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Sample records for sensu lato mediante

  1. The Phylogeny of Bacillus cereus sensu lato.

    PubMed

    Okinaka, Richard T; Keim, Paul

    2016-02-01

    The three main species of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato, B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, and B. anthracis, were recognized and established by the early 1900 s because they each exhibited distinct phenotypic traits. B. thuringiensis isolates and their parasporal crystal proteins have long been established as a natural pesticide and insect pathogen. B. anthracis, the etiological agent for anthrax, was used by Robert Koch in the 19th century as a model to develop the germ theory of disease, and B. cereus, a common soil organism, is also an occasional opportunistic pathogen of humans. In addition to these three historical species designations, are three less-recognized and -understood species: B. mycoides, B. weihenstephanensis, and B. pseudomycoides. All of these "species" combined comprise the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group. Despite these apparently clear phenotypic definitions, early molecular approaches to separate the first three by various DNA hybridization and 16S/23S ribosomal sequence analyses led to some "confusion" because there were limited differences to differentiate between these species. These and other results have led to frequent suggestions that a taxonomic change was warranted to reclassify this group to a single species. But the pathogenic properties of B. anthracis and the biopesticide applications of B. thuringiensis appear to "have outweighed pure taxonomic considerations" and the separate species categories are still being maintained. B. cereus sensu lato represents a classic example of a now common bacterial species taxonomic quandary. PMID:26999390

  2. A proposal for the classification of biological weapons sensu lato.

    PubMed

    Rozsa, Lajos

    2014-12-01

    Due to historical and legislation reasons, the category of bioweapons is rather poorly defined. Authors often disagree on involving or excluding agents like hormones, psychochemicals, certain plants and animals (such as weeds or pests) or synthetic organisms. Applying a wide definition apparently threatens by eroding the regime of international legislation, while narrow definitions abandon several important issues. Therefore, I propose a category of 'biological weapons sensu lato' (BWsl) that is defined here as any tool of human aggression whose acting principle is based on disciplines of biology including particularly microbiology, epidemiology, medical biology, physiology, psychology, pharmacology and ecology, but excluding those based on inorganic agents. Synthetically produced equivalents (not necessarily exact copies) and mock weapons are also included. This definition does not involve any claim to subject all these weapons to international legislation but serves a purely scholarly purpose. BWsl may be properly categorized on the base of the magnitude of the human population potentially targeted (4 levels: individuals, towns, countries, global) and the biological nature of the weapons' intended effects (4 levels: agricultural-ecological agents, and non-pathogenic, pathogenic, or lethal agents against humans). PMID:24992886

  3. Taxonomy and molecular epidemiology of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato.

    PubMed

    Romig, T; Ebi, D; Wassermann, M

    2015-10-30

    Echinococcus granulosus, formerly regarded as a single species with a high genotypic and phenotypic diversity, is now recognised as an assemblage of cryptic species, which differ considerably in morphology, development, host specificity (including infectivity/pathogenicity for humans) and other aspects. This diversity is reflected in the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes and has led to the construction of phylogenetic trees and hypotheses on the origin and geographic dispersal of various taxa. Based on phenotypic characters and gene sequences, E. granulosus (sensu lato) has by now been subdivided into E. granulosus sensu stricto (including the formerly identified genotypic variants G1-3), Echinococcus felidis (the former 'lion strain'), Echinococcus equinus (the 'horse strain', genotype G4), Echinococcus ortleppi (the 'cattle strain', genotype G5) and Echinococcus canadensis. The latter species, as recognised here, shows the highest diversity and is composed of the 'camel strain', genotype G6, the 'pig strain', genotype G7, and two 'cervid strains', genotypes G8 and G10. There is debate whether the closely related G6 and G7 should be placed in a separate species, but more morphological and biological data are needed to support or reject this view. In this classification, the application of rules for zoological nomenclature led to the resurrection of old species names, which had before been synonymised with E. granulosus. This nomenclatural subdivision of the agents of cystic echinococcosis (CE) may appear inconvenient for practical applications, especially because molecular tools are needed for identification of the cyst stage, and because retrospective data on 'E. granulosus' are now difficult to interpret without examination of voucher specimens. However, the increased awareness for the diversity of CE agents - now emphasised by species names rather than genotype numbers - has led to a large number of recent studies on this issue and a rapid increase of knowledge

  4. Infection of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in North Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhioua, E.; Bouattour, A.; Hu, C.M.; Gharbi, M.; Aeschliman, A.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Gern, L.

    1999-01-01

    Free-living adult Ixodes ricinus L. were collected in Amdoun, situated in the Kroumiry mountains in northwestern Tunisia (North Africa). Using direct fluorescence antibody assay, the infection rate of field-collected I. ricinus by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was 30.5% (n = 72). No difference in infection rate was observed between male and female ticks. Spirochetes that had been isolated from I. ricinus from Ain Drahim (Kroumiry Mountains) in 1988 were identified as Borrelia lusitaniae (formerly genospecies PotiB2). This is the first identification of a genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from the continent of Africa.

  5. Whole genome sequence of an unusual Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolate

    SciTech Connect

    Casjens, S.R.; Dunn, J.; Fraser-Liggett, C. M.; Mongodin, E. F.; Qiu, W. G.; Luft, B. J.; Schutzer, S. E.

    2011-03-01

    Human Lyme disease is caused by a number of related Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species. We report here the complete genome sequence of Borrelia sp. isolate SV1 from Finland. This isolate is to date the closest known relative of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, but it is sufficiently genetically distinct from that species that it and its close relatives warrant its candidacy for new-species status. We suggest that this isolate should be named 'Borrelia finlandensis.'

  6. A new species of Chaenusa Haliday sensu lato (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from the Nearctic Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chaenusa psillosae Kula, new species from the Nearctic Region is described. Specimens upon which the new species is described were reared from an undetermined species of Hydrellia Robineau-Desvoidy infesting Sagittaria latifolia Willd. A key to the New World species of Chaenusa sensu lato is amended...

  7. Antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato among Adults, Germany, 2008–2011

    PubMed Central

    Fingerle, Volker; Klier, Christiane; Thamm, Michael; Stark, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    To assess Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (the cause of Lyme borreliosis) seropositivity in Germany, we tested serum samples from health survey (2008–2011) participants. Seroprevalence was 5.8% among women and 13.0% among men; infection risk was highest among persons >60 years of age. Public health interventions, including education about risk factors and preventive measures, are needed. PMID:25531140

  8. Antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato among Adults, Germany, 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Wilking, Hendrik; Fingerle, Volker; Klier, Christiane; Thamm, Michael; Stark, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    To assess Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (the cause of Lyme borreliosis) seropositivity in Germany, we tested serum samples from health survey (2008-2011) participants. Seroprevalence was 5.8% among women and 13.0% among men; infection risk was highest among persons >60 years of age. Public health interventions, including education about risk factors and preventive measures, are needed. PMID:25531140

  9. Multilocus sequence typing of Pseudomonas syringae sensu lato confirms previously described genomospecies and permits rapid identification.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2002, severe leaf spotting on parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.) has occurred in Monterey County, California. One of two different pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae sensu lato were isolated from diseased leaves from seven distinct outbreaks and twice from the same outbreak (2002 and 2009). Frag...

  10. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of DNA from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ixodes ricinus ticks.

    PubMed

    Muntean, Cristina M; Stefan, Razvan; Bindea, Maria; Cozma, Vasile

    2013-06-01

    In this work we present a method for detection of motile and immotile Borrelia burgdorferi genomic DNA, in relation with infectious and noninfectious spirochetes. An FT-IR study of DNA isolated from B. burgdorferi sensu lato strains and from positive and negative Ixodes ricinus ticks, respectively, is reported. Motile bacterial cells from the species B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii were of interest. Also, FT-IR absorbance spectra of DNA from immotile spirochetes of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, in the absence and presence of different antibiotics (doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, penicillin V or phenoxymethylpenicillin, tetracycline, respectively) were investigated. FT-IR spectra, providing a high molecular structural information, have been analyzed in the wavenumber range 400-1800 cm(-1). FT-IR signatures, spectroscopic band assignments and structural interpretations of these DNAs are reported. Spectral differences between FT-IR absorbances of DNAs from motile bacterial cells and immotile spirochetes, respectively, have been found. Particularly, alterations of the sugar-phosphate B-form chain in the case of DNA from Borrelia immotile cells, as compared with DNA from B. burgdorferi sensu lato motile cells have been observed. Based on this work, specific B. burgdorferi sensu lato and I. ricinus DNA-ligand interactions, respectively, might be further investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. PMID:23563637

  11. Molecular and Pathogenic Characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Isolates from Spain

    PubMed Central

    Escudero, Raquel; Barral, Marta; Pérez, Azucena; Vitutia, M. Mar; García-Pérez, Ana L.; Jiménez, Santos; Sellek, Ricela E.; Anda, Pedro

    2000-01-01

    Fifteen Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates from questing ticks and skin biopsy specimens from erythema migrans patients in three different areas of Spain were characterized. Four different genospecies were found (nine Borrelia garinii, including the two human isolates, three B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, two B. valaisiana, and one B. lusitaniae), showing a diverse spectrum of B. burgdorferi sensu lato species. B. garinii isolates were highly variable in terms of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern and OspA serotype, with four of the seven serotypes described. One of the human isolates was OspA serotype 5, the same found in four of seven tick isolates. The second human isolate was OspA serotype 3, which was not present in ticks from the same area. Seven B. garinii isolates were able to disseminate through the skin of C3H/HeN mice and to cause severe inflammation of joints. One of the two B. valaisiana isolates also caused disease in mice. Only one B. burgdorferi sensu stricto isolate was recovered from the urinary bladder. One isolate each of B. valaisiana and B. lusitaniae were not able to disseminate through the skin of mice or to infect internal organs. In summary, there is substantial diversity in the species and in the pathogenicity of B. burgdorferi sensu lato in areas in northern Spain where Lyme disease is endemic. PMID:11060064

  12. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of DNA from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ixodes ricinus ticks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muntean, Cristina M.; Stefan, Razvan; Bindea, Maria; Cozma, Vasile

    2013-06-01

    In this work we present a method for detection of motile and immotile Borrelia burgdorferi genomic DNA, in relation with infectious and noninfectious spirochetes. An FT-IR study of DNA isolated from B. burgdorferi sensu lato strains and from positive and negative Ixodes ricinus ticks, respectively, is reported. Motile bacterial cells from the species B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii were of interest. Also, FT-IR absorbance spectra of DNA from immotile spirochetes of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, in the absence and presence of different antibiotics (doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, penicillin V or phenoxymethylpenicillin, tetracycline, respectively) were investigated. FT-IR spectra, providing a high molecular structural information, have been analyzed in the wavenumber range 400-1800 cm-1. FT-IR signatures, spectroscopic band assignments and structural interpretations of these DNAs are reported. Spectral differences between FT-IR absorbances of DNAs from motile bacterial cells and immotile spirochetes, respectively, have been found. Particularly, alterations of the sugar-phosphate B-form chain in the case of DNA from Borrelia immotile cells, as compared with DNA from B. burgdorferi sensu lato motile cells have been observed. Based on this work, specific B. burgdorferi sensu lato and I. ricinus DNA-ligand interactions, respectively, might be further investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  13. Mating type markers reveal high levels of heterothallism in Leptographium sensu lato.

    PubMed

    Duong, Tuan A; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    Species of Leptographium sensu lato are sap-stain fungi vectored by bark beetles and some species cause or are associated with tree diseases. Sexual states have been reported for more than 30 species in this group and these have been treated in the sexual genus Grosmannia. No sexual state is known for at least 59 additional species and these reside in the genus Leptographium. The discovery of sexual states for species of Leptographium relies mainly on the presence of fruiting bodies on host tissue at the time of isolation and/or intensive laboratory mating studies, which commonly have low levels of success. We developed mating-type markers to study sexual compatibility of species in Leptographium sensu lato. Using these markers, it was possible to identify mating types for 42 species and to determine thallism in many species for the first time. Surprisingly, the results showed that heterothallic and putatively heterothallic species are abundant (39 out of 42 species) in Leptographium sensu lato, and only three species were confirmed to be homothallic. The mating type markers developed in this study will be useful for future studies concerning mating type and sexual compatibility of species in this genus. PMID:27020155

  14. Comparative histology of floral elaiophores in the orchids Rudolfiella picta (Schltr.) Hoehne (Maxillariinae sensu lato) and Oncidium ornithorhynchum H.B.K. (Oncidiinae sensu lato)

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Kevin L.; Stpiczyńska, Malgorzata

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Floral elaiophores, although widespread amongst orchids, have not previously been described for Maxillariinae sensu lato. Here, two claims that epithelial, floral elaiophores occur in the genus Rudolfiella Hoehne (Bifrenaria clade) are investigated. Presumed elaiophores were compared with those of Oncidiinae Benth. and the floral, resin-secreting tissues of Rhetinantha M.A. Blanco and Heterotaxis Lindl., both genera formerly assigned to Maxillaria Ruiz & Pav. (Maxillariinae sensu stricto). Methods Putative, floral elaiophore tissue of Rudolfiella picta (Schltr.) Hoehne and floral elaiophores of Oncidium ornithorhynchum H.B.K. were examined by means of light microscopy, histochemistry, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Key Results and Conclusions Floral, epithelial elaiophores are present in Rudolfiella picta, indicating, for the first time, that oil secretion occurs amongst members of the Bifrenaria clade (Maxillariinae sensu lato). However, whereas the elaiophore of R. picta is borne upon the labellar callus, the elaiophores of O. ornithorhynchum occur on the lateral lobes of the labellum. In both species, the elaiophore comprises a single layer of palisade secretory cells and parenchymatous, subsecretory tissue. Cell wall cavities are absent from both and there is no evidence of cuticular distension in response to oil accumulation between the outer tangential wall and the overlying cuticle in R. picta. Distension of the cuticle, however, occurs in O. ornithorhynchum. Secretory cells of R. picta contain characteristic, spherical or oval plastids with abundant plastoglobuli and these more closely resemble plastids found in labellar, secretory cells of representatives of Rhetinantha (formerly Maxillaria acuminata Lindl. alliance) than elaiophore plastids of Oncidiinae. In Rhetinantha, such plastids are involved in the synthesis of resin-like material or wax. Despite these differences, the elaiophore anatomy of

  15. Molecular epidemiology and in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of 108 clinical Cryptococcus neoformans sensu lato and Cryptococcus gattii sensu lato isolates from Denmark.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Ferry; Hare Jensen, Rasmus; Meis, Jacques F; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2016-09-01

    Cryptococcosis is mainly caused by members of the Cryptococcus gattii/Cryptococcus neoformans species complexes. Here, we report the molecular characterisation and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Danish clinical cryptococcal isolates. Species, genotype, serotype and mating type were determined by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting and qPCR. EUCAST E.Def 7.2 MICs were determined for amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole and isavuconazole. Most isolates were C. neoformans (serotype A; n = 66) and belonged to genotype AFLP1/VNI (n = 61) or AFLP1B/VNII (n = 5) followed by Cryptococcus deneoformans (serotype D; genotype AFLP2, n = 20), C. neoformans × C. deneoformans hybrids (serotype AD; genotype AFLP3, n = 13) and Cryptococcus curvatus (n = 2). Six isolates were C. gattii sensu lato, and one isolate was a C. deneoformans × C. gattii hybrid (genotype AFLP8). All isolates were amphotericin B susceptible. Flucytosine susceptibility was uniform MIC50 of 4-8 mg l(-1) except for C. curvatus (MICs >32 mg l(-1) ). Cryptococcus gattii sensu lato isolates were somewhat less susceptible to the azoles. MICs of fluconazole (>32 mg l(-1) ), voriconazole (≥0.5 mg l(-1) ) and isavuconazole (0.06 and 0.25 mg l(-1) respectively) were elevated compared to the wild-type population for 1/19 C. deneoformans and 1/2 C. curvatus isolates. Flucytosine MIC was elevated for 1/61 C. neoformans (>32 mg l(-1) ). Antifungal susceptibility revealed species-specific differential susceptibility, but suggested acquired resistance was an infrequent phenomenon. PMID:27061834

  16. Revisiting phylogenetic diversity and cryptic species of Cenococcum geophilum sensu lato.

    PubMed

    Obase, Keisuke; Douhan, Greg W; Matsuda, Yosuke; Smith, Matthew E

    2016-08-01

    The fungus Cenococcum geophilum Fr. (Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota) is one of the most common ectomycorrhizal fungi in boreal to temperate regions. A series of molecular studies has demonstrated that C. geophilum is monophyletic but a heterogeneous species or a species complex. Here, we revisit the phylogenetic diversity of C. geophilum sensu lato from a regional to intercontinental scale by using new data from Florida (USA) along with existing data in GenBank from Japan, Europe, and North America. The combination of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene resolved six well-supported lineages (87-100 % bootstrap values) that are closely related to each other and a seventh lineage that is phylogenetically distinct. A multi-locus analysis (small subunit (SSU), large subunit (LSU), translational elongation factor (TEF), and the largest and second-largest subunits of RNA polymerase II (RPB1 and RPB2)) revealed that the divergent lineage is the sister group to all other known Cenococcum isolates. Isolates of the divergent lineage grow fast on nutrient media and do not form ectomycorrhizas on seedlings of several pine and oak species. Our results indicate that C. geophilum sensu lato includes more phylogenetically distinct cryptic species than have previously been reported. Furthermore, the divergent lineage appears to be a non-mycorrhizal sister group. We discuss the phylogenetic diversity of C. geophilum sensu lato and argue in favor of species recognition based on phylogenetic and ecological information in addition to morphological characteristics. A new genus and species (Pseudocenococcum floridanum gen. et sp. nov.) is proposed to accommodate a divergent and putatively non-mycorrhizal lineage. PMID:26968743

  17. Serological reactivity to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in dogs and horses from distinct areas in Romania.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Timea; Cadar, Daniel; Krupaci, Alexandra Florina; Bordeanu, Armela; Brudaşcă, Gheorghe Florinel; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel; Mircean, Viorica; Gliga, Lucia; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; Spînu, Marina

    2011-09-01

    Lyme disease is a perfect model of the complex relationship between host, vector, and the vector-borne bacteria. Both dogs and horses in Romania are exposed to infection. The aim of the present study was to assess the seroreactivity against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in dogs and horses from different regions of Romania. 276 samples from dogs and 260 samples from horses located in different regions of Romania were analyzed by ELISA and IFA, respectively. The effect of several factors potentially affecting seroreactivity (location, age, gender, occupation, and vector exposition risk) was evaluated using Fisher's exact test (R 2.12.0). The overall prevalence of anti-Borrelia antibodies was 6.52% (18/276) in dogs, with a significantly higher positivity (46.15%, 6/13, p = 0.0005) recorded in a midcountry region. Seroreactivity was correlated with occupation, with working dogs being more exposed. The results may indicate that Lyme borreliosis foci are restricted to small areas, but further studies on Borrelia prevalence in tick populations are needed to confirm this hypothesis. In horses, a global seroprevalence of 11.92% (31/260) was observed. No correlations were found between positive results and age, sex, county, or occupation. This is the first serological survey on antibodies to B. burgdorferi sensu lato in Romanian dogs and horses. PMID:21612524

  18. First isolation and cultivation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from Missouri.

    PubMed

    Oliver, J H; Kollars, T M; Chandler, F W; James, A M; Masters, E J; Lane, R S; Huey, L O

    1998-01-01

    Five Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates from Missouri are described. This represents the first report and characterization of such isolates from that state. The isolates were obtained from either Ixodes dentatus or Amblyomma americanum ticks that had been feeding on cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) from a farm in Bollinger County, Mo., where a human case of Lyme disease had been reported. All isolates were screened immunologically by indirect immunofluorescence by using monoclonal antibodies to B. burgdorferi-specific outer surface protein A (OspA) (antibodies H3TS and H5332), B. burgdorferi-specific OspB (antibody H6831), Borrelia (genus)-specific antiflagellin (antibody H9724), and Borrelia hermsii-specific antibody (antibody H9826). Analysis of the isolates also involved a comparison of their protein profiles by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Finally, the isolates were analyzed by PCR with six pairs of primers known to amplify selected DNA target sequences specifically found in the reference strain B. burgdorferi B-31. Although some genetic variability was detected among the five isolates as well as between them and the B-31 strain, enough similarities were found to classify them as B. burgdorferi sensu lato. PMID:9431909

  19. Draft Genome Sequences of Human Pathogenic Fungus Geomyces pannorum Sensu Lato and Bat White Nose Syndrome Pathogen Geomyces (Pseudogymnoascus) destructans.

    PubMed

    Chibucos, Marcus C; Crabtree, Jonathan; Nagaraj, Sushma; Chaturvedi, Sudha; Chaturvedi, Vishnu

    2013-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequences of Geomyces pannorum sensu lato and Geomyces (Pseudogymnoascus) destructans. G. pannorum has a larger proteome than G. destructans, containing more proteins with ascribed enzymatic functions. This dichotomy in the genomes of related psychrophilic fungi is a valuable target for defining their distinct saprobic and pathogenic attributes. PMID:24356829

  20. Revision of New World Chaenusa Haliday sensu lato (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae), with new species, synonymies, hosts, and distribution records

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The New World species of Chaenusa Haliday sensu lato are revised. A diagnosis is provided for Chaenusa s.l. Four new species from North America, Chaenusa trumani, Chaenusa virgili, Chaenusa whartoni, and Chaenusa woolleyi, and two new species from South America, Chaenusa hirsutissima and Chaenusa ir...

  1. Draft Genome Sequences of Human Pathogenic Fungus Geomyces pannorum Sensu Lato and Bat White Nose Syndrome Pathogen Geomyces (Pseudogymnoascus) destructans

    PubMed Central

    Crabtree, Jonathan; Nagaraj, Sushma; Chaturvedi, Sudha

    2013-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequences of Geomyces pannorum sensu lato and Geomyces (Pseudogymnoascus) destructans. G. pannorum has a larger proteome than G. destructans, containing more proteins with ascribed enzymatic functions. This dichotomy in the genomes of related psychrophilic fungi is a valuable target for defining their distinct saprobic and pathogenic attributes. PMID:24356829

  2. Genetic structure of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato isolates infecting papaya inferred by multilocus ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Rampersad, Sephra N

    2013-02-01

    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato is widely distributed throughout temperate and tropical regions and causes anthracnose disease in numerous plant species. Development of effective disease management strategies is dependent on, among other factors, an understanding of pathogen genetic diversity and population stratification at the intraspecific level. For 132 isolates of C. gloeosporioides sensu lato collected from papaya in Trinidad, inter-simple-sequence repeat-polymerase chain reaction (ISSR-PCR) generated 121 polymorphic loci from five ISSR primers selected from an initial screen of 22 ISSR primers. The mean percentage of polymorphic loci was 99.18%. Bayesian cluster analysis inferred three genetic subpopulations, where group 1 consisted exclusively of isolates collected in the southern part of Trinidad whereas groups 2 and 3, although genetically distinct, were mixtures of isolates collected from both the northern and southern parts of Trinidad. Principal coordinates analysis and unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean phylogeny were concordant with Bayesian cluster analysis and supported subdivision into the three subpopulations. Overall, the total mean gene diversity was 0.279, the mean within-population gene diversity was 0.2161, and genetic differentiation for the Trinidad population was 0.225. Regionally, northern isolates had a lower gene diversity compared with southern isolates. Nei's gene diversity was highest for group 1 (h = 0.231), followed by group 2 (h = 0.215) and group 3 (h = 0.202). Genotypic diversity was at or near maximum for all three subpopulations after clone correction. Pairwise estimates of differentiation indicated high and significant genetic differentiation among the inferred subpopulations (Weir's θ of 0.212 to 0.325). Pairwise comparisons among subpopulations suggested restricted gene flow between groups 1 and 2 and groups 1 and 3 but not between groups 2 and 3. The null hypothesis of random mating was rejected

  3. An Invasive Mammal (the Gray Squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis) Commonly Hosts Diverse and Atypical Genotypes of the Zoonotic Pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato

    PubMed Central

    Magierecka, Agnieszka; Gilbert, Lucy; Edoff, Alissa; Brereton, Amelia; Kilbride, Elizabeth; Denwood, Matt; Birtles, Richard; Biek, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Invasive vertebrate species can act as hosts for endemic pathogens and may alter pathogen community composition and dynamics. For the zoonotic pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the agent of Lyme borreliosis, recent work shows invasive rodent species can be of high epidemiological importance and may support host-specific strains. This study examined the role of gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) (n = 679), an invasive species in the United Kingdom, as B. burgdorferi sensu lato hosts. We found that gray squirrels were frequently infested with Ixodes ricinus, the main vector of B. burgdorferi sensu lato in the United Kingdom, and 11.9% were infected with B. burgdorferi sensu lato. All four genospecies that occur in the United Kingdom were detected in gray squirrels, and unexpectedly, the bird-associated genospecies Borrelia garinii was most common. The second most frequent infection was with Borrelia afzelii. Genotyping of B. garinii and B. afzelii produced no evidence for strains associated with gray squirrels. Generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) identified tick infestation and date of capture as significant factors associated with B. burgdorferi sensu lato infection in gray squirrels, with infection elevated in early summer in squirrels infested with ticks. Invasive gray squirrels appear to become infected with locally circulating strains of B. burgdorferi sensu lato, and further studies are required to determine their role in community disease dynamics. Our findings highlight the fact that the role of introduced host species in B. burgdorferi sensu lato epidemiology can be highly variable and thus difficult to predict. PMID:25888168

  4. A taxonomic review of the Neoserica (sensu lato) septemlamellata group (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Sericini)

    PubMed Central

    Ahrens, Dirk; Liu, Wan-Gang; Fabrizi, Silvia; Bai, Ming; Yang, Xing-Ke

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the present paper the species belonging to the Neoserica (sensu lato) septemlamellata group, that included so far only four known species, are revised. Here we describe eleven new species originating mainly from Indochina and Southern China: N. daweishanica sp. n., N. gaoligongshanica sp. n., N. guangpingensis sp. n., N. igori sp. n., N. jiulongensis sp. n., N. plurilamellata sp. n., N. weishanica sp. n., N. yanzigouensis sp. n. (China) N. sapaensis sp. n. (China, Vietnam), N. bansongchana sp. n., N. takakuwai sp. n. (Laos). The lectotypes of Neoserica septemlamellata Brenske, 1898 and N. septemfoliata Moser, 1915 are designated. Keys to the species and species groups are given, the genitalia of all species and their habitus are illustrated and distribution maps are included. PMID:24843263

  5. Helicobacter heilmannii sensu lato: An overview of the infection in humans

    PubMed Central

    Bento-Miranda, Mario; Figueiredo, Ceu

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter heilmannii sensu lato (H. heilmannii s.l.) is a group of gastric non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter species that are morphologically indistinguishable from each other. H. heilmannii s.l. infect the stomach of several animals and may have zoonotic potential. Although the prevalence of these infections in humans is low, they are associated with gastric pathology, including mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, making them a significant health issue. Here, the taxonomy, epidemiology, microbiology, diagnosis, and treatment of these infections will be reviewed. The gastric pathology associated with H. heilmannii s.l. infections in humans will also be addressed. Finally, the features of the complete bacterial genomes available and studies on species-specific pathogenesis will be reviewed. The understanding of the mechanisms that underlie gastric disease development mediated by the different bacterial species that constitute H. heilmannii s.l. is essential for developing strategies for prevention and treatment of these infections. PMID:25548476

  6. Antimicrobial activity of Stomoxys calcitrans against Beauveria bassiana sensu lato isolates.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Ana Paula Rodrigues de; Salles, Cristiane Martins Cardoso de; Bittencourt, Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro; Bittencourt, Avelino José

    2015-01-01

    This study had the aims of evaluating the antimicrobial characteristics of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae against the fungal isolates CG138, CG228 and ESALQ986 of Beauveria bassiana sensu lato (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin, 1912 (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae). S. calcitrans eggs, larvae and pupae were exposed to these same isolates. Statistical analysis showed that the immature stages of S. calcitrans were not susceptible to the fungal isolates used, regardless of the exposure method. Diffusion test on solid culture medium reveled that macerated S. calcitrans larvae exposed to isolate CG138 reduced CG138 fungal development. The analysis of the chromatographic profiles indicated that the macerate or mucus of larvae of the control group and the groups exposed to the isolate CG138 presented different profiles. Reduced development of the isolate CG138 on the larvae cuticle was observed by means of scanning electron microscopy. PMID:26444064

  7. Molecular, biological, and morphometric comparisons between different geographical populations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Sanches, Gustavo S; Évora, Patrícia M; Mangold, Atílio J; Jittapalapong, Sattaporn; Rodriguez-Mallon, Alina; Guzmán, Pedro E E; Bechara, Gervásio H; Camargo-Mathias, Maria I

    2016-01-15

    In this study, different geographical populations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato were compared by molecular, biological, and morphometric methods. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using 12S and 16S rDNA sequences and showed two distinct clades: one composed of ticks from Brazil (Jaboticabal, SP), Cuba (Havana) Thailand (Bangkok) and the so-called "tropical strain" ticks. The second clade was composed of ticks from Spain (Zaragoza), Argentina (Rafaela, Santa Fe) and the so-called "temperate strain" ticks. Morphometric analysis showed good separation between females of the two clades and within the temperate clade. Males also exhibited separation between the two clades, but with some overlap. Multiple biological parameters revealed differences between the two clades, especially the weight of the engorged female. These results confirm the existence of at least two species under the name "R. sanguineus". PMID:26790741

  8. A molecular phylogeny and classification of Leptochloa (Poaceae: Chloridoideae: Chlorideae) sensu lato and related genera

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Paul M.; Romaschenko, Konstantin; Snow, Neil; Johnson, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Leptochloa (including Diplachne) sensu lato (s.l.) comprises a diverse assemblage of C4 (NAD-ME and PCK) grasses with approx. 32 annual or perennial species. Evolutionary relationships and a modern classification of Leptochloa spp. based on the study of molecular characters have only been superficially investigated in four species. The goals of this study were to reconstruct the evolutionary history of Leptochloa s.l. with molecular data and broad taxon sampling. Methods A phylogenetic analysis was conducted of 130 species (mostly Chloridoideae), of which 22 are placed in Leptochloa, using five plastid (rpL32-trn-L, ndhA intron, rps16 intron, rps16-trnK and ccsA) and the nuclear ITS 1 and 2 (ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions) to infer evolutionary relationships and revise the classification. Key results Leptochloa s.l. is polyphyletic and strong support was found for five lineages. Embedded within the Leptochloa sensu stricto (s.s.) clade are two Trichloris spp. and embedded in Dinebra are Drake-brockmania and 19 Leptochloa spp. Conclusions The molecular results support the dissolution of Leptochloa s.l. into the following five genera: Dinebra with 23 species, Diplachne with two species, Disakisperma with three species, Leptochloa s.s. with five species and a new genus, Trigonochloa, with two species. PMID:22628365

  9. Comparative Genomics of Listeria Sensu Lato: Genus-Wide Differences in Evolutionary Dynamics and the Progressive Gain of Complex, Potentially Pathogenicity-Related Traits through Lateral Gene Transfer.

