Sample records for sensory nerve desensitization

  1. Plasma calcitonin gene-related peptide is increased prior to obesity, and sensory nerve desensitization by capsaicin improves oral glucose tolerance in obese Zucker rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorte X Gram; Anker J Hansen; Michael Wilken; Torben Elm; Ove Svendsen; Richard D Carr; Bo Ahren; Christian L Brand

    2005-01-01

    Objective: It has earlier been demonstrated that capsaicin-induced desensitization improves insulin sensitivity in normal rats. However, whether increased capsaicin-sensitive nerve activity precedes the onset of insulin resistance in diet-induced obesity - and therefore might be involved in the patho- physiology - is not known. Further, it is of relevance to investigate whether capsaicin desensitization improves glycaemic control even in obese

  2. Sensory Desensitization Training for Successful Net Application and EEG/ERP Acquisition in Difficult to Test Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roesler, Cynthia P.; Flax, Judy; MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Fermano, Zena; Morgan-Byrne, Julie; Benasich, April A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of sensory desensitization training for 12 nonverbal children with autism to facilitate participation in an electrophysiological study assessing linguistic processing. Sensory desensitization was achieved for 10 of the 12 children and thus allowed collection of usable data in a passive linguistic paradigm.…

  3. Protein expression of sensory and motor nerves

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zhiwu; Wang, Yu; Peng, Jiang; Zhang, Li; Xu, Wenjing; Liang, Xiangdang; Zhao, Qing; Lu, Shibi

    2012-01-01

    The present study utilized samples from bilateral motor branches of the femoral nerve, as well as saphenous nerves, ventral roots, and dorsal roots of the spinal cord, to detect differential protein expression using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and nano ultra-high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry tandem mass spectrometry techniques. A mass spectrum was identified using the Mascot search. Results revealed differential expression of 11 proteins, including transgelin, Ig kappa chain precursor, plasma glutathione peroxidase precursor, an unnamed protein product (gi|55628), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-like protein, lactoylglutathione lyase, adenylate kinase isozyme 1, two unnamed proteins products (gi|55628 and gi|1334163), and poly(rC)-binding protein 1 in motor and sensory nerves. Results suggested that these proteins played roles in specific nerve regeneration following peripheral nerve injury and served as specific markers for motor and sensory nerves.

  4. Reduced intraepidermal nerve fiber density in HIV-associated sensory

    E-print Network

    Steinbach, Joe Henry

    Reduced intraepidermal nerve fiber density in HIV-associated sensory neuropathy M. Polydefkis, MD nerve fiber (IENF) density in HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) to measurements of neuropathy density determination has emerged as a diagnostic test for patients with small-fiber sensory neuropathy

  5. Parkinson Disease Affects Peripheral Sensory Nerves in the Pharynx

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Liancai; Sobotka, Stanislaw; Chen, Jingming; Su, Hungxi; Sanders, Ira; Nyirenda, Themba; Adler, Charles H.; Shill, Holly A.; Caviness, John N.; Samanta, Johan E.; Sue, Lucia I.; Beach, Thomas G.

    2013-01-01

    Dysphagia is very common in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and often leads to aspiration pneumonia, the most common cause of death in PD. Unfortunately, current therapies are largely ineffective for dysphagia. As pharyngeal sensation normally triggers the swallowing reflex, we examined pharyngeal sensory nerves in PD for Lewy pathology. Sensory nerves supplying the pharynx were excised from autopsied pharynges obtained from patients with clinically diagnosed and neuropathologically confirmed PD (n = 10) and healthy age-matched controls (n = 4). We examined: the glossopharyngeal nerve (IX); the pharyngeal sensory branch of the vagus nerve (PSB-X); and the internal superior laryngeal nerve (ISLN) innervating the laryngopharynx. Immunohistochemistry for phosphorylated ?-synuclein was used to detect potential Lewy pathology. Axonal ?-synuclein aggregates in the pharyngeal sensory nerves were identified in all of the PD subjects but not in the controls. The density of ?-synuclein-positive lesions was significantly greater in PD subjects with documented dysphagia compared to those without dysphagia. In addition, ?-synuclein-immunoreactive nerve fibers in the ISLN were much more abundant than those in the IX and PSBX. These findings suggest that pharyngeal sensory nerves are directly affected by the pathologic process of PD. This anatomic pathology may decrease pharyngeal sensation impairing swallowing and airway protective reflexes, thereby contributing to dysphagia and aspiration. PMID:23771215

  6. Age-related changes in sympathetic modulation of sensory nerve activity in rat skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Merhi; R. D. Helme; Z. Khalil

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: Sensory nerves play an important role in mediating neurogenic inflammation and subsequent tissue healing. A decrease in sensory nerve function with increasing age has been reported to correlate with poor tissue healing. Sympathetic nerves are known to modulate sensory nerve function, and changes in this modulation could also have important implications with ageing. The aims of this study were

  7. Natural history of sensory nerve recovery after cutaneous nerve injury following foot and ankle surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Lu; Han, Yan-ni; Zhang, Wen-tao; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Hong-lei

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous nerve injury is the most common complication following foot and ankle surgery. However, clinical studies including long-term follow-up data after cutaneous nerve injury of the foot and ankle are lacking. In the current retrospective study, we analyzed the clinical data of 279 patients who underwent foot and ankle surgery. Subjects who suffered from apparent paresthesia in the cutaneous sensory nerve area after surgery were included in the study. Patients received oral vitamin B12 and methylcobalamin. We examined final follow-up data of 17 patients, including seven with sural nerve injury, five with superficial peroneal nerve injury, and five with plantar medial cutaneous nerve injury. We assessed nerve sensory function using the Medical Research Council Scale. Follow-up immediately, at 6 weeks, 3, 6 and 9 months, and 1 year after surgery demonstrated that sensory function was gradually restored in most patients within 6 months. However, recovery was slow at 9 months. There was no significant difference in sensory function between 9 months and 1 year after surgery. Painful neuromas occurred in four patients at 9 months to 1 year. The results demonstrated that the recovery of sensory function in patients with various cutaneous nerve injuries after foot and ankle surgery required at least 6 months.

  8. Motor and sensory conduction in the musculocutaneous nerve.

    PubMed Central

    Trojaborg, W

    1976-01-01

    Motor and sensory conduction velocity in the musculocutaneous nerve were determined in 51 normal subjects. The maximal velocity from the anterior cervical triangle to the axilla was the same in motor and sensory fibres. The conduction velocity decreased 2m/s per 10 years increase of age. It was 70 m/s at 15-24 years and 58 m/s at 65-74 years. The velocity of the slowest components in sensory fibres was 17 m/s. Three selected case reports illustrate the diagnostic value of the method. Images PMID:993811

  9. Leptin-sensitive sensory nerves innervate white fat

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Keegan T.; Schwartz, Gary J.; Nguyen, Ngoc Ly T.; Mendez, Jennifer M.; Ryu, Vitaly

    2013-01-01

    Leptin, the primary white adipose tissue (WAT) adipokine, is thought to convey lipid reserve information to the brain via the circulation. Because WAT responds to environmental/internal signals in a fat pad-specific (FPS) manner, systemic signals such as leptin would fail to communicate such distinctive information. Saturation of brain leptin transport systems also would fail to convey increased lipid levels beyond that point. WAT possesses sensory innervation exemplified by proven sensory-associated peptides in nerves within the tissue and by viral sensory nerve-specific transneuronal tract tracer, H129 strain of herpes simplex virus 1 labeling of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) pseudounipolar neurons, spinal cord and central sensory circuits. Leptin as a paracrine factor activating WAT sensory innervation could supply the brain with FPS information. Therefore, we tested for and found the presence of the long form of the leptin receptor (Ob-Rb) on DRG pseudounipolar neurons immunohistochemically labeled after injections of Fluorogold, a retrograde tract tracer, into inguinal WAT (IWAT). Intra-IWAT leptin injections (300 ng) significantly elevated IWAT nerve spike rate within 5 min and persisted for at least 30 min. Intra-IWAT leptin injections also induced significant c-Fos immunoreactivity (ir), indicating neural activation across DRG pseudounipolar sensory neurons labeled with Fluorogold IWAT injections. Intraperitoneal leptin injection did not increase c-Fos-ir in DRG or the arcuate nucleus, nor did it increase arcuate signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation-ir. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that endogenous leptin secreted from white adipocytes functions as a paracrine factor to activate spinal sensory nerves innervating the tissue. PMID:23612999

  10. Sensory nerve impairment following mandibular third molar surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anwar B Bataineh

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: This prospective study reports the rate and factors influencing sensory impairment of the inferior alveolar and lingual nerves after the removal of impacted mandibular third molars under local anesthesia. Patients and Methods: There were 741 patients with 741 mandibular third molars removed under local anesthesia during a 3-year period from 1994 to 1997. Standardized data collection included the patient's

  11. Sensory nerve action potentials and sensory perception in women with arthritis of the hand

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arthritis of the hand can limit a person’s ability to perform daily activities. Whether or not sensory deficits contribute to the disability in this population remains unknown. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if women with osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of the hand have sensory impairments. Methods Sensory function in the dominant hand of women with hand OA or RA and healthy women was evaluated by measuring sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) from the median, ulnar and radial nerves, sensory mapping (SM), and vibratory and current perception thresholds (VPT and CPT, respectively) of the second and fifth digits. Results All SNAP amplitudes were significantly lower for the hand OA and hand RA groups compared with the healthy group (p?sensory fibers in the median, ulnar and radial nerves. Less apparent were losses in conduction speed or sensory perception. PMID:22575001

  12. Sensory nerve conduction velocities of median, ulnar and radial nerves in patients with vibration syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mamoru Hirata; Hisataka Sakakibara

    2007-01-01

    Objective  The present study aimed to clarify the range of involvement for hand-arm vibration syndrome (VS) in the median, ulnar and\\u000a radial nerves of the hand.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Sensory nerve conduction velocities (SCVs) for 3 nerves in the hands and arms were examined for 34 patients with VS and 23\\u000a age-matched controls. Neuropathy types were classified by possible carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), Guyon’s

  13. Diagnostic specificity of sensory and motor nerve conduction variables in early detection of carpal tunnel syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Cioni; S. Passero; C. Paradiso; F. Giannini; N. Battistini; G. Rushworth

    1989-01-01

    In the carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) sensory nerve conduction is more sensitive than motor conduction. However, 8%–25% of the sensory distal latencies in symptomatic hands may still be normal. A systematic study was made of the median, ulnar and radial orthodromic nerve conduction velocities (SNCV) stimulating each of the fingers separately. Four SNCVs from the median nerve, two SNCVs from

  14. Segmental near nerve sensory conduction studies of the medical and lateral plantar nerve.

    PubMed

    David, W S; Doyle, J J

    1996-01-01

    Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome (TTS) can be difficult to diagnose: electrophysiologic corroboration is important and has therapeutic implications. Conventional electrodiagnostic techniques are insensitive: motor latency abnormalities exist in only 52%; sensory responses are frequently absent (a nonlocalizing finding). Additionally, previously described near nerve techniques do not isolate conduction velocity (CV) measurement to the short segment across the flexor retinaculum (FR), which would theoretically improve sensitivity. We describe a technique which allows for the determination of segmental sensory CVs of the medial (MP) and lateral (LP) plantar nerves, both below (BFR) and across (AFR) the FR. Seventeen normal patients (age 22-45) were studied. Near nerve recording electrodes were positioned close to the specified nerve below and above the FR. Ring electrode stimulation (RES) of digits I (MP) or V (LP) and direct near nerve stimulation (NNS) BFR were performed. With RES digit I (n = 17), mean CV (toe to BFR) was 39.0 +/- 7.1 m/s; CV (AFR) 47.9 +/- 6.2 m/s. CV (AFR) following NNS (MP) (n = 16) was 49.4 +/- 5.1 m/s. With RES digit V (n = 10), mean CV (toe to BFR) was 36.4 +/- 3.4 m/s; CV (AFR) 57.5 +/- 6.9 m/s. CV (AFR) with NNS (LP) (n = 14) was 59.8 +/- 6.2 m/s. In conclusion, segmental MP and LP sensory CVs can be reliably obtained with near nerve technique. This approach may improve the diagnostic sensitivity of EMG in TTS. PMID:8957166

  15. Uses of Skin Biopsy for Sensory and Autonomic Nerve Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Myers, M. Iliza; Peltier, Amanda C.

    2013-01-01

    Skin biopsy is a valuable diagnostic tool for small-fiber-predominant neuropathy by the quantification of intra-epidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD). It has the unique advantage of being a minimally invasive procedure with the potential for longitudinal evaluation of both sensory and autonomic fibers. Unmyelinated small fibers are not otherwise quantified objectively with such a level of sensitivity as has been reported with IENFD. Recent advances include an expansion of the skin punch biopsy technique to evaluate larger myelinated fibers and mechanoreceptors, and recent work has also focused on additional methods of quantifying dermal fibers and densely innervated autonomic structures. This review discusses current work using skin biopsy for the pathologic analysis of peripheral nerve fibers in neuropathy of various causes as well as its use in clinical trials. PMID:23250768

  16. The structure of the cereal sensory system and ventral nerve cord of Grylloblatta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John S. Edwards; Daniel Mann

    1981-01-01

    The structure of cereal sensilla, the cereal nerve and the central projections of the cereal sensory nerve of a notopteran (Grylloblatta sp.) are described and compared with other orthopteroid insects in which the cereal sensory system and central connections are well known. The cereal sensilla are similar to those of gryllids and blattids, but the gross structure of the cerci

  17. Topographical anatomy and desensitization of the pudendal nerve in adult male dromedary camels.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, A F; Al-Sobayil, F A; Al-Halag, M A

    2011-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the topographical anatomy of the pudendal nerve and to develop techniques of its blocking in adult male dromedary camels. Two cadavers and 30 adult male dromedary camels were used for the description of topographical anatomy and pudendal nerve block techniques, respectively. Results revealed that the pudendal nerve arises from the ventral branches of the 2(nd) and 3(rd) sacral spinal nerves. The nerve had three divisions; dorsal, middle, and ventral. The caudal rectal nerve was a branch of the dorsal division. Three blocking techniques were developed according to the results of topographical anatomy. The first technique was 15 cm cranial to the tail base and 7 cm lateral to the midline. The second was 12 cm cranial to the tail base and 7 cm lateral to the midline. The third was about 3 cm on either sides of the anus. Details and complications of each technique were reported. In conclusion, the anatomy of the pudendal nerve was different from that of cattle and horse. The second technique (12 cm cranial to the tail base and 7 cm lateral to the midline) for pudendal nerve block was superior among the three methods. Duration of nerve blocking was suitable for examination and for performing some surgical procedures in male dromedary camels. PMID:21705059

  18. Bladder reinnervation using a primarily motor donor nerve (femoral nerve branches) is functionally superior to using a primarily sensory donor nerve (genitofemoral nerve)

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Amaya, Sandra M.; Barbe, Mary F.; Brown, Justin M.; Lamarre, Neil S.; Braverman, Alan S.; Massicotte, Vicky S.; Ruggieri, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether transfer of a primarily motor nerve (Femoral, F) to the anterior vesicle branch of the pelvic nerve (PN) allows more effective bladder reinnervation than a primarily sensory nerve (genitofemoral, GF). Methods Forty-one female mongrel hounds underwent bladder decentralization, decentralization and then bilateral nerve transfer (GFNT and FNT) or were sham/unoperated controls. Decentralization was achieved by bilateral transection of all sacral roots that induce bladder contractions upon electrical stimulation. The retrograde neuronal labeling dye fluorogold was injected into the bladder 3 weeks prior to euthanasia. Results Increased detrusor pressure after direct stimulation of the transferred nerve, lumbar spinal cord or spinal roots was observed in 12/17 GFNT dogs (mean detrusor pressure = 7.6±1.4 cmH2O) and in 9/10 FNT-V dogs (mean detrusor pressure = 11.7±3.1 cm H2O). The mean detrusor pressures after direct electrical stimulation of transferred femoral nerves were statistically significantly greater than after stimulation of the transferred genitofemoral nerves. Retrogradely labeled neurons from the bladder observed in upper lumbar cord segments after GFNT and FNT confirmed bladder reinnervation as did labeled axons at the nerve transfer site. Conclusions While transfer of either a mixed sensory and motor nerve (GFN) or a primarily motor nerve (FN) can reinnervate the bladder, using a primarily motor nerve provides greater return of nerve-evoked detrusor contraction. This surgical approach may be useful for patients with lower motor spinal cord injury to accomplish bladder emptying. PMID:25066874

  19. Functional Recovery of Denervated Skeletal Muscle with Sensory or Mixed Nerve Protection: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing Tian; Zhang, Pei Xun; Yin, Xiao Feng; Han, Na; Kou, Yu Hui; Deng, Jiu Xu; Jiang, Bao Guo

    2013-01-01

    Functional recovery is usually poor following peripheral nerve injury when reinnervation is delayed. Early innervation by sensory nerve has been indicated to prevent atrophy of the denervated muscle. It is hypothesized that early protection with sensory axons is adequate to improve functional recovery of skeletal muscle following prolonged denervation of mixed nerve injury. In this study, four groups of rats received surgical denervation of the tibial nerve. The proximal and distal stumps of the tibial nerve were ligated in all animals except for those in the immediate repair group. The experimental groups underwent denervation with nerve protection of peroneal nerve (mixed protection) or sural nerve (sensory protection). The experimental and unprotected groups had a stage II surgery in which the trimmed proximal and distal tibial nerve stumps were sutured together. After 3 months of recovery, electrophysiological, histological and morphometric parameters were assessed. It was detected that the significant muscle atrophy and a good preserved structure of the muscle were observed in the unprotected and protective experimental groups, respectively. Significantly fewer numbers of regenerated myelinated axons were observed in the sensory-protected group. Enhanced recovery in the mixed protection group was indicated by the results of the muscle contraction force tests, regenerated myelinated fiber, and the results of the histological analysis. Our results suggest that early axons protection by mixed nerve may complement sensory axons which are required for promoting functional recovery of the denervated muscle natively innervated by mixed nerve. PMID:24244555

  20. Prior Collateral Sprouting of Sensory Axons Delays Recovery of Pain Sensitivity after Subsequent Nerve Crush

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fajko Bajrovi?; Janez Sketelj

    1996-01-01

    Regeneration of motor axons is enhanced if they have sprouted prior to nerve injury. We examined whether sensory axon regeneration and recovery of pain response was affected by previous collateral sprouting. In the experimental group of rats, the right saphenous, tibial, and sural nerves were transected and ligated. The peroneal nerve was left to sprout into the adjacent denervated skin.

  1. Immunohistochemical localization of laminin and type IV collagen in human cutaneous sensory nerve formations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Vega; I. Esteban; F. J. Naves; M. E. Valle; L. Malinovsky

    1995-01-01

    We used immunohistochemical techniques and monoclonal antibodies to localize two basement membrane components (laminin and type IV collagen) in the nerves and sensory nerve formations, or corpuscles, supplying human digital skin. Furthermore, neurofilament proteins, S-100 protein and epithelial membrane antigen were studied in parallel. In dermal nerve trunks, immunostaining for laminin and type IV collagen was found to be co-localized

  2. Photostimulation of sensory neurons of the rat vagus nerve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Albert Y.; Li, Gong; Wells, Jonathon; Kao, Joseph P. Y.

    2008-02-01

    We studied the effect of infrared (IR) stimulation on rat sensory neurons. Primary sensory neurons were prepared by enzymatic dissociation of the inferior (or "nodose") ganglia from the vagus nerves of rats. The 1.85-?m output of a diode laser, delivered through a 200-?m silica fiber, was used for photostimulation. Nodose neurons express the vanilloid receptor, TRPV1, which is a non-selective cation channel that opens in response to significant temperature jumps above 37 C. Opening TRPV1 channels allows entry of cations, including calcium (Ca 2+), into the cell to cause membrane depolarization. Therefore, to monitor TRPV1 activation consequent to photostimulation, we used fura-2, a fluorescent Ca 2+ indicator, to monitor the rise in intracellular Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+]i). Brief trains of 2-msec IR pulses activated TRPV1 rapidly and reversibly, as evidenced by transient rises in [Ca 2+]i (referred to as Ca 2+ transients). Consistent with the Ca 2+ transients arising from influx of Ca 2+, identical photostimulation failed to evoke Ca 2+ responses in the absence of extracellular Ca 2+. Furthermore, the photo-induced Ca 2+ signals were abolished by capsazepine, a specific blocker of TRPV1, indicating that the responses were indeed mediated by TRPV1. We discuss the feasibility of using focal IR stimulation to probe neuronal circuit properties in intact neural tissue, and compare IR stimulation with another photostimulation technique-focal photolytic release of "caged" molecules.

  3. Arnold’s nerve cough reflex: evidence for chronic cough as a sensory vagal neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Peter G.; Birring, Surinder S.

    2014-01-01

    Arnold’s nerve ear-cough reflex is recognised to occur uncommonly in patients with chronic cough. In these patients, mechanical stimulation of the external auditory meatus can activate the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (Arnold’s nerve) and evoke reflex cough. This is an example of hypersensitivity of vagal afferent nerves, and there is now an increasing recognition that many cases of refractory or idiopathic cough may be due to a sensory neuropathy of the vagus nerve. We present two cases where the cause of refractory chronic cough was due to sensory neuropathy associated with ear-cough reflex hypersensitivity. In both cases, the cough as well as the Arnold’s nerve reflex hypersensitivity were successfully treated with gabapentin, a treatment that has previously been shown to be effective in the treatment of cough due to sensory laryngeal neuropathy (SLN). PMID:25383210

  4. Arnold's nerve cough reflex: evidence for chronic cough as a sensory vagal neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Nicole M; Gibson, Peter G; Birring, Surinder S

    2014-10-01

    Arnold's nerve ear-cough reflex is recognised to occur uncommonly in patients with chronic cough. In these patients, mechanical stimulation of the external auditory meatus can activate the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (Arnold's nerve) and evoke reflex cough. This is an example of hypersensitivity of vagal afferent nerves, and there is now an increasing recognition that many cases of refractory or idiopathic cough may be due to a sensory neuropathy of the vagus nerve. We present two cases where the cause of refractory chronic cough was due to sensory neuropathy associated with ear-cough reflex hypersensitivity. In both cases, the cough as well as the Arnold's nerve reflex hypersensitivity were successfully treated with gabapentin, a treatment that has previously been shown to be effective in the treatment of cough due to sensory laryngeal neuropathy (SLN). PMID:25383210

  5. Immunohistochemistry of displaced sensory neurons in the trigeminal nerve root.

    PubMed

    Marinkovi?, Slobodan; Cetkovi?, Mila; Gibo, Hirohiko; Todorovi?, Vera; Janci?, Jasna; Milisavljevi?, Milan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the morphology and the immunohistochemical features of displaced ganglion cells in the trigeminal nerve root (TNR). Forty human TNRs of 20 persons, obtained during routine autopsy in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, were examined following Klüver-Barrera and azan trichrome histological staining, and immunohistochemical reactions against certain neuronal markers, neuropeptides and neurotransmitters. A total number of 61 displaced neurons were investigated, which were present in 80% of individuals studied. Displaced neurons were found in 55.0% of the TNRs, either in the sensory portion (22.5%), motor portion (22.5%) or both (10.0%). Neuronal diameter varied from 12.5 x 25.0 to 45.0 x 63.7 (mean 27.6 x 41.6) microm, and in area between 245 and 2,065 (mean 927) microm(2). Each neuron was surrounded by 2-17 elongated satellite cells per slice. The immune reaction was positive in all the neurons studied for neuron-specific enolase, protein gene product 9.5, neurofilament protein and synaptophysin, and in some neurons for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP; 24.4%), cholecystokinin (CCK; 13.3%), somatostatin (SST; 17.8%), substance P (SP; 15.6%), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (4.4%), neuropeptide Y (8.9%), and serotonin (11.1%). The immune reactions were most frequent against the CGRP, SP, CCK and SST. We concluded that displaced neurons in the TNR morphologically and immunohistochemically resembled the sensory neurons in the trigeminal ganglion. PMID:19923783

  6. Changes in sensory activity of ocular surface sensory nerves during allergic keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Acosta, M Carmen; Luna, Carolina; Quirce, Susana; Belmonte, Carlos; Gallar, Juana

    2013-11-01

    Peripheral neural mechanisms underlying the sensations of irritation, discomfort, and itch accompanying the eye allergic response have not been hitherto analyzed. We explored this question recording the changes in the electrical activity of corneoconjunctival sensory nerve fibers of the guinea pig after an ocular allergic challenge. Sensitization was produced by i.p. ovalbumin followed by repeated application in the eye of 10% ovalbumin on days 14 to 18. Blinking and tearing rate were measured. Spontaneous and stimulus-evoked (mechanical, thermal, chemical) impulse activity was recorded from mechanonociceptor, polymodal nociceptor and cold corneoscleral sensory afferent fibers. After a single (day 14) or repeated daily exposures to the allergen during the following 3 to 4days, tearing and blinking rate increased significantly. Also, sensitization was observed in mechanonociceptors (transient reduction of mechanical threshold only on day 14) and in polymodal nociceptors (sustained enhancement of the impulse response to acidic stimulation). In contrast, cold thermoreceptors showed a significant decrease in basal ongoing activity and in the response to cooling. Treatment with the TRPV1 and TRPA1 blockers capsazepine and HC-030031 reversed the augmented blinking. Only capsazepine attenuated tearing rate increase and sensitization of the polymodal nociceptors response to CO2. Capsazepine also prevented the decrease in cold thermoreceptor activity caused by the allergic challenge. We conclude that changes in nerve impulse activity accompanying the ocular allergic response, primarily mediated by activation of nociceptor's TRPV1 and to a lesser degree by activation of TRPA1 channels, explain the eye discomfort sensations accompanying allergic episodes. PMID:23867735

  7. Sensory capacity of reinnervated skin after redirection of amputated upper limb nerves to the chest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul D. Marasco; Aimee E. Schultz; Todd A. Kuiken

    2009-01-01

    Targeted reinnervation is a new neural-machine interface that has been developed to help improve the function of new- generation prosthetic limbs. Targeted reinnervation is a surgical procedure that takes the nerves that once innervated a severed limb and redirects them to proximal muscle and skin sites. The sensory afferents of the redirected nerves reinnervate the skin overlying the transfer site.

  8. Development and neuronal dependence of cutaneous sensory nerve formations: Lessons from neurotrophins.

    PubMed

    Montańo, Juan A; Pérez-Pińera, Pablo; García-Suárez, Olivia; Cobo, Juan; Vega, Jose A

    2010-05-01

    Null mutations of genes from the NGF family of NTs and their receptors (NTRs) lead to loss/reduction of specific neurons in sensory ganglia; conversely, cutaneous overexpression of NTs results in skin hyperinnervation and increase or no changes in the number of sensory neurons innervating the skin. These neuronal changes are paralleled with loss of specific types of sensory nerve formations in the skin. Therefore, mice carrying mutations in NT or NTR genes represent an ideal model to identify the neuronal dependence of each type of cutaneous sensory nerve ending from a concrete subtype of sensory neuron, since the development, maintenance, and structural integrity of sensory nerve formations depend upon sensory neurons. Results obtained from these mouse strains suggest that TrkA positive neurons are connected to intraepithelial nerve fibers and other sensory nerve formations depending from C and Adelta nerve fibers; the neurons expressing TrkB and responding to BDNF and NT-4 innervate Meissner corpuscles, a subpopulation of Merkell cells, some mechanoreceptors of the piloneural complex, and the Ruffini's corpuscles; finally, a subpopulation of neurons, which are responsive to NT-3, support postnatal survival of some intraepithelial nerve fibers and Merkel cells in addition to the muscle mechanoreceptors. On the other hand, changes in NTs and NTRs affect the structure of non-nervous structures of the skin and are at the basis of several cutaneous pathologies. This review is an update about the role of NTs and NTRs in the maintenance of normal cutaneous innervation and maintenance of skin integrity. PMID:19839059

  9. Sensory enrichment after peripheral nerve injury restores cortical, not thalamic, receptive field organization.

    PubMed

    Florence, S L; Boydston, L A; Hackett, T A; Lachoff, H T; Strata, F; Niblock, M M

    2001-05-01

    Sensory perception can be severely degraded after peripheral injuries that disrupt the functional organization of the sensory maps in somatosensory cortex, even after nerve regeneration has occurred. Rehabilitation involving sensory retraining can improve perceptual function, presumably through plasticity mechanisms in the somatosensory processing network. However, virtually nothing is known about the effects of rehabilitation strategies on brain organization, or where the effects are mediated. In this study, five macaque monkeys received months of enriched sensory experience after median nerve cut and repair early in life. Subsequently, the sensory representation of the hand in primary somatosensory cortex was mapped using multiunit microelectrodes. Additionally, the primary somatosensory relay in the thalamus, the ventroposterior nucleus, was studied to determine whether the effects of the enrichment were initiated subcortically or cortically. Age-matched controls included six monkeys with no sensory manipulation after median nerve cut and regeneration, and one monkey that had restricted sensory experience after the injury. The most substantial effect of the sensory environment was on receptive field sizes in cortical area 3b. Significantly greater proportions of cortical receptive fields in the enriched monkeys were small and well localized compared to the controls, which showed higher proportions of abnormally large or disorganized fields. The refinements in receptive field size and extent in somatosensory cortex likely provide better resolution in the sensory map and may explain the improved functional outcomes after rehabilitation in humans. PMID:11359527

  10. Myelinated sensory and alpha motor axon regeneration in peripheral nerve neuromas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macias, M. Y.; Lehman, C. T.; Sanger, J. R.; Riley, D. A.

    1998-01-01

    Histochemical staining for carbonic anhydrase and cholinesterase (CE) activities was used to analyze sensory and motor axon regeneration, respectively, during neuroma formation in transected and tube-encapsulated peripheral nerves. Median-ulnar and sciatic nerves in the rodent model permitted testing whether a 4 cm greater distance of the motor neuron soma from axotomy site or intrinsic differences between motor and sensory neurons influenced regeneration and neuroma formation 10, 30, and 90 days later. Ventral root radiculotomy confirmed that CE-stained axons were 97% alpha motor axons. Distance significantly delayed axon regeneration. When distance was negligible, sensory axons grew out sooner than motor axons, but motor axons regenerated to a greater quantity. These results indicate regeneration differences between axon subtypes and suggest more extensive branching of motor axons within the neuroma. Thus, both distance from injury site to soma and inherent motor and sensory differences should be considered in peripheral nerve repair strategies.

  11. BREAST CANCER-INDUCED BONE REMODELING, SKELETAL PAIN AND SPROUTING OF SENSORY NERVE FIBERS

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Aaron P.; Jimenez-Andrade, Juan M.; Taylor, Reid N.; Castańeda-Corral, Gabriela; Kaczmarska, Magdalena J.; Freeman, Katie T.; Coughlin, Kathleen A.; Ghilardi, Joseph R.; Kuskowski, Michael A.; Mantyh, Patrick W.

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer metastasis to bone is frequently accompanied by pain. What remains unclear is why this pain tends to become more severe and difficult to control with disease progression. Here we test the hypothesis that with disease progression sensory nerve fibers that innervate the breast cancer bearing bone undergo a pathological sprouting and reorganization, which in other non-malignant pathologies has been shown to generate and maintain chronic pain. Injection of human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231-BO) into the femoral intramedullary space of female athymic nude mice induces sprouting of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP+) sensory nerve fibers. Nearly all CGRP+ nerve fibers that undergo sprouting also co-express tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA+) and growth associated protein-43 (GAP43+). This ectopic sprouting occurs in periosteal sensory nerve fibers that are in close proximity to breast cancer cells, tumor-associated stromal cells and remodeled cortical bone. Therapeutic treatment with an antibody that sequesters nerve growth factor (NGF), administered when the pain and bone remodeling were first observed, blocks this ectopic sprouting and attenuates cancer pain. The present data suggest that the breast cancer cells and tumor-associated stromal cells express and release NGF, which drives bone pain and the pathological reorganization of nearby CGRP+ / TrkA+ / GAP43+ sensory nerve fibers. PMID:21497141

  12. Inhibition of Rho-kinase differentially affects axon regeneration of peripheral motor and sensory nerves.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Abhijeet R; Bobylev, Ilja; Zhang, Gang; Sheikh, Kazim A; Lehmann, Helmar C

    2015-01-01

    The small GTPase RhoA and its down-stream effector Rho-kinase (ROCK) are important effector molecules of the neuronal cytoskeleton. Modulation of the RhoA/ROCK pathway has been shown to promote axonal regeneration, however in vitro and animal studies are inconsistent regarding the extent of axonal outgrowth induced by pharmacological inhibition of ROCK. We hypothesized that injury to sensory and motor nerves result in diverse activation levels of RhoA, which may impact the response of those nerve fiber modalities to ROCK inhibition. We therefore examined the effects of Y-27632, a chemical ROCK inhibitor, on the axonal outgrowth of peripheral sensory and motor neurons grown in the presence of growth-inhibiting chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). In addition we examined the effects of three different doses of Y-27632 on nerve regeneration of motor and sensory nerves in animal models of peripheral nerve crush. In vitro, sensory neurons were less responsive to Y-27632 compared to motor neurons in a non-growth permissive environment. These differences were associated with altered expression and activation of RhoA in sensory and motor axons. In vivo, systemic treatment with high doses of Y-27632 significantly enhanced the regeneration of motor axons over short distances, while the regeneration of sensory fibers remained largely unchanged. Our results support the concept that in a growth non-permissive environment, the regenerative capacity of sensory and motor axons is differentially affected by the RhoA/ROCK pathway, with motor neurons being more responsive compared to sensory. Future treatments, that are aimed to modulate RhoA activity, should consider this functional diversity. PMID:25261755

  13. Sensory reinnervation of muscle spindles after repair of tibial nerve defects using autogenous vein grafts

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Youwang; Hong, Qingnan; Zheng, Jinan

    2014-01-01

    Motor reinnervation after repair of tibial nerve defects using autologous vein grafts in rats has previously been reported, but sensory reinnervation after the same repair has not been fully investigated. In this study, partial sensory reinnervation of muscle spindles was observed after repair of 10-mm left tibial nerve defects using autologous vein grafts with end-to-end anastomosis in rats, and functional recovery was confirmed by electrophysiological studies. There were no significant differences in the number, size, or electrophysiological function of reinnervated muscle spindles between the two experimental groups. These findings suggest that repair of short nerve defects with autologous vein grafts provides comparable results to immediate end-to-end anastomosis in terms of sensory reinnervation of muscle spindles. PMID:25206863

  14. Effect of pulsed infrared lasers on neural conduction and axoplasmic transport in sensory nerves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesselmann, Ursula; Rymer, William Z.; Lin, Shien-Fong

    1990-06-01

    Over the past ten years there has been an increasing interest in the use of lasers for neurosurgical and neurological procedures. Novel recent applications range from neurosurgical procedures such as dorsal root entry zone lesions made with argon and carbon dioxide microsurgical lasers to pain relief by low power laser irradiation of the appropriate painful nerve or affected region1 '2 However, despite the widespread clinical applications of laser light, very little is known about the photobiological interactions between laser light and nervous tissue. The present studies were designed to evaluate the effects of pulsed Nd:YAG laser light on neural impulse conduction and axoplasmic transport in sensory nerves in rats and cats. Our data indicate that Q-switched Nd:YAG laser irradiation can induce a preferential impairment of (1) the synaptic effects of small afferent fibers on dorsal horn cells in the spinal cord and of (2) small slow conducting sensory nerve fibers in dorsal roots and peripheral nerves. These results imply that laser light might have selective effects on impulse conduction in slow conducting sensory nerve fibers. In agreement with our elecirophysiological observations recent histological data from our laboratory show, that axonal transport of the enzyme horseradish peroxidase is selectively impaired in small sensory nerve fibers. In summary these data indicate, that Q-switched Nd:YAG laser irradiation can selectively impair neural conduction and axoplasmic transport in small sensory nerve fibers as compared to fast conducting fibers. A selective influence of laser irradiation on slow conducting fibers could have important clinical applications, especially for the treatment of chronic pain.

  15. Intrafascicular stimulation of monkey arm nerves evokes coordinated grasp and sensory responses.

    PubMed

    Ledbetter, Noah M; Ethier, Christian; Oby, Emily R; Hiatt, Scott D; Wilder, Andrew M; Ko, Jason H; Agnew, Sonya P; Miller, Lee E; Clark, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    High-count microelectrode arrays implanted in peripheral nerves could restore motor function after spinal cord injury or sensory function after limb loss. In this study, we implanted Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays (USEAs) intrafascicularly at the elbow or shoulder in arm nerves of rhesus monkeys (n = 4) under isoflurane anesthesia. Input-output curves indicated that pulse-width-modulated single-electrode stimulation in each arm nerve could recruit single muscles with little or no recruitment of other muscles. Stimulus trains evoked specific, natural, hand movements, which could be combined via multielectrode stimulation to elicit coordinated power or pinch grasp. Stimulation also elicited short-latency evoked potentials (EPs) in primary somatosensory cortex, which might be used to provide sensory feedback from a prosthetic limb. These results demonstrate a high-resolution, high-channel-count interface to the peripheral nervous system for restoring hand function after neural injury or disruption or for examining nerve structure. PMID:23076108

  16. Effect of helium-neon laser irradiation on peripheral sensory nerve latency

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder-Mackler, L.; Bork, C.E.

    1988-02-01

    The purpose of this randomized, double-blind study was to determine the effect of a helium-neon (He-Ne) laser on latency of peripheral sensory nerve. Forty healthy subjects with no history of right upper extremity pathological conditions were assigned to either a Laser or a Placebo Group. Six 1-cm2 blocks along a 12-cm segment of the subjects' right superficial radial nerve received 20-second applications of either the He-Ne laser or a placebo. We assessed differences between pretest and posttest latencies with t tests for correlated and independent samples. The Laser Group showed a statistically significant increase in latency that corresponded to a decrease in sensory nerve conduction velocity. Short-duration He-Ne laser application significantly increased the distal latency of the superficial radial nerve. This finding provides information about the mechanism of the reported pain-relieving effect of the He-Ne laser.

  17. Intrafascicular stimulation of monkey arm nerves evokes coordinated grasp and sensory responses

    PubMed Central

    Ledbetter, Noah M.; Ethier, Christian; Oby, Emily R.; Hiatt, Scott D.; Wilder, Andrew M.; Ko, Jason H.; Agnew, Sonya P.; Miller, Lee E.

    2013-01-01

    High-count microelectrode arrays implanted in peripheral nerves could restore motor function after spinal cord injury or sensory function after limb loss. In this study, we implanted Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays (USEAs) intrafascicularly at the elbow or shoulder in arm nerves of rhesus monkeys (n = 4) under isoflurane anesthesia. Input-output curves indicated that pulse-width-modulated single-electrode stimulation in each arm nerve could recruit single muscles with little or no recruitment of other muscles. Stimulus trains evoked specific, natural, hand movements, which could be combined via multielectrode stimulation to elicit coordinated power or pinch grasp. Stimulation also elicited short-latency evoked potentials (EPs) in primary somatosensory cortex, which might be used to provide sensory feedback from a prosthetic limb. These results demonstrate a high-resolution, high-channel-count interface to the peripheral nervous system for restoring hand function after neural injury or disruption or for examining nerve structure. PMID:23076108

  18. Recording sensory and motor information from peripheral nerves with Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory A. Clark; Noah M. Ledbetter; David J. Warren; Reid R. Harrison

    2011-01-01

    Recording and stimulation via high-count penetrating microelectrode arrays implanted in peripheral nerves may help restore precise motor and sensory function after nervous system damage or disease. Although previous work has demonstrated safety and relatively successful stimulation for long-term implants of 100-electrode Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays (USEAs) in feline sciatic nerve [1], two major remaining challenges were 1) to maintain viable

  19. Sensory Nerves as Modulators of Cutaneous Inflammatory Reactions in Health and Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gábor Jancsó; Márta katona; Viktor Horváth; Péter Sántha; József Nagy

    2009-01-01

    Chemosensitive afferent nerves expressing the capsaicin\\/TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor-1) receptor are not only involved in the transmission of nociceptive impulses toward the central nervous system, but also play pivotal roles in the initiation and modulation of vascular, inflammatory, and immune reactions in a variety of organs, including the skin. These sensory nerves exert their efferent\\/local regulatory functions primarily

  20. Nitric oxide nerves in the uterus are parasympathetic, sensory, and contain neuropeptides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond E. Papka; Daniel L. McNeill; Donna Thompson; Harald H. H. W. Schmidt

    1995-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized in neurons and is a potent relaxor of vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle. The uterus contains abundant NO-synthesizing nerves which could be autonomic and\\/or sensory. This study was undertaken to determine: 1) the source(s) of NO-synthesizing nerves in the rat uterus and 2) what other neuropeptides or transmitter markers might coexist with NO in these

  1. Factors predicting sensory and motor recovery after the repair of upper limb peripheral nerve injuries

    PubMed Central

    He, Bo; Zhu, Zhaowei; Zhu, Qingtang; Zhou, Xiang; Zheng, Canbin; Li, Pengliang; Zhu, Shuang; Liu, Xiaolin; Zhu, Jiakai

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the factors associated with sensory and motor recovery after the repair of upper limb peripheral nerve injuries. DATA SOURCES: The online PubMed database was searched for English articles describing outcomes after the repair of median, ulnar, radial, and digital nerve injuries in humans with a publication date between 1 January 1990 and 16 February 2011. STUDY SELECTION: The following types of article were selected: (1) clinical trials describing the repair of median, ulnar, radial, and digital nerve injuries published in English; and (2) studies that reported sufficient patient information, including age, mechanism of injury, nerve injured, injury location, defect length, repair time, repair method, and repair materials. SPSS 13.0 software was used to perform univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses and to investigate the patient and intervention factors associated with outcomes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sensory function was assessed using the Mackinnon-Dellon scale and motor function was assessed using the manual muscle test. Satisfactory motor recovery was defined as grade M4 or M5, and satisfactory sensory recovery was defined as grade S3+ or S4. RESULTS: Seventy-one articles were included in this study. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that repair time, repair materials, and nerve injured were independent predictors of outcome after the repair of nerve injuries (P < 0.05), and that the nerve injured was the main factor affecting the rate of good to excellent recovery. CONCLUSION: Predictors of outcome after the repair of peripheral nerve injuries include age, gender, repair time, repair materials, nerve injured, defect length, and duration of follow-up. PMID:25206870

  2. Sensory nerve conduction in branches of common interdigital nerves: a new technique for normal controls and patients with morton's neuroma.

    PubMed

    Uludag, Burhanettin; Tataroglu, Cengiz; Bademkiran, Fikret; Uludag, Irem Fatma; Ertekin, Cumhur

    2010-06-01

    In this article, a new electrodiagnostic approach is described for patients with Morton's neuroma. The new method is based on the anatomic fact that the two branches of the common plantar interdigital nerves innervate the lateral side of one toe and the medial side the next one. This study included 20 normal subjects (aged 28-58 years, 10 men and 10 women) and 4 patients with Morton's neuroma (aged 44-52 years, 4 women). The branches of adjacent common plantar interdigital nerves that innerve one toe were stimulated superficially and separately with half of one toe covered with a piece of medical tape. The recordings were obtained on the posterior tibial nerve at the medial malleolus with needle electrodes. Thus, the difference in latencies of obtained sensory nerve action potentials on the posterior tibial nerve with needle electrode was measured. From normal subjects' data, it was determined that a latency difference value of above 0.17 milliseconds (mean +/- 2.5 SD) in one toe was abnormal. All of the patients with Morton's neuroma showed abnormal interlatency difference values. This new method, which we have developed, is more sensitive, simple to use, does not require extra equipment, and does not cause excessive pain. We suggest that interlatency difference between branches of the common plantar interdigital nerves is a useful and sensitive method for the diagnosis of Morton's neuroma. PMID:20479659

  3. Sensory signs in complex regional pain syndrome and peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Gierthmühlen, Janne; Maier, Christoph; Baron, Ralf; Tölle, Thomas; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Birbaumer, Niels; Huge, Volker; Koroschetz, Jana; Krumova, Elena K; Lauchart, Meike; Maihöfner, Christian; Richter, Helmut; Westermann, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    This study determined patterns of sensory signs in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type I and II and peripheral nerve injury (PNI). Patients with upper-limb CRPS-I (n=298), CRPS-II (n=46), and PNI (n=72) were examined with quantitative sensory testing according to the protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain. The majority of patients (66%-69%) exhibited a combination of sensory loss and gain. Patients with CRPS-I had more sensory gain (heat and pressure pain) and less sensory loss than patients with PNI (thermal and mechanical detection, hypoalgesia to heat or pinprick). CRPS-II patients shared features of CRPS-I and PNI. CRPS-I and CRPS-II had almost identical somatosensory profiles, with the exception of a stronger loss of mechanical detection in CRPS-II. In CRPS-I and -II, cold hyperalgesia/allodynia (28%-31%) and dynamic mechanical allodynia (24%-28%) were less frequent than heat or pressure hyperalgesia (36%-44%, 67%-73%), and mechanical hypoesthesia (31%-55%) was more frequent than thermal hypoesthesia (30%-44%). About 82% of PNI patients had at least one type of sensory gain. QST demonstrates more sensory loss in CRPS-I than hitherto considered, suggesting either minimal nerve injury or central inhibition. Sensory profiles suggest that CRPS-I and CRPS-II may represent one disease continuum. However, in contrast to recent suggestions, small fiber deficits were less frequent than large fiber deficits. Sensory gain is highly prevalent in PNI, indicating a better similarity of animal models to human patients than previously thought. These sensory profiles should help prioritize approaches for translation between animal and human research. PMID:22154921

  4. Mustard oils and cannabinoids excite sensory nerve fibres through the TRP channel ANKTM1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sven-Eric Jordt; Diana M. Bautista; Huai-hu Chuang; David D. McKemy; Peter M. Zygmunt; Edward D. Högestätt; Ian D. Meng; David Julius

    2004-01-01

    Wasabi, horseradish and mustard owe their pungency to isothiocyanate compounds. Topical application of mustard oil (allyl isothiocyanate) to the skin activates underlying sensory nerve endings, thereby producing pain, inflammation and robust hypersensitivity to thermal and mechanical stimuli. Despite their widespread use in both the kitchen and the laboratory, the molecular mechanism through which isothiocyanates mediate their effects remains unknown. Here

  5. Early social isolation provokes electrophysiological and structural changes in cutaneous sensory nerves of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Segura, Bertha; Melo, Angel I; Fleming, Alison S; Mendoza-Garrido, Maria Eugenia; González del Pliego, Margarita; Aguirre-Benitez, Elsa L; Hernández-Falcón, Jesús; Jiménez-Estrada, Ismael

    2014-12-01

    Sensory and social deprivation from the mother and littermates during early life disturbs the development of the central nervous system, but little is known about its effect on the development of the peripheral nervous system. To assess peripheral effects of early isolation, male rat pups were reared artificially in complete social isolation (AR); reared artificially with two same-age conspecifics (AR-Social); or reared by their mothers and with littermates (MR). As adults, the electrophysiological properties of the sensory sural (SU) nerve were recorded. We found that the amplitude and normalized area (with respect to body weight) of the compound action potential (CAP) response provoked by single electrical pulses of graded intensity in the SU nerves of AR animals were shorter than the CAP recorded in SU nerves from MR and AR-Social animals. The slope of the stimulus-response curve of AR SU nerves was smaller than that of the other nerves. The histological characterization of axons in the SU nerves was made and showed that the myelin thickness of axons in AR SU nerves was significant lower (2-7µm) than that of the axons in the other nerves. Furthermore, the area and axon diameter of SU nerves of both AR and AR-Social animals were significant lower than in MR animals. This is the first report to show that maternal and littermate deprivation by AR disturbs the development of the myelination and electrophysiological properties of axons in the SU nerve; the replacement of social cues prevents most of the effects. PMID:24897933

  6. Regeneration of sensory but not motor axons following visceral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Payne, Sophie C; Belleville, Philip J; Keast, Janet R

    2015-04-01

    Following peripheral nerve injury, restoration of function may occur via the regeneration of injured axons or compensatory sprouting of spared axons. Injury to visceral nerves that control urogenital organs is a common consequence of pelvic surgery, however their capacity to reinnervate organs is poorly understood. To determine if and how sensory and motor connections to the bladder are re-established, a novel surgical model of visceral nerve injury was performed unilaterally in adult male Wistar rats. Bladder-projecting motor and sensory neurons in pelvic ganglia and lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia, respectively, were identified and characterised by retrograde tracing and immunofluorescence. Application of tracers ipsi- and contralateral to injury distinguished the projection pathways of new connections in the bladder. In naive animals, the majority of sensory and motor neurons project ipsilaterally to the bladder, while ~20 % project contralaterally and ~5 % bilaterally. Injured axons of motor neurons were unable to regenerate by 4weeks after transection. In contrast, by this time many injured sensory neurons regrew axons to reform a substantial plexus within the detrusor and suburothelial tissues. These regeneration responses were also indicated by upregulation of activating transcription factor-3 (ATF-3), which was sustained in motor neurons but transient in sensory bladder-projecting neurons. Axotomy had little or no effect on the survival of bladder-projecting sensory and motor neurons. We also found evidence that uninjured motor and sensory neurons develop additional projections to the denervated bladder tissue and return connectivity, likely by undergoing compensatory growth. In conclusion, our results show that visceral sensory and motor neurons have a different capacity to regenerate axons following axotomy, however in both components of the circuit uninjured bladder neurons spontaneously grow new axon collaterals to replace the lost terminal field within the organ. For a full functional recovery, understanding the environmental and cellular mechanisms that reduce the ability of pelvic ganglion cells to undergo axonal regeneration is needed. PMID:25725351

  7. Peripheral Nerve Damage Facilitates Functional Innervation of Brain Grafts in Adult Sensory Cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebner, Ford F.; Erzurumlu, Reha S.; Lee, Stefan M.

    1989-01-01

    The neuralb pathways that relay information from cutaneous receptors to the cortex provide the somatic sensory information needed for cortical function. The last sensory relay neurons in this pathway have cell bodies in the thalamus and axons that synapse on neurons in the somatosensory cortex. After cortical lesions that damage mature thalamocortical fibers in the somatosensory cortex, we have attempted to reestablish somatosensory cortical function by grafting embryonic neocortical cells into the lesioned area. Such grafts survive in adult host animals but are not innervated by thalamic neurons, and consequently the grafted neurons show little if any spontaneous activity and no responses to cutaneous stimuli. We have reported that transection of peripheral sensory nerves prior to grafting ``conditions'' or ``primes'' the thalamic neurons in the ventrobasal complex so that they extend axons into grafts subsequently placed in the cortical domain of the cut nerve. In this report we present evidence that the ingrowth of ventrobasal fibers leads to graft neurons that become functionally integrated into the sensory circuitry of the host brain. Specifically, the conditioning lesions made prior to grafting produce graft neurons that are spontaneously active and can be driven by natural activation of cutaneous receptors or electrical stimulation of the transected nerve after it regenerates. Furthermore, oxidative metabolism in these grafts reaches levels that are comparable to normal cortex, whereas without prior nerve cut, oxidative metabolism is abnormally low in neocortical grafts. We conclude that damage to the sensory periphery transsynaptically stimulates reorganization of sensory pathways through mechanisms that include axonal elongation and functional synaptogenesis.

  8. Peripheral nerve damage facilitates functional innervation of brain grafts in adult sensory cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Ebner, F F; Erzurumlu, R S; Lee, S M

    1989-01-01

    The neural pathways that relay information from cutaneous receptors to the cortex provide the somatic sensory information needed for cortical function. The last sensory relay neurons in this pathway have cell bodies in the thalamus and axons that synapse on neurons in the somatosensory cortex. After cortical lesions that damage mature thalamocortical fibers in the somatosensory cortex, we have attempted to reestablish somatosensory cortical function by grafting embryonic neocortical cells into the lesioned area. Such grafts survive in adult host animals but are not innervated by thalamic neurons, and consequently the grafted neurons show little if any spontaneous activity and no responses to cutaneous stimuli. We have reported that transection of peripheral sensory nerves prior to grafting "conditions" or "primes" the thalamic neurons in the ventrobasal complex so that they extend axons into grafts subsequently placed in the cortical domain of the cut nerve. In this report we present evidence that the ingrowth of ventrobasal fibers leads to graft neurons that become functionally integrated into the sensory circuitry of the host brain. Specifically, the conditioning lesions made prior to grafting produce graft neurons that are spontaneously active and can be driven by natural activation of cutaneous receptors or electrical stimulation of the transected nerve after it regenerates. Furthermore, oxidative metabolism in these grafts reaches levels that are comparable to normal cortex, whereas without prior nerve cut, oxidative metabolism is abnormally low in neocortical grafts. We conclude that damage to the sensory periphery transsynaptically stimulates reorganization of sensory pathways through mechanisms that include axonal elongation and functional synaptogenesis. Images PMID:2911603

  9. Patterned sensory nerve stimulation enhances the reactivity of spinal Ia inhibitory interneurons.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Shinji; Hirano, Masato; Morishita, Takuya; Uehara, Kazumasa; Funase, Kozo

    2015-03-25

    Patterned sensory nerve stimulation has been shown to induce plastic changes in the reciprocal Ia inhibitory circuit. However, the mechanisms underlying these changes have not yet been elucidated in detail. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the reactivity of Ia inhibitory interneurons could be altered by patterned sensory nerve stimulation. The degree of reciprocal Ia inhibition, the conditioning effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on the soleus (SOL) muscle H-reflex, and the ratio of the maximum H-reflex amplitude versus maximum M-wave (Hmax/Mmax) were examined in 10 healthy individuals. Patterned electrical nerve stimulation was applied to the common peroneal nerve every 1?s (100?Hz-5 train) at the motor threshold intensity of tibialis anterior muscle to induce activity changes in the reciprocal Ia inhibitory circuit. Reciprocal Ia inhibition, the TMS-conditioned H-reflex amplitude, and Hmax/Mmax were recorded before, immediately after, and 15?min after the electrical stimulation. The patterned electrical nerve stimulation significantly increased the degree of reciprocal Ia inhibition and decreased the amplitude of the TMS-conditioned H-reflex in the short-latency inhibition phase, which was presumably mediated by Ia inhibitory interneurons. However, it had no effect on Hmax/Mmax. Our results indicated that patterned sensory nerve stimulation could modulate the activity of Ia inhibitory interneurons, and this change may have been caused by the synaptic modification of Ia inhibitory interneuron terminals. These results may lead to a clearer understanding of the spinal cord synaptic plasticity produced by repetitive sensory inputs. PMID:25719751

  10. Anatomical coupling of sensory and motor nerve trajectory via axon tracking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Klein, Rüdiger; Zheng, Binhai; Marquardt, Till

    2011-07-28

    It is a long-standing question how developing motor and sensory neuron projections cooperatively form a common principal grid of peripheral nerve pathways relaying behavioral outputs and somatosensory inputs. Here, we explored this issue through targeted cell lineage and gene manipulation in mouse, combined with in vitro live axon imaging. In the absence of motor projections, dorsal (epaxial) and ventral (hypaxial) sensory projections form in a randomized manner, while removal of EphA3/4 receptor tyrosine kinases expressed by epaxial motor axons triggers selective failure to form epaxial sensory projections. EphA3/4 act non-cell-autonomously by inducing sensory axons to track along preformed epaxial motor projections. This involves cognate ephrin-A proteins on sensory axons but is independent from EphA3/4 signaling in motor axons proper. Assembly of peripheral nerve pathways thus involves motor axon subtype-specific signals that couple sensory projections to discrete motor pathways. PMID:21791286

  11. Median Nerve Mistaken for Palmaris Longus Tendon: Restoration of Function with Sensory Nerve Transfers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renata V. Weber; Susan E. Mackinnon

    2007-01-01

    Intraoperative iatrogenic nerve injuries occur despite vigilance in the operating room. Most of these injuries occur as a\\u000a result of patient positioning, traction or pressure injury, hematoma, or technical error. The median nerve is especially susceptible\\u000a to injury during carpal tunnel release. A rare but devastating injury of the median nerve is complete transection. The number\\u000a of devastating injuries is

  12. Recording sensory and motor information from peripheral nerves with Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays.

    PubMed

    Clark, Gregory A; Ledbetter, Noah M; Warren, David J; Harrison, Reid R

    2011-01-01

    Recording and stimulation via high-count penetrating microelectrode arrays implanted in peripheral nerves may help restore precise motor and sensory function after nervous system damage or disease. Although previous work has demonstrated safety and relatively successful stimulation for long-term implants of 100-electrode Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays (USEAs) in feline sciatic nerve [1], two major remaining challenges were 1) to maintain viable recordings of nerve action potentials long-term, and 2) to overcome contamination of unit recordings by myoelectric (EMG) activity in awake, moving animals. In conjunction with improvements to USEAs themselves, we have redesigned several aspects of our USEA containment and connector systems. Although further increases in unit yield and long-term stability remain desirable, here we report considerable progress toward meeting both of these goals: We have successfully recorded unit activity from USEAs implanted intrafascicularly in sciatic nerve for periods up to 4 months (the terminal experimental time point), and we have developed a containment system that effectively eliminates or substantially reduces EMG contamination of unit recordings in the moving animal. In addition, we used a 100-channel wireless recording integrated circuit attached to implanted USEAs to transmit broadband or spike-threshold data from nerve. Neural data thusly obtained during imposed limb movements were decoded blindly to drive a virtual prosthetic limb in real time. These results support the possibility of using USEAs in peripheral nerves to provide motor control and cutaneous or proprioceptive sensory feedback in individuals after limb loss or spinal cord injury. PMID:22255372

  13. Autoradiographic location of sensory nerve endings in dentin of monkey teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Byers, M.R.; Dong, W.K.

    1983-04-01

    We have used the autoradiographic method to locate trigeminal nerve endings in monkey teeth. The nerve endings were labeled in two adult female Macaca fascicularis by 20 hours of axonal transport of radioactive protein (/sup 3/H-L-proline). We found a few labeled axons in contralateral mandibular central incisors and one mandibular canine. In ipsilateral teeth, numerous myelinated and unmyelinated axons were labeled; they formed a few terminal branches in the roots but primarily branched in the crown to form the peripheral plexus of Raschkow and to terminate as free endings in the odontoblast layer, predentin, and as far as 120 micrometers into dentinal tubules. Electron microscopic autoradiography showed that the radioactive axonally transported protein was confined to sensory axons and endings; odontoblasts and dentin matrix were not significantly labeled. Labeled free nerve endings were closely apposed to odontoblasts in dentin but did not form distinctive junctions with them. Nerve endings were most numerous in the regular tubular dentin of the crown adjacent to the tip of the pulp horn, occurring in at least half of the dentinal tubules there. Our results show tha dentinal sensory nerve endings in primate teeth can be profuse, sparse, or absent depending on the location and structure of dentin and its adjacent pulp. When dentin was innervated, the tubules were straight and contained odontoblast processes, the predentin was wide, the odontoblast cell bodies were relatively columnar, and there was an adjacent cell-free zone and pulpal nerve plexus.

  14. Nerve Conduction Studies of Median Motor Nerve and Median Sensory Branches According to the Severity of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Jin; Kim, Dong Hwee; Pyun, Sung Bom

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate each digital branch of the median sensory nerve and motor nerves to abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and 2nd lumbrical (2L) according to the severity of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Methods A prospective study was performed in 67 hands of 41 patients with CTS consisting of mild, 23; moderate, 27; and severe cases, 17. Compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) were obtained from APB and 2L, and median sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) were recorded from the thumb to the 4th digit. Parameters analyzed were latency of the median CMAP, latency difference of 2L and first palmar interosseous (PI), as well as latency and baseline to peak amplitude of the median SNAPs. Results The onset and peak latencies of the median SNAPs revealed significant differences only in the 2nd digit, according to the severity of CTS, and abnormal rates of the latencies were significantly lower in the 2nd digit to a mild degree. The amplitude of SNAP and sensory nerve conduction velocities were more preserved in the 2nd digit in mild CTS and more affected in the 4th digit in severe CTS. CMAPs were not evoked with APB recording in 4 patients with severe CTS, but obtained in all patients with 2L recording. 2L-PI showed statistical significance according to the severity of CTS. Conclusion The branch to the 4th digit was mostly involved and the branch to the 2nd digit and 2L were less affected in the progress of CTS. The second digit recorded SNAPs and 2L recorded CMAPs would be valuable in the evaluation of severe CTS. PMID:23705122

  15. Capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerve fibers contribute to the generation and maintenance of skeletal fracture pain.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Andrade, J M; Bloom, A P; Mantyh, W G; Koewler, N J; Freeman, K T; Delong, D; Ghilardi, J R; Kuskowski, M A; Mantyh, P W

    2009-09-15

    Although skeletal pain can have a marked impact on a patient's functional status and quality of life, relatively little is known about the specific populations of peripheral nerve fibers that drive non-malignant bone pain. In the present report, neonatal male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with capsaicin or vehicle and femoral fracture was produced when the animals were young adults (15-16 weeks old). Capsaicin treatment, but not vehicle, resulted in a significant (>70%) depletion in the density of calcitonin-gene related peptide positive (CGRP(+)) sensory nerve fibers, but not 200 kDa neurofilament H positive (NF200(+)) sensory nerve fibers in the periosteum. The periosteum is a thin, cellular and fibrous tissue that tightly adheres to the outer surface of all but the articulated surface of bone and appears to play a pivotal role in driving fracture pain. In animals treated with capsaicin, but not vehicle, there was a 50% reduction in the severity, but no change in the time course, of fracture-induced skeletal pain-related behaviors as measured by spontaneous flinching, guarding and weight bearing. These results suggest that both capsaicin-sensitive (primarily CGRP(+) C-fibers) and capsaicin-insensitive (primarily NF200(+) A-delta fibers) sensory nerve fibers participate in driving skeletal fracture pain. Skeletal pain can be a significant impediment to functional recovery following trauma-induced fracture, osteoporosis-induced fracture and orthopedic surgery procedures such as knee and hip replacement. Understanding the specific populations of sensory nerve fibers that need to be targeted to inhibit the generation and maintenance of skeletal pain may allow the development of more specific mechanism-based therapies that can effectively attenuate acute and chronic skeletal pain. PMID:19486928

  16. CAPSAICIN-SENSITIVE SENSORY NERVE FIBERS CONTRIBUTE TO THE GENERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF SKELETAL FRACTURE PAIN

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Andrade, Juan Miguel; Bloom, Aaron P.; Mantyh, William G.; Koewler, Nathan J.; Freeman, Katie T.; Delong, David; Ghilardi, Joseph R.; Kuskowski, Michael A.; Mantyh, Patrick W.

    2009-01-01

    Although skeletal pain can have a marked impact on a patient’s functional status and quality of life, relatively little is known about the specific populations of peripheral nerve fibers that drive non-malignant bone pain. In the present report, neonatal male Sprague Dawley rats were treated with capsaicin or vehicle and femoral fracture was produced when the animals were young adults (15–16 weeks old). Capsaicin treatment, but not vehicle, resulted in a significant (>70%) depletion in the density of calcitonin-gene related peptide positive (CGRP+) sensory nerve fibers, but not 200 kD neurofilament H positive (NF200+) sensory nerve fibers in the periosteum. The periosteum is a thin, cellular and fibrous tissue that tightly adheres to the outer surface of all but the articulated surface of bone and appears to play a pivotal role in driving fracture pain. In animals treated with capsaicin, but not vehicle, there was a 50% reduction in the severity, but no change in the time course, of fracture-induced skeletal pain related behaviors as measured by spontaneous flinching, guarding and weight bearing. These results suggest that both capsaicin-sensitive (primarily CGRP+ C-fibers) and capsaicin-insensitive (primarily NF200+ A-delta fibers) sensory nerve fibers participate in driving skeletal fracture pain. Skeletal pain can be a significant impediment to functional recovery following trauma-induced fracture, osteoporosis-induced fracture and orthopedic surgery procedures such as knee and hip replacement. Understanding the specific populations of sensory nerve fibers that need to be targeted to inhibit the generation and maintenance of skeletal pain may allow the development of more specific mechanism-based therapies that can effectively attenuate acute and chronic skeletal pain. PMID:19486928

  17. Sickle cell disease in mice is associated with sensitization of sensory nerve fibers.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Nicholas; Wang, Li; Spornick, Nicholas; Khaibullina, Alfia; Almeida, Luis Ef; Cheng, Yao; Wang, Jichuan; Guptill, Virginia; Finkel, Julia C; Quezado, Zenaide M N

    2015-01-01

    The pain phenotype in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients is highly variable. A small percentage of SCD patients experience many vaso-occlusive crises/year, 5% of patients account for over 30% of pain episodes, while 39% report few episodes of severe pain. Clearly, a better understanding of the pathobiology of SCD is needed to improve its therapy. Humanized sickle cell mice recapitulate several phenotypes of SCD patients and provide a model for the study of SCD pain. Researchers have shown that one strain of humanized SCD mice, the BERK strain, has abnormal pain phenotype. However, the nociception phenotype of another humanized SCD mouse strain, the Townes strain, has not been described. In a large cross-sectional study of BERK and Townes SCD mice, we examined thermosensory response and sensory nerve fiber function using sine-wave electrical stimulation at 2000, 250, and 5?Hz to stimulate preferentially A?, A?, and C sensory nerve fibers, respectively. We found that BERK and Townes mice, compared to respective controls, had decreases in 2000, 250, and 5?Hz current vocalization thresholds in patterns that suggest sensitization of a broad spectrum of sensory nerve fibers. In addition, the pattern of sensitization of sensory fibers varied according to strain, sex, age, and mouse genotype. In a similarly variable pattern, Townes and BERKs also had significantly altered sensitivity to noxious thermal stimuli in agreement with what has been shown by others. In summary, the analysis of somatosensory function using sine-wave electrical stimulation in humanized sickle cell mice suggests that in SCD, both myelinated and unmyelinated, fibers are sensitized. The pattern of sensory fiber sensitization is distinct from that observed in pain models of neuropathic and inflammatory pain. These findings raise the possibility that sensitization of a broad spectrum of sensory fibers might contribute to the altered and variable nociception phenotype in SCD. PMID:25070860

  18. The Relationship of Vitamin B12 and Sensory and Motor Peripheral Nerve Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Leishear, Kira; Boudreau, Robert M.; Studenski, Stephanie A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Rosano, Caterina; de Rekeneire, Nathalie; Houston, Denise K.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Schwartz, Ann V.; Vinik, Aaron I.; Hogervorst, Eva; Yaffe, Kristine; Harris, Tamara B.; Newman, Anne B.; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether deficient B12 status or low serum B12 levels are associated with worse sensory and motor peripheral nerve function in older adults. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. Participants Two thousand two hundred eighty-seven adults aged 72–83 years [mean age: 76.5 ± 2.9 years; 51.4% female; 38.3% black]. Measurements Low serum B12 was defined based solely on serum B12 of <260 pmol/L, whereas deficient B12 status was defined as B12 <260 pmol/L, methylmalonic acid [MMA] >271 nmol/L and MMA >2-methylcitrate. Peripheral nerve function was assessed by peroneal nerve conduction amplitude and velocity [NCV] (motor); 1.4g/10g monofilament detection; average vibration threshold detection; and peripheral neuropathy symptoms [numbness; aching/burning pain] (sensory). Results B12 deficient status was found in 7.0% and an additional 10.1% had low serum B12 levels. B12 deficient status was associated with greater insensitivity to light (1.4g) touch (OR: 1.50; 95% CI: [1.06, 2.13]) and worse NCV [42.3 m/s vs. 43.5 m/s] (? =?1.16; p=0.01), after multivariable adjustment for demographics, lifestyle factors, and health conditions. Associations were consistent for the alternative definition using low serum B12 only. No significant associations were found for deficient B12 status or the alternative low serum B12 definition and vibration detection, nerve conduction amplitude, or peripheral neuropathy symptoms. Conclusion Poor B12 (deficient B12 status and low serum B12) is associated with worse sensory and motor peripheral nerve function. Nerve function impairments may lead to physical function declines and disability in older adults, suggesting that prevention and treatment of low B12 levels may be important to evaluate. PMID:22690982

  19. Noninvasive Peroneal Sensory and Motor Nerve Conduction Recordings in the Rabbit Distal Hindlimb: Feasibility, Variability and Neuropathy Measure

    PubMed Central

    Hotson, John R.

