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Sample records for sensory eye dominance

  1. A New Method to Assess Eye Dominance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle-Inclan, Fernando; Blanco, Manuel J.; Soto, David; Leiros, Luz

    2008-01-01

    People usually show a stable preference for one of their eyes when monocular viewing is required ("sighting dominance") or under dichoptic stimulation conditions ("sensory eye-dominance"). Current procedures to assess this "eye dominance" are prone to error. Here we present a new method that provides a continuous measure of eye dominance and…

  2. Sensory afferent segregation in three-eared frogs resemble the dominance columns observed in three-eyed frogs

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Karen L.; Houston, Douglas W.; Fritzsch, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    The formation of proper sensory afferent connections during development is essential for brain function. Activity-based competition is believed to drive ocular dominance columns (ODC) in mammals and in experimentally-generated three-eyed frogs. ODC formation is thus a compromise of activity differences between two eyes and similar molecular cues. To gauge the generality of graphical map formation in the brain, we investigated the inner ear projection, known for its well-defined and early segregation of afferents from vestibular and auditory endorgans. In analogy to three eyed-frogs, we generated three-eared frogs to assess to what extent vestibular afferents from two adjacent ears could segregate. Donor ears were transplanted either in the native orientation or rotated by 90 degrees. These manipulations should result in either similar or different induced activity between both ears, respectively. Three-eared frogs with normal orientation showed normal swimming whereas those with a rotated third ear showed aberrant behaviors. Projection studies revealed that only afferents from the rotated ears segregated from those from the native ear within the vestibular nucleus, resembling the ocular dominance columns formed in three-eyed frogs. Vestibular segregation suggests that mechanisms comparable to those operating in the ODC formation of the visual system may act on vestibular projection refinements. PMID:25661240

  3. Association between Ocular Sensory Dominance and Refractive Error Asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Hua; Ekure, Edgar; Su, Binbin; Wu, Haoran; Huang, Yifei; Zhang, Bin; Jiang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between ocular sensory dominance and interocular refractive error difference (IRED). Methods A total of 219 subjects were recruited. The refractive errors were determined by objective refraction with a fixation target located 6 meters away. 176 subjects were myopic, with 83 being anisometropic (IRED ? 0.75 D). 43 subjects were hyperopic, with 22 being anisometropic. Sensory dominance was measured with a continuous flashing technique with the tested eye viewing a Gabor increasing in contrast and the fellow eye viewing a Mondrian noise decreasing in contrast. The log ratio of Mondrian to Gabor’s contrasts was recorded when a subject just detected the tilting direction of the Gabor during each trial. T-test was used to compare the 50 values collected from each eye, and the t-value was used as a subject’s ocular dominance index (ODI) to quantify the degree of ocular dominance. A subject with ODI ? 2 (p < 0.05) had clear dominance and the eye with larger mean ratio was the dominant one. Otherwise, a subject had an unclear dominance. Results The anisometropic subjects had stronger ocular dominance in comparison to non-anisometropic subjects (rank-sum test, p < 0.01 for both myopic and hyperopic subjects). In anisometropic subjects with clear dominance, the amplitude of the anisometropia was correlated with ODI values (R = 0.42, p < 0.01 in myopic anisometropic subjects; R = 0.62, p < 0.01 in hyperopic anisometropic subjects). Moreover, the dominant eyes were more myopic in myopic anisometropic subjects (sign-test, p < 0.05) and less hyperopic in hyperopic anisometropic subjects (sign-test, p < 0.05). Conclusion The degree of ocular sensory dominance is associated with interocular refractive error difference. PMID:26295803

  4. The role of sensory ocular dominance on through-focus visual performance in monovision presbyopia corrections

    PubMed Central

    Zheleznyak, Len; Alarcon, Aixa; Dieter, Kevin C.; Tadin, Duje; Yoon, Geunyoung

    2015-01-01

    Monovision presbyopia interventions exploit the binocular nature of the visual system by independently manipulating the optical properties of the two eyes. It is unclear, however, how individual variations in ocular dominance affect visual function in monovision corrections. Here, we examined the impact of sensory ocular dominance on visual performance in both traditional and modified monovision presbyopic corrections. We recently developed a binocular adaptive optics vision simulator to correct subjects' native aberrations and induce either modified monovision (1.5?D anisometropia, spherical aberration of +0.1 and ?0.4 ?m in distance and near eyes, respectively, over 4 mm pupils) or traditional monovision (1.5 D anisometropia). To quantify both the sign and the degree of ocular dominance, we utilized binocular rivalry to estimate stimulus contrast ratios that yield balanced dominance durations for the two eyes. Through-focus visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were measured under two conditions: (a) assigning dominant and nondominant eye to distance and near, respectively, and (b) vice versa. The results revealed that through-focus visual acuity was unaffected by ocular dominance. Contrast sensitivity, however, was significantly improved when the dominant eye coincided with superior optical quality. We hypothesize that a potential mechanism behind this observation is an interaction between ocular dominance and binocular contrast summation, and thus, assignment of the dominant eye to distance or near may be an important factor to optimize contrast threshold performance at different object distances in both modified and traditional monovision. PMID:26024464

  5. Eye Movement as an Indicator of Sensory Components in Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckner, Michael; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigated Neuro-Linguistic Programming eye movement model's claim that specific eye movements are indicative of specific sensory components in thought. Agreement between students' (N=48) self-reports and trained observers' records support visual and auditory portions of model; do not support kinesthetic portion. Interrater agreement supports…

  6. The eye dominates in guiding attention during simultaneous eye and hand movements

    E-print Network

    Song, Joo-Hyun

    The eye dominates in guiding attention during simultaneous eye and hand movements Centre unknown whether attentional resources are shared across effectors for simultaneous eye and hand movements elsewhere. However, discrimination performance at the movement goal was not better for combined eye

  7. Real-time modulation of perceptual eye dominance in humans

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiawei; Reynaud, Alexandre; Hess, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Ocular dominance (OD) has long served as the model for neural plasticity. The shift of OD has been demonstrated by monocular deprivation in animals only during early visual development. Here, for the first time, we show that perceptual eye dominance can be modulated in real time in normal human adults by varying the spatial image content of movies seen dichoptically by the two eyes over a period as short as 2.5 h. Unlike OD shifts seen in early visual development, this modulation in human eye dominance is not simply a consequence of reduced interocular correlation (e.g. synchronicity) or overall contrast energy, but due to the amplitude reductions of specific image components in one eye's view. The spatial properties driving this eye dominance change suggest that the underlying mechanism is binocular but not orientationally selective, therefore uniquely locating it to layer 4 B of area V1. PMID:25274364

  8. Real-time modulation of perceptual eye dominance in humans.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiawei; Reynaud, Alexandre; Hess, Robert F

    2014-11-22

    Ocular dominance (OD) has long served as the model for neural plasticity. The shift of OD has been demonstrated by monocular deprivation in animals only during early visual development. Here, for the first time, we show that perceptual eye dominance can be modulated in real time in normal human adults by varying the spatial image content of movies seen dichoptically by the two eyes over a period as short as 2.5 h. Unlike OD shifts seen in early visual development, this modulation in human eye dominance is not simply a consequence of reduced interocular correlation (e.g. synchronicity) or overall contrast energy, but due to the amplitude reductions of specific image components in one eye's view. The spatial properties driving this eye dominance change suggest that the underlying mechanism is binocular but not orientationally selective, therefore uniquely locating it to layer 4 B of area V1. PMID:25274364

  9. Sensory eye balance in surgically corrected intermittent exotropes with normal stereopsis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lixia; Zhou, Jiawei; Chen, Li; Hess, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Surgery to align a deviated or strabismic eye is often done for both functional as well as cosmetic reasons. Although amblyopia is often an impediment to regaining full binocularity in strabismics in general, intermittent exotropes, because their deviation is intermittent, have no amblyopia and some degree of stereopsis. Binocular function, including a balanced ocular dominance, could be expected to be normal after surgical correction if normal levels of stereopsis and visual acuity are postsurgically achieved. Here we used a binocular phase combination paradigm to quantitatively assess the ocular dominance in a group of surgically corrected intermittent exotropes who have normal stereo and visual acuity as defined clinically. Interestingly, we found significant interocular imbalance (balance point?eyes may still have a residual sensory imbalance in surgically corrected strabismus even if stereopsis is within normal limits. Our study opens the possibility that a further treatment aimed at re-balancing the ocular dominance might be necessary in surgically treated intermittent exotropia to provide more efficient binocular processing in the long term. PMID:26287935

  10. [Two cases of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement (HMSN-P)].

    PubMed

    Mori, Chiaki; Saito, Tomoko; Saito, Toshio; Fujimura, Harutoshi; Sakoda, Saburo

    2015-01-01

    We, herein, report two independent cases with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement (HMSN-P) inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. Their common clinical features are slowly progressive proximal dominant muscular atrophy, fasciculations and mild to moderate distal sensory disturbance with areflexia. Nerve conduction study revealed an absence of sensory nerve action potentials, in contrast to almost normal compound muscle action potentials. Gene analysis in both patients elucidated heterozygous mutation (c.854C>T, p.Pro285Leu) in the TFG, which is an identical mutation, already described by Ishiura et al. Okinawa and Shiga are two foci of HMSN-P in Japan. Eventually, one patient is from Okinawa and the other is from a mountain village in Shiga prefecture. When we see a patient who has symptoms suggestive of motor neuron disease with sensory neuropathy, HMSN-P should be considered as a differential diagnosis despite the patient's actual resident place. PMID:26103812

  11. DOES DYSLEXIA DEVELOP FROM LEFT-EYE DOMINANCE?

    PubMed

    Mather, David S; Milford, Todd M; Mcrae, Lona M

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this theoretical analysis and synthesis is to indicate how left-eye sighting dominance may lead to reading failure through dysfunctional right hemisphere letter encoding. Differing compensatory strategies are postulated to lead to outcomes that include the development of the phonologically impaired and phonologically proficient subtypes of dyslexia as well as specific spelling disability. Evidence is presented indicating that these disorders might be prevented by delaying the introduction of letter writing until the age of 8 years. Early childhood speech categorization in children genetically at-risk of developing dyslexia is also considered from this perspective. Convergent support for this premature writing hypothesis is provided by a comparison with the development of the left-hand inverted writing posture. PMID:26474440

  12. Multiple sensory and motor cues enhance the accuracy of pursuit eye movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, J. A.; Lackner, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Oculomotor pursuit can be elicited by moving visual, tactile, proprioceptive, and occasionally auditory targets presented singly. Both the accuracy and amount of pursuit are enhanced if the position of the target is specified by cues from several sensory modalities. When the motion of the target is topologically related to movements of the subject's arm, the subject's eyes are more closely phase-locked with the target and reversals of the eyes generally precede target reversal by 10-20 ma.

  13. Shifts in sensory dominance between various stages of user-product interactions.

    PubMed

    Fenko, Anna; Schifferstein, Hendrik N J; Hekkert, Paul

    2010-01-01

    In the area of product design, sensory dominance can be defined as the relative importance of different sensory modalities for product experience. It is often assumed that vision dominates the other senses. In the present study, we asked 243 participants to describe their experiences with consumer products in various situations: while buying a product, after the first week, the first month, and the first year of usage. The data suggest that the dominant sensory modality depends on the period of product usage. At the moment of buying, vision is the most important modality, but during the usage the other sensory modalities gain importance. The roles of the different modalities during usage are product-dependent. Averaged over 93 products analyzed in this study, after one month of usage touch becomes more important than vision, and after one year vision, touch and audition appear to be equally important. We conclude that to create a long-lasting positive product experience, designers need to consider user-product interaction at different stages of product usage and to determine which sensory modality dominates product experience at each stage. PMID:19406380

  14. Discovery of some 400 million year-old sensory structures in the compound eyes of trilobites

    PubMed Central

    Schoenemann, Brigitte; Clarkson, Euan N. K.

    2013-01-01

    Fossilised arthropod compound eyes have frequently been described. Among the oldest known are those from the lower Cambrian of the Chengjiang Lagerstätte (China, c 525?Ma). All these compound eyes, though often excellently preserved, however, represent just the outer shells, because soft tissues, or even individual cells, usually do not fossilise. Using modern techniques, including ?ct-scanning and synchrotron radiation analysis we present the discovery of the sensory cell system of compound eyes, belonging to trilobites around 400 million years old, which allows their description and analysis. They are interpreted as forming part of an apposition-like ommatidium, which is a basic functional type of compound eye present in arthropods of today. Considered in greater detail, it is similar to the compound eye of the horseshoe crab Limulus, generally regarded as a ‘living fossil’, which probably retained this ancient basal system successfully until today. PMID:23492459

  15. Monocular tool control, eye dominance, and laterality in New Caledonian crows.

    PubMed

    Martinho, Antone; Burns, Zackory T; von Bayern, Auguste M P; Kacelnik, Alex

    2014-12-15

    Tool use, though rare, is taxonomically widespread, but morphological adaptations for tool use are virtually unknown. We focus on the New Caledonian crow (NCC, Corvus moneduloides), which displays some of the most innovative tool-related behavior among nonhumans. One of their major food sources is larvae extracted from burrows with sticks held diagonally in the bill, oriented with individual, but not species-wide, laterality. Among possible behavioral and anatomical adaptations for tool use, NCCs possess unusually wide binocular visual fields (up to 60°), suggesting that extreme binocular vision may facilitate tool use. Here, we establish that during natural extractions, tool tips can only be viewed by the contralateral eye. Thus, maintaining binocular view of tool tips is unlikely to have selected for wide binocular fields; the selective factor is more likely to have been to allow each eye to see far enough across the midsagittal line to view the tool's tip monocularly. Consequently, we tested the hypothesis that tool side preference follows eye preference and found that eye dominance does predict tool laterality across individuals. This contrasts with humans' species-wide motor laterality and uncorrelated motor-visual laterality, possibly because bill-held tools are viewed monocularly and move in concert with eyes, whereas hand-held tools are visible to both eyes and allow independent combinations of eye preference and handedness. This difference may affect other models of coordination between vision and mechanical control, not necessarily involving tools. PMID:25484292

  16. Author's personal copy Eye color predicts but does not directly influence perceived dominance in men

    E-print Network

    Flegr, Jaroslav

    color, gender, and psychological characteristics per- ceived from the human face. Photographs of 40 maleAuthor's personal copy Eye color predicts but does not directly influence perceived dominance March 2010 Available online 28 March 2010 Keywords: Iris color Face perception Human evolution Geometric

  17. Changes in Sensory Dominance during Childhood: Converging Evidence from the Colavita Effect and the Sound-Induced Flash Illusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nava, Elena; Pavani, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    In human adults, visual dominance emerges in several multisensory tasks. In children, auditory dominance has been reported up to 4 years of age. To establish when sensory dominance changes during development, 41 children (6-7, 9-10, and 11-12 years) were tested on the Colavita task (Experiment 1) and 32 children (6-7, 9-10, and 11-12 years) were…

  18. Sensory input from the moving hand influences saccadic eye movements during reading.

    PubMed

    Arvind, Vanjare Harshad; Tharion, Elizabeth

    2005-12-01

    Reading involves saccadic eye movements. Measured reading time and the number of mistakes made while reading reflect the speed and accuracy of the saccades in target localization, if all other factors influencing these parameters are kept constant. The observed phenomenon that reading a book is easier when it is held in an individual's hand than when it is not, especially when movement of the reading text occurs while travelling in a vehicle, raises the question of the role of sensory input from the moving arms in guiding saccades in the direction in which the text is moved. To address this question, 12 healthy subjects (6 males and 6 females), aged 19-21 years took part in this study where reading time and the number of mistakes made while reading a non-moving standardized printed text was noted. Similar printed texts were read by the subjects while mechanically moving them at different fixed speeds in the horizontal plane, with and without the subject's arms moving with the text. At each speed, the reading time recorded when the subject's arms moved with the text was significantly lesser than when they did not (P<0.05). The number of mistakes made were significantly more when not moving the arms than when moving them with the text, at higher speed of text movement (P<0.05). The results indicate that sensory input from the passively moving arms guided saccades in the direction of movement of the text during reading. PMID:16283403

  19. The effect of extended sensory range via the EyeCane sensory substitution device on the characteristics of visionless virtual navigation.

    PubMed

    Maidenbaum, Shachar; Levy-Tzedek, Shelly; Chebat, Daniel Robert; Namer-Furstenberg, Rinat; Amedi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Mobility training programs for helping the blind navigate through unknown places with a White-Cane significantly improve their mobility. However, what is the effect of new assistive technologies, offering more information to the blind user, on the underlying premises of these programs such as navigation patterns? We developed the virtual-EyeCane, a minimalistic sensory substitution device translating single-point-distance into auditory cues identical to the EyeCane's in the real world. We compared performance in virtual environments when using the virtual-EyeCane, a virtual-White-Cane, no device and visual navigation. We show that the characteristics of virtual-EyeCane navigation differ from navigation with a virtual-White-Cane or no device, and that virtual-EyeCane users complete more levels successfully, taking shorter paths and with less collisions than these groups, and we demonstrate the relative similarity of virtual-EyeCane and visual navigation patterns. This suggests that additional distance information indeed changes navigation patterns from virtual-White-Cane use, and brings them closer to visual navigation. PMID:25693302

  20. Novel Dominant-Negative Mutation Within the Six Domain of the Conserved Eye Specification Gene sine oculis Inhibits Eye Development in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Roederer, Kristin; Cozy, Loralyn; Anderson, Jason; Kumar, Justin P.

    2009-01-01

    The development of the compound eye of Drosophila is controlled, in part, by the concerted actions of several nuclear proteins that form an intricate regulatory system. One member of this network is sine oculis (so), the founding member of the Six gene family. Mutations within so affect the entire visual system, including the compound eye. The vertebrate homologs Six3 and Six6 also appear to play crucial roles in retinal formation. Mutations in Six3 inhibit retinal formation in chickens and fish, whereas those in Six6 are the underlying cause of bilateral anophthalmia in humans. Together, these phenotypes suggest a conserved role for the Six genes in eye development. In this report, we describe the effects of a dominant-negative mutation of sine oculis on the development of the compound eye of Drosophila. The mutation resides within the Six domain and may have implications for eye development and disease. PMID:15704100

  1. Conjugate Lateral Eye Movement, Cerebral Dominance, and the Figural Creativity Factors of Fluency, Flexibility, Originality, and Elaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerr, Susan L.

    1980-01-01

    This study explored general relationships between figural creativity, as measured by the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking, and cerebral dominance, as identified by the conjugate lateral eye movement (CLEM) interview procedure. Subjects were 175 adults. Results indicated no significant differences in figural creativity due to brain dominance

  2. Microspherophakia-metaphyseal dysplasia: a 'new' dominantly inherited bone dysplasia with severe eye involvement.

    PubMed Central

    Verloes, A; Van Maldergem, L; de Marneffe, P; Dufier, J L; Maroteaux, P

    1990-01-01

    We report a father and son affected by a hitherto unpublished bone dysplasia with moderately severe dwarfism. On initial radiographs, thickening of the diaphyses of the long bones was striking. The small bones of the extremities were almost unaffected. With age, the metaphyseal deformation became more prominent. The epiphyses became irregular and their growth was delayed (particularly the femoral heads). The femoral neck showed an unusual 'lip' on the inner edge. Later, the stubby appearance of the long bones faded and, in adulthood, only enlarged metaphyses and deformed femoral necks persisted. The vertebrae showed moderate deformation with irregular flattening, and narrowing of the spinal canal with a shortened interpedicular distance. The eye defects consisted of high grade myopia, microspherophakia, lens coloboma, lens luxation, and retinal detachment. The name 'microspherophakia-metaphyseal dysplasia' is suggested for this probably autosomal dominant bone dysplasia. Images PMID:2395168

  3. AGONISTIC SENSORY EFFECTS OF AIRBORNE CHEMICALS IN MIXTURES: ODOR, NASAL PUNGENCY, AND EYE IRRITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Threshold responses of odor, nasal pungency (irritation), and eye irritation were measured for single chemicals (1-propanol, 1-hexanol, ethyl acetate, heptyl acetate, 2-pentanone, 2-heptanone, toluene, ethyl benzene, and propyl benzene) and mixtures of them (two three-component m...

  4. Head-eye tracking in two-dimensional pursuit tasks. [sensory feedback control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirachi, D. K.; Black, J. H., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The neurological control systems for the eye and head are studied by investigating dynamic eye and head rotations in two degrees of freedom using bandlimited, white noise stimuli, nominally wide field of view stimulus presentations of + or - 10 deg and power spectral analysis of the data to produce input/output transfer and coherence functions. Determined were frequency response characteristics of these systems, the linearity of the transfer functions in both coupled and decoupled vertical and horizontal stimulus/response reference axes and the amount of cross axis coupling present in system responses. A comparative study was also conducted to assess the differences in response characteristics between single axis and dual axis visual stimulation for the same subject.

  5. Age-dependent gait abnormalities in mice lacking the Rnf170 gene linked to human autosomal-dominant sensory ataxia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngsoo; Kim, Seong Hun; Kim, Kook Hwan; Chae, Sujin; Kim, Chanki; Kim, Jeongjin; Shin, Hee-Sup; Lee, Myung-Shik; Kim, Daesoo

    2015-12-20

    Really interesting new gene (RING) finger protein 170 (RNF170) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase known to mediate ubiquitination-dependent degradation of type-I inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (ITPR1). It has recently been demonstrated that a point mutation of RNF170 gene is linked with autosomal-dominant sensory ataxia (ADSA), which is characterized by an age-dependent increase of walking abnormalities, a rare genetic disorder reported in only two families. Although this mutant allele is known to be dominant, the functional identity thereof has not been clearly established. Here, we generated mice lacking Rnf170 (Rnf170(-/-)) to evaluate the effect of its loss of function in vivo. Remarkably, Rnf170(-/-) mice began to develop gait abnormalities in old age (12 months) in the form of asynchronous stepping between diagonal limb pairs with a fixed step sequence during locomotion, while age-matched wild-type mice showed stable gait patterns using several step sequence repertoires. As reported in ADSA patients, they also showed a reduced sensitivity for proprioception and thermal nociception. Protein blot analysis revealed that the amount of Itpr1 protein was significantly elevated in the cerebellum and spinal cord but intact in the cerebral cortex in Rnf170(-/-) mice. These results suggest that the loss of Rnf170 gene function mediates ADSA-associated phenotypes and this gives insights on the cure of patients with ADSA and other age-dependent walking abnormalities. PMID:26433933

  6. Multiple manifestations of microstimulation in the optic tectum: eye movements, pupil dilations, and sensory priming.

    PubMed

    Netser, Shai; Ohayon, Shay; Gutfreund, Yoram

    2010-07-01

    It is well established that the optic tectum (or its mammalian homologue, the superior colliculus) is involved in directing gaze toward salient stimuli. However, salient stimuli typically induce orienting responses beyond gaze shifts. The role of the optic tectum in generating responses such as pupil dilation, galvanic responses, or covert shifts is not clear. In the present work, we studied the effects of microstimulation in the optic tectum of the barn owl (Tyto alba) on pupil diameter and on eye shifts. Experiments were conducted in lightly anesthetized head-restrained barn owls. We report that low-level microstimulation in the deep layers of the optic tectum readily induced pupil dilation responses (PDRs), as well as small eye movements. Electrically evoked PDRs, similar to acoustically evoked PDRs, were long-lasting and habituated to repeated stimuli. We further show that microstimulation in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus also induced PDRs. Finally, in experiments in which tectal microstimulations were coupled with acoustic stimuli, we show a tendency of the microstimulation to enhance pupil responses and eye shifts to previously habituated acoustic stimuli. The enhancement was dependent on the site of stimulation in the tectal spatial map; responses to sounds with spatial cues that matched the site of stimulation were more enhanced compared with sounds with spatial cues that did not match. These results suggest that the optic tectum is directly involved in autonomic orienting reflexes as well as in gaze shifts, highlighting the central role of the optic tectum in mediating the body responses to salient stimuli. PMID:20427617

  7. Guiding the Eye: A Non-photorealistic Solution for Controlling Viewer Interest 

    E-print Network

    Piedra, Pedro A.

    2012-02-14

    dominant view of the intelligent eye derived from the nineteenth century German psychologist Hermann von Helmholtz [G regory, 1997, p. 5]. Its basic premise is that ?sensory signals are not adequate for direct or certain perceptions; so intelligent...

  8. Short-term monocular deprivation strengthens the patched eye's contribution to binocular combination.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiawei; Clavagnier, Simon; Hess, Robert F

    2013-01-01

    Binocularity is a fundamental property of primate vision. Ocular dominance describes the perceptual weight given to the inputs from the two eyes in their binocular combination. There is a distribution of sensory dominance within the normal binocular population with most subjects having balanced inputs while some are dominated by the left eye and some by the right eye. Using short-term monocular deprivation, the sensory dominance can be modulated as, under these conditions, the patched eye's contribution is strengthened. We address two questions: Is this strengthening a general effect such that it is seen for different types of sensory processing? And is the strengthening specific to pattern deprivation, or does it also occur for light deprivation? Our results show that the strengthening effect is a general finding involving a number of sensory functions, and it occurs as a result of both pattern and light deprivation. PMID:23599416

  9. Pax6 in the sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes: evidence for a role in eye, sensory organ and brain development

    E-print Network

    McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    -swimming and behaviorally sophisti- cated cephalopods. The cephalopod brain is comparable in complexity to the vertebrate molluscan classes. The eyes of cephalopods represent one of the major types of complex photoreceptor organs alongside the vertebrate and arthropod eyes (Salvini- Plawen and Mayr, 1977). Thus, the cephalopods provide

  10. Abstract It was hypothesised that P2X3 receptors, pre-dominantly labelling spinal and cranial sensory gangli-

    E-print Network

    Burnstock, Geoffrey

    Abstract It was hypothesised that P2X3 receptors, pre- dominantly labelling spinal and cranial that extrinsic sen- sory nerves expressing P2X3 are involved in a purinergic mechanosensory transduction pathway

  11. Eye closure enhances dark night perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Brodoehl, Stefan; Klingner, Carsten M.; Witte, Otto W.

    2015-01-01

    We often close our eyes when we explore objects with our fingers to reduce the dominance of the visual system over our other senses. Here we show that eye closure, even in complete darkness, results in improved somatosensory perception due to a switch from visual predominance towards a somatosensory processing mode. Using a tactile discrimination task and functional neuroimaging (fMRI) data were acquired from healthy subjects with their eyes opened and closed in two environments: under ambient light and in complete darkness. Under both conditions the perception threshold decreased when subjects closed their eyes, and their fingers became more sensitive. In complete darkness, eye closure significantly increased occipital blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) activity in the somatosensory and secondary visual processing areas. This change in brain activity was associated with enhanced coupling between the sensory thalamus and somatosensory cortex; connectivity between the visual and somatosensory areas decreased. The present study demonstrates that eye closure improves somatosensory perception not merely due to the lack of visual signals; instead, the act of closing the eyes itself alters the processing mode in the brain: with eye closure the brain switches from thalamo-cortical networks with visual dominance to a non-visually dominated processing mode. PMID:26012706

  12. Eye closure enhances dark night perceptions.

    PubMed

    Brodoehl, Stefan; Klingner, Carsten M; Witte, Otto W

    2015-01-01

    We often close our eyes when we explore objects with our fingers to reduce the dominance of the visual system over our other senses. Here we show that eye closure, even in complete darkness, results in improved somatosensory perception due to a switch from visual predominance towards a somatosensory processing mode. Using a tactile discrimination task and functional neuroimaging (fMRI) data were acquired from healthy subjects with their eyes opened and closed in two environments: under ambient light and in complete darkness. Under both conditions the perception threshold decreased when subjects closed their eyes, and their fingers became more sensitive. In complete darkness, eye closure significantly increased occipital blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) activity in the somatosensory and secondary visual processing areas. This change in brain activity was associated with enhanced coupling between the sensory thalamus and somatosensory cortex; connectivity between the visual and somatosensory areas decreased. The present study demonstrates that eye closure improves somatosensory perception not merely due to the lack of visual signals; instead, the act of closing the eyes itself alters the processing mode in the brain: with eye closure the brain switches from thalamo-cortical networks with visual dominance to a non-visually dominated processing mode. PMID:26012706

  13. A database of 629 English compound words: ratings of familiarity, lexeme meaning dominance, semantic transparency, age of acquisition, imageability, and sensory experience.

    PubMed

    Juhasz, Barbara J; Lai, Yun-Hsuan; Woodcock, Michelle L

    2015-12-01

    Since the work of Taft and Forster (1976), a growing literature has examined how English compound words are recognized and organized in the mental lexicon. Much of this research has focused on whether compound words are decomposed during recognition by manipulating the word frequencies of their lexemes. However, many variables may impact morphological processing, including relational semantic variables such as semantic transparency, as well as additional form-related and semantic variables. In the present study, ratings were collected on 629 English compound words for six variables [familiarity, age of acquisition (AoA), semantic transparency, lexeme meaning dominance (LMD), imageability, and sensory experience ratings (SER)]. All of the compound words selected for this study are contained within the English Lexicon Project (Balota et al., 2007), which made it possible to use a regression approach to examine the predictive power of these variables for lexical decision and word naming performance. Analyses indicated that familiarity, AoA, imageability, and SER were all significant predictors of both lexical decision and word naming performance when they were added separately to a model containing the length and frequency of the compounds, as well as the lexeme frequencies. In addition, rated semantic transparency also predicted lexical decision performance. The database of English compound words should be beneficial to word recognition researchers who are interested in selecting items for experiments on compound words, and it will also allow researchers to conduct further analyses using the available data combined with word recognition times included in the English Lexicon Project. PMID:25361864

  14. INTRODUCTION Sensory antennae

    E-print Network

    Reichenbach, Tobias

    , on the scale of organs, the cornea and lens of the human eye constitute a sensory antenna that captures light antennae, for they provide a large surface over which to capture light and transfer the resultant, enhancing the animal's sensitivity, but also spectrally modifies the incoming sound (Middlebrooks and Green

  15. Research Highlight Neural Circuits That Drive Binocular Eye Movements

    E-print Network

    Research Highlight Neural Circuits That Drive Binocular Eye Movements: Implications goggles). As adults, these strabismic monkeys make eye movements much like strabismus patients (i that drive horizontal eye movements, these results provide evidence that changes in either sensory input

  16. Hawk Eyes I: Diurnal Raptors Differ in Visual Fields and Degree of Eye Movement

    E-print Network

    Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    Hawk Eyes I: Diurnal Raptors Differ in Visual Fields and Degree of Eye Movement Colleen T. O specific demands on sensory modalities. We studied visual field configuration, degree of eye movement system. We found inter-specific variation in visual field configuration and degree of eye movement

  17. Sensory development.

    PubMed

    Clark-Gambelunghe, Melinda B; Clark, David A

    2015-04-01

    Sensory development is complex, with both morphologic and neural components. Development of the senses begins in early fetal life, initially with structures and then in-utero stimulation initiates perception. After birth, environmental stimulants accelerate each sensory organ to nearly complete maturity several months after birth. Vision and hearing are the best studied senses and the most crucial for learning. This article focuses on the cranial senses of vision, hearing, smell, and taste. Sensory function, embryogenesis, external and genetic effects, and common malformations that may affect development are discussed, and the corresponding sensory organs are examined and evaluated. PMID:25836703

  18. Identification and immunocytochemical characterization of Piccolino, a novel Piccolo splice variant selectively expressed at sensory ribbon synapses of the eye and ear.

    PubMed

    Regus-Leidig, Hanna; Ott, Corinna; Löhner, Martina; Atorf, Jenny; Fuchs, Michaela; Sedmak, Tina; Kremers, Jan; Fejtová, Anna; Gundelfinger, Eckart D; Brandstätter, Johann H

    2013-01-01

    Piccolo is one of the largest cytomatrix proteins present at active zones of chemical synapses, where it is suggested to play a role in recruiting and integrating molecules relevant for both synaptic vesicle exo- and endocytosis. Here we examined the retina of a Piccolo-mutant mouse with a targeted deletion of exon 14 in the Pclo gene. Piccolo deficiency resulted in its profound loss at conventional chemical amacrine cell synapses but retinal ribbon synapses were structurally and functionally unaffected. This led to the identification of a shorter, ribbon-specific Piccolo variant, Piccolino, present in retinal photoreceptor cells, bipolar cells, as well as in inner hair cells of the inner ear. By RT-PCR analysis and the generation of a Piccolino-specific antibody we show that non-splicing of intron 5/6 leads to premature translation termination and generation of the C-terminally truncated protein specifically expressed at active zones of ribbon synapse containing cell types. With in situ proximity ligation assays we provide evidence that this truncation leads to the absence of interaction sites for Bassoon, Munc13, and presumably also ELKS/CAST, RIM2, and the L-type Ca(2) (+) channel which exist in the full-length Piccolo at active zones of conventional chemical synapses. The putative lack of interactions with proteins of the active zone suggests a function of Piccolino at ribbon synapses of sensory neurons different from Piccolo's function at conventional chemical synapses. PMID:23936420

  19. Eye Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    Your eyes can get infections from bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Eye infections can occur in different parts of the eye and can affect just one eye or both. Two common eye infections are Conjunctivitis - also known as pinkeye. Conjunctivitis is ...

  20. Black Eye

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Eye Health News Consumer Alerts What Is a Black Eye? Tweet Black eye is a phrase used to describe bruising ... dark bruising in the tissue. What Is a Black Eye? Black Eye Symptoms What Causes a Black ...

  1. Age-dependent modulation of the somatosensory network upon eye closure.

    PubMed

    Brodoehl, Stefan; Klingner, Carsten; Witte, Otto W

    2016-02-01

    Eye closure even in complete darkness can improve somatosensory perception by switching the brain to a uni-sensory processing mode. This causes an increased information flow between the thalamus and the somatosensory cortex while decreasing modulation by the visual cortex. Previous work suggests that these modulations are age-dependent and that the benefit in somatosensory performance due to eye closing diminishes with age. The cause of this age-dependency and to what extent somatosensory processing is involved remains unclear. Therefore, we intended to characterize the underlying age-dependent modifications in the interaction and connectivity of different sensory networks caused by eye closure. We performed functional MR-imaging with tactile stimulation of the right hand under the conditions of opened and closed eyes in healthy young and elderly participants. Conditional Granger causality analysis was performed to assess the somatosensory and visual networks, including the thalamus. Independent of age, eye closure improved the information transfer from the thalamus to and within the somatosensory cortex. However, beyond that, we found an age-dependent recruitment strategy. Whereas young participants were characterized by an optimized information flow within the relays of the somatosensory network, elderly participants revealed a stronger modulatory influence of the visual network upon the somatosensory cortex. Our results demonstrate that the modulation of the somatosensory and visual networks by eye closure diminishes with age and that the dominance of the visual system is more pronounced in the aging brain. PMID:26546882

  2. Dry Eye

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Education Programs Training and Jobs Facts About Dry Eye Listen This information was developed by the National ... the best person to answer specific questions. Dry Eye Defined What is dry eye? Dry eye occurs ...

  3. Eye redness

    MedlinePLUS

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral infection; Conjunctival infection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies and some are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Others are nothing to worry about. ...

  4. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Healthy Eyes Listen Having a comprehensive dilated eye exam is ... or contact lenses. What is a comprehensive dilated eye exam? A comprehensive dilated eye exam is a ...

  5. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Eye Cancer: Overview Request Permissions Print to PDF Eye Cancer: Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... trained to treat intraocular cancer. Parts of the eye The eye is the organ that collects light ...

  6. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking ... have a comprehensive dilated eye exam. Who Performs Eye Exams? An eye care professional is either an ...

  7. Eye Allergies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts What Are Eye Allergies? Tweet Eye allergies, called allergic conjunctivitis , are ... that Led to a Diabetes Diagnosis Find An Eye M.D. Enter zip code here Search by ...

  8. Sensory Dysfunction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Web version Sensory Dysfunction Overview Why are smell and taste important? Your senses of smell and taste let you fully enjoy the scents ... bitter and sour. Flavor involves both taste and smell. For example, because a person is able to ...

  9. Finding twinkle in the eyes of a 71-year-old lady: a case report and review of the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of TWINKLE-related dominant disease.

    PubMed

    Van Hove, Johan L K; Cunningham, Vicki; Rice, Cathlin; Ringel, Steven P; Zhang, Qing; Chou, Ping-Chieh; Truong, Cavatina K; Wong, Lee-Jun C

    2009-05-01

    Progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO) can be caused by a disorder characterized by multiple mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions due to mutations in the TWINKLE gene, encoding a mtDNA helicase. We describe a 71-year-old woman who had developed PEO at age 55 years. She had cataracts, diabetes, paresthesias, cognitive defects, memory problems, hearing loss, and sensory ataxia. She had muscle weakness with ragged red fibers on biopsy. MRI showed static white matter changes. A c.908G>A substitution (p.R303Q) in the TWINKLE gene was identified. Multiple mtDNA deletions were detected in muscle but not blood by a PCR-based method, but not by Southern blot analysis. MtDNA copy number was maintained in blood and muscle. A systematic literature search was used to identify the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of dominant TWINKLE-related disease. Patients were adults with PEO and symptoms including myopathy, neuropathy, dysarthria or dysphagia, sensory ataxia, and parkinsonism. Diabetes, cataract, memory loss, hearing loss, and cardiac problems were infrequent. All reported mutations clustered between amino acids 303 and 508 with no mutations at the N-terminal half of the gene. The TWINKLE gene should be analyzed in adults with PEO even in the absence of mtDNA deletions in muscle on Southern blot analysis, and of a family history for PEO. The pathogenic mutations identified 5' beyond the linker region suggest a functional role for this part of the protein despite the absence of a primase function in humans. In our patient, the pathogenesis involved multiple mtDNA deletions without reduction in mtDNA copy number. PMID:19353676

  10. Stance width changes how sensory feedback is used for multisegmental balance control

    PubMed Central

    Mellodge, Patricia; Peterka, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    A multilink sensorimotor integration model of frontal plane balance control was developed to determine how stance width influences the use of sensory feedback in healthy adults. Data used to estimate model parameters came from seven human participants who stood on a continuously rotating surface with three different stimulus amplitudes, with eyes open and closed, and at four different stance widths. Dependent variables included lower body (LB) and upper body (UB) sway quantified by frequency-response functions. Results showed that stance width had a major influence on how parameters varied across stimulus amplitude and between visual conditions. Active mechanisms dominated LB control. At narrower stances, with increasing stimulus amplitude, subjects used sensory reweighting to shift reliance from proprioceptive cues to vestibular and/or visual cues that oriented the LB more toward upright. When vision was available, subjects reduced reliance on proprioception and increased reliance on vision. At wider stances, LB control did not exhibit sensory reweighting. In the UB system, both active and passive mechanisms contributed and were dependent on stance width. UB control changed across stimulus amplitude most in wide stance (opposite of the pattern found in LB control). The strong influence of stance width on sensory integration and neural feedback control implies that rehabilitative therapies for balance disorders can target different aspects of balance control by using different stance widths. Rehabilitative strategies designed to assess or modify sensory reweighting will be most effective with the use of narrower stances, whereas wider stances present greater challenges to UB control. PMID:24760788

  11. A novel mutation (ASn244Lys) in the peripherin/RDS gene causing autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa associated with bull's eye maculopathy detected by nonradioisotopic SSCP

    SciTech Connect

    Kikawa, Emi; Nakazawa, Mitsuru; Chida, Yasushi; Shiono, Takashi; Tamai, Makota )

    1994-03-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is characterized by night blindness, an eventual loss of visual field, a diminished response on the electroretinogram, and pigmentary retinal degeneration. These features are primarily explained by the degeneration of photoreceptors. The recent development of the molecular genetic approach has enabled the identification of genes responsible for parts of autosomal dominant RP (ADRP). Rhodopsin and peripherin/RDS genes, in particular, have been successfully shown to cosegregate with ADRP. The authors, therefore, screened 42 unrelated Japanese patients with ADRP to search for mutations in the peripherin/RDS gene. The method we employed for screening was a nonradioisotopic modification of single-strand conformation polymorphism. Among 42 unrelated patients with ADRP, the DNA from one patient (SY) showed an abnormal pattern in exon 2 on SSCP. The DNA fragments were then amplified from affected and nonaffected members of the same family as SY. The alteration in the DNA sequence that was commonly found in the affected members of the family was identified as a heterozygous transversional change of C to A at the third nucleotide in codon 244, resulting in the amino acid replacement of asparagine residue with lysine residue. None of unaffected family members or 30 normal control individuals had this alteration.

  12. Eye Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  13. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  14. Eye emergencies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... eye turns black and blue, gradually becoming purple, green, and yellow over several days. The abnormal color ... direct hit to the eye from a ball. Chemical injuries A chemical injury to the eye can ...

  15. Eye Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  16. Reading strategies in mild to moderate strabismic amblyopia: an eye movement investigation.

    PubMed

    Kanonidou, Evgenia; Proudlock, Frank A; Gottlob, Irene

    2010-07-01

    PURPOSE. To investigate oculomotor strategies in strabismic amblyopia and evaluate abnormalities during monocular and binocular reading. METHODS. Eye movements were recorded with a head-mounted infrared video eye-tracker (250 Hz, <0.01 degrees resolution) in 20 strabismic amblyopes (mean age, 44.9 +/- 10.7 years) and 20 normal control subjects (mean age, 42.8 +/- 10.9 years) while they silently read paragraphs of text. Monocular reading comparisons were made between the amblyopic eye and the nondominant eye of control subjects and the nonamblyopic eye and the dominant eye of the control subjects. Binocular reading between the amblyopic and control subjects was also compared. RESULTS. Mean reading speed, number of progressive and regressive saccades per line, saccadic amplitude (of progressive saccades), and fixation duration were estimated. Inter- and intrasubject statistical comparisons were made. Reading speed was significantly slower in amblyopes than in control subjects during monocular reading with amblyopic (13.094 characters/s vs. 22.188 characters/s; P < 0.0001) and nonamblyopic eyes (16.241 characters/s vs. 22.349 characters/s, P < 0.0001), and binocularly (15.698 characters/s vs. 23.425 characters/s, P < 0.0001). In amblyopes, reading was significantly slower with the amblyopic eye than with the nonamblyopic eye in binocular viewing (P < 0.05). These differences were associated with significantly more regressive saccades and longer fixation durations, but not with changes in saccadic amplitudes. CONCLUSIONS. In strabismic amblyopia, reading is impaired, not only during monocular viewing with the amblyopic eye, but also with the nonamblyopic eye and binocularly, even though normal visual acuity pertains to the latter two conditions. The impaired reading performance is associated with differences in both the saccadic and fixational patterns, most likely as adaptation strategies to abnormal sensory experiences such as crowding and suppression. PMID:20207968

  17. Evidence of multisensory plasticity: Asymmetrical medial geniculate body in people with one eye

    PubMed Central

    Moro, Stefania S.; Kelly, Krista R.; McKetton, Larissa; Gallie, Brenda L.; Steeves, Jennifer K.E.

    2015-01-01

    The medial geniculate body (MGB) plays a central role in auditory processing with both efferent and afferent tracts to primary auditory cortex. People who have lost one eye early in life have enhanced sound localization, lack visual over auditory dominance and integrate auditory and visual information optimally, similar to controls, despite taking longer to localize unimodal visual stimuli. Compared to controls, people with one eye have decreased lateral geniculate nuclei (LGN) volume as expected given the 50% deafferentation of the visual system. However, LGN volume is larger than predicted contralateral to the remaining eye, indicating altered structural development likely through recruitment of deafferented LGN cells. Purpose: the current study investigated whether structural MGB changes are also present in this group given the changes they exhibit in auditory processing. Methods: MGB volumes were measured in adults who had undergone early unilateral eye enucleation and were compared to binocularly intact controls. Results: unlike controls, people with one eye had a significant asymmetry with a larger left compared to right MGB, independent of eye of enucleation. MGB volume correlated positively with LGN volume in people with one eye. Conclusions: volume asymmetry in the MGB in people with one eye may represent increased interactions between the left MGB and primary auditory cortex. This interaction could contribute to increased auditory and other left hemisphere-dominant processing, including language, as compensation for the loss of one half of visual inputs early in life. The positive correlation between MGB and LGN volume is not due to space constraints but rather indicates increased plasticity in both auditory and visual sensory systems following early eye enucleation. PMID:26594632

  18. The eyes of Macrosoma sp. (Lepidoptera: Hedyloidea): A nocturnal butterfly with superposition optics

    E-print Network

    Yack, Jayne E.

