'stinkstone' ('Orsten') limestone. 'Orsten'-like fossils represent tiny, often meiobenthic organsisms (Haug, Maas, & Waloszek, 2009) smaller than 2mm, which mainly were arthropods, especially crustaceans close to the stemline. As a result of phosphatisation, hairs, bristles and even cellular structures up to 0.3 ?m are preserved (Walossek, 1993), especially compound eyes, as typical for all visually orientated crustaceans (Schoenemann et al., 2011). We show a miniscule prototype of a compound eye (?40 ?m) in a small crustacean, which lived almost half a billion years ago. The eye is close to but comfortably established above being limited in its resolving power by diffraction, but it is too small to be an apposition eye, normally regarded as the basal form of all compound eyes, as is found in bees, dragonflies, crustaceans and many other arthropods still living today. The facets of this compound eye are ?8 ?m in size, the surface structure indicates the relicts of a tiny lens covering each facet. In order to work functionally and to ensure that that diffraction and waveguide problems were avoided, it seems reasonable to suppose that the compound eye consisted of visual units, each with a single photoreceptor cell directly below a weak lens for capturing and slightly focusing the light. The entire unit has a diameter similar to that of a normal sensory cell as found in compound eyes. Thus, the early compound eye analysed here may be interpreted as a prototype representing the earliest stages of the evolution of crustacean compound eyes. PMID:23123806

Schoenemann, Brigitte




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Measurement in Sensory Modulation: The Sensory Processing Scale Assessment  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE. Sensory modulation issues have a significant impact on participation in daily life. Moreover, understanding phenotypic variation in sensory modulation dysfunction is crucial for research related to defining homogeneous groups and for clinical work in guiding treatment planning. We thus evaluated the new Sensory Processing Scale (SPS) Assessment. METHOD. Research included item development, behavioral scoring system development, test administration, and item analyses to evaluate reliability and validity across sensory domains. RESULTS. Items with adequate reliability (internal reliability >.4) and discriminant validity (p < .01) were retained. Feedback from the expert panel also contributed to decisions about retaining items in the scale. CONCLUSION. The SPS Assessment appears to be a reliable and valid measure of sensory modulation (scale reliability >.90; discrimination between group effect sizes >1.00). This scale has the potential to aid in differential diagnosis of sensory modulation issues. PMID:25184464

Miller, Lucy J.; Sullivan, Jillian C.




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Autosomal recessive forms of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six families are described with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) of probable autosomal recessive inheritance. Four of these were classified as HMSN type I and two as type II. The consanguinity rate in this series was high, suggesting that these recessive genes are rare. In comparison with the dominantly inherited forms of these disorders, the mean age of onset

A E Harding; P K Thomas



The Electroretinogram of the Horseshoe Crab, Limulus polyphemus: A Laboratory Exercise in Sensory Physiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The eye of the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus represents an easily-excised and durable preparation for investigating various parameters of a typical sensory system. One can study the time course of dark adaptation as well as the dependence of response amplitude and latency on stimulus intensity in both the dark-adapted and light-adapted eye. Requirements for specialized, technical equipment are minimal. Suitable for undergraduates in advanced general biology, physiology, and special projects.

Robert A. Linsenmeier (Northwestern University;); Charles M. Yancey (Northwestern University;); Wesley W. Ebert (Northwestern University;)



Changes in sensory activity of ocular surface sensory nerves during allergic keratoconjunctivitis.  


Peripheral neural mechanisms underlying the sensations of irritation, discomfort, and itch accompanying the eye allergic response have not been hitherto analyzed. We explored this question recording the changes in the electrical activity of corneoconjunctival sensory nerve fibers of the guinea pig after an ocular allergic challenge. Sensitization was produced by i.p. ovalbumin followed by repeated application in the eye of 10% ovalbumin on days 14 to 18. Blinking and tearing rate were measured. Spontaneous and stimulus-evoked (mechanical, thermal, chemical) impulse activity was recorded from mechanonociceptor, polymodal nociceptor and cold corneoscleral sensory afferent fibers. After a single (day 14) or repeated daily exposures to the allergen during the following 3 to 4days, tearing and blinking rate increased significantly. Also, sensitization was observed in mechanonociceptors (transient reduction of mechanical threshold only on day 14) and in polymodal nociceptors (sustained enhancement of the impulse response to acidic stimulation). In contrast, cold thermoreceptors showed a significant decrease in basal ongoing activity and in the response to cooling. Treatment with the TRPV1 and TRPA1 blockers capsazepine and HC-030031 reversed the augmented blinking. Only capsazepine attenuated tearing rate increase and sensitization of the polymodal nociceptors response to CO2. Capsazepine also prevented the decrease in cold thermoreceptor activity caused by the allergic challenge. We conclude that changes in nerve impulse activity accompanying the ocular allergic response, primarily mediated by activation of nociceptor's TRPV1 and to a lesser degree by activation of TRPA1 channels, explain the eye discomfort sensations accompanying allergic episodes. PMID:23867735

Acosta, M Carmen; Luna, Carolina; Quirce, Susana; Belmonte, Carlos; Gallar, Juana



A modifier screen in the Drosophila eye reveals that aPKC interacts with Glued during central synapse formation  

PubMed Central

Background The Glued gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes the homologue of the vertebrate p150Glued subunit of dynactin. The Glued1 mutation compromises the dynein-dynactin retrograde motor complex and causes disruptions to the adult eye and the CNS, including sensory neurons and the formation of the giant fiber system neural circuit. Results We performed a 2-stage genetic screen to identify mutations that modified phenotypes caused by over-expression of a dominant-negative Glued protein. We screened over 34,000 flies and isolated 41 mutations that enhanced or suppressed an eye phenotype. Of these, 12 were assayed for interactions in the giant fiber system by which they altered a giant fiber morphological phenotype and/or altered synaptic function between the giant fiber and the tergotrochanteral muscle motorneuron. Six showed interactions including a new allele of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC). We show that this cell polarity regulator interacts with Glued during central synapse formation. We have mapped the five other interacting mutations to discrete chromosomal regions. Conclusion Our results show that an efficient way to screen for genes involved in central synapse formation is to use a two-step strategy in which a screen for altered eye morphology precedes the analysis of central synaptogenesis. This has highlighted a role for aPKC in the formation of an identified central synapse. PMID:19948010



Sensory nerves, neurogenic inflammation and pain: missing components of alternative irritation strategies? A review and a potential strategy.  


The eyes and skin are highly innervated by sensory nerves; stimulation of these nerves by irritants may give rise to neurogenic inflammation, leading to sensory irritation and pain. Few in vitro models of neurogenic inflammation have been described in conjunction with alternative skin and eye irritation methods, despite the fact that the sensory innervation of these organs is well-documented. To date, alternative approaches to the Draize skin and eye irritation tests have proved largely successful at classifying severe irritants, but are generally poor at discriminating between agents with mild to moderate irritant potential. We propose that the development of in vitro models for the prediction of sensory stimulation will assist in the re-classification of the irritant potential of agents that are under-predicted by current in vitro strategies. This review describes the range of xenobiotics known to cause inflammation and pain through the stimulation of sensory nerves, as well as the endogenous mediators and receptor types that are involved. In particular, it focuses on the vanilloid receptor, its activators and its regulation, as these receptors function as integrators of responses to numerous noxious stimuli. Cell culture models and ex vivo preparations that have the potential to serve as predictors of sensory irritation are also described. In addition, as readily available sensory neuron cell line models are few in number, stem cell lines (with the capacity to differentiate into sensory neurons) are explored. Finally, a preliminary strategy to enable assessment of whether incorporation of a sensory component will enhance the predictive power of current in vitro eye and skin testing strategies is proposed. PMID:15612874

Garle, Michael J; Fry, Jeffrey R



Effects of combined sensory and muscular training on balance in Japanese older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Adequate levels of physical balance and muscular strength are necessary to live independently in old age. The effects of an exercise training program targeting the sensory and muscle systems on balance and strength in a group of older adults were determined in this study.Methods. Static balance (one-leg balance with eyes closed), dynamic balance (limits of stability {endpoint excursion [EPE],

Mohammod M. Islam; Eriko Nasu; Michael E. Rogers; Daisuke Koizumi; Nicole L. Rogers; Nobuo Takeshima



R404 Dispatch Decision making: From sensory evidence to a motor command  

E-print Network

-making process on an eye movement evoked by electrical stimulation of the frontal cortex. The accumulation of sensory evidence was found to cause a gradual commitment toward a choice. Address: Vanderbilt Vision the evolution of a perceptual choice. They found that preparation of the movement that will signal the choice

Schall, Jeffrey D.


HIV Associated Sensory Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Background: In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, sensory neuropathies have increased in prevalence. We have documented the frequency and profile of the two most common forms of sensory neuropathies associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and looked into clinicoelectrophysiological correlates to differentiate the two entities. Methods: The study population comprised of all consecutive patients detected to be HIV positive and attending the Neurology outpatient department (from March 2011 to March 2012) who were aged ? 18 years and were able to give informed consent. The data were collected from the patient records (including CD4 counts and treatment details) and questionnaire based interview with each patient. All patients underwent detailed clinical examination and nerve conduction studies (NCSs). Results: Among the total study population of 50 patients, there were 31 men and 19 women. Thirty two patients were in age range of 21 - 40 years and rest were above 40 years. 25 were on antiretroviral therapy (18 on regimen containing zidovudine; seven on regimen containing stavudine). The mean duration of antiretroviral therapy was 16.6±8.4 months. Low CD4 counts (<200) were noted in 24 patients (13 of these were on antiretroviral therapy). Clinically, the patients were classified as asymptomatic (n=34) and symptomatic (n=16). Among the symptomatic patients, nine were on antiretroviral therapy since less than one year (seven of these were on regimen containing stavudine). Ten patients aged more than 40-years had symptomatic neuropathy. No significant correlation was found between low CD4 counts and symptomatic neuropathy (p=0.21). Impaired vibration (100%) and absent ankle jerks (75%) were commoner than reduced pin sensitivity (46.6%). Twenty two patients had abnormal NCS results (18 of these were on antiretroviral therapy). Axonal distal symmetrical sensory neuropathy was the commonest pattern noted in 14 patients who were receiving antiretroviral therapy. Subclinical involvement as evidenced by abnormal NCSs was noted in 5 asymptomatic patients who were all on antiretroviral therapy. Conclusion: Symptomatic neuropathy was seen predominantly in HIV patients who were on antiretroviral therapy. All patients receiving stavudine containing regimen had severe symptomatic neuropathy within 1 year. There was an increase in the likelihood of symptomatic neuropathy among patients aged > 40 years. Subclinical neuropathy was common in those on antiretroviral therapy. Axonal neuropathy was the commonest pattern noted in patients who were receiving antiretroviral therapy and demyelinating neuropathy in patients not on antiretroviral therapy. Surprisingly no significant correlation was found between low CD4 counts and symptomatic neuropathy. PMID:25177587

S, Praveen-kumar; B, Nataraju; BS, Nagaraja



Sensory receptors in monotremes.  


This is a summary of the current knowledge of sensory receptors in skin of the bill of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, and the snout of the echidna, Tachyglossus aculeatus. Brief mention is also made of the third living member of the monotremes, the long-nosed echidna, Zaglossus bruijnii. The monotremes are the only group of mammals known to have evolved electroreception. The structures in the skin responsible for the electric sense have been identified as sensory mucous glands with an expanded epidermal portion that is innervated by large-diameter nerve fibres. Afferent recordings have shown that in both platypuses and echidnas the receptors excited by cathodal (negative) pulses and inhibited by anodal (positive) pulses. Estimates give a total of 40,000 mucous sensory glands in the upper and lower bill of the platypus, whereas there are only about 100 in the tip of the echidna snout. Recording of electroreceptor-evoked activity from the brain of the platypus have shown that the largest area dedicated to somatosensory input from the bill, S1, shows alternating rows of mechanosensory and bimodal neurons. The bimodal neurons respond to both electrosensory and mechanical inputs. In skin of the platypus bill and echidna snout, apart from the electroreceptors, there are structures called push rods, which consist of a column of compacted cells that is able to move relatively independently of adjacent regions of skin. At the base of the column are Merkel cell complexes, known to be type I slowly adapting mechanoreceptors, and lamellated corpuscles, probably vibration receptors. It has been speculated that the platypus uses its electric sense to detect the electromyographic activity from moving prey in the water and for obstacle avoidance. Mechanoreceptors signal contact with the prey. For the echidna, a role for the electrosensory system has not yet been established during normal foraging behaviour, although it has been shown that it is able to detect the presence of weak electric fields in water. Perhaps the electric sense is used to detect moving prey in moist soil. PMID:9720114

Proske, U; Gregory, J E; Iggo, A



Diabetic Eye Problems  


... too high. Over time, this can damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It ... light-sensitive tissue at the back of your eye. You need a healthy retina to see clearly. ...


Toxoplasmosis (and the Eye)  


... of known infected babies. What happens to the eyes of babies born with congenital toxoplasmosis? The infection ... or systemic steroids may further reduce the inflammation. Eye Terms & Conditions Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia ...


Excitatory Synaptic Feedback from the Motor Layer to the Sensory Layers of the Superior Colliculus  

PubMed Central

Neural circuits that translate sensory information into motor commands are organized in a feedforward manner converting sensory information into motor output. The superior colliculus (SC) follows this pattern as it plays a role in converting visual information from the retina and visual cortex into motor commands for rapid eye movements (saccades). Feedback from movement to sensory regions is hypothesized to play critical roles in attention, visual image stability, and saccadic suppression, but in contrast to feedforward pathways, motor feedback to sensory regions has received much less attention. The present study used voltage imaging and patch-clamp recording in slices of rat SC to test the hypothesis of an excitatory synaptic pathway from the motor layers of the SC back to the sensory superficial layers. Voltage imaging revealed an extensive depolarization of the superficial layers evoked by electrical stimulation of the motor layers. A pharmacologically isolated excitatory synaptic potential in the superficial layers depended on stimulus strength in the motor layers in a manner consistent with orthodromic excitation. Patch-clamp recording from neurons in the sensory layers revealed excitatory synaptic potentials in response to glutamate application in the motor layers. The location, size, and morphology of responsive neurons indicated they were likely to be narrow-field vertical cells. This excitatory projection from motor to sensory layers adds an important element to the circuitry of the SC and reveals a novel feedback pathway that could play a role in enhancing sensory responses to attended targets as well as visual image stabilization. PMID:24828636

Ghitani, Nima; Bayguinov, Peter O.; Vokoun, Corinne R.; McMahon, Shane



R828 Dispatch Vision research: Losing sight of eye dominance  

E-print Network

© 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Most people are perfectly aware of their preferred hand for skilled activities like handwriting, and many are also aware of their preferred foot for activities like demonstrations of sighting domi- nance, participants have to align a target in peripersonal space with a more

Aberdeen, University of


Treatment of sensory defensiveness in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot study explored the relationship between sensory defen- siveness and anxiety, as well as the impact of a sensory integration treatment protocol on normal adults. Fifteen adult subjects identified as having sensory defensiveness completed the Adult Sensory Questionnaire (ASQ), Adult Sensory Interview (ADULT-SI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) at pre-test and post-test intervals to measure sensory defensiveness and anxiety.

Beth Pfeiffer; Moya Kinnealey



Eye Injuries (For Parents)  


... child to open his or her eyes as wide as possible. For an infant or small child, it's helpful to have a second person hold the child's eyes open while you flush. Gently pour a steady stream of lukewarm water (do not heat the water) from a pitcher or faucet over the eye. ...


Eye Care Following Disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The needs of ophthalmologic casualties mirror these general patterns of casualty care following disasters. The number of ophthalmologic casualties, however, may be large. In humans, the eyes account for only 0.1 % of the total body surface area, yet during an explosion as many as 10% of survivors may suffer eye trauma (3). Acute eye injuries during a disaster often

Michael G Weddle



Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRCT.--Rohwer (1975, 1977) has proposed that members of certain variably-plumaged avian species may use plumage traits to signal potential dominance status to flockmates. Further, he suggests that plumage variability is maintained because cheaters on the system are detected and persecuted. Data reported herein imply that certain external and noticeable traits of Dark- eyed Juncos (Junco hyemalis) are fairly accurate indicators




Finding an Eye Care Professional  


Finding an Eye Care Professional Listen Finding an Eye Care Professional PDF* The National Eye Institute does not provide referrals or recommend specific eye care professionals. However, you may wish to consider the ...


Hawk Eyes I: Diurnal Raptors Differ in Visual Fields and Degree of Eye Movement  

PubMed Central

Background Different strategies to search and detect prey may place specific demands on sensory modalities. We studied visual field configuration, degree of eye movement, and orbit orientation in three diurnal raptors belonging to the Accipitridae and Falconidae families. Methodology/Principal Findings We used an ophthalmoscopic reflex technique and an integrated 3D digitizer system. We found inter-specific variation in visual field configuration and degree of eye movement, but not in orbit orientation. Red-tailed Hawks have relatively small binocular areas (?33°) and wide blind areas (?82°), but intermediate degree of eye movement (?5°), which underscores the importance of lateral vision rather than binocular vision to scan for distant prey in open areas. Cooper's Hawks' have relatively wide binocular fields (?36°), small blind areas (?60°), and high degree of eye movement (?8°), which may increase visual coverage and enhance prey detection in closed habitats. Additionally, we found that Cooper's Hawks can visually inspect the items held in the tip of the bill, which may facilitate food handling. American Kestrels have intermediate-sized binocular and lateral areas that may be used in prey detection at different distances through stereopsis and motion parallax; whereas the low degree eye movement (?1°) may help stabilize the image when hovering above prey before an attack. Conclusions We conclude that: (a) there are between-species differences in visual field configuration in these diurnal raptors; (b) these differences are consistent with prey searching strategies and degree of visual obstruction in the environment (e.g., open and closed habitats); (c) variations in the degree of eye movement between species appear associated with foraging strategies; and (d) the size of the binocular and blind areas in hawks can vary substantially due to eye movements. Inter-specific variation in visual fields and eye movements can influence behavioral strategies to visually search for and track prey while perching. PMID:20877645

O'Rourke, Colleen T.; Hall, Margaret I.; Pitlik, Todd; Fernandez-Juricic, Esteban



The Intelligent Eye.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the premise that perception is a continual series of simple hypotheses about the external world which are built up and selected by sensory experiences, this book explores in detail some of the major findings in perception and speculates about interconnections between sensory experiences, brain function, perception, and language and…

Gregory, R. L.


[Sensory input and basal ganglia].  


Non-motor symptoms including sensory signs have recently been stressed in basal ganglia (BG) disorders. Why do sensory symptoms appear in BG disorders? Four closed loops have been shown between cortex and BG, but no sensory cortical-BG loops. I review two points: fiber connections between the somatosensory cortex and BG to explain sensory symptoms, and pain and basal ganglia. Somatosensory system and BG Many animal studies have shown somatosensory cortex- striatum- globus pallidus- motor thalamus connections, but no connections to the sensory thalamus. This indicates that sensory system may modulate four closed loops between the cortices and BG (motor loop, oculomotor loop, prefrontal loop and limbic loop) as an open loop system. Based on the above findings, two possible mechanisms may explain somatosensory symptoms in BG disorders. Motor modulation abnormalities may be considered as sensory symptoms in patients with BG disorders. Some sensory cognition abnormalities due to abnormal modulation of the prefrontal- BG loop may be considered as sensory symptoms. Pain and dopamine Two systems contribute to pain signs in patients with BG disorders. Descending pain modulation system: several brainstem nuclei send descending pain modulation fibers to the spinal cord mediated by serotonin or noradrenalin. These nuclei are facilitated by D2 neurons from the striatum. Striatal dopamine must suppress the pain information input at the spinal cord. Ascending pain relief system D2 neurons from the ventral tegmental area to anterior cingulate cortex, accumbens and amygdala may reduce pain feeling at the association cortices. In summary, dopamine system will reduce pain at the spinal cord and association cortices. Dopamine depletion, therefore, will enhance the pain sensation. PMID:23196445

Ugawa, Yoshikazu



Eye movements: The past 25 years  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the past 25 of research on eye movements (1986–2011). Emphasis is on three oculomotor behaviors: gaze control, smooth pursuit and saccades, and on their interactions with vision. Focus over the past 25 years has remained on the fundamental and classical questions: What are the mechanisms that keep gaze stable with either stationary or moving targets? How does the motion of the image on the retina affect vision? Where do we look – and why – when performing a complex task? How can the world appear clear and stable despite continual movements of the eyes? The past 25 years of investigation of these questions has seen progress and transformations at all levels due to new approaches (behavioral, neural and theoretical) aimed at studying how eye movements cope with real-world visual and cognitive demands. The work has led to a better understanding of how prediction, learning and attention work with sensory signals to contribute to the effective operation of eye movements in visually rich environments. PMID:21237189

Kowler, Eileen



In vivo visualization of CaMKII activity in ocular dominance plasticity  

E-print Network

Alterations in sensory experience can persistently modify the responses of cortical neurons. Ocular dominance (OD) plasticity, a process in which alternation of visual input induces a shift in cortical responsiveness, is ...

Kwok, Show Ming



Physiological Targets of Artificial Gravity: The Sensory-Motor System. Chapter 4  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This chapter describes the pros and cons of artificial gravity applications in relation to human sensory-motor functioning in space. Spaceflight creates a challenge for sensory-motor functions that depend on gravity, which include postural balance, locomotion, eye-hand coordination, and spatial orientation. The sensory systems, and in particular the vestibular system, must adapt to weightlessness on entering orbit, and again to normal gravity upon return to Earth. During this period of adaptation, which persists beyond the actual gravity-level transition itself the sensory-motor systems are disturbed. Although artificial gravity may prove to be beneficial for the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems, it may well have negative side effects for the neurovestibular system, such as spatial disorientation, malcoordination, and nausea.

Paloski, William; Groen, Eric; Clarke, Andrew; Bles, Willem; Wuyts, Floris; Paloski, William; Clement, Gilles



Sex and Caste-Specific Variation in Compound Eye Morphology of Five Honeybee Species  

PubMed Central

Ranging from dwarfs to giants, the species of honeybees show remarkable differences in body size that have placed evolutionary constrains on the size of sensory organs and the brain. Colonies comprise three adult phenotypes, drones and two female castes, the reproductive queen and sterile workers. The phenotypes differ with respect to tasks and thus selection pressures which additionally constrain the shape of sensory systems. In a first step to explore the variability and interaction between species size-limitations and sex and caste-specific selection pressures in sensory and neural structures in honeybees, we compared eye size, ommatidia number and distribution of facet lens diameters in drones, queens and workers of five species (Apis andreniformis, A. florea, A. dorsata, A. mellifera, A. cerana). In these species, male and female eyes show a consistent sex-specific organization with respect to eye size and regional specialization of facet diameters. Drones possess distinctly enlarged eyes with large dorsal facets. Aside from these general patterns, we found signs of unique adaptations in eyes of A. florea and A. dorsata drones. In both species, drone eyes are disproportionately enlarged. In A. dorsata the increased eye size results from enlarged facets, a likely adaptation to crepuscular mating flights. In contrast, the relative enlargement of A. florea drone eyes results from an increase in ommatidia number, suggesting strong selection for high spatial resolution. Comparison of eye morphology and published mating flight times indicates a correlation between overall light sensitivity and species-specific mating flight times. The correlation suggests an important role of ambient light intensities in the regulation of species-specific mating flight times and the evolution of the visual system. Our study further deepens insights into visual adaptations within the genus Apis and opens up future perspectives for research to better understand the timing mechanisms and sensory physiology of mating related signals. PMID:23460896

Streinzer, Martin; Brockmann, Axel; Nagaraja, Narayanappa; Spaethe, Johannes



Sex and caste-specific variation in compound eye morphology of five honeybee species.  


Ranging from dwarfs to giants, the species of honeybees show remarkable differences in body size that have placed evolutionary constrains on the size of sensory organs and the brain. Colonies comprise three adult phenotypes, drones and two female castes, the reproductive queen and sterile workers. The phenotypes differ with respect to tasks and thus selection pressures which additionally constrain the shape of sensory systems. In a first step to explore the variability and interaction between species size-limitations and sex and caste-specific selection pressures in sensory and neural structures in honeybees, we compared eye size, ommatidia number and distribution of facet lens diameters in drones, queens and workers of five species (Apis andreniformis, A. florea, A. dorsata, A. mellifera, A. cerana). In these species, male and female eyes show a consistent sex-specific organization with respect to eye size and regional specialization of facet diameters. Drones possess distinctly enlarged eyes with large dorsal facets. Aside from these general patterns, we found signs of unique adaptations in eyes of A. florea and A. dorsata drones. In both species, drone eyes are disproportionately enlarged. In A. dorsata the increased eye size results from enlarged facets, a likely adaptation to crepuscular mating flights. In contrast, the relative enlargement of A. florea drone eyes results from an increase in ommatidia number, suggesting strong selection for high spatial resolution. Comparison of eye morphology and published mating flight times indicates a correlation between overall light sensitivity and species-specific mating flight times. The correlation suggests an important role of ambient light intensities in the regulation of species-specific mating flight times and the evolution of the visual system. Our study further deepens insights into visual adaptations within the genus Apis and opens up future perspectives for research to better understand the timing mechanisms and sensory physiology of mating related signals. PMID:23460896

Streinzer, Martin; Brockmann, Axel; Nagaraja, Narayanappa; Spaethe, Johannes



Sensory Biophysics of Marine Mammals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

THe underwater existence of marine mammals has encouraged a variety of special biophysical adaptations to their environment. Their sensory and communication systems reflect the transmission properties of sea water. For example, vision is keen in spectra t...

W. A. Watkins, D. Wartzok



Acetylcholine and lobster sensory neurones  

PubMed Central

Experiments are presented in support of the hypothesis that acetylcholine functions as a sensory transmitter in the lobster nervous system. 1. Several different peripheral sensory structures incorporate radioactive choline into acetylcholine. The preparation most enriched in sensory as opposed to other nervous elements (the antennular sense organs of the distal outer flagellum) does not incorporate significant amounts of glutamate, tyrosine or tryptophan into any of the other major transmitter candidates. 2. There is a parallel between the distribution of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase and the proportion of sensory fibres in nervous tissue from many parts of the lobster nervous system. 3. Isolated sensory axons contain at least 500 times as much choline acetyltransferase per cm of axon as do efferent excitatory and inhibitory fibres. 4. Abdominal ganglia and root stumps show a decline in the rate of incorporation of choline into acetylcholine 2 to 8 weeks after severing the first and second roots bilaterally (leaving the connectives and third roots intact). Extracts of the root stumps exhibit a significantly lower level of choline acetyltransferase 2 weeks after this operation. 5. Curare and atropine partially block an identified sensory synapse in the lobster abdominal ganglion. ImagesText-fig. 4Text-fig. 5Plate 1 PMID:4343316

Barker, David L.; Herbert, Edward; Hildebrand, John G.; Kravitz, Edward A.



Sensory influences on homing of stunted rat pups.  


The effects of 2 methods of restricting food intake--large-litter rearing and rotation between lactating and nonlactating females--on sensory factors involved in homing to the nest by rat pups were examined. Homing was observed in the unaltered home cage, when olfactory cues were altered and when visual cues were altered. Stunted animals homed less in the unaltered cage than did well-nourished controls as a result of a maturational delay. Prior to eye opening, stunted animals showed greater disruption of homing when olfactory cues were altered and after eye opening they showed greater disruption when visual cues were altered. These effects could reflect decreased sensitivity, an inability to use alternate cues, or behavioral disruption by novel stimulation. Nonnutritional factors were also found to affect homing as the 2 well-nourished groups differed in their behaviors. These differences appeared to be due to animals reared in small litters maturing more slowly than animals rotated between females. PMID:7274575

Fleischer, S F; Turkewitz, G; Finklestein, H



A close eye on the eagle-eyed visual acuity hypothesis of autism.  


Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been associated with sensory hypersensitivity. A recent study reported visual acuity (VA) in ASD in the region reported for birds of prey. The validity of the results was subsequently doubted. This study examined VA in 34 individuals with ASD, 16 with schizophrenia (SCH), and 26 typically developing (TYP). Participants with ASD did not show higher VA than those with SCH and TYP. There were no substantial correlations of VA with clinical severity in ASD or SCH. This study could not confirm the eagle-eyed acuity hypothesis of ASD, or find evidence for a connection of VA and clinical phenotypes. Research needs to further address the origins and circumstances associated with altered sensory or perceptual processing in ASD. PMID:21660498

Bölte, Sven; Schlitt, Sabine; Gapp, Volker; Hainz, Daniela; Schirman, Shella; Poustka, Fritz; Weber, Bernhard; Freitag, Christine; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Walter, Henrik



Driver eye height measurement  

E-print Network

Engineering DRIVER EYE HEIGHT MEASUREMENT A Thesis by ANTHONY DANIEL ABRAHAMSON Approved as to style and content by: I (C irman of Committee) (Member) (Memb er ) Head of Department) December 1978 ABSTRACT Driver. Eye Height Neasurement. (December... was establish d in the early sixties when passenger vehicles were styled differentl; than tnda; . The changing design of passenger cars has resulted in a considerable lowering in the eye heights of drivers between 1960 and 1978. The objective of this ress rch...

Abrahamson, Anthony Daniel



MAC-EYE: a Tendon Driven Fully Embedded Robot Eye  

E-print Network

MAC-EYE: a Tendon Driven Fully Embedded Robot Eye Dario Biamino, Giorgio Cannata, Marco Maggiali the possibility of designing a robot eye with kinematics and actuation similar to those of the human eye. In particular, we tried to exploit the spherical shape of the eye and to study the feasibility of a tendon based

Cannata, Giorgio


Integration of Sensory and Reward Information during Perceptual Decision-Making in Lateral Intraparietal Cortex (LIP) of the Macaque Monkey  

PubMed Central

Single neurons in cortical area LIP are known to carry information relevant to both sensory and value-based decisions that are reported by eye movements. It is not known, however, how sensory and value information are combined in LIP when individual decisions must be based on a combination of these variables. To investigate this issue, we conducted behavioral and electrophysiological experiments in rhesus monkeys during performance of a two-alternative, forced-choice discrimination of motion direction (sensory component). Monkeys reported each decision by making an eye movement to one of two visual targets associated with the two possible directions of motion. We introduced choice biases to the monkeys' decision process (value component) by randomly interleaving balanced reward conditions (equal reward value for the two choices) with unbalanced conditions (one alternative worth twice as much as the other). The monkeys' behavior, as well as that of most LIP neurons, reflected the influence of all relevant variables: the strength of the sensory information, the value of the target in the neuron's response field, and the value of the target outside the response field. Overall, detailed analysis and computer simulation reveal that our data are consistent with a two-stage drift diffusion model proposed by Diederich and Bussmeyer [1] for the effect of payoffs in the context of sensory discrimination tasks. Initial processing of payoff information strongly influences the starting point for the accumulation of sensory evidence, while exerting little if any effect on the rate of accumulation of sensory evidence. PMID:20174574

Rorie, Alan E.; Gao, Juan; McClelland, James L.; Newsome, William T.



Diabetes - Eye Complications  


... diabetes helps prevent and delay these eye diseases. Management of diabetes consists of the following: • Controlling the blood sugar level • Eating healthy • Exercising • Keeping good hygiene • Learning about ...


Laterality in avian vigilance: do sparrows have a favourite eye?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual scanning for predators is one of a bird's most basic means of avoiding predation while feeding, and the detection of an approaching predator may present a difficult visual task. If birds have a dominant hemisphere for processing visual information, then given the nearly complete optic nerve crossover in the avian brain, the eye contralateral to that dominant hemisphere should

William E. Franklin; Steven L. Lima



Optical Prosthetics Mimicking the Eye  

E-print Network

Optical Prosthetics Mimicking the Eye Abstract The eye is a complex optical system that, like other still being in its infancy. Introduction The eye consists of many parts. · Sclera: The majority of the eye, it forms the white shell and the basic shape of the eyeball. · Cornea: The frontal 1/6 of the eye

La Rosa, Andres H.


Recent Advances in the Genetics of Hereditary Axonal Sensory-Motor Neuropathies Type 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hereditary axonal motor and sensory neuropathies or Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (CMT2) are characterized clinically\\u000a by distal muscle weakness and atrophy, sensory loss, and foot deformities. Conduction velocities are usually in the normal\\u000a range or mildly slowed. The majority of CMT2 are autosomal-dominant but autosomal-recessive forms have been described. The\\u000a number of genes associated with CMT2 have significantly increased in

Senda Ajroud-Driss; Han-Xiang Deng; Teepu Siddique



The frontal eye fields target multisensory neurons in cat superior colliculus  

Microsoft Academic Search

While sensory corticotectal connections have received considerable attention, relatively little is known about the nature\\u000a of superior colliculus neurons that receive input from the cortical frontal eye fields. The present experiments used microstimulation\\u000a of indwelling electrodes in the frontal eye fields and single-unit recording in the superior colliculus to demonstrate that\\u000a frontal afferents preferentially terminate on multisensory neurons in the

M. Alex Meredith



Patient perceptions of second eye clear corneal cataract surgery using assisted topical anaesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimTo assess patient recall of intraoperative pain, anxiety, fear, and sensory (visual and auditory) perceptions during second eye clear corneal cataract surgery using assisted topical anaesthesia (ATA), in comparison with first eye cataract surgery using the same technique.MethodsThis prospective, consecutive, observational study was conducted in a free-standing dedicated ophthalmic day surgery centre. A voluntary questionnaire was distributed to 129 consecutive

N S Sharma; J-L Ooi; E C Figueira; M L Rosenberg; K Masselos; D P Papalkar; N Paramanathan; I C Francis; S L Alexander; N I Ferch



Multimodal eye recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multimodal biometrics use more than one means of biometric identification to achieve higher recognition accuracy, since sometimes a unimodal biometric is not good enough used to do identification and classification. In this paper, we proposed a multimodal eye recognition system, which can obtain both iris and sclera patterns from one color eye image. Gabor filter and 1-D Log-Gabor filter algorithms

Zhi Zhou; Yingzi Du; N. L. Thomas; Edward J. Delp III



Eyes in arhinencephalic syndromes.  