    PubMed

    Chiara, Matteo; Caruso, Marta; D'Erchia, Anna Maria; Manzari, Caterina; Fraccalvieri, Rosa; Goffredo, Elisa; Latorre, Laura; Miccolupo, Angela; Padalino, Iolanda; Santagada, Gianfranco; Chiocco, Doriano; Pesole, Graziano; Horner, David S; Parisi, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Historically, genome-wide and molecular characterization of the genus Listeria has concentrated on the important human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes and a small number of closely related species, together termed Listeria sensu strictu. More recently, a number of genome sequences for more basal, and nonpathogenic, members of the Listeria genus have become available, facilitating a wider perspective on the evolution of pathogenicity and genome level evolutionary dynamics within the entire genus (termed Listeria sensu lato). Here, we have sequenced the genomes of additional Listeria fleischmannii and Listeria newyorkensis isolates and explored the dynamics of genome evolution in Listeria sensu lato. Our analyses suggest that acquisition of genetic material through gene duplication and divergence as well as through lateral gene transfer (mostly from outside Listeria) is widespread throughout the genus. Novel genetic material is apparently subject to rapid turnover. Multiple lines of evidence point to significant differences in evolutionary dynamics between the most basal Listeria subclade and all other congeners, including both sensu strictu and other sensu lato isolates. Strikingly, these differences are likely attributable to stochastic, population-level processes and contribute to observed variation in genome size across the genus. Notably, our analyses indicate that the common ancestor of Listeria sensu lato lacked flagella, which were acquired by lateral gene transfer by a common ancestor of Listeria grayi and Listeria sensu strictu, whereas a recently functionally characterized pathogenicity island, responsible for the capacity to produce cobalamin and utilize ethanolamine/propane-2-diol, was acquired in an ancestor of Listeria sensu strictu. PMID:26185097

  10. Comparative Genomics of Listeria Sensu Lato: Genus-Wide Differences in Evolutionary Dynamics and the Progressive Gain of Complex, Potentially Pathogenicity-Related Traits through Lateral Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Chiara, Matteo; Caruso, Marta; D’Erchia, Anna Maria; Manzari, Caterina; Fraccalvieri, Rosa; Goffredo, Elisa; Latorre, Laura; Miccolupo, Angela; Padalino, Iolanda; Santagada, Gianfranco; Chiocco, Doriano; Pesole, Graziano; Horner, David S.; Parisi, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Historically, genome-wide and molecular characterization of the genus Listeria has concentrated on the important human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes and a small number of closely related species, together termed Listeria sensu strictu. More recently, a number of genome sequences for more basal, and nonpathogenic, members of the Listeria genus have become available, facilitating a wider perspective on the evolution of pathogenicity and genome level evolutionary dynamics within the entire genus (termed Listeria sensu lato). Here, we have sequenced the genomes of additional Listeria fleischmannii and Listeria newyorkensis isolates and explored the dynamics of genome evolution in Listeria sensu lato. Our analyses suggest that acquisition of genetic material through gene duplication and divergence as well as through lateral gene transfer (mostly from outside Listeria) is widespread throughout the genus. Novel genetic material is apparently subject to rapid turnover. Multiple lines of evidence point to significant differences in evolutionary dynamics between the most basal Listeria subclade and all other congeners, including both sensu strictu and other sensu lato isolates. Strikingly, these differences are likely attributable to stochastic, population-level processes and contribute to observed variation in genome size across the genus. Notably, our analyses indicate that the common ancestor of Listeria sensu lato lacked flagella, which were acquired by lateral gene transfer by a common ancestor of Listeria grayi and Listeria sensu strictu, whereas a recently functionally characterized pathogenicity island, responsible for the capacity to produce cobalamin and utilize ethanolamine/propane-2-diol, was acquired in an ancestor of Listeria sensu strictu. PMID:26185097

  11. Serologic survey of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.

    PubMed

    Juricová, Z; Hubálek, Z

    2009-10-01

    Sera of 642 wild boars (Sus scrofa) shot by hunters in ten administrative regions of the Czech Republic during 1995-2000, were tested by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA) for the presence of anti-Borrelia IgG. Antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bb) were detected in serum samples from all 10 regions, and overall seroprevalence rate was 12.8%. Titres of antibodies ranged from 1:80 to 1:640. Borrelia antibodies were most frequent in the animals from three administrative regions of the Czech Republic: Moravskoslezsky (25.0%), Pardubicky (25.0%) and Královehradecky (24.1%), followed by the regions Plzen sky (16.7%), Olomoucky (13.3%), Jihomoravsky (12.8%), Vysoc ina (11.1%), Jihoc esky (11.1%), Zlínsky (10.3%), and Liberecky (8.9%). Seasonal seroprevalence rate increased in March and April, the peak was in May. The results suggest frequent exposure of wild boars to ixodid ticks infected with Bb, predominantly in rural and forested regions. The study also reviews the importance of wild boar in Lyme borreliosis (LB) ecology. Wild boar serology may provide another means of surveillance of endemic areas of LB. PMID:18973452

  12. Structures of xyloglucans in primary cell walls of gymnosperms, monilophytes (ferns sensu lato) and lycophytes.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yves S Y; Harris, Philip J

    2012-07-01

    Little is known about the structures of the xyloglucans in the primary cell walls of vascular plants (tracheophytes) other than angiosperms. Xyloglucan structures were examined in 13 species of gymnosperms, 13 species of monilophytes (ferns sensu lato), and two species of lycophytes. Wall preparations were obtained, extracted with 6 M sodium hydroxide, and the extracts treated with a xyloglucan-specific endo-(1→4)-β-glucanase preparation. The oligosaccharides released were analysed by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry and by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. The xyloglucan oligosaccharide profiles from the gymnosperm walls were similar to those from the walls of most eudicotyledons and non-commelinid monocotyledons, indicating that the xyloglucans were fucogalactoxyloglucans, containing the fucosylated units XXFG and XLFG. The xyloglucan oligosaccharide profiles for six of the monilophyte species were similar to those of the gymnosperms, indicating they were also fucogalactoxyloglucans. Phylogenetically, these monilophyte species were from both basal and more derived orders. However, the profiles for the other monilophyte species showed various significant differences, including additional oligosaccharides. In three of the species, these additional oligosaccharides contained arabinosyl residues which were most abundant in the profile of Equisetum hyemale. The two species of lycophytes examined, Selaginella kraussiana and Lycopodium cernuum, had quite different xyloglucan oligosaccharide profiles, but neither were fucogalactoxyloglucans. The S. kraussiana profile had abundant oligosaccharides containing arabinosyl residues. The L. cernuum profile indicated the xyloglucan had a very complex structure. PMID:22537406

  13. Identification of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in patients with erythema migrans.

    PubMed

    Hulínská, D; Votýpka, J; Vanousová, D; Hercogová, J; Hulínský, V; Drevová, H; Kurzová, Z; Uherková, L

    2009-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum has been first isolated from the blood of two Czech patients simultaneously with a cultivation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from their erythema migrans lesions. Cultivation of different Borrelia spp. from 12 erythema migrans biopsies, from 2 blood, one liquor and one placenta sample in BSK-H medium was successful. Adapted conventional methods targeting 16S rRNA and OspA genes for real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and partial sequencing of these genes together with microscopical examinations of the blood smears provided a direct detection of the B. afzelii, B. burgdorferi, B. garinii, B. valaisiana and B. bissettii in the skin, B. garinii in the blood, placenta and liquor in 24 (36.3 %) patients, and A. phagocytophilum in 10 (15 %) patients with erythema migrans. Positive indirect IgM immunofluorescence against Anaplasma sp. was obtained in 7 cases, specific IgG antibodies were detected in 12 patients. Three women suffering from erythema migrans in the first trimester had positive PCR for Anaplasma and/or for Borrelia in the blood and two of them, later, in the placenta. Interpretation of laboratory data can bring important contribution to establishing the role of Anaplasma sp. in erythema migrans and forming the principle of precaution with laboratory diagnosis during pregnancy which always should be reflected in the resistance of Anaplasma sp. toward penicillins. PMID:19649743

  14. Seroprevalence of Leptospira spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Italian horses.

    PubMed

    Ebani, Valentina V; Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Pinzauti, Paolo; Cerri, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of Leptospira spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in healthy horses living in 7 provinces of central Italy. In the period 2007-2009, sera from 386 horses were tested by microagglutination test (MAT) to detect antibodies to Leptospira spp., employing the following serovars as antigens: Bratislava, Ballum, Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Pomona, Tarassovi. 3 animals were positive for the serovars Icterohaemorrhagiae, 2 to Bratislava, and 1 to Pomona, for a total 1.5% seroprevalence. All sera were examined by immunofluorence antibody test (IFAT) to reveal anti-B. burgdorferi s.l. antibodies. 94 (24.3%) horses were positive with antibody titres ranging from 1:64 to 1:1,024. The seroprevalence was significantly higher in >10 year-old horses compared to younger subjects. No significant differences in the mean seroprevalence were observed in the respective years. The total mean seroprevalence were strictly related to the environmental conditions of the areas in which the horses lived. No cross-reactions between Leptospira and Borrelia were observed. This is the first serological survey on antibodies to B. burgdorferi s.l. in Italian horses. PMID:22742794

  15. Comparative exine ontogeny in some members of the family Zygophyllaceae sensu lato.

    PubMed

    Nasri-Ayachi, M Ben; Nabli, M A

    2006-08-01

    Exine ontogeny is studied in five taxa of the family Zygophyllaceae sensu lato (Peganum harmala L., Zygophyllum album L., Fagonia cretica L., Tribulus terrestris L., and Nitraria retusa [Forsk.] Asch.). In the beginning of the tetrad stage, the plasmalemma is attached to the callose wall, except in T. terrestris, where it describes crests and hollows. The primexine matrix is fibrillar, bilayered in T. terrestris and unilayered in the other taxa. In all species except P. harmala, the procolumellae are heterogeneous with clear zones and they become compact later. In T. terrestris, they are built on the crests. In Z. album and T. terrestris, a primordial nexinic lamella is set up. It is tripartite with a white line seen at some levels; on its external leaflet, the foot layer is observed, and on its internal leaflet, there is the endexine with numerous lamellae. This white line disappears often in the mature exine. In T. terrestris, there is a thick nexine that is coarsely lamellate inside. In the aperture zone, the columellae are lacking, the tectum and the foot layer get thinner; they unite and form the apertural membrane with the external part of the endexine. There is a granulolamellar endexinic zone well developed in P. harmala, whereas it is threelayered and weakly developed in T. terrestris. PMID:16937054

  16. Polysynovitis in a horse due to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection--Case study.

    PubMed

    Passamonti, Fabrizio; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Cappelli, Katia; Capomaccio, Stefano; Reginato, Alice; Miglio, Arianna; Vardi, Doron M; Stefanetti, Valentina; Coletti, Mauro; Bazzica, Chiara; Pepe, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a multi-systemic tick-borne disease affecting both humans and animals, including horses, and is caused by a group of interrelated spirochetes classified within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) complex. Despite the high reported seroprevalence in the European equine population for B. burgdorferi s.l., to-date no documented clinical cases have been described. A 6-year-old Paint gelding was referred with a history of three weeks of fever, intermittent lameness and digital flexor tendon sheath effusion of the right hind limb. Based on a strict diagnostic protocol, which included serological tests for infectious diseases and molecular investigations, a final diagnosis was made of polysynovitis due to B. burgdorferi s.l. infection. An unreported aspect observed in this case was the absence of the pathogen DNA in two of the affected joints. To the authors' knowledge, the case described represents the first documented clinical case of equine LB in Italy. Moreover, the absence of pathogen DNA in two of the affected joints observed in this case revealed a possible similarity with the same condition described in humans, where an immunomediated pathogenesis for arthropathy due to B. burgdorferi s.l. infection is suspected. Since humans and horses share the same habitat, this report supports the role of the horse as potential sentinel for human biological risk. PMID:26094517

  17. A taxonomic review of the Neoserica (sensu lato) abnormis group (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Sericini).

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Dirk; Liu, Wan-Gang; Fabrizi, Silvia; Bai, Ming; Yang, Xing-Ke

    2014-01-01

    The present paper revises the species belonging to the Neoserica (sensu lato) abnormis group, so far known only with two nominal species. Twenty new species are herein described from Indochina and southern China: N. abnormoides sp. n. (Vietnam, China), N. allolaotica sp. n., N. namthaensis sp. n., N. simplicissima sp. n. (Laos), N. thailandensis sp. n. (Thailand), N. alloputaoana sp. n., N. kanphantensis sp. n., N. natmatoungensis sp. n., N. putaoana sp. n., N. taunggyiana sp. n. (Myanmar), N. lamellosa sp. n., N. tonkinea sp. n. (Vietnam), N. bairailingshanica sp. n., N. euyunnanica sp. n., N. huangi sp. n., N. jiangxiensis sp. n., N. trifida sp. n., N. yaoi sp. n., N. yingjiangensis sp. n. (China), N. cardamomensis sp. n. (Indochina and southern China). One new combination is established: Neoserica ponderosa Arrow, 1946, comb. n. The lectotypes of Neoserica abnormis Moser, 1908 and the taxonomically uncertain N. inclinata Brenske, 1898, which very likely also belongs to this species group, are designated herein. A key to the species and to species groups is given, the genitalia of all species including their habitus are illustrated. Maps of species distribution are included. PMID:25317056

  18. A taxonomic review of the Neoserica (sensu lato) abnormis group (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Sericini)

    PubMed Central

    Ahrens, Dirk; Liu, Wan-Gang; Fabrizi, Silvia; Bai, Ming; Yang, Xing-Ke

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The present paper revises the species belonging to the Neoserica (sensu lato) abnormis group, so far known only with two nominal species. Twenty new species are herein described from Indochina and southern China: N. abnormoides sp. n. (Vietnam, China), N. allolaotica sp. n., N. namthaensis sp. n., N. simplicissima sp. n. (Laos), N. thailandensis sp. n. (Thailand), N. alloputaoana sp. n., N. kanphantensis sp. n., N. natmatoungensis sp. n., N. putaoana sp. n., N. taunggyiana sp. n. (Myanmar), N. lamellosa sp. n., N. tonkinea sp. n. (Vietnam), N. bairailingshanica sp. n., N. euyunnanica sp. n., N. huangi sp. n., N. jiangxiensis sp. n., N. trifida sp. n., N. yaoi sp. n., N. yingjiangensis sp. n. (China), N. cardamomensis sp. n. (Indochina and southern China). One new combination is established: Neoserica ponderosa Arrow, 1946, comb. n. The lectotypes of Neoserica abnormis Moser, 1908 and the taxonomically uncertain N. inclinata Brenske, 1898, which very likely also belongs to this species group, are designated herein. A key to the species and to species groups is given, the genitalia of all species including their habitus are illustrated. Maps of species distribution are included. PMID:25317056

  19. Habitat discrimination by gravid Anopheles gambiae sensu lato – a push-pull system

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The non-random distribution of anopheline larvae in natural habitats suggests that gravid females discriminate between habitats of different quality. Whilst physical and chemical cues used by Culex and Aedes vector mosquitoes for selecting an oviposition site have been extensively studied, those for Anopheles remain poorly explored. Here the habitat selection by Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.), the principal African malaria vector, was investigated when presented with a choice of two infusions made from rabbit food pellets, or soil. Methods Natural colonization and larval survival was evaluated in artificial ponds filled randomly with either infusion. Dual-choice, egg-count bioassays evaluated the responses of caged gravid females to (1) two- to six-day old infusions versus lake water; (2) autoclaved versus non-autoclaved soil infusions; and assessed (3) the olfactory memory of gravid females conditioned in pellet infusion as larvae. Results Wild Anopheles exclusively colonized ponds with soil infusion and avoided those with pellet infusion. When the individual infusions were tested in comparison with lake water, caged An. gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) showed a dose response: females increasingly avoided the pellet infusion with increasing infusion age (six-day versus lake water: odds ratio (OR) 0.22; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1-0.5) and showed increasing preference to lay eggs as soil infusion age increased (six-day versus lake water: OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.4-3.3). Larvae survived in soil infusions equally well as in lake water but died in pellet infusions. Anopheles gambiae s.s. preferred to lay eggs in the non-autoclaved soil (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.8-3.7) compared with autoclaved soil. There was no change in the avoidance of pellet infusion by individuals reared in the infusion compared with those reared in lake water. Conclusion Wild and caged An. gambiae s.l. females discriminate between potential aquatic habitats for oviposition. These choices benefit

  20. Isolation of live Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochaetes from patients with undefined disorders and symptoms not typical for Lyme borreliosis.

    PubMed

    Rudenko, N; Golovchenko, M; Vancova, M; Clark, K; Grubhoffer, L; Oliver, J H

    2016-03-01

    Lyme borreliosis is a multisystem disorder with a diverse spectrum of clinical manifestations, caused by spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. It is an infectious disease that can be successfully cured by antibiotic therapy in the early stages; however, the possibility of the appearance of persistent signs and symptoms of disease following antibiotic treatment is recognized. It is known that Lyme borreliosis mimics multiple diseases that were never proven to have a spirochaete aetiology. Using complete modified Kelly-Pettenkofer medium we succeeded in cultivating live B. burgdorferi sensu lato spirochaetes from samples taken from people who suffered from undefined disorders, had symptoms not typical for Lyme borreliosis, but who had undergone antibiotic treatment due to a suspicion of having Lyme disease even though they were seronegative. We report the first recovery of live B. burgdorferi sensu stricto from residents of southeastern USA and the first successful cultivation of live Borrelia bissettii-like strain from residents of North America. Our results support the fact that B. bissettii is responsible for human Lyme borreliosis worldwide along with B. burgdorferi s.s. The involvement of new spirochaete species in Lyme borreliosis changes the understanding and recognition of clinical manifestations of this disease. PMID:26673735

  1. Multilocus sequence analysis and rpoB sequencing of Mycobacterium abscessus (sensu lato) strains.

    PubMed

    Macheras, Edouard; Roux, Anne-Laure; Bastian, Sylvaine; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso; Palaci, Moises; Sivadon-Tardy, Valérie; Gutierrez, Cristina; Richter, Elvira; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Pfyffer, Gaby; Bodmer, Thomas; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Gaillard, Jean-Louis; Heym, Beate

    2011-02-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium bolletii, and Mycobacterium massiliense (Mycobacterium abscessus sensu lato) are closely related species that currently are identified by the sequencing of the rpoB gene. However, recent studies show that rpoB sequencing alone is insufficient to discriminate between these species, and some authors have questioned their current taxonomic classification. We studied here a large collection of M. abscessus (sensu lato) strains by partial rpoB sequencing (752 bp) and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). The final MLSA scheme developed was based on the partial sequences of eight housekeeping genes: argH, cya, glpK, gnd, murC, pgm, pta, and purH. The strains studied included the three type strains (M. abscessus CIP 104536(T), M. massiliense CIP 108297(T), and M. bolletii CIP 108541(T)) and 120 isolates recovered between 1997 and 2007 in France, Germany, Switzerland, and Brazil. The rpoB phylogenetic tree confirmed the existence of three main clusters, each comprising the type strain of one species. However, divergence values between the M. massiliense and M. bolletii clusters all were below 3% and between the M. abscessus and M. massiliense clusters were from 2.66 to 3.59%. The tree produced using the concatenated MLSA gene sequences (4,071 bp) also showed three main clusters, each comprising the type strain of one species. The M. abscessus cluster had a bootstrap value of 100% and was mostly compact. Bootstrap values for the M. massiliense and M. bolletii branches were much lower (71 and 61%, respectively), with the M. massiliense cluster having a fuzzy aspect. Mean (range) divergence values were 2.17% (1.13 to 2.58%) between the M. abscessus and M. massiliense clusters, 2.37% (1.5 to 2.85%) between the M. abscessus and M. bolletii clusters, and 2.28% (0.86 to 2.68%) between the M. massiliense and M. bolletii clusters. Adding the rpoB sequence to the MLSA-concatenated sequence (total sequence, 4,823 bp) had little effect on the

  2. Lyme borreliosis caused by diverse genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Ni, X-B; Jia, N; Jiang, B-G; Sun, T; Zheng, Y-C; Huo, Q-B; Liu, K; Ma, L; Zhao, Q-M; Yang, H; Wang, X; Jiang, J-F; Cao, W-C

    2014-08-01

    The variety of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi) genospecies leads to distinction in clinical manifestations of Lyme borreliosis (LB). There are reports of LB clinical characteristics in China, where the B. burgdorferi genospecies in ticks and animal hosts are different from those in Europe and North America. During May to September in 2010 and 2011, all patients who had erythema migrans (EM, more than 5 cm in diameter) after a recent tick-bite, and sought medical care at Mudanjiang Forestry Central Hospital, Heilongjiang Province of northeastern China, were enrolled in the study. Specific PCR was used to determine the B. burgdorferi genospecies in the disseminated patients. Of 265 EM patients, B. burgdorferi DNA was detected in blood specimens from 15 of 55 disseminated patients. Sequence analyses of 5S-23S rRNA, flagellin, ospC, 16S rRNA and ospA genes revealed that 11 patients were infected with Borrelia garinii, three with Borrelia afzelii and one with Borrelia valaisiana-related genospecies. Among 15 patients, 40%, 13.3% and 13.3% manifested pruritus, pain and ulceration, respectively. Systemic symptoms, arthralgia or a swollen joint and lymphadenopathy were observed in 26.7%, 13.3% and 6.7% patients, respectively. In northeastern China, three genospecies of LB patients were detected. The B. burgdorferi genospecies identified in this study was predominantly B. garinii. A case infected with B. valaisiana-related genospecies was reported for the first time. PMID:24438159

  3. Trematode diversity in the freshwater snail Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos sensu lato from Thailand and Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Kiatsopit, N; Sithithaworn, P; Kopolrat, K; Namsanor, J; Andrews, R H; Petney, T N

    2016-05-01

    In order to obtain a comprehensive understanding of trematode diversity in Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos sensu lato, the first intermediate host of the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini s.l., the prevalence of larval trematode species was investigated in different localities in Thailand and Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). In Thailand, snail samples were collected from 29 localities in the nine provinces: Buri Ram, Surin, Chaiya Phum, Maha Sarakham, Khon Kaen, Kalasin, Mukdahan, Sakon Nakhon and Nakhon Phanom. In Lao PDR, snail samples were collected from 21 localities in Vientiane Province and six localities in Savannakhet Province. Snails were identified by standard morphological criteria and then examined for trematode infection using the cercarial shedding method. Twenty different types of cercariae were detected and identified, based on morphological criteria. Virgulate type 1 emerged as the most common cercaria, with an average prevalence of 10.90% (range 0.26-54.22%) in Thailand and 6.58% (range 1.15-89.77%) in Lao PDR. Opisthorchis viverrini s.l. cercariae were the fourth most common in Thailand, with an average prevalence of 1.59% (0.15-6.93), while in Lao PDR their prevalence was 0.96% (0.08-8.37). The high diversity of trematode cercariae observed in this study indicates that B. s. goniomphalos s.l. is highly susceptible to infection with a variety of trematode species. However, the role of non-opisthorchiid trematodes as fish-borne parasites in human health is not fully known and further molecular identification is required. PMID:25997613

  4. Genome size variation and incidence of polyploidy in Scrophulariaceae sensu lato from the Iberian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Mariana; Castro, Sílvia; Loureiro, João

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims In the last decade, genomic studies using DNA markers have strongly influenced the current phylogeny of angiosperms. Genome size and ploidy level have contributed to this discussion, being considered important characters in biosystematics, ecology and population biology. Despite the recent increase in studies related to genome size evolution and polyploidy incidence, only a few are available for Scrophulariaceae. In this context, we assessed the value of genome size, mostly as a taxonomic marker, and the role of polyploidy as a process of genesis and maintenance of plant diversity in Scrophulariaceae sensu lato in the Iberian Peninsula. Methodology Large-scale analyses of genome size and ploidy-level variation across the Iberian Peninsula were performed using flow cytometry. One hundred and sixty-two populations of 59 distinct taxa were analysed. A bibliographic review on chromosome counts was also performed. Principal results From the 59 sampled taxa, 51 represent first estimates of genome size. The majority of the Scrophulariaceae species presented very small to small genome sizes (2C ≤ 7.0 pg). Furthermore, in most of the analysed genera it was possible to use this character to separate several taxa, independently if these genera were homoploid or heteroploid. Also, some genome-related phenomena were detected, such as intraspecific variation of genome size in some genera and the possible occurrence of dysploidy in Verbascum spp. With respect to polyploidy, despite a few new DNA ploidy levels having been detected in Veronica, no multiple cytotypes have been found in any taxa. Conclusions This work contributed with important basic scientific knowledge on genome size and polyploid incidence in the Scrophulariaceae, providing important background information for subsequent studies, with several perspectives for future studies being opened. PMID:23240073

  5. Phylogeography of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and its relationships with climatic factors.

    PubMed

    Zemtsova, Galina E; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Reeves, Will K; Hahn, Micah; Snellgrove, Alyssa; Levin, Michael L

    2016-06-01

    Brown dog ticks morphologically identifiable as Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, are distributed world-wide and their systematics is controversial. Results of genetic and reproductive compatibility studies of geographically distinct populations of R. sanguineus s.l. indicate that the R. sanguineus complex is paraphyletic. To further elucidate systematic relationships within R. sanguineus s.l. and geographic boundaries of its lineages, we conducted a phylogeographical study of 136 tick specimens from 23 countries. Voucher specimens were morphologically identified. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using concatenated partial mitochondrial 12S and 16S rDNA gene sequences and analyzed by the Neighbor-Joining method. A set of 19 bioclimatic variables within the WorldClim dataset were extracted and analyzed to assess correlations between distribution of R. sanguineus s.l. lineages and climatic variables. The following four branches are clearly recognized on the phylogenetic tree: R. sanguineus s.l.-tropical and temperate clades, R. leporis, and R. turanicus. DNA sequences of Rhipicephalus ticks from Israel differ from those of other groups. Strong association between geographical locations of major clades of R. sanguineus s.l. and temperature was identified. The tropical clade of R. sanguineus s.l. occupies areas with the annual mean temperature >20 °C, whereas the temperate clade is present in areas with the annual mean temperature <20 °C. Our results indicate that ticks in two closely related phylogenetic clades are adapted to different environmental conditions and support proposals for re-classification of R. sanguineus complex. Differences in R. sanguineus s.l. ecology and human/animal pathogens transmitted by different taxa of brown dog tick need to be studied. PMID:27003273

  6. Evolutionary Genomics of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato: Findings, Hypotheses, and the Rise of Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Wei-Gang; Martin, Che L.

    2014-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi s.l.), the group of bacterial species represented by Lyme Disease pathogens, has one of the most complex and variable genomic architectures among prokaryotes. Showing frequent recombination within and limited gene flow among geographic populations, the B. burgdorferi s.l. genomes provides an excellent window into the processes of bacterial evolution at both within- and between-population levels. Comparative analyses of B. burgdorferi s.l. genomes revealed a highly dynamic plasmid composition but a conservative gene repertoire. Gene duplication and loss as well as sequence variations at loci encoding surface-localized lipoproteins (e.g., the PF54 genes) are strongly associated with adaptive differences between species. There are a great many conserved intergenic spacer sequences that are candidates for cis-regulatory elements and non-coding RNAs. Recombination among coexisting strains occurs at a rate approximately three times the mutation rate. The coexistence of a large number of genomic groups within local B. burgdorferi s.l. populations may be driven by immune-mediated diversifying selection targeting major antigen loci as well as by adaptation to multiple host species. Questions remain regarding the ecological causes (e.g., climate change, host movements, or new adaptations) of the ongoing range expansion of B. burgdorferi s.l. and on the genomic variations associated with its ecological and clinical variability. Anticipating an explosive growth of the number of B. burgdorferi s.l. genomes sampled from both within and among species, we propose genome-based methods to test adaptive mechanisms and to identify molecular bases of phenotypic variations. Genome sequencing is also necessary to monitor the ongoing genetic admixture of previously isolated species and populations in North America and elsewhere. PMID:24704760

  7. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection pressure shapes innate immune gene evolution in natural rodent populations across Europe

    PubMed Central

    Tschirren, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Although parasite-mediated selection is assumed to be the main driver of immune gene evolution, empirical evidence that parasites induce allele frequency changes at host immune genes in time and/or space remains scarce. Here, I show that the frequency of a protective gene variant of the innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor 2 in natural bank vole (Myodes glareolus) populations is positively associated with the strength of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection risk across the European continent. Thereby, this study provides rare evidence for the role of spatially variable infection pressures in moulding the vertebrate immune system. PMID:26018834

  8. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection pressure shapes innate immune gene evolution in natural rodent populations across Europe.

    PubMed

    Tschirren, Barbara

    2015-05-01

    Although parasite-mediated selection is assumed to be the main driver of immune gene evolution, empirical evidence that parasites induce allele frequency changes at host immune genes in time and/or space remains scarce. Here, I show that the frequency of a protective gene variant of the innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor 2 in natural bank vole (Myodes glareolus) populations is positively associated with the strength of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection risk across the European continent. Thereby, this study provides rare evidence for the role of spatially variable infection pressures in moulding the vertebrate immune system. PMID:26018834

  9. The EmsB tandemly repeated multilocus microsatellite: a new tool to investigate genetic diversity of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato.