    2014-01-01

    The peroneal nerve anatomy of the rabbit distal hindlimb is similar to humans, but reports of distal peroneal nerve conduction studies were not identified with a literature search. Distal sensorimotor recordings may be useful for studying rabbit models of length-dependent peripheral neuropathy. Surface electrodes were adhered to the dorsal rabbit foot overlying the extensor digitorum brevis muscle and the superficial peroneal nerve. The deep and superficial peroneal nerves were stimulated above the ankle and the common peroneal nerve was stimulated at the knee. The nerve conduction studies were repeated twice with a one-week intertest interval to determine measurement variability. Intravenous vincristine was used to produce a peripheral neuropathy. Repeat recordings measured the response to vincristine. A compound muscle action potential and a sensory nerve action potential were evoked in all rabbits. The compound muscle action potential mean amplitude was 0.29 mV (SD ± 0.12) and the fibula head to ankle mean motor conduction velocity was 46.5 m/s (SD ± 2.9). The sensory nerve action potential mean amplitude was 22.8 ?V (SD ± 2.8) and the distal sensory conduction velocity was 38.8 m/s (SD ± 2.2). Sensorimotor latencies and velocities were least variable between two test sessions (coefficient of variation ?=? 2.6–5.9%), sensory potential amplitudes were intermediate (coefficient of variation ?=? 11.1%) and compound potential amplitudes were the most variable (coefficient of variation ?=?19.3%). Vincristine abolished compound muscle action potentials and reduced sensory nerve action potential amplitudes by 42–57% while having little effect on velocity. Rabbit distal hindlimb nerve conduction studies are feasible with surface recordings and stimulation. The evoked distal sensory potentials have amplitudes, configurations and recording techniques that are similar to humans and may be valuable for measuring large sensory fiber function in chronic models of peripheral neuropathies. PMID:24658286

  20. Amplitude of sensory nerve action potential in early stage diabetic peripheral neuropathy: an analysis of 500 cases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunqian; Li, Jintao; Wang, Tingjuan; Wang, Jianlin

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy is important for the successful treatment of diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we recruited 500 diabetic patients from the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University in China from June 2008 to September 2013: 221 cases showed symptoms of peripheral neuropathy (symptomatic group) and 279 cases had no symptoms of peripheral impairment (asymptomatic group). One hundred healthy control subjects were also recruited. Nerve conduction studies revealed that distal motor latency was longer, sensory nerve conduction velocity was slower, and sensory nerve action potential and amplitude of compound muscle action potential were significantly lower in the median, ulnar, posterior tibial and common peroneal nerve in the diabetic groups compared with control subjects. Moreover, the alterations were more obvious in patients with symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Of the 500 diabetic patients, neural conduction abnormalities were detected in 358 cases (71.6%), among which impairment of the common peroneal nerve was most prominent. Sensory nerve abnormality was more obvious than motor nerve abnormality in the diabetic groups. The amplitude of sensory nerve action potential was the most sensitive measure of peripheral neuropathy. Our results reveal that varying degrees of nerve conduction changes are present in the early, asymptomatic stage of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. PMID:25221597

  1. The relationship of nerve fibre pathology to sensory function in entrapment neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Annina B.; Bland, Jeremy D. P.; Bhat, Manzoor A.

    2014-01-01

    Surprisingly little is known about the impact of entrapment neuropathy on target innervation and the relationship of nerve fibre pathology to sensory symptoms and signs. Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common entrapment neuropathy; the aim of this study was to investigate its effect on the morphology of small unmyelinated as well as myelinated sensory axons and relate such changes to somatosensory function and clinical symptoms. Thirty patients with a clinical and electrophysiological diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome [17 females, mean age (standard deviation) 56.4 (15.3)] and 26 age and gender matched healthy volunteers [18 females, mean age (standard deviation) 51.0 (17.3)] participated in the study. Small and large fibre function was examined with quantitative sensory testing in the median nerve territory of the hand. Vibration and mechanical detection thresholds were significantly elevated in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (P < 0.007) confirming large fibre dysfunction and patients also presented with increased thermal detection thresholds (P < 0.0001) indicative of C and A?-fibre dysfunction. Mechanical and thermal pain thresholds were comparable between groups (P > 0.13). A skin biopsy was taken from a median nerve innervated area of the proximal phalanx of the index finger. Immunohistochemical staining for protein gene product 9.5 and myelin basic protein was used to evaluate morphological features of unmyelinated and myelinated axons. Evaluation of intraepidermal nerve fibre density showed a striking loss in patients (P < 0.0001) confirming a significant compromise of small fibres. The extent of Meissner corpuscles and dermal nerve bundles were comparable between groups (P > 0.07). However, patients displayed a significant increase in the percentage of elongated nodes (P < 0.0001), with altered architecture of voltage-gated sodium channel distribution. Whereas neither neurophysiology nor quantitative sensory testing correlated with patients’ symptoms or function deficits, the presence of elongated nodes was inversely correlated with a number of functional and symptom related scores (P < 0.023). Our findings suggest that carpal tunnel syndrome does not exclusively affect large fibres but is associated with loss of function in modalities mediated by both unmyelinated and myelinated sensory axons. We also document for the first time that entrapment neuropathies lead to a clear reduction in intraepidermal nerve fibre density, which was independent of electrodiagnostic test severity. The presence of elongated nodes in the target tissue further suggests that entrapment neuropathies affect nodal structure/myelin well beyond the focal compression site. Interestingly, nodal lengthening may be an adaptive phenomenon as it inversely correlates with symptom severity. PMID:25348629

  2. The relationship of nerve fibre pathology to sensory function in entrapment neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Annina B; Bland, Jeremy D P; Bhat, Manzoor A; Bennett, David L H

    2014-12-01

    Surprisingly little is known about the impact of entrapment neuropathy on target innervation and the relationship of nerve fibre pathology to sensory symptoms and signs. Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common entrapment neuropathy; the aim of this study was to investigate its effect on the morphology of small unmyelinated as well as myelinated sensory axons and relate such changes to somatosensory function and clinical symptoms. Thirty patients with a clinical and electrophysiological diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome [17 females, mean age (standard deviation) 56.4 (15.3)] and 26 age and gender matched healthy volunteers [18 females, mean age (standard deviation) 51.0 (17.3)] participated in the study. Small and large fibre function was examined with quantitative sensory testing in the median nerve territory of the hand. Vibration and mechanical detection thresholds were significantly elevated in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (P<0.007) confirming large fibre dysfunction and patients also presented with increased thermal detection thresholds (P<0.0001) indicative of C and A?-fibre dysfunction. Mechanical and thermal pain thresholds were comparable between groups (P>0.13). A skin biopsy was taken from a median nerve innervated area of the proximal phalanx of the index finger. Immunohistochemical staining for protein gene product 9.5 and myelin basic protein was used to evaluate morphological features of unmyelinated and myelinated axons. Evaluation of intraepidermal nerve fibre density showed a striking loss in patients (P<0.0001) confirming a significant compromise of small fibres. The extent of Meissner corpuscles and dermal nerve bundles were comparable between groups (P>0.07). However, patients displayed a significant increase in the percentage of elongated nodes (P<0.0001), with altered architecture of voltage-gated sodium channel distribution. Whereas neither neurophysiology nor quantitative sensory testing correlated with patients' symptoms or function deficits, the presence of elongated nodes was inversely correlated with a number of functional and symptom related scores (P<0.023). Our findings suggest that carpal tunnel syndrome does not exclusively affect large fibres but is associated with loss of function in modalities mediated by both unmyelinated and myelinated sensory axons. We also document for the first time that entrapment neuropathies lead to a clear reduction in intraepidermal nerve fibre density, which was independent of electrodiagnostic test severity. The presence of elongated nodes in the target tissue further suggests that entrapment neuropathies affect nodal structure/myelin well beyond the focal compression site. Interestingly, nodal lengthening may be an adaptive phenomenon as it inversely correlates with symptom severity. PMID:25348629

  3. Modelled temperature-dependent excitability behaviour of a generalised human peripheral sensory nerve fibre

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacoba E. Smit; Tania Hanekom; Johan J. Hanekom

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a recently developed human Ranvier node model, which is based on a modified\\u000a version of the Hodgkin–Huxley model, could predict the excitability behaviour in human peripheral sensory nerve fibres with\\u000a diameters ranging from 5.0 to 15.0 ?m. The Ranvier node model was extended to include a persistent sodium current and was

  4. Sensory nerves and nitric oxide contribute to reflex cutaneous vasodilation in humans.

    PubMed

    Wong, Brett J

    2013-04-15

    We tested the hypothesis that inhibition of cutaneous sensory nerves would attenuate reflex cutaneous vasodilation in response to an increase in core temperature. Nine subjects were equipped with four microdialysis fibers on the forearm. Two sites were treated with topical anesthetic EMLA cream for 120 min. Sensory nerve inhibition was verified by lack of sensation to a pinprick. Microdialysis fibers were randomly assigned as 1) lactated Ringer (control); 2) 10 mM nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) to inhibit nitric oxide synthase; 3) EMLA + lactated Ringer; and 4) EMLA + L-NAME. Laser-Doppler flowmetry was used as an index of skin blood flow, and blood pressure was measured via brachial auscultation. Subjects wore a water-perfused suit, and oral temperature was monitored as an index of core temperature. The suit was perfused with 50°C water to initiate whole body heat stress to raise oral temperature 0.8°C above baseline. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated and normalized to maximal vasodilation (%CVC(max)). There was no difference in CVC between control and EMLA sites (67 ± 5 vs. 69 ± 6% CVC(max)), but the onset of vasodilation was delayed at EMLA compared with control sites. The L-NAME site was significantly attenuated compared with control and EMLA sites (45 ± 5% CVC(max); P < 0.01). Combined EMLA + L-NAME site (25 ± 6% CVC(max)) was attenuated compared with control and EMLA (P < 0.001) and L-NAME only (P < 0.01). These data suggest cutaneous sensory nerves contribute to reflex cutaneous vasodilation during the early, but not latter, stages of heat stress, and full expression of reflex cutaneous vasodilation requires functional sensory nerves and NOS. PMID:23408029

  5. Nitric oxide-releasing aspirin protects gastric mucosa against ethanol damage in rats with functional ablation of sensory nerves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. Konturek; T. Brzozowski; J. Kania; S. J. Konturek; E. G. Hahn

    2003-01-01

    Objective and Design: The aim of the present study was to investigate, whether sensory nerves are involved in the gastroprotection induced by NO releasing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NO-NSAID). Material: Studies were performed in Wistar rats with intact or inactivated sensory nerves by pretreatment with large dose of capsaicin (125 mg\\/kg sc). Treatments: Acute gastric lesions were induced by 100% ethanol

  6. Hyperglycemia- and neuropathy-induced changes in mitochondria within sensory nerves

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Hussein S; Mervak, Colin M; Münch, Alexandra E; Robell, Nicholas J; Hayes, John M; Porzio, Michael T; Singleton, J Robinson; Smith, A Gordon; Feldman, Eva L; Lentz, Stephen I

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study focused on altered mitochondrial dynamics as a potential mechanism for diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). We employed both an in vitro sensory neuron model and an in situ analysis of human intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENFs) from cutaneous biopsies to measure alterations in the size distribution of mitochondria as a result of hyperglycemia and diabetes, respectively. Methods Neurite- and nerve-specific mitochondrial signals within cultured rodent sensory neurons and human IENFs were measured by employing a three-dimensional visualization and quantification technique. Skin biopsies from distal thigh (DT) and distal leg (DL) were analyzed from three groups of patients; patients with diabetes and no DPN, patients with diabetes and confirmed DPN, and healthy controls. Results This analysis demonstrated an increase in mitochondria distributed within the neurites of cultured sensory neurons exposed to hyperglycemic conditions. Similar changes were observed within IENFs of the DT in DPN patients compared to controls. This change was represented by a significant shift in the size frequency distribution of mitochondria toward larger mitochondria volumes within DT nerves of DPN patients. There was a length-dependent difference in mitochondria within IENFs. Distal leg IENFs from control patients had a significant shift toward larger volumes of mitochondrial signal compared to DT IENFs. Interpretation The results of this study support the hypothesis that altered mitochondrial dynamics may contribute to DPN pathogenesis. Future studies will examine the potential mechanisms that are responsible for mitochondrial changes within IENFs and its effect on DPN pathogenesis. PMID:25493271

  7. Peripheral injury of pelvic visceral sensory nerves alters GFR? (GDNF family receptor alpha) localization in sensory and autonomic pathways of the sacral spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Shelley L.; Payne, Sophie C.; Keast, Janet R.; Osborne, Peregrine B.

    2015-01-01

    GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor), neurturin and artemin use their co-receptors (GFR?1, GFR?2 and GFR?3, respectively) and the tyrosine kinase Ret for downstream signaling. In rodent dorsal root ganglia (DRG) most of the unmyelinated and some myelinated sensory afferents express at least one GFR?. The adult function of these receptors is not completely elucidated but their activity after peripheral nerve injury can facilitate peripheral and central axonal regeneration, recovery of sensation, and sensory hypersensitivity that contributes to pain. Our previous immunohistochemical studies of spinal cord and sciatic nerve injuries in adult rodents have identified characteristic changes in GFR?1, GFR?2 or GFR?3 in central spinal cord axons of sensory neurons located in DRG. Here we extend and contrast this analysis by studying injuries of the pelvic and hypogastric nerves that contain the majority of sensory axons projecting to the pelvic viscera (e.g., bladder and lower bowel). At 7 d, we detected some effects of pelvic but not hypogastric nerve transection on the ipsilateral spinal cord. In sacral (L6-S1) cord ipsilateral to nerve injury, GFR?1-immunoreactivity (IR) was increased in medial dorsal horn and CGRP-IR was decreased in lateral dorsal horn. Pelvic nerve injury also upregulated GFR?1- and GFR?3-IR terminals and GFR?1-IR neuronal cell bodies in the sacral parasympathetic nucleus that provides the spinal parasympathetic preganglionic output to the pelvic nerve. This evidence suggests peripheral axotomy has different effects on somatic and visceral sensory input to the spinal cord, and identifies sensory-autonomic interactions as a possible site of post-injury regulation.

  8. Secretion of Growth Hormone in Response to Muscle Sensory Nerve Stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, Richard E.; Roy, R. R.; Edgerton, V. R.; Gosselink, K. L.; Grossman, E. J.; Sawchenko, P. E.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) secretion is stimulated by aerobic and resistive exercise and inhibited by exposure to actual or simulated (bedrest, hindlimb suspension) microgravity. Moreover, hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) and preproGRF mRNA are markedly decreased in spaceflight rats. These observations suggest that reduced sensory input from inactive muscles may contribute to the reduced secretion of GH seen in "0 G". Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of muscle sensory nerve stimulation on secretion of GH. Fed male Wistar rats (304 +/- 23 g) were anesthetized (pentobarbital) and the right peroneal (Pe), tibial (T), and sural (S) nerves were cut. Electrical stimulation of the distal (D) or proximal (P) ends of the nerves was implemented for 15 min. to mimic the EMG activity patterns of ankle extensor muscles of a rat walking 1.5 mph. The rats were bled by cardiac puncture and their anterior pituitaries collected. Pituitary and plasma bioactive (BGH) and immunoactive (IGH) GH were measured by bioassay and RIA.

  9. Intervertebral disc, sensory nerves and neurotrophins: who is who in discogenic pain?

    PubMed

    García-Cosamalón, José; del Valle, Miguel E; Calavia, Marta G; García-Suárez, Olivia; López-Muńiz, Alfonso; Otero, Jesús; Vega, José A

    2010-07-01

    The normal intervertebral disc (IVD) is a poorly innervated organ supplied only by sensory (mainly nociceptive) and postganglionic sympathetic (vasomotor efferents) nerve fibers. Interestingly, upon degeneration, the IVD becomes densely innervated even in regions that in normal conditions lack innervation. This increased innervation has been associated with pain of IVD origin. The mechanisms responsible for nerve growth and hyperinnervation of pathological IVDs have not been fully elucidated. Among the molecules that are presumably involved in this process are some members of the family of neurotrophins (NTs), which are known to have both neurotrophic and neurotropic properties and regulate the density and distribution of nerve fibers in peripheral tissues. NTs and their receptors are expressed in healthy IVDs but much higher levels have been observed in pathological IVDs, thus suggesting a correlation between levels of expression of NTs and density of innervation in IVDs. In addition, NTs also play a role in inflammatory responses and pain transmission by increasing the expression of pain-related peptides and modulating synapses of nociceptive neurons at the spinal cord. This article reviews current knowledge about the innervation of IVDs, NTs and NT receptors, expression of NTs and their receptors in IVDs as well as in the sensory neurons innervating the IVDs, the proinflammatory role of NTs, NTs as nociception regulators, and the potential network of discogenic pain involving NTs. PMID:20456524

  10. Cutaneous sensory nerve as a substitute for auditory nerve in solving deaf-mutes’ hearing problem: an innovation in multi-channel-array skin-hearing technology

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianwen; Li, Yan; Zhang, Ming; Ma, Weifang; Ma, Xuezong

    2014-01-01

    The current use of hearing aids and artificial cochleas for deaf-mute individuals depends on their auditory nerve. Skin-hearing technology, a patented system developed by our group, uses a cutaneous sensory nerve to substitute for the auditory nerve to help deaf-mutes to hear sound. This paper introduces a new solution, multi-channel-array skin-hearing technology, to solve the problem of speech discrimination. Based on the filtering principle of hair cells, external voice signals at different frequencies are converted to current signals at corresponding frequencies using electronic multi-channel bandpass filtering technology. Different positions on the skin can be stimulated by the electrode array, allowing the perception and discrimination of external speech signals to be determined by the skin response to the current signals. Through voice frequency analysis, the frequency range of the band-pass filter can also be determined. These findings demonstrate that the sensory nerves in the skin can help to transfer the voice signal and to distinguish the speech signal, suggesting that the skin sensory nerves are good candidates for the replacement of the auditory nerve in addressing deaf-mutes’ hearing problems. Scientific hearing experiments can be more safely performed on the skin. Compared with the artificial cochlea, multi-channel-array skin-hearing aids have lower operation risk in use, are cheaper and are more easily popularized. PMID:25317171

  11. Cutaneous sensory nerve as a substitute for auditory nerve in solving deaf-mutes' hearing problem: an innovation in multi-channel-array skin-hearing technology.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianwen; Li, Yan; Zhang, Ming; Ma, Weifang; Ma, Xuezong

    2014-08-15

    The current use of hearing aids and artificial cochleas for deaf-mute individuals depends on their auditory nerve. Skin-hearing technology, a patented system developed by our group, uses a cutaneous sensory nerve to substitute for the auditory nerve to help deaf-mutes to hear sound. This paper introduces a new solution, multi-channel-array skin-hearing technology, to solve the problem of speech discrimination. Based on the filtering principle of hair cells, external voice signals at different frequencies are converted to current signals at corresponding frequencies using electronic multi-channel bandpass filtering technology. Different positions on the skin can be stimulated by the electrode array, allowing the perception and discrimination of external speech signals to be determined by the skin response to the current signals. Through voice frequency analysis, the frequency range of the band-pass filter can also be determined. These findings demonstrate that the sensory nerves in the skin can help to transfer the voice signal and to distinguish the speech signal, suggesting that the skin sensory nerves are good candidates for the replacement of the auditory nerve in addressing deaf-mutes' hearing problems. Scientific hearing experiments can be more safely performed on the skin. Compared with the artificial cochlea, multi-channel-array skin-hearing aids have lower operation risk in use, are cheaper and are more easily popularized. PMID:25317171

  12. Renal sensory and sympathetic nerves reinnervate the kidney in a similar time-dependent fashion after renal denervation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Jan; Hökfelt, Tomas; Knuepfer, Mark M.

    2013-01-01

    Efferent renal sympathetic nerves reinnervate the kidney after renal denervation in animals and humans. Therefore, the long-term reduction in arterial pressure following renal denervation in drug-resistant hypertensive patients has been attributed to lack of afferent renal sensory reinnervation. However, afferent sensory reinnervation of any organ, including the kidney, is an understudied question. Therefore, we analyzed the time course of sympathetic and sensory reinnervation at multiple time points (1, 4, and 5 days and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, and 12 wk) after renal denervation in normal Sprague-Dawley rats. Sympathetic and sensory innervation in the innervated and contralateral denervated kidney was determined as optical density (ImageJ) of the sympathetic and sensory nerves identified by immunohistochemistry using antibodies against markers for sympathetic nerves [neuropeptide Y (NPY) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)] and sensory nerves [substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)]. In denervated kidneys, the optical density of NPY-immunoreactive (ir) fibers in the renal cortex and substance P-ir fibers in the pelvic wall was 6, 39, and 100% and 8, 47, and 100%, respectively, of that in the contralateral innervated kidney at 4 days, 4 wk, and 12 wk after denervation. Linear regression analysis of the optical density of the ratio of the denervated/innervated kidney versus time yielded similar intercept and slope values for NPY-ir, TH-ir, substance P-ir, and CGRP-ir fibers (all R2 > 0.76). In conclusion, in normotensive rats, reinnervation of the renal sensory nerves occurs over the same time course as reinnervation of the renal sympathetic nerves, both being complete at 9 to 12 wk following renal denervation. PMID:23408032

  13. Identifying motor and sensory myelinated axons in rabbit peripheral nerves by histochemical staining for carbonic anhydrase and cholinesterase activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Danny A.; Sanger, James R.; Matloub, Hani S.; Yousif, N. John; Bain, James L. W.

    1988-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) and cholinesterase (CE) histochemical staining of rabbit spinal nerve roots and dorsal root ganglia demonstrated that among the reactive myeliated axons, with minor exceptions, sensory axons were CA positive and CE negative whereas motor axons were CA negative and CE positive. The high specificity was achieved by adjusting reaction conditions to stain subpopulations of myelinated axons selectively while leaving 50 percent or so unstained. Fixation with glutaraldehyde appeared necessary for achieving selectivity. Following sciatic nerve transection, the reciprocal staining pattern persisted in damaged axons and their regenerating processes which formed neuromas within the proximal nerve stump. Within the neuromas, CA-stained sensory processes were elaborated earlier and in greater numbers than CE-stained regenerating motor processes. The present results indicate that histochemical axon typing can be exploited to reveal heterogeneous responses of motor and sensory axons to injury.

  14. The functions of TRPA1 and TRPV1: moving away from sensory nerves

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, ES; Fernandes, MA; Keeble, JE

    2012-01-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and ankyrin 1 (TRPV1 and TRPA1, respectively) channels are members of the TRP superfamily of structurally related, non-selective cation channels. It is rapidly becoming clear that the functions of TRPV1 and TRPA1 interlink with each other to a considerable extent. This is especially clear in relation to pain and neurogenic inflammation where TRPV1 is coexpressed on the vast majority of TRPA1-expressing sensory nerves and both integrate a variety of noxious stimuli. The more recent discovery that both TRPV1 and TRPA1 are expressed on a multitude of non-neuronal sites has led to a plethora of research into possible functions of these receptors. Non-neuronal cells on which TRPV1 and TRPA1 are expressed vary from vascular smooth muscle to keratinocytes and endothelium. This review will discuss the expression, functionality and roles of these non-neuronal TRP channels away from sensory nerves to demonstrate the diverse nature of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in addition to a direct role in pain and neurogenic inflammation. PMID:22233379

  15. Does low-intensity helium-neon laser irradiation alter sensory nerve active potentials or distal latencies

    SciTech Connect

    Basford, J.R.; Daube, J.R.; Hallman, H.O.; Millard, T.L.; Moyer, S.K. (Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The effect of 1 mW helium neon continuous-wave (0.633 microns) laser irradiation on superficial radical sensory and median sensory nerve function was examined in a double-blind, controlled study involving 40 volunteers. No differences in action potential amplitudes, distal latencies, or forearm skin temperatures were found between the treated and control groups either at the time of irradiation or at subsequent evaluations 15 and 30 minutes later. As a result, we are unable to confirm reports that low-energy lasers of this power and wavelength alter nerve function.

  16. Neonatal de-afferentation of capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves increases in vivo insulin sensitivity in conscious adult rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Koopmans; B. Leighton; R. A. DeFronzo

    1998-01-01

    Summary   Sensory neuropeptides, released from the peripheral nervous system, might modulate glucose homeostasis by antagonizing insulin\\u000a action. The effects of de-afferentation of functional small diameter unmyelinated C-fibres (sensory nerves) on in vivo insulin-mediated\\u000a intracellular glucose metabolism were investigated by using euglycaemic insulin (6 and 18 mU\\/kg.min) clamps with [3-3H]-glucose infusion in 24 adult rats, treated neonatally with either capsaicin (CAP)

  17. Effect of spinal cord stimulation on sensory nerve conduction threshold functional measures.

    PubMed

    Aló, K M; Chado, H N

    2000-08-01

    Background. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is being used with increasing frequency in the treatment of various chronic pain conditions. There is a paucity of reliable outcome data regarding changes in pain tolerance and peripheral sensory nerve function. The automated electrodiagnostic neuroselective sensory Nerve Conduction Threshold (sNCT) test measures painless current perception thresholds (CPTs) and atraumatic pain tolerance thresholds (PTTs). The ability of the sNCT test to independently evaluate small and large fiber function may have particular relevance for evaluating response to SCS. Methods/Results. Sixteen patients with implanted SCS systems and lower extremity neuropathic pain of greater than 6-months duration were tested using a standardized protocol, pre- and post-SCS. CPT and PTT measures (Neurometer, CPT/C Neurotron, Inc. Baltimore, MD) were obtained from the distal phalange of the most symptomatic extremity and at an ipsilateral asymptomatic control site. Only CPTs at the symptomatic site (2000 Hz only) and at the control site (5 Hz only) reached statistical significance. Changes in CPTs at other frequencies, and changes in PTTs at all frequencies (symptomatic and control sites) were not statistically significant. Conclusion. The results of this study appear to substantiate the postulates that both segmental and suprasegmental effects are involved in SCS-mediated analgesia. SCS modulates segmental large afferent fiber input as reflected by a statistically significant increase in large fiber CPTs (2000 Hz) at the symptomatic site post-SCS. A statistically significant increase in small fiber (5 Hz) CPTs at the control site suggests a central sensory (suprasegmental) modulating effect on nociceptive fiber activity. sNCT testing provided reliable outcome data for evaluating response to SCS. PMID:22151462

  18. Impaired responsiveness of renal sensory nerves in streptozotocin-treated rats and obese Zucker diabetic fatty rats: role of angiotensin.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Ulla C; Cicha, Michael Z; Yorek, Mark A

    2008-03-01

    Increasing afferent renal nerve activity decreases efferent renal nerve activity and increases urinary sodium excretion. Activation of renal pelvic mechanosensory nerves is impaired in streptozotocin (STZ)-treated rats (model of type 1 diabetes). Decreased activation of renal sensory nerves would lead to increased efferent renal nerve activity, sodium retention, and hypertension. We examined whether the reduced activation of renal sensory nerves in STZ rats was due to increased renal angiotensin activity and whether activation of the renal sensory nerves was impaired in obese Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats (model of type 2 diabetes). In an isolated renal pelvic wall preparation from rats treated with STZ for 2 wk, PGE2 failed to increase the release of substance P, from 5 +/- 1 to 6 +/- 1 pg/min. In pelvises from sham STZ rats, PGE2 increased substance P release from 6 +/- 1 to 13 +/- 2 pg/min. Adding losartan to the incubation bath increased PGE2-mediated release of substance P in STZ rats, from 5 +/- 1 to 10 +/- 2 pg/min, but had no effect in sham STZ rats. In pelvises from obese ZDF rats (22-46 wk old), PGE2 increased substance P release from 12.0 +/- 1.2 to 18.3 +/- 1.2 pg/min, which was less than that from lean ZDF rats (10.3 +/- 1.6 to 22.5 +/- 2.4 pg/min). Losartan had no effect on the PGE2-mediated substance P release in obese or lean ZDF rats. We conclude that the mechanisms involved in the decreased responsiveness of the renal sensory nerves in STZ rats involve activation of the renin angiotensin system in STZ but not in obese ZDF rats. PMID:18199587

  19. TRPM8 function and expression in vagal sensory neurons and afferent nerves innervating guinea pig esophagus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaoyun; Hu, Youtian; Ru, Fei; Kollarik, Marian; Undem, Bradley J; Yu, Shaoyong

    2015-03-15

    Sensory transduction in esophageal afferents requires specific ion channels and receptors. TRPM8 is a new member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel family and participates in cold- and menthol-induced sensory transduction, but its role in visceral sensory transduction is still less clear. This study aims to determine TRPM8 function and expression in esophageal vagal afferent subtypes. TRPM8 agonist WS-12-induced responses were first determined in nodose and jugular neurons by calcium imaging and then investigated by whole cell patch-clamp recordings in Dil-labeled esophageal nodose and jugular neurons. Extracellular single-unit recordings were performed in nodose and jugular C fiber neurons using ex vivo esophageal-vagal preparations with intact nerve endings in the esophagus. TRPM8 mRNA expression was determined by single neuron RT-PCR in Dil-labeled esophageal nodose and jugular neurons. The TRPM8 agonist WS-12 elicited calcium influx in a subpopulation of jugular but not nodose neurons. WS-12 activated outwardly rectifying currents in esophageal Dil-labeled jugular but not nodose neurons in a dose-dependent manner, which could be inhibited by the TRPM8 inhibitor AMTB. WS-12 selectively evoked action potential discharges in esophageal jugular but not nodose C fibers. Consistently, TRPM8 transcripts were highly expressed in esophageal Dil-labeled TRPV1-positive jugular neurons. In summary, the present study demonstrated a preferential expression and function of TRPM8 in esophageal vagal jugular but not nodose neurons and C fiber subtypes. This provides a distinctive role of TRPM8 in esophageal sensory transduction and may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of esophageal sensation and nociception. PMID:25591866

  20. Endogenous NGF and Nerve Impulses Regulate the Collateral Sprouting of Sensory Axons in the Skin of the Adult Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack Diamond; Michael Holmes; Michael Coughlin

    1992-01-01

    We have investigated the co-involvement of enclogenous NGF and impulses in the collateral sprouting of cutaneous sensory nerves in adult rats, specifically the A&axons in- volved in mechanonociception and the C-fibers that mediate heat nociception. Their collateral sprouting was measured by the progressive expansion, respectively, of the behav- iorally defined \\

  1. The effect of aging on the density of the sensory nerve fiber innervation of bone and acute skeletal pain

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Andrade, Juan M.; Mantyh, William G.; Bloom, Aaron P.; Freeman, Katie T.; Ghilardi, Joseph R.; Kuskowski, Michael A.; Mantyh, Patrick W.

    2010-01-01

    As humans age there is a decline in most sensory systems including vision, hearing, taste, smell, and tactile acuity. In contrast, the frequency and severity of musculoskeletal pain generally increases with age. To determine whether the density of sensory nerve fibers that transduce skeletal pain changes with age, calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and neurofilament 200 kDa (NF200) sensory nerve fibers that innervate the femur were examined in the femurs of young (4 month old), middle-aged (13 month) and old (36 month) male F344/BNF1 rats. Whereas the bone quality showed a significant age-related decline, the density of CGRP+ and NF200+ nerve fibers that innervate the bone remained remarkably unchanged as well as the severity of acute skeletal fracture pain. Thus, while bone mass, quality and strength undergo a significant decline with age, the density of sensory nerve fibers that transduce noxious stimuli remain largely intact. These data may in part explain why musculoskeletal pain increases with age. PMID:20947214

  2. Impulses in the sensory nerves in response to stimulation of the skin receptors of immunized animals with antigen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Gordienko; B. A. Saakov; I. M. Bondarev

    1959-01-01

    The skin receptors of the immunized animals react to specific antigens for a more prolonged time and often with greater intensity. The reaction is more prolonged, the frequency of the bioelectrical potential oscillations of the sensory nerves becomes greater. This is, probably, one of the most important factors showing the changed reaction of the immunized animals to the administration of

  3. Nerve Growth Factor Antiserum Induces Axotomy-Like Changes in Neuropeptide Expression in Intact Sympathetic and Sensory Neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annette M. Shadiack; Yi Sun; Richard E. Zigmond

    2001-01-01

    Axonal transection of adult sympathetic and sensory neurons leads to a decrease in their content of target-derived nerve growth factor (NGF) and to dramatic changes in the expression of several neuropeptides and enzymes involved in transmitter biosynthesis. For example, axotomy of sympathetic neurons in the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) dramatically increases levels of galanin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and sub-

  4. Self-powered sensory nerve system for civil structures using hybrid forisome actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoureshi, Rahmat A.; Shen, Amy

    2006-03-01

    In order to provide a true distributed sensor and control system for civil structures, we have developed a Structural Nervous System that mimics key attributes of a human nervous system. This nervous system is made up of building blocks that are designed based on mechanoreceptors as a fundamentally new approach for the development of a structural health monitoring and diagnostic system that utilizes the recently discovered plant-protein forisomes, a novel non-living biological material capable of sensing and actuation. In particular, our research has been focused on producing a sensory nervous system for civil structures by using forisomes as the mechanoreceptors, nerve fibers, neuronal pools, and spinocervical tract to the nodal and central processing units. This paper will present up to date results of our research, including the design and analysis of the structural nervous system.

  5. Selective Targeting of TRPV1 Expressing Sensory Nerve Terminals in the Spinal Cord for Long Lasting Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Sikand, Parul; Parihar, Arti; Evans, M. Steven; Premkumar, Louis S.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic pain is a major clinical problem and opiates are often the only treatment, but they cause significant problems ranging from sedation to deadly respiratory depression. Resiniferatoxin (RTX), a potent agonist of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), causes a slow, sustained and irreversible activation of TRPV1 and increases the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents, but causes significant depression of evoked EPSCs due to nerve terminal depolarization block. Intrathecal administration of RTX to rats in the short-term inhibits nociceptive synaptic transmission, and in the long-term causes a localized, selective ablation of TRPV1-expressing central sensory nerve terminals leading to long lasting analgesia in behavioral models. Since RTX actions are selective for central sensory nerve terminals, other efferent functions of dorsal root ganglion neurons can be preserved. Preventing nociceptive transmission at the level of the spinal cord can be a useful strategy to treat chronic, debilitating and intractable pain. PMID:19753113

  6. Behavioural and histological observations of sensory impairment caused by tight ligation of the trigeminal nerve in mice.

    PubMed

    Seino, Hiroyuki; Seo, Kenji; Maeda, Takeyasu; Someya, Genji

    2009-06-30

    Dental treatments sometimes cause sensory impairment, especially in the region innervated by the third division of the trigeminal nerve. The most frequent symptoms are loss of sensation and abnormal sensation. Although most studies have addressed the neuropathic symptom "allodynia" using experimental animal models of the infraorbital nerve, there is little information regarding the sensory impairment that frequently occurs clinically. Therefore, different experimental models are required to clarify the mechanisms of the clinical effects, and previous experimental models have been limited to rats. Here, we report a sensory impairment model in mice whose mechanical touch threshold increased after tight ligation of the mental nerve. Habituation before surgery by mechanical touching of the face enabled us to observe the long-term chronological changes in sensation. The mechanical touch thresholds within the mental nerve region were measured for 70 postoperative (PO) days. Changes in the distribution of substance P (SP) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry to clarify the involvement of axonal flow in the sensory impairment and its recovery. The mechanical touch thresholds transiently increased by PO days 2-3, but decreased to the preoperative levels at around PO day 14. Apparent SP immunoreactivity was recognizable on the medial side to the ligation at PO days 2-3 and disappeared at PO day 7. These behavioural and immunohistochemical changes appeared to exhibit similar time courses, suggesting a possible relationship between them. Therefore, we suggest that our experimental mouse model could represent a new model for clarifying the mechanism of the sensory impairment caused by peripheral nerve injury. PMID:19409417

  7. THE MAJORITY OF MYELINATED AND UNMYELINATED SENSORY NERVE FIBERS THAT INNERVATE BONE EXPRESS THE TROPOMYOSIN RECEPTOR KINASE A

    PubMed Central

    Castańeda-Corral, Gabriela; Jimenez-Andrade, Juan M.; Bloom, Aaron P.; Taylor, Reid N.; Mantyh, William G.; Kaczmarska, Magdalena J.; Ghilardi, Joseph R.; Mantyh, Patrick W.

    2011-01-01

    Although skeletal pain is a leading cause of chronic pain and disability, relatively little is known about the specific populations of nerve fibers that innervate the skeleton. Recent studies have reported that therapies blocking nerve growth factor (NGF) or its cognate receptor, tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) are efficacious in attenuating skeletal pain. A potential factor to consider when assessing the analgesic efficacy of targeting NGF-TrkA signaling in a pain state is the fraction of NGF-responsive TrkA+ nociceptors that innervate the tissue from which the pain is arising, as this innervation and the analgesic efficacy of targeting NGF-TrkA signaling may vary considerably from tissue to tissue. To explore this in the skeleton, tissue slices and whole mount preparations of the normal, adult mouse femur were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Analysis of these preparations revealed that 80% of the unmyelinated/thinly myelinated sensory nerve fibers that express calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and innervate the periosteum, mineralized bone and bone marrow also express TrkA. Similarly, the majority of myelinated sensory nerve fibers that express neurofilament 200 kDa (NF200) which innervate the periosteum, mineralized bone and bone marrow also co-express TrkA. In the normal femur, the relative density of CGRP+, NF200+ and TrkA+ sensory nerve fibers per unit volume is: periosteum > bone marrow > mineralized bone > cartilage with the respective relative densities being 100: 2: 0.1: 0. The observation that the majority of sensory nerve fibers innervating the skeleton express TrkA+, may in part explain why therapies that block NGF/TrkA pathway are highly efficacious in attenuating skeletal pain. PMID:21277945

  8. Implementation of Linear Sensory Signaling via Multiple Coordinated Mechanisms at Central Vestibular Nerve Synapses.

    PubMed

    McElvain, Lauren E; Faulstich, Michael; Jeanne, James M; Moore, Jeffrey D; du Lac, Sascha

    2015-03-01

    Signal transfer in neural circuits is dynamically modified by the recent history of neuronal activity. Short-term plasticity endows synapses with nonlinear transmission properties, yet synapses in sensory and motor circuits are capable of signaling linearly over a wide range of presynaptic firing rates. How do such synapses achieve rate-invariant transmission despite history-dependent nonlinearities? Here, ultrastructural, biophysical, and computational analyses demonstrate that concerted molecular, anatomical, and physiological refinements are required for central vestibular nerve synapses to linearly transmit rate-coded sensory signals. Vestibular synapses operate in a physiological regime of steady-state depression imposed by tonic firing. Rate-invariant transmission relies on brief presynaptic action potentials that delimit calcium influx, large pools of rapidly mobilized vesicles, multiple low-probability release sites, robust postsynaptic receptor sensitivity, and efficient transmitter clearance. Broadband linear synaptic filtering of head motion signals is thus achieved by coordinately tuned synaptic machinery that maintains physiological operation within inherent cell biological limitations. PMID:25704949

  9. Variation in quantitative sensory testing and epidermal nerve fiber density in repeated measurements.

    PubMed

    Selim, Mona M; Wendelschafer-Crabb, Gwen; Hodges, James S; Simone, Donald A; Foster, Shawn X Y-L; Vanhove, Geertrui F; Kennedy, William R

    2010-12-01

    Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is commonly used to evaluate peripheral sensory function in neuropathic conditions. QST measures vary in repeated measurements of normal subjects but it is not known whether QST can reflect small changes in epidermal nerve fiber density (ENFd). This study evaluated QST measures (touch, mechanical pain, heat pain and innocuous cold sensations) for differences between genders and over time using ENFd as an objective-independent measure. QST was performed on the thighs of 36 healthy volunteers on four occasions between December and May. ENFd in skin biopsies was determined on three of those visits. Compared to men, women had a higher ENFd, a difference of 12.2 ENFs/mm. They also had lower tactile and innocuous cold thresholds, and detected mechanical pain (pinprick) at a higher frequency. Heat pain thresholds did not differ between genders. By the end of the 24-week study, men and women showed a small reduction (p<0.05) in the frequency of sharp mechanical pain evoked by pinprick whereas tactile and thermal thresholds showed no change. This coincided with a small decrease in ENFd, 4.18 ENFs/mm. Variation in measurements over time was large in a fraction of normal subjects. We conclude that most QST measures detect relatively large differences in epidermal innervation (12.2 ENFs/mm), but response to mechanical pain was the only sensory modality tested with the sensitivity to detect small changes in innervation (4.18 ENFs/mm). Since some individuals had large unsystematic variations, unexpected test results should therefore alert clinicians to test additional locations. PMID:20851518

  10. Roles of sensory nerves in the regulation of radiation-induced structural and functional changes in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Tripathi, Preeti; Sharma, Sunil; Moros, Eduardo G.; Zheng, Junying; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Boerma, Marjan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) is a chronic severe side effect of radiotherapy of intrathoracic and chest wall tumors. The heart contains a dense network of sensory neurons that are not only involved in monitoring of cardiac events such as ischemia/reperfusion, but also play a role in cardiac tissue homeostasis, preconditioning, and repair. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of sensory nerves in RIHD. Methods and Materials Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered capsaicin to permanently ablate sensory nerves, two weeks before local image-guided heart X-ray irradiation with a single dose of 21 Gy. During the 6-months follow up time, heart function was assessed with high resolution echocardiography. At 6 months after irradiation, cardiac structural and molecular changes were examined with histology, immunohistochemistry, and Western-Blots. Results Capsaicin-pretreatment blunted the effects of radiation on myocardial fibrosis and mast cell infiltration and activity. On the other hand, capsaicin-pretreatment caused a small but significant reduction in cardiac output at 6 months after irradiation. Capsaicin did not alter the effects of radiation on cardiac macrophage number or indicators of autophagy and apoptosis. Conclusions These results suggest that sensory nerves, while playing a predominantly protective role in radiation-induced cardiac function changes, may eventually enhance radiation-induced myocardial fibrosis and mast cell activity. PMID:24331664

  11. Roles of Sensory Nerves in the Regulation of Radiation-Induced Structural and Functional Changes in the Heart

    SciTech Connect

    Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Tripathi, Preeti [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Sharma, Sunil [Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Moros, Eduardo G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Zheng, Junying [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Hauer-Jensen, Martin [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Surgical Service, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Boerma, Marjan, E-mail: mboerma@uams.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) is a chronic severe side effect of radiation therapy of intrathoracic and chest wall tumors. The heart contains a dense network of sensory neurons that not only are involved in monitoring of cardiac events such as ischemia and reperfusion but also play a role in cardiac tissue homeostasis, preconditioning, and repair. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of sensory nerves in RIHD. Methods and Materials: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered capsaicin to permanently ablate sensory nerves, 2 weeks before local image-guided heart x-ray irradiation with a single dose of 21 Gy. During the 6 months of follow-up, heart function was assessed with high-resolution echocardiography. At 6 months after irradiation, cardiac structural and molecular changes were examined with histology, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot analysis. Results: Capsaicin pretreatment blunted the effects of radiation on myocardial fibrosis and mast cell infiltration and activity. By contrast, capsaicin pretreatment caused a small but significant reduction in cardiac output 6 months after irradiation. Capsaicin did not alter the effects of radiation on cardiac macrophage number or indicators of autophagy and apoptosis. Conclusions: These results suggest that sensory nerves, although they play a predominantly protective role in radiation-induced cardiac function changes, may eventually enhance radiation-induced myocardial fibrosis and mast cell activity.

  12. Sigma-1 receptor expression in sensory neurons and the effect of painful peripheral nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The sigma-1 receptor (?1R), an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone protein, is widely distributed and regulates numerous intracellular processes in neurons. Nerve injury alters the structure and function of axotomized dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, contributing to the development of pain. The ?1R is enriched in the spinal cord and modulates pain after peripheral nerve injury. However, ?1R expression in the DRG has not been studied. We therefore characterized ?1R expression in DRGs at baseline and following spinal nerve ligation (SNL) in rats. Results Immunohistochemical (IHC) studies in DRG sections show ?1R in both neuronal somata and satellite glial cells. The punctate distribution of ?1R in the neuronal cytoplasm suggests expression in the endoplasmic reticulum. When classified by neuronal size, large neurons (>1300 ?m) showed higher levels of ?1R staining than other groups (700-1300 ?m, <700 ?m). Comparing ?1R expression in neuronal groups characterized by expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), isolectin-B4 (IB4) and neurofilament-200 (NF-200), we found ?1R expression in all three neuronal subpopulations, with highest levels of ?1R expression in the NF-200 group. After SNL, lysates from L5 DRGs that contains axotomized neurons showed decreased ?1R protein but unaffected transcript level, compared with Control DRGs. IHC images also showed decreased ?1R protein expression, in SNL L5 DRGs, and to a lesser extent in the neighboring SNL L4 DRGs. Neurons labeled by CGRP and NF-200 showed decreased ?1R expression in L5 and, to a lesser extent, L4 DRGs. In IB4-labeled neurons, ?1R expression decreased only in axotomized L5 DRGs. Satellite cells also showed decreased ?1R expression in L5 DRGs after SNL. Conclusions Our data show that ?1R is present in both sensory neurons and satellite cells in rat DRGs. Expression of ?1R is down-regulated in axotomized neurons as well as in their accompanying satellite glial cells, while neighboring uninjured neurons show a lesser down-regulation. Therefore, elevated ?1R expression in neuropathic pain is not an explanation for pain relief after ?1R blockade. This implies that increased levels of endogenous ?1R agonists may play a role, and diminished neuroprotection from loss of glial ?1R may be a contributing factor. PMID:24015960

  13. A semi-automated analysis method of small sensory nerve fibers in human skin-biopsies.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Kazuyuki; Mager, Violet A; Burnett, Lindsey A; Olson, John H; Brower, Jeremy B; Casano, Ashley R; Baluch, Debra P; Targovnik, Jerome H; Windhorst, Rogier A; Herman, Richard M

    2010-01-15

    Computerized detection method (CDM) software programs have been extensively developed in the field of astronomy to process and analyze images from nearby bright stars to tiny galaxies at the edge of the Universe. These object-recognition algorithms have potentially broader applications, including the detection and quantification of cutaneous small sensory nerve fibers (SSNFs) found in the dermal and epidermal layers, and in the intervening basement membrane of a skin punch biopsy. Here, we report the use of astronomical software adapted as a semi-automated method to perform density measurements of SSNFs in skin-biopsies imaged by Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSCM). In the first half of the paper, we present a detailed description of how the CDM is applied to analyze the images of skin punch biopsies. We compare the CDM results to the visual classification results in the second half of the paper. Abbreviations used in the paper, description of each astronomical tools, and their basic settings and how-tos are described in the appendices. Comparison between the normalized CDM and the visual classification results on identical images demonstrates that the two density measurements are comparable. The CDM therefore can be used - at a relatively low cost - as a quick (a few hours for entire processing of a single biopsy with 8-10 scans) and reliable (high-repeatability with minimum user-dependence) method to determine the densities of SSNFs. PMID:19852982

  14. Pharmacologic rescue of motor and sensory function by the neuroprotective compound P7C3 following neonatal nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Kemp, S W P; Szynkaruk, M; Stanoulis, K N; Wood, M D; Liu, E H; Willand, M P; Morlock, L; Naidoo, J; Williams, N S; Ready, J M; Mangano, T J; Beggs, S; Salter, M W; Gordon, T; Pieper, A A; Borschel, G H

    2015-01-22

    Nerve injuries cause pain, paralysis and numbness that can lead to major disability, and newborns often sustain nerve injuries during delivery that result in lifelong impairment. Without a pharmacologic agent to enhance functional recovery from these injuries, clinicians rely solely on surgery and rehabilitation to treat patients. Unfortunately, patient outcomes remain poor despite application of the most advanced microsurgical and rehabilitative techniques. We hypothesized that the detrimental effects of traumatic neonatal nerve injury could be mitigated with pharmacologic neuroprotection, and tested whether the novel neuroprotective agent P7C3 would block peripheral neuron cell death and enhance functional recovery in a rat neonatal nerve injury model. Administration of P7C3 after sciatic nerve crush injury doubled motor and sensory neuron survival, and also promoted axon regeneration in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with P7C3 also enhanced behavioral and muscle functional recovery, and reversed pathological mobilization of spinal microglia after injury. Our findings suggest that the P7C3 family of neuroprotective compounds may provide a basis for the development of a new neuroprotective drug to enhance recovery following peripheral nerve injury. PMID:25313000

  15. A comparison of nerve conduction velocities and current perception thresholds as correlates of clinical severity of diabetic sensory neuropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Rendell, M S; Katims, J J; Richter, R; Rowland, F

    1989-01-01

    Nerve conduction velocities (NCVs) are the standard measurements used to confirm the presence or absence of diabetic neuropathy. NCVs were contrasted with the newer technique of measurement of alternating current perception thresholds (CPTs) in assessing the quantitative level of correlation with severity of diabetic sensory neuropathy. A very detailed, scored neurological history (symptoms) and physical examination, emphasising sensory assessment, was conducted on 71 individuals with diabetic neuropathy of varying degrees of severity. Sensory and motor NCVs and CPTs at 5, 250, and 2000 Hz of the upper and lower extremities were determined for these individuals. In addition, vibration thresholds (VTs) were measured as a third modality. Twenty eight individuals underwent repeated evaluations at 2, 6, 10 and 12 months after the initial procedures. Using the results of 169 complete evaluations, correlations were determined between physical scores (PS) and symptoms scores (SS) and NCVs. NCV correlations with the SS were weaker than with the PS. The strongest of the correlations were found between the PS and motor NCVs of the median nerve (rho = 0.29) and the tibial nerve (rho = 0.38). Normal NCVs were present in the face of very significant historical and physical abnormality. Correlations of the SS and PS with both VTs and CPTs were higher than with the NCVs. CPTs proved the more effective as predictors of both symptomatic and physical impairment. NCVs appear to lack the resolving power necessary to evaluate subtle differences in clinical state of diabetic sensory neuropathy. The supplementary use of current perception testing may improve the quantitative assessment of this condition. PMID:2738593

  16. Refining the Sensory and Motor Ratunculus of the Rat Upper Extremity Using fMRI and Direct Nerve Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Younghoon R.; Pawela, Christopher P.; Li, Rupeng; Kao, Dennis; Schulte, Marie L.; Runquist, Matthew L.; Yan, Ji-Geng; Matloub, Hani S.; Jaradeh, Safwan S.; Hudetz, Anthony G.; Hyde, James S.

    2008-01-01

    It is well understood that the different regions of the body have cortical representations in proportion to the degree of innervation. Our current understanding of the rat upper extremity has been enhanced using functional MRI (fMRI), but these studies are often limited to the rat forepaw. The purpose of this study is to describe a new technique that allows us to refine the sensory and motor representations in the cerebral cortex by surgically implanting electrodes on the major nerves of the rat upper extremity and providing direct electrical nerve stimulation while acquiring fMRI images. This technique was used to stimulate the ulnar, median, radial, and musculocutaneous nerves in the rat upper extremity using four different stimulation sequences that varied in frequency (5 Hz vs. 10 Hz) and current (0.5 mA vs. 1.0 mA). A distinct pattern of cortical activation was found for each nerve. The higher stimulation current resulted in a dramatic increase in the level of cortical activation. The higher stimulation frequency resulted in both increases and attenuation of cortical activation in different regions of the brain, depending on which nerve was stimulated. PMID:17969116

  17. Low-level laser treatment improves longstanding sensory aberrations in the inferior alveolar nerve following surgical trauma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khullar, Shelley M.; Brodin, P.; Barkvoll, P.; Haanoes, H. R.

    1996-01-01

    The incidence of inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) damage following removal of 3rd molar teeth or saggital split osteotomy has been reported as high as up to 5.5% and 100% respectively. Sensory aberrations in the IAN persisting for longer than 6 months leave some degree of permanent defect. Low level laser treatment (LLL) has a reported beneficial effect on regeneration of traumatically injured nerves. The purpose of this double blind clinical trial was to examine the effects of LLL using a GaAlAs laser (820 nm, Ronvig, Denmark) on touch and temperature sensory perception following a longstanding post surgical IAN injury. Thirteen patients were divided into two groups, one of which received real LLL (4 by 6 J per treatment along the distribution of the IAN to a total of 20 treatments during a time period between 36 - 69 days) and the other equivalent placebo LLL. The degree of mechanoreceptor injury as assessed by Semmes Weinstein Monofilaments (North Coast Medical, USA) were comparable in the two groups prior to treatment (p equals 0.9). Subsequent to LLL the real laser treatment group showed a significant improvement in mechanoreceptor sensory testing (p equals 0.01) as manifested by a decrease in load threshold (g) necessary to elicit a response from the most damaged area. The placebo LLL group showed no significant improvement, In addition, the real LLL group reported a subjective improvement in sensory function too. The degree of thermal sensitivity disability as assessed using a thermotester (Philips, Sweden) was comparable between the two groups prior to LLL p equals 0.5). However, there was no significant improvement in thermal sensitivity post LLL for either the real or placebo laser treated groups. In conclusion, GaAlAs LLL can improve mechanoreceptor perception in longstanding sensory aberration in the IAN.

  18. Median-ulnar nerve communications: electrophysiological demonstration of motor and sensory fibre cross-over

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Santoro; R. Rosato; G. Caruso

    1983-01-01

    In a 33-year-old female with carpal tunnel syndrome the presence of anomalous communications between median and ulnar nerves was electrophysiologically demonstrated in the forearm. Motor latencies from proximal and distal stimulation sites along the median nerve fibres to the abductor pollicis brevis were identical. Proximal latency “increased” after procaine infiltration of the ulnar nerve at the wrist. Normal latency to

  19. [Peripheral nerve lesions of experimental leprosy in monkeys. V. Histopathological finding of cutaneous nerves and cutaneous sensory organs].

    PubMed

    Fukunishi, Y

    1989-01-01

    The skin samples of each palm side and dorsum side of finger, nose and peripheral nerves running under the finger skin at the area between proximal phalanx and distal phalanx of mangabey monkey A022 and rhesus monkey A125 were studied by histopathological methods (semithin section and light microscopic findings). Results found about this study were as follows. 1. In spite of the existence of a large amount of leprosy bacilli at the areas of corium and subcutis, some of Meissner's corpuscles, Vater-Pacinian corpuscles (or Golgi-Mazzoni's corpuscles) and Krauze's end bulbs-like structures were observed. 2. Occasionally, several intracytoplasmic foamy structures containing a large amount of leprosy bacilli were observed at the shallow and deep layers of stratum papillare of corium, where leprosy bacilli were not so remarkable as shown on Figure 4. So, it was thought that the affinity of leprosy bacilli to free nerve endings should be exist there. 3. Some of M. arrector pili were kept in good condition in spite of the existence of multiplying leprosy bacilli around the hair follicles. 4. It was thought that the histopathological findings of the fascicles of cutaneous nerves were classified to 4 patterns. The first pattern of histopathological finding of the cutaneous nerve was shown as A on Figure 25. In this pattern observed in almost of all the fascicles locating at the subcutis, no leprosy bacillus was observed inside the fascicles, and the nerve fibers were kept in good condition. The second pattern observed in almost of all the fascicles located at the corium, was shown as B on Figure 25. In this pattern, a large amount of leprosy bacilli were observed inside the fascicles, and the nerve fibers were often kept in good condition. The third pattern observed in almost of all the fascicles located at the deep layer of corium and subcutis, was shown as C on Figure 25. In this pattern, not only multiplying leprosy bacilli but also remarkable fibrosis were found inside one fascicle, and many nerve fibers disappeared by the existence of the bacilli and fibrosis. The final pattern observed in almost of all the fascicles located at the deep layer of corium and subcutis, was shown as D on Figure 25. In this pattern, remarkable fibrosis was observed inside the fascicles, and the nerve fibers often disappeared by the existence of fibrosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2697712

  20. Capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves exert complex regulatory functions in the serum-transfer mouse model of autoimmune arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Borbély, Éva; Botz, Bálint; Bölcskei, Kata; Kenyér, Tibor; Kereskai, László; Kiss, Tamás; Szolcsányi, János; Pintér, Erika; Csepregi, Janka Zsófia; Mócsai, Attila; Helyes, Zsuzsanna

    2015-01-01

    Objective The K/BxN serum-transfer arthritis is a widely-used translational mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis, in which the immunological components have thoroughly been investigated. In contrast, little is known about the role of sensory neural factors and the complexity of neuro–immune interactions. Therefore, we analyzed the involvement of capsaicin-sensitive peptidergic sensory nerves in autoantibody-induced arthritis with integrative methodology. Methods Arthritogenic K/BxN or control serum was injected to non-pretreated mice or resiniferatoxin (RTX)-pretreated animals where capsaicin-sensitive nerves were inactivated. Edema, touch sensitivity, noxious heat threshold, joint function, body weight and clinical arthritis severity scores were determined repeatedly throughout two weeks. Micro-CT and in vivo optical imaging to determine matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP) and neutrophil-derived myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, semiquantitative histopathological scoring and radioimmunoassay to measure somatostatin in the joint homogenates were also performed. Results In RTX-pretreated mice, the autoantibody-induced joint swelling, arthritis severity score, MMP and MPO activities, as well as histopathological alterations were significantly greater compared to non-pretreated animals. Self-control quantification of the bone mass revealed decreased values in intact female mice, but significantly greater arthritis-induced pathological bone formation after RTX-pretreatment. In contrast, mechanical hyperalgesia from day 10 was smaller after inactivating capsaicin-sensitive afferents. Although thermal hyperalgesia did not develop, noxious heat threshold was significantly higher following RTX pretreatment. Somatostatin-like immunoreactivity elevated in the tibiotarsal joints in non-pretreated, which was significantly less in RTX-pretreated mice. Conclusions Although capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves mediate mechanical hyperalgesia in the later phase of autoantibody-induced chronic arthritis, they play important anti-inflammatory roles at least partially through somatostatin release. PMID:25524130

  1. Selective decrease of small sensory neurons in lumbar dorsal root ganglia labeled with horseradish peroxidase after ND:YAG laser irradiation of the tibial nerve in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Wesselmann, U.; Lin, S.F.; Rymer, W.Z. (Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (USA))

    1991-02-01

    Recent electrophysiological evidence indicates that Q-switched Nd:YAG laser irradiation might have selective effects on neural impulse transmission in small slow conducting sensory nerve fibers as compared to large diameter afferents. In an attempt to clarify the ultimate fate of sensory neurons after laser application to their peripheral axons, we have used horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as a cell marker to retrogradely label sensory neurons innervating the distal hindlimb in the rat. Pulsed Nd:YAG laser light was applied to the tibial nerve at pulse energies of 70 or 80 mJ/pulse for 5 min in experimental rats. Seven days later HRP was applied to the left (laser-treated) and to the contralateral (untreated) tibial nerve proximal to the site of laser irradiation. In control animals the numbers of HRP-labeled dorsal root ganglion cells were not significantly different between the right and the left side. In contrast, after previous laser irradiation labeling was always less on the laser-treated side (2183 +/- 513 cells, mean +/- SEM) as compared to the untreated side (3937 +/- 225). Analysis of the dimensions of labeled cells suggested that the reduction of labeled cells on the laser-treated side was mainly due to a deficit in small sensory neurons. Since the conduction velocity of nerve fibers is related to the size of their somata, our histological data imply that laser light selectively affects retrograde transport mechanisms for HRP in slow conducting sensory nerve fibers.

  2. Differential motor and sensory functional recovery in male but not female adult rats is associated with remyelination rather than axon regeneration after sciatic nerve crush.

    PubMed

    Tong, Ling-Ling; Ding, You-Quan; Jing, Hong-Bo; Li, Xuan-Yang; Qi, Jian-Guo

    2015-05-01

    Peripheral nerve functional recovery after injuries relies on both axon regeneration and remyelination. Both axon regeneration and remyelination require intimate interactions between regenerating neurons and their accompanying Schwann cells. Previous studies have shown that motor and sensory neurons are intrinsically different in their regeneration potentials. Moreover, denervated Schwann cells accompanying myelinated motor and sensory axons have distinct gene expression profiles for regeneration-associated growth factors. However, it is unknown whether differential motor and sensory functional recovery exists. If so, the particular one among axon regeneration and remyelination responsible for this difference remains unclear. Here, we aimed to establish an adult rat sciatic nerve crush model with the nonserrated microneedle holders and measured rat motor and sensory functions during regeneration. Furthermore, axon regeneration and remyelination was evaluated by morphometric analysis of electron microscopic images on the basis of nerve fiber classification. Our results showed that A? fiber-mediated motor function was successfully recovered in both male and female rats. A? fiber-mediated sensory function was partially restored in male rats, but completely recovered in female littermates. For both male and female rats, the numbers of regenerated motor and sensory axons were quite comparable. However, remyelination was diverse among myelinated motor and sensory nerve fibers. In detail, A? and A? fibers incompletely remyelinated in male, but not female rats, whereas A? fibers fully remyelinated in both sexes. Our result indicated that differential motor and sensory functional recovery in male but not female adult rats is associated with remyelination rather than axon regeneration after sciatic nerve crush. PMID:25830493

  3. Electromyographic mixed nerve and cutaneous silent period in evaluating the A-delta fibres in a patient with hereditary sensory-autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Corsi, Fablo Maria; Fausti, Silvia; Serrao, Mariano; Casali, Carlo; Parisi, Leoluca; Piazza, Giuseppe

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate A-delta fibre function in a patient with hereditary sensory-autonomic neuropathy (HSAN). We used the mixed and cutaneous silent period techniques in addition to a conventional electromyographic investigation in a patient with type 2 HSAN, a rare disease characterised by wide-spread sensory and variable autonomic dysfunction caused by incomplete development of sensory and autonomic neurons. Whereas the stimulation of one digital nerve did not show any evidence of silent period in either the left or the right hand, the simultaneous stimulation of two digital nerves, as well as the stimulation of a mixed nerve, revealed a measurable delayed and shortened silent period. These data suggest that a spatial summation mediated by A-delta fibres was required for generation of the silent period in this patient and that combining the CSP and MNSP may be of practical use in evaluating impairment of the small myelinated fibres. PMID:12086110

  4. Systemic acetyl- l -carnitine eliminates sensory neuronal loss after peripheral axotomy: a new clinical approach in the management of peripheral nerve trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew McKay Hart; Mikael Wiberg; Mike Youle; Giorgio Terenghi

    2002-01-01

    Several hundred thousand peripheral nerve injuries occur each year in Europe alone. Largely due to the death of around 40%\\u000a of primary sensory neurons, sensory outcome remains disappointingly poor despite considerable advances in surgical technique;\\u000a yet no clinical therapies currently exist to prevent this neuronal death. Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR) is a physiological peptide with roles in mitochondrial bioenergetic function, which may

  5. Nerve growth factor/p75 neurotrophin receptor–mediated sensitization of rat sensory neurons depends on membrane cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y.H.; Khanna, R.; Nicol, G.D.