PubMed Central

The ocular features of eight cases of arhinencephaly have been described. Prediction of the degree of brain involvement from the eye defects could not be made, but eye abnormalities were present in all cases. The relationship of these syndromes to chromosomal abnormalities is emphasized. In the less severe cases treatable endocrine dysgenesis must be excluded. Images PMID:812548

Karseras, A G; Laurence, K M



Med's Neurophysiology Eye Movements  

E-print Network

? 2) the retina is like the camera with a slow shutter speed. The image must be still on the retina you make out what it says? If you can, your VOR is working. There are 5 types of eye movements. 1 if the two eyes rotate at the same speed, in the same direction and by the same amount (conjugate

Vilis, Tutis


Eye tissues study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical and in vitro and in vivo experimental study of spectral and polarization characteristics of the human and rabbit eye tissues are presented. The possibility of control of optical properties of eye cornea, lens and sclera is discussed and realized experimentally for glucose solution as the refractive index matching factor.

Tuchin, Valery V.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Maksimova, Irina L.; Sinichkin, Yurii P.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Genina, Elina A.; Lakodina, Nina A.



Autologous serum eye drops for dry eye  

PubMed Central

Background Theoretically, autologous serum eye drops (AS) have a potential advantage over traditional therapies based on the assumption that AS serve not only as a lacrimal substitute to provide lubrication, but also contain other biochemical components mimicking natural tears more closely. The application of AS in dry eye treatment has gained popularity as a second-line therapy in the treatment of dry eye. Published studies on the subject indicate that autologous serum could be an effective treatment for dry eye. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of AS compared to artificial tears for treating dry eye. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 3), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLD MEDLINE, (January 1950 to April 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to April 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to April 2013), the meta Register of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (, ( and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) ( We also searched the Science Citation Index Expanded database (September 2013) and reference lists of included studies. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 15 April 2013. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which AS was compared to artificial tears in the treatment of dry eye in adults. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently screened all titles and abstracts and assessed full-text articles of potentially eligible trials. Two review authors extracted data and assessed the methodological quality and characteristics of the included trials.We contacted investigators for missing data. For both primary and secondary outcomes, we reported mean differences with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for continuous outcomes. Main results We identified four eligible RCTs in which AS was compared with artificial tear treatment or saline in individuals (n = 72 participants) with dry eye of various etiologies (Sjögren’s syndrome-related dry eye, non-Sjögren’s syndrome dry eye and postoperative dry eye induced by laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK)). The quality of the evidence provided by these trials was variable. A majority of the risk of bias domains were judged to have an unclear risk of bias in two trials owing to insufficient reporting of trial characteristics. One trial was considered to have a low risk of bias for most domains while another was considered to have a high risk of bias for most domains. Incomplete outcome reporting and heterogeneity in the participant populations and follow-up periods prevented the inclusion of these trials in a summary meta-analysis. For the primary outcome, improvement in participant-reported symptoms at one month, one trial (12 participants) showed no difference in participant-reported symptoms between 20% AS and artificial tears. Based on the results of two trials in 32 participants, 20% AS may provide some improvement in participant-reported symptoms compared to traditional artificial tears after two weeks of treatment. One trial also showed positive results with a mean difference in tear breakup time (TBUT) of 2.00 seconds (95% CI 0.99 to 3.01 seconds) between 20% AS and artificial tears after two weeks, which were not similar to findings from the other trials. Based on all other objective clinical assessments included in this review, AS was not associated with improvements in aqueous tear production measured by Schirmer’s test (two trials, 33 participants), ocular surface condition with fluorescein (four trials, 72 participants) or Rose Bengal staining (three trials, 60 participants), and epithelial metaplasia by impression cytology compared to artificial tea

Pan, Qing; Angelina, Adla; Zambrano, Andrea; Marrone, Michael; Stark, Walter J; Heflin, Thomas; Tang, Li; Akpek, Esen K



The neuroecology of cartilaginous fishes: sensory strategies for survival.  


As apex predators, chondrichthyans, or cartilaginous fishes, hold an important position within a range of aquatic ecosystems and influence the balance between species' abundance and biodiversity. Having been in existence for over 400 million years and representing the earliest stages of the evolution of jawed vertebrates, this group also covers a diverse range of eco-morphotypes, occupying both marine and freshwater habitats. The class Chondrichthyes is divided into two subclasses: the Elasmobranchii (sharks, skates, and rays) and the Holocephali (elephant sharks and chimaeras). However, many of their life history traits, such as low fecundity, the production of small numbers of highly precocious young, slow growth rates, and late maturity, make them highly susceptible to human exploitation. To mitigate the negative effects of human impacts, it is important that we understand the sensory strategies that elasmobranchs use for navigating within their environment, forming reproductive aggregations, feeding, and even communicating. One approach to investigate the sensory bases of their behavior is to examine the peripheral sense organs mediating vision, olfaction, gustation, lateral line, electroreception, and audition in a large range of species in order to identify specific adaptations, the range of sensitivity thresholds, and the compromise between sensory spatial resolution and sensitivity. In addition, we can quantitatively assess the convergence of sensory input to the central nervous system and the relative importance of different sensory modalities. Using a comparative approach and often a combination of anatomical, electrophysiological, and molecular techniques, significant variation has been identified in the spatial and chromatic sampling of the photoreceptors in the eye, the surface area and the number of olfactory lamellae within the nasal cavity, the level of gustatory sampling within the oral cavity, the type and innervation of neuromasts of the lateral line system, the distribution of electroreceptive pores over the head, and the morphology of the inner ear. These results are presented in the context of predictions of sensory capabilities for species living in a range of ecological niches, what further research is needed, and how this sensory input may be a predictor of behavior. PMID:22986825

Collin, Shaun P



Sensory-based expert monitoring and control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field operators use their eyes, ears, and nose to detect process behavior and to trigger corrective control actions. For instance: in daily practice, the experienced operator in sulfuric acid treatment of phosphate rock may observe froth color or bubble character to control process material in-flow. Or, similarly, (s)he may use acoustic sound of cavitation or boiling/flashing to increase or decrease material flow rates in tank levels. By contrast, process control computers continue to be limited to taking action on P, T, F, and A signals. Yet, there is sufficient evidence from the fields that visual and acoustic information can be used for control and identification. Smart in-situ sensors have facilitated potential mechanism for factory automation with promising industry applicability. In respond to these critical needs, a generic, structured health monitoring approach is proposed. The system assumes a given sensor suite will act as an on-line health usage monitor and at best provide the real-time control autonomy. The sensor suite can incorporate various types of sensory devices, from vibration accelerometers, directional microphones, machine vision CCDs, pressure gauges to temperature indicators. The decision can be shown in a visual on-board display or fed to the control block to invoke controller reconfigurration.

Yen, Gary G.



Sensory integration does not lead to sensory calibration  

PubMed Central

One generally has the impression that one feels one's hand at the same location as one sees it. However, because our brain deals with possibly conflicting visual and proprioceptive information about hand position by combining it into an optimal estimate of the hand's location, mutual calibration is not necessary to achieve such a coherent percept. Does sensory integration nevertheless entail sensory calibration? We asked subjects to move their hand between visual targets. Blocks of trials without any visual feedback about their hand's position were alternated with blocks with veridical visual feedback. Whenever vision was removed, individual subjects' hands slowly drifted toward the same position to which they had drifted on previous blocks without visual feedback. The time course of the observed drift depended in a predictable manner (assuming optimal sensory combination) on the variable errors in the blocks with and without visual feedback. We conclude that the optimal use of unaligned sensory information, rather than changes within either of the senses or an accumulation of execution errors, is the cause of the frequently observed movement drift. The conclusion that seeing one's hand does not lead to an alignment between vision and proprioception has important consequences for the interpretation of previous work on visuomotor adaptation. PMID:17130453

Smeets, Jeroen B. J.; van den Dobbelsteen, John J.; de Grave, Denise D. J.; van Beers, Robert J.; Brenner, Eli



Layered Network Model of Sensory Cortex.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An integrated computational approach to modeling sensory systems which couples realistic layered neural models of sensory cortex and midbrain nuclei to detailed models of the sense organs (e.g., retina or cochlea) is described. The approach is applied to ...

B. J. Travis



Research report Sensory cortical dynamics  

E-print Network

transmission). Tradition- ally, fast neural computation is viewed as occurring in essentially stable or `hard in the pattern of sensory drive (i.e. experience-based cortical plasticity, [5]). These long- term changes capable of rapid processing, and a plastic net- work capable of long-term change*/are conventionally

Kohn, Adam


Sensory Threads Karen Martin1  

E-print Network

/carnival and hobbyist robotics. Sensory Threads continues in this vein, bringing in new partners to explore how sensor frequencies, non-visible light spectrum. Yet these imperceptible streams interact with us regularly as we go School of Economics 6 School of Management, University of Southampton #12;aiming to provoke sensitivities

Roussos, George


Visualizing an Olfactory Sensory Map  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a genetic approach to visualize axons from olfactory sensory neurons expressing a given odorant receptor, as they project to the olfactory bulb. Neurons expressing a specific receptor project to only two topographically fixed loci among the 1800 glomeruli in the mouse olfactory bulb. Our data provide direct support for a model in which a topographic map of

Peter Mombaerts; Fan Wang; Catherine Dulac; Steve K. Chao; Adriana Nemes; Monica Mendelsohn; James Edmondson; Richard Axel



Making Sense of Sensory Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of caregivers requires that they continuously assess the needs and performance of children and provide the support necessary for them to achieve their potential. A thorough understanding of child development, including the role and impact of sensory development, is critical for caregivers to properly evaluate and assist these children.…

Hendrix, Marie



Sensory Hierarchical Organization and Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to judge the viability of an operational approach aimed at assessing response styles in reading using the hypothesis of sensory hierarchical organization. A sample of 103 middle-class children from a New York City public school, between the ages of five and seven, took part in a three phase experiment. Phase one…

Skapof, Jerome


Different topological organization of human brain functional networks with eyes open versus eyes closed.  


Opening and closing the eyes are fundamental behaviors for directing attention to the external versus internal world. However, it remains unclear whether the states of eyes-open (EO) relative to eyes-closed (EC) are associated with different topological organizations of functional neural networks for exteroceptive and interoceptive processing (processing the external world and internal state, respectively). Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and neural network analysis to investigate the topological properties of functional networks of the human brain when the eyes were open versus closed. The brain networks exhibited higher cliquishness and local efficiency, but lower global efficiency during the EO state compared to the EC state. These properties suggest an increase in specialized information processing along with a decrease in integrated information processing in EO (vs. EC). More importantly, the "exteroceptive" network, including the attentional system (e.g., superior parietal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule), ocular motor system (e.g., precentral gyrus and superior frontal gyrus), and arousal system (e.g., insula and thalamus), showed higher regional nodal properties (nodal degree, efficiency and betweenness centrality) in EO relative to EC. In contrast, the "interoceptive" network, composed of visual system (e.g., lingual gyrus, fusiform gyrus and cuneus), auditory system (e.g., Heschl's gyurs), somatosensory system (e.g., postcentral gyrus), and part of the default mode network (e.g., angular gyrus and anterior cingulate gyrus), showed significantly higher regional properties in EC vs. EO. In addition, the connections across sensory modalities were altered by volitional eye opening. The synchronicity between the visual system and the motor, somatosensory and auditory systems, characteristic of EC, was attenuated in EO. Further, the connections between the visual system and the attention, arousal and subcortical systems were increased in EO. These results may indicate that EO leads to a suppression of sensory modalities (other than visual) to allocate resources to exteroceptive processing. Our findings suggest that the topological organization of human brain networks dynamically switches corresponding to the information processing modes as we open or close our eyes. PMID:24434242

Xu, Pengfei; Huang, Ruiwang; Wang, Jinhui; Van Dam, Nicholas T; Xie, Teng; Dong, Zhangye; Chen, Chunping; Gu, Ruolei; Zang, Yu-Feng; He, Yong; Fan, Jin; Luo, Yue-jia



Task Performance & Eye Activity 1 Task Performance and Eye Activity  

E-print Network

. Conclusion: Eye behavior trends reported in this study may provide insight to human behavior correspondingTask Performance & Eye Activity 1 Task Performance and Eye Activity: Predicting Behavior Relating of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA Running Head: Task Performance & Eye Activity Abstract word count: 254

Makeig, Scott


Enhanced smooth pursuit eye movements in patients with bilateral vestibular decits  

E-print Network

Enhanced smooth pursuit eye movements in patients with bilateral vestibular de¢cits Christopher J Patients with bilateral vestibular de¢cits experience unsteady gait and oscillopsia that can reduce of adaptation couldbe the ability of sensory-motor systems to compensate for the vestibular loss by adaptive

Haslwanter, Thomas


Journal of Vestibular Research 13 (2003) 7991 79 Eye-head coordination in darkness  

E-print Network

Journal of Vestibular Research 13 (2003) 79­91 79 IOS Press Eye-head coordination in darkness 2003 Abstract. Passive head rotation in darkness produces vestibular nystagmus, consisting of slow in darkness are generated, assuming the only available sensory information is that provided by the vestibular

Ramat, Stefano


Hand-eye coordination in robot arm reaching task by reinforcement learning using a neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shows that a robot with the hand-eye system can learn the hand-reaching task without apparent calculations of the target, obstacle, and hand locations. The system consists of a neural network whose inputs are raw visual sensory signals, joint angles of the arm, and the existence of the obstacle. It is trained by reinforcement learning, and the reward is given only

Katsunari Shibata; Koji Ito



Retrieval of iris dominant color using intra-palette color merging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying dominant colors prominent in a visual scenery is very important since human visual system primarily uses them for perception. When dealing with eye iris images it is important to correctly distinguish dominant colors from the iris surface. In this paper we present an automatic dominant color detection method which allow us to calculate the similarities from the iris surface.

Adrian Lodin; Corneliu Rusu



Age-related changes in human posture control: Sensory organization tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Postural control was measured in 214 human subjects ranging in age from 7 to 81 years. Sensory organization tests measured the magnitude of anterior-posterior body sway during six 21 s trials in which visual and somatosensory orientation cues were altered (by rotating the visual surround and support surface in proportion to the subject's sway) or vision eliminated (eyes closed) in various combinations. No age-related increase in postural sway was found for subjects standing on a fixed support surface with eyes open or closed. However, age-related increases in sway were found for conditions involving altered visual or somatosensory cues. Subjects older than about 55 years showed the largest sway increases. Subjects younger than about 15 years were also sensitive to alteration of sensory cues. On average, the older subjects were more affected by altered visual cues whereas younger subjects had more difficulty with altered somatosensory cues.

Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.



Sensory exploitation and sexual conflict  

PubMed Central

Much of the literature on male–female coevolution concerns the processes by which male traits and female preferences for these can coevolve and be maintained by selection. There has been less explicit focus on the origin of male traits and female preferences. Here, I argue that it is important to distinguish origin from subsequent coevolution and that insights into the origin can help us appreciate the relative roles of various coevolutionary processes for the evolution of diversity in sexual dimorphism. I delineate four distinct scenarios for the origin of male traits and female preferences that build on past contributions, two of which are based on pre-existing variation in quality indicators among males and two on exploitation of pre-existing sensory biases among females. Recent empirical research, and theoretical models, suggest that origin by sensory exploitation has been widespread. I argue that this points to a key, but perhaps transient, role for sexually antagonistic coevolution (SAC) in the subsequent evolutionary elaboration of sexual traits, because (i) sensory exploitation is often likely to be initially costly for individuals of the exploited sex and (ii) the subsequent evolution of resistance to sensory exploitation should often be associated with costs due to selective constraints. A review of a few case studies is used to illustrate these points. Empirical data directly relevant to the costs of being sensory exploited and the costs of evolving resistance is largely lacking, and I stress that such data would help determining the general importance of sexual conflict and SAC for the evolution of sexual dimorphism. PMID:16612895

Arnqvist, Goran



Eye Injuries in Sports  


... Some high-risk sports are baseball, basketball, hockey, football, lacrosse, tennis and other racquet sports, fencing and ... eye problems or if you have a family history of retinal problems. If so, you should be ...


Multimodal eye recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multimodal biometrics use more than one means of biometric identification to achieve higher recognition accuracy, since sometimes a unimodal biometric is not good enough used to do identification and classification. In this paper, we proposed a multimodal eye recognition system, which can obtain both iris and sclera patterns from one color eye image. Gabor filter and 1-D Log-Gabor filter algorithms have been applied as the iris recognition algorithms. In sclera recognition, we introduced automatic sclera segmentation, sclera pattern enhancement, sclera pattern template generation, and sclera pattern matching. We applied kernelbased matching score fusion to improve the performance of the eye recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed eye recognition method can achieve better performance compared to unimodal biometric identification, and the accuracy of our proposed kernel-based matching score fusion method is higher than two classic linear matching score fusion methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).

Zhou, Zhi; Du, Yingzi; Thomas, N. L.; Delp, Edward J., III



Eye to I  

E-print Network

This is the story of the language of eyes - what they say about our emotions, what they reveal about our intentions, how they interact with our face, and how they connect us to one another. The story follows our experience ...

Brunstein, Ada



Eye Cosmetic Safety  


... contamination may be even greater with "testers" at retail stores, where a number of people are using ... As with any cosmetic product sold on a retail basis to consumers, eye cosmetics are required to ...


Anatomy of the Eye  


External (Extraocular) Anatomy Extraocular Muscles: There are six muscles that are present in the orbit (eye socket) that attach to the ... on which contact lenses are placed. Internal (Intraocular)Anatomy Anterior chamber: The anterior chamber is a fluid ( ...


Foreign Body in Eye  


... the object, you can remove it with the edge of a facial tissue or a moistened cotton swab. For small objects you also can try rinsing your eye with clean water. Sometimes your lashes will lift the object out ...


Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care: Antibiotics for Pink Eye  


... Consumer Alerts Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... More Lifestyle Topics > EyeSmart Tips Blood Sugar and Eye Exams Control your blood sugar for several days ...


Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care: Punctal Plugs for Dry Eye  


... Consumer Alerts Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... More Lifestyle Topics > EyeSmart Tips Blood Sugar and Eye Exams Control your blood sugar for several days ...


Minority Eye Health: Know Your Risks  


... Torn Retina Diabetic Retinopathy Dry Eye Floaters & Flashes Glaucoma Hyperopia (Farsightedness) Low Vision Myopia (Nearsightedness) Pink Eye ( ... Remedies for Simple Eye Problems Medical Marijuana for Glaucoma Pregnancy Preventing Eye Injuries Smokers Sports Using Eye ...


Dominant Cultural Values  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study expands on previous work in exploring dominant cultural values portrayed in print magazine advertisements in the United States of America (U.S.) and India across and within product categories. A modified version of Cheng and Schweitzer's (1996) coding framework is used for the study. The differences and similarities in the observed frequencies of the dominant cultural values portrayed in

Durriya H. Z. Khairullah; Zahid Y. Khairullah



Development of sensory organs and changes of behavior in larvae of the sutchi catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of the sutchi catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus hatch with morphologically immature features, but sensory organs develop rapidly as the fish grow. By 1 day old, yolk-sac\\u000a larvae showed notochord flexion, and by 2 days old larvae were observed to have consumed a large part of the yolk sac. At\\u000a this stage, larvae had well-developed eyes, olfactory organs with ciliated receptor cells, inner

Yukinori MukaiAudrey; Audrey Daning Tuzan; Sitti Raehanah Muhamad Shaleh; Bernardette Mabel Manjaji-Matsumoto



The Draize eye test.  


Hundreds of substances are used daily that can damage eyesight. People's eyes are open to accidental or intentional exposure during the production, transportation, use, and disposal of chemical preparations. Ensuring the safety of consumer products was born during the mid twentieth century in the aftermath of chemical warfare research, and was motivated by the hazards of unsafe cosmetics. Justified by an exigency for public protection, the Draize eye test became a governmentally endorsed method to evaluate the safety of materials meant for use in or around the eyes. The test involves a standardized protocol for instilling agents onto the cornea and conjunctiva of laboratory animals. A sum of ordinal-scale items of the outer eye gives an index of ocular morbidity. Advances in ocular toxicology are challenging the validity, precision, relevance, and need of the Draize eye test. Preclinical product-safety tests with rabbits and other mammals also raise ethical concerns of animal wellbeing. Some use the Draize test as a rallying point for how animals are treated in science and industry. A battery of cellular systems and computer models aim to reduce and ultimately to replace whole-animal testing. Molecular measures of ocular toxicity may eventually allow comprehensive screening in humans. The Draize eye test was created and refined for humanitarian reasons and has assuredly prevented harm. Its destiny is to be progressively supplanted as in vitro and clinical alternatives emerge for assessing irritancy of the ocular surface. PMID:11425356

Wilhelmus, K R



Eye Development and Retinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Three embryonic tissue sources—the neural ectoderm, the surface ectoderm, and the periocular mesenchyme—contribute to the formation of the mammalian eye. For this reason, the developing eye has presented an invaluable system for studying the interactions among cells and, more recently, genes, in specifying cell fate. This article describes how the eye primordium is specified in the anterior neural plate by four eye field transcription factors and how the optic vesicle becomes regionalized into three distinct tissue types. Specific attention is given to how cross talk between the optic vesicle and surface ectoderm contributes to lens and optic cup formation. This article also describes how signaling networks and cell movements set up axes in the optic cup and establish the multiple cell fates important for vision. How multipotent retinal progenitor cells give rise to the six neuronal and one glial cell type in the mature retina is also explained. Finally, the history and progress of cellular therapeutics for the treatment of degenerative eye disease is outlined. Throughout this article, special attention is given to how disruption of gene function causes ocular malformation in humans. Indeed, the accessibility of the eye has contributed much to our understanding of the basic processes involved in mammalian development. PMID:23071378

Heavner, Whitney; Pevny, Larysa



Modern sports eye injuries  

PubMed Central

Aims: To determine the severity and long term sequelae of eye injuries caused by modern sports that could be responsible for significant ocular trauma in the future. Methods: Prospective observational study of 24 (25 eyes) athletes with sports related ocular injuries from health clubs, war games, adventure, radical and new types of soccer, presenting to an eye emergency department between 1992 and 2002 (10 years). Results: Modern sports were responsible for 8.3% of the 288 total sports eye injuries reported. Squash (29.2%) was the most common cause, followed by paintball (20.8%) and motocross (16.6%). The most common diagnosis during the follow up period was retinal breaks (20%). 18 (75%) patients sustained a severe injury. The final visual acuity remained <20/100 in two paintball players. Conclusions: Ocular injuries resulting from modern sports are often severe. Adequate instruction of the participants in the games, proper use of eye protectors, and a routine complete ophthalmological examination after an eye trauma should be mandatory. PMID:14609827

Capao Filipe, J A; Rocha-Sousa, A; Falcao-Reis, F; Castro-Correia, J



Financial Aid for Eye Care  


... to eligible candidates age 65 or older. Its Glaucoma EyeCare Program provides a glaucoma eye exam. The EyeCare America Children’s EyeCare Program ... need this exam. For People at Risk for Glaucoma -- Glaucoma is a leading cause of vision loss. ...


Birth regulates the initiation of sensory map formation through serotonin signaling.  


Although the mechanisms underlying the spatial pattern formation of sensory maps have been extensively investigated, those triggering sensory map formation during development are largely unknown. Here we show that the birth of pups instructively and selectively regulates the initiation of barrel formation in the somatosensory cortex by reducing serotonin concentration. We found that preterm birth accelerated barrel formation, whereas it did not affect either barreloid formation or barrel structural plasticity. We also found that serotonin was selectively reduced soon after birth and that the reduction of serotonin was triggered by birth. The reduction of serotonin was necessary and sufficient for the effect of birth on barrel formation. Interestingly, the regulatory mechanisms described here were also found to regulate eye-specific segregation in the visual system, suggesting that they are utilized in various brain regions. Our results shed light on roles of birth and serotonin in sensory map formation. PMID:24135230

Toda, Tomohisa; Homma, Daigo; Tokuoka, Hirofumi; Hayakawa, Itaru; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Ichinose, Hiroshi; Kawasaki, Hiroshi



Validity of Sensory Systems as Distinct Constructs  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the validity of sensory systems as distinct measurable constructs as part of a larger project examining Ayres’s theory of sensory integration. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to test whether sensory questionnaire items represent distinct sensory system constructs. Data were obtained from clinical records of two age groups, 2- to 5-yr-olds (n = 231) and 6- to 10-yr-olds (n = 223). With each group, we tested several CFA models for goodness of fit with the data. The accepted model was identical for each group and indicated that tactile, vestibular–proprioceptive, visual, and auditory systems form distinct, valid factors that are not age dependent. In contrast, alternative models that grouped items according to sensory processing problems (e.g., over- or underresponsiveness within or across sensory systems) did not yield valid factors. Results indicate that distinct sensory system constructs can be measured validly using questionnaire data. PMID:25184467

Su, Chia-Ting



Validity of sensory systems as distinct constructs.  


This study investigated the validity of sensory systems as distinct measurable constructs as part of a larger project examining Ayres's theory of sensory integration. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to test whether sensory questionnaire items represent distinct sensory system constructs. Data were obtained from clinical records of two age groups, 2- to 5-yr-olds (n = 231) and 6- to 10-yr-olds (n = 223). With each group, we tested several CFA models for goodness of fit with the data. The accepted model was identical for each group and indicated that tactile, vestibular-proprioceptive, visual, and auditory systems form distinct, valid factors that are not age dependent. In contrast, alternative models that grouped items according to sensory processing problems (e.g., over- or underresponsiveness within or across sensory systems) did not yield valid factors. Results indicate that distinct sensory system constructs can be measured validly using questionnaire data. PMID:25184467

Su, Chia-Ting; Parham, L Diane



Effects of Dominance and Laterality on Iris Recognition Amanda Sgroi, Kevin W. Bowyer, Patrick Flynn  

E-print Network

to use one side of the body. In pyschology, eye dominance and later- ality are examined for use in this area to explore imbalances in the brain for diagnosis of particular diseases[30]. Sports scientists

Bowyer, Kevin W.


Relative contribution of feedforward excitatory connections to ocular dominance plasticity in layer 4 of visual cortex  

E-print Network

Brief monocular deprivation (MD) shifts ocular dominance (OD) in primary visual cortex by causing depression of responses to the deprived eye. Here we address the extent to which the shift is expressed by a modification ...

Khibnik, Lena A.


Autosomal dominant transmission of ureteral triplication and bilateral amastia.  


We report a case of ureteral triplication as part of an autosomal dominant syndrome comprising bilateral amastia, pectus excavatum, umbilical hernia, patent ductus arteriosus, dysmorphic low set ears, ptosis, epicanthic folds with an antimongoloid slant to the eyes, hypertelorism, high arched palate, flat broad nasal bridge, tapered digits, cubitus valgus and syndactyly. PMID:3795344

Rich, M A; Heimler, A; Waber, L; Brock, W A



Sensory perception in overdenture patients.  


The discussion of overdentures has been confined to their capacity to use abutment teeth to improve neuromuscular control of mandibular movement. Use of overdentures has been favored often because of their mechanical advantages, but seldom because of the sensory role of the retained abutment teeth. Even though the retained teeth may be periodontally diseased, they still may provide sufficient support for the transmission of masticatory pressures and sufficient periodontal ligament receptors to initiate a jaw opening reflex. Whereas conflicting evidence shows that the periodontal nerve receptors play a role in mandibular positional sensibility (proprioception), pressure perception by the periodontal ligament remains a primary stimulus for the jaw opening reflex. Additional investigations will be essential to a complete understanding of the role of the periodontal ligament receptors. However, recognition of the importance of the periodontal ligament receptors to the overdenture patient as a source of sensory input is vital. PMID:1066472

Kay, W D; Abes, M S



The Sensory Neurons of Touch  

PubMed Central

The somatosensory system decodes a wide range of tactile stimuli and thus endows us with a remarkable capacity for object recognition, texture discrimination, sensory-motor feedback and social exchange. The first step leading to perception of innocuous touch is activation of cutaneous sensory neurons called low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs). Here, we review the properties and functions of LTMRs, emphasizing the unique tuning properties of LTMR subtypes and the organizational logic of their peripheral and central axonal projections. We discuss the spinal cord neurophysiological representation of complex mechanical forces acting upon the skin and current views of how tactile information is processed and conveyed from the spinal cord to the brain. An integrative model in which ensembles of impulses arising from physiologically distinct LTMRs are integrated and processed in somatotopically aligned mechanosensory columns of the spinal cord dorsal horn underlies the nervous system’s enormous capacity for perceiving the richness of the tactile world. PMID:23972592

Abraira, Victoria E.; Ginty, David D.



Galileo's eye: a new vision of the senses in the work of Galileo Galilei.  


Reflections on the senses, and particularly on vision, permeate the writings of Galileo Galilei, one of the main protagonists of the scientific revolution. This aspect of his work has received scant attention by historians, in spite of its importance for his achievements in astronomy, and also for the significance in the innovative scientific methodology he fostered. Galileo's vision pursued a different path from the main stream of the then contemporary studies in the field; these were concerned with the dioptrics and anatomy of the eye, as elaborated mainly by Johannes Kepler and Christoph Scheiner. Galileo was more concerned with the phenomenology rather than with the mechanisms of the visual process. His general interest in the senses was psychological and philosophical; it reflected the fallacies and limits of the senses and the ways in which scientific knowledge of the world could be gathered from potentially deceptive appearances. Galileo's innovative conception of the relation between the senses and external reality contrasted with the classical tradition dominated by Aristotle; it paved the way for the modern understanding of sensory processing, culminating two centuries later in Johannes Müller's elaboration of the doctrine of specific nerve energies and in Helmholtz's general theory of perception. PMID:18986060

Piccolino, Marco; Wade, Nicholas J



VESTA Viticulture Course: Sensory Evaluation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from the Viticulture and Enology Science and Technology Alliance, offers presentations and slides from the lectures of VIN 266: Sensory Evaluation. From the presenter, Ray Johnson, the three lectures included are: Enhancing Winetasting: Decanting, Enhancing Winetasting: Glassware, and Winetasting Methodology Basic Techniques. Users must have Microsoft's Silverlight installed to view the presentations, which vary in length from about 6 minutes to 16 minutes.



Sensory Augmentation for the Blind  

PubMed Central

Common navigational aids used by blind travelers during large-scale navigation divert attention away from important cues of the immediate environment (i.e., approaching vehicles). Sensory augmentation devices, relying on principles similar to those at work in sensory substitution, can potentially bypass the bottleneck of attention through sub-cognitive implementation of a set of rules coupling motor actions with sensory stimulation. We provide a late blind subject with a vibrotactile belt that continually signals the direction of magnetic north. The subject completed a set of behavioral tests before and after an extended training period. The tests were complemented by questionnaires and interviews. This newly supplied information improved performance on different time scales. In a pointing task we demonstrate an instant improvement of performance based on the signal provided by the device. Furthermore, the signal was helpful in relevant daily tasks, often complicated for the blind, such as keeping a direction over longer distances or taking shortcuts in familiar environments. A homing task with an additional attentional load demonstrated a significant improvement after training. The subject found the directional information highly expedient for the adjustment of his inner maps of familiar environments and describes an increase in his feeling of security when exploring unfamiliar environments with the belt. The results give evidence for a firm integration of the newly supplied signals into the behavior of this late blind subject with better navigational performance and more courageous behavior in unfamiliar environments. Most importantly, the complementary information provided by the belt lead to a positive emotional impact with enhanced feeling of security. The present experimental approach demonstrates the positive potential of sensory augmentation devices for the help of handicapped people. PMID:22403535

Karcher, Silke M.; Fenzlaff, Sandra; Hartmann, Daniela; Nagel, Saskia K.; Konig, Peter



Evolution of Sensory Hair Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The ears of all vertebrate species use sensory hair cells (Fig. 3.1) to convert mechanical energy to electrical signals compatible with the nervous system. However, although the basic structure\\u000a of hair cells is ubiquitous among the vertebrates and hair cells are also found in the lateral line of fishes and aquatic\\u000a amphibians, a growing body of literature has demonstrated considerable

Allison Coffin; Matthew Kelley; Geoffrey A. Manley; Arthur N. Popper


Morphology of Electroreceptive Sensory Organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphology of electroreceptive organs in lampreys and their larvae, different fishes, aquatic amphibians, and monotreme\\u000a mammals is described. The sense organs vary from superficial end buds in lampreys, to ampullary organs and tuberous organs\\u000a in many fishes and amphibians, to specialized mucous glands in the monotremes. The sensory cells are quite different. Some\\u000a have a bundle of apical microvilli,

Jørgen Mørup Jørgensen


Enhanced sensory perception in synaesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous findings imply that synaesthetic experience may have consequences for sensory processing of stimuli that do not themselves\\u000a trigger synaesthesia. For example, synaesthetes who experience colour show enhanced perceptual processing of colour compared\\u000a to non-synaesthetes. This study aimed to investigate whether enhanced perceptual processing was a core property of synaesthesia\\u000a by contrasting tactile and colour sensitivity in synaesthetes who experience

Michael J. Banissy; Vincent Walsh; Jamie Ward



Development of Metallic Sensory Alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Existing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are inherently limited by the physical response of the structural material being inspected and are therefore not generally effective at the identification of small discontinuities, making the detection of incipient damage extremely difficult. One innovative solution to this problem is to enhance or complement the NDE signature of structural materials to dramatically improve the ability of existing NDE tools to detect damage. To address this need, a multifunctional metallic material has been developed that can be used in structural applications. The material is processed to contain second phase sensory particles that significantly improve the NDE response, enhancing the ability of conventional NDE techniques to detect incipient damage both during and after flight. Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloys (FSMAs) are an ideal material for these sensory particles as they undergo a uniform and repeatable change in both magnetic properties and crystallographic structure (martensitic transformation) when subjected to strain and/or temperature changes which can be detected using conventional NDE techniques. In this study, the use of a ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) as the sensory particles was investigated.