    PubMed

    Maillard, S; Gottstein, B; Haag, K L; Ma, S; Colovic, I; Benchikh-Elfegoun, M C; Knapp, J; Piarroux, R

    2009-11-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a widespread and severe zoonotic disease caused by infection with the larval stage of the eucestode Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato. The polymorphism exhibited by nuclear and mitochondrial markers conventionally used for the genotyping of different parasite species and strains does not reach the level necessary for the identification of genetic variants linked to restricted geographical areas. EmsB is a tandemly repeated multilocus microsatellite that proved its usefulness for the study of genetic polymorphisms within the species E. multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. In the present study, EmsB was used to characterize E. granulosus sensu lato samples collected from different host species (sheep, cattle, dromedaries, dogs, and human patients) originating from six different countries (Algeria, Mauritania, Romania, Serbia, Brazil, and the People's Republic of China). The conventional mitochondrial cox1 and nad1 markers identified genotypes G1, G3, G5, G6, and G7, which are clustered into three groups corresponding to the species E. granulosus sensu stricto, E. ortleppi, and E. canadensis. With the same samples, EmsB provided a higher degree of genetic discrimination and identified variations that correlated with the relatively small-scale geographic origins of the samples. In addition, one of the Brazilian single hydatid cysts presented a hybrid genotypic profile that suggested genetic exchanges between E. granulosus sensu stricto and E. ortleppi. In summary, the EmsB microsatellite exhibits an interesting potential for the elaboration of a detailed map of the distribution of genetic variants and therefore for the determination and tracking of the source of CE. PMID:19741078

  10. [Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ixodid ticks from Ostrava slag heaps].

    PubMed

    Jarosová, V; Rudolf, I; Halouzka, J; Hubálek, Z

    2009-04-01

    In 2005 and 2006, Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected on two slag (waste rock) heaps from coal mines in the Ostrava area (North Moravia/Silesia, Czech Republic), Oskar (site A) and Emma (site B), partially covered by vegetation including trees, and at a control forest site near Hlucín (site C). The mean numbers of L. ricinus nymphs and imagoes flagged per person-hour were high: 35.3 nymphs and 12.7 imagoes, at site A, 23.3 and 26.0, respectively, at site B, and 25.4 and 16.8, respectively, at control site C. Using dark-field microscopy, 100 nymphs and 100 imagoes (50 females and 50 males) from each site were examined for borreliae. The mean prevalence rates of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in nymphs and imagoes were 10.0% and 12.0%, respectively, at site A, 10.0% and 24.0%, respectively, at site B, and 13.0% and 17.0%, respectively, at site C. Differences in the prevalence of borreliae in nymphal and adult ticks from the slag heaps and control site were insignificant, but adult ticks from site B compared to site A contained borreliae significantly more frequently. The mean numbers of nymphs and imagoes infected with borreliae flagged per person-hour were 3.3 and 1.2, respectively at site A, 1.5 and 2.9, respectively, at site B, and 3.1 and 2.6, respectively, at site C. Isolation experiments for borreliae were carried out only in 16 ticks containing higher numbers of borreliae, with eight of these being culture-positive. The cultured borreliae were identified by PCR-RFLP as B. garinii (3 isolates: two from site B, one from site C), B. afzelii (4 isolates: one from site A, three from site B) and B. burgdorferi s.s. (one isolate from site A). Surprisingly, the results suggest that slag heaps, when covered by woody vegetation and frequented by humans, could theoretically pose roughly the same LB transmission risk to humans as common forest biotopes. PMID:19526923

  11. Analyses of mammalian sera in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with different strains of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.

    PubMed

    Magnarelli, L A; Anderson, J F; Johnson, R C

    1995-04-01

    Blood samples were collected from cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus), raccoons (Procyon lotor), white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) between 1977 and 1991 in southern Connecticut and New York State (USA) and were tested for antibodies against eight strains of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Among these spirochetes were six strains of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, one strain of B. garinii (=IP90) and a strain (IPF) in group VS461. Sera from each study group reacted positively to all strains having origins in North America and Eurasia. Assay sensitivities normally ranged between 85% and 100% for all study groups. The lowest sensitivity (66%) was noted when mouse sera were tested with B. garinii, an isolate from Ixodes persulcatus in the former Soviet Union. Differences in serum reactivity to various strains were noted for all study groups, but because of multiple shared antigens among the closely related spirochetes tested, the selection of a particular North American strain of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto did not appear to be a critical factor for optimal assay performance. Locally obtained strains of this bacterium are preferred as coating antigens for serologic testing because of their availability. PMID:8583632

  12. Congruence and indifference between two molecular markers for understanding oral evolution in the Marynidae sensu lato (Ciliophora, Colpodea)

    PubMed Central

    Dunthorn, Micah; Katz, Laura A.; Stoeck, Thorsten; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the evolution of oral structures within the Colpodida is confounded by the low number of morphological characters that can be used in constructing hypotheses, and by the low taxon and character sampling in molecular phylogenetic analyses designed to assess these hypotheses. Here we increase character sampling by sequencing the mitochondrial SSU-rDNA locus for three isolates of the Marynidae sensu lato. We show that the inferred mitochondrial and nuclear SSU-rDNA trees, as well as concatenated and constrained analyses, are congruent in not recovering a monophyletic Marynidae. However, due to low node support, the trees are indifferent to whether the morphological characters used to unite the Marynidae are the result of retention of ancestral states or convergence. In light of this indifference and an increased amount of nuclear and mitochondrial SSU-rDNA data, alternative hypotheses of oral evolution in the Colpodida are presented. PMID:22356924

  13. Optimization of the Esperanza window trap for the collection of the African onchocerciasis vector Simulium damnosum sensu lato.

    PubMed

    Toé, Laurent D; Koala, Lassane; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Traoré, Bizini M; Sanfo, Moussa; Kambiré, Sié Roger; Cupp, Eddie W; Traoré, Soungalo; Yameogo, Laurent; Boakye, Daniel; Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2014-09-01

    A simple inexpensive trap (Esperanza window trap) was shown recently to collect significant numbers of Simulium ochraceum sensu lato, a major vector of Onchocerca volvulus in Mesoamerica. Here, we report studies optimizing this trap for the collection of Simulium damnosum s.l., the major vector of O. volvulus in Africa. A shortened, blue and black striped version of the Esperanza window trap, when baited with a combination of CO2 and worn trousers, rivalled human landing collections in the number of S. damnosum s.l. females collected. Traps baited with a commercially available human skin lure and CO2 resulted in collections that were not significantly different than those obtained from traps baited with worn trousers and CO2. This suggests that the Esperanza window trap may offer a replacement for human landing collections for monitoring onchocerciasis transmission in Africa. PMID:24794201

  14. Predators of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae in Wetlands, Western Kenya: Confirmation by Polymerase Chain Reaction Method

    PubMed Central

    OHBA, SHIN-YA; KAWADA, HITOSHI; DIDA, GABRIEL O.; JUMA, DUNCAN; SONYE, GORGE; MINAKAWA, NOBORU; TAKAGI, MASAHIRO

    2010-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to determine whether mosquito predators in wetland habitats feed on Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) larvae. Aquatic mosquito predators were collected from six wetlands near Lake Victoria in Mbita, Western Kenya. This study revealed that the whole positive rate of An. gambiae s.l. from 330 predators was 54.2%. The order of positive rate was the highest in Odonata (70.2%), followed by Hemiptera (62.8%), Amphibia (41.7%), and Coleoptera (18%). This study demonstrates that the polymerase chain reaction method can determine whether aquatic mosquito predators feed on An. gambiae s.l. larvae if the predators have undigested An. gambiae s.l. in their midgut or stomach. PMID:20939371

  15. Genetic Diversity of Phytophthora infestans sensu lato in Ecuador Provides New Insight Into the Origin of This Important Plant Pathogen.

    PubMed

    Adler, N E; Erselius, L J; Chacón, M G; Flier, W G; Ordoñez, M E; Kroon, L P N M; Forbes, G A

    2004-02-01

    ABSTRACT The metapopulation structure of Phytophthora infestans sensu lato is genetically diverse in the highlands of Ecuador. Previous reports documented the diversity associated with four putative clonal lineages of the pathogen collected from various hosts in the genus Solanum. This paper simultaneously analyzes diversity of the complete collection of isolates, including a large number that had not yet been reported. This analysis confirmed the existence of three pathogen populations, which all appear to be clonal lineages, and that correspond to those previously reported as US-1, EC-1, and EC-3. No evidence was found from the analyses of recently collected isolates that would contradict earlier reports about these three lineages. In contrast, new data from a group of isolates from several similar hosts caused us to modify the previous description of clonal lineage EC-2 and its previously proposed hosts, S. brevifolium and S. tetrapetalum. Given the uncertainty associated with the identification of these hosts, which all belong to the section Anarrhichomenum, we refer to them as the Anarrhichomenum complex, pending further taxonomic clarification. New pathogen genotypes associated with the Anarrhichomenum complex were isolated recently that are A1 mating type and Ia mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype, and therefore differ from the previously described EC-2 lineage, which is A2 and Ic, respectively. Because of uncertainty on host identification, we do not know if the new genotypes are limited to one host species and therefore represent yet another host-adapted clonal lineage. For now, we refer to the new genotypes and previously described EC-2 genotypes, together, as the pathogen group attacking the Anarrhichomenum complex. Two A2 isolates identical to the previously described EC-2 archetype were collected from severely infected plants of pear melon (S. muricatum). Pear melon is generally attacked by US-1, and this is the first clear case we have documented in

  16. Predators of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in wetlands, western Kenya: confirmation by polymerase chain reaction method.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Shin-Ya; Kawada, Hitoshi; Dida, Gabriel O; Juma, Duncan; Sonye, Gorge; Minakawa, Noboru; Takagi, Masahiro

    2010-09-01

    Polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to determine whether mosquito predators in wetland habitats feed on Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) larvae. Aquatic mosquito predators were collected from six wetlands near Lake Victoria in Mbita, Western Kenya. This study revealed that the whole positive rate of An. gambiae s.l. from 330 predators was 54.2%. The order of positive rate was the highest in Odonata (70.2%), followed by Hemiptera (62.8%), Amphibia (41.7%), and Coleoptera (18%). This study demonstrates that the polymerase chain reaction method can determine whether aquatic mosquito predators feed on An. gambiae s.l. larvae if the predators have undigested An. gambiae s.l. in their midgut or stomach. PMID:20939371

  17. Correlation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato prevalence in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks with specific abiotic traits in the western palearctic.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Ortega, Carmelo; Sánchez, Nely; Desimone, Lorenzo; Sudre, Bertrand; Suk, Jonathan E; Semenza, Jan C

    2011-06-01

    This meta-analysis of reports examining ticks throughout the Western Palearctic region indicates a distinct geographic pattern for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato prevalence in questing nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks. The greatest prevalence was reported between the 5°E and 25°E longitudes based on an analysis of 123 collection points with 37,940 nymphal tick specimens (87.43% of total nymphs; 56.35% of total ticks in the set of reports over the target area). Climatic traits, such as temperature and vegetation stress, and their seasonality correlated with Borrelia prevalence in questing ticks. The greatest prevalence was associated with mild winter, high summer, and low seasonal amplitude of temperatures within the range of the tick vector, higher vegetation indices in the May-June period, and well-connected vegetation patches below a threshold at which rates suddenly drop. Classification of the target territory using a qualitative risk index derived from the abiotic variables produced an indicator of the probability of finding infected ticks in the Western Palearctic region. No specific temporal trends were detected in the reported prevalence. The ranges of the different B. burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies showed a pattern of high biodiversity between 4°W and 20°E, partially overlapping the area of highest prevalence in ticks. Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii are the dominant species in central Europe (east of ∼25°E), but B. garinii may appear alone at southern latitudes and Borrelia lusitaniae is the main indicator species for meridional territories. PMID:21498767

  18. The Historical Speciation of Mauremys Sensu Lato: Ancestral Area Reconstruction and Interspecific Gene Flow Level Assessment Provide New Insights

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Huaxing; Jiang, Yuan; Nie, Liuwang; Yin, Huazong; Li, Haifeng; Dong, Xianmei; Zhao, Feifei; Zhang, Huanhuan; Pu, Youguang; Huang, Zhenfeng; Song, Jiaolian; Sun, Entao

    2015-01-01

    Mauremys sensu lato was divided into Mauremys, Chinemys, Ocadia, and Annamemys based on earlier research on morphology. Phylogenetic research on this group has been controversial because of disagreements regarding taxonomy, and the historical speciation is still poorly understood. In this study, 32 individuals of eight species that are widely distributed in Eurasia were collected. The complete mitochondrial (mt) sequences of 14 individuals of eight species were sequenced. Phylogenetic relationships, interspecific divergence times, and ancestral area reconstructions were explored using mt genome data (10,854 bp). Subsequent interspecific gene flow level assessment was performed using five unlinked polymorphic microsatellite loci. The Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses revealed a paraphyletic relationship among four old genera (Mauremys, Annamemys, Chinemys, and Ocadia) and suggested the four old genera should be merged into the genus (Mauremys). Ancestral area reconstruction and divergence time estimation suggested Southeast Asia may be the area of origin for the common ancestral species of this genus and genetic drift may have played a decisive role in species divergence due to the isolated event of a glacial age. However, M. japonica may have been speciated due to the creation of the island of Japan. The detection of extensive gene flow suggested no vicariance occurred between Asia and Southeast Asia. Inconsistent results between gene flow assessment and phylogenetic analysis revealed the hybrid origin of M. mutica (Southeast Asian). Here ancestral area reconstruction and interspecific gene flow level assessment were first used to explore species origins and evolution of Mauremys sensu lato, which provided new insights on this genus. PMID:26657158

  19. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and co-infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Hamburg, Germany.

    PubMed

    May, K; Jordan, D; Fingerle, V; Strube, C

    2015-12-01

    To obtain initial data on Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) in Ixodes ricinus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks in Hamburg, Germany, 1400 questing ticks were collected by flagging at 10 different public recreation areas in 2011 and analysed using probe-based quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The overall rate of infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. was 34.1%; 30.0% of adults were infected (36.7% of females and 26.0% of males), as were 34.5% of nymphs. Significant differences in tick infection rates were observed between the spring and summer/autumn months, as well as among sampling locations. Borrelia genospecies identification by reverse line blotting was successful in 43.6% of positive tick samples. The most frequent genospecies was Borrelia garinii/Borrelia bavariensis, followed by Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia valaisiana, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia spielmanii, Borrelia bissettii and Borrelia lusitaniae. Based on previously published data, co-infection of Borrelia and Rickettsiales spp. was determined in 25.8% of ticks. Overall, 22.9% of ticks were co-infected with Rickettsia spp. (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), 1.7% with Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), and 1.2% with both pathogens. Study results show a high prevalence of Borrelia-positive ticks in recreation areas in the northern German city of Hamburg and the potential health risk to humans in these areas should not be underestimated. PMID:26096626

  20. Presence of host-seeking Ixodes ricinus and their infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the Northern Apennines, Italy.

    PubMed

    Ragagli, Charlotte; Mannelli, Alessandro; Ambrogi, Cecilia; Bisanzio, Donal; Ceballos, Leonardo A; Grego, Elena; Martello, Elisa; Selmi, Marco; Tomassone, Laura

    2016-06-01

    Host-seeking ticks were collected in the Northern Apennines, Italy, by dragging at 35 sites, at altitudes ranging from 680 and 1670 m above sea level (asl), from April to November, in 2010 and 2011. Ixodes ricinus (4431 larvae, 597 nymphs and 12 adults) and Haemaphysalis punctata (11,209 larvae, 313 nymphs, and 25 adults) were the most abundant species, followed by Haemaphysalis sulcata (20 larvae, five nymphs, and 13 adults), Dermacentor marginatus (42 larvae and two adults) and Ixodes hexagonus (one nymph). Greatest numbers of ticks were collected at locations characterised by southern exposure and limestone substratum, at altitudes <1400 m asl; I. ricinus was most abundant in Turkey oak (Quercus cerris) wood, whereas H. punctata was mostly collected in hop hornbeam (Ostrya carpinifolia) wood and on exposed rocks. Ixodes ricinus was also found up to 1670 m asl, in high stand beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood. The overall prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) in 294 host-seeking I. ricinus nymphs was 8.5 %. Borrelia garinii was the most frequently identified genospecies (64.0 % of positive nymphs), followed by B. valaisiana, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii, and B. lusitaniae. Based upon the comparison with the results of previous studies at the same location, these research findings suggest the recent invasion of the study area by the tick vector and the agents of Lyme borreliosis. PMID:26964552

  1. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in humans in a rural area of Paraná State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Daniela Dib; Moura, Rodrigo Assunção; Nunes, Mônica; Carreira, Teresa; Vidotto, Odilon; Freitas, Julio Cesar; Vieira, Maria Luísa

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the detection of Borrelia garinii and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) in Brazilian individuals using PCR and DNA sequencing. Our results suggest that these species are emerging pathogens in this country, and additional studies are necessary to determine the epidemiological characteristics of this disease in Brazil. PMID:26273276

  2. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in humans in a rural area of Paraná State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Daniela Dib; Moura, Rodrigo Assunção; Nunes, Mônica; Carreira, Teresa; Vidotto, Odilon; Freitas, Julio Cesar; Vieira, Maria Luísa

    2015-06-01

    This study describes the detection of Borrelia garinii and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) in Brazilian individuals using PCR and DNA sequencing. Our results suggest that these species are emerging pathogens in this country, and additional studies are necessary to determine the epidemiological characteristics of this disease in Brazil. PMID:26273276

  3. First report of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in two threatened carnivores: the Marbled polecat, Vormela peregusna and the European mink, Mustela lutreola (Mammalia: Mustelidae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lyme disease is a widespread cosmopolitan zoonosis caused by species belonging to the genus Borrelia. It is transmitted from animal reservoir hosts to humans through hard - ticks of genus Ixodes which are vectors of the disease. Case presentation Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection was identified in a marbled polecat, Vormela peregusna, and two European minks, Mustela lutreola, from Romania, by PCR. RFLP revealed the presence of a single genospecies, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. Conclusions This is the first report of the Lyme disease spirochetes in the two mentioned hosts. PMID:22901862

  4. Bacterial tick-borne diseases caused by Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Coxiella burnetii, and Rickettsia spp. among patients with cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chmielewski, Tomasz; Brydak-Godowska, Joanna; Fiecek, Beata; Rorot, Urszula; Sędrowicz, Elżbieta; Werenowska, Małgorzata; Kopacz, Dorota; Hevelke, Agata; Michniewicz, Magdalena; Kęcik, Dariusz; Tylewska-Wierzbanowska, Stanisława

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical data have shown that tick-borne diseases caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Rickettsia spp. can affect the central nervous system, including the eye. The aim of this study was to establish a relationship between the incidence of cataract and evidence of bacterial infections transmitted by ticks. Material/Methods Fluid with lenticular masses from inside of the eye and blood from 109 patients were tested by PCR and sequencing. Sera from patients and the control group were subjected to serological tests to search specific antibodies to the bacteria. Results Microbiological analysis revealed the presence of Bartonella sp. DNA in intraoperative specimens from the eye in 1.8% of patients. Serological studies have shown that infections caused by B. burgdorferi sensu lato and Bartonella sp. were detected in 34.8% and 4.6% of patients with cataract surgery, respectively. Conclusions Presence of DNA of yet uncultured and undescribed species of Bartonella in eye liquid indicates past infection with this pathogen. Specific antibodies to B. burgdorferi sensu lato and Bartonella sp. are detected more frequently in patients with cataract compared to the control group. This could indicate a possible role of these organisms in the pathological processes within the eyeball, leading to changes in the lens. Further studies are needed to identify Bartonella species, as well as to recognize the infectious mechanisms involved in cataract development. PMID:24902636

  5. Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Spirochetes in Wild Birds in Northwestern California: Associations with Ecological Factors, Bird Behavior and Tick Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Erica A.; Eisen, Lars; Eisen, Rebecca J.; Fedorova, Natalia; Hasty, Jeomhee M.; Vaughn, Charles; Lane, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Although Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) are found in a great diversity of vertebrates, most studies in North America have focused on the role of mammals as spirochete reservoir hosts. We investigated the roles of birds as hosts for subadult Ixodes pacificus ticks and potential reservoirs of the Lyme disease spirochete B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) in northwestern California. Overall, 623 birds representing 53 species yielded 284 I. pacificus larvae and nymphs. We used generalized linear models and zero-inflated negative binomial models to determine associations of bird behaviors, taxonomic relationships and infestation by I. pacificus with borrelial infection in the birds. Infection status in birds was best explained by taxonomic order, number of infesting nymphs, sampling year, and log-transformed average body weight. Presence and counts of larvae and nymphs could be predicted by ground- or bark-foraging behavior and contact with dense oak woodland. Molecular analysis yielded the first reported detection of Borrelia bissettii in birds. Moreover, our data suggest that the Golden-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla), a non-resident species, could be an important reservoir for B. burgdorferi s.s. Of 12 individual birds (9 species) that carried B. burgdorferi s.l.-infected larvae, no birds carried the same genospecies of B. burgdorferi s.l. in their blood as were present in the infected larvae removed from them. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Our study is the first to explicitly incorporate both taxonomic relationships and behaviors as predictor variables to identify putative avian reservoirs of B. burgdorferi s.l. Our findings underscore the importance of bird behavior to explain local tick infestation and Borrelia infection in these animals, and suggest the potential for bird-mediated geographic spread of vector ticks and spirochetes in the far-western United States. PMID:25714376

  6. Large Scale Spatial Risk and Comparative Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in Ixodes pacificus

    PubMed Central

    Padgett, Kerry; Bonilla, Denise; Kjemtrup, Anne; Vilcins, Inger-Marie; Yoshimizu, Melissa Hardstone; Hui, Lucia; Sola, Milagros; Quintana, Miguel; Kramer, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi is a newly described emerging pathogen transmitted to people by Ixodes species ticks and found in temperate regions of North America, Europe, and Asia. There is limited understanding of large scale entomological risk patterns of B. miyamotoi and of Borreila burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss), the agent of Lyme disease, in western North America. In this study, B. miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochete, was detected in adult (n = 70) and nymphal (n = 36) Ixodes pacificus ticks collected from 24 of 48 California counties that were surveyed over a 13 year period. Statewide prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato (sl), which includes B. burgdorferi ss, and B. miyamotoi were similar in adult I. pacificus (0.6% and 0.8%, respectively). In contrast, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sl was almost 2.5 times higher than B. miyamotoi in nymphal I. pacificus (3.2% versus 1.4%). These results suggest similar risk of exposure to B. burgdorferi sl and B. miyamotoi from adult I. pacificus tick bites in California, but a higher risk of contracting B. burgdorferi sl than B. miyamotoi from nymphal tick bites. While regional risk of exposure to these two spirochetes varies, the highest risk for both species is found in north and central coastal California and the Sierra Nevada foothill region, and the lowest risk is in southern California; nevertheless, tick-bite avoidance measures should be implemented in all regions of California. This is the first study to comprehensively evaluate entomologic risk for B. miyamotoi and B. burgdorferi for both adult and nymphal I. pacificus, an important human biting tick in western North America. PMID:25333277

  7. Inter- and intra-specific pan-genomes of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato: genome stability and adaptive radiation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lyme disease is caused by spirochete bacteria from the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi s.l.) species complex. To reconstruct the evolution of B. burgdorferi s.l. and identify the genomic basis of its human virulence, we compared the genomes of 23 B. burgdorferi s.l. isolates from Europe and the United States, including B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (B. burgdorferi s.s., 14 isolates), B. afzelii (2), B. garinii (2), B. “bavariensis” (1), B. spielmanii (1), B. valaisiana (1), B. bissettii (1), and B. “finlandensis” (1). Results Robust B. burgdorferi s.s. and B. burgdorferi s.l. phylogenies were obtained using genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms, despite recombination. Phylogeny-based pan-genome analysis showed that the rate of gene acquisition was higher between species than within species, suggesting adaptive speciation. Strong positive natural selection drives the sequence evolution of lipoproteins, including chromosomally-encoded genes 0102 and 0404, cp26-encoded ospC and b08, and lp54-encoded dbpA, a07, a22, a33, a53, a65. Computer simulations predicted rapid adaptive radiation of genomic groups as population size increases. Conclusions Intra- and inter-specific pan-genome sizes of B. burgdorferi s.l. expand linearly with phylogenetic diversity. Yet gene-acquisition rates in B. burgdorferi s.l. are among the lowest in bacterial pathogens, resulting in high genome stability and few lineage-specific genes. Genome adaptation of B. burgdorferi s.l. is driven predominantly by copy-number and sequence variations of lipoprotein genes. New genomic groups are likely to emerge if the current trend of B. burgdorferi s.l. population expansion continues. PMID:24112474

  8. The Heterogeneity, Distribution, and Environmental Associations of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato, the Agent of Lyme Borreliosis, in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    James, Marianne C.; Gilbert, Lucy; Bowman, Alan S.; Forbes, Ken J.

    2014-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis is an emerging infectious human disease caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex of bacteria with reported cases increasing in many areas of Europe and North America. To understand the drivers of disease risk and the distribution of symptoms, which may improve mitigation and diagnostics, here we characterize the genetics, distribution, and environmental associations of B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies across Scotland. In Scotland, reported Lyme borreliosis cases have increased almost 10-fold since 2000 but the distribution of B. burgdorferi s.l. is so far unstudied. Using a large survey of over 2200 Ixodes ricinus tick samples collected from birds, mammals, and vegetation across 25 sites we identified four genospecies: Borrelia afzelii (48%), Borrelia garinii (36%), Borrelia valaisiana (8%), and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (7%), and one mixed genospecies infection. Surprisingly, 90% of the sequence types were novel and, importantly, up to 14% of samples were mixed intra-genospecies co-infections, suggesting tick co-feeding, feeding on multiple hosts, or multiple infections in hosts. B. garinii (hosted by birds) was considerably more genetically diverse than B. afzelii (hosted by small mammals), as predicted since there are more species of birds than small mammals and birds can import strains from mainland Europe. Higher proportions of samples contained B. garinii and B. valaisiana in the west, while B. afzelii and B. garinii were significantly more associated with mixed/deciduous than with coniferous woodlands. This may relate to the abundance of transmission hosts in different regions and habitats. These data on the genetic heterogeneity within and between Borrelia genospecies are a first step to understand pathogen spread and could help explain the distribution of patient symptoms, which may aid local diagnosis. Understanding the environmental associations of the pathogens is critical for rational policy making for disease risk

  9. Environmental Contamination by Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato Eggs in Relation to Slaughterhouses in Urban and Rural Areas in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Chaâbane-Banaoues, Raja; Oudni-M'rad, Myriam; M'rad, Selim; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda

    2016-02-01

    Hydatidosis has become a real concern for health care institutions and animal rearers in Tunisia. The Tunisian endemicity is aggravated by the growing number of dogs and the difficulty of getting rid of contaminated viscera because of the lack of equipment in most slaughterhouses. Therefore, microscopic and molecular tools were applied to evaluate the role of slaughterhouses in canine infection and Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s. l.) egg dissemination. Exposure risk to E. granulosus s. l. eggs in urban and rural areas was explored in order to implant preventive and adapted control strategies. Microscopic examinations detected taeniid eggs in 152 amongst 553 fecal samples. The copro-PCR demonstrated that 138 of 152 taeniid samples analyzed were positive for E. granulosus s. l. DNA. PCR-RFLP demonstrated that all isolated samples belonged to E. granulosus sensu stricto (s. s.). An important environmental contamination index (25.0%) by E. granulosus s. l. eggs was demonstrated. The average contamination index from the regions around slaughterhouses (23.3%; 95% CI: 17.7-28.9%) was in the same range as detected in areas located far from slaughterhouses (26.0%, 95% CI: 21.3-30.8%). Echinococcosis endemic areas were extended in both rural (29.9%, 95% CI: 24.8-34.9%) and urban locations (18.1%, 95% CI: 13.0-22.9%). The pathogen dissemination is related neither to the presence/absence of slaughterhouses nor to the location in urban or rural areas, but is probably influenced by human activities (home slaughtering) and behavior towards the infected viscera. PMID:26951990

  10. Environmental Contamination by Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato Eggs in Relation to Slaughterhouses in Urban and Rural Areas in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Chaâbane-Banaoues, Raja; Oudni-M’rad, Myriam; M’rad, Selim; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda

    2016-01-01

    Hydatidosis has become a real concern for health care institutions and animal rearers in Tunisia. The Tunisian endemicity is aggravated by the growing number of dogs and the difficulty of getting rid of contaminated viscera because of the lack of equipment in most slaughterhouses. Therefore, microscopic and molecular tools were applied to evaluate the role of slaughterhouses in canine infection and Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s. l.) egg dissemination. Exposure risk to E. granulosus s. l. eggs in urban and rural areas was explored in order to implant preventive and adapted control strategies. Microscopic examinations detected taeniid eggs in 152 amongst 553 fecal samples. The copro-PCR demonstrated that 138 of 152 taeniid samples analyzed were positive for E. granulosus s. l. DNA. PCR-RFLP demonstrated that all isolated samples belonged to E. granulosus sensu stricto (s. s.). An important environmental contamination index (25.0%) by E. granulosus s. l. eggs was demonstrated. The average contamination index from the regions around slaughterhouses (23.3%; 95% CI: 17.7-28.9%) was in the same range as detected in areas located far from slaughterhouses (26.0%, 95% CI: 21.3-30.8%). Echinococcosis endemic areas were extended in both rural (29.9%, 95% CI: 24.8-34.9%) and urban locations (18.1%, 95% CI: 13.0-22.9%). The pathogen dissemination is related neither to the presence/absence of slaughterhouses nor to the location in urban or rural areas, but is probably influenced by human activities (home slaughtering) and behavior towards the infected viscera. PMID:26951990

  11. Morphological and ontogenetic stratification of abyssal and hadal Eurythenes gryllus sensu lato (Amphipoda: Lysianassoidea) from the Peru-Chile Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eustace, Ryan M.; Ritchie, Heather; Kilgallen, Niamh M.; Piertney, Stuart B.; Jamieson, Alan J.

    2016-03-01

    The globally ubiquitous lysianassoid amphipod, Eurythenes gryllus, has been shown to consist of multiple genetically distinct cryptic taxa, with depth considered a major driver of speciation and morphological divergence. Here we examine morphological variation of E. gryllus sensu lato through a continuous depth distribution that spans from abyssal (3000-6000 m) into hadal depths (>6000 m) in the Peru-Chile Trench (SE Pacific Ocean). Three distinct morphospecies were identified: one was confirmed as being E. magellanicus (4602-5329 m) based on DNA sequence and morphological similarity. The other two morphologically distinct species were named based upon depth of occurrence; Abyssal (4602-6173 m) and Hadal (6173-8074 m). The three Eurythenes morphospecies showed vertical ontogenetic stratification across their bathymetric range, where juveniles were found shallower in their depth range and mature females deeper. Potential ecological and evolutionary drivers that explain the observed patterns of intra and inter-specific structure, such as hydrostatic pressure and topographical isolation, are discussed.