    2013-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is an important mediator in the initiation of the inflammatory response and NGF via activation of the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) and downstream sphingomyelin signaling leads to significant enhancement of the excitability of small diameter sensory neurons. Because of the interaction between sphingomyelin and cholesterol in creating membrane liquid-ordered domains known as membrane or lipid rafts, we examined whether neuronal NGF-induced sensitization via p75NTR was dependent on the integrity of membrane rafts. Here, we demonstrate that the capacity of NGF to enhance the excitability of sensory neurons may result from the interaction of p75NTR with its downstream signaling partner(s) in membrane rafts. Two agents known to disrupt membrane rafts, edelfosine and methyl-?-cyclodextrin (M?CD), block the increase in excitability produced by NGF. In contrast, treatment with M?CD containing saturated amounts of cholesterol does not alter the capacity of NGF to augment excitability. In addition, adding back M?CD with cholesterol restored the NGF-induced sensitization in previously cholesterol-depleted neurons, suggesting that cholesterol and the structural integrity of rafts are key in promoting NGF-mediated sensitization. Using established protocols to isolate detergent-resistant membranes, both p75NTR and the neuronal membrane raft marker, flotillin, localize to raft fractions. These results suggest that downstream signaling partners interacting with p75NTR in sensory neurons are associated with membrane raft signaling platforms. PMID:23811397

  6. Intracerebroventricular Administration of Nerve Growth Factor Induces Gliogenesis in Sensory Ganglia, Dorsal Root, and within the Dorsal Root Entry Zone

    PubMed Central

    Schlachetzki, Johannes C. M.; Pizzo, Donald P.; Morrissette, Debbi A.; Winkler, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that intracerebroventricular administration of nerve growth factor (NGF) leads to massive Schwann cell hyperplasia surrounding the medulla oblongata and spinal cord. This study was designed to characterize the proliferation of peripheral glial cells, that is, Schwann and satellite cells, in the trigeminal ganglia and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of adult rats during two weeks of NGF infusion using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells. The trigeminal ganglia as well as the cervical and lumbar DRG were analyzed. Along the entire neuraxis a small number of dividing cells were observed within these regions under physiological condition. NGF infusion has dramatically increased the generation of new cells in the neuronal soma and axonal compartments of sensory ganglia and along the dorsal root and the dorsal root entry zone. Quantification of BrdU positive cells within sensory ganglia revealed a 2.3- to 3-fold increase in glial cells compared to controls with a similar response to NGF for the different peripheral ganglia examined. Immunofluorescent labeling with S100? revealed that Schwann and satellite cells underwent mitosis after NGF administration. These data indicate that intracerebroventricular NGF infusion significantly induces gliogenesis in trigeminal ganglia and the spinal sensory ganglia and along the dorsal root entry zone as well as the dorsal root. PMID:24738070

  7. The effects of juvenile capsaicin desensitization in rats: behavioral impairments.

    PubMed

    Petrovszki, Zita; Adam, Gábor; Kekesi, Gabriella; Tuboly, Gábor; Morvay, Zita; Nagy, Endre; Benedek, György; Horvath, Gyöngyi

    2014-02-10

    Capsaicin desensitization leads to behavioral changes, some of which are related to schizophrenia, but investigations into these effects have been scarce. The goal of this study was to characterize the consequences of juvenile capsaicin desensitization on different functions: acute and inflammation-induced thermal and mechanical sensitivity, urinary bladder capacity and thermoregulation, and also on the potentially schizophrenia-related impairments in sensory-motor gating, motor activity and cognitive functioning. Male Wistar rats desensitized with increasing doses of subcutaneous capsaicin after weaning were investigated. Heat and mechanical pain sensitivity did not change significantly; however, morphine produced a prolonged decrease in the nociceptive response to inflammation in desensitized animals. Ultrasound examination of the bladder revealed enhanced bladder volume in treated animals. Capsaicin-treated animals had higher body temperature at 22 °C in both dark and light periods, and they also showed prolonged hyperthermia in new environmental circumstances. Warm environment induced a profound impairment of thermoregulation in desensitized animals. The treated animals also showed higher levels of activity during the active phase and at both cool and warm temperatures. The amplitude of the responses to auditory stimuli and prepulse inhibition did not differ between the two groups, but the desensitized animals showed learning impairments in the novel object recognition test. These results suggest that juvenile capsaicin desensitization leads to sustained changes in several functions that may be related to schizophrenia. We propose that capsaicin desensitization, together with other interventions, may lead to an improved chronic animal model of schizophrenia. PMID:24291382

  8. Impact of carpal tunnel surgery according to pre-operative abnormality of sensory conduction in median nerve: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We have previously proposed that sensory nerve conduction (SNC) in the median nerve should be classed as abnormal when the difference between conduction velocities in the little and index fingers is > 8 m/s. In a prospective longitudinal study, we investigated whether this case definition distinguished patients who were more likely to benefit from surgical treatment. Methods We followed up 394 patients (response rate 56%), who were investigated by a neurophysiology service for suspected carpal tunnel syndrome. Information about symptoms, treatment and other possible determinants of outcome was obtained through questionnaires at baseline and after follow-up for a mean of 19.2 months. Analysis focused on 656 hands with numbness, tingling or pain at baseline. Associations of surgical treatment with resolution of symptoms were assessed by Poisson regression, and summarised by prevalence rate ratios (PRRs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results During follow-up, 154 hands (23%) were treated surgically, and sensory symptoms resolved in 241 hands (37%). In hands with abnormal median SNC, surgery was associated with resolution of numbness, tingling and pain (PRR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.2), and of numbness and tingling specifically (PRR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.6). In contrast, no association was apparent for either outcome when median SNC was classed as normal. Conclusions Our definition of abnormal median SNC distinguished a subset of patients who appeared to benefit from surgical treatment. This predictive capacity gives further support to its validity as a diagnostic criterion in epidemiological research. PMID:23947746

  9. Tiotropium modulates transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1) in airway sensory nerves: A beneficial off-target effect???

    PubMed Central

    Birrell, Mark A.; Bonvini, Sara J.; Dubuis, Eric; Maher, Sarah A.; Wortley, Michael A.; Grace, Megan S.; Raemdonck, Kristof; Adcock, John J.; Belvisi, Maria G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested that the long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist tiotropium, a drug widely prescribed for its bronchodilator activity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, improves symptoms and attenuates cough in preclinical and clinical tussive agent challenge studies. The mechanism by which tiotropium modifies tussive responses is not clear, but an inhibition of vagal tone and a consequent reduction in mucus production from submucosal glands and bronchodilation have been proposed. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether tiotropium can directly modulate airway sensory nerve activity and thereby the cough reflex. Methods We used a conscious cough model in guinea pigs, isolated vagal sensory nerve and isolated airway neuron tissue– and cell-based assays, and in vivo single-fiber recording electrophysiologic techniques. Results Inhaled tiotropium blocked cough and single C-fiber firing in the guinea pig to the transient receptor potential (TRP) V1 agonist capsaicin, a clinically relevant tussive stimulant. Tiotropium and ipratropium, a structurally similar muscarinic antagonist, inhibited capsaicin responses in isolated guinea pig vagal tissue, but glycopyrrolate and atropine did not. Tiotropium failed to modulate other TRP channel–mediated responses. Complementary data were generated in airway-specific primary ganglion neurons, demonstrating that tiotropium inhibited capsaicin-induced, but not TRPA1-induced, calcium movement and voltage changes. Conclusion For the first time, we have shown that tiotropium inhibits neuronal TRPV1-mediated effects through a mechanism unrelated to its anticholinergic activity. We speculate that some of the clinical benefit associated with taking tiotropium (eg, in symptom control) could be explained through this proposed mechanism of action. PMID:24506933

  10. Sensory impairment of the lingual and inferior alveolar nerves following removal of impacted mandibular third molars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Gülicher; K. L. Gerlach

    2001-01-01

    Abstract.In a prospective study 1106 impacted mandibular third molars were removed from 687 patients. Clinical, radiographic, and surgical factors were recorded. Postoperatively, we examined the modalities of common sensation in order to assess sensory deficit. The patients were followed up, until complete restitution occurred, or, if the sensibility failed to recover, for at least 6 months. A total of 3.6%

  11. The Anatomy and Function of 'Free' Nerve Endings in an Amphibian Skin Sensory System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Roberts; B. P. Hayes

    1977-01-01

    The skin of the body and tail in embryonic and young larval Xenopus is innervated by sensory neurones with cell bodies lying along the dorsal midline of the spinal cord. These Rohon-Beard cells have naked peripheral neurites, usually under 1 mu m in diameter, which form a loose network under the skin. In the electron microscope narrower neurites from this

  12. Phoneutria nigriventer spider venom induces oedema in rat skin by activation of capsaicin sensitive sensory nerves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soraia K. P Costa; Gilberto de Nucci; Edson Antunes; Susan D Brain

    1997-01-01

    Phoneeutria nigriventer venom induces oedema formation when injected in the rat dorsal skin and such oedema is, in part, dependent on the stimulation of tachykinin NK1 receptors. This study investigated whether Phoneutria nigriventer venom acts directly on tachykinin NK1 receptors, or indirectly to activate sensory neurones which in turn release a tachykinin NK1 receptor agonist. The plasma extravasation induced by

  13. Influence of antagonist sensory and sympathetic nerves on smooth muscle cell differentiation in hypercholesterolemic rat.

    PubMed

    Hachani, Rafik; Dab, Houcine; Sakly, Mohsen; Vicaut, Eric; Callebert, Jacques; Sercombe, Richard; Kacem, Kamel

    2010-06-24

    The effect of sympathectomy and sensory denervation on vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation was investigated in hypercholesterolemic rats. Newborn rats received injections of guanethidine, capsaicin or both for denervations. Shams received injections of vehicles. The four groups were fed 1% cholesterol diet for 3 months. Intact normocholesterolemic rats were also exploited. Serum total cholesterol and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were measured. Lipid presence in the arterial wall was shown by Red-Oil-O staining. Catecholamine- and CGRP-containing fibres, vimentin and the adult SMC markers alpha-SMC-actin, desmin and h-caldesmon were analysed in abdominal aorta by western blot and confocal microscope. The sympathetic (catecholamine) fibres and SBP increased after sensory denervation while the sensory (CGRP) fibres increased and SBP decreased after sympathectomy. SBP was not changed after double denervation. Total cholesterol increased in sham and rose further after sympathectomy. Vimentin and the three adult SMC markers were not influenced by hypercholesterolemia. However, in the sympathectomized aorta, vimentin increased, desmin did not change, whereas alpha-SMC-actin and h-caldesmon decreased. In the sensory-denervated aorta, vimentin decreased, desmin increased, alpha-SMC-actin did not change and h-caldesmon decreased but less than in sympathectomized aorta. In the doubly denervated aorta, vimentin did not change and the three adult SMC markers decreased, although less than in sympathectomized aorta for alpha-SMC-actin and h-caldesmon. Thickened intima was identified by Red-Oil-O staining in the sympathectomized and (less remarkably) doubly denervated aortas containing SMCs not fully dedifferentiated. Our findings suggest that sympathectomy induces intimal thickening and favours SMC dedifferentiation, whereas sensory denervation favours SMC differentiation. PMID:20181536

  14. Yield of the sural/radial ratio versus the medial plantar nerve in sensory neuropathies with a normal sural response.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, John P; Logigian, Eric L; Kocharian, Naira; Herrmann, David N

    2008-04-01

    The electrodiagnostic yield of the medial plantar nerve action potential (NAP) amplitude versus the sural/radial amplitude ratio (SRAR) was determined in 110 consecutive patients with clinically diagnosed distal sensory polyneuropathy (SN) and normal sural responses. Forty-five consecutive patients with clinically diagnosed lumbosacral radiculopathy served as disease controls. Of the 110 SN patients, 32 were classified clinically as SN with large-fiber involvement (SN-LFI), whereas 78 had clinically pure small-fiber SN. Plantar NAP amplitudes were abnormal in 18 of 32 patients (56%) with SN-LFI, and 15 of 78 (19%) with small-fiber SN. A SRAR <0.21 (fifth percentile of normal) was found in 7 of 32 patients (22%) with SN-LFI and 8 of 78 (10%) with small-fiber SN. In the control group, the medial plantar NAP was normal in all 45 subjects (100%), whereas the SRAR was >0.21 in 43 subjects (96%). Thus, for a 50% pretest probability of SN-LFI, the positive predictive value of an abnormal medial plantar was 100% versus 85% for a SRAR <0.21. The medial plantar NAP amplitude is a more useful measure of SN, than is the SRAR, in patients under age 70, with suspected SN-LFI. The yield of the SRAR and plantar NAP amplitude is poor when clinical signs of large-fiber sensory dysfunction are lacking. PMID:18340276

  15. Peripheral nerve regeneration and NGF-dependent neurite outgrowth of adult sensory neurons converge on STAT3 phosphorylation downstream of neuropoietic cytokine receptor gp130.

    PubMed

    Quarta, Serena; Baeumer, Bastian E; Scherbakov, Nadja; Andratsch, Manfred; Rose-John, Stefan; Dechant, Georg; Bandtlow, Christine E; Kress, Michaela

    2014-09-24

    After nerve injury, adult sensory neurons can regenerate peripheral axons and reconnect with their target tissue. Initiation of outgrowth, as well as elongation of neurites over long distances, depends on the signaling of receptors for neurotrophic growth factors. Here, we investigated the importance of gp130, the signaling subunit of neuropoietic cytokine receptors in peripheral nerve regeneration. After sciatic nerve crush, functional recovery in vivo was retarded in SNS-gp130(-/-) mice, which specifically lack gp130 in sensory neurons. Correspondingly, a significantly reduced number of free nerve endings was detected in glabrous skin from SNS-gp130(-/-) compared with control mice after nerve crush. Neurite outgrowth and STAT3 activation in vitro were severely reduced in cultures in gp130-deficient cultured neurons. Surprisingly, in neurons obtained from SNS-gp130(-/-) mice the increase in neurite length was reduced not only in response to neuropoietic cytokine ligands of gp130 but also to nerve growth factor (NGF), which does not bind to gp130-containing receptors. Neurite outgrowth in the absence of neurotrophic factors was partially rescued in gp130-deficient neurons by leptin, which activates STAT3 downstream of leptic receptor and independent of gp130. The neurite outgrowth response of gp130-deficient neurons to NGF was fully restored in the presence of leptin. Based on these findings, gp130 signaling via STAT3 activation is suggested not only to be an important regulator of peripheral nerve regeneration in vitro and in vivo, but as determining factor for the growth promoting action of NGF in adult sensory neurons. PMID:25253866

  16. Peripheral Nerve Regeneration and NGF-Dependent Neurite Outgrowth of Adult Sensory Neurons Converge on STAT3 Phosphorylation Downstream of Neuropoietic Cytokine Receptor gp130

    PubMed Central

    Quarta, Serena; Baeumer, Bastian E.; Scherbakov, Nadja; Andratsch, Manfred; Rose-John, Stefan; Dechant, Georg; Bandtlow, Christine E.

    2014-01-01

    After nerve injury, adult sensory neurons can regenerate peripheral axons and reconnect with their target tissue. Initiation of outgrowth, as well as elongation of neurites over long distances, depends on the signaling of receptors for neurotrophic growth factors. Here, we investigated the importance of gp130, the signaling subunit of neuropoietic cytokine receptors in peripheral nerve regeneration. After sciatic nerve crush, functional recovery in vivo was retarded in SNS-gp130?/? mice, which specifically lack gp130 in sensory neurons. Correspondingly, a significantly reduced number of free nerve endings was detected in glabrous skin from SNS-gp130?/? compared with control mice after nerve crush. Neurite outgrowth and STAT3 activation in vitro were severely reduced in cultures in gp130-deficient cultured neurons. Surprisingly, in neurons obtained from SNS-gp130?/? mice the increase in neurite length was reduced not only in response to neuropoietic cytokine ligands of gp130 but also to nerve growth factor (NGF), which does not bind to gp130-containing receptors. Neurite outgrowth in the absence of neurotrophic factors was partially rescued in gp130-deficient neurons by leptin, which activates STAT3 downstream of leptic receptor and independent of gp130. The neurite outgrowth response of gp130-deficient neurons to NGF was fully restored in the presence of leptin. Based on these findings, gp130 signaling via STAT3 activation is suggested not only to be an important regulator of peripheral nerve regeneration in vitro and in vivo, but as determining factor for the growth promoting action of NGF in adult sensory neurons. PMID:25253866

  17. Expression of p-Akt in Sensory Neurons and Spinal Cord after Peripheral Nerve Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tie-Jun Sten Shi; Ping Huang; Jan Mulder; Sandra Ceccatelli; Tomas Hökfelt

    2009-01-01

    Akt has been implicated in pro-survival and anti-apoptotic activities in many cell types, including dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal motor neurons. In this immunohistochemical study we have monitored phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) levels in adult mouse DRGs and spinal cord following unilateral peripheral sciatic nerve transection (axotomy) or carrageenan-induced inflammation. In control animals around half of the lumbar DRG neuron

  18. The impact and specificity of nerve perturbation on novel vibrotactile sensory letter learning.

    PubMed

    Passmore, Steven R; Bosse, Jessica; Murphy, Bernadette; Lee, Timothy D

    2014-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine if induced radiating paresthesia interferes with (a) acquisition and/or (b) utilization of complex tactile information, and (c) identify whether interference reflects tactile masking or response competition. Radiating ulnar (experiment 1) and median (experiment 2) nerve paresthesia was quantified on ulnar innervated vibrotactile Morse code letter acquisition and recollection tasks. Induced paresthesia differentially impacted letter acquisition and recollection, but only when presented to the same anatomical spatial location. PMID:24844345

  19. Regulating cough through modulation of sensory nerve function in the airways.

    PubMed

    Spina, D; Page, C P

    2013-10-01

    Whilst local anaesthetics when applied directly to laryngeal nerves or topically to the lung can suppress cough, their chronic use is constrained because of dose limiting side effects. However, the effectiveness of local anaesthetics suggests that selectivity targeting nerves in the airway may provide novel approaches for the treatment of cough in the future. There is a considerable wealth of evidence showing that there are different afferent nerve subtypes in the airways. Traditionally C-fibres have been the focus of much research in the cough field since the stimulation of these afferents by capsaicin is able to elicit cough in guinea-pigs and in man, and drugs targeting various proteins expressed in these nerves (e.g. mu-opioid, NOP1, TRPV1, sodium channels) have been shown to be anti-tussive in preclinical models of cough. However, interest in A? fibres has increased recently in light of the discovery of a specific cough receptor in the guinea-pig that is provoked by citric acid and punctate stimulation, but not capsaicin and which has been anatomically linked to A? fibres. There is also some evidence that as a result of inflammation in the airways, A? fibres can begin to express neuropeptides and TRPV1 receptors so that they can become responsive to endogenous activators of this ion channel and to irritants like capsaicin. Consequently, there is considerable interest in targeting either one or both afferent nerve types for the treatment of chronic cough. However, to date the translation of preclinical studies into man has largely been disappointing and certainly there is a need for better preclinical models in this field. There also remain many challenges to overcome at a clinical level, such as what patient group(s) should be used to assess anti-tussive drugs and whether the use of irritants that induce cough in healthy volunteers (such as citric acid or capsaicin) is of any value in the assessment of novel anti-tussive drugs. The development of several continuous monitoring methodologies for measuring cough will hopefully allow better evaluation of treatments in patients with chronic cough. Nonetheless, cough remains a major unmet clinical need in respiratory medicine where new drugs are urgently required. PMID:23524012

  20. Substitution of natural sensory input by artificial neurostimulation of an amputated trigeminal nerve does not prevent the degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic circuits projecting to the somatosensory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Rincon, Celia; Panetsos, Fivos

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral deafferentation downregulates acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis in sensory cortices. However, the responsible neural circuits and processes are not known. We irreversibly transected the rat infraorbital nerve and implanted neuroprosthetic microdevices for proximal stump stimulation, and assessed cytochrome-oxidase and choline- acetyl-transferase (ChAT) in somatosensory, auditory and visual cortices; estimated the number and density of ACh-neurons in the magnocellular basal nucleus (MBN); and localized down-regulated ACh-neurons in basal forebrain using retrograde labeling from deafferented cortices. Here we show that nerve transection, causes down regulation of MBN cholinergic neurons. Stimulation of the cut nerve reverses the metabolic decline but does not affect the decrease in cholinergic fibers in cortex or cholinergic neurons in basal forebrain. Artifical stimulation of the nerve also has no affect of ACh-innervation of other cortices. Cortical ChAT depletion is due to loss of corticopetal MBN ChAT-expressing neurons. MBN ChAT downregulation is not due to a decrease of afferent activity or to a failure of trophic support. Basalocortical ACh circuits are sensory specific, ACh is provided to each sensory cortex “on demand” by dedicated circuits. Our data support the existence of a modality-specific cortex-MBN-cortex circuit for cognitive information processing. PMID:25452715

  1. Endogenous Prostaglandins and Afferent Sensory Nerves in Gastroprotective Effect of Hydrogen Sulfide against Stress-Induced Gastric Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Magierowski, Marcin; Jasnos, Katarzyna; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Drozdowicz, Danuta; Surmiak, Marcin; Strzalka, Malgorzata; Ptak-Belowska, Agata; Wallace, John L.; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays an important role in human physiology, exerting vasodilatory, neuromodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. H2S has been implicated in the mechanism of gastrointestinal integrity but whether this gaseous mediator can affect hemorrhagic lesions induced by stress has been little elucidated. We studied the effect of the H2S precursor L-cysteine, H2S-donor NaHS, the H2S synthesizing enzyme (CSE) activity inhibitor- D,L-propargylglycine (PAG) and the gastric H2S production by CSE/CBS/3-MST activity in water immersion and restraint stress (WRS) ulcerogenesis and the accompanying changes in gastric blood flow (GBF). The role of endogenous prostaglandins (PGs) and sensory afferent nerves releasing calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the mechanism of gastroprotection induced by H2S was examined in capsaicin-denervated rats and those pretreated with capsazepine to inhibit activity of vanilloid receptors (VR-1). Rats were pretreated with vehicle, NaHS, the donor of H2S and or L-cysteine, the H2S precursor, with or without the concurrent treatment with 1) nonselective (indomethacin) and selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 (SC-560) or COX-2 (rofecoxib) inhibitors. The expression of mRNA and protein for COX-1 and COX-2 were analyzed in gastric mucosa pretreated with NaHS with or without PAG. Both NaHS and L-cysteine dose-dependently attenuated severity of WRS-induced gastric lesions and significantly increased GBF. These effects were significantly reduced by pretreatment with PAG and capsaicin denervation. NaHS increased gastric H2S production via CSE/CBS but not 3-MST activity. Inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 activity significantly diminished NaHS- and L-cysteine-induced protection and hyperemia. NaHS increased expression of COX-1, COX-2 mRNAs and proteins and raised CGRP mRNA expression. These effects of NaHS on COX-1 and COX-2 protein contents were reversed by PAG and capsaicin denervation. We conclude that H2S exerts gastroprotection against WRS-induced gastric lesions by the mechanism involving enhancement in gastric microcirculation mediated by endogenous PGs, sensory afferent nerves releasing CGRP and the activation of VR-1 receptors. PMID:25774496

  2. Endogenous Prostaglandins and Afferent Sensory Nerves in Gastroprotective Effect of Hydrogen Sulfide against Stress-Induced Gastric Lesions.

    PubMed

    Magierowski, Marcin; Jasnos, Katarzyna; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Drozdowicz, Danuta; Surmiak, Marcin; Strzalka, Malgorzata; Ptak-Belowska, Agata; Wallace, John L; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays an important role in human physiology, exerting vasodilatory, neuromodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. H2S has been implicated in the mechanism of gastrointestinal integrity but whether this gaseous mediator can affect hemorrhagic lesions induced by stress has been little elucidated. We studied the effect of the H2S precursor L-cysteine, H2S-donor NaHS, the H2S synthesizing enzyme (CSE) activity inhibitor- D,L-propargylglycine (PAG) and the gastric H2S production by CSE/CBS/3-MST activity in water immersion and restraint stress (WRS) ulcerogenesis and the accompanying changes in gastric blood flow (GBF). The role of endogenous prostaglandins (PGs) and sensory afferent nerves releasing calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the mechanism of gastroprotection induced by H2S was examined in capsaicin-denervated rats and those pretreated with capsazepine to inhibit activity of vanilloid receptors (VR-1). Rats were pretreated with vehicle, NaHS, the donor of H2S and or L-cysteine, the H2S precursor, with or without the concurrent treatment with 1) nonselective (indomethacin) and selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 (SC-560) or COX-2 (rofecoxib) inhibitors. The expression of mRNA and protein for COX-1 and COX-2 were analyzed in gastric mucosa pretreated with NaHS with or without PAG. Both NaHS and L-cysteine dose-dependently attenuated severity of WRS-induced gastric lesions and significantly increased GBF. These effects were significantly reduced by pretreatment with PAG and capsaicin denervation. NaHS increased gastric H2S production via CSE/CBS but not 3-MST activity. Inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 activity significantly diminished NaHS- and L-cysteine-induced protection and hyperemia. NaHS increased expression of COX-1, COX-2 mRNAs and proteins and raised CGRP mRNA expression. These effects of NaHS on COX-1 and COX-2 protein contents were reversed by PAG and capsaicin denervation. We conclude that H2S exerts gastroprotection against WRS-induced gastric lesions by the mechanism involving enhancement in gastric microcirculation mediated by endogenous PGs, sensory afferent nerves releasing CGRP and the activation of VR-1 receptors. PMID:25774496

  3. The quantitative contribution of nitric oxide and sensory nerves to bradykinin-induced inflammation in rat skin microvasculature.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Z; Helme, R D

    1992-08-28

    Using a blister model in the rat hind footpad, the present study undertook to examine the relative contribution of sensory nerves and nitric oxide (NO) to the inflammatory response induced by bradykinin (BK). Using this model, combined with laser Doppler flowmetry, we were able to simultaneously monitor two parameters of the inflammatory response, namely vasodilatation (VD) and plasma extravasation (PE). Perfusion of BK (1, 10 or 100 microM) over the blister base elicited both VD and PE responses which were dose-dependent. The VD response was of rapid onset, sustained at the lowest concentration (1 microM), and showed tachyphylaxis at the highest two concentrations (10 and 100 microM). The PE response, however, was delayed in onset at the lower concentration but the response was maintained at all concentrations. The endothelium-independent vasodilator, sodium nitroprusside. (SNP, 100 microM), was used as an internal control and elicited a rapid maintained VD response. In rats pretreated as neonates with capsaicin to destroy primary sensory afferents, the inflammatory response to 10 microM BK was significantly smaller (50% and 64% decrease in VD and PE, respectively). The selective inhibitor of NO synthase, NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NORAG) at 100 microM significantly attenuated the inflammatory response to BK in control rats (76% and 60% decrease in VD and PE, respectively) with a further decrease in the response in capsaicin pretreated rats. The inactive stereoisomer NG-nitro-D-arginine (D-NORAG) (100 microM) did not affect the inflammatory response to BK. The vasodilator response to SNP was intact in capsaicin pretreated rats and was not affected by either L-NORAG or D-NORAG.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1384924

  4. Clinical utility of tibial motor and sensory nerve conduction studies with motor recording from the flexor hallucis brevis: a methodological and reliability study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Standard tibial motor nerve conduction measures are established with recording from the abductor hallucis. This technique is often technically challenging and clinicians have difficulty interpreting the information particularly in the short segment needed to assess focal tibial nerve entrapment at the medial ankle as occurs in posterior tarsal tunnel syndrome. The flexor hallucis brevis (FHB) has been described as an alternative site for recording tibial nerve function in those with posterior tarsal tunnel syndrome. Normative data has not been established for this technique. This pilot study describes the technique in detail. In addition we provide reference values for medial and lateral plantar orthodromic sensory measures and assessed intrarater reliability for all measures. Methods Eighty healthy female participants took part, and 39 returned for serial testing at 4 time points. Mean values ± SD were recorded for nerve conduction measures, and coefficient of variation as well as intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated. Results Motor latency, amplitude and velocity values for the FHB were 4.1 ± 0.9 msec, 8.0 ± 3.0 mV and 45.6 ± 3.4 m/s, respectively. Sensory latencies, amplitudes, and velocities, respectively, were 2.8 ± 0.3 msec, 26.7 ± 10.1 ?V, and 41.4 ± 3.5 m/s for the medial plantar nerve and 3.2 ± 0.5 msec, 13.3 ± 4.7 ?V, and 44.3 ± 4.0 msec for the lateral plantar nerve. All values demonstrated significant ICC values (P ? 0.007). Conclusion Motor recording from the FHB provides technically clear waveforms that allow for an improved ability to assess tibial nerve function in the short segments used to assess tarsal tunnel syndrome. The reported means will begin to establish normal values for this technique. PMID:21609432

  5. Structural determinant of TRPV1 desensitization interacts with calmodulin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsuko Numazaki; Tomoko Tominaga; Kumiko Takeuchi; Namie Murayama; Hidenori Toyooka; Makoto Tominaga

    2003-01-01

    The capsaicin receptor, TRPV1 (VR1), is a sensory neuron-specific ion channel that serves as a polymodal detector of pain-producing chemical and physical stimuli. Extracellular Ca2+-dependent desensitization of TRPV1 observed in patch-clamp experiments when using both heterologous expression systems and native sensory ganglia is thought to be one mechanism underlying the paradoxical effectiveness of capsaicin as an analgesic therapy. Here, we

  6. TRPM8 on mucosal sensory nerves regulates colitogenic responses by innate immune cells via CGRP.

    PubMed

    de Jong, P R; Takahashi, N; Peiris, M; Bertin, S; Lee, J; Gareau, M G; Paniagua, A; Harris, A R; Herdman, D S; Corr, M; Blackshaw, L A; Raz, E

    2014-10-01

    TRPM8 is the molecular sensor for cold; however, the physiological role of TRPM8+ neurons at mucosal surfaces is unclear. Here we evaluated the distribution and peptidergic properties of TRPM8+ fibers in naive and inflamed colons, as well as their role in mucosal inflammation. We found that Trpm8(-/-) mice were hypersusceptible to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, and that Trpm8(-/-) CD11c+ DCs (dendritic cells) showed hyperinflammatory responses to toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation. This was phenocopied in calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor-deficient mice, but not in substance P receptor-deficient mice, suggesting a functional link between TRPM8 and CGRP. The DSS phenotype of CGRP receptor-deficient mice could be adoptively transferred to wild-type (WT) mice, suggesting that CGRP suppresses the colitogenic activity of bone marrow-derived cells. TRPM8+ mucosal fibers expressed CGRP in human and mouse colon. Furthermore, neuronal CGRP contents were increased in colons from naive and DSS-treated Trpm8(-/-) mice, suggesting deficient CGRP release in the absence of TRPM8 triggering. Finally, treatment of Trpm8(-/-) mice with CGRP reversed their hyperinflammatory phenotype. These results suggest that TRPM8 signaling in mucosal sensory neurons is indispensable for the regulation of innate inflammatory responses via the neuropeptide CGRP.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 1 October 2014; doi:10.1038/mi.2014.82. PMID:25269705

  7. Leptin in gastroprotection induced by cholecystokinin or by a meal. Role of vagal and sensory nerves and nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Brzozowski, T; Konturek, P C; Konturek, S J; Pajdo, R; Duda, A; Pierzchalski, P; Biela?ski, W; Hahn, E G

    1999-06-18

    Leptin, detected recently in the stomach, is a product of the ob gene released by cholecystokinin (CCK) and plays an important role in the control of food intake but its influence on gastroprotection against the damage caused by noxious agents has not been studied. This study was designed to compare the effects of leptin and cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8) on gastric mucosal lesions induced by topical application of 75% ethanol or acidified aspirin. Four series of Wistar rats (A, B, C and D) were used to determine the effects of: (A) suppression of prostaglandin biosynthesis by indomethacin (5 mg/kg i.p.); (B) inhibition of nitric oxide (NO)-synthase by nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (5 mg/kg i.v.); (C) blockade of sensory nerves by capsaicin (125 mg/kg s.c.) and (D) bilateral vagotomy, on the gastric lesions induced by intragastric (i.g.) application of ethanol with or without pretreatment with CCK-8, a known gastroprotective substance or leptin. CCK-8 (1-100 microg/kg i.p.) and leptin (0.1-50 microg/kg i.p.) dose dependently attenuated gastric lesions induced by 75% ethanol; the dose reducing these lesions by 50% being about 10 microg/kg and 8 microg/kg, respectively. The protective effects of CCK-8 and leptin were accompanied by a significant rise in gastric blood flow (GBF) and luminal NO concentration. Leptin was also effective to attenuate aspirin-induced damage and the accompanying fall in the GBF, whereas CCK-8 dose dependently worsened aspirin damage and failed to influence GBF. CCK (1-100 microg/kg i.p.), given in graded doses, produced a dose-dependent increase in the plasma leptin level and a rise of the expression of ob messenger RNA (mRNA) in gastric mucosa, the maximum being reached at a dose of 100 microg/kg. Pretreatment with CCK-8 (10 microg/kg i.p.) or with 8% peptone, that is known to stimulate CCK release, also produced a significant rise in plasma leptin levels and up-regulation of ob mRNA while reducing significantly the gastric lesions induced by 75% ethanol to the same extent as that induced by exogenous leptin (10 microg/kg i.p.). Indomethacin, which suppressed prostaglandin generation by approximately 90%, failed to influence leptin- or CCK-8-induced protection against ethanol, whereas L-NAME attenuated significantly CCK-8- and leptin-induced protection and hyperemia but addition to L-NAME of L-arginine, but not D-arginine, restored the protective and hyperemic effects of both hormones. The ob mRNA was detected as a weak signal in the intact gastric mucosa and in that exposed to ethanol alone but this was further enhanced after treatment with graded doses of CCK-8 or peptone meal applied prior to ethanol. We conclude that: (1) exogenous leptin or that released endogenously by CCK or meal exerts a potent gastroprotective action depending upon vagal activity, and involving hyperemia probably mediated by NO and sensory nerves but unrelated to endogenous prostaglandins; (2) leptin mimics the gastroprotective effect of CCK and probably mediates the protective and hyperemic actions of CCK in the rat stomach. PMID:10422768

  8. Roles of prostaglandins, nitric oxide and the capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves in gastroprotection produced by ecabet sodium.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, M; Kume, E; Tamaki, H

    1995-10-01

    We determined the mechanism of the gastroprotective effects of ecabet sodium (ecabet), a new antiulcer drug. Ecabet (12.5-100 mg/kg p.o.) dose-dependently protected gastric mucosa from ethanol-induced injuries in rats, as determined with the use of both macroscopic and microscopic analyses. Both inhibition of prostaglandin (PG) formation by indomethacin (5 mg/kg s.c.) and functional ablation of capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves (CPSN) by systemic administration of capsaicin (125 mg/kg s.c.) partly reduced the gastroprotective activity of ecabet (25 and 100 mg/kg p.o.). Ecabet increased rat gastric mucosal PGE2 formation. The treatment with indomethacin but not capsaicin decreased the ecabet-induced increase in PGE2 formation. Inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) formation by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA; 100 mg/kg i.v.) partly reversed the gastroprotective effect of ecabet and completely reversed that of capsaicin at an oral dose of 0.5 mg/kg, respectively. The effect of L-NMMA was abolished by pretreatment with L-arginine (100 mg/kg i.v.) but not with D-arginine (100 mg/kg i.v.). The gastroprotective activity of ecabet (25 mg/kg p.o.) was fully reversed by pretreatment with indomethacin in combination with L-NMMA or CPSN ablation. On the contrary, a combination of L-NMMA and CPSN ablation did not have additional effect on the suppression by either treatment alone. These findings indicate that the gastroprotection by ecabet is cooperatively mediated by endogenous PGs and CPSN-related endogenous NO. PMID:7562591

  9. The involvement of CGRP, adrenomedullin, and sensory nerves in remote vasomotor responses within the hamster cheek pouch microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Miriel, Victor A; Chen, Yifan; Rivers, Richard J

    2009-03-01

    Previous work from our laboratory demonstrated a role for sensory nerves in remote dilations to microapplied methacholine by blocking the response with CGRP8-37 and concluded CGRP was the neurotransmitter. Recently, a more specific CGRP receptor antagonist, BIBN4096BS, was developed. The goals of the present study are to characterize the effects of BIBN4096BS on vasomotor responses in the hamster cheek pouch microcirculation, and to verify the role of CGRP in remote dilations to capsaicin and methacholine and to test adrenomedullin as an alternative neurotransmitter. BIBN4096BS pretreatment inhibits dilation to CGRP while having no significant effect on baseline diameter, it shifts the EC(50) to superfused CGRP from 1.5+/-0.3 pM to 2.5+/-0.6 nM and it shifts the apparent EC(50) to capsaicin from 31.5 nM to 171 nM. Local and remote dilations caused by the microapplication of methacholine are not inhibited by 300 nM BIBN4096BS (Local: 9.7+/-1.2 versus 9.7+/-1.5; 500:5.5+/-0.4 versus 5.7+/-0.5; 1000:4.4+/-0.6 versus 4.8+/-0.5). Remote dilations to methacholine were significantly inhibited however when adrenomedullin receptor antagonist adrenomedullin-(26-52) was microapplied to the remote site. Perivascular neurons containing adrenomedullin can be detected with immunohistochemistry. The results, combined with previous work, suggest that adrenomedullin, and not CGRP, is involved in remote dilations to methacholine. PMID:19084542

  10. Interaction between selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors and capsaicin-sensitive afferent sensory nerves in pathogenesis of stress-induced gastric lesions. Role of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kwiecien, S; Konturek, P C; Sliwowski, Z; Mitis-Musiol, M; Pawlik, M W; Brzozowski, B; Jasnos, K; Magierowski, M; Konturek, S J; Brzozowski, T

    2012-04-01

    Gastric microcirculation plays an important role in the maintenance of the mucosal gastric integrity and the mechanism of injury as well as providing protection to the gastric mucosa. Disturbances in the blood perfusion, through the microcapillaries within the gastric mucosa may result in the formation of mucosal damage. Acute gastric mucosal lesions constitute an important clinical problem. Originally, one of the essential component of maintaining the gastric mucosal integrity was the biosynthesis of prostaglandins (PGs), an issue that has captured the attention of numerous investigations. PGs form due to the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX), an enzyme which is divided into 2 isoforms: constitutive (COX-1) and inducible (COX-2) ones. The inhibition of COX-1 by SC-560, or COX-2 by rofecoxib, reduces gastric blood flow (GBF) and impairs gastric mucosal integrity. Another detrimental effect on the gastric mucosal barrier results from the ablation of sensory afferent nerves by neurotoxic doses of capsaicin. Functional ablation of the sensory afferent nerves by capsaicin attenuates GBF and also renders the gastric mucosa more susceptible to gastric mucosal damage induced by ethanol, aspirin and stress. However, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the interaction between COX specific inhibitors and afferent sensory nerves has not been extensively studied. The aim of our present study was to determine the participation of ROS in pathogenesis of stress-induced gastric lesions in rats administered with SC-560 or rofecoxib, with or without ablation of the sensory afferent nerves. ROS were estimated by measuring the gastric mucosal tissue level of MDA and 4-HNE, the products of lipid peroxidation by ROS as well as the SOD activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, both considered to be scavengers of ROS. It was demonstrated that exposure to 3.5 h of WRS resulted in gastric lesions, causing a significant increase of MDA and 4-HNE in the gastric mucosa, accompanied by a decrease of SOD activity and mucosal GSH level. Pretreatment with COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors (SC-560 and rofecoxib, respectively) aggravated the number of gastric lesions, decreased GBF, attenuated GSH level without further significant changes in MDA and 4-HNE tissue levels and SOD activity. Furthermore, the capsaicin--nactivation of sensory nerves resulted in exaggeration of gastric mucosal damage induced by WRS and this was further augmented by rofecoxib. We conclude that oxidative stress, as reflected by an increase of MDA and 4-HNE tissue concentrations (an index of lipid peroxidation), as well as decrease of SOD activity and the fall in GSH tissue level, may play an important role in the mechanism of interaction between the inhibition of COX activity and afferent sensory nerves releasing vasoactive neuropeptides. This is supported by the fact that the addition of specific COX-1 or COX-2 inhibitors to animals with capsaicin denervation led to exacerbation of gastric lesions, and further fall in the antioxidizing status of gastric mucosa exposed to stress. PMID:22653901

  11. Adhesiolysis and targeted steroid\\/local anesthetic injection during epiduroscopy alleviates pain and reduces sensory nerve dysfunction in patients with chronic sciatica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuya Sakai; Hiroshi Aoki; Minoru Hojo; Masafumi Takada; Hiroaki Murata; Koji Sumikawa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose  The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adhesiolysis followed by the injection of steroid and local anesthetic\\u000a during epiduroscopy on sensory nerve function, pain, and functional disability in patients with chronic sciatica.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Epidural adhesiolysis, using epiduroscopy, followed by the injection of steroid and local anesthetic, was scheduled in 19\\u000a patients with chronic sciatica refractory to lumbar

  12. Differential activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and glial cells in the trigeminal sensory nuclear complex following lingual nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Terayama, Ryuji; Fujisawa, Naoko; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Omura, Shinji; Ichikawa, Hiroyuki; Sugimoto, Tomosada

    2011-02-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play a pivotal role in the mediation of cellular responses to a variety of signaling molecules. The current study demonstrates phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 MAPK in each subdivision of the trigeminal sensory nuclear complex (TSNC) following lingual nerve injury. Immunohistochemical labeling for phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) or phosphorylated p38 (p-p38) MAPK was performed in histological sections of the brainstem. A transient increase in the immunoreactivity for p-ERK was found in each subdivision of the TSNC followed by a prolonged increase in the immunoreactivity for p-p38 MAPK after nerve injury. Double immunofluorescence labeling with cell-specific markers revealed that ERK and p38 MAPK were phosphorylated predominantly by OX-42-positive microglia or GFAP-positive astrocytes. Increased immunofluorescence labeling for OX-42 and GFAP indicated that microglia and astrocytes were activated by nerve injury in the TSNC. Activation of MAPKs and glial cells in the rostral subdivisions of the TSNC was comparable with that in the subnucleus caudalis of the trigeminal spinal tract nucleus (Vc). We conclude that differential activation of MAPKs and glial cells in the rostral subdivisions of the TSNC as well as the Vc may have a substantial role in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain following trigeminal nerve injury. PMID:21087641

  13. Ipsilateral facial sensory and motor responses to basal fronto-temporal cortical stimulation: Evidence suggesting direct activation of cranial nerves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tahamina Begum; Akio Ikeda; Masao Matsuhashi; Nobuhiro Mikuni; Susumu Miyamoto; Nobuo Hashimoto; Takashi Nagamine; Hidenao Fukuyama; Hiroshi Shibasaki

    2006-01-01

    To clarify the generator mechanism of sensory and motor facial responses ipsilateral to electrical stimulation of the inferior fronto-temporal cortex in epilepsy patients. Out of 30 patients who have been evaluated with chronically implanted subdural electrodes for medically intractable partial seizure or brain tumor involving the basal frontal or temporal cortex, 4 patients (age ranging 24–57 years) showed sensory and

  14. Vascularization of the dorsal root ganglia and peripheral nerve of the mouse: Implications for chemical-induced peripheral sensory neuropathies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan M Jimenez-Andrade; Monica B Herrera; Joseph R Ghilardi; Marina Vardanyan; Ohannes K Melemedjian; Patrick W Mantyh

    2008-01-01

    Although a variety of industrial chemicals, as well as several chemotherapeutic agents used to treat cancer or HIV, preferentially induce a peripheral sensory neuropathy what remains unclear is why these agents induce a sensory vs. a motor or mixed neuropathy. Previous studies have shown that the endothelial cells that vascularize the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), which houses the primary afferent

  15. Enhanced release of adenosine in rat hind paw following spinal nerve ligation: involvement of capsaicin-sensitive sensory afferents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. J Liu; T. D White; J Sawynok

    2002-01-01

    Modulation of endogenous adenosine levels by inhibition of adenosine metabolism produces a peripheral antinociceptive effect in a neuropathic pain model. The present study used microdialysis to investigate the neuronal mechanisms modulating extracellular adenosine levels in the rat hind paw following tight ligation of the L5 and L6 spinal nerves. Subcutaneous injection of 50 ?l saline into the nerve-injured paw induced

  16. Nerve Growth Factor Mediates a Switch in Intracellular Signaling for PGE2-Induced Sensitization of Sensory Neurons from Protein Kinase A to Epac

    PubMed Central

    Vasko, Michael R.; Habashy Malty, Ramy; Guo, Chunlu; Duarte, Djane B.; Zhang, Yihong; Nicol, Grant D.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether nerve growth factor (NGF), an inflammatory mediator that contributes to chronic hypersensitivity, alters the intracellular signaling that mediates the sensitizing actions of PGE2 from activation of protein kinase A (PKA) to exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epacs). When isolated sensory neurons are grown in the absence of added NGF, but not in cultures grown with 30 ng/ml NGF, inhibiting protein kinase A (PKA) activity blocks the ability of PGE2 to augment capsaicin-evoked release of the neuropeptide CGRP and to increase the number of action potentials (APs) evoked by a ramp of current. Growing sensory neurons in culture in the presence of increasing concentrations of NGF increases the expression of Epac2, but not Epac1. An intradermal injection of complete Freund's adjuvant into the rat hindpaw also increases the expression of Epac2, but not Epac1 in the dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord: an effect blocked by intraplantar administration of NGF antibodies. Treating cultures grown in the presence of 30 ng/ml NGF with Epac1siRNA significantly reduced the expression of Epac1, but not Epac2, and did not block the ability of PGE2 to augment capsaicin-evoked release of CGRP from sensory neurons. Exposing neuronal cultures grown in NGF to Epac2siRNAreduced the expression of Epac2, but not Epac1 and prevented the PGE2-induced augmentation of capsaicin and potassium-evoked CGRP release in sensory neurons and the PGE2-induced increase in the number of APs generated by a ramp of current. In neurons grown with no added NGF, Epac siRNAs did not attenuate PGE2-induced sensitization. These results demonstrate that NGF, through increasing Epac2 expression, alters the signaling cascade that mediates PGE2-induced sensitization of sensory neurons, thus providing a novel mechanism for maintaining PGE2-induced hypersensitivity during inflammation. PMID:25126967

  17. Effect of surgical and chemical sensory denervation on non-neural expression of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kun, József; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Perkecz, Anikó; Bán, Ágnes; Polgár, Beáta; Szolcsányi, János; Pintér, Erika

    2012-11-01

    Pretreatment with the ultrapotent capsaicin analog resiniferatoxin (RTX) has been applied as a selective pharmacological tool in inflammation and pain studies to desensitize transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor-expressing sensory nerve endings. The discovery of TRPV1 receptor on non-neural cells challenges systemic RTX desensitization as a method acting exclusively on a population of sensory neurons, but not on non-neural cells. Systemic RTX desensitization was used for chemical denervation and transection of the sciatic and saphenous nerves for surgical denervation in rats. Quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were applied to investigate the presence and alterations of the TRPV1 receptor mRNA and protein following chemical and surgical denervation. We provided the first evidence for non-neural TRPV1 immunopositivity and mRNA expression in the rat dorsal paw and plantar skin as well as the oral mucosa. Neither chemical nor surgical denervation influenced the level of TRPV1 receptor mRNA and protein expression in non-neural cells of either skin regions or mucosa. Therefore, RTX and consequently capsaicin remain to be considered as selective neurotoxins for a population of primary afferent neurons. PMID:22528458

  18. The method of isolation of the crayfish abdominal stretch receptor maintaining a connection of the sensory neuron to the ventral nerve cord ganglion.

    PubMed

    Khaitin, Andrej M; Rudkovskii, Mikhail V; Uzdensky, Anatoly B

    2015-03-01

    The crayfish stretch receptor consisting of the single mechanoreceptor neurons enveloped by satellite glial cells is the simplest functioning neuroglial preparation. However, during isolation, its axons are usually transected that eliminates afferent regulation and induces complex axotomy-related signaling responses in neurons and satellite glia. We developed new microsurgical method of crayfish stretch receptor isolation, which preserves connections of sensory neurons to the ventral nerve cord ganglion. The stretch receptor may either remain on the abdominal carapace, or be completely isolated. In both cases, it may be either intact, or axotomized. The integrity of axons was confirmed by firing recording from proximal and distal axon points. Normal, necrotic and apoptotic cells were visualized using double fluorochroming with Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide. The isolated mechanoreceptor neurons maintain regular firing during 8-10 or more hours. Glial cells surrounding non-axotomized neurons demonstrate lower necrosis and apoptosis levels than the axotomized ones. Unlike the existing method, in which the sensory neurons were axotomized, the present method preserves links between the sensory neurons and the ganglion and makes possible to avoid consequences of axotomy in neurons and satellite glia. The present neuroglial preparation may be used as a simple but informative model object in studies of axotomy-induced degeneration and survival of peripheral neurons, the role of glia in neuron injury, the signaling mechanisms of neuroglial interactions, and the effects of diverse physical and chemical factors on neuronal and glial cells. PMID:25374161

  19. Sensory deficits of a nerve root lesion can be objectively documented by somatosensory evoked potentials elicited by painful infrared laser stimulations: a case study.

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, J; Hansen, H C; Kunze, K; Bromm, B

    1996-01-01

    Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) in response to painful laser stimuli were measured in a patient with a unilateral sensory deficit due to radiculopathy at cervical levels C7 and C8. Laser evoked potentials (LEPs) were compared with SEPs using standard electrical stimulation of median and ulnar nerves at the wrist and mechanical stimulation of the fingertips by means of a mechanical stimulator. Early and late ulnar and median nerve SEPs were normal. Mechanical stimulation resulted in w shaped early SEPs from all five fingertips with some degree of abnormality at the fourth and fifth digits of the affected hand. Late LEPs were completely absent for stimulations at affected dermatomes and normal in the unaffected control dermatomes. The border between skin areas with normal or absent LEPs was very sharp and fitted the dermatomes of intact C6 and damaged C7 and C8 nerve roots. It is suggested that pain dermatomes are narrower than tactile dermatomes because thin fibres of the nociceptive system, activated by laser stimuli, probably do not overlap between adjacent spinal segments to the same extent as thick fibres of the mechanoreceptive system, activated by standard electrical or mechanical stimulation. Images PMID:8676136

  20. Genetic inactivation and pharmacological blockade of sigma-1 receptors prevent paclitaxel-induced sensory-nerve mitochondrial abnormalities and neuropathic pain in mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Paclitaxel, a widely-used antineoplastic drug, produces a painful peripheral neuropathy that in rodents is associated with peripheral-nerve mitochondrial alterations. The sigma-1 receptor (?1R) is a ligand-regulated molecular chaperone involved in mitochondrial calcium homeostasis and pain hypersensitivity. This receptor plays a key role in paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain, but it is not known whether it also modulates mitochondrial abnormalities. In this study, we used a mouse model of paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain to test the involvement of the ?1R in the mitochondrial abnormalities associated with paclitaxel, by using genetic (?1R knockout mice) and pharmacological (?1R antagonist) approaches. Results Paclitaxel administration to wild-type (WT) mice produced cold- and mechanical-allodynia, and an increase in the frequency of swollen and vacuolated mitochondria in myelinated A-fibers, but not in C-fibers, of the saphenous nerve. Behavioral and mitochondrial alterations were marked at 10 days after paclitaxel-administration and had resolved at day 28. In contrast, paclitaxel treatment did not induce allodynia or mitochondrial abnormalities in ?1R knockout mice. Moreover, the prophylactic treatment of WT mice with BD-1063 also prevented the neuropathic pain and mitochondrial abnormalities induced by paclitaxel. Conclusions These results suggest that activation of the ?1R is necessary for development of the sensory nerve mitochondrial damage and neuropathic pain produced by paclitaxel. Therefore, ?1R antagonists might have therapeutic value for the prevention of paclitaxel-induced neuropathy. PMID:24517272

  1. Comparison of the sensory threshold in healthy human volunteers with the sensory nerve response of the rat in vitro hindlimb skin and saphenous nerve preparation on cutaneous electrical stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. R. McAllister; L. A. Urban; A. Dray; P. J. Smith

    1995-01-01

    We report a comparative study of stimulation thresholds of cutaneous fibres of the rat in vitro skin and saphenous nerve preparation with psychophysical measurements of sensibility to cutaneous electrical stimulation in human volunteers. The same clinical diagnostic stimulator and modified skin electrodes were used in both animal and human experiments. Axons were recruited by increasing the stimulus strength, and correlation

  2. A Silicon Model of Auditory-Nerve Response Nonlinear signal processing is an integral part of sensory transduction in

    E-print Network

    Lazzaro, John

    5 Chapter 2 A Silicon Model of Auditory-Nerve Response Nonlinear signal processing is an integral and operation of an integrated circuit that models, to a limited degree, the evoked responses of the auditory published in (Lazzaro and Mead, 1989b). 2.1 Neural Architecture of the Cochlea Both mechanical

  3. Concordance between epidermal nerve fiber density and sensory examination in patients with symptoms of idiopathic small fiber neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Walk; Gwen Wendelschafer-Crabb; Cynthia Davey; William R. Kennedy

    2007-01-01

    Quantitation of epidermal nerve fiber (ENF) density is an objective diagnostic test of small fiber neuropathy (SFN). For a diagnostic test to be clinically useful it should correspond well with clinically meaningful physical findings. We performed a retrospective analysis of the concordance between foot ENF density and clinical findings in all patients seen at our institution with possible idiopathic SFN

  4. Anatomical relations of the superficial sensory branches of the radial nerve: a cadaveric study with clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Anatomically, it is difficult to give a systematic description of the superficial branch of the radial nerve (SBRN). Our aim was to describe the exact relationship of the SBRN to fixed bony points of radial styloid and Lister's tubercle, and to the cephalic vein. We also compared our data with other international studies. Methods The study was a descriptive anatomical study. Twenty-five forearms were dissected. Measurements were made from predefined fixed reference points. Results The mean distance to the point of emergence of the nerve from the radial styloid was 8.54 cm (SD = 1.32). The nerve branched at a mean distance of 5.57 cm (SD = 1.43) from the radial styloid. The mean distance to the point where the most medial and most lateral branches of the nerve crossing the wrist joint, measured from the Lister's tubercle were 2.51 cm (SD = 0.53) and 3.90 cm (SD = 0.64). In 17 specimens(68%) cephalic vein crossed the SBRN superficially once. Mean distance from the radial styloid to the most distal point where the vein crossed the nerve was 5.10 cm. Diffefrence between mean distance to the point of emergence and branching point, when compared with other international studies were not statistically significant. (P value > 0.05) Conclusions We recommend avoiding transverse incisions in the snuffbox region between 2.51 cm and 3.90 cm from the Listers tubercle. We also recommend avoiding cannulation of the cephalic vein in the distal forearm. PMID:22054296

  5. Improved gold chloride staining method for anatomical analysis of sensory nerve endings in the shoulder capsule and labrum as examples of loose and dense fibrous tissues.

    PubMed

    Witherspoon, J W; Smirnova, I V; McIff, T E

    2014-07-01

    Consistency in gold chloride staining is essential for anatomical analysis of sensory nerve endings. The gold chloride stain for this purpose has been modified by many investigators, but often yields inconsistent staining, which makes it difficult to differentiate structures and to determine nerve ending distribution in large tissue samples. We introduce additional steps and major changes to the modified Gairns' protocol. We controlled the temperature and mixing rate during tissue staining to achieve consistent staining and complete solution penetration. We subjected samples to sucrose dehydration to improve cutting efficiency. We then exposed samples to a solution containing lemon juice, formic acid and paraformaldehyde to produce optimal tissue transparency with minimal tissue deformity. We extended the time for gold chloride impregnation 1.5 fold. Gold chloride was reduced in the labrum using 25% formic acid in water for 18 h and in the capsule using 25% formic acid in citrate phosphate buffer for 2 h. Citrate binds gold nanoparticles, which minimizes aggregation in the tissue. We stored samples in fresh ultrapure water at 4° C to slow reduction and to maintain color contrast in the tissue. Tissue samples were embedded in Tissue Tek and sectioned at 80 and 100 ?m instead of using glycerin and teasing the tissue apart as in Gairns' modified gold chloride method. We attached sections directly to gelatin subbed slides after sectioning with a cryostat. The slides then were processed and coverslipped with Permount. Staining consistency was demonstrated throughout the tissue sections and neural structures were clearly identifiable. PMID:24476562

  6. Differential upregulation in DRG neurons of an ?2?-1 splice variant with a lower affinity for gabapentin after peripheral sensory nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Lana, Beatrice; Schlick, Bettina; Martin, Stuart; Pratt, Wendy S.; Page, Karen M.; Goncalves, Leonor; Rahman, Wahida; Dickenson, Anthony H.; Bauer, Claudia S.; Dolphin, Annette C.

    2014-01-01

    The ?2?-1 protein is an auxiliary subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels, critical for neurotransmitter release. It is upregulated in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons following sensory nerve injury, and is also the therapeutic target of the gabapentinoid drugs, which are efficacious in both experimental and human neuropathic pain conditions. ?2?-1 has 3 spliced regions: A, B, and C. A and C are cassette exons, whereas B is introduced via an alternative 3? splice acceptor site. Here we have examined the presence of ?2?-1 splice variants in DRG neurons, and have found that although the main ?2?-1 splice variant in DRG is the same as that in brain (?2?-1 ?A+B+C), there is also another ?2?-1 splice variant (?A+B?C), which is expressed in DRG neurons and is differentially upregulated compared to the main DRG splice variant ?2?-1 ?A+B+C following spinal nerve ligation. Furthermore, this differential upregulation occurs preferentially in a small nonmyelinated DRG neuron fraction, obtained by density gradient separation. The ?2?-1 ?A+B?C splice variant supports CaV2 calcium currents with unaltered properties compared to ?2?-1 ?A+B+C, but shows a significantly reduced affinity for gabapentin. This variant could therefore play a role in determining the efficacy of gabapentin in neuropathic pain. PMID:24315988

  7. Differential upregulation in DRG neurons of an ?2?-1 splice variant with a lower affinity for gabapentin after peripheral sensory nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Lana, Beatrice; Schlick, Bettina; Martin, Stuart; Pratt, Wendy S; Page, Karen M; Goncalves, Leonor; Rahman, Wahida; Dickenson, Anthony H; Bauer, Claudia S; Dolphin, Annette C

    2014-03-01

    The ?2?-1 protein is an auxiliary subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels, critical for neurotransmitter release. It is upregulated in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons following sensory nerve injury, and is also the therapeutic target of the gabapentinoid drugs, which are efficacious in both experimental and human neuropathic pain conditions. ?2?-1 has 3 spliced regions: A, B, and C. A and C are cassette exons, whereas B is introduced via an alternative 3' splice acceptor site. Here we have examined the presence of ?2?-1 splice variants in DRG neurons, and have found that although the main ?2?-1 splice variant in DRG is the same as that in brain (?2?-1 ?A+B+C), there is also another ?2?-1 splice variant (?A+B?C), which is expressed in DRG neurons and is differentially upregulated compared to the main DRG splice variant ?2?-1 ?A+B+C following spinal nerve ligation. Furthermore, this differential upregulation occurs preferentially in a small nonmyelinated DRG neuron fraction, obtained by density gradient separation. The ?2?-1 ?A+B?C splice variant supports CaV2 calcium currents with unaltered properties compared to ?2?-1 ?A+B+C, but shows a significantly reduced affinity for gabapentin. This variant could therefore play a role in determining the efficacy of gabapentin in neuropathic pain. PMID:24315988

  8. Activation of glia and microglial p38 MAPK in medullary dorsal horn contributes to tactile hypersensitivity following trigeminal sensory nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Piao, Zheng Gen; Cho, Ik-Hyun; Park, Chul Kyu; Hong, Jin Pyo; Choi, Se-Young; Lee, Sung Joong; Lee, Seungbok; Park, Kyungpyo; Kim, Joong Soo; Oh, Seog Bae

    2006-04-01

    Glial activation is known to contribute to pain hypersensitivity following spinal sensory nerve injury. In this study, we investigated mechanisms by which glial cell activation in medullary dorsal horn (MDH) would contribute to tactile hypersensitivity following inferior alveolar nerve and mental nerve transection (IAMNT). Activation of microglia and astrocytes was monitored at 2 h, 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 60 days using immunohistochemical analysis with OX-42 and GFAP antibodies, respectively. Tactile hypersensitivity was significantly increased at 1 day, and this lasted for 28 days after IAMNT. Microglial activation, primarily observed in the superficial laminae of MDH, was initiated at 1 day, maximal at 3 days, and maintained until 14 days after IAMNT. Astrocytic activation was delayed compared to that of microglia, being more profound at 7 and 14 days than at 3 days after IAMNT. Both tactile hypersensitivity and glial activation appeared to gradually reduce and then return to the basal level by 60 days after IAMNT. There was no significant loss of trigeminal ganglion neurons by 28 days following IAMNT, suggesting that degenerative changes in central terminals of primary afferents might not contribute to glial activation. Minocycline, an inhibitor of microglial activation, reduced microglial activation, inhibited p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation in microglia, and significantly attenuated the development of pain hypersensitivity in this model. These results suggest that glial activation in MDH plays an important role in the development of neuropathic pain and activation of p38 MAPK in hyperactive microglia contributes to pain hypersensitivity in IAMNT model. PMID:16495005

  9. Sensory changes in the territory of the lingual and inferior alveolar nerves following lower third molar extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eli Eliav; Richard H Gracely

    1998-01-01

    Post-injury inflammation activates nociceptive systems and recruits normally non-nociceptive afferents into a pain processing role. During inflammation, A? low threshold mechanoreceptor afferents that usually mediate tactile sensation acquire properties of nociceptors, allowing them to participate in post-injury spontaneous pain and evoked abnormalities such as tenderness and pain to light touch. This study assessed the sensory consequences of post-injury inflammation following

  10. Modelled temperature-dependent excitability behaviour of a single ranvier node for a human peripheral sensory nerve fibre

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacoba E. Smit; Tania Hanekom; Johan J. Hanekom

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the Hodgkin–Huxley model for unmyelinated nerve fibres could be modified\\u000a to predict excitability behaviour at Ranvier nodes. Only the model parameters were modified to those of human, with the equations\\u000a left unaltered. A model of a single Ranvier node has been developed as part of a larger model to describe excitation

  11. Extensive Sprouting of Sensory Afferents and Hyperalgesia Induced by Conditional Expression of Nerve Growth Factor in the Adult Spinal Cord

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario I. Romero; Nagarathnamma Rangappa; Li Li; Ellis Lightfoot; Mary G. Garry; George M. Smith

    2000-01-01

    Genetic transfer of growth-promoting molecules was proposed as a potential strategy to modify the nonpermissive nature of the adult CNS to induce axonal regeneration. To evaluate whether overexpression of neurotrophins or cellular adhesion molecules would effect axonal plasticity, adenoviruses encod- ing fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2\\/Adts), nerve growth factor (NGF\\/Adts), neurotrophin-3, and the cell adhesion molecules N-cadherin and L1 were injected

  12. Synaptic Desensitization of NMDA Receptors by Calcineurin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Tong; Dawn Shepherd; Craig E. Jahr

    1995-01-01

    Desensitization is a phenomenon that is common to many ligand-gated ion channels but has been demonstrated only rarely with physiological stimulation. Numerous studies describe desensitization of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptor by exogenous agonists, but whether synaptic stimulation causes desensitization has been unknown. Synaptic stimulation of NMDA receptors on rat hippocampal neurons resulted in desensitization that was prevented

  13. Self-Control Desensitization and Test Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Samuel

    This article reviews self-control desensitization research with test anxious college students. The first section presents a discussion of the development of self-control desensitization (SCD) as a modification of systematic desensitization (SD), and procedures which differentiate SCD from SD including treatment rationale, the nature of anxiety…

  14. Use of ultrasound and fluoroscopy guidance in percutaneous radiofrequency lesioning of the sensory branches of the femoral and obturator nerves.

    PubMed

    Chaiban, Gassan; Paradis, Tyler; Atallah, Joseph

    2014-04-01

    Hip pain is a common condition that is often seen in patients with multiple comorbidities. Often surgery is not an option due to these comorbidities. Percutaneous radiofrequency lesioning of the articular branches of the obturator and femoral nerves is an alternative treatment for hip pain. Traditionally, fluoroscopy is used to guide needle placement. We report a case where a novel approach was used with ultrasound guidance to visualize vascular and soft tissue structures in real time. The use of ultrasound might help to guide the needle to avoid vascular complications due to anatomical variation between patients. PMID:23656575

  15. Sensory axon guidance with semaphorin 6A and nerve growth factor in a biomimetic choice point model.

    PubMed

    Curley, J Lowry; Catig, Gary C; Horn-Ranney, Elaine L; Moore, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    The direct effect of guidance cues on developing and regenerating axons in vivo is not fully understood, as the process involves a multiplicity of attractive and repulsive signals, presented both as soluble and membrane-bound ligands. A better understanding of axon guidance is critical to functional recovery following injury to the nervous system through improved outgrowth and mapping of damaged nerves. Due to their implications as inhibitors to central nervous system regeneration, we investigated the repulsive properties of semaphorin 6A and ephrin-B3 on E15 rat dorsal root ganglion explants, as well as possible interactions with soluble gradients of chemoattractive nerve growth factor (NGF). We employed a 3D biomimetic in vitro choice point model, which enabled the simple and rapid preparation of patterned gel growth matrices with quantifiable presentation of guidance cues in a specifiable manner that resembles the in vivo presentation of soluble and/or immobilized ligands. Neurites demonstrated an inhibitory response to immobilized Sema6A by lumbosacral dorsal root ganglion explants, while no such repulsion was observed for immobilized ephrin-B3 by explants at any spinal level. Interestingly, Sema6A inhibition could be partially attenuated in a concentration-dependent manner through the simultaneous presentation of soluble NGF gradients. The in vitro model described herein represents a versatile and valuable investigative tool in the quest for understanding developmental processes and improving regeneration following nervous system injury. PMID:25189126

  16. Grapefruit-seed extract attenuates ethanol-and stress-induced gastric lesions via activation of prostaglandin, nitric oxide and sensory nerve pathways

    PubMed Central

    Brzozowski, Tomasz; Konturek, Peter C; Drozdowicz, Danuta; Konturek, Stanislaw J; Zayachivska, Oxana; Pajdo, Robert; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Pawlik, Wieslaw W; Hahn, Eckhart G

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Grapefruit-seed extract (GSE) containing flavonoids, possesses antibacterial and antioxidative properties but whether it influences the gastric defense mechanism and gastroprotection against ethanol- and stress-induced gastric lesions remains unknown. METHODS: We compared the effects of GSE on gastric mucosal lesions induced in rats by topical application of 100% ethanol or 3.5 h of water immersion and restraint stress (WRS) with or without (A) inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 activity by indomethacin and rofecoxib, the selective COX-2 inhibitor, (B) suppression of NO-synthase with L-NNA (20 mg/kg ip), and (C) inactivation by capsaicin (125 mg/kg sc) of sensory nerves with or without intragastric (ig) pretreatment with GSE applied 30 min prior to ethanol or WRS. One hour after ethanol and 3.5 h after the end of WRS, the number and area of gastric lesions were measured by planimetry, the gastric blood flow (GBF) was assessed by H2-gas clearance technique and plasma gastrin levels and the gastric mucosal generation of PGE2, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) concentration, as an index of lipid peroxidation were determined. RESULTS: Ethanol and WRS caused gastric lesions accompanied by the significant fall in the GBF and SOD activity and the rise in the mucosal MDA content. Pretreatment with GSE (8-64 mg/kg i g) dose-dependently attenuated gastric lesions induced by 100% ethanol and WRS; the dose reducing these lesions by 50% (ID50) was 25 and 36 mg/kg, respectively, and this protective effect was similar to that obtained with methyl PGE2 analog (5 ?g/kg i g). GSE significantly raised the GBF, mucosal generation of PGE2, SOD activity and plasma gastrin levels while attenuating MDA content. Inhibition of PGE2 generation with indomethacin or rofecoxib and suppression of NO synthase by L-NNA or capsaicin denervation reversed the GSE-induced protection and the accompanying hyperemia. Co-treatment of exogenous calcitonine gene-related peptide (CGRP) with GSE restored the protection and accompanying hyperemic effects of GSE in rats with capsaicin denervation. CONCLUSION: GSE exerts a potent gastroprotective activity against ethanol and WRS-induced gastric lesions via an increase in endogenous PG generation, suppression of lipid peroxidation and hyperemia possibly mediated by NO and CGRP released from sensory nerves. PMID:16425415

  17. Failure of action potential propagation in sensory neurons: mechanisms and loss of afferent filtering in C-type units after painful nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Gemes, Geza; Koopmeiners, Andrew; Rigaud, Marcel; Lirk, Philipp; Sapunar, Damir; Bangaru, Madhavi Latha; Vilceanu, Daniel; Garrison, Sheldon R; Ljubkovic, Marko; Mueller, Samantha J; Stucky, Cheryl L; Hogan, Quinn H

    2013-01-01

    The T-junction of sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is a potential impediment to action potential (AP) propagation towards the CNS. Using intracellular recordings from rat DRG neuronal somata during stimulation of the dorsal root, we determined that the maximal rate at which all of 20 APs in a train could successfully transit the T-junction (following frequency) was lowest in C-type units, followed by A-type units with inflected descending limbs of the AP, and highest in A-type units without inflections. In C-type units, following frequency was slower than the rate at which AP trains could be produced in either dorsal root axonal segments or in the soma alone, indicating that the T-junction is a site that acts as a low-pass filter for AP propagation. Following frequency was slower for a train of 20 APs than for two, indicating that a cumulative process leads to propagation failure. Propagation failure was accompanied by diminished somatic membrane input resistance, and was enhanced when Ca2+-sensitive K+ currents were augmented or when Ca2+-sensitive Cl? currents were blocked. After peripheral nerve injury, following frequencies were increased in axotomized C-type neurons and decreased in axotomized non-inflected A-type neurons. These findings reveal that the T-junction in sensory neurons is a regulator of afferent impulse traffic. Diminished filtering of AP trains at the T-junction of C-type neurons with axotomized peripheral processes could enhance the transmission of activity that is ectopically triggered in a neuroma or the neuronal soma, possibly contributing to pain generation. PMID:23148321

  18. Desensitization of metastable intermolecular composites

    DOEpatents

    Busse, James R. (South Fork, CO); Dye, Robert C. (Los Alamos, NM); Foley, Timothy J. (Los Alamos, NM); Higa, Kelvin T. (Ridgecrest, CA); Jorgensen, Betty S. (Jemez Springs, NM); Sanders, Victor E. (White Rock, NM); Son, Steven F. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-04-26

    A method to substantially desensitize a metastable intermolecular composite material to electrostatic discharge and friction comprising mixing the composite material with an organic diluent and removing enough organic diluent from the mixture to form a mixture with a substantially putty-like consistency, as well as a concomitant method of recovering the metastable intermolecular composite material.