Wallace Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Horne, Michael R.; Messick, Peter L.



Autosomal dominant genes (image)  


In the case of autosomal dominant genes, a single abnormal gene on one of the autosomal chromosomes (one of the first 22 "non-sex" chromosomes) from either parent can cause the disease. One of the parents ...


Characteristics of bilateral hand function in individuals with unilateral dystonia due to perinatal stroke: sensory and motor aspects.  


The authors assessed bilateral motor and sensory function in individuals with upper limb dystonia due to unilateral perinatal stroke and explored interrelationships of motor function and sensory ability. Reach kinematics and tactile sensation were measured in 7 participants with dystonia and 9 healthy volunteers. The dystonia group had poorer motor (hold time, reach time, shoulder/elbow correlation) and sensory (spatial discrimination, stereognosis) outcomes than the control group on the nondominant side. On the dominant side, only sensation (spatial discrimination, stereognosis) was poorer in the dystonia group compared with the control group. In the dystonia group, although sensory and motor outcomes were uncorrelated, dystonia severity was related to poorer stereognosis, longer hold and reach times, and decreased shoulder/elbow coordination. Findings of bilateral sensory deficits in dystonia can be explained by neural reorganization. Visual compensation for somatosensory changes in the nonstroke hemisphere may explain the lack of bilateral impairments in reaching. PMID:24396131

de Campos, Ana Carolina; Kukke, Sahana N; Hallett, Mark; Alter, Katharine E; Damiano, Diane L



Eye Health:Eye Health: What You Should KnowWhat You Should Know  

E-print Network

Eye Health:Eye Health: What You Should KnowWhat You Should Know Holly B. Hindman, MDHolly B of Ophthalmology Flaum Eye InstituteFlaum Eye Institute University of RochesterUniversity of Rochester #12;THE FLAUM EYE INSTITUTE #12;Keeping Your Eyes Healthy · Know about how your eyes work · Most Eye Diseases

Goldman, Steven A.


Coevolution of visual signals and eye morphology in Polistes paper wasps.  


To be effective, signals must propagate through the environment and be detected by receivers. As a result, signal form evolves in response to both the constraints imposed by the transmission environment and receiver perceptual abilities. Little work has examined the extent to which signals may act as selective forces on receiver sensory systems to improve the efficacy of communication. If receivers benefit from accurate signal assessment, selection could favour sensory organs that improve discrimination of established signals. Here, we provide evidence that visual resolution coevolves with visual signals in Polistes wasps. Multiple Polistes species have variable facial patterns that function as social signals, whereas other species lack visual signals. Analysis of 19 Polistes species shows that maximum eye facet size is positively associated with both eye size and presence of visual signals. Relatively larger facets within the eye's acute zone improve resolution of small images, such as wasp facial signals. Therefore, sensory systems may evolve to optimize signal assessment. Sensory adaptations to facilitate signal detection may represent an overlooked area of the evolution of animal communication. PMID:24789142

Sheehan, Michael J; Jinn, Judy; Tibbetts, Elizabeth A



Effect of facial sensory re-training on sensory thresholds.  


Nearly 100% of patients experience trauma to the trigeminal nerve during orthognathic surgery, impairing sensation and sensory function on the face. In a recent randomized clinical trial, people who performed sensory re-training exercises reported less difficulty related to residual numbness and decreased lip sensitivity than those who performed standard opening exercises only. We hypothesized that re-training reduces the impaired performance on neurosensory tests of tactile function that is commonly observed post-surgically. We analyzed thresholds for contact detection, two-point discrimination, and two-point perception, obtained during the clinical trial before and at 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery, to assess tactile detection and discriminative sensitivities, and subjective interpretation of tactile stimulation, respectively. Post-surgery, the retrained persons exhibited less impairment, on average, than non-retrained persons only in two-point perception (P < 0.025), suggesting that retrained persons experienced or interpreted the tactile stimuli differently than did non-retrained persons. PMID:17525360

Essick, G K; Phillips, C; Zuniga, J



Administering Eye Medications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on administering eye medications is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. A brief discussion follows of…

Morris, Sara; Michael, Nancy, Ed.


Eye Disease Simulations  


... it might be viewed by someone with normal vision Age-Related Macular Degeneration Age-Related Macular Degeneration information page Back to top Cataract Cataract information page Back to top Diabetic Retinopathy Diabetic Eye Disease information page Back to top ...


Through Students' Eyes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies how students perceive racism and its effects on student learning and whether antiracist/multicultural arts (ARMA) curricula can empower students to address racism in schools. Results show racism, through students' eyes, damages learning, attitudes, and behavior. ARMA positively effected students' ability to confront racism within their…

McLean-Donaldson, Karen B.



Eye Tracking Denis Leimberg  

E-print Network

over six months at the Section of Intelligent Signal Processing, Department of Informatics discussions, and for introducing the world of eye tracking. Kaare Brandt Petersen, for sparing a day, during his busy ph.d.-nalizing period, to provide for hairy mathematical derivations. Martin E. Nielsen


The Draize Eye Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hundreds of substances are used daily that can damage eyesight. People's eyes are open to accidental or intentional exposure during the production, transportation, use, and disposal of chemical preparations. Ensuring the safety of consumer products was born during the mid twentieth century in the aftermath of chemical warfare research, and was motivated by the hazards of unsafe cosmetics. Justified by

Kirk R Wilhelmus



GeoEye Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The GeoEye Gallery provides high-resolution satellite images from around the world. Images include islands, ancient ruins, natural disasters, global security, manmade features, and more. A featured Image of the Week is also provided along with the annual Top 10 images.



Eye-Tracking Data  

PubMed Central

Survey researchers since Cannell have worried that respondents may take various shortcuts to reduce the effort needed to complete a survey. The evidence for such shortcuts is often indirect. For instance, preferences for earlier versus later response options have been interpreted as evidence that respondents do not read beyond the first few options. This is really only a hypothesis, however, that is not supported by direct evidence regarding the allocation of respondent attention. In the current study, we used a new method to more directly observe what respondents do and do not look at by recording their eye movements while they answered questions in a Web survey. The eye-tracking data indicate that respondents do in fact spend more time looking at the first few options in a list of response options than those at the end of the list; this helps explain their tendency to select the options presented first regardless of their content. In addition, the eye-tracking data reveal that respondents are reluctant to invest effort in reading definitions of survey concepts that are only a mouse click away or paying attention to initially hidden response options. It is clear from the eye-tracking data that some respondents are more prone to these and other cognitive shortcuts than others, providing relatively direct evidence for what had been suspected based on more conventional measures. PMID:21253437

Galesic, Mirta; Tourangeau, Roger; Couper, Mick P.; Conrad, Frederick G.



Eye of the Beholder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Art, like beauty, as the adage goes, is in the eye of the beholder. Art also is a living, breathing thing that evolves over time, so what is considered "art" is ever changing--how many of the great artists whose works today sell for fortunes were failures during their lifetime? The 20th century unknowingly gave birth to new variations of art that…

Rogers, Michael



Eye Movements and Perception.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An explanation of visual perception is presented using physiological facts, analogies to digital computers, and analogies to the structure of written languages. According to the explanation, visual input is discontinuous, with the discontinuities mediated by and correlated with the jumps of the eye. This is analogous to the gated and buffer-stored…

Gaarder, Kenneth


Red or uncomfortable eye.  

PubMed Central

1. A red, uncomfortable eye may be accompanied by other symptoms such as blurred, decreased, or double vision, haloes, photophobia, pain or discharge. 2. A careful history and brief systematic examination will sort out most problems. 3. Examine eyelids, the conjunctivae and corneas. Checking visual acuity is often important. 4. The most common underlying causes can usually be managed within general practice, though a few patients will require urgent eye assessment, or routine referral to ophthalmic outpatients. 5. The following are typical eye problems which require urgent referral: History of pain as opposed to discomfort, Trauma including foreign bodies, chemicals and suspected penetrating injury, Unexplained drop in visual acuity of two lines or more in a painful eye. Specific conditions: preseptal cellulitis, herpes simplex ulcer, scleritis, orbital cellulitis, herpes zoster, bacterial corneal ulcer, dacryocystitis. 6. The following are typical problems which may require routine referral: Persistence of the problem not relieved by simple measures, Recurrent disorders of uncertain diagnosis, Eyelid swelling such as chalazion, cysts, basal cell carcinoma, Gradual loss of vision, for example cataract, macular degeneration. PMID:1345157

Davey, C.; Hurwitz, B.




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the eye-movement paradigm and refers to recent experiments applying the paradigm to issues of spoken word recognition (e.g., lexical competitor effects), syntactic processing, reference resolution, focus, as well as issues in cross-modality integration that are central to evaluating the modularity hypothesis. (Seven references) (Author/CK)

Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Spivey-Knowlton, Michael J.



Laser Eye Surgery  


... are different types of laser eye surgery. LASIK - laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis - is one of the most common. Many patients who have LASIK end up with 20/20 vision. But, like all medical procedures, it has both risks and benefits. Only ...


Simple Solutions for Dry Eye  


... are more concentrated in the tear film of dry eye patients. In hot weather, sleep with the windows shut and keep cool with air conditioning. • Dry eye patients often develop or aggravate allergies. An ...


Sensory Motor Coordination in Robonaut  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a participant of the year 2000 NASA Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, I worked with the engineers of the Dexterous Robotics Laboratory at NASA Johnson Space Center on the Robonaut project. The Robonaut is an articulated torso with two dexterous arms, left and right five-fingered hands, and a head with cameras mounted on an articulated neck. This advanced space robot, now driven only teleoperatively using VR gloves, sensors and helmets, is to be upgraded to a thinking system that can find, interact with and assist humans autonomously, allowing the Crew to work with Robonaut as a (junior) member of their team. Thus, the work performed this summer was toward the goal of enabling Robonaut to operate autonomously as an intelligent assistant to astronauts. Our underlying hypothesis is that a robot can develop intelligence if it learns a set of basic behaviors (i.e., reflexes - actions tightly coupled to sensing) and through experience learns how to sequence these to solve problems or to accomplish higher-level tasks. We describe our approach to the automatic acquisition of basic behaviors as learning sensory-motor coordination (SMC). Although research in the ontogenesis of animals development from the time of conception) supports the approach of learning SMC as the foundation for intelligent, autonomous behavior, we do not know whether it will prove viable for the development of autonomy in robots. The first step in testing the hypothesis is to determine if SMC can be learned by the robot. To do this, we have taken advantage of Robonaut's teleoperated control system. When a person teleoperates Robonaut, the person's own SMC causes the robot to act purposefully. If the sensory signals that the robot detects during teleoperation are recorded over several repetitions of the same task, it should be possible through signal analysis to identify the sensory-motor couplings that accompany purposeful motion. In this report, reasons for suspecting SMC as the basis for intelligent behavior will be reviewed. A robot control system for autonomous behavior that uses learned SMC will be proposed. Techniques for the extraction of salient parameters from sensory and motor data will be discussed. Experiments with Robonaut will be discussed and preliminary data presented.

Peters, Richard Alan, II



Sensory processing abilities of children with ADHD  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the sensory processing abilities of children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and children without disabilities, and to analyze the relationship between sensory processing difficulties and behavioural symptoms presented by children with ADHD. METHOD : Thirty-seven children with ADHD were compared with thirty-seven controls using a translated and adapted version of the "Sensory Profile" answered by the parents/caregivers. For the ADHD group, Sensory Profile scores were correlated to behavioural symptoms assessed using the Child Behaviour Check List (CBCL) and the Behavioural Teacher Rating Scale (EACI-P). The statistical analyses were conducted using the Mann Whitney test and Pearson correlation coefficients. RESULTS : Children with ADHD showed significant impairments compared to the control group in sensory processing and modulation, as well as in behavioural and emotional responses as observed in 11 out of 14 sections and 6 out of 9 factors. Differences in all Sensory Profile response patterns were also observed between the two groups of children. Sensory Profile scores showed a moderately negative correlation with CBCL and EACI-P scores in the ADHD group. CONCLUSION : These results indicate that children with ADHD may present sensory processing impairments, which may contribute to the inappropriate behavioural and learning responses displayed by children with ADHD. It also suggests the importance of understanding the sensory processing difficulties and its possible contribution to the ADHD symptomatology. PMID:25076000

Shimizu, Vitoria T.; Bueno, Orlando F. A.; Miranda, Monica C.



Sensory Impairment Among Older US Workers  

PubMed Central

We used 1997–2004 National Health Interview Survey data to evaluate the prevalence of sensory impairment among US workers 65 years and older. Hearing impairment prevalence was 3 times that of visual impairment (33.4% vs 10.2%), and 38% of older workers reported experiencing either impairment. Farm operators, mechanics, and motor vehicle operators had the highest prevalence of sensory impairment. Workplace screening and accommodations, including sensory protection devices for older workers, are warranted given the greater risk for injuries among the sensory impaired. PMID:19542042

Davila, Evelyn P.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Muennig, Peter; Fleming, Lora E.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.; LeBlanc, William G.; Lam, Byron L.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; McCollister, Kathryn E.; Zheng, Diane; Christ, Sharon L.



The Diversity of Eye Optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter starts with a description of the optics of camera-type eyes, in which an image is projected upon a retina with\\u000a cornea and lens as refracting elements. Ray tracing is explained with the human eye as an example of a terrestrial vertebrate’s\\u000a eye. Then the comparison is made to camera eyes of aquatic and amphibious animals, with an explanation

Lars Olof Björn


Detection of glutamate in the eye by Raman spectroscopy.  


Raman spectroscopy is used to detect glutamate in the eye. Glutamate, a by-product of nerve cell death, is an indicator of glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. The Raman spectra of ex vivo whole porcine eyes and individual components (lens, cornea, vitreous) are measured and characterized. Monosodium glutamate is injected into the eyes to simulate disease conditions, and the contribution to the Raman spectrum due to the presence of glutamate is identified. The Raman spectra from the native eye is dominated by vibrational modes from proteins in the lens. An optical system is designed to optimize collection of signal from the vitreous, where the glutamate is located, and reduce the Raman from the lens. Two vibrational fingerprints of monosodium glutamate are detected at 1369 and 1422 cm(-1), although the concentrations are much above physiological concentrations. PMID:12683841

Katz, Al; Kruger, Erik F; Minko, Glenn; Liu, C H; Rosen, Richard B; Alfano, Robert R



Some Rat Sensory Neurons in Culture Express Characteristics of Differentiated Pain Sensory Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensory neurons were dissociated from trigeminal ganglia or from dorsal root ganglia of rats, grown in culture, and examined for expression of properties of pain sensory cells. Many sensory neurons in culture are excited by low concentrations of capsaicin, reportedly a selective stimulus for pain sensory neurons. Many are excited by bradykinin, sensitized by prostaglandin E2, or specifically stained by an antiserum against substance P. These experiments provide a basis for the study of pain mechanisms in cell culture.

Baccaglini, Paola I.; Hogan, Patrick G.



Time Sequence Liquid Dominant  

E-print Network

Time Sequence Liquid Dominant Evaporation De-pinning Dryout Progress Formation of Nanoparticle of Nanofluid Droplets on a Microheater Array 2-nm Au 20nm 47-nm Al2O3 Distilled Water 30-nm CuO Microheater to examine the effect of nanoparticle sizes on the dryout characteristics. While the distilled water droplet

Kihm, IconKenneth David


Robin Teigland Dominic Power  

E-print Network

Edited by Robin Teigland Stockholm School ofEconomics, Sweden and Dominic Power Uppsala University, Sweden palqrave rnacrllillan #12;* Selection, Chapter 1 and editorial material © Robin Teigland sources. Logging, pulping and manufacturing processes are expected to conform to the environmental

Brody, James P.


Iron dominated magnets  

SciTech Connect

These two lectures on iron dominated magnets are meant for the student of accelerator science and contain general treatments of the subjects design and construction. The material is arranged in the categories: General Concepts and Cost Considerations, Profile Configuration and Harmonics, Magnetic Measurements, a few examples of ''special magnets'' and Materials and Practices. Extensive literature is provided.

Fischer, G.E.



Apical Dominance in Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a tentative hypothesis for the control of plant branching (apical dominance). Explores the mechanism by which apical buds inhibit the growth of axillary buds on the same shoot. Presents an up-to-date picture of the problem and gives economic implications of the study. (BR)

Tucker, D. J.



Identification of possible downstream genes required for the extension of peripheral axons in primary sensory neurons.  


The LIM-homeodomain transcription factor Islet2a establishes neuronal identity in the developing nervous system. Our previous study showed that Islet2a function is crucial for extending peripheral axons of sensory neurons in zebrafish embryo. Overexpressing a dominant-negative form of Islet2a significantly reduced peripheral axon extension in zebrafish sensory neurons, implicating Islet2a in the gene regulation required for neurite formation or proper axon growth in developing sensory neurons. Based on this, we conducted systematic screening to isolate genes regulated by Islet2a and affecting the development of axon growth in embryonic zebrafish sensory neurons. The 26 genes selected included some encoding factors involved in neuronal differentiation, axon growth, cellular signaling, and structural integrity of neurons, as well as genes whose functions are not fully determined. We chose four representative candidates as possible Islet2a downstream functional targets (simplet, tppp, tusc5 and tmem59l) and analyzed their respective mRNA expressions in dominant-negative Islet2a-expressing embryos. They are not reported the involvement of axonal extension or their functions in neural cells. Finally, knockdown of these genes suggested their direct actual involvement in the extension of peripheral axons in sensory neurons. PMID:24513284

Aoki, Makoto; Segawa, Hiroshi; Naito, Mayumi; Okamoto, Hitoshi



Carotid Artery and the Eye  


... How to Help The Carotid Artery and the Eye Share with a friend The Carotid Artery and the Eye A link to this article will be included ... Give Us Feedback The Carotid Artery and the Eye Your name First Name MI Laast Name Your ...


Reconstructing the eyes of Urbilateria.  

PubMed Central

The shared roles of Pax6 and Six homologues in the eye development of various bilaterians suggest that Urbilateria, the common ancestors of all Bilateria, already possessed some simple form of eyes. Here, we re-address the homology of bilaterian cerebral eyes at the level of eye anatomy, of eye-constituting cell types and of phototransductory molecules. The most widespread eye type found in Bilateria are the larval pigment-cup eyes located to the left and right of the apical organ in primary, ciliary larvae of Protostomia and Deuterostomia. They can be as simple as comprising a single pigment cell and a single photoreceptor cell in inverse orientation. Another more elaborate type of cerebral pigment-cup eyes with an everse arrangement of photoreceptor cells is found in adult Protostomia. Both inverse larval and everse adult eyes employ rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells and thus differ from the chordate cerebral eyes with ciliary photoreceptors. This is highly significant because on the molecular level we find that for phototransduction rhabdomeric versus ciliary photoreceptor cells employ divergent rhodopsins and non-orthologous G-proteins, rhodopsin kinases and arrestins. Our comparison supports homology of cerebral eyes in Protostomia; it challenges, however, homology of chordate and non-chordate cerebral eyes that employ photoreceptor cells with non-orthologous phototransductory cascades. PMID:11604122

Arendt, D; Wittbrodt, J



What Is a Comprehensive Dilated Eye Exam?  


... función de Escuchar . What is a comprehensive dilated eye exam? A comprehensive dilated eye exam is a ... seeing your best. What does a comprehensive dilated eye exam include? A comprehensive eye examination includes: dilation , ...


Mechano- and Chemo-Sensory Polycystins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycystins belong to the superfamily of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and comprise five PKD1-like and three PKD2-like (TRPP) subunits. In this chapter, we review the general properties of polycystins and discuss their specific role in both mechanotransduction and chemoreception. The heteromer PKD1/PKD2 expressed at the membrane of the primary cilium of kidney epithelial cells is proposed to form a mechano-sensitive calcium channel that is opened by physiological fluid flow. Dysfunction or loss of PKD1 or PKD2 polycystin genes may be responsible for the inability of epithelial cells to sense mechanical cues, thus provoking autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), one of the most prevalent genetic kidney disorders. pkd1 and pkd2 knock-out mice recapitulate the human disease. Similarly, PKD2 may function as a mechanosensory calcium channel in the immotile monocilia of the developing node transducing leftward flow into an increase in calcium and specifying the left-right axis. pkd2, unlike pkd1 knock-out embryos are characterized by right lung isomerism (situs inversus). Mechanical stimuli also induce cleavage and nuclear translocation of the PKD1 C-terminal tail, which enters the nucleus and initiates signaling processes involving the AP-1, STAT6 and P100 pathways. This intraproteolytic mechanism is implicated in the transduction of a change in renal fluid flow to a transcriptional long-term response. The heteromer PKD1L3/PKD2L1 is the basis for acid sensing in specialised sensory cells including the taste bud cells responsible for sour taste. Moreover, PKD1L3/PKD2L1 may be implicated in the chemosensitivity of neurons surrounding the spinal cord canal, sensing protons in the cerebrospinal fluid. These recent results demonstrate that polycystins fulfill a major sensory role in a variety of cells including kidney epithelial cells, taste buds cells and spinal cord neurons. Such mechanisms are involved in short- and long-term physiological regulation. Alteration of these pathways culminates in severe human pathologies, including ADPKD.

Patel, Amanda; Delmas, Patrick; Honoré, Eric


More than meets the eye: visual attention biases in individuals reporting chronic pain  

PubMed Central

The present study used eye-tracking technology to assess whether individuals who report chronic pain direct more attention to sensory pain-related words than do pain-free individuals. A total of 113 participants (51 with chronic pain, 62 pain-free) were recruited. Participants completed a dot-probe task, viewing neutral and sensory pain-related words while their reaction time and eye movements were recorded. Eye-tracking data were analyzed by mixed-design analysis of variance with group (chronic pain versus pain-free) as the between-subjects factor, and word type (sensory pain versus neutral) as the within-subjects factor. Results showed a significant main effect for word type: all participants attended to pain-related words more than neutral words on several eye-tracking parameters. The group main effect was significant for number of fixations, which was greater in the chronic pain group. Finally, the group by word type interaction effect was significant for average visit duration, number of fixations, and total late-phase duration, all greater for sensory pain versus neutral words in the chronic pain group. As well, participants with chronic pain fixated significantly more frequently on pain words than did pain-free participants. In contrast, none of the effects for reaction time were significant. The results support the hypothesis that individuals with chronic pain display specific attentional biases toward pain-related stimuli and demonstrate the value of eye-tracking technology in measuring differences in visual attention variables. PMID:25285022

Fashler, Samantha R; Katz, Joel



Active Sensing Virtually all sensory experience  

E-print Network

visual and auditory maps are misaligned. #12;The problem with head movements: Boyden, Katoh, & Raymond;The problem with eye movements #1: Problem: eye movements create large discontinuities in visual: the visual system interprets visual signals in the context of knowledge about coordinated eye movements

Born, Richard


Phylostratigraphic profiles reveal a deep evolutionary history of the vertebrate head sensory systems  

PubMed Central

Background The vertebrate head is a highly derived trait with a heavy concentration of sophisticated sensory organs that allow complex behaviour in this lineage. The head sensory structures arise during vertebrate development from cranial placodes and the neural crest. It is generally thought that derivatives of these ectodermal embryonic tissues played a central role in the evolutionary transition at the onset of vertebrates. Despite the obvious importance of head sensory organs for vertebrate biology, their evolutionary history is still uncertain. Results To give a fresh perspective on the adaptive history of the vertebrate head sensory organs, we applied genomic phylostratigraphy to large-scale in situ expression data of the developing zebrafish Danio rerio. Contrary to traditional predictions, we found that dominant adaptive signals in the analyzed sensory structures largely precede the evolutionary advent of vertebrates. The leading adaptive signals at the bilaterian-chordate transition suggested that the visual system was the first sensory structure to evolve. The olfactory, vestibuloauditory, and lateral line sensory organs displayed a strong link with the urochordate-vertebrate ancestor. The only structures that qualified as genuine vertebrate innovations were the neural crest derivatives, trigeminal ganglion and adenohypophysis. We also found evidence that the cranial placodes evolved before the neural crest despite their proposed embryological relatedness. Conclusions Taken together, our findings reveal pre-vertebrate roots and a stepwise adaptive history of the vertebrate sensory systems. This study also underscores that large genomic and expression datasets are rich sources of macroevolutionary information that can be recovered by phylostratigraphic mining. PMID:23587066



Sensory and motor properties of the cerebellar uvula and modulus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The uvula and nodulus (vermal lobules 9 and 10) of the vestibulocerebellum are implicated by behavioral evidence in the control of eye and head movements and in the production of motion sickness. The uvula and nodulus could play a role in these functions through known output pathways. Purkinje cells in both structures project via the fastigial and vestibular nuceli to the ventral horn of the cervical spin cord, to oculomotor neurons, and to the emetic region of the reticular formation (ablation of which abolishes susceptability to motion sickness). Uvula and nodulus Purkinje cells will be analyzed in cats trained to make controlled head movements. The activity of these neurons is expected to modulate well during head and/or eye movements because the uvula and nodulus receive heavy projections from sources of visual, vestibular and neck proprioceptive information. How neuron activity contributes to movement and how different sensory inputs converge to influence this contribution may be determined by characterizing movement related properties of these neurons. A population of neurons that modulates powerfully to the conflict between different head movement signals that can cause motion sickness may be identified.

Robinson, F. R.



Autosomal Dominant Spinocerebellar Ataxia  

PubMed Central

The autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (also known as the SCAs) are a diverse and clinically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by degeneration and dysfunction of the cerebellum and its associated pathways. Clinical and diagnostic evaluation can be challenging due to phenotypic overlap amongst numerous acquired, genetic, and idiopathic etiologies, and a stratified and systematic approach is essential. Molecular etiologies include DNA repeat expansions (both polyglutamine and non-coding repeats), ion-channel dysfunction, and disorders of signal transduction. Prompt recognition of acquired conditions or comorbidities is essential as treatment options for the genetic ataxias are currently limited. Recent advances in the field include the identification of additional genes causing dominant genetic ataxia, a better understanding of cellular pathogenesis in several disorders, the generation of new disease models which may stimulate development of new therapies, and the use of new DNA sequencing technologies, including whole exome sequencing, to improve diagnosis. PMID:24176420

Shakkottai, Vikram G.; Fogel, Brent L.



Optoelectronic eye tracking system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eye movement monitor measures both vertical and horizontal eye movements by employing an optoelectronic noncontact technique with a high updates rate. The monitor is controlled by an IBM AT or compatible computer and basically consists of a sensor assembly and two cards, connected to the PC bus: an amplifier and synchronous detection unit and a 12 bit AD/DA converter. The sensor assembly is mounted to spectacle frames and connected with the computer by a flexible cable. All the measurement data are stored in the hard disk and can be represented as vertical and horizontal coordinates of the gaze at selected time moments. The monitor does not interfere with the subject's head movements nor does it obstruct significantly his view of vision. The pulsed bias and synchronous detection make the device insensitive to the background illumination artifacts.

Navikas, Saulius; Verkelis, Jonas



Sensory processing in the pallium of a mormyrid fish.  


To investigate the functional organization of higher brain levels in fish we test the hypothesis that the dorsal gray mantle of the telencephalon of a mormyrid fish has discrete receptive areas for several sensory modalities. Multiunit and compound field potentials evoked by auditory, visual, electrosensory, and water displacement stimuli in this weakly electric fish are recorded with multiple semimicroelectrodes placed in many tracks and depths in or near telencephalic area dorsalis pars medialis (Dm). Most responsive loci are unimodal; some respond to two or more modalities. Each modality dominates a circumscribed area, chiefly separate. Auditory and electrical responses cluster in the dorsal 500 micrometer of rostral and caudolateral Dm, respectively. Two auditory subdivisions underline specialization of this sense. Mechanoreception occupies a caudal area overlapping electroreception but centered 500 micrometer deeper. Visual responses scatter widely through ventral areas. Auditory, electrosensory, and mechanosensory responses are dominated by a negative wave within the first 50 msec, followed by 15-55 Hz oscillations and a slow positive wave with multiunit spikes lasting from 200 to 500 msec. Stimuli can induce shifts in coherence of certain frequency bands between neighboring loci. Every electric organ discharge command is followed within 3 msec by a large, mainly negative but generally biphasic, widespread corollary discharge. At certain loci large, slow ("deltaF") waves usually precede transient shifts in electric organ discharge rate. Sensory-evoked potentials in this fish pallium may be more segregated than in elasmobranchs and anurans and have some surprising similarities to those in mammals. PMID:9736658

Prechtl, J C; von der Emde, G; Wolfart, J; Karamürsel, S; Akoev, G N; Andrianov, Y N; Bullock, T H



Dominance in mitochondrial disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dominant traits are rare in mitochondrial disorders but include important nosological entities such as alterations of organellar biogenesis and abnormalities in the structural integrity of the mitochondrial genome, determined by mutations in genes involved in its maintenance and propagation. Both haplo-insufficiency and ‘gain-of-function’ mechanisms underlie the pathogenesis of these disorders. Impairment in energy supply, abnormal mitochondrial trafficking, increased toxic damage

M. Zeviani; V. Carelli



Tourist Town: Dominating Sets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use a fictitious map of "Tourist Town" and counters to problem solve how to place ice-cream vans on street intersections so that every other intersection is connected to one that has a van on it. Use this activity to introduce learners to computer science themes including nodes, dominating sets, exponential-time algorithms, polynomial-time algorithms, and NP-complete problems. Variations, extensions, background information, and solutions are included in the PDF.

Bell, Tim; Witten, Ian; Fellows, Mike



Sensory Profiles of Sweeteners in Aqueous Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

ŠEDIVÁ A., PANOVSK Á Z., POKORN Ý J. (2006): Sensory profiles of sweeteners in aqueous solutions. Czech J. Food Sci., 24: 283-287. Sensory profiles of saccharin, acesulfame K, aspartame, and neotame were compared with that of sucrose in three different types of water (tap water, commerical Crystalis water, and distilled water) under the conditions of the respec- tive ISO standards.



Multiple Output Sensory Trainer (MOST). Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report describes the design, development, and testing of the Multiple Output Sensory Trainer (MOST), a computer-based system which enables the evaluation of students with visual impairments to determine the optimal combination of sensory adaptive aids to meet their needs. The system uses multimedia devices in conjunction with customized…

Automated Functions, Inc., Arlington, VA.