  12. Deep molecular divergence and exceptional morphological stasis in dwarf cannibal snails Nata sensu lato Watson, 1934 (Rhytididae) of southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Moussalli, Adnan; Herbert, David G

    2016-02-01

    The genus Nata Watson, 1934 is a southern African endemic belonging to the Gondwanan family of carnivorous snails, Rhytididae. We present a molecular phylogeny of the genus based on two mitochondrial (16S and COI) and two nuclear genes (ITS2 and 28S RNA), and complement this with an appraisal of morphological characters relating to both the shell and soft parts. We identify four reciprocally monophyletic lineages for which valid names are already available, plus two undescribed species restricted to the Albany Thicket Biome. We show that Nata sensu lato may not be monophyletic. Rather there exist two deep lineages within Nata s.l., one lineage potentially sister to a clade dominated by the Australian and New Zealand radiation, and the other occupying a basal position within Rhytididae. Accordingly we recommend a revision recognising two genera, namely Nata s.s. and Natella respectively. Despite deep molecular divergences within Nata s.s., phenotypic evolution has been remarkably conserved, and contrasts greatly with that exhibited across other major lineages within the Rhytididae. PMID:26619925

  13. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes cf. neuquenensis and Ixodes sigelos ticks from the Patagonian region of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Patrick S; Bottero, Maria Noelia Saracho; Carvalho, Luis; Mackenstedt, Ute; Lareschi, Marcela; Venzal, José M; Nava, Santiago

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to detect Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection in ixodid ticks from the Patagonia region in the south of Argentina. Therefore, ticks were collected on rodents in the provinces of Chubut, Río Negro and Santa Cruz. These ticks were identified as nymphs of Ixodes cf. neuquenensis and Ixodes sigelos. The B. burgdorferi s.l. infection was tested by a battery of PCR methods targeting the gene flagellin (fla) and the rrfA-rrlB intergenic spacer region (IGS). Three pools of I. sigelos nymphs from Chubut and Santa Cruz provinces as well as one pool of I. cf. neuquenensis nymphs from Río Negro province were tested positive in the fla-PCR. The samples of I. sigelos were also positive for the IGS-PCR. Phylogenetically, the haplotypes found in the positive ticks belong to the B. burgdorferi s.l. complex, and they were closely related to Borrelia chilensis, a genospecies isolated from Ixodes stilesi in Chile. The pathogenic relevance of the Borrelia genospecies detected in both I. neuquenensis and I. sigelos is unknown. PMID:27372197

  14. Molecular Characterization of Echinococcus granulosus Sensu Lato from Farm Animals in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Amer, Said; Helal, Ibrahim B.; Kamau, Evelyne; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Little is known on the diversity and public health significance of Echinococcus species in livestock in Egypt. In this study, 37 individual hydatid cysts were collected from dromedary camels (n=28), sheep (n=7) and buffalos (n=2). DNA was extracted from protoscoleces/germinal layer of individual cysts and amplified by PCR targeting nuclear (actin II) and mitochondrial (COX1 and NAD1) genes. Direct sequencing of amplicons indicated the presence of Echinococcus canadenesis (G6 genotype) in 26 of 28 camel cysts, 3 of 7 sheep cysts and the 2 buffalo derived cysts. In contrast, Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1 genotype) was detected in one cyst from a camel and 4 of 7 cysts from sheep, whereas Echinococcus ortleppi (G5 genotype) was detected in one cyst from a camel. This is the first identification of E. ortleppi in Egypt. PMID:25760944

  15. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato GENOTYPES IN DOMESTIC LIVESTOCK AND HUMANS IN GOLESTAN PROVINCE, IRAN.

    PubMed

    Sharbatkhori, Mitra; Tanzifi, Asal; Rostami, Sima; Rostami, Masoomeh; Fasihi Harandi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a globally parasitic zoonosis caused by larval stages of Echinococcus granulosus. This study investigated E. granulosus genotypes isolated from livestock and humans in the Golestan province, northern Iran, southeast of the Caspian sea, using partial sequencing data of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (nad1) mitochondrial genes. Seventy E. granulosus isolates were collected from animals in slaughterhouses: 18 isolates from sheep, 40 from cattle, nine from camels, two from buffaloes and one from a goat, along with four human isolates (formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues) from CE patients of provincial hospitals. All isolates were successfully analysed by PCR amplification and sequencing. The sequence analysis found four E. granulosus genotypes among the 74 CE isolates: G1 (78.3%), G2 (2.7%), G3 (15%) and G6 (4%). The G1-G3 complex genotype was found in all of the sheep, goat, cattle and buffalo isolates. Among the nine camel isolates, the frequency of G1-G3 and G6 genotypes were 66.7% and 33.3%, respectively. All four human CE isolates belonged to E. granulosus sensu stricto. This study reports the first occurrence of the G2 genotype in cattle from Iran and confirms the previously reported G3 genotype in camels in the same country. PMID:27253740

  16. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato GENOTYPES IN DOMESTIC LIVESTOCK AND HUMANS IN GOLESTAN PROVINCE, IRAN

    PubMed Central

    SHARBATKHORI, Mitra; TANZIFI, Asal; ROSTAMI, Sima; ROSTAMI, Masoomeh; HARANDI, Majid FASIHI

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a globally parasitic zoonosis caused by larval stages of Echinococcus granulosus. This study investigated E. granulosus genotypes isolated from livestock and humans in the Golestan province, northern Iran, southeast of the Caspian sea, using partial sequencing data of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (nad1) mitochondrial genes. Seventy E. granulosus isolates were collected from animals in slaughterhouses: 18 isolates from sheep, 40 from cattle, nine from camels, two from buffaloes and one from a goat, along with four human isolates (formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues) from CE patients of provincial hospitals. All isolates were successfully analysed by PCR amplification and sequencing. The sequence analysis found four E. granulosus genotypes among the 74 CE isolates: G1 (78.3%), G2 (2.7%), G3 (15%) and G6 (4%). The G1-G3 complex genotype was found in all of the sheep, goat, cattle and buffalo isolates. Among the nine camel isolates, the frequency of G1-G3 and G6 genotypes were 66.7% and 33.3%, respectively. All four human CE isolates belonged to E. granulosus sensu stricto. This study reports the first occurrence of the G2 genotype in cattle from Iran and confirms the previously reported G3 genotype in camels in the same country. PMID:27253740

  17. Quantitative Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Erythema Migrans Skin Lesions Using Internally Controlled Duplex Real Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Lusa, Lara; Stupica, Dasa; Maraspin, Vera; Barrett, P. Noel; Strle, Franc; Livey, Ian

    2013-01-01

    B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii, B. garinii and B. bavariensis are the principal species which account for Lyme borreliosis (LB) globally. We have developed an internally controlled duplex quantitative real time PCR assay targeting the Borrelia 16S rRNA and the human RNAseP genes. This assay is well-suited for laboratory confirmation of suspected cases of LB and will be used to assess the efficacy of a vaccine against LB in clinical trials. The assay is highly specific, successfully detecting DNA extracted from 83 diverse B. burgdorferi sensu lato strains representing all major species causing LB, while 21 unrelated microbial species and human genomic DNA tested negative. The assay was highly reproducible and sensitive, with a lower limit of detection of 6 copies per PCR reaction. Together with culture, the assay was used to evaluate paired 3 mm skin biopsy samples taken from 121 patients presenting with solitary erythema migrans (EM) lesion. PCR testing identified more positive biopsy samples than culture (77.7% PCR positive versus 55.1% culture positive) and correctly identified all specimens scored as culture positive. OspA-based typing identified the majority of isolates as B. afzelii (96.8%) and the bacterial load was significantly higher in culture positive biopsies than in culture negative biopsies (P<0.001). The quantitative data also enabled relationships between Borrelia burden and patient symptoms to be evaluated. The bacterial load was significantly higher among patients with systemic symptoms than without (P = 0.02) and was significantly higher for biopsies retrieved from patients with EM lesions with central clearing (P<0.001). 16S copy numbers were moderately lower in samples from patients reporting a history of LB (P = 0.10). This is the first quantitative PCR study of human skin biopsies predominantly infected with B. afzelii and the first study to demonstrate a clear relationship between clinical symptoms in B. afzelii

  18. Occurrence of Hepatozoon canis and Cercopithifilaria bainae in an off-host population of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Giannelli, Alessio; Carbone, Domenico; Baneth, Gad; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico

    2014-04-01

    Hepatozoon canis (Eucoccidiorida, Hepatozoidae) and the filarioid Cercopithifilaria bainae (Spirurida, Onchocercidae) are tick-transmitted infectious agents of dogs, highly prevalent in the Mediterranean basin in association with Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. Ticks were collected from the environment every 25±2 days in a confined location in southern Italy where a community of dogs lives, from August 2012 to July 2013. In order to study the occurrence of H. canis and C. bainae, 1091 tick specimens (770 adults; 271 nymphs, and 50 larvae) were dissected, and oocysts of H. canis and larvae of C. bainae were morphologically identified. Out of 1091 dissected ticks, 13.47% (n=147) were positive for H. canis, with the highest prevalence recorded in unfed adults (16.4%; 126/770), followed by nymphs collected as larvae and allowed to moult (14%; 7/50), unfed nymphs dissected immediately after collection (3%; 8/271), and adults collected as nymphs and allowed to moult (2%; 6/271). The highest number of H. canis-positive ticks (35.5%; 43/121; P<0.05) was recorded during the summer months (i.e., June-July). In addition, 6% of adult ticks (n=66) were positive for third-stage larvae of C. bainae, with the highest number in June (17%; 14/84; P<0.05). Based on the results reported herein, H. canis and C. bainae infections in the study area seem to be dependent on the seasonality of vector tick populations. Hence, dogs living in these areas are more exposed to both pathogens during the warmer months. These findings provide new insights into the ecology of both H. canis and C. bainae. PMID:24594107

  19. The Western progression of lyme disease: infectious and Nonclonal Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato populations in Grand Forks County, North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Stone, Brandee L; Russart, Nathan M; Gaultney, Robert A; Floden, Angela M; Vaughan, Jefferson A; Brissette, Catherine A

    2015-01-01

    Scant attention has been paid to Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ixodes scapularis, or reservoirs in eastern North Dakota despite the fact that it borders high-risk counties in Minnesota. Recent reports of B. burgdorferi and I. scapularis in North Dakota, however, prompted a more detailed examination. Spirochetes cultured from the hearts of five rodents trapped in Grand Forks County, ND, were identified as B. burgdorferi sensu lato through sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA gene, the 16S rRNA gene-ileT intergenic spacer region, flaB, ospA, ospC, and p66. OspC typing revealed the presence of groups A, B, E, F, L, and I. Two rodents were concurrently carrying multiple OspC types. Multilocus sequence typing suggested the eastern North Dakota strains are most closely related to those found in neighboring regions of the upper Midwest and Canada. BALB/c mice were infected with B. burgdorferi isolate M3 (OspC group B) by needle inoculation or tick bite. Tibiotarsal joints and ear pinnae were culture positive, and B. burgdorferi M3 was detected by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in the tibiotarsal joints, hearts, and ear pinnae of infected mice. Uninfected larval I. scapularis ticks were able to acquire B. burgdorferi M3 from infected mice; M3 was maintained in I. scapularis during the molt from larva to nymph; and further, M3 was transmitted from infected I. scapularis nymphs to naive mice, as evidenced by cultures and qPCR analyses. These results demonstrate that isolate M3 is capable of disseminated infection by both artificial and natural routes of infection. This study confirms the presence of unique (nonclonal) and infectious B. burgdorferi populations in eastern North Dakota. PMID:25304515

  20. A Novel multivalent OspA vaccine against Lyme borreliosis is safe and immunogenic in an adult population previously infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.

    PubMed

    Wressnigg, Nina; Barrett, P Noel; Pöllabauer, Eva-Maria; O'Rourke, Maria; Portsmouth, Daniel; Schwendinger, Michael G; Crowe, Brian A; Livey, Ian; Dvorak, Thomas; Schmitt, Bernhard; Zeitlinger, Markus; Kollaritsch, Herwig; Esen, Meral; Kremsner, Peter G; Jelinek, Tomas; Aschoff, Roland; Weisser, Roland; Naudts, Ingomar F K; Aichinger, Gerald

    2014-11-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) patients who recover, as well as previously infected asymptomatic individuals, remain vulnerable to reinfection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. There is limited information available about the use of OspA vaccines in this population. In this study, a randomized double-blind phase I/II trial was performed to investigate the safety and immunogenicity of a novel multivalent OspA vaccine in healthy adults who were either seronegative or seropositive for previous B. burgdorferi sensu lato infection. The participants received three monthly priming immunizations with either 30 μg or 60 μg alum-adjuvanted OspA antigen and a booster vaccination either 6 months or 9 to 12 months after the first immunization. The antibody responses to the six OspA serotypes included in the vaccine were evaluated. Adverse events were predominantly mild and transient and were similar in the seronegative and seropositive populations. Substantial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and surface-binding antibody responses against all six OspA antigens were induced after the primary immunization schedule in both populations, and they were substantially increased with both booster schedules. The antibody responses induced by the two doses were similar in the seronegative population, but there was a significant dose response in the seropositive population. These data indicate that the novel multivalent OspA vaccine is well tolerated and immunogenic in individuals previously infected with B. burgdorferi sensu lato. (This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01504347.). PMID:25185574

  1. Adaptive and Innate Immune Responsiveness to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Exposed Asymptomatic Children and Children with Previous Clinical Lyme Borreliosis

    PubMed Central

    Skogman, Barbro H.; Hellberg, Sandra; Ekerfelt, Christina; Jenmalm, Maria C.; Forsberg, Pia; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Bergström, Sven; Ernerudh, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Why some individuals develop clinical manifestations in Lyme borreliosis (LB) while others remain asymptomatic is largely unknown. Therefore, we wanted to investigate adaptive and innate immune responsiveness to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in exposed Borrelia-antibody-positive asymptomatic children (n = 20), children with previous clinical LB (n = 24), and controls (n = 20). Blood samples were analyzed for Borrelia-specific interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-17 secretion by ELISPOT and Borrelia-induced IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12(p70), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) secretion by Luminex. We found no significant differences in cytokine secretion between groups, but a tendency towards an increased spontaneous secretion of IL-6 was found among children with previous clinical LB. In conclusion, the adaptive or innate immune responsiveness to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was similar in Borrelia-exposed asymptomatic children and children with previous clinical LB. Thus, the immunological mechanisms of importance for eradicating the spirochete effectively without developing clinical manifestations of LB remain unknown. PMID:22190976

  2. The discovery after 94 years of the elusive female of a myrmecolacid (Strepsiptera), and the cryptic species of Caenocholax fenyesi Pierce sensu lato.

    PubMed

    Kathirithamby, Jeyaraney; Johnston, J Spencer

    2004-02-01

    Due to its extreme sexual dimorphism and disparate hosts, no female myrmecolacid has been matched to its conspecific male to date. Here, for the first time to our knowledge, a morphological description is given of the matched female and male myrmecolacid, Caenocholax fenyesi waloffi ssp. nov. from Veracruz, Mexico: the female parasitic in a cricket and the male parasitic in an ant. For examined segments of DNA, the male and female are identical. Male C. fenyesi Pierce sensu lato was described 94 years ago from Veracruz. The male from Texas USA, which, for the same DNA segments, shows 15% divergence from the morphologically identical male from Veracruz, is given subspecies status, and is named Caenocholax fenyesi texensis ssp. nov. The discovery of the female finally enables many interesting studies to be pursued, such as speciation in morphologically cryptic taxa, the sexes of which parasitize disparate hosts. Caenocholax fenyesi sensu lato may also be evaluated for biocontrol of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, which is a pest in the USA and Australia. PMID:15101403

  3. Speciation history and widespread introgression in the European short-call tree frogs (Hyla arborea sensu lato, H. intermedia and H. sarda).

    PubMed

    Gvoždík, Václav; Canestrelli, Daniele; García-París, Mario; Moravec, Jiří; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Recuero, Ernesto; Teixeira, José; Kotlík, Petr

    2015-02-01

    European tree frogs (Hyla) characterized by short temporal parameters of the advertisement call form six genetically differentiated but morphologically cryptic taxa, H. arborea sensu stricto, H. orientalis and H. molleri from across Europe to western Asia (together referred to as H. arborea sensu lato), two putative taxa within H. intermedia (Northern and Southern) from the Italian Peninsula and Sicily, and H. sarda from Sardinia and Corsica. Here, we assess species limits and phylogenetic relationships within these 'short-call tree frogs' based on mitochondrial DNA and nuclear protein-coding markers. The mitochondrial and nuclear genes show partly incongruent phylogeographic patterns, which point to a complex history of gene flow across taxa, particularly in the Balkans. To test the species limits in the short-call tree frogs and to infer the species tree, we used coalescent-based approaches. The monophyly of H. arborea sensu lato is supported by the mtDNA as well as by the all-gene species tree. The Northern and Southern lineages of H. intermedia have been connected by nuclear gene flow (despite their deep mtDNA divergence) and should be treated as conspecific. On the contrary, the parapatric taxa within H. arborea sensu lato should be considered distinct species (H. arborea, H. orientalis, H. molleri) based on the coalescent analysis, although signs of hybridization were detected between them (H. arborea×H. orientalis; H. arborea×H. molleri). A mitochondrial capture upon secondary contact appears to explain the close mtDNA relationship between the geographically remote Iberian H. molleri and H. orientalis from around the Black Sea. Introgressive hybridization occurred also between the Balkan H. arborea and northern Italian H. intermedia, and between the Minor Asiatic H. orientalis and Arabian H. felix arabica (the latter belonging to a different acoustic group/clade). Our results shed light on the species limits in the European short-call tree frogs and show

  4. A phylogenetic re-appraisal of the family Liagoraceae sensu lato (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) based on sequence analyses of two plastid genes and postfertilization development.

    PubMed

    Lin, Showe-Mei; Rodríguez-Prieto, Conxi; Huisman, John M; Guiry, Michael D; Payri, Claude; Nelson, Wendy A; Liu, Shao-Lun

    2015-06-01

    The marine red algal family Liagoraceae sensu lato is shown to be polyphyletic based on analyses of a combined rbcL and psaA data set and the pattern of carposporophyte development. Fifteen of eighteen genera analyzed formed a monophyletic lineage that included the genus Liagora. Nemalion did not cluster with Liagoraceae sensu stricto, and Nemaliaceae is reinstated, characterized morphologically by the formation of the primary gonimolobes by longitudinal divisions of the gonimoblast initial. Yamadaella and Liagoropsis, previously placed in the Dermonemataceae, are shown to be independent lineages and are recognized as two new families Yamadaellaceae and Liagoropsidaceae. Yamadaellaceae is characterized by two gonimoblast initials cut off bilaterally from the fertilized carpogonium and diffusely spreading gonimoblast filaments. Liagoropsidaceae is characterized by at least three gonimoblast initials cut off by longitudinal septa from the fertilized carpogonium. In contrast, Liagoraceae sensu stricto is characterized by a single gonimoblast initial cut off transversely or diagonally from the fertilized carpogonium. Reproductive features, such as diffuse gonimoblasts and unfused carpogonial branches following postfertilization, appear to have evolved on more than one occasion in the Nemaliales and are therefore not taxonomically diagnostic at the family level, although they may be useful in recognizing genera. PMID:26986669

  5. Seasonal Variation in Biting Rates of Simulium damnosum sensu lato, Vector of Onchocerca volvulus, in Two Sudanese Foci

    PubMed Central

    Zarroug, Isam M. A.; Hashim, Kamal; Elaagip, Arwa H.; Samy, Abdallah M.; Frah, Ehab A.; ElMubarak, Wigdan A.; Mohamed, Hanan A.; Deran, Tong Chor M.; Aziz, Nabil; Higazi, Tarig B.

    2016-01-01

    Background The abundance of onchocerciasis vectors affects the epidemiology of disease in Sudan, therefore, studies of vector dynamics are crucial for onchocerciasis control/elimination programs. This study aims to compare the relative abundance, monthly biting-rates (MBR) and hourly-based distribution of onchocerciasis vectors in Abu-Hamed and Galabat foci. These seasonally-based factors can be used to structure vector control efforts to reduce fly-biting rates as a component of onchocerciasis elimination programs. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in four endemic villages in Abu-Hamed and Galabat foci during two non-consecutive years (2007–2008 and 2009–2010). Both adults and aquatic stages of the potential onchocerciasis vector Simulium damnosum sensu lato were collected following standard procedures during wet and dry seasons. Adult flies were collected using human landing capture for 5 days/month. The data was recorded on handheld data collection sheets to calculate the relative abundance, MBR, and hourly-based distribution associated with climatic factors. The data analysis was carried out using ANOVA and Spearman rank correlation tests. Results Data on vector surveillance revealed higher relative abundance of S. damnosum s.l. in Abu- Hamed (39,934 flies) than Galabat (8,202 flies). In Abu-Hamed, vector populations increased in January-April then declined in June-July until they disappeared in August-October. Highest black fly density and MBR were found in March 2007 (N = 9,444, MBR = 58,552.8 bites/person/month), and March 2010 (N = 2,603, MBR = 16,138.6 bites/person/month) while none of flies were collected in August-October (MBR = 0 bites/person/month). In Galabat, vectors increased in September-December, then decreased in February-June. The highest vector density and MBR were recorded in September 2007 (N = 1,138, MBR = 6,828 bites/person/month) and September 2010 (N = 1,163, MBR = 6,978 bites/person/month), whereas, none appeared in

  6. Molecular phylogenetic relationships among members of the family Phytolaccaceae sensu lato inferred from internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Kim, S Y; Park, S H; Ali, M A

    2013-01-01

    The phylogeny of a phylogenetically poorly known family, Phytolaccaceae sensu lato (s.l.), was constructed for resolving conflicts concerning taxonomic delimitations. Cladistic analyses were made based on 44 sequences of the internal transcribed spacer of nuclear ribosomal DNA from 11 families (Aizoaceae, Basellaceae, Didiereaceae, Molluginaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Phytolaccaceae s.l., Polygonaceae, Portulacaceae, Sarcobataceae, Tamaricaceae, and Nepenthaceae) of the order Caryophyllales. The maximum parsimony tree from the analysis resolved a monophyletic group of the order Caryophyllales; however, the members, Agdestis, Anisomeria, Gallesia, Gisekia, Hilleria, Ledenbergia, Microtea, Monococcus, Petiveria, Phytolacca, Rivinia, Schindleria, Seguieria, Stegnosperma, and Trichostigma, which belong to the family Phytolaccaceae s.l., did not cluster under a single clade, demonstrating that Phytolaccaceae is polyphyletic. PMID:23479160

  7. Genetic Heterogeneity of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in the Southern United States Based on Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Sequence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, T.; Oliver, J. H.; Gao, L.; Kollars, T. M.; Clark, K. L.

    2001-01-01

    Fifty-six strains of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, isolated from ticks and vertebrate animals in Missouri, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and Texas, were identified and characterized by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of rrf (5S)-rrl (23S) intergenic spacer amplicons. A total of 241 to 258 bp of intergenic spacers between tandemly duplicated rrf (5S) and rrl (23S) was amplified by PCR. MseI and DraI restriction fragment polymorphisms were used to analyze these strains. PCR-RFLP analysis results indicated that the strains represented at least three genospecies and 10 different restriction patterns. Most of the strains isolated from the tick Ixodes dentatus in Missouri and Georgia belonged to the genospecies Borrelia andersonii. Excluding the I. dentatus strains, most southern strains, isolated from the ticks Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes affinis, the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus), and cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus) in Georgia and Florida, belonged to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. Seven strains, isolated from Ixodes minor, the wood rat (Neotoma floridana), the cotton rat, and the cotton mouse in South Carolina and Florida, belonged to Borrelia bissettii. Two strains, MI-8 from Florida and TXW-1 from Texas, exhibited MseI and DraI restriction patterns different from those of previously reported genospecies. Eight Missouri tick strains (MOK-3a group) had MseI patterns similar to that of B. andersonii reference strain 21038 but had a DraI restriction site in the spacer. Strain SCGT-8a had DraI restriction patterns identical to that of strain 25015 (B. bissettii) but differed from strain 25015 in its MseI restriction pattern. Strain AI-1 had the same DraI pattern as other southern strains in the B. bissettii genospecies but had a distinct MseI profile. The taxonomic status of these atypical strains needs to be further evaluated. To clarify the taxonomic positions of these atypical Borrelia strains, the complete sequences of

  8. Human seroprevalence against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in two comparable regions of the eastern Alps is not correlated to vector infection rates.

    PubMed

    Sonnleitner, S T; Margos, G; Wex, F; Simeoni, J; Zelger, R; Schmutzhard, E; Lass-Flörl, C; Walder, G

    2015-04-01

    Seroprevalences were determined by testing sera of 1607 blood donors from North, East, and South Tyrol. In the Tyrols, the continental divide delimitates areas with high seroprevalences of IgG antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the North (7.2%) from areas with low seroprevalences in the South (1.5%). To determine Borrelia prevalences in unfed Ixodes ricinus ticks, 755 questing ticks were tested by PCR. Prevalences in nymphal and adult ticks were found to be 19.7% (n=132) and 21.5% (n=205) in North Tyrol and 23% (n=43) and 23.7% (n=376) in South Tyrol, respectively. Sequencing of 46 Borrelia-positive ticks yielded 74% Borrelia (B.) afzelii, 11% B. garinii, 7% B. lusitaniae, 7% B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, and 2% B. valaisiana infections. Distinct genetic clusters could not be delimitated on either side of the continental divide. This study describes occurrence and geographic dispersion of Borrelia spp. in the Tyrols, discusses possible reasons for significant differences in human seroprevalence, and indicates that prevalence of Borrelia in vector ticks is not a direct predictive factor for the local seroprevalence in humans. PMID:25661649

  9. Taxa and names in Cynoglossum sensu lato (Boraginaceae, Cynoglosseae): an annotated, synonymic inventory, with links to the protologues and mention of original material

    PubMed Central

    Stier, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background An inventory is presented of all names so far validly published in Cynoglossum sensu lato and its segregate genera: Adelocaryum, Afrotysonia, Kuschakewiczia, Lindelofia, Mattiastrum, Paracaryum, Rindera, Solenanthus, Trachelanthus, and their synonyms. Names and designations that were not validly published in the cited place, and later isonyms, are accounted for when they have been included in the International Plant Name Index (IPNI). Problems with IPNI entries, including errors and omissions, are discussed, and the hope is expressed that the present inventory may be of use for fixing them. New information The inventory, generated from a list of structured data, is presented in two Supplements, as a searchable HTML document comprising a sequence of entries with internal cross-links and links to external sources, in particular to protologues accessible online or, copyright restrictions permitting, made available as scanned documents via DOIs, and as machine-readible file. With minor exceptions, all names have been verified in their original place of publication, and all were nomenclaturally assessed. Colour coding is used to distinguish between names (in green) pertaining to Cynoglossum sensu lato, for which complete synonymies are provided; and names (in orange) pertaining to other genera but published under Cynoglossum or its segregates. They are listed together with their basionym and the corresponding correct name (if it exists), but without complete synonymy. Acceptable, potentially correct names appear in bold-face type, both under a broadly defined Cynoglossum (for which purpose validation of 81 new combinations and the name of 1 new species was necessary) and under one or more of its segregates. When a name was published for a new taxon, original material is indicated, usually by direct quotation from the protologue. New type designations are exceptional (two cases), whereas former type designations are cited whenever known. Furthermore

  10. ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 secondary structure modelling for intra-specific differentiation among species of the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato species complex.

    PubMed

    Rampersad, Sephra N

    2014-01-01

    The Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex is among the most destructive fungal plant pathogens in the world, however, identification of member species which are of quarantine importance is impacted by a number of factors that negatively affect species identification. Structural information of the rRNA marker may be considered to be a conserved marker which can be used as supplementary information for possible species identification. The difficulty in using ITS rDNA sequences for identification lies in the low level of sequence variation at the intra-specific level and the generation of artificially-induced sequence variation due to errors in polymerization of the ITS array during DNA replication. Type and query ITS sequences were subjected to sequence analyses prior to generation of predicted consensus secondary structures, including the pattern of nucleotide polymorphisms and number of indel haplotypes, GC content, and detection of artificially-induced sequence variation. Data pertaining to structure stability, the presence of conserved motifs in secondary structures and mapping of all sequences onto the consensus C. gloeosporioides sensu stricto secondary structure for ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 markers was then carried out. Motifs that are evolutionarily conserved among eukaryotes were found for all ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 sequences. The sequences exhibited conserved features typical of functional rRNAs. Generally, polymorphisms occurred within less conserved regions and were seen as bulges, internal and terminal loops or non-canonical G-U base-pairs within regions of the double stranded helices. Importantly, there were also taxonomic motifs and base changes that were unique to specific taxa and which may be used to support intra-specific identification of members of the C. gloeosporioides sensu lato species complex. PMID:25512885

  11. Divergence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes could be driven by the host: diversity of Borrelia strains isolated from ticks feeding on a single bird

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The controversy surrounding the potential impact of birds in spirochete transmission dynamics and their capacity to serve as a reservoir has existed for a long time. The majority of analyzed bird species are able to infect larval ticks with Borrelia. Dispersal of infected ticks due to bird migration is a key to the establishment of new foci of Lyme borreliosis. The dynamics of infection in birds supports the mixing of different species, the horizontal exchange of genetic information, and appearance of recombinant genotypes. Methods Four Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains were cultured from Ixodes minor larvae and four strains were isolated from Ixodes minor nymphs collected from a single Carolina Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus). A multilocus sequence analysis that included 16S rRNA, a 5S-23S intergenic spacer region, a 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer, flagellin, p66, and ospC separated 8 strains into 3 distinct groups. Additional multilocus sequence typing of 8 housekeeping genes, clpA, clpX, nifS, pepX, pyrG, recG, rplB, and uvrA was used to resolve the taxonomic status of bird-associated strains. Results Results of analysis of 14 genes confirmed that the level of divergence among strains is significantly higher than what would be expected for strains within a single species. The presence of cross-species recombination was revealed: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto housekeeping gene nifS was incorporated into homologous locus of strain, previously assigned to B. americana. Conclusions Genetically diverse Borrelia strains are often found within the same tick or same vertebrate host, presenting a wide opportunity for genetic exchange. We report the cross-species recombination that led to incorporation of a housekeeping gene from the B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strain into a homologous locus of another bird-associated strain. Our results support the hypothesis that recombination maintains a majority of sequence polymorphism within Borrelia

  12. Immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR as diagnostic tools for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks collected from humans.