  19. Double peak sensory responses at submaximal stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irene Aprile; Erik Stĺlberg; Pietro Tonali; Luca Padua

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to obtain knowledge about the different physiological situations where a double peak sensory response normally occurs and to better understand the significance of this particular sensory response.Methods: In 14 healthy subjects, conventional orthodromic sensory nerve conduction studies were performed on the median and ulnar nerves using submaximal stimulation. Various stimulus strengths, polarity, electrode

  20. Prevention of paclitaxel-evoked painful peripheral neuropathy by acetyl-L-carnitine: Effects on axonal mitochondria, sensory nerve fiber terminal arbors, and cutaneous Langerhans cells

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hai Wei; Flatters, Sarah J.L.; Xiao, Wen Hua; Mulhern, Howard L.; Bennett, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    Prophylactic treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) prevents the neuropathic pain syndrome that is evoked by the chemotherapeutic agent, paclitaxel. The paclitaxel-evoked pain syndrome is associated with degeneration of the intraepidermal terminal arbors of primary afferent neurons, with the activation of cutaneous Langerhans cells, and with an increased incidence of swollen and vacuolated axonal mitochondria in A-fibers and C-fibers. Previous work suggests that ALCAR is neuroprotective in other nerve injury models and that it improves mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, we examined whether the prophylactic efficacy of ALCAR was associated with the prevention of intraepidermal terminal arbor degeneration, the inhibition of Langerhans cell activation, or the inhibition of swelling and vacuolation of axonal mitochondria. In animals with a confirmed ALCAR effect, we found no evidence of a neuroprotective effect on the paclitaxel-evoked degeneration of sensory terminal arbors or an inhibition of the paclitaxel-evoked activation of Langerhans cells. However, ALCAR treatment completely prevented the paclitaxel-evoked increase in the incidence of swollen and vacuolated C-fiber mitochondria, while having no effect on the paclitaxel-evoked changes in A-fiber mitochondria. Our results suggest that the efficacy of prophylactic ALCAR treatment against the paclitaxel-evoked pain may be related to a protective effect on C-fiber mitochondria. PMID:18078936

  1. Role of prostaglandins, nitric oxide, sensory nerves and gastrin in acceleration of ulcer healing by melatonin and its precursor, L-tryptophan.

    PubMed

    Brzozowska, Iwona; Konturek, Peter C; Brzozowski, Tomasz; Konturek, Stanislaw J; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Pajdo, Robert; Drozdowicz, Danuta; Pawlik, Michal; Ptak, Agata; Hahn, Eckhart G

    2002-04-01

    Melatonin, a major hormone of pineal gland, was recently shown to attenuate acute gastric lesions induced by strong irritants because of the scavenging of free radicals but its role in ulcer healing has been little investigated. In this study we compared the effects of intragastric (i.g.) administration of melatonin and its precursor, L-tryptophan, with or without concurrent treatment with luzindole, a selective antagonist of melatonin MT2 receptors, on healing of chronic gastric ulcers induced by serosal application of acetic acid (ulcer area 28 mm2). The involvement of endogenous prostaglandins (PG), nitric oxide (NO) and sensory nerves in ulcer healing action of melatonin and L-tryptophan was studied in rats treated with indomethacin and NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) to suppress, respectively, cyclo-oxygenases (COX) and NO synthases or in those with functionally deactivated sensory nerves with capsaicin. The influence of melatonin on gastric secretion during ulcer healing was tested in separate group of rats with gastric ulcer equipped with gastric fistulas (GF). At day 8 and 15 upon the ulcer induction, the area of gastric ulcers was measured by planimetry, the mucosal blood flow (GBF) was determined by H2-gas clearance technique and gastric luminal NO2-/NO3- levels was assessed by Griess reaction. Plasma melatonin and gastrin levels were measured by specific radioimmunoassay (RIA). Biopsy mucosal samples were taken for expression of constitutive NO-synthase (cNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Melatonin (2.5-20 mg/kg-d i.g.) and L-tryptophan (25-100 mg/kg-d i.g.) dose-dependently accelerated ulcer healing, the dose inhibiting by 50% (ED50) of ulcer area being 10 and 115 mg/kg, respectively. This inhibitory effect of melatonin (10 mg/kg-d i.g.) and L-tryptophan (100 mg/kg-d i.g.) on ulcer healing was accompanied by a significant rise in the GBF at ulcer margin and an increase of plasma melatonin. luminal NO2-/NO3- and plasma gastrin levels. Gastric acid and pepsin outputs were significantly inhibited during the ulcer healing in melatonin-treated gastric mucosa as compared with those in vehicle-treated animals. Luzindole abolished completely the healing effects of melatonin and L-tryptophan and attenuated significantly the rise in plasma gastrin evoked by the hormone and its precursor. Indomethacin (5 mg/kg-d i.p). that blocked PG biosynthesis by 90% or L-NAME (20 mg/kg i.v), inhibitor of NOS. that suppressed luminal NO release, attenuated significantly melatonin and L-tryptophan-induced acceleration of ulcer healing and accompanying rise in GBF at ulcer margin and luminal NO release. The melatonin-induced acceleration of ulcer healing, hyperemia at ulcer margin and increase in the release of NO were enhanced when L-arginine but not D-arginine was added to L-NAME. The ulcer healing and the GBF effects of melatonin and L-tryptophan were significantly impaired in rats with capsaicin-induced denervation of sensory nerves and both, ulcer healing and the hyperemia at ulcer margin were restored in these rats by addition of exogenous CGRP to melatonin and L-tryptophan. Expression of cNOS mRNA was detected by RT-PCR in the intact gastric mucosa as well as at the edge of gastric ulcers treated with both, vehicle and melatonin, while iNOS mRNA that was undetectable in the intact gastric mucosa, appeared during ulcer healing and especially this was strongly up-regulated in the melatonin-treated gastric mucosa. We conclude that (1) exogenous melatonin and that derived from its precursor, L-tryptophan, accelerate ulcer healing probably via interaction with MT2 receptors; (2) this ulcer healing action is caused by an enhancement by melatonin of the microcirculation at the ulcer margin possibly mediated by COX-derived PG and NO because of overexpression of iNOS and (3) gastrin, which exhibits trophic activity in the gastric mucosa and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), released from sensory nerves, may also contribute to the ulcer healing action of melatonin. PMID:12074098

  2. Bioenergetic deficits in peripheral nerve sensory axons during chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain resulting from peroxynitrite-mediated post-translational nitration of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Janes, Kali; Doyle, Timothy; Bryant, Leesa; Esposito, Emanuela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Ryerse, Jan; Bennett, Gary J; Salvemini, Daniela

    2013-11-01

    Many of the widely used anticancer drugs induce dose-limiting peripheral neuropathies that undermine their therapeutic efficacy. Animal models of chemotherapy-induced painful peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) evoked by a variety of drug classes, including taxanes, vinca alkaloids, platinum-complexes, and proteasome-inhibitors, suggest that the common underlying mechanism in the development of these neuropathies is mitotoxicity in primary nerve sensory axons (PNSAs) arising from reduced mitochondrial bioenergetics [eg adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production deficits due to compromised respiratory complex I and II activity]. The causative mechanisms of this mitotoxicity remain poorly defined. However, peroxynitrite, an important pro-nociceptive agent, has been linked to mitotoxicity in several disease states and may also drive the mitotoxicity associated with CIPN. Our findings reveal that the development of mechano-hypersensitivity induced by paclitaxel, oxaliplatin, and bortezomib was prevented by administration of the peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst Mn(III) 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-n-hexylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin (MnTE-2-PyP(5+)) without interfering with their anti-tumor effects. Peak CIPN was associated with the nitration and inactivation of superoxide dismutase in the mitochondria, but not in the cytosol, as well as a significant decrease in ATP production within the PNSAs; all of these events were attenuated by MnTE-2-PyP(5+). Our results provide continued support for the role of mitotoxicity in the development of CIPN across chemotherapeutic drug classes, and identify peroxynitrite as a key mediator in these processes, thereby providing the rationale towards development of "peroxynitrite-targeted" therapeutics for CIPN. PMID:23891899

  3. Nerve growth factor, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and neurturin prevent semaphorin 3A-mediated growth cone collapse in adult sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Wanigasekara, Y; Keast, J R

    2006-10-13

    Developmentally, semaphorin 3A (sema3A) is an important chemorepellent that guides centrally projecting axons of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Sema3A-mediated growth cone collapse can be prevented by cyclic GMP (cGMP) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in embryonic neurons. Sema3A may also play a role in directing regrowth of injured axons in adults, and interactions with neurotrophic factors near the injury site may determine the extent and targeting of both regenerative and aberrant growth. The aim of this study was to determine whether NGF, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neurturin (NTN) modulate sema3A-mediated growth cone collapse in cultured adult rat DRG neurons. Sema3A caused a significant increase in growth cone collapse, which was completely prevented by prior treatment with NGF, GDNF or NTN. Immunocytochemical experiments showed that sema3A-sensitive neurons were heterogeneous in their expression of neurotrophic factor receptors and responses to neurotrophic factors, raising the possibility of novel, convergent signaling mechanisms between these substances. Increasing cGMP levels caused growth cone collapse, whereas sema3A-mediated collapse was prevented by inhibition of guanylate cyclase or by increasing cyclic AMP levels. In conclusion, sema3A signaling pathways in adult neurons differ to those described in embryonic neurons. Three different neurotrophic factors each completely prevent sema3A-mediated collapse, raising the possibility of novel converging signaling pathways. These studies also show that there is considerable potential for neurotrophic factors to regulate sema3A actions in the adult nervous system. This may provide insights into the mechanisms underling misdirected growth and targeting of sensory fibers within the spinal cord after injury, that is thought to contribute to development of autonomic dysreflexia and neuropathic pain. PMID:16876331

  4. Shock desensitizing of solid explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, William C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Solid explosive can be desensitized by a shock wave too weak to initiate it promptly, and desensitized explosive does not react although its chemical composition is almost unchanged. A strong second shock does not cause reaction until it overtakes the first shock. The first shock, if it is strong enough, accelerates very slowly at first, and then more rapidly as detonation approaches. These facts suggest that there are two competing reactions. One is the usual explosive goes to products with the release of energy, and the other is explosive goes to dead explosive with no chemical change and no energy release. The first reaction rate is very sensitive to the local state, and the second is only weakly so. At low pressure very little energy is released and the change to dead explosive dominates. At high pressure, quite the other way, most of the explosive goes to products. Numerous experiments in both the initiation and the full detonation regimes are discussed and compared in testing these ideas.

  5. The Role of Cutaneous Innervation in the Sensory Abnormalities Associated with Diabetic Neuropathy

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Megan Sarah

    2008-05-05

    Diabetes-induced nerve damage results in cutaneous denervation, nerve conduction slowing, suppressed regenerative responses, and debilitating painful or insensate sensory symptoms. The increasing prevalence of diabetic ...

  6. The effect of treatment with BRX-220, a co-inducer of heat shock proteins, on sensory fibers of the rat following peripheral nerve injury

    E-print Network

    Burnstock, Geoffrey

    -regulated in small neurones (C fibers) and expressed ``de novo'' in large sensory neurones (Ah fibers; 0014The effect of treatment with BRX-220, a co-inducer of heat shock proteins, on sensory fibers the effect BRX-220, a co-inducer of heat shock proteins, in injury-induced peripheral neuropathy. Following

  7. DECREASED SENSORY RECEPTORS P2X 3 AND TRPV1 IN SUBUROTHELIAL NERVE FIBERS FOLLOWING INTRADETRUSOR INJECTIONS OF BOTULINUM TOXIN FOR HUMAN DETRUSOR OVERACTIVITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. APOSTOLIDIS; R. POPAT; Y. YIANGOU; D. COCKAYNE; A. P. D. W. FORD; J. B. DAVIS; P. DASGUPTA; C. J. FOWLER; P. ANAND

    2005-01-01

    PurposeBotulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT\\/A) is effective in the treatment of intractable detrusor overactivity (DO). In addition to its known inhibitory effect on presynaptic release of acetylcholine by motor terminals, there is increasing evidence that BoNT\\/A may affect sensory fibers. We investigated a possible effect of BoNT\\/A on human bladder afferent mechanisms by studying the sensory receptors P2X3 and TRPV1

  8. Differential effects of distal and proximal nerve lesions on carbonic anhydrase activity in rat primary sensory neurons, ventral and dorsal root axons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Peyronnard; L. F. Charron; J. P. Messier; J. Lavoie

    1988-01-01

    The effect of proximal and distal peripheral nerve injuries on the histochemistry of carbonic anhydrase (CA) in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, and myelinated (MyF) dorsal and ventral root fibers was studied. Sciatic neurectomy induced no change. Contrariwise, 7 days after lumbar spinal nerve section the numbers of CA-stained ventral root MyF and DRG cells at the L4 and

  9. A comparative study evoking a sensory action potential from the medial and lateral plantar nerves using the probe and ring method of stimulation.

    PubMed

    Adam, Jamila K; Bechoo, Reneal; Rmaih, Wafaa S

    2010-01-01

    Nerve conduction studies (NCS) aid in the detection of foot nerve pathologies. However, there has been a debate on method of plantar nerves stimulation that is more effective; the ring method of stimulation or probe method of stimulation. This study aims at determining the one method that is more effective among the two methods of stimulating for eliciting proper responses. Thirty healthy adults, aged 19 to 55 years, free of any neurological disease were the subjects of the study. Values considered for determining the effectiveness of the stimulating technique were mean amplitudes of the evoked responses from medial and lateral plantar nerves. A significant increase in amplitude difference was noted in favor of the probe stimulation method. The amplitude difference noted in favor of the probe method of stimulation was double the values elicited by the ring method of stimulation in both the medial and lateral plantar nerves. Results suggest that the direct probe method of stimulation may be a more effective method of stimulating for the medial and lateral plantar nerves studies. PMID:20508349

  10. Nerve conduction study of the medial and lateral plantar nerves.

    PubMed

    Antunes, A C; Nobrega, J A; Manzano, G M

    2000-01-01

    The medial and lateral plantar nerves may be evaluated through the recordings of the compound sensory nerve action potentials (CSNAP), compound mixed nerve action potentials (CMNAP) and compound muscular action potentials (CMAP). As some of these potentials are not easily and always obtainable in normal individuals, our purpose was to verify the consistency of these potentials for the study of these nerves. Fifty-one normal adult volunteers were examined. The CSNAP, CMNAP and CMAP, related to the medial and lateral plantar nerves were evaluated bilaterally. CSNAP were not obtained in 7.8% and in 17.6% from the medial and lateral plantar nerves respectively. CMNAP from the lateral plantar nerve were not obtained in 15.6%. CMNAP from the medial plantar nerves and CMAPs from the abductor hallucis and abductor digiti quinti were obtained for all nerves tested. Our results, therefore, suggest that these last 3 parameters are the ones more reliable for clinical application. PMID:10812535

  11. Peripheral nerve lengthening as a regenerative strategy

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Kenneth M.; Brown, Justin M.; Shah, Sameer B.

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury impairs motor, sensory, and autonomic function, incurring substantial financial costs and diminished quality of life. For large nerve gaps, proximal lesions, or chronic nerve injury, the prognosis for recovery is particularly poor, even with autografts, the current gold standard for treating small to moderate nerve gaps. In vivo elongation of intact proximal stumps towards the injured distal stumps of severed peripheral nerves may offer a promising new strategy to treat nerve injury. This review describes several nerve lengthening strategies, including a novel internal fixator device that enables rapid and distal reconnection of proximal and distal nerve stumps. PMID:25317163

  12. POI12 Electrophysiological sensory demyelination in typical chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Samarasekera; Y A Rajabally

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundElectrophysiological demyelination of sensory nerves is not routinely assessed in the evaluation of suspected chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Its usefulness is unknown.MethodsWe compared in 19 patients with typical chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and 26 controls with distal large fibre sensory axonal neuropathy, forearm median sensory conductions, sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) amplitudes and durations, and sensory nerve conduction

  13. Selective blockade of the dorsal scapular nerve for scapula surgery.

    PubMed

    Auyong, David B; Cabbabe, Amy A

    2014-12-01

    The dorsal scapular nerve, a proximal branch of the brachial plexus, may be imaged using ultrasound. This nerve supplies the rhomboid and levator scapulae muscles while providing significant sensory innervation to the scapula. An ultrasound-guided nerve block of the dorsal scapular nerve provided analgesia after surgery of the scapula. Selective blockade of this nerve, without blocking the remainder of the brachial plexus, results in specific analgesia of the scapula, sparing sensory and motor function of the ipsilateral arm. PMID:25439401

  14. Dentoalveolar nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Auyong, Thomas G; Le, Anh

    2011-08-01

    Nerve injury associated with dentoalveolar surgery is a complication contributing to the altered sensation of the lower lip, chin, buccal gingivae, and tongue. This surgery-related sensory defect is a morbid postoperative outcome. Several risk factors have been proposed. This article reviews the incidence of trigeminal nerve injury, presurgical risk assessment, classification, and surgical coronectomy versus conventional extraction as an approach to prevent neurosensory damage associated with dentoalveolar surgery. PMID:21798439

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to feel pain, heat, and cold. Deep pain perception, the feeling of pain from injuries to bones, ... gene ; growth factor ; hereditary ; inherited ; joint ; mutation ; neuropathy ; perception ; protein ; receptor ; recessive ; sensory nerve ; sensory neuropathy ; tissue ; ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nervous system ; autosomal ; autosomal recessive ; bud ; cell ; congenital ; digestion ; digestive ; esophagus ; gastroesophageal reflux ; gene ; hereditary ; inherited ; injury ; involuntary ; isoforms ; nervous system ; neuropathy ; prevalence ; protein ; recessive ; reflex ; sensory nerve ; sensory neuropathy ; sign ; spontaneous ; ...

  17. Nerve Growth Factor Delivery by Gene Transfer Induces Differential Outgrowth of Sensory, Motor, and Noradrenergic Neurites after Adult Spinal Cord Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark H. Tuszynski; Katie Gabriel; Fred H. Gage; Steve Suhr; Scott Meyer; Angela Rosetti

    1996-01-01

    Several neurotrophic factors have been identified that influence neuronal populations during central nervous system development, maturation, and senescence. To examine the responsiveness of the intact and the lesioned adult mammalian spinal cord to neurotrophic factors, primary rat fibroblasts were genetically modified to produce and secrete human nerve growth factor (NGF). These NGF-producing cells were then grafted to nonlesioned or lesioned

  18. Localization of a Passively Transferred Human Recombinant Monoclonal Antibody to Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein D to Infected Nerve Fibers and Sensory Neurons In Vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PIETRO PAOLO SANNA; THOMAS J. DEERINCK; MARK H. ELLISMAN

    1999-01-01

    A human recombinant monoclonal antibody to herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoprotein D labeled with the fluorescent dye Cy5 was administered to mice infected in the cornea with HSV type 1 (HSV-1). The distribution of such antibody in the corneas and trigeminal ganglia of the mice was then investigated by confocal micros- copy. The antibody was detected on HSV-infected nerve fibers

  19. Playing violent video games and desensitization to violence.

    PubMed

    Brockmyer, Jeanne Funk

    2015-01-01

    This article examines current research linking exposure to violent video games and desensitization to violence. Data from questionnaire, behavioral, and psychophysiologic research are reviewed to determine if exposure to violent video games is a risk factor for desensitization to violence. Real-world implications of desensitization are discussed. PMID:25455576

  20. Involvement of capsaicin-sensitive nerves in the bronchomotor effects of arachidonic acid and melittin: a possible role for lipoxin A4.

    PubMed Central

    Manzini, S.; Meini, S.

    1991-01-01

    1. Functional studies have been performed to evaluate the potential involvement of capsaicin-sensitive nerves in the bronchomotor responses evoked by lipid mediators produced from the metabolic breakdown of arachidonic acid (AA) in the guinea-pig bronchus. 2. In the presence of indomethacin, the exogenous administration of AA (0.01-1 mM) produced a concentration-dependent contractile response in guinea-pig isolated bronchial rings. AA-induced contractions were augmented by epithelium-removal and by thiorphan (10 microM), an inhibitor of tachykinin breakdown. A sustained downward and rightward displacement of the complete concentration-response curve to AA was observed after in vitro capsaicin desensitization. 3. BWA4C (1 microM), a selective inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase, shifted the AA concentration-response curve to the right. In the presence of this inhibitor, capsaicin desensitization did not have any further inhibitory action. 4. A potent, concentration-dependent and capsaicin-sensitive bronchoconstrictor effect was also observed with the polypeptide, melittin (10 nM-1 microM), an activator of phospholipase A2, which therefore should generate endogenous AA. 5. In vitro capsaicin-desensitization produced a significant reduction of the bronchomotor responses evoked by lipoxin A4 (1-6 microM), but not of those elicited by other lipoxygenases products such as leukotriene D4 (1-100 nM) or by 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE, 1-6 microM). 6. These findings indicate that lipoxin A4 but not leukotriene D4 or 15-HETE, might be one of the lipoxygenase mediators of excitatory effects of AA on capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves. PMID:1908731

  1. Morphological studies of the vestibular nerve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstroem, B.

    1973-01-01

    The anatomy of the intratemporal part of the vestibular nerve in man, and the possible age related degenerative changes in the nerve were studied. The form and structure of the vestibular ganglion was studied with the light microscope. A numerical analysis of the vestibular nerve, and caliber spectra of the myelinated fibers in the vestibular nerve branches were studied in individuals of varying ages. It was found that the peripheral endings of the vestibular nerve form a complicated pattern inside the vestibular sensory epithelia. A detailed description of the sensory cells and their surface organelles is included.

  2. Peripheral nerve function in chronic liver disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. N. Seneviratne; O. A. Peiris

    1970-01-01

    Peripheral nerve function has been studied in 50 patients with chronic liver disease. An increase in the latency or a reduction in the response amplitude of the evoked sensory potential of the median nerve was detected in 34 of the 50 subjects. This was in striking contrast to the paucity of neurological signs and symptoms suggestive of peripheral nerve damage

  3. Asymptomatic small fiber neuropathy in diabetes mellitus: investigations with intraepidermal nerve fiber density, quantitative sensory testing and laser-evoked potentials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Ragé; Nathalie Van Acker; Michiel W. M. Knaapen; Maarten Timmers; Johannes Streffer; Michel P. Hermans; Christian Sindic; Theo Meert; Léon Plaghki

    This study aimed at evaluating the performance of a battery of morphological and functional tests for the assessment of small\\u000a nerve fiber loss in asymptomatic diabetic neuropathy (DNP). Patients diagnosed for ?10 years with type 1 (n = 10) or type 2 (n = 13) diabetes mellitus (DM) without conventional symptoms or signs of DNP were recruited and compared with healthy controls\\u000a (n = 18) and patients

  4. Epigenetic regulation of BDNF expression in the primary sensory neurons after peripheral nerve injury: implications in the development of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Uchida, H; Matsushita, Y; Ueda, H

    2013-06-14

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is known to be up-regulated in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) after peripheral nerve injury, and to contribute to neuropathic pain. Here, we found that thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia at day 7 post-injury were inhibited only when anti-BDNF antibody was intrathecally administrated at day 2 post-injury. Consistent with behavioral results, Western blot analysis showed that the expression levels of BDNF protein in the spinal dorsal horn were markedly induced during early stage post-injury. Moreover, the maximal increase in BDNF mRNA expression in the DRG was observed at day 1 post-injury, and significantly elevated levels were sustained for at least 14 days. Four of five BDNF mRNA transcripts were up-regulated after nerve injury, and the most inducible transcript was exon I. Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, we found that nerve injury promotes histone H3 and H4 acetylation, transcriptionally active modifications, at BDNF promoter I at day 1 post-injury, and the levels of histone acetylation remain elevated for at least 7 days. Taken together, our findings suggest that an initial increase in BDNF exon I expression controlled by epigenetic mechanisms might have a crucial role in the development of neuropathic pain. PMID:23466809

  5. Oral Irritation by Mustard Oil: Self-desensitization and Cross-desensitization with Capsaicin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher T. Simons; Mirela Iodi Carstens; E. Carstens

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the temporal pattern of oral irritation elicited by sequential application of mustard oil (allyl-isothiocyanate), and whether it exhibits self-desensitization and cross-desensitization with capsaicin. Mustard oil (0.125%, 40 µl) was sequentially applied to one side of the tongue at 1 min intervals, and subjects rated the intensity of the irritant sensation elicited by each stimulus. Ratings successively declined across

  6. Nerve injury induces a new profile of tactile and mechanical nociceptor input from undamaged peripheral afferents.

    PubMed

    Boada, M Danilo; Gutierrez, Silvia; Aschenbrenner, Carol A; Houle, Timothy T; Hayashida, Ken-Ichiro; Ririe, Douglas G; Eisenach, James C

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain after nerve injury is often accompanied by hypersensitivity to mechanical stimuli, yet whether this reflects altered input, altered processing, or both remains unclear. Spinal nerve ligation or transection results in hypersensitivity to mechanical stimuli in skin innervated by adjacent dorsal root ganglia, but no previous study has quantified the changes in receptive field properties of these neurons in vivo. To address this, we recorded intracellularly from L4 dorsal root ganglion neurons of anesthetized young adult rats, 1 wk after L5 partial spinal nerve ligation (pSNL) or sham surgery. One week after pSNL, hindpaw mechanical withdrawal threshold in awake, freely behaving animals was decreased in the L4 distribution on the nerve-injured side compared with sham controls. Electrophysiology revealed that high-threshold mechanoreceptive cells of A-fiber conduction velocity in L4 were sensitized, with a seven-fold reduction in mechanical threshold, a seven-fold increase in receptive field area, and doubling of maximum instantaneous frequency in response to peripheral stimuli, accompanied by reductions in after-hyperpolarization amplitude and duration. Only a reduction in mechanical threshold (minimum von Frey hair producing neuronal activity) was observed in C-fiber conduction velocity high-threshold mechanoreceptive cells. In contrast, low-threshold mechanoreceptive cells were desensitized, with a 13-fold increase in mechanical threshold, a 60% reduction in receptive field area, and a 40% reduction in instantaneous frequency to stimulation. No spontaneous activity was observed in L4 ganglia, and the likelihood of recording from neurons without a mechanical receptive field was increased after pSNL. These data suggest massively altered input from undamaged sensory afferents innervating areas of hypersensitivity after nerve injury, with reduced tactile and increased nociceptive afferent response. These findings differ importantly from previous preclinical studies, but are consistent with clinical findings in most patients with chronic neuropathic pain. PMID:25274350

  7. Desensitization and recovery of metastable intermolecular composites

    DOEpatents

    Busse, James R. (South Fork, CO); Dye, Robert C. (Los Alamos, NM); Foley, Timothy J. (Los Alamos, NM); Higa, Kelvin T. (Ridgecrest, CA); Jorgensen, Betty S. (Jemez Springs, NM); Sanders, Victor E. (White Rock, NM); Son, Steven F. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-09-07

    A method to substantially desensitize a metastable intermolecular composite material to electrostatic discharge and friction comprising mixing the composite material with an organic diluent and removing enough organic diluent from the mixture to form a mixture with a substantially putty-like consistency, as well as a concomitant method of recovering the metastable intermolecular composite material.

  8. Morphine Induces Desensitization of Insulin Receptor Signaling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Li; Shoshana Eitan; Jiong Wu; Christopher J. Evans; Brigitte Kieffer; Xiaojian Sun; Roberto D. Polakiewicz

    2003-01-01

    between the MOR and the insulin receptor (IR) signaling cascades. We show that prolonged morphine exposure of cell lines expressing endogenous or transfected MOR, IR, and the insulin substrate 1 (IRS-1) protein specifically desensitizes IR signaling to Akt and ERK cascades. Morphine caused serine phosphory- lation of the IR and impaired the formation of the signaling complex among the IR,

  9. Sensory nerve fibers containing calcitonin gene-related peptide in gastrocnemius, latissimus dorsi and erector spinae muscles and thoracolumbar fascia in mice.

    PubMed

    Barry, C M; Kestell, G; Gillan, M; Haberberger, R V; Gibbins, I L

    2015-04-16

    Chronic pain is a significant burden and much is attributed to back muscles. Back muscles and their associated fasciae make important and distinct contributions to back pain. Peptidergic nociceptors innervating these structures contribute to central transmission and pain modulation by peripheral and central actions. Plastic changes that augment and prolong pain are exhibited by neurons containing calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) following muscle injury. Subpopulations of neurons containing this peptide have been identified in dorsal root ganglia but the distribution of their fibers in skeletal muscles and associated fasciae has not been fully documented. This study used multiple-labeling immunofluorescence and retrograde axonal tracing to identify dorsal root ganglion cells associated with muscle, and to characterize the distribution and density of their nerve fibers in mouse gastrocnemius and back muscles and in the thoracolumbar fascia. Most nerve fibers in these tissues contained CGRP and two major subpopulations of neurons were found: those containing CGRP and substance P (SP) and those containing CGRP but not SP. Innervation density was three times higher in the thoracolumbar fascia than in muscles of the back. These studies show mouse back and leg muscles are predominantly innervated by neurons containing CGRP, an important modulator of pain signal transmission. There are two distinct populations of neurons containing this peptide and their fibers were three times more densely distributed in the thoracolumbar fascia than back muscles. PMID:25681518

  10. Sympathetic skin response in acute sensory ataxic neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Arunodaya; A. B. Taly; H. S. Swamy

    1995-01-01

    Sympathetic skin response (SSR) is a recently described objective method of studying sudomotor sympathetic nerve function and has been studied in a variety of peripheral neuropathies. We report SSR changes in nine patients with acute sensory ataxic neuropathy (ASAN). All had severe sensory and mild motor nerve conduction abnormalities; five had dysautonomia. SSR, elicited by electric shock and cough stimuli,

  11. Altered expression of the voltage-gated calcium channel subunit ???-1: a comparison between two experimental models of epilepsy and a sensory nerve ligation model of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Rostro, M; Sandhu, G; Bauer, C S; Jiruska, P; Jefferys, J G R; Dolphin, A C

    2014-12-26

    The auxiliary ?2?-1 subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels is up-regulated in dorsal root ganglion neurons following peripheral somatosensory nerve damage, in several animal models of neuropathic pain. The ?2?-1 protein has a mainly presynaptic localization, where it is associated with the calcium channels involved in neurotransmitter release. Relevant to the present study, ?2?-1 has been shown to be the therapeutic target of the gabapentinoid drugs in their alleviation of neuropathic pain. These drugs are also used in the treatment of certain epilepsies. In this study we therefore examined whether the level or distribution of ?2?-1 was altered in the hippocampus following experimental induction of epileptic seizures in rats, using both the kainic acid model of human temporal lobe epilepsy, in which status epilepticus is induced, and the tetanus toxin model in which status epilepticus is not involved. The main finding of this study is that we did not identify somatic overexpression of ?2?-1 in hippocampal neurons in either of the epilepsy models, unlike the upregulation of ?2?-1 that occurs following peripheral nerve damage to both somatosensory and motor neurons. However, we did observe local reorganization of ?2?-1 immunostaining in the hippocampus only in the kainic acid model, where it was associated with areas of neuronal cell loss, as indicated by absence of NeuN immunostaining, dendritic loss, as identified by areas where microtubule-associated protein-2 immunostaining was missing, and reactive gliosis, determined by regions of strong OX42 staining. PMID:24641886

  12. Time domain desensitized specific optimal system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henson, T. F.; Womack, B. F.

    1975-01-01

    A digital computer algorithm for desensitized specific optimal system design for general time-invariant nonlinear systems is presented. The algorithm utilizes a technique of partitioning and uncoupling of the original specific closed-loop system state and sensitivity equations into linear, nonlinear, and control subsystems. Results of the application of the algorithm in the design of a Saturn V Launch Vehicle analog attitude control system and an LST image motion compensation digital controller are given.

  13. Desensitization of parathyroid hormone receptors on cultured bone cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pun, K.K.; Ho, P.W.; Nissenson, R.A.; Arnaud, C.D. (Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong))

    1990-12-01

    Administration of excessive amounts of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the treatment of osteoporosis can reverse the beneficial effects of a low-dose, intermittent regime. To investigate the direct actions and the possible cellular mechanisms of PTH in inducing desensitization of PTH receptors, we studied the effects of desensitization on rat osteoblastic UMR-106 cells. When the osteoblasts were preincubated with bPTH-(1-34), complete refractoriness to a subsequent challenge with the hormone developed within 1 h and at hormone concentrations as low as 5 nM. When osteoblasts thus desensitized were incubated in hormone-free medium, recovery of the cAMP responses began within 2 h and reached maximum after 16 h. Cycloheximide did not affect the process of desensitization. (Nle8,Nle18,Tyr34)bPTH-(3-34)amide significantly impaired the desensitization process by PTH-(1-34) but did not have stimulatory effect on cAMP responses. No significant heterologous desensitization was obvious after preincubation with isoprenaline (50 microM), prostaglandin E1 (50 microM), or prostaglandin E2 (50 microM) for 2 h. Binding experiments with (125I)PLP-(1-36)amide after desensitization revealed that there was an approximate twofold decrease in receptor affinities as analyzed by Scatchard analysis, showing that the decrease in affinity was prominent in the process of desensitization. When the cells were treated with monensin during desensitization, PTH challenge after desensitization produced significantly lower cyclic AMP responses. Recovery after desensitization occurred over a period of 16 h. Inclusion of monensin, but not cycloheximide, impaired the recovery. The results show that homologous desensitization of rat osteoblasts to PTH is brought about by the occupancy of receptors by PTH-(1-34) but not by cAMP generation itself.

  14. GABAB receptor phosphorylation regulates KCTD12-induced K+ current desensitization

    PubMed Central

    Adelfinger, Lisa; Turecek, Rostislav; Ivankova, Klara; Jensen, Anders A.; Moss, Stephen J.; Gassmann, Martin; Bettler, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    GABAB receptors assemble from GABAB1 and GABAB2 subunits. GABAB2 additionally associates with auxiliary KCTD subunits (named after their K+ channel tetramerization-domain). GABAB receptors couple to heterotrimeric G–proteins and activate inwardly-rectifying K+ channels through the ?? subunits released from the G-protein. Receptor-activated K+ currents desensitize in the sustained presence of agonist to avoid excessive effects on neuronal activity. Desensitization of K+ currents integrates distinct mechanistic underpinnings. GABAB receptor activity reduces protein kinase-A activity, which reduces phosphorylation of serine-892 in GABAB2 and promotes receptor degradation. This form of desensitization operates on the time scale of several minutes to hours. A faster form of desensitization is induced by the auxiliary subunit KCTD12, which interferes with channel activation by binding to the G-protein ?? subunits. Here we show that the two mechanisms of desensitization influence each other. Serine-892 phosphorylation in heterologous cells rearranges KCTD12 at the receptor and slows KCTD12-induced desensitization. Likewise, protein kinase-A activation in hippocampal neurons slows fast desensitization of GABAB receptor-activated K+ currents while protein kinase-A inhibition accelerates fast desensitization. Protein kinase-A fails to regulate fast desensitization in KCTD12 knock-out mice or knock-in mice with a serine-892 to alanine mutation, thus demonstrating that serine-892 phosphorylation regulates KCTD12-induced desensitization in vivo. Fast current desensitization is accelerated in hippocampal neurons carrying the serine-892 to alanine mutation, showing that tonic serine-892 phosphorylation normally limits KCTD12-induced desensitization. Tonic serine-892 phosphorylation is in turn promoted by assembly of receptors with KCTD12. This cross-regulation of serine-892 phosphorylation and KCTD12 activity sharpens the response during repeated receptor activation. PMID:25065880

  15. ?-Synuclein in cutaneous autonomic nerves

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ningshan; Gibbons, Christopher H.; Lafo, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop a cutaneous biomarker for Parkinson disease (PD). Methods: Twenty patients with PD and 14 age- and sex-matched control subjects underwent examinations, autonomic testing, and skin biopsies at the distal leg, distal thigh, and proximal thigh. ?-Synuclein deposition and the density of intraepidermal, sudomotor, and pilomotor nerve fibers were measured. ?-Synuclein deposition was normalized to nerve fiber density (the ?-synuclein ratio). Results were compared with examination scores and autonomic function testing. Results: Patients with PD had a distal sensory and autonomic neuropathy characterized by loss of intraepidermal and pilomotor fibers (p < 0.05 vs controls, all sites) and morphologic changes to sudomotor nerve fibers. Patients with PD had greater ?-synuclein deposition and higher ?-synuclein ratios compared with controls within pilomotor nerves and sudomotor nerves (p < 0.01, all sites) but not sensory nerves. Higher ?-synuclein ratios correlated with Hoehn and Yahr scores (r = 0.58–0.71, p < 0.01), with sympathetic adrenergic function (r = ?0.40 to ?0.66, p < 0.01), and with parasympathetic function (r = ?0.66 to ?0.77, p > 0.01). Conclusions: We conclude that ?-synuclein deposition is increased in cutaneous sympathetic adrenergic and sympathetic cholinergic fibers but not sensory fibers of patients with PD. Higher ?-synuclein deposition is associated with greater autonomic dysfunction and more advanced PD. These data suggest that measures of ?-synuclein deposition in cutaneous autonomic nerves may be a useful biomarker in patients with PD. PMID:24089386

  16. Chronic intraneural electrical stimulation for prosthetic sensory feedback

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. DiLorenzo; David J. Edell; Mark J. Koris; Ron R. Riso

    2003-01-01

    The functionality of prosthetic limbs is restricted by the limited availability of sensory feedback. The goal of the present research is the development of a multichannel microelectrode array for the presentation of sensory information directly to the sensory afferent neurons of the transected peripheral nerve of an amputee. Intraneural electrode arrays were developed and implanted in the proximal stump of

  17. Influence of human skin injury on regeneration of sensory neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Taherzadeh; W. R. Otto; U. Anand; J. Nanchahal; P. Anand

    2003-01-01

    The regeneration of sensory nerve fibres is regulated by trophic factors released from their target tissue, particularly the basal epidermis, and matrix molecules. Means to modulate this response may be useful for the treatment of neuromas and painful hypertrophic scars and of sensory deficits in skin grafts and flaps. We have developed an in vitro model of sensory neuron regeneration

  18. The sensitization of a broad spectrum of sensory nerve fibers in a rat model of acute postoperative pain and its response to intrathecal pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Nagakura, Yukinori; Jones, Toni L.; Malkmus, Shelle A.; Sorkin, Linda; Yaksh, Tony L.

    2012-01-01

    Further understanding of pathophysiology of postoperative acute pain is necessary for its better management. The methodology of current threshold (CT) determination by using sine-wave stimuli at 3 frequencies has been used to selectively and quantitatively analyze the function of the subsets of fibers (i.e., frequency of 5, 250, and 2000 Hz recruits C-, A?-, and A?-fibers, respectively). The present study investigated how surgical incision would affect the CTs, and then assessed the efficacy of intrathecal pharmacotherapy. The CT required to evoke a paw withdrawal response was assessed over time at stimulus frequencies of 5 Hz (CT5), 250 Hz (CT250), and 2000 Hz (CT2000) in rats that had undergone surgical incision of the plantar skin and muscle. The CTs at all frequencies significantly decreased immediately after the incision. The decreased thresholds gradually recovered during the first week post-surgery. CT5 and CT250 (but not CT2000) remained significantly low even on day 7 post-surgery. Morphine at 5 ?g/10 ?L i.t. significantly reversed CT5 and CT250. NBQX (?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid [AMPA]/kainate receptor antagonist) at 1.9 or 3.8 ?g/10 ?L i.t. significantly increased the thresholds over the pre-surgery threshold levels at all frequencies. MK-801 (N-methyl d-aspartate [NMDA] receptor antagonist) at up to 13.5 ?g/10 ?L i.t. did not significantly affect CTs at any frequencies. In conclusion, a broad spectrum of sensory fibers (A?, A?, and C) are sensitized at the spinal and/or peripheral level in the postoperative acute pain state. Spinal AMPA/kainate receptors but not NMDA receptors play a significant role in this sensitization. PMID:18692315

  19. Identification of target areas for deep brain stimulation in human basal ganglia substructures based on median nerve sensory evoked potential criteria

    PubMed Central

    Klostermann, F; Vesper, J; Curio, G

    2003-01-01

    Objective: In the interventional treatment of movement disorders, the thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) are the most relevant electrode targets for deep brain stimulation (DBS). This study tested the value of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) for the functional identification of VIM and STN. Methods: Median nerve SEP were recorded from the final stimulation electrodes targeted at STN and VIM. Throughout the stereotactic procedure SEP were recorded during short electrode stops above STN/VIM and within the presumed target areas. After digital filtering, high and low frequency SEP components were analysed separately to parameterise both the 1000 Hz SEP burst and low frequency (<100 Hz) components. Results: SEP recorded in the VIM target region could unequivocally be distinguished from SEP recorded in STN. The 1000 Hz burst signal was significantly larger in VIM than in STN without any overlap of amplitude values. In the low frequency band, a primary high amplitude negativity was obtained in VIM, contrasting with a low amplitude positivity in STN. SEP waveshapes in recordings above target positions resembled SEP obtained in STN. When entering VIM, a sharp amplitude increase was observed over a few millimetres only. Conclusions: Based on SEP criteria, the VIM target but not the STN region can be identified by typical SEP configuration changes, when penetrating the target zone. The approach is independent of the patient's cooperation and vigilance and therefore feasible in general anaesthesia. It provides an easy, reliable, and robust tool for the final assessment of electrode positions at the last instance during electrode implantation when eventual electrode revisions can easily be performed. PMID:12876229

  20. Symmetry of sensory loss in developing diabetic sensory polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Rader, Andrew J; Barry, Timothy P

    2009-02-01

    The medical literature presents diabetic sensory polyneuropathy (DSPN) as an axonal length-dependent symmetric pathology producing a stocking-like pattern of anesthesia in the lower extremities. This has been based on anecdotal reports. Objective research has shown that damage may not occur in a purely length-dependent manner. A stocking distribution of sensory loss is atypical, and plantar sensory loss predominates. A single-blinded, age-matched, control/experimental study was performed of the symmetry of nerve damage in developing DSPN. Control (n = 46) and experimental (n = 83) subjects were examined. The patterns of sensory loss and the severity of axonal damage were evaluated. The right/left symmetry of pathology was recorded for each individual. Although there was not a stocking pattern of anesthesia found in developing DSPN, the pattern and severity of anesthesia were found to be generally symmetric. The severity of sensory impairment was symmetric at the dorsal foot (93%), lateral foot (95%), and plantar foot (69%). The most predominant site of sensory impairment was also symmetric (81%). This argues against a purely metabolic etiology for axonal damage. An anatomic component is implied. Further research will need to include examination of the unique physical characteristics of predominantly affected nerves. PMID:19825745

  1. Nerve biopsy and conduction studies in diabetic neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Behse; F Buchthal; F Carlsen

    1977-01-01

    Morphological findings in sural nerves were related to nerve conduction in 12 patients with diabetic neuropathy, five with mainly sensory involvement, four with severe, symmetrical sensory-motor polyneuropathy, and three with multiple mononeuropathy. All had loss of large and small myelinated and of unmyelinated fibres, even early in the disease; segmental remyelination was the most prominent myelin alteration in teased fibres,

  2. EMG Biofeedback Training Versus Systematic Desensitization for Test Anxiety Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, John L.; Cabianca, William A.

    1978-01-01

    Biofeedback training to reduce test anxiety among university students was investigated. Biofeedback training with systematic desensitization was compared to an automated systematic desensitization program not using EMG feedback. Biofeedback training is a useful technique for reducing test anxiety, but not necessarily more effective than systematic…

  3. Evaluation of Antibacterial Effectiveness of Desensitizers against Oral Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Ismet; Sengun, Abdulkadir; Hadimli, Hasan Huseyin; Ulker, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Desensitizers contribute to better clinical results by reducing the rate of cervical dentin sensitivity. However, information on their antibacterial effect is limited. This study examined the antibacterial activities of a triclosan containing (Seal & Protect), a benzalconium containing desensitizer (Micro Prime), a fluoride containing prophilaxy paste (Sultan Desensitizer), two fluoride containing varnishes (Cavity Shealth and Ultra EZ), and a dentin bonding primer (All Bond). Methods The test materials were inserted in the wells of Muller Hinton agar plates inoculated with Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarious, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The diameters of the inhibition zones produced around the materials were measured after 24 h of incubation. The results were analyzed by the Kruskal Wallis one way ANOVA and the Mann-Whitney tests at a significance level of P<.05. Results Micro Prime Desensitizer containing benzalkonium chloride had the highest antibacterial effectiveness compared to other desensitizers used in this study. In addition, triclosan containing Seal & Protect and acidic components containing All Bond showed very high antibacterial efficacy. On the other hand, fluoride within both varnishes had little antibacterial effectiveness. However a fluoride component in a paste (Sultan Desensitizer) showed very high bactericidal effect. Conclusions All desensitizers except fluoride varnishes showed various degrees of antibacterial effect against the bacteria tested in this study. If antibacterial effect is also required from the desensitizers’ clinicians should avoid use of varnishes. PMID:19212508

  4. In Vitro Desensitization of Human Skin Mast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Gomez, Gregorio; Macey, Matthew; Kepley, Christopher L.

    2013-01-01

    Desensitization is a clinical procedure whereby incremental doses of a drug are administered over several hours to a sensitive patient until a therapeutic dose and clinical tolerance are achieved. Clinical tolerance may occur in part by attenuating the mast cell response. In the present study, primary human skin mast cells were used to establish and characterize an in vitro model of desensitization. Mast cells in culture were armed with allergen-specific (4-hydroxy-3-nitro-phenylacety and Der p2) and non-specific IgE antibodies, and then desensitized by incremental exposures to 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacety-BSA. This desensitization procedure abrogated the subsequent degranulation response to the desensitizing allergen, to an unrelated allergen, and to IgG anti-Fc?RI, but not to C5a, substance P, compound 48/80, and calcium ionophore. Desensitized cells regained their Fc?RI-dependent degranulation capability by 24–48 h after free allergen had been removed. Therefore, sensitized human skin mast cells are reversibly desensitized in vitro by exposure to incremental doses of that allergen, which also cross-desensitizes them to an unrelated allergen. PMID:22009002

  5. Effects of Modeling and Desensitation in Reducing Dentist Phobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, David W.; Thoresen, Carl E.

    1974-01-01

    Many persons avoid dentists and dental work. The present study explored the effects of systematic desensitization and social-modeling treatments with placebo and assessment control groups. Modeling was more effective than desensitization as shown by the number of subjects who went to a dentist. (Author)

  6. Esophagoprotective activity of angiotensin-(1-7) in experimental model of acute reflux esophagitis. Evidence for the role of nitric oxide, sensory nerves, hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha and proinflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Pawlik, M W; Kwiecien, S; Pajdo, R; Ptak-Belowska, A; Brzozowski, B; Krzysiek-Maczka, G; Strzalka, M; Konturek, S J; Brzozowski, T

    2014-12-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a global disease rapidly increasing among world population. The pathogenesis of reflux esophagitis which is considered as the early stage of GERD is complex, resulting from an imbalance between aggressive factors damaging the esophagus and a number of the natural defense mechanisms. The esophageal mucosa is in a state of continuous exposure to potentially damaging endogenous and exogenous factors. Important aggressive components of gastric refluxate include acid and pepsin and also pancreatic enzymes and bile. Among aggressive factors of exogenous origin, cigarette smoking, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), and steroids are of the utmost importance. The basic level of esophageal defense against acid-pepsin damage consists of the anti-reflux mechanisms such as the luminal acid clearance and removal of the esophageal contents and neutralization of luminal acidity. In addition the esophageal mucosal protection includes the presence of pre-epithelial, epithelial and post-epithelial cellular and functional components. Recently, the progress have been made in the understanding of role of the heptapeptide member of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) in the control of gastrointestinal functions. It has been shown that all components of local RAS including Ang-(1-7) are detectable in the gastrointestinal wall including not only the stomach but also the esophagus. Previous studies revealed that Ang-(1-7), which is an important component of the RAS, exerts vasodilatory, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities in the stomach. Ang-(1-7) was recently implicated in gastroprotection, but its effects on esophageal mucosa in a rodent model of reflux esophagitis and in human subjects presenting GERD symptoms have not been explored. The present study was aimed to evaluate the possible protective effects of Ang-(1-7) and Mas-receptors upon esophageal mucosal damage in acute reflux esophagitis (RE) induced in anesthetized rats by ligating the pylorus and the limiting ridge (a transitional region between the forestomach and the corpus of stomach). Consequently, the total gastric reservoir to store gastric juice was greatly diminished, resulting in the reflux of this juice into the esophagus. Because Mas receptors are functionally linked to nitric oxide (NO) formation, we also studied involvement of endogenous NO in the mediation of protective and circulatory effects of exogenous Ang-(1-7). Moreover, an attempt was made to assess the possible role of sensory neurons in the modulation of the protective effects exerted by Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor system. Six series of rats were pretreated 30 min before induction of RE with 1) vehicle (saline), 2) Ang-(1-7) (5-50 ?g/kg i.p.), 3) A779 (50 ?g/kg i.p.), the selective Mas receptor antagonist applied alone, 4) Ang-(1-7) (50 ?g/kg i.p.) combined with A779, 5) L-NNA (20 mg/kg i.p.) administered alone, and 6) Ang-(1-7) (50 ?g/kg i.p.) combined with L-NNA. In separate group of rats, capsaicin (total dosage of 125 mg/kg within three days) was administered s.c. 2 weeks before the induction of RE to induce functional ablation of sensory nerves. Rats with intact sensory nerves and those with capsaicin-induced sensory denervation received vehicle (saline) or Ang-(1-7) (50 ?g/kg i.p.) to determine whether this vasoactive metabolite of angiotensin I could be also effective in rats with capsaicin-induced impairment of the synthesis and release of sensory neuropeptides such as CGRP. Four hours after induction of RE, the mucosal damage was graded with mucosal lesion index (LI) from 0 to 6, the esophageal microcirculatory blood flow (EBF) was determined by H2-gas clearance technique and plasma level of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1b (IL-1?), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) was determined by ELISA. The expression of proinflammatory factors including COX-2, cytokine IL-1? and hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha (Hif1?) was analyzed in the esophageal mucosal biopsies. In rats with RE, the esophageal LI was signi

  7. Nerve conduction studies of lower extremities in pes planus subjects.

    PubMed

    Budak, F; Bamaç, B; Ozbek, A; Kutluay, P; Komsuo?lu, S

    2001-01-01

    Pes planus is a condition in which the medial longitudinal arch is depressed. Pedoscop, eyeball visualization, ink mat and roentgenography were used in clinical evaluation. We performed nerve conduction studies on both feet of 28 pes planus subjects. Our results demonstrated mild prolongation distal latency of the medial and lateral plantar sensory nerves, and delayed sensory conduction velocity of the medial plantar sensory nerve. The presence of electrodiagnostic abnormalities in this study population helps to substantiate the presence of compression neuropathy of the medial or lateral plantar nerve in pes planus subjects. PMID:11721301

  8. Peripheral nerve stimulation in neurological rehabilitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Sinkjaer; D. Popovic

    2003-01-01

    An injury to the central nervous system can result in a permanent loss of the voluntary motor function and sensation. However, the peripheral motor and sensory nerves below the level of lesion often remain intact, and so do the muscles. Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) is a technique to restore motor and sensory functions after such injuries. The forces generated in

  9. Dermatomyositis-associated sensory neuropathy: a unifying pathogenic hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thy P; Bangert, Carolyn; Biliciler, Suur; Athar, Parveen; Sheikh, Kazim

    2014-09-01

    Neuropathy as extramuscular manifestation of dermatomyositis (DM) is controversial due to uncommon occurrence, heterogeneity of associated nerve pathology, and lack of unifying pathogenetic mechanism(s). We describe a patient with classic manifestations of DM and extramuscular manifestation of neuropathy. Nerve pathology showed deposits of terminal complement complex (C5b-9). Her examination showed mild proximal weakness, rash, and sensory impairment in fingertips, toes, and nose. EMG/NCS revealed irritable myopathy and mild sensory neuropathy. Muscle biopsy showed features suggestive of DM, including deposition of C5b-9. CK was elevated to 214 and ANA was positive at 1:160. Etiological work up for neuropathy, including diabetes, was negative. Sural nerve biopsy at light level revealed very mild large fiber sensory neuropathy. EM showed moderately severe involvement of small sensory fibers. Neuropathy may be an underrecognized manifestation of DM. Nerve pathology demonstrating complement-mediated damage could be a unifying mechanism of muscle and nerve injury. PMID:25137509

  10. Nerve growth factor: from neurotrophin to neurokine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rita Levi-Montalcini; Stephen D. Skaper; Roberto Dal Toso; Lucia Petrelli; Alberta Leon

    1996-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is largely known as a target-derived factor responsible for the survival and maintenance of the phenotype of specific subsets of peripheral neurones and basal forebrain cholinergic nuclei during development and maturation. However, NGF also exerts a modulatory role on sensory, nociceptive nerve physiology during adulthood that appears to correlate with hyperalgesic phenomena occurring in tissue inflammation.

  11. Tensile stimuli increase nerve growth factor in human dermal fibroblasts independent of tension-induced TGF? production.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mina; Shin, Dong Wook; Shin, Hyunjun; Noh, Minsoo; Shin, Jennifer H

    2013-01-01

    Human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) regulate wound-healing processes in human skin, including the regeneration of skin sensory fibres, in response to various mechanical stimuli. Because nerve growth factor (NGF) has an essential role in sensory regeneration, we evaluated the possible association of NGF with mechanical stimulus-dependent cellular responses in HDFs. A cyclic tensile stimulus increased both NGF and transforming growth factor (TGF) ?2 production, yet with different gene transcription and signal desensitization profiles. Neutralizing TGF? with antibodies did not affect the tension-induced NGF upregulation, with significant inhibition of endogenous TGF?2 transcription. The treatment with LY294002, SP600125 or U0126 hindered the tension-induced TGF?2 upregulation, although the increase in NGF was regulated only by SP600125 or U0126, indicating the involvement of three signalling kinase pathways in the upregulation of TGF?2. However, the upregulation of NGF was shown to be independent of PI3K, demonstrating the independent regulation of tension-induced NGF and TGF? production in HDFs. PMID:23278900

  12. Secondary digital nerve repair in the foot with resorbable p(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve conduits.

    PubMed

    Meek, Marcel F; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A; Robinson, Peter H

    2006-04-01

    Nerve guides are increasingly being used in peripheral nerve repair. In the last decade, much preclinical research has been undertaken into a resorbable nerve guide composed of p(DLLA-epsilon-CL). This report describes the results of secondary digital nerve reconstruction in the foot in a patient with post-traumatic neuromas of the common plantar digital nerves II-III and III-IV. The neuromas were resected and reconstruction of the nerves was carried out with resorbable Neurolac nerve guides. The Pressure Specified Sensory Device was used to measure the static (s) and moving (m) 1- and 2-point discrimination (PD). Fourteen months after nerve repair, the m1-PD returned in all digital nerves. The s1-PD returned only on the lateral side of the second toe. The m2-PD and s2-PD did not return in any of the toes originally innervated by the reconstructed nerves. According to the British Classification System, the sensory nerve recovery was poor. However, there were no complaints of painful neuromas after this procedure. In conclusion, this report shows no beneficial effects of Neurolac nerve guides in terms of return of sensibility after repair of common plantar digital nerves. Painful neuromas, however, could be well-treated. PMID:16780042

  13. Fascial entrapment of the sural nerve and its clinical relevance

    PubMed Central

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Tzika, Maria; Ioannidis, Orestis

    2014-01-01

    Sural nerve presents great topographic variability and it is responsible for sensory innervation of the posterolateral side of the distal third of the leg and lateral aspect of the foot. Entrapment of the nerve could be caused by compression due to fascial thickening, while the symptomatology includes sensory alterations and deficits at the nerve distribution area. We report a cadaveric case of a variant sural nerve that presented a distinct entrapment site. A supernumerary sensory branch was encountered originating from the common peroneal nerve, while the peroneal component of the sural nerve was observed to take a course within a fibrous fascial tunnel 3.1 cm in length that caused nerve fixation and flattening. The tension applied to the aforementioned branch was shown to worsen during passive forcible foot plantaflexion and inversion. The etiology, diagnosis and the treatment options are discussed comprehensively. PMID:24987554

  14. Nerve conduction studies in early tuberculoid leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Vashisht, Deepak; Das, Arjun Lal; Vaishampayan, Sanjeev S; Vashisht, Surbhi; Joshi, Rajneesh

    2014-01-01

    Context: Hansen's disease is a chronic illness; besides involving skin and peripheral nerves, it affects multiple organs. Nerve involvement is always present in leprosy, and it may be present much before the patient manifests clinically. Aims: To assess nerve conduction parameters in thickened and contralateral non-thickened nerves in early tuberculoid leprosy Materials and Methods: Fifty new untreated male patients with tuberculoid and borderline tuberculoid leprosy in the age group of 15-50 years with thickened peripheral nerves on one side were included in the study. Nerve conduction studies consisting of sensory and motor velocity (NCV), distal latencies, and amplitude were carried out on thickened ulnar, common peroneal, and posterior tibial nerves and contralateral normal nerves. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean values along with coefficient of variation were obtained for various parameters. These were compared with normal values of the control population. P value was used to verify statistical significance. Results: Nerve conduction parameters were deranged in most of the thickened nerves. Sensory parameters were affected early in the disease process. Conclusion: Additional parameters are required to assess nerve damage in early cases, where it is more in slow conducting fibers (average velocity fibers). Change in conduction velocity may not be marked; this calls for the measurement of fast fibers separately because potentials recorded are mainly from myelinated fibers. PMID:25593812

  15. Successful Desensitization of a Patient with Rituximab Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Ataca, Pinar; Atilla, Erden; Kendir, Resat; Bavbek, Sevim; Ozcan, Muhit

    2015-01-01

    Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody which targets CD20 in B cells that is used for the treatment of CD20 positive oncologic and hematologic malignancies. Rituximab causes hypersensitivity reactions during infusions. The delay of treatment or loss of a highly efficient drug can be prevented by rapid drug desensitization method in patients who are allergic to rituximab. We report a low grade B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma patient with rituximab hypersensitivity successfully treated with rapid drug desensitization. In experienced centers, drug desensitization is a novel modality to break through in case of hypersensitivity that should be considered. PMID:25685566

  16. Phosphorylation-Independent Desensitization of G Protein-Coupled Receptors?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christina S. Pao (Thomas Jefferson University; The Kimmel Cancer Center, Department of Microbiology and Immunology REV)

    2002-10-08

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are involved in a multitude of signaling processes and respond to a wide range of ligands. The activity of GPCRs is subject to three principal modes of regulation: desensitization, trafficking, and down-regulation. Desensitization is defined as a loss in the responsiveness of a signaling system. The generally established paradigm for GPCR desensitization involves receptor phosphorylation by GPCR kinases (GRKs), initiated by agonist-induced conformational changes in the receptor or by kinases activated by specific signaling pathways. GRKs have several interaction domains and may be able to contribute to receptor desensitization through mechanisms that do not involve the kinase activity of GRK. Pao and Benovic discuss some of these interactions and their relevance for the regulation of GPCR signaling.

  17. [Studies on desensitization of GABAB receptor coupled adenylate cyclase].

    PubMed

    Yu, Z F; Cheng, G J; Hu, B R

    1997-02-01

    After preincubation of crude synaptic membranes (P2 membranes) with phorber ester (PMA) or GABAB receptor agonist baclofen (BAL), the rate of inhibition of BAL on basal adenylate cyclase (AC) activity and forskolin-stimulated AC activity significantly reduced (desensitized). This effect of BAL did not change after preincubation with forskolin suggesting that the desensitization mechanism of GABAB receptor coupled AC is related with activation of protein kinase C (PKC), but not with protein kinase A. It was further found that the equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of GABAB receptor was increased during desensitization. Our results suggest that PKC activation may cause some structural or conformational changes of GABAB receptor, resulting in an uncoupling from G protein and desensitization of GABAB receptor-coupled AC. PMID:9812829

  18. Suprascapular Nerve Block for Postoperative Pain Relief in Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery: A New Modality?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DENISE J. WEDEL; Ewan D. Ritchie; Doris Tong; Frances Chung; Andrew M. Norris; Anthony Miniaci

    1998-01-01

    effects, and intraarticular local anesthetic has been shown to be ineffective when used for postoperative pain relief. The suprascapular nerve supplies 70% of the sensory nerve supply to the shoulder joint, and local anesthetic block of this nerve is effective in cer- tain shoulder pain disorders. To determine the effi- cacy of a suprascapular nerve block, subcutaneous saline was compared

  19. Immunohistochemical characterisation of cholinergic nerve fibres supplying accessory genital glands in the pig

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. KLIMCZUK; J. KALECZYC; A. FRANKE-RADOWIECKA; K. CZAJA; P. PODLASZ; M. LAKOMY

    2005-01-01

    Our previous immunohistochemical investigations revealed three major populations of nerve fibres supplying the porcine accessory genital glands (AGG) including noradrenergic, non-noradrenergic putative cholin - ergic and sensory nerve terminals (Kaleczyc et al., 1997). However, it is still unclear whether the non-noradrenergic nerve fibres are cholinergic in nature. The knowledge of the population of cholinergic nerve fibres in mammalian AGG based

  20. Oral Specific Desensitization in Food-Allergic Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giampiero Patriarca; Eleonora Nucera; Emanuela Pollastrini; Chiara Roncallo; Tiziana De Pasquale; Carla Lombardo; Claudio Pedone; Giovanni Gasbarrini; Alessandro Buonomo; Domenico Schiavino

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of obtaining oral desensitization in patients with food allergy is still a matter of debate. We decided to\\u000a evaluate the safety and efficacy of standardized protocols for oral desensitization with the most common food allergens. Forty-two\\u000a children (ages up to 16 years) diagnosed as affected by food allergy (on the basis of clinical history, skin prick tests,\\u000a measurement

  1. Does rituximab help in HLA desensitization for kidney transplantation?

    PubMed

    Carroll, Robert; Coates, P Toby

    2015-02-01

    In the study by Jackson et al., 50 subjects were given plasma exchange and low-dose intravenous immunoglobulin to desensitize for live-donor kidney transplantation, and those deemed to have high immunological risk were also given rituximab. Transplant outcomes were similar between the two groups even though the rituximab group had higher immunological risk. These results suggest that rituximab may be helpful when added to 'standard' desensitization protocols, but definitive trials are still lacking in this area. PMID:25635721

  2. Clinical nerve conduction and needle electromyography studies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Donald H; Claussen, Gwendolyn C; Oh, Shin

    2004-01-01

    The electrodiagnostic study, consisting of nerve conduction studies and needle electromyography, is a useful adjunct to the clinical examination of the peripheral nervous system. The three types of nerve conduction study are motor, sensory, and mixed, of which motor is the least sensitive. Electromyography records the intrinsic electrical activity of muscle fibers, thus providing the physiologic status of muscle function. To interpret the electrodiagnostic study results, the clinician must understand the anatomic and physiologic basis of the studies. Peripheral nerve entrapment initially results in focal demyelination; thus, nerve conduction velocity slows across the site. However, with radiculopathy and nerve root compression, the nerve conduction study may be normal. Both nerve trauma and polyneuropathy show marked differences in their effect on the results of electrodiagnostic studies. PMID:15473679

  3. Desensitization for solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Zachary, Andrea A; Leffell, Mary S

    2014-01-01

    Desensitization protocols are being used worldwide to enable kidney transplantation across immunologic barriers, i.e. antibody to donor HLA or ABO antigens, which were once thought to be absolute contraindications to transplantation. Desensitization protocols are also being applied to permit transplantation of HLA mismatched hematopoietic stem cells to patients with antibody to donor HLA, to enhance the opportunity for transplantation of non-renal organs, and to treat antibody-mediated rejection. Although desensitization for organ transplantation carries an increased risk of antibody-mediated rejection, ultimately these transplants extend and enhance the quality of life for solid organ recipients, and desensitization that permits transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells is life saving for patients with limited donor options. Complex patient factors and variability in treatment protocols have made it difficult to identify, precisely, the mechanisms underlying the downregulation of donor-specific antibodies. The mechanisms underlying desensitization may differ among the various protocols in use, although there are likely to be some common features. However, it is likely that desensitization achieves a sort of immune detente by first reducing the immunologic barrier and then by creating an environment in which an autoregulatory process restricts the immune response to the allograft. PMID:24517434

  4. The value of sensory electrophysiology in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yusuf A. Rajabally; Manisha Narasimhan

    2007-01-01

    ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of sensory nerve conduction studies in comparison and in combination with motor conductions in diagnosing chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP).