Examination Accommodations for Students with Sensory Defensiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional examination accommodations include extra time, scribes, and/or separate venues for students with disabilities, which have been proven to be successful for the majority of students. For students with non-apparent disabilities such as sensory defensiveness, where sensitivity to a range of sensory information from the environment can…

Lewis, Kieran; Nolan, Clodagh



EDITORIAL: Sensory coding in the natural environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand sensory systems, it is necessary to characterize the response properties of the neural components and the performance characteristics of the system as a whole. How should we select sensory stimuli for these physiological and perceptual experiments? One popular choice is to use physically simple stimuli, such as flashed spots and bars. Another strong tradition is to choose mathematically

B. Olshausen; P. Reinagel




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Sensory transduction in cough-associated nerves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before a tussive stimulus in the airways can evoke a cough reflex it must first cause action potential discharge in cough-associated vagal sensory nerves. This is initiated by the stimulus first interacting with the receptors and ion channels in the terminal membrane of the sensory fiber in a manner that leads to membrane depolarization. If the stimulus-induced membrane depolarization, referred

Marian Kollarik; Bradley J. Undem



Dual Sensory Innervation of Pulmonary Neuroepithelial Bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of the different populations of sensory nerve The correlation between the physiologically and mor- terminals that selectively contact pulmonary neuroepithelial phologically defined lung receptors, however, is far from bodies (NEBs) in rat lungs were investigated after chemical satisfactory. Although the number of studies dealing with denervation with capsaicin and compared with control lungs. the morphology of the sensory

Inge Brouns; Jeroen Van Genechten; Hiroyuki Hayashi; Mariusz Gajda; Toshiaki Gomi; Geoff Burnstock; Jean-Pierre Timmermans; Dirk Adriaensen


Sensory Evaluation Based on Ensemble Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory evaluation is one of the key steps in recipe product design. With the development of compute intelligence technology, many methods such as artificial neural network, decision tree, regression, etc are used to solve the problems in sensory evaluation. This becomes more and more popular. But the generalization ability using single model needs to be improved. This paper uses bagging

Tao Li; Daping Liu; Xiangqian Ding; Hongwei Liu; Xiaoliang Yuan



Dry Eye Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), also known as dry eye syndrome, has been changed over recent years. Until lately, the condition was thought to be merely due to aqueous tear insufficiency. Today, it is understood that KCS is a multifactorial disorder due to inflammation of the ocular surface and lacrimal gland, neurotrophic deficiency and meibomian gland dysfunction. This change in paradigm has led to the development of new and more effective medications. PMID:22454735

Javadi, Mohammad-Ali; Feizi, Sepehr



Tropical Cyclone Eye Thermodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In intense tropical cyclones, sea level pressures at the center are 50-100 hPa lower than outside the vortex, but only 10-30 hPa of the total pressure fall occurs inside the eye between the eyewall and the center. Warming by dry subsidence accounts for this fraction of the total hydrostatic pressure fall. Convection in the eyewall causes the warming by doing

H. E. Willoughby



Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1  


... Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1 On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... December 2009 What is hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1? Hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1 is a condition ...


38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...



38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...



38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...



38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...



Michelangelo's eye disease.  


Charged by the Pope Julius II for painting the Cappella Sistina in Rome (between 1508 and 1512), Michelangelo worked in an elevated scaffolding, in an anomalous position with dyes (including poisoning lead salts) and solvents (such as toxic turpentine) dripping on his face and continuously inhaling, in a dim environment illuminated only with oil lamps and candles, as he described himself and sketched in a sonet addressed to Giovanni da Pistoia. In 1510 he began suffering from eye disease: the main symptom was the necessity to elevate the document he was reading up to the level of his eyes. This defect disappeared few months after he finished painting his masterpiece. We hypothesize that the Michelangelo's eyes disease was a form of acquired and transitory nystagmus induced by the many hours he spent in up gaze, with a skew deviation, a form of ocular tilt reaction resulting from the impairment of spatial sensitivity (inversion illusion) due to the persistence of the artist's head in a horizontal position, looking upward. PMID:22425178

Gallenga, P E; Neri, Giampiero; D'Anastasio, Ruggero; Pettorrossi, Vito Enrico; Alfieri, Emilio; Capasso, Luigi



Lagophthalmos in enophthalmic eyes  

PubMed Central

Aims: To report a case series of enophthalmic patients with lagophthalmos. Methods: A retrospective review of the electronic medical records at a tertiary health care centre of all patients with the diagnoses of “enophthalmos” and “lagophthalmos”. Patients who had a history of diseases (such as Graves’ orbitopathy), trauma or surgery of the orbit and eyelid were excluded. Enophthalmos was defined as exophthalmometric reading of 14 mm or less in both eyes. Results: Seven patients (14 eyes) with bilateral enophthalmos were found to have concomitant lagophthalmos. All patients had deep superior sulci bilaterally. The upper eyelids were seen to be severely retro-placed behind the superior orbital rim. The extraocular motilities were full with no focal neurological deficit. The orbicularis oculi function was normal with no facial paralysis. The orbits were soft on retropulsion and no facial asymmetry was noted. The mean exophthalmolmetry reading measured 12.6 (SD 1.1) mm. The lagophthalmos varied from 1–5 mm. One patient (one eye) with 3 mm lagophthalmos developed a corneal ulcer and was treated with topical antibiotics and gold weight placement in the upper eyelid. Conclusion: Enophthalmic patients with deep superior sulci and retro-placed upper eyelids may present with lagophthalmos and exposure keratopathy. PMID:15923500

Yip, C-C; Gonzalez-Candial, M; Jain, A; Goldberg, R A; McCann, J D



Effects of experience on striatal sensory responses.  


It has been well documented that striatal neurons encode and process sensory information. It was the aim of the present experiment to determine the extent to which behavioral experience influenced striatal sensory responses. Single units were recorded in the striatum of awake restrained cats as they were adapted to the recording situation. To facilitate recording, cats were rewarded with milk for remaining quiet and motionless. As animals evidenced familiarity with the testing environment, striatal neurons showed heightened sensory receptivity. These results indicate the important influence of behavioral determinants of striatal sensory responses. The nature of the behavioral experience may determine the way in which sensory information is processed in this part of the basal ganglia. PMID:7970169

Lidsky, T I; Schneider, J S



Sensory perception: lessons from synesthesia: using synesthesia to inform the understanding of sensory perception.  


Synesthesia, the conscious, idiosyncratic, repeatable, and involuntary sensation of one sensory modality in response to another, is a condition that has puzzled both researchers and philosophers for centuries. Much time has been spent proving the condition's existence as well as investigating its etiology, but what can be learned from synesthesia remains a poorly discussed topic. Here, synaesthesia is presented as a possible answer rather than a question to the current gaps in our understanding of sensory perception. By first appreciating the similarities between normal sensory perception and synesthesia, one can use what is known about synaesthesia, from behavioral and imaging studies, to inform our understanding of "normal" sensory perception. In particular, in considering synesthesia, one can better understand how and where the different sensory modalities interact in the brain, how different sensory modalities can interact without confusion - the binding problem - as well as how sensory perception develops. PMID:23766741

Harvey, Joshua Paul



Thermoelectricity and noncellular sensory transduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sharks and rays possess electrosensors that provide environmental data assisting such tasks as prey detection and mate location. These organs are also incredibly sensitive to minute changes in temperature, and their reaction to temperature is unlike any other thermoreceptor known in nature. We have collected samples of the extracellular gel that fills the electrosensitive organs, and, while characterizing its material properties, we have found an average thermopower of roughly 300 microvolts/Kelvin. We will discuss the implications of these data in terms of a novel, noncellular mode of sensory transduction, in which a thermal fluctuation is translated into an electrical stimulus by the gel. We will also contrast the gel to more established thermoelectric materials.

Brown, Brandon



Eye-Centered Representation of Optic Flow Tuning in the Ventral Intraparietal Area  

PubMed Central

Reference frames are important for understanding sensory processing in the cortex. Previous work showed that vestibular heading signals in the ventral intraparietal area (VIP) are represented in body-centered coordinates. In contrast, vestibular heading tuning in the medial superior temporal area (MSTd) is approximately head centered. We considered the hypothesis that visual heading signals (from optic flow) in VIP might also be transformed into a body-centered representation, unlike visual heading tuning in MSTd, which is approximately eye centered. We distinguished among eye-centered, head-centered, and body-centered spatial reference frames by systematically varying both eye and head positions while rhesus monkeys viewed optic flow stimuli depicting various headings. We found that heading tuning of VIP neurons based on optic flow generally shifted with eye position, indicating an eye-centered spatial reference frame. This is similar to the representation of visual heading signals in MSTd, but contrasts sharply with the body-centered representation of vestibular heading signals in VIP. These findings demonstrate a clear dissociation between the spatial reference frames of visual and vestibular signals in VIP, and emphasize that frames of reference for neurons in parietal cortex can depend on the type of sensory stimulation. PMID:24259579

Chen, Xiaodong; DeAngelis, Gregory C.



ECEM (Eye Closure, Eye Movements): application to depersonalization disorder.  


Eye Closure, Eye Movements (ECEM) is a hypnotically-based approach to treatment that incorporates eye movements adapted from the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) protocol in conjunction with hypnosis for the treatment of depersonalization disorder. Depersonalization Disorder has been differentiated from post-traumatic stress disorders and has recently been conceptualized as a subtype of panic disorder (Baker et al., 2003; David, Phillips, Medford, & Sierra, 2004; Segui et. al., 2000). During ECEM, while remaining in a hypnotic state, clients self-generated six to seven trials of eye movements to reduce anticipatory anxiety associated with depersonalization disorder. Eye movements were also used to process triggers that elicited breath holding, often followed by episodes of depersonalization. Hypnotic suggestions were used to reverse core symptoms of depersonalization, subjectively described as "feeling unreal" (Simeon et al., 1997). PMID:19862896

Harriet, E Hollander



Thermophoretically dominated aerosol coagulation.  


A theory of aerosol coagulation due to size-dependent thermophoresis is presented. This previously overlooked effect is important when local temperature gradients are large, the sol population is composed of particles of much greater thermal conductivity than the carrier gas, with mean diameters much greater than the prevailing gas mean free path, and an adequate "spread" in sizes (as in metallurgical mists or fumes). We illustrate this via a population-balance analysis of the evolution of an initially log-normal distribution when this mechanism dominates ordinary Brownian diffusion. PMID:21231753

Rosner, Daniel E; Arias-Zugasti, Manuel



Genetic Interaction of Lobe With Its Modifiers in Dorsoventral Patterning and Growth of the Drosophila Eye  

PubMed Central

Dorsoventral (DV) patterning is essential for growth of the Drosophila eye. Recent studies suggest that ventral is the default state of the early eye, which depends on Lobe (L) function, and that the dorsal fate is established later by the expression of the dorsal selector gene pannier (pnr). However, the mechanisms of regulatory interactions between L and dorsal genes are not well understood. For studying the mechanisms of DV patterning in the early eye disc, we performed a dominant modifier screen to identify additional genes that interact with L. The criterion of the dominant interaction was either enhancement or suppression of the L ventral eye loss phenotype. We identified 48 modifiers that correspond to 16 genes, which include fringe (fng), a gene involved in ventral eye patterning, and members of both Hedgehog (Hh) and Decapentaplegic (Dpp) signaling pathways, which promote L function in the ventral eye. Interestingly, 29% of the modifiers (6 enhancers and 9 suppressors) identified either are known to interact genetically with pnr or are members of the Wingless (Wg) pathway, which acts downstream from pnr. The detailed analysis of genetic interactions revealed that pnr and L mutually antagonize each other during second instar of larval development to restrict their functional domains in the eye. This time window coincides with the emergence of pnr expression in the eye. Our results suggest that L function is regulated by multiple signaling pathways and that the mutual antagonism between L and dorsal genes is crucial for balanced eye growth. PMID:15976174

Singh, Amit; Chan, Jeeder; Chern, Joshua J.; Choi, Kwang-Wook



Six1 is a key regulator of the developmental and evolutionary architecture of sensory neurons in craniates  

PubMed Central

Background Various senses and sensory nerve architectures of animals have evolved during adaptation to exploit diverse environments. In craniates, the trunk sensory system has evolved from simple mechanosensory neurons inside the spinal cord (intramedullary), called Rohon-Beard (RB) cells, to multimodal sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) outside the spinal cord (extramedullary). The fish and amphibian trunk sensory systems switch from RB cells to DRG during development, while amniotes rely exclusively on the DRG system. The mechanisms underlying the ontogenic switching and its link to phylogenetic transition remain unknown. Results In Xenopus, Six1 overexpression promoted precocious apoptosis of RB cells and emergence of extramedullary sensory neurons, whereas Six1 knockdown delayed the reduction in RB cell number. Genetic ablation of Six1 and Six4 in mice led to the appearance of intramedullary sensory neuron-like cells as a result of medial migration of neural crest cells into the spinal cord and production of immature DRG neurons and fused DRG. Restoration of SIX1 expression in the neural crest-linage partially rescued the phenotype, indicating the cell autonomous requirements of SIX1 for normal extramedullary sensory neurogenesis. Mouse Six1 enhancer that mediates the expression in DRG neurons activated transcription in Xenopus RB cells earlier than endogenous six1 expression, suggesting earlier onset of mouse SIX1 expression than Xenopus during sensory development. Conclusions The results indicated the critical role of Six1 in transition of RB cells to DRG neurons during Xenopus development and establishment of exclusive DRG system of mice. The study provided evidence that early appearance of SIX1 expression, which correlated with mouse Six1 enhancer, is essential for the formation of DRG-dominant system in mice, suggesting that heterochronic changes in Six1 enhancer sequence play an important role in alteration of trunk sensory architecture and contribute to the evolution of the trunk sensory system. PMID:24885223



More Than Meets the Eye The Genetics of Eye Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The genetics of eye color are more complex than commonly believed. This interrupted case study uses the story of a blue-eyed couple with a brown-eyed child to explore the possible scenarios that could result in this outcome. The case emphasizes the link between Mendelian genetics and the underlying molecular basis of the phenotype. It is appropriate for upper-level undergraduate biology majors with a good understanding of eukaryotic gene regulation and Mendelian genetics.

Genereux, Annie P.



The amblyopic eye in subjects with anisometropia show increased saccadic latency in the delayed saccade task  

PubMed Central

The term amblyopia is used to describe reduced visual function in one eye (or both eyes, though not so often) which cannot be fully improved by refractive correction and explained by the organic cause observed during regular eye examination. Amblyopia is associated with abnormal visual experience (e.g., anisometropia) during infancy or early childhood. Several studies have shown prolongation of saccadic latency time in amblyopic eye. In our opinion, study of saccadic latency in the context of central vision deficits assessment, should be based on central retina stimulation. For this reason, we proposed saccade delayed task. It requires inhibitory processing for maintaining fixation on the central target until it disappears—what constitutes the GO signal for saccade. The experiment consisted of 100 trials for each eye and was performed under two viewing conditions: monocular amblyopic/non-dominant eye and monocular dominant eye. We examined saccadic latency in 16 subjects (mean age 30 ± 11 years) with anisometropic amblyopia (two subjects had also microtropia) and in 17 control subjects (mean age 28 ± 8 years). Participants were instructed to look at central (fixation) target and when it disappears, to make the saccade toward the periphery (10°) as fast as possible, either left or the right target. The study results have proved the significant difference in saccadic latency between the amblyopic (mean 262 ± 48 ms) and dominant (mean 237 ± 45 ms) eye, in anisometropic group. In the control group, the saccadic latency for dominant (mean 226 ± 32 ms) and non-dominant (mean 230 ± 29 ms) eye was not significantly different. By the use of LATER (Linear Approach to the Threshold with Ergodic Rate) decision model we interpret our findings as a decrease in accumulation of visual information acquired by means of central retina in subjects with anisometropic amblyopia. PMID:25352790

Perdziak, Maciej; Witkowska, Dagmara; Gryncewicz, Wojciech; Przekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; Ober, Jan



Botanical origin, colour, granulation, and sensory properties of the Harenna forest honey, Bale, Ethiopia.  


In this study, the Harenna forest honey samples were investigated with respect to their botanical origin, granulation, colour and sensory properties. Sixteen honey samples were collected from two representative sites (Chiri, C, and Wabero, W) using random sampling techniques. Botanical origin was investigated using qualitative pollen analysis by counting 500 pollen grains using harmonised methods of melissopalynology. Granulation, colour, and sensory properties of honey were determined by visual observation, using Pfund grader, acceptability and preference tests, respectively. Honey samples were also tested for tetracycline. Honey obtained from Wabero is originated dominantly from Syzygium guineense while Chiri was multifloral. The colour of honey ranged from 34 to 85 with light amber and extra light amber colours. The honey samples were free from tetracycline residue and form coarse granules slowly. Significant variation (p>0.05) in sensory preference and acceptability tests not observed due to hive types and locations. PMID:25148981

Belay, Abera; Solomon, W K; Bultossa, Geremew; Adgaba, Nuru; Melaku, Samuel




PubMed Central

Electron microscopy reveals a star-like pigment cell at the center of the eye of the arrow-worm, Sagitta scrippsae. Between the arms of the pigment cell are clusters of photoreceptor cell processes, each process consisting of: (1) a tubular segment containing longitudinally arranged microtubules about 500 A in diameter and 20 µ in length; (2) a remarkable conical body, composed of cords and large granules, situated at the base of the tubular segment; and (3) a connecting piece which, like that of rods and cones, connects the process with the sensory cell proper and through which runs a fibrillar apparatus consisting of nine peripheral double tubules. Beneath the connecting piece lies a typical centriole with a striated rootlet. The receptor cell process is deeply recessed into the sensory cell which may possess a corona of microvilli at its inner surface. A nerve fiber arises from the outer end of the cell and passes into the optic nerve. Additional features are some supporting cells, an external layer of flattened epithelial cells, and an over-all investment of basement membrane and thick fibrous capsule. The fine structure and function of these elements of the eye are discussed in relation to earlier studies with the light microscope. The ciliary nature of the photoreceptor cell process in S. scrippsae points to a probable evolutionary relationship of chaetognaths to echinoderms and chordates. PMID:14154485

Eakin, Richard M.; Westfall, Jane A.



Sensory substitution as an artificially acquired synaesthesia.  


In this review we explore the relationship between synaesthesia and sensory substitution and argue that sensory substitution does indeed show properties of synaesthesia. Both are associated with atypical perceptual experiences elicited by the processing of a qualitatively different stimulus to that which normally gives rise to that experience. In the most common forms of sensory substitution, perceptual processing of an auditory or tactile signal (which has been converted from a visual signal) is experienced as visual-like in addition to retaining auditory/tactile characteristics. We consider different lines of evidence that support, to varying degrees, the assumption that sensory substitution is associated with visual-like experiences. We then go on to analyse the key similarities and differences between sensory substitution and synaesthesia. Lastly, we propose two testable predictions: firstly that, in an expert user of a sensory substitution device, the substituting modality should not be lost. Secondly that stimulation within the substituting modality, but by means other than a sensory substitution device, should still produce sensation in the normally substituted modality. PMID:22885223

Ward, Jamie; Wright, Thomas



Impact of crema on the aroma release and the in-mouth sensory perception of espresso coffee.  


A set of six espresso coffees with different foam characteristics and similar above cup and in-mouth flavour sensory profiles was produced by combination of two varying parameters, the extraction pressure and the filtration of the coffee beverage. The coffees were subsequently evaluated in a comparative manner by a set of analytical (headspace, nose-space) and sensory (Temporal Dominance of Sensations) techniques. The presence of espresso crema in its standard quantity was demonstrated to be associated with the optimum release of pleasant high volatiles, both in the above cup headspace and in-mouth. On the other hand, the TDS study demonstrated that increasing amount of crema was associated with increasing roasted dominance along coffee consumption. Furthermore, a parallel was established between the roasted sensory dominance and the dominant release of 2-methylfuran in the nose-space. This was, however, an indirect link as 2-methylfuran was indeed a chemical marker of roasting but does not contribute to the roasted aroma. Lowering the standard amount of crema by filtration clearly decreased the release of pleasant high volatiles and the in-mouth roasted sensory dominance. On the other hand, increasing the usual crema volume by increasing the extraction pressure did not bring any added value concerning the above cup and in-mouth release of pleasant high volatiles. PMID:22706310

Barron, D; Pineau, N; Matthey-Doret, W; Ali, S; Sudre, J; Germain, J C; Kolodziejczyk, E; Pollien, P; Labbe, D; Jarisch, C; Dugas, V; Hartmann, C; Folmer, B



Relative contribution of feed-forward excitatory connections to expression of ocular dominance plasticity in layer 4 of visual cortex  

E-print Network

Brief monocular deprivation (MD) shifts ocular dominance (OD) in primary visual cortex by causing depression of responses to the deprived eye. Here we address the extent to which the shift is expressed by a modification ...

Khibnik, Lena A.


Electromagnetic Characterization Of Metallic Sensory Alloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy (FSMA) particles undergo changes in both electromagnetic properties and crystallographic structure when strained. When embedded in a structural material, these attributes can provide sensory output of the strain state of the structure. In this work, a detailed characterization of the electromagnetic properties of a FSMA under development for sensory applications is performed. In addition, a new eddy current probe is used to interrogate the electromagnetic properties of individual FSMA particles embedded in the sensory alloy during controlled fatigue tests on the multifunctional material.

Wincheski, Russell A.; Simpson, John; Wallace, Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Leser, Paul; Lahue, Rob



Electromagnetic characterization of metallic sensory alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy (FSMA) particles undergo changes in both electromagnetic properties and crystallographic structure when strained. When embedded in a structural material, these attributes can provide sensory output of the strain state of the structure. In this work, a detailed characterization of the electromagnetic properties of a FSMA under development for sensory applications is performed. In addition, a new eddy current probe is used to interrogate the electromagnetic properties of individual FSMA particles embedded in the sensory alloy during controlled fatigue tests on the multifunctional material.

Wincheski, Buzz; Simpson, John; Wallace, Terryl; Newman, Andy; Leser, Paul; Lahue, Rob



Sensory organs of adult Amphilina foliacea (Amphilinida).  


The distribution and morphological diversity of the sensory structures on the body surface, proboscis and caudal cavity of adult Amphilina foliacea have been investigated. Fifteen different types of receptors are described. Along with nonciliated and uniciated receptors bi- and multiciliated receptors have been found for the first time. The zonal distribution of the sensory structures and their coincidence within the same areas of the body surface have been revealed. The concentration of sensory structures at the posterior end may indirectly confirm a hypothesis of the unavailability of developed attachment disk in ancestors of amphilinids. PMID:11034167

Dudicheva, V A; Biserova, N M



Four Fantastic Foods to Keep Your Eyes Healthy  


... Consumer Alerts Four Fantastic Foods to Keep Your Eyes Healthy Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... More Lifestyle Topics > EyeSmart Tips Blood Sugar and Eye Exams Control your blood sugar for several days ...


Analytical methods for chemical and sensory characterization of scent-markings in large wild mammals: a review.  


In conjoining the disciplines of "ethology" and "chemistry" the field of "Ethochemistry" has been instituted. Ethochemistry is an effective tool in conservation efforts of endangered species and the understanding of behavioral patterns across all species. Chemical constituents of scent-markings have an important, yet poorly understood function in territoriality, reproduction, dominance, and impact on evolutionary biology, especially in large mammals. Particular attention has recently been focused on scent-marking analysis of great cats (Kalahari leopards (Panthera pardus), puma (Puma concolor) snow leopard (Panthera uncia), African lions (Panthera leo), cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), and tigers (Panthera tigris)) for the purpose of conservation. Sensory analyses of scent-markings could address knowledge gaps in ethochemistry. The objective of this review is to summarize the current state-of-the art of both the chemical and sensory analyses of scent-markings in wild mammals. Specific focus is placed on sampling and sample preparation, chemical analysis, sensory analysis, and simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses. Constituents of exocrine and endocrine secretions have been most commonly studied with chromatography-based analytical separations. Odor analysis of scent-markings provides an insight into the animal's sensory perception. A limited number of articles have been published in the area of sensory characterization of scent marks. Simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses with chromatography-olfactometry hyphenation could potentially aid conservation efforts by linking perceived odor, compounds responsible for odor, and resulting behavior. PMID:24603639

Soso, Simone B; Koziel, Jacek A; Johnson, Anna; Lee, Young Jin; Fairbanks, W Sue



Analytical Methods for Chemical and Sensory Characterization of Scent-Markings in Large Wild Mammals: A Review  

PubMed Central

In conjoining the disciplines of “ethology” and “chemistry” the field of “Ethochemistry” has been instituted. Ethochemistry is an effective tool in conservation efforts of endangered species and the understanding of behavioral patterns across all species. Chemical constituents of scent-markings have an important, yet poorly understood function in territoriality, reproduction, dominance, and impact on evolutionary biology, especially in large mammals. Particular attention has recently been focused on scent-marking analysis of great cats (Kalahari leopards (Panthera pardus), puma (Puma concolor) snow leopard (Panthera uncia), African lions (Panthera leo), cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), and tigers (Panthera tigris)) for the purpose of conservation. Sensory analyses of scent-markings could address knowledge gaps in ethochemistry. The objective of this review is to summarize the current state-of-the art of both the chemical and sensory analyses of scent-markings in wild mammals. Specific focus is placed on sampling and sample preparation, chemical analysis, sensory analysis, and simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses. Constituents of exocrine and endocrine secretions have been most commonly studied with chromatography-based analytical separations. Odor analysis of scent-markings provides an insight into the animal's sensory perception. A limited number of articles have been published in the area of sensory characterization of scent marks. Simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses with chromatography-olfactometry hyphenation could potentially aid conservation efforts by linking perceived odor, compounds responsible for odor, and resulting behavior. PMID:24603639

Soso, Simone B.; Koziel, Jacek A.; Johnson, Anna; Lee, Young Jin; Fairbanks, W. Sue



Conjunctivitis: What Is Pink Eye?  


... information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Email address © 2014 American Academy of Ophthalmology medical disclaimer privacy policy sponsorship & advertising policies about us Educational Resources ...


Contribution of Renal Innervation to Hypertension in Rat Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kidney has both afferent (sensory) and efferent (sympa- thetic) nerves that can influence renal function. Renal innerva- tion has been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of many forms of hypertension. Hypertension and flank pain are common clinical manifestations of autosomal dominant (AD) polycystic kidney disease (PKD). We hypothesize that renal innervation contributes to the hypertension and



Postural stability limits in manifest and premanifest Huntington's disease under different sensory conditions.  


Increasing evidence indicates that Huntington's disease (HD) produces postural control impairments even before the clinical diagnosis. It has been suggested that postural disorders of HD patients are explained by deficits in the processing and integration of sensory information, but this hypothesis has been under-explored. In the present study, we evaluated the amplitude of the center of pressure (COP) displacement during maximum leaning in four directions (forward, backward, rightward and leftward) and under three sensory conditions (eyes open, eyes closed and eyes closed standing on foam). We assessed the stability limits in 20 individuals with a positive HD genetic test (12 premanifests; eight manifests HD) and 15 healthy controls. The COP displacements were analyzed during the first and second phases of maintenance of the maximum leaning position. Manifest HD patients showed significantly greater COP ranges than healthy controls in both learning phases and all sensory conditions, but the greatest deterioration of their performance was found in the foam condition. In contrast, premanifest HD patients displayed larger COP ranges than controls only during the second phase of maximum learning, especially in the foam condition. Furthermore, both HD groups had significantly smaller limits of stability than healthy subjects during the second phase of maximum learning. However, their ability to maintain the maximum leaning position was degraded during both learning phases. Together, these findings demonstrate that HD reduces the limits of stability even before the clinical disease onset. Furthermore, our results indicate that dynamic postural tasks with high demand for sensorimotor integration and especially the use of proprioception are highly sensitive to early HD disease processes. This dynamic postural task may become a useful biomarker of HD progression. PMID:25168735

Blanchet, M; Prince, F; Chouinard, S; Messier, J



Eye in the Sky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

National Geographic magazine, long known for its educational maps and writing that is easily understood by a variety of readers, has added a feature to its Website. The new online resource from National Geographic, sponsored by the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA), is called Eye in the Sky, and it showcases what we can learn about our planet using satellites. Here, users can read about the history of satellites and remote-sensing technology and choose from a menu of brief lessons on natural disasters, human impacts on Earth, human conflicts, and exploration of Mars. Each lesson page gives photographs, facts, and short movies (RealPlayer or Windows Media Player). The title "Eye in the Sky" is slightly misleading because most of the images featured are taken at ground-level, and it isn't always clear how some of the lessons fit with the idea of remote sensing. Nevertheless, the site is worth a look, and a few satellite images (of floodplains and the ozone hole, for example) pepper the material here.



Obesity and Eye Diseases  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many countries. While its impact on overall health is well documented, less is known about the ocular manifestations of obesity. Amongst different eye diseases, obesity has been linked with age-related cataract, glaucoma, age-related maculopathy, and diabetic retinopathy. Numerous population-based and prospective studies support an association between obesity and risk of age-related cataract. However, the nature and strength of these associations, particularly with the different cataract subtypes, remains to be determined. There is strong evidence that obesity is associated with elevated intraocular pressure, but there is no convincing data to support a more direct association between obesity and glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Studies to date have not found a consistent pattern of association between obesity and risk of age-related maculopathy or diabetic retinopathy. Thus, while obesity may be a risk factor for many ocular conditions, the present literature is inadequate to establish any convincing associations. Furthermore, whether weight loss reduces the risk of eye diseases remains unresolved. Because of the potential public health impact of obesity, there is a greater need to understand its ocular effects. PMID:17355856

Cheung, Ning; Wong, Tien Y.



Operationally realistic validation for prediction of cocoa sensory qualities by high-throughput mass spectrometry.  


The potential of analytical chemistry to predict sensory qualities of food materials is a major current theme. Standard practice is cross-validation (CV), where a set of chemical and associated sensory data is partitioned so chemometric models can be developed on training subsets, and validated on held-out subsets. CV demonstrates prediction, but is an unlikely scenario for industrial operations, where concomitant data acquisition for model development and test materials would be unwieldy. We evaluated cocoa materials of diverse provenance, and analyzed on different dates to those used in model development. Liquor extracts were analyzed by flow-injection electrospray-mass spectrometry (FIE-MS), a novel method for sensory quality prediction. FIE-MS enabled prediction of sensory qualities described by trained human panelists. Optimal models came from the Weka data-mining algorithm SimpleLinearRegression, which learns a model for the attribute giving minimal training error, which was (-)-epicatechin. This flavonoid likewise dominated partial least-squares (PLS)-regression models. Refinements of PLS (orthogonal-PLS or orthogonal signal correction) gave poorer generalization to different test sets, as did support vector machines, whose hyperparameters could not be optimized in training to avoid overfitting. In conclusion, if chemometric overfitting is avoided, chemical analysis can predict sensory qualities of food materials under operationally realistic conditions. PMID:20557115

Wood, Jacqueline E; Allaway, David; Boult, Emma; Scott, Ian M



Protect Their Eyes: An Eye Safety Guide for the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides information on eye safety and aids educators, administrators, and supervisors in the development and implementation of eye safety programs. The American National Standards Institute (AMSI) requirements for both street and safety glasses; essential eyewear for safety in hazardous areas; the National Society to Prevent…

Ohio Society to Prevent Blindness, Columbus.


Sensory Optimization by Stochastic Tuning  

PubMed Central

Individually, visual neurons are each selective for several aspects of stimulation, such as stimulus location, frequency content, and speed. Collectively, the neurons implement the visual system’s preferential sensitivity to some stimuli over others, manifested in behavioral sensitivity functions. We ask how the individual neurons are coordinated to optimize visual sensitivity. We model synaptic plasticity in a generic neural circuit, and find that stochastic changes in strengths of synaptic connections entail fluctuations in parameters of neural receptive fields. The fluctuations correlate with uncertainty of sensory measurement in individual neurons: the higher the uncertainty the larger the amplitude of fluctuation. We show that this simple relationship is sufficient for the stochastic fluctuations to steer sensitivities of neurons toward a characteristic distribution, from which follows a sensitivity function observed in human psychophysics, and which is predicted by a theory of optimal allocation of receptive fields. The optimal allocation arises in our simulations without supervision or feedback about system performance and independently of coupling between neurons, making the system highly adaptive and sensitive to prevailing stimulation. PMID:24219849

Jurica, Peter; Gepshtein, Sergei; Tyukin, Ivan; van Leeuwen, Cees



fMRI Evidence for Multisensory Recruitment Associated With Rapid Eye Movements During Sleep  

PubMed Central

We studied the neural correlates of rapid eye movement during sleep (REM) by timing REMs from video recording and using rapid event-related functional MRI. Consistent with the hypothesis that REMs share the brain systems and mechanisms with waking eye movements and are visually-targeted saccades, we found REM-locked activation in the primary visual cortex, thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), ‘visual claustrum’, retrosplenial cortex (RSC, only on the right hemisphere), fusiform gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex, and the oculomotor circuit that controls awake saccadic eye movements (and subserves awake visuospatial attention). Unexpectedly, robust activation also occurred in non-visual sensory cortices, motor cortex, language areas, and the ascending reticular activating system, including basal forebrain, the major source of cholinergic input to the entire cortex. REM-associated activation of these areas, especially non-visual primary sensory cortices, TRN and claustrum, parallels findings from waking studies on the interactions between multiple sensory data, and their ‘binding’ into a unified percept, suggesting that these mechanisms are also shared in waking and dreaming and that the sharing goes beyond the expected visual scanning mechanisms. Surprisingly, REMs were associated with a decrease in signal in specific periventricular subregions, matching the distribution of the serotonergic supraependymal plexus. REMs might serve as a useful task-free probe into major brain systems for functional brain imaging. PMID:18972392

Hong, Charles Chong-Hwa; Harris, James C.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Kim, Jin-Suh; Calhoun, Vince D.; Fallon, James H.; Golay, Xavier; Gillen, Joseph S.; Simmonds, Daniel J.; van Zijl, Peter C.M.; Zee, David S.; Pekar, James J.