    PubMed

    Briciu, Violeta T; Sebah, Daniela; Coroiu, Georgiana; Lupşe, Mihaela; Cârstina, Dumitru; Ţăţulescu, Doina F; Mihalca, Andrei D; Gherman, Călin M; Leucuţa, Daniel; Meyer, Fabian; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Fingerle, Volker; Huber, Ingrid

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate different methods used for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) in ticks: immunohistochemistry followed by focus floating microscopy (FFM) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) targeting the ospA and hbb genes. Additionally, an optimized ospA real-time PCR assay was developed with an integrated internal amplification control (IAC) for the detection of inhibition in the PCR assay and was validated as an improved screening tool for B. burgdorferi. One hundred and thirty-six ticks collected from humans in a hospital from Cluj-Napoca, Romania, were investigated regarding genus, stage of development and sex, and then tested by all three assays. A poor quality of agreement was found between FFM and each of the two real-time PCR assays, as assessed by concordance analysis (Cohen's kappa), whereas the agreement between the two real-time PCR assays was moderate. The present study argues for a low sensitivity of FFM and underlines that discordant results of different assays used for detection of B. burgdorferi in ticks are frequent. PMID:26801157

  13. Fitness costs to Helicoverpa armigera after exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato: Study on F1 generation.

    PubMed

    Jarrahi, Azadeh; Safavi, Seyed Ali

    2016-07-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin is a valuable biocontrol agent attacking larval stages of many lepidopteran pests including Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner). Sub-lethal effects of M. anisopliae sensu lato (s.l.) (isolate M14) were investigated on life table parameters of offspring from treated larvae of H. armigera. Duration of different life stages was significantly affected by fungal treatments. Fecundity was decreased in females derived from H. armigera larvae treated with M. anisopliae s.l. Sub-lethal concentrations of the entomopathogen reduced the net reproduction rate (R0) of F1 insects for all treatments compared with the control. Similar reductions were observed for the intrinsic and the finite rates of increase (rm and λ, respectively). The mean generation time (T) and the doubling time (DT) were statistically higher in offspring of individuals exposed to some fungal concentrations than control insects. Our results indicated that there was a significant decrease in the F1 population of H. armigera derived from larvae that were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of M. anisopliae s.l. PMID:27247225

  14. Borrelia chilensis, a new member of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex that extends the range of this genospecies in the Southern Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Larisa B.; Tomova, Alexandra; González-Acuña, Daniel; Murúa, Roberto; Moreno, Claudia X.; Hernández, Claudio; Cabello, Javier; Cabello, Carlos; Daniels, Thomas J.; Godfrey, Henry P.; Cabello, Felipe C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), transmitted by Ixodes spp. ticks, is the causative agent of Lyme disease. Although Ixodes spp. ticks are distributed in both Northern and Southern Hemispheres, evidence for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in South America apart from Uruguay is lacking. We now report the presence of culturable spirochetes with flat-wave morphology and borrelial DNA in endemic Ixodes stilesi ticks collected in Chile from environmental vegetation and long-tailed rice rats (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus). Cultured spirochetes and borrelial DNA in ticks were characterized by multilocus sequence typing and by sequencing five other loci (16S and 23S ribosomal genes, 5S-23S intergenic spacer, flaB, ospC). Phylogenetic analysis placed this spirochete as a new genospecies within the Lyme borreliosis group. Its plasmid profile determined by PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis differed from that of B. burgdorferi B31A3. We propose naming this new South American member of the Lyme borreliosis group Borrelia chilensis VA1, in honor of its country of origin. PMID:24148079

  15. A molecular evaluation of the Liagoraceae sensu lato (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) in Bermuda including Liagora nesophila sp. nov. and Yamadaella grassyi sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Popolizio, Thea R; Schneider, Craig W; Lane, Christopher E

    2015-08-01

    We have undertaken a comprehensive, molecular-assisted alpha-taxonomic examination of the rhodophyte family Liagoraceae sensu lato, a group that has not previously been targeted for molecular studies in the western Atlantic. Sequence data from three molecular markers indicate that in Bermuda alone there are 10 species in nine different genera. These include the addition of three genera to the flora - Hommersandiophycus, Trichogloeopsis, and Yamadaella. Liagora pectinata, a species with a type locality in Bermuda, is phylogenetically allied with Indo-Pacific species of Hommersandiophycus, and the species historically reported as L. ceranoides for the islands is morphologically and genetically distinct from that taxon, and is herein described as L. nesophila sp. nov. Molecular sequence data have also uncovered the Indo-Pacific L. mannarensis in Bermuda, a long-distance new western Atlantic record. DNA sequences of Trichogloeopsis pedicellata from the type locality (Bahamas) match with local specimens demonstrating its presence in Bermuda. We described Yamadaella grassyi sp. nov. from Bermuda, a species phylogenetically and morphologically distinct from the generitype, Y. caenomyce of the Indo-Pacific. Our data also indicated a single species each of Ganonema, Gloiocallis, Helminthocladia, Titanophycus, and Trichogloea in the flora. PMID:26986788

  16. Infection with Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) in two lineages of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cicuttin, Gabriel L; Tarragona, Evelina L; De Salvo, M Nazarena; Mangold, Atilio J; Nava, Santiago

    2015-09-01

    Natural infection with Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in ticks belonging to the tropical and temperate lineages of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato from Argentina was evaluated. Samples were tested for Ehrlichia canis infection by PCR assays using 16S rRNA, dsb and p28 gene, while detection of A. platys was performed with 16S rRNA and groESL gene. The assignment of the ticks to each lineage was corroborated with 16S rDNA sequences. All ticks infected with E. canis and A. platys belonged to the tropical lineage. These results constitute the first record of E. canis infection in R. sanguineus s.l ticks from Argentina. No ticks from the temperate lineage were found to be infected with E. canis, coinciding with previous studies performed in Argentina and Uruguay where E. canis infection was not detected in R. sanguineus s.l from the temperate lineage. Because the presence of the tropical lineage of R. sanguineus s.l has been documented in tropical areas of northern Argentina between 22° and 24° of south latitude, the findings of this work indicate that transmission of E. canis and A. platys to dogs by R. sanguineus s.l probably occurs along this region. PMID:26100492

  17. Reappraisal of Hydatigera taeniaeformis (Batsch, 1786) (Cestoda: Taeniidae) sensu lato with description of Hydatigera kamiyai n. sp.

    PubMed

    Lavikainen, Antti; Iwaki, Takashi; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Konyaev, Sergey V; Casiraghi, Maurizio; Dokuchaev, Nikolai E; Galimberti, Andrea; Halajian, Ali; Henttonen, Heikki; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Itagaki, Tadashi; Krivopalov, Anton V; Meri, Seppo; Morand, Serge; Näreaho, Anu; Olsson, Gert E; Ribas, Alexis; Terefe, Yitagele; Nakao, Minoru

    2016-05-01

    The common cat tapeworm Hydatigera taeniaeformis is a complex of three morphologically cryptic entities, which can be differentiated genetically. To clarify the biogeography and the host spectrum of the cryptic lineages, 150 specimens of H. taeniaeformis in various definitive and intermediate hosts from Eurasia, Africa and Australia were identified with DNA barcoding using partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene sequences and compared with previously published data. Additional phylogenetic analyses of selected isolates were performed using nuclear DNA and mitochondrial genome sequences. Based on molecular data and morphological analysis, Hydatigera kamiyai n. sp. Iwaki is proposed for a cryptic lineage, which is predominantly northern Eurasian and uses mainly arvicoline rodents (voles) and mice of the genus Apodemus as intermediate hosts. Hydatigera taeniaeformis sensu stricto (s.s.) is restricted to murine rodents (rats and mice) as intermediate hosts. It probably originates from Asia but has spread worldwide. Despite remarkable genetic divergence between H. taeniaeformis s.s. and H. kamiyai, interspecific morphological differences are evident only in dimensions of rostellar hooks. The third cryptic lineage is closely related to H. kamiyai, but its taxonomic status remains unresolved due to limited morphological, molecular, biogeographical and ecological data. This Hydatigera sp. is confined to the Mediterranean and its intermediate hosts are unknown. Further studies are needed to classify Hydatigera sp. either as a distinct species or a variant of H. kamiyai. According to previously published limited data, all three entities occur in the Americas, probably due to human-mediated introductions. PMID:26956060

  18. Seasonality of Ixodes ricinus Ticks on Vegetation and on Rodents and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato Genospecies Diversity in Two Lyme Borreliosis–Endemic Areas in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, David; Kneubühler, Yvan; Rais, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We compared Ixodes ricinus questing density, the infestation of rodents by immature stages, and the diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) in questing ticks and ticks collected from rodents in two Lyme borreliosis (LB)-endemic areas in Switzerland (Portes-Rouges [PR] and Staatswald [SW]) from 2003 to 2005. There were variations in the seasonal pattern of questing tick densities among years. Questing nymphs were globally more abundant at PR than at SW, but the proportion of rodents infested by immature ticks was similar (59.4% and 61%, respectively). Questing tick activity lasted from February to November with a strong decline in June. The seasonal pattern of ticks infesting rodents was different. Ticks infested rodents without decline in summer, suggesting that the risk of being bitten by ticks remains high during the summer. Rodents from SW showed the highest infestation levels (10±21.6 for larvae and 0.54±1.65 for nymphs). The proportion of rodents infested simultaneously by larvae and nymphs (co-feeding ticks) was higher at SW (28%) than at PR (11%). Apodemus flavicollis was the species the most frequently infested by co-feeding ticks, and Myodes glareolus was the most infective rodent species as measured by xenodiagnosis. At PR, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sl in questing ticks was higher (17.8% for nymphs and 32.4% for adults) than at SW (10.4% for nymphs and 24.8% for adults), with B. afzelii as the dominant species, but B. garinii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, and B. valaisiana were also detected. Rodents transmitted only B. afzelii (at PR and at SW) and B. bavariensis (at SW) to ticks, and no mixed infection by additional genospecies was observed in co-feeding ticks. This implies that co-feeding transmission does not contribute to genospecies diversity. However, persistent infections in rodents and co-feeding transmission contribute to the perpetuation of B. afzelii in nature. PMID:22607074

  19. Combining a climatic niche model of an invasive fungus with its host species distributions to identify risks to natural assets: Puccinia psidii Sensu Lato in Australia.

    PubMed

    Kriticos, Darren J; Morin, Louise; Leriche, Agathe; Anderson, Robert C; Caley, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Puccinia psidii sensu lato (s.l.) is an invasive rust fungus threatening a wide range of plant species in the family Myrtaceae. Originating from Central and South America, it has invaded mainland USA and Hawai'i, parts of Asia and Australia. We used CLIMEX to develop a semi-mechanistic global climatic niche model based on new data on the distribution and biology of P. psidii s.l. The model was validated using independent distribution data from recently invaded areas in Australia, China and Japan. We combined this model with distribution data of its potential Myrtaceae host plant species present in Australia to identify areas and ecosystems most at risk. Myrtaceaeous species richness, threatened Myrtaceae and eucalypt plantations within the climatically suitable envelope for P. psidii s.l in Australia were mapped. Globally the model identifies climatically suitable areas for P. psidii s.l. throughout the wet tropics and sub-tropics where moist conditions with moderate temperatures prevail, and also into some cool regions with a mild Mediterranean climate. In Australia, the map of species richness of Myrtaceae within the P. psidii s.l. climatic envelope shows areas where epidemics are hypothetically more likely to be frequent and severe. These hotspots for epidemics are along the eastern coast of New South Wales, including the Sydney Basin, in the Brisbane and Cairns areas in Queensland, and in the coastal region from the south of Bunbury to Esperance in Western Australia. This new climatic niche model for P. psidii s.l. indicates a higher degree of cold tolerance; and hence a potential range that extends into higher altitudes and latitudes than has been indicated previously. The methods demonstrated here provide some insight into the impacts an invasive species might have within its climatically suited range, and can help inform biosecurity policies regarding the management of its spread and protection of valued threatened assets. PMID:23704988

  20. Comparative efficacy of two oral treatments for dogs containing either afoxolaner or fluralaner against Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Dermacentor reticulatus.

    PubMed

    Beugnet, Frederic; Liebenberg, Julian; Halos, Lenaïg

    2015-04-15

    The present study compares the efficacy of two recent oral ectoparasiticides containing isoxazolines (NexGard(®), containing afoxolaner and administered at a monthly regimen, and Bravecto™ containing fluralaner and administered at a tri-monthly regimen) against Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks on dogs. 24 dogs were randomly allocated to untreated control, NexGard(®) treated, and Bravecto™ treated groups. The treatments were administered on Days 0, 28 and 56 for afoxolaner and on Day 0 for fluralaner. Tick infestations were performed weekly with 50 unfed adult ticks per each species on each dog from Days 30 to 84 (with the exception of R. sanguineus on Day 63). Ticks were counted at 24h post-infestation. The dogs from both treated groups had statistically significantly (p<0.05) less R. sanguineus and D. reticulatus ticks compared to the untreated dogs on all assessment days. Percent efficacy against R. sanguineus ranged from 86.4% to 99.5% at 24h post-infestation for NexGard(®) and from 65.7% to 100% for Bravecto™. Statistically significantly (p<0.05) less R. sanguineus ticks were recorded for NexGard(®) treated dogs compared to Bravecto™ treated dogs on Day 78. Percent efficacy against D. reticulatus ranged from 85.2% to 99.6% at 24h post-infestation for NexGard(®) and from 63.4% to 99.1% for Bravecto™. Statistically significantly (p<0.05) less D. reticulatus ticks were recorded for NexGard(®) treated dogs compared to Bravecto™ treated dogs on Days 71, 78 and 85. PMID:25716658

  1. Combining a Climatic Niche Model of an Invasive Fungus with Its Host Species Distributions to Identify Risks to Natural Assets: Puccinia psidii Sensu Lato in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Kriticos, Darren J.; Morin, Louise; Leriche, Agathe; Anderson, Robert C.; Caley, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Puccinia psidii sensu lato (s.l.) is an invasive rust fungus threatening a wide range of plant species in the family Myrtaceae. Originating from Central and South America, it has invaded mainland USA and Hawai'i, parts of Asia and Australia. We used CLIMEX to develop a semi-mechanistic global climatic niche model based on new data on the distribution and biology of P. psidii s.l. The model was validated using independent distribution data from recently invaded areas in Australia, China and Japan. We combined this model with distribution data of its potential Myrtaceae host plant species present in Australia to identify areas and ecosystems most at risk. Myrtaceaeous species richness, threatened Myrtaceae and eucalypt plantations within the climatically suitable envelope for P. psidii s.l in Australia were mapped. Globally the model identifies climatically suitable areas for P. psidii s.l. throughout the wet tropics and sub-tropics where moist conditions with moderate temperatures prevail, and also into some cool regions with a mild Mediterranean climate. In Australia, the map of species richness of Myrtaceae within the P. psidii s.l. climatic envelope shows areas where epidemics are hypothetically more likely to be frequent and severe. These hotspots for epidemics are along the eastern coast of New South Wales, including the Sydney Basin, in the Brisbane and Cairns areas in Queensland, and in the coastal region from the south of Bunbury to Esperance in Western Australia. This new climatic niche model for P. psidii s.l. indicates a higher degree of cold tolerance; and hence a potential range that extends into higher altitudes and latitudes than has been indicated previously. The methods demonstrated here provide some insight into the impacts an invasive species might have within its climatically suited range, and can help inform biosecurity policies regarding the management of its spread and protection of valued threatened assets. PMID:23704988

  2. Investigating the host-range of the rust fungus Puccinia psidii sensu lato across tribes of the family Myrtaceae present in Australia.

    PubMed

    Morin, Louise; Aveyard, Ruth; Lidbetter, Jonathan R; Wilson, Peter G

    2012-01-01

    The exotic rust fungus Puccinia psidii sensu lato was first detected in Australia in April 2010. This study aimed to determine the host-range potential of this accession of the rust by testing its pathogenicity on plants of 122 taxa, representative of the 15 tribes of the subfamily Myrtoideae in the family Myrtaceae. Each taxon was tested in two separate trials (unless indicated otherwise) that comprised up to five replicates per taxon and six replicates of a positive control (Syzygium jambos). No visible symptoms were observed on the following four taxa in either trial: Eucalyptus grandis×camaldulensis, E. moluccana, Lophostemon confertus and Sannantha angusta. Only small chlorotic or necrotic flecks without any uredinia (rust fruiting bodies) were observed on inoculated leaves of seven other taxa (Acca sellowiana, Corymbia calophylla 'Rosea', Lophostemon suaveolens, Psidium cattleyanum, P. guajava 'Hawaiian' and 'Indian', Syzygium unipunctatum). Fully-developed uredinia were observed on all replicates across both trials of 28 taxa from 8 tribes belonging to the following 17 genera: Agonis, Austromyrtus, Beaufortia, Callistemon, Calothamnus, Chamelaucium, Darwinia, Eucalyptus, Gossia, Kunzea, Leptospermum, Melaleuca, Metrosideros, Syzygium, Thryptomene, Tristania, Verticordia. In contrast, the remaining 83 taxa inoculated, including the majority of Corymbia and Eucalyptus species, developed a broad range of symptoms, often across the full spectrum, from fully-developed uredinia to no visible symptoms. These results were encouraging as they indicate that some levels of genetic resistance to the rust possibly exist in these taxa. Overall, our results indicated no apparent association between the presence or absence of disease symptoms and the phylogenetic relatedness of taxa. It is most likely that the majority of the thousands of Myrtaceae species found in Australia have the potential to become infected to some degree by the rust, although this wide host range may

  3. Investigating the Host-Range of the Rust Fungus Puccinia psidii sensu lato across Tribes of the Family Myrtaceae Present in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Louise; Aveyard, Ruth; Lidbetter, Jonathan R.; Wilson, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    The exotic rust fungus Puccinia psidii sensu lato was first detected in Australia in April 2010. This study aimed to determine the host-range potential of this accession of the rust by testing its pathogenicity on plants of 122 taxa, representative of the 15 tribes of the subfamily Myrtoideae in the family Myrtaceae. Each taxon was tested in two separate trials (unless indicated otherwise) that comprised up to five replicates per taxon and six replicates of a positive control (Syzygium jambos). No visible symptoms were observed on the following four taxa in either trial: Eucalyptus grandis×camaldulensis, E. moluccana, Lophostemon confertus and Sannantha angusta. Only small chlorotic or necrotic flecks without any uredinia (rust fruiting bodies) were observed on inoculated leaves of seven other taxa (Acca sellowiana, Corymbia calophylla ‘Rosea’, Lophostemon suaveolens, Psidium cattleyanum, P. guajava ‘Hawaiian’ and ‘Indian’, Syzygium unipunctatum). Fully-developed uredinia were observed on all replicates across both trials of 28 taxa from 8 tribes belonging to the following 17 genera: Agonis, Austromyrtus, Beaufortia, Callistemon, Calothamnus, Chamelaucium, Darwinia, Eucalyptus, Gossia, Kunzea, Leptospermum, Melaleuca, Metrosideros, Syzygium, Thryptomene, Tristania, Verticordia. In contrast, the remaining 83 taxa inoculated, including the majority of Corymbia and Eucalyptus species, developed a broad range of symptoms, often across the full spectrum, from fully-developed uredinia to no visible symptoms. These results were encouraging as they indicate that some levels of genetic resistance to the rust possibly exist in these taxa. Overall, our results indicated no apparent association between the presence or absence of disease symptoms and the phylogenetic relatedness of taxa. It is most likely that the majority of the thousands of Myrtaceae species found in Australia have the potential to become infected to some degree by the rust, although this wide

  4. Repeated landmass reformation limits diversification in the widespread littoral zone mosquito Anopheles sundaicus sensu lato in the Indo-Oriental Region.

    PubMed

    Zarowiecki, Magdalena; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Post, Rory J; Bangs, Michael J; Htun, Pe Than; Hlaing, Thaung; Seng, Chang Moh; Baimai, Visut; Ding, Trung Ho; Sochantha, Tho; Walton, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    Southeast Asia harbours abundant biodiversity, hypothesized to have been generated by Pliocene and Pleistocene climatic and environmental change. Vicariance between the island of Borneo, the remaining Indonesian archipelago and mainland Southeast Asia caused by elevated sea levels during interglacial periods has been proposed to lead to diversification in the littoral zone mosquito Anopheles (Cellia) sundaicus (Rodenwaldt) sensu lato. To test this biogeographical hypothesis, we inferred the population history and assessed gene flow of A. sundaicus s.l. sampled from 18 populations across its pan-Asian species range, using sequences from mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and the mannose phosphate isomerase (Mpi) gene. A hypothesis of ecological speciation for A. sundaicus involving divergent adaptation to brackish and freshwater larval habitats was also previously proposed, based on a deficiency of heterozygotes for Mpi allozyme alleles in sympatry. This hypothesis was not supported by Mpi sequence data, which exhibited no fixed differences between brackish and freshwater larval habitats. Mpi and CO1 supported the presence of up to eight genetically distinct population groupings. Counter to the hypothesis of three allopatric species, divergence was often no greater between Borneo, Sumatra/Java and the Southeast Asian mainland than it was between genetic groupings within these landmasses. An isolation-with-migration (IM) model indicates recurrent gene flow between the current major landmasses. Such gene flow would have been possible during glacial periods when the current landmasses merged, presenting opportunities for dispersal along expanding and contracting coastlines. Consequently, Pleistocene climatic variation has proved a homogenizing, rather than diversifying, force for A. sundaicus diversity. PMID:24750501

  5. Development of a powder formulation based on Bacillus cereus sensu lato strain B25 spores for biological control of Fusarium verticillioides in maize plants.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Álvarez, Juan C; Castro-Martínez, Claudia; Sánchez-Peña, Pedro; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto; Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio E

    2016-05-01

    Maize is an economically important crop in northern Mexico. Different fungi cause ear and root rot in maize, including Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg. Crop management of this pathogen with chemical fungicides has been difficult. By contrast, the recent use of novel biocontrol strategies, such as seed bacterization with Bacillus cereus sensu lato strain B25, has been effective in field trials. These approaches are not without their problems, since insufficient formulation technology, between other factors, can limit success of biocontrol agents. In response to these drawbacks, we have developed a powder formulation based on Bacillus B25 spores and evaluated some of its characteristics, including shelf life and efficacy against F. verticillioides, in vitro and in maize plants. A talc-based powder formulation containing 1 × 10(9) c.f.u. g(-1) was obtained and evaluated for seed adherence ability, seed germination effect, shelf life and antagonism against F. verticillioides in in vitro and in planta assays. Seed adherence of viable bacterial spores ranged from 1.0 to 1.41 × 10(7) c.f.u. g(-1). Bacteria did not display negative effects on seed germination. Spore viability for the powder formulation slowly decreased over time, and was 53 % after 360 days of storage at room temperature. This formulation was capable of controlling F. verticillioides in greenhouse assays, as well as eight other maize phytopathogenic fungi in vitro. The results suggest that a talc-based powder formulation of Bacillus B25 spores may be sufficient to produce inoculum for biocontrol of maize ear and root rots caused by F. verticillioides. PMID:27038945

  6. Identification of non-host semiochemicals for the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae), from tick-resistant beagles, Canis lupus familiaris.

    PubMed

    Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira; de Oliveira Filho, Jaires Gomes; Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Louly, Carla Cristina Braz; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    Studies have shown that the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, when fed on the beagle breed of dog, Canis lupus familiaris, development negatively affected in comparison with tick development after feeding on the English cocker spaniel breed. Thus leading to the suggestion that beagle dogs are be tick-resistant dogs. Behavioural studies have demonstrated that more ticks are attracted by extracts from cocker spaniels than from beagles and that the odour of beagles is a repellent. To test the hypothesis that resistant hosts produce repellent compounds, we undertook comparative chemical analysis on beagle odour and cocker spaniel extracts using coupled high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also used Petri-dish and olfactometer behavioural assays to assess the response of ticks to identified non-host compounds. The beagle odour extracts contained almost three times as many chemical compounds as cocker spaniel samples. Several non-host compounds were identified, i.e. 2-hexanone, benzaldehyde, nonane, decane and undecane. In Petri-dish assays, 2-hexanone was repellent at 30 min at concentrations of 0.200 and 0.050 mg cm(-2), whilst at 10 min, the 0.100 mg cm(-2) concentration was repellent. Benzaldehyde repelled ticks at 30 min (0.200 mg cm(-2)) and at 5 min (0.050 mg cm(-2)). Undecane was repellent for R. sanguineus s.l. ticks for the first 5 min at the highest concentration tested. Nonane and decane did not show any significant repellency at any concentration or time evaluated. When 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde were combined, an increase in the repellency rate was observed, with activity comparable or better than N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET). In olfactometer bioassays, a 1:1 mixture of 2-hexanone:benzaldehyde and DEET were repellent for R. sanguineus s.l. adults at the concentration of 0.200 mg cm(-2). This study identified non-host semiochemicals that mediate avoidance of the beagle dog breed by R. sanguineus s

  7. Antibodies against specific proteins of and immobilizing activity against three strains of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato can be found in symptomatic but not in infected asymptomatic dogs.

    PubMed

    Hovius, J W; Hovius, K E; Oei, A; Houwers, D J; van Dam, A P

    2000-07-01

    In an area where Lyme disease is endemic in The Netherlands all dogs had positive titers by whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and appeared to be naturally infected by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. To compare the antibody responses of symptomatic dogs and asymptomatic controls, we performed Western blots and in vitro immobilization assays to study antibody-dependent bactericidal activity. Strains from three different genospecies were employed as the antigen source: B. burgdorferi strain B31, Borrelia garinii strain A87S, and Borrelia afzelii strain pKo. Antibodies against flagellin (p41) and p39 for three strains were found in sera from both symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs and were therefore considered to be markers of exposure. Antibodies against p56 and p30 of strain B31, against p75, p58, p50, OspC, and p<19 of strain A87S, and against p56, p54, p45, OspB, p31, p26, and p<19 of strain pKo were found significantly more frequently in sera from symptomatic dogs younger than 8 years when the first symptoms were observed than in those from age-matched controls (P<0.01). These antibodies were not found in preclinical sera and appeared during development of disease. Antibodies against OspA of strains B31 and A87S were only seen in acute-phase and convalescent sera from three dogs that recovered from disease. Incubation with 25% normal canine serum did not result in the immobilization of strains B31 and pKo, but partial immobilization of strain A87S (61%+/-24% [standard deviation] at 5 h) occurred. Seven of 15 sera from symptomatic dogs but none of the sera from 11 asymptomatic dogs had antibody-dependent immobilizing activity against one of the strains. Consecutive sera from one of these dogs immobilized two different strains. Antibody-mediated bactericidal serum was not seen before onset of disease, was strongest in the acute phase of disease, and fluctuated during chronic disease. From seven out of eight symptomatic dogs Borrelia DNA was amplified by

  8. Mechanisms of karyotype differentiation in Cassidinae sensu lato (Coleoptera, Polyphaga, Chrysomelidae) based on seven species of the Brazilian fauna and an overview of the cytogenetic data.

    PubMed

    de Julio, Milena; Fernandes, Flávia Rodrigues; Costa, Cleide; Almeida, Mara Cristina; Cella, Doralice Maria

    2010-01-01

    Among the subfamilies of Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae sensu lato (s.l.) includes 6000 species distributed in 43 tribes. Approximately 100 of these species were cytogenetically analyzed and most of them presented 2n=18=16+Xy(p), which was smaller than 2n=20=18+Xy(p) considered basal for Polyphaga. However, some groups of species presented maintenance of the basal diploid number and others showed increase in this number. Certain species of the latter group also exhibited variation in the type of sex chromosome system (SCS). Considering the recent taxonomic revision accomplished for the Cassidinae s.l. species, the existence of phylogenetic relationship for some species of this subfamily, the high diversity of species of this group in the Neotropical region, and the low number of Cassidinae s.l. species karyotyped so far, the aim of the present work was to establish the main mechanisms involved in the karyotype evolution of this subfamily through the study of seven species of the Brazilian fauna and overview of the cytogenetic data. The individuals were collected in southeast and south of Brazil. The chromosomal preparations obtained from embryo and testes of adult males were stained with Giemsa solution. The species Agroiconota inedita (2n=42=40+Xy(p)), Charidotella (s.str.) immaculata (2n=22=20+Xy(p)), Charidotella (s.str.) sexpunctata (2n=22=20+Xy(p)), and Stolas chalybaea (2n=24=22+Xy(p)) revealed diploid number higher than that established as basal for Polyphaga and biarmed chromosomes. The karyotype of Cteisella confusa, Deloyala cruciata, and Metriona elatior showed the chromosomal formulae 2n=18=16+Xy(p) considered modal for Cassidinae s.l. and biarmed chromosomes. The seven species exhibited easily identified sex chromosomes due to their size and/or morphology. The analysis of meiotic cells of all the species showed pachytenes with a positively heteropycnotic block probably corresponding to the sex chromosomes; diplotenes with a high number of bivalents with two

  9. Mapping human risk of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the agent of Lyme borreliosis, in a periurban forest in France.