    The eyes of Macrosoma sp. (Lepidoptera: Hedyloidea): A nocturnal butterfly with superposition 2006; accepted 7 June 2006 Abstract The visual system of nocturnal Hedyloidea butterflies eyes of true butterflies (Papilionoidea), and, to gain insights into the sensory ecology

  19. Neonatal sensory nerve injury-induced synaptic plasticity in the trigeminal principal sensory nucleus.

    PubMed

    Lo, Fu-Sun; Erzurumlu, Reha S

    2016-01-01

    Sensory deprivation studies in neonatal mammals, such as monocular eye closure, whisker trimming, and chemical blockade of the olfactory epithelium have revealed the importance of sensory inputs in brain wiring during distinct critical periods. But very few studies have paid attention to the effects of neonatal peripheral sensory nerve damage on synaptic wiring of the central nervous system (CNS) circuits. Peripheral somatosensory nerves differ from other special sensory afferents in that they are more prone to crush or severance because of their locations in the body. Unlike the visual and auditory afferents, these nerves show regenerative capabilities after damage. Uniquely, damage to a somatosensory peripheral nerve does not only block activity incoming from the sensory receptors but also mediates injury-induced neuro- and glial chemical signals to the brain through the uninjured central axons of the primary sensory neurons. These chemical signals can have both far more and longer lasting effects than sensory blockade alone. Here we review studies which focus on the consequences of neonatal peripheral sensory nerve damage in the principal sensory nucleus of the brainstem trigeminal complex. PMID:25956829

  20. The injured eye

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Eye injuries come at a high cost to society and are avoidable. Ocular blast injuries can be primary, from the blast wave itself; secondary, from fragments carried by the blast wind; tertiary; due to structural collapse or being thrown against a fixed object; or quaternary, from burns and indirect injuries. Ballistic eye protection significantly reduces the incidence of eye injuries and should be encouraged from an early stage in Military training. Management of an injured eye requires meticulous history taking, evaluation of vision that measures the acuity and if there is a relative pupillary defect as well as careful inspection of the eyes, under anaesthetic if necessary. A lateral canthotomy with cantholysis should be performed immediately if there is a sight-threatening retrobulbar haemorrhage. Systemic antibiotics should be prescribed if there is a suspected penetrating or perforating injury. A ruptured globe should be protected by an eye shield. Primary repair of ruptured globes should be performed in a timely fashion. Secondary procedures will often be required at a later date to achieve sight preservation. A poor initial visual acuity is not a guarantee of a poor final result. The final result can be predicted after approximately 3–4 weeks. Future research in eye injuries attempts to reduce scarring and neuronal damage as well as to promote photoreceptor rescue, using post-transcriptional inhibition of cell death pathways and vaccination to promote neural recovery. Where the sight has been lost sensory substitution of a picture from a spectacle mounted video camera to the touch receptors of the tongue can be used to achieve appreciation of the outside world. PMID:21149360

  1. Anatomy of the Eye

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Errors Scientists in the Laboratory Visual Acuity Testing Anatomy of the Eye Drawing of the Eye Drawing ... Eye Normally Developing Eye Drawing of the Eye Anatomy of the Eye Drawing of the Eye NEI ...

  2. Eye Anatomy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  3. Eye Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Do you have diabetes, and have you noticed any changes in your vision? Yes Over time, too much glucose (sugar) in the ... eye pink, red or irritated, and are there any secretions or mucus from the eye? Yes CONJUNCTIVITIS, also called "PINK EYE," can be caused ...

  4. Flexibility and Stability in Sensory Processing Revealed Using Visual-to-Auditory Sensory Substitution

    PubMed Central

    Hertz, Uri; Amedi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    The classical view of sensory processing involves independent processing in sensory cortices and multisensory integration in associative areas. This hierarchical structure has been challenged by evidence of multisensory responses in sensory areas, and dynamic weighting of sensory inputs in associative areas, thus far reported independently. Here, we used a visual-to-auditory sensory substitution algorithm (SSA) to manipulate the information conveyed by sensory inputs while keeping the stimuli intact. During scan sessions before and after SSA learning, subjects were presented with visual images and auditory soundscapes. The findings reveal 2 dynamic processes. First, crossmodal attenuation of sensory cortices changed direction after SSA learning from visual attenuations of the auditory cortex to auditory attenuations of the visual cortex. Secondly, associative areas changed their sensory response profile from strongest response for visual to that for auditory. The interaction between these phenomena may play an important role in multisensory processing. Consistent features were also found in the sensory dominance in sensory areas and audiovisual convergence in associative area Middle Temporal Gyrus. These 2 factors allow for both stability and a fast, dynamic tuning of the system when required. PMID:24518756

  5. Flexibility and Stability in Sensory Processing Revealed Using Visual-to-Auditory Sensory Substitution.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Uri; Amedi, Amir

    2015-08-01

    The classical view of sensory processing involves independent processing in sensory cortices and multisensory integration in associative areas. This hierarchical structure has been challenged by evidence of multisensory responses in sensory areas, and dynamic weighting of sensory inputs in associative areas, thus far reported independently. Here, we used a visual-to-auditory sensory substitution algorithm (SSA) to manipulate the information conveyed by sensory inputs while keeping the stimuli intact. During scan sessions before and after SSA learning, subjects were presented with visual images and auditory soundscapes. The findings reveal 2 dynamic processes. First, crossmodal attenuation of sensory cortices changed direction after SSA learning from visual attenuations of the auditory cortex to auditory attenuations of the visual cortex. Secondly, associative areas changed their sensory response profile from strongest response for visual to that for auditory. The interaction between these phenomena may play an important role in multisensory processing. Consistent features were also found in the sensory dominance in sensory areas and audiovisual convergence in associative area Middle Temporal Gyrus. These 2 factors allow for both stability and a fast, dynamic tuning of the system when required. PMID:24518756

  6. Eye Protection

    PubMed Central

    Pashby, Tom

    1986-01-01

    Eye injuries frequently occur in the home, at work and at play. Many result in legally blind eyes, and most are preventable. Awareness of potential hazards is essential to preventing eye injuries, particularly in children. In addition, protective devices must be used appropriately. We have developed eye protectors that have proved effective in reducing both the overall incidence and the severity of sports eye injuries. ImagesFigures 2a, bFigure 3Figures 4a, b, c, dFigure 5 PMID:21267100

  7. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... TOPIC Your Child's Vision Eye Injuries First Aid: Pinkeye Pinkeye (Conjunctivitis) Corneal Abrasions A to Z: Blepharitis A to ... Foreign Body, Eye Styes Eyes A to Z: Conjunctivitis (Pinkeye) Activity: Eyes QuizSource: Eyes Answers: Eyes Styes ...

  8. Bidirectional ocular dominance plasticity of inhibitory networks: recent advances and unresolved questions

    E-print Network

    Smith, Gordon B.

    Monocular visual deprivation (MD) produces profound changes in the ocular dominance (OD) of neurons in the visual cortex. MD shifts visually evoked responses away from the deprived eye and toward domination by the open-eye. ...

  9. Electrotactile and vibrotactile displays for sensory substitution systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaczmarek, Kurt A.; Webster, John G.; Bach-Y-rita, Paul; Tompkins, Willis J.

    1991-01-01

    Sensory substitution systems provide their users with environmental information through a human sensory channel (eye, ear, or skin) different from that normally used or with the information processed in some useful way. The authors review the methods used to present visual, auditory, and modified tactile information to the skin and discuss present and potential future applications of sensory substitution, including tactile vision substitution (TVS), tactile auditory substitution, and remote tactile sensing or feedback (teletouch). The relevant sensory physiology of the skin, including the mechanisms of normal touch and the mechanisms and sensations associated with electrical stimulation of the skin using surface electrodes (electrotactile, or electrocutaneous, stimulation), is reviewed. The information-processing ability of the tactile sense and its relevance to sensory substitution is briefly summarized. The limitations of current tactile display technologies are discussed.

  10. Sensory pathophysiology in chronic acquired demyelinating neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Krarup, C; Trojaborg, W

    1996-02-01

    Pathophysiological changes in sensory fibres in chronic acquired demyelinating neuropathy (CADP) are poorly understood, and it is not known to what extent sensory loss may be due to axonal loss or to conduction block. Motor and sensory nerve condition were studied in 18 patients with CADP to delineate abnormalities in the compound sensory action potential (CSAP) recorded proximally along the limb. To distinguish small CSAPs from noise, near-nerve needle electrodes and electronic averaging were used. In all, 58 motor and 78 sensory nerves in the upper and lower limbs were studied, and in 29 nerves, motor and sensory conduction was compared over the same proximal and distal segments of the upper limbs. The proximal/distal amplitude ratio (P/D ratio) of the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) was reduced in 76% of the nerves compared with only 21% of the CSAPs. The amplitudes of CMAPs evoked and of CSAPs recorded distally were reduced to the same extent. The prolongation of the distal motor latency (DML) was linearly related to the reduction in amplitude of the CMAP whereas reduction of the distal sensory conduction velocity (SCVd) mainly occurred if the amplitude of the CSAP was reduced more than 70%. The proximal motor nerve conduction velocity (MCVp) was reduced by 40-50%, twice as much as the reduction in distal MCV (MCVd) (calculated from the reciprocal DML), and related to the reduction in the P/D ratio of the CMAP. The proximal SCV (SCVp) decreased approximately 20%, similar to the reduction in SCVd and out of proportion to the marked reduction of the MCVp. The results suggest different pathophysiological changes in sensory and motor fibres in CADP. Thus, nerve fibre loss could account for most of the abnormal parameters in sensory conduction, whereas demyelination was the dominating cause of motor nerve dysfunction. PMID:8624687

  11. Novel automatic eye detection and tracking algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Kamarul Hawari; Jadin, Mohd Shawal; Jie, Ma; Xiao, Rui

    2015-04-01

    The eye is not only one of the most complex but also the most important sensory organ of the human body. Eye detection and eye tracking are basement and hot issue in image processing. A non-invasive eye location and eye tracking is promising for hands-off gaze-based human-computer interface, fatigue detection, instrument control by paraplegic patients and so on. For this purpose, an innovation work frame is proposed to detect and tracking eye in video sequence in this paper. The contributions of this work can be divided into two parts. The first contribution is that eye filters were trained which can detect eye location efficiently and accurately without constraints on the background and skin colour. The second contribution is that a framework of tracker based on sparse representation and LK optic tracker were built which can track eye without constraint on eye status. The experimental results demonstrate the accuracy aspects and the real-time applicability of the proposed approach.

  12. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... to 60 Adults Over 60 Babies, Children & Teenagers Computer Usage Diabetes Diet & Nutrition Eye Injuries Eye Screening ... Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes During Pregnancy Computer Usage & Eye Strain Maintaining Your Sight with Diabetes ...

  13. Your Eyes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... inside your eye! Try looking away from your computer and focusing on something way across the room. ... in life. For instance, a lens could get cloudy, causing a cataract . A cataract prevents light from ...

  14. Dry eyes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... dry eyes include: Aging Dry environment or workplace (wind, air conditioning) Sun exposure Smoking or second-hand ... Don't smoke. Avoid second-hand smoke, direct wind, and air conditioning. Use a humidifier, especially in ...

  15. Altered Accuracy of Saccadic Eye Movements in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    E-print Network

    Munoz, Douglas Perry

    Altered Accuracy of Saccadic Eye Movements in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder worldwide. The measurement and quantification of saccadic eye movements is a powerful tool for assessing sensory, motor, and cognitive function. The quality of the motor process of an eye movement is known

  16. Sensory Conversion Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medelius, Pedro

    The human body has five basic sensory functions: touch, vision, hearing, taste, and smell. The effectiveness of one or more of these human sensory functions can be impaired as a result of trauma, congenital defects, or the normal ageing process. Converting one type of function into another, or translating a function to a different part of the body, could result in a better quality of life for a person with diminished sensorial capabilities.

  17. Eye tracker.

    PubMed

    Pruehsner, W; Enderle, J D

    1999-01-01

    A device that records saccadic eye movements, the Eye Tracker, is presented in this paper. The Eye Tracker utilizes infra-red technology mounted on fully adjustable goggles to follow eye movements targeted by either a goggles mounted HUD type display or a wall mounted light bank. Output from the goggles is remotely sent to a PC type computer, which leads to device portability. The goggles can also maintain output data in an internal memory for latter download. The user interface is Windows based with the output from the goggles represented as a trace map or plotted points. This output can also be saved or printed for future reference. The user interface can be used on any PC type computer. The device is designed with reference to standard ISO design methodology. Safety in design and final product usage has also been addressed with reference to standard ISO type procedures. Device accuracy is maintained by precise construction of the IR units in the goggles and tight control of cross talk between each IR device plus filtering of ambient light signals. Also, a reset feature is included to maintain equal baseline control. An automatic switching device is included in the goggles to allow the Eye Tracker to "warm up," assuring that equal IR power is delivered for each subject tested. The IR units in the goggles are also modular in case replacement is required. PMID:11143354

  18. Ocular dominance columns in strabismus.

    PubMed

    Adams, Daniel L; Horton, Jonathan C

    2006-01-01

    During development, the projection from the lateral geniculate nucleus to striate cortex becomes segregated into monocular regions called ocular dominance columns. Prior studies in cats have suggested that experimental strabismus or alternating monocular occlusion increases the width and segregation of columns. In the squirrel monkey, strabismus has been reported to induce the formation of ocular dominance columns. However, these studies are difficult to interpret because no animal can serve as its own control and the degree of inter-individual variability among normal subjects is considerable. We have re-examined the effect of strabismus on ocular dominance columns in a large group of strabismic and normal squirrel monkeys. Five animals rendered strabismic at age one week had well-developed, widely spaced columns. Among 16 control animals, a wide spectrum of column morphology was encountered. Some control animals lacked ocular dominance columns, whereas others had columns similar to those observed in strabismic animals. Natural variation in column expression in normal squirrel monkeys, and potential uncontrolled genetic influences, made it impossible to determine if strabismus affects ocular dominance columns. It was evident however, that strabismus does not affect the binocular projection from the lateral geniculate nucleus to each CO patch in the upper layers. In strabismic monkeys, just as in normal animals, each patch received input from geniculate afferents serving both the left eye and the right eye. In addition, in strabismic monkeys, as in normal animals, patches were not aligned with ocular dominance columns. PMID:17020634

  19. Eye choice for acquisition of targets in alternating strabismus.

    PubMed

    Economides, John R; Adams, Daniel L; Horton, Jonathan C

    2014-10-29

    In strabismus, potentially either eye can inform the brain about the location of a target so that an accurate saccade can be made. Sixteen human subjects with alternating exotropia were tested dichoptically while viewing stimuli on a tangent screen. Each trial began with a fixation cross visible to only one eye. After the subject fixated the cross, a peripheral target visible to only one eye flashed briefly. The subject's task was to look at it. As a rule, the eye to which the target was presented was the eye that acquired the target. However, when stimuli were presented in the far nasal visual field, subjects occasionally performed a "crossover" saccade by placing the other eye on the target. This strategy avoided the need to make a large adducting saccade. In such cases, information about target location was obtained by one eye and used to program a saccade for the other eye, with a corresponding latency increase. In 10/16 subjects, targets were presented on some trials to both eyes. Binocular sensory maps were also compiled to delineate the portions of the visual scene perceived with each eye. These maps were compared with subjects' pattern of eye choice for target acquisition. There was a correspondence between suppression scotoma maps and the eye used to acquire peripheral targets. In other words, targets were fixated by the eye used to perceive them. These studies reveal how patients with alternating strabismus, despite eye misalignment, manage to localize and capture visual targets in their environment. PMID:25355212

  20. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SENSORY SYSTEMS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to many neurotoxic compounds has been shown to produce a sensory system dysfunction. Neurophysiological assessment of sensory function in humans and animal models often uses techniques known as sensory evoked potentials. Because both humans and animals show analogous res...

  1. Sensory Correlations in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Janet K.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Grannemann, Bruce D.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Johnson, Danny G.; Andrews, Alonzo A.; Savla, Jayshree S.; Mehta, Jyutika A.; Schroeder, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between auditory, visual, touch, and oral sensory dysfunction in autism and their relationship to multisensory dysfunction and severity of autism. The Sensory Profile was completed on 104 persons with a diagnosis of autism, 3 to 56 years of age. Analysis showed a significant correlation between the different…

  2. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... ophthalmology department of a hospital or clinic. Your eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound ...

  3. Googly Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Beverage take-out trays are funky in their form and function. In this article, the author describes how to make googly eye masks out of discarded take-out trays and other common recycled or discarded materials. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  4. Preventing Eye Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Preventing Eye Injuries Tweet Protecting your eyes from injury is ... as possible, even if the injury seems minor. Eye Injury Facts and Myths Men are more likely ...

  5. Eye Complications in IBD

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home > Resources > Eye Complications in IBD Go Back Eye Complications in IBD Email Print + Share Approximately 10% ... doctor’s attention sooner rather than later. TYPES OF EYE DISORDERS UVEITIS One of the most common eye ...

  6. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Eyelid Lump Feel Something in Eye Flashes of Light Irritation Itchiness Light Sensitivity Red Eye Reduced Vision Tearing See all ... lazy eye? Featured Video The Scary Drive that Led to a Diabetes Diagnosis Find An Eye M. ...

  7. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Eyelid Lump Feel Something in Eye Flashes of Light Irritation Itchiness Light Sensitivity Red Eye Reduced Vision Tearing See all ... lazy eye? Featured Video The Scary Drive that Led to a Diabetes Diagnosis Find An Eye M. ...

  8. Eye Movement Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are: Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  9. Smoking and Eye Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Eyes & the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Smoking and Eye Health Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics ... vision may start to occur. Follow Us Avoiding smoking and second hand smoke—or quitting if you ...

  10. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  11. The effect of cataract surgery on ocular dominance

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Roy; Yatziv, Yossi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to assess whether eye dominance may change after cataract surgery. Methods This is a prospective case series. Cataract surgery candidates were examined prior to surgery for best-corrected visual acuity, eye dominance, and handedness. Patients with ocular conditions that may affect visual acuity were excluded from the study. A month following surgery, best-corrected visual acuity and eye dominance examinations were repeated. Results The study included 33 patients with a mean age of 70.5±9.4 years. Eighteen patients (54.5%) had right eye dominance. Following surgery, seven patients (21.2%) had a change in eye dominance. The change in dominance was linked to improved visual acuity in the operated eye and to a younger age, although with no statistical significance. Conclusion This is the first study reported in the literature to show that ocular dominance is a plastic characteristic following cataract surgeries. The results may change the importance given to eye dominance measurement prior to surgeries that rely on this examination, such as monovision surgeries. PMID:26715837

  12. Examining Sensory Quadrants in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Janet K.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Carmody, Thomas; Andrews, Alonzo A.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Mehta, Jyutika A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sensory quadrants in autism based on Dunn's Theory of Sensory Processing. The data for this study was collected as part of a cross-sectional study that examined sensory processing (using the Sensory Profile) in 103 persons with autism, 3-43 years of age, compared to 103 age- and gender-matched community…

  13. Eye contricks

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2011-01-01

    Pictorial images are icons as well as eye-cons: they provide distillations of objects or ideas into simpler shapes. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimensions of depth and motion are missing from icons, and these alone introduce all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as exploring the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons can also be illusions—tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is physically presented. Pictorial images can be spatialised or stylised; spatialised images generally share some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons, but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional. Icons as stylised words and spatialised images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte in a series of pipe paintings, and this theme is here alluded to. Most of visual science is now concerned with icons—two-dimensional displays on computer monitors. Is vision now the science of eye-cons? PMID:23145240

  14. Population rate dynamics and multineuron firing patterns in sensory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Okun, Michael; Yger, Pierre; Marguet, Stephan; Gerard-Mercier, Florian; Benucci, Andrea; Katzner, Steffen; Busse, Laura; Carandini, Matteo; Harris, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    Cortical circuits encode sensory stimuli through the firing of neuronal ensembles, and also produce spontaneous population patterns in the absence of sensory drive. This population activity is often characterized experimentally by the distribution of multineuron “words” (binary firing vectors), and a match between spontaneous and evoked word distributions has been suggested to reflect learning of a probabilistic model of the sensory world. We analyzed multineuron word distributions in sensory cortex of anesthetized rats and cats, and found that they are dominated by fluctuations in population firing rate rather than precise interactions between individual units. Furthermore, cortical word distributions change when brain state shifts, and similar behavior is seen in simulated networks with fixed, random connectivity. Our results suggest that similarity or dissimilarity in multineuron word distributions could primarily reflect similarity or dissimilarity in population firing rate dynamics, and not necessarily the precise interactions between neurons that would indicate learning of sensory features. PMID:23197704

  15. Comments on the eyes of tardigrades.

    PubMed

    Greven, Hartmut

    2007-12-01

    A survey is given on the scarce information on the visual organs (eyes or ocelli) of Tardigrada. Many Eutardigrada and some Arthrotardigrada, namely the Echiniscidae, possess inverse pigment-cup ocelli, which are located in the outer lobe of the brain, and probably are of cerebral origin. Occurrence of such organs in tardigrades, suggested as being eyeless, has never been checked. Depending on the species, response to light (photokinesis) is negative, positive or indifferent, and may change during the ontogeny. The tardigrade eyes of the two eutardigrades examined up to now comprise a single pigment cup cell, one or two microvillous (rhabdomeric) sensory cells and ciliary sensory cell(s). In the eyes of the eutardigrade Milnesium tardigradum the cilia are differentiated in an outer branching segment and an inner (dendritic) segment. Because of the scarcity of information on the tardigrade eyes, their homology with the visual organs of other bilaterians is currently difficult to establish and further comparative studies are needed. Thus, the significance of these eyes for the evolution of arthropod visual systems is unclear yet. PMID:18089118

  16. The ascidian pigmented sensory organs: structures and developmental programs.

    PubMed

    Esposito, R; Racioppi, C; Pezzotti, M R; Branno, M; Locascio, A; Ristoratore, F; Spagnuolo, A

    2015-01-01

    The recent advances on ascidian pigment sensory organ development and function represent a fascinating platform to get insight on the basic programs of chordate eye formation. This review aims to summarize current knowledge, at the structural and molecular levels, on the two main building blocks of ascidian light sensory organ, i.e. pigment cells and photoreceptor cells. The unique features of these structures (e.g., simplicity and well characterized cell lineage) are indeed making it possible to dissect the developmental programs at single cell resolution and will soon provide a panel of molecular tools to be exploited for a deep developmental and comparative-evolutionary analysis. PMID:25382437

  17. Visual fields, eye movements, and scanning behavior of a sit-and-wait predator, the black phoebe (Sayornis nigricans).

    PubMed

    Gall, Megan D; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2010-01-01

    Foraging mode influences the dominant sensory modality used by a forager and likely the strategies of information gathering used in foraging and anti-predator contexts. We assessed three components of visual information gathering in a sit-and-wait avian predator, the black phoebe (Sayornis nigricans): configuration of the visual field, degree of eye movement, and scanning behavior through head-movement rates. We found that black phoebes have larger lateral visual fields than similarly sized ground-foraging passerines, as well as relatively narrower binocular and blind areas. Black phoebes moved their eyes, but eye movement amplitude was relatively smaller than in other passerines. Black phoebes may compensate for eye movement constraints with head movements. The rate of head movements increased before attacking prey in comparison to non-foraging contexts and before movements between perches. These findings suggest that black phoebes use their lateral visual fields, likely subtended by areas of high acuity in the retina, to track prey items in a three-dimensional space through active head movements. These head movements may increase depth perception, motion detection and tracking. Studying information gathering through head movement changes, rather than body posture changes (head-up, head-down) as generally presented in the literature, may allow us to better understand the mechanisms of information gathering from a comparative perspective. PMID:19921207

  18. The optic chiasm: a turning point in the evolution of eye/hand coordination

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The primate visual system has a uniquely high proportion of ipsilateral retinal projections, retinal ganglial cells that do not cross the midline in the optic chiasm. The general assumption is that this developed due to the selective advantage of accurate depth perception through stereopsis. Here, the hypothesis that the need for accurate eye-forelimb coordination substantially influenced the evolution of the primate visual system is presented. Evolutionary processes may change the direction of retinal ganglial cells. Crossing, or non-crossing, in the optic chiasm determines which hemisphere receives visual feedback in reaching tasks. Each hemisphere receives little tactile and proprioceptive information about the ipsilateral hand. The eye-forelimb hypothesis proposes that abundant ipsilateral retinal projections developed in the primate brain to synthesize, in a single hemisphere, visual, tactile, proprioceptive, and motor information about a given hand, and that this improved eye-hand coordination and optimized the size of the brain. If accurate eye-hand coordination was a major factor in the evolution of stereopsis, stereopsis is likely to be highly developed for activity in the area where the hands most often operate. The primate visual system is ideally suited for tasks within arm’s length and in the inferior visual field, where most manual activity takes place. Altering of ocular dominance in reaching tasks, reduced cross-modal cuing effects when arms are crossed, response of neurons in the primary motor cortex to viewed actions of a hand, multimodal neuron response to tactile as well as visual events, and extensive use of multimodal sensory information in reaching maneuvers support the premise that benefits of accurate limb control influenced the evolution of the primate visual system. The eye-forelimb hypothesis implies that evolutionary change toward hemidecussation in the optic chiasm provided parsimonious neural pathways in animals developing frontal vision and visually guided forelimbs, and also suggests a new perspective on vision convergence in prey and predatory animals. PMID:23866932

  19. Med's Neurophysiology Eye Movements

    E-print Network

    Vilis, Tutis

    Med's Neurophysiology Eye Movements Tutis Vilis Introduction We move our eyes to see better. 1 you make out what it says? If you can, your VOR is working. There are 5 types of eye movements. 1 a partner. Watch your partner's eyes while reading a page. What pattern of eye movements do you see? Place

  20. Eye Movements of Flatfish for Different Gravity Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Kaori; Takabayashi, Akira; Imada, Hideki; Miyachi, Ei-Ichi

    On Earth, gravity sensation plays a basic role for all of physiological phenomena in every creature. In microgravity, loss of gravity input causes many functional disorders in animals and humans. During adaptation to microgravity, otolith-mediated response such as eye movements would alter. Flatfish provide a natural model for the study of adaptive changes in the vestibuloocular reflex. During metamorphosis, vestibular and oculomotor coordinate of flatfish displaced 90 degrees about the longitudinal body axis. Therefore, it is expected that microgravity induce the sensory mismatch in adult flatfish. In this study, we analyzed the eye movements of normal and otolith removed flatfish for body tilting and the eye movements of normal flatfish during microgravity produced by parabolic aircraft flight. The fish was fixed on the tilting table controlled by computer. The eye movements for body tilting along the different body axis were video-recorded. The vertical and torsional eye rotations were analyzed frame by frame. In normal flatfish, torsional eye movements were larger for head up or head down tilting than leftward or rightward tilting. On the other hand, vertical eye movements were larger for leftward or rightward tilting than head up or head down tilting. After removal of left side utlicular otolith, the vertical eye movement for 180 degrees body tilting disappeared. For the changes of gravity, vertical eye movements were observed. These results suggested that eye movements of flatfish adapted to Earth's gravity condition and sacculus and lagena might play important role for otolith-ocular eye movements.

  1. Fluorescent eye test (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The fluorescent eye test is useful in determining if there is a scratch or other problem with the surface ... has thoroughly covered the eye a cobalt blue light is then directed on the eye. The light ...

  2. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to 60 Adults Over 60 Babies, Children & Teenagers Computer Usage Diabetes Diet & Nutrition Eye Injuries Eye Screening ... treatment may not be successful. Amblyopia caused by cloudiness of the eye tissue needs to be found ...

  3. Down Syndrome: Eye Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... eye problems. Do children with Down syndrome have eye problems? Individuals with Down syndrome are at increased ... When should children with Down syndrome receive an eye exam? The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that ...

  4. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... publications and references used throughout site. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) One Page Overview Pink, itchy eyes? Conjunctivitis – or ... Crusting of eyelids or lashes sometimes occurs Pink Eye: What To Do Discusses causes and treatment, suggestions ...

  5. Using Eye Makeup

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Guidelines Home Remedies for Simple Eye Problems Medical Marijuana for Glaucoma Pregnancy Preventing Eye Injuries Smokers Sports ... away from the eye, to avoid blocking the oil glands of the upper or lower eyelid. These ...

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... ask an eye M.D. Search GetEyeSmart.org Diseases & Conditions A to Z Age-related Macular Degeneration ( ... Presbyopia (Aging Eye) Stye Uveitis/Iritis See all Diseases & Conditions > Symptoms Blurriness Dark Curtain Dark Spots Discharge ...

  7. Secondary eyes mediate the response to looming objects in jumping spiders (Phidippus audax, Salticidae)

    PubMed Central

    Spano, Lauren; Long, Skye M.; Jakob, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Some species have sensory systems divided into subsystems with morphologically different sense organs that acquire different types of information within the same modality. Jumping spiders (family Salticidae) have eight eyes. Four eyes are directed anteriorly to view objects in front of the spider: a pair of principal eyes track targets with their movable retinae, while the immobile anterior lateral (AL) eyes have a larger field of view and lower resolution. To test whether the principal eyes, the AL eyes, or both together mediate the response to looming stimuli, we presented spiders with a video of a solid black circle that rapidly expanded (loomed) or contracted (receded). Control spiders and spiders with their principal eyes masked were significantly more likely to back away from the looming stimulus than were spiders with their AL eyes masked. Almost no individuals backed away from the receding stimulus. Our results show that the AL eyes alone mediate the loom response to objects anterior to the spider. PMID:23075526

  8. Thyroid Eye Disease: Protruding, Irritated Eyes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... they may not be affected to the same degree. Common symptoms are pressure around the eyes, ocular irritation and tearing. Overexposure during the day and dif?culty closing the eyes at night can ...

  9. Environmental Awareness (Sensory Awareness).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Marian

    Capitalizing on the resources available within a city block, this resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) describes methods and procedures for developing sensory awareness in the urban out-of-doors. Conceptual focus is on interdependency ("living things are interdependent"). Involvement in the environment (observing, thinking, doing)…

  10. Recording Sensory Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    From children's viewpoints, what they experience in the world is what the world is like--for everyone. "What do others experience with their senses when they are in the same situation?" is a question that young children can explore by collecting data as they use a "feely box," or take a "sensory walk." There are many ways to focus the children's…

  11. Structured Sensory Trauma Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan

    2010-01-01

    This article features the National Institute of Trauma and Loss in Children (TLC), a program that has demonstrated via field testing, exploratory research, time series studies, and evidence-based research studies that its Structured Sensory Intervention for Traumatized Children, Adolescents, and Parents (SITCAP[R]) produces statistically…

  12. Our Sensory World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liesman, C.; Barringer, M. D.

    The booklet explores the role of sensory experiences in the severely developmentally disabled child. Developmental theory is addressed, followed by specific activity suggestions (broken down into developmental levels) for developing tactile sense, auditory sense, gustatory (taste) sense, olfactory sense, visual sense, and kinesthetic sense.…

  13. Mental Imagery as Revealed by Eye Movements and Spoken Predicates: A Test of Neurolinguistic Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elich, Matthew; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Tested Bandler and Grinder's proposal that eye movement direction and spoken predicates are indicative of sensory modality of imagery. Subjects reported images in the three modes, but no relation between imagery and eye movements or predicates was found. Visual images were most vivid and often reported. Most subjects rated themselves as visual,…

  14. Understanding Sensory Integration. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMatties, Marie E.; Sammons, Jennifer H.

    This brief paper summarizes what is known about sensory integration and sensory integration dysfunction (DSI). It outlines evaluation of DSI, treatment approaches, and implications for parents and teachers, including compensatory strategies for minimizing the impact of DSI on a child's life. Review of origins of sensory integration theory in the…

  15. Manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit eye movements.

    PubMed

    Niehorster, Diederick C; Siu, Wilfred W F; Li, Li

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have reported that concurrent manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit eye movements only when tracking a self-driven or a predictable moving target. Here, we used a control-theoretic approach to examine whether concurrent manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit of an unpredictable moving target. In the eye-hand tracking condition, participants used their eyes to track a Gaussian target that moved randomly along a horizontal axis. In the meantime, they used their dominant hand to move a mouse to control the horizontal movement of a Gaussian cursor to vertically align it with the target. In the eye-alone tracking condition, the target and cursor positions recorded in the eye-hand tracking condition were replayed, and participants only performed eye tracking of the target. Catch-up saccades were identified and removed from the recorded eye movements, allowing for a frequency-response analysis of the smooth pursuit response to unpredictable target motion. We found that the overall smooth pursuit gain was higher and the number of catch-up saccades made was less when eye tracking was accompanied by manual tracking than when not. We conclude that concurrent manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit. This enhancement is a fundamental property of eye-hand coordination that occurs regardless of the predictability of the target motion. PMID:26605840

  16. Manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit eye movements

    PubMed Central

    Niehorster, Diederick C.; Siu, Wilfred W. F.; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that concurrent manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit eye movements only when tracking a self-driven or a predictable moving target. Here, we used a control-theoretic approach to examine whether concurrent manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit of an unpredictable moving target. In the eye-hand tracking condition, participants used their eyes to track a Gaussian target that moved randomly along a horizontal axis. In the meantime, they used their dominant hand to move a mouse to control the horizontal movement of a Gaussian cursor to vertically align it with the target. In the eye-alone tracking condition, the target and cursor positions recorded in the eye-hand tracking condition were replayed, and participants only performed eye tracking of the target. Catch-up saccades were identified and removed from the recorded eye movements, allowing for a frequency-response analysis of the smooth pursuit response to unpredictable target motion. We found that the overall smooth pursuit gain was higher and the number of catch-up saccades made was less when eye tracking was accompanied by manual tracking than when not. We conclude that concurrent manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit. This enhancement is a fundamental property of eye-hand coordination that occurs regardless of the predictability of the target motion. PMID:26605840

  17. Sex-linked dominant

    MedlinePLUS

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... type of chromosome that is affected (autosomal or sex chromosome). It also depends on whether the trait ...

  18. Measurement of human eye irritation using a CO{sub 2} reference scale

    SciTech Connect

    Hempel-Joergensen, A.; Kjaergaard, S.K.; Moelhave, L.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes a combined system for human eye exposure and sensory evaluation. The system was developed as part of a research program which is focused on development of biological response models to be used for prediction of the potential of emissions from building materials to cause sensory irritation in the indoor environment. The method describes in this paper measures air pollutants potential to cause sensory eye irritation using a master scale (the sensory irritation caused by the emissions ar measured in terms of concentration of a reference irritant.). The purpose of this study was to test the exposure equipment, the exposure procedure, the evaluation procedure, and the statistical method. The principle of the combined system is that subjects compare the intensity of sensory irritation in one eye which is exposed to polluted air with the intensity of sensory irritation in the other eye, which is exposed to a reference gas. This left-right eye comparison was chosen because it is quicker to perform than having subjects first exposed to the pollutant gas bilaterally and afterwards exposed to the reference gas bilaterally. Moreover, by making the comparison simultaneously, the subject does not have to remember the impression of the previous exposure. In this study, CO{sub 2} was used both as a simulation of the air pollution and as the reference gas.

  19. The interaction of Bayesian priors and sensory data and its neural circuit implementation in visually-guided movement

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin; Lee, Joonyeol; Lisberger, Stephen G.

    2012-01-01

    Sensory-motor behavior results from a complex interaction of noisy sensory data with priors based on recent experience. By varying the stimulus form and contrast for the initiation of smooth pursuit eye movements in monkeys, we show that visual motion inputs compete with two independent priors: one prior biases eye speed toward zero; the other prior attracts eye direction according to the past several days’ history of target directions. The priors bias the speed and direction of the initiation of pursuit for the weak sensory data provided by the motion of a low-contrast sine wave grating. However, the priors have relatively little effect on pursuit speed and direction when the visual stimulus arises from the coherent motion of a high-contrast patch of dots. For any given stimulus form, the mean and variance of eye speed co-vary in the initiation of pursuit, as expected for signal-dependent noise. This relationship suggests that pursuit implements a trade-off between movement accuracy and variation, reducing both when the sensory signals are noisy. The tradeoff is implemented as a competition of sensory data and priors that follows the rules of Bayesian estimation. Computer simulations show that the priors can be understood as direction specific control of the strength of visual-motor transmission, and can be implemented in a neural-network model that makes testable predictions about the population response in the smooth eye movement region of the frontal eye fields. PMID:23223286

  20. The interaction of bayesian priors and sensory data and its neural circuit implementation in visually guided movement.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Lee, Joonyeol; Lisberger, Stephen G

    2012-12-01

    Sensory-motor behavior results from a complex interaction of noisy sensory data with priors based on recent experience. By varying the stimulus form and contrast for the initiation of smooth pursuit eye movements in monkeys, we show that visual motion inputs compete with two independent priors: one prior biases eye speed toward zero; the other prior attracts eye direction according to the past several days' history of target directions. The priors bias the speed and direction of the initiation of pursuit for the weak sensory data provided by the motion of a low-contrast sine wave grating. However, the priors have relatively little effect on pursuit speed and direction when the visual stimulus arises from the coherent motion of a high-contrast patch of dots. For any given stimulus form, the mean and variance of eye speed covary in the initiation of pursuit, as expected for signal-dependent noise. This relationship suggests that pursuit implements a trade-off between movement accuracy and variation, reducing both when the sensory signals are noisy. The tradeoff is implemented as a competition of sensory data and priors that follows the rules of Bayesian estimation. Computer simulations show that the priors can be understood as direction-specific control of the strength of visual-motor transmission, and can be implemented in a neural-network model that makes testable predictions about the population response in the smooth eye movement region of the frontal eye fields. PMID:23223286

  1. Sensory Organs Types of Sensory Stimuli Insects detect 4 types of sensory

    E-print Network

    Brown, Christopher A.

    Photoreceptors These detect photons of light Photon strikes a pigment cell, causing a chemical or mechanical1 Sensory Organs Types of Sensory Stimuli Insects detect 4 types of sensory stimuli: Mechanical Heat/temperature Chemical Visual Mechanoreceptors These detect pressure changes resulting from: Air

  2. Billie's eyes.

    PubMed

    Dunning, S E

    1993-03-01

    The author, a nurse, is personally opposed to abortion; however, her earlier encounter with a victim of an illegal abortion has prevented her from joining campaigns to reinstate bans on abortion rights. The woman, "Billie," presented to an inner-city Chicago hospital in 1970 with hemorrhaging. She had delayed going for treatment because she feared being imprisoned for having obtained an abortion. She rapidly entered septic shock, with hypotension, confusion, and hallucinations. Physicians removed her infected uterus and ovaries. Subsequent kidney failure necessitated the transfer of this young woman to another hospital where she could receive dialysis. The author was unable to obtain follow-up information on whether Billie survived. She remains haunted by the memory of Billie's wide, frightened eyes as she was placed in the ambulance. It is this memory, and the knowledge that desperate women like Billie will find someone, somewhere to perform an illegal abortion, that is behind the author's reluctant support for the right to choose. PMID:8442475

  3. Genes for Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathies: A Genotype-Phenotype Correlation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotthier, Annelies; Baets, Jonathan; De Vriendt, Els; Jacobs, An; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Levy, Nicolas; Bonello-Palot, Nathalie; Kilic, Sara Sebnem; Weis, Joachim; Nascimento, Andres; Swinkels, Marielle; Kruyt, Moyo C.; Jordanova, Albena; De Jonghe, Peter; Timmerman, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders characterized by axonal atrophy and degeneration, exclusively or predominantly affecting the sensory and autonomic neurons. So far, disease-associated mutations have been identified in seven genes: two genes for autosomal dominant ("SPTLC1"…

  4. Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to 60 Adults Over 60 Babies, Children & Teenagers Computer Usage Diabetes Diet & Nutrition Eye Injuries Eye Screening ... Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes During Pregnancy Computer Usage & Eye Strain Maintaining Your Sight with Diabetes ...

  5. Eye muscle repair - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ... The extraocular muscles of the eye (external to the eyeball) control the positioning of the eyes. They coordinate of the eye ...

  6. Eating for Your Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stastny, Sherri Nordstrom; Garden-Robinson, Julie

    2011-01-01

    An educational program targeting older adults was developed to increase knowledge regarding nutrition and eye health. With age, the chance for eye disease increases, so prevention is critical. The Eating for Your Eyes program has promoted behavior changes regarding eye health among the participants. This program is easily replicated and use is…

  7. Quantitative sensory testing.

    PubMed

    Soomekh, David

    2006-07-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of peripheral neuropathy from any cause has come to the forefront of the research community in the past few years. Both past and new diagnostic and treatment options have been and are being studied to better understand and properly treat this debilitating and sometimes devastating disease. One such advancement is the clinical use of quantitative sensory testing. To identify etiology of the neuropathy early, the testing instrument would need to identify changes throughout the course of the disease, have a normative database, and show a clear distinction between the absence or presence of disease. The pressure specified sensory device (PSSD) was developed in 1992 to painlessly investigate the cutaneous pressure thresholds quantitatively and accurately. PMID:16958387

  8. Instabilities in sensory processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, J.

    2014-07-01

    In any organism there are different kinds of sensory receptors for detecting the various, distinct stimuli through which its external environment may impinge upon it. These receptors convey these stimuli in different ways to an organism's information processing region enabling it to distinctly perceive the varied sensations and to respond to them. The behavior of cells and their response to stimuli may be captured through simple mathematical models employing regulatory feedback mechanisms. We argue that the sensory processes such as olfaction function optimally by operating in the close proximity of dynamical instabilities. In the case of coupled neurons, we point out that random disturbances and fluctuations can move their operating point close to certain dynamical instabilities triggering synchronous activity.

  9. CRYPTOGENIC SENSORY POLYNEUROPATHY

    PubMed Central

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic sensory or sensorimotor polyneuropathy is a common cause for referral to neurologists. Despite extensive diagnostic testing, up to one-third of these patients remain without a known cause. They are referred to as having cryptogenic sensory peripheral neuropathy (CSPN). The age of onset is variable but usually in the sixth to seventh decade of life, affecting men and women equally. CSPN symptoms progress slowly, most patients present with distal leg paresthesias or pain that progressed over years to involve the hands. On examination, there may be additional mild toe flexion and extension weakness. Electrophysiologic testing and histology reveals axonal neuropathy. Prognosis is usually favorable as most patients maintain independent ambulation. Besides patient education and reassurance, management is focused on pharmacotherapy of neuropathic pain (see Treatment of Painful Peripheral Neuropathy chapter) and physical therapy for balance training and occasionally assistive devices. PMID:23642719

  10. Visual guidance of smooth pursuit eye movements: sensation, action, and what happens in between

    PubMed Central

    Lisberger, Stephen G.