Summation of visual motion across eye movements reflects a non-spatial decision mechanism  

PubMed Central

Human vision remains perceptually stable even though retinal inputs change rapidly with each eye movement. Although the neural basis of visual stability remains unknown, a recent psychophysical study pointed to the existence of visual feature-representations anchored in environmental rather than retinal coordinates (e.g. ‘spatiotopic’ receptive fields; Melcher, D., and Morrone, M.C. (2003). Spatiotopic temporal integration of visual motion across saccadic eye movements. Nat Neurosci 6, 877-881). In that study, sensitivity to a moving stimulus presented after a saccadic eye movement was enhanced when preceded by another moving stimulus at the same spatial location prior to the saccade. The finding is consistent with spatiotopic sensory integration, but it could also have arisen from a probabilistic improvement in performance due to the presence of more than one motion signal for the perceptual decision. Here we show that this statistical advantage accounts completely for summation effects in this task. We first demonstrate that measurements of summation are confounded by noise related to an observer's uncertainty about motion onset times. When this uncertainty is minimized, comparable summation is observed irrespective of whether two motion signals occupy the same or different locations in space, and whether they contain the same or opposite directions of motion. These results are incompatible with the tuning properties of motion-sensitive sensory neurons and provide no evidence for a spatiotopic representation of visual motion. Instead, summation in this context reflects a decision mechanism that uses abstract representations of sensory events to optimize choice behavior. PMID:20660264

Morris, Adam P.; Liu, Charles C.; Cropper, Simon J.; Forte, Jason D.; Krekelberg, Bart; Mattingley, Jason B.



Automated Eye-Movement Protocol Analysis  

E-print Network

Automated Eye-Movement Protocol Analysis Dario D. Salvucci and John R. Anderson Carnegie Mellon analysis of eye-movement protocols. Although eye movements have be- come increasingly popular as a tool an ap- proach to automating eye-movement protocol analysis by means of tracing--re- lating observed eye

Salvucci, Dario D.


Graphs with disjoint dominating and paired-dominating sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dominating set of a graph is a set of vertices such that every vertex not in the set is adjacent to a vertex in the set,\\u000a while a paired-dominating set of a graph is a dominating set such that the subgraph induced by the dominating set contains\\u000a a perfect matching. In this paper, we show that no minimum degree

Justin Southey; Michael A. Henning



Sensory properties of menthol and smoking topography  

PubMed Central

Although there is a great deal known about menthol as a flavoring agent in foods and confections, less is known about the particular sensory properties of menthol cigarette smoke. Similarly, although smoking topography (the unique way an individual smokes a cigarette) has been well studied using non-menthol cigarettes, there is relatively less known about how menthol affects smoking behavior. The objective of this review is to assess the sensory properties of menthol tobacco smoke, and smoking topography associated with menthol cigarettes. The cooling, analgesic, taste, and respiratory effects of menthol are well established, and studies have indicated that menthol’s sensory attributes can have an influence on the positive, or rewarding, properties associated smoking, including ratings of satisfaction, taste, perceived smoothness, and perceived irritation. Despite these sensory properties, the data regarding menthol’s effect on smoking topography are inconsistent. Many of the topography studies have limitations due to various methodological issues. PMID:21624149



Fine structure of the dioptric apparatus in the stalk eye of Onchidium verruculatum (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora): a distinct lamellar substructure of the lens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dioptric apparatus of the stalk eye in Onchidium verruculatum, including a tentacular epidermis, a cornea, and a lens, was examined using transmission electron microscopy. The tentacular\\u000a epidermis was formed by columnar epidermal cells, sensory dendrites, and glandular cells. The cornea was an anterior part\\u000a of the eye vesicle and consisted of corneal cells which contained abundant glycogen particles but

N. Katagiri; Yasuo Katagiri



Sensory and attention abnormalities in autistic spectrum disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) often experience, describe and exhibit unusual patterns of sensation and attention. These anomalies have been hypothesized to result from overarousal and consequent overfocused attention. Parents of individuals with ASD rated items in three domains, ‘sensory overreactivity’, ‘sensory underreactivity’ and ‘sensory seeking behaviors’, of an expanded version of the Sensory Profile, a 103-item rating scale

Miriam Liss; Celine Saulnier; Deborah Fein; Marcel Kinsbourne



Sensory circumventricular organs in health and disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circumventricular organs (CVOs) are specialized brain structures located around the third and fourth ventricles. They differ\\u000a from the rest of the brain parenchyma in that they are highly vascularised areas that lack a blood–brain barrier. These neurohaemal\\u000a organs are classified as “sensory”, when they contain neurons that can receive chemical inputs from the bloodstream. This\\u000a review focuses on the sensory

Sílvia Sisó; Martin Jeffrey; Lorenzo González



Behavioural consequences of sensory plasticity in guppies  

PubMed Central

Sensory plasticity, whereby individuals compensate for sensory deprivation in one sense by an improvement in the performance of an alternative sense, is a well-documented phenomenon in nature. Despite this, the behavioural and ecological consequences of sensory plasticity have not been addressed. Here we show experimentally that some components (vision and chemoreception) of the sensory system of guppies are developmentally plastic, and that this plasticity has important consequences for foraging behaviour. Guppies reared under low light conditions had a significantly stronger response to chemical food cues encountered in isolation than fish reared at higher light levels. Conversely, they exhibited a weaker response to visual-only cues. When visual and olfactory/gustatory cues were presented together, no difference between the strength of response for fish reared at different light intensities was evident. Our data suggest that guppies can compensate for experience of a visually poor, low light environment via a sensory switch from vision to olfaction/gustation. This switch from sight to chemoreception may allow individuals to carry out the foraging behaviour that is essential to their survival in a visually poor environment. These considerations are especially important given the increasing frequency of anthropogenic changes to ecosystems. Compensatory phenotypic plasticity as demonstrated by our study may provide a hitherto unconsidered buffer that could allow animals to perform fundamental behaviours in the face of considerable change to the sensory environment. PMID:20053643

Chapman, Ben B.; Morrell, Lesley J.; Tosh, Colin R.; Krause, Jens



Behavioural consequences of sensory plasticity in guppies.  


Sensory plasticity, whereby individuals compensate for sensory deprivation in one sense by an improvement in the performance of an alternative sense, is a well-documented phenomenon in nature. Despite this, the behavioural and ecological consequences of sensory plasticity have not been addressed. Here we show experimentally that some components (vision and chemoreception) of the sensory system of guppies are developmentally plastic, and that this plasticity has important consequences for foraging behaviour. Guppies reared under low light conditions had a significantly stronger response to chemical food cues encountered in isolation than fish reared at higher light levels. Conversely, they exhibited a weaker response to visual-only cues. When visual and olfactory/gustatory cues were presented together, no difference between the strength of response for fish reared at different light intensities was evident. Our data suggest that guppies can compensate for experience of a visually poor, low light environment via a sensory switch from vision to olfaction/gustation. This switch from sight to chemoreception may allow individuals to carry out the foraging behaviour that is essential to their survival in a visually poor environment. These considerations are especially important given the increasing frequency of anthropogenic changes to ecosystems. Compensatory phenotypic plasticity as demonstrated by our study may provide a hitherto unconsidered buffer that could allow animals to perform fundamental behaviours in the face of considerable change to the sensory environment. PMID:20053643

Chapman, Ben B; Morrell, Lesley J; Tosh, Colin R; Krause, Jens



Anthropogenic Noise Affects Behavior across Sensory Modalities.  


Abstract Many species are currently experiencing anthropogenically driven environmental changes. Among these changes, increasing noise levels are specifically a problem for species using acoustic signals (i.e., species relying on signals that use the same sensory modality as anthropogenic noise). Yet many species use other sensory modalities, such as visual and olfactory signals, to communicate. However, we have only little understanding of whether changes in the acoustic environment affect species that use sensory modalities other than acoustic signals. We studied the impact of anthropogenic noise on the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, which uses highly complex visual signals. We showed that cuttlefish adjusted their visual displays by changing their color more frequently during a playback of anthropogenic noise, compared with before and after the playback. Our results provide experimental evidence that anthropogenic noise has a marked effect on the behavior of species that are not reliant on acoustic communication. Thus, interference in one sensory channel, in this case the acoustic one, affects signaling in other sensory channels. By considering sensory channels in isolation, we risk overlooking the broader implications of environmental changes for the behavior of animals. PMID:25226190

Kunc, Hansjoerg P; Lyons, Gillian N; Sigwart, Julia D; McLaughlin, Kirsty E; Houghton, Jonathan D R



Chemical Injury to the Eye  


... eye until the pH is normal or near normal. In some cases, particularly after severe alkali burns, rinsing may need to be continued for as long as 24 hours. The doctor places a soft tube in the eye that connects to a bag of sterile saline solution (similar to an intravenous set up). When ...


Photographic Screening for Eye Defects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Images of retinas examined for characteristic patterns. Color photographs of retinas taken. Proper alinement of eye obtained by asking subject to gaze at light-emitting diode. "Red-eye" patterns in resulting color photographs examined by trained observers for signs of ocular defects. System used to check power of contact lenses and eyeglasses by taking photographs with these items in place.

Richardson, J.



The Eye of the Hurricane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan introduces students to the structure of a hurricane, particularly the eye. It can be used as an introduction to a unit on hurricanes or weather phenomena. Students will view a video about hurricanes, do a simple hurricane simulation, take a tour into the eye of a hurricane, and write reports about their tour.


Study on eye gaze estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two components to the human visual line-of-sight: pose of human head and the orientation of the eye within their sockets. We have investigated these two aspects but will concentrate on eye gaze estimation. We present a novel approach called the \\

Jian-gang Wang; Eric Sung



Dry eye disease after LASIK  

PubMed Central

LASIK is a surgical tehnique for the correction of refractive errors (myopia, hyperopia, astygmatism). It results in a reshape of the cornea with ocular surface and especially tear film disease. It is a cause for a iatrogenic dry eye syndrome. Neurogenic and inflamatory theory explain this disease. The main therapy of dry eye is the replacement with artificial tears. PMID:22574092

Turu, L; Alexandrescu, C; Stana, D; Tudosescu, R



In the Eye of the Beholder: A Survey of Models for Eyes and Gaze  

E-print Network

In the Eye of the Beholder: A Survey of Models for Eyes and Gaze Dan Witzner Hansen, Member, IEEE years, eye detection and tracking remains challenging due to the individuality of eyes, occlusion, variability in scale, location, and light conditions. Data on eye location and details of eye movements have


Automatic Eye State Recognition and Closed-eye Photo Correction Zhaojie LIU, Haizhou AI  

E-print Network

Automatic Eye State Recognition and Closed-eye Photo Correction Zhaojie LIU, Haizhou AI Abstract In this paper, we present an approach for eye state recognition and closed-eye photo correction. For eye state recognition, AdaBoosted cascade open-eye detectors of different scales are trained

Ai, Haizhou


Eyes of Ganges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

21 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroded, light-toned layered rock outcrops on the side of a large mound in Ganges Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. Perhaps a testament to the inherent human (and primate) ability to pick out faces where partially hidden from view (even when a face is not really there) -- near the top of this picture are two features, each a product of erosion, resembling a pair of human eyes. This picture was acquired in late November 2005.

Location near: 7.1oS, 49.4oW Image width: width: 0.55 km (0.3 mi) Illumination from: left/lower left Season: Southern Summer



Biomimetic microfabricated compound eyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past century, compound eyes in nature have been one of the most studied and intriguing topics in physiological optics due to their unique optical scheme for imaging. Hundreds to ten thousands of integrated optical units called ommatidia are spherically arranged along a curvilinear surface and point in different directions. Each ommatidium collects light within a small angular acceptance and collectively they construct a full image with a wide field-of-view. In this work, artificial compound eye lenses with three-dimensional configuration, which are anatomically and functionally similar to those in nature, have been synthesized using a photosensitive polymer resin by utilizing microlens technology, self-written waveguide process, and soft lithography. Replicated honeycomb packed polymer microlenses as substitute for facet lenses in a natural compound eye was microfabricated with a photoresist melting process for microlens templates and a soft lithographic process for polymer replication. The microtemplate of photoresist microlens arrays (F/1 ˜ F/3, DL = 20 ˜ 50 mum) with low Fresnel number (NF < 10) and high packing density was replicated with different polymers such as UV curable epoxy resin, polydimethylsiloxane elastomer, and a negative tone photoresist. Related to ommatidial optics, the diffraction of a low Fresnel number microlens, the light guiding of a waveguide, and the angular acceptance function of a microlens-waveguide system were theoretically studied with numerical analysis. First, as a prototype microfabricated microlens-waveguide system ( DL = 300 mum), a small angular acceptance (rho A = 1.5°) comparable to that of natural ommatidia was experimentally achieved and compared with the numerical analysis. The system is based on self-written waveguides in a photosensitive polymer resin and replicated elastomer microlens arrays. However, due to the technical difficulties in handling the elastomer membrane with microlenses, it is limited in scaling down to the physical dimensions of natural ommatidium. Second, as an advanced development, self-aligned microlens-waveguide systems comparable to the physical dimensions of natural ommatidia have been developed and integrated in a photosensitive resin. The individual microlens-waveguide systems of about 8,370 were spherically arranged along the circumference of a polymer dome of 2.5 mm in diameter and each points in different directions. The spherical configuration was realized using a replication process of reconfigurable microtemplates, i.e. the polymer replication using the deformed elastomer membrane with microlens patterns under small pressure (5 kPa ˜ 20 kPa). The characterizations of the small scale microlenses (F/1.8 ˜ F/2.9, DL = 25 mum) and waveguides were also carried out with a modified reflection/transmission confocal microscope. The comparative discussion between natural and artificial compound eyes is described and several future directions based on this work are also proposed.

Jeong, Ki-Hun



NSDL National Science Digital Library

While we were not able to test this new 3D browser (alas, no W2k machines at the Scout Project at the time of publication), we still felt it well worth a mention after viewing some sample screen shots. CubicEye allows users to navigate and move between five browser windows simultaneously: the windows form the sides and bottom of a cube. Based on the demo sequences, it appears that users can easily rotate the panels and drop and drag links between the panels, in addition to other options. Users whose machines meet the requirements may register to become a beta tester and will receive a password and download instructions. The rest of us can still take a peek and offer a few "oohs" and "ahhs."



Sensory Processing Subtypes in Autism: Association with Adaptive Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with autism are frequently observed to experience difficulties in sensory processing. This study examined specific\\u000a patterns of sensory processing in 54 children with autistic disorder and their association with adaptive behavior. Model-based\\u000a cluster analysis revealed three distinct sensory processing subtypes in autism. These subtypes were differentiated by taste\\u000a and smell sensitivity and movement-related sensory behavior. Further, sensory processing subtypes

Robyn L. Young; Amy E. Z. Baker; Manya T. Angley



The Colossal Cosmic Eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eighty-five million years ago on small planet Earth, dinosaurs ruled, ignorant of their soon-to-come demise in the great Jurassic extinction, while mammals were still small and shy creatures. The southern Andes of Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina were not yet formed and South America was still an island continent. Eighty-five million years ago, our Sun and its solar system was 60,000 light years away from where it now stands [1]. Eighty-five million years ago, in another corner of the Universe, light left the beautiful spiral galaxy NGC 1350, for a journey across the universe. Part of this light was recorded at the beginning of the year 2000 AD by ESO's Very Large Telescope, located on the 2,600m high Cerro Paranal in the Chilean Andes on planet Earth. Astronomers classify NGC 1350 as an Sa(r) type galaxy, meaning it is a spiral with large central regions. In fact, NGC 1350 lies at the border between the broken-ring spiral type and a grand design spiral with two major outer arms. It is about 130,000 light-years across and, hence, is slightly larger than our Milky Way. The rather faint and graceful outer arms originate at the inner main ring and can be traced for almost half a circle when they each meet the opposite arm, giving the impression of completing a second outer ring, the "eye". The arms are given a blue tint as a result of the presence of very young and massive stars. The amount of dust, seen as small fragmented dust spirals in the central part of the galaxy and producing a fine tapestry that bear resemblance with blood vessels in the eye, is also a signature of the formation of stars.



21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and...Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion...



21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and...Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion...



21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and...Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion...



21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and...Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion...



21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and...Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion...



Protect Your Eyes When You Exercise  


... Aging at NIH Protect Your Eyes When You Exercise Emergency room doctors ... getting hit in the eye. Play it safe! Protect your eyes: l Protective eyewear includes safety glasses ...


Genetics Home Reference: Fish-eye disease  


... gov Research studies OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Fish-eye disease On this page: Description Genetic changes ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed August 2013 What is fish-eye disease? Fish-eye disease, also called partial ...


Effect of altered sensory conditions on multivariate descriptors of human postural sway  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multivariate descriptors of sway were used to test whether altered sensory conditions result not only in changes in amount of sway but also in postural coordination. Eigenvalues and directions of eigenvectors of the covariance of shnk and hip angles were used as a set of multivariate descriptors. These quantities were measured in 14 healthy adult subjects performing the Sensory Organization test, which disrupts visual and somatosensory information used for spatial orientation. Multivariate analysis of variance and discriminant analysis showed that resulting sway changes were at least bivariate in character, with visual and somatosensory conditions producing distinct changes in postural coordination. The most significant changes were found when somatosensory information was disrupted by sway-referencing of the support surface (P = 3.2 x 10(-10)). The resulting covariance measurements showed that subjects not only swayed more but also used increased hip motion analogous to the hip strategy. Disruption of vision, by either closing the eyes or sway-referencing the visual surround, also resulted in altered sway (P = 1.7 x 10(-10)), with proportionately more motion of the center of mass than with platform sway-referencing. As shown by discriminant analysis, an optimal univariate measure could explain at most 90% of the behavior due to altered sensory conditions. The remaining 10%, while smaller, are highly significant changes in posture control that depend on sensory conditions. The results imply that normal postural coordination of the trunk and legs requires both somatosensory and visual information and that each sensory modality makes a unique contribution to posture control. Descending postural commands are multivariate in nature, and the motion at each joint is affected uniquely by input from multiple sensors.

Kuo, A. D.; Speers, R. A.; Peterka, R. J.; Horak, F. B.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)



Portrait of an Asian stalk-eyed fly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diopsid flies have eyes set on stalks which are in some cases so long that the distance between the eyes exceeds the body length. These conspicuous structures have given rise to much speculation about their adaptive value, but there are very few actual observations by which to judge these hypotheses. Cyrtodiopsis whitei Curran lives in the tropical rainforest of Malaysia. We describe a number of aspects of its morphology and biology, some functional properties of the eye, and the ritualized fights between males, by which harems are acquired. The evolutionary significance of the eyestalks is discussed: they represent structures subjected to a double selection pressure; they are an adaptation by which a sensory system is better matched to the special problems encountered in a densely structured habitat (in that the field of view is extended and the ability to estimate distance and size and to identify objects at a large distance is improved), also they act as key stimulus for species recognition and as releaser for intraspecific behaviour.

de La Motte, Ingrid; Burkhardt, Dietrich



Three dimensional eye movements of squirrel monkeys following postrotatory tilt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three-dimensional squirrel monkey eye movements were recorded during and immediately following rotation around an earth-vertical yaw axis (160 degrees/s steady state, 100 degrees/s2 acceleration and deceleration). To study interactions between the horizontal angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and head orientation, postrotatory VOR alignment was changed relative to gravity by tilting the head out of the horizontal plane (pitch or roll tilt between 15 degrees and 90 degrees) immediately after cessation of motion. Results showed that in addition to post rotatory horizontal nystagmus, vertical nystagmus followed tilts to the left or right (roll), and torsional nystagmus followed forward or backward (pitch) tilts. When the time course and spatial orientation of eye velocity were considered in three dimensions, the axis of eye rotation always shifted toward alignment with gravity, and the postrotatory horizontal VOR decay was accelerated by the tilts. These phenomena may reflect a neural process that resolves the sensory conflict induced by this postrotatory tilt paradigm.

Merfeld, D. M.; Young, L. R.; Paige, G. D.; Tomko, D. L.



Emerging functions of pannexin 1 in the eye  

PubMed Central

Pannexin 1 (Panx1) is a high-conductance, voltage-gated channel protein found in vertebrates. Panx1 is widely expressed in many organs and tissues, including sensory systems. In the eye, Panx1 is expressed in major divisions including the retina, lens and cornea. Panx1 is found in different neuronal and non-neuronal cell types. The channel is mechanosensitive and responds to changes in extracellular ATP, intracellular calcium, pH, or ROS/nitric oxide. Since Panx1 channels operate at the crossroad of major signaling pathways, physiological functions in important autocrine and paracrine feedback signaling mechanisms were hypothesized. This review starts with describing in depth the initial Panx1 expression and localization studies fostering functional studies that uncovered distinct roles in processing visual information in subsets of neurons in the rodent and fish retina. Panx1 is expressed along the entire anatomical axis from optical nerve to retina and cornea in glia, epithelial and endothelial cells as well as in neurons. The expression and diverse localizations throughout the eye points towards versatile functions of Panx1 in neuronal and non-neuronal cells, implicating Panx1 in the crosstalk between immune and neural cells, pressure related pathological conditions like glaucoma, wound repair or neuronal cell death caused by ischemia. Summarizing the literature on Panx1 in the eye highlights the diversity of emerging Panx1 channel functions in health and disease.

Kurtenbach, Sarah; Kurtenbach, Stefan; Zoidl, Georg



Electrophysiological studies of the eye, peripheral nerves and muscles in epidemic dropsy.  


The involvement of the neurological system in epidemic dropsy is controversial. During two outbreaks of epidemic dropsy, detailed neurological and ocular examinations and electrophysiological studies of peripheral nerves and muscles (motor nerve conduction velocities, sensory nerve latencies and electromyography) and eye (electroretinogram and visually evoked cortical responses) were therefore undertaken. Amongst the 239 subjects examined, burning sensation and tingling paraesthesias of feet were reported by 42.3 and 35.6%, respectively; but none had any objective evidence of central or peripheral nervous system involvement. Electrophysiological studies of peripheral nerves and muscles (10 cases with subjective manifestations) and eyes (24 eyes of 12 patients hospitalized for control of glaucoma) were essentially normal. It is concluded that Argemone mexicana or its toxins do not have any significant effect on the nervous system. PMID:2607575

Sachdev, H P; Sachdev, M S; Verma, L; Sood, N N; Moonis, M



Superglue injuries of the eye  

PubMed Central

AIM To report various ocular lesions caused by accidental instillation of superglue. METHODS Three cases of ocular injuries are described in children aged 6 years, 3 years and 8 months, following accidental instillation of superglue in the eye. RESULTS In the first case there was sticking of eyelashes in the medial 1/3 of eyelids in both eyes. In the second case sticking of eye lashes was present in the lateral 1/3 of eyelids in the left eye. In the third case, superglue was present on the right cheek, above the right ear and sticking of eyelids in medial 1/3 in right eye. The eyelids were separated by pulling the lid margins with fingers in the first case and later on superglue was removed by trimming the eyelashes; and by direct trimming the eyelashes in second and third cases. There was no injury to other structures of anterior segment in the first two cases. However, removal of the superglue on the cornea resulted in corneal abrasion in the third case which healed with medical treatment and patching of the right eye. CONCLUSION Accidental instillation of superglue is possible because of the appearance of the tube like eye ointment tube. Immediate medical aid will prevent ocular morbidity. PMID:23166877

Reddy, Sagili Chandrasekhara



Monitoring the eye lens: which dose quantity is adequate?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent epidemiological studies suggest a rather low dose threshold (below 0.5 Gy) for the induction of a cataract of the eye lens. Some other studies even assume that there is no threshold at all. Therefore, protection measures have to be optimized and current dose limits for the eye lens may be reduced in the future. The question of which personal dose equivalent quantity is appropriate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens arises from this situation. While in many countries dosemeters calibrated in terms of the dose equivalent quantity Hp(0.07) have been seen as being adequate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens, this might be questionable in the case of reduced dose limits and, thus, it may become necessary to use the dose equivalent quantity Hp(3) for this purpose. To discuss this question, the dose conversion coefficients for the equivalent dose of the eye lens (in the following eye lens dose) were determined for realistic photon and beta radiation fields and compared with the values of the corresponding conversion coefficients for the different operational quantities. The values obtained lead to the following conclusions: in radiation fields where most of the dose comes from photons, especially x-rays, it is appropriate to use dosemeters calibrated in terms of Hp(0.07) on a slab phantom, while in other radiation fields (dominated by beta radiation or unknown contributions of photon and beta radiation) dosemeters calibrated in terms of Hp(3) on a slab phantom should be used. As an alternative, dosemeters calibrated in terms of Hp(0.07) on a slab phantom could also be used; however, in radiation fields containing beta radiation with the end point energy near 1 MeV, an overestimation of the eye lens dose by up to a factor of 550 is possible.

Behrens, R.; Dietze, G.



Loss of Arc renders the visual cortex impervious to the effects of sensory experience or deprivation  

PubMed Central

A myriad of mechanisms are suggested to account for the full richness of visual cortical plasticity. We report that visual cortex lacking Arc is impervious to the effects of deprivation or experience. Using intrinsic signal imaging and chronic visually evoked potential recordings, we find that Arc?/? mice do not exhibit depression of deprived eye responses or a shift in ocular dominance after brief monocular deprivation. Extended deprivation also fails to elicit a shift in ocular dominance or open eye potentiation. Moreover, Arc?/? mice lack stimulus–selective response potentiation. Although Arc?/? mice exhibit normal visual acuity, baseline ocular dominance is abnormal and resembles that observed after dark–rearing. These data suggest that Arc is required for the experience–dependent processes that normally establish and modify synaptic connections in visual cortex. PMID:20228806

McCurry, Cortina L.; Shepherd, Jason D.; Tropea, Daniela; Wang, Kuan H.; Bear, Mark F.; Sur, Mriganka



Dry eye in LASIK patients  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing age is a known risk factor for developing dry eye. The specific aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of dry eye syndrome (DES) and use of post-operative dry eye medications in a relatively young population presenting for LASIK surgery at an academic ophthalmology clinic. Findings A retrospective, analysis of 948 de-identified patient charts (median age 39 years, not age stratified) was performed to extract pre-LASIK diagnoses and post-LASIK medication lists. Clinical evaluation for DES and the results of Schirmer’s reflex tear flow test were used to assign LASIK patients into Normal, Pre-dry eye (Pre-DES), and Dry Eye Syndrome (DES) groups; which were then compared for use of dry eye medications. Based on pre-operative diagnoses, only 2% (CI: 1.3 – 3.1) of LASIK patients presented with overt DES. Unexpectantly, 25% (CI: 22.2 – 27.6) of LASIK patients labeled Pre-DES were not classified by the clinician as having overt DES, yet they showed poor reflex tear flow rates ? 5 mm before surgery, and frequently used post-operative lubricant dry eye medications. Conclusions Although the number of patients with pre-existing eye conditions was unknown, a sizable portion of relatively young LASIK patients displays poor reflex tear flow without overt DES. Such patients could go on to develop more serious consequences of poor tear flow, such as corneal abrasion and erosion. More specific, dry eye medications may be needed for ideal treatment. PMID:24994125



Sensory reweighting dynamics in human postural control.  


Healthy humans control balance during stance by using an active feedback mechanism that generates corrective torque based on a combination of movement and orientation cues from visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems. Previous studies found that the contribution of each of these sensory systems changes depending on perturbations applied during stance and on environmental conditions. The process of adjusting the sensory contributions to balance control is referred to as sensory reweighting. To investigate the dynamics of reweighting for the sensory modalities of vision and proprioception, 14 healthy young subjects were exposed to six different combinations of continuous visual scene and platform tilt stimuli while sway responses were recorded. Stimuli consisted of two components: 1) a pseudorandom component whose amplitude periodically switched between low and high amplitudes and 2) a low-amplitude sinusoidal component whose amplitude remained constant throughout a trial. These two stimuli were mathematically independent of one another and, thus, permitted separate analyses of sway responses to the two components. For all six stimulus combinations, the sway responses to the constant-amplitude sine were influenced by the changing amplitude of the pseudorandom component in a manner consistent with sensory reweighting. Results show clear evidence of intra- and intermodality reweighting. Reweighting dynamics were asymmetric, with slower reweighting dynamics following a high-to-low transition in the pseudorandom stimulus amplitude compared with low-to-high amplitude shifts, and were also slower for inter- compared with intramodality reweighting. PMID:24501263

Assländer, Lorenz; Peterka, Robert J



Sparsity and compressed coding in sensory systems.  


Considering that many natural stimuli are sparse, can a sensory system evolve to take advantage of this sparsity? We explore this question and show that significant downstream reductions in the numbers of neurons transmitting stimuli observed in early sensory pathways might be a consequence of this sparsity. First, we model an early sensory pathway using an idealized neuronal network comprised of receptors and downstream sensory neurons. Then, by revealing a linear structure intrinsic to neuronal network dynamics, our work points to a potential mechanism for transmitting sparse stimuli, related to compressed-sensing (CS) type data acquisition. Through simulation, we examine the characteristics of networks that are optimal in sparsity encoding, and the impact of localized receptive fields beyond conventional CS theory. The results of this work suggest a new network framework of signal sparsity, freeing the notion from any dependence on specific component-space representations. We expect our CS network mechanism to provide guidance for studying sparse stimulus transmission along realistic sensory pathways as well as engineering network designs that utilize sparsity encoding. PMID:25144745

Barranca, Victor J; Kova?i?, Gregor; Zhou, Douglas; Cai, David



Finger enslaving in the dominant and non-dominant hand.  


During single-finger force production, the non-instructed fingers unintentionally produce force (finger enslaving). In this study, enslaving effects were compared between the dominant and non-dominant hands. The test consisted of a series of maximum voluntary contractions with different finger combinations. Enslaving matrices were calculated by means of training an artificial neural network. The dominant hand was found to be stronger, but there was found to be no difference between the overall enslaving effects in the dominant and non-dominant hands. There was no correlation between the magnitude of finger enslaving and the performance in such tests as the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, the Grooved Pegboard test, and the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function test. Each one of those three tests showed a significant difference between the dominant and non-dominant hand performances. Eleven subjects were retested after two months, and it was found that enslaving effects did not fluctuate significantly between the two testing sessions. While the dominant and non-dominant hands are involved differently in everyday tasks, e.g. in writing or eating, this practice does not cause significant differences in enslaving between the hands. PMID:24360253

Wilhelm, Luke A; Martin, Joel R; Latash, Mark L; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M



Prognosis of perforating eye injury.  

PubMed Central

The assessment of visual function in a series of 130 consecutive patients of perforating eye injuries, revealed that visual acuity of 6/12 or better was regained in 63 per cent, between 6/60 and 6/18 in 9-2 per cent, less than 6/60 in 15-3 per cent, and enucleation was necessary in 9-2 per cent. In 3 per cent, the eyes were retained as blind, symptomfree, and cosmetically satisfactory organs. Two eyes were found to develop complete traumatic aniridia. None in the series was found to have sympathetic ophthalmitis. PMID:1009049

Adhikary, H P; Taylor, P; Fitzmaurice, D J



Not just a red eye.  


A 70-year-old woman presented to the Eye Casualty department with a 10-day history of worsening pain and redness in her right eye, associated with progressively reduced vision. History revealed that the patient had recently completed a course of chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer. Anterior examination of the right eye revealed a vascularised iris mass causing pupillary distortion, intraocular inflammation and raised intraocular pressure. She was diagnosed with a right iris metastasis secondary to breast cancer. Ocular management consisted of topical steroids and intraocular pressure-lowering agents, which improved her ocular symptoms. She subsequently received primary radiotherapy, which has successfully reduced the size of the tumour. PMID:24700045

Juniat, Valerie; Andrew, Nigel



Results of Ocular Dominance Testing Depend on Assessment Method  

PubMed Central

Purpose We developed a near ocular dominance test modeled after the distance hole-in-the card test, and assessed both test-retest reliability of four tests of ocular dominance and agreement between tests. Methods 46 subjects ages 18 to 78 years with visual acuity 20/40 or better in each eye were enrolled from a primary care practice. All subjects had normal eye examinations, with the exception of refractive error, and were examined in their habitual correction. Subjects were tested twice each with the distance hole-in-the-card test, new near hole- in-the-card test, near convergence test, and the Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group (PEDIG) fixation preference test. Test-retest reliability and agreement between tests were evaluated with the Kappa statistic. Results There was substantial to almost perfect test-retest reliability for the distance hole-in-the-card test, new near hole-in-the-card test, convergence test, and PEDIG fixation preference test (Kappa, k=0.77, 0.62, 0.84, 0.77, respectively). In contrast, the agreement between the new near hole in the card test and the other three tests – distance hole in the card, near convergence, and PEDIG fixation preference– was moderate to slight (k=0.41, 0.19, 0.11, respectively). Agreement was moderate to fair (k=0.47, 0.32) between the distance hole in the card test and the near convergence test, and between the distance-hole-in-the-card test and the PEDIG fixation preference test. Agreement was fair (k=0.27) between the near convergence test and the PEDIG fixation preference test. Conclusions Although there was excellent test-retest reliability of each ocular dominance test, there was only moderate to slight agreement between tests. Results of ocular dominance tests seem to vary depending on both the testing distance and the specific activity performed as part of the testing procedure. PMID:18455935

Rice, Melissa L.; Leske, David A.; Smestad, Christina E.; Holmes, Jonathan M.



Eyes in the Sky  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These shape-shifting galaxies have taken on the form of a giant mask. The icy blue eyes are actually the cores of two merging galaxies, called NGC 2207 and IC 2163, and the mask is their spiral arms. The false-colored image consists of infrared data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope (red) and visible data from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (blue/green).