  5. Topical capsaicin in humans: parallel loss of epidermal nerve fibers and pain sensation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Nolano; Donald A Simone; Gwen Wendelschafer-Crabb; Timothy Johnson; Eric Hazen; William R Kennedy

    1999-01-01

    Capsaicin applied topically to human skin produces itching, pricking and burning sensations due to excitation of nociceptors. With repeated application, these positive sensory responses are followed by a prolonged period of hypalgesia that is usually referred to as desensitization, or nociceptor inactivation. Consequently, capsaicin has been recommended as a treatment for a variety of painful syndromes. The precise mechanisms that

  6. Nerve and Nerve Root Biomechanics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristen J. Nicholson; Beth A. Winkelstein

    \\u000a Together, the relationship between the mechanical response of neural tissues and the related mechanisms of injury provide\\u000a a foundation for defining relevant thresholds for injury. The nerves and nerve roots are biologic structures with specific\\u000a and important functions, and whose response to mechanical loading can have immediate, long-lasting and widespread consequences.\\u000a In particular, when nerves or nerve roots are mechanically

  7. Trigeminal sensory neuropathy with abnormal taste following acute sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Okuda, B; Tachibana, H; Sugita, M

    1994-02-01

    We report a case of isolated trigeminal sensory neuropathy associated with impairment of taste sensation following acute sinusitis. Sensory disturbance was distributed mainly in the ophthalmic division, and partly in the maxillary and mandibular divisions. No other cranial nerves were involved. An otological procedure resulted in complete recovery. The unique combination of trigeminal neuropathy and abnormal taste seemed to be caused by the infectious process involving the gasserian ganglion of the trigeminal nerve. PMID:8187388

  8. On the mechanism of desensitization in quisqualate-type glutamate channels.

    PubMed

    Tour, O; Parnas, H; Parnas, I

    2000-07-01

    Desensitization of crayfish glutamate channels was studied in outside-out patches employing an improved fast drug-application technique. Low concentrations of glutamate produced substantial desensitization without correlation with the detected number of open channels. The desensitization time constant (tau(D)) was found to be independent of glutamate concentration (0.3-20 mM). These results suggest that in addition to desensitization from a state of fully liganded channels, a substantial fraction of desensitization occurs also from channels in a partly-liganded state. A kinetic model was developed. The model accounts for the multifaceted behavior of desensitization as well as for resensitization. PMID:10899178

  9. Effect of Sensory Denervation on the Response of Rat Molar Pulp to Exposure Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Byers; P. E. Taylor

    1993-01-01

    Sensory nerve fibers that contain calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) have been shown previously to sprout into inflamed tissue surrounding sites of pulpal injury. The sprouting fibers contain increased CGRP immunoreactivity (IR), and neuropeptide levels increase in the surrounding pulp. We compared denervated and innervated first mandibular molars of rats to determine whether the absence of sensory nerve fibers affected tissue

  10. Nerve Conduction Study Among Healthy Malays. The Influence of Age, Height and Body Mass Index on Median, Ulnar, Common Peroneal and Sural Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Awang, Mohamed Saufi; Abdullah, Jafri Malin; Abdullah, Mohd Rusli; Tharakan, John; Prasad, Atul; Husin, Zabidi Azhar; Hussin, Ahmad Munawir; Tahir, Adnan; Razak, Salmi Abdul

    2006-01-01

    Nerve conduction study is essential in the diagnosis of focal neuropathies and diffuse polyneuropathies. Age, height and body mass index (BMI) can affect nerve velocities as reported by previous studies. We studied the effect of these factors on median, ulnar, common peroneal and sural nerves among healthy Malay subjects. We observed slowing of nerve conduction velocities (NCVs) with increasing age and BMI (except ulnar sensory velocities). No demonstrable trend can be seen across different height groups except in common peroneal nerve. PMID:22589600

  11. Rectal sensory evoked potentials: an Assessment of their clinical value

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. T. M. Speakman; M. A. Kamm; M. Swash

    1993-01-01

    To assess abnomalities of sensory conduction in anorectal disease we have evaluated peripheral sensory perception and somatosensory evoked potentials produced by rectal stimulation in control subjects and patients with either constipation or idiopathic faecal incontinence. Evoked potentials were also recorded after posterior tibial and dorsal genital nerve stimulation. Rectal sensation was also assessed using electrical stimulation. Reproducible evoked potential recordings

  12. Implications of Sensory Stimulation in Self-Destructive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelson, Stephen M.

    1984-01-01

    The author extends the self stimulatory theory of self destructive behavior in autistic, schizophrenic, and mentally retarded individuals to suggest that damage of the skin's nerve structure lowers the tactile sensory threshold for physical input and enables individuals to obtain sensory stimulation by repeatedly depressing the damaged area. (CL)

  13. Electrostatic interactions regulate desensitization of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Song, X Z; Pedersen, S E

    2000-01-01

    To determine the importance of electrostatic interactions for agonist binding to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR), we examined the affinity of the fluorescent agonist dansyl-C6-choline for the AChR. Increasing ionic strength decreased the binding affinity in a noncompetitive manner and increased the Hill coefficient of binding. Small cations did not compete directly for dansyl-C6-choline binding. The sensitivity to ionic strength was reduced in the presence of proadifen, a noncompetitive antagonist that desensitizes the receptor. Moreover, at low ionic strength, the dansyl-C6-choline affinities were similar in the absence or presence of proadifen, a result consistent with the receptor being desensitized at low ionic strength. Similar ionic strength effects were observed for the binding of the noncompetitive antagonist [(3)H]ethidium when examined in the presence and absence of agonist to desensitize the AChR. Therefore, ionic strength modulates binding affinity through at least two mechanisms: by influencing the conformation of the AChR and by electrostatic effects at the binding sites. The results show that charge-charge interactions regulate the desensitization of the receptor. Analysis of dansyl-C6-choline binding to the desensitized conformation using the Debye-Hückel equation was consistent with the presence of five to nine negative charges within 20 A of the acetylcholine binding sites. PMID:10692319

  14. Desensitization of mechano-gated K2P channels

    PubMed Central

    Honoré, Eric; Patel, Amanda Jane; Chemin, Jean; Suchyna, Thomas; Sachs, Frederick

    2006-01-01

    The neuronal mechano-gated K2P channels TREK-1 and TRAAK show pronounced desensitization within 100 ms of membrane stretch. Desensitization persists in the presence of cytoskeleton disrupting agents, upon patch excision, and when channels are expressed in membrane blebs. Mechanosensitive currents evoked with a variety of complex stimulus protocols were globally fit to a four-state cyclic kinetic model in detailed balance, without the need to introduce adaptation of the stimulus. However, we show that patch stress can be a complex function of time and stimulation history. The kinetic model couples desensitization to activation, so that gentle conditioning stimuli do not cause desensitization. Prestressing the channels with pressure, amphipaths, intracellular acidosis, or the E306A mutation reduces the peak-to-steady-state ratio by changing the preexponential terms of the rate constants, increasing the steady-state current amplitude. The mechanical responsivity can be accounted for by a change of in-plane area of ?2 nm2 between the closed and open conformations. Desensitization and its regulation by chemical messengers is predicted to condition the physiological role of K2P channels. PMID:16636285

  15. Sensory Dysfunction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... version Sensory Dysfunction Overview Why are smell and taste important? Your senses of smell and taste let you fully enjoy the scents and flavors ... and poisonous chemicals. Is there a difference between taste and flavor? Yes. The basic tastes are salty, ...

  16. Sensory analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sensory evaluation can answer questions about a product that instruments cannot. The human subject is the instrument, and data can provide a wealth of information for a product developer, or results can be very variable and erroneous if all the precautions to minimize bias and external noise are no...

  17. Evaluation Of The Shear Bond Strength Between Dentin And Dental Luting Cement Following Dentin Surface Treatment By 980 Nm Diode Laser And Desensitizing Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, T.; Gheith, M.

    2011-09-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity is described clinically as an exaggerated response to non-noxious sensory stimuli. Current treatment is concentrating on two approaches; to occlude the dentinal tubules or to block neural transmission. This is achieved through using dentin desensitizers and low power lasers. Forty eight freshly extracted human molar teeth were used in this study and divided equally into three groups. Group 1) control group, group 2) laser treated dentin surface group, and group 3) desensitizing agent dentin surface group. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of laser treated group showed melted globules, no carbonization, recrystalization and crystal growth of the apatite in some areas. In diode laser dentin surface treated group showed the highest shear bond strength mean value.

  18. Spontaneous intraneural hematoma of the sural nerve.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Shawn S; McLawhorn, Alexander S; Mintz, Douglas N; DiCarlo, Edward F; Weiland, Andrew J

    2015-04-01

    Symptomatic intraneural hemorrhage occurs rarely. It presents with pain and/or weakness in the distribution following the anatomic innervation pattern of the involved nerve. When a purely sensory nerve is affected, the symptoms can be subtle. We present a previously healthy 36-year-old female who developed an atraumatic, spontaneous intraneural hematoma of her sural nerve. Sural dysfunction was elicited from the patient's history and physical examination. The diagnosis was confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging, and surgical decompression provided successful resolution of her preoperative symptoms. To our knowledge, this entity has not been reported previously. Our case highlights the importance of having a high index of suspicion for nerve injury or compression in patients whose complaints follow a typical peripheral nerve distribution. Prior studies have shown that the formation of intraneural hematoma and associated compression of nerve fibers result in axonal degeneration, and surgical decompression decreases axonal degeneration and aids functional recovery. PMID:25311865

  19. Entrapment neuropathy of the ulnar nerve.

    PubMed

    Elhassan, Bassem; Steinmann, Scott P

    2007-11-01

    Ulnar nerve entrapment is the second most common nerve entrapment syndrome of the upper extremity. Although it may occur at any location along the length of the nerve, it is most common in the cubital tunnel. Ulnar nerve entrapment produces numbness in the ring and little fingers and weakness of the intrinsic muscles in the hand. Patient presentation and symptoms vary according to the site of entrapment. Treatment options are often determined by the site of pathology. Many patients benefit from nonsurgical treatment (eg, physical therapy, bracing, injection). When these methods fail or when sensory or motor impairment progresses, surgical release of the nerve at the site of entrapment should be considered. Surgical release may be done alone or with nerve transposition at the elbow. Most patients report symptomatic relief following surgery. PMID:17989418

  20. Insect sensory systems inspired computing and communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Axel W. Krings

    2009-01-01

    Insects are the most successful group of living things in terms of the number of species, the biomass and their distribution. Entomological research has revealed that the insect sensory systems are crucial for their success. Compared to human brains, the insect central nerve systems are extremely primitive and simple, both structurally and functionally, and are of minimal learning ability. Faced

  1. Desensitization of Chemical Activation by Auxiliary Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhaobing; Xiong, Qiaojie; Sun, Haiyan; Li, Min

    2008-01-01

    Chemical openers for KCNQ potassium channels are useful probes both for understanding channel gating and for developing therapeutics. The five KCNQ isoforms (KCNQ1 to KCNQ5, or Kv7.1 to Kv7.5) are differentially localized. Therefore, the molecular specificity of chemical openers is an important subject of investigation. Native KCNQ1 normally exists in complex with auxiliary subunits known as KCNE. In cardiac myocytes, the KCNQ1-KCNE1 (IsK or minK) channel is thought to underlie the IKs current, a component critical for membrane repolarization during cardiac action potential. Hence, the molecular and pharmacological differences between KCNQ1 and KCNQ1-KCNE1 channels have been important topics. Zinc pyrithione (ZnPy) is a newly identified KCNQ channel opener, which potently activates KCNQ2, KCNQ4, and KCNQ5. However, the ZnPy effects on cardiac KCNQ1 potassium channels remain largely unknown. Here we show that ZnPy effectively augments the KCNQ1 current, exhibiting an increase in current amplitude, reduction of inactivation, and slowing of both activation and deactivation. Some of these are reminiscent of effects by KCNE1. In addition, neither the heteromultimeric KCNQ1-KCNE1 channels nor native IKs current displayed any sensitivity to ZnPy, indicating that the static occupancy by a KCNE subunit desensitizes the reversible effects by a chemical opener. Site-directed mutagenesis of KCNQ1 reveals that residues critical for the potentiation effects by either ZnPy or KCNE are clustered together in the S6 region overlapping with the critical gating determinants. Thus, the convergence of potentiation effects and molecular determinants critical for both an auxiliary subunit and a chemical opener argue for a mechanistic overlap in causing potentiation. PMID:18490447

  2. Children's exposure to violent video games and desensitization to violence.

    PubMed

    Funk, Jeanne B

    2005-07-01

    Desensitization to violence is cited frequently as being an outcome of exposure to media violence and a condition that contributes to increased aggression. This article initiates the development of a conceptual model for describing possible relationships among violent video games, brain function, and desensitization by using empathy and attitudes toward violence as proxy measures of desensitization. More work is needed to understand how specific game content may affect brain activity, how brain development may be affected by heavy play at young ages, and how personality and lifestyle variables may moderate game influence. Given the current state of knowledge, recommendations are made for clinicians to help parents monitor and limit exposure to violent video games and encourage critical thinking about media violence. PMID:15936665

  3. Plasmapheresis in the Treatment of Ataxic Sensory Neuropathy Associated with Sjögren’s Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Hung Chen; Jiann-Horng Yeh; Hou-Chang Chiu

    2001-01-01

    Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is an important but poorly recognized cause of peripheral neuropathy. Several forms of peripheral nerve dysfunction occur, including trigeminal sensory neuropathy, mononeuropathy multiplex, distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy and pure sensory neuronopathy. The pathological findings vary and the definite treatment is not known. Here we present 4 cases of acute ataxic sensory polyneuropathy with SS, and the experience of

  4. The non-linear relationship between nerve conduction velocity and skin temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Todnem; G Knudsen; T Riise; H Nyland; J A Aarli

    1989-01-01

    Median motor and sensory nerves were examined in 20 healthy subjects. Superficial stimulating and recording electrodes were used, and the nerves were examined at natural skin temperature, after cooling and after heating of the arm. The conduction velocity for the fastest and slow conducting sensory fibres (temperature range 17-37 degrees C), and for the fastest conducting motor fibres (temperature range

  5. Novel Roles for Osteopontin and Clusterin in Peripheral Motor and Sensory Axon Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Ruifa; Connor, Emmalynn; Reed, Nicole; Vyas, Alka; Alspalter, Manula; Coppola, Giovanni; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Brushart, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that Schwann cells (SCs) express distinct motor and sensory phenotypes, which impact the ability of these pathways to selectively support regenerating neurons. In the present study, unbiased microarray analysis was used to examine differential gene expression in denervated motor and sensory pathways in rats. Several genes that were significantly upregulated in either denervated sensory or motor pathways were identified and two secreted factors were selected for further analysis: osteopontin (OPN) and clusterin (CLU) which were upregulated in denervated motor and sensory pathways, respectively. Sciatic nerve transection induced upregulation of OPN and CLU and expression of both returned to baseline levels with ensuing regeneration. In vitro analysis using exogenously applied OPN induced outgrowth of motor but not sensory neurons. CLU, however, induced outgrowth of sensory neurons, but not motor neurons. To assess the functional importance of OPN and CLU, peripheral nerve regeneration was examined in OPN and CLU?/? mice. When compared with OPN+/+ mice, motor neuron regeneration was reduced in OPN?/? mice. Impaired regeneration through OPN?/? peripheral nerves grafted into OPN+/+ mice indicated that loss of OPN in SCs was responsible for reduced motor regeneration. Sensory neuron regeneration was impaired in CLU?/? mice following sciatic nerve crush and impaired regeneration nerve fibers through CLU?/? nerve grafts transplanted into CLU+/+ mice indicated that reduced sensory regeneration is likely due to SC-derived CLU. Together, these studies suggest unique roles for SC-derived OPN and CLU in regeneration of peripheral motor and sensory axons. PMID:24478351

  6. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Menon, Sukanya B; Jayan, C

    2010-07-01

    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is a method which was initially used for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. But it is now being used in different therapeutic situations. EMDR is an eight-phase treatment method. History taking, client preparation, assessment, desensitization, installation, body scan, closure and reevaluation of treatment effect are the eight phases of this treatment which are briefly described. A case report is also depicted which indicates the efficacy of EMDR. The areas where EMDR is used and the possible ways through which it is working are also described. PMID:21716864

  7. Opioid receptor desensitization: mechanisms and its link to tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Allouche, Stéphane; Noble, Florence; Marie, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Opioid receptors (OR) are part of the class A of G-protein coupled receptors and the target of the opiates, the most powerful analgesic molecules used in clinic. During a protracted use, a tolerance to analgesic effect develops resulting in a reduction of the effectiveness. So understanding mechanisms of tolerance is a great challenge and may help to find new strategies to tackle this side effect. This review will summarize receptor-related mechanisms that could underlie tolerance especially receptor desensitization. We will focus on the latest data obtained on molecular mechanisms involved in opioid receptor desensitization: phosphorylation, receptor uncoupling, internalization, and post-endocytic fate of the receptor. PMID:25566076

  8. A reversible functional sensory neuropathy model.

    PubMed

    Danigo, Aurore; Magy, Laurent; Richard, Laurence; Sturtz, Franck; Funalot, Benoît; Demiot, Claire

    2014-06-13

    Small-fiber neuropathy was induced in young adult mice by intraperitoneal injection of resiniferatoxin (RTX), a TRPV1 agonist. At day 7, RTX induced significant thermal and mechanical hypoalgesia. At day 28, mechanical and thermal nociception were restored. No nerve degeneration in skin was observed and unmyelinated nerve fiber morphology and density in sciatic nerve were unchanged. At day 7, substance P (SP) was largely depleted in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, although calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was only moderately depleted. Three weeks after, SP and CGRP expression was restored in DRG neurons. At the same time, CGRP expression remained low in intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENFs) whereas SP expression had improved. In summary, RTX induced in our model a transient neuropeptide depletion in sensory neurons without nerve degeneration. We think this model is valuable as it brings the opportunity to study functional nerve changes in the very early phase of small fiber neuropathy. Moreover, it may represent a useful tool to study the mechanisms of action of therapeutic strategies to prevent sensory neuropathy of various origins. PMID:24792390

  9. Peripheral nerve hyperexcitability syndromes.

    PubMed

    Küçükali, Cem Ismail; Kürtüncü, Murat; Akçay, Halil ?brahim; Tüzün, Erdem; Öge, Ali Emre

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerve hyperexcitability (PNH) syndromes can be subclassified as primary and secondary. The main primary PNH syndromes are neuromyotonia, cramp-fasciculation syndrome (CFS), and Morvan's syndrome, which cause widespread symptoms and signs without the association of an evident peripheral nerve disease. Their major symptoms are muscle twitching and stiffness, which differ only in severity between neuromyotonia and CFS. Cramps, pseudomyotonia, hyperhidrosis, and some other autonomic abnormalities, as well as mild positive sensory phenomena, can be seen in several patients. Symptoms reflecting the involvement of the central nervous system occur in Morvan's syndrome. Secondary PNH syndromes are generally seen in patients with focal or diffuse diseases affecting the peripheral nervous system. The PNH-related symptoms and signs are generally found incidentally during clinical or electrodiagnostic examinations. The electrophysiological findings that are very useful in the diagnosis of PNH are myokymic and neuromyotonic discharges in needle electromyography along with some additional indicators of increased nerve fiber excitability. Based on clinicopathological and etiological associations, PNH syndromes can also be classified as immune mediated, genetic, and those caused by other miscellaneous factors. There has been an increasing awareness on the role of voltage-gated potassium channel complex autoimmunity in primary PNH pathogenesis. Then again, a long list of toxic compounds and genetic factors has also been implicated in development of PNH. The management of primary PNH syndromes comprises symptomatic treatment with anticonvulsant drugs, immune modulation if necessary, and treatment of possible associated dysimmune and/or malignant conditions. PMID:25719304

  10. Free vascularized deep peroneal nerve grafts.

    PubMed

    Koshima, I; Okumoto, K; Umeda, N; Moriguchi, T; Ishii, R; Nakayama, Y

    1996-04-01

    An ideal donor site for vascularized nerve grafts should have a constant anatomy, minimal functional loss after the nerve has been sacrificed, and a dependable blood supply parallel to the nerve over a relatively long distance. Creating a pedicle for a free vascularized deep peroneal nerve graft with the anterior tibial vessels seems to be a most suitable method for repairing long nerve gaps of over 20 cm and digital nerve defects with severe finger damage. Applications of this nerve graft to digital nerve losses with severely scarred beds created by avulsion injury, and two-stage reconstruction in some partial brachial plexus palsies (free vascularized nerve graft in the first stage and free vascularized muscle graft in the second stage) are well indicated. Advantages of this technique are: (1) A long nerve graft (up to 25 cm) can be obtained, and anomalies are rare (the nerve is absent in only 4 percent of cases). (2) The caliber of the vascular pedicle is large (approximately equal to 3 mm). (3) The nerve has a sufficient blood supply from the collateral blood vessels. (4) The graft can be easily obtained in the supine position. (5) A monitoring skin flap, based on the inferior lateral peroneal artery, can be attached to the nerve graft. (6) Sensory loss resulting from the sacrifice of the nerve covers a minimal area. (7) A donor scar on the anterior aspect of the lower leg is more acceptable than one on the posterior aspect because of less movement in walking. Disadvantages of this technique are: (1) Sacrifice of the large vessels in the lower leg may result in circulatory complications in the donor foot; to avoid this problem, preoperative angiography is recommended. (2) The donor scar is in an exposed area in female patients. (3) There may be temporary postoperative edema and disability in the donor leg. PMID:8726331

  11. The Trigeminal (V) and Facial (VII) Cranial Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    There are close functional and anatomical relationships between cranial nerves V and VII in both their sensory and motor divisions. Sensation on the face is innervated by the trigeminal nerves (V) as are the muscles of mastication, but the muscles of facial expression are innervated mainly by the facial nerve (VII) as is the sensation of taste. This article briefly reviews the anatomy of these cranial nerves, disorders of these nerves that are of particular importance to psychiatry, and some considerations for differential diagnosis. PMID:20386632

  12. Clinical strategies to enhance nerve regeneration in composite tissue allotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Glaus, Simone W; Johnson, Philip J; Mackinnon, Susan E

    2011-11-01

    Reinnervation of a hand transplant ultimately dictates functional recovery but provides a significant regenerative challenge. This article highlights interventions to enhance nerve regeneration through acceleration of axonal regeneration or augmentation of Schwann cell support and discuss their relevance to composite tissue allotransplantation. Surgical techniques that may be performed at the time of transplantation to optimize intrinsic muscle recovery--including appropriate alignment of ulnar nerve motor and sensory components, transfer of the distal anterior interosseous nerve to the recurrent motor branch of the median nerve, and prophylactic release of potential nerve entrapment points--are also presented. PMID:22051390

  13. Ion channel and receptor mechanisms of bladder afferent nerve sensitivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biying Sun; Qian Li; Li Dong; Weifang Rong

    2010-01-01

    Sensory nerves of the urinary bladder consist of small diameter A? and C fibers running in the hypogastic and pelvic nerves. Neuroanatomical studies have revealed a complex neuronal network within the bladder wall. Electrophysiological recordings in vitro and in vivo have revealed several distinct classes of afferent fibers that may signal a wide range of bladder stimulations including physiological bladder

  14. Effective desensitization protocol to paclitaxel following hypersensitivity reaction.

    PubMed

    Fishman, A.; Gold, T.; Goldberg, A.; Confino-Cohen, R.; Beyth, Y.; Menczer, J.; Altaras, M.

    1999-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe our experience with a desensitization protocol to paclitaxel using the original paclitaxel solution in patients following severe hypersensitivity reactions. A retrospective review of 75 consecutive patients with ovarian cancer who received intravenous paclitaxel-based chemotherapy between January 1996 and May 1998 at the Gynecologic Oncology Unit at Meir Hospital-Sapir Medical Center, Kfar-Saba, Israel. All patients who developed a hypersensitivity reaction to paclitaxel were treated with a desensitization protocol. The protocol included serial 10-fold dilutions (up to 1:100,000) of the actual paclitaxel infusate, delivered in successive volumes of 1, 2, 4, and 8 ml. These escalating doses of paclitaxel were given intravenously at 15-min intervals for each dilution. Following administration of the last diluted dose, the patient received a 1-ml dose of the undiluted solution. If no side effects were recorded, the rest of the actual dose was delivered at a 3-h infusion rate. Vital signs were monitored and recorded throughout the course of treatment. Six patients with a previous paclitaxel-associated hypersensitivity reaction were successfully treated with the desensitization protocol. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the desensitization protocol is feasible and safe without compromising cytotoxic activity. Our results show that this strategy is a reasonable choice in this clinical setting and potentially avoids paclitaxel-based regimen interruption. PMID:11240758

  15. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) and the Anxiety Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francine Shapiro

    1999-01-01

    Four recent, independent, rigorously controlled studies of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) have reported that 84 to 100% of single-trauma victims no longer maintain the posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis after the equivalent of three 90-minute sessions. The rapidity of EMDR treatment effects makes many ancillary research opportunities available. Specifically, the increased number of cases resolved in a relatively short

  16. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR): A Meta-Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul R. Davidson; Kevin C. H. Parker

    2001-01-01

    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), a controversial treatment suggested for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other conditions, was evaluated in a meta-analysis of 34 studies that examined EMDR with a variety of populations and measures. Process and outcome measures were examined separately, and EMDR showed an effect on both when compared with no treatment and with therapies not using

  17. Effects of group systematic desensitization on female orgasmic dysfunction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne M. Sotile; Peter R. Kilmann

    1978-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of group systematic desensitization (SD) on varied aspects of sexual functioning in primary and secondary nonorgasmic women. After serving as their own controls, 22 women (eight primary, 14 secondary) received 15 sessions of group SD using four common hierarchies of sexual scenes. The measures were administered to each subject and her regular sex partner at

  18. Desensitizing Children's Emotional Reactions to the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Barbara J.

    1989-01-01

    Assesses effectiveness of two desensitization strategies for reducing children's emotional reactions to mass media. Examines children having passive exposure, modeled exposure, or no exposure to lizards before watching a horror movie involving lizards. Finds that modeled exposure decreases emotional reactions and negative interpretations, whereas…

  19. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing: A Critical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Terry McVannel

    Since Shapiro's introduction of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in 1989, it has been a highly controversial therapeutic technique. Critical reviews of Shapiro's initial study have highlighted many methodological shortcomings in her work. And early empirical research that followed Shapiro's original study has been criticized…

  20. An in vivo model of beta-adrenoceptor desensitization.

    PubMed

    Chong, B T; Agrawal, D K; Romero, F A; Townley, R G

    1998-08-01

    Chronic use of beta2-agonists and increased production of inflammatory mediators during the late allergic reaction after antigen challenge results in the desensitization of beta-adrenoceptors in the airways and the accompanying rise in nonspecific airway hyperresponsiveness. In this study, we established an in vivo model of beta2-adrenoceptor desensitization in guinea pig airways by administration of IL-1beta intratracheally or chronic albuterol by inhalation. In the establishment of beta-adrenoceptor desensitization in response to both beta-agonist or inflammatory mediator, baseline pulmonary function responses were established to methacholine and isoproterenol-induced relaxation of methacholine bronchoconstriction. This was followed by the administration of IL-1beta (500 IU/d intratracheally for 2 days) or chronic albuterol (0.1 g/L by aerosol for 1 min three times a day for 10 days). After administration, the methacholine and isoproterenol-methacholine response was once again evaluated. Intratracheal administration of IL-1beta or chronic administration of albuterol significantly decreased (p < 0.05) the protective effect of isoproterenol on methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction, eliciting beta-adrenoceptor desensitization in vivo. The in vivo model will be very useful in monitoring the effect of other potential drugs on beta-adrenoceptor function in the airways. PMID:10100500

  1. Desensitization to media violence over a short period of time.

    PubMed

    Fanti, Kostas A; Vanman, Eric; Henrich, Christopher C; Avraamides, Marios N

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the desensitization to violence over a short period of time. Participants watched nine violent movie scenes and nine comedy scenes, and reported whether they enjoyed the violent or comedy scenes and whether they felt sympathetic toward the victim of violence. Using latent growth modeling, analyses were carried out to investigate how participants responded to the different scenes across time. The findings of this study suggested that repeated exposure to media violence reduces the psychological impact of media violence in the short term, therefore desensitizing viewers to media violence. As a result, viewers tended to feel less sympathetic toward the victims of violence and actually enjoy more the violence portrayed in the media. Additionally, desensitization to media violence was better represented by a curvilinear pattern, whereas desensitization to comedy scenes was better represented by a linear pattern. Finally, trait aggression was not related to the pattern of change over time, although significant effects were found for initial reports of enjoyment and sympathy. PMID:19172659

  2. AMPA Receptor Current Density, Not Desensitization, Predicts Selective Motoneuron Vulnerability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wim Vandenberghe; Eva C. Ihle; Doris K. Patneau; Wim Robberecht; James R. Brorson

    2000-01-01

    Spinal motoneurons are more susceptible to AMPA receptor- mediated injury than are other spinal neurons, a property that has been implicated in their selective degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The aim of this study was to determine whether this difference in vulnerability between motoneurons and other spinal neurons can be attributed to a difference in AMPA receptor desensitization and\\/or

  3. Nanofibrous nerve conduit-enhanced peripheral nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xu; Mi, Ruifa; Hoke, Ahmet; Chew, Sing Yian

    2014-05-01

    Fibre structures represent a potential class of materials for the formation of synthetic nerve conduits due to their biomimicking architecture. Although the advantages of fibres in enhancing nerve regeneration have been demonstrated, in vivo evaluation of fibre size effect on nerve regeneration remains limited. In this study, we analyzed the effects of fibre diameter of electrospun conduits on peripheral nerve regeneration across a 15-mm critical defect gap in a rat sciatic nerve injury model. By using an electrospinning technique, fibrous conduits comprised of aligned electrospun poly (?-caprolactone) (PCL) microfibers (981?±?83 nm, Microfiber) or nanofibers (251?±?32 nm, Nanofiber) were obtained. At three months post implantation, axons regenerated across the defect gap in all animals that received fibrous conduits. In contrast, complete nerve regeneration was not observed in the control group that received empty, non-porous PCL film conduits (Film). Nanofiber conduits resulted in significantly higher total number of myelinated axons and thicker myelin sheaths compared to Microfiber and Film conduits. Retrograde labeling revealed a significant increase in number of regenerated dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons in the presence of Nanofiber conduits (1.93 ± 0.71 × 10(3) vs. 0.98 ± 0.30 × 10(3) in Microfiber, p?nerve regeneration. These results could provide useful insights for future nerve guide designs. PMID:22700359

  4. Nerve Blocks

    MedlinePLUS

    ... doctor. By performing a nerve block and then monitoring how the patient responds to the injection, the ... and/or imaging guidance. He or she will clean the area with antiseptic solution, and then the ...

  5. [Applications of 'quantitative sensory testing'].

    PubMed

    Verberne, Wouter R; Snijders, Tom J; Liem, K Seng; Baakman, Anne Catrien; Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative sensory testing (QST) consists of several non-invasive, standardised tests aimed at examining different aspects of the entire somatosensory nervous system. Important advantages of QST over existing supplementary tests such as electromyography are the ability to test the function of thin and unmyelinated nerve fibres as well as the subjective sensation of a somatosensory stimulus. QST is validated in diagnosing small fibre neuropathy, diabetic neuropathy chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy and neuropathic pain. In scientific research, QST is useful in the study into pathophysiological mechanisms of diseases and syndromes with sensory symptoms and in the evaluation of the effect of analgesic treatment on the function of the somatosensory nervous system. In the future, QST could be a useful diagnostic and prognostic test in more forms of neuropathy and in other clinical conditions such as chronic unexplained pain syndromes (e.g. fibromyalgia and whiplash-associated disorder. PMID:23369816

  6. Sensory processing disorders.

    PubMed

    Reisman, Judith

    2002-11-01

    Most people are able to effectively process and respond to the sensory stimuli of daily life. But people who have sensory processing disorders struggle to form meaningful responses to sensory stimuli. As a result these individuals often exhibit problems with coordination, sensory-seeking or sensory-avoiding behaviors, and sensory modulation. The concept of sensory processing disorders stems from the work of occupational therapist Jean Ayres, Ph.D. Her work has launched a sensory-based treatment approach, primarily practiced by occupational therapists. This article outlines the theories supporting the notion of sensory processing disorders, options for assessment and treatment, and research on the efficacy of treatment. PMID:12498067

  7. Comparison of nerve conduction velocities of lower extremities between runners and controls.

    PubMed

    Colak, T; Bamaç, B; Gönener, A; Ozbek, A; Budak, F

    2005-12-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries can occur in runners, but large numbers of nerve injuries remain subclinical. Identification of nerve injuries needs an understanding of common sites of entrapment in running. Fourteen asymptomatic male middle-distance runners and 14 non-active subjects participated in this study. The neurophysiologic study consisted of motor and sensory nerve conduction of medial and lateral plantar nerves, sensory nerve conduction of sural and superficial peroneal nerves, and motor nerve conduction of common peroneal nerve. Active range of motion and muscle strength assessment (dorsi flexion/plantar flexion; inversion/eversion) as measured using a Biodex System3 Dynamometer were observed to be within normal limits for both groups. The medial plantar (sensory) nerve and sural nerve distal latencies were significantly prolonged and sensory conduction velocities were significantly delayed in the runners compared with the control subjects. Many of the asymptomatic runners with abnormal nerve conduction tests in this study may represent presymptomatic or asymptomatic neuropathy similar to the type of subclinical entrapment neuropathy. PMID:16602168

  8. Hypertrophic nerve roots in a case of Roussy-Lévy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Haubrich, C; Krings, T; Senderek, J; Züchner, S; Schröder, J M; Noth, J; Töpper, R

    2002-11-01

    Hypertrophic radiculopathy is a rare feature of neuropathies. Single cases of enlarged nerve roots have been described in hereditary motor sensory neuropathies (HMSN) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating diseases (CIDP). This is the first description of hypertrophied nerve roots in a patient with Roussy-Lévy syndrome. MRI did not show contrast enhancement of the enlarged nerve roots or nodular lesions. PMID:12428130

  9. Improvement of Sciatic Nerve Regeneration Using Laminin-Binding Human NGF-beta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenjie Sun; Changkai Sun; Hui Zhao; Hang Lin; Qianqian Han; Jingyu Wang; Hui Ma; Bing Chen; Zhifeng Xiao; Jianwu Dai; Xiao-Jiang Li

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundSciatic nerve injuries often cause partial or total loss of motor, sensory and autonomic functions due to the axon discontinuity, degeneration, and eventual death which finally result in substantial functional loss and decreased quality of life. Nerve growth factor (NGF) plays a critical role in peripheral nerve regeneration. However, the lack of efficient NGF delivery approach limits its clinical applications.

  10. A bioengineered peripheral nerve construct using aligned peptide amphiphile nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Li, Andrew; Hokugo, Akishige; Yalom, Anisa; Berns, Eric J; Stephanopoulos, Nicholas; McClendon, Mark T; Segovia, Luis A; Spigelman, Igor; Stupp, Samuel I; Jarrahy, Reza

    2014-10-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries can result in lifelong disability. Primary coaptation is the treatment of choice when the gap between transected nerve ends is short. Long nerve gaps seen in more complex injuries often require autologous nerve grafts or nerve conduits implemented into the repair. Nerve grafts, however, cause morbidity and functional loss at donor sites, which are limited in number. Nerve conduits, in turn, lack an internal scaffold to support and guide axonal regeneration, resulting in decreased efficacy over longer nerve gap lengths. By comparison, peptide amphiphiles (PAs) are molecules that can self-assemble into nanofibers, which can be aligned to mimic the native architecture of peripheral nerve. As such, they represent a potential substrate for use in a bioengineered nerve graft substitute. To examine this, we cultured Schwann cells with bioactive PAs (RGDS-PA, IKVAV-PA) to determine their ability to attach to and proliferate within the biomaterial. Next, we devised a PA construct for use in a peripheral nerve critical sized defect model. Rat sciatic nerve defects were created and reconstructed with autologous nerve, PLGA conduits filled with various forms of aligned PAs, or left unrepaired. Motor and sensory recovery were determined and compared among groups. Our results demonstrate that Schwann cells are able to adhere to and proliferate in aligned PA gels, with greater efficacy in bioactive PAs compared to the backbone-PA alone. In vivo testing revealed recovery of motor and sensory function in animals treated with conduit/PA constructs comparable to animals treated with autologous nerve grafts. Functional recovery in conduit/PA and autologous graft groups was significantly faster than in animals treated with empty PLGA conduits. Histological examinations also demonstrated increased axonal and Schwann cell regeneration within the reconstructed nerve gap in animals treated with conduit/PA constructs. These results indicate that PA nanofibers may represent a promising biomaterial for use in bioengineered peripheral nerve repair. PMID:25064803

  11. Kaplan anastomosis of the ulnar nerve: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Paraskevas, Georgios; Ch Gekas, Christos; Tzaveas, Alexandros; Spyridakis, Ioannis; Stoltidou, Alexandra; Ph Tsitsopoulos, Parmenion

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The sensory innervation of the hand is usually unvarying and anomalies in this area are uncommon. Case presentation We report the case of a rare ulnar nerve branch called a Kaplan anastomosis, which anastomosed the dorsal cutaneous branch with the ulnar nerve prior to its bifurcation into the superficial and deep ramus. Conclusion Many authors have reported unusual ulnar nerve branches and knowledge of these anatomical variations is important for the interpretation of pain and sensory loss in the area sustained during injuries or surgical procedures. Our finding is the fourth case of a Kaplan anastomosis to be described in the literature. PMID:18412973

  12. A (heat) shock to the system promotes peripheral nerve regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Höke, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral nerves are easily damaged, resulting in loss of motor and sensory function. Recovery of motor and sensory function after peripheral nerve injury is suboptimal, even after appropriate surgical repair. This is due to the slow rate of axonal elongation during regeneration and atrophic changes that occur in denervated Schwann cells and target muscle with proximal lesions. One way to solve this problem is to accelerate the rate at which the axons regenerate. In this issue of the JCI, Ma and colleagues show that this can be achieved in mice by overexpression of heat shock protein 27, providing hope for enhanced functional recovery in patients after peripheral nerve damage. PMID:21965324

  13. Quantitative assessment of the motor-sensory specificity of the motor and primary sensory neurons after the end-to-side neurorrhaphy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qing; Chen, Chengwang; Zhang, Xiaolei; Lv, Lei; Lin, Kang; Chi, Yonglong; Gao, Weiyang

    2013-11-01

    We sought to evaluate the motor-sensory specificity of the motor and primary sensory neurons after the end-to-side neurorrhaphy. We divided 90 rats into three groups: (1) end-to-side neurorrhaphy using the ulnar nerve as donor nerve and the musculocutaneous nerve as recipient nerve; (2) normal control; and (3) transected nerve with the stumps buried. At 5 months, we monitored the grooming test, the electromyographic recordings, the histologic changes in the nerve, and quantitatively evaluated motoneurons and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons following their retrograde labeling by Fluoro-Gold (Sigma, St. Louis, MO) applied to the musculocutaneous nerve and its biceps brachii branch. Grooming and electrophysiological investigations recovered successfully in the end-to-side group. The implanted musculocutaneous nerve contained varying but satisfactory numbers of axons. In the end-to-side group, the proportion of motoneurons for the biceps brachii branch of musculocutaneous nerve was very similar to the musculocutaneous nerve sections proximal to this branch (17.3% ± 2.7% and 21.7% ± 3.7%, respectively), but it did not correspond with the proportion of the biceps brachii branch of musculocutaneous nerve in the normal group (28.3% ± 3.5%). The present study confirms that limited but functional reinnervation can occur after the end-to-side neurorrhaphy, and the motor-sensory specificity is not important. PMID:23757157

  14. Combination of non-specific cholinesterase histochemistry and immunofluorescence staining for the study of the sensory innervation of skin and muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petr Dubový; Carlos Manuel Rosario; HĹkan Aldskogius

    1993-01-01

    Summary  In the present study we describe the application of the non-specific cholinesterase (nChE) histochemical method for the detection of encapsulated sensory nerve endings prior to immunofluorescence staining of the sensory nerve fibres. The nChE staining of Schwann-derived structures surrounding sensory terminals allowed us to identify unequivocally the sensory corpuscles in the skin and the muscle proprioceptors (muscle spindles and Golgi

  15. Desensitization of rat renal thick ascending limb cells to vasopressin.

    PubMed Central

    Elalouf, J M; Sari, D C; Roinel, N; de Rouffignac, C

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies from this laboratory have demonstrated that vasopressin stimulates K, Mg, Ca, Cl, and Na reabsorption by the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TALH) of the rat kidney. Micropuncture of superficial nephrons and clearance experiments were performed to determine whether desensitization of the TALH to vasopressin may be demonstrated in vivo and whether such desensitization is specific for the effects of vasopressin (i.e., homologous) or also alters the response to the other hormones acting on the same pool of adenylate cyclase in this nephron segment. Brattleboro rats, with hereditary hypothalamic diabetes insipidus (DI), were given i.m. injections of 1-desamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin (des-1-amino-[DArg8]VP (herein designated dDAVP); 2 micrograms/day) for 3 days. The effects of maximal physiological doses of arginine-8-vasopressin ([Arg8]VP (herein designated AVP); 20 pg/min per 100 g of body weight) were studied 2 days after the cessation of treatment, when the animals had returned to DI. The K, Mg, Ca, and, to a lesser extent, Cl and Na concentrations in the fluid leaving the TALH of superficial nephrons were higher in dDAVP-treated than in untreated rats given similar amounts of AVP during the experiments. A 50-60% desensitization of the TALH to AVP was still apparent 2 days after stopping the dDAVP injections. Desensitization is homologous, as judged from normal responses to physiological doses of glucagon and calcitonin, two hormones acting on the same cyclase pool as AVP in the rat TALH. The AVP-dependent increase of urine osmolality, however, indicated that its effects on the permeability to water of the collecting duct were scarcely affected in dDAVP-treated rats. It is concluded that (i) AVP induces homologous desensitization in the rat TALH and (ii) the TALH can be markedly desensitized to AVP when the collecting duct response to this hormone is poorly affected or even fully maintained. PMID:3353389

  16. Ulnar Nerve Entrapment at the Wrist.

    PubMed

    Earp, Brandon E; Floyd, W Emerson; Louie, Dexter; Koris, Mark; Protomastro, Paul

    2014-11-01

    Presentation of ulnar nerve entrapment at the wrist varies based on differential anatomy and the site or sites of compression. Therefore, an understanding of the anatomy of the Guyon canal is essential for diagnosis in patients presenting with motor and/or sensory deficits in the hand. The etiologies of ulnar nerve compression include soft-tissue tumors; repetitive or acute trauma; the presence of anomalous muscles and fibrous bands; arthritic, synovial, endocrine, and metabolic conditions; and iatrogenic injury. In addition to a thorough history and physical examination, which includes motor, sensory, and vascular assessments, imaging and electrodiagnostic studies facilitate the diagnosis of ulnar nerve lesions at the wrist. Nonsurgical management is appropriate for a distal compression lesion caused by repetitive activity, but surgical decompression is indicated if symptoms persist or worsen over 2 to 4 months. PMID:25344595

  17. Which end is up? Terminology for terminolateral (end-to-side) nerve repair: a review.

    PubMed

    Dellon, A Lee; Ferreira, Marcus Castro; Williams, Eric H; Rosson, Gedge D

    2010-07-01

    By convention, we "come from" and "go to." A flap has a donor site and goes to a recipient site. A transplant comes from a donor and goes to a recipient. Neural regeneration proceeds from proximal to distal. It seems most appropriate then for a nerve repair description to follow this logical order. Therefore an "end-to-side" repair would mean that the donor nerve, the nerve that is providing the axons with which to neurotize the recipient nerve, should be the nerve named first. An end-to-side repair would therefore require that the nerve whose end is sutured into the side of the recipient nerve be the nerve that is bringing the proximal axons to regenerate distally, for whatever that purpose may be, sensory or motor. A side-to-end repair would therefore require that the nerve whose side is sutured to the end of the recipient nerve be the nerve that is bringing the proximal axons to regenerate distally, for whatever that purpose may be, sensory or motor. The full descriptive phrase must include whether the intent is to reinnervate a skin target and is, therefore, a sensory repair, or to reinnervate a motor target. The names of both the donor and the recipient nerves must be specified. Illustrations of these logical possibilities are shown in this review of the modern history of "end-to-side" or "side-to-end" nerve coaptations. PMID:20143303

  18. Peripheral Nerve Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... spinal cord. Like static on a telephone line, peripheral nerve disorders distort or interrupt the messages between the brain ... body. There are more than 100 kinds of peripheral nerve disorders. They can affect one nerve or many nerves. ...

  19. Anterograde transneuronal viral tract tracing reveals central sensory circuits from brown fat and sensory denervation alters its thermogenic responses

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Cheryl H.

    2012-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic activity and growth are controlled by its sympathetic nervous system (SNS) innervation, but nerve fibers containing sensory-associated neuropeptides [substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)] also suggest sensory innervation. The central nervous system (CNS) projections of BAT afferents are unknown. Therefore, we used the H129 strain of the herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), an anterograde transneuronal viral tract tracer used to delineate sensory nerve circuits, to define these projections. HSV-1 was injected into interscapular BAT (IBAT) of Siberian hamsters and HSV-1 immunoreactivity (ir) was assessed 24, 48, 72, 96, and 114 h postinjection. The 96- and 114-h groups had the most HSV-1-ir neurons with marked infections in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, periaqueductal gray, olivary areas, parabrachial nuclei, raphe nuclei, and reticular areas. These sites also are involved in sympathetic outflow to BAT suggesting possible BAT sensory-SNS thermogenesis feedback circuits. We tested the functional contribution of IBAT sensory innervation on thermogenic responses to an acute (24 h) cold exposure test by injecting the specific sensory nerve toxin capsaicin directly into IBAT pads and then measuring core (Tc) and IBAT (TIBAT) temperature responses. CGRP content was significantly decreased in capsaicin-treated IBAT demonstrating successful sensory nerve destruction. TIBAT and Tc were significantly decreased in capsaicin-treated hamsters compared with the saline controls at 2 h of cold exposure. Thus the central sensory circuits from IBAT have been delineated for the first time, and impairment of sensory feedback from BAT appears necessary for the appropriate, initial thermogenic response to acute cold exposure. PMID:22378771

  20. Functional and topographic segregation of glomeruli revealed by local staining of antennal sensory neurons in the honeybee Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Hiroshi; Nishikawa, Michiko; Mizunami, Makoto; Yokohari, Fumio

    2009-07-10

    In the primary olfactory center of animals, glomeruli are the relay stations where sensory neurons expressing cognate odorant receptors converge onto interneurons. In cockroaches, moths, and honeybees, sensory afferents from sensilla on the anterodorsal surface and the posteroventral surface of the flagellum form two nerves of almost equal thicknesses. In this study, double labeling of the two nerves, or proximal/distal regions of the nerves, with fluorescent dyes was used to investigate topographic organization of sensory afferents in the honeybee. The sensory neurons of ampullaceal sensilla responsive to CO2, coelocapitular sensilla responsive to hygrosensory, and thermosensory stimuli and coeloconic sensilla of unknown function were characterized with large somata and supplied thick axons exclusively to the ventral nerve. Correspondingly, all glomeruli innervated by sensory tract (T) 4 received thick axonal processes exclusively from the ventral nerve. Almost all T1-3 glomeruli received a similar number of sensory afferents from the two nerves. In the macroglomerular complexes of the drone, termination fields of afferents from the two nerves almost completely overlapped; this differs from moths and cockroaches, which show heterogeneous terminations in the glomerular complex. In T1-3 glomeruli, sensory neurons originating from more distal flagellar segments tended to terminate within the inner regions of the cortical layer. These results suggest that some degree of somatotopic organization of sensory afferents exist in T1-3 glomeruli, and part of T4 glomeruli serve for processing of hygro- and thermosensory signals. PMID:19412930

  1. HIV Associated Sensory Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    S, Praveen-kumar; B, Nataraju; BS, Nagaraja

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, sensory neuropathies have increased in prevalence. We have documented the frequency and profile of the two most common forms of sensory neuropathies associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and looked into clinicoelectrophysiological correlates to differentiate the two entities. Methods: The study population comprised of all consecutive patients detected to be HIV positive and attending the Neurology outpatient department (from March 2011 to March 2012) who were aged ? 18 years and were able to give informed consent. The data were collected from the patient records (including CD4 counts and treatment details) and questionnaire based interview with each patient. All patients underwent detailed clinical examination and nerve conduction studies (NCSs). Results: Among the total study population of 50 patients, there were 31 men and 19 women. Thirty two patients were in age range of 21 - 40 years and rest were above 40 years. 25 were on antiretroviral therapy (18 on regimen containing zidovudine; seven on regimen containing stavudine). The mean duration of antiretroviral therapy was 16.6±8.4 months. Low CD4 counts (<200) were noted in 24 patients (13 of these were on antiretroviral therapy). Clinically, the patients were classified as asymptomatic (n=34) and symptomatic (n=16). Among the symptomatic patients, nine were on antiretroviral therapy since less than one year (seven of these were on regimen containing stavudine). Ten patients aged more than 40-years had symptomatic neuropathy. No significant correlation was found between low CD4 counts and symptomatic neuropathy (p=0.21). Impaired vibration (100%) and absent ankle jerks (75%) were commoner than reduced pin sensitivity (46.6%). Twenty two patients had abnormal NCS results (18 of these were on antiretroviral therapy). Axonal distal symmetrical sensory neuropathy was the commonest pattern noted in 14 patients who were receiving antiretroviral therapy. Subclinical involvement as evidenced by abnormal NCSs was noted in 5 asymptomatic patients who were all on antiretroviral therapy. Conclusion: Symptomatic neuropathy was seen predominantly in HIV patients who were on antiretroviral therapy. All patients receiving stavudine containing regimen had severe symptomatic neuropathy within 1 year. There was an increase in the likelihood of symptomatic neuropathy among patients aged > 40 years. Subclinical neuropathy was common in those on antiretroviral therapy. Axonal neuropathy was the commonest pattern noted in patients who were receiving antiretroviral therapy and demyelinating neuropathy in patients not on antiretroviral therapy. Surprisingly no significant correlation was found between low CD4 counts and symptomatic neuropathy. PMID:25177587

  2. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): An overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricky Greenwald

    1994-01-01

    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is a recently developed psychotherapy procedure which has been reported\\u000a to dramatically increase efficiency in the treatment of psychological disturbances rooted in traumatic memories. Following\\u000a a review of the research on EMDR's efficacy, clinical considerations are addressed, including the client's experience and\\u000a the potential for negative effects or treatment failure. Finally, the role of

  3. Micromorphological Evaluation of Dentin Treated with Different Desensitizing Agents

    PubMed Central

    Osmari, Deise; de Oliveira Ferreira, Ana Carolina; de Carlo Bello, Mariana; Henrique Susin, Alexandre; Cecília Correa Aranha, Ana; Marquezan, Marcela; Lopes da Silveira, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of a desensitizing agent is a permanent coating or filling of dentin surface. Morphological analysis in vitro of this treated surface is essential to understand the interaction between desensitizing agent and hypersensitive dentin. The aim was to evaluate the morphology of four dentin surface treated with desensitizing agents. Methods: This was an in vitro laboratory study, where fifteen specimens from extracted human premolars were obtained. The enamel was removed to expose the dentin surface, polished with silicon carbide abrasive papers and etched with 6% citric acid for 2 min.The specimens were randomly divided into 5 groups: G1 - without treatment (control) (C), G2 - fluoride varnish (FV), G3 - potassium oxalate (PO), G4 - 2-step self-etching adhesive system (AS), G5 - diode laser (DL). The specimens were cleaved in the lingual buccaldirection, prepared for analysis by Scanning Electron Microscope and the surface and interior of the dentinal tubules were observed at 1500× magnification. Results: In the control group, the dentin etching promoted smear layer removal and exposure of dentinal tubules. In the group of fluoride varnish, a film was observed on the surface, with plugs of varnish into tubules. In the group of oxalate, partial obliteration of the tubular entrances was observed. In the group of the adhesive system, the tubules were obstructed through the formation of hybrid layer and a physical barrier on the surface. In the group of the diode laser, dentin melting and solidification with partial occlusion of dentinal tubules were observed. Conclusions: All desensitizing agents evaluated demonstrated ability to modify the surface of dentin, with partial or total occlusion of dentinal tubules. Thus, it is suggested to do more clinical studies to verify the effectiveness of the findings. PMID:25606322

  4. Playing violent video games, desensitization, and moral evaluation in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanne B. Funk; Debra D. Buchman; Jennifer Jenks; Heidi Bechtoldt

    2003-01-01

    Relationships between short- and long-term exposure to violent video games and desensitization, as measured through components of moral evaluation, were examined. Sixty-six children aged 5–12 years old completed questionnaires assessing video game experience and preferences and empathy and attitudes toward violence. The children played a violent or nonviolent video game and then responded to vignettes about everyday occurrences. Vignette responses

  5. Nerve Racking

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    This lesson describes the function and components of the human nervous system. It helps students understand the purpose of our brain, spinal cord, nerves and the five senses. How the nervous system is affected during spaceflight is also discussed in this lesson.

  6. Efficacy of an ultrasound-guided subsartorial approach to saphenous nerve block: a case series

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phil B. Tsai; Abhishek Karnwal; Clinton Kakazu; Vadim Tokhner; Inderjeet S. Julka

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  The saphenous nerve, a branch of the femoral nerve, is a pure sensory nerve that supplies the anteromedial aspect of the lower\\u000a leg from the knee to the foot. There is limited evidence of the effectiveness of ultrasound-guided techniques to block the\\u000a saphenous nerve. We therefore undertook a retrospective case series to investigate the efficacy of an ultrasound-guided subsartorial\\u000a approach

  7. Multiphasic desensitization of the GABAA receptor in outside-out patches.

    PubMed Central

    Celentano, J J; Wong, R K

    1994-01-01

    GABAA receptor function was studied in outside-out patches from guinea pig hippocampal neurons using a drug application system with an exchange time of under 1.5 ms. Application of GABA to these patches induced a Cl- conductance that desensitized with prolonged exposure. Increasing GABA concentrations induced larger conductance increases that were associated with more complex patterns of desensitization. Smaller GABA responses desensitized with monophasic kinetics, whereas large responses displayed bi- and triphasic kinetics. Desensitization of the response to 1 mM GABA was triphasic in about 70% of the patches (tau = 15.4, 207, and 1370 ms) and biphasic in about 30% of the patches (tau = 44 and 725 ms). All phases of desensitization reversed at the Cl- equilibrium potential. Over the concentration range from 3 microM to 3 mM, both the rate and the extent of desensitization increased; however, complete desensitization was rarely observed. The increase in desensitization rate was due to an increase in the relative contribution of the faster phases with increasing GABA. The time constants of the three phases were independent of concentration. The different phases are not mediated by separate receptor populations, because double pulse experiments demonstrated interconversion among the fastest phase and the two slower phases. We demonstrate the plausibility of a model in which multiphasic desensitization is a consequence of the faster association rate at higher GABA concentrations. PMID:8038376

  8. Effect of different desensitizers on inhibition of bovine dentin demineralization: micro-computed tomography assessment.

    PubMed

    Lodha, Ena; Hamba, Hidenori; Nakashima, Syozi; Sadr, Alireza; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of two desensitizers on inhibition of dentin demineralization, after immersion in artificial saliva using micro-computed tomography (?CT). Dentin blocks cut from bovine incisors were treated with deionized water (DW, a negative control) or one of three desensitizers: a fluoride varnish (Duraphat, a positive control), a calcium phosphate desensitizer (Teethmate Desensitizer), and a fluoro-alumino-calcium silicate-based desensitizer (Nanoseal). After each treatment, the specimens in Duraphat, Nanoseal, and Teethmate Desensitizer groups were pre-immersed in artificial saliva (pH 6.5) for either 1 d or 1 wk. The mineral loss of the specimens after demineralization (pH 5.0, 3 h) was evaluated by ?CT. The treated surface was investigated with scanning electron microscopy. Mineral loss in all treatment groups was significantly lower than that in DW. Duraphat was the most effective treatment against demineralization, followed by Nanoseal. Nanoseal showed significantly better reduction in mineral loss following immersion for 1 wk in artificial saliva than for 1 d. However, Teethmate Desensitizer and Duraphat did not exhibit enhanced inhibition of demineralization over a longer period of immersion in artificial saliva. Scanning electron microscopy images showed deposition of particles on the dentin in both Teethmate Desensitizer. The application of Teethmate Desensitizer and Nanoseal to the exposed dentin surface resulted in inhibition of demineralization, with Nanoseal resulting in improved inhibition after prolonged immersion in artificial saliva. PMID:25363830

  9. Multiple components of ganglion cell desensitization in response to prosthetic stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Daniel K.; Fried, Shelley I.

    2011-02-01

    Retinal prostheses aim to restore functional vision to those blinded by outer retinal diseases using electric stimulation of surviving neurons. Previous work indicates that repetitive stimulation with stimuli that activate the synaptic network reduces the sensitivity of retinal neurons to further stimulation. Such desensitization may contribute to the fading of visual percepts over time reported by human subjects. Here, we show that desensitization may be more complex than previously considered. We recorded spike trains from rabbit retinal ganglion cells and found that desensitization persists in the presence of inhibitory blockers (strychnine and picrotoxin), indicating amacrine cell inhibition is not solely responsible for reducing sensitivity in response to electric stimulation. The threshold for direct activation of the ganglion cell changes little during the simultaneous desensitization of the synaptically mediated response, indicating that desensitization likely occurs upstream of the spike generator. In addition to rapid desensitization acting over hundreds of milliseconds (? = 176.4 ± 8.8 ms), we report the presence of slow acting desensitization with a time course of seconds (? = 14.0 ± 1.1 s). The time courses of the two components of desensitization that we found are similar to the two phases of brightness fading seen in human subjects. This suggests that the reduction in ganglion cell firing due to desensitization may be responsible for the fading of visual percepts over time in response to prosthetic stimulation.

  10. Agonist-induced desensitization of adenylyl cyclase in Y1 adrenocortical tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, M.F.; Tsao, J.; Pon, D.J.; Schimmer, B.P. (Banting and Best Department of Medical Research, University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1991-01-01

    Y1 adrenocortical tumor cells (Y1DS) and Y1 mutants resistant to ACTH-induced desensitization of adenylyl cyclase (Y1DR) were transfected with a gene encoding the mouse beta 2-adrenergic receptor (beta 2-AR). Transfectants expressed beta 2-ARs that were able to stimulate adenylyl cyclase activity and steroid biosynthesis. These transfectants were used to explore the basis for the DR mutation in Y1 cells. The authors demonstrate that beta-adrenergic agonists desensitize the adenylyl cyclase system in transfected Y1DS cells whereas transfected Y1DR cells are resistant to desensitization by beta-adrenergic agonists. The fate of the beta 2-ARs during desensitization was evaluated by photoaffinity labelling with (125I)iodocyanopindolol diazerine. Desensitization of Y1DS transfectants was accompanied by a modest loss in receptor density that was insufficient to account for the complete loss of responsiveness to beta-adrenergic agonists. The extent of receptor loss induced by beta-adrenergic agonists in Y1DR transfectants exceeded that in the Y1DS transfectants indicating that the mutation which protects Y1DR cells from agonist-induced desensitization is prior to receptor down-regulation in the desensitization pathway. From these results we infer that ACTH and isoproterenol desensitize adenylyl cyclase by a common pathway and that receptor loss is not a major component of the desensitization process in these cells.

  11. Abnormalities of nerve conduction studies in myotonic dystrophy type 1: primary involvement of nerves or incidental coexistence?

    PubMed

    Bae, Jong Seok; Kim, Oeung-Kyu; Kim, Sang-Jin; Kim, Byoung Joon

    2008-10-01

    The involvement of peripheral nerves in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is controversial and the features of peripheral neuropathy (PN) are not well known. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of abnormal nerve conduction findings and the electrophysiological characteristics of PN in DM1. We analyzed medical records, data from nerve conduction studies (NCS), and the results of genetic analysis of 18 patients with DM1 and 30 healthy individuals. The early changes identified in NCS were determined using the sural/ulnar sensory nerve action potential amplitude ratio (SUAR). To correlate the neuropathic changes with cardiac abnormality, we compared the corrected Q-wave/T-wave interval (QTc) with the NCS parameters. Eight of 18 patients had abnormal NCS findings. Of these, abnormal peroneal motor nerve conduction and H-reflex abnormalities were most common. Only one patient complained of sensory symptoms and had abnormal sensory and motor nerve conduction compatible with sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy. There were no significant correlations between SUAR and disease duration, age, gene CTG repeats, or the QTc. The presence of diabetes was not related to abnormal nerve conduction or SUAR. The frequency of PN or abnormal NCS results was lower in our patients with DM1 than in previous studies. Our findings suggest that most abnormal NCS results in DM1 patients are more likely to result from myopathic changes, coincidental neuropathies, or radiculopathies than from primary involvement of the nerve. PMID:18657426

  12. Entrapment of motor nerves in motor neuron disease: does double crush occur?

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, V; Clawson, L L

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether "diseased nerves" are more prone to entrapment neuropathy than normal nerves. Nerve conduction studies of human neuropathies have shown that electrophysiological abnormalities are often most prominent at potential sites of nerve entrapment, and entrapments are more common in patients with radiculopathies--a concept designated as "double crush". As entrapment neuropathies commonly occur in otherwise healthy subjects, it is unclear whether this relation is coincidental or whether peripheral nerves affected by disease are rendered more susceptible to effects of repeated minor trauma, traction, or mechanical compression. METHODS: Sequential ulnar nerve conduction studies were prospectively performed at baseline and at four, eight, and 12 month intervals in 16 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Ulnar nerve entrapment was defined as a focal reduction (> 10 m/s) in conduction velocity in the across-elbow segment. RESULTS: Ulnar sensory and motor nerve fibres showed similar findings of ulnar nerve entrapment at baseline and at follow up over the period of the study. Nerves with ulnar nerve entrapment showed a significantly greater reduction in distal motor amplitudes than nerves without entrapment, even though distal ulnar sensory amplitudes remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Motor nerves in motor neuron disease do not seem to be more susceptible to entrapment at the elbow than do healthy sensory nerves, thus casting doubt on the double crush hypothesis. Nerves with double pathology (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and ulnar nerve entrapment), however, seem to undergo more rapid axonal loss than do nerves with single pathology (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ulnar nerve entrapment alone). Images PMID:9010403

  13. Mechanisms of alpha 1-adrenergic vascular desensitization in conscious dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiuchi, K.; Vatner, D. E.; Uemura, N.; Bigaud, M.; Hasebe, N.; Hempel, D. M.; Graham, R. M.; Vatner, S. F.

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of alpha 1-adrenergic vascular desensitization, osmotic minipumps containing either saline (n = 9) or amidephrine mesylate (AMD) (n = 9), a selective alpha 1-adrenergic receptor agonist, were implanted subcutaneously in dogs with chronically implanted arterial and right atrial pressure catheters and aortic flow probes. After chronic alpha 1-adrenergic receptor stimulation, significant physiological desensitization to acute AMD challenges was observed, i.e., pressor and vasoconstrictor responses to the alpha 1-adrenergic agonist were significantly depressed (p < 0.01) compared with responses in the same dogs studied in the conscious state before pump implantation. However, physiological desensitization to acute challenges of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) (0.1 micrograms/kg per minute) in the presence of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade was not observed for either mean arterial pressure (MAP) (30 +/- 7 versus 28 +/- 5 mm Hg) or total peripheral resistance (TPR) (29.8 +/- 4.9 versus 28.9 +/- 7.3 mm Hg/l per minute). In the presence of beta-adrenergic receptor plus ganglionic blockade after AMD pump implantation, physiological desensitization to NE was unmasked since the control responses to NE (0.1 micrograms/kg per minute) before the AMD pumps were now greater (p < 0.01) than after chronic AMD administration for both MAP (66 +/- 5 versus 32 +/- 2 mm Hg) and TPR (42.6 +/- 10.3 versus 23.9 +/- 4.4 mm Hg/l per minute). In the presence of beta-adrenergic receptor, ganglionic, plus NE-uptake blockade after AMD pump implantation, desensitization was even more apparent, since NE (0.1 micrograms/kg per minute) induced even greater differences in MAP (33 +/- 5 versus 109 +/- 6 mm Hg) and TPR (28.1 +/- 1.8 versus 111.8 +/- 14.7 mm Hg/l per minute). The maximal force of contraction induced by NE in the presence or absence of endothelium was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in vitro in mesenteric artery rings from AMD pump dogs compared with saline control dogs. Furthermore, alpha 1-adrenergic receptor density, as determined by [3H]prazosin binding in membrane preparations from vessels in the mesentery, was decreased (8.2 +/- 1.0 versus 18.4 +/- 1.4 fmol/mg protein, p < 0.001) without any change in Kd in the AMD pump dogs compared with the saline pump dogs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).