    2010-01-01

    Smooth pursuit eye movements transform 100 ms of visual motion into a rapid initiation of smooth eye movement followed by sustained accurate tracking. Both the mean and variation of the visually-driven pursuit response, can be accounted for by the combination of the mean tuning curves and the correlated noise within the sensory representation of visual motion in extrastriate visual area MT. Sensory-motor and motor circuits have both housekeeping and modulatory functions, implemented in the cerebellum and the smooth eye movement region of the frontal eye fields. The representation of pursuit is quite different in these two regions of the brain, but both regions seem to control pursuit directly with little or no noise added downstream. Finally, pursuit exhibits a number of voluntary characteristics that happen on short time scales. These features make pursuit an excellent exemplar for understanding the general properties of sensory-motor processing in the brain. PMID:20510853

  11. Sensory, motor, and combined contexts for context-specific adaptation of saccade gain in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelhamer, Mark; Clendaniel, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Saccadic eye movements can be adapted in a context-specific manner such that their gain can be made to depend on the state of a prevailing context cue. We asked whether context cues are more effective if their nature is primarily sensory, motor, or a combination of sensory and motor. Subjects underwent context-specific adaptation using one of three different context cues: a pure sensory context (head roll-tilt right or left); a pure motor context (changes in saccade direction); or a combined sensory-motor context (head roll-tilt and changes in saccade direction). We observed context-specific adaptation in each condition; the greatest degree of context-specificity occurred in paradigms that used the motor cue, alone or in conjunction with the sensory cue. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

  12. The eyes of oilbirds (Steatornis caripensis): pushing at the limits of sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Martin, Graham; Rojas, Luz Marina; Ramírez, Yleana; McNeil, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    An extreme example of a low light-level lifestyle among flying birds is provided by the oilbird, Steatornis caripensis (Steatornithidae, Caprimulgiformes). Oilbirds breed and roost in caves, often at sufficient depth that no daylight can penetrate, and forage for fruits at night. Using standard microscopy techniques we investigated the retinal structure of oilbird eyes and used an ophthalmoscopic reflex technique to determine the parameters of these birds' visual fields. The retina is dominated by small rod receptors (diameter 1.3+/-0.2 microm; length 18.6+/-0.6 microm) arranged in a banked structure that is unique among terrestrial vertebrates. This arrangement achieves a photoreceptor density that is the highest so far recorded (approximately 1,000,000 rods mm(-2)) in any vertebrate eye. Cone photoreceptors are, however, present in low numbers. The eye is relatively small (axial length 16.1+/-0.2 mm) with a maximum pupil diameter of 9.0+/-0.0 mm, achieving a light-gathering capacity that is the highest recorded in a bird (f-number approximately 1.07). The binocular field has a maximum width of 38 degrees and extends vertically through 100 degrees with the bill projecting towards the lower periphery; a topography that suggests that vision is not used to control bill position. We propose that oilbird eyes are at one end of the continuum that juxtaposes the conflicting fundamental visual capacities of sensitivity and resolution. Thus, while oilbird visual sensitivity may be close to a maximum, visual resolution must be low. This explains why these birds employ other sensory cues, including olfaction and echolocation, in the control of their behaviour in low-light-level environments. PMID:14740100

  13. The development of gravity sensory systems during periods of altered gravity dependent sensory input.

    PubMed

    Horn, Eberhard R

    2003-01-01

    Gravity related behavior and the underlying neuronal networks are the most suitable model systems to study basic effects of altered gravitational input on the development of neuronal systems. A feature of sensory and motor systems is their susceptibility to modifications of their adequate physical and/or chemical stimuli during development. This discovery led to the formulation about critical periods, which defines the period of susceptibility during post-embryonal development. Critical periods can be determined by long-lasting modifications of the stimulus input for the gravity sensory system (GSS). Techniques include: (1) destruction of the gravity sense organ so that the gravity cannot be detected any longer and the central neuronal network of the GSS is deprived of gravity related information, (2) loading or deloading of parts of the body by weights or counterweights, respectively, which compensates for the gravitational pull, and (3) absence or augmentation of the gravitational environment per se by the exposure of organisms to microgravity during spaceflights or to hypergravity by centrifugation. Most data came from studies on compensatory eye or head movements in the clawed toad Xenopus laevis, the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus, and crickets (Acheta domesticus, Gryllus bimaculatus). The responses are induced by a roll or pitch stimulation of the gravity sense organs, but are also affected by sensory inputs from proprioreceptors and eyes. The development of these compensatory eye and head responses reveals species-specific time courses. Based on experiments using spaceflights, centrifugation, lesion and loading or deloading, all species revealed a significant susceptibility to modifications of the gravity sensory input during development. Behavioral responses were depressed (Xenopus) or augmented (Xenopus, Oreochronis) by microgravity, and depressed by hypergravity except in crickets. In Acheta, however, the sensitivity of its position sensitive neuron PSI was reduced by microgravity. After termination of the period of modified gravity sensory input, all behavioral and physiological modifications disappeared, in some preparations such as the PSI of Acheta or the eye response in Xenopus, however, delayed after exposure to hypergravity. Irreversible modifications were rare; one example were malformations of the body of Xenopus tadpoles caused by lesion induced deprivation. Several periods of life such as the period of hatching or first appearance of gravity related reflexes revealed a specific sensitivity to altered gravity. Although all studies gave clear evidences for a basic sensitivity of developing GSSs to long-lasting modifications of the gravity sensory input, clear arguments for the existence of a critical period in the development of the sense of gravity are still missing. It has to take into consideration that during long-term exposures, adaptation processes take place which are guided by central physiological and genetically determined set points. The International Space Station (ISS) is the necessary platform of excellence if biological research is focussed on the analysis of long-term space effects on organisms. PMID:14631632

  14. Photoreceptor Sensory Cilium: Traversing the Ciliary Gate.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Hemant

    2015-01-01

    Cilia are antenna-like extensions of the plasma membrane found in nearly all cell types. In the retina of the eye, photoreceptors develop unique sensory cilia. Not much was known about the mechanisms underlying the formation and function of photoreceptor cilia, largely because of technical limitations and the specific structural and functional modifications that cannot be modeled in vitro. With recent advances in microscopy techniques and molecular and biochemical approaches, we are now beginning to understand the molecular basis of photoreceptor ciliary architecture, ciliary function and its involvement in human diseases. Here, I will discuss the studies that have revealed new knowledge of how photoreceptor cilia regulate their identity and function while coping with high metabolic and trafficking demands associated with processing light signal. PMID:26501325

  15. The eyes of trilobites: The oldest preserved visual system.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, Euan; Levi-Setti, Riccardo; Horváth, Gabor

    2006-12-01

    The oldest preserved visual systems are to be found in the extinct trilobites, marine euarthropods which existed between about 520 and 250 million years ago. Because they possessed a calcified cuticle, they have a good fossil record, and commonly the lens-bearing surfaces of their paired compound eyes are well preserved. The sublensar structures, however, remain unknown. Three kinds of eyes have been distinguished. Holochroal eyes, apomorphic for trilobites, typically have many contiguous small lenses, set on a kidney-shaped visual surface. Lens optics, angular range of vision, and ontogeny have been established for many compound eyes. Some pelagic trilobites have enormous eyes, subtending a panoramic field of view. Schizochroal eyes are found only in one group, the phacopids (Ordovician to Devonian). These have large lenses, separated from each other by cuticular material, and the lenses have a complex doublet or triplet internal structure, which could focus light sharply. The optics of phacopid eyes are becoming increasingly well known despite the fact that there are no direct counterparts in any living arthropods today. Schizochroal eyes are apomorphic for phacopids and were derived by paedomorphosis from a holochroal precursor. Abathochroal eyes are confined to a short-lived Cambrian group, the eodiscids (of which most representatives were blind). Less is known about them than other trilobite eyes and their origins remain obscure. Some trilobite groups had no eyes, but had other kinds of sensory organs. In Upper Devonian times several groups of trilobites independently underwent progressive eye-reduction leading to blindness, related to prevailing environmental conditions of the time. The last trilobites (of Carboniferous and Permian age), however, had normal holochroal eyes, which persisted until the final extinction of trilobites at the end of the Permian. PMID:18089074

  16. Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Screening Guidelines Home Remedies for Simple Eye Problems Medical Marijuana for Glaucoma Pregnancy Preventing Eye Injuries Smokers Sports Using Eye Makeup Veterans What Is an Ophthalmologist? Your Eyes & the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts ... an eye injury does occur, have an ophthalmologist or other medical doctor examine the eye as soon as possible, ...

  17. Hearing What the Eyes See

    PubMed Central

    Guttman, Sharon E.; Gilroy, Lee A.; Blake, Randolph

    2006-01-01

    When the senses deliver conflicting information, vision dominates spatial processing, and audition dominates temporal processing. We asked whether this sensory specialization results in cross-modal encoding of unisensory input into the task-appropriate modality. Specifically, we investigated whether visually portrayed temporal structure receives automatic, obligatory encoding in the auditory domain. In three experiments, observers judged whether the changes in two successive visual sequences followed the same or different rhythms. We assessed temporal representations by measuring the extent to which both task-irrelevant auditory information and task-irrelevant visual information interfered with rhythm discrimination. Incongruent auditory information significantly disrupted task performance, particularly when presented during encoding; by contrast, varying the nature of the rhythm-depicting visual changes had minimal impact on performance. Evidently, the perceptual system automatically and obligatorily abstracts temporal structure from its visual form and represents this structure using an auditory code, resulting in the experience of “hearing visual rhythms.” PMID:15733204

  18. Modulating ocular dominance in the adult in real time.

    PubMed

    Hess, Robert; Zhou, Jiawei; Reynaud, Alexandre

    2015-09-01

    Using a dichoptic spatial phase combination paradigm that assesses the relative contribution that each eye makes to the binocular percept (ocular dominance), we have shown previously that 2.5 hours of patching, be it opaque or translucent, can result in a short-term enhancement of the patched eye's contribution to binocularity. This suggests that it is differential pattern deprivation, rather than the differential luminance deprivation that is driving this ocular dominance change. Here we ask what aspects of the pattern stimulation are important for ocular dominance. Observers dichoptically viewed movies of 2-3 hrs duration in which the spatial information in one eye's view had been altered (pattern deprivation). We measured each eye's contribution to the binocular percept before and after movie viewing using the dichoptic spatial phase task. Scrambling the spatial phases in one eye's view had no effect on ocular dominance, suggesting features constructed from phase-aligned components are unimportant in this regard. At the level at which these changes in dominance occurs only the Fourier amplitude spectrum is important. To verify this we show that graded changes to the magnitude of the amplitude spectrum result in graded changes in ocular dominance. To ascertain whether different parts of the amplitude spectrum are more important than others, we compared highpass with lowpass filtering and show that only the latter affects dominance. Finally, the ocular dominance change is not orientationally-dependent, suggesting the underlying mechanism is isotropic. Short-term changes in ocular dominance in adults can be obtained by altering the contrast of isotropic, high spatial frequency components seen by one eye. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326515

  19. Difference in Visual Processing Assessed by Eye Vergence Movements

    PubMed Central

    Solé Puig, Maria; Puigcerver, Laura; Aznar-Casanova, J. Antonio; Supèr, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Orienting visual attention is closely linked to the oculomotor system. For example, a shift of attention is usually followed by a saccadic eye movement and can be revealed by micro saccades. Recently we reported a novel role of another type of eye movement, namely eye vergence, in orienting visual attention. Shifts in visuospatial attention are characterized by the response modulation to a selected target. However, unlike (micro-) saccades, eye vergence movements do not carry spatial information (except for depth) and are thus not specific to a particular visual location. To further understand the role of eye vergence in visual attention, we tested subjects with different perceptual styles. Perceptual style refers to the characteristic way individuals perceive environmental stimuli, and is characterized by a spatial difference (local vs. global) in perceptual processing. We tested field independent (local; FI) and field dependent (global; FD) observers in a cue/no-cue task and a matching task. We found that FI observers responded faster and had stronger modulation in eye vergence in both tasks than FD subjects. The results may suggest that eye vergence modulation may relate to the trade-off between the size of spatial region covered by attention and the processing efficiency of sensory information. Alternatively, vergence modulation may have a role in the switch in cortical state to prepare the visual system for new incoming sensory information. In conclusion, vergence eye movements may be added to the growing list of functions of fixational eye movements in visual perception. However, further studies are needed to elucidate its role. PMID:24069140

  20. Strand I: Physical Health. Sensory Perception. Health Curriculum Materials Grades 4, 5, 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Elementary Curriculum Development.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 4, 5, and 6. SUBJECT MATTER: Sensory perceptions, the organs involved, and eye and hearing care. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into six different sectional steps organized around a gradual, ascending understanding of the sense organs. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: The material is divided into…

  1. Dilating Eye Drops

    MedlinePLUS

    ... amblyopia and inflammation. How long do dilating drops last? Dilating eye drops used for examination of the ... upon the individual patient. Pupil dilation tends to last longer in people with lighter colored eyes (irides), ...

  2. Diabetic Eye Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... too high. Over time, this can damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It ... light-sensitive tissue at the back of your eye. You need a healthy retina to see clearly. ...

  3. Stereo and Eye Movement

    E-print Network

    Geiger, Davi

    1988-01-01

    We describe a method to solve the stereo correspondence using controlled eye (or camera) movements. These eye movements essentially supply additional image frames which can be used to constrain the stereo matching. ...

  4. Eye Injuries at Home

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Guidelines Home Remedies for Simple Eye Problems Medical Marijuana for Glaucoma Pregnancy Preventing Eye Injuries Smokers Sports ... foods can that can splatter hot grease or oil. Opening champagne bottles during a celebration. Drilling or ...

  5. LASIK eye surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fuzzy or gray Dry eyes Glare or haloes Light sensitivity Night driving problems Patches of red or pink in the white of the eye (usually temporary) Reduced vision or permanent vision loss Scratchiness

  6. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and comfortable as possible until help arrives. Continue Chemical Exposure Many chemicals, even those found around the house, can damage an eye. If your child gets a chemical in the eye and you know what it ...

  7. Excitatory Synaptic Feedback from the Motor Layer to the Sensory Layers of the Superior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Ghitani, Nima; Bayguinov, Peter O.; Vokoun, Corinne R.; McMahon, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Neural circuits that translate sensory information into motor commands are organized in a feedforward manner converting sensory information into motor output. The superior colliculus (SC) follows this pattern as it plays a role in converting visual information from the retina and visual cortex into motor commands for rapid eye movements (saccades). Feedback from movement to sensory regions is hypothesized to play critical roles in attention, visual image stability, and saccadic suppression, but in contrast to feedforward pathways, motor feedback to sensory regions has received much less attention. The present study used voltage imaging and patch-clamp recording in slices of rat SC to test the hypothesis of an excitatory synaptic pathway from the motor layers of the SC back to the sensory superficial layers. Voltage imaging revealed an extensive depolarization of the superficial layers evoked by electrical stimulation of the motor layers. A pharmacologically isolated excitatory synaptic potential in the superficial layers depended on stimulus strength in the motor layers in a manner consistent with orthodromic excitation. Patch-clamp recording from neurons in the sensory layers revealed excitatory synaptic potentials in response to glutamate application in the motor layers. The location, size, and morphology of responsive neurons indicated they were likely to be narrow-field vertical cells. This excitatory projection from motor to sensory layers adds an important element to the circuitry of the SC and reveals a novel feedback pathway that could play a role in enhancing sensory responses to attended targets as well as visual image stabilization. PMID:24828636

  8. The vestibular system of Red-eyed Treefrog (Agalychnis callidryas) embryos as a sensor for snake attacks.

    E-print Network

    Pass, Günther

    The vestibular system of Red-eyed Treefrog (Agalychnis callidryas) embryos as a sensor for snake, Massachusetts, USA Embryos of the red-eyed treefrog, Agalychnis callidryas, are able to hatch early to escape about the sensory systems that mediate vibration sensing in embryos and their quick response to snake

  9. Sensory adaptation for timing perception.

    PubMed

    Roseboom, Warrick; Linares, Daniel; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2015-04-22

    Recent sensory experience modifies subjective timing perception. For example, when visual events repeatedly lead auditory events, such as when the sound and video tracks of a movie are out of sync, subsequent vision-leads-audio presentations are reported as more simultaneous. This phenomenon could provide insights into the fundamental problem of how timing is represented in the brain, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that the effect of recent experience on timing perception is not just subjective; recent sensory experience also modifies relative timing discrimination. This result indicates that recent sensory history alters the encoding of relative timing in sensory areas, excluding explanations of the subjective phenomenon based only on decision-level changes. The pattern of changes in timing discrimination suggests the existence of two sensory components, similar to those previously reported for visual spatial attributes: a lateral shift in the nonlinear transducer that maps relative timing into perceptual relative timing and an increase in transducer slope around the exposed timing. The existence of these components would suggest that previous explanations of how recent experience may change the sensory encoding of timing, such as changes in sensory latencies or simple implementations of neural population codes, cannot account for the effect of sensory adaptation on timing perception. PMID:25788590

  10. Dwarf Eye Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Johns Hopkins researchers at the Wilmer Eye Institute have discovered what appears to be the first human gene mutation that causes extreme farsightedness. The researchers report that nanophthalmos, Greek for "dwarf eye," is a rare, potentially blinding disorder caused by an alteration in a gene called MFRP that helps control eye growth and…

  11. Eye Tracking Denis Leimberg

    E-print Network

    . Keywords: Face Detection, Face Tracking, Eye Tracking, Gaze Estimation, Active Ap- pearance ModelsEye Tracking Denis Leimberg Martin Vester-Christensen LYNGBY 2005 Master Thesis IMM-Thesis-2005 discussions, and for introducing the world of eye tracking. Kaare Brandt Petersen, for sparing a day, during

  12. In vivo visualization of CaMKII activity in ocular dominance plasticity

    E-print Network

    Kwok, Show Ming

    2009-01-01

    Alterations in sensory experience can persistently modify the responses of cortical neurons. Ocular dominance (OD) plasticity, a process in which alternation of visual input induces a shift in cortical responsiveness, is ...

  13. Morphological and molecular development of the eyes during embryogenesis of the freshwater planarian Schmidtea polychroa.

    PubMed

    Martín-Durán, José María; Monjo, Francisco; Romero, Rafael

    2012-03-01

    Photoreception is one of the most primitive sensory functions in metazoans. Despite the diversity of forms and components of metazoan eyes, many studies have demonstrated the existence of a common cellular and molecular basis for their development. Genes like pax6, sine oculis, eyes absent, dachshund, otx, Rx and atonal are known to be associated with the specification and development of the eyes. In planarians, sine oculis, eyes absent and otxA play an essential role during the formation of the eye after decapitation, whereas pax6, considered by many authors as a master control gene for eye formation, does not seem to be involved in adult eye regeneration. Whether this is a peculiarity of adult planarians or, on the contrary, is also found in embryogenesis remains unknown. Herein, we characterize embryonic eye development in the planarian species Schmidtea polychroa using histological sections and molecular markers. Additionally, we analyse the expression pattern of the pax6-sine oculis-eyes absent-dachshund network, and the genes Rx, otxA, otxB and atonal. We demonstrate that eye formation in planarian embryos shows great similarities to adult eye regeneration, both at the cellular and molecular level. We thus conclude that planarian eyes exhibit divergent molecular patterning mechanisms compared to the prototypic ancestral metazoan eye. PMID:22327190

  14. Sensory receptors in monotremes.

    PubMed

    Proske, U; Gregory, J E; Iggo, A

    1998-07-29

    This is a summary of the current knowledge of sensory receptors in skin of the bill of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, and the snout of the echidna, Tachyglossus aculeatus. Brief mention is also made of the third living member of the monotremes, the long-nosed echidna, Zaglossus bruijnii. The monotremes are the only group of mammals known to have evolved electroreception. The structures in the skin responsible for the electric sense have been identified as sensory mucous glands with an expanded epidermal portion that is innervated by large-diameter nerve fibres. Afferent recordings have shown that in both platypuses and echidnas the receptors excited by cathodal (negative) pulses and inhibited by anodal (positive) pulses. Estimates give a total of 40,000 mucous sensory glands in the upper and lower bill of the platypus, whereas there are only about 100 in the tip of the echidna snout. Recording of electroreceptor-evoked activity from the brain of the platypus have shown that the largest area dedicated to somatosensory input from the bill, S1, shows alternating rows of mechanosensory and bimodal neurons. The bimodal neurons respond to both electrosensory and mechanical inputs. In skin of the platypus bill and echidna snout, apart from the electroreceptors, there are structures called push rods, which consist of a column of compacted cells that is able to move relatively independently of adjacent regions of skin. At the base of the column are Merkel cell complexes, known to be type I slowly adapting mechanoreceptors, and lamellated corpuscles, probably vibration receptors. It has been speculated that the platypus uses its electric sense to detect the electromyographic activity from moving prey in the water and for obstacle avoidance. Mechanoreceptors signal contact with the prey. For the echidna, a role for the electrosensory system has not yet been established during normal foraging behaviour, although it has been shown that it is able to detect the presence of weak electric fields in water. Perhaps the electric sense is used to detect moving prey in moist soil. PMID:9720114

  15. Hawk Eyes I: Diurnal Raptors Differ in Visual Fields and Degree of Eye Movement

    PubMed Central

    O'Rourke, Colleen T.; Hall, Margaret I.; Pitlik, Todd; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2010-01-01

    Background Different strategies to search and detect prey may place specific demands on sensory modalities. We studied visual field configuration, degree of eye movement, and orbit orientation in three diurnal raptors belonging to the Accipitridae and Falconidae families. Methodology/Principal Findings We used an ophthalmoscopic reflex technique and an integrated 3D digitizer system. We found inter-specific variation in visual field configuration and degree of eye movement, but not in orbit orientation. Red-tailed Hawks have relatively small binocular areas (?33°) and wide blind areas (?82°), but intermediate degree of eye movement (?5°), which underscores the importance of lateral vision rather than binocular vision to scan for distant prey in open areas. Cooper's Hawks' have relatively wide binocular fields (?36°), small blind areas (?60°), and high degree of eye movement (?8°), which may increase visual coverage and enhance prey detection in closed habitats. Additionally, we found that Cooper's Hawks can visually inspect the items held in the tip of the bill, which may facilitate food handling. American Kestrels have intermediate-sized binocular and lateral areas that may be used in prey detection at different distances through stereopsis and motion parallax; whereas the low degree eye movement (?1°) may help stabilize the image when hovering above prey before an attack. Conclusions We conclude that: (a) there are between-species differences in visual field configuration in these diurnal raptors; (b) these differences are consistent with prey searching strategies and degree of visual obstruction in the environment (e.g., open and closed habitats); (c) variations in the degree of eye movement between species appear associated with foraging strategies; and (d) the size of the binocular and blind areas in hawks can vary substantially due to eye movements. Inter-specific variation in visual fields and eye movements can influence behavioral strategies to visually search for and track prey while perching. PMID:20877645

  16. Navigation Using Sensory Substitution in Real and Virtual Mazes

    PubMed Central

    Chebat, Daniel-Robert; Maidenbaum, Shachar; Amedi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Under certain specific conditions people who are blind have a perception of space that is equivalent to that of sighted individuals. However, in most cases their spatial perception is impaired. Is this simply due to their current lack of access to visual information or does the lack of visual information throughout development prevent the proper integration of the neural systems underlying spatial cognition? Sensory Substitution devices (SSDs) can transfer visual information via other senses and provide a unique tool to examine this question. We hypothesize that the use of our SSD (The EyeCane: a device that translates distance information into sounds and vibrations) can enable blind people to attain a similar performance level as the sighted in a spatial navigation task. We gave fifty-six participants training with the EyeCane. They navigated in real life-size mazes using the EyeCane SSD and in virtual renditions of the same mazes using a virtual-EyeCane. The participants were divided into four groups according to visual experience: congenitally blind, low vision & late blind, blindfolded sighted and sighted visual controls. We found that with the EyeCane participants made fewer errors in the maze, had fewer collisions, and completed the maze in less time on the last session compared to the first. By the third session, participants improved to the point where individual trials were no longer significantly different from the initial performance of the sighted visual group in terms of errors, time and collision. PMID:26039580

  17. Eye tracking assisted extraction of attentionally important objects from videos S. Karthikeyan

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    Eye tracking assisted extraction of attentionally important objects from videos S. Karthikeyan objects. The proposed algorithm extracts dominant visual tracks using eye tracking data from multiple sub-of-the-art video seg- mentation using eye tracking prior and obtains favorable object extraction over algorithms

  18. The Intelligent Eye.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, R. L.

    Based on the premise that perception is a continual series of simple hypotheses about the external world which are built up and selected by sensory experiences, this book explores in detail some of the major findings in perception and speculates about interconnections between sensory experiences, brain function, perception, and language and…

  19. Eye movements: The past 25 years

    PubMed Central

    Kowler, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the past 25 of research on eye movements (1986–2011). Emphasis is on three oculomotor behaviors: gaze control, smooth pursuit and saccades, and on their interactions with vision. Focus over the past 25 years has remained on the fundamental and classical questions: What are the mechanisms that keep gaze stable with either stationary or moving targets? How does the motion of the image on the retina affect vision? Where do we look – and why – when performing a complex task? How can the world appear clear and stable despite continual movements of the eyes? The past 25 years of investigation of these questions has seen progress and transformations at all levels due to new approaches (behavioral, neural and theoretical) aimed at studying how eye movements cope with real-world visual and cognitive demands. The work has led to a better understanding of how prediction, learning and attention work with sensory signals to contribute to the effective operation of eye movements in visually rich environments. PMID:21237189

  20. Phototaxis and the origin of visual eyes.

    PubMed

    Randel, Nadine; Jékely, Gáspár

    2016-01-01

    Vision allows animals to detect spatial differences in environmental light levels. High-resolution image-forming eyes evolved from low-resolution eyes via increases in photoreceptor cell number, improvements in optics and changes in the neural circuits that process spatially resolved photoreceptor input. However, the evolutionary origins of the first low-resolution visual systems have been unclear. We propose that the lowest resolving (two-pixel) visual systems could initially have functioned in visual phototaxis. During visual phototaxis, such elementary visual systems compare light on either side of the body to regulate phototactic turns. Another, even simpler and non-visual strategy is characteristic of helical phototaxis, mediated by sensory-motor eyespots. The recent mapping of the complete neural circuitry (connectome) of an elementary visual system in the larva of the annelid Platynereis dumerilii sheds new light on the possible paths from non-visual to visual phototaxis and to image-forming vision. We outline an evolutionary scenario focusing on the neuronal circuitry to account for these transitions. We also present a comprehensive review of the structure of phototactic eyes in invertebrate larvae and assign them to the non-visual and visual categories. We propose that non-visual systems may have preceded visual phototactic systems in evolution that in turn may have repeatedly served as intermediates during the evolution of image-forming eyes. PMID:26598725

  1. Sex and Caste-Specific Variation in Compound Eye Morphology of Five Honeybee Species

    PubMed Central

    Streinzer, Martin; Brockmann, Axel; Nagaraja, Narayanappa; Spaethe, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Ranging from dwarfs to giants, the species of honeybees show remarkable differences in body size that have placed evolutionary constrains on the size of sensory organs and the brain. Colonies comprise three adult phenotypes, drones and two female castes, the reproductive queen and sterile workers. The phenotypes differ with respect to tasks and thus selection pressures which additionally constrain the shape of sensory systems. In a first step to explore the variability and interaction between species size-limitations and sex and caste-specific selection pressures in sensory and neural structures in honeybees, we compared eye size, ommatidia number and distribution of facet lens diameters in drones, queens and workers of five species (Apis andreniformis, A. florea, A. dorsata, A. mellifera, A. cerana). In these species, male and female eyes show a consistent sex-specific organization with respect to eye size and regional specialization of facet diameters. Drones possess distinctly enlarged eyes with large dorsal facets. Aside from these general patterns, we found signs of unique adaptations in eyes of A. florea and A. dorsata drones. In both species, drone eyes are disproportionately enlarged. In A. dorsata the increased eye size results from enlarged facets, a likely adaptation to crepuscular mating flights. In contrast, the relative enlargement of A. florea drone eyes results from an increase in ommatidia number, suggesting strong selection for high spatial resolution. Comparison of eye morphology and published mating flight times indicates a correlation between overall light sensitivity and species-specific mating flight times. The correlation suggests an important role of ambient light intensities in the regulation of species-specific mating flight times and the evolution of the visual system. Our study further deepens insights into visual adaptations within the genus Apis and opens up future perspectives for research to better understand the timing mechanisms and sensory physiology of mating related signals. PMID:23460896

  2. Sex and caste-specific variation in compound eye morphology of five honeybee species.

    PubMed

    Streinzer, Martin; Brockmann, Axel; Nagaraja, Narayanappa; Spaethe, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Ranging from dwarfs to giants, the species of honeybees show remarkable differences in body size that have placed evolutionary constrains on the size of sensory organs and the brain. Colonies comprise three adult phenotypes, drones and two female castes, the reproductive queen and sterile workers. The phenotypes differ with respect to tasks and thus selection pressures which additionally constrain the shape of sensory systems. In a first step to explore the variability and interaction between species size-limitations and sex and caste-specific selection pressures in sensory and neural structures in honeybees, we compared eye size, ommatidia number and distribution of facet lens diameters in drones, queens and workers of five species (Apis andreniformis, A. florea, A. dorsata, A. mellifera, A. cerana). In these species, male and female eyes show a consistent sex-specific organization with respect to eye size and regional specialization of facet diameters. Drones possess distinctly enlarged eyes with large dorsal facets. Aside from these general patterns, we found signs of unique adaptations in eyes of A. florea and A. dorsata drones. In both species, drone eyes are disproportionately enlarged. In A. dorsata the increased eye size results from enlarged facets, a likely adaptation to crepuscular mating flights. In contrast, the relative enlargement of A. florea drone eyes results from an increase in ommatidia number, suggesting strong selection for high spatial resolution. Comparison of eye morphology and published mating flight times indicates a correlation between overall light sensitivity and species-specific mating flight times. The correlation suggests an important role of ambient light intensities in the regulation of species-specific mating flight times and the evolution of the visual system. Our study further deepens insights into visual adaptations within the genus Apis and opens up future perspectives for research to better understand the timing mechanisms and sensory physiology of mating related signals. PMID:23460896

  3. Physiological Targets of Artificial Gravity: The Sensory-Motor System. Chapter 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William; Groen, Eric; Clarke, Andrew; Bles, Willem; Wuyts, Floris; Paloski, William; Clement, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    This chapter describes the pros and cons of artificial gravity applications in relation to human sensory-motor functioning in space. Spaceflight creates a challenge for sensory-motor functions that depend on gravity, which include postural balance, locomotion, eye-hand coordination, and spatial orientation. The sensory systems, and in particular the vestibular system, must adapt to weightlessness on entering orbit, and again to normal gravity upon return to Earth. During this period of adaptation, which persists beyond the actual gravity-level transition itself the sensory-motor systems are disturbed. Although artificial gravity may prove to be beneficial for the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems, it may well have negative side effects for the neurovestibular system, such as spatial disorientation, malcoordination, and nausea.

  4. Ocular dominance, cognitive strategy, and sex differences in spatial ability.

    PubMed

    Freedman, R J; Rovegno, L

    1981-04-01

    Ocular dominance, handedness, and cognitive strategy were assessed in relation to performance by 146 undergraduates on the Vandenberg Mental Rotation Test. Higher spatial scores were found for right-eyed subjects, right-handed subjects, and males. These higher scoring groups reported using similar cognitive strategies. The counted blocks less, used their hands less, and pictured in their minds more than the left-eyed, left-handed and female subjects. Results confirm previous findings. PMID:7255075

  5. The social dominance paradox.

    PubMed

    Cook, Jennifer Louise; den Ouden, Hanneke E M; Heyes, Cecilia M; Cools, Roshan

    2014-12-01

    Dominant individuals report high levels of self-sufficiency, self-esteem, and authoritarianism. The lay stereotype suggests that such individuals ignore information from others, preferring to make their own choices. However, the nonhuman animal literature presents a conflicting view, suggesting that dominant individuals are avid social learners, whereas subordinates focus on learning from private experience. Whether dominant humans are best characterized by the lay stereotype or the animal view is currently unknown. Here, we present a "social dominance paradox": using self-report scales and computerized tasks, we demonstrate that socially dominant people explicitly value independence, but, paradoxically, in a complex decision-making task, they show an enhanced reliance (relative to subordinate individuals) on social learning. More specifically, socially dominant people employed a strategy of copying other agents when the agents' responses had a history of being correct. However, in humans, two subtypes of dominance have been identified: aggressive and social. Aggressively dominant individuals, who are as likely to "get their own way" as socially dominant individuals but who do so through the use of aggressive or Machiavellian tactics, did not use social information, even when it was beneficial to do so. This paper presents the first study of dominance and social learning in humans and challenges the lay stereotype in which all dominant individuals ignore others' views. The more subtle perspective we offer could have important implications for decision making in both the boardroom and the classroom. PMID:25454588

  6. Prevention of Eye Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Pashby, Tom

    1981-01-01

    In Canada 30,000 people are registered as blind; in one third of these, blindness might have been avoided. Prevention is the key to reducing the number of eye injuries and blind eyes. The role of the family physician in early identification of treatable conditions and in the education of patients is discussed, but responsibility for prevention belongs to all physicians. The success of prevention is seen in the great reduction in eye injuries in industry and sports since eye protectors have been commonly used. However, many dangers to the eyes are either not recognized or are not taken seriously enough. This paper discusses some of the common causes of serious eye injuries in the home, in sports and in industry. Imagesp464-aFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:21289691

  7. MAC-EYE: a Tendon Driven Fully Embedded Robot Eye

    E-print Network

    Cannata, Giorgio

    the possibility of designing a robot eye with kinematics and actuation similar to those of the human eyeMAC-EYE: a Tendon Driven Fully Embedded Robot Eye Dario Biamino, Giorgio Cannata, Marco Maggiali. In particular, we tried to exploit the spherical shape of the eye and to study the feasibility of a tendon based

  8. Anatomy of the Eye

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Anatomy of the Eye En Español Read in Chinese External (Extraocular) Anatomy Extraocular Muscles: There are six muscles that are ...

  9. Eye Cosmetic Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Cosmetics Home Cosmetics Products & Ingredients Products Eye Cosmetic Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ...

  10. An Eye for Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostwald, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity as an excellent starting point for investigations related to the eye. Involves making a simple model of the vertebrate eye to illustrate the formation of an upside-down image on the retina by the lens. Links to investigations in numerous science disciplines including astronomy, genetics, biology, earth science, and…

  11. Photorefraction of the Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Photorefraction is a method to easily estimate the refractive state of the eye. The principle of photorefraction involves projecting light into the eye during flash photography and then examining the paths of light that emerge from the pupil after scattering on the back portion of the interior of the eyeball (fundus). We will explain the optical…

  12. The Liminal Eye.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapaport, Herman

    1995-01-01

    Discusses interrelations between painting and video art. Argues that once the surface of the painting is thought of in relation to the membrane of the eye as if the painting's surface were part of the eye itself, the painting's surface would have to be thought of as a membrane of visible excitation that is hard to separate from vision. (SR)

  13. Fluorescein eye stain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... eye. The health care provider then shines a blue light at your eye. Any problems on the surface of the cornea will be stained by the dye and appear green under the blue light. The provider can determine the location and ...

  14. Infographic on the Aging Eye

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Dry eye Eyes do not make enough tears. Low vision Difficulty seeing, even with glasses, medicine, or surgery. ... Talk with your eye care professional about vision rehabilitation. Where can I learn more about vision and ...

  15. The neuroecology of cartilaginous fishes: sensory strategies for survival.

    PubMed

    Collin, Shaun P

    2012-01-01

    As apex predators, chondrichthyans, or cartilaginous fishes, hold an important position within a range of aquatic ecosystems and influence the balance between species' abundance and biodiversity. Having been in existence for over 400 million years and representing the earliest stages of the evolution of jawed vertebrates, this group also covers a diverse range of eco-morphotypes, occupying both marine and freshwater habitats. The class Chondrichthyes is divided into two subclasses: the Elasmobranchii (sharks, skates, and rays) and the Holocephali (elephant sharks and chimaeras). However, many of their life history traits, such as low fecundity, the production of small numbers of highly precocious young, slow growth rates, and late maturity, make them highly susceptible to human exploitation. To mitigate the negative effects of human impacts, it is important that we understand the sensory strategies that elasmobranchs use for navigating within their environment, forming reproductive aggregations, feeding, and even communicating. One approach to investigate the sensory bases of their behavior is to examine the peripheral sense organs mediating vision, olfaction, gustation, lateral line, electroreception, and audition in a large range of species in order to identify specific adaptations, the range of sensitivity thresholds, and the compromise between sensory spatial resolution and sensitivity. In addition, we can quantitatively assess the convergence of sensory input to the central nervous system and the relative importance of different sensory modalities. Using a comparative approach and often a combination of anatomical, electrophysiological, and molecular techniques, significant variation has been identified in the spatial and chromatic sampling of the photoreceptors in the eye, the surface area and the number of olfactory lamellae within the nasal cavity, the level of gustatory sampling within the oral cavity, the type and innervation of neuromasts of the lateral line system, the distribution of electroreceptive pores over the head, and the morphology of the inner ear. These results are presented in the context of predictions of sensory capabilities for species living in a range of ecological niches, what further research is needed, and how this sensory input may be a predictor of behavior. PMID:22986825

  16. Sensory Transduction in Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Austin L.; Ramot, Daniel; Goodman, Miriam B.

    The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans has a well-defined and comparatively simple repertoire of sensory-guided behaviors, all of which rely on its ability to detect chemical, mechanical or thermal stimuli. In this chapter, we review what is known about the ion channels that mediate sensation in this remarkable model organism. Genetic screens for mutants defective in sensory-guided behaviors have identified genes encoding channel proteins, which are likely transducers of chemical, thermal, and mechanical stimuli. Such classical genetic approaches are now being coupled with molecular genetics and in vivo cellular physiology to elucidate how these channels are activated in specific sensory neurons. The ion channel superfamilies implicated in sensory transduction in C. elegans - CNG, TRP, and DEG/ENaC - are conserved across phyla and also appear to contribute to sensory transduction in other organisms, including vertebrates. What we learn about the role of these ion channels in C. elegans sensation is likely to illuminate analogous processes in other animals, including humans.

  17. Genetic Dominance & Cellular Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seager, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    In learning genetics, many students misunderstand and misinterpret what "dominance" means. Understanding is easier if students realize that dominance is not a mechanism, but rather a consequence of underlying cellular processes. For example, metabolic pathways are often little affected by changes in enzyme concentration. This means that…

  18. Single Ca2+ channels and exocytosis at sensory synapses

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mean-Hwan; Li, Geng-Lin; von Gersdorff, Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Hair cell synapses in the ear and photoreceptor synapses in the eye are the first synapses in the auditory and visual system. These specialized synapses transmit a large amount of sensory information in a fast and efficient manner. Moreover, both small and large signals with widely variable kinetics must be quickly encoded and reliably transmitted to allow an animal to rapidly monitor and react to its environment. Here we briefly review some aspects of these primary synapses, which are characterized by a synaptic ribbon in their active zones of transmitter release. We propose that these synapses are themselves highly specialized for the task at hand. Photoreceptor and bipolar cell ribbon synapses in the retina appear to have versatile properties that permit both tonic and phasic transmitter release. This allows them to transmit changes of both luminance and contrast within a visual field at different ambient light levels. By contrast, hair cell ribbon synapses are specialized for a highly synchronous form of multivesicular release that may be critical for phase locking to low-frequency sound-evoked signals at both low and high sound intensities. The microarchitecture of a hair cell synapse may be such that the opening of a single Ca2+ channel evokes the simultaneous exocytosis of multiple synaptic vesicles. Thus, the differing demands of sensory encoding in the eye and ear generate diverse designs and capabilities for their ribbon synapses. PMID:23459757

  19. Visuo-vestibular eye movements: infantile strabismus in 3 dimensions.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, Michael C

    2005-06-01

    Infantile strabismus is accompanied by latent nystagmus, primary inferior oblique muscle overaction, and dissociated vertical divergence. If we examine the evolutionary underpinnings of these ocular rotations, we can construct a unifying mechanism for the sensorimotor abnormalities that arise in humans with infantile strabismus. Latent nystagmus, primary inferior oblique muscle overaction, and dissociated vertical divergence correspond to visual balancing reflexes that are operative in lateral-eyed animals in yaw, pitch, and roll, respectively. In humans with infantile strabismus, these subcortical visual reflexes are reactivated by a physiologic imbalance in binocular visual input, which resets central vestibular tone in 3-dimensional space. These visual reflexes reveal the evolutionary role of the eyes as sensory balance organs that can directly modulate central vestibular tone. Latent nystagmus, primary oblique muscle overaction, and dissociated vertical divergence should be reclassified as visuo-vestibular eye movements. PMID:15955986

  20. Sensory irritation as a basis for setting occupational exposure limits.

    PubMed

    Brüning, Thomas; Bartsch, Rüdiger; Bolt, Hermann Maximillian; Desel, Herbert; Drexler, Hans; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Hartwig, Andrea; Jäckh, Rudolf; Leibold, Edgar; Pallapies, Dirk; Rettenmeier, Albert W; Schlüter, Gerhard; Stropp, Gisela; Sucker, Kirsten; Triebig, Gerhard; Westphal, Götz; van Thriel, Christoph

    2014-10-01

    There is a need of guidance on how local irritancy data should be incorporated into risk assessment procedures, particularly with respect to the derivation of occupational exposure limits (OELs). Therefore, a board of experts from German committees in charge of the derivation of OELs discussed the major challenges of this particular end point for regulatory toxicology. As a result, this overview deals with the question of integrating results of local toxicity at the eyes and the upper respiratory tract (URT). Part 1 describes the morphology and physiology of the relevant target sites, i.e., the outer eye, nasal cavity, and larynx/pharynx in humans. Special emphasis is placed on sensory innervation, species differences between humans and rodents, and possible effects of obnoxious odor in humans. Based on this physiological basis, Part 2 describes a conceptual model for the causation of adverse health effects at these targets that is composed of two pathways. The first, "sensory irritation" pathway is initiated by the interaction of local irritants with receptors of the nervous system (e.g., trigeminal nerve endings) and a downstream cascade of reflexes and defense mechanisms (e.g., eyeblinks, coughing). While the first stages of this pathway are thought to be completely reversible, high or prolonged exposure can lead to neurogenic inflammation and subsequently tissue damage. The second, "tissue irritation" pathway starts with the interaction of the local irritant with the epithelial cell layers of the eyes and the URT. Adaptive changes are the first response on that pathway followed by inflammation and irreversible damages. Regardless of these initial steps, at high concentrations and prolonged exposures, the two pathways converge to the adverse effect of morphologically and biochemically ascertainable changes. Experimental exposure studies with human volunteers provide the empirical basis for effects along the sensory irritation pathway and thus, "sensory NOAEChuman" can be derived. In contrast, inhalation studies with rodents investigate the second pathway that yields an "irritative NOAECanimal." Usually the data for both pathways is not available and extrapolation across species is necessary. Part 3 comprises an empirical approach for the derivation of a default factor for interspecies differences. Therefore, from those substances under discussion in German scientific and regulatory bodies, 19 substances were identified known to be human irritants with available human and animal data. The evaluation started with three substances: ethyl acrylate, formaldehyde, and methyl methacrylate. For these substances, appropriate chronic animal and a controlled human exposure studies were available. The comparison of the sensory NOAEChuman with the irritative NOAECanimal (chronic) resulted in an interspecies extrapolation factor (iEF) of 3 for extrapolating animal data concerning local sensory irritating effects. The adequacy of this iEF was confirmed by its application to additional substances with lower data density (acetaldehyde, ammonia, n-butyl acetate, hydrogen sulfide, and 2-ethylhexanol). Thus, extrapolating from animal studies, an iEF of 3 should be applied for local sensory irritants without reliable human data, unless individual data argue for a substance-specific approach. PMID:25182421

  1. Advocacy for eye care

    PubMed Central

    Ravilla, Thulasiraj D; Ramasamy, Dhivya

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of eye care service delivery is often dependant on how the different stakeholders are aligned. These stakeholders range from the ministries of health who have the capacity to grant government subsidies for eye care, down to the primary healthcare workers who can be enrolled to screen for basic eye diseases. Advocacy is a tool that can help service providers draw the attention of key stakeholders to a particular area of concern. By enlisting the support, endorsement and participation of a wider circle of players, advocacy can help to improve the penetration and effectiveness of the services provided. There are several factors in the external environmental that influence the eye care services – such as the availability of trained manpower, supply of eye care consumables, government rules and regulations. There are several instances where successful advocacy has helped to create an enabling environment for eye care service delivery. Providing eye care services in developing countries requires the support – either for direct patient care or for support services such as producing trained manpower or for research and dissemination. Such support, in the form of financial or other resources, can be garnered through advocacy. PMID:22944745

  2. Vision impairment and dual sensory problems in middle age

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, Piers; Dickinson, Christine; Emsley, Richard; Bishop, Paul; Cruickshanks, Karen; Edmondson-Jones, Mark; McCormack, Abby; Fortnum, Heather; Moore, David R.; Norman, Paul; Munro, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Vision and hearing impairments are known to increase in middle age. In this study we describe the prevalence of vision impairment and dual sensory impairment in UK adults aged 40 to 69 years in a very large and recently ascertained data set. The associations between vision impairment, age, sex, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity are reported. Methods This research was conducted using the UK Biobank Resource, with subsets of UK Biobank data analysed with respect to self-report of eye problems and glasses use. Better-eye visual acuity with habitually worn refractive correction was assessed with a logMAR chart (n = 116,682). Better-ear speech reception threshold was measured with an adaptive speech in noise test, the Digit Triplet Test (n = 164,770). Prevalence estimates were weighted with respect to UK 2001 Census data. Results Prevalence of mild visual impairment and low vision was estimated at 15.2% (95% CI 14.9–15.5%) and 0.9% (95% CI 0.8–1.0%), respectively. Use of glasses was 88.0% (95% CI 87.9–88.1%). The prevalence of dual sensory impairment was 3.1% (95% CI 3.0–3.2%) and there was a nine-fold increase in the prevalence of dual sensory problems between the youngest and oldest age groups. Older adults, those from low socioeconomic and ethnic minority backgrounds were most at risk for vision problems. Conclusions Mild vision impairment is common in middle aged UK adults, despite widespread use of spectacles. Possible barriers to optometric care for those from low socioeconomic and ethnic minority backgrounds may require attention. A higher than expected prevalence of dual impairment suggests that hearing and vision problems share common causes. Optometrists should consider screening for hearing problems, particularly among older adults. PMID:24888710

  3. Eye-Safe Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Laser infrared radar (lidar) undergoing development harmless to human eyes, consists almost entirely of solid-state components, and offers high range resolution. Operates at wavelength of about 2 micrometers. If radiation from such device strikes eye, almost completely absorbed by cornea without causing damage, even if aimed directly at eye. Continuous-wave light from laser oscillator amplified and modulated for transmission from telescope. Small portion of output of oscillator fed to single-mode fiber coupler, where mixed with return pulses. Intended for remote Doppler measurements of winds and differential-absorption measurements of concentrations of gases in atmosphere.