NGC 2207 and IC 2163 met and began a sort of gravitational tango about 40 million years ago. The two galaxies are tugging at each other, stimulating new stars to form. Eventually, this cosmic ball will come to an end, when the galaxies meld into one. The dancing duo is located 140 million light-years away in the Canis Major constellation.

The infrared data from Spitzer highlight the galaxies' dusty regions, while the visible data from Hubble indicates starlight. In the Hubble-only image (not pictured here), the dusty regions appear as dark lanes.

The Hubble data correspond to light with wavelengths of .44 and .55 microns (blue and green, respectively). The Spitzer data represent light of 8 microns.



Sensory neuropathy with bone destruction due to a mutation in the membrane-shaping atlastin GTPase 3.  


Many neurodegenerative disorders present with sensory loss. In the group of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies loss of nociception is one of the disease hallmarks. To determine underlying factors of sensory neurodegeneration we performed whole-exome sequencing in affected individuals with the disorder. In a family with sensory neuropathy with loss of pain perception and destruction of the pedal skeleton we report a missense mutation in a highly conserved amino acid residue of atlastin GTPase 3 (ATL3), an endoplasmic reticulum-shaping GTPase. The same mutation (p.Tyr192Cys) was identified in a second family with similar clinical outcome by screening a large cohort of 115 patients with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies. Both families show an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance and the mutation segregates with complete penetrance. ATL3 is a paralogue of ATL1, a membrane curvature-generating molecule that is involved in spastic paraplegia and hereditary sensory neuropathy. ATL3 proteins are enriched in three-way junctions, branch points of the endoplasmic reticulum that connect membranous tubules to a continuous network. Mutant ATL3 p.Tyr192Cys fails to localize to branch points, but instead disrupts the structure of the tubular endoplasmic reticulum, suggesting that the mutation exerts a dominant-negative effect. Identification of ATL3 as novel disease-associated gene exemplifies that long-term sensory neuronal maintenance critically depends on the structural organisation of the endoplasmic reticulum. It emphasizes that alterations in membrane shaping-proteins are one of the major emerging pathways in axonal degeneration and suggests that this group of molecules should be considered in neuroprotective strategies. PMID:24459106

Kornak, Uwe; Mademan, Inès; Schinke, Marte; Voigt, Martin; Krawitz, Peter; Hecht, Jochen; Barvencik, Florian; Schinke, Thorsten; Gießelmann, Sebastian; Beil, F Timo; Pou-Serradell, Adolf; Vílchez, Juan J; Beetz, Christian; Deconinck, Tine; Timmerman, Vincent; Kaether, Christoph; De Jonghe, Peter; Hübner, Christian A; Gal, Andreas; Amling, Michael; Mundlos, Stefan; Baets, Jonathan; Kurth, Ingo



Skew deviation of the eyes in normal human subjects induced by semicircular canal stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computerised video-oculography and scleral search coils were used to record the horizontal, vertical and torsional binocular eye movements of human subjects exposed to roll oscillation at 0.4 Hz about earth-horizontal and earth-ventrical naso-occipital axes in darkness. The stimuli provoked a dominant torsional (‘ocular counter-rolling’) response with a ratio of peak slow phase eye velocity to stimulus velocity which was not

Kathrine Jáuregui-Renaud; Mary Faldon; Andrew Clarke; Adolfo M. Bronstein; Michael A. Gresty



Functional reorganization of barrel cortex following atypical sensory rearing experiences: the effect on cortical spike synchrony.  

E-print Network

??Functional reorganization of primary sensory cortex following peripheral sensory deprivation and other atypical sensory experience typically focused on changes in single neuron deficits till date.… (more)

Ghoshal, Ayan



Sensory convergence in the parieto-insular vestibular cortex.  


Vestibular signals are pervasive throughout the central nervous system, including the cortex, where they likely play different roles than they do in the better studied brainstem. Little is known about the parieto-insular vestibular cortex (PIVC), an area of the cortex with prominent vestibular inputs. Neural activity was recorded in the PIVC of rhesus macaques during combinations of head, body, and visual target rotations. Activity of many PIVC neurons was correlated with the motion of the head in space (vestibular), the twist of the neck (proprioceptive), and the motion of a visual target, but was not associated with eye movement. PIVC neurons responded most commonly to more than one stimulus, and responses to combined movements could often be approximated by a combination of the individual sensitivities to head, neck, and target motion. The pattern of visual, vestibular, and somatic sensitivities on PIVC neurons displayed a continuous range, with some cells strongly responding to one or two of the stimulus modalities while other cells responded to any type of motion equivalently. The PIVC contains multisensory convergence of self-motion cues with external visual object motion information, such that neurons do not represent a specific transformation of any one sensory input. Instead, the PIVC neuron population may define the movement of head, body, and external visual objects in space and relative to one another. This comparison of self and external movement is consistent with insular cortex functions related to monitoring and explains many disparate findings of previous studies. PMID:24671533

Shinder, Michael E; Newlands, Shawn D



Migration and sensory evaluation of irradiated polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects on ionising irradiation on polymer additives, monomers and polymers themselves have been investigated. Changes of initial concentrations of certain additives and monomers, a change in their specific migration as well as sensory changes of the polymers were examined. Polymer stabilizers such as Irganox 1076 and Irgafos 168 used in polyethylene were found to be degraded by ionising radiation. Decreased concentrations of stabilisers in polyolefins led to lower specific migration, however, not to lower overall migration into food simulants. Irganox 1076 levels in polystyrene did not change up to irradiation doses of 54 kGy. Sensory properties of LDPE, HDPE, PA6 and PA12 worsened, while sensory properties of PS improved with increasing irradiation doses.

Stoffers, Niels H.; Linssen, Jozef P. H.; Franz, Roland; Welle, Frank




Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies algorithmic aspects of majority domina- tion, which is a variation of domination in graph theory. A majority dominating function of a graph G = (V;E) is a function g from V to f¡1;1g such that P u2N(v) g(u) ‚ 1 for at least half of the vertices v 2 V. The majority domination problem is to find

Hong-Gwa Yeh; Gerard J. Chang



Eye movements when viewing advertisements  

PubMed Central

In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads), before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet). Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research. PMID:24672500

Higgins, Emily; Leinenger, Mallorie; Rayner, Keith



Eye injuries in Canadian hockey.  

PubMed Central

Increasing public concern led the Canadian Ophthalmological Society, in January 1974, to form a committee to study the incidence, types and causes of hockey eye injuries and to devise means of reducing such injuries. Retrospective and current studies were undertaken, and face protectors were tested. In both pilot studies, sticks were the commonest cause and the highest number of eye injuries was in players 11-15 years old. An average of 15% of all injured eyes were rendered legally blind. Cooperation with hockey authorities has resulted in changed rules and their sticter enforcement, and formulation of standards for face protection approved by the Canadian Standards Association. In this interim report the committee recommends that all amateur hockey players wear eye protectors and urges ophthalmologists to participate in efforts to improve the design of protective equipment. Images FIG. 1 PMID:1181024

Pashby, T. J.; Pashby, R. C.; Chisholm, L. D.; Crawford, J. S.



Money for the big eyes  

E-print Network

Since ancient civilization, humanity has kept its eyes on the heavens, and the invention of telescopes has only increased its scrutiny. As astronomers strive to see the universe with increasing clarity, telescopes have ...

Shen, Fangfei, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology



Eye movements when viewing advertisements.  


In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads), before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet). Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research. PMID:24672500

Higgins, Emily; Leinenger, Mallorie; Rayner, Keith



When the Wheels Touch Earth and the Flight is Through, Pilots Find One Eye is Better Than Two?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study investigated the impact of near to eye displays on both operational and visual performance by employing a human-in-the-loop simulation of straight-in ILS approaches while using a near to eye (NTE) display. The approaches were flown in simulated visual and instrument conditions while using either a biocular NTE or a monocular NTE display on either the dominant or non dominant eye. The pilot s flight performance, visual acuity, and ability to detect unsafe conditions on the runway were tested.

Valimont, Brian; Wise, John A.; Nichols, Troy; Best, Carl; Suddreth, John; Cupero, Frank



Eye-voice-controlled interface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ocular Attention-Sensing Interface System (OASIS) is an innovative human-computer interface which utilizes eye movement and voice commands to communicate messages between the operator and the system. This report initially describes some technical issues relevant to the development of such an interface. The results of preliminary experiments which evaluate alternative eye processing algorithms and feedback techniques are presented. Candidate interface applications are also discussed.

Glenn, Floyd A., III; Iavecchia, Helene P.; Ross, Lorna V.; Stokes, James M.; Weiland, William J.



Videoanalysis of involuntary eye movements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method for monitoring of involuntary eye motion on the basis of image processing and analysis technology is posed. The efficiency of the program for the object movement analysis by its trajectory and spectrum is demonstrated. The results of measuring of involuntary eye movements of patients with nystagmus are presented. The measuring results characterizing the nystagmus status changing before and after the squint correction is demonstrated.

Skripal, Anatoli V.; Usanova, Tatjana B.; Abramov, Anton V.; Usanov, Dmitry A.



Robust hand-eye coordination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial cameras are coupled into robotic systems to increase the flexibility of the robots. Such hand-eye coordination usually requires calibration of the cameras to compute the three-dimensional (3D) coordinates of positions in the robot space. This paper describes a new hand-eye coordination approach which does not require camera calibration. Instead, we propose the use of relative stereo disparity to compute

Wei-Yun Yau; Han Wang



Does Chronic Idiopathic Dizziness Reflect an Impairment of Sensory Predictions of Self-Motion?  

PubMed Central

Most patients suffering from chronic idiopathic dizziness do not present signs of vestibular dysfunction or organic failures of other kinds. Hence, this kind of dizziness is commonly seen as psychogenic in nature, sharing commonalities with specific phobias, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety. A more specific concept put forward by Brandt and Dieterich (1) states that these patients suffer from dizziness because of an inadequate compensation of self-induced sensory stimulation. According to this hypothesis self-motion-induced reafferent visual stimulation is interpreted as motion in the world since a predictive signal reflecting the consequences of self-motion, needed to compensate the reafferent stimulus, is inadequate. While conceptually intriguing, experimental evidence supporting the idea of an inadequate prediction of the sensory consequences of own movements has as yet been lacking. Here we tested this hypothesis by applying it to the perception of background motion induced by smooth pursuit eye movements. As a matter of fact, we found the same mildly undercompensating prediction, responsible for the perception of slight illusory world motion (“Filehne illusion”) in the 15 patients tested and their age-matched controls. Likewise, the ability to adapt this prediction to the needs of the visual context was not deteriorated in patients. Finally, we could not find any correlation between measures of the individual severity of dizziness and the ability to predict. In sum, our results do not support the concept of a deviant prediction of self-induced sensory stimulation as cause of chronic idiopathic dizziness. PMID:24265626

Pomper, Jorn K.; Gebert, Lena; Fischer, Matthias; Bunjes, Friedemann; Thier, Peter



1 Dorsal eye selector pannier (pnr) suppresses the eye fate to define dorsal margin of 2 the Drosophila eye  

E-print Network

1 Dorsal eye selector pannier (pnr) suppresses the eye fate to define dorsal margin of 2 the Drosophila eye 3 Sarah M. Oros a,b,1 , Meghana Tare b,1 , Madhuri Kango-Singh a,b,c , Amit Singh a,b,c, 4 xxxx 141516 17 Keywords: 18 Drosophila eye 19 Dorso-ventral eye patterning 20 Pannier 21 GATA-1 22

Singh, Amit


Simulation of Ametropic Human Eyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computational simulation of the performance of human eyes is complex because the optical parameters of the eye depend on many factors, including age, gender, race, refractive status (accommodation and near- or far-sightedness). This task is made more difficult by the inadequacy of the population statistical characteristics of these parameters. Previously we simulated ametropic (near- or far-sighted) eyes using three independent variables: the axial length of the eye, the corneal surface curvature, and the intraocular refractive index gradient. The prescription for the correction of an ametropic eye is determined by its second-order coefficients of the wavefront aberrations. These corrections are typically achieved using contact lens, spectacle lens, or laser surgery (LASIK). However, the higher order aberrations, which are not corrected and are likely complicated or enhanced by the lower-order correction, could be important for visual performance in a darkened environment. In this paper, we investigate the higher order wavefront aberrations of synthetic ametropic eyes and compare results with measured data published in the past decade. The behavior of three types of ametropes is discussed.

Tan, Bo; Chen, Ying-Ling; Lewis, James W. L.



[Epidemiology of allergic eye diseases].  


Epidemiology of allergic eye diseases has not been sufficiently studied so far. The first statistical studies regarded the coexistence of allergic conjunctivitis together with allergic rhinitis, as rhinoconjunctivitis. Only in the last 10 years eye allergy has been regarded as a separate epidemiological and clinical problem. According to Bonini, seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) accompanies pollinosis in 95.2%. Buckley's studies revealed symptoms of SAC in 21% of British population and Berdy reported a similar result in 20% of Americans. Weeke estimates that depending on geographical region and age of examined patients, allergic eye diseases occur in 5 to 22% of the population. Among them SAC and perennial allertgic conjunctivitis (PAC) account for up to 50%. A recent Italian study demonstrated an increase of the incidence of allergic eye diseases, which were found in 38% of the studied population, most frequently in young males. Eye allergy presented most frequently as rhinoconjunctivitis (SAC and PAC) (63.7%), and then as atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) (21%) and vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) (15.5%). It seems that the incidence of allergic eye diseases demonstrates a rising tendency, similarly as it has been found in recent years in the case of bronchial asthma, rhinitis or atopic dermatitis. PMID:14524314

Bogacka, Ewa



Pink Eye Conjunctivitis Definition, Symptoms and Causes  

E-print Network

Pink Eye ­ Conjunctivitis Definition, Symptoms and Causes Pink eye is the common name given to inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye. It is otherwise called conjunctivitis. The conjunctiva is the transparent membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the whites of the eyes. Very small, superficial blood

Suzuki, Masatsugu


Eye Safety At Work Is Everyone's Business.  

E-print Network

Eye Safety At Work Is Everyone's Business. Preventing Work-Related Eye Injuries Each day, about 2,000 U.S. workers receive medical treatment because of eye injuries sustained at work. Workplace injury is a leading cause of eye trauma, vision loss, disability, and blindness, and can interfere with your ability

Baker, Chris I.


The Human Eye June 4, 2009  

E-print Network

The Human Eye T. Albers June 4, 2009 1 #12;1 Abstract The eyes provide a profound part of the human in my research. The eye is a biological system and, as such, does not lend itself to simplification Introduction Upon researching the human eye I have found it to be an exquisitely engineered piece of equipment

La Rosa, Andres H.


Eye Movement Disorders in Dyslexia. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eye movements of 18 male and seven female dyslexic children and 10 normal children were evaluated to determine if eye movement disorders may be the cause of some of the symptoms associated with dyslexia. Data on eye movements were collected while Ss moved their eyes from one fixation point to another in a nonreading situation. Errors in vertical…

Festinger, Leon; And Others


REVIEW ARTICLE: Eyes with mirror optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most eyes have optical systems that are based on refraction by a lens or a cornea. However, there are two eye types that form images using mirrors. These are concave mirror eyes, similar in principle to a Newtonian telescope, and reflecting superposition compound eyes, where the mirrors are arranged radially in a square array. The concave mirrors are found in

Michael F. Land



A Teaching Eye Model for Ophthalmoscopy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A teaching eye model that allows the medical student to learn the hand-eye coordination and associated thinking patterns that allow for a more sophisticated use of the ophthalmoscope is described. The eye teaching model attempted to simulate the features found in the eye of a real patient. (MLW)

Miller, David



Dual sensory loss: development of a dual sensory loss protocol and design of a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Dual sensory loss (DSL) has a negative impact on health and wellbeing and its prevalence is expected to increase due to demographic aging. However, specialized care or rehabilitation programs for DSL are scarce. Until now, low vision rehabilitation does not sufficiently target concurrent impairments in vision and hearing. This study aims to 1) develop a DSL protocol (for occupational therapists working in low vision rehabilitation) which focuses on optimal use of the senses and teaches DSL patients and their communication partners to use effective communication strategies, and 2) describe the multicenter parallel randomized controlled trial (RCT) designed to test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the DSL protocol. Methods/design To develop a DSL protocol, literature was reviewed and content was discussed with professionals in eye/ear care (interviews/focus groups) and DSL patients (interviews). A pilot study was conducted to test and confirm the DSL protocol. In addition, a two-armed international multi-center RCT will evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the DSL protocol compared to waiting list controls, in 124 patients in low vision rehabilitation centers in the Netherlands and Belgium. Discussion This study provides a treatment protocol for rehabilitation of DSL within low vision rehabilitation, which aims to be a valuable addition to the general low vision rehabilitation care. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR) identifier: NTR2843 PMID:23941667



Allergy and the eye.  


The eye represents an ideal and frequent site for the allergic reactions. The term 'allergic conjunctivitis' refers to a collection of disorders that affect the lid, conjunctiva and/or cornea. Even though the diagnosis is essentially clinical, local tests such as cytology, conjunctival provocation and tear mediator analysis can be performed. The immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated mechanism does not explain completely the severity and the clinical course of chronic allergic ocular diseases such as vernal (VKC) and atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC), which are probably also related to T cell-mediated responses, massive eosinophil attraction and activation and non-specific hypersensitivity. An altered balance between T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cells and between Th1- and Th2-types of cytokines is thought to be responsible of the development of ocular allergic disorders. New findings suggest that a wide range of cytokines, chemokines, proteases and growth factors are involved by complex interwoven interactions rather than distinct and parallel pathways. In addition, several non-specific enzymatic systems may be activated during acute and chronic allergic inflammation, thus contributing to the complex pathogenesis of the disease. Current drug treatment for ocular allergy targets the key mechanisms involved in the development of clinical disease: mast cells with mast cell stabilizers, histamine with histamine receptor antagonists and inflammation with corticosteroids, severe inflammation with immunomodulators. None of these agents lacks side effects and none abolishes signs and symptoms completely. New therapeutic strategies are still needed to respond to the complex pathogenesis of severe forms of ocular allergy such as VKC and AKC. PMID:18721324

Leonardi, A; Motterle, L; Bortolotti, M



Allergy and the eye  

PubMed Central

The eye represents an ideal and frequent site for the allergic reactions. The term ‘allergic conjunctivitis’ refers to a collection of disorders that affect the lid, conjunctiva and/or cornea. Even though the diagnosis is essentially clinical, local tests such as cytology, conjunctival provocation and tear mediator analysis can be performed. The immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated mechanism does not explain completely the severity and the clinical course of chronic allergic ocular diseases such as vernal (VKC) and atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC), which are probably also related to T cell-mediated responses, massive eosinophil attraction and activation and non-specific hypersensitivity. An altered balance between T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cells and between Th1- and Th2-types of cytokines is thought to be responsible of the development of ocular allergic disorders. New findings suggest that a wide range of cytokines, chemokines, proteases and growth factors are involved by complex interwoven interactions rather than distinct and parallel pathways. In addition, several non-specific enzymatic systems may be activated during acute and chronic allergic inflammation, thus contributing to the complex pathogenesis of the disease. Current drug treatment for ocular allergy targets the key mechanisms involved in the development of clinical disease: mast cells with mast cell stabilizers, histamine with histamine receptor antagonists and inflammation with corticosteroids, severe inflammation with immunomodulators. None of these agents lacks side effects and none abolishes signs and symptoms completely. New therapeutic strategies are still needed to respond to the complex pathogenesis of severe forms of ocular allergy such as VKC and AKC. PMID:18721324

Leonardi, A; Motterle, L; Bortolotti, M



Control of the gain of visual-motor transmission occurs in visual coordinates for smooth pursuit eye movements  

PubMed Central

Sensory inputs control motor behavior with a strength, or gain, that can be modulated according to the movement conditions. In smooth pursuit eye movements, the response to a brief perturbation of target motion is larger during pursuit of a moving target than during fixation of a stationary target. As a step towards identifying the locus and mechanism of gain modulation, we test whether it acts on signals that are in visual or motor coordinates. Monkeys tracked targets that moved at 15 deg/s in one of 8 directions, including left, right, up, down, and the 4 oblique directions. In eight-ninths of the trials, the target underwent a brief perturbation that consisted of a single cycle of a 10 Hz sine wave of amplitude ±5 deg/s in one of the same 8 directions. Even for oblique directions of baseline target motion, the magnitude of the eye velocity response to the perturbation was largest for a perturbation near the axis of target motion and smallest for a perturbation along the orthogonal axis. Computational modeling reveals that our data are reproduced when the strength of visual-motor transmission is modulated in sensory coordinates, and there is a static motor bias that favors horizontal eye movements. A network model shows how the output from the smooth eye movement region of the frontal eye fields (FEFSEM) could implement gain control by shifting the peak of a visual population response along the axes of preferred image speed and direction. PMID:23719810

Lee, Joonyeol; Yang, Jin; Lisberger, Stephen G.



Eects of eye position on estimates of eye displacement for spatial updating  

E-print Network

E¡ects of eye position on estimates of eye displacement for spatial updating Masaki Tanaka cortex represent spatial memory of visual stimuli in an eye-centered coordinate frame. To preserve spatial stability across eye movements, spatial memory must be updated during each eye movement. Because

Crawford, Doug


The small eye phenotype in the EPIC-Norfolk eye study  

E-print Network

The small eye phenotype in the EPIC-Norfolk eye study: prevalence and visual impairment. The small eye phenotype in the EPIC-Norfolk eye study: prevalence and visual impairment in microphthalmos at Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, London, UK 2 Department

Guillas, Serge


Chapter 17 Eye-head Gaze shifts Oxford Handbook on Eye Movements  

E-print Network

1 Chapter 17 Eye-head Gaze shifts Oxford Handbook on Eye Movements "The Neural Basis of Gaze Shifts" 1. Kinematics of eye-head gaze shifts a. Terminology for describing eye-head gaze shifts b. Variability in eye and head motion during gaze shifts c. Gaze shifts in complex environments d. Bottom

Corneil, Brian D.


Data Reduction for Dominating Set  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dealing with the NP-complete Dominating Set problem on graphs, we demonstrate the power of data reduction by preprocessing from a theoretical as well as a practical side. In particular, we prove that Dominating Set restricted to planar graphs has a so-called problem kernel of linear size, achieved by two simple and easy to implement reduction rules. Moreover, having implemented our

Jochen Alber; Michael R. Fellows; Rolf Niedermeier


Dominant Leadership Style in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dominant leadership style is defined by the situation and the kind of organizational environment and climate. This, however, does not sufficiently define the leadership qualities in school organizations. There are other factors which also determine the dominant leadership style, which are the traits and style, teachers commitments, pass out…

Rajbhandari, Mani Man Singh



Serotonin reverses dominant social status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social stress from aggressive interaction is expressed differently in specific brain regions of dominant and subordinate male Anolis carolinensis. Prior to aggressive behavior, the outcome is predictable via the celerity of postorbital coloration: Dominant males exhibit more rapid eyespot darkening. Serotonergic activation is manifest rapidly (1 h) in hippocampus, nucleus accumbens and brainstem of subordinate males, and is expressed more

Earl T. Larson; Cliff H. Summers



Fluctuating Asymmetries, Competition and Dominance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in the primary feathers of European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, have been shown to be sensitive to nutritional and energetic stress. Furthermore, between-individual variation in plumage FA has been found to be related to social dominance, even without social interactions during feather growth, with dominant birds exhibiting the highest levels of FA. Here we examine whether

Mark S. Witter; John P. Swaddle



Optical coherence tomography of the eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a new technique for high-resolution, cross-sectional imaging of tissue in which the time-of-flight delay of light reflected from internal tissue structures is resolved with high precision using interferometry. Tomographic images are obtained which are analogous to those provided by ultrasound except that image contrast relies on differences in optical rather than acoustic properties of tissue. The use of light rather than sound enables higher resolution (10 ?m) and non-contact imaging. A clinically viable high-sensitivity, fiber-optic based OCT instrument has been constructed based on engineering principles derived from optical communication theory. Computer algorithms have also been developed for quantitative image analysis and restoration. OCT has been used to image patients with a variety of ocular diseases. In patients with macular pathology, OCT images have been correlated with conventional clinical examination and fluorescein angiography. Optical coherence tomograms are effective in staging macular holes, evaluating the vitreoretinal interface in eyes at risk for a macular hole, and providing a structural assessment of macular hole surgery. In eyes with central serous chorioretinopathy, OCT can evaluate sensory retinal separations undetected at the slit-lamp. Serial OCT images of macular edema are able to track both the progression of macular thickening and the resolution of macular edema following laser photocoagulation. In patients with diabetic retinopathy, measurements of macular thickness correlate with visual acuity and OCT is more sensitive to small changes in retinal thickness than slit-lamp biomicroscopy. OCT may provide a novel method of defining occult choroidal neovascular membranes in patients with age-related macular degeneration. OCT can also profile the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer with high resolution which is potentially important for the objective assessment of early glaucoma progression. OCT images have been correlated with visual field performance and optic nerve appearance in a cross- section of patients with various stages of glaucoma. These studies suggest that OCT has the potential to become an important diagnostic tool for the practicing ophthalmologist. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)

Hee, Michael Richard



Calibration of an eye oximeter with a dynamic eye phantom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of oxygen saturation and flow in the retina can yield information about the eye health and the onset of eye pathologies such as Diabetic Retinopathy. Recently we have realized an instrument capable of measuring oxygenation in the retina using six different wavelengths and capable of measuring blood flow using speckle-based techniques. The calibration of such instrument is particularly difficult due to the layered structure of the eye and the lack of alternative measurement techniques. For this purpose we have realized an in vitro model of the human eye. The artificial eye is composed of four layers: the retina vessels, the choroids, the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), and the sclera. The retina vessels are modeled with 150 ?m tube connected to a micro-pump delivering 34 ?l/min. The micro-tube, the pump, and a blood reservoir were connected in a closed circulatory system; blood oxygenation in the vessel could be modified using an external oxygen reservoir. The optical properties of all other layers were mimicked using titanium dioxide as a scatterer and ink as an absorber. The absorption coefficient ?a and the scattering coefficient µs of these layers were independently measured using an integrating sphere. Absorption and scattering coefficient of all layers were modified before experimental measurements and a Monte Carlo program was finally used to model the experimental results.

Nabili, A.; Bardakci, D.; Helling, K.; Matyas, C.; Muro, S.; Ramella-Roman, J. C.



Smell and other sensory disturbances in migraine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osmophobia or hyperosmia featured in 25 of 50 migraineurs during the headache phase of their attacks. Pleasant or unpleasant odours could precipitate migraines in 11 patients in this series. Other sensory disturbances and precipitants were also studied. Neurological precipitation of attacks provides further support for a primary neural rather than a vascular pathogenesis of migraine.

J. N. Blau; F. Solomon



Characterising reward outcome signals in sensory cortex?  

PubMed Central

Reward outcome signalling in the sensory cortex is held as important for linking stimuli to their consequences and for modulating perceptual learning in response to incentives. Evidence for reward outcome signalling has been found in sensory regions including the visual, auditory and somatosensory cortices across a range of different paradigms, but it is unknown whether the population of neurons signalling rewarding outcomes are the same as those processing predictive stimuli. We addressed this question using a multivariate analysis of high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in a task where subjects were engaged in instrumental learning with visual predictive cues and auditory signalled reward feedback. We found evidence that outcome signals in sensory regions localise to the same areas involved in stimulus processing. These outcome signals are non-specific and we show that the neuronal populations involved in stimulus representation are not their exclusive target, in keeping with theoretical models of value learning. Thus, our results reveal one likely mechanism through which rewarding outcomes are linked to predictive sensory stimuli, a link that may be key for both reward and perceptual learning. PMID:23811411

FitzGerald, Thomas H.B.; Friston, Karl J.; Dolan, Raymond J.



Sensory abnormalities in autism. A brief report.  


Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents were interviewed systematically about any abnormal sensory reactions in the child. In the whole group, pain and hearing were the most commonly affected modalities. Children in the most typical autism subgroup (nuclear autism with no learning disability) had the highest number of affected modalities. The children who were classified in an "autistic features" subgroup had the lowest number of affected modalities. There were no group differences in number of affected sensory modalities between groups of different cognitive levels or level of expressive speech. The findings provide support for the notion that sensory abnormality is very common in young children with autism. This symptom has been proposed for inclusion among the diagnostic criteria for ASD in the upcoming DSM-V. PMID:21111574

Klintwall, Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Höglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth



Sensory interaction and descriptions of fabric hand.  


82 subjects who viewed and felt fabrics (sensory interaction group) used different categories of terms to describe fabric hand than did 38 subjects who only felt the fabrics. Therefore, the methods used to measure fabric hand that isolate the senses may not accurately assess the way in which subjects describe fabric hand in nonlaboratory settings. PMID:8532445

Burns, L D; Chandler, J; Brown, D M; Cameron, B; Dallas, M J




E-print Network

is as follows: 1. bet on what is the task fulfilled by the particular sensory system under consideration; 2, is what has been called the ''infomax principle'' by R. Linsker (1988): one ask for a neural network which of neurons, synaptic resources) limit the amount of information that can be conveyed by the network

Parga, Néstor


A physical basis for sensory perception  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is argued that the process of perception takes origin within physics itself. A simple, physical model of a biological sensory receptor unit, a unit which mediates perception at its most elemental level, is developed. This model will be not just a detector of sensory signals (like a light meter or sound level meter), but will transduce these signals to the level of consciousness. The properties of this physical model of the sensory receptor unit are drawn from classical physics. Because of its simplicity, the receptor model allows for perception of only discrete quantities of incident signal energy. My primary goal in presenting this reduced model of perception is to teach concepts without the need for detailed anatomy or physiology. Using the simple mathematical properties of the receptor model, we are able to derive a number of the empirical equations of sensory science. Since the idea has been advanced that the process of perception, at a fundamental level, belongs to physics whose validity is universal, it is suggested that the “laws” of perception of the world manifested by organisms anywhere within the universe will be similar to the laws we observe here on earth.

Norwich, Kenneth H.



Improving Maladaptive Behaviors Using Sensory Integration Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the use of sensory integration techniques to reduce the maladaptive behaviors that interfered with the learning of nine high school students with mental impairments attending a special school. Maladaptive behaviors identified included rocking, toe walking, echolalia, resistance to change, compulsive behaviors, aggression,…

Shuman, Theresa


Sensory perception for an agricultural robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis develops the sensory systems for an intelligent agricultural robot to selectively harvest ripe fruit, and a mathematical model for multi-sensor fusion that is used to quantitatively define fruit ripeness. The robot uses a structured light range scanner to detect fruits based on their three-dimensional shape and determines fruit ripeness by electronically sensing natural aromatic and nonaromatic gases emitted

Meny Benady



Enhancing the Sensory Integration of Aphasic Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated was the effect on the sensory integration of 24 aphasic students, of a 7-month sensorimotor program-designed to stimulate the tactile, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems; motor planning ability; bilateral integration; postural and equilibrium responses; visual form and space perception; and motor development. ( DLS)

DePauw, Karen Pamelia



Sensory acuity and reasoning in delusional disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systematic research on delusional disorder (DD) is limited. The goal of this study was to assess DD patients in the following areas: sensory capacities, decision-making style, and complex reasoning. Ten DD patients and 10 matched normal controls completed the following (1) smell, taste, and vision testing; (2) a probabilistic inference test in which subjects made probability decisions; and (3) a

Charles R. Conway; Anna M. Bollini; Brevick G. Graham; Richard S. E. Keefe; Susan S. Schiffman; Joseph P. McEvoy



Autism and My Sensory Based World  

E-print Network

Autism and My Sensory Based World Temple Grandin #12;· A good teacher is gently insistent · Early disorders (co-morbid) Autism spectrum Dyslexia Learning problems ADHD Asperger Head injury Oppositional Takes longer to shift back and forth between two different things #12;Ami Klin Viewer with Autism (Red

Stephens, Graeme L.


Schizophrenia, Sensory Gating, and Nicotinic Receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of human and animal investigations has sug- gested that altered expression and function of the a7- nicotinic cholinergic receptor may be responsible for the auditory sensory gating deficit characterized in schizophrenia patients and their relatives as diminished suppression of an auditory-evoked response (P50) to repeated stimuli. This finding, in conjunction with evi- dence for familial transmission of this

Lawrence E. Adler; Ann Olincy; Merilyne Waldo; Josette Q. Harris; Jay Qriffith; Karen Stevens; Karen Flach; Herbert Nagamoto; Paula Bickford; Sherry Leonard; Robert Freedman


Original Paper Sensory ecology of predatorprey interactions  

E-print Network

Original Paper Sensory ecology of predator­prey interactions: responses of the AN2 interneuron in the field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus to the echolocation calls of sympatric bats James H. Fullard the responses of the AN2 interneuron in the Pacific field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus, a cell implicated

Fullard, James H.