    PubMed

    Vourc'h, G; Abrial, D; Bord, S; Jacquot, M; Masséglia, S; Poux, V; Pisanu, B; Bailly, X; Chapuis, J-L

    2016-07-01

    Lyme borreliosis is a major zoonosis in Europe, with estimates of over 26,000 cases per year in France alone. The etiological agents are spirochete bacteria that belong to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s. l.) complex and are transmitted by hard ticks among a large range of vertebrate hosts. In Europe, the tick Ixodes ricinus is the main vector. In the absence of a vaccine and given the current difficulties to diagnose and treat chronic Lyme syndromes, there is urgent need for prevention. In this context, accurate information on the spatial patterns of risk of exposure to ticks is of prime importance for public health. The objective of our study was to provide a snapshot map of the risk of human infection with B. burgdorferi s. l. pathogens in a periurban forest at a high resolution, and to analyze the factors that contribute to variation in this risk. Field monitoring took place over three weeks in May 2011 in the suburban Sénart forest (3,200ha; southeast of Paris), which receives over 3 million people annually. We sampled ticks over the entire forest area (from 220 forest stands with a total area of 35,200m(2)) and quantified the density of questing nymphs (DON), the prevalence of infection among nymphs (NIP), and the density of infected nymphs (DIN), which is the most important predictor of the human risk of Lyme borreliosis. For each of these response variables, we explored the relative roles of weather (saturation deficit), hosts (abundance indices of ungulates and Tamias sibiricus, an introduced rodent species), vegetation and forest cover, superficial soil composition, and the distance to forest roads. In total, 19,546 questing nymphs were collected and the presence of B. burgdorferi s. l. was tested in 3,903 nymphs by qPCR. The mean DON was 5.6 nymphs per 10m(2) (standard deviation=10.4) with an average NIP of 10.1% (standard deviation=0.11). The highest DIN was 8.9 infected nymphs per 10m(2), with a mean of 0.59 (standard deviation=0.6). Our

  10. Genetic Characterization of Human-Derived Hydatid Cysts of Echinococcus granulosus Sensu Lato in Heilongjiang Province and the First Report of G7 Genotype of E. canadensis in Humans in China

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Zhaolin; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Aiqin; Piao, Daxun; Jiang, Tao; Cao, Jianping; Shen, Yujuan; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Weizhe

    2014-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is one of the most important zoonotic parasitic diseases worldwide and 10 genotypes (G1–G10) have been reported. In China, almost all the epidemiological and genotyping studies of E. granulosus s.l. are from the west and northwest pasturing areas. However, in Heilongjiang Province of northeastern China, no molecular information is available on E. granulosus s.l. To understand and to speculate on possible transmission patterns of E. granulosus s.l., we molecularly identified and genotyped 10 hydatid cysts from hepatic CE patients in Heilongjiang Province based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1), cytochrome b (cytb) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) genes. Two genotypes were identified, G1 genotype (n = 6) and G7 genotype (n = 4). All the six G1 genotype isolates were identical to each other at the cox1 locus; three and two different sequences were obtained at the cytb and nad1 loci, respectively, with two cytb gene sequences not being described previously. G7 genotype isolates were identical to each other at the cox1, cytb and nad1 loci; however, the cytb gene sequence was not described previously. This is the first report of G7 genotype in humans in China. Three new cytb gene sequences from G1 and G7 genotypes might reflect endemic genetic characterizations. Pigs might be the main intermediate hosts of G7 genotype in our investigated area by homology analysis. The results will aid in making more effective control strategies for the prevention of transmission of E. granulosus s.l. PMID:25329820

  11. Detecting points as developmental delay based on the life-history development and urosome deformity of the harpacticoid copepod, Tigriopus japonicus sensu lato, following exposure to benzo(a)pyrene.

    PubMed

    Bang, Hyun Woo; Lee, Wonchoel; Kwak, Inn-Sil

    2009-09-01

    To identify ecotoxicological responses to an endocrine disrupter, benzo(a)pyrene, we examined the life-history of the harpacticoid copepod, Tigriopus japonicus sensu lato. Based on the life-history of copepods, survival rate of nauplii (NSR) and copepodites (CSR), copepodite emergence day (CED) and adult male emergence day (AMED), sex ratio (MER), brooding success rate (BSR), and first brooding day of adult females (FBD) were measured. Significant differences were observed in the survival and development of nauplii (NSR and CED) and sex ratio (MER) of exposed and non-exposed copepods. Moreover, high concentration of BaP can be lethal to copepodite and exhibited a delay of growth. In this study, the CED and AMED among ecotoxicological response based on life-history developments were delayed and the body characteristics decreased in response to exposure to benzo(a)pyrene. The dwarfism and urosome deformity of the T. japonicus s.l. was exhibited in response to chemical exposure. Specifically, the body characteristics and biomass of dwarf copepods that had been exposed to benzo(a)pyrene were 30% and 50% lower than the control group, respectively. The incidence of abnormal urosomes was divided into two types. The first deformity type was signs of shrinkage in the middle of the urosome or the entire urosome was narrower than those of the control organisms. In the second type, the anal somite and the distal side of the urosome had abnormally swelled. Taken together, the nauplii and copepodid development of T. japonicus s.l. can be used as a useful biomaker for detecting developmental delay based on their entire life-history. In addition, the urosome deformity was used a good potential monitoring tool invading various chemicals and environmental contamination into water system. PMID:19560185

  12. Review of the taxonomy of the genus Arthrobacter, emendation of the genus Arthrobacter sensu lato, proposal to reclassify selected species of the genus Arthrobacter in the novel genera Glutamicibacter gen. nov., Paeniglutamicibacter gen. nov., Pseudoglutamicibacter gen. nov., Paenarthrobacter gen. nov. and Pseudarthrobacter gen. nov., and emended description of Arthrobacter roseus.

    PubMed

    Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the taxonomy of the genus Arthrobacter is discussed, from its first description in 1947 to the present state. Emphasis is given to intrageneric phylogeny and chemotaxonomic characteristics, concentrating on quinone systems, peptidoglycan compositions and polar lipid profiles. Internal groups within the genus Arthrobacter indicated from homogeneous chemotaxonomic traits and corresponding to phylogenetic grouping and/or high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities are highlighted. Furthermore, polar lipid profiles and quinone systems of selected species are shown, filling some gaps concerning these chemotaxonomic traits. Based on phylogenetic groupings, 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities and homogeneity in peptidoglycan types, quinone systems and polar lipid profiles, a description of the genus Arthrobacter sensu lato and an emended description of Arthrobacter roseus are provided. Furthermore, reclassifications of selected species of the genus Arthrobacter into novel genera are proposed, namely Glutamicibacter gen. nov. (nine species), Paeniglutamicibacter gen. nov. (six species), Pseudoglutamicibacter gen. nov. (two species), Paenarthrobacter gen. nov. (six species) and Pseudarthrobacter gen. nov. (ten species). PMID:26486726

  13. Dose–response tests and semi-field evaluation of lethal and sub-lethal effects of slow release pyriproxyfen granules (Sumilarv®0.5G) for the control of the malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae sensu lato

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently research has shown that larviciding can be an effective tool for integrated malaria vector control. Nevertheless, the uptake of this intervention has been hampered by the need to re-apply larvicides frequently. There is a need to explore persistent, environmentally friendly larvicides for malaria vector control to reduce intervention efforts and costs by reducing the frequency of application. In this study, the efficacy of a 0.5% pyriproxyfen granule (Surmilarv®0.5G, Sumitomo Chemicals) was assessed for the control of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis, the major malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Dose–response and standardized field tests were implemented following standard procedures of the World Health Organization’s Pesticide Evaluation Scheme to determine: (i) the susceptibility of vectors to this formulation; (ii) the residual activity and appropriate retreatment schedule for field application; and, (iii) sub-lethal impacts on the number and viability of eggs laid by adults after exposure to Sumilarv®0.5G during larval development. Results Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis were highly susceptible to Sumilarv®0.5G. Estimated emergence inhibition (EI) values were very low and similar for both species. The minimum dosage that completely inhibited adult emergence was between 0.01-0.03 parts per million (ppm) active ingredient (ai). Compared to the untreated control, an application of 0.018 ppm ai prevented 85% (95% confidence interval (CI) 82%-88%) of adult emergence over six weeks under standardized field conditions. A fivefold increase in dosage of 0.09 ppm ai prevented 97% (95% CI 94%-98%) emergence. Significant sub-lethal effects were observed in the standardized field tests. Female An. gambiae s.s. that were exposed to 0.018 ppm ai as larvae laid 47% less eggs, and females exposed to 0.09 ppm ai laid 74% less eggs than females that were unexposed to the treatment. Furthermore, 77

  14. Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto and the closely related species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis in vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuxia; Shan, Yingying; Fan, Shangrong; Li, Jianling; Liu, Xiaoping

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the clinical characteristics and in vitro susceptibilities of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis isolates from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). We analysed 63 vaginal C. parapsilosis specimens. After the molecular analyses, the isolates were characterised as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (77.8%), C. orthopsilosis (7.9%) and C. metapsilosis (14.3%). The signs and symptoms of VVC caused by C. parapsilosis sensu lato, including itching, erythema and abnormal discharge, were milder than those caused by C. albicans. None of the C. parapsilosis sensu lato isolates were resistant to fluconazole, miconazole or itraconazole. The resistance rates of C. albicans to fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole and clotrimazole were 2.3, 1.5, 3.1 and 0.8%, respectively. Both C. parapsilosis sensu lato and C. albicans were susceptible to nystatin. The mycological eradication rate at follow-up days 7-14 and 30-35 were 77.8% (49/63) and 76.2% (48/63), respectively, when treated with various antifungal agents and regimens. We conclude that C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and the closely related species C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were present in the vaginal samples of VVC patients. The symptoms and signs of VVC caused by C. parapsilosis are milder than those caused by C. albicans. The antifungal susceptibility and therapeutic efficacy in patients colonised by C. parapsilosis sensu lato were similar to those observed in C. albicans-colonised patients. PMID:25322705

  15. Panuveitis caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection.

    PubMed

    Mahne, Jasna; Kranjc, Branka Stirn; Strle, Franc; Ružić-Sabljić, Eva; Arnež, Maja

    2015-01-01

    A 13-year-old boy who presented with a red left eye, painful eye movement, blurred vision, photophobia and increased lacrimation, was diagnosed with 1-sided panuveitis with optic disk edema. Diagnostic work-up revealed borrelial antibodies in serum. Diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis was substantiated by demonstration of lymphocytic pleocytosis, intrathecal borrelial antibody synthesis, improvement after treatment with ceftriaxone and exclusion of other causes. PMID:25741803

  16. Optimal conditions of mycelia growth of Laetiporus sulphureus sensu lato

    PubMed Central

    Luangharn, Thatsanee; Karunarathna, Samantha C.; Hyde, Kevin D.; Chukeatirote, Ekachai

    2014-01-01

    Laetiporus sulphureus is an edible wood-rotting basidiomycete, growing on decaying logs, stumps, and trunks of many deciduous and coniferous tree species. This fungus produces relatively large striking yellowish or orange-coloured bracket-like fruitbodies. L. sulphureus is widely consumed as a nutritional food because of its fragrance and texture. In this study, two L. sulphureus strains, MFLUCC 12-0546 and MFLUCC 12-0547, isolated from Chiang Rai, Thailand, were investigated for optimal conditions of mycelia growth. Potato dextrose agar and malt extract agar were observed as the favourable medium for mycelia growth. The optimum pH and temperature for the mushroom mycelia were 6–8 and 25–30°C, respectively. PMID:25544934

  17. Microdiversity of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto in Australia.

    PubMed

    Alvarez Rojas, C A; Ebi, D; Gauci, C G; Scheerlinck, J P; Wassermann, M; Jenkins, D J; Lightowlers, M W; Romig, T

    2016-07-01

    Echinococcus granulosus (sensu lato) is now recognized as an assemblage of cryptic species, which differ considerably in morphology, development, host specificity (including infectivity/pathogenicity for humans) and other aspects. One of these species, E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), is now clearly identified as the principal agent causing cystic echinococcosis in humans. Previous studies of a small section of the cox1 and nadh1 genes identified two variants of E. granulosus s.s. to be present in Australia; however, no further work has been carried out to characterize the microdiversity of the parasite in its territory. We have analysed the sequence of the full length of the cox1 gene (1609 bp) from 37 isolates of E. granulosus from different hosts and geographic regions of Australia. The analysis shows that seven haplotypes of E. granulosus s.s. not previously described were found, together with five haplotypes known to be present in other parts of the world, including the haplotype EG01 which is widespread and present in all endemic regions. These data extend knowledge related to the geographical spread and host range of E. granulosus s.s. in a country such as Australia in which the parasite established around 200 years ago. PMID:27041115

  18. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato causing deep soft tissue mycosis following a penetrating injury

    PubMed Central

    Figtree, Melanie; Weeks, Kerry; Chan, Leonie; Leyton, Arda; Bowes, Andrew; Giuffre, Bruno; Sullivan, Martin; Hudson, Bernard J

    2013-01-01

    Colletotrichum species have been rarely implicated in human disease. We describe a case of deep soft tissue mycosis following a penetrating injury with a lemon tree thorn. Direct Blankophor BA (Bayer) stain from intraoperative tissue showed fungal elements. Pure growth fungus was apparent at 2–4 days. Morphological features provisionally identified the isolate as a coelomycetous fungus, likely Colletotrichum species. This was confirmed with molecular analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) region. PMID:24432213

  19. Population genetics, taxonomy, phylogeny and evolution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    PubMed Central

    Margos, Gabriele; Vollmer, Stephanie A.; Ogden, Nicholas H.; Fish, Durland

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand the population structure and dynamics of bacterial microorganisms, typing systems that accurately reflect the phylogenetic and evolutionary relationship of the agents are required. Over the past 15 years multilocus sequence typing schemes have replaced single locus approaches, giving novel insights into phylogenetic and evolutionary relationships of many bacterial species and facilitating taxonomy. Since 2004, several schemes using multiple loci have been developed to better understand the taxonomy, phylogeny and evolution of Lyme borreliosis spirochetes and in this paper we have reviewed and summarized the progress that has been made for this important group of vector-borne zoonotic bacteria. PMID:21843658

  20. Variability in essential-oil composition of Piper marginatum sensu lato.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Eloisa Helena A; Carreira, Léa Maria M; da Silva, Milton Helio L; da Silva, João Domingos; Bastos, Cleber N; Sousa, Pergentino José C; Guimarães, Elsie F; Maia, José Guilherme S

    2008-01-01

    This paper contains data on the chemical composition of the essential oils of 22 leaf samples of Piper marginatum Jacq. collected in different areas and ecosystems of the brazilian Amazon, as well as an overview of the available literature. The species presents a large synonymy based on their different leaf characteristics and distinct scents where some of them smell like anise or very close compounds. By GC, GC/MS, and cluster analysis, we identified seven chemotypes for the leaf oils. The main components found in chemotype I were safrole (1) and 3,4-(methylenedioxy)propiophenone (2). The chemotype II was dominated by 3,4-(methylenedioxy)propiophenone (2) and p-mentha-1(7),8-diene (10). The major compounds identified in chemotype III were 3,4-(methylenedioxy)propiophenone (2), myristicin (3), (E)-beta-ocimene (11), and gamma-terpinene (12). In the chemotype IV, the principal constituents were beta-caryophyllene (13), alpha-copaene (14), and 3,4-(methylenedioxy)propiophenone (2). The chemotype V was dominated by (E)-isoosmorhizole (6), (E)-anethole (8), and isoosmorhizole (7). The main compounds found in the chemotype VI were 2-methoxy-4,5-(methylenedioxy)propiophenone (4), methoxy-4,5-(methylenedioxy)propiophenone isomer 5, and (E)-isoosmorhizole (6). The major constituents in chemotype VII were beta-caryophyllene (13), bicyclogermacrene (15), and (E)-asarone (9). PMID:18205123

  1. Evolutionary history of the conifer root rot fungus Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato.

    PubMed

    Dalman, K; Olson, A; Stenlid, J

    2010-11-01

    We investigated two hypotheses for the origin of the root rot fungus Heterobasidion annosum species complex: (i) that geology has been an important factor for the speciation (ii) that co-evolutionary processes with the hosts drove the divergence of the pathogen species. The H. annosum species complex consists of five species: three occur in Europe, H. annosum s.s., Heterobasidion parviporum and Heterobasidion abietinum, and two in North America, Heterobasidion irregulare and Heterobasidion occidentale; all with different but partially overlapping host preferences. The evolution of the H. annosum species complex was studied using six partially sequenced genes, between 10 and 30 individuals of each species were analysed. Neighbour-joining trees were constructed for each gene, and a Bayesian tree was built for the combined data set. In addition, haplotype networks were constructed to illustrate the species relationships. For three of the genes, H. parviporum and H. abietinum share haplotypes supporting recent divergence and/or possible gene flow. We propose that the H. annosum species complex originated in Laurasia and that the H. annosum s.s./H. irregulare and H. parviporum/H. abietinum/H. occidentale ancestral species emerged between 45 and 60 Ma in the Palaearctic, well after the radiation of the host genera. Our data imply that H. irregulare and H. occidentale were colonizing North America via different routes. In conclusion, plate tectonics are likely to have been the main factor influencing Heterobasidion speciation and biogeography. PMID:20964759

  2. [Susceptibility status of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato to insecticides commonly used for malaria control in Mali].

    PubMed

    Keïta, M; Traoré, S; Sogoba, N; Dicko, A M; Coulibaly, B; Sacko, A; Doumbia, S; Traoré, S F

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this work was to monitor the susceptibility of malaria vectors to insecticides in nine sentinel sites of the National Malaria Control Program in Mali. The study was performed during the rainy seasons of 2010 and 2011. WHO bioassays were conducted using F0 and/or F1 from wild collected females. The insecticides used were lambda-cyhalothrin 0.05%, DDT 4%, permethrin 0.75%, deltamethrin 0.05%, bendiocarb 0.1% and fenitrothion 1.0%. Results showed suspicion of resistance to pyrethroids and organochlorine in An. gambiae s.l. at almost all the sites except Yanfolila where the vector was susceptible to lambda-cyhalothrin (98.0%) [CI 95%, 98-99.8] and to DDT (100%). An. gambiae s.l. was susceptible to bendiocarb in five of the sites (Gao, Bougouni, Djenné, Yanfolila, Tombouctou) while there was a suspicion of resistance at the other sites (Kati, Niono, Bandiagara, Kita). Fenitrothion remains efficient except in the rice area of Niono, where there was a suspicion of resistance with a mortality rate of 92% [IC 95% 88.3-94.8]. Thus, it could be used as an alternative insecticide for IRS in Mali. These results show resistance to pyrethroids, the main insecticide family used in public health (and to some extent in agriculture). This could compromise the malaria vector control efforts in Mali where pyrethroids are used for both in bed nets and in IRS. PMID:26740098

  3. Downy mildew on coleus (Plectranthus scutellarioides) caused by Peronospora belbahrii sensu lato in Tennessee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coleus (Plectranthus scutellarioides [syn. = Solenostemon scutellarioides]) is a popular ornamental plant in the mint family (Lamiaceae), prized for its colorful and showy foliage. In August 2015, disease symptoms typical of downy mildew were observed at two sites in Nashville, Tennessee: (i) at the...

  4. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks from eastern China.

    PubMed

    Hou, Juan; Ling, Feng; Chai, Chengliang; Lu, Ye; Yu, Xianghua; Lin, Junfen; Sun, Jimin; Chang, Yue; Ye, Xiaodong; Gu, Shiping; Pang, Weilong; Wang, Chengwei; Zheng, Xiaohua; Jiang, Jianmin; Chen, Zhiping; Gong, Zhenyu

    2015-02-01

    To explore the tick distribution and prevalence of Borrelia in Zhejiang Province, we performed a survey in nine sites. A total of 447 adult ticks of 11 species were captured and the dominant tick species were Haemaphysalis longicornis and Ixodes sinensis and the abundance of tick species in different areas varied significantly. Overall, 4.70% of the ticks were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive for Borrelia. The average PCR positive rates were 5.19% for H. longicornis, 3.45% for Amblyomma testudinarium, 1.06% for I. sinensis, 5.00% for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and 19.44% for Ixodes granulatus, respectively. No Borrelia DNA was detected in Rhiphicephalus haemaphysaloides, Haemaphysalis yeni, Dermacentor taiwanensis, Haemaphysalis hystricis, Hyalomna asiaticum, and Ixodes ovatus. The prevalence of Borrelia was significantly different among tick species and the prevalence in I. granulatus was significantly higher than that in other tick species. Of note, experimentally confirmed vectors for B. burgdorferi s.l. including I. sinensis and I. granulatus were found in Zhejiang Province. Two species of B. burgdorferi s.l. exist in Zhejiang Province of which 12 sequences were most similar to the sequence of Borrelia garinii and nine sequences were most similar to the sequence of Borrelia valaisiana or Borrelia yangtze sp. nov. PMID:25548382

  5. A Brief Review of Recent Controversies in the Taxonomy and Nomenclature of Sambucus nigra sensu lato

    PubMed Central

    Applequist, W.L.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Sambucus is widespread and morphologically difficult, and as a result, no taxonomic treatment to date has been entirely satisfactory. The only modern revision, by Bolli, reduced the number of recognized species worldwide from over 30 to nine. In Bolli’s treatment, five taxa formerly considered to be distinct species, including S. canadensis, S. cerulea, S. peruviana, and the endemic island taxa S. maderensis and S. palmensis, were placed within S. nigra as subspecies. Available data relating to these taxa are briefly reviewed. It is suggested that, while the recognition of the American elder as S. nigra subsp. canadensis is reasonable, S. cerulea and possibly S. peruviana would be better treated as distinct species; the best classification of the other two taxa remains uncertain. The preferred family assignment for Sambucus is Adoxaceae, though the name of this family may change in future depending upon the ultimate disposition of published nomenclatural proposals now in process. PMID:27158181

  6. Transmission risk of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from Ixodes ricinus ticks to humans in southwest Germany.

    PubMed Central

    Maiwald, M.; Oehme, R.; March, O.; Petney, T. N.; Kimmig, P.; Naser, K.; Zappe, H. A.; Hassler, D.; von Knebel Doeberitz, M.

    1998-01-01

    The risk of Borrelia burgdorferi infection and the value of antibiotic prophylaxis after tick bite are controversial. In this study, performed in two areas of southwestern Germany, ticks were collected from 730 patients and examined by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for B. burgdorferi. To assess whether transmission of B. burgdorferi occurred, the patients were clinically and serologically examined after tick removal and during follow-up examinations. Data from all tick bites gave a total transmission rate of 2.6% (19 patients). Eighty-four ticks (11.3%) were PCR positive. Transmission occurred to 16 (26.7%) of 60 patients who were initially seronegative and could be followed up after the bite of an infected tick. These results indicate that the transmission rate from infected ticks in Europe is higher than previously assumed. Examination of ticks and antibiotic prophylaxis in the case of positivity appears to be indicated. PMID:9747761

  7. Early Cytokine Release in Response to Live Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Spirochetes Is Largely Complement Independent

    PubMed Central

    Säve, Susanne; Bergström, Sven; Forsberg, Pia; Jonsson, Nina; Ernerudh, Jan; Ekdahl, Kristina N.

    2014-01-01

    Aim Here we investigated the role of complement activation in phagocytosis and the release of cytokines and chemokines in response to two clinical isolates: Borrelia afzelii K78, which is resistant to complement-mediated lysis, and Borrelia garinii LU59, which is complement-sensitive. Methods Borrelia spirochetes were incubated in hirudin plasma, or hirudin-anticoagulated whole blood. Complement activation was measured as the generation of C3a and sC5b-9. Binding of the complement components C3, factor H, C4, and C4BP to the bacterial surfaces was analyzed. The importance of complement activation on phagocytosis, and on the release of cytokines and chemokines, was investigated using inhibitors acting at different levels of the complement cascade. Results 1) Borrelia garinii LU59 induced significantly higher complement activation than did Borrelia afzelii K78. 2) Borrelia afzelii K78 recruited higher amounts of factor H resulting in significantly lower C3 binding. 3) Both Borrelia strains were efficiently phagocytized by granulocytes and monocytes, with substantial inhibition by complement blockade at the levels of C3 and C5. 4) The release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines IL-1β, IL-6, TNF, CCL20, and CXCL8, together with the anti-inflammatory IL-10, were increased the most (by>10-fold after exposure to Borrelia). 5) Both strains induced a similar release of cytokines and chemokines, which in contrast to the phagocytosis, was almost totally unaffected by complement blockade. Conclusions Our results show that complement activation plays an important role in the process of phagocytosis but not in the subsequent cytokine release in response to live Borrelia spirochetes. PMID:25265036

  8. What is Antrodia sensu stricto?

    PubMed

    Spirin, Viacheslav; Vlasák, Josef; Niemelä, Tuomo; Miettinen, Otto

    2013-01-01

    The polypore genus Antrodia (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) in the strict sense consists of a small number of species grouped around the type species A. serpens in phylogenetic analyses. This distinct clade (Antrodia sensu stricto in our view) contains species of the Antrodia heteromorpha complex, A. macra coll. and Antrodia mappa (formerly Postia mappa). Nuclear rDNA ITS and tef1 data show that the Antrodia heteromorpha species complex includes four species: A. heteromorpha sensu stricto (mostly on gymnosperms, large pores and spores), A. serpens (on angiosperms in Europe, resupinate, smaller pores but large spores), A. favescens (smaller pores and spores, pileate species in North America, formerly known as Trametes sepium), and A. tanakai (a close kin of A. favescens in Eurasia). Antrodia albida is a synonym of A. heteromorpha sensu stricto. We combine A. mappa, A. favescens and A. tanakai in Antrodia and designate neotypes for A. albida and A. heteromorpha, and an epitype for A. serpens. We also compare the morphologically similar but distantly related A. albidoides and A. mellita, and conclude that A. macrospora and A. subalbidoides are synonyms of A. albidoides. PMID:24311543

  9. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Borrelia garinii DNAs in patient with Hyperkeratosis lenticularis perstans (Flegel disease).

    PubMed

    Schwarzova, Katarina; Kozub, Peter; Szep, Zoltan; Golovchenko, Marina; Rudenko, Natasha

    2016-09-01

    Determination of the causative agent of erythema-like skin lesions in case of nonspecific superficial perivascular dermatitis was supported by histological examination and led to the latter diagnosis of Hyperkeratosis lenticularis perstans (Flegel disease) in patient. The presence of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi in patient serum was confirmed by a routine ELISA method and verified by Western blot technique. Skin biopsy and blood specimens were analyzed by PCR and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). Western blot method revealed IgG antibody response against two specific antigens, 17 and 83 kDa proteins. The recombinant test detected IgG antibody response against p100 and p41 antigens. The sequence analysis of amplicons from the selected genomic loci obtained from skin biopsy and serum samples revealed the presence of two species from B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex as a co-infection in this patient-B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) and Borrelia garinii. PMID:26769152

  10. The EmsB Tandemly Repeated Multilocus Microsatellite: a New Tool To Investigate Genetic Diversity of Echinococcus granulosus Sensu Lato▿

    PubMed Central

    Maillard, S.; Gottstein, B.; Haag, K. L.; Ma, S.; Colovic, I.; Benchikh-Elfegoun, M. C.; Knapp, J.; Piarroux, R.

    2009-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a widespread and severe zoonotic disease caused by infection with the larval stage of the eucestode Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato. The polymorphism exhibited by nuclear and mitochondrial markers conventionally used for the genotyping of different parasite species and strains does not reach the level necessary for the identification of genetic variants linked to restricted geographical areas. EmsB is a tandemly repeated multilocus microsatellite that proved its usefulness for the study of genetic polymorphisms within the species E. multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. In the present study, EmsB was used to characterize E. granulosus sensu lato samples collected from different host species (sheep, cattle, dromedaries, dogs, and human patients) originating from six different countries (Algeria, Mauritania, Romania, Serbia, Brazil, and the People's Republic of China). The conventional mitochondrial cox1 and nad1 markers identified genotypes G1, G3, G5, G6, and G7, which are clustered into three groups corresponding to the species E. granulosus sensu stricto, E. ortleppi, and E. canadensis. With the same samples, EmsB provided a higher degree of genetic discrimination and identified variations that correlated with the relatively small-scale geographic origins of the samples. In addition, one of the Brazilian single hydatid cysts presented a hybrid genotypic profile that suggested genetic exchanges between E. granulosus sensu stricto and E. ortleppi. In summary, the EmsB microsatellite exhibits an interesting potential for the elaboration of a detailed map of the distribution of genetic variants and therefore for the determination and tracking of the source of CE. PMID:19741078

  11. Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from the critically endangered antelope Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Boufana, Belgees; Saïd, Yousra; Dhibi, Mokhtar; Craig, Philip S; Lahmar, Samia

    2015-12-01

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a zoonotic disease highly endemic in Tunisia. Canids including stray and semi-stray dogs, jackals and foxes are known as definitive hosts and a wide range of ungulates have been shown to harbour the metacestode hydatid stage and may serve as intermediate hosts. Fertile hydatid cysts of Echinococcus equinus and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) were recently molecularly identified for the first time from Tunisian donkeys. E. granulosus (s.s.) was also identified from wild boars in Tunisia. Here we report the confirmation of hydatid cysts caused by E. granulosus (s.s.) in the critically endangered antelope, Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia. DNA-based molecular analysis revealed that A.nasomaculatus was infected with E. granulosus (s.s.) which had a 100% identity with the main globally distributed E. granulosus (s.s.) (EgTu01) haplotype. Cysts of Taenia hydatigena (n=33) were also observed on the liver and in the body cavity. Due to their endangered status and their relatively small numbers, it is unlikely that hydatid infection of A. nasomaculatus will form a major contribution to the epidemiology and transmission of E. granulosus in Tunisia, but infection may result in pathology, morbidity and early mortality, and may still play a role in the perpetuation of the parasite in wildlife cycles. PMID:26314229

  12. Detection of a Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato relapsing-fever group spirochete from Ixodes pacificus in California.

    PubMed

    Mun, Jeomhee; Eisen, Rebecca J; Eisen, Lars; Lane, Robert S

    2006-01-01

    We investigated whether host-seeking nymphs and adults of the western blacklegged tick, Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls, the primary vector of Lyme disease spirochetes in far-western North America, are infected naturally with relapsing-fever group spirochetes in Mendocino County, California. Relapsing-fever group borreliae were detected in four (1.7%) of 234 nymphal and two (0.7%) of 282 adult host-seeking I. pacificus ticks by polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and flagellin genes, respectively, exhibiting 99 and 98.5% sequence homology to Borrelia miyamotoi Fukunaga. Phylogenetic analysis based on these two genes revealed that the borreliae detected in these ticks belong to the relapsing-fever group and that these are closely related to, if not identical with, B. miyamotoi. PMID:16506458

  13. Life history of Ixodes (Ixodes) jellisoni (Acari: Ixodidae) and its vector competence for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.

    PubMed

    Lane, R S; Peavey, C A; Padgett, K A; Hendson, M

    1999-05-01

    Ixodes (Ixodes) jellisoni Cooley & Kohls, a nonhuman biting and little known tick, is one of 4 members of the I. ricinus complex in the United States. A localized population of I. jellisoni inhabiting a grassland biotope in Mendocino County, CA, was studied from 1993 to 1997. Rodent trapping in all seasons revealed that the only host of both immature and adult I. jellisoni was the heteromyid rodent Dipodomys californicus Merriam. Field investigations suggested that I. jellisoni is nidicolous in habit, and laboratory findings demonstrated that it reproduces parthenogenetically. Known parthenogenetic females (n = 4) produced an average of 530 eggs of which 74% hatched, which was comparable to the fecundity and fertility of wild-caught females (n = 8). After the transstadial molt, 57 F1 or F2 nymphs derived from 2 wild-caught or 4 laboratory-reared, unmated females produced only females. Ixodes jellisoni males were not found on 112 wild-caught D. californicus individuals that were captured an average of 2 times. Collectively, these findings suggest that I. jellisoni may be obligatorily parthenogenetic. Borrelial isolates were obtained from 85% of 58 D. californicus and 33% of 21 I. jellisoni females removed from this rodent. None of the 7 infected female ticks passed borreliae ovarially to its F1 larval progeny. Eight D. californicus and 5 I. jellisoni-derived isolates that were genetically characterized belonged to 2 restriction pattern groups of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Neither restriction pattern group has been assigned to a particular genospecies yet. After placement on naturally infected D. californicus, noninfected larval ticks acquired and transstadially passed spirochetes as efficiently as (group 1 borreliae) or 6 times more efficiently (group 2 borreliae) than Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls. As few as 1-4 infected I. jellisoni nymphs were capable of transmitting group 1 or group 2 borreliae to naive D. californicus. We conclude that I. jellisoni is a competent vector of both restriction fragment groups when D. californicus is used as the animal model. PMID:10337104

  14. Evolutionary genetics and biogeographic structure of Rhizobium gallicum sensu lato, a widely distributed bacterial symbiont of diverse legumes.