  4. Multimodal Sensory Distortions in Post-partum Exacerbation of Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Urvakhsh Meherwan; Naveen Kumar, C; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Thirthalli, Jagadisha

    2013-11-25

    Background: Sensory distortions of body image commonly occur during migraine, seizures, non-dominant cortical infarcts and hallucinogen abuse.Methods: We report the case of a 30-year-old woman with paranoid schizophrenia, presenting with post-partum onset multimodal sensory distortions in the absence of any neurological disorders or substance use.Results: Her symptoms involved persistent facial/body metamorphopsia (distorted images) and vocal paracousis (distorted voices), in the absence of visual hallucinations, illusions or agnosia. Neuropsychological assessments revealed deficits on visual processing tasks. Neuroimaging, electroencephalography and ophthalmological evaluation revealed no abnormalities. The multimodal sensory distortions responded to anti-psychotic treatment, paralleling improvement in other schizophrenia psychopathology, over a period of one month.Conclusion: Prominent and persistent multimodal sensory distortions like metamorphopsia and paracousis in the presence of psychotic symptoms warrant a detailed neurological and general medical work-up. These symptoms presenting in the absence of neurological or substance use disorders may be a component of schizophrenia. PMID:24275634

  5. Motor output evoked by subsaccadic stimulation of primate frontal eye fields

    E-print Network

    Crawford, Doug

    structure for saccade generation, two sets of recent results emphasize a broader mandate. For example, subsaccadic (in terms of current or frequency) stimulation of the FEF modulates behavior and alters sensory in orienting. Although the head usually lags the eyes because of inertia, FEF stimulation evokes neck

  6. Motor output evoked by subsaccadic stimulation of primate frontal eye elds

    E-print Network

    Corneil, Brian D.

    structure for saccade generation, two sets of recent results emphasize a broader mandate. For example, subsaccadic (in terms of current or frequency) stimulation of the FEF modulates behavior and alters sensory in orienting. Although the head usually lags the eyes because of inertia, FEF stimulation evokes neck

  7. The Eyes Have It: Regulatory and Structural Changes Both Underlie Cichlid Visual Pigment Diversity

    E-print Network

    The Eyes Have It: Regulatory and Structural Changes Both Underlie Cichlid Visual Pigment Diversity contribute to sensory diversification in two replicate radiations of cichlid fishes. In the clear waters-wavelength visual pigments have elevated numbers of potentially functional substitutions. Thus, we present a model

  8. Different topological organization of human brain functional networks with eyes open versus eyes closed.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pengfei; Huang, Ruiwang; Wang, Jinhui; Van Dam, Nicholas T; Xie, Teng; Dong, Zhangye; Chen, Chunping; Gu, Ruolei; Zang, Yu-Feng; He, Yong; Fan, Jin; Luo, Yue-jia

    2014-04-15

    Opening and closing the eyes are fundamental behaviors for directing attention to the external versus internal world. However, it remains unclear whether the states of eyes-open (EO) relative to eyes-closed (EC) are associated with different topological organizations of functional neural networks for exteroceptive and interoceptive processing (processing the external world and internal state, respectively). Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and neural network analysis to investigate the topological properties of functional networks of the human brain when the eyes were open versus closed. The brain networks exhibited higher cliquishness and local efficiency, but lower global efficiency during the EO state compared to the EC state. These properties suggest an increase in specialized information processing along with a decrease in integrated information processing in EO (vs. EC). More importantly, the "exteroceptive" network, including the attentional system (e.g., superior parietal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule), ocular motor system (e.g., precentral gyrus and superior frontal gyrus), and arousal system (e.g., insula and thalamus), showed higher regional nodal properties (nodal degree, efficiency and betweenness centrality) in EO relative to EC. In contrast, the "interoceptive" network, composed of visual system (e.g., lingual gyrus, fusiform gyrus and cuneus), auditory system (e.g., Heschl's gyurs), somatosensory system (e.g., postcentral gyrus), and part of the default mode network (e.g., angular gyrus and anterior cingulate gyrus), showed significantly higher regional properties in EC vs. EO. In addition, the connections across sensory modalities were altered by volitional eye opening. The synchronicity between the visual system and the motor, somatosensory and auditory systems, characteristic of EC, was attenuated in EO. Further, the connections between the visual system and the attention, arousal and subcortical systems were increased in EO. These results may indicate that EO leads to a suppression of sensory modalities (other than visual) to allocate resources to exteroceptive processing. Our findings suggest that the topological organization of human brain networks dynamically switches corresponding to the information processing modes as we open or close our eyes. PMID:24434242

  9. New Analyses of the Sensory Organization Test Compared to the Clinical Test of Sensory Integration and Balance in Patients with Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo

    PubMed Central

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Cohen, Helen S.; Peters, Brian T.; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) of the computerized dynamic posturography battery or the Clinical Test of Sensory Integration and Balance (CTSIB) is more likely to indicate balance disorders in people with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Study design Normal controls were compared to patients with unilateral benign paroxysmal positional vertigo of the posterior semicircular canal (BPPV). Methods Subjects performed tests with eyes open or closed on stable and unstable surfaces, with head still or with head moving at 0.33 Hz in pitch or yaw. Dependent variables were the percent time of the standard duration each subject could perform the task, the number of head motions made, and kinematic variables measured with head- and torso-mounted inertial motion units. Results Because equilibrium scores of normals improved significantly over repeated trials on SOT patients were given only 1 trial per condition. For percent time between-group differences were found on CTSIB with eyes closed, on foam, head moving in yaw showing significantly reduced performance by BPPV subjects compared to controls. Compared to controls patients made significantly fewer head movements on CTSIB, eyes closed, on foam, head still, pitch and yaw. Kinematic data also differed between the groups on tests with eyes closed, unstable surfaces with different head movement combinations, indicating increased instability in BPPV patients. Conclusion For screening, CTSIB with head movements is more likely than SOT to indicate balance deficits, especially when dependent measures include percent time as well as head movement counts and kinematic measures. PMID:23553110

  10. User Eye Fatigue Detection via Eye Movement Behavior

    E-print Network

    Oleg, Komogortsev - Department of Computer Science, Texas State University

    User Eye Fatigue Detection via Eye Movement Behavior Abstract: In this study we propose on the analysis of the recorded eye movements via what is called behavioral scores. These easy-to-compute scores can be obtained immediately after a calibration procedure, via processing of such basic eye movements

  11. Measures of Lateral Dominance: Interrelationships and Temporal Stability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sappington, John T.

    1980-01-01

    This study measured test-retest reliabilities and interrelationships of four common measures of lateral dominance: dowel balancing, peg placement, grip strength, and conjugate lateral eye movement. Moderate reliabilities for all measures except grip strength were obtained. Subjects' sex may be an important reliability variable. Correlations among…

  12. Relative contribution of feedforward excitatory connections to ocular dominance plasticity in layer 4 of visual cortex

    E-print Network

    Khibnik, Lena A.

    Brief monocular deprivation (MD) shifts ocular dominance (OD) in primary visual cortex by causing depression of responses to the deprived eye. Here we address the extent to which the shift is expressed by a modification ...

  13. Age-related changes in human posture control: Sensory organization tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

    1989-01-01

    Postural control was measured in 214 human subjects ranging in age from 7 to 81 years. Sensory organization tests measured the magnitude of anterior-posterior body sway during six 21 s trials in which visual and somatosensory orientation cues were altered (by rotating the visual surround and support surface in proportion to the subject's sway) or vision eliminated (eyes closed) in various combinations. No age-related increase in postural sway was found for subjects standing on a fixed support surface with eyes open or closed. However, age-related increases in sway were found for conditions involving altered visual or somatosensory cues. Subjects older than about 55 years showed the largest sway increases. Subjects younger than about 15 years were also sensitive to alteration of sensory cues. On average, the older subjects were more affected by altered visual cues whereas younger subjects had more difficulty with altered somatosensory cues.

  14. Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Eye Health News Consumer Alerts The Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes Tweet Keep an Eye on ... painful damage called snow blindness . The Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes Summer Sun Eye Safety Winter ...

  15. Eye Injuries in Sports

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 90% of these injuries can be prevented. Overall, basketball and baseball cause the most eye injuries, followed ... body contact. Some high-risk sports are baseball, basketball, hockey, football, lacrosse, tennis and other racquet sports, ...

  16. Eye to I

    E-print Network

    Brunstein, Ada

    2007-01-01

    This is the story of the language of eyes - what they say about our emotions, what they reveal about our intentions, how they interact with our face, and how they connect us to one another. The story follows our experience ...

  17. Common Eye Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... aged 40 years and older are either legally blind (having best-corrected visual acuity of 6/60 ... eye, excluding those who were categorized as being blind). The leading causes of blindness and low vision ...

  18. Diabetes and eye disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... brain. Diabetic retinopathy is a main cause of blindness in Americans 20 to 74 years old. People ... pressure in the eye that can lead to blindness Macular edema -- blurry vision due to fluid leaking ...

  19. Why Do Eyes Water?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... out of your eyes through tear ducts, or lacrimal ducts. These ducts are tiny tubes that run between ... tear duct. Babies can be born with blocked lacrimal ducts. They usually open on their own, but some ...

  20. Multimodal eye recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhi; Du, Yingzi; Thomas, N. L.; Delp, Edward J., III

    2010-04-01

    Multimodal biometrics use more than one means of biometric identification to achieve higher recognition accuracy, since sometimes a unimodal biometric is not good enough used to do identification and classification. In this paper, we proposed a multimodal eye recognition system, which can obtain both iris and sclera patterns from one color eye image. Gabor filter and 1-D Log-Gabor filter algorithms have been applied as the iris recognition algorithms. In sclera recognition, we introduced automatic sclera segmentation, sclera pattern enhancement, sclera pattern template generation, and sclera pattern matching. We applied kernelbased matching score fusion to improve the performance of the eye recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed eye recognition method can achieve better performance compared to unimodal biometric identification, and the accuracy of our proposed kernel-based matching score fusion method is higher than two classic linear matching score fusion methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).

  1. Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... allergic influences that might affect you, such as perfumes, weeds, mold, etc. Signs and Symptoms The eye ... diseases: Allergic Contact Dermatitis Blepharitis Contact Lens Solution Toxicity Corneal Abrasion Corneal Foreign Body Recurrent Corneal Erosion ...

  2. Eye injuries in sports.

    PubMed

    Drolsum, L

    1999-02-01

    In a retrospective study from 1988 to 1998, eye injuries were found in 553 patients. Seventy-six (13.7%) of these injuries were associated with sport. The mechanism of trauma was for the most part a ball (71.1%) or a club (13.2%). Most eye injuries occurred in soccer (35.5%), which is, by far, the most widespread sport in this region of Norway. A disproportionately high number of the injuries occurred in floorball (17.1%), bandy (13.2%), and squash (10.5%). The rules in these sports may, in theory, be strict enough to prevent eye injuries in most cases. However, these rules are often neglected in informal activities. Strategies for educating the general public about the potentially serious effect of eye injuries in sports exposed to such risk are of great importance. PMID:9974198

  3. Diabetes eye exams

    MedlinePLUS

    ... back of your eye. This condition is called diabetic retinopathy . Diabetes also increases your risk of glaucoma and ... of Ophthalmology Retina Panel. Preferred Practice Pattern Guidelines. Diabetic retinopathy . 2012. Available at: www.aao.org/ppp. Accessed ...

  4. Dry eye syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of dry eyes include: Dry environment or workplace (wind, air conditioning) Sun exposure Smoking or second-hand ... NOT smoke and avoid second-hand smoke, direct wind, and air conditioning. Use a humidifier, especially in ...

  5. National Eye Institute

    MedlinePLUS

    ... India. Read the announcement Partnership for Research on Ebola Virus in Liberia The NEI has deployed a ... experts to Monrovia to study the effects of Ebola on the eye. Read more about PREVAIL III ...

  6. Making Sense of Sensory Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Marie

    2010-01-01

    The role of caregivers requires that they continuously assess the needs and performance of children and provide the support necessary for them to achieve their potential. A thorough understanding of child development, including the role and impact of sensory development, is critical for caregivers to properly evaluate and assist these children.…

  7. Sensory Aids for the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Committee on Prosthetics Research and Development.

    The problems of providing sensory aids for the blind are presented and a report on the present status of aids discusses direct translation and recognition reading machines as well as mobility aids. Aspects of required research considered are the following: assessment of needs; vision, audition, taction, and multimodal communication; reading aids,…

  8. Evolving concepts of sensory adaptation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Sensory systems constantly adapt their responses to match the current environment. These adjustments occur at many levels of the system and increasingly appear to calibrate even for highly abstract perceptual representations of the stimulus. The similar effects of adaptation across very different stimulus domains point to common design principles but also continue to raise questions about the purpose of adaptation. PMID:23189092

  9. [Sensory Awareness through Outdoor Education].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, Carin; And Others

    Designed for instruction of emotionally handicapped children and youth, these seven articles present concepts and activities relative to sensory awareness and outdoor education. The first article presents definitions, concepts, detailed methodology, and over 50 activities designed to create awareness of man's five senses. Utilizing the art of…

  10. [Straight in the eyes].

    PubMed

    Diop, E; Beylot, V; Berta, C; Dugardin, C; Aigle, L

    2015-01-01

    This case report about a young French soldier hit in the eye by a spitting cobra in the Central African Republic prompts us to review the potential toxicity of this venom to the eyes and the management of this injury. The initial phase is simple to implement, but is often performed badly or not at all because unknown. It is a condition, however, for optimal recovery of the cornea. PMID:26067984

  11. Can sensory attention focused exercise facilitate the utilization of proprioception for improved balance control in PD?

    PubMed

    Lefaivre, Shannon C; Almeida, Quincy J

    2015-02-01

    Impaired sensory processing in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been argued to contribute to balance deficits. Exercises aimed at improving sensory feedback and body awareness have the potential to ameliorate balance deficits in PD. Recently, PD SAFEx™, a sensory and attention focused rehabilitation program, has been shown to improve motor deficits in PD, although balance control has never been evaluated. The objective of this study was to measure the effects of PD SAFEx™ on balance control in PD. Twenty-one participants with mild to moderate idiopathic PD completed 12 weeks of PD SAFEx™ training (three times/week) in a group setting. Prior to training, participants completed a pre-assessment evaluating balance in accordance with an objective, computerized test of balance (modified clinical test of sensory integration and balance (m-CTSIB) and postural stability testing (PST)) protocols. The m-CTSIB was our primary outcome measure, which allowed assessment of balance in both eyes open and closed conditions, thus enabling evaluation of specific sensory contributions to balance improvement. At post-test, a significant interaction between time of assessment and vision condition (p=.014) demonstrated that all participants significantly improved balance control, specifically when eyes were closed. Balance control did not change from pre to post with eyes open. These results provide evidence that PD SAFEx™ is effective at improving the ability to utilize proprioceptive information, resulting in improved balance control in the absence of vision. Enhancing the ability to utilize proprioception for individuals with PD is an important intermediary to improving balance deficits. PMID:25655836

  12. Modern sports eye injuries

    PubMed Central

    Capão Filipe, J A; Rocha-Sousa, A; Falcão-Reis, F; Castro-Correia, J

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To determine the severity and long term sequelae of eye injuries caused by modern sports that could be responsible for significant ocular trauma in the future. Methods: Prospective observational study of 24 (25 eyes) athletes with sports related ocular injuries from health clubs, war games, adventure, radical and new types of soccer, presenting to an eye emergency department between 1992 and 2002 (10 years). Results: Modern sports were responsible for 8.3% of the 288 total sports eye injuries reported. Squash (29.2%) was the most common cause, followed by paintball (20.8%) and motocross (16.6%). The most common diagnosis during the follow up period was retinal breaks (20%). 18 (75%) patients sustained a severe injury. The final visual acuity remained <20/100 in two paintball players. Conclusions: Ocular injuries resulting from modern sports are often severe. Adequate instruction of the participants in the games, proper use of eye protectors, and a routine complete ophthalmological examination after an eye trauma should be mandatory. PMID:14609827

  13. Trait Dominance Promotes Reflexive Staring at Masked Angry Body Postures

    PubMed Central

    Hortensius, Ruud; van Honk, Jack; de Gelder, Beatrice; Terburg, David

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that dominant individuals sustain eye-contact when non-consciously confronted with angry faces, suggesting reflexive mechanisms underlying dominance behaviors. However, dominance and submission can be conveyed and provoked by means of not only facial but also bodily features. So far few studies have investigated the interplay of body postures with personality traits and behavior, despite the biological relevance and ecological validity of these postures. Here we investigate whether non-conscious exposure to bodily expressions of anger evokes reflex-like dominance behavior. In an interactive eye-tracking experiment thirty-two participants completed three social dominance tasks with angry, happy and neutral facial, bodily and face and body compound expressions that were masked from consciousness. We confirmed our predictions of slower gaze-aversion from both non-conscious bodily and compound expressions of anger compared to happiness in high dominant individuals. Results from a follow-up experiment suggest that the dominance behavior triggered by exposure to bodily anger occurs with basic detection of the category, but not recognition of the emotional content. Together these results suggest that dominant staring behavior is reflexively driven by non-conscious perception of the emotional content and triggered by not only facial but also bodily expression of anger. PMID:25549321

  14. USE OF SENSORY EVOKED POTENTIALS IN TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rationale for studying sensory systems as an integral part of neurotoxicological examinations is presented. The role of evoked potentials in assessing brain dysfunction in general and sensory systems in particular is also presented. Four types of sensory evoked potentials (br...

  15. Multi-Sensory Intervention Observational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carla J.

    2011-01-01

    An observational research study based on sensory integration theory was conducted to examine the observed impact of student selected multi-sensory experiences within a multi-sensory intervention center relative to the sustained focus levels of students with special needs. A stratified random sample of 50 students with severe developmental…

  16. Sensory exploitation and sexual conflict

    PubMed Central

    Arnqvist, Göran

    2006-01-01

    Much of the literature on male–female coevolution concerns the processes by which male traits and female preferences for these can coevolve and be maintained by selection. There has been less explicit focus on the origin of male traits and female preferences. Here, I argue that it is important to distinguish origin from subsequent coevolution and that insights into the origin can help us appreciate the relative roles of various coevolutionary processes for the evolution of diversity in sexual dimorphism. I delineate four distinct scenarios for the origin of male traits and female preferences that build on past contributions, two of which are based on pre-existing variation in quality indicators among males and two on exploitation of pre-existing sensory biases among females. Recent empirical research, and theoretical models, suggest that origin by sensory exploitation has been widespread. I argue that this points to a key, but perhaps transient, role for sexually antagonistic coevolution (SAC) in the subsequent evolutionary elaboration of sexual traits, because (i) sensory exploitation is often likely to be initially costly for individuals of the exploited sex and (ii) the subsequent evolution of resistance to sensory exploitation should often be associated with costs due to selective constraints. A review of a few case studies is used to illustrate these points. Empirical data directly relevant to the costs of being sensory exploited and the costs of evolving resistance is largely lacking, and I stress that such data would help determining the general importance of sexual conflict and SAC for the evolution of sexual dimorphism. PMID:16612895

  17. Galileo's eye: a new vision of the senses in the work of Galileo Galilei.

    PubMed

    Piccolino, Marco; Wade, Nicholas J

    2008-01-01

    Reflections on the senses, and particularly on vision, permeate the writings of Galileo Galilei, one of the main protagonists of the scientific revolution. This aspect of his work has received scant attention by historians, in spite of its importance for his achievements in astronomy, and also for the significance in the innovative scientific methodology he fostered. Galileo's vision pursued a different path from the main stream of the then contemporary studies in the field; these were concerned with the dioptrics and anatomy of the eye, as elaborated mainly by Johannes Kepler and Christoph Scheiner. Galileo was more concerned with the phenomenology rather than with the mechanisms of the visual process. His general interest in the senses was psychological and philosophical; it reflected the fallacies and limits of the senses and the ways in which scientific knowledge of the world could be gathered from potentially deceptive appearances. Galileo's innovative conception of the relation between the senses and external reality contrasted with the classical tradition dominated by Aristotle; it paved the way for the modern understanding of sensory processing, culminating two centuries later in Johannes Müller's elaboration of the doctrine of specific nerve energies and in Helmholtz's general theory of perception. PMID:18986060

  18. Judgments of dominance from the face track physical strength.

    PubMed

    Toscano, Hugo; Schubert, Thomas W; Sell, Aaron N

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that judgments of dominance from faces partly rely on implicit judgments of bodily strength. In two studies, we demonstrate such a relation for both computer-generated and natural photos of male faces. We find support when aggregating data across participants, when analyzing with hierarchical models, and also when strength and dominance are judged by different raters. Moreover, we identify common predictors that underlie perceptions of both strength and dominance: brow height, eye length, chin length, and the widths of the nose and mouth. PMID:24558653

  19. Language after dominant hemispherectomy

    PubMed Central

    Gott, Piggy S.

    1973-01-01

    Linguistic and related cognitive abilities were investigated two years after dominant left hemispherectomy for cerebral malignancy in a 12 year old female. Auditory comprehension of speech was superior to other modes of language abilities with expressive speech being the least developed. Findings suggested an isolation or non-communication between the systems for speaking and for writing and visual perception. It was concluded that language mechanisms in the right hemisphere were not just at a low level of development of the functions found in the dominant hemisphere but were modified as a result of interference by preexistent spatioperceptual systems. Images PMID:4772723

  20. Sensory impacts of food-packaging interactions.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Susan E; Webster, Janet B

    2009-01-01

    Sensory changes in food products result from intentional or unintentional interactions with packaging materials and from failure of materials to protect product integrity or quality. Resolving sensory issues related to plastic food packaging involves knowledge provided by sensory scientists, materials scientists, packaging manufacturers, food processors, and consumers. Effective communication among scientists and engineers from different disciplines and industries can help scientists understand package-product interactions. Very limited published literature describes sensory perceptions associated with food-package interactions. This article discusses sensory impacts, with emphasis on oxidation reactions, associated with the interaction of food and materials, including taints, scalping, changes in food quality as a function of packaging, and examples of material innovations for smart packaging that can improve sensory quality of foods and beverages. Sensory evaluation is an important tool for improved package selection and development of new materials. PMID:19389606

  1. Molecular restrictions for human eye irritation by chemical vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Cometto-Muniz, J. Enrique . E-mail: ecometto@ucsd.edu; Cain, William S.; Abraham, Michael H.

    2005-09-15

    Previous research showed a cut-off along homologous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in their ability to produce acute human mucosal irritation. The present study sought to specify the particular cut-off homolog for sensory eye irritation in an acetate and n-alcohol series. A 1900-ml glass vessel system and a three-alternative forced-choice procedure served to test nonyl, decyl, and dodecyl acetate, and 1-nonanol, 1-decanol, and 1-undecanol. Flowrate to the eye ranged from 2 to 8 L/min and time of exposure from 3 to 24 s. Decyl acetate and 1-undecanol were the shortest homologs that failed to produce eye irritation under all conditions, producing a cut-off effect. Increasing the vapor concentration of decyl acetate and 1-undecanol by 3 and 8 times, respectively, via heating them to 37 deg C made either or both VOCs detectable to only half of the 12 subjects tested, even though the higher vapor concentration was well above a predicted eye irritation threshold. When eye irritation thresholds for homologous acetates and n-alcohols were plotted as a function of the longest unfolded length of the molecule, the values for decyl acetate and 1-undecanol fell within a restricted range of 18 to 19 A. The outcome suggests that the basis for the cut-off is biological, that is, the molecule lacks a key size or structure to trigger transduction, rather than physical, that is, the vapor concentration is too low to precipitate detection.

  2. Domination game Bostjan Bresar

    E-print Network

    KlavÂ?ar, Sandi

    .rall@furman.edu January 8, 2009 Abstract The domination game played on a graph G consists of two players, Domina- tor in as few steps as possible and Staller wishes to delay the process as much as possible. The game domina

  3. Iron dominated magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, G.E.

    1985-07-01

    These two lectures on iron dominated magnets are meant for the student of accelerator science and contain general treatments of the subjects design and construction. The material is arranged in the categories: General Concepts and Cost Considerations, Profile Configuration and Harmonics, Magnetic Measurements, a few examples of ''special magnets'' and Materials and Practices. Extensive literature is provided.

  4. The Sensory Neurons of Touch

    PubMed Central

    Abraira, Victoria E.; Ginty, David D.

    2013-01-01

    The somatosensory system decodes a wide range of tactile stimuli and thus endows us with a remarkable capacity for object recognition, texture discrimination, sensory-motor feedback and social exchange. The first step leading to perception of innocuous touch is activation of cutaneous sensory neurons called low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs). Here, we review the properties and functions of LTMRs, emphasizing the unique tuning properties of LTMR subtypes and the organizational logic of their peripheral and central axonal projections. We discuss the spinal cord neurophysiological representation of complex mechanical forces acting upon the skin and current views of how tactile information is processed and conveyed from the spinal cord to the brain. An integrative model in which ensembles of impulses arising from physiologically distinct LTMRs are integrated and processed in somatotopically aligned mechanosensory columns of the spinal cord dorsal horn underlies the nervous system’s enormous capacity for perceiving the richness of the tactile world. PMID:23972592

  5. Isoniazid induced motor-dominant neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Arsalan, Rabeeya; Sabzwari, Saniya

    2015-10-01

    Isoniazid though a very effective treatment for tuberculosis can cause severe motor-dominant neuropathy which can be reversible with pyridoxine supplementation. A 45-year-old female diagnosed with psoas abscess, culture positive for mycobacterium tuberculosis, was started on anti- tuberculous treatment with four drugs, including isoniazid at a dose of 5 mg/kg/day. Three months later she developed severe motor weakness of lower limbs with loss of ankle and knee reflexes. She was treated with vitamin B6 injections and isoniazid treatment was continued. Her motor weakness gradually improved in a few months, but mild sensory impairment persisted even after two years. There is need for vigilance regarding neurological effects of isoniazid in seemingly low-risk individuals in whom development of symptoms should raise the suspicion about slow acetylator status. Timely therapeutic intervention with high-dose vitamin B6 can reduce the long-term morbidity associated with this easily reversible condition. PMID:26440850

  6. Development of Metallic Sensory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Horne, Michael R.; Messick, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    Existing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are inherently limited by the physical response of the structural material being inspected and are therefore not generally effective at the identification of small discontinuities, making the detection of incipient damage extremely difficult. One innovative solution to this problem is to enhance or complement the NDE signature of structural materials to dramatically improve the ability of existing NDE tools to detect damage. To address this need, a multifunctional metallic material has been developed that can be used in structural applications. The material is processed to contain second phase sensory particles that significantly improve the NDE response, enhancing the ability of conventional NDE techniques to detect incipient damage both during and after flight. Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloys (FSMAs) are an ideal material for these sensory particles as they undergo a uniform and repeatable change in both magnetic properties and crystallographic structure (martensitic transformation) when subjected to strain and/or temperature changes which can be detected using conventional NDE techniques. In this study, the use of a ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) as the sensory particles was investigated.

  7. Predictive eye movements in natural vision

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, Travis; Chajka, Kelly; Pelz, Jeff B.

    2012-01-01

    In the natural world, the brain must handle inherent delays in visual processing. This is a problem particularly during dynamic tasks. A possible solution to visuo-motor delays is prediction of a future state of the environment based on the current state and properties of the environment learned from experience. Prediction is well known to occur in both saccades and pursuit movements and is likely to depend on some kind of internal visual model as the basis for this prediction. However, most evidence comes from controlled laboratory studies using simple paradigms. In this study, we examine eye movements made in the context of demanding natural behavior, while playing squash. We show that prediction is a pervasive component of gaze behavior in this context. We show in addition that these predictive movements are extraordinarily precise and operate continuously in time across multiple trajectories and multiple movements. This suggests that prediction is based on complex dynamic visual models of the way that balls move, accumulated over extensive experience. Since eye, head, arm, and body movements all co-occur, it seems likely that a common internal model of predicted visual state is shared by different effectors to allow flexible coordination patterns. It is generally agreed that internal models are responsible for predicting future sensory state for control of body movements. The present work suggests that model-based prediction is likely to be a pervasive component in natural gaze control as well. PMID:22183755

  8. Unique two-photoreceptor scanning eye of the nematode Mermis nigrescens.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Abir Khalil; Burr, Carolyn; Burr, A H Jay

    2007-06-01

    A single eye is present in females of the nematode Mermis nigrescens. A pigment cup occupies the entire cross section near the anterior tip of the worm, and the curved cuticle at the tip becomes a cornea. The shading pigment is hemoglobin instead of melanin. The eye has been shown to provide a positive phototaxis utilizing a scanning mechanism; however, the eye's structure has not been sufficiently described. Here, we provide a reconstruction of the eye on the basis of light and electron microscopy of serial sections. Hemoglobin crystals are densely packed in the cytoplasm of expanded hypodermal cells, forming the cylindrical shadowing structure. The two putative photoreceptors are found laterally within the transparent conical center of this structure where they would be exposed to light from different anterior fields of view. Each consists of a multilamellar sensory process formed by one of the dendrites in each of the two amphidial sensory nerve bundles that pass through the center. Multilamellar processes are also found in the same location in immature adult females and fourth stage juvenile females, which lack the shadowing pigment and exhibit a weak negative phototaxis. The unique structure of the pigment cup eye is discussed in terms of optical function, phototaxis mechanism, eye nomenclature, and evolution. PMID:17565110

  9. [Dominant Thalamus and Aphasia].

    PubMed

    Nakano, Akiko; Shimomura, Tatsuo

    2015-12-01

    Many studies have shown that lesions of the dominant thalamus precipitate language disorders in a similar manner to transcortical aphasias, in a phenomenon known as "thalamic aphasia." In some cases, however, aphasia may not occur or may appear transiently following thalamic lesions. Furthermore, dominant thalamic lesions can produce changes in character, as observed in patients with amnesic disorder. Previous work has explored the utility of thalamic aphasia as a discriminative feature for classification of aphasia. Although the thalamus may be involved in the function of the brainstem reticular activating system and play a role in attentional network and in memory of Papez circuit or Yakovlev circuit, the mechanism by which thalamic lesion leads to the emergence of aphasic disorders is unclear. In this review, we we survey historical and recent literature on thalamic aphasia in an attempt to understand the neural processes affected by thalamic lesions. PMID:26618763

  10. Sensory Intolerance: Latent Structure and Psychopathologic Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Steven; Conelea, Christine A.; McKay, Dean; Crowe, Katherine B.; Abramowitz, Jonathan S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sensory intolerance refers to high levels of distress evoked by everyday sounds (e.g., sounds of people chewing) or commonplace tactile sensations (e.g., sticky or greasy substances). Sensory intolerance may be associated with obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms, OC-related phenomena, and other forms of psychopathology. Sensory intolerance is not included as a syndrome in current diagnostic systems, although preliminary research suggests that it might be a distinct syndrome. Objectives First, to investigate the latent structure of sensory intolerance in adults; that is, to investigate whether it is syndrome-like in nature, in which auditory and tactile sensory intolerance co-occur and are associated with impaired functioning. Second, to investigate the psychopathologic correlates of sensory intolerance. In particular, to investigate whether sensory intolerance is associated with OC-related phenomena, as suggested by previous research. Method A sample of 534 community-based participants were recruited via Amazon.com’s Mechanical Turk program. Participants completed measures of sensory intolerance, OC-related phenomena, and general psychopathology. Results Latent class analysis revealed two classes of individuals: Those who were intolerant of both auditory and tactile stimuli (n = 150), and those who were relatively undisturbed by auditory or tactile stimuli (n = 384). Sensory intolerant individuals, compared to those who were comparatively sensory tolerant, had greater scores on indices of general psychopathology, more severe OC symptoms, a higher likelihood of meeting caseness criteria for OC disorder, elevated scores on measures of OC-related dysfunctional beliefs, a greater tendency to report OC-related phenomena (e.g., a greater frequency of tics), and more impairment on indices of social and occupational functioning. Sensory intolerant individuals had significantly higher scores on OC symptoms even after controlling for general psychopathology. Conclusions Consistent with recent research, these findings provide further evidence for a sensory intolerance syndrome. The findings provide a rationale for conducting future research for determining whether a sensory intolerance syndrome should be included in the diagnostic nomenclature. PMID:24703593

  11. Sensory population decoding for visually-guided movements

    PubMed Central

    Hohl, Sonja S.; Chaisanguanthum, Kris S.; Lisberger, Stephen G.

    2013-01-01

    We have used a new approach to study the neural decoding function that converts the population response in extrastriate area MT into estimates of target motion to drive smooth pursuit eye movement. Experiments reveal significant trial-by-trial correlations between the responses of MT neurons and the initiation of pursuit. The preponderance of significant correlations and the relatively low reduction in noise between MT and the behavioral output support the hypothesis of a sensory origin for at least some of the trial-by-trial variation in pursuit initiation. The finding of mainly positive MT-pursuit correlations, whether the target speed is faster or slower than the neuron’s preferred speed, places strong constraints on the neural decoding computation. We propose that decoding is based on normalizing a weighted population vector of opponent motion responses; normalization comes from neurons uncorrelated with those used to compute the weighted population vector. PMID:23849202

  12. Complexity and diversity of eyes in early Cambrian ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fangchen; Bottjer, David J; Hu, Shixue; Yin, Zongjun; Zhu, Maoyan

    2013-01-01

    Here we report exceptionally preserved non-biomineralized compound eyes of a non-trilobite arthropod Cindarella eucalla from the lower Cambrian Chengjiang Lagerstätte, China. The specimen represents the oldest microanatomical evidence confirming the occurrence of highly developed vision in the early Cambrian, over 2,000 ommatidia in each eye. Moreover, a quantitative analysis of the distribution of eyes related to life habit, feeding types, and phyla respectively, from the Chengjiang biota indicates that specimens with eyes mostly belong to the arthropods, and they usually were actively mobile epifaunal and nektonic forms as hunters or scavengers. Arthropods took the lead in evolution of 'good vision' and domination in Cambrian communities, which supports the hypothesis that the origin and evolution of 'good vision' was a key trait that promoted preferential diversification and formed the foundation of modern benthic ecosystems in the early Cambrian ocean. PMID:24067397

  13. Complexity and diversity of eyes in Early Cambrian ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Fangchen; Bottjer, David J.; Hu, Shixue; Yin, Zongjun; Zhu, Maoyan

    2013-01-01

    Here we report exceptionally preserved non-biomineralized compound eyes of a non-trilobite arthropod Cindarella eucalla from the lower Cambrian Chengjiang Lagerstätte, China. The specimen represents the oldest microanatomical evidence confirming the occurrence of highly developed vision in the early Cambrian, over 2,000 ommatidia in each eye. Moreover, a quantitative analysis of the distribution of eyes related to life habit, feeding types, and phyla respectively, from the Chengjiang biota indicates that specimens with eyes mostly belong to the arthropods, and they usually were actively mobile epifaunal and nektonic forms as hunters or scavengers. Arthropods took the lead in evolution of ‘good vision' and domination in Cambrian communities, which supports the hypothesis that the origin and evolution of ‘good vision' was a key trait that promoted preferential diversification and formed the foundation of modern benthic ecosystems in the early Cambrian ocean. PMID:24067397

  14. Conjunctivitis: What Is Pink Eye?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health News Consumer Alerts Conjunctivitis: What Is Pink Eye? Tweet Conjunctivitis is the term used to describe ... that Led to a Diabetes Diagnosis Find An Eye M.D. Enter zip code here Search by ...

  15. Simple Solutions for Dry Eye

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are more concentrated in the tear film of dry eye patients. In hot weather, sleep with the windows shut and keep cool with air conditioning. • Dry eye patients often develop or aggravate allergies. An ...

  16. Through Our Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narva, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Through Our Eyes was a multimedia performance created in collaboration with the author's five modern dance students. Through video, sound, and dance, the piece shows some ways race has affected their lives. The author did not set out at the beginning of the semester to make this project in her dance class. It was born out of a hard conversation,…

  17. Pursuit Eye Movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauzlis, Rich; Stone, Leland; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    When viewing objects, primates use a combination of saccadic and pursuit eye movements to stabilize the retinal image of the object of regard within the high-acuity region near the fovea. Although these movements involve widespread regions of the nervous system, they mix seamlessly in normal behavior. Saccades are discrete movements that quickly direct the eyes toward a visual target, thereby translating the image of the target from an eccentric retinal location to the fovea. In contrast, pursuit is a continuous movement that slowly rotates the eyes to compensate for the motion of the visual target, minimizing the blur that can compromise visual acuity. While other mammalian species can generate smooth optokinetic eye movements - which track the motion of the entire visual surround - only primates can smoothly pursue a single small element within a complex visual scene, regardless of the motion elsewhere on the retina. This ability likely reflects the greater ability of primates to segment the visual scene, to identify individual visual objects, and to select a target of interest.

  18. The Eyes Have It

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA'S Ames Research Center contracted with SRI international to contract a device that would be able to anticipate, track, and monitor involuntary ocular movement horizontally, vertically, and with respect to depth-of-field. This development helped research institutions to understand the eye. The Eyetracker, manufactured and distributed by Forward Optical Technologies, Inc. is now used in the clinical/medical field.

  19. Teaching "The Bluest Eye."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Linda W.

    1986-01-01

    Shows how teaching "The Bluest Eye" not only helps students learn about the time period of the novel and its relevant issues and techniques, but also helps them to understand themselves. Shows how it can fit into contemporary literature classes, introductory courses to fiction or literature, or into women's literature classes. (EL)

  20. Eye of the Beholder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Art, like beauty, as the adage goes, is in the eye of the beholder. Art also is a living, breathing thing that evolves over time, so what is considered "art" is ever changing--how many of the great artists whose works today sell for fortunes were failures during their lifetime? The 20th century unknowingly gave birth to new variations of art that…

  1. Through Students' Eyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean-Donaldson, Karen B.

    1994-01-01

    Identifies how students perceive racism and its effects on student learning and whether antiracist/multicultural arts (ARMA) curricula can empower students to address racism in schools. Results show racism, through students' eyes, damages learning, attitudes, and behavior. ARMA positively effected students' ability to confront racism within their…

  2. Connecting ears to eye muscles: evolution of a 'simple' reflex arc.

    PubMed

    Straka, Hans; Fritzsch, Bernd; Glover, Joel C

    2014-01-01

    Developmental and evolutionary data from vertebrates are beginning to elucidate the origin of the sensorimotor pathway that links gravity and motion detection to image-stabilizing eye movements--the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). Conserved transcription factors coordinate the development of the vertebrate ear into three functional sensory compartments (graviception/translational linear acceleration, angular acceleration and sound perception). These sensory components connect to specific populations of vestibular and auditory projection neurons in the dorsal hindbrain through undetermined molecular mechanisms. In contrast, a molecular basis for the patterning of the vestibular projection neurons is beginning to emerge. These are organized through the actions of rostrocaudally and dorsoventrally restricted transcription factors into a 'hodological mosaic' within which coherent and largely segregated subgroups are specified to project to different targets in the spinal cord and brain stem. A specific set of these regionally diverse vestibular projection neurons functions as the central element that transforms vestibular sensory signals generated by active and passive head and body movements into motor output through the extraocular muscles. The large dynamic range of motion-related sensory signals requires an organization of VOR pathways as parallel, frequency-tuned, hierarchical connections from the sensory periphery to the motor output. We suggest that eyes, ears and functional connections subserving the VOR are vertebrate novelties that evolved into a functionally coherent motor control system in an almost stereotypic organization across vertebrate taxa. PMID:24776996

  3. Enhanced visual dominance in far space.

    PubMed

    Yue, Zhenzhu; Jiang, Yizhou; Li, You; Wang, Pengfei; Chen, Qi

    2015-10-01

    The Colavita effect refers to the phenomenon that people do not respond to an auditory stimulus in most cases when a visual stimulus is simultaneously presented. Although the Colavita effect remains robust irrespective of many factors, little is known concerning how the visual dominance varies as a function of the depth of sensory inputs. In the present study, visual and auditory stimuli were presented either in the same (in Experiment 1) or in the different spatial distances (in Experiment 2). Participants were asked to make speeded responses to unimodal auditory, unimodal visual, or bimodal audiovisual stimuli. In the incorrectly responded bimodal trials, the error trials in which responses were made only to the visual component were compared with the trials in which responses were made only to the auditory component. In the correctly responded bimodal trials, the trials in which participants responded first to the visual component were compared with the trials in which participants responded first to the auditory component. Analysis on the incorrect and correct bimodal trials both indicated significant visual dominance effects. More importantly, the size of the visual dominance effect was significantly enhanced as long as the visual stimuli were presented in far space irrespective of whether the auditory stimuli were presented in near or far space. Our results thus, for the first time, revealed that the visual dominance effect changed along the depth dimension of space. Taken together, the present results shed lights on how the allocation of attentional resources along the depth dimension of space biases the process of multisensory competition. PMID:26080757

  4. A wire length minimization approach to ocular dominance patterns in mammalian visual cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chklovskii, Dmitri B.; Koulakov, Alexei A.

    2000-09-01

    The primary visual area (V1) of the mammalian brain is a thin sheet of neurons. Because each neuron is dominated by either right or left eye one can treat V1 as a binary mixture of neurons. The spatial arrangement of neurons dominated by different eyes is known as the ocular dominance (OD) pattern. We propose a theory for OD patterns based on the premise that they are evolutionary adaptations to minimize the length of intra-cortical connections. Thus, the existing OD patterns are obtained by solving a wire length minimization problem. We divide all the neurons into two classes: right- and left-eye dominated. We find that if the number of connections of each neuron with the neurons of the same class differs from that with the other class, the segregation of neurons into monocular regions indeed reduces the wire length. The shape of the regions depends on the relative number of neurons in the two classes. If both classes are equally represented we find that the optimal OD pattern consists of alternating stripes. If one class is less numerous than the other, the optimal OD pattern consists of patches of the underrepresented (ipsilateral) eye dominated neurons surrounded by the neurons of the other class. We predict the transition from stripes to patches when the fraction of neurons dominated by the ipsilateral eye is about 40%. This prediction agrees with the data in macaque and Cebus monkeys. Our theory can be applied to other binary cortical systems.

  5. What Happens After Treatment for Eye Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... having eye cancer What happens after treatment for eye cancer? For many people with eye cancer, treatment ... manage them. Follow-up after treatment of uveal (eye) melanoma Your doctor will most likely want to ...

  6. LIMNOLOGICAL OPTOMETRY: EXAMINING EARTH'S EYE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Thoreau's Walden, a lake is described as the landscape's most expressive feature and the earth's eye. Collectively, scientists are charged by society to assess, monitor, and remedy maladies of earth's eye in the same way optometrists maintain the health of the human eye. This ...

  7. Experiments on a Model Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arell, Antti; Kolari, Samuli

    1978-01-01

    Explains a laboratory experiment dealing with the optical features of the human eye. Shows how to measure the magnification of the retina and the refractive anomaly of the eye could be used to measure the refractive power of the observer's eye. (GA)

  8. Reconstructing the eyes of Urbilateria.

    PubMed Central

    Arendt, D; Wittbrodt, J

    2001-01-01

    The shared roles of Pax6 and Six homologues in the eye development of various bilaterians suggest that Urbilateria, the common ancestors of all Bilateria, already possessed some simple form of eyes. Here, we re-address the homology of bilaterian cerebral eyes at the level of eye anatomy, of eye-constituting cell types and of phototransductory molecules. The most widespread eye type found in Bilateria are the larval pigment-cup eyes located to the left and right of the apical organ in primary, ciliary larvae of Protostomia and Deuterostomia. They can be as simple as comprising a single pigment cell and a single photoreceptor cell in inverse orientation. Another more elaborate type of cerebral pigment-cup eyes with an everse arrangement of photoreceptor cells is found in adult Protostomia. Both inverse larval and everse adult eyes employ rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells and thus differ from the chordate cerebral eyes with ciliary photoreceptors. This is highly significant because on the molecular level we find that for phototransduction rhabdomeric versus ciliary photoreceptor cells employ divergent rhodopsins and non-orthologous G-proteins, rhodopsin kinases and arrestins. Our comparison supports homology of cerebral eyes in Protostomia; it challenges, however, homology of chordate and non-chordate cerebral eyes that employ photoreceptor cells with non-orthologous phototransductory cascades. PMID:11604122

  9. More than meets the eye: visual attention biases in individuals reporting chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Fashler, Samantha R; Katz, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The present study used eye-tracking technology to assess whether individuals who report chronic pain direct more attention to sensory pain-related words than do pain-free individuals. A total of 113 participants (51 with chronic pain, 62 pain-free) were recruited. Participants completed a dot-probe task, viewing neutral and sensory pain-related words while their reaction time and eye movements were recorded. Eye-tracking data were analyzed by mixed-design analysis of variance with group (chronic pain versus pain-free) as the between-subjects factor, and word type (sensory pain versus neutral) as the within-subjects factor. Results showed a significant main effect for word type: all participants attended to pain-related words more than neutral words on several eye-tracking parameters. The group main effect was significant for number of fixations, which was greater in the chronic pain group. Finally, the group by word type interaction effect was significant for average visit duration, number of fixations, and total late-phase duration, all greater for sensory pain versus neutral words in the chronic pain group. As well, participants with chronic pain fixated significantly more frequently on pain words than did pain-free participants. In contrast, none of the effects for reaction time were significant. The results support the hypothesis that individuals with chronic pain display specific attentional biases toward pain-related stimuli and demonstrate the value of eye-tracking technology in measuring differences in visual attention variables. PMID:25285022

  10. Stable human standing with lower-limb muscle afferents providing the only sensory input.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, R; Rogers, D K; McCloskey, D I

    1994-01-01

    1. This study investigated the sources of sensory information upon which normal subjects' ability to stand depends. 2. An 'equivalent body' was used to simulate the physical properties of each subject's body during standing. The modulation of ankle torque required to support the equivalent body in an upright position was similar to that required to support the subject's own body when standing. However, when balancing the equivalent body, vestibular inputs were excluded from directing the appropriate changes in ankle torque. Thus, stability of stance could be studied with (normal stance) and without (balancing equivalent body) modulation by vestibular inputs. Vision could be excluded by closing the eyes. Sensory input from the feet and ankles could be removed by local anaesthesia from prolonged ischaemia, induced by occluding blood flow with inflated pneumatic cuffs just above the ankles. With vestibular, visual and peripheral sensory inputs negated, standing could rely only upon remaining sensory inputs, notably those from sensory receptors in the leg muscles. 3. Unlike the human body, the equivalent body used to negate vestibular inputs is not segmented. Therefore, the effects on stability of having a segmented body were determined by splinting subjects during standing so that only ankle movement was possible. This was done in the presence and absence of visual stabilization. 4. For each experimental task, either standing or balancing the equivalent body, sway was recorded while posture was unperturbed. Root mean square values of sway amplitude and power spectra were used to compare conditions. 5. Every subject could balance the equivalent body in a stable way when the eyes were closed, and when the feet were anaesthetized.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:7869254

  11. Sensory Impairment Among Older US Workers

    PubMed Central

    Davila, Evelyn P.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Muennig, Peter; Fleming, Lora E.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.; LeBlanc, William G.; Lam, Byron L.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; McCollister, Kathryn E.; Zheng, Diane; Christ, Sharon L.