Child's Play: A Sensory-Integrative Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an attempt to demonstrate the direct relationship of physical play to sensory integration, this descriptive study measured fine and gross motor activities, and the repetition and duration of preferred activities among 179 children between 2 and 8 years of age who participated in 3 early childhood programs in California. Data were collected by…

Hartman, Jeanette Allison


Error Correction, Sensory Prediction, and Adaptation  

E-print Network

to the next. The sensors that record motion of a robot do so with far more precision than one finds in the response of our proprioceptive neurons. The transmission lines that connect a robot's motors and sensors to the controller move informa- tion at the speed of light, and the controller can process sensory information

Smith, Maurice


Sensory nerves in lung and airways.  


Sensory nerves innervating the lung and airways play an important role in regulating various cardiopulmonary functions and maintaining homeostasis under both healthy and disease conditions. Their activities conducted by both vagal and sympathetic afferents are also responsible for eliciting important defense reflexes that protect the lung and body from potential health-hazardous effects of airborne particulates and chemical irritants. This article reviews the morphology, transduction properties, reflex functions, and respiratory sensations of these receptors, focusing primarily on recent findings derived from using new technologies such as neural immunochemistry, isolated airway-nerve preparation, cultured airway neurons, patch-clamp electrophysiology, transgenic mice, and other cellular and molecular approaches. Studies of the signal transduction of mechanosensitive afferents have revealed a new concept of sensory unit and cellular mechanism of activation, and identified additional types of sensory receptors in the lung. Chemosensitive properties of these lung afferents are further characterized by the expression of specific ligand-gated ion channels on nerve terminals, ganglion origin, and responses to the action of various inflammatory cells, mediators, and cytokines during acute and chronic airway inflammation and injuries. Increasing interest and extensive investigations have been focused on uncovering the mechanisms underlying hypersensitivity of these airway afferents, and their role in the manifestation of various symptoms under pathophysiological conditions. Several important and challenging questions regarding these sensory nerves are discussed. Searching for these answers will be a critical step in developing the translational research and effective treatments of airway diseases. PMID:24692141

Lee, Lu-Yuan; Yu, Jerry



Reciprocal actions between sensory signals and sleep.  


To the best of our knowledge, there is no simple way to induce neural networks to shift from waking mode into sleeping mode. Our best guess is that a whole group of neurons would be involved and that the process would develop in a period of time and a sequence which are mostly unknown. The quasi-total sensory deprivation elicits a new behavioral state called somnolence. Auditory stimulation as well as total auditory deprivation alter sleep architecture. Auditory units exhibiting firing shifts on passing to sleep (augmenting or diminishing) are postulated to be locked to sleep-related networks. Those ( approximately 50%) that did not change during sleep are postulated to continue informing the brain as in wakefulness. A rhythmic functional plasticity of involved networks is postulated. A number of auditory and visual cells have demonstrated a firing phase locking to the hippocampal theta rhythm. This phase locking occurs both during wakefulness and sleep phases. The theta rhythm may act as an organizer of sensory information in visual and auditory systems, in all behavioral states adding a temporal dimension to the sensory processing. Sensory information from the environment and body continuously modulates the central nervous system activity, over which sleep phenomenology must develop. It also produces a basal tonus during wakefulness and sleep, determining changes in the networks that contribute to sleep development and maintenance and, eventually, it also leads to sleep interruption. PMID:11025336

Velluti, R A; Peña, J L; Pedemonte, M



Peripapillary Retinoschisis in Glaucomatous Eyes  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the structural and clinical characteristics of peripapillary retinoschisis observed in glaucomatous eyes using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods Circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) and macular cross-hair SD-OCT scans and infrared fundus images of the glaucoma patients from the Investigating Glaucoma Progression Study (IGPS) and healthy volunteers were reviewed. Optic disc images obtained using enhanced depth imaging (EDI) SD-OCT were also evaluated. The structural characteristics and clinical course of the retinoschisis associated with glaucoma were investigated. Results Twenty-five retinoschisis areas were found in 22 of the 372 patients (5.9%) included in the IGPS, and in 1 area in 1 of 187 healthy control subjects (0.5%). In the 22 glaucomatous eyes with retinoschisis, the schisis was attached to the optic disc and overlapped with the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defect. The RNFL was the layer most commonly affected by the retinoschisis, either alone or together with other deeper layers. Acquired optic disc pit was identified in 8 eyes on disc photography and/or B-scan images obtained by EDI SD-OCT. Spontaneous resolution of this condition was observed in nine eyes. No retinal detachment or macular involvement of the retinoschisis was observed in any of the eyes. Multivariate analysis showed a significant influence of a higher intraocular pressure at SD-OCT scanning on the presence of retinoschisis (Odds ratio ?=?1.418, P?=?0.001). Conclusions The present study investigated 22 cases of peripapillary retinoschisis in glaucomatous eyes. The retinoschisis was attached to the optic nerve and topographically correlated with RNFL defect. It often resolved spontaneously without causing severe visual disturbance. Care should be taken not to overestimate the RNFL thickness in eyes with retinoschisis, and also not to misinterpret the resolution of retinoschisis as a rapid glaucomatous RNFL deterioration. PMID:24587238

Lee, Eun Ji; Kim, Tae-Woo; Kim, Mijin; Choi, Yun Jeong



Receptors for sensory neuropeptides in human inflammatory diseases: Implications for the effector role of sensory neurons  

SciTech Connect

Glutamate and several neuropeptides are synthesized and released by subpopulations of primary afferent neurons. These sensory neurons play a role in regulating the inflammatory and immune responses in peripheral tissues. Using quantitative receptor autoradiography we have explored what changes occur in the location and concentration of receptor binding sites for sensory neurotransmitters in the colon in two human inflammatory diseases, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The sensory neurotransmitter receptors examined included bombesin, calcitonin gene related peptide-alpha, cholecystokinin, galanin, glutamate, somatostatin, neurokinin A (substance K), substance P, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. Of the nine receptor binding sites examined only substance P binding sites associated with arterioles, venules and lymph nodules were dramatically up-regulated in the inflamed tissue. These data suggest that substance P is involved in regulating the inflammatory and immune responses in human inflammatory diseases and indicate a specificity of efferent action for each sensory neurotransmitter in peripheral tissues.

Mantyh, P.W.; Catton, M.D.; Boehmer, C.G.; Welton, M.L.; Passaro, E.P. Jr.; Maggio, J.E.; Vigna, S.R. (VA Medical Center-Wadsworth, Los Angeles, CA (USA))



Dorsal eye selector pannier (pnr) suppresses the eye fate to define dorsal margin of the Drosophila eye  

PubMed Central

Axial patterning is crucial for organogenesis. During Drosophila eye development, dorso-ventral (DV) axis determination is the first lineage restriction event. The eye primordium begins with a default ventral fate, on which the dorsal eye fate is established by expression of the GATA-1 transcription factor pannier (pnr). Earlier, it was suggested that loss of pnr function induces enlargement in the dorsal eye due to ectopic equator formation. Interestingly, we found that in addition to regulating DV patterning, pnr suppresses the eye fate by downregulating the core retinal determination genes eyes absent (eya), sine oculis (so) and dacshund (dac) to define the dorsal eye margin. We found that pnr acts downstream of Ey and affect the retinal determination pathway by suppressing eya. Further analysis of the “eye suppression” function of pnr revealed that this function is likely mediated through suppression of the homeotic gene teashirt (tsh) and is independent of homothorax (hth), a negative regulator of eye. Pnr expression is restricted to the peripodial membrane on the dorsal eye margin, which gives rise to head structures around the eye, and pnr is not expressed in the eye disc proper that forms the retina. Thus, pnr has dual function, during early developmental stages pnr is involved in axial patterning whereas later it promotes the head specific fate. These studies will help in understanding the developmental regulation of boundary formation of the eye field on the dorsal eye margin. PMID:20691679

Oros, Sarah M.; Tare, Meghana; Kango-Singh, Madhuri; Singh, Amit



Human eye anisoplanatism: eye as a lamellar structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we consider anisoplanatism effect as a fundamental limitation on the size of high resolution area (isoplanatic patch) of retinal images obtained using fundus cameras equipped with adaptive optics. Isoplanatic patch size was estimated using experimental results for on-axis and off-axis eye aberrations measured by Shack-Hartmann technique. Isoplanatic patch size varied among examined subjects in the range from 1.5 ° to 2.5 ° which is in good agreement with results obtained using ray-tracing technique1. We estimated isoplanatic patch size for Gullstrand eye model and found it to be close to the values obtained from experimental results for subjects with good vision. We also discuss the possibilities of Gullstrand eye model modifications for modeling anisoplanatism effect for each particular subject. We also estimated the efficiency of multibeacon correction method and found out that this method allows us to almost twice increase the area with high resolution.

Dubinin, Alexander; Cherezova, Tatyana; Belyakov, Alexey; Kudryashov, Alexis



Sensory Detection and Responses to Toxic Gases  

PubMed Central

The inhalation of reactive gases and vapors can lead to severe damage of the airways and lung, compromising the function of the respiratory system. Exposures to oxidizing, electrophilic, acidic, or basic gases frequently occur in occupational and ambient environments. Corrosive gases and vapors such as chlorine, phosgene, and chloropicrin were used as warfare agents and in terrorist acts. Chemical airway exposures are detected by the olfactory, gustatory, and nociceptive sensory systems that initiate protective physiological and behavioral responses. This review focuses on the role of airway nociceptive sensory neurons in chemical sensing and discusses the recent discovery of neuronal receptors for reactive chemicals. Using physiological, imaging, and genetic approaches, Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) ion channels in sensory neurons were shown to respond to a wide range of noxious chemical stimuli, initiating pain, respiratory depression, cough, glandular secretions, and other protective responses. TRPA1, a TRP ion channel expressed in chemosensory C-fibers, is activated by almost all oxidizing and electrophilic chemicals, including chlorine, acrolein, tear gas agents, and methyl isocyanate, the highly noxious chemical released in the Bhopal disaster. Chemicals likely activate TRPA1 through covalent protein modification. Animal studies using TRPA1 antagonists or TRPA1-deficient mice confirmed the role of TRPA1 in chemically induced respiratory reflexes, pain, and inflammation in vivo. New research shows that sensory neurons are not merely passive sensors of chemical exposures. Sensory channels such as TRPA1 are essential for maintenance of airway inflammation in asthma and may contribute to the progression of airway injury following high-level chemical exposures. PMID:20601631

Bessac, Bret F.; Jordt, Sven-Eric



Sensory Feedback Control of Mammalian Vocalizations  

PubMed Central

Somatosensory and auditory feedback mechanisms are dynamic components of the vocal motor pattern generator in mammals. This review explores how sensory cues arising from central auditory and somatosensory pathways actively guide the production of both simple sounds and complex phrases in mammals. While human speech is a uniquely sophisticated example of mammalian vocal behavior, other mammals can serve as examples of how sensory feedback guides complex vocal patterns. Echolocating bats in particular are unique in their absolute dependence on voice control for survival: these animals must constantly adjust the acoustic and temporal patterns of their orientation sounds to efficiently navigate and forage for insects at high speeds under the cover of darkness. Many species of bats also utter a broad repertoire of communication sounds. The functional neuroanatomy of the bat vocal motor pathway is basically identical to other mammals, but the acute significance of sensory feedback in echolocation has made this a profitable model system for studying general principles of sensorimotor integration with regard to vocalizing. Bats and humans are similar in that they both maintain precise control of many different voice parameters, both exhibit a similar suite of responses to altered auditory feedback, and for both the efficacy of sensory feedback depends upon behavioral context. By comparing similarities and differences in the ways sensory feedback influences voice in humans and bats, we may shed light on the basic architecture of the mammalian vocal motor system and perhaps be able to better distinguish those features of human vocal control that evolved uniquely in support of speech and language. PMID:17449116

Smotherman, Michael S.



Sensory testing of the human gastrointestinal tract  

PubMed Central

The objective of this appraisal is to shed light on the various approaches to screen sensory information in the human gut. Understanding and characterization of sensory symptoms in gastrointestinal disorders is poor. Experimental methods allowing the investigator to control stimulus intensity and modality, as well as using validated methods for assessing sensory response have contributed to the understanding of pain mechanisms. Mechanical stimulation based on impedance planimetry allows direct recordings of luminal cross-sectional areas, and combined with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, the contribution of different gut layers can be estimated. Electrical stimulation depolarizes free nerve endings non-selectively. Consequently, the stimulation paradigm (single, train, tetanic) influences the involved sensory nerves. Visual controlled electrical stimulation combines the probes with an endoscopic approach, which allows the investigator to inspect and obtain small biopsies from the stimulation site. Thermal stimulation (cold or warm) activates selectively mucosal receptors, and chemical substances such as acid and capsaicin (either alone or in combination) are used to evoke pain and sensitization. The possibility of multimodal (e.g. mechanical, electrical, thermal and chemical) stimulation in different gut segments has developed visceral pain research. The major advantage is involvement of distinctive receptors, various sensory nerves and different pain pathways mimicking clinical pain that favors investigation of central pain mechanisms involved in allodynia, hyperalgesia and referred pain. As impairment of descending control mechanisms partly underlies the pathogenesis in chronic pain, a cold pressor test that indirectly stimulates such control mechanisms can be added. Hence, the methods undoubtedly represent a major step forward in the future characterization and treatment of patients with various diseases of the gut, which provides knowledge to clinicians about the underlying symptoms and treatment of these patients. PMID:19132764

Brock, Christina; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Wilder-Smith, Oliver; Drewes, Asbj?rn Mohr



Parent and Teacher Report: Comparing Results from the Sensory Profile and the Sensory Profile School Companion  

E-print Network

processing. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 55, 75?82. Cohen, I. L., Schmidt-Lackner, S., Romanczyk, R., & Sudhalter, V. (2003). The PDD Behavior Inventory: A rating scale for assessing response to intervention in children with pervasive... PARENT AND TEACHER REPORT: COMPARING RESULTS FROM THE SENSORY PROFILE AND SENSORY PROFILE SCHOOL COMPANION BY Copyright 2008 Jessica Saiter Clark Submitted to the graduate degree program in Occupational Therapy and the Graduate...

Clark, Jessica Saiter



Reduced intraepidermal nerve fiber density in HIV-associated sensory  

E-print Network

diagnostic tool in idiopathic small-fiber sensory neuropathy3,4 and diabetic neuropathy,5 but has not yetReduced intraepidermal nerve fiber density in HIV-associated sensory neuropathy M. Polydefkis, MD nerve fiber (IENF) density in HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) to measurements of neuropathy

Steinbach, Joe Henry


Influence of sensory input on plantar pressure distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensory feedback control system plays a central role in human locomotion. However, few studies have been published discussing the influence of sensory input at the plantar surface of the foot on the kinematics and kinetics of locomotion. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of changes in sensory input at the plantar surface of the foot

H Chen; BM Nigg; M Hulliger; J de Koning



Cortical network reorganization guided by sensory input features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory experience alters the functional orga- nization of cortical networks. Previous studies using behavioral training motivated by aversive or rewarding stimuli have demonstrated that cortical plasticity is specific to salient inputs in the sensory environment. Sensory experience associated with electrical activation of the basal forebrain (BasF) generates similar input specific plasticity. By directly engaging plasticity mechanisms and avoiding extensive behavioral

Michael P. Kilgard; Pritesh K. Pandya; Navzer D. Engineer; Raluca Moucha



Sensory Integration and Its Effects on Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides an overview of the literature on sensory integration in young children. First it explains the importance of "sensory integration" in child development and normal functioning. It goes on to note signs of a sensory integration dysfunction (such as hyper-or hypo-sensitivity to touch, poor coordination, and poor behavioral…

Ramirez, Judy


Reported Sensory Processing of Children with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigators have identified delays and differences in cognitive, language, motor, and sensory development in children with Down syndrome (DS). The purpose of this study was to determine the parent-reported frequency of sensory processing issues in children with DS aged 3-10 years, and the parent-reported functional impact of those sensory

Bruni, Maryanne; Cameron, Debra; Dua, Shelly; Noy, Sarah



Sensory deprivation and the enhancement of hypnotic susceptibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated the effect of sensory deprivation upon hypnotic susceptibility. 10 volunteer college-age females initially resistant to hypnosis were placed in a light- and sound-attenuated sensory deprivation cubicle for a maximum of 6 hr. or until sensory deprivation phenomena were elicited. A hypnotic induction was undertaken via a communication system, while S remained in the deprivation cubicle, at a point when

Joseph Reyher



Formalization of Fashion Sensory Data Based on Fuzzy Set Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory Engineering (SE) was applied in fashion industry for market exploring, consumer behavior evaluation and personalized product designing. The consumer perceptions on products were investigated and analyzed. The fashion sensory data were established for style, color, image according to the results of investigation and analysis. The expert systems based on fuzzy set theory was developed to describe the sensory on

Li-chuan Wang; Yan Chen; Ying Wang



Testosterone and dominance in men.  


In men, high levels of endogenous testosterone (T) seem to encourage behavior intended to dominate--to enhance one's status over--other people. Sometimes dominant behavior is aggressive, its apparent intent being to inflict harm on another person, but often dominance is expressed nonaggressively. Sometimes dominant behavior takes the form of antisocial behavior, including rebellion against authority and low breaking. Measurement of T at a single point in time, presumably indicative of a man's basal T level, predicts many of these dominant or antisocial behaviors. T not only affects behavior but also responds to it. The act of competing for dominant status affects male T levels in two ways. First, T rises in the face of a challenge, as if it were an anticipatory response to impending competition. Second, after the competition, T rises in winners and declines in losers. Thus, there is a reciprocity between T and dominance behavior, each affecting the other. We contrast a reciprocal model, in which T level is variable, acting as both a cause and effect of behavior, with a basal model, in which T level is assumed to be a persistent trait that influences behavior. An unusual data set on Air Force veterans, in which data were collected four times over a decade, enables us to compare the basal and reciprocal models as explanations for the relationship between T and divorce. We discuss sociological implications of these models. PMID:10097017

Mazur, A; Booth, A



Combining Cep290 and Mkks ciliopathy alleles in mice rescues sensory defects and restores ciliogenesis  

PubMed Central

Cilia are highly specialized microtubule-based organelles that have pivotal roles in numerous biological processes, including transducing sensory signals. Defects in cilia biogenesis and transport cause pleiotropic human ciliopathies. Mutations in over 30 different genes can lead to cilia defects, and complex interactions exist among ciliopathy-associated proteins. Mutations of the centrosomal protein 290 kDa (CEP290) lead to distinct clinical manifestations, including Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), a hereditary cause of blindness due to photoreceptor degeneration. Mice homozygous for a mutant Cep290 allele (Cep290rd16 mice) exhibit LCA-like early-onset retinal degeneration that is caused by an in-frame deletion in the CEP290 protein. Here, we show that the domain deleted in the protein encoded by the Cep290rd16 allele directly interacts with another ciliopathy protein, MKKS. MKKS mutations identified in patients with the ciliopathy Bardet-Biedl syndrome disrupted this interaction. In zebrafish embryos, combined subminimal knockdown of mkks and cep290 produced sensory defects in the eye and inner ear. Intriguingly, combinations of Cep290rd16 and Mkksko alleles in mice led to improved ciliogenesis and sensory functions compared with those of either mutant alone. We propose that altered association of CEP290 and MKKS affects the integrity of multiprotein complexes at the cilia transition zone and basal body. Amelioration of the sensory phenotypes caused by specific mutations in one protein by removal of an interacting domain/protein suggests a possible novel approach for treating human ciliopathies. PMID:22446187

Rachel, Rivka A.; May-Simera, Helen L.; Veleri, Shobi; Gotoh, Norimoto; Choi, Byung Yoon; Murga-Zamalloa, Carlos; McIntyre, Jeremy C.; Marek, Jonah; Lopez, Irma; Hackett, Alice N.; Brooks, Matthew; den Hollander, Anneke I.; Beales, Philip L.; Li, Tiansen; Jacobson, Samuel G.; Sood, Raman; Martens, Jeffrey R.; Liu, Paul; Friedman, Thomas B.; Khanna, Hemant; Koenekoop, Robert K.; Kelley, Matthew W.; Swaroop, Anand



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Best practice eye care models  

PubMed Central

Since the launching of Global Initiative, VISION 2020 “the Right to Sight” many innovative, practical and unique comprehensive eye care services provision models have evolved targeting the underserved populations in different parts of the World. At places the rapid assessment of the burden of eye diseases in confined areas or utilizing the key informants for identification of eye diseases in the communities are promoted for better planning and evidence based advocacy for getting / allocation of resources for eye care. Similarly for detection and management of diabetes related blindness, retinopathy of prematurity and avoidable blindness at primary level, the major obstacles are confronted in reaching to them in a cost effective manner and then management of the identified patients accordingly. In this regard, the concept of tele-ophthalmology model sounds to be the best solution. Whereas other models on comprehensive eye care services provision have been emphasizing on surgical output through innovative scales of economy that generate income for the program and ensure its sustainability, while guaranteeing treatment of the poorest of the poor. PMID:22944741

Qureshi, Babar M; Mansur, Rabiu; Al-Rajhi, Abdulaziz; Lansingh, Van; Eckert, Kristen; Hassan, Kunle; Ravilla, Thulasiraj; Muhit, Mohammad; Khanna, Rohit C; Ismat, Chaudhry



Dominant Color Extraction based on Dynamic Clustering by Multi-Dimensional Particle Swarm Optimization  

E-print Network

of color patterns. One observation worth mentioning here is that the human eye cannot perceive a largeDominant Color Extraction based on Dynamic Clustering by Multi-Dimensional Particle Swarm University of Technology, Tampere, Finland {serkan.kiranyaz, stefan.uhlmann, moncef.gabbouj} Abstract--Color

Gabbouj, Moncef


The Critical Period for Ocular Dominance Plasticity in the Ferret's Visual Cortex  

E-print Network

The Critical Period for Ocular Dominance Plasticity in the Ferret's Visual Cortex Naoum P. Issa-0444 Microelectrode recordings and optical imaging of intrinsic sig- nals were used to define the critical period of the critical period. MDs ending before P32 produced little or no loss of response to the deprived eye. MDs of 7

Issa, Naoum


Dietary Sources of Lutein and Zeaxanthin Carotenoids and Their Role in Eye Health  

PubMed Central

The eye is a major sensory organ that requires special care for a healthy and productive lifestyle. Numerous studies have identified lutein and zeaxanthin to be essential components for eye health. Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoid pigments that impart yellow or orange color to various common foods such as cantaloupe, pasta, corn, carrots, orange/yellow peppers, fish, salmon and eggs. Their role in human health, in particular the health of the eye, is well established from epidemiological, clinical and interventional studies. They constitute the main pigments found in the yellow spot of the human retina which protect the macula from damage by blue light, improve visual acuity and scavenge harmful reactive oxygen species. They have also been linked with reduced risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cataracts. Research over the past decade has focused on the development of carotenoid-rich foods to boost their intake especially in the elderly population. The aim of this article is to review recent scientific evidences supporting the benefits of lutein and zexanthin in preventing the onset of two major age-related eye diseases with diets rich in these carotenoids. The review also lists major dietary sources of lutein and zeaxanthin and refers to newly developed foods, daily intake, bioavailability and physiological effects in relation to eye health. Examples of the newly developed high-lutein functional foods are also underlined. PMID:23571649

Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M.; Akhtar, Humayoun; Zaheer, Khalid; Ali, Rashida



Capsaicin pretreatment prevents disruption of the blood-aqueous barrier in the rabbit eye  

SciTech Connect

Capsaicin, the irritating agent of red pepper, produces ocular inflammation through a neurogenic mechanism. The present study is concerned with the long-term effects of capsaicin pretreatment on the capacity of the eye to respond to different inflammatory stimuli. Following retrobulbar injection of capsaicin to rabbits the aqueous flare response induced by subsequent infrared irradiation (IR) of the iris, subcutaneously administered alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and exogenously administered prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was reduced greatly. In the case of IR and alpha-MSH the reduced responsiveness was manifest for several weeks after capsaicin pretreatment, involving first the capsaicin-treated eye, but later also the contralateral control eye. After 2-3 months the aqueous flare response was normal in both eyes. In the case of PGE2 the responsiveness was reduced for a shorter time; after 3 weeks the response was normal in both eyes. The results indicate that all three stimuli tested are at least partly dependent upon an intact sensory innervation to disrupt the blood-aqueous barrier, but that the mechanism of action of PGE2 is different from that of IR and alpha-MSH.

Bynke, G.



Summary of current research interests Over the years we have found many novel genes causing eye disease.  

E-print Network

of autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive loci through pedigree analysis, positional cloning of novel eye) for autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP): In close collaboration with Dr Guillermo Antinolo (PRPF31) cloned for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa Research Projects 1. Mapping and cloning

Saunders, Mark


National Survey of Sensory Features in Children with ASD: Factor Structure of the Sensory Experience Questionnaire (3.0)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This national online survey study characterized sensory features in 1,307 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ages 2-12 years using the Sensory Experiences Questionnaire Version 3.0 (SEQ-3.0). Using the SEQ-3.0, a confirmatory factor analytic model with four substantive factors of hypothesized sensory response patterns (i.e.,…

Ausderau, Karla; Sideris, John; Furlong, Melissa; Little, Lauren M.; Bulluck, John; Baranek, Grace T.



Moving Ahead With Eye Power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory's collaborated with LC Technologies, Inc., to improve LCT's Eyegaze Communication System, an eye tracker that enables people with severe cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, strokes, brain injuries, spinal cord injuries, and ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) to communicate and control their environment using their eye movements. To operate the system, the user sits in front of the computer monitor while the camera focuses on one eye. By looking at control keys on the monitor for a fraction of a second, the user can 'talk' with speech synthesis, type, operate a telephone, access the Internet and e-mail, and run computer software. Nothing is attached to the user's head or body, and the improved size and portability allow the system to be mounted on a wheelchair. LCT and JPL are working on several other areas of improvement that have commercial add-on potential.



Dominance, Pleiotropy and Metabolic Structure  

PubMed Central

It is a common observation that most mutants have similar dominance relations for all the characters they are known to affect. As a model of pleiotropic effects we investigate a branched pathway where the two outputs represent two characters whose variation is affected by changes in any of the genetically specified enzymes in the system. We consider the effects on the phenotype (fluxes or intermediate metabolites) of substitutions at one locus represented by enzyme activities of the two homozygotes (mutant and wild type) and that of the heterozygote. Dominance indices for the characters pleiotropically connected by the metabolic system are calculated. We show that if enzymes behave `linearly,' (first order), that is if saturation and feedback inhibition or other nonlinearities are absent, all fluxes and pools have identical dominance relations. The presence of such nonlinearity, however, leads to differences in dominance between different characters and we define the conditions where such differences can be important. PMID:3666444

Keightley, Peter D.; Kacser, Henrik



Predicting Cyanobacteria dominance in lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: A controversial precept of aquatic ecology,asserts that low ratios of nitrogen to phosphorus,(N:P) lead to noxious and sometimes,toxic blooms,of Cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria dominance,is a major risk to human,and ecosys- tem health. The stoichiometric control of Cyanobacteria therefore has become,central to freshwater resource manage- ment. This controversial concept is based on observed,Cyanobacteria dominance,in lakes with low N:P and the results of

John A. Downing; Susan B. Watson; Edward McCauley



Hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1 in a Portuguese family-electrodiagnostic and autonomic nervous system studies.  


Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1 (HSAN 1) is a dominantly inherited disorder; its gene locus is mapped on chromosome 9q22. Three different missense mutations (C133Y, C133W and V144D) have been described in 11 families from Australia, England and Austria. Common clinical features have been found in these families. We report the clinical and electrophysiological features of three members of a large Portuguese family with HSAN 1 and the C133Y missense mutation. The affected members showed typical clinical features. Electrophysiological findings were consistent with a distal axonal predominantly sensory neuropathy with motor involvement, in three different severity stages. No autonomic involvement was detected in sudomotor and cardiovascular tests. This report documents the lesion of the motor nerve fibers in this disease, as well as the preservation of the autonomic nervous system function, therefore suggesting that HSNA is an inappropriate name for this disorder. PMID:15546589

Geraldes, Ruth; de Carvalho, Mamede; Santos-Bento, Mariana; Nicholson, Garth



Influence of social dominance on production, welfare and the quality of meat from beef bulls.  


The aim of this study was to assess the effect of social dominance on some indicators of welfare, production and meat quality of young bulls. A total of 60 bulls of the Gasconne breed, 9 months old, housed indoors were used. Indices of success order were calculated to reflect social dominance of each bull into three ranking categories (low, middle and high). Blood samples were taken to measure cortisol, lactate, glucose, creatine kinase, non-esterified fatty acid and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (N/L). M. longissimus samples were analysed in terms of pH, water holding capacity (WHC), texture, colour and sensorial attributes. Social rank influenced cattle stress response, which had an effect on productive performance but not on meat quality traits, with the exception of the sensory traits. These results emphasize the importance of implementing best management practices during pre-harvest handling of cattle in order to modulate any possible risk factor for social stress. PMID:23618738

Miranda-de la Lama, G C; Pascual-Alonso, M; Guerrero, A; Alberti, P; Alierta, S; Sans, P; Gajan, J P; Villarroel, M; Dalmau, A; Velarde, A; Campo, M M; Galindo, F; Santolaria, M P; Sañudo, C; María, G A



The Eyes Absent Proteins in Development and Disease  

PubMed Central

The Eyes Absent (EYA) proteins, first described in the context of fly eye development, are now implicated in processes as disparate as organ development, innate immunity, DNA damage repair, photoperiodism, angiogenesis, and cancer metastasis. These functions are associated with an unusual combination of biochemical activities; tyrosine phosphatase and threonine phosphatase activities in separate domains, and transactivation potential when associated with a DNA-binding partner. EYA mutations are linked to multi-organ developmental disorders, as well as to adult diseases ranging from dilated cardiomyopathy to late-onset sensori-neural hearing loss. With the growing understanding of EYA biochemical and cellular activity, biological function, and association with disease, comes the possibility that the EYA proteins are amenable to the design of targeted therapeutics. The availability of structural information, direct links to disease states, available animal models, and the fact that they utilize unconventional reaction mechanisms that could allow for specificity, suggest that EYAs are well-positioned for drug discovery efforts. This review provides a summary of EYA structure, activity, and function, as it relates to development and disease, with particular emphasis on recent findings. PMID:22971774

Tadjuidje, Emmanuel; Hegde, Rashmi S.



Locomotor sensory organization test: a novel paradigm for the assessment of sensory contributions in gait.  


Feedback based balance control requires the integration of visual, proprioceptive and vestibular input to detect the body's movement within the environment. When the accuracy of sensory signals is compromised, the system reorganizes the relative contributions through a process of sensory recalibration, for upright postural stability to be maintained. Whereas this process has been studied extensively in standing using the Sensory Organization Test (SOT), less is known about these processes in more dynamic tasks such as locomotion. In the present study, ten healthy young adults performed the six conditions of the traditional SOT to quantify standing postural control when exposed to sensory conflict. The same subjects performed these six conditions using a novel experimental paradigm, the Locomotor SOT (LSOT), to study dynamic postural control during walking under similar types of sensory conflict. To quantify postural control during walking, the net Center of Pressure sway variability was used. This corresponds to the Performance Index of the center of pressure trajectory, which is used to quantify postural control during standing. Our results indicate that dynamic balance control during locomotion in healthy individuals is affected by the systematic manipulation of multisensory inputs. The sway variability patterns observed during locomotion reflect similar balance performance with standing posture, indicating that similar feedback processes may be involved. However, the contribution of visual input is significantly increased during locomotion, compared to standing in similar sensory conflict conditions. The increased visual gain in the LSOT conditions reflects the importance of visual input for the control of locomotion. Since balance perturbations tend to occur in dynamic tasks and in response to environmental constraints not present during the SOT, the LSOT may provide additional information for clinical evaluation on healthy and deficient sensory processing. PMID:25224076

Chien, Jung Hung; Eikema, Diderik-Jan Anthony; Mukherjee, Mukul; Stergiou, Nicholas



Exploring sensory neuroscience through experience and experiment.  


Many phenomena that we take for granted are illusions - color and motion on a TV or computer monitor, for example, or the impression of space in a stereo music recording. Even the stable image that we perceive when looking directly at the real world is illusory. One of the important lessons from sensory neuroscience is that our perception of the world is constructed rather than received. Sensory illusions effectively capture student interest, but how do you then move on to substantive discussion of neuroscience? This article illustrates several illusions, attempts to connect them to neuroscience, and shows how students can explore and experiment with them. Even when (as is often the case) there is no agreed-upon mechanistic explanation for an illusion, students can form hypotheses and test them by manipulating stimuli and measuring their effects. In effect, students can experiment with illusions using themselves as subjects. PMID:23493966

Wyttenbach, Robert A



Overlapping Structures in Sensory-Motor Mappings  

PubMed Central

This paper examines a biologically-inspired representation technique designed for the support of sensory-motor learning in developmental robotics. An interesting feature of the many topographic neural sheets in the brain is that closely packed receptive fields must overlap in order to fully cover a spatial region. This raises interesting scientific questions with engineering implications: e.g. is overlap detrimental? does it have any benefits? This paper examines the effects and properties of overlap between elements arranged in arrays or maps. In particular we investigate how overlap affects the representation and transmission of spatial location information on and between topographic maps. Through a series of experiments we determine the conditions under which overlap offers advantages and identify useful ranges of overlap for building mappings in cognitive robotic systems. Our motivation is to understand the phenomena of overlap in order to provide guidance for application in sensory-motor learning robots. PMID:24392118

Earland, Kevin; Lee, Mark; Shaw, Patricia; Law, James



Sensory experience restructures thalamocortical axons during adulthood.  