  14. Iatrogenic nerve injuries in common upper extremity procedures.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Matthew S; Abzug, Joshua M; Chang, James; Stern, Peter J; Osterman, A Lee

    2014-01-01

    Iatrogenic nerve injuries frequently occur during procedures around the hand and wrist, although they are not always recognized at the time of injury or in the immediate postoperative period. Because preventing injuries is of paramount importance, extensive knowledge of the anatomy of the at-risk nerves is critical. Best results occur after immediate repair because a substantial delay before secondary surgery diminishes the chances for recovery from motor or sensory nerve dysfunction and relief from pain. It is helpful to review iatrogenic nerve injuries associated with common hand surgical procedures. PMID:24720298

  15. Control of hair cell excitability by vestibular primary sensory neurons Journal: Journal of Neuroscience

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Control of hair cell excitability by vestibular primary sensory neurons Journal: Journal, Neurosciences Keywords: Excitotoxicity, Development, Excitability, Hair Cell, repair, synapse impairement, utricle, voltage-gated sodium channel Themes & Topics: a. Hair celss, endorgans, and nerve

  16. Neuropathic pain: is quantitative sensory testing helpful?

    PubMed

    Krumova, Elena K; Geber, Christian; Westermann, Andrea; Maier, Christoph

    2012-08-01

    Neuropathic pain arises as a consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system and is characterised by a combination of positive and negative sensory symptoms. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) examines the sensory perception after application of different mechanical and thermal stimuli of controlled intensity and the function of both large (A-beta) and small (A-delta and C) nerve fibres, including the corresponding central pathways. QST can be used to determine detection, pain thresholds and stimulus-response curves and can thus detect both negative and positive sensory signs, the second ones not being assessed by other methods. Similarly to all other psychophysical tests QST requires standardised examination, instructions and data evaluation to receive valid and reliable results. Since normative data are available, QST can contribute also to the individual diagnosis of neuropathy, especially in the case of isolated small-fibre neuropathy, in contrast to the conventional electrophysiology which assesses only large myelinated fibres. For example, detection of early stages of subclinical neuropathy in symptomatic or asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus can be helpful to optimise treatment and identify diabetic foot at risk of ulceration. QST assessed the individual's sensory profile and thus can be valuable to evaluate the underlying pain mechanisms which occur in different frequencies even in the same neuropathic pain syndromes. Furthermore, assessing the exact sensory phenotype by QST might be useful in the future to identify responders to certain treatments in accordance to the underlying pain mechanisms. PMID:22623149

  17. Massive peripheral nerve hypertrophy in a patient with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Albini Riccioli, L; D'Agostino, V; Marliani, A F; Leonardi, M

    2008-02-18

    We describe a male patient with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy presenting extensive diffuse hypertrophy of the nerve roots of peripheral nerves. Since adolescence the patient has had a slow and progressive mainly distal loss of sensitivity and muscle weakness in all four limbs. He presented with diffuse muscle atrophy with enlarged palpable nerve trunks. Electromyography disclosed impaired sensory and motor responses in the bilateral median nerves and the right ulnar nerve. CSF examination showed elevated protein content, while MR scans depicted extensive hypertrophy of the spinal nerve roots. The patient benefitted from corticosteroid treatment. PMID:24256758

  18. The Proximal Medial Sural Nerve Biopsy Model: A Standardised and Reproducible Baseline Clinical Model for the Translational Evaluation of Bioengineered Nerve Guides

    PubMed Central

    van Neerven, Sabien G. A.; Claeys, Kristl G.; O'Dey, Dan mon; Brook, Gary A.; Sellhaus, Bernd; Schulz, Jörg B.; Weis, Joachim; Pallua, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Autologous nerve transplantation (ANT) is the clinical gold standard for the reconstruction of peripheral nerve defects. A large number of bioengineered nerve guides have been tested under laboratory conditions as an alternative to the ANT. The step from experimental studies to the implementation of the device in the clinical setting is often substantial and the outcome is unpredictable. This is mainly linked to the heterogeneity of clinical peripheral nerve injuries, which is very different from standardized animal studies. In search of a reproducible human model for the implantation of bioengineered nerve guides, we propose the reconstruction of sural nerve defects after routine nerve biopsy as a first or baseline study. Our concept uses the medial sural nerve of patients undergoing diagnostic nerve biopsy (?2?cm). The biopsy-induced nerve gap was immediately reconstructed by implantation of the novel microstructured nerve guide, Neuromaix, as part of an ongoing first-in-human study. Here we present (i) a detailed list of inclusion and exclusion criteria, (ii) a detailed description of the surgical procedure, and (iii) a follow-up concept with multimodal sensory evaluation techniques. The proximal medial sural nerve biopsy model can serve as a preliminarynature of the injuries or baseline nerve lesion model. In a subsequent step, newly developed nerve guides could be tested in more unpredictable and challenging clinical peripheral nerve lesions (e.g., following trauma) which have reduced comparability due to the different nature of the injuries (e.g., site of injury and length of nerve gap). PMID:25006574

  19. Medial plantar and dorsal sural nerve conduction studies increase the sensitivity in the detection of neuropathy in diabetic patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kayihan Uluc; Baris Isak; Deniz Borucu; Cagri Mesut Temucin; Yilmaz Cetinkaya; Pinar Kahraman Koytak; Tulin Tanridag; Onder Us

    2008-01-01

    ObjectiveClinical utility of nerve conduction studies (NCS) of the medial plantar and dorsal sural nerves in the early detection of polyneuropathy have already been shown separately. However, at present, there is no data about the combined assessment of these two nerves in distal sensory neuropathy. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the medial plantar and dorsal sural NCS

  20. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy with diffuse and massive peripheral nerve hypertrophy: distinctive clinical and magnetic resonance imaging features.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, K; Nagamatsu, M; Hattori, N; Yamamoto, M; Goto, H; Kuniyoshi, K; Sobue, G

    1998-06-01

    We present 3 patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) with extensive and diffuse hypertrophy of the nerve roots and peripheral nerves. They exhibited slowly progressive sensory impairment and distally predominant limb weakness and muscular atrophy, and markedly enlarged palpable nerve trunks. They responded beneficially to corticosteroid. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated diffuse and extensive hypertrophy of the peripheral nerves in the four limbs and the spinal nerve roots, with gadolinium enhancement in the nerve roots but not in the peripheral nerves. These patients were considered to have a hypertrophic variant of CIDP. PMID:9585338

  1. Ultrasound-guided Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Nerve Block in Meralgia Paresthetica.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Eun; Lee, Sang Gon; Kim, Eun Ju; Min, Byung Woo; Ban, Jong Suk; Lee, Ji Hyang

    2011-06-01

    Meralgia paresthetica is a rarely encountered sensory mononeuropathy characterized by paresthesia, pain or sensory impairment along the distribution of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN) caused by entrapment or compression of the nerve as it crossed the anterior superior iliac spine and runs beneath the inguinal ligament. There is great variability regarding the area where the nerve pierces the inguinal ligament, which makes it difficult to perform blind anesthetic blocks. Ultrasound has developed into a powerful tool for the visualization of peripheral nerves including very small nerves such as accessory and sural nerves. The LFCN can be located successfully, and local anesthetic solution distribution around the nerve can be observed with ultrasound guidance. Our successfully performed ultrasound-guided blockade of the LFCN in meralgia paresthetica suggests that this technique is a safe way to increase the success rate. PMID:21716611

  2. Peripheral Nerve Reconstruction after Injury: A Review of Clinical and Experimental Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Grinsell, D.; Keating, C. P.

    2014-01-01

    Unlike other tissues in the body, peripheral nerve regeneration is slow and usually incomplete. Less than half of patients who undergo nerve repair after injury regain good to excellent motor or sensory function and current surgical techniques are similar to those described by Sunderland more than 60 years ago. Our increasing knowledge about nerve physiology and regeneration far outweighs our surgical abilities to reconstruct damaged nerves and successfully regenerate motor and sensory function. It is technically possible to reconstruct nerves at the fascicular level but not at the level of individual axons. Recent surgical options including nerve transfers demonstrate promise in improving outcomes for proximal nerve injuries and experimental molecular and bioengineering strategies are being developed to overcome biological roadblocks limiting patient recovery. PMID:25276813

  3. Ultrasound-guided Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Nerve Block in Meralgia Paresthetica

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Eun; Kim, Eun Ju; Min, Byung Woo; Ban, Jong Suk; Lee, Ji Hyang

    2011-01-01

    Meralgia paresthetica is a rarely encountered sensory mononeuropathy characterized by paresthesia, pain or sensory impairment along the distribution of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN) caused by entrapment or compression of the nerve as it crossed the anterior superior iliac spine and runs beneath the inguinal ligament. There is great variability regarding the area where the nerve pierces the inguinal ligament, which makes it difficult to perform blind anesthetic blocks. Ultrasound has developed into a powerful tool for the visualization of peripheral nerves including very small nerves such as accessory and sural nerves. The LFCN can be located successfully, and local anesthetic solution distribution around the nerve can be observed with ultrasound guidance. Our successfully performed ultrasound-guided blockade of the LFCN in meralgia paresthetica suggests that this technique is a safe way to increase the success rate. PMID:21716611

  4. Applying eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) to the treatment of traumatized children: Five case studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RICKY GREENWALD

    Citation: Greenwald, R. (1994). Applying eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) to the treatment of traumatized children: Fi ve case studies. Anxiety Disorders Practice Journal, 1, 83-97. Abstract Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is a recently developed psychotherapy method which appears to increase efficiency in treating trauma-based psychological disturbance. Applications to child tr eatment were explored in five case

  5. Violence Exposure in Real-Life, Video Games, Television, Movies, and the Internet: Is There Desensitization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Jeanne B.; Baldacci, Heidi Bechtoldt; Pasold; Tracie; Baumgardner, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    It is believed that repeated exposure to real-life and to entertainment violence may alter cognitive, affective, and behavioral processes, possibly leading to desensitization. The goal of the present study was to determine if there are relationships between real-life and media violence exposure and desensitization as reflected in related…

  6. Effect of dentin desensitizers and cementing agents on retention of full crowns using standardized crown preparations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nantiya H. Yim; Frederick A. Rueggeberg; W. Frank Caughman; F. Michael Gardner; David H. Pashley

    2000-01-01

    Statement of problem. Past research has not controlled preparation surface area when examining the influence of dentin desensitizers on the retentive strength of cemented cast crowns, leading to inconsistent results. Purpose. This research controlled crown preparation surface area and evaluated the effect of various dentin desensitizers and conventional cementing agents on the in vitro retentive strength of cast crowns. Methods

  7. The catecholaminergic nerve plexus of Holothuroidea

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Balzac, Carlos A.; Mejías, Wigberto; Jiménez, Luis B.

    2010-01-01

    Catecholamines have been extensively reported to be present in most animal groups, including members of Echinodermata. In this study, we investigated the presence and distribution of catecholaminergic nerves in two members of the Holothuroidea, Holothuria glaberrima (Selenka, 1867) (Aspidochirotida, Holothuroidea) and Holothuria mexicana (Ludwig, 1875) (Aspidochirotida, Holothuroidea), by using induced fluorescence for catecholamines on tissue sections and immunohistochemistry with an antibody that recognizes tyrosine hydroxylase. The presence of a catecholaminergic nerve plexus similar in distribution and extension to those previously reported in other members of Echinodermata was observed. This plexus, composed of cells and fibers, is found in the ectoneural component of the echinoderm nervous system and is continuous with the circumoral nerve ring and the radial nerves, tentacular nerves, and esophageal plexus. In addition, fluorescent nerves in the tube feet are continuous with the catecholaminergic components of the radial nerve cords. This is the first comprehensive report on the presence and distribution of catecholamines in the nervous system of Holothuroidea. The continuity and distribution of the catecholaminergic plexus strengthen the notion that the catecholaminergic cells are interneurons, since these do not form part of the known sensory or motor circuits and the fluorescence is confined to organized nervous tissue. PMID:20827375

  8. Sensoric Protection after Median Nerve Injury: Babysitter-Procedure Prevents Muscular Atrophy and Improves Neuronal Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Beck-Broichsitter, Benedicta E.; Becker, Stephan T.; Lamia, Androniki; Fregnan, Federica; Sinis, Nektarios

    2014-01-01

    The babysitter-procedure might offer an alternative when nerve reconstruction is delayed in order to overcome muscular atrophy due to denervation. In this study we aimed to show that a sensomotoric babysitter-procedure after median nerve injury is capable of preserving irreversible muscular atrophy. The median nerve of 20 female Wistar rats was denervated. 10 animals received a sensory protection with the N. cutaneous brachii. After six weeks the median nerve was reconstructed by autologous nerve grafting from the contralateral median nerve in the babysitter and the control groups. Grasping tests measured functional recovery over 15 weeks. At the end of the observation period the weight of the flexor digitorum sublimis muscle was determined. The median nerve was excised for histological examinations. Muscle weight (P < 0.0001) was significantly superior in the babysitter group compared to the control group at the end of the study. The histological evaluation revealed a significantly higher diameter of axons (P = 0.0194), nerve fiber (P = 0.0409), and nerve surface (P = 0.0184) in the babysitter group. We conclude that sensory protection of a motor nerve is capable of preserving muscule weight and we may presume that metabolism of the sensory nerve was sufficient to keep the target muscle's weight and vitality. PMID:25133176

  9. Sensoric protection after median nerve injury: babysitter-procedure prevents muscular atrophy and improves neuronal recovery.

    PubMed

    Beck-Broichsitter, Benedicta E; Becker, Stephan T; Lamia, Androniki; Fregnan, Federica; Geuna, Stefano; Sinis, Nektarios

    2014-01-01

    The babysitter-procedure might offer an alternative when nerve reconstruction is delayed in order to overcome muscular atrophy due to denervation. In this study we aimed to show that a sensomotoric babysitter-procedure after median nerve injury is capable of preserving irreversible muscular atrophy. The median nerve of 20 female Wistar rats was denervated. 10 animals received a sensory protection with the N. cutaneous brachii. After six weeks the median nerve was reconstructed by autologous nerve grafting from the contralateral median nerve in the babysitter and the control groups. Grasping tests measured functional recovery over 15 weeks. At the end of the observation period the weight of the flexor digitorum sublimis muscle was determined. The median nerve was excised for histological examinations. Muscle weight (P < 0.0001) was significantly superior in the babysitter group compared to the control group at the end of the study. The histological evaluation revealed a significantly higher diameter of axons (P = 0.0194), nerve fiber (P = 0.0409), and nerve surface (P = 0.0184) in the babysitter group. We conclude that sensory protection of a motor nerve is capable of preserving muscule weight and we may presume that metabolism of the sensory nerve was sufficient to keep the target muscle's weight and vitality. PMID:25133176

  10. Ulnar nerve entrapment in Guyon's canal due to a lipoma.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, O; Calisaneller, T; Gerilmez, A; Gulsen, S; Altinors, N

    2010-09-01

    Guyon's canal syndrome is an ulnar nerve entrapment at the wrist or palm that can cause motor, sensory or combined motor and sensory loss due to various factors . In this report, we presented a 66-year-old man admitted to our clinic with a history of intermittent pain in the left palm and numbness in 4th and 5th finger for two years. His neurological examination revealed a sensory impairment in the right fifth finger. Also, physical examination displayed a subcutaneous mobile soft tissue in ulnar side of the wrist. Electromyographic examination confirmed the diagnosis of type-1 Guyon's canal syndrome. Under axillary blockage, a lipoma compressing the ulnar nerve was excised totally and ulnar nerve was decompressed. The symptoms were improved after the surgery and patient was symptom free on 3rd postoperative week. PMID:21423081

  11. Sexual violence: psychiatric healing with eye movement reprocessing and desensitization.

    PubMed

    Posmontier, Bobbie; Dovydaitis, Tiffany; Lipman, Kenneth

    2010-08-01

    Sexual violence, which affects one in three women worldwide, can result in significant psychiatric morbidity and suicide. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) offers health care providers the option of a brief psychiatric intervention that can result in psychiatric healing in as few as four sessions. Because health care providers often hear stories of sexual violence from their patients, they are in an ideal position to make recommendations for treatment. The purpose of this article is to introduce health care providers to the technique of EMDR, review safety and appropriateness, and discuss clinical and research implications. PMID:20623397

  12. Injury of the Inferior Alveolar Nerve during Implant Placement: a Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hom-Lay; Sabalys, Gintautas

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of present article was to review aetiological factors, mechanism, clinical symptoms, and diagnostic methods as well as to create treatment guidelines for the management of inferior alveolar nerve injury during dental implant placement. Material and Methods Literature was selected through a search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane electronic databases. The keywords used for search were inferior alveolar nerve injury, inferior alveolar nerve injuries, inferior alveolar nerve injury implant, inferior alveolar nerve damage, inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia and inferior alveolar nerve repair. The search was restricted to English language articles, published from 1972 to November 2010. Additionally, a manual search in the major anatomy, dental implant, periodontal and oral surgery journals and books were performed. The publications there selected by including clinical, human anatomy and physiology studies. Results In total 136 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. Aetiological factors of inferior alveolar nerve injury, risk factors, mechanism, clinical sensory nerve examination methods, clinical symptoms and treatment were discussed. Guidelines were created to illustrate the methods used to prevent and manage inferior alveolar nerve injury before or after dental implant placement. Conclusions The damage of inferior alveolar nerve during the dental implant placement can be a serious complication. Clinician should recognise and exclude aetiological factors leading to nerve injury. Proper presurgery planning, timely diagnosis and treatment are the key to avoid nerve sensory disturbances management. PMID:24421983

  13. Fast Synaptic Inhibition in Spinal Sensory Processing and Pain Control

    PubMed Central

    Zeilhofer, Hanns Ulrich; Wildner, Hendrik; Yevenes, Gonzalo E.

    2013-01-01

    The two amino acids ?-amino butyric acid (GABA) and glycine mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission in different CNS areas and serve pivotal roles in the spinal sensory processing. Under healthy conditions, they limit the excitability of spinal terminals of primary sensory nerve fibers and of intrinsic dorsal horn neurons through pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms, and thereby facilitate the spatial and temporal discrimination of sensory stimuli. Removal of fast inhibition not only reduces the fidelity of normal sensory processing but also provokes symptoms very much reminiscent of pathological and chronic pain syndromes. This review summarizes our knowledge of the molecular bases of spinal inhibitory neurotransmission and its organization in dorsal horn sensory circuits. Particular emphasis is placed on the role and mechanisms of spinal inhibitory malfunction in inflammatory and neuropathic chronic pain syndromes. PMID:22298656

  14. Desensitization and re-sensitization of CGRP receptor function in human neuroblastoma SK-N-MC cells.

    PubMed

    Pin, Sokhom S; Xu, Cen; Bahr, Ben A

    2007-12-22

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a highly potent vasodilator known to be involved in many physiological functions within the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and nervous systems. This study assessed the desensitization of CGRP receptors by measuring agonist-mediated activation of adenylate cyclase in a model system employing human neuroblastoma-derived SK-N-MC cells. In these cells, we demonstrated that pre-incubation with CGRP (20 nM) induces a rapid desensitization of CGRP signaling (t(1/2)desensitization potency (DC(50)=0.29 nM) is similar to its activation potency on non-desensitized cells (EC(50)=0.20 nM). The desensitized receptors exhibited slow and incomplete re-sensitization upon removal of the pre-incubated ligand, resulting in 52-65% functional recovery after 3-5 h while CGRP binding sites were completely restored. Additional agonists within the calcitonin/CGRP family of peptides (calcitonin, amylin, adrenomedullin, and adrenomedullin 2) were compared to CGRP with regard to their ability to activate and desensitize CGRP receptors. Calcitonin and amylin did not cause receptor activation nor did they produce desensitization. Adrenomedullin and adrenomedullin 2 activated the receptors and produced desensitization, but at a slower rate and with a weaker desensitization potency than CGRP-induced desensitization. Adrenomedullin exhibited similar potency for receptor activation and desensitization, whereas adrenomedullin 2 has a 4-fold higher preference for receptor desensitization than for receptor activation. Activation and desensitization induced by CGRP, adrenomedullin and adrenomedullin 2 were blocked by the CGRP receptor antagonist CGRP8-37. These data indicate that CGRP receptors are desensitized by select peptides in the calcitonin/CGRP family. Slow recovery from the desensitized state may provide a strategy for timed modulation of the CGRP signaling pathway. PMID:17825280

  15. Deep palmar communications between the ulnar and median nerves.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Marios; Bellary, Sharath S; Tubbs, R Shane; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Cohen Gadol, Aaron A

    2011-03-01

    Innervation of the hand is supplied via the radial, median, and ulnar nerves. A common border of sensory distribution between the ulnar and median nerves is along the fourth digit. However, this sensory distribution may be affected by communication between these two nerves. Among the known communications between the median and ulnar nerves, the deep anastomotic branch in the hand is the least described and rarely illustrated in the literature. This study aims to provide data on the prevalence of a deep communicating branch via cadaveric dissection. We examined 50 hands taken from 25 adult cadavers. Communicating branches were found in 16% of the hands examined, with rami occurring bilaterally in two specimens. By describing the origin and pathway of this communicating branch, we hope to provide surgeons and clinicians with knowledge that may help avoid iatrogenic injuries. PMID:21322041

  16. Somatosensory evoked potentials elicited by stimulation of lower-limb nerves in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Georgesco, M; Salerno, A; Camu, W

    1997-07-01

    To determine lower limb somatosensory modifications in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we studied somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) elicited by stimulation of tibial posterior nerves (TP), sural nerves (SN), saphenous internous nerves (SA), and medial plantar nerves (PL) of both limbs in 24 ALS patients, and compared the results with those from 17 normal subjects. Responses were recorded according to the international 10-20 system. Normal sensory conduction velocities of SN, SA and PL and H reflexes in soleus muscles were prerequisites for patient inclusion in this study. The results showed marked alterations in SEPs cortical components of all lower limb nerves, which could be related to abnormal sensory transmission (after spinal N22), or cortical abnormalities. We put forward the hypothesis of impairment of pyramidal control of the sensory system and Clark's column involvement to explain such anomalies. It was concluded that SEPs abnormalities in the lower limbs are a common feature in ALS. PMID:9246071

  17. Supporting sensory transduction: cochlear fluid homeostasis and the endocochlear potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philine Wangemann

    2006-01-01

    The exquisite sensitivity of the cochlea, which mediates the transduction of sound waves into nerve impulses, depends on the endocochlear potential and requires a highly specialized environment that enables and sustains sensory function. Disturbance of cochlear homeostasis is the cause of many forms of hearing loss including the most frequently occurring syndromic and non-syndromic forms of hereditary hearing loss, Pendred

  18. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy or hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. W. M. Gabreëls-Festen; F. J. M. Gabreëls; J. E. Hoogendijk; P. A. Bolhuis; P. J. H. Jongen; H. M. Vingerhoets

    1993-01-01

    The pathological changes generally considered to distinguish chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) from hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) are: mononuclear cell infiltrates, prominent endoneurial oedema, and marked fascicle-to-fascicle variability. We evaluated the diagnostic significance of these pathological features which are suggestive of CIDP. Nerve biopsies from 42 dominant HMSN type I cases with a normal disease course were investigated

  19. Nerve Impulses in Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt, F. J.

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes research done on the resting and action potential of nerve impulses, electrical excitation of nerve cells, electrical properties of Nitella, and temperature effects on action potential. (GS)

  20. Collagen nerve wrap for median nerve scarring.

    PubMed

    Kokkalis, Zinon T; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Ballas, Efstathios G; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Soucacos, Panayotis N

    2015-02-01

    Nerve wrapping materials have been manufactured to inhibit nerve tissue adhesions and diminish inflammatory and immunologic reactions in nerve surgery. Collagen nerve wrap is a biodegradable type I collagen material that acts as an interface between the nerve and the surrounding tissues. Its main advantage is that it stays in place during the period of tissue healing and is then gradually absorbed once tissue healing is completed. This article presents a surgical technique that used a collagen nerve wrap for the management of median nerve tissue adhesions in 2 patients with advanced carpal tunnel syndrome due to median nerve scarring and adhesions. At last follow-up, both patients had complete resolution with no recurrence of their symptoms. Complications related to the biodegradable material were not observed. PMID:25665110

  1. [Microneural reconstruction after iatrogenic lesions of the lingual nerve and the inferior alveolar nerve. Critical evaluation].

    PubMed

    Cornelius, C P; Roser, M; Ehrenfeld, M

    1997-07-01

    As microneural repair techniques of the sensory mandibular branches enter the third decade of their clinical use, there are but a few long-term investigations into the value of these procedures in the treatment of iatrogenic injury to the lingual (LN), inferior alveolar (IAN) or mental (MN) nerve. To establish the efficacy of microneural repair in lesions of the LN, IAN or MN with loss of continuity, the outcome of sensory recovery was evaluated in a series of 92 patients (LN: direct coaptation n = 39, coaptation + sural nerve grafting n = 23; IAN: direct coaptation n = 11 coaptation + sural nerve grafting n = 10; MN: direct coaptation n = 11). The minimum duration of follow-up was 14 months postoperatively. The persistent sensory deficit was assessed using standardized neurosensory testing and gustometric stimuli. In addition the patients answered a multiple-choice questionnaire containing a list of complaints. To obtain a numeric estimate for interindividual and intergroup comparison the information from clinical measurements and patient reports was condensed into a 'neurological score' and a 'complaint score', respectively. Furthermore, adequate items from both scores were combined to affirm or deny the return of sensory function in terms of protective and discriminative sensation. The overall results show a broad range of variation in the scores, sometimes reflecting severe degrees of persistent sensory impairment. The lowest scores, corresponding to the best regeneration, were found after direct coaptation of the LN, IAN and NM, but even the best results did not provide sensory recovery to a preinjury level. After direct coaptation of LN 69% of the patients exhibited protective sensation and 41% regained discriminative function. In contrast, LN grafting was ensued from restoration of protective function in 39% and discriminative function in 17% of the patients. More striking differences were found between coaptation and grafting of the IAN (IAN coaptation: 91% protective function; 18% discriminative function; IAN grafting: 60% protective function, 0% discriminative function). In the LN coaptation group low scores and improved taste perception were convincingly associated with short periods since injury (i.e. timing of repair). In conclusion, we feel there is sufficient justification to optimize the potential results of microneural repair by immediate (LN/MN) or early (IAN) reexposure of the injured site in order to clarify the precise nature of the underlying nerve damage and prevent delay, if patients present with complete loss of sensory function subsequent to dentoalveolar or oral surgery. However, clinical and electrophysiologic findings suggesting impairment or partial loss of sensory function are considered a contraindication to microneural intervention, in view of the limited prospects of sensory recovery after surgical repair. PMID:9410631

  2. The sensory innervation of the human pharynx: searching for mechanoreceptors.

    PubMed

    de Carlos, F; Cobo, J; Macías, E; Feito, J; Cobo, T; Calavia, M G; García-Suárez, O; Vega, J A

    2013-11-01

    The coordinate neural regulation of the upper airways muscles is basic to control airway size and resistance. The superior constrictor pharyngeal muscle (SCPM) forms the main part of the lateral and posterior walls of the pharynx and typically is devoid of muscle spindles, the main type of proprioceptor. Because proprioception arising from SCPM is potentially important in the physiology of the upper airways, we have investigated if there are mechanical sensory nerve endings substitute for the muscle spindles. Samples of human pharynx were analyzed using immunohistochemistry associated to general axonic and Schwann cells markers (NSE, PGP 9.5, RT-97, and S100P), intrafusal muscle fiber markers, and putative mechanical sense proteins (TRPV4 and ASIC2). Different kinds of sensory corpuscles were observed in the pharynx walls (Pacini-like corpuscles, Ruffini-like corpuscles, spiral-wharves nerve structures, and others) which are supplied by sensory nerves and express putative mechanoproteins. No evidence of muscle spindles was observed. The present results demonstrate the occurrence of numerous and different morphotypes of sensory corpuscles/mechanoreceptors in human pharynx that presumably detect mechanical changes in the upper airways and replace muscle spindles for proprioception. Present findings are of potential interest for the knowledge of pathologies of the upper airways with supposed sensory pathogenesis. PMID:24123994

  3. Early evaluation of nerve regeneration after nerve injury and repair using functional connectivity MRI.

    PubMed

    Li, Rupeng; Hettinger, Patrick C; Liu, Xiping; Machol, Jacques; Yan, Ji-Geng; Matloub, Hani S; Hyde, James S

    2014-09-01

    Resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging studies in rat brain show brain reorganization caused by nerve injury and repair. In this study, distinguishable differences were found in healthy, nerve transection without repair (R-) and nerve transection with repair (R+) groups in the subacute stage (2 weeks after initial injury). Only forepaw on the healthy side was used to determine seed voxel regions in this study. Disturbance of neuronal network in the primary sensory region of cortex occurs within two hours after initial injury, and the network pattern was restored in R+ group in subacute stage, while the disturbed pattern remained in R- group. These are the central findings of the study. This technique provides a novel way of detecting and monitoring the effectiveness of peripheral nerve injury treatment in the early stage and potentially offers a tool for clinicians to avoid poor clinical outcomes. PMID:24515926

  4. Spinal Cord and Nerve Root Decompression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith R. Lodhia; Paul Park; Gregory P. Graziano

    Tumors of the vertebral column include both primary and metastatic lesions. These tumors can cause significant morbidity consisting\\u000a of lesional pain and pain from deformity. Compression of the spinal cord and spinal nerve roots can also cause radicular pain\\u000a as well as neurologial deterioration including sensory deficits, weakness, paralysis, and\\/or sexual\\/bowel\\/ bladder dysfunction.\\u000a In cases of metastatic lesions, the spine

  5. Laryngeal zoster with multiple cranial nerve palsies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Van Den Bossche; Karolien Van Den Bossche; Hilde Vanpoucke

    2008-01-01

    A young immunocompetent patient is presented with a very rare presentation of a common viral illness: herpes zoster of the\\u000a left hemilarynx with sensorial and motoric neuropathy of three ipsilateral lower cranial nerves: IX, X and XI. The mucosal\\u000a lesions were discovered during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. PCR of erosional exsudate confirmed the clinical diagnosis.\\u000a Antiviral therapy and corticosteroids possibly contributed

  6. Repair of peripheral nerve with vein wrapping*

    PubMed Central

    LEUZZI, S.; ARMENIO, A.; LEONE, L.; DE SANTIS, V.; DI TURI, A.; ANNOSCIA, P.; BUFANO, L.; PASCONE, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The post–traumatic neuro-anastomosis must be protected from the surrounding environment. This barrier must be biologically inert, biodegradable, not compressing but protecting the nerve. Formation of painful neuroma is one of the major issues with neuro-anastomosis; currently there is no consensus on post-repair neuroma prevention. Aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of neuroanastomosis performed with venous sheath to reduce painful neuromas formation, improve the electrical conductivity of the repaired nerve, and reduce the discrepancies of the sectioned nerve stumps. Patients and methods From a trauma population of 320 patients treated in a single centre between January 2008 and December 2011, twenty-six patients were identified as having an injury to at least one of the peripheral nerves of the arm and enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into two groups. In the group A (16 patients) the end-to-end nerve suture was wrapped in a vein sheath and compared with the group B (10 patients) in which a simple end-to-end neurorrhaphy was performed. The venous segment used to cover the nerve micro-suture was harvested from the superficial veins of the forearm. The parameters analyzed were: functional recovery of motor nerves, sensitivity and pain. Results Average follow-up was 14 months (range: 12–24 months). The group A showed a more rapid motor and sensory recovery and a reduction of the painful symptoms compared to the control group (B). Conclusions The Authors demonstrated that, in their experience, the venous sheath provides a valid solution to avoid the dispersion of the nerve fibres, to prevent adherent scars and painful neuromas formation. Moreover it can compensate the different size of two nerve stumps, allowing, thereby, a more rapid functional and sensitive recovery without expensive devices. PMID:24841688

  7. Chronic fatigue syndrome from vagus nerve infection: a psychoneuroimmunological hypothesis.

    PubMed

    VanElzakker, Michael B

    2013-09-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is an often-debilitating condition of unknown origin. There is a general consensus among CFS researchers that the symptoms seem to reflect an ongoing immune response, perhaps due to viral infection. Thus, most CFS research has focused upon trying to uncover that putative immune system dysfunction or specific pathogenic agent. However, no single causative agent has been found. In this speculative article, I describe a new hypothesis for the etiology of CFS: infection of the vagus nerve. When immune cells of otherwise healthy individuals detect any peripheral infection, they release proinflammatory cytokines. Chemoreceptors of the sensory vagus nerve detect these localized proinflammatory cytokines, and send a signal to the brain to initiate sickness behavior. Sickness behavior is an involuntary response that includes fatigue, fever, myalgia, depression, and other symptoms that overlap with CFS. The vagus nerve infection hypothesis of CFS contends that CFS symptoms are a pathologically exaggerated version of normal sickness behavior that can occur when sensory vagal ganglia or paraganglia are themselves infected with any virus or bacteria. Drawing upon relevant findings from the neuropathic pain literature, I explain how pathogen-activated glial cells can bombard the sensory vagus nerve with proinflammatory cytokines and other neuroexcitatory substances, initiating an exaggerated and intractable sickness behavior signal. According to this hypothesis, any pathogenic infection of the vagus nerve can cause CFS, which resolves the ongoing controversy about finding a single pathogen. The vagus nerve infection hypothesis offers testable hypotheses for researchers, animal models, and specific treatment strategies. PMID:23790471

  8. Clinical consequences of reinnervation disorders after focal peripheral nerve lesions.

    PubMed

    Valls-Sole, Josep; Castillo, Carlos David; Casanova-Molla, Jordi; Costa, Joao

    2011-02-01

    Axonal regeneration and organ reinnervation are the necessary steps for functional recovery after a nerve lesion. However, these processes are frequently accompanied by collateral events that may not be beneficial, such as: (1) Uncontrolled branching of growing axons at the lesion site. (2) Misdirection of axons and target organ reinnervation errors, (3) Enhancement of excitability of the parent neuron, and (4) Compensatory activity in non-damaged nerves. Each one of those possible problems or a combination of them can be the underlying pathophysiological mechanism for some clinical conditions seen as a consequence of a nerve lesion. Reinnervation-related motor disorders are more likely to occur with lesions affecting nerves which innervate muscles with antagonistic functions, such as the facial, the laryngeal and the ulnar nerves. Motor disorders are better demonstrated than sensory disturbances, which might follow similar patterns. In some instances, the available examination methods give only scarce evidence for the positive diagnosis of reinnervation-related disorders in humans and the diagnosis of such condition can only be based on clinical observation. Whatever the lesion, though, the restitution of complex functions such as fine motor control and sensory discrimination would require not only a successful regeneration process but also a central nervous system reorganization in order to integrate the newly formed peripheral nerve structure into the prepared motor programs and sensory patterns. PMID:20656551

  9. Sensory Guillain-Barré syndrome: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, JING; LIU, NA; ZHANG, ZHE-CHENG; ZHENG, RUI-ZHI; LI, QIAN

    2014-01-01

    A 58-year-old female exhibited the onset of symmetrical sensory abnormalities of the face and extremities. The neurological examination revealed normal muscle strength with abated or absent tendon reflexes. The patient experienced symmetrical glove- and stocking-type pinprick sensations in the distal extremities and a loss of temperature sensation, but had normal proprioception and vibration senses and joint topesthesia. The lumbar puncture showed protein cell separation at the fifth week after the onset of symptoms. At the same time-point, the electrophysiological examination showed demyelination changes involving the trigeminal nerve and the somatic motor nerve. Needle electromyography revealed normal results. The clinical symptoms ceased progression at the fourth week after symptom onset, and began to improve from the sixth. This case was considered to be sensory Guillain-Barré syndrome, which was characterized by its cranial nerve involvement. PMID:25371720

  10. In vivo desensitization of glycogenolysis to Ca2+-mobilizing hormones in rat liver cells.

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimoto, G; Tsujimoto, A; Kato, K; Hashimoto, K

    1988-01-01

    Rat hepatocytes contain several types of Ca2+-linked receptors, all of which stimulate glycogen breakdown by increasing cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration [( Ca2+]c). In vivo desensitization of this Ca2+ messenger system was studied in hepatocytes isolated from either pheochromocytoma (PHEO)-harboring and chronically norepinephrine (NE)-infused rats. Homologous desensitization for alpha 1-adrenergic receptor-mediated phosphorylase activation developed in the early stage of PHEO rats (3-4 wk after implantation), whereas, in the later stage of tumor development or in the NE-infused rats, phosphorylase responses to all Ca2+-mobilizing stimulations were subsensitive (heterologous desensitization). In the homologous desensitization, the [Ca2+]c response to alpha 1-adrenergic stimulation was selectively reduced. We found, using the phenoxybenzamine inactivation method, that there was a linear relationship between alpha 1 receptor density and the [Ca2+]c response; consequently, the blunted [Ca2+]c response to alpha 1-adrenergic stimulation could not be explained by the 34% downregulation of alpha 1 receptors seen in these rats. These results indicated that uncoupling at a step proximal to alpha 1 receptor-stimulated [Ca2+]c increase is also of primary importance in homologous desensitization of phosphorylase activation. On the other hand, heterologous desensitization also involved alteration(s) at steps distal to the rise in [Ca2+]c. Our data demonstrate that prolonged exposure to catecholamines results in desensitization of the [Ca2+]c mobilization pathway and may involve multiple mechanisms. PMID:2848864

  11. Surgical anatomy of the retroperitoneal spaces, Part IV: retroperitoneal nerves.

    PubMed

    Mirilas, Petros; Skandalakis, John E

    2010-03-01

    We present surgicoanatomical topographic relations of nerves and plexuses in the retroperitoneal space: 1) six named parietal nerves, branches of the lumbar plexus: iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal, genitofemoral, lateral femoral cutaneous, obturator, femoral. 2) The sacral plexus is formed by the lumbosacral trunk, ventral rami of S1-S3, and part of S4; the remainder of S4 joining the coccygeal plexus. From this plexus originate the superior gluteal nerve, which passes backward through the greater sciatic foramen above the piriformis muscle; the inferior gluteal nerve also courses through the greater sciatic foramen, but below the piriformis; 3) sympathetic trunks: right and left lumbar sympathetic trunks, which comprise four interconnected ganglia, and the pelvic chains; 4) greater, lesser, and least thoracic splanchnic nerves (sympathetic), which pass the diaphragm and join celiac ganglia; 5) four lumbar splanchnic nerves (sympathetic), which arise from lumbar sympathetic ganglia; 6) pelvic splanchnic nerves (nervi erigentes), providing parasympathetic innervation to the descending colon and pelvic splanchna; and 7) autonomic (prevertebral) plexuses, formed by the vagus nerves, splanchnic nerves, and ganglia (celiac, superior mesenteric, aorticorenal). They include sympathetic, parasympathetic, and sensory (mainly pain) fibers. The autonomic plexuses comprise named parts: aortic, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric, superior hypogastric, and inferior hypogastric (hypogastric nerves). PMID:20349652

  12. Breast Reinnervation: DIEP Neurotization Using the Third Anterior Intercostal Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Menn, Zachary K.; Eldor, Liron; Kaufman, Yoav; Dellon, A. Lee

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this article is to evaluate a new method of DIEP flap neurotization using a reliably located recipient nerve. We hypothesize that neurotization by this method (with either nerve conduit or direct nerve coaptation) will have a positive effect on sensory recovery. Methods: Fifty-seven deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flaps were performed on 35 patients. Neurotizations were performed to the third anterior intercostal nerve by directly coapting the flap donor nerve or coapting with a nerve conduit. Nine nonneurotized DIEP flaps served as controls and received no attempted neurotization. All patients were tested for breast sensibility in 9 areas of the flap skin-island and adjacent postmastectomy skin. Testing occurred at an average of 111 weeks (23–309) postoperatively. Results: At a mean of 111 weeks after breast reconstruction, neurotization of the DIEP flap resulted in recovery of sensibility that was statistically significantly better (lower threshold) in the flap skin (P < 0.01) and statistically significantly better than in the native mastectomy skin into which the DIEP flap was inserted (P < 0.01). Sensibility recovered in DIEP flaps neurotized using the nerve conduit was significantly better (lower threshold) than that in the corresponding areas of the DIEP flaps neurotized by direct coaptation (P < 0.01). Conclusion: DIEP flap neurotization using the third anterior intercostal nerve is an effective technique to provide a significant increase in sensory recovery for breast reconstruction patients, while adding minimal surgical time. Additionally, the use of a nerve conduit produces increased sensory recovery when compared direct coaptation. PMID:25289267

  13. Assessing Decreased Sensation and Increased Sensory Phenomena in Diabetic Polyneuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, David N.; Staff, Nathan P.; Dyck, P. James B.

    2013-01-01

    Loss of sensation and increased sensory phenomena are major expressions of varieties of diabetic polyneuropathies needing improved assessments for clinical and research purposes. We provide a neurobiological explanation for the apparent paradox between decreased sensation and increased sensory phenomena. Strongly endorsed is the use of the 10-g monofilaments for screening of feet to detect sensation loss, with the goal of improving diabetic management and prevention of foot ulcers and neurogenic arthropathy. We describe improved methods to assess for the kind, severity, and distribution of both large- and small-fiber sensory loss and which approaches and techniques may be useful for conducting therapeutic trials. The abnormality of attributes of nerve conduction may be used to validate the dysfunction of large sensory fibers. The abnormality of epidermal nerve fibers/1 mm may be used as a surrogate measure of small-fiber sensory loss but appear not to correlate closely with severity of pain. Increased sensory phenomena are recognized by the characteristic words patients use to describe them and by the severity and persistence of these symptoms. Tests of tactile and thermal hyperalgesia are additional markers of neural hyperactivity that are useful for diagnosis and disease management. PMID:24158999

  14. Increase in NGF content and nerve fiber sprouting in human allergic contact eczema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilka Kinkelin; Sandra Mötzing; Martin Koltzenburg; Eva-Bettina Bröcker

    2000-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for an intimate interaction of the skin and the nervous system. As known from animal studies, nerve growth factor (NGF) is essential for the innervation density and functional properties of sensory neurons of the skin during embryogenesis and in adulthood, and possibly during cutaneous inflammation. This study examined NGF content and sprouting of nerves during the

  15. Transgenic BDNF induces nerve fiber regrowth into the auditory epithelium in deaf cochleae.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Seiji B; Cortez, Sarah R; Beyer, Lisa A; Wiler, James A; Di Polo, Adriana; Pfingst, Bryan E; Raphael, Yehoash

    2010-06-01

    Sensory organs typically use receptor cells and afferent neurons to transduce environmental signals and transmit them to the CNS. When sensory cells are lost, nerves often regress from the sensory area. Therapeutic and regenerative approaches would benefit from the presence of nerve fibers in the tissue. In the hearing system, retraction of afferent innervation may accompany the degeneration of auditory hair cells that is associated with permanent hearing loss. The only therapy currently available for cases with severe or complete loss of hair cells is the cochlear implant auditory prosthesis. To enhance the therapeutic benefits of a cochlear implant, it is necessary to attract nerve fibers back into the cochlear epithelium. Here we show that forced expression of the neurotrophin gene BDNF in epithelial or mesothelial cells that remain in the deaf ear induces robust regrowth of nerve fibers towards the cells that secrete the neurotrophin, and results in re-innervation of the sensory area. The process of neurotrophin-induced neuronal regeneration is accompanied by significant preservation of the spiral ganglion cells. The ability to regrow nerve fibers into the basilar membrane area and protect the auditory nerve will enhance performance of cochlear implants and augment future cell replacement therapies such as stem cell implantation or induced transdifferentiation. This model also provides a general experimental stage for drawing nerve fibers into a tissue devoid of neurons, and studying the interaction between the nerve fibers and the tissue. PMID:20109446

  16. IL-17 and VEGF are necessary for efficient corneal nerve regeneration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contribution of acute inflammation to sensory nerve regeneration was investigated in the murine cornea using a model of corneal abrasion that removes the stratified epithelium and subbasal nerve plexus. Abrasion induced accumulation of IL-17(+) CCR6(+) yo T cells, neutrophils, and platelets in t...

  17. Axonal degeneration of the ulnar nerve secondary to carpal tunnel syndrome: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Azmy, Radwa Mahmoud; Labib, Amira Ahmed; Elkholy, Saly Hassan

    2013-05-25

    The distribution of sensory symptoms in carpal tunnel syndrome is strongly dependent on the degree of electrophysiological dysfunction of the median nerve. The association between carpal tunnel syndrome and ulnar nerve entrapment is still unclear. In this study, we measured ulnar nerve function in 82 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. The patients were divided into group I with minimal carpal tunnel syndrome (n = 35) and group II with mild to moderate carpal tunnel syndrome (n = 47) according to electrophysiological data. Sixty-one age- and sex-matched subjects without carpal tunnel syndrome were used as a control group. There were no significant differences in ulnar sensory nerve peak latencies or conduction velocities from the 4(th) and 5(th) fingers between patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and the control group. The ulnar sensory nerve action potential amplitudes from the 4(th) and 5(th) fingers were lower in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome than in the control group. The ratios of the ulnar sensory nerve action potential amplitudes from the 4(th) and 5(th) fingers were almost the same in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome as in the control group. These findings indicate that in patients with minimal to moderate carpal tunnel syndrome, there is some electrophysiological evidence of traction on the adjacent ulnar nerve fibers. The findings do not indicate axonal degeneration of the ulnar nerve. PMID:25206437

  18. Electrophysiological findings in entrapment of the median nerve at wrist and elbow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fritz Buchthal; Annelise Rosenfalck; Werner Trojaborg

    1974-01-01

    In 117 consecutive patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and 11 patients with a compression syndrome of the median nerve at elbow, motor and sensory conduction along the median and ulnar nerves and quantitative electromyography were compared with findings in 190 normal controls of the same age. In 25% of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome in whom motor conduction and EMG

  19. Axonal degeneration of the ulnar nerve secondary to carpal tunnel syndrome: fact or fiction??

    PubMed Central

    Azmy, Radwa Mahmoud; Labib, Amira Ahmed; Elkholy, Saly Hassan

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of sensory symptoms in carpal tunnel syndrome is strongly dependent on the degree of electrophysiological dysfunction of the median nerve. The association between carpal tunnel syndrome and ulnar nerve entrapment is still unclear. In this study, we measured ulnar nerve function in 82 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. The patients were divided into group I with minimal carpal tunnel syndrome (n = 35) and group II with mild to moderate carpal tunnel syndrome (n = 47) according to electrophysiological data. Sixty-one age- and sex-matched subjects without carpal tunnel syndrome were used as a control group. There were no significant differences in ulnar sensory nerve peak latencies or conduction velocities from the 4th and 5th fingers between patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and the control group. The ulnar sensory nerve action potential amplitudes from the 4th and 5th fingers were lower in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome than in the control group. The ratios of the ulnar sensory nerve action potential amplitudes from the 4th and 5th fingers were almost the same in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome as in the control group. These findings indicate that in patients with minimal to moderate carpal tunnel syndrome, there is some electrophysiological evidence of traction on the adjacent ulnar nerve fibers. The findings do not indicate axonal degeneration of the ulnar nerve. PMID:25206437

  20. Transgenic BDNF induces nerve fiber regrowth into the auditory epithelium in deaf cochleae

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Seiji B.; Cortez, Sarah R.; Beyer, Lisa A.; Wiler, Jim A.; Di Polo, Adriana; Pfingst, Bryan E.; Raphael, Yehoash

    2010-01-01

    Sensory organs typically use receptor cells and afferent neurons to transduce environmental signals and transmit them to the CNS. When sensory cells are lost, nerves often regress from the sensory area. Therapeutic and regenerative approaches would benefit from the presence of nerve fibers in the tissue. In the hearing system, retraction of afferent innervation may accompany the degeneration of auditory hair cells that is associated with permanent hearing loss. The only therapy currently available for cases with severe or complete loss of hair cells is the cochlear implant auditory prosthesis. To enhance the therapeutic benefits of a cochlear implant, it is necessary to attract nerve fibers back into the cochlear epithelium. Here we show that forced expression of the neurotrophin gene BDNF in epithelial or mesothelial cells that remain in the deaf ear, induces robust regrowth of nerve fibers towards the cells that secrete the neurotrophin, and results in re-innervation of the sensory area. The process of neurotrophin-induced neuronal regeneration is accompanied by significant preservation of the spiral ganglion cells. The ability to regrow nerve fibers into the basilar membrane area and protect the auditory nerve will enhance performance of cochlear implants and augment future cell replacement therapies such as stem cell implantation or induced transdifferentiation. This model also provides a general experimental stage for drawing nerve fibers into a tissue devoid of neurons, and studying the interaction between the nerve fibers and the tissue. PMID:20109446

  1. The effects of graded compression of the median nerve in the carpal canal on grip force

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly J. Cole; Curtis M. Steyers; Edward K. Graybill

    2003-01-01

    .   The relationship between tactile hypoesthesia and precision grip force was examined using compression of the median nerve\\u000a in healthy adults. Hypoesthesia was graded by varying the pressure that an external clamp exerted over the carpal canal. Electrical\\u000a stimulation of the median nerve in the forearm evoked a compound sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) that we recorded from\\u000a the digital

  2. Schwann Cells Seeded in Acellular Nerve Grafts Improve Functional Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Jesuraj, Nithya J.; Santosa, Katherine B.; MacEwan, Matthew R.; Moore, Amy M.; Kasukurthi, Rahul; Ray, Wilson Z.; Flagg, Eric R.; Hunter, Daniel A.; Borschel, Gregory H.; Johnson, Philip J.; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Sakiyama-Elbert, Shelly E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study evaluated whether Schwann cells (SCs) from different nerve sources transplanted into cold-preserved acellular nerve grafts (CP-ANGs) would improve functional regeneration compared to nerve isografts. Methods SCs isolated and expanded from motor and sensory branches of rat femoral and sciatic nerves were seeded into 14mm CP-ANGs. Growth factor expression, axonal regeneration, and functional recovery were evaluated in a14 mm rat sciatic injury model and compared to isografts. Results At 14 days, motor or sensory-derived SCs increased expression of growth factors in CP-ANGs versus isografts. After 42 days, histomorphometric analysis found CP-ANGs with SCs and isografts had similar numbers of regenerating nerve fibers. At 84 days, muscle force generation was similar for CP-ANGs with SCs and isografts. SC source did not affect nerve fiber counts or muscle force generation. Discussion SCs transplanted into CP-ANGs increase functional regeneration to isograft levels; however SC nerve source did not have an effect. PMID:23625513

  3. Signaling by Sensory Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Julius, David; Nathans, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Sensory systems detect small molecules, mechanical perturbations, or radiation via the activation of receptor proteins and downstream signaling cascades in specialized sensory cells. In vertebrates, the two principal categories of sensory receptors are ion channels, which mediate mechanosensation, thermosensation, and acid and salt taste; and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which mediate vision, olfaction, and sweet, bitter, and umami tastes. GPCR-based signaling in rods and cones illustrates the fundamental principles of rapid activation and inactivation, signal amplification, and gain control. Channel-based sensory systems illustrate the integration of diverse modulatory signals at the receptor, as seen in the thermosensory/pain system, and the rapid response kinetics that are possible with direct mechanical gating of a channel. Comparisons of sensory receptor gene sequences reveal numerous examples in which gene duplication and sequence divergence have created novel sensory specificities. This is the evolutionary basis for the observed diversity in temperature- and ligand-dependent gating among thermosensory channels, spectral tuning among visual pigments, and odorant binding among olfactory receptors. The coding of complex external stimuli by a limited number of sensory receptor types has led to the evolution of modality-specific and species-specific patterns of retention or loss of sensory information, a filtering operation that selectively emphasizes features in the stimulus that enhance survival in a particular ecological niche. The many specialized anatomic structures, such as the eye and ear, that house primary sensory neurons further enhance the detection of relevant stimuli. PMID:22110046

  4. Controlled comparison of aversive therapy and imaginal desensitization in compulsive gambling.

    PubMed

    McConaghy, N; Armstrong, M S; Blaszczynski, A; Allcock, C

    1983-04-01

    Twenty compulsive gamblers were randomly allocated, half to receive aversion-relief therapy and half to receive imaginal desensitization; both groups were followed-up for one year. Compared with those who received aversion-relief, gamblers who received imaginal desensitization reported a significantly greater reduction of gambling urge and behaviour; they also showed a significant reduction in trait anxiety at one year and in state anxiety at one month and one year following treatment. A high level of state anxiety at one month following treatment predicted failure to respond to treatment at one year in the subjects who received imaginal desensitization, but not in those who received aversion-relief. The relationship between reduction in anxiety and in gambling urge in response to imaginal desensitization was predicted from the theory that compulsive gambling is driven by aversive tension. PMID:6133575

  5. The Study of Diagnostic Efficacy of Nerve Conduction Study Parameters in Cervical Radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Sachin; Kashikar, Aditi; Shende, Vinod; Waghmare, Satish

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cervical Radiculopathy (CR) is a neurologic condition characterised by dysfunction of a cervical spinal nerve, the roots of the nerve, or both. Diagnostic criteria for CR are not well defined, and no universally accepted criteria for its diagnosis have been established. Clinical examination, radiological imaging and electrophysiologic evaluation are the different modalities to diagnose CR. The incidence of Cervical Spondylosis and related conditions is increasing in the present scenario and the use of radiologic examination is time consuming and uneconomical for the common Indian setup. Thus, there is a definite need to establish a cost effective, reliable, and accurate means for establishing the diagnosis of cervical radiculopathy. Electrodiagnostic tests are the closest to fulfill these criteria. Aim: To evaluate diagnostic utility of various motor and sensory nerve conduction study parameters in cervical radiculopathy. Setting and Design: It was a cross-sectional study conducted on 100 subjects of age > 40 years. Material and Methods: The consecutive patients clinically diagnosed to have cervical radiculopathy, referred from department of Orthopaedics were prospectively recruited for the motor and sensory nerve conduction study using RMS EMG EP Mark-II. Parameters studied were Compound Muscle Action Potential (CMAP), Distal Motor Latency (DML) and Conduction Velocity (CV) for motor nerves and Sensory Nerve Action Potential (SNAP) and CV for sensory nerves. Statistical Analysis: Study observations and results were analysed to find the Specificity, Sensitivity, Positive Predictive Value and Negative Predictive Value using SPSS 16.0. Results: Among various motor nerve conduction parameters CMAP was found to be more sensitive with high positive predicative value. CV was found to have greater specificity and DML had least negative predictive value. Sensory nerve conduction parameters were found to have less sensitivity but higher specificity as compared to motor parameters. Conclusion: Nerve conduction studies are useful supportive diagnostic tool for suspected cervical radiculopathy as they are found to have reliable sensitivity and specificity. PMID:24551610

  6. Neurology: an ancient sensory organ in crocodilians.

    PubMed

    Soares, Daphne

    2002-05-16

    Crocodilians hunt at night, waiting half-submerged for land-bound prey to disturb the water surface. Here I show that crocodilians have specialized sensory organs on their faces that can detect small disruptions in the surface of the surrounding water, and which are linked to a dedicated, hypertrophied nerve system. Such 'dome' pressure receptors are also evident in fossils from the Jurassic period, indicating that these semi-aquatic predators solved the problem of combining armour with tactile sensitivity many millions of years ago. PMID:12015589

  7. Conformational Changes in the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor During Gating and Desensitization

    PubMed Central

    Yamodo, Innocent H.; Chiara, David C.; Cohen, Jonathan B.; Miller, Keith W.

    2009-01-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a member of the important Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel superfamily that modulates neuronal excitability. After responding to their agonists, their actions are terminated either by removal of ligand or by fast and slow desensitization, processes that play an important role in modulating the duration of conducting states and hence of integrated neuronal behavior. We monitored structural changes occurring during fast and slow desensitization in the transmembrane domain of the Torpedo nAChR using time–resolved photolabeling with the hydrophobic probe 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-(m-iodophenyl) diazirine (TID). After channel opening, TID photolabels a residue on the ?-subunit’s M2–M3 loop and a cluster of four residues on ?M1 and ?M2, defining an open state pocket [Arevalo, E. et al. (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280, 13631–13640]. We now find that photolabeling of this pocket persists during the transition to the fast desensitized state, decreasing only with the transition to the slow desensitized state. In contrast, photoincorporation in the channel lumen at the conserved 9? leucines on the second transmembrane helix (M2–9?) decreased successively during the resting to open and open to fast desensitized state transitions, implying that the local conformation is different in each state, a conclusion consistent with the hypothesis that there are separate gates for channel opening and desensitization. Thus, although during fast desensitization there is a conformation change in the channel lumen at the level of M2–9?, there is none in the regions of the ?-subunit’s M2–M3 loop and the interior of its M1–M4 helix bundle until slow desensitization occurs. PMID:19961216

  8. Violence exposure in real-life, video games, television, movies, and the internet: is there desensitization?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanne B. Funk; Heidi Bechtoldt Baldacci; Tracie Pasold; Jennifer Baumgardner

    2004-01-01

    It is believed that repeated exposure to real-life and to entertainment violence may alter cognitive, affective, and behavioral processes, possibly leading to desensitization. The goal of the present study was to determine if there are relationships between real-life and media violence exposure and desensitization as reflected in related characteristics. One hundred fifty fourth and fifth graders completed measures of real-life

  9. The dynamic response of warm units in human skin nerves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Konietzny; H. Hensel

    1977-01-01

    Electrophysiological recordings were made from 12 specific warm receptors in the sensory nerves of human hairy skin. In all cases examined, single warm fibers were spontaneously active at normal skin temperature from about 32°C upwards, while touch, stretching, vibration or pricking the skin did not elicit any response within the receptive fields of warm units. Moderate warming of the skin

  10. The pathology of the ulnar nerve in acromegaly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto Tagliafico; Eugenia Resmini; Raffaella Nizzo; Lorenzo E. Derchi; Francesco Minuto; Massimo Giusti; Carlo Martinoli; Diego Ferone

    2008-01-01

    Context: Acromegalic patients may complain of sensory disturbances in their hands. Cubital tunnel syndrome, the ulnar nerve neuropathy at the cubital tunnel (UCT), in acromegalic patients has never been reported. Objective: To describe and assess the prevalence of UCT in acromegalic patients and the effects of 1 year of therapy on UCT. Patients: We examined prospectively 37 acromegalic patients with

  11. Neurotrophins are required for nerve growth during development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerry Lee Tucker; Michael Meyer; Yves-Alain Barde

    2001-01-01

    Although the requirement of neurotrophins for the prevention of cell death in the peripheral nervous system is well established, their physiological involvement in nerve growth is still unclear. To address this question, we generated a mouse that expresses the green fluorescent protein in post-mitotic neurons, allowing the repeated visualization of all motor and sensory axons during development. We imaged the

  12. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with sensory neuropathy: part of a multisystem disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, Jeremy D; Dean, Andrew F; Shaw, Christopher E; Al?Chalabi, Ammar; Mills, Kerry R; Leigh, P Nigel

    2007-01-01

    Sensory involvement is thought not to be a feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, in the setting of a specialist motor neuron disease clinic, we have identified five patients with sporadic ALS and a sensory neuropathy for which an alternative cause could not be identified. In three individuals, sensory nerve biopsy was performed, demonstrating axonal loss without features of an alternative aetiology. These findings support the hypothesis that ALS is a multisystem neurodegenerative disorder that may occasionally include sensory neuropathy among its non?motor features. PMID:17575021

  13. Sural--lateral plantar nerve communications in Japanese macaque.

    PubMed

    Sekiya, S

    1999-12-01

    It is generally accepted that the sural nerve in humans contains exclusively sensory and autonomic fibers. Recently, however, a few clinical reports have suggested that the human sural nerve contains motor fibers. On the other hand, it is known that motor fibers are present in the sural nerve of rats and dogs, and that the fibers reach intrinsic muscles of the foot via a communicating branch to the lateral plantar nerve. The author investigated the communicating branch between the sural and lateral plantar nerves in Japanese macaques, and examined both nerves by the fiber analysis method, removing the perineurium under a stereoscopic microscope. The communicating branch was found in all examined macaques. Nerve fibers which derived from the sural nerve via the branch reached the abductor digiti quinti, the flexor digiti quinti brevis, the contrahentes digitorum, the adductor hallucis, the interosseous and the lumbrical muscles. Furthermore, these fibers supplied the lateral part of the skin of the sole and the metatarsophalangeal joints. These findings in the Japanese macaques suggest that we may encounter the communicating branch between the sural and lateral plantar nerves in other primates including humans as in rats and dogs. PMID:10659577

  14. Nerve conduction studies of upper extremities in tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Colak, T; Bamac, B; Ozbek, A; Budak, F; Bamac, Y

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: The influence of regular and intense practice of an asymmetric sport such as tennis on nerves in the elbow region was examined. Methods: The study included 21 male elite tennis players with a mean (SD) age of 27.5 (1.7) years and 21 male non-active controls aged 26.4 (1.9) years. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight, limb length, and perimeters of arm and forearm) were determined for each subject, and range of motion assessment and radiographic examination carried out. Standard nerve conduction techniques using constant measured distances were applied to evaluate the median, ulnar, and radial nerves in the dominant and non-dominant limb of each individual. Results: The sensory and motor conduction velocities of the radial nerve and the sensory conduction velocity of the ulnar nerve were significantly delayed in the dominant arms of tennis players compared with their non-dominant arms and normal subjects. There were no statistical differences in the latencies, conduction velocities, or amplitudes of the median motor and sensory nerves between controls and tennis players in either the dominant or non-dominant arms. However, the range of motion of the upper extremity was significantly increased in tennis players when compared with control subjects. Tennis players were taller and heavier than control subjects and their dominant upper limb lengths were longer, and arm and forearm circumferences greater, than those of the control subjects. Conclusions: Many of the asymptomatic tennis players with abnormal nerve conduction tests in the present study may have presymptomatic or asymptomatic neuropathy similar to subclinical entrapment nerve neuropathy. PMID:15388554

  15. Sensory-autonomic interactions in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Peter D

    2013-01-01

    Although sensory and autonomic nerve fibres generally do not interact directly, both may exert influences on blood flow during inflammation. For example, the sympathetic neurotransmitter noradrenaline/norepinephrine evokes axon reflexes, a response that involves release of vasoactive neuropeptides from the peripheral terminals of primary nociceptive afferent fibres. As well as boosting inflammation, this mechanism could play a role in normal renal function and heat dispersal from the skin. In certain disease states, aberrant communication between sensory and autonomic nerves might not only aggravate symptoms but also contribute to clinical deterioration by altering local circulatory dynamics. For example, in certain forms of neuropathic pain, an aberrant expression of ?1-adrenoceptors on primary nociceptive afferents may provide a framework for cross-talk between sensory and autonomic nerve fibres. In addition to evoking pain and other unpleasant symptoms, this cross-talk could aggravate inflammation and disrupt nutritive perfusion of affected tissues. Finally, in disorders such as cluster headache, intense bursts of trigeminal nociceptive activity may trigger trigeminal-parasympathetic vasodilator reflexes which, in turn, provoke secondary vascular disturbances that amplify pain. A clearer understanding of sensory-autonomic interactions both in health and disease may provide a basis for new treatment approaches for conditions that respond poorly to conventional treatments. PMID:24095134

  16. Involvement of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 in homologous desensitization of the thyrotropin receptor.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Y; Tanaka, K; Hara, T; Namba, H; Yamashita, S; Taniyama, K; Niwa, M

    1996-04-26

    Homologous desensitization of G protein-coupled receptors involves agonist-dependent phosphorylation of receptors by G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs). To identify GRK(s) that play a role in homologous desensitization of the thyrotropin (TSH) receptor, thyroid cDNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction using degenerate oligonucleotide primers from highly conserved regions in GRK family. GRK5 is found in the predominant isoform expressed in the thyroid. Rat GRK5 cDNA was then isolated, which encodes a 590-amino acid protein with 95% homology to human and bovine homologs. Northern blot identified GRK5 mRNA of approximately 3, 8, and 10 kilobases with highest expression levels in lung > heart, kidney, colon > thyroid. In functional studies using a normal rat thyroid FRTL5 cells, overexpression of GRK5 by transfecting the plasmid capable of expressing the sense GRK5 RNA suppressed basal cAMP levels and augmented the extent of TSH receptor desensitization, whereas suppression of endogenous GRK5 expression by transfecting the antisense GRK5 construct increased basal cAMP levels and attenuated the extent of receptor desensitization. Although exogenously overexpressed GRK6 also enhanced TSH receptor desensitization, we conclude that GRK5, the predominant GRK isoform in the thyroid, appears to be mainly involved in homologous desensitization of the TSH receptor. PMID:8626574

  17. Human periodontal ligament stem cells repair mental nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bohan; Jung, Hun-Jong; Kim, Soung-Min; Kim, Myung-Jin; Jahng, Jeong Won; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Human periodontal ligament stem cells are easily accessible and can differentiate into Schwann cells. We hypothesized that human periodontal ligament stem cells can be used as an alternative source for the autologous Schwann cells in promoting the regeneration of injured peripheral nerve. To validate this hypothesis, human periodontal ligament stem cells (1 × 106) were injected into the crush-injured left mental nerve in rats. Simultaneously, autologous Schwann cells (1 × 106) and PBS were also injected as controls. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction showed that at 5 days after injection, mRNA expression of low affinity nerve growth factor receptor was significantaly increased in the left trigeminal ganglion of rats with mental nerve injury. Sensory tests, histomorphometric evaluation and retrograde labeling demonstrated that at 2 and 4 weeks after injection, sensory function was significantly improved, the numbers of retrograde labeled sensory neurons and myelinated axons were significantly increased, and human periodontal ligament stem cells and autologous Schwann cells exhibited similar therapeutic effects. These findings suggest that transplantation of human periodontal ligament stem cells show a potential value in repair of mental nerve injury. PMID:25206604

  18. Thirty minutes of low intensity electrical stimulation promotes nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve crush injury in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Alrashdan, Mohammad S; Park, Jong-Chul; Sung, Mi-Ae; Yoo, Sang Bae; Jahng, Jeong Won; Lee, Tae Hyung; Kim, Sung-June; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2010-06-01

    We investigated whether electrical stimulation (ES) applied directly for 30 minutes after crushing injury to the sciatic nerves of rats could improve nerve regeneration. Two groups of animals were used in this study (n = 20 each): the ES group received 30 minutes of low intensity ES (20 Hz pulse rate, 2 uA amplitude) immediately after a standard crush injury, while the control group received no stimulation after injury. Both groups were followed up for three weeks. The sciatic function index (SFI) was calculated weekly. Mean conduction velocity (MCV) and peak voltage (PV) were calculated, and the sensory neurons in L4 and L5 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were traced with Fluorogold in retrograde fashion and quantified at the end of the follow up period. Histomorphometric studies were also carried out in both groups. The ES group showed improved functional and sensory recovery compared to the control group three weeks after injury. SFI, MCV and the number of retrogradely labeled sensory neurons were significantly higher in the ES group. Additionally, axon counts, myelin thicknesses and G-ratio values were also higher in the ES group. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed an elevated expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in DRG sensory neurons of the ES group five days post-injury. Here, we present the first evidence that the application of ES for 30 minutes immediately following crush injury is effective to promote nerve regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve model. PMID:20873447

  19. Evaluation of Nerve Conduction Studies in Obese Children With Insulin Resistance or Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ince, Hülya; Ta?demir, Haydar Ali; Aydin, Murat; Ozyürek, Hamit; Tilki, Hacer Erdem

    2014-10-23

    The aim of the study was to investigate nerve conduction studies in terms of neuropathic characteristics in obese patients who were in prediabetes stage and also to determine the abnormal findings. The study included 69 obese adolescent patients between April 2009 and December 2010. All patients and control group underwent motor (median, ulnar, tibial, and peroneal) and sensory (median, ulnar, sural, and medial plantar) nerve conduction studies and sympathetic skin response test. Sensory response amplitude of the medial plantar nerve was significantly lower in the patients with impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. To our knowledge, the present study is the first study demonstrating the development of sensory and autonomic neuropathy due to metabolic complications of obesity in adolescent children even in the period without development of diabetes mellitus. We recommend that routine electrophysiological examinations be performed, using medial plantar nerve conduction studies and sympathetic skin response test. PMID:25342307

  20. Deficiency in monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) in mice delays regeneration of peripheral nerves following sciatic nerve crush.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Brett M; Tsingalia, Akivaga; Vidensky, Svetlana; Lee, Youngjin; Jin, Lin; Farah, Mohamed H; Lengacher, Sylvain; Magistretti, Pierre J; Pellerin, Luc; Rothstein, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerve regeneration following injury occurs spontaneously, but many of the processes require metabolic energy. The mechanism of energy supply to axons has not previously been determined. In the central nervous system, monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1), expressed in oligodendroglia, is critical for supplying lactate or other energy metabolites to axons. In the current study, MCT1 is shown to localize within the peripheral nervous system to perineurial cells, dorsal root ganglion neurons, and Schwann cells by MCT1 immunofluorescence in wild-type mice and tdTomato fluorescence in MCT1 BAC reporter mice. To investigate whether MCT1 is necessary for peripheral nerve regeneration, sciatic nerves of MCT1 heterozygous null mice are crushed and peripheral nerve regeneration was quantified electrophysiologically and anatomically. Compound muscle action potential (CMAP) recovery is delayed from a median of 21 days in wild-type mice to greater than 38 days in MCT1 heterozygote null mice. In fact, half of the MCT1 heterozygote null mice have no recovery of CMAP at 42 days, while all of the wild-type mice recovered. In addition, muscle fibers remain 40% more atrophic and neuromuscular junctions 40% more denervated at 42 days post-crush in the MCT1 heterozygote null mice than wild-type mice. The delay in nerve regeneration is not only in motor axons, as the number of regenerated axons in the sural sensory nerve of MCT1 heterozygote null mice at 4 weeks and tibial mixed sensory and motor nerve at 3 weeks is also significantly reduced compared to wild-type mice. This delay in regeneration may be partly due to failed Schwann cell function, as there is reduced early phagocytosis of myelin debris and remyelination of axon segments. These data for the first time demonstrate that MCT1 is critical for regeneration of both sensory and motor axons in mice following sciatic nerve crush. PMID:25447940

  1. Peripheral nerve regeneration and neurotrophic factors

    PubMed Central

    TERENGHI, GIORGIO

    1999-01-01

    The role of neurotrophic factors in the maintenance and survival of peripheral neuronal cells has been the subject of numerous studies. Administration of exogenous neurotrophic factors after nerve injury has been shown to mimic the effect of target organ-derived trophic factors on neuronal cells. After axotomy and during peripheral nerve regeneration, the neurotrophins NGF, NT-3 and BDNF show a well defined and selective beneficial effect on the survival and phenotypic expression of primary sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia and of motoneurons in spinal cord. Other neurotrophic factors such as CNTF, GDNF and LIF also exert a variety of actions on neuronal cells, which appear to overlap and complement those of the neurotrophins. In addition, there is an indirect contribution of GGF to nerve regeneration. GGF is produced by neurons and stimulates proliferation of Schwann cells, underlining the close interaction between neuronal and glial cells during peripheral nerve regeneration. Different possibilities have been investigated for the delivery of growth factors to the injured neurons, in search of a suitable system for clinical applications. The studies reviewed in this article show the therapeutic potential of neurotrophic factors for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury and for neuropathies. PMID:10227662

  2. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SENSORY SYSTEMS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to many neurotoxic compounds has been shown to produce a sensory system dysfunction. Neurophysiological assessment of sensory function in humans and animal models often uses techniques known as sensory evoked potentials. Because both humans and animals show analogous res...