    2009-01-01

    We used 1997–2004 National Health Interview Survey data to evaluate the prevalence of sensory impairment among US workers 65 years and older. Hearing impairment prevalence was 3 times that of visual impairment (33.4% vs 10.2%), and 38% of older workers reported experiencing either impairment. Farm operators, mechanics, and motor vehicle operators had the highest prevalence of sensory impairment. Workplace screening and accommodations, including sensory protection devices for older workers, are warranted given the greater risk for injuries among the sensory impaired. PMID:19542042

  12. [Acute Sensory Neuropathies and Acute Autonomic Neuropathies].

    PubMed

    Koike, Haruki

    2015-11-01

    From the perspective of neuropathies with an acute onset mimicking that of Guillain-Barr? syndrome (GBS), cases with profound sensory and/or autonomic impairment without any significant weakness have been reported. Although the possibility of infectious or toxic etiologies should be carefully excluded, immune mechanisms similar to those in GBS are suggested to be involved in these so-called acute sensory neuropathies and acute autonomic neuropathies. The types of neuropathy include those with predominant sensory manifestations, predominant autonomic manifestations such as autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy, and both sensory and autonomic manifestations such as acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy. Neuronopathy in the sensory and/or autonomic ganglia (i.e., ganglionopathy) has been commonly suggested in patients with these types of neuropathies. The presence of Anti-GD1b antibodies has been reported in some of the patients with acute sensory neuropathy with deep sensory impairment, whereas anti-ganglionic acetylcholine receptor antibodies are reported to be present in half of the patients with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy. The discovery of anti-ganglionic acetylcholine receptor antibodies significantly expanded the spectrum of autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy. This is because some of the patients with chronic progression mimicking neurodegenerative diseases such as pure autonomic failure were positive for these antibodies. In contrast, pathologically significant autoantibodies have not been identified in acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy. Further studies are needed to clarify the pathogenesis and the spectrum of these types of neuropathies. PMID:26560953

  13. Sensory Motor Coordination in Robonaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Richard Alan, II

    2003-01-01

    As a participant of the year 2000 NASA Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, I worked with the engineers of the Dexterous Robotics Laboratory at NASA Johnson Space Center on the Robonaut project. The Robonaut is an articulated torso with two dexterous arms, left and right five-fingered hands, and a head with cameras mounted on an articulated neck. This advanced space robot, now driven only teleoperatively using VR gloves, sensors and helmets, is to be upgraded to a thinking system that can find, interact with and assist humans autonomously, allowing the Crew to work with Robonaut as a (junior) member of their team. Thus, the work performed this summer was toward the goal of enabling Robonaut to operate autonomously as an intelligent assistant to astronauts. Our underlying hypothesis is that a robot can develop intelligence if it learns a set of basic behaviors (i.e., reflexes - actions tightly coupled to sensing) and through experience learns how to sequence these to solve problems or to accomplish higher-level tasks. We describe our approach to the automatic acquisition of basic behaviors as learning sensory-motor coordination (SMC). Although research in the ontogenesis of animals development from the time of conception) supports the approach of learning SMC as the foundation for intelligent, autonomous behavior, we do not know whether it will prove viable for the development of autonomy in robots. The first step in testing the hypothesis is to determine if SMC can be learned by the robot. To do this, we have taken advantage of Robonaut's teleoperated control system. When a person teleoperates Robonaut, the person's own SMC causes the robot to act purposefully. If the sensory signals that the robot detects during teleoperation are recorded over several repetitions of the same task, it should be possible through signal analysis to identify the sensory-motor couplings that accompany purposeful motion. In this report, reasons for suspecting SMC as the basis for intelligent behavior will be reviewed. A robot control system for autonomous behavior that uses learned SMC will be proposed. Techniques for the extraction of salient parameters from sensory and motor data will be discussed. Experiments with Robonaut will be discussed and preliminary data presented.

  14. Meis1 coordinates a network of genes implicated in eye development and microphthalmia.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Séverine; González-Lázaro, Monica; Beccari, Leonardo; Carramolino, Laura; Martin-Bermejo, Maria Jesus; Amarie, Oana; Mateos-San Martín, Daniel; Torroja, Carlos; Bogdanovi?, Ozren; Doohan, Roisin; Puk, Oliver; Hrab? de Angelis, Martin; Graw, Jochen; Gomez-Skarmeta, Jose Luis; Casares, Fernando; Torres, Miguel; Bovolenta, Paola

    2015-09-01

    Microphthalmos is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by reduced eye size and visual deficits of variable degree. Sporadic and hereditary microphthalmos have been associated with heterozygous mutations in genes fundamental for eye development. Yet, many cases are idiopathic or await the identification of molecular causes. Here we show that haploinsufficiency of Meis1, which encodes a transcription factor with evolutionarily conserved expression in the embryonic trunk, brain and sensory organs, including the eye, causes microphthalmic traits and visual impairment in adult mice. By combining analysis of Meis1 loss-of-function and conditional Meis1 functional rescue with ChIP-seq and RNA-seq approaches we show that, in contrast to its preferential association with Hox-Pbx BSs in the trunk, Meis1 binds to Hox/Pbx-independent sites during optic cup development. In the eye primordium, Meis1 coordinates, in a dose-dependent manner, retinal proliferation and differentiation by regulating genes responsible for human microphthalmia and components of the Notch signaling pathway. In addition, Meis1 is required for eye patterning by controlling a set of eye territory-specific transcription factors, so that in Meis1(-/-) embryos boundaries among the different eye territories are shifted or blurred. We propose that Meis1 is at the core of a genetic network implicated in eye patterning/microphthalmia, and represents an additional candidate for syndromic cases of these ocular malformations. PMID:26253404

  15. Some Rat Sensory Neurons in Culture Express Characteristics of Differentiated Pain Sensory Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baccaglini, Paola I.; Hogan, Patrick G.

    1983-01-01

    Sensory neurons were dissociated from trigeminal ganglia or from dorsal root ganglia of rats, grown in culture, and examined for expression of properties of pain sensory cells. Many sensory neurons in culture are excited by low concentrations of capsaicin, reportedly a selective stimulus for pain sensory neurons. Many are excited by bradykinin, sensitized by prostaglandin E2, or specifically stained by an antiserum against substance P. These experiments provide a basis for the study of pain mechanisms in cell culture.

  16. Mechano- and Chemo-Sensory Polycystins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Amanda; Delmas, Patrick; Honoré, Eric

    Polycystins belong to the superfamily of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and comprise five PKD1-like and three PKD2-like (TRPP) subunits. In this chapter, we review the general properties of polycystins and discuss their specific role in both mechanotransduction and chemoreception. The heteromer PKD1/PKD2 expressed at the membrane of the primary cilium of kidney epithelial cells is proposed to form a mechano-sensitive calcium channel that is opened by physiological fluid flow. Dysfunction or loss of PKD1 or PKD2 polycystin genes may be responsible for the inability of epithelial cells to sense mechanical cues, thus provoking autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), one of the most prevalent genetic kidney disorders. pkd1 and pkd2 knock-out mice recapitulate the human disease. Similarly, PKD2 may function as a mechanosensory calcium channel in the immotile monocilia of the developing node transducing leftward flow into an increase in calcium and specifying the left-right axis. pkd2, unlike pkd1 knock-out embryos are characterized by right lung isomerism (situs inversus). Mechanical stimuli also induce cleavage and nuclear translocation of the PKD1 C-terminal tail, which enters the nucleus and initiates signaling processes involving the AP-1, STAT6 and P100 pathways. This intraproteolytic mechanism is implicated in the transduction of a change in renal fluid flow to a transcriptional long-term response. The heteromer PKD1L3/PKD2L1 is the basis for acid sensing in specialised sensory cells including the taste bud cells responsible for sour taste. Moreover, PKD1L3/PKD2L1 may be implicated in the chemosensitivity of neurons surrounding the spinal cord canal, sensing protons in the cerebrospinal fluid. These recent results demonstrate that polycystins fulfill a major sensory role in a variety of cells including kidney epithelial cells, taste buds cells and spinal cord neurons. Such mechanisms are involved in short- and long-term physiological regulation. Alteration of these pathways culminates in severe human pathologies, including ADPKD.

  17. Pioneers of eye movement research

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology affording eye movement recordings carry the risk of neglecting past achievements. Without the assistance of this modern armoury, great strides were made in describing the ways the eyes move. For Aristotle the fundamental features of eye movements were binocular, and he described the combined functions of the eyes. This was later given support using simple procedures like placing a finger over the eyelid of the closed eye and culminated in Hering's law of equal innervation. However, the overriding concern in the 19th century was with eye position rather than eye movements. Appreciating discontinuities of eye movements arose from studies of vertigo. The characteristics of nystagmus were recorded before those of saccades and fixations. Eye movements during reading were described by Hering and by Lamare in 1879; both used similar techniques of listening to sounds made during contractions of the extraocular muscles. Photographic records of eye movements during reading were made by Dodge early in the 20th century, and this stimulated research using a wider array of patterns. In the mid-20th century attention shifted to the stability of the eyes during fixation, with the emphasis on involuntary movements. The contributions of pioneers from Aristotle to Yarbus are outlined. PMID:23396982

  18. Pioneers of eye movement research.

    PubMed

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology affording eye movement recordings carry the risk of neglecting past achievements. Without the assistance of this modern armoury, great strides were made in describing the ways the eyes move. For Aristotle the fundamental features of eye movements were binocular, and he described the combined functions of the eyes. This was later given support using simple procedures like placing a finger over the eyelid of the closed eye and culminated in Hering's law of equal innervation. However, the overriding concern in the 19th century was with eye position rather than eye movements. Appreciating discontinuities of eye movements arose from studies of vertigo. The characteristics of nystagmus were recorded before those of saccades and fixations. Eye movements during reading were described by Hering and by Lamare in 1879; both used similar techniques of listening to sounds made during contractions of the extraocular muscles. Photographic records of eye movements during reading were made by Dodge early in the 20th century, and this stimulated research using a wider array of patterns. In the mid-20th century attention shifted to the stability of the eyes during fixation, with the emphasis on involuntary movements. The contributions of pioneers from Aristotle to Yarbus are outlined. PMID:23396982

  19. Sensory and motor properties of the cerebellar uvula and modulus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, F. R.

    1985-01-01

    The uvula and nodulus (vermal lobules 9 and 10) of the vestibulocerebellum are implicated by behavioral evidence in the control of eye and head movements and in the production of motion sickness. The uvula and nodulus could play a role in these functions through known output pathways. Purkinje cells in both structures project via the fastigial and vestibular nuceli to the ventral horn of the cervical spin cord, to oculomotor neurons, and to the emetic region of the reticular formation (ablation of which abolishes susceptability to motion sickness). Uvula and nodulus Purkinje cells will be analyzed in cats trained to make controlled head movements. The activity of these neurons is expected to modulate well during head and/or eye movements because the uvula and nodulus receive heavy projections from sources of visual, vestibular and neck proprioceptive information. How neuron activity contributes to movement and how different sensory inputs converge to influence this contribution may be determined by characterizing movement related properties of these neurons. A population of neurons that modulates powerfully to the conflict between different head movement signals that can cause motion sickness may be identified.

  20. Effects of aging on eye movements in the real world

    PubMed Central

    Dowiasch, Stefan; Marx, Svenja; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Bremmer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The effects of aging on eye movements are well studied in the laboratory. Increased saccade latencies or decreased smooth-pursuit gain are well established findings. The question remains whether these findings are influenced by the rather untypical environment of a laboratory; that is, whether or not they transfer to the real world. We measured 34 healthy participants between the age of 25 and 85 during two everyday tasks in the real world: (I) walking down a hallway with free gaze, (II) visual tracking of an earth-fixed object while walking straight-ahead. Eye movements were recorded with a mobile light-weight eye tracker, the EyeSeeCam (ESC). We find that age significantly influences saccade parameters. With increasing age, saccade frequency, amplitude, peak velocity, and mean velocity are reduced and the velocity/amplitude distribution as well as the velocity profile become less skewed. In contrast to laboratory results on smooth pursuit, we did not find a significant effect of age on tracking eye-movements in the real world. Taken together, age-related eye-movement changes as measured in the laboratory only partly resemble those in the real world. It is well-conceivable that in the real world additional sensory cues, such as head-movement or vestibular signals, may partially compensate for age-related effects, which, according to this view, would be specific to early motion processing. In any case, our results highlight the importance of validity for natural situations when studying the impact of aging on real-life performance. PMID:25713524

  1. Christoph Scheiner's eye studies.

    PubMed

    Daxecker, F

    1992-01-01

    Christoph Scheiner was born in 1573 or 1575. In 1595 he entered into the Order of the Jesuits; he died in 1650. In 1619 his book Oculus, dealing with the optics of the eye, appeared in Innsbruck. The invention of the telescope was of utmost importance for progress in astronomical and physical research. Scheiner himself built telescopes and discovered the sunspots. As a result, an unpleasant priority dispute with Galilei ensued. From 1624 onwards, Scheiner was in Rome, where his main work Rosa Ursina was published in 1630. A part of this book deals with the physiological optics of the eye as well. Some of his discoveries and experiments are taken from these two books: determination of the radius of curvature of the cornea, discovery of the nasal exit of the optic nerve, increase in the radius of curvature of the lens in case of accommodation, Scheiner's procedure (double images with ametropia), refractive indices of various parts of the eye, Scheiner's experiment. Without any doubt, Christoph Scheiner belongs to the foremost scientists of the first half of the 17th century. PMID:1473465

  2. Schizophrenia and the eye

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Steven M.; Rosen, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Although visual processing impairments are common in schizophrenia, it is not clear to what extent these originate in the eye vs. the brain. This review highlights potential contributions, from the retina and other structures of the eye, tovisual processing impairments in schizophrenia and high-risk states. A second goal is to evaluate the status of retinal abnormalities as biomarkers for schizophrenia. The review was motivated by known retinal changes in other disorders (e.g., Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis), and their relationships to perceptual and cognitive impairments, and disease progression therein. The evidence reviewed suggests two major conclusions. One is that there are multiple structural and functional disturbances of the eye in schizophrenia, all of which could be factors in the visual disturbances of patients. These include retinal venule widening, retinal nerve fiber layer thinning, dopaminergic abnormalities, abnormal ouput of retinal cells as measured by electroretinography (ERG), maculopathies and retinopathies, cataracts, poor acuity, and strabismus. Some of these are likely to be illness-related, whereas others may be due to medication or comorbid conditions. The second conclusion is that certain retinal findings can serve as biomarkers of neural pathology, and disease progression, in schizophrenia. The strongest evidence for this to date involves findings of widened retinal venules, thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer, and abnormal ERG amplitudes. These data suggest that a greater understanding of the contribution of retinal and other ocular pathology to the visual and cognitive disturbances of schizophrenia is warranted, and that retinal changes have untapped clinical utility. PMID:26345525

  3. Rapid eye movement sleep promotes cortical plasticity in the developing brain

    PubMed Central

    Dumoulin Bridi, Michelle C.; Aton, Sara J.; Seibt, Julie; Renouard, Leslie; Coleman, Tammi; Frank, Marcos G.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep is maximal during early life, but its function in the developing brain is unknown. We investigated the role of rapid eye movement sleep in a canonical model of developmental plasticity in vivo (ocular dominance plasticity in the cat) induced by monocular deprivation. Preventing rapid eye movement sleep after monocular deprivation reduced ocular dominance plasticity and inhibited activation of a kinase critical for this plasticity (extracellular signal–regulated kinase). Chronic single-neuron recording in freely behaving cats further revealed that cortical activity during rapid eye movement sleep resembled activity present during monocular deprivation. This corresponded to times of maximal extracellular signal–regulated kinase activation. These findings indicate that rapid eye movement sleep promotes molecular and network adaptations that consolidate waking experience in the developing brain. PMID:26601213

  4. Rapid eye movement sleep promotes cortical plasticity in the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Dumoulin Bridi, Michelle C; Aton, Sara J; Seibt, Julie; Renouard, Leslie; Coleman, Tammi; Frank, Marcos G

    2015-07-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep is maximal during early life, but its function in the developing brain is unknown. We investigated the role of rapid eye movement sleep in a canonical model of developmental plasticity in vivo (ocular dominance plasticity in the cat) induced by monocular deprivation. Preventing rapid eye movement sleep after monocular deprivation reduced ocular dominance plasticity and inhibited activation of a kinase critical for this plasticity (extracellular signal-regulated kinase). Chronic single-neuron recording in freely behaving cats further revealed that cortical activity during rapid eye movement sleep resembled activity present during monocular deprivation. This corresponded to times of maximal extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation. These findings indicate that rapid eye movement sleep promotes molecular and network adaptations that consolidate waking experience in the developing brain. PMID:26601213

  5. Relative contribution of feed-forward excitatory connections to expression of ocular dominance plasticity in layer 4 of visual cortex

    E-print Network

    Khibnik, Lena A.

    Brief monocular deprivation (MD) shifts ocular dominance (OD) in primary visual cortex by causing depression of responses to the deprived eye. Here we address the extent to which the shift is expressed by a modification ...

  6. INHIBITION IN THE EYE OF LIMULUS

    PubMed Central

    Hartline, H K.; Wagner, Henry G; Ratliff, Floyd

    1956-01-01

    In the compound lateral eye of Limulus each ommatidium functions as a single receptor unit in the discharge of impulses in the optic nerve. Impulses originate in the eccentric cell of each ommatidium and are conducted in its axon, which runs without interruption through an extensive plexus of nerve fibers to become a fiber of the optic nerve. The plexus makes interconnections among the ommatidia, but its exact organization is not understood. The ability of an ommatidium to discharge impulses in the axon of its eccentric cell is reduced by illumination of other ommatidia in its neighborhood: the threshold to light is raised, the number of impulses discharged in response to a suprathreshold flash of light is diminished, and the frequency with which impulses are discharged during steady illumination is decreased. Also, the activity that can be elicited under certain conditions when an ommatidium is in darkness can be inhibited similarly. There is no evidence for the spread of excitatory influences in the eye of Limulus. The inhibitory influence exerted upon an ommatidium that is discharging impulses at a steady rate begins, shortly after the onset of the illumination on neighboring ommatidia, with a sudden deep minimum in the frequency of discharge. After partial recovery, the frequency is maintained at a depressed level until the illumination on the neighboring receptors is turned off, following which there is prompt, though not instantaneous recovery to the original frequency. The inhibition is exerted directly upon the sensitive structure within the ommatidium: it has been observed when the impulses were recorded by a microelectrode thrust into an ommatidium, as well as when they were recorded more proximally in single fibers dissected from the optic nerve. Receptor units of the eye often inhibit one another mutually. This has been observed by recording the activity of two optic nerve fibers simultaneously. The mediation of the inhibitory influence appears to depend upon the integrity of nervous interconnections in the plexus: cutting the lateral connections to an ommatidium abolishes the inhibition exerted upon it. The nature of the influence that is mediated by the plexus and the mechanism whereby it exerts its inhibitory action on the receptor units are not known. The depression of the frequency of the discharge of nerve impulses from an ommatidium increases approximately linearly with the logarithm of the intensity of illumination on receptors in its vicinity. Inhibition of the discharge from an ommatidium is greater the larger the area of the eye illuminated in its vicinity. However, equal increments of area become less effective as the total area is increased. The response of an ommatidium is most effectively inhibited by the illumination of ommatidia that are close to it; the effectiveness diminishes with increasing distance, but may extend for several millimeters. Illumination of a fixed region of the eye at constant intensity produces a depression of the frequency of discharge of impulses from a nearby ommatidium that is approximately constant, irrespective of the level of excitation of the ommatidium. The inhibitory interaction in the eye of Limulus is an integrative process that is important in determining the patterns of nervous activity in the visual system. It is analogous to the inhibitory component of the interaction that takes place in the vertebrate retina. Inhibitory interaction results in the exaggeration of differences in sensory activity from different regions of the eye illuminated at different intensities, thus enhancing visual contrast. PMID:13319654

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA

    MedlinePLUS

    ... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA On this page: Description Genetic changes ... definitions Reviewed March 2015 What is hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA? Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA is ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IE

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IE On this page: Description Genetic changes ... November 2012 What is hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IE? Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type ...

  9. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

  10. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

  11. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

  12. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

  13. SENSORY EVOKED POTENTIALS: MEASURES OF NEUROTOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a need for tests of sensory function to be incorporated in laboratory and toxicity testing. t is clear that sensory dysfunction may frequently occur, but go undetected, in standard animal toxicological testing protocols. ensory evoked potential technology can be employed...

  14. Sensory innervation of white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Fishman, R B; Dark, J

    1987-12-01

    The presumption that sensory information does not arise from white adipose tissue was reevaluated using the neuroanatomical tracer, "true blue." Fluorescent cell bodies were observed in dorsal root ganglia of rats after tracer was implanted into inguinal or dorsal subcutaneous fat depots. Sensory information from adipose tissue may play an important role in the regulation of regional and total body fat mass. PMID:3425770

  15. Sensory characteristics of diverse rice cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lack of a knowledge-base for predicting how genetic, pre-harvest, and post-harvest factors affect the sensory characteristics of rice results in producers and processors not having control over the sensory quality of their products. In this study, differences in the texture and flavor of seventeen ...

  16. Active Sensing Virtually all sensory experience

    E-print Network

    Born, Richard

    moving the stimulus into a region of high acuity with respect to the sense organ. Thesis: sensingActive Sensing #12;Virtually all sensory experience occurs in the context of active behaviors #12;· Sensing actions are often rapid compared to the speed of sensory transduction itself. · Sensing actions

  17. Multiple Output Sensory Trainer (MOST). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Automated Functions, Inc., Arlington, VA.

    This final report describes the design, development, and testing of the Multiple Output Sensory Trainer (MOST), a computer-based system which enables the evaluation of students with visual impairments to determine the optimal combination of sensory adaptive aids to meet their needs. The system uses multimedia devices in conjunction with customized…

  18. Examination Accommodations for Students with Sensory Defensiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kieran; Nolan, Clodagh

    2013-01-01

    Traditional examination accommodations include extra time, scribes, and/or separate venues for students with disabilities, which have been proven to be successful for the majority of students. For students with non-apparent disabilities such as sensory defensiveness, where sensitivity to a range of sensory information from the environment can…

  19. ()nstraints on Sensory Processing RACHEL I. WILSON

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Rachel

    ()nstraints on Sensory Processing RACHEL I. WILSON evolution of sensory systems is driven are fundamentally in conflict with as they pressure evolution in opposite neural systems are shaped by the need be suboptimal in an artificial system, and thus engineers must be careful not to draw the wrong lessons from

  20. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Sensory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metherate, Raju

    2004-01-01

    Acetylcholine release in sensory neocortex contributes to higher-order sensory function, in part by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Molecular studies have revealed a bewildering array of nAChR subtypes and cellular actions; however, there is some consensus emerging about the major nAChR subtypes and their functions in…

  1. Laboratory Methods in Sensory Evaluation of Food

    E-print Network

    Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, Summerland, BC MargaretLaboratory Methods in Sensory Evaluation of Food FOOD 529 University of British Columbia Syllabus Professor ­ Sensory Evaluation Food, Nutrition and Health (Rm 323) University of British Columbia Vancouver

  2. Peripheral myopization using a dominant design multifocal contact lens

    PubMed Central

    Lopes-Ferreira, Daniela; Ribeiro, Cláudia; Maia, Raquel; García-Porta, Nery; Queirós, António; Villa-Collar, César; González-Méijome, José Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to characterize the central and peripheral refraction across the horizontal meridian of the visual field without and with a multifocal dominant design soft contact lens of different add powers (+1.00 D to +4.00 D) in emmetropic eyes. Methods Twenty right eyes from 20 emmetropic patients (mean spherical equivalent central refraction –0.06 ± 0.54 D) with a mean age of 21.6 ± 2.3 years were fitted with Proclear Multifocal dominant design (Coopervision, Pleasanton, CA, USA). Lenses had add powers from +1.00 to +4.00 D in 1.00 D steps. The central and peripheral refraction was measured along the horizontal meridian up to 35° of eccentricity in the nasal and temporal retinal area in 5° steps using a open-field autorefractometer. Results Only the +3.00 and +4.00 D add powers generated a significant change in the peripheral refractive pattern compared to central refraction and compared with the no-lens wearing situation. The average myopic increase with these lenses was –3.00 D and –5.00 (p < 0.001) at the margins of inspected nasal and temporal visual field, respectively. Conclusions Multifocal dominant design soft contact lenses are able to change the peripheral refractive profile in emmetropic eyes increasing relative peripheral myopia. Lenses with +3.00 D add power seem to be the best option to create such effect due to significant peripheral myopization.

  3. Body-scaled affordances in sensory substitution.

    PubMed

    Travieso, David; Gómez-Jordana, Luis; Díaz, Alex; Lobo, Lorena; Jacobs, David M

    2015-12-15

    The research field on sensory substitution devices has strong implications for theoretical work on perceptual consciousness. One of these implications concerns the extent to which the devices allow distal attribution. The present study applies a classic empirical approach on the perception of affordances to the field of sensory substitution. The reported experiment considers the perception of the stair-climbing affordance. Participants judged the climbability of steps apprehended through a vibrotactile sensory substitution device. If measured with standard metric units, climbability judgments of tall and short participants differed, but if measured in units of leg length, judgments did not differ. These results are similar to paradigmatic results in regular visual perception. We conclude that our sensory substitution device allows the perception of affordances. More generally, we argue that the theory of affordances may enrich theoretical debates concerning sensory substitution to a larger extent than has hitherto been the case. PMID:26587958

  4. Age, Sex, and Dominance-Related Mushroom Body Plasticity in the Paperwasp Mischocyttarus

    E-print Network

    O'Donnell, Sean

    Age, Sex, and Dominance-Related Mushroom Body Plasticity in the Paperwasp Mischocyttarus demonstrated experience-dependent changes in central and primary sensory centers in the brain. The mushroom success. ' 2008 Wiley Periodi- cals, Inc.* Develop Neurobiol 68: 950­959, 2008 Keywords: mushroom bodies

  5. The amblyopic eye in subjects with anisometropia show increased saccadic latency in the delayed saccade task

    PubMed Central

    Perdziak, Maciej; Witkowska, Dagmara; Gryncewicz, Wojciech; Przekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; Ober, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The term amblyopia is used to describe reduced visual function in one eye (or both eyes, though not so often) which cannot be fully improved by refractive correction and explained by the organic cause observed during regular eye examination. Amblyopia is associated with abnormal visual experience (e.g., anisometropia) during infancy or early childhood. Several studies have shown prolongation of saccadic latency time in amblyopic eye. In our opinion, study of saccadic latency in the context of central vision deficits assessment, should be based on central retina stimulation. For this reason, we proposed saccade delayed task. It requires inhibitory processing for maintaining fixation on the central target until it disappears—what constitutes the GO signal for saccade. The experiment consisted of 100 trials for each eye and was performed under two viewing conditions: monocular amblyopic/non-dominant eye and monocular dominant eye. We examined saccadic latency in 16 subjects (mean age 30 ± 11 years) with anisometropic amblyopia (two subjects had also microtropia) and in 17 control subjects (mean age 28 ± 8 years). Participants were instructed to look at central (fixation) target and when it disappears, to make the saccade toward the periphery (10°) as fast as possible, either left or the right target. The study results have proved the significant difference in saccadic latency between the amblyopic (mean 262 ± 48 ms) and dominant (mean 237 ± 45 ms) eye, in anisometropic group. In the control group, the saccadic latency for dominant (mean 226 ± 32 ms) and non-dominant (mean 230 ± 29 ms) eye was not significantly different. By the use of LATER (Linear Approach to the Threshold with Ergodic Rate) decision model we interpret our findings as a decrease in accumulation of visual information acquired by means of central retina in subjects with anisometropic amblyopia. PMID:25352790

  6. Sensory irritation and multiple chemical sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R C; Anderson, J H

    1999-01-01

    Many of the symptoms described in Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) and multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) resemble the symptoms known to be elicited by airborne irritant chemicals. Irritation of the eye, nose, and throat is common to SBS, MCS, and sensory irritation (SI). Difficulty of breathing is often seen with SBS, MCS, and pulmonary irritation (PI). We therefore asked the question: can indoor air pollutants cause SI and/or PI? In laboratory testing in which mice breathed the dilute volatile emissions of air fresheners, fabric softeners, colognes, and mattresses for 1 h, we measured various combinations of SI and PI as well as airflow decreases (analogous to asthma attacks). Air samples taken from sites associated with repeated human complaints of poor air quality also caused SI, PI, and airflow limitation (AFL) in the mice. In previous publications, we have documented numerous behavior changes in mice (which we formally studied with a functional observational battery) after exposure to product emissions or complaint site air; neurological complaints are a prominent part of SBS and MCS. All together, these data suggest that many symptoms of SBS and MCS can be described as SI, PI, AFL, and neurotoxicity. All these problems can be caused by airborne irritant chemicals such as those emitted by common commercial products and found in polluted indoor air. With some chemical mixtures (e.g., emissions of some fabric softeners, disposable diapers, and vinyl mattress covers) but not others (e.g., emissions of a solid air freshener), the SI response became larger (2- to 4-fold) when we administered a series of two or three 1-h exposures over a 24-h period. Since with each exposure the intensity of the stimulus was constant yet the magnitude of the response increased, we concluded that there was a change in the sensitivity of the mice to these chemicals. The response was not a generalized stress response because it occurred with only some mixtures of irritants and not others; it is a specific response to certain mixtures of airborne chemicals. This is one of the few times in MCS research that one can actually measure both the intensity of the stimulus and the magnitude of the response and thus be allowed to discuss sensitivity changes. The changing SI response of the mice might serve as a model of how people develop increasing sensitivity to environmental pollutants. Intensive study of this system should teach us much about how people respond to and change sensitivity to airborne irritant chemicals. PMID:10416286

  7. Thermoelectricity and noncellular sensory transduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Brandon

    2003-03-01

    Sharks and rays possess electrosensors that provide environmental data assisting such tasks as prey detection and mate location. These organs are also incredibly sensitive to minute changes in temperature, and their reaction to temperature is unlike any other thermoreceptor known in nature. We have collected samples of the extracellular gel that fills the electrosensitive organs, and, while characterizing its material properties, we have found an average thermopower of roughly 300 microvolts/Kelvin. We will discuss the implications of these data in terms of a novel, noncellular mode of sensory transduction, in which a thermal fluctuation is translated into an electrical stimulus by the gel. We will also contrast the gel to more established thermoelectric materials.

  8. FINE STRUCTURE OF THE EYE OF A CHAETOGNATH.

    PubMed

    EAKIN, R M; WESTFALL, J A

    1964-04-01

    Electron microscopy reveals a star-like pigment cell at the center of the eye of the arrow-worm, Sagitta scrippsae. Between the arms of the pigment cell are clusters of photoreceptor cell processes, each process consisting of: (1) a tubular segment containing longitudinally arranged microtubules about 500 A in diameter and 20 micro in length; (2) a remarkable conical body, composed of cords and large granules, situated at the base of the tubular segment; and (3) a connecting piece which, like that of rods and cones, connects the process with the sensory cell proper and through which runs a fibrillar apparatus consisting of nine peripheral double tubules. Beneath the connecting piece lies a typical centriole with a striated rootlet. The receptor cell process is deeply recessed into the sensory cell which may possess a corona of microvilli at its inner surface. A nerve fiber arises from the outer end of the cell and passes into the optic nerve. Additional features are some supporting cells, an external layer of flattened epithelial cells, and an over-all investment of basement membrane and thick fibrous capsule. The fine structure and function of these elements of the eye are discussed in relation to earlier studies with the light microscope. The ciliary nature of the photoreceptor cell process in S. scrippsae points to a probable evolutionary relationship of chaetognaths to echinoderms and chordates. PMID:14154485

  9. Dominant Epistemologies in Mathematics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triadafillidis, Triadafillos A.

    1998-01-01

    Addresses the relationship between scientism and the dominant epistemologies in the field of mathematics education today. Suggests that the dominance of Cartesianism in mathematics education can be balanced by means of incorporating humanist philosophies. Contains 30 references. (ASK)

  10. Purkinje cell responses during visually and vestibularly driven smooth eye movements in mice

    PubMed Central

    Katoh, Akira; Shin, Soon-Lim; Kimpo, Rhea R; Rinaldi, Jacob M; Raymond, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Introduction An essential complement to molecular-genetic approaches for analyzing the function of the oculomotor circuitry in mice is an understanding of sensory and motor signal processing in the circuit. Although there has been extensive analysis of the signals carried by neurons in the oculomotor circuits of species, such as monkeys, rabbits and goldfish, relatively little in vivo physiology has been done in the oculomotor circuitry of mice. We analyzed the contribution of vestibular and nonvestibular signals to the responses of individual Purkinje cells in the cerebellar flocculus of mice. Methods We recorded Purkinje cells in the cerebellar flocculus of C57BL/6 mice during eye movement responses to vestibular and visual stimulation. Results As in other species, most individual Purkinje cells in mice carried both vestibular and nonvestibular signals, and the most common response across cells was an increase in firing in response to ipsiversive eye movement or ipsiversive head movement. When both the head and eyes were moving, the Purkinje cell responses were approximated as a linear summation of head and eye velocity inputs. Unlike other species, floccular Purkinje cells in mice were considerably more sensitive to eye velocity than head velocity. Conclusions The signal content of Purkinje cells in the cerebellar flocculus of mice was qualitatively similar to that in other species. However, the eye velocity sensitivity was higher than in other species, which may reflect a tuning to the smaller range of eye velocities in mice. PMID:25642393

  11. Sensory substitution as an artificially acquired synaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jamie; Wright, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    In this review we explore the relationship between synaesthesia and sensory substitution and argue that sensory substitution does indeed show properties of synaesthesia. Both are associated with atypical perceptual experiences elicited by the processing of a qualitatively different stimulus to that which normally gives rise to that experience. In the most common forms of sensory substitution, perceptual processing of an auditory or tactile signal (which has been converted from a visual signal) is experienced as visual-like in addition to retaining auditory/tactile characteristics. We consider different lines of evidence that support, to varying degrees, the assumption that sensory substitution is associated with visual-like experiences. We then go on to analyse the key similarities and differences between sensory substitution and synaesthesia. Lastly, we propose two testable predictions: firstly that, in an expert user of a sensory substitution device, the substituting modality should not be lost. Secondly that stimulation within the substituting modality, but by means other than a sensory substitution device, should still produce sensation in the normally substituted modality. PMID:22885223

  12. Analytical Methods for Chemical and Sensory Characterization of Scent-Markings in Large Wild Mammals: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Soso, Simone B.; Koziel, Jacek A.; Johnson, Anna; Lee, Young Jin; Fairbanks, W. Sue

    2014-01-01

    In conjoining the disciplines of “ethology” and “chemistry” the field of “Ethochemistry” has been instituted. Ethochemistry is an effective tool in conservation efforts of endangered species and the understanding of behavioral patterns across all species. Chemical constituents of scent-markings have an important, yet poorly understood function in territoriality, reproduction, dominance, and impact on evolutionary biology, especially in large mammals. Particular attention has recently been focused on scent-marking analysis of great cats (Kalahari leopards (Panthera pardus), puma (Puma concolor) snow leopard (Panthera uncia), African lions (Panthera leo), cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), and tigers (Panthera tigris)) for the purpose of conservation. Sensory analyses of scent-markings could address knowledge gaps in ethochemistry. The objective of this review is to summarize the current state-of-the art of both the chemical and sensory analyses of scent-markings in wild mammals. Specific focus is placed on sampling and sample preparation, chemical analysis, sensory analysis, and simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses. Constituents of exocrine and endocrine secretions have been most commonly studied with chromatography-based analytical separations. Odor analysis of scent-markings provides an insight into the animal's sensory perception. A limited number of articles have been published in the area of sensory characterization of scent marks. Simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses with chromatography-olfactometry hyphenation could potentially aid conservation efforts by linking perceived odor, compounds responsible for odor, and resulting behavior. PMID:24603639

  13. Analytical methods for chemical and sensory characterization of scent-markings in large wild mammals: a review.

    PubMed

    Soso, Simone B; Koziel, Jacek A; Johnson, Anna; Lee, Young Jin; Fairbanks, W Sue

    2014-01-01

    In conjoining the disciplines of "ethology" and "chemistry" the field of "Ethochemistry" has been instituted. Ethochemistry is an effective tool in conservation efforts of endangered species and the understanding of behavioral patterns across all species. Chemical constituents of scent-markings have an important, yet poorly understood function in territoriality, reproduction, dominance, and impact on evolutionary biology, especially in large mammals. Particular attention has recently been focused on scent-marking analysis of great cats (Kalahari leopards (Panthera pardus), puma (Puma concolor) snow leopard (Panthera uncia), African lions (Panthera leo), cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), and tigers (Panthera tigris)) for the purpose of conservation. Sensory analyses of scent-markings could address knowledge gaps in ethochemistry. The objective of this review is to summarize the current state-of-the art of both the chemical and sensory analyses of scent-markings in wild mammals. Specific focus is placed on sampling and sample preparation, chemical analysis, sensory analysis, and simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses. Constituents of exocrine and endocrine secretions have been most commonly studied with chromatography-based analytical separations. Odor analysis of scent-markings provides an insight into the animal's sensory perception. A limited number of articles have been published in the area of sensory characterization of scent marks. Simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses with chromatography-olfactometry hyphenation could potentially aid conservation efforts by linking perceived odor, compounds responsible for odor, and resulting behavior. PMID:24603639

  14. Electromagnetic Characterization Of Metallic Sensory Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Russell A.; Simpson, John; Wallace, Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Leser, Paul; Lahue, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy (FSMA) particles undergo changes in both electromagnetic properties and crystallographic structure when strained. When embedded in a structural material, these attributes can provide sensory output of the strain state of the structure. In this work, a detailed characterization of the electromagnetic properties of a FSMA under development for sensory applications is performed. In addition, a new eddy current probe is used to interrogate the electromagnetic properties of individual FSMA particles embedded in the sensory alloy during controlled fatigue tests on the multifunctional material.

  15. Eye Surgery Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    During eye surgery, the surgeon uses an illuminating instrument called an opthalmoscope for close examination of the retina or the interior of the eye. Ordinarily, electric power for the head-mounted light is supplied through a cord from an overhead swivel arm or a floor pedestal. Within limits of cord length and swivel arm movement, the surgeon has considerable freedom of motion. But when more than one opthalmoscope is involved, tangling and interference of the power cords becomes a problem. St. Luke's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio asked Lewis Research Center for assistance in finding a solution. Lewis responded with a battery-powered system that totally frees the surgeon of attached cords and swivels. Borrowing from space technology, Lewis used small, lightweight nickel-cadmium batteries that can deliver high intensity light for an hour and can be recharged overnight. The Opthalmoscope Powerpack consists of eight batteries in three containers affixed to a webbed belt, and a novel on-off switch equipped with a springloaded plexiglass "flapper." The belt pack is worn underneath the surgical gown and the flapper permits the doctor to activate the switch by elbow pressure. Lewis built five units and they have been in service at St. Luke's Hospital for a year. Used for routine examinations as well as for surgery, they have demonstrated excellent reliability.

  16. Eye Surgery Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    During eye surgery, the surgeon uses an illuminating instrument called an opthalmoscope for close examination of the retina or the interior of the eye. Ordinarily, electric power for the head-mounted light is supplied through a cord from an overhead swivel arm or a floor pedestal. Within limits of cord length and swivel arm movement, the surgeon has considerable freedom of motion. But when more than one opthalmoscope is involved, tangling and interference of the power cords becomes a problem. St. Luke's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio asked Lewis Research Center for assistance in finding a solution. Lewis responded with a battery-powered system that totally frees the surgeon of attached cords and swivels. Borrowing from space technology, Lewis used small, lightweight nickel-cadmium batteries that can deliver high intensity light for an hour and can be recharged overnight. The Opthalmoscope Powerpack consists of eight batteries in three containers affixed to a webbed belt, and a novel on-off switch equipped with a spring-loaded plexiglass 'flapper.' The belt pack is worn underneath the surgical gown and the flapper permits the doctor to activate the switch by elbow pressure. Lewis built five units and they have been in service at St. Luke's Hospital for a year. Used for routine examinations as well as for surgery, they have demonstrated excellent reliability.

  17. Obesity and Eye Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Ning; Wong, Tien Y.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many countries. While its impact on overall health is well documented, less is known about the ocular manifestations of obesity. Amongst different eye diseases, obesity has been linked with age-related cataract, glaucoma, age-related maculopathy, and diabetic retinopathy. Numerous population-based and prospective studies support an association between obesity and risk of age-related cataract. However, the nature and strength of these associations, particularly with the different cataract subtypes, remains to be determined. There is strong evidence that obesity is associated with elevated intraocular pressure, but there is no convincing data to support a more direct association between obesity and glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Studies to date have not found a consistent pattern of association between obesity and risk of age-related maculopathy or diabetic retinopathy. Thus, while obesity may be a risk factor for many ocular conditions, the present literature is inadequate to establish any convincing associations. Furthermore, whether weight loss reduces the risk of eye diseases remains unresolved. Because of the potential public health impact of obesity, there is a greater need to understand its ocular effects. PMID:17355856

  18. Protect Their Eyes: An Eye Safety Guide for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Society to Prevent Blindness, Columbus.

    This guide provides information on eye safety and aids educators, administrators, and supervisors in the development and implementation of eye safety programs. The American National Standards Institute (AMSI) requirements for both street and safety glasses; essential eyewear for safety in hazardous areas; the National Society to Prevent…

  19. BINOCULAR EYE MOVEMENTS DURING ACCOMMODATIVE VERGENCE

    E-print Network

    Kenyon, Robert V.

    BINOCULAR EYE MOVEMENTS DURING ACCOMMODATIVE VERGENCE ROBERTV. KENYON, KEWETH J. CIUFFREDA to the vergence movement measured in the covered eye. Some saccadic eye movements that occurred during vergence movements were likewise reduced in amplitude in the viewing eye by up to 20%. Smooth eye movements were

  20. Automated Eye-Movement Protocol Analysis

    E-print Network

    Salvucci, Dario D.

    Automated Eye-Movement Protocol Analysis Dario D. Salvucci and John R. Anderson Carnegie Mellon analysis of eye-movement protocols. Although eye movements have be- come increasingly popular as a tool an ap- proach to automating eye-movement protocol analysis by means of tracing--re- lating observed eye

  1. Short-term ocular dominance changes in human V1.

    PubMed

    Chadnova, Eva; Reynaud, Alexandre; Clavagnier, Simon; Baillet, Sylvain; Hess, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Ocular dominance describes the contribution of each eye to binocular vision. This balance is disrupted in some clinical conditions such as amblyopia. It has been shown psychophysically that short-term monocular deprivation shifts the equilibrium towards the occluded eye (1). In this study, we wanted to investigate the cortical mechanism underlying this phenomenon using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Subjects were presented with monocular and dichoptic stimuli using a frequency tagging paradigm to identify the input coming from each eye. Three 10-minute blocks of MEG recordings were followed by 2.5 hours of monocular deprivation. Immediately after removal of the patch, another three consecutive blocks were recorded followed by a final recording 45 min post deprivation. Immediately following the removal of the patch, we observed an increase in power of the response from the occluded eye as early as in V1, and reflected in the response of subsequent brain areas as well. At the same time, the power of the response from the undeprived eye was reduced. The pre-deprivation ocular power distribution was achieved again at the 45 min post-deprivation recording. The power redistribution was observed both monocularly and dichoptically, but was more pronounced on dichoptic recording. We also observed an increase in variability of the response from the occluded eye post-deprivation. In conclusion, short-term monocular deprivation perturbes the binocular equilibrium as measured psychophysically. We were able to observe a physiological correlate of this perturbation in area V1 of the visual cortex with MEG. The change in V1 neuronal population activity observed here might be a direct consequence of the underlying plasticity occurring in the brain. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326066

  2. Chromosomal localization and genomic organization of genes encoding guanylyl cyclase receptors expressed in olfactory sensory neurons and retina

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ruey-Bing; Fuelle, H.J.; Garbers, D.L.