The brain's capacity to rewire is thought to diminish with age. It is widely believed that development stabilizes the synapses from thalamus to cortex and that adult experience alters only synaptic connections between cortical neurons. Here we show that thalamocortical (TC) inputs themselves undergo massive plasticity in adults. We combined whole-cell recording from individual thalamocortical neurons in adult rats with a recently developed automatic tracing technique to reconstruct individual axonal trees. Whisker trimming substantially reduced thalamocortical axon length in barrel cortex but not the density of TC synapses along a fiber. Thus, sensory experience alters the total number of TC synapses. After trimming, sensory stimulation evoked more tightly time-locked responses among thalamorecipient layer 4 cortical neurons. These findings indicate that thalamocortical input itself remains plastic in adulthood, raising the possibility that the axons of other subcortical structures might also remain in flux throughout life. PMID:22632723

Oberlaender, Marcel; Ramirez, Alejandro; Bruno, Randy M



Necker cube reversal: sensory or psychological satiation?  


24 students, 5 male and 19 female, were used in a repeated-measures factorial design to test two theories of Necker cube reversal. It was hypothesized that cubes with complete contours and high figure-ground contrast would reverse at faster rates than cubes with incomplete contours and low contrast if a sensory satiation theory (Köhler & Wallach, 1944) is valid, but at the same rate if the satiation of an orientation theory (Orbach, Ehrlich, & Health, 1963) is correct. High contrast was achieved with black contours on white grounds and vice versa, low contrast with gray contours on black and white grounds. Cubes with complete contours, and stimuli in which only the eight corners of the cube were visible through 18-mm holes superimposed upon the complete cube, provided the contour variable. The results showed a higher reversal rate for cubes with complete contours but no contrast effect. The results were interpreted as supporting a sensory satiation theory. PMID:958829

Cornwell, H G



Dorsal eye selector pannier (pnr) suppresses the eye fate to define dorsal margin of the Drosophila eye  

E-print Network

Ã?Ã? Ã? Ã?Ã?Ã? Ã? Ã?Ã? Dorsal eye selector pannier (pnr) suppresses the eye fate to define dorsal margin of the Drosophila eye Sarah M. Oros, Meghana Tare, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Amit Singh PII: S0012-1606(10)00975-9 DOI: Oros, Sarah M., Tare, Meghana, Kango-Singh, Madhuri, Singh, Amit, Dorsal eye selector pannier (pnr

Kango-Singh, Madhuri


Antennal sensory system of Periplaneta americana L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphology of the antennal hair-sensilla of Periplaneta americana, their distribution and frequency on the antennal flagellum have been examined by transmission and scanning-electron microscopy. The types of sensilla were distinguished with respect to physiologically relevant criteria such as wall structure and number of sensory cells. Among the sensilla of the antenna of the adult male, long, single-walled sensilla with

Dietlinde Schaller



Birth order of volunteers for sensory deprivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Published data have indicated the preponderance of 1st-born individuals among volunteer Ss in experiments involving group interaction and cooperation. The results were explained on the basis of strong affiliative tendencies among 1st borns. This report shows a similarly high proportion of 1st borns among individuals volunteering for a sensory deprivation study which called for total isolation of the S, and

Peter Suedfeld



Robot vision and sensory controls, V  

SciTech Connect

This book covers the expanding and important subjects of robot vision and sensory controls. These advanced industrial techniques are now solving real application problems and improving productivity, quality, reliability and product cost. RoViSeC embraces the whole spectrum of sensing and measurement, including the technologies of machine vision, pattern recognition, artificial intelligence, tactile and other sensing, speech recognition, voice synthesis, sensor based robots, hardware and software. All aspects of the latest research are included while retaining an essentially practical outlook.

Zimmermann, N.J.



Sensory properties of menthol and smoking topography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is a great deal known about menthol as a flavoring agent in foods and confections, less is known about the\\u000a particular sensory properties of menthol cigarette smoke. Similarly, although smoking topography (the unique way an individual\\u000a smokes a cigarette) has been well studied using non-menthol cigarettes, there is relatively less known about how menthol affects\\u000a smoking behavior. The

Deirdre Lawrence; Brie Cadman; Allison C Hoffman



Convergence of cervical and trigeminal sensory afferents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cranial nociceptive perception shows a distinct topographic distribution, with the trigeminal nerve receiving sensory information\\u000a from the anterior portions of the head, the greater occipital nerve, and branches of the upper cervical roots in the posterior\\u000a regions. However, this distribution is not respected during headache attacks, even if the etiology of the headache is specific\\u000a for only one nerve. Nociceptive

Elcio J. Piovesan; Pedro A. Kowacs; Michael L. Oshinsky



Females competing to reproduce: dominance matters but testosterone may not.  


The associations among aggression, testosterone (T), and reproductive success have been well studied, particularly in male birds. In many species, males challenged with simulated or real territorial intrusions increase T and levels of aggression, outcomes linked to higher dominance status and greater reproductive success. For females, the patterns are less clear. Females behave aggressively towards one another, and in some species, females respond to a social challenge with increases in T, but in other species they do not. Prior work on female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) had shown that experimental elevation of T increases social status and intrasexual aggression. Here, we conducted two experiments designed to answer three questions: Are endogenous concentrations of T associated with dominance status in captive female juncos? Does dominance status influence readiness to breed in female juncos? And do captive females increase T in response to a challenge? In the first experiment, we introduced two females to a breeding aviary, allowed them to form a dominance relationship and then introduced a male. We found that dominant females were more likely to breed than subordinates, but that dominance status was not predicted by circulating T. In the second experiment, we allowed a resident male and female to establish ownership of a breeding aviary (territory) then introduced a second, intruder female. We found that resident females were aggressive towards and dominant over intruders, but T did not increase during aggressive interactions. We suggest that during the breeding season, intrasexual aggression between females may influence reproductive success, but not be dependent upon fluctuations in T. Selection may have favored independence of aggression from T because high concentrations of T could interfere with normal ovulation or produce detrimental maternal effects. PMID:16226754

Jawor, Jodie M; Young, Rebecca; Ketterson, Ellen D



Influence of Sensory Dependence on Postural Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current project is part of an NSBRI funded project, "Development of Countermeasures to Aid Functional Egress from the Crew Exploration Vehicle Following Long-Duration Spaceflight." The development of this countermeasure is based on the use of imperceptible levels of electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the inner ear to assist and enhance the response of a person s sensorimotor function. These countermeasures could be used to increase an astronaut s re-adaptation rate to Earth s gravity following long-duration space flight. The focus of my project is to evaluate and examine the correlation of sensory preferences for vision and vestibular systems. Disruption of the sensorimotor functions following space flight affects posture, locomotion and spatial orientation tasks in astronauts. The Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), the Rod and Frame Test (RFT) and the Computerized Dynamic Posturography Test (CDP) are measurements used to examine subjects visual and vestibular sensory preferences. The analysis of data from these tasks will assist in relating the visual dependence measures recognized in the GEFT and RFT with vestibular dependence measures recognized in the stability measures obtained during CDP. Studying the impact of sensory dependence on the performance in varied tasks will help in the development of targeted countermeasures to help astronauts readapt to gravitational changes after long duration space flight.

Santana, Patricia A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Fiedler, Matthew J.



Hamilton Eye Institute Neuroscience Institute  

E-print Network

Fall 2010 Hamilton Eye Institute Transplant Trauma Neuroscience Institute Adult Cancer Adult Cardio of Radiology · Mari Assumes Leadership of OB/GYN city attractioNs Levitt Shell Revived Feature Vision chancellor of our institution had an impact on the COM leadership, hence, the delay in publishing this alumni

Cui, Yan


Oculog : Playing with Eye Movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe the musical development of a new system for performing electronic music where a video-based eye movement recording system, known as Oculog, is used to control sound. Its development is discussed against a background that includes a brief history of biologically based interfaces for performing music, together with a survey of various recording systems currently in

Juno Kim; Greg Schiemer; Terumi Narushima



Eye Movements during Chinese Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

respects, and for this reason, interest in the nature of the cognitive processes underlying Chinese reading has flourished over recent years. A number of researchers have used eye movement methodology as a measure of on-line processing to understand more about…

Liversedge, Simon P; Hyona, Jukka; Rayner, Keith



Ageing changes in the eye  

PubMed Central

Ageing changes occur in all the structures of the eye causing varied effects. This article attempts to review the parameters of what is considered within the “normal limits” of ageing so as to be able to distinguish those conditions from true disease processes. Improving understanding of the ageing changes will help understand some of the problems that the ageing population faces. PMID:16954455

Salvi, S M; Akhtar, S; Currie, Z



Sussex Eye Hospital sports injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the prevalence of sports eye injuries in our area a register was kept over the 18 months from October 1982 to March 1984. Squash, association football, badminton, and tennis were the main offenders. The severest injury was from a golf ball, involving a fractured zygoma. There was one retinal dialysis, and one lens dislocation requiring extraction. Spectacles were

P T Gregory



Frog eye, ear, and nostril  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You can clearly see the frog's eye. There is an air opening near a black spot on the frog's skin. The opening to the frog's ear is covered by the round, tan membrane to the left in the picture. This membrane is called the tympanum.

Ren West (None;)



Eye Noise and Map Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the physiological "eye noise" effect of line contrast in maps and considers the effect of line contrast on the direct picture of terrain surface as produced by shaded relief. An attempt is made to describe map reading in its two major steps: 1) the enrichment of the brain image resulting from scanning the map sheet, and 2) the…

Merriam, Mylon


Animal behaviour Eye contact enhances  

E-print Network

an impor- tant role in how much the individuals like each other by the end of the evening. However for understand- ing the role of eye contact as a controlling signal in human non-verbal social behaviour such as face detection (Conty et al. 2006), gender discrimination (Macrae et al. 2002) and iden- tity encoding

Hamilton, Antonia


Flavonoid Intake and Eye Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the modern era of evidence-based scientific medicine, there is little recognition of centuries of shaman observational evidence. Yet it is extremely difficult to conduct long duration controlled studies of large populations. The controversy surrounding the issue of flavonoid bioactivity and alleged benefits for eye health is also plagued by natural product industry marketing efforts that rely on small, often

Paul E. Milbury



21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR




21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR




21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR




21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.  




Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble  


Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble email Send this article to a friend by filling out the fields below: Your name: Your friend's ... heating and cooling systems. Treating Dry Eye and Glaucoma Usually a combination of treatments is helpful, and ...


Understanding Your Vision: The "Imperfect Eye"  


... Issues Feature: Vision Understanding Your Vision: The "Imperfect Eye" Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents For ... including an implanted set of lenses. "Keeping your eyes healthy means learning about them and the conditions ...


The Trajectories of Saccadic Eye Movements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the trajectories of saccadic eye movements, the control signals of the eye, and nature of the mechanisms that generate them, using the techniques of bioengineering in collecting the data. (GA)

Bahill, A. Terry; Stark, Lawrence



External and internal eye anatomy (image)  


... enter the eye. As light passes through the eye the iris changes shape by expanding and letting more light through or constricting and letting less light through to change ... the brain. The brain processes these nerve impulses into sight.


Anesthesia for Children Having Eye Surgery  


What kinds of anesthesia are available for children having eye surgery? Anesthesia is necessary during all kinds of surgery to reduce or eliminate pain. Eye surgery is no exception. General anesthesia, ...


Protect Your Eyes When Hitting the Pool  


... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Protect Your Eyes When Hitting the Pool Skip contact ... outer film layer of the eye that helps protect against infection. And chlorine might not completely rid ...


Eye Health in Sports and Recreation  


... and recreation-related eye injuries occur each year. The good news is that 90 percent of serious eye injuries are preventable through use of appropriate protective eyewear . Recognizing and Treating ...


Server Placements, Roman Domination and other Dominating Set Variants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dominating sets in their many variations model a wealth of optimizationproblems like facility location or distributed file sharing. Forinstance, when a request can occur at any node in a graph and requiresa server at that node, a minimumdominating set represents a minimumset of servers that serve an arbitrary single request by moving a serveralong at most one edge. This paper

Aris Pagourtzis; Paolo Penna; Konrad Schlude; Kathleen Steinhöfel; David Scot Taylor; Peter Widmayer



Central areolar choroidal dystrophy with associated dominant drusen  

PubMed Central

Introduction Central areolar choroidal dystrophy (CACD) is a rare, inherited disease that can lead to profound visual disturbance. It is characterized by atrophic changes, particularly in the macula. Specific genotypic mutations are responsible for the autosomal dominant form of this disease. However, there is a distinct retinal dystrophy that combines central areolar choroidal dystrophy with autosomal dominantly inherited drusen. It has been proposed that patients with a specific mutation in the peripherin/RDS gene may manifest a combined presentation. Case report Here we describe a case of a patient who reported with significantly decreased best-corrected visual acuity of fifteen years of duration in the right eye more than the left. Dilated fundus examination found macular changes that were consistent with central areolar choroidal dystrophy. In addition, there was evidence of surrounding congenital drusen throughout the arcades of both eyes. Electrodiagnostics, optical coherence tomography, and fundus fluorescein angiography were used to confirm the diagnosis of CACD. Conclusion Central areolar choroidal dystrophy normally presents without drusen. However, in patients manifesting a specific mutation, central areolar choridal dystrophy may present in conjunction with drusen. It appears that the Arg142Trp mutation is one of the factors predisposing to drusen formation.

Rodman, Julie; Black, Greg; Woods, Albert



The Sound of One Eye Clapping: Tapping an Accurate Rhythm With Eye Movements  

E-print Network

The Sound of One Eye Clapping: Tapping an Accurate Rhythm With Eye Movements Anthony J. Hornof, kvessey} ABSTRACT As eye-controlled interfaces becomes increasingly viable, there is a need an eye tracking device. Prior research has explored the maximum rate of input from a human to a computer

Hornof, Anthony


The Sound of One Eye Clapping: Tapping an Accurate Rhythm With Eye Movements  

E-print Network

The Sound of One Eye Clapping: Tapping an Accurate Rhythm With Eye Movements Anthony J. Hornof USA As eye-controlled interfaces becomes increasingly viable, there is a need to better understand fundamental human-machine interaction capabilities between a human and a computer via an eye tracking device

Hornof, Anthony


Eye-Tracking: Characteristics and Methods Eye-Tracking: Research Areas and Applications  

E-print Network

1 Part 1 Eye-Tracking: Characteristics and Methods Part 2 Eye-Tracking: Research Areas. & Bowlin, G. (Eds.) [ PREPRINT, FEB 2004. PLEASE DO NOT QUOTE ] #12;2 Eye-Tracking: Characteristics and Methods Introduction Eye movements are arguably the most frequent of all human movements (Bridgeman, 1992

Richardson, Daniel C.


EyePhone: Activating Mobile Phones With Your Eyes Emiliano Miluzzo, Tianyu Wang, Andrew T. Campbell  

E-print Network

EyePhone: Activating Mobile Phones With Your Eyes Emiliano Miluzzo, Tianyu Wang, Andrew T. Campbell are studying new tech- niques to ease the human-mobile interaction. We propose EyePhone, a novel "hand the eye and infer its position on the mobile phone display as a user views a particular application

Campbell, Andrew T.


Automatic Red Eye Removal for Digital Photography  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 Automatic Red Eye Removal for Digital Photography FRANCESCA GASPARINI DISCo, Dipartimento The red eye effect is a well known problem in photography. It is often seen in amateur shots taken with a built-in flash, but the problem is also well known to professional photographers. Red eye is the red

Schettini, Raimondo


Peripheral astigmatism in emmetropic eyes Jorgen Gustafssona  

E-print Network

The quality of the optical image in the human eye outside the area of central vision has, so far, been less have investigated the optical limitations and aberrations of the human eye. Already in 1801, Thomas Young (Young, 1801) discovered that there is astigmatism in oblique angles in all-human eyes. It is now


Advances in Eye Tracking in Infancy Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2004, McMurray and Aslin edited for "Infancy" a special section on eye tracking. The articles in that special issue revealed the enormous promise of automatic eye tracking with young infants and demonstrated that eye-tracking procedures can provide significant insight into the emergence of cognitive, social, and emotional processing in infancy.…

Oakes, Lisa M.



A Model of the Human Eye  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe a model of the human eye that incorporates a variable converging lens. The model can be easily constructed by students with low-cost materials. It shows in a comprehensible way the functionality of the eye's optical system. Images of near and far objects can be focused. Also, the defects of near and farsighted eyes can be demonstrated.

Colicchia, G.; Wiesner, H.; Waltner, C.; Zollman, D.



Laser EYE SURGERY LASIK and Excimer Lasers  

E-print Network

Laser EYE SURGERY LASIK and Excimer Lasers Michael Hutchins #12;The PROBLEM opia - near sightedness. ically corrected with concave #12;THE PROBLEM eropia - far sightedness sed by a flat cornea or ort eye from different focal points in different nes of the eye. used by non-uniform curvature of the cornea

Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir


Satellite Eye for Galathea 3 -Slutrapport  

E-print Network

Satellite Eye for Galathea 3 - Slutrapport Charlotte Bay Hasager, Peter Brøgger Sørensen, Jacob L Abstract (in English) (max. 2000 char.): The Satellite Eye for Galathea 3 project started on the 10th March August 2006. The expedition lasted in total 256 days (8 months), and the Satelitte Eye project continued


The Eye As A Lens (Part 2)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A Physlet-based simulation demonstrating the accommodation of the eye. A light source can be moved towards and away from the eye. The resulting image is shown. Pressing the "strain" button, makes the eye accommodate and the image forming on the retina.

Spartalian, Kevork



Infant Eyes: A Window on Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eye-trackers suitable for use with infants are now marketed by several commercial vendors. As eye-trackers become more prevalent in infancy research, there is the potential for users to be unaware of dangers lurking "under the hood" if they assume the eye-tracker introduces no errors in measuring infants' gaze. Moreover, the influx of voluminous…

Aslin, Richard N.



The Eye, Hartmann, Shack, and Klaus Biedermann  

E-print Network

The Eye, Hartmann, Shack, and Scheiner Klaus Biedermann The Royal Institute of Technology of the paper are prohibited. 7 #12;7 The Eye, Hartmann, Shack, and Scheiner Klaus Biedermann The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden) The eye and vision were natural topics for optics before



E-print Network


Schubert, Wayne H.



E-print Network

BINOCULAR EYE MOVEMENTS DURING ACCOMMODATIVE VERGENCE ROBERTV. KENYON, KEWETH J. CIUFFREDA; in revised form 4 August 1977) Abstract-Binocular eye position was monitored by the photoelectric technique vergence amplitude in the viewing eye was reduced, on the average. by approximately SSP, with respect

Kenyon, Robert V.


Orienting to Eye Gaze and Face Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author conducted 7 experiments to examine possible interactions between orienting to eye gaze and specific forms of face processing. Participants classified a letter following either an upright or inverted face with averted, uninformative eye gaze. Eye gaze orienting effects were recorded for upright and inverted faces, irrespective of whether…

Tipples, Jason



Spectral sensitivities of jumping spider eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Spectral sensitivities of the anterior lateral, posterior lateral and anterior median eyes of the jumping spider,Menemerus confusus Boes. et Str. have been studied by recording electroretinograms (ERGs) and receptor potentials. The anterior and posterior lateral eyes have a single type of visual cell with a maximum spectral sensitivity at about 535–540 nm. The anterior median eye has four types

Shigeki Yamashita; Hideki Tateda



The Rhodopsin Content of Human Eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. To measure the total amount of rhodopsin in human eyes across the life span and to test the hypothesis that the rhodopsin content of infants' and the elderly's eyes is lower than at other ages. METHODS. Rhodopsin was extracted from retinal and pig- ment epithelial fractions of 196 eyes of 102 donors, ages 27 weeks' gestation through 94 years,

Anne B. Fulton; Janice Dodge; Ronald M. Hansen; Theodore P. Williams



Experiencing Light's Properties within Your Own Eye  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seeing the reflection, refraction, dispersion, absorption, polarization, and scattering or diffraction of light within your own eye makes these properties of light truly personal. There are practical aspects of these within the eye phenomena, such as eye tracking for computer interfaces. They also offer some intriguing diversions, for example,…

Mauser, Michael



Factors associated with second eye cataract surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMSTo analyse the clinical and sociodemographic characteristics associated with second eye cataract surgery.METHODSAn observational, longitudinal study of patients scheduled for first eye cataract surgery that did not involve a combined procedure was carried at two teaching hospitals and one non-teaching hospital in Barcelona, Spain. Patients were followed for 2 years after first eye cataract surgery to assess whether and when

Xavier Castells; Jordi Alonso; Cristina Ribó; Daniel Nara; Albert Teixidó; Miguel Castilla



Active Vision: Controlling Sound with Eye Movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the author discusses the inspiration, concept, and technology behind her sound performance work using eye movements in relationship to current research on human eye movement. She also compares the playing of the eye-tracking instrument to research on musical improvisation using unconventional musical instruments and active music.

Andrea Polli



Hand-Eye Coordination during Sequential Tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small angle subtended by the human fovea places a premium on the ability to quickly and accurately direct the gaze to targets of interest. Thus the resultant saccadic eye fixations are a very instructive behaviour, revealing much about the underlying cognitive mechanisms that guide them. Of particular interest are the eye fixations used in hand-eye coordination. Such coordination has

Dana H. Ballard; Mary M. Hayhoe; Feng Li; Steven D. Whitehead



Eyes open versus eyes closed - Effect on human rotational responses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of eyelid closure on the response to rotational vestibular stimulation was assessed by evaluating 16 normal human subjects with both earth vertical axis (EVA) and earth horizontal axis (EHA) yaw rotations with either eyes closed (EC) or eyes open in the dark (EOD). Results indicated that for EVA rotation, the subjects' responses were of larger magnitude and less variable with EOD than with EC. However, for EHA rotation, responses were of larger magnitude and equally variable with EC as compared to EOD. Data also indicated that the quality of the EHA response with EC was altered because eyelid closure influenced the amount of periodic gaze. It is concluded that eyelid closure has an effect upon both canalocular and otolithocular reflexes and it is suggested that both EVA and EHA rotational testing be performed with EOD rather than with EC.

Wall, Conrad, III; Furman, Joseph M. R.




Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility that the developmental effects of genes are influenced by their neighbors in the chromosomes has only recently become accessible to experiment. The first demonstration of such an effect was given by STURTEVANT (1925). Two Bar genes in Drosophila melanogaster, placed in the same chromosome as a result of unequal crossing over, are more effective than two similar genes



Evolution of eye development in the darkness of caves: adaptation, drift, or both?  

PubMed Central

Animals inhabiting the darkness of caves are generally blind and de-pigmented, regardless of the phylum they belong to. Survival in this environment is an enormous challenge, the most obvious being to find food and mates without the help of vision, and the loss of eyes in cave animals is often accompanied by an enhancement of other sensory apparatuses. Here we review the recent literature describing developmental biology and molecular evolution studies in order to discuss the evolutionary mechanisms underlying adaptation to life in the dark. We conclude that both genetic drift (neutral hypothesis) and direct and indirect selection (selective hypothesis) occurred together during the loss of eyes in cave animals. We also identify some future directions of research to better understand adaptation to total darkness, for which integrative analyses relying on evo-devo approaches associated with thorough ecological and population genomic studies should shed some light. PMID:24079393



Tickle me, I think I might be dreaming! Sensory attenuation, self-other distinction, and predictive processing in lucid dreams  

PubMed Central

The contrast between self- and other-produced tickles, as a special case of sensory attenuation for self-produced actions, has long been a target of empirical research. While in standard wake states it is nearly impossible to tickle oneself, there are interesting exceptions. Notably, participants awakened from REM (rapid eye movement-) sleep dreams are able to tickle themselves. So far, however, the question of whether it is possible to tickle oneself and be tickled by another in the dream state has not been investigated empirically or addressed from a theoretical perspective. Here, we report the results of an explorative web-based study in which participants were asked to rate their sensations during self-tickling and being tickled during wakefulness, imagination, and lucid dreaming. Our results, though highly preliminary, indicate that in the special case of lucid control dreams, the difference between self-tickling and being tickled by another is obliterated, with both self- and other produced tickles receiving similar ratings as self-tickling during wakefulness. This leads us to the speculative conclusion that in lucid control dreams, sensory attenuation for self-produced tickles spreads to those produced by non-self dream characters. These preliminary results provide the backdrop for a more general theoretical and metatheoretical discussion of tickling in lucid dreams in a predictive processing framework. We argue that the primary value of our study lies not so much in our results, which are subject to important limitations, but rather in the fact that they enable a new theoretical perspective on the relationship between sensory attenuation, the self-other distinction and agency, as well as suggest new questions for future research. In particular, the example of tickling during lucid dreaming raises the question of whether sensory attenuation and the self-other distinction can be simulated largely independently of external sensory input.

Windt, Jennifer M.; Harkness, Dominic L.; Lenggenhager, Bigna



Dominant Sets and Hierarchical Clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dominant sets are a new graph-theoretic concept that has proven to be relevant in partitional (flat) clustering as well as image segmentation problems. However, in many computer vision applications, such as the organization of an image database, it is important to provide the data to be clustered with a hierarchical organization, and it is not clear how to do this

Massimiliano Pavan; Marcello Pelillo



Social Dominance in Preschool Classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined preschoolers' aggressive and cooperative behaviors and their associations with social dominance. First and as predicted, directly observed aggressive interactions decreased across the school year, and same-sex aggression occurred more frequently than cross-sex aggression. Next, the authors examined the relation between aggression and reconciliation, cooperation, and social display variables. Teacher ratings of children's aggression related to observed aggression

Anthony D. Pellegrini; Cary J. Roseth; Shanna Mliner; Catherine M. Bohn; Mark Van Ryzin; Natalie Vance; Carol L. Cheatham; Amanda Tarullo



Dominance and Age in Bilingualism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present article examines the relationship between age and dominance in bilingual populations. Age in bilingualism is understood as the point in development at which second language (L2) acquisition begins and as the chronological age of users of two languages. Age of acquisition (AoA) is a factor in determining which of a bilingual's two…

Birdsong, David



Autosomal-dominant primary immunodeficiencies.  


The vast majority of known primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are autosomal or X-linked recessive Mendelian traits. Only four classical primary immunodeficiencies are thought to be autosomal-dominant, three of which still lack a well-defined genetic etiology: isolated congenital asplenia, isolated chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, and hyper IgE syndrome. The large deletions on chromosome 22q11.2 associated with Di George syndrome suggest that this disease may be dominant but not Mendelian, possibly involving several genes. The clinical and genetic features of six novel autosomal-dominant primary immunodeficiencies have however been described in recent years. These primary immunodeficiencies are caused by germline mutations in seven genes: ELA2, encoding a neutrophil elastase, and GFI1, encoding a regulator of ELA2 (mutations associated with severe congenital neutropenia); CXCR4, encoding a chemokine receptor (warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections and myelokathexis syndrome); LCRR8, encoding a key protein for B-cell development (agammaglobulinemia); IFNGR1, encoding the ligand-binding chain of the interferon-gamma receptor; STAT1, encoding the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 downstream from interferon-gammaR1 (Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases); and IKBA, encoding IkappaBalpha, the inhibitor alpha of NF-kappaB (anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency). These recent data suggest that many more autosomal-dominant PIDs are likely to be identified in the near future. PMID:15604887

Lawrence, Tatiana; Puel, Anne; Reichenbach, Janine; Ku, Cheng-Lung; Chapgier, Ariane; Renner, Ellen; Minard-Colin, Véronique; Ouachée, Marie; Casanova, Jean-Laurent



Why do blue-eyed men prefer women with the same eye color?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human eye color blue reflects a simple, predictable, and reliable genetic mechanism of inheritance. Blue-eyed individuals\\u000a represent a unique condition, as in their case there is always direct concordance between the genotype and phenotype. On the\\u000a other hand, heterozygous brown-eyed individuals carry an allele that is not concordant with the observed eye color. Hence,\\u000a eye color can provide a

Bruno Laeng; Ronny Mathisen; Jan-Are Johnsen



De Novo Assembly and Characterization of Two Transcriptomes Reveal Multiple Light-Mediated Functions in the Scallop Eye (Bivalvia: Pectinidae)  

PubMed Central

Background The eye has evolved across 13 separate lineages of molluscs. Yet, there have been very few studies examining the molecular machinary underlying eye function of this group, which is due, in part, to a lack of genomic resources. The scallop (Bivalvia: Pectinidae) represents a compeling molluscan model to study photoreception due to its morphologically novel and separately evolved mirror-type eye. We sequenced the adult eye transcriptome of two scallop species to: 1) identify the phototransduction pathway components; 2) identify any additional light detection functions; and 3) test the hypothesis that molluscs possess genes not found in other animal lineages. Results A total of 3,039 contigs from the bay scallop, Argopecten irradians and 26,395 contigs from the sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus were produced by 454 sequencing. Targeted BLAST searches and functional annotation using Gene Ontology (GO) terms and KEGG pathways identified transcripts from three light detection systems: two phototransduction pathways and the circadian clock, a previously unrecognized function of the scallop eye. By comparing the scallop transcriptomes to molluscan and non-molluscan genomes, we discovered that a large proportion of the transcripts (7,776 sequences) may be specific to the scallop lineage. Nearly one-third of these contain transmembrane protein domains, suggesting these unannotated transcripts may be sensory receptors. Conclusions Our data provide the most comprehensive transcriptomic resource currently available from a single molluscan eye type. Candidate genes potentially involved in sensory reception were identified, and are worthy of further investigation. This resource, combined with recent phylogenetic and genomic data, provides a strong foundation for future investigations of the function and evolution of molluscan photosensory systems in this morphologically and taxonomically diverse phylum. PMID:23922823

Pairett, Autum N.; Serb, Jeanne M.



Sensory, hormonal, and neural basis of maternal aggression in rodents.  


We review existing knowledge of the neural, hormonal, and sensory basis of maternal aggression in the female rat. Although females may express different kinds of aggression, such as defense or dominance, the most frequent and conspicuous form of aggressive behavior among females is the one associated with motherhood. Maternal aggression occurs in various vertebrate and invertebrate species; however, our emphasis will be on maternal aggression in rats because most of the physiological investigations have been performed in this species. Firstly, we address those factors that predispose the female to attack, such as the endocrine profile, the maternal state, and the stimulation provided by the pups, as well as those that trigger the aggressive response, as the intruder's characteristics and the context. As the postpartum aggression is a fundamental component of the maternal repertoire, we emphasize its association with maternal motivation and the reduction of fear and anxiety in dams. Finally, we outline the neurocircuitry involved in the control of maternal aggression, stressing the role of the ventro-orbital region of prefrontal cortex and the serotoninergic system. PMID:24841427

de Almeida, Rosa Maria Martins; Ferreira, Annabel; Agrati, Daniella



Integration of Sensory Quanta in Cuneate Nucleus Neurons In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Discriminative touch relies on afferent information carried to the central nervous system by action potentials (spikes) in ensembles of primary afferents bundled in peripheral nerves. These sensory quanta are first processed by the cuneate nucleus before the afferent information is transmitted to brain networks serving specific perceptual and sensorimotor functions. Here we report data on the integration of primary afferent synaptic inputs obtained with in vivo whole cell patch clamp recordings from the neurons of this nucleus. We find that the synaptic integration in individual cuneate neurons is dominated by 4–8 primary afferent inputs with large synaptic weights. In a simulation we show that the arrangement with a low number of primary afferent inputs can maximize transfer over the cuneate nucleus of information encoded in the spatiotemporal patterns of spikes generated when a human fingertip contact objects. Hence, the observed distributions of synaptic weights support high fidelity transfer of signals from ensembles of tactile afferents. Various anatomical estimates suggest that a cuneate neuron may receive hundreds of primary afferents rather than 4–8. Therefore, we discuss the possibility that adaptation of synaptic weight distribution, possibly involving silent synapses, may function to maximize information transfer in somatosensory pathways. PMID:23409195

Bengtsson, Fredrik; Brasselet, Romain; Johansson, Roland S.; Arleo, Angelo; Jorntell, Henrik



Input device using eye tracker in human-computer interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of the eye-gazing input system using the eye tracking system. The eye-gazing input system consists of a subsystem that detects the user's eye movement and a subsystem that calculates the coordinate of the mouse pointer from the eye movement patterns. This paper mainly describes the algorithm to calculate the coordinate of pointer from eye movements

T. Miyoshi; A. Murata



Pseudoexfoliation and glaucoma in eyes with retinal vein occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate pseudoexfoliation (PE) and pre-existent glaucoma in eyes with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Methods: Consecutive eyes with a diagnosis of BRVO (73 eyes of 70 patients) and CRVO (53 eyes of 49 patients) examined between July and December 1998 comprised the study eyes. Age-matched control group consisted of 384 eyes of

Osman A. Saatci; Sevgi Tongal Ferliel; Murat Ferliel; Süleyman Kaynak; Mehmet H. Ergin