    PubMed

    Silva, Claudia; Vinuesa, Pablo; Eguiarte, Luis E; Souza, Valeria; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2005-11-01

    We used phylogenetic and population genetics approaches to evaluate the importance of the evolutionary forces on shaping the genetic structure of Rhizobium gallicum and related species. We analysed 54 strains from several populations distributed in the Northern Hemisphere, using nucleotide sequences of three 'core' chromosomal genes (rrs, glnII and atpD) and two 'auxiliary' symbiotic genes (nifH and nodB) to elucidate the biogeographic history of the species and symbiotic ecotypes (biovarieties) within species. The analyses revealed that strains classified as Rhizobium mongolense and Rhizobium yanglingense belong to the chromosomal evolutionary lineage of R. gallicum and harbour symbiotic genes corresponding to a new biovar; we propose their reclassification as R. gallicum bv. orientale. The comparison of the chromosomal and symbiotic genes revealed evidence of lateral transfer of symbiotic information within and across species. Genetic differentiation analyses based on the chromosomal protein-coding genes revealed a biogeographic pattern with three main populations, whereas the 16S rDNA sequences did not resolve that biogeographic pattern. Both the phylogenetic and population genetic analyses showed evidence of recombination at the rrs locus. We discuss our results in the light of the contrasting views of bacterial species expressed by microbial taxonomist and evolutionary biologists. PMID:16262857

  15. A molecular phylogeny of Anopheles annulipes (Diptera: Culicidae) sensu lato: the most species-rich anopheline complex.

    PubMed

    Foley, D H; Wilkerson, R C; Cooper, R D; Volovsek, M E; Bryan, J H

    2007-04-01

    The Australasian Annulipes Complex is the most species-rich among Anopheles mosquitoes, with at least 15 sibling species suspected. Members of this complex are the most likely vectors of malaria in the past in southern Australia and are involved in the spread of myxomatosis among rabbits. In this, the first comprehensive molecular study of the Annulipes Complex, 23 ITS2 rDNA variants were detected from collections throughout Australia and Papua New Guinea, including diagnostic variants for the previously identified An. annulipes species A-G. Specimens of each ITS2 variant were sequenced for portions of the mitochondrial COI, COII and nuclear EF-1alpha genes. Partitioned Bayesian and Maximum Parsimony analyses confirmed the monophyly of the Annulipes Complex and revealed at least 17 clades that we designate species A-Q. These species belong to two major clades, one in the north and one mainly in the south, suggesting that climate was a driver of species radiation. We found that 65% (11) of the 17 sibling species recorded here had unique COI sequences, suggesting that DNA barcoding will be useful for diagnosing species within the Annulipes Complex. A comparison of the taxa revealed morphological characters that may be diagnostic for some species. Our results substantially increase the size of the subgenus Cellia in Australasia, and will assist species-level studies of the Annulipes Complex. PMID:17126567

  16. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and spotted fever group rickettsiae in hard ticks (Acari, Ixodidae) parasitizing bats in Poland.

    PubMed

    Piksa, Krzysztof; Stańczak, Joanna; Biernat, Beata; Górz, Andrzej; Nowak-Chmura, Magdalena; Siuda, Krzysztof

    2016-04-01

    A total of 491 Ixodes vespertilionis and 8 Ixodes ricinus collected from bats and cave walls in southern Poland between 2010 and 2012 were examined by the polymerase chain reaction for tick-transmitted pathogens. PCR analysis for Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Rickettsia spp., and Anaplasma phagocytophilum yielded negative results for all I. vespertilionis. DNA of Rickettsia helvetica was detected in three specimens of I. ricinus attached to Rhinolophus hipposideros or Myotis myotis, while Borrelia garinii was found in one tick parasitizing Myotis daubentonii. These pathogens were recorded for the first time in hard ticks that parasitized bats. PMID:26833325

  17. Genetic population structure of the alpine species Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum sensu lato (Ericaceae) inferred from chloroplast and nuclear DNA

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A complex of incipient species with different degrees of morphological or ecological differentiation provides an ideal model for studying species divergence. We examined the phylogeography and the evolutionary history of the Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum s. l. Results Systematic inconsistency was detected between gene genealogies of the cpDNA and nrDNA. Rooted at R. hyperythrum and R. formosana, both trees lacked reciprocal monophyly for all members of the complex. For R. pseudochrysanthum s.l., the spatial distribution of the cpDNA had a noteworthy pattern showing high genetic differentiation (FST = 0.56-0.72) between populations in the Yushan Mountain Range and populations of the other mountain ranges. Conclusion Both incomplete lineage sorting and interspecific hybridization/introgression may have contributed to the lack of monophyly among R. hyperythrum, R. formosana and R. pseudochrysanthum s.l. Independent colonizations, plus low capabilities of seed dispersal in current environments, may have resulted in the genetic differentiation between populations of different mountain ranges. At the population level, the populations of Central, and Sheishan Mountains may have undergone postglacial demographic expansion, while populations of the Yushan Mountain Range are likely to have remained stable ever since the colonization. In contrast, the single population of the Alishan Mountain Range with a fixed cpDNA haplotype may have experienced bottleneck/founder's events. PMID:21501530

  18. A new species of Aximopsis sensu lato ashmead (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eurytomidae) parasitic on Euglossa spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aximopsis masneri Gates, new species, (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eurytomidae) is described and illustrated. This species was reared from field-collected nests of Euglossa sp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the Neotropical region with additional label data indicating E. variabilis and E. cybelia as hosts...

  19. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus in zoo animal species in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Sirmarová, Jana; Tichá, Lucie; Golovchenko, Marina; Salát, Jiří; Grubhoffer, Libor; Rudenko, Nataliia; Nowotny, Norbert; Růžek, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of antibodies against Borrelia bugdorferi (Bb) s.l. and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in zoo animals in the Czech Republic. We collected 133 serum samples from 69 animal species from 5 zoos located in different parts of the country. The samples were obtained from even-toed ungulates (n=78; 42 species), odd-toed ungulates (n=32; 11 species), carnivores (n=13; 9 species), primates (n=2, 2 species), birds (n=3; 2 species), and reptiles (n=5; 3 species). A high antibody prevalence (60%) was observed for Bb s.l. On the other hand, only two animals had TBEV-specific antibodies: a markhor (Capra falconeri) and a reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), both from the same zoo, located in an area endemic for TBEV. Both of these animals were also positive for Bb s.l. antibodies. Our results indicate that a high number of animal species in the Czech zoos were exposed to Bb s.l. and that TBEV infection occurred at least in one of the investigated zoos. Considering the pathogenic potential of these two tick-borne pathogens, clinical and serological monitoring should be continued, and therapeutic and preventive measures should be taken when necessary. PMID:24889036

  20. DNA barcoding reveals twelve lineages with properties of phylogenetic and biological species within Melitaea didyma sensu lato (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pazhenkova, Elena A.; Zakharov, Evgeny V.; Lukhtanov, Vladimir A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The complex of butterfly taxa close to Melitaea didyma includes the traditionally recognized species Melitaea didyma, Melitaea didymoides and Melitaea sutschana, the taxa that were recognized as species only relatively recently (Melitaea latonigena, Melitaea interrupta, Melitaea chitralensis and Melitaea mixta) as well as numerous described subspecies and forms with unclear taxonomic status. Here analysis of mitochondrial DNA barcodes is used to demonstrate that this complex is monophyletic group consisting of at least 12 major haplogroups strongly differentiated with respect to the gene COI. Six of these haplogroups are shown to correspond to six of the above-mentioned species (Melitaea didymoides, Melitaea sutschana, Melitaea latonigena, Melitaea interrupta, Melitaea chitralensis and Melitaea mixta). It is hypothesized that each of the remaining six haplogroups also represents a distinct species (Melitaea mauretanica, Melitaea occidentalis, Melitaea didyma, Melitaea neera, Melitaea liliputana and Melitaea turkestanica), since merging these haplogroups would result in a polyphyletic assemblage and the genetic distances between them are comparable with those found between the other six previously recognized species. PMID:26807035

  1. Mitochondrial DNA Detects a Complex Evolutionary History with Pleistocene Epoch Divergence for the Neotropical Malaria Vector Anopheles nuneztovari Sensu Lato

    PubMed Central

    Scarpassa, Vera Margarete; Conn, Jan E.

    2011-01-01

    Cryptic species and lineages characterize Anopheles nuneztovari s.l. Gabaldón, an important malaria vector in South America. We investigated the phylogeographic structure across the range of this species with cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) mitochondrial DNA sequences to estimate the number of clades and levels of divergence. Bayesian and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analyses detected four groups distributed in two major monophyletic clades (I and II). Samples from the Amazon Basin were clustered in clade I, as were subclades II-A and II-B, whereas those from Bolivia/Colombia/Venezuela were restricted to one basal subclade (II-C). These data, together with a statistical parsimony network, confirm results of previous studies that An. nuneztovari is a species complex consisting of at least two cryptic taxa, one occurring in Colombia and Venezuela and the another occurring in the Amazon Basin. These data also suggest that additional incipient species may exist in the Amazon Basin. Divergence time and expansion tests suggested that these groups separated and expanded in the Pleistocene Epoch. In addition, the COI sequences clearly separated An. nuneztovari s.l. from the closely related species An. dunhami Causey, and three new records are reported for An. dunhami in Amazonian Brazil. These findings are relevant for vector control programs in areas where both species occur. Our analyses support dynamic geologic and landscape changes in northern South America, and infer particularly active divergence during the Pleistocene Epoch for New World anophelines. PMID:22049039

  2. Comparative analysis of spermatids of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Ixodidae) and Ornithodoros rostratus ticks (Argasidae): morphophysiology aimed at systematics.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Calligaris, Izabela Bragião; Matos, Renata da Silva; Páez, Fredy Arvey Rivera; Bueno, Odair Corrêa; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2016-02-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among tick species (Acari: Ixodida) have been revisited by several researchers over the last decades. Two subfamilies, Rhipicephalinae (Ixodidae) and Ornithodorinae (Argasidae), deserve special attention. The male reproductive system morphology, as well as the ultrastructure of the germ cells, may provide important information for phylogeny and systematics of metazoan groups, with spermatozoa exhibiting characters that can be used for this purpose. With that information in mind, this study aimed at evaluating, through a comparative analysis, the morphology of the male reproductive systems and germ cells of ticks species Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ornithodoros rostratus. In order to do that, histology and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used. The results have shown that despite the similarities in the general morphology of the male reproductive system among studied Ixodida so far, there are morphological differences among the species studied herein, mainly the U-shaped testis (ancestral character) in O. rostratus and the pair testes (derived character) in R. sanguineus, and the general morphology of germ cells (spermatids V). Besides that, the morphological changes observed during the spermiogenesis appear to be different between the species studied here, probably characterizing the two families considered. The data generated in this study showed the importance of comparative internal morphology studies, mainly in regard to spermatology, despite the morphological data obtained herein not being enough to product a cladogram (sperm cladistics), it was already possible to observe clear differences among families Argasidae and Ixodidae in regard to the organization of their male reproductive systems and concerning the external morphology of spermatids. Data yet to be obtained through transmission electron microscopy techniques will allow the application of spermiocladistics and spermiotaxonomy as tools for tick systematics. PMID:26481487

  3. Prospects and limits of the flow cytometric seed screen – insights from Potentilla sensu lato (Potentilleae, Rosaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Dobeš, Christoph; Lückl, Andrea; Hülber, Karl; Paule, Juraj

    2013-01-01

    The flow cytometric seed screen allows for identification of reproductive modes of seed formation and inference of the ploidy of contributing gametes. However, the lack of a mathematical formalization to infer male/female genomic contributions, and the prerequisite of a binucleate female contribution to the endosperm limits its applicability. We evaluated this assumption combining a DNA-based progeny survey with a comparison of the cytology of reproductive pathways co-occurring within single individuals representing 14 Potentilleae species from six phylogenetic lineages. A numerical framework valid for sexual and pseudogamous taxa was developed, enabling quantification of female and male genomes contributing to embryo and endosperm independent of gametophyte origins, numbers of sperm involved and ploidy of parents. The inference strongly depended on accurate peak index estimation. The endosperm of Potentilleae species received a binucleate female contribution in five evolutionary lineages whereas endosperm formation remained uncertain in the Tormentillae. A modified flow cytometric seed screen protocol was developed to cope with low endosperm contents. Evolutionary conservation of a binucleate female contribution to the endosperm suggested wide applicability of flow cytometric seed screen – at least in the Potentilleae. However, alternative progeny surveys and precise embryo/endosperm ploidy estimates are required for a comprehensive understanding of the cytology of seed formation. PMID:23425259

  4. Genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks from the Autonomous Province of Trento, Italy.

    PubMed

    Pecchioli, Elena; Hauffe, Heidi C; Tagliapietra, Valentina; Bandi, Claudio; Genchi, Claudio; Rizzoli, Annapaola

    2007-02-01

    Sequences of the variable intergenic spacer region 5S (rrfA) 23S (rrlB) rRNA were used to identify Borrelia genospecies present in Ixodes ricinus nymphs collected from the Lamar Lakes area of the Province of Trento, Italy (overall prevalence=6.3%). Four genospecies were identified, one for the first time in this Province (B. valaisiana), and three which have been noted previously (B. afzelii, B. garinii, and B. burgdorferi s.s.). In order to compare the genetic variability of these genospecies in Trento with that at a European level, our 21 sequences (15 new haplotypes) and all appropriate European Borrelia sequences registered in GenBank (up to the end of 2004) were subjected to a phylogenetic analysis (for a total of 73 sequences and 43 haplotypes). Clusters of sequences representing the five main European genospecies (afzelii, garinii, burgdorferi s.s., valaisiana, lusitaniae) are well-supported. At least two other groups of haplotypes (genospecies) are suggested by our analysis; moreover, divergent evolution may be occurring in several genospecies. The maximum uncorrected pairwise differences between sequences within genospecies ranges from 1.5% (B. burgdorferi s.s.), to 2.3% (B. garinii and B. valaisiana) to 4.7% (B. afzelii), and are not correlated with geographical distribution. Within the Province of Trento, these values for the same genospecies are 1.5%, 2.3%, 0.9%, 1.9%, respectively. These high mutation rates within genospecies suggest that the sequencing of haplotypes should continue if we are to fully understand and monitor the evolution and epidemiology of Borrelia. PMID:17137840

  5. DNA barcoding reveals new insights into the diversity of Antarctic species of Orchomene sensu lato (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Lysianassoidea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havermans, C.; Nagy, Z. T.; Sonet, G.; De Broyer, C.; Martin, P.

    2011-03-01

    Recent molecular analyses revealed that several so-called "circum-Antarctic" benthic crustacean species appeared to be complexes of cryptic species with restricted distributions. In this study we used a DNA barcoding approach based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene sequences in order to detect possible cryptic diversity and to test the circumpolarity of some lysianassoid species. The orchomenid genus complex consists of the genera Abyssorchomene, Falklandia, Orchomenella, Orchomenyx and Pseudorchomene. Species of this genus complex are found throughout the Southern Ocean and show a high species richness and level of endemism. In the majority of the studied species, a genetic homogeneity was found even among specimens from remote sampling sites, which indicates a possible circum-Antarctic and eurybathic distribution. In four investigated species ( Orchomenella ( Orchomenopsis) acanthurus, Orchomenella ( Orchomenopsis) cavimanus, Orchomenella ( Orchomenella) franklini and Orchomenella ( Orchomenella) pinguides), genetically divergent lineages and possible cryptic taxa were revealed. After a detailed morphological analysis, O. ( O.) pinguides appeared to be composed of two distinct species, formerly synonymized under O. ( O.) pinguides. The different genetic patterns observed in these orchomenid species might be explained by the evolutionary histories undergone by these species and by their different dispersal and gene flow capacities.

  6. Effectiveness of Beauveria bassiana sensu lato strains for biological control against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ming; Ren, Qiaoyun; Guan, Guiquan; Li, Yufeng; Han, Xueqing; Ma, Chao; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun

    2013-10-01

    Owing to the need to combat the spread of acaricide-resistant ticks, the development of long-term biological control has become a hot topic for tick control. In this study, we investigated the pathogenicity of three Beauveria bassiana isolates on the engorged female Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks using different conidial concentrations. The results showed that B. bassiana B.bAT17 was highly pathogenic against engorged R. (B.) microplus females, resulting in lethal time (LT50 and LT90) of 7.14 and 9.33 days at a concentration of 10(9)conidia/ml. R. (B.) microplus females treated with B. bassiana B.bAT17 significantly reduced the amount of ovipositioning; and most ticks died before they could begin to oviposit. Proteases and chitinases were analyzed in order to establish a screening method for identification of high virulent strains. This study has confirmed the significant pathogenic effect of entomopathogenic fungi against engorged R. (B.) microplus females in China, and further studies on the efficiency of the fungus against ticks in the field are required. PMID:23652160

  7. [Relationship between characteristics of sexual behavior and male sperm competitive ability in taxa of superspecies complex Mus musculus sensu lato].

    PubMed

    Ambaryan, A B; Maltzev, A N; Kotenkova, E V

    2015-01-01

    Some physiological parameters that determine quality of male sperm (its concentration, spermatozoa morphology) and testicle size vary in integrity, i.e. the bigger are testicles the higher is sperm quality. Therefore, the estimate of testicles relative mass is often used as a characteristic of sperm competitive ability when comparing phylogenetically close mammal species. In house mice belonging to the superspecies complex Mus musculus s.l., testicles relative mass is greater in exoanthropic species than in synanthropic ones. It is shown in our study that this pattern is apparent also at the intraspecies level since testicles mass index, sperm concentration, and percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa in subspecies Mus musculus wagneri, which is facultatively synanthropic, are higher compared with synanthropic subspecies M m. musculus. An analysis of sexual behavior of the three forms (namely, exoanthropic species M. spicilegus and two subspecies mentioned above) indicates that in M. spicilegus both sexual behavior efficiency and ejaculation rate during coupling were higher as compared with other two subspecies. Based on the analysis of life pattern, reproduction systems, and group spatial-ethological structure, the hypotheses are formulated that explain the maintenance of selection directed to increase of sperm competitive ability in exoanthropic house mice species. PMID:26201218

  8. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto and Echinococcus canadensis in humans and livestock from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Zait, Houria; Kouidri, Mokhtaria; Grenouillet, Florence Elisabeth; Umhang, Gérald; Millon, Laurence; Hamrioui, Boussad; Grenouillet, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    In Algeria, previous studies investigated genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato in animals and identified E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) genotypes G1 and G3 whereas Echinococcus canadensis genotype G6 was only reported from dromedary cysts. Molecular data on human cystic echinococcosis (CE) were limited. We implemented a large genotyping study of hydatid cysts from humans and livestock animals to specify CE's molecular epidemiology and the genetic diversity in Algeria. Fifty-four human CE cysts from patients predominantly admitted in surgical units from Mustapha Hospital, Algiers, and 16 cysts from livestock animals gathered in two geographically distinct slaughterhouses, Tiaret and Tamanrasset, were collected. Molecular characterization was performed using sequencing of two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (NDI). In humans, G1 of E. granulosus s.s. was the main genotype (90.7 %); four samples (7.4 %) were characterized as E. granulosus s.s. G3 and one cyst as E. canadensis G6 (1.8 %). This molecular confirmation of E. canadensis G6 human infection in Algeria was observed in a Tuareg female living in a desertic area in Tamanrasset. All cysts from sheep, cattle, and goat were identified as E. granulosus s.s. G1 and the two cysts originating from dromedary as E. canadensis G6. Twenty concatenated haplotypes (COI + NDI) were characterized. Among E. granulosus s.s., one haplotype (HL1) was highly predominant in both humans and animals cysts (71.6 %). This study revealed main occurrence of E. granulosus s.s. in humans and livestock animals, with description of a predominant shared haplotype corresponding to the main worldwide observed haplotype E.granulosus s.s. G1. E. canadensis G6 was limited to South Algeria, in dromedary as well as in human. PMID:27021186

  9. Experimental challenge of Anisakis simplex sensu stricto and Anisakis pegreffii (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in rainbow trout and olive flounder.

    PubMed

    Quiazon, Karl Marx A; Yoshinaga, Tomoyoshi; Ogawa, Kazuo

    2011-06-01

    The third-stage larvae of Anisakis simplex sensu lato (s.l.) are found in many marine fishes. To ensure food safety, it is important to determine whether these larvae are present in the body muscle of commercial fish species. However, there is little information regarding the tissue specificity of Anisakis and two of its sibling species, A. simplex sensu stricto (s.s.) and Anisakis pegreffii, that are common in marine fish in Japanese waters. We orally challenged rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)), and olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck and Schlegel)) with L3 larvae of these two sibling species and monitored infection for 5weeks. In rainbow trout, A. simplex s.s., but not A. pegreffii larvae, migrated into the body muscle. A small number of freely moving A. pegreffii larvae were recovered within the body cavity. In olive flounder, A. simplex s.s. larvae were found in both the body cavity and body muscle. A. pegreffii larvae were found only in the body cavity and primarily encapsulated in lumps. Our results indicate that there are differences in the sites of infection and host specificity between the two sibling species of A. simplex s.l. PMID:21122822

  10. Water vapour is a pre-oviposition attractant for the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To date no semiochemicals affecting the pre-oviposition behaviour of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu lato have been described. Water vapour must be the major chemical signal emanating from a potential larval habitat, and although one might expect that gravid An. gambiae s.l. detect and respond to water vapour in their search for an aquatic habitat, this has never been experimentally confirmed for this species. This study aimed to investigate the role of relative humidity or water vapour as a general cue for inducing gravid An. gambiae sensu stricto to make orientated movements towards the source. Methods Three experiments were carried out with insectary-reared An. gambiae s.s. One with unfed females and two with gravid females during their peak oviposition time in the early evening. First, unfed females and gravid females were tested separately in still air where a humidity difference was established between opposite ends of a WHO bioassay tube and mosquitoes released individually in the centre of the tube. Movement of mosquitoes to either low or high humidity was recorded. Additionally, gravid mosquitoes were released into a larger air-flow olfactometer and responses measured towards collection chambers that contained cups filled with water or empty cups. Results Unfed females equally dispersed in the small bioassay tubes to areas of high and low humidity (mean 50% (95% confidence interval (CI) 38-62%). In contrast, gravid females were 2.4 times (95% CI 1.3-4.7) more likely to move towards high humidity than unfed females. The results were even more pronounced in the airflow olfactometer. Gravid females were 10.6 times (95% CI 5.4-20.8) more likely to enter the chamber with water than a dry chamber. Conclusions Water vapour is a strong pre-oviposition attractant to gravid An. gambiae s.s. in still and moving air and is likely to be a general cue used by mosquitoes for locating aquatic habitats. PMID:24120083

  11. Comparison of Growth of Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto at Five Different Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Veinović, Gorana; Ružić-Sabljić, Eva; Strle, Franc; Cerar, Tjaša

    2016-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, a fastidious bacterium that replicates slowly and requires special conditions to grow in the laboratory. Borrelia isolation from clinical material is a golden standard for microbiological diagnosis of borrelial infection. Important factors that affect in vitro borrelia growth are temperature of incubation and number of borrelia cells in the sample. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of temperature on borrelia growth and survival by evaluation and comparison of growth of 31 different borrelia strains at five different temperatures and to determine the influence of different inoculums on borrelia growth at different temperatures. Borreliae were cultured in the MKP medium; the initial and final number of spirochetes was determined by dark field microscopy using Neubauer counting chamber. The growth of borrelia was defined as final number of cells/mL after three days of incubation. For all three Borrelia species, the best growth was found at 33°C, followed by 37, 28, and 23°C, while no growth was detected at 4°C (P<0.05). The growth of B. afzelii species was weaker in comparison to the other two species at 23, 28, 33 and 37°C (P<0.05), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the growth of B. garinii and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto at 28, 33, and 37°C (P>0.05), respectively. Inoculum had statistically significant influence on growth of all three Borrelia species at all tested temperatures except at 4°C. PMID:27310556

  12. Comparison of Growth of Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto at Five Different Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Veinović, Gorana; Ružić-Sabljić, Eva; Strle, Franc; Cerar, Tjaša

    2016-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, a fastidious bacterium that replicates slowly and requires special conditions to grow in the laboratory. Borrelia isolation from clinical material is a golden standard for microbiological diagnosis of borrelial infection. Important factors that affect in vitro borrelia growth are temperature of incubation and number of borrelia cells in the sample. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of temperature on borrelia growth and survival by evaluation and comparison of growth of 31 different borrelia strains at five different temperatures and to determine the influence of different inoculums on borrelia growth at different temperatures. Borreliae were cultured in the MKP medium; the initial and final number of spirochetes was determined by dark field microscopy using Neubauer counting chamber. The growth of borrelia was defined as final number of cells/mL after three days of incubation. For all three Borrelia species, the best growth was found at 33°C, followed by 37, 28, and 23°C, while no growth was detected at 4°C (P<0.05). The growth of B. afzelii species was weaker in comparison to the other two species at 23, 28, 33 and 37°C (P<0.05), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the growth of B. garinii and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto at 28, 33, and 37°C (P>0.05), respectively. Inoculum had statistically significant influence on growth of all three Borrelia species at all tested temperatures except at 4°C. PMID:27310556

  13. Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) loads in cattle from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Balbinotti, Helier; Santos, Guilherme B; Badaraco, Jeferson; Arend, Ana C; Graichen, Daniel Ângelo S; Haag, Karen L; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2012-09-10

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) and Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) are haplotypes of the parasite formerly known as Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato, which in its larval stage causes cystic hydatid disease, endemic in Southern Brazil. Epidemiological and molecular knowledge about the haplotypes occurring in a region is essential to control the spread of the disease. The aim of this work was to analyze the haplotype frequency and fertility of hydatid cysts in cattle from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Cysts were collected and classified according to their fertility status. DNA was extracted from protoscoleces and germinal layers and then used as template for the amplification of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene by PCR. Amplicons were purified and sequenced, and the sequences were analyzed for haplotype identification. A total of 638 fertile cysts collected in the last ten years were genotyped. On average, G1 (56.6%) was more frequent than G5 (43.4%). In lungs, the G5 haplotype exhibited a higher parasite load (52.8%), whereas in the liver, G1 was more frequent (90.4%). The analysis revealed an increase in the frequency of G5 haplotype cysts during the period of sampling, and an increase in the abundance of fertile cysts has also been observed in the last several years. Most infertile cysts were genotyped as G1. The possible factors involved in the increase in the proportion of E. ortleppi (G5) and the consequences of this increase are discussed. This study suggests that the proportion of E. ortleppi (G5) loads in cattle may be increasing overtime. PMID:22571833

  14. Canine echinococcosis: genetic diversity of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from definitive hosts.

    PubMed

    Boufana, B; Lett, W; Lahmar, S; Griffiths, A; Jenkins, D J; Buishi, I; Engliez, S A; Alrefadi, M A; Eljaki, A A; Elmestiri, F M; Reyes, M M; Pointing, S; Al-Hindi, A; Torgerson, P R; Okamoto, M; Craig, P S

    2015-11-01

    Canids, particularly dogs, constitute the major source of cystic echinococcosis (CE) infection to humans, with the majority of cases being caused by Echinococcus granulosus (G1 genotype). Canine echinococcosis is an asymptomatic disease caused by adult tapeworms of E. granulosus sensu lato (s.l.). Information on the population structure and genetic variation of adult E. granulosus is limited. Using sequenced data of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) we examined the genetic diversity and population structure of adult tapeworms of E. granulosus (G1 genotype) from canid definitive hosts originating from various geographical regions and compared it to that reported for the larval metacestode stage from sheep and human hosts. Echinococcus granulosus (s.s) was identified from adult tapeworm isolates from Kenya, Libya, Tunisia, Australia, China, Kazakhstan, United Kingdom and Peru, including the first known molecular confirmation from Gaza and the Falkland Islands. Haplotype analysis showed a star-shaped network with a centrally positioned common haplotype previously described for the metacestode stage from sheep and humans, and the neutrality indices indicated population expansion. Low Fst values suggested that populations of adult E. granulosus were not genetically differentiated. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities for E. granulosus isolates from sheep and human origin were twice as high as those reported from canid hosts. This may be related to self-fertilization of E. granulosus and/or to the longevity of the parasite in the respective intermediate and definitive hosts. Improved nuclear single loci are required to investigate the discrepancies in genetic variation seen in this study. PMID:26442707

  15. Survey and first molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) in Pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) in Buenos Aires province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Scioscia, Nathalia Paula; Petrigh, Romina Sandra; Beldomenico, Pablo Martín; Fugassa, Martín; Denegri, Guillermo María

    2016-06-01

    Echinococcosis is a zoonosis caused by tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s. l.) has a world-wide distribution and its transmission is primarily maintained in a synanthropic cycle with dogs as definitive hosts and livestock species as intermediate hosts. However, many wild canids also function as definitive hosts for E. granulosus s. l. Echinococcosis in humans is mainly caused by E. granulosus sensu stricto (s. s.) G1 genotype. In the present work, we expanded the epidemiological study on echinococcosis reported cases in Pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) to provide a prevalence estimate for rural areas of southern Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Ninety-five whole intestines were analyzed using the sedimentation and counting technique with a result of 83 foxes (87.37%) harboring at least one helminth species. E. granulosus s. l. adults were found in one Pampas fox (1.05%). These adult helminthes were E. granulosus s. s. (G1) according to the genotyping analysis of a 450-bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. PMID:26892869

  16. Correlation of Culture Positivity, PCR Positivity, and Burden of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in Skin Samples of Erythema Migrans Patients with Clinical Findings

    PubMed Central

    Stupica, Daša; Lusa, Lara; Maraspin, Vera; Bogovič, Petra; Vidmar, Darja; O’Rourke, Maria; Traweger, Andreas; Livey, Ian; Strle, Franc

    2015-01-01

    Background Limited data are available regarding the relationship of Borrelia burden in skin of patients with erythema migrans (EM) and the disease course and post-treatment outcome. Methods We studied 121 adult patients with EM in whom skin biopsy specimens were cultured and analyzed by quantitative PCR for the presence of Borreliae. Evaluation of clinical and microbiological findings were conducted at the baseline visit, and 14 days, 2, 6, and 12 months after treatment with either amoxicillin or cefuroxime axetil. Results In 94/121 (77.7%) patients Borrelia was detected in skin samples by PCR testing and 65/118 (55.1%) patients had positive skin culture result (96.8% B. afzelii, 3.2% B. garinii). Borrelia culture and PCR results correlated significantly with the presence of central clearing and EM size, while Borrelia burden correlated significantly with central clearing, EM size, and presence of newly developed or worsened symptoms since EM onset, with no other known medical explanation (new or increased symptoms, NOIS). In addition, the logistic regression model for repeated measurements adjusted for time from inclusion, indicated higher Borrelia burden was a risk factor for incomplete response (defined as NOIS and/or persistence of EM beyond 14 days and/or occurrence of new objective signs of Lyme borreliosis). The estimated association between PCR positivity and unfavorable outcome was large but not statistically significant, while no corresponding relationship was observed for culture positivity. Conclusions Higher Borrelia burden in EM skin samples was associated with more frequent central clearing and larger EM lesions at presentation, and with a higher chance of incomplete response. PMID:26352832

  17. Distribution of ixodid ticks on dogs in Nuevo León, Mexico, and their association with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.