    1996-02-01

    We recently cloned three membrane guanylyl cyclases, designated GC-D, CG-E, and GC-F, from rat olfactory tissue and eye. Amino acid sequence homology suggests that they may compose a new gene subfamily of guanylyl cyclase receptors specifically expressed in sensory tissues. Their chromosomal localization was determined by mouse interspecific backcross analysis. The GC-D, CG-E, and GC-F genes (Gucy2d, Gucy2e, and Gucy2f) are dispersed through the mouse genome in that they map to chromosomes 7, 11, and X, respectively. Close proximity of the mouse GC-D gene to Omp (olfactory marker protein) and Hbb (hemoglobin {beta}-chain complex) suggests that the human homolog gene maps to 11p15.4 or 11q13.4-q14.1. The human GC-F gene was localized to the long arm of chromosome Xq22 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The genomic organization of the mouse GC-E, and GC-F genomic clones contain identical exon-intron boundaries within their extracellular and cytoplasmic domains, demonstrating the conservation of the gene structures. With respect to human genetic diseases, GC-E mapped to mouse chromosome 11 within a syntenic region on human chromosome 17p13 that has been linked with loci for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa and Leber congenital amaurosis. No apparent disease loci have been yet linked to the locations of the GC-D or GC-F genes. 39 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Formation of the hurricane eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigh, Jonathan L.

    This dissertation consists of three distinct studies which investigate aspects of eye formation. The first study reviews eye phenomenon in a variety of vortices ranging from simple vortices to the menagerie of geophysical vortices, emphasizing similarities and differences to the eyes formed in hurricanes. The hurricane eye is found to be a paradoxical structure imposed by conservation of angular momentum and the boundaries of the vortex. A comprehensive definition for hurricane eye formation is proposed and various eye formation mechanisms are summarized. The next study presents a simple theoretical argument to isolate the conditions under which a tropical cyclone can rapidly develop a warm-core thermal structure and subsequently approach a steady state. The theoretical argument is based on the balanced vortex model and, in particular, on the associated transverse circulation equation and the geopotential tendency equation. The transverse circulation and the temperature tendency in a tropical vortex depend not only on the diabatic forcing, but also on the spatial distributions of the static stability, the baroclinity, and the inertial stability. The vortex response to diabatic heating depends critically on whether the heating occurs in the low inertial stability region outside the radius of maximum wind or in the high inertial stability region inside the radius of maximum wind. This result suggests that rapid intensification is favored for storms which have at least some of the eyewall convection inside the radius of maximum wind. The development of an eye partially removes diabatic heating from the high inertial stability region of the storm center, yet rapid intensification may continue if the eyewall heating continues to become more efficient. As the warm core matures and static stability increases over the inner core, conditions there become less favorable for deep upright convection and the storm tends to approach a steady state. The final study characterizes the kinematic and thermodynamic changes that occur before, during, and after the initial eye formations of a broad set of Atlantic tropical cyclones. To obtain the requisite structure and intensity parameters, a new data set has been synthesized from the Vortex Data Messages transmitted by routine aircraft reconnaissance from 1989--2008. Intensity ranges are determined for the times when the eye/eyewall structure first appears in aircraft radar and infrared satellite imagery. The mean intensity at which an eye is first observed in both aircraft or satellite imagery is found to be 58 kt, somewhat lower than reported in previous studies. Changes about the time of eye formation are examined for intensity, the radius of maximum winds, the minimum Rossby radius of deformation, eye temperature and dew point temperature depression. Storms are found to intensify most rapidly near the time of eye formation, especially when a persistent eye is observed in infrared satellite imagery. Many storms which are forming eyes are found to undergo a substantial and rapid contraction in the radius of maximum winds during the 24-h period before the eye is observed; once the eye is present, this contraction slows or ceases. Strong warming at lower levels (850 or 700 hPa) of the eye is not observed to correlate well with the time in which the eye is first observed. Finally, observations suggest that the dynamical heating efficiency of the resulting eyewall increases even as the physical scale of the efficient heating region decreases. This allows the storm to continue intensifying even though the total inner core diabatic heating may decrease. The answer to why some storms fail to form eyes may shed light on whether eye formation is a stochastic process involving constructive and destructive mesoscale interactions---or whether it is a manifold attractor of the system sometimes stymied by an unfavorable environment.

  4. Sensory Pedagogy: Understanding and Encountering Children through the Senses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Eva; Løkken, Gunvor

    2014-01-01

    In the present article we aim to explore the link between Merleau-Pontyan phenomenology and what we call sensory pedagogy. The latter connects to recent sensory ethnography as presented by S. Pink ("Sensory ethnography." London: Sage; 2009). We discuss how these thoughts can be put to work in toddler pedagogy. This kind of sensory

  5. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17... Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, VA will furnish needed sensori-neural aids (i.e., eyeglasses, contact...

  6. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17... Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, VA will furnish needed sensori-neural aids (i.e., eyeglasses, contact...

  7. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17... Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, VA will furnish needed sensori-neural aids (i.e., eyeglasses, contact...

  8. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17... Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, VA will furnish needed sensori-neural aids (i.e., eyeglasses, contact...

  9. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17... Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, VA will furnish needed sensori-neural aids (i.e., eyeglasses, contact...

  10. Specialized Cilia in Mammalian Sensory Systems.

    PubMed

    Falk, Nathalie; Lösl, Marlene; Schröder, Nadja; Gießl, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Cilia and flagella are highly conserved and important microtubule-based organelles that project from the surface of eukaryotic cells and act as antennae to sense extracellular signals. Moreover, cilia have emerged as key players in numerous physiological, developmental, and sensory processes such as hearing, olfaction, and photoreception. Genetic defects in ciliary proteins responsible for cilia formation, maintenance, or function underlie a wide array of human diseases like deafness, anosmia, and retinal degeneration in sensory systems. Impairment of more than one sensory organ results in numerous syndromic ciliary disorders like the autosomal recessive genetic diseases Bardet-Biedl and Usher syndrome. Here we describe the structure and distinct functional roles of cilia in sensory organs like the inner ear, the olfactory epithelium, and the retina of the mouse. The spectrum of ciliary function in fundamental cellular processes highlights the importance of elucidating ciliopathy-related proteins in order to find novel potential therapies. PMID:26378583

  11. Quantitative sensory testing in pain management.

    PubMed

    Roldan, Carlos J; Abdi, Salahadin

    2015-11-01

    Quantitative sensory testing (QST), a set of noninvasive methods used to assess sensory and pain perception, has been used for three decades. The precision of the instruments and the uninvasiveness encouraged many QST-based trials. The developments made have benefited multiple disciplines. QST relies on analysis of an individual's response to external stimuli, reflecting the integrity of the PNS and the sensory pathway. The sensory pathway cannot be assessed in isolation from the affective and cognitive characteristics of patients or testers. Many variables potentially affect the reliability and reproducibility of QST, which after all, is designed for the testing of individuals by other individuals. Several decades of QST research have yielded exciting contributions, but the future of QST cannot be fully known. PMID:26399563

  12. Specialized Cilia in Mammalian Sensory Systems

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Nathalie; Lösl, Marlene; Schröder, Nadja; Gießl, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Cilia and flagella are highly conserved and important microtubule-based organelles that project from the surface of eukaryotic cells and act as antennae to sense extracellular signals. Moreover, cilia have emerged as key players in numerous physiological, developmental, and sensory processes such as hearing, olfaction, and photoreception. Genetic defects in ciliary proteins responsible for cilia formation, maintenance, or function underlie a wide array of human diseases like deafness, anosmia, and retinal degeneration in sensory systems. Impairment of more than one sensory organ results in numerous syndromic ciliary disorders like the autosomal recessive genetic diseases Bardet-Biedl and Usher syndrome. Here we describe the structure and distinct functional roles of cilia in sensory organs like the inner ear, the olfactory epithelium, and the retina of the mouse. The spectrum of ciliary function in fundamental cellular processes highlights the importance of elucidating ciliopathy-related proteins in order to find novel potential therapies. PMID:26378583

  13. Sensory Optimization by Stochastic Tuning

    PubMed Central

    Jurica, Peter; Gepshtein, Sergei; Tyukin, Ivan; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2013-01-01

    Individually, visual neurons are each selective for several aspects of stimulation, such as stimulus location, frequency content, and speed. Collectively, the neurons implement the visual system’s preferential sensitivity to some stimuli over others, manifested in behavioral sensitivity functions. We ask how the individual neurons are coordinated to optimize visual sensitivity. We model synaptic plasticity in a generic neural circuit, and find that stochastic changes in strengths of synaptic connections entail fluctuations in parameters of neural receptive fields. The fluctuations correlate with uncertainty of sensory measurement in individual neurons: the higher the uncertainty the larger the amplitude of fluctuation. We show that this simple relationship is sufficient for the stochastic fluctuations to steer sensitivities of neurons toward a characteristic distribution, from which follows a sensitivity function observed in human psychophysics, and which is predicted by a theory of optimal allocation of receptive fields. The optimal allocation arises in our simulations without supervision or feedback about system performance and independently of coupling between neurons, making the system highly adaptive and sensitive to prevailing stimulation. PMID:24219849

  14. Inferring Intent in Eye-Based Interfaces: Tracing Eye Movements with Process Models

    E-print Network

    Salvucci, Dario D.

    Inferring Intent in Eye-Based Interfaces: Tracing Eye Movements with Process Models Dario D movements. This paper describes how fixation tracing facilitates the interpretation of eye movements in eye-based interfaces and multimodal interfaces are discussed. Keywords Eye movements, eye

  15. Automatic Eye State Recognition and Closed-eye Photo Correction Zhaojie LIU, Haizhou AI

    E-print Network

    Ai, Haizhou

    Automatic Eye State Recognition and Closed-eye Photo Correction Zhaojie LIU, Haizhou AI Department@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn Abstract In this paper, we present an approach for eye state recognition and closed-eye photo correction. For eye state recognition, AdaBoosted cascade open-eye detectors of different scales are trained

  16. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  17. Photographic Screening for Eye Defects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, J.

    1985-01-01

    Images of retinas examined for characteristic patterns. Color photographs of retinas taken. Proper alinement of eye obtained by asking subject to gaze at light-emitting diode. "Red-eye" patterns in resulting color photographs examined by trained observers for signs of ocular defects. System used to check power of contact lenses and eyeglasses by taking photographs with these items in place.

  18. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes

    PubMed Central

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L’Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A.; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  19. Penetrating eye injury in war.

    PubMed

    Biehl, J W; Valdez, J; Hemady, R K; Steidl, S M; Bourke, D L

    1999-11-01

    The percentage of penetrating eye injuries in war has increased significantly in this century compared with the total number of combat injuries. With the increasing use of fragmentation weapons and possibly laser weapons on the battle-field in the future, the rate of eye injuries may exceed the 13% of the total military injuries found in Operations Desert Storm/Shield. During the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), eye injuries revealed that retained foreign bodies and posterior segment injuries have an improved prognosis in future military ophthalmic surgery as a result of modern diagnostic and treatment modalities. Compared with the increasing penetrating eye injuries on the battlefield, advances in ophthalmic surgery are insignificant. Eye armor, such as visors that flip up and down and protect the eyes from laser injury, needs to be developed. Similar eye protection is being developed in civilian sportswear. Penetrating eye injury in the civilian sector is becoming much closer to the military model and is now comparable for several reasons. PMID:10578588

  20. Dry eye disease after LASIK

    PubMed Central

    ?uru, L; Alexandrescu, C; Stana, D; Tudosescu, R

    2012-01-01

    LASIK is a surgical tehnique for the correction of refractive errors (myopia, hyperopia, astygmatism). It results in a reshape of the cornea with ocular surface and especially tear film disease. It is a cause for a iatrogenic dry eye syndrome. Neurogenic and inflamatory theory explain this disease. The main therapy of dry eye is the replacement with artificial tears. PMID:22574092

  1. Self-inflicted eye injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R; al-Bachari, M A; Kambhampati, K K

    1991-01-01

    Five cases of self-inflicted eye injury are described and discussed. A review of the literature shows that several psychiatric diagnoses have been assigned to people who damage their eyes. A variety of mechanisms to explain this phenomenon are described. PMID:1873272

  2. Eye trauma in the workplace

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd-Monk, H.

    1990-10-01

    A baseline visual acuity should be on record for medical and legal purposes. Identifying an eye injury and referring the person for appropriate treatment can save vision. Immediate eye irrigation in the case of chemical burns can substantially decrease the possibility of permanent vision damage.

  3. A Small Motor Cortex Lesion Abolished Ocular Dominance Plasticity in the Adult Mouse Primary Visual Cortex and Impaired Experience-Dependent Visual Improvements

    PubMed Central

    Pielecka-Fortuna, Justyna; Kalogeraki, Evgenia; Greifzu, Franziska; Löwel, Siegrid

    2015-01-01

    It was previously shown that a small lesion in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) prevented both cortical plasticity and sensory learning in the adult mouse visual system: While 3-month-old control mice continued to show ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in their primary visual cortex (V1) after monocular deprivation (MD), age-matched mice with a small photothrombotically induced (PT) stroke lesion in S1, positioned at least 1 mm anterior to the anterior border of V1, no longer expressed OD-plasticity. In addition, in the S1-lesioned mice, neither the experience-dependent increase of the spatial frequency threshold (“visual acuity”) nor of the contrast threshold (“contrast sensitivity”) of the optomotor reflex through the open eye was present. To assess whether these plasticity impairments can also occur if a lesion is placed more distant from V1, we tested the effect of a PT-lesion in the secondary motor cortex (M2). We observed that mice with a small M2-lesion restricted to the superficial cortical layers no longer expressed an OD-shift towards the open eye after 7 days of MD in V1 of the lesioned hemisphere. Consistent with previous findings about the consequences of an S1-lesion, OD-plasticity in V1 of the nonlesioned hemisphere of the M2-lesioned mice was still present. In addition, the experience-dependent improvements of both visual acuity and contrast sensitivity of the open eye were severely reduced. In contrast, sham-lesioned mice displayed both an OD-shift and improvements of visual capabilities of their open eye. To summarize, our data indicate that even a very small lesion restricted to the superficial cortical layers and more than 3mm anterior to the anterior border of V1 compromised V1-plasticity and impaired learning-induced visual improvements in adult mice. Thus both plasticity phenomena cannot only depend on modality-specific and local nerve cell networks but are clearly influenced by long-range interactions even from distant brain regions. PMID:26368569

  4. A layered network model of sensory cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    An integrated computational approach to modeling sensory systems which couples realistic layered neural models of sensory cortex and midbrain nuclei to detailed models of the sense organs (e.g., retina or cochlea) is described. The approach is applied to the auditory system. Through an exercise of the model, it is shown that spatial location of sounds may be a natural consequence of the way cochlear response is mapped onto the cortex. 31 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Novel TMEM98 mutations in pedigrees with autosomal dominant nanophthalmos

    PubMed Central

    Khorram, David; Choi, Michael; Roos, Ben R.; Stone, Edwin M.; Kopel, Teresa; Allen, Richard; Alward, Wallace L.M.; Scheetz, Todd E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Autosomal dominant nanophthalmos is an inherited eye disorder characterized by a structurally normal but smaller eye. Patients with nanophthalmos have high hyperopia (far-sightedness), a greater incidence of angle-closure glaucoma, and increased risk of surgical complications. In this study, the clinical features and the genetic basis of nanophthalmos were investigated in two large autosomal dominant nanophthalmos pedigrees. Methods Fourteen members of a Caucasian pedigree from the United States and 15 members of a pedigree from the Mariana Islands enrolled in a genetic study of nanophthalmos and contributed DNA samples. Twenty of 29 family members underwent eye examinations that included measurement of axial eye length and/or refractive error. The genetic basis of nanophthalmos in the pedigrees was studied with linkage analysis, whole exome sequencing, and candidate gene (i.e., TMEM98) sequencing to identify the nanophthalmos-causing gene. Results Nine members of the pedigree from the United States and 11 members of the pedigree from the Mariana Islands were diagnosed with nanophthalmos that is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. The patients with nanophthalmos had abnormally short axial eye lengths, which ranged from 15.9 to 18.4 mm. Linkage analysis of the nanophthalmos pedigree from the United States identified nine large regions of the genome (greater than 10 Mbp) that were coinherited with disease in this family. Genes within these “linked regions” were examined for disease-causing mutations using exome sequencing, and a His196Pro mutation was detected in the TMEM98 gene, which was recently reported to be a nanophthalmos gene. Sanger sequencing subsequently showed that all other members of this pedigree with nanophthalmos also carry the His196Pro TMEM98 mutation. Testing the Mariana Islands pedigree for TMEM98 mutations identified a 34 bp heterozygous deletion that spans the 3? end of exon 4 in all affected family members. Neither TMEM98 mutation was detected in public exome sequence databases. Conclusions A recent report identified a single TMEM98 missense mutation in a nanophthalmos pedigree. Our discovery of two additional TMEM98 mutations confirms the important role of the gene in the pathogenesis of autosomal dominant nanophthalmos. PMID:26392740

  6. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the...

  7. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion of the eye, usually made of glass or plastic...intended to be inserted in a patient's eye socket anterior to an orbital implant, or the eviscerated eyeball,...

  8. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion of the eye, usually made of glass or plastic...intended to be inserted in a patient's eye socket anterior to an orbital implant, or the eviscerated eyeball,...

  9. Minority Eye Health: Know Your Risks

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Eyeglasses IOLs Refractive Surgery & LASIK Sunglasses Living EyeSmart About Ophthalmologists Adults Under 40 Adults 40 to 60 Adults Over 60 Babies, Children & Teenagers Computer Usage Diabetes Diet & Nutrition Eye Injuries Eye ...

  10. Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Yes No Send Us Feedback Donate Today Related Articles Eye Drop Tips Glaucoma Eye Drops: Suggestions on Use Video: Putting in Eye Drops Glaucoma and the Brain Recent research has shown that the complex connection ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Fish-eye disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Fish-eye disease On this page: Description Genetic changes ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed August 2013 What is fish-eye disease? Fish-eye disease, also called partial ...

  12. Hemangiomas and the eye.

    PubMed

    Spence-Shishido, Allyson A; Good, William V; Baselga, Eulalia; Frieden, Ilona J

    2015-01-01

    Infantile hemangiomas are a common vascular birthmark with heterogeneous presentations and unique growth characteristics with early rapid growth and eventual self-involution. Hemangiomas that develop around the eye have the potential for inducing amblyopia by several mechanisms and may eventually result in permanent visual impairment in otherwise healthy infants. Segmental periocular hemangiomas carry the additional risk of associated structural anomalies and PHACE syndrome. In recent years, the treatment of periocular hemangiomas has been revolutionized by the serendipitous discovery of the effectiveness of beta-blockers (systemic and topical), with most experts viewing these as first-line therapies. The management of periocular hemangiomas should involve a close partnership between an ophthalmologist and dermatologist or other relevant specialists familiar with the unique clinical features, differential diagnosis, treatment approaches, and potential complications. PMID:25704937

  13. Eyes of Ganges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    21 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroded, light-toned layered rock outcrops on the side of a large mound in Ganges Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. Perhaps a testament to the inherent human (and primate) ability to pick out faces where partially hidden from view (even when a face is not really there) -- near the top of this picture are two features, each a product of erosion, resembling a pair of human eyes. This picture was acquired in late November 2005.

    Location near: 7.1oS, 49.4oW Image width: width: 0.55 km (0.3 mi) Illumination from: left/lower left Season: Southern Summer

  14. Cat eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak; Murki, Srinivas; Pratap, Tejo; Vasikarla, Madhavi

    2014-01-01

    A full-term female baby, a product of non-consanguineous marriage, was born at 37?weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 2.08?kg. Antenatal scan at 31?weeks revealed complex congenital heart disease with a hypoplastic right ventricle, pulmonary atresia and an intact septum. Immediately after birth, the infant was shifted to the nursery and was started on intravenous fluids and infusion prostaglandin E1 (Alprostidil). On examination, she had microcephaly, periorbital puffiness, a long philtrum, a broad nasal bridge and retrognathia, up slanting palpebral fissures, widely spaced nipples, a sacral dimple and right upper limb postaxial polydactyly. Postnatal echocardiography confirmed a large ostium secundum atrial septal defect with left to right shunt, right ventricle hypoplasia, pulmonary atresia with an intact septum and a large vertical patent ductus arteriosus. Ophthalmological examination showed a bilateral chorioretinal coloboma sparing disc and fovea. Karyotyping showed an extra small marker chromosome suggestive of the Cat eye syndrome. PMID:24842361

  15. Microoptical telescope compound eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duparré, Jacques W.; Schreiber, Peter; Matthes, André; Pshenay–Severin, Ekaterina; Bräuer, Andreas; Tünnermann, Andreas; Völkel, Reinhard; Eisner, Martin; Scharf, Toralf

    2005-02-01

    A new optical concept for compact digital image acquisition devices with large field of view is developed and proofed experimentally. Archetypes for the imaging system are compound eyes of small insects and the Gabor Superlens. A paraxial 3x3 matrix formalism is used to describe the telescope arrangement of three microlens arrays with different pitch to find first order parameters of the imaging system. A 2mm thin imaging system with 21x3 channels, 70ºx10º field of view and 4.5mm x 0.5mm image size is optimized and analyzed using sequential and non sequential raytracing and fabricated by microoptics technology. Anamorphic lenses, where the parameters are a function of the considered optical channel, are used to achieve a homogeneous optical performance over the whole field of view. Captured images are presented and compared to simulation results.

  16. Sagging Eye Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Zia; Demer, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Recognition of sagging eye syndrome (SES) as the cause of chronic or acute acquired diplopia may avert neurologic evaluation and imaging in most cases. Objectives To determine whether SES results from inferior shift of lateral rectus (LR) extraocular muscle (EOM) pulleys and to investigate anatomic correlates of strabismus in SES. Design and Setting We used magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate rectus EOMs, pulleys, and the LR– superior rectus (SR) band ligament at an eye institute. Participants Patients with acquired diplopia suspected of having SES. We studied 56 orbits of 11 men and 17 women (mean [SD] age of 69.4 [11.9] years) clinically diagnosed with SES. Data were obtained from 25 orbits of 14 control participants age-matched to SES and from 52 orbits of 28 younger controls (23[4.6] years). Main Outcome Measures Rectus pulley locations compared with age-matched norms and lengths of the LR-SR band ligament and rectus EOMs. Data were correlated with facial features, binocular alignment, and fundus torsion. Results Patients with SES commonly exhibited blepharoptosis and superior sulcus defect. Significant infero-lateral LR pulley displacement was confirmed in SES, but the spectrum of abnormalities was extended to peripheral displacement of all other rectus pulleys and lateral displacement of the inferior rectus pulley, with elongation of rectus EOMs (P < .001). Symmetrical LR sag was associated with divergence paralysis esotropia and asymmetrical LR sag greater than 1mm with cyclovertical strabismus. The LR-SR band was ruptured in 91% of patients with SES. Conclusions and Relevance Widespread rectus pulley displacement and EOM elongation, associated with LR-SR band rupture, causes acquired vertical and horizontal strabismus. Small-angle esotropia or hypertropia may result from common involutional changes in EOMs and orbital connective tissues that may be suspected from features evident on external examination. PMID:23471194

  17. The Colossal Cosmic Eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-09-01

    Eighty-five million years ago on small planet Earth, dinosaurs ruled, ignorant of their soon-to-come demise in the great Jurassic extinction, while mammals were still small and shy creatures. The southern Andes of Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina were not yet formed and South America was still an island continent. Eighty-five million years ago, our Sun and its solar system was 60,000 light years away from where it now stands [1]. Eighty-five million years ago, in another corner of the Universe, light left the beautiful spiral galaxy NGC 1350, for a journey across the universe. Part of this light was recorded at the beginning of the year 2000 AD by ESO's Very Large Telescope, located on the 2,600m high Cerro Paranal in the Chilean Andes on planet Earth. Astronomers classify NGC 1350 as an Sa(r) type galaxy, meaning it is a spiral with large central regions. In fact, NGC 1350 lies at the border between the broken-ring spiral type and a grand design spiral with two major outer arms. It is about 130,000 light-years across and, hence, is slightly larger than our Milky Way. The rather faint and graceful outer arms originate at the inner main ring and can be traced for almost half a circle when they each meet the opposite arm, giving the impression of completing a second outer ring, the "eye". The arms are given a blue tint as a result of the presence of very young and massive stars. The amount of dust, seen as small fragmented dust spirals in the central part of the galaxy and producing a fine tapestry that bear resemblance with blood vessels in the eye, is also a signature of the formation of stars.

  18. Investment in sensory structures, testis size, and wing coloration in males of a diurnal moth species: trade-offs or correlated growth?

    PubMed Central

    Shiel, Brett P; Sherman, Craig D H; Elgar, Mark A; Johnson, Tamara L; Symonds, Matthew R E

    2015-01-01

    For dioecious animals, reproductive success typically involves an exchange between the sexes of signals that provide information about mate location and quality. Typically, the elaborate, secondary sexual ornaments of males signal their quality, while females may signal their location and receptivity. In theory, the receptor structures that receive the latter signals may also become elaborate or enlarged in a way that ultimately functions to enhance mating success through improved mate location. The large, elaborate antennae of many male moths are one such sensory structure, and eye size may also be important in diurnal moths. Investment in these traits may be costly, resulting in trade-offs among different traits associated with mate location. For polyandrous species, such trade-offs may also include traits associated with paternity success, such as larger testes. Conversely, we would not expect this to be the case for monandrous species, where sperm competition is unlikely. We investigated these ideas by evaluating the relationship between investment in sensory structures (antennae, eye), testis, and a putative warning signal (orange hindwing patch) in field-caught males of the monandrous diurnal painted apple moth Teia anartoides (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) in southeastern Australia. As predicted for a monandrous species, we found no evidence that male moths with larger sensory structures had reduced investment in testis size. However, contrary to expectation, investment in sensory structures was correlated: males with relatively larger antennae also had relatively larger eyes. Intriguingly, also, the size of male orange hindwing patches was positively correlated with testis size. PMID:25937904

  19. Emerging functions of pannexin 1 in the eye

    PubMed Central

    Kurtenbach, Sarah; Kurtenbach, Stefan; Zoidl, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Pannexin 1 (Panx1) is a high-conductance, voltage-gated channel protein found in vertebrates. Panx1 is widely expressed in many organs and tissues, including sensory systems. In the eye, Panx1 is expressed in major divisions including the retina, lens and cornea. Panx1 is found in different neuronal and non-neuronal cell types. The channel is mechanosensitive and responds to changes in extracellular ATP, intracellular calcium, pH, or ROS/nitric oxide. Since Panx1 channels operate at the crossroad of major signaling pathways, physiological functions in important autocrine and paracrine feedback signaling mechanisms were hypothesized. This review starts with describing in depth the initial Panx1 expression and localization studies fostering functional studies that uncovered distinct roles in processing visual information in subsets of neurons in the rodent and fish retina. Panx1 is expressed along the entire anatomical axis from optical nerve to retina and cornea in glia, epithelial and endothelial cells as well as in neurons. The expression and diverse localizations throughout the eye points towards versatile functions of Panx1 in neuronal and non-neuronal cells, implicating Panx1 in the crosstalk between immune and neural cells, pressure related pathological conditions like glaucoma, wound repair or neuronal cell death caused by ischemia. Summarizing the literature on Panx1 in the eye highlights the diversity of emerging Panx1 channel functions in health and disease. PMID:25309318

  20. Three dimensional eye movements of squirrel monkeys following postrotatory tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merfeld, D. M.; Young, L. R.; Paige, G. D.; Tomko, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    Three-dimensional squirrel monkey eye movements were recorded during and immediately following rotation around an earth-vertical yaw axis (160 degrees/s steady state, 100 degrees/s2 acceleration and deceleration). To study interactions between the horizontal angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and head orientation, postrotatory VOR alignment was changed relative to gravity by tilting the head out of the horizontal plane (pitch or roll tilt between 15 degrees and 90 degrees) immediately after cessation of motion. Results showed that in addition to post rotatory horizontal nystagmus, vertical nystagmus followed tilts to the left or right (roll), and torsional nystagmus followed forward or backward (pitch) tilts. When the time course and spatial orientation of eye velocity were considered in three dimensions, the axis of eye rotation always shifted toward alignment with gravity, and the postrotatory horizontal VOR decay was accelerated by the tilts. These phenomena may reflect a neural process that resolves the sensory conflict induced by this postrotatory tilt paradigm.

  1. The ‘division of labour’ model of eye evolution

    PubMed Central

    Arendt, Detlev; Hausen, Harald; Purschke, Günter

    2009-01-01

    The ‘division of labour’ model of eye evolution is elaborated here. We propose that the evolution of complex, multicellular animal eyes started from a single, multi-functional cell type that existed in metazoan ancestors. This ancient cell type had at least three functions: light detection via a photoreceptive organelle, light shading by means of pigment granules and steering through locomotor cilia. Located around the circumference of swimming ciliated zooplankton larvae, these ancient cells were able to mediate phototaxis in the absence of a nervous system. This precursor then diversified, by cell-type functional segregation, into sister cell types that specialized in different subfunctions, evolving into separate photoreceptor cells, shading pigment cells (SPCs) or ciliated locomotor cells. Photoreceptor sensory cells and ciliated locomotor cells remained interconnected by newly evolving axons, giving rise to an early axonal circuit. In some evolutionary lines, residual functions prevailed in the specialized cell types that mirror the ancient multi-functionality, for instance, SPCs expressing an opsin as well as possessing rhabdomer-like microvilli, vestigial cilia and an axon. Functional segregation of cell types in eye evolution also explains the emergence of more elaborate photosensory–motor axonal circuits, with interneurons relaying the visual information. PMID:19720646

  2. Cross-frequency interaction of the eye-movement related LFP signals in V1 of freely viewing monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Junji; Maldonado, Pedro; Grün, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have emphasized the functional role of neuronal activity underlying oscillatory local field potential (LFP) signals during visual processing in natural conditions. While functionally relevant components in multiple frequency bands have been reported, little is known about whether and how these components interact with each other across the dominant frequency bands. We examined this phenomenon in LFP signals obtained from the primary visual cortex of monkeys performing voluntary saccadic eye movements (EMs) on still images of natural-scenes. We identified saccade-related changes in respect to power and phase in four dominant frequency bands: delta-theta (2–4 Hz), alpha-beta (10–13 Hz), low-gamma (20–40 Hz), and high-gamma (>100 Hz). The phase of the delta-theta band component is found to be entrained to the rhythm of the repetitive saccades, while an increment in the power of the alpha-beta and low-gamma bands were locked to the onset of saccades. The degree of the power modulation in these frequency bands is positively correlated with the degree of the phase-locking of the delta-theta oscillations to EMs. These results suggest the presence of cross-frequency interactions in the form of phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) between slow (delta-theta) and faster (alpha-beta and low gamma) oscillations. As shown previously, spikes evoked by visual fixations during free viewing are phase-locked to the fast oscillations. Thus, signals of different types and at different temporal scales are nested to each other during natural viewing. Such cross-frequency interaction may provide a general mechanism to coordinate sensory processing on a fast time scale and motor behavior on a slower time scale during active sensing. PMID:23420631

  3. Effect of altered sensory conditions on multivariate descriptors of human postural sway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, A. D.; Speers, R. A.; Peterka, R. J.; Horak, F. B.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Multivariate descriptors of sway were used to test whether altered sensory conditions result not only in changes in amount of sway but also in postural coordination. Eigenvalues and directions of eigenvectors of the covariance of shnk and hip angles were used as a set of multivariate descriptors. These quantities were measured in 14 healthy adult subjects performing the Sensory Organization test, which disrupts visual and somatosensory information used for spatial orientation. Multivariate analysis of variance and discriminant analysis showed that resulting sway changes were at least bivariate in character, with visual and somatosensory conditions producing distinct changes in postural coordination. The most significant changes were found when somatosensory information was disrupted by sway-referencing of the support surface (P = 3.2 x 10(-10)). The resulting covariance measurements showed that subjects not only swayed more but also used increased hip motion analogous to the hip strategy. Disruption of vision, by either closing the eyes or sway-referencing the visual surround, also resulted in altered sway (P = 1.7 x 10(-10)), with proportionately more motion of the center of mass than with platform sway-referencing. As shown by discriminant analysis, an optimal univariate measure could explain at most 90% of the behavior due to altered sensory conditions. The remaining 10%, while smaller, are highly significant changes in posture control that depend on sensory conditions. The results imply that normal postural coordination of the trunk and legs requires both somatosensory and visual information and that each sensory modality makes a unique contribution to posture control. Descending postural commands are multivariate in nature, and the motion at each joint is affected uniquely by input from multiple sensors.

  4. Monitoring the eye lens: which dose quantity is adequate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, R.; Dietze, G.

    2010-07-01

    Recent epidemiological studies suggest a rather low dose threshold (below 0.5 Gy) for the induction of a cataract of the eye lens. Some other studies even assume that there is no threshold at all. Therefore, protection measures have to be optimized and current dose limits for the eye lens may be reduced in the future. The question of which personal dose equivalent quantity is appropriate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens arises from this situation. While in many countries dosemeters calibrated in terms of the dose equivalent quantity Hp(0.07) have been seen as being adequate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens, this might be questionable in the case of reduced dose limits and, thus, it may become necessary to use the dose equivalent quantity Hp(3) for this purpose. To discuss this question, the dose conversion coefficients for the equivalent dose of the eye lens (in the following eye lens dose) were determined for realistic photon and beta radiation fields and compared with the values of the corresponding conversion coefficients for the different operational quantities. The values obtained lead to the following conclusions: in radiation fields where most of the dose comes from photons, especially x-rays, it is appropriate to use dosemeters calibrated in terms of Hp(0.07) on a slab phantom, while in other radiation fields (dominated by beta radiation or unknown contributions of photon and beta radiation) dosemeters calibrated in terms of Hp(3) on a slab phantom should be used. As an alternative, dosemeters calibrated in terms of Hp(0.07) on a slab phantom could also be used; however, in radiation fields containing beta radiation with the end point energy near 1 MeV, an overestimation of the eye lens dose by up to a factor of 550 is possible.

  5. How to examine an eye.

    PubMed

    Marsden, Janet

    2015-11-25

    Rationale and key points This article aims to assist nurses to perform a systematic external examination of the eye with the minimum of equipment. The eyes form a complex anatomical system, about which nurses often lack confidence. ? Eye problems are a relatively common reason for presentation to emergency departments and primary care. ? The nurse requires a knowledge of the underlying anatomy and physiology to perform an eye examination. ? Nurses in non-specialist settings should be able to assess the integrity of the eye and decide whether specialist referral and examination is required. ? Eye examination requires few elements of equipment and should be systematic. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. What further knowledge and skills you require to enable you to explain to the patient what might be occurring when they have an eye problem. 2. How you will gain this knowledge. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:26602677

  6. Dominant Leadership Style in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajbhandari, Mani Man Singh

    2006-01-01

    The dominant leadership style is defined by the situation and the kind of organizational environment and climate. This, however, does not sufficiently define the leadership qualities in school organizations. There are other factors which also determine the dominant leadership style, which are the traits and style, teachers commitments, pass out…

  7. The Applicability of the Short Sensory Profile for Screening Sensory Processing Disorders among Israeli Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel-Yeger, Batya

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the applicability of the short sensory profile (SSP) for screening sensory processing disorders (SPDs) among typical children in Israel, and to evaluate the relationship between SPDs and socio-demographic parameters. Participants were 395 Israeli children, aged 3 years to 10 years 11 months, with typical…

  8. A library of eyes in Go II: Monolithic eyes

    E-print Network

    Wolf, Thomas

    database has a number of extensions: an evaluation of the number of ko threats needed to live or to kill to eyes in order to decide whether a position lives unconditionally, simply by adding these values

  9. Along Endurance Crater's Inner Wall (Right Eye)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This view from the base of 'Burns Cliff' in the inner wall of 'Endurance Crater' combines several frames taken by Opportunity's navigation camera during the NASA rover's 280th martian day (Nov. 6, 2004). It is the right-eye member of a stereo pair, presented in a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction. The cliff dominates the left and right portions of the image, while the central portion looks down into the crater. The 'U' shape of this mosaic results from the rover's tilt of about 30 degrees on the sloped ground below the cliff. Rover wheel tracks in the left half of the image show some of the slippage the rover experienced in making its way to this point. The site from which this image was taken has been designated as Opportunity's Site 37.

  10. Along Endurance Crater's Inner Wall (Left Eye)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This view from the base of 'Burns Cliff' in the inner wall of 'Endurance Crater' combines several frames taken by Opportunity's navigation camera during the NASA rover's 280th martian day (Nov. 6, 2004). It is the left-eye member of a stereo pair, presented in a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction. The cliff dominates the left and right portions of the image, while the central portion looks down into the crater. The 'U' shape of this mosaic results from the rover's tilt of about 30 degrees on the sloped ground below the cliff. Rover wheel tracks in the left half of the image show some of the slippage the rover experienced in making its way to this point. The site from which this image was taken has been designated as Opportunity's Site 37.

  11. Cross-Cultural Consumer Acceptability and Purchase Intent of Forage-Finished Rib-Eye Steaks.

    PubMed

    Torrico, Damir Dennis; Wardy, Wisdom; Pujols, Kairy Dharali; Carabante, Kennet Mariano; Jirangrat, Wannita; Scaglia, Guillermo; Janes, Marlene E; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2015-10-01

    Rib-eye steaks, from 3 forage-finished systems (S1, S2, and S3) and 1 commercial steak (C), either cooked by 1-sided-grilling or 2-sided-grilling, were evaluated for sensory acceptability [overall appearance (ORA) and overall appearance of fat (OAF) for raw steaks; overall appearance (OCA), overall beef aroma (OBA), overall beef flavor (OBF), juiciness, tenderness and overall liking (OL) for cooked steaks] and purchase intent by Hispanic, Asian and U.S. consumers. They also indicated preferred degree of doneness and cooking methods. Cross-cultural differences in preferences and consumer acceptability of rib-eye steaks were observed. Grilling was the most preferred cooking method. Hispanics and Asians preferred medium and/or medium well, while U.S. consumers preferred medium and/or medium rare. For cooked steaks, the population effect was significant for all sensory attributes; Asians generally scored lower than did Hispanics and U.S. consumers. C and S3 generally had higher scores for all sensory attributes across 3 populations. Purchase intent for all forage-finished steaks was higher for Hispanics and U.S. consumers compared to Asians (50.0% to 77.8% compared with 43.2% to 65.9%). Attributes influencing purchase intent of forage-finished steaks differed among populations: tenderness (odds ratio = 1.4) for Hispanics, OCA (odds ratio = 1.5) for Asians, and OBF (odds ratio = 1.3) for U.S. consumers. Overall, this study demonstrated that the type of forage-finished system and ethnic differences influenced sensory acceptability and purchase intent of forage-finished rib-eye steaks. PMID:26408954

  12. When the Wheels Touch Earth and the Flight is Through, Pilots Find One Eye is Better Than Two?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valimont, Brian; Wise, John A.; Nichols, Troy; Best, Carl; Suddreth, John; Cupero, Frank

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of near to eye displays on both operational and visual performance by employing a human-in-the-loop simulation of straight-in ILS approaches while using a near to eye (NTE) display. The approaches were flown in simulated visual and instrument conditions while using either a biocular NTE or a monocular NTE display on either the dominant or non dominant eye. The pilot s flight performance, visual acuity, and ability to detect unsafe conditions on the runway were tested.

  13. Rivalry between afterimages and real images: the influence of the percept and the eye.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Andreas; Vázquez, Yuriria; Schindler, Andreas; Logothetis, Nikos K

    2011-01-01

    In binocular rivalry, the conscious percept alternates stochastically between two images shown to the two eyes. Both suppressed and dominant images form afterimages (AIs) whose strength depends on the perceptual state during induction. Counterintuitively, when these two AIs rival, the AI of the previously suppressed percept gains initial dominance, even when it is weaker. Here, we examined rivalry between afterimages, between real images, and between both to examine eye-based and binocular contributions to this effect. In all experiments, we found that for both AIs and real images, the suppressed percept consistently gained initial dominance following a long suppression period. Dominance reversals failed to occur following short suppression periods and depended on an abrupt change (removal) of the stimulus. With real images, results were replicated also when eye channels were exchanged during the abrupt change. The initial dominance of the weaker, previously suppressed percept is thus not due to its weaker contrast, to it being an afterimage, or to monocular adaptation effects as previously suggested. Instead, it is due to binocular, higher level effects that favor a perceptual switch after prolonged dominance. We discuss a plausible neural account for these findings in terms of neural interactions between binocular and eye-related stages. PMID:21849628

  14. Eyes in the Sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    These shape-shifting galaxies have taken on the form of a giant mask. The icy blue eyes are actually the cores of two merging galaxies, called NGC 2207 and IC 2163, and the mask is their spiral arms. The false-colored image consists of infrared data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope (red) and visible data from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (blue/green).

    NGC 2207 and IC 2163 met and began a sort of gravitational tango about 40 million years ago. The two galaxies are tugging at each other, stimulating new stars to form. Eventually, this cosmic ball will come to an end, when the galaxies meld into one. The dancing duo is located 140 million light-years away in the Canis Major constellation.

    The infrared data from Spitzer highlight the galaxies' dusty regions, while the visible data from Hubble indicates starlight. In the Hubble-only image (not pictured here), the dusty regions appear as dark lanes.

    The Hubble data correspond to light with wavelengths of .44 and .55 microns (blue and green, respectively). The Spitzer data represent light of 8 microns.

  15. Sparsity and Compressed Coding in Sensory Systems

    PubMed Central

    Barranca, Victor J.; Kova?i?, Gregor; Zhou, Douglas; Cai, David

    2014-01-01

    Considering that many natural stimuli are sparse, can a sensory system evolve to take advantage of this sparsity? We explore this question and show that significant downstream reductions in the numbers of neurons transmitting stimuli observed in early sensory pathways might be a consequence of this sparsity. First, we model an early sensory pathway using an idealized neuronal network comprised of receptors and downstream sensory neurons. Then, by revealing a linear structure intrinsic to neuronal network dynamics, our work points to a potential mechanism for transmitting sparse stimuli, related to compressed-sensing (CS) type data acquisition. Through simulation, we examine the characteristics of networks that are optimal in sparsity encoding, and the impact of localized receptive fields beyond conventional CS theory. The results of this work suggest a new network framework of signal sparsity, freeing the notion from any dependence on specific component-space representations. We expect our CS network mechanism to provide guidance for studying sparse stimulus transmission along realistic sensory pathways as well as engineering network designs that utilize sparsity encoding. PMID:25144745

  16. Sensory-motor integration in focal dystonia.

    PubMed

    Avanzino, Laura; Tinazzi, Michele; Ionta, Silvio; Fiorio, Mirta

    2015-12-01

    Traditional definitions of focal dystonia point to its motor component, mainly affecting planning and execution of voluntary movements. However, focal dystonia is tightly linked also to sensory dysfunction. Accurate motor control requires an optimal processing of afferent inputs from different sensory systems, in particular visual and somatosensory (e.g., touch and proprioception). Several experimental studies indicate that sensory-motor integration - the process through which sensory information is used to plan, execute, and monitor movements - is impaired in focal dystonia. The neural degenerations associated with these alterations affect not only the basal ganglia-thalamic-frontal cortex loop, but also the parietal cortex and cerebellum. The present review outlines the experimental studies describing impaired sensory-motor integration in focal dystonia, establishes their relationship with changes in specific neural mechanisms, and provides new insight towards the implementation of novel intervention protocols. Based on the reviewed state-of-the-art evidence, the theoretical framework summarized in the present article will not only result in a better understanding of the pathophysiology of dystonia, but it will also lead to the development of new rehabilitation strategies. PMID:26164472

  17. Transcriptional regulation of cranial sensory placode development

    PubMed Central

    Moody, Sally A.; LaMantia, Anthony-Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Cranial sensory placodes derive from discrete patches of the head ectoderm, and give rise to numerous sensory structures. During gastrulation, a specialized “neural border zone” forms around the neural plate in response to interactions between the neural and non-neural ectoderm and signals from adjacent mesodermal and/or endodermal tissues. This zone subsequently gives rise to two distinct precursor populations of the peripheral nervous system: the neural crest and the pre-placodal ectoderm (PPE). The PPE is a common field from which all cranial sensory placodes arise (adenohypophyseal, olfactory, lens, trigeminal, epibranchial, otic). Members of the Six family of transcription factors are major regulators of PPE specification, in partnership with co-factor proteins such as Eya. Six gene activity also maintains tissue boundaries between the PPE, neural crest and epidermis by repressing genes that specify the fates of those adjacent ectodermally-derived domains. As the embryo acquires anterior-posterior identity, the PPE becomes transcriptionally regionalized, and it subsequently subdivides into specific placodes with distinct developmental fates in response to signaling from adjacent tissues. Each placode is characterized by a unique transcriptional program that leads to the differentiation of highly specialized cells, such as neurosecretory cells, somatic sensory receptor cells, chemosensory neurons, peripheral glia and supporting cells. In this review, we summarize the transcriptional and signaling factors that regulate key steps of placode development, influence subsequent sensory neuron specification, and discuss what is known about mutations in some of the essential PPE genes that underlie human congenital syndromes. PMID:25662264

  18. Identification of dietary alanine toxicity and trafficking dysfunction in a Drosophila model of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1

    PubMed Central

    Oswald, Matthew C. W.; West, Ryan J. H.; Lloyd-Evans, Emyr; Sweeney, Sean T.