  3. Engineering a multimodal nerve conduit for repair of injured peripheral nerve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, A. F.; Bulluss, K. J.; Kyratzis, I. L. B.; Gilmore, K.; Mysore, T.; Schirmer, K. S. U.; Kennedy, E. L.; O'Shea, M.; Truong, Y. B.; Edwards, S. L.; Peeters, G.; Herwig, P.; Razal, J. M.; Campbell, T. E.; Lowes, K. N.; Higgins, M. J.; Moulton, S. E.; Murphy, M. A.; Cook, M. J.; Clark, G. M.; Wallace, G. G.; Kapsa, R. M. I.

    2013-02-01

    Injury to nerve tissue in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) results in long-term impairment of limb function, dysaesthesia and pain, often with associated psychological effects. Whilst minor injuries can be left to regenerate without intervention and short gaps up to 2 cm can be sutured, larger or more severe injuries commonly require autogenous nerve grafts harvested from elsewhere in the body (usually sensory nerves). Functional recovery is often suboptimal and associated with loss of sensation from the tissue innervated by the harvested nerve. The challenges that persist with nerve repair have resulted in development of nerve guides or conduits from non-neural biological tissues and various polymers to improve the prognosis for the repair of damaged nerves in the PNS. This study describes the design and fabrication of a multimodal controlled pore size nerve regeneration conduit using polylactic acid (PLA) and (PLA):poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) fibers within a neurotrophin-enriched alginate hydrogel. The nerve repair conduit design consists of two types of PLGA fibers selected specifically for promotion of axonal outgrowth and Schwann cell growth (75:25 for axons; 85:15 for Schwann cells). These aligned fibers are contained within the lumen of a knitted PLA sheath coated with electrospun PLA nanofibers to control pore size. The PLGA guidance fibers within the nerve repair conduit lumen are supported within an alginate hydrogel impregnated with neurotrophic factors (NT-3 or BDNF with LIF, SMDF and MGF-1) to provide neuroprotection, stimulation of axonal growth and Schwann cell migration. The conduit was used to promote repair of transected sciatic nerve in rats over a period of 4 weeks. Over this period, it was observed that over-grooming and self-mutilation (autotomy) of the limb implanted with the conduit was significantly reduced in rats implanted with the full-configuration conduit compared to rats implanted with conduits containing only an alginate hydrogel. This indicates return of some feeling to the limb via the fully-configured conduit. Immunohistochemical analysis of the implanted conduits removed from the rats after the four-week implantation period confirmed the presence of myelinated axons within the conduit and distal to the site of implantation, further supporting that the conduit promoted nerve repair over this period of time. This study describes the design considerations and fabrication of a novel multicomponent, multimodal bio-engineered synthetic conduit for peripheral nerve repair.

  4. SPINAL CORD Nerves Dermatomes

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    Columns #12;Where are the sensory and motor nuclei?nuclei? Alar plate ­ sensory ·Basal plate ­ motor #12 Reflex PAIN RECEPTORS EXTENSOR EXTENSOR FLEXOR FLEXOR #12;Renshaw Cell Ia from spindlep Renshaw Cell

  5. Artemin induced functional recovery and reinnervation after partial nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruizhong; Rossomando, Anthony; Sah, Dinah W Y; Ossipov, Michael H; King, Tamara; Porreca, Frank

    2014-03-01

    Systemic artemin promotes regeneration of dorsal roots to the spinal cord after crush injury. However, it is unclear whether systemic artemin can also promote peripheral nerve regeneration, and functional recovery after partial lesions distal to the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) remains unknown. In the present investigation, male Sprague Dawley rats received axotomy, ligation, or crush of the L5 spinal nerve or sham surgery. Starting the day of injury, animals received intermittent subcutaneous artemin or vehicle across 2weeks. Sensory thresholds to tactile or thermal stimuli were monitored for 6weeks after injury. Immunohistochemical analyses of the DRG and nerve regeneration were performed at the 6-week time point. Artemin transiently reversed tactile and thermal hypersensitivity after axotomy, ligation, or crush injury. Thermal and tactile hypersensitivity reemerged within 1week of treatment termination. However, artemin-treated rats with nerve crush, but not axotomy or ligation, subsequently showed gradual return of sensory thresholds to preinjury baseline levels by 6weeks after injury. Artemin normalized labeling for NF200, IB4, and CGRP in nerve fibers distal to the crush injury, suggesting persistent normalization of nerve crush-induced neurochemical changes. Sciatic and intradermal administration of dextran or cholera toxin B distal to the crush injury site resulted in labeling of neuronal profiles in the L5 DRG, suggesting regeneration functional restoration of nonmyelinated and myelinated fibers across the injury site into cutaneous tissue. Artemin also diminished ATF3 and caspase 3 expression in the L5 DRG, suggesting persistent neuroprotective actions. A limited period of artemin treatment elicits disease modification by promoting sensory reinnervation of distal territories and restoring preinjury sensory thresholds. PMID:24269493

  6. Electromechanical Nerve Stimulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.; Prass, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Nerve stimulator applies and/or measures precisely controlled force and/or displacement to nerve so response of nerve measured. Consists of three major components connected in tandem: miniature probe with spherical tip; transducer; and actuator. Probe applies force to nerve, transducer measures force and sends feedback signal to control circuitry, and actuator positions force transducer and probe. Separate box houses control circuits and panel. Operator uses panel to select operating mode and parameters. Stimulator used in research to characterize behavior of nerve under various conditions of temperature, anesthesia, ventilation, and prior damage to nerve. Also used clinically to assess damage to nerve from disease or accident and to monitor response of nerve during surgery.

  7. Nerve conduction velocity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to determine the speed of the nerve signals. Electromyography (recording from needles placed into the muscles) is ... Often, the nerve conduction test is followed by electromyography (EMG). In this test, needles are placed into ...

  8. Ulnar nerve damage (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... elbow because of elbow fracture or dislocation. The ulnar nerve is near the surface of the body where it crosses the elbow, so prolonged pressure on the elbow or entrapment of the nerve may cause damage. Damage to ...

  9. Distal median nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is necessary to look for an underlying medical problem that can affect nerves. Medical conditions such as diabetes and kidney disease can damage nerves. In these cases, treatment is directed at the underlying medical condition. Physical ...

  10. Nerve Injuries in Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathryn; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Over a two-year period this study evaluated the condition of 65 athletes with nerve injuries. These injuries represent the spectrum of nerve injuries likely to be encountered in sports medicine clinics. (Author/MT)

  11. Lentiviral-mediated transfer of CDNF promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury in adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Lei; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Wen; Guo, Ying-Jun; Nie, Lin, E-mail: chengleiyx@126.com

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •CDNF was successfully transfected by a lentiviral vector into the distal sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved S-100, NF200 expression and nerve regeneration after sciatic injury. •CDNF improved the remyelination and thickness of the regenerated sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved gastrocnemius muscle weight and sciatic functional recovery. -- Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is often followed by incomplete and unsatisfactory functional recovery and may be associated with sensory and motor impairment of the affected limb. Therefore, a novel method is needed to improve the speed of recovery and the final functional outcome after peripheral nerve injuries. This report investigates the effect of lentiviral-mediated transfer of conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) on regeneration of the rat peripheral nerve in a transection model in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after recombinant CDNF lentiviral vector application. We evaluated sciatic nerve regeneration after surgery using light and electron microscopy and the functional recovery using the sciatic functional index and target muscle weight. HE staining revealed better ordered structured in the CDNF-treated group at 8 weeks post-surgery. Quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry of NF200 and S-100 in the CDNF group revealed significant improvement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration compared with the control groups at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after injury. The thickness of the myelination around the axons in the CDNF group was significantly higher than in the control groups at 8 weeks post-surgery. The CDNF group displayed higher muscle weights and significantly increased sciatic nerve index values. Our findings suggest that CDNF gene therapy could provide durable and stable CDNF protein concentration and has the potential to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration, morphological and functional recovery following nerve injury, which suggests a promising strategy for peripheral nerve repair.

  12. Hyperbaric oxygenation in peripheral nerve repair and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, E Cuauhtemoc

    2007-03-01

    Peripheral nerves are essential connections between the central nervous system and muscles, autonomic structures and sensory organs. Their injury is one of the major causes for severe and longstanding impairment in limb function. Acute peripheral nerve lesion has an important inflammatory component and is considered as ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Surgical repair has been the standard of care in peripheral nerve lesion. It has reached optimal technical development but the end results still remain unpredictable and complete functional recovery is rare. Nevertheless, nerve repair is not primarily a mechanical problem and microsurgery is not the only key to success. Lately, there have been efforts to develop alternatives to nerve graft. Work has been carried out in basal lamina scaffolds, biologic and non-biologic structures in combination with neurotrophic factors and/or Schwann cells, tissues, immunosuppressive agents, growth factors, cell transplantation, principles of artificial sensory function, gene technology, gangliosides, implantation of microchips, hormones, electromagnetic fields and hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO). HBO appears to be a beneficial adjunctive treatment for surgical repair in the acute peripheral nerve lesion, when used at lower pressures and in a timely fashion (<6 hours). PMID:17439703

  13. Small Nerve Fiber Pathology in Critical Illness

    PubMed Central

    Latronico, Nicola; Filosto, Massimiliano; Fagoni, Nazzareno; Gheza, Laura; Guarneri, Bruno; Todeschini, Alice; Lombardi, Raffaella; Padovani, Alessandro; Lauria, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Background Degeneration of intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENF) is a hallmark of small fiber neuropathy of different etiology, whose clinical picture is dominated by neuropathic pain. It is unknown if critical illness can affect IENF. Methods We enrolled 14 adult neurocritical care patients with prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stay and artificial ventilation (? 3 days), and no previous history or risk factors for neuromuscular disease. All patients underwent neurological examination including evaluation of consciousness, sensory functions, muscle strength, nerve conduction study and needle electromyography, autonomic dysfunction using the finger wrinkling test, and skin biopsy for quantification of IENF and sweat gland innervation density during ICU stay and at follow-up visit. Development of infection, sepsis and multiple organ failure was recorded throughout the ICU stay. Results Of the 14 patients recruited, 13 (93%) had infections, sepsis or multiple organ failure. All had severe and non-length dependent loss of IENF. Sweat gland innervation was reduced in all except one patient. Of the 7 patients available for follow-up visit, three complained of diffuse sensory loss and burning pain, and another three showed clinical dysautonomia. Conclusions Small fiber pathology can develop in the acute phase of critical illness and may explain chronic sensory impairment and pain in neurocritical care survivors. Its impact on long term disability warrants further studies involving also non-neurologic critical care patients. PMID:24098716

  14. Cranial Nerves Model

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Juliann Garza (University of Texas-Pan American Physician Assistant Studies)

    2010-08-16

    Lesson is designed to introduce students to cranial nerves through the use of an introductory lecture. Students will then create a three-dimensional model of the cranial nerves. An information sheet will accompany the model in order to help students learn crucial aspects of the cranial nerves.

  15. Effect of combined nicotine and shrapnel exposure on pain measures and gait after nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Rittenhouse, Bradley; Hill-Pryor, Crystal D; McConathy, Adam; Parker, Peter; Franco, Nelson; Toussaint, Esra; Barker, Darrell; Prasad, Balakrishna; Pizarro, Jose M

    2011-11-01

    A significant fraction of military soldiers sustain nerve injury and use tobacco or nicotine containing products. Healing of nerve injuries is influenced by many factors, such as degree of original injury, healing potential of the nerve, and general health of patient. However, recently, it has been demonstrated that the presence of retained insoluble metal fragments decreases healing. The effects of systemic nicotine administration, with or without metal fragments at the site of nerve injury, were evaluated. Both the nicotine-administered groups (nicotine, nicotine + shrapnel) showed significant increase in the peroneal function compared with untreated controls, as assessed by paw area (p < 0.05). Furthermore, to test possible role of altered sensory function, we used the hot plate assay. Latency to withdraw paw from a hot plate was significantly shorter in nicotine groups (p < 0.05). These data indicate that nicotine improves sensory and motor aspects of nerve function, in the presence or absence of shrapnel. PMID:22165666

  16. Desensitization of Human CRF2(a) Receptor Signaling Governed by Agonist Potency and ?Arrestin2 Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Hauger, Richard L.; Olivares-Reyes, J. Alberto; Braun, Sandra; Hernandez-Aranda, Judith; Hudson, Christine C.; Gutknecht, Eric; Dautzenberg, Frank M.; Oakley, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal was to determine agonist-specific regulation of CRF2(a) receptor function. Exposure of human retinoblastoma Y79 cells to selective (UCN2, UCN3 or stresscopins) and nonselective (UCN1 or sauvagine) agonists prominently desensitized CRF2(a) receptors in a rapid, concentration-dependent manner. A considerably slower rate and smaller magnitude of desensitization developed in response to the weak agonist CRF. CRF1 receptor desensitization stimulated by CRF, cortagine or stressin1-A had no effect on CRF2(a) receptor cyclic AMP signaling. Conversely, desensitization of CRF2(a) receptors by UCN2 or UCN3 did not cross-desensitize Gs-coupled CRF1 receptor signaling. In transfected HEK293 cells, activation of CRF2(a) receptors by UCN2, UCN3 or CRF resulted in receptor phosphorylation and internalization proportional to agonist potency. Neither protein kinase A nor casein kinases mediated CRF2(a) receptor phosphorylation or desensitization. Exposure of HEK293 or U2OS cells to UCN2 or UCN3 (100 nM) produced strong ?arrestin2 translocation and colocalization with membrane CRF2(a) receptors while CRF (1 µM) generated only weak ?arrestin2 recruitment. ?arrestin2 did not internalize with the receptor, however, indicating that transient CRF2(a) receptor-arrestin complexes dissociate at or near the cell membrane. Since deletion of the ?arrestin2 gene upregulated Gs-coupled CRF2(a) receptor signaling in MEF cells, a ?arrestin2 mechanism restrains Gs-coupled CRF2(a) receptor signaling activated by urocortins. We further conclude the rate and extent of homologous CRF2(a) receptor desensitization are governed by agonist-specific mechanisms affecting GRK phosphorylation, ?arrestin2 recruitment, and internalization thereby producing unique signal transduction profiles that differentially affect the stress response. PMID:23820308

  17. Effects of lead acetate on guinea pig - cochear microphonics, action potential, and motor nerve conduction velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamura, K.; Maehara, N.; Terayama, K.; Ueno, N.; Kohyama, A.; Sawada, Y.; Kishi, R.

    1987-04-01

    Segmental demyelination and axonal degeneration of motor nerves induced by lead exposure is well known in man, and animals. The effect of lead acetate exposure to man may involve the cranial nerves, since vertigo and sensory neuronal deafness have been reported among lead workers. However, there are few reports concerning the dose-effects of lead acetate both to the peripheral nerve and the cranial VII nerve with measurement of blood lead concentration. The authors investigated the effects of lead acetate to the cochlea and the VIII nerve using CM (cochlear microphonics) and AP (action potential) of the guinea pigs. The effects of lead acetate to the sciatic nerve were measured by MCV of the sciatic nerve with measurement of blood lead concentration.

  18. Functional recovery of severe obturator and femoral nerve injuries after lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas surgery.

    PubMed

    Ahmadian, Amir; Abel, Naomi; Uribe, Juan S

    2013-04-01

    The minimally invasive lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas approach is a popular fusion technique. However, potential complications include injury to the lumbar plexus nerves, bowel, and vasculature, the most common of which are injuries to the lumbar plexus. The femoral nerve is particularly vulnerable because of its size and location; injury to the femoral nerve has significant clinical implications because of its extensive sensory and motor innervation of the lower extremities. The authors present an interesting case of a 49-year-old male patient in whom femoral and obturator nerve functional recovery unexpectedly occurred 364 days after the nerves had been injured during lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas surgery. Chronological video and electrodiagnostic findings demonstrate evidence of recovery. Classification and mechanisms of nerve injury and nerve regeneration are discussed. PMID:23432325

  19. Possible mechanisms for why desensitization and exposure therapy work

    E-print Network

    Warren W. Tryon

    2005-01-01

    supported principles of change (ESPs) and not credential trademarked therapies or other treatment packages. Behavior Modification, 27, 300–312] recommended that empirically supported principles be listed instead of empirically supported treatments because the latter approach enables the creation of putatively new therapies by adding functionally inert components to already listed effective treatments. This article attempts to facilitate inquiry into empirically supported principles by reviewing possible mechanisms responsible for the effectiveness of systematic desensitization and exposure therapy. These interventions were selected because they were among the first empirically supported treatments for which some attempt was made at explanation. Reciprocal inhibition, counterconditioning, habituation, extinction, two-factor model, cognitive changes including expectation, self-efficacy, cognitive restructuring, and informal network-based emotional processing explanations are considered. Logical problems and/or available empirical evidence attenuate or undercut these explanations. A connectionist learning-memory mechanism supported by findings from behavioral and neuroscience research is provided. It demonstrates the utility of preferring empirically supported principles over treatments. Problems and limitations of connectionist explanations are presented. This explanation warrants further consideration and should stimulate discussion concerning empirically supported principles.

  20. Effects of Visuospatial Tasks on Desensitization to Emotive Memories

    E-print Network

    David J. Kavanagh; Stefanie Freese; Technische Universität Berlin; Jackie Andrade; Jon May

    Objectives: Vivid and intrusive memories of extreme trauma can disrupt a stepwise approach to imaginal exposure. Concurrent tasks that load the visuo-spatial sketchpad (VSSP) of working memory reduce memory vividness during imaginal exposure. Such tasks may help maintain a progressive exposure protocol while minimizing distress during treatment. The current study tested whether relief of distress from a competing VSSP load during emotive imagery is at the cost of impaired desensitization. Design: This study examined repeated exposure to emotive memories using 18 unselected undergraduates, using a within-subjects design. Method: Participants recalled three positive and three negative self-related memories, and rated the vividness and emotiveness of the image. Participants then received all three conditions (Eye Movements; Visual Noise; Control) in a counterbalanced order. One positive and one negative recollection were used for each condition. They then rated the vividness of the image and their emotional response before proceeding to the next trial. There were 8 trials for each image. At a noninterference session one week later, participants recalled each image, rating its vividness and their

  1. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for adolescent depression.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hwallip; Kim, Daeho; Park, Yong Chon

    2008-03-01

    While cognitive behavior therapy is considered to be the first-line therapy for adolescent depression, there are limited data on whether other psychotherapeutic techniques are also effective in treating adolescents with depression. This report suggests the potential application of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for treatment of depressive disorder related, not to trauma, but to stressful life events. At present, EMDR has only been empirically validated for only trauma-related disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder. Two teenagers with major depressive disorder (MDD) underwent three and seven sessions of EMDR aimed at memories of stressful life events. After treatment, their depressive symptoms decreased to the level of full remission, and the therapeutic gains were maintained after two and three months of follow up. The effectiveness of EMDR for depression is explained by the model of adaptive information processing. Given the powerful effects observed within a brief period of time, the authors suggest that further investigation of EMDR for depressive disorders is warranted. PMID:20046410

  2. Physiological correlates of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing.

    PubMed

    Elofsson, Ulf O E; von Schčele, Bo; Theorell, Töres; Söndergaard, Hans Peter

    2008-05-01

    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an established treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, its working mechanism remains unclear. This study explored physiological correlates of eye movements during EMDR in relation to current hypotheses; distraction, conditioning, orienting response activation, and REM-like mechanisms. During EMDR therapy, fingertip temperature, heart rate, skin conductance, expiratory carbon dioxide level, and blood pulse oximeter oxygen saturation, were measured in male subjects with PTSD. The ratio between the low and high frequency components of the heart rate power spectrum (LF/HF) were computed as measures of autonomic balance. Respiratory rate was calculated from the carbon dioxide trace. Stimulation shifted the autonomic balance as indicated by decreases in heart rate, skin conductance and LF/HF-ratio, and an increased finger temperature. The breathing frequency and end-tidal carbon dioxide increased; oxygen saturation decreased during eye movements. In conclusion, eye movements during EMDR activate cholinergic and inhibit sympathetic systems. The reactivity has similarities with the pattern during REM-sleep. PMID:17604948

  3. Reversible desensitization of calcitonin secretion by repetitive stimulation with calcium.

    PubMed

    Scherübl, H; Raue, F; Zopf, G; Hoffmann, J; Ziegler, R

    1989-05-01

    The extracellular ionized calcium concentration (Ca2+) is a main regulator of calcitonin (CT) release. Calcium-induced CT secretion differs for acute versus long-term alterations of Ca2+. Using the rat C cell line rMTC 6-23 we have investigated the effect of repetitive stimulation by Ca2+ on CT release. After a Ca-induced initial rise of CT secretion, repetitive Ca stimulation led to a decline of CT release to unstimulated levels (after about 4 h). Reversing the high Ca2+ concentration (2.0 mM) to basal (1.1 mM) for 2 h and then increasing Ca2+ again resulted in a restored stimulatory action of Ca2+ (about 100% increase above the control). In contrast, repetitive stimulation with the dihydropyridine Ca channel agonist Bay K-8644 showed an unchanged stimulatory effect, as observed for the cAMP analog 8-bromo-cAMP, too. The results indicate that the reversible desensitization of Ca-induced CT secretion might be due to a modification of the voltage-dependent Ca channels proximal to or at the site of Bay K-8644 action. PMID:2473933

  4. Phosphorylation and desensitization of alpha1d-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed Central

    García-Sáinz, J A; Vázquez-Cuevas, F G; Romero-Avila, M T

    2001-01-01

    In rat-1 fibroblasts stably expressing rat alpha(1d)-adrenoceptors, noradrenaline and PMA markedly decreased alpha(1d)-adrenoceptor function (noradrenaline-elicited increases in calcium in whole cells and [(35)S]guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate binding in membranes), suggesting homologous and heterologous desensitizations. Photoaffinity labelling, Western blotting and immunoprecipitation identified alpha(1d)-adrenoceptors as a broad band of 70-80 kDa. alpha(1d)-Adrenoceptors were phosphorylated in the basal state and noradrenaline and PMA increased it. The effect of noradrenaline was concentration-dependent (EC(50) 75 nM), rapid (maximum at 1 min) and transient. Phorbol ester-induced phosphorylation was concentration-dependent (EC(50) 25 nM), slightly slower (maximum at 5 min) and stable for at least 60 min. Inhibitors of protein kinase C decreased the effect of phorbol esters but not that of noradrenaline. Evidence of cross-talk of alpha(1d)-adrenoceptors with receptors endogenously expressed in rat-1 fibroblasts was given by the ability of endothelin, lysophosphatidic acid and bradykinin to induce alpha(1d)-adrenoceptor phosphorylation. In summary, it is shown for the first time here that alpha(1d)-adrenoceptors are phosphoproteins and that receptor phosphorylation is increased by the natural ligand, noradrenaline, by direct activation of protein kinase C and via cross-talk with other receptors endogenously expressed in rat-1 fibroblasts. Receptor phosphorylation has functional repercussions. PMID:11171057

  5. The Efficacy of Selected Desensitizing OTC Products: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Talioti, E.; Hill, R.; Gillam, D. G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the present study was to review the published literature in order to identify relevant studies for inclusion and to determine whether there was any evidence on the clinical effectiveness of selected desensitizing toothpastes, calcium sodium phosphosilicate (CSPS), amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), nanohydroxyapatite, and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (tooth mousse) on reducing dentine hypersensitivity (DH). Materials and Methods. Following a review of 593 papers identified from searching both electronic databases (PUBMED) and hand searching of relevant written journals, only 5 papers were accepted for inclusion. Results. Analysis of the included studies (3 CSPS and 2 ACP) would suggest that there may be some benefit for patients using these products for reducing DH. No direct comparative studies were available to assess all these products under the same conditions neither were there any comparative randomised controlled studies that compared at least two of these products in determining their effectiveness in treating DH. Conclusions. Due to the small number of included studies, there are limited clinical data to support any claims of clinical efficacy of these OTC products. Further studies are therefore required to determine the efficacy of these products in well-controlled RCT studies with a larger sample size. PMID:25006466

  6. Clinical evaluation of desensitizing treatments for cervical dentin hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Aranha, Ana Cecilia Corręa; Pimenta, Luiz André Freire; Marchi, Giselle Maria

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare different treatments for dentin hypersensitivity in a 6-month follow-up. One hundred and one teeth exhibiting non carious cervical lesions were selected. The assessment method used to quantify sensitivity was the cold air syringe, recorded by the visual analogue scale (VAS), prior to treatment (baseline), immediately after topical treatment, after 1 week, 1, 3 and 6 months. Teeth were randomly assigned to five groups (n = 20): G1: Gluma Desensitizer (GD); G2: Seal& (SP); G3: Oxa-gel (OG); G4: Fluoride (F); G5: Low intensity laser-LILT (660 nm/3.8 J/cm(2)/15 mW). Analysis was based on the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test that demonstrated statistical differences immediately after the treatment (p = 0.0165). To observe the individual effects of each treatment, data was submitted to Friedman test. It was observed that GD and SP showed immediate effect after application. Reduction in the pain level throughout the six-month follow-up was also observed. In contrast, LILT presented a gradual reduction of hypersensitivity. OG and F showed effects as of the first and third month respectively. It can be concluded that, after the 6-month clinical evaluation, all therapies showed lower VAS sensitivity values compared with baseline, independently of their different modes of action. PMID:19893971

  7. Temporal mismatch between pain behaviour, skin Nerve Growth Factor and intra-epidermal nerve fibre density in trigeminal neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The neurotrophin Nerve Growth factor (NGF) is known to influence the phenotype of mature nociceptors, for example by altering synthesis of neuropeptides, and changes in NGF levels have been implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic pain conditions such as neuropathic pain. We have tested the hypothesis that after partial nerve injury, NGF accumulates within the skin and causes ‘pro-nociceptive’ phenotypic changes in the remaining population of sensory nerve fibres, which could underpin the development of neuropathic pain. Results Eleven days after chronic constriction injury of the rat mental nerve the intra-epidermal nerve fibre density of the chin skin from had reduced from 11.6?±?4.9 fibres/mm to 1.0?±?0.4 fibres/mm; this slowly recovered to 2.4?±?2.0 fibres/mm on day 14 and 4.0?±?0.8 fibres/mm on day 21. Cold hyperalgesia in the ipsilateral lower lip was detectable 11 days after chronic constriction injury, although at this time skin [NGF] did not differ between sides. At 14 days post-injury, there was a significantly greater [NGF] ipsilaterally compared to contralaterally (ipsilateral?=?111?±?23 pg/mg, contralateral?=?69?±?13 pg/mg), but there was no behavioural evidence of neuropathic pain at this time-point. By 21 days post-injury, skin [NGF] was elevated bilaterally and there was a significant increase in the proportion of TrkA-positive (the high-affinity NGF receptor) intra-epidermal nerve fibres that were immunolabelled for the neuropeptide Calcitonin Gene-related peptide. Conclusions The temporal mismatch in behaviour, skin [NGF] and phenotypic changes in sensory nerve fibres indicate that increased [NGF] does not cause hyperalgesia after partial mental nerve injury, although it may contribute to the altered neurochemistry of cutaneous nerve fibres. PMID:24380503

  8. Etifoxine improves peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Christelle; Liu, Song; Cadepond, Françoise; Adams, David; Lacroix, Catherine; Verleye, Marc; Gillardin, Jean-Marie; Baulieu, Etienne-Emile; Schumacher, Michael; Schweizer-Groyer, Ghislaine

    2008-01-01

    Peripheral nerves show spontaneous regenerative responses, but recovery after injury or peripheral neuropathies (toxic, diabetic, or chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy syndromes) is slow and often incomplete, and at present no efficient treatment is available. Using well-defined peripheral nerve lesion paradigms, we assessed the therapeutic usefulness of etifoxine, recently identified as a ligand of the translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO), to promote axonal regeneration, modulate inflammatory responses, and improve functional recovery. We found by histologic analysis that etifoxine therapy promoted the regeneration of axons in and downstream of the lesion after freeze injury and increased axonal growth into a silicone guide tube by a factor of 2 after nerve transection. Etifoxine also stimulated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells, and the effect was even stronger than for specific TSPO ligands. Etifoxine treatment caused a marked reduction in the number of macrophages after cryolesion within the nerve stumps, which was rapid in the proximal and delayed in the distal nerve stumps. Functional tests revealed accelerated and improved recovery of locomotion, motor coordination, and sensory functions in response to etifoxine. This work demonstrates that etifoxine, a clinically approved drug already used for the treatment of anxiety disorders, is remarkably efficient in promoting acceleration of peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery. Its possible mechanism of action is discussed, with reference to the neurosteroid concept. This molecule, which easily enters nerve tissues and regulates multiple functions in a concerted manner, offers promise for the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries and axonal neuropathies. PMID:19075249

  9. Etifoxine improves peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery.

    PubMed

    Girard, Christelle; Liu, Song; Cadepond, Françoise; Adams, David; Lacroix, Catherine; Verleye, Marc; Gillardin, Jean-Marie; Baulieu, Etienne-Emile; Schumacher, Michael; Schweizer-Groyer, Ghislaine

    2008-12-23

    Peripheral nerves show spontaneous regenerative responses, but recovery after injury or peripheral neuropathies (toxic, diabetic, or chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy syndromes) is slow and often incomplete, and at present no efficient treatment is available. Using well-defined peripheral nerve lesion paradigms, we assessed the therapeutic usefulness of etifoxine, recently identified as a ligand of the translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO), to promote axonal regeneration, modulate inflammatory responses, and improve functional recovery. We found by histologic analysis that etifoxine therapy promoted the regeneration of axons in and downstream of the lesion after freeze injury and increased axonal growth into a silicone guide tube by a factor of 2 after nerve transection. Etifoxine also stimulated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells, and the effect was even stronger than for specific TSPO ligands. Etifoxine treatment caused a marked reduction in the number of macrophages after cryolesion within the nerve stumps, which was rapid in the proximal and delayed in the distal nerve stumps. Functional tests revealed accelerated and improved recovery of locomotion, motor coordination, and sensory functions in response to etifoxine. This work demonstrates that etifoxine, a clinically approved drug already used for the treatment of anxiety disorders, is remarkably efficient in promoting acceleration of peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery. Its possible mechanism of action is discussed, with reference to the neurosteroid concept. This molecule, which easily enters nerve tissues and regulates multiple functions in a concerted manner, offers promise for the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries and axonal neuropathies. PMID:19075249

  10. Sensory conduction from digit to palm and from palm to wrist in the carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Buchthal, Fritz; Rosenfalck, Annelise

    1971-01-01

    In normal subjects the maximum and minimum conduction velocity along sensory nerve was the same from digit to palm and from palm to wrist. Severe slowing from palm to wrist in patients with the carpal tunnel syndrome was often associated with only slight slowing from digit to palm. The distal slowing is attributed to a reversible constriction of nerve fibres, an assumption supported by the recovery in distal conduction velocity as early as two and a half months after decompression. The sensory velocity from wrist to elbow was normal or supernormal, whereas the motor velocity was often slightly decreased. The exclusion of the normal segment of the median nerve distal to the flexor retinaculum made it possible to demonstrate abnormalities across the flexor retinaculum in patients with clinical signs of carpal tunnel syndrome in whom distal motor latency and sensory conduction from digit to wrist were normal. PMID:5571311

  11. Ultrasonography of peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Martinoli, C; Bianchi, S; Derchi, L E

    2000-06-01

    With recent improvements in ultrasound (US) imaging equipment and refinements in scanning technique, an increasing number of peripheral nerves and related pathologic conditions can be identified. US imaging can support clinical and electrophysiologic testing for detection of nerve abnormalities caused by trauma, tumors, and a variety of nonneoplastic conditions, including entrapment neuropathies. This article addresses the normal US appearance of peripheral nerves and discusses the potential role of US nerve imaging in specific clinical settings. A series of US images of diverse pathologic processes involving peripheral nerves is presented. PMID:10994689

  12. Lumbar plexus nerve entrapment syndromes as a cause of groin pain in athletes.

    PubMed

    Rassner, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    In athletes, groin pain is not uncommon and can be severe and activity-limiting. Nerve entrapment syndromes of the lumbar plexus are a rare but important etiology that should be considered when evaluating athletes. Diagnosis can be made based on patterns of pain and hypoesthesia following the sensory distribution of the involved nerve and by pain relief with nerve block. Conservative therapies, including nerve blocks, neurodestructive procedures, and medications, may provide long-term pain relief. If nonsurgical therapies fail, referral should be made for surgical exploration and neurectomy. PMID:21623294

  13. Optic Nerve Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Alvi, Aijaz; Janecka, Ivo P.; Kapadia, Silloo; Johnson, Bruce L.; McVay, William

    1996-01-01

    The length of the optic nerves is a reflection of normal postnatal cranio-orbital development. Unilateral elongation of an optic nerve has been observed in two patients with orbital and skull base neoplasms. In the first case as compared to the patient's opposite, normal optic nerve, an elongated length of the involved optic nerve of 45 mm was present. The involved optic nerve in the second patient was 10 mm longer than the normal opposite optic nerve. The visual and extraocular function was preserved in the second patient. The first patient had only light perception in the affected eye. In this paper, the embryology, anatomy, and physiology of the optic nerve and its mechanisms of stretch and repair are discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 13 PMID:17170975

  14. Albuterol-induced downregulation of Gs? accounts for pulmonary ?2-adrenoceptor desensitization in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Finney, Paul A.; Belvisi, Maria G.; Donnelly, Louise E.; Chuang, Tsu-Tshen; Mak, Judith C.W.; Scorer, Carol; Barnes, Peter J.; Adcock, Ian M.; Giembycz, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a chronic in vivo model of pulmonary ?2-adrenoceptor desensitization and to elucidate the nature and molecular basis of this state. Subcutaneous infusion of rats with albuterol for 7 days compromised the ability of albuterol, given acutely, to protect against acetylcholine-induced bronchoconstriction. The bronchoprotective effect of prostaglandin E2, but not forskolin, was also impaired, indicating that the desensitization was heterologous and that the primary defect in signaling was upstream of adenylyl cyclase. ?2-Adrenoceptor density was reduced in lung membranes harvested from albuterol-treated animals, and this was associated with impaired albuterol-induced cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation and activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase ex vivo. Gs? expression was reduced in the lung and tracheae of albuterol-treated rats, and cholera toxin–induced cAMP accumulation was blunted. Chronic treatment of rats with albuterol also increased cAMP phosphodiesterase activity and G protein–coupled receptor kinase-2, but the extent to which these events contributed to ?2-adrenoceptor desensitization was unclear given that forskolin was active in both groups of animals and that desensitization was heterologous. Collectively, these results indicate that albuterol effects heterologous desensitization of pulmonary Gs-coupled receptors in this model, with downregulation of Gs? representing a primary molecular etiology. PMID:10880056

  15. Glutamate receptor desensitization is mediated by changes in quaternary structure of the ligand binding domain.

    PubMed

    Schauder, David M; Kuybeda, Oleg; Zhang, Jinjin; Klymko, Katherine; Bartesaghi, Alberto; Borgnia, Mario J; Mayer, Mark L; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2013-04-01

    Glutamate receptor ion channels are membrane proteins that mediate excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system of vertebrates. Insight into molecular mechanisms underlying glutamate receptor gating is limited by lack of structural information for receptors trapped in different conformational states. Here, we report the use of single-particle cryoelectron tomography to determine the structures, at ?21 Ĺ resolution, of full-length GluK2 kainate receptors trapped in antagonist-bound resting and agonist-bound desensitized states. The resting state, stabilized by the competitive antagonist LY466195, closely resembles the crystal structure of the AMPA receptor GluA2, with well-resolved proximal and distal subunits exhibiting cross-over between the twofold symmetric amino terminal domain and a twofold symmetric ligand binding domain (LBD) dimer of dimers assembly. In the desensitized state, the LBD undergoes a major rearrangement, resulting in a separation of the four subunits by ?25 Ĺ. However, the amino terminal domain, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic regions of the receptor have similar conformations in the resting and desensitized states. The LBD rearrangement was not anticipated in prior models based on crystal structures for soluble LBD dimer assemblies, and we speculate that subunit separation allows a better match to the fourfold symmetric ion channel domain. From fits of the amino terminal domain and LBD domains into the density map of the desensitized state we have derived a structural model for differences in quaternary conformation between the resting and desensitized states. PMID:23530186

  16. Glutamate receptor desensitization is mediated by changes in quaternary structure of the ligand binding domain

    PubMed Central

    Schauder, David M.; Kuybeda, Oleg; Zhang, Jinjin; Klymko, Katherine; Bartesaghi, Alberto; Borgnia, Mario J.; Mayer, Mark L.; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2013-01-01

    Glutamate receptor ion channels are membrane proteins that mediate excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system of vertebrates. Insight into molecular mechanisms underlying glutamate receptor gating is limited by lack of structural information for receptors trapped in different conformational states. Here, we report the use of single-particle cryoelectron tomography to determine the structures, at ?21 Ĺ resolution, of full-length GluK2 kainate receptors trapped in antagonist-bound resting and agonist-bound desensitized states. The resting state, stabilized by the competitive antagonist LY466195, closely resembles the crystal structure of the AMPA receptor GluA2, with well-resolved proximal and distal subunits exhibiting cross-over between the twofold symmetric amino terminal domain and a twofold symmetric ligand binding domain (LBD) dimer of dimers assembly. In the desensitized state, the LBD undergoes a major rearrangement, resulting in a separation of the four subunits by ?25 Ĺ. However, the amino terminal domain, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic regions of the receptor have similar conformations in the resting and desensitized states. The LBD rearrangement was not anticipated in prior models based on crystal structures for soluble LBD dimer assemblies, and we speculate that subunit separation allows a better match to the fourfold symmetric ion channel domain. From fits of the amino terminal domain and LBD domains into the density map of the desensitized state we have derived a structural model for differences in quaternary conformation between the resting and desensitized states. PMID:23530186

  17. [Sensory neuronopathy: diagnostic strategy].

    PubMed

    Camdessanché, Jean-Philippe; Antoine, Jean-Christophe

    2014-11-01

    Sensory neuronopathy (SNN) depends on a pathophysiological process that targets the sensory neuron in the posterior root ganglia. These rare diseases are sometimes difficult to diagnose because the site of impairment is not directly assessable by conventional neurophysiological techniques. After recalling the general data concerning SNN, we propose an easy to use clinical and electrophysiological diagnosis criteria and guidelines for clinicians in their search for an etiology in a patient with NNS. PMID:25201592

  18. The trochlear nerve of amphibians and its relation to proprioceptive fibers: a qualitative and quantitative HRP study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernd Fritzsch; Ronald Sonntag

    1987-01-01

    The cells of origin of the trochlear nerve of urodeles, anurans and gymnophionans were labelled with HRP in order to compare the location and morphology of trochlear motoneurons and to find evidence for sensory fibers in the trochlear nerve of amphibians. Trochlear motoneuron perikarya were found in a ventral tegmental position predominantly on the contralateral side, but an ipsilateral cell

  19. The role of the gastric afferent vagal nerve in ghrelin-induced feeding and growth hormone secretion in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yukari Date; Noboru Murakami; Koji Toshinai; Shigeru Matsukura; Akira Niijima; Hisayuki Matsuo; Kenji Kangawa; Masamitsu Nakazato

    2002-01-01

    Background & Aims: Visceral sensory information is transmitted to the brain through the afferent vagus nerve. Ghrelin, a peptide primarily produced in the stomach, stimulates both feeding and growth hormone (GH) secretion. How stomach-derived ghrelin exerts these central actions is still unknown. Here we determined the role of the gastric afferent vagal nerve in ghrelin's functions. Methods: Food intake and

  20. Processing of nerve biopsies: A practical guide for neuropathologists

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Joachim; Brandner, Sebastian; Lammens, Martin; Sommer, Claudia; Vallat, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    Nerve biopsy is a valuable tool in the diagnostic work-up of peripheral neuropathies. Currently, major indications include interstitial pathologies such as suspected vasculitis and amyloidosis, atypical cases of inflammatory neuropathy and the differential diagnosis of hereditary neuropathies that cannot be specified otherwise. However, surgical removal of a piece of nerve causes a sensory deficit and – in some cases – chronic pain. Therefore, a nerve biopsy is usually performed only when other clinical, laboratory and electrophysiological methods have failed to clarify the cause of disease. The neuropathological work-up should include at least paraffin and resin semithin histology using a panel of conventional and immunohistochemical stains. Cryostat section staining, teased fiber preparations, electron microscopy and molecular genetic analyses are potentially useful additional methods in a subset of cases. Being performed, processed and read by experienced physicians and technicians nerve biopsies can provide important information relevant for clinical management. PMID:22192700

  1. [Application of the modified Sihler's stain technique to cadaveric peripheral nerves after medical students' dissection course].

    PubMed

    Sekiya, Shin-ichi; Suzuki, Ryo; Miyawaki, Makoto; Chiba, Shoji; Kumaki, Katsuji

    2005-09-01

    The exact ramification and distribution pattern of the peripheral nerves is one of the most important information for anatomists and clinicians. However, it is very difficult to pursue perfectly all of the fine twigs of nerve branches even if we use a stereoscopic microscope. Recently, Liu et al. (Anat. Rec., 247: 137, 1997) applied a modified Sihler's stain technique to study the distribution of intramuscular nerve branches in mammalian skeletal muscles. Then, we attempted to apply this technique to plantar nerves of human foot removed from cadavers which were used for ordinary dissection practices at the School of Medicine. Intrinsic muscles of the foot with motor and sensory nerve branches were removed en bloc from bones of the foot. They were macerated and depigmented in 3% aqueous potassium hydroxide, decalcified in Sihler's solution 1. Then, after staining in Sihler's solution II, they were destained in Sihler's solution I, neutralized in 0.05% lithium carbonate, and cleared in increasing concentrations of glycerin. As a result, each nerve fascicle, which are bundles of nerve fibers invested by the perineurium, was very clearly visualized, since only nerve fibers were stained deep blue-purple, while muscles, the epineurium and the perineurium were made transparent in glycerin. We found an anastomosis between a deep branch of the lateral plantar nerve and the medial plantar nerve, composed of several nerve fascicles. Therefore, the modified Sihler's stain technique can be applied to cadaveric peripheral nerves after medical students' dissection course. PMID:16196427

  2. Properties of the GABAA receptor of rat posterior pituitary nerve terminals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S J; Jackson, M B

    1995-03-01

    1. We investigated gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors using thin slice patch-clamp techniques in the swellings along axons of posterior pituitary nerve terminals. 2. Activation of the nerve terminal GABAA receptor induced a mean conductance change of 1.5 nS. Normalizing to area gave a mean conductance density of 0.38 mS/cm2. 3. Whereas GABAA receptor-mediated responses could be seen in 91% of the nerve terminals tested, GABAB receptor-mediated responses could not be detected. The GABAB receptor agonist baclofen had no effect on holding current or on voltage-activated K+ and Ca2+ channels. It is unlikely that nerve terminals of the posterior pituitary contain GABAB receptors. 4. The channel gated by the nerve terminal GABAA receptor exhibited only a single open conductance level. Only fully open and fully closed states were observed. Subconductance states typical of other GABAA receptor channels were not seen in the GABA-gated channels of posterior pituitary nerve terminals. 5. Both open time and closed time distributions were biexponential, indicating at least two open and two closed conformations of the channel. At a higher GABA concentration, long-duration openings predominated, suggesting that long-duration openings were distinguished from short-duration openings by the occupation of a greater number of agonist binding sites. 6. Sustained application of GABA desensitized the receptor with simple exponential kinetics. The time constant for desensitization was approximately 9 s for both GABA and muscimol. 7. Zinc ions at concentrations of 100 microM reduced GABA responses by only 22%. This weak sensitivity to zinc, together with a previous observation of benzodiazepine sensitivity, suggested that the nerve terminal GABAA receptor possesses a gamma-subunit. 8. Responses mediated by the GABAA receptor persist in whole terminal recordings without Mg-ATP in the pipette solution. Thus, in contrast to many other GABAA receptors, this receptor showed no rundown in the absence of ATP. 9. The GABAA receptor channel of posterior pituitary nerve terminals has many properties in common with GABAA receptors of other preparations. A number of subtle differences between the nerve terminal receptor described here and cell body receptors described elsewhere may reflect the presence of receptor protein subunits unique to nerve terminals. PMID:7608760

  3. Cytochemical localization of adenylyl cyclase activity within the sensory epithelium of the trout saccule.

    PubMed

    Drescher, M J; Kern, R C; Hatfield, J S; Drescher, D G

    1995-08-25

    Adenylyl cyclase, the enzyme of synthesis of cAMP, the second messenger molecule mediating signal transduction in response to sensory, neurotransmitter and hormonal stimuli, has been localized in the sensory epithelium of the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri R.) saccule by cytochemical detection of enzyme activity. In the sensory receptor cell, or hair cell, reaction product has been visualized in the stereocilia in close association with the outer cell membrane and also at the apical surface of the cuticular plate. A diffuse distribution of precipitate was observed within the cytoplasm of terminal endings of nerve fibers presumed to be efferent on the basis of characteristic synaptic specializations including presynaptic vesicles and a postsynaptic cistern lying within the hair cell. Occasionally, reaction product was observed to be associated with the external cell membrane of these nerve terminals. There appeared to be little or no adenylyl cyclase activity associated with the plasma membrane at the base of the hair cell or in presumptive afferent nerve endings. However, a subpopulation of nerve fiber endings which exhibited both efferent and afferent synaptic specializations contained precipitate. A concentration of adenylyl cyclase activity in hair cell stereocilia and efferent nerve terminals in the sensory epithelium is suggestive of a role for cAMP in second messenger action at these sites, possibly related to mechanosensory transduction and efferent neuromodulation, respectively. PMID:7501269

  4. Chronic violent video game exposure and desensitization to violence: Behavioral and event-related brain potential data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce D. Bartholow; Brad J. Bushman; Marc A. Sestir

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that exposure to media violence increases aggression, though the mechanisms of this effect have remained elusive. One theory posits that repeated exposure to media violence desensitizes viewers to real world violence, increasing aggression by blunting aversive reactions to violence and removing normal inhibitions against aggression. Theoretically, violence desensitization should be reflected in the amplitude of the

  5. An Evaluation of in Vivo Desensitization and Video Modeling to Increase Compliance with Dental Procedures in Persons with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conyers, Carole; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Peterson, Blake; Gubin, Amber; Jurgens, Mandy; Selders, Andrew; Dickinson, Jessica; Barenz, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Fear of dental procedures deters many individuals with mental retardation from accepting dental treatment. This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of two procedures, in vivo desensitization and video modeling, for increasing compliance with dental procedures in participants with severe or profound mental retardation. Desensitization

  6. Functional Recovery from Desensitization of Vanilloid Receptor TRPV1 Requires Resynthesis of Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beiying Liu; Chunguang Zhang; Feng Qin

    2005-01-01

    Capsaicin and other naturally occurring pungent molecules have long been used as topical analgesics to treat a variety of chronic pain conditions. The analgesic effects of these compounds involve long-term desensitization of nociceptors after strong stimulation. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we studied the recovery from desensitization of the vanilloid receptor TRPV1.We showed that prolonged applications of capsaicin led to

  7. The Effects of Systematic Desensitization on Test-Anxious Students in an Urban Community College: Learning Theory and Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Nathaniel A.

    A study involving 97 students (79 females and 18 males) at New York City Technical College was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of desensitization in reducing test anxiety and improving grade point averages (GPAs). The study compared the GPAs of students who completed workshops using the desensitization hierarchy developed by R. Strieby…

  8. Neuroepithelial circuit formed by innervation of sensory enteroendocrine cells.

    PubMed

    Bohórquez, Diego V; Shahid, Rafiq A; Erdmann, Alan; Kreger, Alex M; Wang, Yu; Calakos, Nicole; Wang, Fan; Liddle, Rodger A

    2015-02-01

    Satiety and other core physiological functions are modulated by sensory signals arising from the surface of the gut. Luminal nutrients and bacteria stimulate epithelial biosensors called enteroendocrine cells. Despite being electrically excitable, enteroendocrine cells are generally thought to communicate indirectly with nerves through hormone secretion and not through direct cell-nerve contact. However, we recently uncovered in intestinal enteroendocrine cells a cytoplasmic process that we named neuropod. Here, we determined that neuropods provide a direct connection between enteroendocrine cells and neurons innervating the small intestine and colon. Using cell-specific transgenic mice to study neural circuits, we found that enteroendocrine cells have the necessary elements for neurotransmission, including expression of genes that encode pre-, post-, and transsynaptic proteins. This neuroepithelial circuit was reconstituted in vitro by coculturing single enteroendocrine cells with sensory neurons. We used a monosynaptic rabies virus to define the circuit's functional connectivity in vivo and determined that delivery of this neurotropic virus into the colon lumen resulted in the infection of mucosal nerves through enteroendocrine cells. This neuroepithelial circuit can serve as both a sensory conduit for food and gut microbes to interact with the nervous system and a portal for viruses to enter the enteric and central nervous systems. PMID:25555217

  9. Peripheral communications of intercostobrachial nerve Peripheral communications of the intercostobrachial nerve in relation to the alar thoracic artery

    PubMed Central

    Rustagi, Shaifaly Madan; Sharma, Mona; Singh, Nidhi; Mehta, Vandana; Suri, Rajesh K; Rath, Gayatri

    2015-01-01

    The intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN) is often encountered during axillary dissection for axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for diagnostic and therapeutic surgery for mastectomy. The present report is a case observed in the Department of Anatomy at Vardhman Mahavir Medical College, Delhi during routine dissection of the upper extremity of a male cadaver for first year undergraduate medical students. On the right side, the medial cord of brachial plexus gave two medial cutaneous nerves of arm. Both the nerves were seen communicating with the branches of the ICBN. The ICBN and one of its branches were surrounding the termination of an alar thoracic artery. These peripheral neural connections of the ICBN with the branches of the medial cord can be a cause of sensory impairment during axillary procedures done for mastectomy or exploration of long thoracic nerves. The alar thoracic artery found in relation to the ICBN could further be a cause of vascular complications during such procedures. PMID:25802820

  10. Effects of Topical Nasal Anesthetic on Fiberoptic Endoscopic Examination of Swallowing with Sensory Testing (FEESST)

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Gary H.; Guidry, Tiffany J.; Mennemeier, Mark; Schluterman, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Objections to the use of topical nasal anesthesia (TNA) during fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) with sensory testing (FEESST) have been raised, primarily because of the possibility of desensitizing the pharyngeal and laryngeal mucosa and affecting both the sensory and motor aspects of the swallow. Furthermore, it has been suggested that TNA is not necessary during FEES as it does not improve patient comfort or make the procedure easier for the endoscopist. The purpose of this double-blind, randomized, controlled, crossover clinical trial was to determine how gel TNA during flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing with sensory testing affects sensation, swallowing, and comfort rating scores in healthy nondysphagic participants. Laryngopharyngeal sensory thresholds and swallowing durations were compared between two conditions: TNA and sham. Transition duration decreased statistically significantly during the TNA condition compared to the sham for 10 ml only (p < 0.05). All other swallowing measures did not change between the conditions. Laryngopharyngeal sensory thresholds and perceptions did not change between conditions. No change was observed for subject comfort scores, ease of exam, or quality of view. Future studies should evaluate TNA administration variables, including concentration, dosage amount, and method of application, to determine the optimal strategy for providing comfort while avoiding altered swallowing. PMID:23828313

  11. Odorant receptors and desensitization proteins colocalize in mammalian sperm.

    PubMed Central

    Walensky, L. D.; Roskams, A. J.; Lefkowitz, R. J.; Snyder, S. H.; Ronnett, G. V.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The identification of transcripts encoding putative olfactory receptors in mammalian germ cells (1) has generated the hypothesis that olfactory receptors may serve a chemosensory role in sperm chemotaxis during fertilization. We have sought to identify and localize these receptors and their regulatory machinery in rat sperm in order to gain further insight into mammalian sperm chemotaxis and odorant receptor physiology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using degenerate primers directed against sequences conserved across members of the known odorant receptor family to identify transcripts from testis and round spermatids. Western analysis and immunohistochemistry were performed using antibodies raised against two peptide sequences conserved among odorant receptors and using fusion protein antibodies to G-protein receptor kinase 3 (GRK3/beta ARK2) and beta-arrestin2. RESULTS: We detected transcripts encoding putative odorant receptors in both testis and round spermatids of the adult rat. Restriction digests of the PCR products demonstrated the existence of multiple gene products. Two anti-odorant receptor antibodies specifically recognized a 64 kD band in rat sperm preparations by Western blot. The proteins GRK3 and beta-arrestin2, implicated in olfactory desensitization, were detected in sperm cytosolic extracts using Western analysis. Immunohistochemistry colocalized putative odorant receptors, GRK3 and beta-arrestin2 to elongating spermatids in the testis and to the midpiece of mature sperm. CONCLUSIONS: The specific localization of odorant receptors to the respiratory center of mature sperm is consistent with a role for these proteins in transducing chemotactic signals. Based on the colocalization, it is plausible that GRK3 and beta-arrestin2 function in sperm to regulate putative chemoreceptor responses. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:8529092

  12. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing: Four Case Studies of a New Tool for Executive Coaching and Restoring Employee Performance After Setbacks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Foster; Jennifer Lendl

    1996-01-01

    The effects of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) integrated into executive coaching are reported in 4 case studies illustrating varied job titles and industries. Participants received 1–10 hr of coaching in which EMDR was used to desensitize an upsetting event that had impaired their performance at work. Outcomes indicated that EMDR desensitized the disturbing incident and that participants shifted

  13. Laryngeal and tracheal afferent nerve stimulation evokes swallowing in anaesthetized guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimura, Takanori; Udemgba, Chioma; Inoue, Makoto; Canning, Brendan J

    2013-01-01

    We describe swallowing reflexes evoked by laryngeal and tracheal vagal afferent nerve stimulation in anaesthetized guinea pigs. The swallowing reflexes evoked by laryngeal citric acid challenges were abolished by recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) transection and mimicked by electrical stimulation of the central cut ends of an RLN. By contrast, the number of swallows evoked by upper airway/pharyngeal distensions was not significantly reduced by RLN transection but they were virtually abolished by superior laryngeal nerve transection. Laryngeal citric acid-evoked swallowing was mimicked by laryngeal capsaicin challenges, implicating transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)-expressing laryngeal afferent nerves arising from the jugular ganglia. The swallowing evoked by citric acid and capsaicin and evoked by electrical stimulation of either the tracheal or the laryngeal mucosa occurred at stimulation intensities that were typically subthreshold for evoking cough in these animals. Swallowing evoked by airway afferent nerve stimulation also desensitized at a much slower rate than cough. We speculate that swallowing is an essential component of airway protection from aspiration associated with laryngeal and tracheal afferent nerve activation. PMID:23858010

  14. Desensitization of GABAergic receptors as a mechanism of zolpidem-induced somnambulism.

    PubMed

    Juszczak, Grzegorz R

    2011-08-01

    Sleepwalking is a frequently reported side effect of zolpidem which is a short-acting hypnotic drug potentiating activity of GABA(A) receptors. Paradoxically, the most commonly used medications for somnambulism are benzodiazepines, especially clonazepam, which also potentiate activity of GABA(A) receptors. It is proposed that zolpidem-induced sleepwalking can be explained by the desensitization of GABAergic receptors located on serotonergic neurons. According to the proposed model, the delay between desensitization of GABA receptors and a compensatory decrease in serotonin release constitutes the time window for parasomnias. The occurrence of sleepwalking depends on individual differences in receptor desensitization, autoregulation of serotonin release and drug pharmacokinetics. The proposed mechanism of interaction between GABAergic and serotonergic systems can be also relevant for zolpidem abuse and zolpidem-induced hallucinations. It is therefore suggested that special care should be taken when zolpidem is used in patients taking at the same time selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. PMID:21565448

  15. Modulation of excitatory synaptic transmission by drugs that reduce desensitization at AMPA/kainate receptors.

    PubMed

    Vyklicky, L; Patneau, D K; Mayer, M L

    1991-12-01

    Desensitization at AMPA/kainate receptors has been proposed to contribute to the decay of excitatory synaptic currents. We examined the action of aniracetam, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), and concanavalin A (Con A), drugs that act via separate mechanisms to reduce desensitization evoked by L-glutamate in rat hippocampal neurons. The decay of excitatory synaptic currents, and sucrose-evoked miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) was slowed 2- to 3-fold by aniracetam. In contrast, WGA increased the EPSC decay time constant only 1.3-fold and Con A had no effect. Aniracetam increased the magnitude of stimulus-evoked EPSCs 1.9-fold; variance analysis suggests a postsynaptic mechanism of action. WGA and Con A reduced EPSC amplitude via a presynaptic mechanism. Aniracetam increased the burst length of L-glutamate-activated single-channel responses. Simulations suggest that aniracetam either slows entry into a desensitized state or decreases the closing rate constant for ion channel gating. PMID:1684903

  16. Engineered G protein coupled receptors reveal independent regulation of internalization, desensitization and acute signaling

    PubMed Central

    Scearce-Levie, Kimberly; Lieberman, Michael D; Elliott, Heather H; Conklin, Bruce R

    2005-01-01

    Background The physiological regulation of G protein-coupled receptors, through desensitization and internalization, modulates the length of the receptor signal and may influence the development of tolerance and dependence in response to chronic drug treatment. To explore the importance of receptor regulation, we engineered a series of Gi-coupled receptors that differ in signal length, degree of agonist-induced internalization, and ability to induce adenylyl cyclase superactivation. All of these receptors, based on the kappa opioid receptor, were modified to be receptors activated solely by synthetic ligands (RASSLs). This modification allows us to compare receptors that have the same ligands and effectors, but differ only in desensitization and internalization. Results Removal of phosphorylation sites in the C-terminus of the RASSL resulted in a mutant that was resistant to internalization and less prone to desensitization. Replacement of the C-terminus of the RASSL with the corresponding portion of the mu opioid receptor eliminated the induction of AC superactivation, without disrupting agonist-induced desensitization or internalization. Surprisingly, removal of phosphorylation sites from this chimera resulted in a receptor that is constitutively internalized, even in the absence of agonist. However, the receptor still signals and desensitizes in response to agonist, indicating normal G-protein coupling and partial membrane expression. Conclusions These studies reveal that internalization, desensitization and adenylyl cyclase superactivation, all processes that decrease chronic Gi-receptor signals, are independently regulated. Furthermore, specific mutations can radically alter superactivation or internalization without affecting the efficacy of acute Gi signaling. These mutant RASSLs will be useful for further elucidating the temporal dynamics of the signaling of G protein-coupled receptors in vitro and in vivo. PMID:15707483

  17. Histamine H2 receptor desensitization in HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sawutz, D.G.; Kalinyak, K.; Whitsett, J.A.; Johnson, C.L.

    1984-10-01

    Recent studies have suggested that cyclic AMP (cAMP) may be involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation of cancer cells. Incubating HL-60 cells in the presence of the specific H2 agonist dimaprit resulted in 30-fold increases in cAMP levels and morphological changes suggestive of cell maturation along the granulocyte pathway. However, cells cultured with 10(-5) M dimaprit showed more than an 80% decrease in their cAMP response to subsequent addition of H2 agonists, whereas the cAMP response to prostaglandin E2 was unaltered. Desensitization was time-dependent, dose-dependent and completely prevented by 10(-3) M cimetidine. Desensitization of HL-60 cells for 4 hr with 10(-5) M dimaprit followed by the addition of 10(-3) M cimetidine resulted in total recovery of the cAMP response in less than 24 hr. The pharmacologically inactive analog N-methyldimaprit (SKandF 92054) did not increase cAMP production or cause desensitization to H2 stimulation. Desensitization was observed in the presence or absence of a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, indicating that induction of cAMP-phosphodiesterase was not involved in this process. No difference in the number of (/sup 3/H)tiotidine binding sites was observed between control and dimaprit-desensitized HL-60 cells. Based on these results, the authors suggest that H2 receptor agonists caused an agonist-dependent desensitization, presumably due to an uncoupling of receptors from adenylate cyclase.