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1 (HSAN1) is characterized by a loss of distal peripheral sensory and motorneuronal function, neuropathic pain and tissue necrosis. The most common cause of HSAN1 is due to dominant mutations in serine palmitoyl-transferase subunit 1 (SPT1). SPT catalyses the condensation of serine with palmitoyl-CoA, the initial step in sphingolipid biogenesis. Identified mutations in SPT1 are known to both reduce sphingolipid synthesis and generate catalytic promiscuity, incorporating alanine or glycine into the precursor sphingolipid to generate a deoxysphingoid base (DSB). Why either loss of function in SPT1, or generation of DSBs should generate deficits in distal sensory function remains unclear. To address these questions, we generated a Drosophila model of HSAN1. Expression of dSpt1 bearing a disease-related mutation induced morphological deficits in synapse growth at the larval neuromuscular junction consistent with a dominant-negative action. Expression of mutant dSpt1 globally was found to be mildly toxic, but was completely toxic when the diet was supplemented with alanine, when DSBs were observed in abundance. Expression of mutant dSpt1 in sensory neurons generated developmental deficits in dendritic arborization with concomitant sensory deficits. A membrane trafficking defect was observed in soma of sensory neurons expressing mutant dSpt1, consistent with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi block. We found that we could rescue sensory function in neurons expressing mutant dSpt1 by co-expressing an effector of ER–Golgi function, Rab1 suggesting compromised ER function in HSAN1 affected dendritic neurons. Our Drosophila model identifies a novel strategy to explore the pathological mechanisms of HSAN1. PMID:26395456

  19. Identification of dietary alanine toxicity and trafficking dysfunction in a Drosophila model of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Matthew C W; West, Ryan J H; Lloyd-Evans, Emyr; Sweeney, Sean T

    2015-12-15

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1 (HSAN1) is characterized by a loss of distal peripheral sensory and motorneuronal function, neuropathic pain and tissue necrosis. The most common cause of HSAN1 is due to dominant mutations in serine palmitoyl-transferase subunit 1 (SPT1). SPT catalyses the condensation of serine with palmitoyl-CoA, the initial step in sphingolipid biogenesis. Identified mutations in SPT1 are known to both reduce sphingolipid synthesis and generate catalytic promiscuity, incorporating alanine or glycine into the precursor sphingolipid to generate a deoxysphingoid base (DSB). Why either loss of function in SPT1, or generation of DSBs should generate deficits in distal sensory function remains unclear. To address these questions, we generated a Drosophila model of HSAN1. Expression of dSpt1 bearing a disease-related mutation induced morphological deficits in synapse growth at the larval neuromuscular junction consistent with a dominant-negative action. Expression of mutant dSpt1 globally was found to be mildly toxic, but was completely toxic when the diet was supplemented with alanine, when DSBs were observed in abundance. Expression of mutant dSpt1 in sensory neurons generated developmental deficits in dendritic arborization with concomitant sensory deficits. A membrane trafficking defect was observed in soma of sensory neurons expressing mutant dSpt1, consistent with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi block. We found that we could rescue sensory function in neurons expressing mutant dSpt1 by co-expressing an effector of ER-Golgi function, Rab1 suggesting compromised ER function in HSAN1 affected dendritic neurons. Our Drosophila model identifies a novel strategy to explore the pathological mechanisms of HSAN1. PMID:26395456

  20. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... to 60 Adults Over 60 Babies, Children & Teenagers Computer Usage Diabetes Diet & Nutrition Eye Injuries Eye Screening ... Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes During Pregnancy Computer Usage & Eye Strain Maintaining Your Sight with Diabetes ...

  1. Nutrition and the Aging Eye

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Emily Chew, deputy director of the Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Research at NEI, before an eye ... M.D., deputy director of NEI's Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Research, "The results were of public ...

  2. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Antibiotics Work Adenovirus Non-Polio Enterovirus Parent Portal Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns Language: English Español (Spanish) ... conjunctivitis can be very serious. Types of Neonatal Conjunctivitis The most common types of neonatal conjunctivitis are ...

  3. Applications of lobster eye optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Inneman, A.; Tichy, V.

    2015-05-01

    Applications of wide field Lobster Eye X ray telescopes are presented and discussed. The wide field X ray optics was originally proposed for use in X-ray astronomy, but there are numerous other application areas as well.

  4. Eye movements when viewing advertisements

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Emily; Leinenger, Mallorie; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads), before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet). Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research. PMID:24672500

  5. Medicare Benefits and Your Eyes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... How You Can Help About Us News Prevent Blindness in your State Online Store Discussion Forum Planned ... recommended by your eye doctor. Half of all blindness can be prevented through early detection and treatment. ...

  6. Computer Tracking of Eye Motions

    E-print Network

    Minsky, Marvin

    1967-03-01

    This memo is to explain why the Artificial Intelligence group of Project MAC is developing methods for on-line tracking of human eye movements. It also gives a brief resume of results to date and the next steps.

  7. Money for the big eyes

    E-print Network

    Shen, Fangfei, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    Since ancient civilization, humanity has kept its eyes on the heavens, and the invention of telescopes has only increased its scrutiny. As astronomers strive to see the universe with increasing clarity, telescopes have ...

  8. English: Listening with the Third Eye; Writing Poetry Through Mental and Sensory Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Aaron

    This document contains a separate memorandum and course outline for both students and teachers on the reading and writing of poetry. The memorandum for students includes a list of goals and objectives, a description of the course, required work, optional and additional processes, and a description of grading and testing procedures. The course…

  9. A Note on Eye Movement

    E-print Network

    Bolina, O; Bolina, Oscar

    1998-01-01

    In a simplified fashion, the motion of the eyeball in its orbit consists of rotations around a fixed point. Therefore, this motion can be described in terms of the Euler's angles of rigid body dynamics. However, there is a physiological constraint in the motion of the eye which reduces to two its degrees of freedom. This paper reviews the basic features of the kinematics of the eye and the laws governing its motion.

  10. Eye-voice-controlled interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, Floyd A., III; Iavecchia, Helene P.; Ross, Lorna V.; Stokes, James M.; Weiland, William J.

    1986-01-01

    The Ocular Attention-Sensing Interface System (OASIS) is an innovative human-computer interface which utilizes eye movement and voice commands to communicate messages between the operator and the system. This report initially describes some technical issues relevant to the development of such an interface. The results of preliminary experiments which evaluate alternative eye processing algorithms and feedback techniques are presented. Candidate interface applications are also discussed.

  11. 1 Dorsal eye selector pannier (pnr) suppresses the eye fate to define dorsal margin of 2 the Drosophila eye

    E-print Network

    Singh, Amit

    1 Dorsal eye selector pannier (pnr) suppresses the eye fate to define dorsal margin of 2 the Drosophila eye 3 Sarah M. Oros a,b,1 , Meghana Tare b,1 , Madhuri Kango-Singh a,b,c , Amit Singh a,b,c, 4 xxxx 141516 17 Keywords: 18 Drosophila eye 19 Dorso-ventral eye patterning 20 Pannier 21 GATA-1 22

  12. Visual Selection: Eye Movements and Attention

    E-print Network

    Majumder, Aditi

    1 Visual Selection: Eye Movements and Attention #12;2 ·Humans make unconscious decisions about what and observable by others (eye movement) ·Examine what is known about overt and covert forms of visual selection features of the same object) #12;3 Eye Movements ·Visual selection is limited by the movement of the eye

  13. Eye injuries from assault with chemicals.

    PubMed Central

    Beare, J D

    1990-01-01

    Sixty four patients with eye injuries resulting from assault with chemicals were reviewed. In 17 eyes of 16 patients there was total corneal epithelial loss with varying degrees of limbal ischaemia. Nine eyes were effectively blinded and two eyes suffered less severe but permanent impairment of vision. PMID:2393641

  14. 14 CFR 67.303 - Eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eye. 67.303 Section 67.303 Aeronautics and... AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.303 Eye. Eye standards for a third-class airman medical certificate are: (a) Distant visual acuity of 20/40 or better in each eye separately,...

  15. Control of the gain of visual-motor transmission occurs in visual coordinates for smooth pursuit eye movements.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joonyeol; Yang, Jin; Lisberger, Stephen G

    2013-05-29

    Sensory inputs control motor behavior with a strength, or gain, that can be modulated according to the movement conditions. In smooth pursuit eye movements, the response to a brief perturbation of target motion is larger during pursuit of a moving target than during fixation of a stationary target. As a step toward identifying the locus and mechanism of gain modulation, we test whether it acts on signals that are in visual or motor coordinates. Monkeys tracked targets that moved at 15°/s in one of eight directions, including left, right, up, down, and the four oblique directions. In eight-ninths of the trials, the target underwent a brief perturbation that consisted of a single cycle of a 10 Hz sine wave of amplitude ±5°/s in one of the same eight directions. Even for oblique directions of baseline target motion, the magnitude of the eye velocity response to the perturbation was largest for a perturbation near the axis of target motion and smallest for a perturbation along the orthogonal axis. Computational modeling reveals that our data are reproduced when the strength of visual-motor transmission is modulated in sensory coordinates, and there is a static motor bias that favors horizontal eye movements. A network model shows how the output from the smooth eye movement region of the frontal eye fields (FEF(SEM)) could implement gain control by shifting the peak of a visual population response along the axes of preferred image speed and direction. PMID:23719810

  16. Control of the gain of visual-motor transmission occurs in visual coordinates for smooth pursuit eye movements

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joonyeol; Yang, Jin; Lisberger, Stephen G.

    2013-01-01

    Sensory inputs control motor behavior with a strength, or gain, that can be modulated according to the movement conditions. In smooth pursuit eye movements, the response to a brief perturbation of target motion is larger during pursuit of a moving target than during fixation of a stationary target. As a step towards identifying the locus and mechanism of gain modulation, we test whether it acts on signals that are in visual or motor coordinates. Monkeys tracked targets that moved at 15 deg/s in one of 8 directions, including left, right, up, down, and the 4 oblique directions. In eight-ninths of the trials, the target underwent a brief perturbation that consisted of a single cycle of a 10 Hz sine wave of amplitude ±5 deg/s in one of the same 8 directions. Even for oblique directions of baseline target motion, the magnitude of the eye velocity response to the perturbation was largest for a perturbation near the axis of target motion and smallest for a perturbation along the orthogonal axis. Computational modeling reveals that our data are reproduced when the strength of visual-motor transmission is modulated in sensory coordinates, and there is a static motor bias that favors horizontal eye movements. A network model shows how the output from the smooth eye movement region of the frontal eye fields (FEFSEM) could implement gain control by shifting the peak of a visual population response along the axes of preferred image speed and direction. PMID:23719810

  17. The Integrated Development of Sensory Organization

    PubMed Central

    Lickliter, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis The natural environment provides a flux of concurrent stimulation to all our senses, and the integration of information from different sensory systems is a fundamental feature of perception and cognition. How information from the different senses is integrated has long been of concern to several scientific disciplines, including psychology, cognitive science, and the neurosciences, each with different questions and methodologies. In recent years, a growing body of evidence drawn from these various disciplines suggests that the development of early sensory organization is much more plastic and experience-dependent than was previously realized. In this article, I briefly explore some of these recent advances in our understanding of the development of sensory integration and organization and discuss implications of these advances for the care and management of the preterm infant. PMID:22107892

  18. Sensory-motor system identification of active perception in ecologically valid environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, William; Thomik, Andreas; Faisal, A. Aldo

    2015-03-01

    The brain is a dynamical system mapping sensory inputs to motor actions. This relationship has been widely characterised by reductionist controlled experiments. Here we present work moving out of the lab ``into the wild'' to capture, rather than constrain, sensory inputs and motor outputs, by recording 90% of sensory inputs using head mounted eye-tracking, scene camera and microphone as well as recording 95% of skeletal motor outputs by motion tracking 51 degrees of freedom in the body and a total of 40 degrees of freedom from the hands. We can thus begin to systematically characterise the perception-action loop through system identification. This enables use to evaluate classical relationships in ecologically valid settings and behaviours including 3 daily scenarios: breakfast in the kitchen, evening chores and activities and in-door ambulation . This level of data richness (97 DOF, 60Hz), coupled with the extensive recordings of natural perceptual and behavioural data (total > 30 hrs, 10 subjects) enables us to answer general questions of how lab tasks and protocols will produce systematically different results from those found in daily life.

  19. Lateral Dominance and Reading Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Albert J.

    1979-01-01

    Theory and research on the relation of lateral dominance to the causation of reading disability are reviewed. Both direct and indirect measures of cerebral hemisphere functioning are considered. (SBH)

  20. Sensory synergy as environmental input integration

    PubMed Central

    Alnajjar, Fady; Itkonen, Matti; Berenz, Vincent; Tournier, Maxime; Nagai, Chikara; Shimoda, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS) remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with nine healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis' sensory system to make the controller simpler. PMID:25628523

  1. EyeMusic: Making Music with the Eyes Anthony Hornof and Linda Sato

    E-print Network

    Hornof, Anthony

    and performances. EyeMusic is a system that uses eye movements as an input to electronic music compositions incorporate prerecorded eye movement data into their musical compositions. KEYWORDS Electronic musicEyeMusic: Making Music with the Eyes Anthony Hornof and Linda Sato Department of Computer

  2. EyeDraw: A System for Drawing Pictures with Eye Movements

    E-print Network

    Lowd, Daniel

    EyeDraw: A System for Drawing Pictures with Eye Movements Anthony Hornof, Anna Cavender, and Rob their computers with eye movements. This need is especially acute for people with severely impaired motor with the world--with eye movements. A number of eye tracking systems have been specifically designed to assist

  3. Eects of eye position on estimates of eye displacement for spatial updating

    E-print Network

    Crawford, Doug

    E¡ects of eye position on estimates of eye displacement for spatial updating Masaki Tanaka cortex represent spatial memory of visual stimuli in an eye-centered coordinate frame. To preserve spatial stability across eye movements, spatial memory must be updated during each eye movement. Because

  4. EyeMusic: Performing Live Music and Multimedia Compositions with Eye Movements

    E-print Network

    Hornof, Anthony

    EyeMusic: Performing Live Music and Multimedia Compositions with Eye Movements Anthony J. Hornof In this project, eye tracking researchers and computer music composers collaborate to create musical compositions that are played with the eyes. A commercial eye tracker (LC Technologies Eyegaze) is connected to a music

  5. The Cat's Eye Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows one of the most complex planetary nebulae ever seen, NGC 6543, nicknamed the 'Cat's Eye Nebula.' Hubble reveals surprisingly intricate structures including concentric gas shells, jets of high-speed gas and unusual shock-induced knots of gas. Estimated to be 1,000 years old, the nebula is a visual 'fossil record' of the dynamics and late evolution of a dying star. A preliminary interpretation suggests that the star might be a double-star system. The suspected companion star also might be responsible for a pair of high-speed jets of gas that lie at right angles to this equatorial ring. If the companion were pulling in material from a neighboring star, jets escaping along the companion's rotation axis could be produced. These jets would explain several puzzling features along the periphery of the gas lobes. Like a stream of water hitting a sand pile, the jets compress gas ahead of them, creating the 'curlicue' features and bright arcs near the outer edge of the lobes. The twin jets are now pointing in different directions than these features. This suggests the jets are wobbling, or precessing, and turning on and off episodically. This color picture, taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2, is a composite of three images taken at different wavelengths. (red, hydrogen-alpha; blue, neutral oxygen, 6300 angstroms; green, ionized nitrogen, 6584 angstroms). The image was taken on September 18, 1994. NGC 6543 is 3,000 light- years away in the northern constellation Draco. The term planetary nebula is a misnomer; dying stars create these cocoons when they lose outer layers of gas. The process has nothing to do with planet formation, which is predicted to happen early in a star's life.

  6. Neural mechanisms of social dominance

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Noriya; Yamamoto, Miyuki

    2015-01-01

    In a group setting, individuals' perceptions of their own level of dominance or of the dominance level of others, and the ability to adequately control their behavior based on these perceptions are crucial for living within a social environment. Recent advances in neural imaging and molecular technology have enabled researchers to investigate the neural substrates that support the perception of social dominance and the formation of a social hierarchy in humans. At the systems' level, recent studies showed that dominance perception is represented in broad brain regions which include the amygdala, hippocampus, striatum, and various cortical networks such as the prefrontal, and parietal cortices. Additionally, neurotransmitter systems such as the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems, modulate and are modulated by the formation of the social hierarchy in a group. While these monoamine systems have a wide distribution and multiple functions, it was recently found that the Neuropeptide B/W contributes to the perception of dominance and is present in neurons that have a limited projection primarily to the amygdala. The present review discusses the specific roles of these neural regions and neurotransmitter systems in the perception of dominance and in hierarchy formation. PMID:26136644

  7. Feasibility of sensory tongue stimulation combined with task-specific therapy in people with spinal cord injury: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous evidence suggests the effects of task-specific therapy can be further enhanced when sensory stimulation is combined with motor practice. Sensory tongue stimulation is thought to facilitate activation of regions in the brain that are important for balance and gait. Improvements in balance and gait have significant implications for functional mobility for people with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). The aim of this case study was to evaluate the feasibility of a lab- and home-based program combining sensory tongue stimulation with balance and gait training on functional outcomes in people with iSCI. Methods Two male participants (S1 and S2) with chronic motor iSCI completed 12 weeks of balance and gait training (3 lab and 2 home based sessions per week) combined with sensory tongue stimulation using the Portable Neuromodulation Stimulator (PoNS). Laboratory based training involved 20 minutes of standing balance with eyes closed and 30 minutes of body-weight support treadmill walking. Home based sessions consisted of balancing with eyes open and walking with parallel bars or a walker for up to 20 minutes each. Subjects continued daily at-home training for an additional 12 weeks as follow-up. Results Both subjects were able to complete a minimum of 83% of the training sessions. Standing balance with eyes closed increased from 0.2 to 4.0 minutes and 0.0 to 0.2 minutes for S1 and S2, respectively. Balance confidence also improved at follow-up after the home-based program. Over ground walking speed improved by 0.14 m/s for S1 and 0.07 m/s for S2, and skilled walking function improved by 60% and 21% for S1 and S2, respectively. Conclusions Sensory tongue stimulation combined with task-specific training may be a feasible method for improving balance and gait in people with iSCI. Our findings warrant further controlled studies to determine the added benefits of sensory tongue stimulation to rehabilitation training. PMID:24906679

  8. The Postnatal Development of Spinal Sensory Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, Maria; Jennings, Ernest

    1999-07-01

    The mechanisms by which infants and children process pain should be viewed within the context of a developing sensory nervous system. The study of the neurophysiological properties and connectivity of sensory neurons in the developing spinal cord dorsal horn of the intact postnatal rat has shed light on the way in which the newborn central nervous system analyzes cutaneous innocuous and noxious stimuli. The receptive field properties and evoked activity of newborn dorsal horn cells to single repetitive and persistent innocuous and noxious inputs are developmentally regulated and reflect the maturation of excitatory transmission within the spinal cord. These changes will have an important influence on pain processing in the postnatal period.

  9. Dual sensory loss: development of a dual sensory loss protocol and design of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dual sensory loss (DSL) has a negative impact on health and wellbeing and its prevalence is expected to increase due to demographic aging. However, specialized care or rehabilitation programs for DSL are scarce. Until now, low vision rehabilitation does not sufficiently target concurrent impairments in vision and hearing. This study aims to 1) develop a DSL protocol (for occupational therapists working in low vision rehabilitation) which focuses on optimal use of the senses and teaches DSL patients and their communication partners to use effective communication strategies, and 2) describe the multicenter parallel randomized controlled trial (RCT) designed to test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the DSL protocol. Methods/design To develop a DSL protocol, literature was reviewed and content was discussed with professionals in eye/ear care (interviews/focus groups) and DSL patients (interviews). A pilot study was conducted to test and confirm the DSL protocol. In addition, a two-armed international multi-center RCT will evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the DSL protocol compared to waiting list controls, in 124 patients in low vision rehabilitation centers in the Netherlands and Belgium. Discussion This study provides a treatment protocol for rehabilitation of DSL within low vision rehabilitation, which aims to be a valuable addition to the general low vision rehabilitation care. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR) identifier: NTR2843 PMID:23941667

  10. The perception of heading during eye movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royden, Constance S.; Banks, Martin S.; Crowell, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Warren and Hannon (1988, 1990), while studying the perception of heading during eye movements, concluded that people do not require extraretinal information to judge heading with eye/head movements present. Here, heading judgments are examined at higher, more typical eye movement velocities than the extremely slow tracking eye movements used by Warren and Hannon. It is found that people require extraretinal information about eye position to perceive heading accurately under many viewing conditions.

  11. Eye mechanics and their implications for eye movement control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koene, Ansgar Roald

    2002-11-01

    The topic of this thesis is the investigation of the mechanical properties of the oculomotor system and the implications of these properties for eye movement control. The investigation was conducted by means of computer models and simulations. This allowed us to combine data from anatomy, physiology and psychophysics with basic principles of physics (mechanics) and mathematics (geometry). In chapter 2 we investigate the degree to which mechanical and neural non-linearities contribute to the kinematic differences between centrifugal and centripetal saccades. On the basis of the velocity profiles of centrifugal and centripetal saccades we calculate the forces and muscle innervations during these eye movements. This was done using an inverted model of the eye plant. Our results indicate that the non-linear force-velocity relationship (i.e. muscle viscosity) of the muscles is probably the cause of the kinematic differences between centrifugal and centripetal saccades. In chapter 3 we calculate the adjustment of the saccadic command that is necessary to compensate for the eye plant non-linearities. These calculations show that the agonist and antagonist muscles require different net saccade signal gain changes. In order to better understand how this gain change is accomplished we use the inverted model of the eye plant (chapter 2) to calculate the muscle innervation profiles of saccades with different starting orientations. Based on these calculations we conclude that the saccade signal gain changes are accomplished primarily by changes in the magnitude of the saccade signal. In chapter 4 we examine the requirements that the oculomotor system must meet for the eye to be able to make desired gaze changes and fixate at various eye orientations. We first determine how the axes of action (i.e. unit moment vectors) of the muscles are related to eye orientation and the location of the effective muscle origin (i.e. the muscle pulleys). Next we show how this relation constrains muscle pulley locations if the eye movements are controlled by specific rules. The two control theories we investigate are: 1. Eye movements that obey Listing's law, and the binocular extension of Listing's law, actively use only the horizontal and vertical muscle pairs. 2. Oculomotor control involves perfect agonist-antagonist muscle alignment. In chapter 5 we test two assumptions that are commonly made in models of the oculomotor plant. The first is the assumption that the antagonistic muscles can be viewed as a single bi-directional muscle. The second is the assumption that the three muscle pairs act in orthogonal directions. On the basis of the geometrical properties governing the muscle paths we show how these assumptions give rise to incorrect predictions for the oculomotor control signals. Using the same muscle activation patterns for eye plant models with and without these assumptions we calculate the eye orientations that are reached. Finally in chapter 6 we discuss some general conclusions concerning the consequences of the mechanics of the eye for oculomotor control.

  12. Optical coherence tomography of the eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hee, Michael Richard

    1997-10-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a new technique for high-resolution, cross-sectional imaging of tissue in which the time-of-flight delay of light reflected from internal tissue structures is resolved with high precision using interferometry. Tomographic images are obtained which are analogous to those provided by ultrasound except that image contrast relies on differences in optical rather than acoustic properties of tissue. The use of light rather than sound enables higher resolution (10 ?m) and non-contact imaging. A clinically viable high-sensitivity, fiber-optic based OCT instrument has been constructed based on engineering principles derived from optical communication theory. Computer algorithms have also been developed for quantitative image analysis and restoration. OCT has been used to image patients with a variety of ocular diseases. In patients with macular pathology, OCT images have been correlated with conventional clinical examination and fluorescein angiography. Optical coherence tomograms are effective in staging macular holes, evaluating the vitreoretinal interface in eyes at risk for a macular hole, and providing a structural assessment of macular hole surgery. In eyes with central serous chorioretinopathy, OCT can evaluate sensory retinal separations undetected at the slit-lamp. Serial OCT images of macular edema are able to track both the progression of macular thickening and the resolution of macular edema following laser photocoagulation. In patients with diabetic retinopathy, measurements of macular thickness correlate with visual acuity and OCT is more sensitive to small changes in retinal thickness than slit-lamp biomicroscopy. OCT may provide a novel method of defining occult choroidal neovascular membranes in patients with age-related macular degeneration. OCT can also profile the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer with high resolution which is potentially important for the objective assessment of early glaucoma progression. OCT images have been correlated with visual field performance and optic nerve appearance in a cross- section of patients with various stages of glaucoma. These studies suggest that OCT has the potential to become an important diagnostic tool for the practicing ophthalmologist. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)

  13. Peripapillary Retinoschisis in Glaucomatous Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Ji; Kim, Tae-Woo; Kim, Mijin; Choi, Yun Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the structural and clinical characteristics of peripapillary retinoschisis observed in glaucomatous eyes using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods Circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) and macular cross-hair SD-OCT scans and infrared fundus images of the glaucoma patients from the Investigating Glaucoma Progression Study (IGPS) and healthy volunteers were reviewed. Optic disc images obtained using enhanced depth imaging (EDI) SD-OCT were also evaluated. The structural characteristics and clinical course of the retinoschisis associated with glaucoma were investigated. Results Twenty-five retinoschisis areas were found in 22 of the 372 patients (5.9%) included in the IGPS, and in 1 area in 1 of 187 healthy control subjects (0.5%). In the 22 glaucomatous eyes with retinoschisis, the schisis was attached to the optic disc and overlapped with the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defect. The RNFL was the layer most commonly affected by the retinoschisis, either alone or together with other deeper layers. Acquired optic disc pit was identified in 8 eyes on disc photography and/or B-scan images obtained by EDI SD-OCT. Spontaneous resolution of this condition was observed in nine eyes. No retinal detachment or macular involvement of the retinoschisis was observed in any of the eyes. Multivariate analysis showed a significant influence of a higher intraocular pressure at SD-OCT scanning on the presence of retinoschisis (Odds ratio ?=?1.418, P?=?0.001). Conclusions The present study investigated 22 cases of peripapillary retinoschisis in glaucomatous eyes. The retinoschisis was attached to the optic nerve and topographically correlated with RNFL defect. It often resolved spontaneously without causing severe visual disturbance. Care should be taken not to overestimate the RNFL thickness in eyes with retinoschisis, and also not to misinterpret the resolution of retinoschisis as a rapid glaucomatous RNFL deterioration. PMID:24587238

  14. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II (often shortened to HSAN2 ) On this ... 2011 What is HSAN2? Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II (HSAN2) is a condition that primarily ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V (often shortened to HSAN5 ) On this ... 2011 What is HSAN5? Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V (HSAN5) is a condition that primarily ...

  17. Sensory Biology: Novel Peripheral Organization for Better Smell

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Crystal M.; Zhao, Haiqing

    2015-01-01

    Summary Sensory systems have adopted various ways to enhance detection and discrimination. A recent study shows a novel spatial organization of sensory cells in the peripheral olfactory system in mice for better odor detection. PMID:26439338

  18. Crossmodal integration: a glimpse into the development of sensory remapping.

    PubMed

    Nardini, Marko; Dekker, Tessa; Petrini, Karin

    2014-06-01

    Correctly localising sensory stimuli in space is a formidable challenge for the newborn brain. A new study provides a first glimpse into how human brain mechanisms for sensory remapping develop in the first year of life. PMID:24892917

  19. Supplemental Table 1 See Figure 1 Sensory mode

    E-print Network

    Ryan, Michael J.

    (Embiotocidae) habitats. Vis. Res. 44:1127­45 5 Visual Fishes 1, 3, 5, 7 Cummings ME. 2007. Sensory trade, Amcoff M, Mann RP, Arnqvist G. 2012. Diversification of a food-mimicking male ornament via sensory drive

  20. Sensory Biology: Novel Peripheral Organization for Better Smell.

    PubMed

    Wall, Crystal M; Zhao, Haiqing

    2015-10-01

    Sensory systems have adopted various ways to enhance detection and discrimination. A recent study shows a novel spatial organization of sensory cells in the peripheral olfactory system in mice for better odor detection. PMID:26439338

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov Research studies PubMed Recent literature Conditions > Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia (often shortened to MEMSA ) On ... definitions Reviewed June 2011 What is MEMSA? Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia, commonly called MEMSA, is part ...

  2. Eye-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Glaucoma Eye-to-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop Past Issues / Spring 2015 ... new patient comes in because they scratched their eye while working in the yard, or they think ...

  3. Videos from the National Eye Institute: Eye Diseases | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Vision Videos from the National Eye Institute: Eye Diseases Past ... the early detection of eye disease. Share these videos with friends, family and colleagues. www.nei.nih. ...

  4. Effects of proposed preflight adaptation training on eye movements, self-motion perception, and motion sickness - A progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, D. E.; Reschke, M. F.; Von Gierke, H. E.; Lessard, C. S.

    1987-01-01

    The preflight adaptation trainer (PAT) was designed to produce rearranged relationships between visual and otolith signals analogous to those experienced in space. Investigations have been undertaken with three prototype trainers. The results indicated that exposure to the PAT sensory rearrangement altered self-motion perception, induced motion sickness, and changed the amplitude and phase of the horizontal eye movements evoked by roll stimulation. However, the changes were inconsistent.

  5. Concept Development for Mainstreamed Sensory Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risko, Victoria J.; Degler, Lois Sauer

    Noting that sensory impaired children often have poorly developed or ungeneralized concept development that impedes their ability to comprehend stories or content texts, this paper presents a brief description of the learning problems of these children as they relate to the reading process. It then presents implications for teaching reading and a…

  6. Sensory Abnormalities in Autism: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintwall Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Hoglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents…

  7. Variance predicts salience in central sensory processing

    PubMed Central

    Hermundstad, Ann M; Briguglio, John J; Conte, Mary M; Victor, Jonathan D; Balasubramanian, Vijay; Tka?ik, Gašper

    2014-01-01

    Information processing in the sensory periphery is shaped by natural stimulus statistics. In the periphery, a transmission bottleneck constrains performance; thus efficient coding implies that natural signal components with a predictably wider range should be compressed. In a different regime—when sampling limitations constrain performance—efficient coding implies that more resources should be allocated to informative features that are more variable. We propose that this regime is relevant for sensory cortex when it extracts complex features from limited numbers of sensory samples. To test this prediction, we use central visual processing as a model: we show that visual sensitivity for local multi-point spatial correlations, described by dozens of independently-measured parameters, can be quantitatively predicted from the structure of natural images. This suggests that efficient coding applies centrally, where it extends to higher-order sensory features and operates in a regime in which sensitivity increases with feature variability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03722.001 PMID:25396297

  8. A Housefly Sensory-Motor Integration Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griff, Edwin R; Kane, Thomas C.

    2010-01-01

    Insects have many interesting behaviors that can be observed in an introductory biology laboratory setting. In the present article, we describe several reflexes using the housefly "Musca domestica" that can be used to introduce students to sensory and motor responses and encourage them to think about the underlying neural circuits and integration…

  9. Volatile and sensory profiling of cocktail bitters.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Arielle J; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E

    2015-07-15

    Aromatic cocktail bitters are derived from the alcoholic extraction of a variety of plant materials and are used as additives in mixed drinks to enhance aroma and flavor. In this study sixteen commercial bitters were analyzed using volatile (GC-MS) and sensory profiling and multivariate statistics including Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS). The samples differed significantly in their citrus, celery, and spice characteristics. 148 volatile compounds were tentatively identified and the composition varied significantly with the type of bitters sample evaluated. PLS analysis showed that the volatile data correlated well overall to the sensory data, explaining 60% of the overall variability in the dataset. Primary aldehydes and phenylpropanoids were most closely related to green and spice-related sensory descriptors. However, the sensory impact of terpenoid compounds was difficult to predict in many cases. This may be due to the wide range of aroma qualities associated with terpenes as well as to concentration, synergistic or masking effects. PMID:25722175

  10. Sensorial countermeasures for vestibular spatial disorientation.

    PubMed

    Paillard, Aurore C; Quarck, Gaëlle; Denise, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Spatial disorientation is defined as an erroneous body orientation perceived by pilots during flights. Limits of the vestibular system provoke frequent spatial disorientation mishaps. Although vestibular spatial disorientation is experienced frequently in aviation, there is no intuitive countermeasure against spatial disorientation mishaps to date. The aim of this review is to describe the current sensorial countermeasures and to examine future leads in sensorial ergonomics for vestibular spatial disorientation. This work reviews: 1) the visual ergonomics, 2) the vestibular countermeasures, 3) the auditory displays, 4) the somatosensory countermeasures, and, finally, 5) the multisensory displays. This review emphasizes the positive aspects of auditory and somatosensory countermeasures as well as multisensory devices. Even if some aspects such as sensory conflict and motion sickness need to be assessed, these countermeasures should be taken into consideration for ergonomics work in the future. However, a recent development in aviation might offer new and better perspectives: unmanned aerial vehicles. Unmanned aerial vehicles aim to go beyond the physiological boundaries of human sensorial systems and would allow for coping with spatial disorientation and motion sickness. Even if research is necessary to improve the interaction between machines and humans, this recent development might be incredibly useful for decreasing or even stopping vestibular spatial disorientation. PMID:24834571

  11. Sensory ecology: see me, hear me.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Michael J

    2007-12-01

    The animal world is replete with vibrant colours: these are often used as display signals and selection has solved a fundamental problem in information transfer by enhancing the detectability of these signals against the backgrounds on which they are perceived by the particular sensory systems of their receivers. PMID:18054765

  12. Learning of Sensory Sequences in Cerebellar Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frings, Markus; Boenisch, Raoul; Gerwig, Marcus; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Timmann, Dagmar

    2004-01-01

    A possible role of the cerebellum in detecting and recognizing event sequences has been proposed. The present study sought to determine whether patients with cerebellar lesions are impaired in the acquisition and discrimination of sequences of sensory stimuli of different modalities. A group of 26 cerebellar patients and 26 controls matched for…

  13. Pairing Food & Wine A Sensory Exploration

    E-print Network

    Yu, Stella X.

    Pairing Food & Wine A Sensory Exploration Bill Hendriksen #12;The Dilemma Successfully pairing food and wine is often difficult because there are so many factors to consider which are often hard to describe and drink locally #12;Traditional Rules 2) Drink more complex, fuller, and sweeter wines later in the meal

  14. A physical basis for sensory perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norwich, Kenneth H.

    2014-11-01

    It is argued that the process of perception takes origin within physics itself. A simple, physical model of a biological sensory receptor unit, a unit which mediates perception at its most elemental level, is developed. This model will be not just a detector of sensory signals (like a light meter or sound level meter), but will transduce these signals to the level of consciousness. The properties of this physical model of the sensory receptor unit are drawn from classical physics. Because of its simplicity, the receptor model allows for perception of only discrete quantities of incident signal energy. My primary goal in presenting this reduced model of perception is to teach concepts without the need for detailed anatomy or physiology. Using the simple mathematical properties of the receptor model, we are able to derive a number of the empirical equations of sensory science. Since the idea has been advanced that the process of perception, at a fundamental level, belongs to physics whose validity is universal, it is suggested that the “laws” of perception of the world manifested by organisms anywhere within the universe will be similar to the laws we observe here on earth.

  15. Improving Maladaptive Behaviors Using Sensory Integration Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuman, Theresa

    A study examined the use of sensory integration techniques to reduce the maladaptive behaviors that interfered with the learning of nine high school students with mental impairments attending a special school. Maladaptive behaviors identified included rocking, toe walking, echolalia, resistance to change, compulsive behaviors, aggression,…

  16. How flies clean their eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amador, Guillermo; Durand, Fabien; Mao, Wenbin; Alexeev, Alexander; Hu, David

    2013-11-01

    Flying insects face a barrage of foreign particles such as dust and pollen, which threaten to coat the insect's eyes and antennae, limiting their sensing abilities. In this study, we elucidate novel aerodynamic and elastic mechanisms by which insects keep these organs clean. The compound eye of many species of insects is covered by an array of short bristles, or setae, evenly spaced between each photoreceptor unit. Among these insect species, setae length is triple their spacing. We conduct numerical simulations and wind tunnel experiments using an insect eye mimic to show this critical setae length reduces shear rate at the eye surface by 80%. Thus, the setae create a stagnant zone in front of the eye, which diverts airflow to reduce deposition of particles. Setae can also act as springboards to catapult accumulated particles. In high speed videography of insects using their legs to clean themselves, we observe deflected setae hurling micron scale particles at accelerations over 100 times earth's gravity. The dual abilities of setae to divert airflow and catapult particles may motivate bio-inspired designs for dust-controlling lenses, sensors, and solar panels.

  17. Indications for eye removal surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Koylu, Mehmet T.; Gokce, Gokcen; Uysal, Yusuf; Ceylan, Osman M.; Ak?nc?oglu, Dorukcan; Gunal, Armagan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the indications and types of eye removals at a military tertiary care hospital in Turkey. Methods: The medical records (age, gender, affected eye, type of surgical procedure, indications of surgery) of 123 patients who underwent evisceration and enucleation in the course of a 15-year period (January 2000 to December 2014) at Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey were reviewed retrospectively. Results: The mean age was 35.61±18.52 (range 3-80 years). The number of male in the patient group was 92 (74.8%) and female was 31 (25.2%). Patients who underwent evisceration were 95 (77.2%), whereas 28 (22.8%) of them underwent enucleation. The mean age of the eviscerated patients was 30.63±13.08, whereas the mean age of the enucleated patients was 52.50±23.92 (p<0.001). The leading indications for eye amputations were trauma (n=62, 50.4%), malignancy (n=20, 16.3%), painful blind eye and absolute glaucoma (n=20, 16.3%), endophthalmitis (n=12, 9.7%), and phthisis bulbi, and cosmetic reasons (n=9, 7.3%). Conclusion: Trauma was the most common etiology for evisceration, and malignancy was the most common etiology for enucleation. Using protective eyewear and early detection of intraocular malignancy and glaucoma through routine ophthalmic examinations are essential for providing non-invasive treatment modalities instead of eye removal. PMID:26446332

  18. Towards standardisation of the Sensory Profile Checklist Revisited: Perceptual and Sensory Sensitivities in Autism Spectrum Conditions 

    E-print Network

    Robinson, Lee Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Although sensory and perceptual symptoms have been associated with ASC from the time that autism was first defined as a diagnosis (Kanner, 1943), and despite many personal accounts from individuals with ASC themselves ...

  19. Receptors for sensory neuropeptides in human inflammatory diseases: Implications for the effector role of sensory neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Mantyh, P.W.; Catton, M.D.; Boehmer, C.G.; Welton, M.L.; Passaro, E.P. Jr.; Maggio, J.E.; Vigna, S.R. )

    1989-05-01

    Glutamate and several neuropeptides are synthesized and released by subpopulations of primary afferent neurons. These sensory neurons play a role in regulating the inflammatory and immune responses in peripheral tissues. Using quantitative receptor autoradiography we have explored what changes occur in the location and concentration of receptor binding sites for sensory neurotransmitters in the colon in two human inflammatory diseases, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The sensory neurotransmitter receptors examined included bombesin, calcitonin gene related peptide-alpha, cholecystokinin, galanin, glutamate, somatostatin, neurokinin A (substance K), substance P, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. Of the nine receptor binding sites examined only substance P binding sites associated with arterioles, venules and lymph nodules were dramatically up-regulated in the inflamed tissue. These data suggest that substance P is involved in regulating the inflammatory and immune responses in human inflammatory diseases and indicate a specificity of efferent action for each sensory neurotransmitter in peripheral tissues.

  20. Capsaicin pretreatment prevents disruption of the blood-aqueous barrier in the rabbit eye

    SciTech Connect

    Bynke, G.

    1983-06-01

    Capsaicin, the irritating agent of red pepper, produces ocular inflammation through a neurogenic mechanism. The present study is concerned with the long-term effects of capsaicin pretreatment on the capacity of the eye to respond to different inflammatory stimuli. Following retrobulbar injection of capsaicin to rabbits the aqueous flare response induced by subsequent infrared irradiation (IR) of the iris, subcutaneously administered alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and exogenously administered prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was reduced greatly. In the case of IR and alpha-MSH the reduced responsiveness was manifest for several weeks after capsaicin pretreatment, involving first the capsaicin-treated eye, but later also the contralateral control eye. After 2-3 months the aqueous flare response was normal in both eyes. In the case of PGE2 the responsiveness was reduced for a shorter time; after 3 weeks the response was normal in both eyes. The results indicate that all three stimuli tested are at least partly dependent upon an intact sensory innervation to disrupt the blood-aqueous barrier, but that the mechanism of action of PGE2 is different from that of IR and alpha-MSH.

  1. Highly dominating, highly authoritarian personalities.

    PubMed

    Altemeyer, Bob

    2004-08-01

    The author considered the small part of the population whose members score highly on both the Social Dominance Orientation scale and the Right-Wing Authoritarianism scale. Studies of these High SDO-High RWAs, culled from samples of nearly 4000 Canadian university students and over 2600 of their parents and reported in the present article, reveal that these dominating authoritarians are among the most prejudiced persons in society. Furthermore, they seem to combine the worst elements of each kind of personality, being power-hungry, unsupportive of equality, manipulative, and amoral, as social dominators are in general, while also being religiously ethnocentric and dogmatic, as right-wing authoritarians tend to be. The author suggested that, although they are small in number, such persons can have considerable impact on society because they are well-positioned to become the leaders of prejudiced right-wing political movements. PMID:15279331

  2. Gravity-Induced Vacuum Dominance

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, William C. C.; Vanzella, Daniel A. T.

    2010-04-23

    It has been widely believed that, except in very extreme situations, the influence of gravity on quantum fields should amount to just small, subdominant contributions. This view seemed to be endorsed by the seminal results obtained over the last decades in the context of renormalization of quantum fields in curved spacetimes. Here, however, we argue that this belief is false by showing that there exist well-behaved spacetime evolutions where the vacuum energy density of free quantum fields is forced, by the very same background spacetime, to become dominant over any classical energy-density component. By estimating the time scale for the vacuum energy density to become dominant, and therefore for backreaction on the background spacetime to become important, we argue that this (infrared) vacuum dominance may bear unexpected astrophysical and cosmological implications.

  3. INTRODUCTION In multicellular organisms, sensory perception relies on cells

    E-print Network

    Swoboda, Peter

    sensory structures. In many sense organs these structures are modified cilia: vertebrate examples include). In Drosophila, nonvisual sensory perception relies on two major classes of sense organs. Type I organs neuron in a type I organ bears a single sensory dendrite with a modified cilium. Type II sense organs

  4. Brief Report: Further Evidence of Sensory Subtypes in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Alison E.; Dennis, Simon J.; Geraghty, Maureen E.

    2011-01-01

    Distinct sensory processing (SP) subtypes in autism have been reported previously. This study sought to replicate the previous findings in an independent sample of thirty children diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. Model-based cluster analysis of parent-reported sensory functioning (measured using the Short Sensory Profile) confirmed the…

  5. Describing the Sensory Abnormalities of Children and Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leekam, Susan R.; Nieto, Carmen; Libby, Sarah J.; Wing, Lorna; Gould, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of sensory abnormalities in children and adults with autism were examined using the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO). This interview elicits detailed information about responsiveness to a wide range of sensory stimuli. Study 1 showed that over 90% of children with autism had sensory abnormalities and had…

  6. Sensory Processing Subtypes in Autism: Association with Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Alison E.; Young, Robyn L.; Baker, Amy E. Z.; Angley, Manya T.

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism are frequently observed to experience difficulties in sensory processing. This study examined specific patterns of sensory processing in 54 children with autistic disorder and their association with adaptive behavior. Model-based cluster analysis revealed three distinct sensory processing subtypes in autism. These subtypes…

  7. Sensory Integration and Its Effects on Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Judy

    This paper provides an overview of the literature on sensory integration in young children. First it explains the importance of "sensory integration" in child development and normal functioning. It goes on to note signs of a sensory integration dysfunction (such as hyper-or hypo-sensitivity to touch, poor coordination, and poor behavioral…

  8. Sensory stimulation activates both motor and sensory components of the swallowing system

    PubMed Central

    Lowell, Soren Y.; Poletto, Christopher J.; Knorr-Chung, Bethany R.; Reynolds, Richard C.; Simonyan, Kristina; Ludlow, Christy L.

    2008-01-01

    Volitional swallowing in humans involves the coordination of both brainstem and cerebral swallowing control regions. Peripheral sensory inputs are necessary for safe and efficient swallowing, and their importance to the patterned components of swallowing has been demonstrated. However, the role of sensory inputs to the cerebral system during volitional swallowing is less clear. We used four conditions applied during functional magnetic resonance imaging to differentiate between sensory, motor planning, and motor execution components for cerebral control of swallowing. Oral air pulse stimulation was used to examine the effect of sensory input, covert swallowing was used to engage motor planning for swallowing, and overt swallowing was used to activate the volitional swallowing system. Breath-holding was also included to determine whether its effects could account for the activation seen during overt swallowing. Oral air pulse stimulation, covert swallowing and overt swallowing all produced activation in the primary motor cortex, cingulate cortex, putamen and insula. Additional regions of the swallowing cerebral system that were activated by the oral air pulse stimulation condition included the primary and secondary somatosensory cortex and thalamus. Although air pulse stimulation was on the right side only, bilateral cerebral activation occurred. On the other hand, covert swallowing minimally activated sensory regions, but did activate the supplementary motor area and other motor regions. Breath-holding did not account for the activation during overt swallowing. The effectiveness of oral-sensory stimulation for engaging both sensory and motor components of the cerebral swallowing system demonstrates the importance of sensory input in cerebral swallowing control. PMID:18515150

  9. Sensory testing of the human gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Christina; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Wilder-Smith, Oliver; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this appraisal is to shed light on the various approaches to screen sensory information in the human gut. Understanding and characterization of sensory symptoms in gastrointestinal disorders is poor. Experimental methods allowing the investigator to control stimulus intensity and modality, as well as using validated methods for assessing sensory response have contributed to the understanding of pain mechanisms. Mechanical stimulation based on impedance planimetry allows direct recordings of luminal cross-sectional areas, and combined with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, the contribution of different gut layers can be estimated. Electrical stimulation depolarizes free nerve endings non-selectively. Consequently, the stimulation paradigm (single, train, tetanic) influences the involved sensory nerves. Visual controlled electrical stimulation combines the probes with an endoscopic approach, which allows the investigator to inspect and obtain small biopsies from the stimulation site. Thermal stimulation (cold or warm) activates selectively mucosal receptors, and chemical substances such as acid and capsaicin (either alone or in combination) are used to evoke pain and sensitization. The possibility of multimodal (e.g. mechanical, electrical, thermal and chemical) stimulation in different gut segments has developed visceral pain research. The major advantage is involvement of distinctive receptors, various sensory nerves and different pain pathways mimicking clinical pain that favors investigation of central pain mechanisms involved in allodynia, hyperalgesia and referred pain. As impairment of descending control mechanisms partly underlies the pathogenesis in chronic pain, a cold pressor test that indirectly stimulates such control mechanisms can be added. Hence, the methods undoubtedly represent a major step forward in the future characterization and treatment of patients with various diseases of the gut, which provides knowledge to clinicians about the underlying symptoms and treatment of these patients. PMID:19132764

  10. Dominant resistance against plant viruses

    PubMed Central

    de Ronde, Dryas; Butterbach, Patrick; Kormelink, Richard

    2014-01-01

    To establish a successful infection plant viruses have to overcome a defense system composed of several layers. This review will overview the various strategies plants employ to combat viral infections with main emphasis on the current status of single dominant resistance (R) genes identified against plant viruses and the corresponding avirulence (Avr) genes identified so far. The most common models to explain the mode of action of dominant R genes will be presented. Finally, in brief the hypersensitive response (HR) and extreme resistance (ER), and the functional and structural similarity of R genes to sensors of innate immunity in mammalian cell systems will be described. PMID:25018765

  11. ENU mutagenesis identifies mice modeling Warburg Micro Syndrome with sensory axon degeneration caused by a deletion in Rab18.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chih-Ya; Wu, Jaw-Ching; Tsai, Jin-Wu; Nian, Fang-Shin; Wu, Pei-Chun; Kao, Lung-Sen; Fann, Ming-Ji; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Liou, Ying-Jay; Tai, Chin-Yin; Hong, Chen-Jee

    2015-05-01

    Mutations in the gene of RAB18, a member of Ras superfamily of small G-proteins, cause Warburg Micro Syndrome (WARBM) which is characterized by defective neurodevelopmental and ophthalmological phenotypes. Despite loss of Rab18 had been reported to induce disruption of the endoplasmic reticulum structure and neuronal cytoskeleton organization, parts of the pathogenic mechanism caused by RAB18 mutation remain unclear. From the N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced mutagenesis library, we identified a mouse line whose Rab18 was knocked out. This Rab18(-/-) mouse exhibited stomping gait, smaller testis and eyes, mimicking several features of WARBM. Rab18(-/-) mice were obviously less sensitive to pain and touch than WT mice. Histological examinations on Rab18(-/-) mice revealed progressive axonal degeneration in the optic nerves, dorsal column of the spinal cord and sensory roots of the spinal nerves while the motor roots were spared. All the behavioral and pathological changes that resulted from abnormalities in the sensory axons were prevented by introducing an extra copy of Rab18 transgene in Rab18(-/-) mice. Our results reveal that sensory axonal degeneration is the primary cause of stomping gait and progressive weakness of the hind limbs in Rab18(-/-) mice, and optic nerve degeneration should be the major pathology of progressive optic atrophy in children with WARBM. Our results indicate that the sensory nervous system is more vulnerable to Rab18 deficiency and WARBM is not only a neurodevelopmental but also neurodegenerative disease. PMID:25779931

  12. Tracking with the mind's eye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauzlis, R. J.; Stone, L. S.

    1999-01-01

    The two components of voluntary tracking eye-movements in primates, pursuit and saccades, are generally viewed as relatively independent oculomotor subsystems that move the eyes in different ways using independent visual information. Although saccades have long been known to be guided by visual processes related to perception and cognition, only recently have psychophysical and physiological studies provided compelling evidence that pursuit is also guided by such higher-order visual processes, rather than by the raw retinal stimulus. Pursuit and saccades also do not appear to be entirely independent anatomical systems, but involve overlapping neural mechanisms that might be important for coordinating these two types of eye movement during the tracking of a selected visual object. Given that the recovery of objects from real-world images is inherently ambiguous, guiding both pursuit and saccades with perception could represent an explicit strategy for ensuring that these two motor actions are driven by a single visual interpretation.

  13. Moving Ahead With Eye Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory's collaborated with LC Technologies, Inc., to improve LCT's Eyegaze Communication System, an eye tracker that enables people with severe cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, strokes, brain injuries, spinal cord injuries, and ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) to communicate and control their environment using their eye movements. To operate the system, the user sits in front of the computer monitor while the camera focuses on one eye. By looking at control keys on the monitor for a fraction of a second, the user can 'talk' with speech synthesis, type, operate a telephone, access the Internet and e-mail, and run computer software. Nothing is attached to the user's head or body, and the improved size and portability allow the system to be mounted on a wheelchair. LCT and JPL are working on several other areas of improvement that have commercial add-on potential.

  14. Making eye contact without awareness.

    PubMed

    Rothkirch, Marcus; Madipakkam, Apoorva Rajiv; Rehn, Erik; Sterzer, Philipp

    2015-10-01

    Direct gaze is a potent non-verbal signal that establishes a communicative connection between two individuals, setting the course for further interactions. Although consciously perceived faces with direct gaze have been shown to capture attention, it is unknown whether an attentional preference for these socially meaningful stimuli exists even in the absence of awareness. In two experiments, we recorded participants' eye movements while they were exposed to faces with direct and averted gaze rendered invisible by interocular suppression. Participants' inability to correctly guess the occurrence of the faces in a manual forced-choice task demonstrated complete unawareness of the faces. However, eye movements were preferentially directed towards faces with direct compared to averted gaze, indicating a specific sensitivity to others' gaze directions even without awareness. This oculomotor preference suggests that a rapid and automatic establishment of mutual eye contact constitutes a biological advantage, which could be mediated by fast subcortical pathways in the human brain. PMID:26133642

  15. Comparing sensory experiences across individuals: recent psychophysical advances illuminate genetic variation in taste perception.

    PubMed

    Bartoshuk, L M

    2000-08-01

    Modern psychophysics has traveled considerably beyond the threshold measures that dominated sensory studies in the first half of this century. Current methods capture the range of perceived intensity from threshold to maximum and promise to provide increasingly accurate comparisons of perceived intensities across individuals. The application of new psychophysical tools to genetic variation in taste allowed us to discover supertasters, individuals who live in particularly intense taste worlds. Because of the anatomy of the taste system, supertasters feel more burn from oral irritants like chili peppers, more creaminess/ viscosity from fats and thickeners in food and may also experience more intense oral pain. Not surprisingly, these sensory differences influence food choices and thus health. A discussion of the milestones on the road to understanding genetic variation in taste must include discussion of some potholes as well. Often our failures have been as instructive as our successes in the effort to evaluate the impact of genetic variation in taste. PMID:10944509

  16. The Eyes Absent Proteins in Development and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tadjuidje, Emmanuel; Hegde, Rashmi S.

    2012-01-01

    The Eyes Absent (EYA) proteins, first described in the context of fly eye development, are now implicated in processes as disparate as organ development, innate immunity, DNA damage repair, photoperiodism, angiogenesis, and cancer metastasis. These functions are associated with an unusual combination of biochemical activities; tyrosine phosphatase and threonine phosphatase activities in separate domains, and transactivation potential when associated with a DNA-binding partner. EYA mutations are linked to multi-organ developmental disorders, as well as to adult diseases ranging from dilated cardiomyopathy to late-onset sensori-neural hearing loss. With the growing understanding of EYA biochemical and cellular activity, biological function, and association with disease, comes the possibility that the EYA proteins are amenable to the design of targeted therapeutics. The availability of structural information, direct links to disease states, available animal models, and the fact that they utilize unconventional reaction mechanisms that could allow for specificity, suggest that EYAs are well-positioned for drug discovery efforts. This review provides a summary of EYA structure, activity, and function, as it relates to development and disease, with particular emphasis on recent findings. PMID:22971774

  17. Saccadic eye movement during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uri, John J.; Linder, Barry J.; Moore, Thomas P.; Pool, Sam L.; Thornton, William E.

    1989-01-01

    Saccadic eye movements were studied in six subjects during two Space Shuttle missions. Reaction time, peak velocity and accuracy of horizontal, visually-guided saccades were examined preflight, inflight and postflight. Conventional electro-oculography was used to record eye position, with the subjects responding to pseudo-randomly illuminated targets at 0 deg and + or - 10 deg and 20 deg visual angles. In all subjects, preflight measurements were within normal limits. Reaction time was significantly increased inflight, while peak velocity was significantly decreased. A tendency toward a greater proportion of hypometric saccades inflight was also noted. Possible explanations for these changes and possible correlations with space motion sickness are discussed.

  18. Dancing eye syndrome and hyperphosphatasemia.

    PubMed

    Hasaerts, D E; Gorus, F K; De Meirleir, L J

    1998-05-01

    An 11-month-old boy with a relapsing dancing eye syndrome associated with elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, and aminotransferase activities is reported. During two clinical episodes the serum alkaline phosphatase activity increased up to four times the upper reference limit, remained elevated for a few weeks and normalized gradually in parallel with clinical improvement under steroid therapy. We found no evidence of liver or bone pathology nor of a neural crest tumor. The association between dancing eye syndrome and hyperphosphatasemia has not yet been described. The beneficial effect of the steroid therapy strengthens the hypothesis of an autoimmune origin. PMID:9650686

  19. National Survey of Sensory Features in Children with ASD: Factor Structure of the Sensory Experience Questionnaire (3.0)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ausderau, Karla; Sideris, John; Furlong, Melissa; Little, Lauren M.; Bulluck, John; Baranek, Grace T.

    2014-01-01

    This national online survey study characterized sensory features in 1,307 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ages 2-12 years using the Sensory Experiences Questionnaire Version 3.0 (SEQ-3.0). Using the SEQ-3.0, a confirmatory factor analytic model with four substantive factors of hypothesized sensory response patterns (i.e.,…

  20. Advection dominated models for chemotaxis

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Anton

    Advection dominated models for chemotaxis Yasmin Dolak August 18, 2004 #12;Contents 1 Introduction modelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 Kinetic models for chemotaxis 11 2.1 Kinetic for chemotaxis and investigate their macroscopic limit. In the second half of the thesis, we will study

  1. Dominance and Age in Bilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsong, David

    2014-01-01

    The present article examines the relationship between age and dominance in bilingual populations. Age in bilingualism is understood as the point in development at which second language (L2) acquisition begins and as the chronological age of users of two languages. Age of acquisition (AoA) is a factor in determining which of a bilingual's two…

  2. Brutus Dominance Behavior After Capture

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A couple of hours after being immobilized for collaring, Brutus, a wolf being studied by USGS scientists, appears to have fully recovered. He returns to his pack mates and demonstrates dominance behavior over a younger male wolf. Note that Brutus has a stiff, aggressive stance and upright tail, whil...

  3. THE AGING EYE EYE INSTITUTE OF NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE

    E-print Network

    Chisholm, Rex L.

    the pathogenesis of both macular degeneration and glaucoma. The Center for the Aging Eye will be an outgrowth programs in retinal aging. Ocular Imaging Program Macular Degeneration Program Ocular Drug Delivery Program implications for the management of macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. Our macular

  4. Noradrenergic and cholinergic modulation of olfactory bulb sensory processing

    PubMed Central

    Devore, Sasha; Linster, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Neuromodulation in sensory perception serves important functions such as regulation of signal to noise ratio, attention, and modulation of learning and memory. Neuromodulators in specific sensory areas often have highly similar cellular, but distinct behavioral effects. To address this issue, we here review the function and role of two neuromodulators, acetylcholine (Ach) and noradrenaline (NE) for olfactory sensory processing in the adult main olfactory bulb. We first describe specific bulbar sensory computations, review cellular effects of each modulator and then address their specific roles in bulbar sensory processing. We finally put these data in a behavioral and computational perspective. PMID:22905025

  5. Attention Wins over Sensory Attenuation in a Sound Detection Task

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Liyu; Gross, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Sensory attenuation’, i.e., reduced neural responses to self-induced compared to externally generated stimuli, is a well-established phenomenon. However, very few studies directly compared sensory attenuation with attention effect, which leads to increased neural responses. In this study, we brought sensory attenuation and attention together in a behavioural auditory detection task, where both effects were quantitatively measured and compared. The classic auditory attention effect of facilitating detection performance was replicated. When attention and sensory attenuation were both present, attentional facilitation decreased but remained significant. The results are discussed in the light of current theories of sensory attenuation. PMID:26302246

  6. Attention Wins over Sensory Attenuation in a Sound Detection Task.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liyu; Gross, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    'Sensory attenuation', i.e., reduced neural responses to self-induced compared to externally generated stimuli, is a well-established phenomenon. However, very few studies directly compared sensory attenuation with attention effect, which leads to increased neural responses. In this study, we brought sensory attenuation and attention together in a behavioural auditory detection task, where both effects were quantitatively measured and compared. The classic auditory attention effect of facilitating detection performance was replicated. When attention and sensory attenuation were both present, attentional facilitation decreased but remained significant. The results are discussed in the light of current theories of sensory attenuation. PMID:26302246

  7. GRBs and Lobster Eye X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Marsikova, V.; Inneman, A.

    2013-07-01

    A large majority of GRBs exhibit X-ray emission. In addition, a dedicated separate group of GRB, the XRFs, exists which emission dominates in the X-ray spectral range. And the third group of GRB related objects (yet hypothetical) are the group of off-axis observed GRBs (orphan afterglows). These facts justify the consideration of an independent experiment for monitoring, detection and analyses of GRBs and others fast X-ray transients in X-rays. We will present and discuss such experiment based on wide-field X-ray telescopes of Lobster Eye type. We show that the wide field and fine sensitivity of Lobster Eye X-ray All-Sky Monitor make such instruments important tools in study of GRBs.

  8. Age-related eye disease and gender.

    PubMed

    Zetterberg, Madeleine

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, the prevalence of moderate to severe visual impairment and blindness is 285 millions, with 65% of visually impaired and 82% of all blind people being 50 years and older. Meta-analyses have shown that two out of three blind people are women, a gender discrepancy that holds true for both developed and developing countries. Cataract accounts for more than half of all blindness globally and gender inequity in access to cataract surgery is the major cause of the higher prevalence of blindness in women. In addition to gender differences in cataract surgical coverage, population-based studies on the prevalence of lens opacities indicate that women have a higher risk of developing cataract. Laboratory as well as epidemiologic studies suggest that estrogen may confer antioxidative protection against cataractogenesis, but the withdrawal effect of estrogen in menopause leads to increased risk of cataract in women. For the other major age-related eye diseases; glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy, data are inconclusive. Due to anatomic factors, angle closure glaucoma is more common in women, whereas the dominating glaucoma type; primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), is more prevalent in men. Diabetic retinopathy also has a male predominance and vascular/circulatory factors have been implied both in diabetic retinopathy and in POAG. For AMD, data on gender differences are conflicting although some studies indicate increased prevalence of drusen and neovascular AMD in women. To conclude, both biologic and socioeconomic factors must be considered when investigating causes of gender differences in the prevalence of age-related eye disease. PMID:26508081

  9. Sensory processing dysfunction among Saudi children with and without autism

    PubMed Central

    Al-Heizan, Mohammed O.; AlAbdulwahab, Sami S; Kachanathu, Shaji John; Natho, Mohan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] There is a dearth of studies that have examined the occurrence of sensory processing dysfunction and its components in Saudi Arabian children with autism. Therefore, this study investigated the manifestation of sensory processing dysfunction in autism and compared the functional components of sensory processing between Saudi Arabian children with and without autism. [Subjects and Methods] A convenience sample of 46 Saudi Arabian children with autism and 30 children without autism participated in this study. The sensory processing functions of both groups were assessed with the Short Sensory Profile. [Results] The overall findings indicated that 84.8% of children with autism demonstrated definite sensory processing dysfunction. The most prevalent sensory processing dysfunctions involved the under-responsive/seeks sensation (89.13%), auditory filtering (73.90%), and tactile sensitivity (60.87%) domains. Most of the children without autism (66.66%) demonstrated typical sensory function; the most prevalent sensory processing dysfunctions involved the tactile sensitivity (33.3%), under-responsive/seeks sensation (23.33%), and movement sensitivity (20%) domains. [Conclusion] Saudi Arabian children with and without autism have clinically significant sensory dysfunctions. However, the prevalence of those sensory dysfunctions in children with autism is significantly higher than in the children without autism. PMID:26157208

  10. Sensory processing dysfunction among Saudi children with and without autism.

    PubMed

    Al-Heizan, Mohammed O; AlAbdulwahab, Sami S; Kachanathu, Shaji John; Natho, Mohan

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] There is a dearth of studies that have examined the occurrence of sensory processing dysfunction and its components in Saudi Arabian children with autism. Therefore, this study investigated the manifestation of sensory processing dysfunction in autism and compared the functional components of sensory processing between Saudi Arabian children with and without autism. [Subjects and Methods] A convenience sample of 46 Saudi Arabian children with autism and 30 children without autism participated in this study. The sensory processing functions of both groups were assessed with the Short Sensory Profile. [Results] The overall findings indicated that 84.8% of children with autism demonstrated definite sensory processing dysfunction. The most prevalent sensory processing dysfunctions involved the under-responsive/seeks sensation (89.13%), auditory filtering (73.90%), and tactile sensitivity (60.87%) domains. Most of the children without autism (66.66%) demonstrated typical sensory function; the most prevalent sensory processing dysfunctions involved the tactile sensitivity (33.3%), under-responsive/seeks sensation (23.33%), and movement sensitivity (20%) domains. [Conclusion] Saudi Arabian children with and without autism have clinically significant sensory dysfunctions. However, the prevalence of those sensory dysfunctions in children with autism is significantly higher than in the children without autism. PMID:26157208

  11. Overcoming Presbyopia by Manipulating the Eyes' Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheleznyak, Leonard A.

    Presbyopia, the age-related loss of accommodation, is a visual condition affecting all adults over the age of 45 years. In presbyopia, individuals lose the ability to focus on nearby objects, due to a lifelong growth and stiffening of the eye's crystalline lens. This leads to poor near visual performance and affects patients' quality of life. The objective of this thesis is aimed towards the correction of presbyopia and can be divided into four aims. First, we examined the characteristics and limitations of currently available strategies for the correction of presbyopia. A natural-view wavefront sensor was used to objectively measure the accommodative ability of patients implanted with an accommodative intraocular lens (IOL). Although these patients had little accommodative ability based on changes in power, pupil miosis and higher order aberrations led to an improvement in through-focus retinal image quality in some cases. To quantify the through-focus retinal image quality of accommodative and multifocal IOLs directly, an adaptive optics (AO) IOL metrology system was developed. Using this system, the impact of corneal aberrations in regard to presbyopia-correcting IOLs was assessed, providing an objective measure of through-focus retinal image quality and practical guidelines for patient selection. To improve upon existing multifocal designs, we investigated retinal image quality metrics for the prediction of through-focus visual performance. The preferred metric was based on the fidelity of an image convolved with an aberrated point spread function. Using this metric, we investigated the potential of higher order aberrations and pupil amplitude apodization to increase the depth of focus of the presbyopic eye. Thirdly, we investigated modified monovision, a novel binocular approach to presbyopia correction using a binocular AO vision simulator. In modified monovision, different magnitudes of defocus and spherical aberration are introduced to each eye, thereby taking advantage of the binocular visual system. Several experiments using the binocular AO vision simulator found modified monovision led to significant improvements in through-focus visual performance, binocular summation and stereoacuity, as compared to traditional monovision. Finally, we addressed neural factors, affecting visual performance in modified monovision, such as ocular dominance and neural plasticity. We found that pairing modified monovision with a vision training regimen may further improve visual performance beyond the limits set by optics via neural plasticity. This opens the door to an exciting new avenue of vision correction to accompany optical interventions. The research presented in this thesis offers important guidelines for the clinical and scientific communities. Furthermore, the techniques described herein may be applied to other fields of ophthalmology, such as childhood myopia progression.

  12. Cross-modal synaptic plasticity in adult primary sensory cortices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hey-Kyoung; Whitt, Jessica L

    2015-12-01

    Sensory loss leads to widespread adaptation of brain circuits to allow an organism to navigate its environment with its remaining senses, which is broadly referred to as cross-modal plasticity. Such adaptation can be observed even in the primary sensory cortices, and falls into two distinct categories: recruitment of the deprived sensory cortex for processing the remaining senses, which we term 'cross-modal recruitment', and experience-dependent refinement of the spared sensory cortices referred to as 'compensatory plasticity.' Here we will review recent studies demonstrating that cortical adaptation to sensory loss involves LTP/LTD and homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Cross-modal synaptic plasticity is observed in adults, hence cross-modal sensory deprivation may be an effective way to promote plasticity in adult primary sensory cortices. PMID:26310109

  13. From nature-dominated to human-dominated environmental changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messerli, Bruno; Grosjean, Martin; Hofer, Thomas; Núñez, Lautaro; Pfister, Christian

    2000-01-01

    To what extent is it realistic and useful to view human history as a sequence of changes from highly vulnerable societies of hunters and gatherers through periods with less vulnerable, well buffered and highly productive agrarian-urban societies to a world with regions of extreme overpopulation and overuse of life support systems, so that vulnerability to climatic-environmental changes and extreme events is again increasing? This question cannot be fully answered in our present state of knowledge, but at least we can try to illustrate, with three case studies from different continents, time periods and ecosystems, some fundamental changes in the relationship between natural processes and human activities that occur, as we pass from a nature-dominated to a human dominated environment. 1. Early-mid Holocene: Nature dominated environment — human adaptation, mitigation, and migration. In the central Andes, the Holocene climate changed from humid (10,800-8000 BP) to extreme arid (8000-3600 BP) conditions. Over the same period, prehistoric hunting communities adopted a more sedentary pattern of resource use by settling close to the few perennial water bodies, where they began the process of domesticating camelids around 5000 BP and irrigation from about 3100 BP. 2. Historical period: An agrarian society in transition from an "enduring" to an innovative human response. Detailed documentary evidence from Western Europe may be used to reconstruct quite precisely the impacts of climatic variations on agrarian societies. The period considered spans a major transition from an apparently passive response to the vagaries of the environment during the 16th century to an active and innovative attitude from the onset of the agrarian revolution in the late 18th century through to the present day. The associated changes in technology and in agricultural practices helped to create a society better able to survive the impact of climatic extremes. 3. The present day: A human dominated environment with increasing vulnerability of societies and economies to extreme events and natural variability. The third example, dealing with the history and impact of floods in Bangladesh, shows the increasing vulnerability of an over-exploited and human-dominated ecosystem. Measurements exist for a short time only (decades), historical data allow a prolongation of the record into the last century, and paleo-research provides the long-term record of processes operating over millennia. The long-term paleo-perspective is essential for a better understanding of future potential impacts on an increasingly human-dominated environment. Understanding today's global change processes calls for several new perspectives and synergisms: the integration of biophysically oriented climate change research with research about the increasingly dominant processes of human forcing, a focus on overexploited or limited natural resources and on vulnerable and critical regions, fuller use of our understanding of variability on a range of different timescales: "The present without a past has no future".

  14. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye...patient's eye socket anterior to an orbital implant, or the eviscerated eyeball, for cosmetic...purposes. The device is not intended to be implanted. (b) Classification....

  15. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye...patient's eye socket anterior to an orbital implant, or the eviscerated eyeball, for cosmetic...purposes. The device is not intended to be implanted. (b) Classification....

  16. Understanding Your Vision: The "Imperfect Eye"

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Issues Feature: Vision Understanding Your Vision: The "Imperfect Eye" Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents For ... including an implanted set of lenses. "Keeping your eyes healthy means learning about them and the conditions ...

  17. Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... diagnosed with bartonella henselae (cat-scratch disease) and lost vision in her left eye within a two week period. Do you know which treatments ... Name, City, State or Subspecialty > Free Newsletter Get eye MD- ...

  18. Scope of the Eye Injury Problem

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that Prevent Blindness America (PBA) must address. An estimated 2.4 million eye injuries occur in the ... 3 According to 2002 statistics, there were an estimated 262,000 product- related eye injuries treated in ...

  19. Oculometer for remote tracking of eye movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, K. A.; Merchant, J.

    1969-01-01

    Prototype oculometer which tracks lateral eye position and measures the direction of the eyes optical axis, pupil size, and blink occurrence performs measurements on the subject on a real-time basis from a remote location.

  20. Anesthesia for Children Having Eye Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Anesthesia for Children Having Eye Surgery En Español Read in Chinese What kinds of anesthesia are available for children having eye surgery? There ...

  1. The Trajectories of Saccadic Eye Movements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahill, A. Terry; Stark, Lawrence

    1979-01-01

    Investigates the trajectories of saccadic eye movements, the control signals of the eye, and nature of the mechanisms that generate them, using the techniques of bioengineering in collecting the data. (GA)

  2. Falls, Fights Cause Most Serious Eye Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155749.html Falls, Fights Cause Most Serious Eye Injuries: Study And cost ... MONDAY, Nov. 16, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Falls and fights are the leading causes of eye injuries that ...

  3. Nutrients for the aging eye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of age-related eye diseases is expected to rise with the aging of the population. Oxidation and inflammation are implicated in the etiology of these diseases. There is evidence that dietary antioxidants and anti-inflammatories may provide benefit in decreasing the risk of age-related e...

  4. Eye Movements during Chinese Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liversedge, Simon P; Hyona, Jukka; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    respects, and for this reason, interest in the nature of the cognitive processes underlying Chinese reading has flourished over recent years. A number of researchers have used eye movement methodology as a measure of on-line processing to understand more about…

  5. Visual Acuity and the Eye.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beynon, J.

    1985-01-01

    Shows that visual acuity is a function of the structure of the eye and that its limit is set by the structure of the retina, emphasizing the role of lens aberrations and difraction on image quality. Also compares human vision with that of other vertebrates and insects. (JN)

  6. Colourful Objects Through Animal Eyes

    E-print Network

    Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

    County (UMBC), Baltimore, MD 21250 2 Vision Touch and Hearing Research Centre, The University, among which colourful pat- terns of plants and animals may be concealed or flamboy- antly displayed. These colour signals have been evolved for eyes different from ours. Plants often use brightly coloured flowers

  7. Financial Aid for Eye Care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... family’s income or access to insurance coverage. Telephone: 1-888-396-3937. Website: http://www.infantsee.org . Eyeglasses Sight for Students , is a Vision Service Plan (VSP) program that provides free eye exams and glasses to low income and uninsured children 18 years ...

  8. Ageing changes in the eye

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, S M; Akhtar, S; Currie, Z

    2006-01-01

    Ageing changes occur in all the structures of the eye causing varied effects. This article attempts to review the parameters of what is considered within the “normal limits” of ageing so as to be able to distinguish those conditions from true disease processes. Improving understanding of the ageing changes will help understand some of the problems that the ageing population faces. PMID:16954455

  9. Eye Noise and Map Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Mylon

    This paper describes the physiological "eye noise" effect of line contrast in maps and considers the effect of line contrast on the direct picture of terrain surface as produced by shaded relief. An attempt is made to describe map reading in its two major steps: 1) the enrichment of the brain image resulting from scanning the map sheet, and 2) the…

  10. Soccer-Related Eye Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlando, Richard G.

    1988-01-01

    A review of medical charts of 13 youths (age 8-15) with soccer-related eye injuries identified as causes: a head butt, kicks, the ball. Risks can be lessened by use of polycarbonate eyeguards, properly inflated balls, adequate conditioning and practice before scrimmages, a moderate and balanced practice/playing schedule and good sportsmanship.…

  11. Size structures sensory hierarchy in ocean life.

    PubMed

    Martens, Erik A; Wadhwa, Navish; Jacobsen, Nis S; Lindemann, Christian; Andersen, Ken H; Visser, André

    2015-09-22

    Survival in aquatic environments requires organisms to have effective means of collecting information from their surroundings through various sensing strategies. In this study, we explore how sensing mode and range depend on body size. We find a hierarchy of sensing modes determined by body size. With increasing body size, a larger battery of modes becomes available (chemosensing, mechanosensing, vision, hearing and echolocation, in that order) while the sensing range also increases. This size-dependent hierarchy and the transitions between primary sensory modes are explained on the grounds of limiting factors set by physiology and the physical laws governing signal generation, transmission and reception. We theoretically predict the body size limits for various sensory modes, which align well with size ranges found in literature. The treatise of all ocean life, from unicellular organisms to whales, demonstrates how body size determines available sensing modes, and thereby acts as a major structuring factor of aquatic life. PMID:26378212

  12. Size structures sensory hierarchy in ocean life

    PubMed Central

    Martens, Erik A.; Wadhwa, Navish; Jacobsen, Nis S.; Lindemann, Christian; Andersen, Ken H.; Visser, André

    2015-01-01

    Survival in aquatic environments requires organisms to have effective means of collecting information from their surroundings through various sensing strategies. In this study, we explore how sensing mode and range depend on body size. We find a hierarchy of sensing modes determined by body size. With increasing body size, a larger battery of modes becomes available (chemosensing, mechanosensing, vision, hearing and echolocation, in that order) while the sensing range also increases. This size-dependent hierarchy and the transitions between primary sensory modes are explained on the grounds of limiting factors set by physiology and the physical laws governing signal generation, transmission and reception. We theoretically predict the body size limits for various sensory modes, which align well with size ranges found in literature. The treatise of all ocean life, from unicellular organisms to whales, demonstrates how body size determines available sensing modes, and thereby acts as a major structuring factor of aquatic life. PMID:26378212

  13. Eye/Brain/Task Testbed And Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janiszewski, Thomas; Mainland, Nora; Roden, Joseph C.; Rothenheber, Edward H.; Ryan, Arthur M.; Stokes, James M.

    1994-01-01

    Eye/brain/task (EBT) testbed records electroencephalograms, movements of eyes, and structures of tasks to provide comprehensive data on neurophysiological experiments. Intended to serve continuing effort to develop means for interactions between human brain waves and computers. Software library associated with testbed provides capabilities to recall collected data, to process data on movements of eyes, to correlate eye-movement data with electroencephalographic data, and to present data graphically. Cognitive processes investigated in ways not previously possible.

  14. Is the Schwabe Organ a Retained Larval Eye? Anatomical and Behavioural Studies of a Novel Sense Organ in Adult Leptochiton asellus (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) Indicate Links to Larval Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Sumner-Rooney, Lauren H.; Sigwart, Julia D.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of a sensory organ, the Schwabe organ, was recently reported as a unifying feature of chitons in the order Lepidopleurida. It is a patch of pigmented tissue located on the roof of the pallial cavity, beneath the velum on either side of the mouth. The epithelium is densely innervated and contains two types of potential sensory cells. As the function of the Schwabe organ remains unknown, we have taken a cross-disciplinary approach, using anatomical, histological and behavioural techniques to understand it. In general, the pigmentation that characterises this sensory structure gradually fades after death; however, one particular concentrated pigment dot persists. This dot is positionally homologous to the larval eye in chiton trochophores, found in the same neuroanatomical location, and furthermore the metamorphic migration of the larval eye is ventral in species known to possess Schwabe organs. Here we report the presence of a discrete subsurface epithelial structure in the region of the Schwabe organ in Leptochiton asellus that histologically resembles the chiton larval eye. Behavioural experiments demonstrate that Leptochiton asellus with intact Schwabe organs actively avoid an upwelling light source, while Leptochiton asellus with surgically ablated Schwabe organs and a control species lacking the organ (members of the other extant order, Chitonida) do not (Kruskal-Wallis, H = 24.82, df = 3, p < 0.0001). We propose that the Schwabe organ represents the adult expression of the chiton larval eye, being retained and elaborated in adult lepidopleurans. PMID:26366861

  15. Is the Schwabe Organ a Retained Larval Eye? Anatomical and Behavioural Studies of a Novel Sense Organ in Adult Leptochiton asellus (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) Indicate Links to Larval Photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Sumner-Rooney, Lauren H; Sigwart, Julia D

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of a sensory organ, the Schwabe organ, was recently reported as a unifying feature of chitons in the order Lepidopleurida. It is a patch of pigmented tissue located on the roof of the pallial cavity, beneath the velum on either side of the mouth. The epithelium is densely innervated and contains two types of potential sensory cells. As the function of the Schwabe organ remains unknown, we have taken a cross-disciplinary approach, using anatomical, histological and behavioural techniques to understand it. In general, the pigmentation that characterises this sensory structure gradually fades after death; however, one particular concentrated pigment dot persists. This dot is positionally homologous to the larval eye in chiton trochophores, found in the same neuroanatomical location, and furthermore the metamorphic migration of the larval eye is ventral in species known to possess Schwabe organs. Here we report the presence of a discrete subsurface epithelial structure in the region of the Schwabe organ in Leptochiton asellus that histologically resembles the chiton larval eye. Behavioural experiments demonstrate that Leptochiton asellus with intact Schwabe organs actively avoid an upwelling light source, while Leptochiton asellus with surgically ablated Schwabe organs and a control species lacking the organ (members of the other extant order, Chitonida) do not (Kruskal-Wallis, H = 24.82, df = 3, p < 0.0001). We propose that the Schwabe organ represents the adult expression of the chiton larval eye, being retained and elaborated in adult lepidopleurans. PMID:26366861

  16. Benefits of Pathway Splitting in Sensory Coding

    PubMed Central

    Sompolinsky, Haim

    2014-01-01

    In many sensory systems, the neural signal splits into multiple parallel pathways. For example, in the mammalian retina, ?20 types of retinal ganglion cells transmit information about the visual scene to the brain. The purpose of this profuse and early pathway splitting remains unknown. We examine a common instance of splitting into ON and OFF neurons excited by increments and decrements of light intensity in the visual scene, respectively. We test the hypothesis that pathway splitting enables more efficient encoding of sensory stimuli. Specifically, we compare a model system with an ON and an OFF neuron to one with two ON neurons. Surprisingly, the optimal ON–OFF system transmits the same information as the optimal ON–ON system, if one constrains the maximal firing rate of the neurons. However, the ON–OFF system uses fewer spikes on average to transmit this information. This superiority of the ON–OFF system is also observed when the two systems are optimized while constraining their mean firing rate. The efficiency gain for the ON–OFF split is comparable with that derived from decorrelation, a well known processing strategy of early sensory systems. The gain can be orders of magnitude larger when the ecologically important stimuli are rare but large events of either polarity. The ON–OFF system also provides a better code for extracting information by a linear downstream decoder. The results suggest that the evolution of ON–OFF diversification in sensory systems may be driven by the benefits of lowering average metabolic cost, especially in a world in which the relevant stimuli are sparse. PMID:25186757

  17. Acupuncture, connective tissue, and peripheral sensory modulation.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Helene M

    2014-01-01

    Although considerable controversy surrounds the legitimacy of acupuncture as a treatment, a growing literature on the physiological effects of acupuncture needling in animals and humans is providing new insights into basic cellular mechanisms including connective tissue mechanotransduction and purinergic signaling. This review summarizes these findings and proposes a model combining connective tissue plasticity and peripheral sensory modulation in response to the sustained stretching of tissue that results from acupuncture needle manipulation. PMID:25072149

  18. Robot vision and sensory controls, V

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, N.J.

    1985-01-01

    This book covers the expanding and important subjects of robot vision and sensory controls. These advanced industrial techniques are now solving real application problems and improving productivity, quality, reliability and product cost. RoViSeC embraces the whole spectrum of sensing and measurement, including the technologies of machine vision, pattern recognition, artificial intelligence, tactile and other sensing, speech recognition, voice synthesis, sensor based robots, hardware and software. All aspects of the latest research are included while retaining an essentially practical outlook.

  19. Three-dimensional system integration for HUD placement on a new tactical airlift platform: design eye point vs. HUD eye box with accommodation and perceptual implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harbour, Steven D.; Hudson, Jeffery A.; Zehner, Gregory F.

    2012-06-01

    The retrofitting of a cockpit with a Head-Up-Display (HUD) raises potential accommodation and perceptual issues for pilots that must be addressed. For maximum optical efficiency, the goal is to be able to place every pilot's eye into the HUD Eye Motion Box (EMB) given a seat adjustment range. Initially, the Eye Reference Point (ERP) of the EMB should theoretically be located on the aircraft's original cockpit Design Eye Point (DEP), but human postures vary, and HUD systems may not be optimally placed. In reality, there is a distribution of pilot eyes around the DEP (which is dominant eye dependent); therefore, this must be accounted for in order to obtain appropriate visibility of all of the symbology based on photonic characteristics of the HUD. Pilot size and postural variation need to be taken into consideration when positioning the HUD system to ensure proper vision of all HUD symbology in addition to meeting the basic physical accommodation requirements of the cockpit. The innovative process and data collection methods for maximizing accommodation and pilot perception on a new "tactical airlift" platform are discussed as well as the related neurocognitive factors and the effects of information display design on cognitive phenomena.

  20. X-Eye: A Reference Format For Eye Tracking Data To Facilitate Analyses Across Databases

    E-print Network

    Winkler, Stefan

    X-Eye: A Reference Format For Eye Tracking Data To Facilitate Analyses Across Databases Stefan at Urbana-Champaign, Singapore ABSTRACT Datasets of images annotated with eye tracking data constitute the eye tracking databases themselves are rare. In an earlier paper,1 we reviewed the content and purpose

  1. The Sound of One Eye Clapping: Tapping an Accurate Rhythm With Eye Movements

    E-print Network

    Hornof, Anthony

    an eye tracking device. Prior research has explored the maximum rate of input from a human to a computer between two and four beats per second. Author Keywords Eye tracking, gaze-mediated interaction, auditory the widespread deployment of eye tracking remains just over the horizon, eye tracking is well

  2. Chapter 17 Eye-head Gaze shifts Oxford Handbook on Eye Movements

    E-print Network

    Corneil, Brian D.

    . Comparison of eye and head movement control b. Animal models for head movement control c. Neck muscle of solutions that could achieve a given goal. Key words: Eye-head coordination, Gaze Shifts, Neck muscles1 Chapter 17 Eye-head Gaze shifts Oxford Handbook on Eye Movements "The Neural Basis of Gaze Shifts

  3. In Eye Tracking Research and Applications (ETRA) Symposium 2004 Robust Clustering of Eye Movement Recordings

    E-print Network

    DeCarlo, Doug

    In Eye Tracking Research and Applications (ETRA) Symposium 2004 Robust Clustering of Eye Movement of a viewer's interest, in terms of eye movement recordings, informs a range of investi- gations in image fine-grained ques- tions about where and how a viewer examined an image. Keywords: eye movement

  4. The Sound of One Eye Clapping: Tapping an Accurate Rhythm With Eye Movements

    E-print Network

    Hornof, Anthony

    fundamental human-machine interaction capabilities between a human and a computer via an eye tracking device). But few or no similar studies have been conducted with eye movements to determine fundamental humanThe Sound of One Eye Clapping: Tapping an Accurate Rhythm With Eye Movements Anthony J. Hornof

  5. Opposing interactions between homothorax and Lobe define the ventral eye margin of Drosophila eye

    E-print Network

    Singh, Amit

    Opposing interactions between homothorax and Lobe define the ventral eye margin of Drosophila eye 22 August 2011 Accepted 28 August 2011 Available online 2 September 2011 Keywords: Drosophila eye Dorso-ventral eye patterning Lobe Homothorax Retinal determination Patterning in multi

  6. Basic and supplementary sensory feedback in handwriting

    PubMed Central

    Danna, Jérémy; Velay, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The mastering of handwriting is so essential in our society that it is important to try to find new methods for facilitating its learning and rehabilitation. The ability to control the graphic movements clearly impacts on the quality of the writing. This control allows both the programming of letter formation before movement execution and the online adjustments during execution, thanks to diverse sensory feedback (FB). New technologies improve existing techniques or enable new methods to supply the writer with real-time computer-assisted FB. The possibilities are numerous and various. Therefore, two main questions arise: (1) What aspect of the movement is concerned and (2) How can we best inform the writer to help them correct their handwriting? In a first step, we report studies on FB naturally used by the writer. The purpose is to determine which information is carried by each sensory modality, how it is used in handwriting control and how this control changes with practice and learning. In a second step, we report studies on supplementary FB provided to the writer to help them to better control and learn how to write. We suggest that, depending on their contents, certain sensory modalities will be more appropriate than others to assist handwriting motor control. We emphasize particularly the relevance of auditory modality as online supplementary FB on handwriting movements. Using real-time supplementary FB to assist in the handwriting process is probably destined for a brilliant future with the growing availability and rapid development of tablets. PMID:25750633

  7. Influence of Sensory Dependence on Postural Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santana, Patricia A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Fiedler, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The current project is part of an NSBRI funded project, "Development of Countermeasures to Aid Functional Egress from the Crew Exploration Vehicle Following Long-Duration Spaceflight." The development of this countermeasure is based on the use of imperceptible levels of electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the inner ear to assist and enhance the response of a person s sensorimotor function. These countermeasures could be used to increase an astronaut s re-adaptation rate to Earth s gravity following long-duration space flight. The focus of my project is to evaluate and examine the correlation of sensory preferences for vision and vestibular systems. Disruption of the sensorimotor functions following space flight affects posture, locomotion and spatial orientation tasks in astronauts. The Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), the Rod and Frame Test (RFT) and the Computerized Dynamic Posturography Test (CDP) are measurements used to examine subjects visual and vestibular sensory preferences. The analysis of data from these tasks will assist in relating the visual dependence measures recognized in the GEFT and RFT with vestibular dependence measures recognized in the stability measures obtained during CDP. Studying the impact of sensory dependence on the performance in varied tasks will help in the development of targeted countermeasures to help astronauts readapt to gravitational changes after long duration space flight.

  8. Prevent Eye Damage: Protect Yourself from UV Radiation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... term exposure to UV radiation can lead to cataracts, skin cancer around the eyelids, and other eye ... the likelihood of developing the following eye disorders: ® Cataract: A clouding of the eye’s lens that can ...

  9. 21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Eye pad. 878.4440 Section 878.4440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad...

  10. 21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Eye pad. 878.4440 Section 878.4440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad...

  11. 21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Eye pad. 878.4440 Section 878.4440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad...

  12. 21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Eye pad. 878.4440 Section 878.4440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad...

  13. Infant Eyes: A Window on Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslin, Richard N.

    2012-01-01

    Eye-trackers suitable for use with infants are now marketed by several commercial vendors. As eye-trackers become more prevalent in infancy research, there is the potential for users to be unaware of dangers lurking "under the hood" if they assume the eye-tracker introduces no errors in measuring infants' gaze. Moreover, the influx of voluminous…

  14. Advances in Eye Tracking in Infancy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2004, McMurray and Aslin edited for "Infancy" a special section on eye tracking. The articles in that special issue revealed the enormous promise of automatic eye tracking with young infants and demonstrated that eye-tracking procedures can provide significant insight into the emergence of cognitive, social, and emotional processing in infancy.…

  15. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is...

  16. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is...

  17. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is...

  18. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is...

  19. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is...

  20. Eye Gaze in Creative Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Michiko; Mesch, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the role of eye gaze in creative sign language. Because eye gaze conveys various types of linguistic and poetic information, it is an intrinsic part of sign language linguistics in general and of creative signing in particular. We discuss various functions of eye gaze in poetic signing and propose a classification of gaze…