  18. Ulcerative colitis patients with an inflammatory response upon mesalazine cannot be desensitized: a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Buurman, Dorien J; De Monchy, Jan G R; Schellekens, Reinout C A; van der Waaij, Laurens A; Kleibeuker, Jan H; Dijkstra, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    Abstract Background and aims. Mesalazine is a key drug in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Intolerance to mesalazine has been described, including fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Several case reports reported successful desensitization of patients with mesalazine intolerance. The aim was to assess the number of UC patients who are persistently intolerant to mesalazine after single-blinded rechallenge and to test the effectiveness of a rapid desensitization protocol in UC patients demonstrated mesalazine intolerance. Methods. This is a prospective, singlie-blind randomized study in UC patients who discontinued mesalazine because of intolerance. Patients with severe reactions were excluded. Eligible patients underwent a skin patch test with mesalazine followed by a single-blinded randomized crossover rechallenge with 500 mg mesalazine or placebo. Patients with symptoms upon rechallenge were admitted to the hospital for 3 days oral desensitization. Results. Nine of the 37 identified UC patients who discontinued mesalazine because of intolerance were included. All nine patients had negative patch tests, seven patients had symptoms (fever, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea) within 2 h upon rechallenge. Four of these seven patients participated in the desensitization protocol and in none a successful desensitization could be performed. All four had an inflammatory intolerance reaction with rise in C-reactive protein. There were no elevations in serum tryptase or urinary-methylhistamine levels observed and no signs of immediate type allergic reactions, like urticaria, bronchial obstruction or anaphylaxis. Conclusion. We recommend not to rechallenge UC patients with an inflammatory response upon mesalazine and these patients will not benefit from a rapid desensitization protocol. PMID:25633468

  19. Sensory Complications in Patients after Scalp Mass Excision and Its Anatomical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin Seo; Cho, Yong Jun; Kang, Suk Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the incidence of postsurgical sensory complications in patients with scalp masses and classify the locations of them from a surgical standpoint according to anatomical considerations. Methods A total of 121 patients who underwent surgery for scalp mass were included in this study. The authors reviewed medical records and preoperative radiologic images. We investigated the complications related to sensory changes after procedure. Enrolled patients have been divided into three groups. Group A included patients with tumors above the superior nuchal line (SNL), Group B with tumors within the trapezius muscle area and patients who had tumors on the lateral trapezius muscle area were assigned to Group C. We compared the incidence related to postoperative sensory complications and summarized their additional treatments for these with clinical outcome. Results There were 12 patients (10%) with sensory complications related on the mass excision site (Group A: 1 patient, Group B: 2 patients, Group C: 9 patients). Six patients were affected with lesser occipital nerve (LON), 2 patients on greater occipital nerve (GON) and 4 patients on GON and LON. Over 6 months after surgery, two of the twelve patients with sensory complications did not have complete recovered pain in spite of proper medications and local chemical neurolysis with 1.0% lidocaine and dexamethasone. Conclusion Occipital neuropathy should be considered as a complication related excision of scalp mass. The sensory complications are more frequent in Group C because of the anatomical characteristics of the occipital nerves and there were no statistical difference for other variables. PMID:25024823

  20. The spinal accessory nerve plexus, the trapezius muscle, and shoulder stabilization after radical neck cancer surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, H; Burns, S; Kaiser, C W

    1988-01-01

    A clinical and anatomic study of the spinal accessory, the eleventh cranial nerve, and trapezius muscle function of patients who had radical neck cancer surgery was conducted. This study was done not only to document the indispensibility of the trapezius muscle to shoulder-girdle stability, but also to clarify the role of the eleventh cranial nerve in the variable motor and sensory changes occurring after the loss of this muscle. Seventeen male patients, 49-69 years of age, (average of 60 years of age) undergoing a total of 23 radical neck dissections were examined for upper extremity function, particularly in regard to the trapezius muscle, and for subjective signs of pain. The eleventh nerve, usually regarded as the sole motor innervation to the trapezius, was cut in 17 instances because of tumor involvement. Dissection of four fresh and 30 preserved adult cadavers helped to reconcile the motor and sensory differences in patients who had undergone loss of the eleventh nerve. The dissections and clinical observations corroborate that the trapezius is a key part of a "muscle continuum" that stabilizes the shoulder. Variations in origins and insertions of the trapezius may influence its function in different individuals. As regards the spinal accessory nerve, it is concluded that varying motor and sensory connections form a plexus with the eleventh nerve, accounting, in part, for the variations in motor innervation and function of the trapezius, as well as for a variable spectrum of sensory changes when the eleventh nerve is cut. For this reason, it is suggested that the term "spinal accessory nerve plexus" be used to refer to the eleventh nerve when it is considered in the context of radical neck cancer surgery. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:3056289

  1. Aspirin desensitization in a woman with inherited thrombophilia and recurrent miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Santos, N; Gaspar, A; Livramento, S; Sampaio, G; Morais-Almeida, M

    2012-12-01

    Women with inherited thrombophilia and recurrent miscarriage might benefit from preconceptional antiagreggation with low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), but concerns about severe adverse reactions may prevent physicians from performing this treatment in patients with ASA hypersensitivity. We report the first known case of ASA desensitization in a 41-year-old woman with inherited thrombophilia, who had homozygosity (4G/4G polymorphism) of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene and first trimester recurrent miscarriage, and had previously presented with anaphylaxis to ASA. Desensitization was completed despite one self-limited adverse reaction, and the patient has maintained a daily ASA intake of 100 mg with good tolerance. PMID:23441445

  2. The Furcal Nerve Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Dabke, Harshad V.

    2014-01-01

    Atypical sciatica and discrepancy between clinical presentation and imaging findings is a dilemma for treating surgeon in management of lumbar disc herniation. It also constitutes ground for failed back surgery and potential litigations thereof. Furcal nerve (Furcal = forked) is an independent nerve with its own ventral and dorsal branches (rootlets) and forms a link nerve that connects lumbar and sacral plexus. Its fibers branch out to be part of femoral and obturator nerves in-addition to the lumbosacral trunk. It is most commonly found at L4 level and is the most common cause of atypical presentation of radiculopathy/sciatica. Very little is published about the furcal nerve and many are unaware of its existence. This article summarizes all the existing evidence about furcal nerve in English literature in an attempt to create awareness and offer insight about this unique entity to fellow colleagues/professionals involved in spine care. PMID:25317309

  3. The furcal nerve revisited.

    PubMed

    Harshavardhana, Nanjundappa S; Dabke, Harshad V

    2014-08-01

    Atypical sciatica and discrepancy between clinical presentation and imaging findings is a dilemma for treating surgeon in management of lumbar disc herniation. It also constitutes ground for failed back surgery and potential litigations thereof. Furcal nerve (Furcal = forked) is an independent nerve with its own ventral and dorsal branches (rootlets) and forms a link nerve that connects lumbar and sacral plexus. Its fibers branch out to be part of femoral and obturator nerves in-addition to the lumbosacral trunk. It is most commonly found at L4 level and is the most common cause of atypical presentation of radiculopathy/sciatica. Very little is published about the furcal nerve and many are unaware of its existence. This article summarizes all the existing evidence about furcal nerve in English literature in an attempt to create awareness and offer insight about this unique entity to fellow colleagues/professionals involved in spine care. PMID:25317309

  4. Pathways regulating modality-specific axonal regeneration in peripheral nerve.

    PubMed

    Wood, Matthew D; Mackinnon, Susan E

    2015-03-01

    Following peripheral nerve injury, the distal nerve is primed for regenerating axons by generating a permissive environment replete with glial cells, cytokines, and neurotrophic factors to encourage axonal growth. However, increasing evidence demonstrates that regenerating axons within peripheral nerves still encounter axonal-growth inhibitors, such as chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. Given the generally poor clinical outcomes following peripheral nerve injury and reconstruction, the use of pharmacological therapies to augment axonal regeneration and overcome inhibitory signals has gained considerable interest. Joshi et al. (2014) have provided evidence for preferential or modality-specific (motor versus sensory) axonal growth and regeneration due to inhibitory signaling from Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) pathway regulation. By providing inhibition to the ROCK signaling pathway through Y-27632, they demonstrate that motor neurons regenerating their axons are impacted to a greater extent compared to sensory neurons. In light of this evidence, we briefly review the literature regarding modality-specific axonal regeneration to provide context to their findings. We also describe potential and novel barriers, such as senescent Schwann cells, which provide additional axonal-growth inhibitory factors for future consideration following peripheral nerve injury. PMID:25681572

  5. Overview of the Cranial Nerves

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nerves—the cranial nerves—lead directly from the brain to various parts of the head, neck, and trunk. Some of the cranial nerves are ... cranial nerves emerge from the underside of the brain, pass through ... to parts of the head, neck, and trunk. The nerves are named and numbered, ...

  6. Rodent Facial Nerve Recovery After Selected Lesions and Repair Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Hadlock, Tessa A.; Kowaleski, Jeffrey; Lo, David; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Heaton, James T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Measuring rodent facial movements is a reliable method for studying recovery from facial nerve manipulation, and for examining the behavioral correlates of aberrant regeneration. We quantitatively compared recovery of vibrissal and ocular function following three types of clinically relevant nerve injury. Methods 178 adult rats underwent facial nerve manipulation and testing. In the experimental groups, the left facial nerve was either crushed, transected and repaired epineurially, or transected and the stumps suture-secured into a tube with a 2 mm gap between them. Facial recovery was measured for the ensuing 1–4 months. Data were analyzed for whisking recovery. Previously developed markers of co-contraction of the upper and midfacial zones (possible synkinesis markers) were also examined. Results Animals in the crush groups recovered nearly normal whisking parameters within 25 days. The distal branch crush group showed improved recovery over the main trunk crush group for several days during early recovery. By week 9, the transection/repair groups showed evidence of recovery that trended further upward throughout the study period. The entubulation groups followed a similar recovery pattern, though they did not maintain significant recovery levels by the study conclusion. Markers of potential synkinesis increased in selected groups following facial nerve injury. Conclusions Rodent vibrissial function recovers in a predictable fashion following manipulation. Generalized co-contraction of the upper and midfacial zones emerges following facial nerve manipulation, possibly related to aberrant regeneration, polyterminal axons, or hypersensitivity of the rodent to sensory stimuli following nerve manipulation. PMID:20048604

  7. Bladder emptying by intermittent electrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boggs, Joseph W.; Wenzel, Brian J.; Gustafson, Kenneth J.; Grill, Warren M.

    2006-03-01

    Persons with a suprasacral spinal cord injury cannot empty their bladder voluntarily. Bladder emptying can be restored by intermittent electrical stimulation of the sacral nerve roots (SR) to cause bladder contraction. However, this therapy requires sensory nerve transection to prevent dyssynergic contraction of the external urethral sphincter (EUS). Stimulation of the compound pudendal nerve trunk (PN) activates spinal micturition circuitry, leading to a reflex bladder contraction without a reflex EUS contraction. The present study determined if PN stimulation could produce bladder emptying without nerve transection in cats anesthetized with ?-chloralose. With all nerves intact, intermittent PN stimulation emptied the bladder (64 ± 14% of initial volume, n = 37 across six cats) more effectively than either distention-evoked micturition (40 ± 19%, p < 0.001, n = 27 across six cats) or bilateral intermittent SR stimulation (25 ± 23%, p < 0.005, n = 4 across two cats). After bilateral transection of the nerves innervating the urethral sphincter, intermittent SR stimulation voided 79 ± 17% (n = 12 across three cats), comparable to clinical results obtained with SR stimulation. Voiding via intermittent PN stimulation did not increase after neurotomy (p > 0.10), indicating that PN stimulation was not limited by bladder-sphincter dyssynergia. Intermittent PN stimulation holds promise for restoring bladder emptying following spinal injury without requiring nerve transection.

  8. Histopathological effects of radiosurgery on a human trigeminal nerve

    PubMed Central

    Al-Otaibi, Faisal; Alhindi, Hindi; Alhebshi, Adnan; Albloushi, Monirah; Baeesa, Saleh; Hodaie, Mojgan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Radiosurgery is a well-established treatment modality for medically refractory trigeminal neuralgia. The exact mechanism of pain relief after radiosurgery is not clearly understood. Histopathology examination of the trigeminal nerve in humans after radiosurgery is rarely performed and has produced controversial results. Case Description: We report on a 45-year-old female who received radiosurgery treatment for trigeminal neuralgia by Cyberknife. A 6-mm portion of the cisternal segment of trigeminal nerve received a dose of 60 Gy. The clinical benefit started 10 days after therapy and continued for 8 months prior to a recurrence of her previous symptoms associated with mild background pain. She underwent microvascular decompression and partial sensory root sectioning. Atrophied trigeminal nerve rootlets were grossly noted intraoperatively under surgical microscope associated with changes in trigeminal nerve color to gray. A biopsy from the inferolateral surface of the nerve proximal to the midcisternal segment showed histological changes in the form of fibrosis and axonal degeneration. Conclusion: This case study supports the evidence of histological damage of the trigeminal nerve fibers after radiosurgery therapy. Whether or not the presence and degree of nerve damage correlate with the degree of clinical benefit and side effects are not revealed by this study and need to be explored in future studies. PMID:24605252

  9. Nerve and Blood Vessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maura Valle; Maria Pia Zamorani

    From the histologic point of view, nerves are round or flattened cords, with a complex internal structure made of myelinated\\u000a and unmyelinated nerve fibers, containing axons and Schwann cells grouped in fascicles (Fig. 4.1a) (Erickson 1997). Along the course of the nerve, fibers can traverse from one fascicle to another and fascicles can split and merge. Based\\u000a on the fascicular

  10. Capsaicin and sensory neurones: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Szolcsányi, János

    2014-01-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of red pepper has become not only a "hot" topic in neuroscience but its new target-related unique actions have opened the door for the drug industry to introduce a new chapter of analgesics. After several lines of translational efforts with over 1,000 patents and clinical trials, the 8% capsaicin dermal patch reached the market and its long-lasting local analgesic effect in some severe neuropathic pain states is now well established. This introductory chapter outlines on one hand the historical background based on the author's 50 years of experience in this field and on the other hand emphasizes new scopes, fascinating perspectives in pharmaco-physiology, and molecular pharmacology of nociceptive sensory neurons. Evidence for the effect of capsaicin on C-polymodal nociceptors (CMH), C-mechanoinsensitive (CHMi), and silent C-nociceptors are listed and the features of the capsaicin-induced blocking effects of nociceptors are demonstrated. Common and different characteristics of nociceptor-blocking actions after systemic, perineural, local, intrathecal, and in vitro treatments are summarized. Evidence for the misleading conclusions drawn from neonatal capsaicin pretreatment is presented. Perspectives opened from cloning the capsaicin receptor "Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1" (TRPV1) are outlined and potential molecular mechanisms behind the long-lasting functional, ultrastructural, and nerve terminal-damaging effects of capsaicin and other TRPV1 agonists are summarized. Neurogenic inflammation and the long-list of "capsaicin-sensitive" tissue responses are mediated by an unorthodox dual sensory-efferent function of peptidergic TRPV1-expressing nerve terminals which differ from the classical efferent and sensory nerve endings that have a unidirectional role in neuroregulation. Thermoregulatory effects of capsaicin are discussed in detail. It is suggested that since hyperthermia and burn risk due to enhanced noxious heat threshold are the major obstacles of some TRPV1 antagonists, they could be overcome. The special "multisteric" gating function of the TRPV1 cation channel provides the structural ground for blocking chemical activation of TRPV1 without affecting its responsiveness to physical stimuli. A new chapter of potential analgesics targeting nociceptors is now already supported for pain relief in persistent pathological pain states. PMID:24941663

  11. Diabetic neuropathy: structural analysis of nerve hydration by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Griffey, R.H.; Eaton, P.; Sibbitt, R.R.; Sibbitt, W.L. Jr.; Bicknell, J.M.

    1988-11-18

    The water content of the sural nerve of diabetic patients was quantitatively defined by magnetic resonance proton imaging as a putative reflection of activity of the aldose-reductase pathway. Thirty-nine patients were evaluated, comparing group A, symptomatic diabetic men with sensory neuropathy; group B, similarly symptomatic diabetic men treated aldose-reductase inhibition; group C, neurologically asymptomatic diabetic men; and group D, control nondiabetic men. Marked increase in hydration of the sural nerve was seen in more than half of the symptomatic diabetic patients. Two of 11 neurologically asymptomatic diabetics had increased nerve hydration, suggesting a presymptomatic alteration of the nerve. Symptomatic diabetics treated with aldose-reductase inhibitors had normal nerve water levels. Increased level of peripheral nerve water represents a new finding in diabetes mellitus. It seems to be related to aldose-reductase activity, involved in the development of neuropathy, and similar to events that occur in other target tissue in human diabetes.

  12. The accessory deep peroneal nerve and anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome: case report.

    PubMed

    Sinanovi?, Osman; Zuki?, Sanela; Šaki?, Alma; Mufti?, Mirsad

    2013-10-01

    The accessory deep peroneal (ADPN) nerve has been regarded as an anomalous nerve derived from the superficial peroneal nerve or its branch and supplies motor innervations for extensor digitorum brevis (EDB) and sensory innervations for the lateral part of the ankle and foot regions. The EDB is usually innervated exclusively by the deep peroneal nerve, a major branch of the the common peroneal nerve, however, in as many as 28% of patients (with same male/female frequency), one or both of the EDB muscles are (partially or exclusively) innervated by the ADPN nerve. This anomaly appears to be inherited in autosomal dominant fashion with incomplete gene penetrance. ADPN existence is of great clinical and surgical importance, and the aim of this study is to describe a very rare case of coexistence ADPN and anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome. PMID:24399869

  13. Communication between neuronal somata and satellite glial cells in sensory ganglia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Yen M; Gu, Yanping; Chen, Yong

    2013-10-01

    Studies of the structural organization and functions of the cell body of a neuron (soma) and its surrounding satellite glial cells (SGCs) in sensory ganglia have led to the realization that SGCs actively participate in the information processing of sensory signals from afferent terminals to the spinal cord. SGCs use a variety ways to communicate with each other and with their enwrapped soma. Changes in this communication under injurious conditions often lead to abnormal pain conditions. "What are the mechanisms underlying the neuronal soma and SGC communication in sensory ganglia?" and "how do tissue or nerve injuries affect the communication?" are the main questions addressed in this review. PMID:23918214

  14. Cryptogenic sensory polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Dimachkie, Mazen M; Barohn, Richard J

    2013-05-01

    Chronic sensory or sensorimotor polyneuropathy is a common cause for referral to neurologists. Despite extensive diagnostic testing, up to one-third of these patients remain without a known cause, and are referred to as having cryptogenic sensory peripheral neuropathy. Symptoms progress slowly. On examination, there may be additional mild toe flexion and extension weakness. Electrophysiologic testing and histology reveals axonal neuropathy. Prognosis is usually favorable, as most patients maintain independent ambulation. Besides patient education and reassurance, management is focused on pharmacotherapy for neuropathic pain and physical therapy for balance training, and, occasionally, assistive devices. PMID:23642719

  15. Sensory marketing: the multi-sensory brand-experience concept

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bertil Hultén

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the multi-sensory brand-experience concept in relation to the human mind and senses. It also seeks to propose a sensory marketing (SM) model of the multi-sensory brand-experience hypothesis. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper applies exploratory and explanatory approaches to investigating the multi-sensory brand-experience concept within the context of discovery. The qualitative study

  16. Nerve conduction in relation to vibration exposure - a non-positive cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Peripheral neuropathy is one of the principal clinical disorders in workers with hand-arm vibration syndrome. Electrophysiological studies aimed at defining the nature of the injury have provided conflicting results. One reason for this lack of consistency might be the sparsity of published longitudinal etiological studies with both good assessment of exposure and a well-defined measure of disease. Against this background we measured conduction velocities in the hand after having assessed vibration exposure over 21 years in a cohort of manual workers. Methods The study group consisted of 155 male office and manual workers at an engineering plant that manufactured pulp and paper machinery. The study has a longitudinal design regarding exposure assessment and a cross-sectional design regarding the outcome of nerve conduction. Hand-arm vibration dose was calculated as the product of self-reported occupational exposure, collected by questionnaire and interviews, and the measured or estimated hand-arm vibration exposure in 1987, 1992, 1997, 2002, and 2008. Distal motor latencies in median and ulnar nerves and sensory nerve conduction over the carpal tunnel and the finger-palm segments in the median nerve were measured in 2008. Before the nerve conduction measurement, the subjects were systemically warmed by a bicycle ergometer test. Results There were no differences in distal latencies between subjects exposed to hand-arm vibration and unexposed subjects, neither in the sensory conduction latencies of the median nerve, nor in the motor conduction latencies of the median and ulnar nerves. Seven subjects (9%) in the exposed group and three subjects (12%) in the unexposed group had both pathological sensory nerve conduction at the wrist and symptoms suggestive of carpal tunnel syndrome. Conclusion Nerve conduction measurements of peripheral hand nerves revealed no exposure-response association between hand-arm vibration exposure and distal neuropathy of the large myelinated fibers in a cohort of male office and manual workers. PMID:20642848

  17. The anatomy and fine structure of the echidna Tachyglossus aculeatus snout with respect to its different trigeminal sensory receptors including the electroreceptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. H. Andres; A. Iggo; U. Proske

    1991-01-01

    The gross anatomy and nerve supply of the bill of echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) is described in relation to its function as an outstanding sensory organ. The sensory innervation of the skin of the echidna snout was investigated by means of frontal serial sections, after decalcification of the specimens. A comprehensive light and electron microscopic description of the location and fine

  18. Saphenous vein stripping surgical technique and frequency of saphenous nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Jaworucka-Kaczorowska, Aleksandra; Oszkinis, Grzegorz; Wiertel-Krawczuk, Agnieszka; Gabor, El?bieta; Kaczorowski, Pawe?

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Saphenous nerve injury is the most common complication after surgical treatment of varicose veins. The aim of this study was to establish its frequency at great saphenous vein long stripping when four methods of surgery were applied. Methods Eighty patients were divided into four groups depending on different stripping methods. Sensory transmission in saphenous nerve and sensory perception of shank were examined before surgery and two weeks, three and six months afterwards with clinical neurophysiology methods. Results In 36% of patients, surgeries caused the injury of saphenous nerve mainly by proximal stripping without invagination (65%, group I). Transmission disturbances ceased completely after three months in patients undergoing distal stripping with invagination (group IV), while in group I they persisted for six months in 35%. Group IV patients were the least injured and group I the most. Conclusion Neurophysiological findings may suggest that distal stripping with vein invagination gives the best saphenous nerve sparing. PMID:24906907

  19. Sympathetic and sensory innervation of small intensely fluorescent (SIF) cells in rat superior cervical ganglion.

    PubMed

    Takaki, Fumiya; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Kusakabe, Tatsumi; Yamamoto, Yoshio

    2015-02-01

    The sympathetic ganglion contains small intensely fluorescent (SIF) cells derived from the neural crest. We morphologically characterize SIF cells and focus on their relationship with ganglionic cells, preganglionic nerve fibers and sensory nerve endings. SIF cells stained intensely for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), with a few cells also being immunoreactive for dopamine ?-hydroxylase (DBH). Vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT)-immunoreactive puncta were distributed around some clusters of SIF cells, whereas some SIF cells closely abutted DBH-immunoreactive ganglionic cells. SIF cells contained bassoon-immunoreactive products beneath the cell membrane at the attachments and on opposite sites to the ganglionic cells. Ganglion neurons and SIF cells were immunoreactive to dopamine D2 receptors. Immunohistochemistry for P2X3 revealed ramified nerve endings with P2X3 immunoreactivity around SIF cells. Triple-labeling for P2X3, TH and VAChT allowed the classification of SIF cells into three types based on their innervation: (1) with only VAChT-immunoreactive puncta, (2) with only P2X3-immunoreactive nerve endings, (3) with both P2X3-immunoreactive nerve endings and VAChT-immunoreactive puncta. The results of retrograde tracing with fast blue dye indicated that most of these nerve endings originated from the petrosal ganglion. Thus, SIF cells in the superior cervical ganglion are innervated by preganglionic fibers and glossopharyngeal sensory nerve endings and can be classified into three types. SIF cells might modulate sympathetic activity in the superior cervical ganglion. PMID:25416508

  20. Different levels of the Tripartite motif protein, Anomalies in sensory axon patterning (Asap), regulate distinct axonal projections of Drosophila sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Morikawa, Rei K.; Kanamori, Takahiro; Yasunaga, Kei-ichiro; Emoto, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    The axonal projection pattern of sensory neurons typically is regulated by environmental signals, but how different sensory afferents can establish distinct projections in the same environment remains largely unknown. Drosophila class IV dendrite arborization (C4da) sensory neurons project subtype-specific axonal branches in the ventral nerve cord, and we show that the Tripartite motif protein, Anomalies in sensory axon patterning (Asap) is a critical determinant of the axonal projection patterns of different C4da neurons. Asap is highly expressed in C4da neurons with both ipsilateral and contralateral axonal projections, but the Asap level is low in neurons that have only ipsilateral projections. Mutations in asap cause a specific loss of contralateral projections, whereas overexpression of Asap induces ectopic contralateral projections in C4da neurons. We also show by biochemical and genetic analysis that Asap regulates Netrin signaling, at least in part by linking the Netrin receptor Frazzled to the downstream effector Pico. In the absence of Asap, the sensory afferent connectivity within the ventral nerve cord is disrupted, resulting in specific larval behavioral deficits. These results indicate that different levels of Asap determine distinct patterns of axonal projections of C4da neurons by modulating Netrin signaling and that the Asap-mediated axonal projection is critical for assembly of a functional sensory circuit. PMID:22084112

  1. Sensory Transduction: Getting the Message

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A. James Hudspeth, Ph.D., M.D. (Howard Hughes Medical Institute; )

    2008-04-18

    This lecture covers the sensory system. More specifically, it provides information about how the sensory system captures, transduces, amplifies, adapts, and passes information from one cell to the next.

  2. Dermatological and immunological conditions due to nerve lesions

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Domenico; Lupoli, Amalia; Caccavale, Stefano; Piccolo, Vincenzo; Ruocco, Eleonora

    2013-01-01

    Summary Some syndromes are of interest to both neurologists and dermatologists, because cutaneous involvement may harbinger symptoms of a neurological disease. The aim of this review is to clarify this aspect. The skin, because of its relationships with the peripheral sensory nervous system, autonomic nervous system and central nervous system, constitutes a neuroimmunoendocrine organ. The skin contains numerous neuropeptides released from sensory nerves. Neuropeptides play a precise role in cutaneous physiology and pathophysiology, and in certain skin diseases. A complex dysregulation of neuropeptides is a feature of some diseases of both dermatological and neurological interest (e.g. cutaneous and nerve lesions following herpes zoster infection, cutaneous manifestations of carpal tunnel syndrome, trigeminal trophic syndrome). Dermatologists need to know when a patient should be referred to a neurologist and should consider this option in those presenting with syndromes of unclear etiology. PMID:24125557

  3. Exposure to Violent Video Games and Desensitization to Violence in Children and Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanne B. Funk

    2006-01-01

    Entertainment computing is central to the leisure activities of many Americans, with a remarkable array of choices now available to the average person. Video and computer games, in particular violent games, are especially popular, even with relatively young children. With this popularity, concern has been raised about possible unintended consequences of participation in interactive violence. Desensitization to violence has been

  4. The FASEB Journal Research Communication Melatonin desensitizes endogenous MT2 melatonin

    E-print Network

    Gillette, Martha U.

    The FASEB Journal · Research Communication Melatonin desensitizes endogenous MT2 melatonin of the mammalian circadian clock to melatonin MATTHEW J. GERDIN,*,,§ MONICA I. MASANA,* MOISE´S A. RIVERA ABSTRACT The hormone melatonin phase shifts circadian rhythms generated by the mammalian biolog- ical clock

  5. Laser desensitization treatment for inside surface of SUS304 stainless steel pipe welds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seiichiro Kimura; Wataru Kono; Syohei Kawano; Rie Sumiya

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a technology for preventing the occurrence of Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC) by irradiating a high power YAG laser beam onto the sensitized Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) surface of SUS304 stainless steel. By irradiating a laser beam of the appropriate power density, a laser de-sensitization heat treatment (LDT) process was realized that

  6. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following homicide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip H. Pollock

    2000-01-01

    Homicide perpetrators have been observed to report symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) directly related to involvement in the offence itself. A single case-study is presented, which describes the application of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR; Shapiro, 1995) for a male perpetrator of homicide. The nature of the difficulties these offenders experience is considered and the need for appropriate

  7. Commentary on the Bates et al. report on eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard Lipke

    1997-01-01

    In their 1996 paper, Bates, McGlynn, Montgomery, and Mattke were critical of eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) as an effective method of behavior therapy. The present commentary challenges the Bates et al. review of the literature, and the implementation of EMDR used in reaching their conclusions. Evidence is offered to support the clinical use of EMDR.

  8. Science and pseudoscience in the development of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James D. Herbert; Scott O. Lilienfeld; Jeffrey M. Lohr; Robert W Montgomery; William T O'Donohue; Gerald M Rosen; David F Tolin

    2000-01-01

    The enormous popularity recently achieved by Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) as a treatment for anxiety disorders appears to have greatly outstripped the evidence for its efficacy from controlled research studies. The disparity raises disturbing questions concerning EMDR's aggressive commercial promotion and its rapid acceptance among practitioners. In this article, we: (1) summarize the evidence concerning EMDR's efficacy; (2)

  9. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): Evaluation of controlled PTSD research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francine Shapiro

    1996-01-01

    The completed controlled PTSD research on eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is placed within the context of other methods used in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. A number of studies are presented that support EMDR as an empirically validated method. However, in several studies, clinical standards have not always been integrated with rigorous scientific methodology. The suggested standards

  10. Prolonged Exposure versus Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) for PTSD rape victims

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Olasov Rothbaum; Millie C. Astin; Fred Marsteller

    2005-01-01

    This controlled study evaluated the relative efficacy of Prolonged Exposure (PE) and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) compared to a no-treatment waitlist control (WAIT) in the treatment of PTSD in adult female rape victims (n = 74). Improvement in PTSD as assessed by blind independent assessors, depression, dissociation, and state anxiety was significantly greater in both the PE and

  11. Single Session Treatment of Test Anxiety with Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louise Maxfield; W. T. Melnyk

    2000-01-01

    One session of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) appeared to be an effective treatment for test anxiety, reducing reported physiological distress, worry, and fears of negative evaluation. The research design included two components: a comparison study, comparing Immediate Treatment and Wait List groups, and a replication study, comparing the treatment response of Immediate and Delayed (Treated Wait List) groups.

  12. Treatment of Specific Phobias with Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. De Jongh; E. Ten Broeke; M. R. Renssen

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers the current empirical status of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) as a treatment method for specific phobias, along with some conceptual and practical issues in relation to its use. Both uncontrolled and controlled studies on the application of EMDR with specific phobias demonstrate that EMDR can produce significant improvements within a limited number of sessions. With

  13. Treatment Fidelity and Research on Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald M Rosen

    1999-01-01

    Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing was introduced by Frances Shapiro (1989) as a treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. When controlled studies failed to support the extraordinarily positive findings and claims made by Shapiro, proponents of EMDR raised the issue of treatment fidelity and criticized researchers for being inadequately trained. This paper considers the issues raised by EMDR proponents. It is

  14. CASE STUDIES OF EYE MOVEMENT DESENSITIZATION AND REPROCESSING (EMDR) WITH CHRONIC POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HOWARD J. LIPKE; ALLAN L. BOTKIN

    1992-01-01

    Five hospitalized Vietnam combat veterans with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were treated with Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), a new psychotherapeutic procedure. Changes in previously refractory symptoms of intrusiveness and arousal were noted for some subjects. The variability of effects was examined in terms of subject variables and therapist training with the procedure. REM sleep findings and studies

  15. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR): New Hope for Children Suffering from Trauma and Loss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricky Greenwald

    1998-01-01

    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is a recently developed method for working through traumatic memories and related psychological problems. Recent literature reviews find strong support for EMDR's value in trauma therapy. The first studies using EMDR with children and adolescents yield similar findings. A case is presented to illustrate the procedure as used in clinical practice. EMDR appears to

  16. Efficacy of lidocaine hydrochloride for laryngeal desensitization: a clinical comparison of techniques in the cat.

    PubMed

    Dyson, D H

    1988-05-01

    Assessment of laryngeal relaxation and ease of intubation in cats was made after preanesthetic medication with acepromazine/meperidine/atropine (IM) and induction of anesthesia 20 minutes later by thiopental administration (IV). Healthy cats (n = 32) scheduled for elective surgery were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups to be provided with laryngeal desensitization: group 1, 2% lidocaine HCl (2 mg/kg of body weight) given IV 30 seconds before thiopental induction; group 2, 2% lidocaine HCl (2 mg/kg) topically applied to the larynx; group 3, 10% lidocaine HCl (10 mg) as a topical aerosol; and group 4, no treatment before intubation. A significant (P less than 0.05; ANOVA) difference between groups in the reaction to intubation attempts was apparent. Cats receiving 2% lidocaine IV or no treatment for desensitization had a greater response to intubation than did those receiving 2% or 10% lidocaine topically. The number of attempts required to intubate cats was significantly (P less than 0.05) greater in cats with no treatment than in cats treated topically with 2% or 10% lidocaine. Response to IV administration of 2% lidocaine HCl was not significantly different from the response to other treatments, indicating little advantage over no laryngeal desensitization. It was concluded that topical application of 2% lidocaine (2 mg/kg) or 10% lidocaine aerosol 1 1/2 minutes before intubation provides effective laryngeal desensitization in the cat. PMID:3391852

  17. Media Exposure and Sensitivity to Violence in News Reports: Evidence of Desensitization?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erica Scharrer

    2008-01-01

    This study explores whether amount of exposure to entertainment television violence, local newspapers, and local television news relates to reactions to reading news stories that recount violent events. Survey results from three regions in the United States show bivariate connections between average media exposure levels and each of three indicators of desensitization. Multivariate results provide partial support for the idea

  18. Mood Regulation, Dreaming and Nightmares: Evaluation of a Desensitization Function for REM Sleep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael L. Perlis; Tore A. Nielsen

    1993-01-01

    This paper is an evaluation of the hypothesis that REM sleep and dreaming serve a mood regulatory function, in particular, that they desensitize affect. There is presently experimental evidence that daytime mood influences REM sleep and dreaming and that the latter, in turn, influence daytime mood. It is suggested that these interrelationships may be better understood using a modified behavioral

  19. A Review of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR): Research Findings and Implications for Counsellors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCluskie, Kathryn C.

    1998-01-01

    States that within the last six years a new therapeutic technique for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), has emerged. Examines the strengths and weaknesses of published studies concerning EMDR, describes the nature of the debate about the efficacy of EMDR, and reviews implications…

  20. Using Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing To Enhance Treatment of Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protinsky, Howard; Sparks, Jennifer; Flemke, Kimberly

    2001-01-01

    Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) as a clinical technique may enhance treatment effectiveness when applied in couple therapy that is emotionally and experientially oriented. Clinical experience indicates EMDR-based interventions are useful for accessing and reprocessing intense emotions in couple interactions. EMDR can amplify…

  1. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Treatment for Psychologically Traumatized Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Sandra A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studies the effects of 3 90-minute Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) treatment sessions on traumatic memories of 80 participants. Participants receiving EMDR showed decreases in complaints and anxiety, and increases in positive cognition. Participants in the delayed-treatment condition showed no improvement in any measures in…

  2. Efficacy of the eye movement desensitization procedure in the treatment of traumatic memories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francine Shapiro

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of the recently developed Eye Movement Desensitization (EMD) procedure on traumatic memory symptomatology. Twenty-two subjects suffering from symptoms related to traumatic memories were used in the study. All had been victims of traumatic incidents concerning the Vietnam War, childhood sexual molestation, sexual or physical assault, or emotional abuse. Memories of

  3. Molecular mechanism identified for activation and desensitization of prominent neurotransmitter receptor in the brain

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists at the NIH have used a technique called cryo-electron microscopy to determine a molecular mechanism for the activation and desensitization of ionotropic glutamate receptors, a prominent class of neurotransmitter receptors in the brain and spinal cord that have also been implicated in some cancers.

  4. Do ?-adrenoceptor agonists induce homologous or heterologous desensitization in rat urinary bladder?

    PubMed

    Michel, Martin C

    2014-03-01

    ?3-Adrenoceptor agonists have recently been introduced for the symptomatic treatment of the overactive bladder syndrome. As such treatment is not curative, long-term treatment is anticipated to be required. As the susceptibility of ?3-adrenoceptors to undergo agonist-induced desensitization is cell type- and tissue-dependent, we have explored whether pre-treatment with a ?-adrenoceptor agonist will attenuate subsequent relaxation responses to freshly added agonist using rat urinary bladder as a model. We have used the prototypical ?-adrenoceptor agonist isoprenaline, the ?2-selective fenoterol and the ?3-selective CL 316,243 and mirabegron as well as the receptor-independent bladder relaxant forskolin. We show that a 6-h pre-treatment with agonist can significantly reduce subsequent relaxation against KCl-induced smooth muscle tone, but agonist-induced desensitization was also observed with longer pre-treatments or against passive tension. The agonist-induced desensitization was prominent for the ?2 component of rat bladder relaxation but much weaker or even absent for the ?3 component. Moreover, ?-adrenoceptor agonist pre-treatment reduced contractile responses to the muscarinic agonist carbachol and the receptor-independent stimulus KCl. Taken together these data do not support the hypothesis that the long-term clinical efficacy of ?3-adrenoceptor agonists in the treatment of the overactive bladder syndrome will be limited by receptor desensitization. Rather they raise the possibility that such treatment may not only cause smooth muscle relaxation but also may attenuate hyper-contractility of the bladder. PMID:24213882

  5. The effect of video game violence on physiological desensitization to real-life violence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas L. Carnagey; Craig A. Anderson; Brad J. Bushman

    2007-01-01

    Past research shows that violent video game exposure increases aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, physiological arousal, aggressive behaviors, and decreases helpful behaviors. However, no research has experimentally examined violent video game effects on physiological desensitization, defined as showing less physiological arousal to violence in the real world after exposure to video game violence in the virtual world. This experiment attempts to

  6. Desensitization to Media Violence: Links With Habitual Media Violence Exposure, Aggressive Cognitions, and Aggressive Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Krahé; Ingrid Möller; L. Rowell Huesmann; Lucyna Kirwil; Juliane Felber; Anja Berger

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a

  7. A Comparison of Systematic Desensitization and "Sensitization" Treatments for Reducing Counselor Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Dianne K.; Pappas, James P.

    A comparison was made of the effects of systematic desensitization, a "sensitization" treatment (designed to increase awareness of anxiety) and no-treatment on the reduction of beginning counselors' anxiety. Forty-one counseling graduate students, assigned to one of the three conditions, served as subjects. With treatments intervening, the…

  8. The eVect of video game violence on physiological desensitization to real-life violence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas L. Carnagey; Craig A. Anderson; Brad J. Bushman

    2006-01-01

    Past research shows that violent video game exposure increases aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, physiological arousal, aggressive behaviors, and decreases helpful behaviors. However, no research has experimentally examined violent video game eVects on physiologi- cal desensitization, deWned as showing less physiological arousal to violence in the real world after exposure to video game violence in the virtual world. This experiment attempts

  9. Ligand-induced desensitization of interleukin 1 receptor-initiated intracellular signaling events in T helper lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Although interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptor signaling events in T helper lymphocytes are incompletely characterized, events associated with translocation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B are receptor- proximal assays of ligand-initiated responses. In this report we demonstrate that the transient nature of IL-1-induced NF-kappa B nuclear translocation occurs as a consequence of ligand-induced receptor desensitization. Other receptor-initiated events including induction of I kappa B alpha phosphorylation, expression of c-jun and junB mRNA, and costimulatory effects on IL-2 synthesis also are altered by IL-1 receptor desensitization. IL-1 receptor desensitization is not initiated by tumor necrosis factor, which also stimulates NF-kappa B translocation, and is not a consequence of alterations in either IL-1 receptor expression or binding affinity. In the absence of IL-1, the effects of desensitization are completely reversed within 18 h. Since IL-1 desensitization is initiated under conditions of low receptor occupancy, it is likely that receptor desensitization results from alterations to a receptor-proximal transducer, rather than from direct modification of the IL-1 receptor. These results suggest that the cyclic nature of the events in the T helper lymphocyte activation program can be controlled, in part, by the reversible desensitization of cell surface IL-1 receptors. PMID:7931065

  10. Recording Sensory Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    From children's viewpoints, what they experience in the world is what the world is like--for everyone. "What do others experience with their senses when they are in the same situation?" is a question that young children can explore by collecting data as they use a "feely box," or take a "sensory walk." There are many ways to focus the children's…

  11. Environmental Awareness (Sensory Awareness).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Marian

    Capitalizing on the resources available within a city block, this resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) describes methods and procedures for developing sensory awareness in the urban out-of-doors. Conceptual focus is on interdependency ("living things are interdependent"). Involvement in the environment (observing, thinking, doing)…

  12. Our Sensory World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liesman, C.; Barringer, M. D.

    The booklet explores the role of sensory experiences in the severely developmentally disabled child. Developmental theory is addressed, followed by specific activity suggestions (broken down into developmental levels) for developing tactile sense, auditory sense, gustatory (taste) sense, olfactory sense, visual sense, and kinesthetic sense.…

  13. Structured Sensory Trauma Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan

    2010-01-01

    This article features the National Institute of Trauma and Loss in Children (TLC), a program that has demonstrated via field testing, exploratory research, time series studies, and evidence-based research studies that its Structured Sensory Intervention for Traumatized Children, Adolescents, and Parents (SITCAP[R]) produces statistically…

  14. Accelerating axonal growth promotes motor recovery after peripheral nerve injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chi Him Eddie; Omura, Takao; Cobos, Enrique J.; Latrémoličre, Alban; Ghasemlou, Nader; Brenner, Gary J.; van Veen, Ed; Barrett, Lee; Sawada, Tomokazu; Gao, Fuying; Coppola, Giovanni; Gertler, Frank; Costigan, Michael; Geschwind, Dan; Woolf, Clifford J.

    2011-01-01

    Although peripheral nerves can regenerate after injury, proximal nerve injury in humans results in minimal restoration of motor function. One possible explanation for this is that injury-induced axonal growth is too slow. Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) is a regeneration-associated protein that accelerates axonal growth in vitro. Here, we have shown that it can also do this in mice after peripheral nerve injury. While rapid motor and sensory recovery occurred in mice after a sciatic nerve crush injury, there was little return of motor function after sciatic nerve transection, because of the delay in motor axons reaching their target. This was not due to a failure of axonal growth, because injured motor axons eventually fully re-extended into muscles and sensory function returned; rather, it resulted from a lack of motor end plate reinnervation. Tg mice expressing high levels of Hsp27 demonstrated enhanced restoration of motor function after nerve transection/resuture by enabling motor synapse reinnervation, but only within 5 weeks of injury. In humans with peripheral nerve injuries, shorter wait times to decompression surgery led to improved functional recovery, and, while a return of sensation occurred in all patients, motor recovery was limited. Thus, absence of motor recovery after nerve damage may result from a failure of synapse reformation after prolonged denervation rather than a failure of axonal growth. PMID:21965333

  15. Carboxyl-terminal Domain of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 Contains Distinct Segments Differentially Involved in Capsaicin- and Heat-induced Desensitization*

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, John; Wang, Sen; Lee, Jongseok; Ro, Jin Y.; Chung, Man-Kyo

    2013-01-01

    Multiple Ca2+-dependent processes are involved in capsaicin-induced desensitization of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), but desensitization of TRPV1 by heat occurs even in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, although the mechanisms are unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that capsaicin and heat desensitize TRPV1 through distinct mechanisms involving distinct structural segments of TRPV1. In HEK293 cells that heterologously express TRPV1, we found that heat-induced desensitization was not affected by the inclusion of intracellular ATP or alanine mutation of Lys155, both of which attenuate capsaicin-induced desensitization, suggesting that heat-induced desensitization occurs through mechanisms distinct from capsaicin-induced desensitization. To determine protein domains involved in heat-induced desensitization, we generated chimeric proteins between TRPV1 and TRPV3, a heat-gated channel lacking heat-induced desensitization. We found that TRPV1 with the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of TRPV3 retained heat activation but was impaired in heat-induced desensitization. Further experiments using chimeric or deletion mutants within TRPV1 CTD indicated that the distal half of CTD regulates the activation and desensitization of TRPV1 in modality-specific manners. Within the distal CTD, we identified two segments that distinctly regulated capsaicin- and heat-induced desensitization. The results suggest that the activation and desensitization of TRPV1 by capsaicin and heat can be modulated differentially and disproportionally through different regions of TRPV1 CTD. Identifying the domains involved in thermal regulation of TRPV1 may facilitate the development of novel anti-hyperalgesic approaches aimed at attenuating activation and enhancing desensitization of TRPV1 by thermal stimuli. PMID:24174527

  16. Biological Actions of Nerve Growth Factor in the Peripheral Nervous System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia A. Rask

    1999-01-01

    Since the discovery of nerve growth factor (NGF), its role in the physiology\\/pathophysiology of nerve function has been under intense investigation. More recently, the potential of recombinant human NGF (rhNGF) as a putative treatment for peripheral neuropathies, in particular diabetic polyneuropathy and HIV-associated sensory neuropathy, is being explored. In animal models of diabetes, depletion of endogenous NGF levels has been

  17. Understanding Sensory Integration. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMatties, Marie E.; Sammons, Jennifer H.

    This brief paper summarizes what is known about sensory integration and sensory integration dysfunction (DSI). It outlines evaluation of DSI, treatment approaches, and implications for parents and teachers, including compensatory strategies for minimizing the impact of DSI on a child's life. Review of origins of sensory integration theory in the…

  18. Clinical and Electrodiagnostic Work-up of Peripheral Nerve Lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Kiechl

    Diagnostic work-up of patients with peripheral nerve lesions includes a detailed evaluation of the clinical history, a thorough\\u000a search for predisposing factors and trigger events, palpation at the suspected lesion site, specific provocation maneuvers\\u000a and assessment of motor deficits (distribution, muscle power and atrophy), sensory disturbances (distribution and quality)\\u000a and autonomic impairment (sudomotor activity) — all embedded in a careful

  19. How to Measure Outcomes of Peripheral Nerve Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yirong; Sunitha, Malay; Chung, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Evaluation of outcomes after peripheral nerve surgeries include a number of assessment methods that reflect different aspects of recovery, including reinnervation, tactile gnosis, integrated sensory and motor function, pain and discomfort, neurophysiological and patient- reported outcomes. This review makes a list of measurements addressing these aspects as well as advantage and disadvantage of each tool. Because of complexities of neurophysiology, assessment remains a difficult process, which requires researchers focus on measurements best relevant to specific conditions and research questions. PMID:23895715

  20. Benzoquinone Reveals a Cysteine-Dependent Desensitization Mechanism of TRPA1

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra, Yessenia

    2013-01-01

    The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) nonselective cation channel has a conserved function as a noxious chemical sensor throughout much of Metazoa. Electrophilic chemicals activate both insect and vertebrate TRPA1 via covalent modification of cysteine residues in the amino-terminal region. Although naturally occurring electrophilic plant compounds, such as mustard oil and cinnamaldehyde, are TRPA1 agonists, it is unknown whether arthropod-produced electrophiles activate mammalian TRPA1. We characterized the effects of the electrophilic arthropod defensive compound para-benzoquinone (pBQN) on the human TRPA1 channel. We used whole-cell recordings of human embryonic kidney cells heterologously expressing either wild-type TRPA1 or TRPA1 with three serine-substituted cysteines crucial for electrophile activation (C621S, C641S, C665S). We found that pBQN activates TRPA1 starting at 10 nM and peaking at 300 nM; higher concentrations caused rapid activation followed by a fast decline. Activation by pBQN required reactivity with cysteine residues, but ones that are distinct from those previously reported to be the key targets of electrophiles. The current reduction we found at higher pBQN concentrations was a cysteine-dependent desensitization of TRPA1, and did not require prior activation. The cysteines required for desensitization are not accessible to all electrophiles as iodoacetamide and internally applied 2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl methanesulfonate failed to cause desensitization (despite large activation). Interestingly, following pBQN desensitization, wild-type TRPA1 had dramatically reduced response to the nonelectrophile agonist carvacrol, whereas the triple cysteine mutant TRPA1 retained its full response. Our results suggest that modification of multiple cysteine residues by electrophilic compounds can generate both activation and desensitization of the TRPA1 channel. PMID:23478802

  1. Characterization of sensory deficits in TrkB knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Perez-Pinera, P; García-Suarez, O; Germanŕ, A; Díaz-Esnal, B; de Carlos, F; Silos-Santiago, I; del Valle, M E; Cobo, J; Vega, J A

    2008-03-01

    The sensory deficit in TrkB deficient mice was evaluated by counting the neuronal loss in lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG), the absence of sensory receptors (cutaneous--associated to the hairy and glabrous skin - muscular and articular), and the percentage and size of the neurocalcin-positive DRG neurons (a calcium-binding protein which labels proprioceptive and mechanoceptive neurons). Mice lacking TrkB lost 32% of neurons, corresponding to the intermediate-sized and neurocalcin-positive ones. This neuronal lost was accomplished by the absence of Meissner corpuscles, and reduction of hair follicle-associated sensory nerve endings and Merkel cells. The mutation was without effect on Pacinian corpuscles, Golgi's organs and muscle spindles. Present results further characterize the sensory deficit of the TrkB-/- mice demonstrating that the intermediate-sized neurons in lumbar DRG, as well as the cutaneous rapidly and slowly adapting sensory receptors connected to them, are under the control of TrkB for survival and differentiation. This study might serve as a baseline for future studies in experimentally induced neuropathies affecting TrkB positive DRG neurons and their peripheral targets, and to use TrkB ligands in the treatment of neuropathies in which cutaneous mechanoreceptors are primarily involved. PMID:18248898

  2. Vanilloid receptor TRPV1-positive sensory afferents in the mouse ankle and knee joints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Won Gil Cho; Juli G. Valtschanoff

    2008-01-01

    TRPV1, a cation channel on sensory nerves sensitive to heat and capsaicin, plays an important role in the transduction of noxious stimuli to the spinal cord. It is expressed by neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) that may also express neuropeptides, which are important for the development of inflammation. Mice with genetic deletion of TRPV1 have been used to study

  3. Sensory Supported FES Control in Gait Training of Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury Persons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Imre Cikajlo; Zlatko Matjacic; Tadej Bajd; Ryoko Futami

    2005-01-01

    cc ´ Abstract: Sensory supported electrical stimulation of the peroneal nerve during treadmill walking is proposed as a gait-training modality in incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. A multisensor device provides information on the tilt of the shank during gait. The information provided significantly improves the triggering instant of the electrical stimulation. Simultaneously, swing-phase estimation serves as a reference to

  4. Effect of sensory stimulation (acupuncture) on sympathetic and parasympathetic activities in healthy subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Haker; Henrik Egekvist; Peter Bjerring

    2000-01-01

    It has been postulated that sensory stimulation (acupuncture) affects the cardiovascular system via the autonomic nervous system. Previously, skin temperature, thermography, plethysmography and blood pressure changes have been used in evaluation of sympathetic nerve activity following acupuncture. By using power spectral analysis, the low frequency and high frequency components of heart rate variability can be calculated reflecting the sympathetic and

  5. Sensory mechanisms of eye cleaning behavior in the cricket Gryllus campestris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-W. Honegger; H. Reif; W. Müller

    1979-01-01

    Mechanical stimulation of the compound eye of the cricketGryllus campestris induces an eye cleaning response which involves coordinated movements of the head and the forelegs. Interommatidial bristles and campaniform sensilla provide the sensory input for the behavior. The axons of these receptors project through a sidebranch of the nervus tegumentarius into the suboesophageal and prothoracic ganglion. Recordings from this nerve

  6. Single Gene Cricket Mutations: Effects on Behavior, Sensilla, Sensory Neurons, and Identified Interneurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Bentley

    1975-01-01

    Crickets are suitable for studying the effects of single gene mutations on single nerve cells. In one mutant, three classes of sensilla are lost sequentially. The absence of one class of mechanoreceptors throughout postembryonic development deprives certain sensory neurons of normal stimulation and results in abnormal physiological and structural development of an identified interneuron.

  7. Substance P: Localization in the Central Nervous System and in Some Primary Sensory Neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomas Hokfelt; Jan Olof Kellerth; Goran Nilsson; Bengt Pernow

    1975-01-01

    Antibodies to substance P with a high titer have been produced and used in immunohistochemical studies on the peripheral and central nervous system of the rat and the cat. Evidence was obtained for the localization of substance P in a certain population of primary sensory neurons, probably small nerve cells with unmyelinated processes. Substance P or a peptide similar to

  8. Response to intravenous immunoglobulin treatment in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy with only sensory symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. W. van Dijk; N. C. Notermans; H. Franssen; P. L. Oey; J. H. J. Wokke

    1996-01-01

    In an open prospective study we analysed the effect of treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IvIg) in three patients with clinically pure sensory neuropathy, two of whom met the clinical, electrophysiological, pathological and cerebrospinal fluid research criteria of the American Academy of Neurology for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. In all patients, subclinical signs of de myelination were present in motor nerves.

  9. Stretch-induced nerve injury: a proposed technique for the study of nerve regeneration and evaluation of the influence of gabapentin on this model

    PubMed Central

    Machado, J.A.; Ghizoni, M.F.; Bertelli, J.; Teske, Gabriel C.; Teske, Guilherme C.; Martins, D.F.; Mazzardo-Martins, L.; Cargnin-Ferreira, E.; Santos, A.R.S.; Piovezan, A.P.

    2013-01-01

    The rat models currently employed for studies of nerve regeneration present distinct disadvantages. We propose a new technique of stretch-induced nerve injury, used here to evaluate the influence of gabapentin (GBP) on nerve regeneration. Male Wistar rats (300 g; n=36) underwent surgery and exposure of the median nerve in the right forelimbs, either with or without nerve injury. The technique was performed using distal and proximal clamps separated by a distance of 2 cm and a sliding distance of 3 mm. The nerve was compressed and stretched for 5 s until the bands of Fontana disappeared. The animals were evaluated in relation to functional, biochemical and histological parameters. Stretching of the median nerve led to complete loss of motor function up to 12 days after the lesion (P<0.001), compared to non-injured nerves, as assessed in the grasping test. Grasping force in the nerve-injured animals did not return to control values up to 30 days after surgery (P<0.05). Nerve injury also caused an increase in the time of sensory recovery, as well as in the electrical and mechanical stimulation tests. Treatment of the animals with GBP promoted an improvement in the morphometric analysis of median nerve cross-sections compared with the operated vehicle group, as observed in the area of myelinated fibers or connective tissue (P<0.001), in the density of myelinated fibers/mm2 (P<0.05) and in the degeneration fragments (P<0.01). Stretch-induced nerve injury seems to be a simple and relevant model for evaluating nerve regeneration. PMID:24270909

  10. Somatomotor and sensory urethral control of micturition in female rats.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Yolanda; Pastelín, César; Balog, Brian M; Zaszczurynski, Paul J; Damaser, Margot S

    2014-12-01

    In rats, axons of external urethral sphincter (EUS) motoneurons travel through the anastomotic branch of the pudendal nerve (ABPD) and anastomotic branch of the lumbosacral trunk (ABLT) and converge in the motor branch of the sacral plexus (MBSP). The aim of the present study was to determine in female rats the contribution of these somatomotor pathways and urethral sensory innervation from the dorsal nerve of the clitoris on urinary continence and voiding. EUS electromyographic (EMG) activity during cystometry, leak point pressure (LPP), and voiding efficiency (VE) were assessed in anesthetized virgin Sprague-Dawley female rats before and after transection of the above nerve branches. Transection of the MBSP eliminated EUS EMG, decreased LPP by 50%, and significantly reduced bladder contraction duration, peak pressure, intercontraction interval, and VE. Transection of the ABPD or ABLT decreased EUS EMG discharge and LPP by 25% but did not affect VE. Transection of the dorsal nerve of the clitoris did not affect LPP but reduced contraction duration, peak pressure, intercontraction interval, and VE. We conclude that somatomotor control of micturition is provided by the MBSP with axons travelling through the ABPD and ABLT. Partial somatomotor urethral denervation induces mild urinary incontinence, whereas partial afferent denervation induces voiding dysfunction. ABPD and ABLT pathways could represent a safeguard ensuring innervation to the EUS in case of upper nerve damage. Detailed knowledge of neuroanatomy and functional innervation of the urethra will enable more accurate animal models of neural development, disease, and dysfunction in the future. PMID:25339694

  11. Blockade of Nerve Sprouting and Neuroma Formation Markedly Attenuates the Development of Late Stage Cancer Pain

    PubMed Central

    Mantyh, William G.; Jimenez-Andrade, Juan M.; Stake, James I.; Bloom, Aaron P.; Kaczmarska, Magdalena J.; Taylor, Reid N.; Freeman, Katie T.; Ghilardi, Joseph R.; Kuskowski, Michael A.; Mantyh, Patrick W.

    2010-01-01

    For many patients, pain is the first sign of cancer and, while pain can be present at any time, the frequency and intensity of pain tend to increase with advancing stages of the disease. Thus, between 75 and 90% of patients with metastatic or advanced-stage cancer will experience significant cancer-induced pain. One major unanswered question is why cancer pain increases and frequently becomes more difficult to fully control with disease progression. To gain insight into this question we used a mouse model of bone cancer pain to demonstrate that as tumor growth progresses within bone, Tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA)-expressing sensory and sympathetic nerve fibers undergo profuse sprouting and form neuroma-like structures. To address what is driving the pathological nerve reorganization we administered an antibody to nerve growth factor (anti-NGF). Early sustained administration of anti-NGF, whose cognate receptor is TrkA, blocks the pathological sprouting of sensory and sympathetic nerve fibers, the formation of neuroma-like structures, and inhibits the development of cancer pain. These results suggest that cancer cells and their associated stromal cells release NGF, which induces a pathological remodeling of sensory and sympathetic nerve fibers. This pathological remodeling of the peripheral nervous system then participates in driving cancer pain. Similar to therapies that target the cancer itself, the data presented here suggest that the earlier that therapies blocking this pathological nerve remodeling are initiated, the more effective the control of cancer pain. PMID:20851743

  12. Cortical Brain Mapping of Peripheral Nerves Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Rodent Model

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Younghoon R.; Jones, Seth R.; Pawela, Christopher P.; Li, Rupeng; Kao, Dennis S.; Schulte, Marie L.; Runquist, Matthew L.; Yan, Ji-Geng; Hudetz, Anthony G.; Jaradeh, Safwan S.; Hyde, James S.; Matloub, Hani S.

    2008-01-01

    The regions of the body have cortical and subcortical representation in proportion to their degree of innervation. The rat forepaw has been studied extensively in recent years using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)—typically by stimulation using electrodes directly inserted into the skin of the forepaw. Here, we stimulate using surgically implanted electrodes. A major distinction is that stimulation of the skin of the forepaw is mostly sensory, whereas direct nerve stimulation reveals not only the sensory system but also deep brain structures associated with motor activity. In this paper, we seek to define both the motor and sensory cortical and subcortical representations associated with the four major nerves of the rodent upper extremity. We electrically stimulated each nerve (median, ulnar, radial, and musculocutaneous) during fMRI acquisition using a 9.4T Bruker scanner. A current level of 0.5-1.0 mA and a frequency of 5 Hz were used while keeping the duration constant. A distinct pattern of cortical activation was found for each nerve that can be correlated with known sensorimotor afferent and efferent pathways to the rat forepaw. This direct nerve stimulation rat model can provide insight into peripheral nerve injury. PMID:18924070

  13. Chronic cough as a sign of laryngeal sensory neuropathy: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bryant; Woo, Peak

    2005-04-01

    Chronic cough is often attributed to reflux, postnasal drip, or asthma. We present 28 patients who had chronic cough or throat-clearing as a manifestation of sensory neuropathy involving the superior or recurrent laryngeal nerve. They had been identified as having sudden-onset cough, laryngospasm, or throat-clearing after viral illness, surgery, or an unknown trigger. Cough and laryngospasm were the most common complaints. Seventy-one percent of the patients had concomitant superior laryngeal nerve or recurrent laryngeal nerve motor neuropathy documented by laryngeal electromyography or videostroboscopy. After a negative workup for reflux, asthma, or postnasal drip, these patients were treated with gabapentin at 100 to 900 mg/d. Symptomatic relief was achieved in 68% of the patients. Sensory neuropathy of the recurrent laryngeal nerve or superior laryngeal nerve should be considered in the workup for chronic cough or larynx irritability. Symptomatic management of patients with cough and laryngospasm due to a suspected sensory neuropathy may include the use of antiseizure medications such as gabapentin. PMID:15895778

  14. Advances in nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Khuong, Helene T; Midha, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    Patients with peripheral nerve injuries face unpredictable and often suboptimal functional outcome, even following standard microsurgical nerve repair. The challenge of improving such outcomes following nerve surgical procedures has interested many research teams, in both clinical and fundamental fields. Some innovative treatments are presently being applied to a widening range of patients, whereas others will require further development before translation to human subjects. This article presents several recent advances in emerging therapies at various stages of clinical application. Nerve transfers have been successfully used in clinical settings, but new indications are being described, enlarging the range of patients who might benefit from them. Brief direct nerve electrical stimulation has been shown to improve nerve regeneration and outcome in animal models and in a small cohort of patients. Further clinical trials are warranted to prove the efficacy of this exciting and easily applicable approach. Animal studies also suggest a tremendous potential for stem and precursor cell therapy. Further studies will lead to a better understanding of their mechanisms of action in nerve repair and potential applications for human patients. PMID:23250767

  15. Changes in nerve microcirculation following peripheral nerve compression?

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yueming; Weng, Changshui; Wang, Xinglin

    2013-01-01

    Following peripheral nerve compression, peripheral nerve microcirculation plays important roles in regulating the nerve microenvironment and neurotrophic substances, supplying blood and oxygen and maintaining neural conduction and axonal transport. This paper has retrospectively analyzed the articles published in the past 10 years that addressed the relationship between peripheral nerve compression and changes in intraneural microcirculation. In addition, we describe changes in different peripheral nerves, with the aim of providing help for further studies in peripheral nerve microcirculation and understanding its protective mechanism, and exploring new clinical methods for treating peripheral nerve compression from the perspective of neural microcirculation. PMID:25206398

  16. The nerve injury and the dying neurons: diagnosis and prevention.

    PubMed

    Terenghi, Giorgio; Hart, Andrew; Wiberg, Mikael

    2011-11-01

    Following distal nerve injury significant sensory neuronal cell death occurs in the dorsal root ganglia, while after a more proximal injury, such as brachial plexus injury, a sizeable proportion of spinal motoneurons also undergo cell death. This phenomenon has been undervalued for a long time, but it has a significant role in the lack of functional recuperation, as neuronal cells cannot divide and be replaced, hence the resulting nerve regeneration is usually suboptimal. It is now accepted that this cell death is due to apoptosis, as indicated by analysis of specific genes involved in the apoptotic signalling cascade. Immediate nerve repair, either by direct suturing or nerve grafting, gives a degree of neuroprotection, but this approach does not fully prevent neuronal cell death and importantly it is not always possible. Our work has shown that pharmacological intervention using either acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) or N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) give complete neuroprotection in different types of peripheral nerve injury. Both compounds are clinically safe and experimental work has defined the best dose, timing after injury and duration of administration. The efficacy of neuroprotection of ALCAR and NAC can be monitored non-invasively using MRI, as demonstrated experimentally and more recently by clinical studies of the volume of dorsal root ganglia. Translation to patients of this pharmacological intervention requires further work, but the available results indicate that this approach will help to secure a better functional outcome following peripheral nerve injury and repair. PMID:22058229

  17. Brain Mass and Cranial Nerve Size in Shrews and Moles

    PubMed Central

    Leitch, Duncan B.; Sarko, Diana K.; Catania, Kenneth C.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between body size, brain size, and fibers in selected cranial nerves in shrews and moles. Species include tiny masked shrews (S. cinereus) weighing only a few grams and much larger mole species weighing up to 90 grams. It also includes closely related species with very different sensory specializations – such as the star-nosed mole and the common, eastern mole. We found that moles and shrews have tiny optic nerves with fiber counts not correlated with body or brain size. Auditory nerves were similarly small but increased in fiber number with increasing brain and body size. Trigeminal nerve number was by far the largest and also increased with increasing brain and body size. The star-nosed mole was an outlier, with more than twice the number of trigeminal nerve fibers than any other species. Despite this hypertrophied cranial nerve, star-nosed mole brains were not larger than predicted from body size, suggesting that magnification of their somatosensory systems does not result in greater overall CNS size. PMID:25174995

  18. Corneal confocal microscopy: A novel means to detect nerve fibre damage in idiopathic small fibre neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Mitra; Marshall, Andrew; Pitceathly, Robert; Gow, David; Roberts, Mark E; Malik, Rayaz A

    2009-01-01

    Patients with idiopathic small fibre neuropathy (ISFN) have been shown to have significant intraepidermal nerve fibre loss and an increased prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). It has been suggested that the dysglycemia of IGT and additional metabolic risk factors may contribute to small nerve fibre damage in these patients. 25 patients with ISFN and 12 aged-matched control subjects underwent a detailed evaluation of neuropathic symptoms, neurological deficits (Neuropathy deficit score (NDS); Nerve Conduction Studies (NCS); Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) and Corneal Confocal Microscopy (CCM) to quantify small nerve fibre pathology. 8 (32%) of patients had IGT. Whilst all patients with ISFN had significant neuropathic symptoms, NDS, NCS and QST except for warm thresholds were normal. Corneal sensitivity was reduced and CCM demonstrated a significant reduction in corneal nerve fibre density (NFD) (P<0.0001), nerve branch density (NBD) (P<0.0001), nerve fibre length (NFL) (P<0.0001) and an increase in nerve fibre tortuosity (NFT) (P<0.0001). However these parameters did not differ between ISFN patients with and without IGT, nor did they correlate with BMI, lipids and blood pressure. Corneal confocal microscopy provides a sensitive non-invasive means to detect small nerve fibre damage in patients with ISFN and metabolic abnormalities do not relate to nerve damage. PMID:19748505

  19. Myelinated nerve endings in human skin.

    PubMed

    Provitera, Vincenzo; Nolano, Maria; Pagano, Angela; Caporaso, Giuseppe; Stancanelli, Annamaria; Santoro, Lucio

    2007-06-01

    We used immunohistochemical techniques and confocal microscopy to study the morphometry of myelinated nerve endings in glabrous and hairy skin. A total of 30 healthy volunteers took part in this study designed to assess the possibility of obtaining reliable information on myelinated fibers using samples of hairy skin and to determine whether differences exist between myelinated terminations from different sites. We obtained consistent information on cutaneous myelinated terminations using hairy as well as glabrous skin samples. Myelinated endings from hairy and glabrous skin differ in density and distribution. However, from a comparison of our findings with data from nerve biopsy studies, we conclude that all cutaneous myelinated terminations are thinner terminal branches of large myelinated A beta fibers, whereas cutaneous terminations of small myelinated A delta fibers lose their myelin before entering the dermis and become indistinguishable from C-fiber terminations. The classic criteria, based on fiber size, used to distinguish myelinated fiber subgroups in sensory nerves are therefore not suitable for identifying myelinated terminations in the skin. PMID:17405136

  20. Anterior interosseous nerve syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bäumer, Philipp; Meinck, Hans-Michael; Schiefer, Johannes; Weiler, Markus; Bendszus, Martin; Kele, Henrich

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We sought to determine lesion sites and spatial lesion patterns in spontaneous anterior interosseous nerve syndrome (AINS) with high-resolution magnetic resonance neurography (MRN). Methods: In 20 patients with AINS and 20 age- and sex-matched controls, MRN of median nerve fascicles was performed at 3T with large longitudinal anatomical coverage (upper arm/elbow/forearm): 135 contiguous axial slices (T2-weighted: echo time/repetition time 52/7,020 ms, time of acquisition: 15 minutes 48 seconds, in-plane resolution: 0.25 × 0.25 mm). Lesion classification was performed by visual inspection and by quantitative analysis of normalized T2 signal after segmentation of median nerve voxels. Results: In all patients and no controls, T2 lesions of individual fascicles were observed within upper arm median nerve trunk and strictly followed a somatotopic/internal topography: affected were those motor fascicles that will form the anterior interosseous nerve further distally while other fascicles were spared. Predominant lesion focus was at a mean distance of 14.6 ± 5.4 cm proximal to the humeroradial joint. Discriminative power of quantitative T2 signal analysis and of qualitative lesion rating was high, with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity (p < 0.0001). Fascicular T2 lesion patterns were rated as multifocal (n = 17), monofocal (n = 2), or indeterminate (n = 1) by 2 independent observers with strong agreement (kappa = 0.83). Conclusion: It has been difficult to prove the existence of fascicular/partial nerve lesions in spontaneous neuropathies using clinical and electrophysiologic findings. With MRN, fascicular lesions with strict somatotopic organization were observed in upper arm median nerve trunks of patients with AINS. Our data strongly support that AINS in the majority of cases is not a surgically treatable entrapment neuropathy but a multifocal mononeuropathy selectively involving, within the main trunk of the median nerve, the motor fascicles that continue distally to form the anterior interosseous nerve. PMID:24415574