    PubMed

    Galaviz-Silva, Lucio; Pérez-Treviño, Karla Carmelita; Molina-Garza, Zinnia J

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to document the geographic distribution of Ixodes tick species in dogs and the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in adult ticks and blood samples by amplification of the ospA region of the B. burgdorferi genome. The study area included nine localities in Nuevo León state. DNA amplification was performed on pools of ticks to calculate the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), and the community composition (prevalence, abundance, and intensity of infestation) was recorded. A total of 2,543 adult ticks, representing four species, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Dermacentor variabilis, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus, and Amblyomma cajennense, were recorded from 338 infested dogs. Statistically significant correlations were observed between female dogs and infestation (P = 0.0003) and between R. sanguineus and locality (P = 0.0001). Dogs sampled in Guadalupe and Estanzuela were positive by PCR (0.9 %) for B. burgdorferi. Rhipicephalus sanguineus had the highest abundance, intensity, and prevalence (10.57, 7.12 and 94.6, respectively). PCR results from 256 pools showed that four pools were positive for D. variabilis (1.6 %), with an MLE of 9.2 %; nevertheless, it is important to consider that in the area under examination probably other reservoir hosts for D. variabilis and B. burgdorferi are present that, very likely, play a much more important role in the ecology of Lyme borreliosis than dogs, which could be considered in future studies. PMID:23749032

  18. Co-occurrence and distribution of East (L1014S) and West (L1014F) African knock-down resistance in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato population of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kabula, Bilali; Kisinza, William; Tungu, Patrick; Ndege, Chacha; Batengana, Benard; Kollo, Douglas; Malima, Robert; Kafuko, Jessica; Mohamed, Mahdi; Magesa, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Objective Insecticide resistance molecular markers can provide sensitive indicators of resistance development in Anopheles vector populations. Assaying these makers is of paramount importance in the resistance monitoring programme. We investigated the presence and distribution of knock-down resistance (kdr) mutations in Anopheles gambiae s.l. in Tanzania. Methods Indoor-resting Anopheles mosquitoes were collected from 10 sites and tested for insecticide resistance using the standard WHO protocol. Polymerase chain reaction-based molecular diagnostics were used to genotype mosquitoes and detect kdr mutations. Results The An. gambiae tested were resistance to lambdacyhalothrin in Muheza, Arumeru and Muleba. Out of 350 An. gambiae s.l. genotyped, 35% were An. gambiae s.s. and 65% An. arabiensis. L1014S and L1014F mutations were detected in both An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis. L1014S point mutation was found at the allelic frequency of 4–33%, while L1014F was at the allelic frequency 6–41%. The L1014S mutation was much associated with An. gambiae s.s. (χ2 = 23.41; P < 0.0001) and L1014F associated with An. arabiensis (χ2 = 11.21; P = 0.0008). The occurrence of the L1014S allele was significantly associated with lambdacyhalothrin resistance mosquitoes (Fisher exact P < 0.001). Conclusion The observed co-occurrence of L1014S and L1014F mutations coupled with reports of insecticide resistance in the country suggest that pyrethroid resistance is becoming a widespread phenomenon among our malaria vector populations. The presence of L1014F mutation in this East African mosquito population indicates the spreading of this gene across Africa. The potential operational implications of these findings on malaria control need further exploration. Objectif Les marqueurs moléculaires de la résistance aux insecticides peuvent fournir des indicateurs sensibles du développement de la résistance dans les populations de vecteurs Anopheles. Le test de ces indicateurs est d'une importance énorme dans le programme de surveillance de la résistance. Nous avons étudié la présence et la répartition des mutations de résistance knockdown (kdr) chez Anopheles gambiae s.l. en Tanzanie. Méthodes Des anophèles d'intérieur, au repos ont été collectées dans 10 sites et testées pour la résistance aux insecticides en utilisant le protocole standard de l'OMS. Les diagnostics moléculaires basés sur la PCR ont été utilisés pour le génotypage des moustiques et la détection des génotypes kdr. Résultats Les An. gambiae testées étaient résistantes à la lambdacyhalothrine à Muheza, Arumeru et Muleba. Sur 350 An. gambiae s.l. génotypées, 35% étaient An. gambiae s.s. et 65% étaient An. arabiensis. Les mutations L1014S et L1014F ont été détectées à la fois chez An. gambiae s.s. et An. arabiensis. La mutation ponctuelle L1014S a été trouvée à la fréquence allélique de 4 à 33%, tandis que L1014F était à la fréquence allélique de 6 à 14%. La mutation L1014S a été fortement associée à An. gambiae s.s. (Chi carré = 23,41; P<0,0001) et L1014F était associée à An. arabiensis (chi carré = 11,21; P = 0,0008). L'allèle L1014S était significativement associé aux moustiques résistants à la lambdacyhalothrine (Fisher P exact <0,001). Conclusion La cooccurrence des mutations L1014S et L1014F couplées à des rapports sur la résistance aux insecticides suggèrent que la résistance aux pyréthrinoïdes est en train de devenir un phénomène répandu dans les populations de vecteurs du paludisme en Tanzanie. La présence de la mutation L1014F dans cet

  19. A phylogeny of the cannibal snails of southern Africa, genus Natalina sensu lato (Pulmonata: Rhytididae): assessing concordance between morphology and molecular data.

    PubMed

    Moussalli, Adnan; Herbert, David G; Stuart-Fox, Devi

    2009-07-01

    The genus Natalina Pilsbry, 1893 is a southern African endemic belonging to the Gondwanan family of carnivorous snails, Rhytididae. We present a well-resolved molecular phylogeny of the genus based on the mitochondrial 16S and COI genes and the nuclear ITS2 gene, and assess this in light of Watson's [Watson, H., 1934. Natalina and other South African snails. Proc. Malacol. Soc. Lond. 21, 150-193] supra-specific classification via a re-examination of 23 morphological characters including features of the shell, radula, external anatomy and distal reproductive tract. Ancestral reconstruction and character mapping based on the MK(1) model reveals broad concordance between morphology and the molecular phylogeny at the supra-specific level. Given this concordance and exceptionally deep divergences in the molecular data, we recommend the elevation of the subgenera Natalina s.s., Afrorhytida, and Capitina to generic status. At the species level, we identify several species complexes for which additional fine scale morphological and molecular appraisal is needed to qualify on the one hand incipient speciation with notable differentiation in shell form and body pigmentation, and on the other, phylogenetically deep yet morphologically cryptic diversity. PMID:19258042

  20. Characterization of spirochetes isolated from ticks (Ixodes tanuki, Ixodes turdus, and Ixodes columnae) and comparison of the sequences with those of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains.

    PubMed Central

    Fukunaga, M; Hamase, A; Okada, K; Inoue, H; Tsuruta, Y; Miyamoto, K; Nakao, M

    1996-01-01

    Ixodes persulcatus serves as a tick vector for Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii in Japan; however, unidentified spirochetes have been isolated from other species of ticks. In this study, 13 isolates from ticks (6 from Ixodes tanuki, 6 from Ixodes turdus, and 1 from Ixodes columnae) and 3 isolates from voles (Clethrionomys rufocanus) were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, rRNA gene restriction fragment length polymorphism, partial sequencing of the outer surface protein C (OspC) gene, whole DNA-DNA hybridization, and 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison. All of the results revealed that these Borrelia strains clearly represent at least two new species. A third is also likely, although additional strains have to be isolated and characterized before a separate species is designated. We designated all isolates of I. tanuki and C. rufocanus as group Hk501 and all isolates of I. turdus as group Ya501. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences distinguished these Borrelia strains from those belonging to hitherto known Borrelia species. Furthermore, the genomic groups, each with its own tick vectors with enzootic cycles, were quite different from each other and also from those of Lyme disease Borrelia species known to occur in Japan. The results of 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison suggest that the strain Am501 from I. columnae is related to group Hk501, although its level of DNA relatedness is less than 70%. PMID:8779571

  1. DGGE Identification of Microorganisms Associated with Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato- or Anaplasma phagocytophilum-Infected Ixodes ricinus Ticks from Northwest Norway

    PubMed Central

    Vadseth, Hanne Tjelle

    2013-01-01

    Ticks acquire a wide range of microorganisms as a natural part of their lifecycle. Bacteria, viruses, and protozoa can be transmitted to ticks during feeding and free-living phases. DGGE profiling is a molecular method to describe the microbial population associated with ticks and demonstrate some of the complexity and variety of tick-borne microorganisms. The present study profiled a total of 120 I. ricinus ticks, which were divided into three equally sized groups. We found that B. burgdorferi s.l.-infected ticks presented a pattern consisting of bacterial Pseudomonas spp. (67.5%), Bacillus spp. (50%), and Sphingomonas spp. (77.5%), while A. phagocytophilum-infected ticks were associated with Pseudomonas spp. (82.5%) and Sphingomonas spp. (57.5%). All profiles had one or more Pseudomonas species present, and the intramitochondrial endosymbiont Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii was present in more than 25% of the samples. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the microbial communities were not significantly different between the groups and that the groups could not be characterised by a specific microbial population. PMID:24282414

  2. Genomic Insights into the Saccharomyces sensu stricto Complex

    PubMed Central

    Borneman, Anthony R.; Pretorius, Isak S.

    2015-01-01

    The Saccharomyces sensu stricto group encompasses species ranging from the industrially ubiquitous yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to those that are confined to geographically limited environmental niches. The wealth of genomic data that are now available for the Saccharomyces genus is providing unprecedented insights into the genomic processes that can drive speciation and evolution, both in the natural environment and in response to human-driven selective forces during the historical “domestication” of these yeasts for baking, brewing, and winemaking. PMID:25657346

  3. Manipulating Steady Heat Conduction by Sensu-shaped Thermal Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Han, Tiancheng; Bai, Xue; Liu, Dan; Gao, Dongliang; Li, Baowen; Thong, John T. L.; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The ability to design the control of heat flow has innumerable benefits in the design of electronic systems such as thermoelectric energy harvesters, solid-state lighting, and thermal imagers, where the thermal design plays a key role in performance and device reliability. In this work, we employ one identical sensu-unit with facile natural composition to experimentally realize a new class of thermal metamaterials for controlling thermal conduction (e.g., thermal concentrator, focusing/resolving, uniform heating), only resorting to positioning and locating the same unit element of sensu-shape structure. The thermal metamaterial unit and the proper arrangement of multiple identical units are capable of transferring, redistributing and managing thermal energy in a versatile fashion. It is also shown that our sensu-shape unit elements can be used in manipulating dc currents without any change in the layout for the thermal counterpart. These could markedly enhance the capabilities in thermal sensing, thermal imaging, thermal-energy storage, thermal packaging, thermal therapy, and more domains beyond. PMID:25974383

  4. Floral structure of Emmotum (Icacinaceae sensu stricto or Emmotaceae), a phylogenetically isolated genus of lamiids with a unique pseudotrimerous gynoecium, bitegmic ovules and monosporangiate thecae

    PubMed Central

    Endress, Peter K.; Rapini, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Icacinaceae sensu stricto consist of a group of early branching lineages of lamiids whose relationships are not yet resolved and whose detailed floral morphology is poorly known. The most bizarre flowers occur in Emmotum: the gynoecium has three locules on one side and none on the other. It has been interpreted as consisting of three fertile and two sterile carpels or of one fertile carpel with two longitudinal septa and two sterile carpels. This study focused primarily on the outer and inner morphology of the gynoecium to resolve its disputed structure, and ovule structure was also studied. In addition, the perianth and androecium were investigated. Methods Flowers and floral buds of two Emmotum species, E. harleyi and E. nitens, were collected and fixed in the field, and then studied by scanning electron microscopy. Microtome section series were used to reconstruct their morphology. Key Results The gynoecium in Emmotum was confirmed as pentamerous, consisting of three fertile and two sterile carpels. Each of the three locules behaves as the single locule in other Icacinaceae, with the placenta of the two ovules being identical, which shows that three fertile carpels are present. In addition, it was found that the ovules are bitegmic, which is almost unique in lamiids, and that the stamens have monosporangiate thecae, which also occurs in the closely related family Oncothecaceae, but is not known from any other Icacinaceae sensu lato so far. Conclusions The flowers of Emmotum have unique characters at different evolutionary levels: the pseudotrimerous gynoecium at angiosperm level, the bitegmic ovules at lamiid level and the monosporangiate thecae at family or family group level. However, in general, the floral morphology of Emmotum fits well in Icacinaceae. More comparative research on flower structure is necessary in Icacinaceae and other early branching lineages of lamiids to better understand the initial evolution of this large lineage of

  5. Salinity tolerance of Anopheles farauti Laveran sensu stricto.

    PubMed

    Bell, D; Bryan, J; Cameron, A; Foley, D; Pholsyna, K

    1999-01-01

    To assess the salt tolerance of the malaria vector Anopheles farauti sensu stricto, larvae were collected from a freshwater environment on the outskirts of Honiara, Solomon Islands and placed in trays containing water with salinity varying from freshwater to seawater. Dead larvae and pupae and emerged adults were recorded and preserved. Most adults and nearly half of the larvae and pupae were then subjected to DNA analysis for species identification. No adult An. farauti emerged after prolonged immersion of larvae in undiluted seawater (3.5% salinity), although temporary immersion before pupation was compatible with survival. Salinities of up to 2.2% to 2.5% were compatible with good survival and adult emergence, at least from fourth instars. The results suggest that higher salinities may slow larval development and show that mortality at a given salinity is not uniform. PMID:11061001

  6. A novel zoonotic genotype related to Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto from southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Wassermann, Marion; Woldeyes, Daniel; Gerbi, Banchwosen Mechal; Ebi, Dennis; Zeyhle, Eberhard; Mackenstedt, Ute; Petros, Beyene; Tilahun, Getachew; Kern, Peter; Romig, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Complete mitochondrial and two nuclear gene sequences of a novel genotype (GOmo) related to Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto are described from a metacestode isolate retrieved from a human patient in southwestern Ethiopia. Phylogenetically, the genotype is positioned within the E. granulosus sensu stricto/Echinococcus felidis cluster, but cannot easily be allocated to either species. Based on different mitochondrial DNA markers, it is closest to the haplotype cluster that currently defines the species E. granulosus sensu stricto (which includes variants showing the widely cited G1, G2 and G3 sequences), but is clearly not part of this cluster. Pairwise distances between GOmo and E. granulosus sensu stricto are in the range of those between the most distant members of the Echinococcus canadensis complex (G6-10) that were recently proposed as separate species. At this stage, we prefer to list GOmo informally as a genotype rather than giving it any taxonomic rank because our knowledge rests on a single isolate from a dead-end host (human), and its lifecycle is unknown. According to data on molecularly characterised Echinococcus isolates from this region, GOmo has never been found in the usual livestock species that carry cystic echinococcosis and the possibility of a wildlife source of this newly recognised zoonotic agent cannot be excluded. The discovery of GOmo adds complexity to the already diverse array of cystic echinococcosis agents in sub-Saharan Africa and challenges hypotheses on the biogeographical origin of the E. granulosus sensu stricto clade. PMID:27181929

  7. Sacroiliitis secondary to catheter-related bacteremia due to Mycobacterium abscessus (sensu stricto)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of sacroiliitis secondary to catheter-related bacteremia due to Mycobacterium abscessus (sensu stricto). This case confirms that MultiLocus sequence typing and variable-number tandem-repeat methods are very robust techniques to identify the pathogen species and to validate molecular epidemiological links among complex M. abscessus isolates. PMID:24479655

  8. Population subdivision of Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto in the Upper Midwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A collection of 712 Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto strains, originating from 52 counties and 83 wheat and barley fields from nine states within the United States and predominantly gathered between 1999-2000 was characterized by RFLPs and PCR-based trichothecene type analyses and compared with 19...

  9. [Genetic divergence and allozymic variability in mice of the genus Apodemus s. lato (Muridae, Rodentia)].

    PubMed

    Mezhzherin, S V; Zykov, A E

    1991-01-01

    Genetic variability of 36 presumed loci was examined in 5 species of subgenus Sylvaemus (sylvaticus, flavicollis, microps, falzfeini, ponticus) and in 3 species of the subgenus Apodemus s. str. (agrarius, peninsulae, speciosus) from different geographic regions of the USSR. Taxonomic status and species affiliation of A. s. chorassanicus from Turkmenia and A. s. tscherga from Altay have been established: the former is identical to A. falzfeini from the Ukraine, the latter is identical to A. microps. Genus Apodemus s. lato can be divided into two different geni (Apodemus s. str. and Sylvaemus) on the basis of genetic distance between them (D = 1,518). Genetic differentiation within subgenus Sylvaemus is 0.311, within subgenus Apodemus s. str. is 1,011. The observed differences in genetic heterozygosity between species (H varies from 0 to 0.067) are, probably, due to the historical events which take place in the formation of areas of these species. PMID:1796503

  10. Bread, beer and wine: yeast domestication in the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex.

    PubMed

    Sicard, Delphine; Legras, Jean-Luc

    2011-03-01

    Yeasts of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto species complex are able to convert sugar into ethanol and CO(2) via fermentation. They have been used for thousands years by mankind for fermenting food and beverages. In the Neolithic times, fermentations were probably initiated by naturally occurring yeasts, and it is unknown when humans started to consciously add selected yeast to make beer, wine or bread. Interestingly, such human activities gave rise to the creation of new species in the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex by interspecies hybridization or polyploidization. Within the S. cerevisiae species, they have led to the differentiation of genetically distinct groups according to the food process origin. Although the evolutionary history of wine yeast populations has been well described, the histories of other domesticated yeasts need further investigation. PMID:21377618

  11. Effectiveness of disinfectants used in hemodialysis against both Candida orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis sensu stricto biofilms.

    PubMed

    Pires, Regina Helena; da Silva, Julhiany de Fátima; Gomes Martins, Carlos Henrique; Fusco Almeida, Ana Marisa; Pienna Soares, Christiane; Soares Mendes-Giannini, Maria José

    2013-05-01

    Biofilms have been observed in the fluid pathways of hemodialysis machines. The impacts of four biocides used for the disinfection of hemodialysis systems were tested against Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto and Candida orthopsilosis biofilms generated by isolates obtained from a hydraulic circuit that were collected in a hemodialysis unit. Acetic acid was shown to be the most effective agent against Candida biofilms. Strategies for effective disinfection procedures used for hemodialysis systems should also seek to kill and inhibit biofilms. PMID:23478969

  12. A prospective study on the incidence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection after a tick bite in Sweden and on the Åland Islands, Finland (2008-2009).

    PubMed

    Wilhelmsson, Peter; Fryland, Linda; Lindblom, Pontus; Sjöwall, Johanna; Ahlm, Clas; Berglund, Johan; Haglund, Mats; Henningsson, Anna J; Nolskog, Peter; Nordberg, Marika; Nyberg, Clara; Ornstein, Katharina; Nyman, Dag; Ekerfelt, Christina; Forsberg, Pia; Lindgren, Per-Eric

    2016-02-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a common and increasing tick-borne disease in Europe. The risk of acquiring a Borrelia infection after a tick bite is not fully known. Therefore, we investigated the incidence of Borrelia infection after a bite by a Borrelia-infected tick and if the Borrelia load and/or the duration of tick-feeding influenced the risk of infection. During 2008-2009, ticks and blood samples were collected from 1546 tick-bitten persons from Sweden and the Åland Islands, Finland. Follow-up blood samples were taken 3 months after the tick bite. The duration of tick feeding was microscopically estimated and Borrelia was detected and quantified in ticks by real-time PCR. Anti-Borrelia antibodies were detected in sera using ELISA tests and immunoblot. Five percent (78/1546) of the study participants developed Borrelia infection (LB diagnosis and/or seroconversion) after a tick bite (45% bitten by Borrelia-infected ticks and 55% bitten by uninfected ticks). Of these, 33 developed LB (whereof 9 also seroconverted) while 45 participants seroconverted only. Experience of non-specific symptoms was more frequently reported by Borrelia-infected participants compared to uninfected participants. All who seroconverted removed "their" ticks significantly later than those who did not. The Borrelia load in the ticks did not explain the risk of seroconversion. Regional and sex differences in the Borrelia seroprevalence were found. The risk of developing a Borrelia infection after a bite by a Borrelia-infected tick is small but increases with the duration of tick feeding. PMID:26341726

  13. Halocoryza Alluaud 1919, sea-side beetles of the Indian, Atlantic (sensu lato), and Pacific Oceans: a generic synopsis and description of a remarkable new species from Baja California Sur, México (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Scaritini, Clivinina).

    PubMed

    Erwin, Terry L

    2011-01-01

    Information on the three previously described species of Halocoryza Alluaud is updated and a new species for the genus from Isla Carmen, Sea of Cortés, Baja California Sur, México is described. Halocoryza whiteheadianasp. n. was found at UV light on a beach of that island. This species does not fit the profile of the other three species, i.e., living on coralline beach sands, or in the Mangrove intertidal zone. Two alternative possibilities as to why this is so are suggested and a study plan for testing these possibilities is proposed. PMID:21998544

  14. A novel dodine-free selective medium based on the use of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) to isolate Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato and Paecilomyces lilacinus from soil.

    PubMed

    Posadas, Julieta B; Comerio, Ricardo M; Mini, Jorge I; Nussenbaum, Ana L; Lecuona, Roberto E

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the quaternary ammonium compound cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as an alternative to the chemically related dodecylguanidine (dodine) for the selective isolation of entomopathogenic fungi. Oatmeal agar (OA) with chloramphenicol was used as basal medium, and three concentrations of CTAB (0.5, 0.6, 0.7 g/L) were evaluated and compared against OA + 0.46 g/L dodine. Selective isolation and growth studies were performed with the entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae s.l. and Paecilomyces lilacinus and five common non-entomopathogenic non-target species. The three entomopathogenic fungi sporulated earlier on OA + 0.6 g/L CTAB than on OA + 0.46 g/L dodine, while none of the non-target fungi sporulated on OA + 0.6 g/L CTAB. All entomopathogenic fungal isolates grew on OA + 0.6 g/L CTAB, despite some intra-species variation, whereas non-target fungi showed no growth or sporulation. OA + 0.6 g/L CTAB resulted in an efficient medium to isolate B. bassiana, M. anisopliae s. l. and P. lilacinus from soil samples. Results of our study suggest that OA + 0.6 g/L CTAB is a suitable, simple and inexpensive to prepare medium to replace OA + 0.46 g/L dodine for the selective isolation of these fungi. PMID:22314588

  15. Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto isolated from soil in an armadillo's burrow.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Bagagli, Eduardo; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Bosco, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes

    2014-04-01

    Sporotrichosis is a polymorphic disease of man and animals caused by traumatic implantation of propagules into the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Pathogenic species includes S. brasiliensis, S. schenckii, S. globosa and S. luriei. The disease is remarkable for its occurrence as sapronoses and/or zoonosis outbreaks in tropical and subtropical areas; although, the ecology of the clinical clade is still puzzling. Here, we describe an anamorphic Sporothrix strain isolated from soil in an armadillo's burrow, which was located in a hyper endemic area of Paracoccidioidomycosis in Brazil. This isolate was identified as S. schenckii sensu stricto (Clade IIa) based on morphological and physiological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of calmodulin sequences. We then discuss the role of the nine-banded armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus as a natural carrier of Sporothrix propagules to better understand Sporothrix sources in nature and reveal essential aspects about the pathogen's eco-epidemiology. PMID:24577793

  16. A new species of Tenuipalpus sensu stricto (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) from Brazil, with ontogeny and a key to the known species.

    PubMed

    Castro, Elizeu B; Feres, Reinaldo J F; Ochoa, Ronald; Bauchan, Gary R

    2016-01-01

    The Cerrado is the second largest Brazilian biome, and is considered to be a "hotspot" due the great concentration of endemic species and high rate of deforestation. Surveys of the mite fauna present in this biome have revealed a great number of new species. In this paper, we describe Tenuipalpus spinosaurus sp. nov. (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), a new species of Tenuipalpus sensu stricto, from adult females, deutonymphs, protonymphs, larvae and eggs, collected on Terminalia argentea (Combretaceae), from the Cerrado in Brazil. Females of this new species bear a prominent longitudinal crest on the opisthosoma. The ontogenetic changes in the idiosoma and leg chaetotaxy of all stages are presented. A key to the world species of Tenuipalpus sensu stricto is provided. PMID:27394345

  17. In Vitro Activities of Amphotericin B, Terbinafine, and Azole Drugs against Clinical and Environmental Isolates of Aspergillus terreus Sensu Stricto

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Mariana S.; Rojas, Florencia D.; Cattana, María E.; Sosa, María de los Ángeles; Iovannitti, Cristina A.; Giusiano, Gustavo E.

    2015-01-01

    The antifungal susceptibilities of 40 clinical and environmental isolates of A. terreus sensu stricto to amphotericin B, terbinafine, itraconazole, and voriconazole were determined in accordance with CLSI document M38-A2. All isolates had itraconazole and voriconazole MICs lower than epidemiologic cutoff values, and 5% of the isolates had amphotericin B MICs higher than epidemiologic cutoff values. Terbinafine showed the lowest MICs. No significant differences were found when MICs of clinical and environmental isolates were compared. PMID:25824228

  18. A world revision of the bee fly tribe Usiini (Diptera, Bombyliidae) Part 2: Usia sensu stricto.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, David

    2014-01-01

    This is the second part of a world revision of the genera Usia Latreille and Parageron Paramonov, of the tribe Usiini Becker, and covers the pale-haired species, the Usia sensu stricto group. Usia sensu stricto as defined here contains 24 species of which 16 species fall into two monophyletic groups, the U. lata group with 10 species and the U. florea group with six species. Eight species cannot be placed in either of these two groups, four of them form two pairs of sibling species while the remaining four species have no clear affinities. Of the 25 formerly available names that belong in Usia sensu stricto, U. putilla Becker stat. rev., previously synonymised under U. angustifrons, is reinstated as a full species. U. sicula Egger syn. nov., is synonymised under U. manca Loew, U. anus Becker syn. nov., is synonymised under U. vestita Macquart and U. claripennis Macquart syn. nov., is synonymised under U. atrata (Fabricius). Usia vicina Macquart, formerly placed as a synonym of U. atrata, is shown to be a junior synonym of U. aenea Rossi. Five new species are described, U. anatoliensis sp. nov., U. annetteae sp. nov., U. greatheadi sp. nov., U. maghrebensis sp. nov. and U. cornigera sp. nov. Both the male and female genitalia are illustrated in detail for 21 species, female only in the cases of U. calva Loew and U. notata Loew and male only for U. incognita Paramonov. PMID:24870868

  19. Evidence for Host-Genotype Associations of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto

    PubMed Central

    Mechai, Samir; Margos, Gabriele; Feil, Edward J.; Barairo, Nicole; Lindsay, L. Robbin; Michel, Pascal; Ogden, Nicholas H.

    2016-01-01

    Different genotypes of the agent of Lyme disease in North America, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, show varying degrees of pathogenicity in humans. This variation in pathogenicity correlates with phylogeny and we have hypothesized that the different phylogenetic lineages in North America reflect adaptation to different host species. In this study, evidence for host species associations of B. burgdorferi genotypes was investigated using 41 B. burgdorferi-positive samples from five mammal species and 50 samples from host-seeking ticks collected during the course of field studies in four regions of Canada: Manitoba, northwestern Ontario, Quebec, and the Maritimes. The B. burgdorferi genotypes in the samples were characterized using three established molecular markers (multi-locus sequence typing [MLST], 16S-23S rrs-rrlA intergenic spacer, and outer surface protein C sequence [ospC] major groups). Correspondence analysis and generalized linear mixed effect models revealed significant associations between B. burgdorferi genotypes and host species (in particular chipmunks, and white-footed mice and deer mice), supporting the hypotheses that host adaptation contributes to the phylogenetic structure and possibly the observed variation in pathogenicity in humans. PMID:26901761

  20. Evidence of multiple pyrethroid resistance mechanisms in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto from Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Awolola, T S; Oduola, O A; Strode, C; Koekemoer, L L; Brooke, B; Ranson, H

    2009-11-01

    Pyrethroid insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto is a major concern to malaria vector control programmes. Resistance is mainly due to target-site insensitivity arising from a single point mutation, often referred to as knockdown resistance (kdr). Metabolic-based resistance mechanisms have also been implicated in pyrethroid resistance in East Africa and are currently being investigated in West Africa. Here we report the co-occurrence of both resistance mechanisms in a population of An. gambiae s.s. from Nigeria. Bioassay, synergist and biochemical analysis carried out on resistant and susceptible strains of An. gambiae s.s. from the same geographical area revealed >50% of the West African kdr mutation in the resistant mosquitoes but <3% in the susceptible mosquitoes. Resistant mosquitoes synergized using pyperonyl butoxide before permethrin exposure showed a significant increase in mortality compared with the non-synergized. Biochemical assays showed an increased level of monooxygenase but not glutathione-S-transferase or esterase activities in the resistant mosquitoes. Microarray analysis using the An. gambiae detox-chip for expression of detoxifying genes showed five over-expressed genes in the resistant strain when compared with the susceptible one. Two of these, CPLC8 and CPLC#, are cuticular genes not implicated in pyrethroid metabolism in An. gambiae s.s, and could constitute a novel set of candidate genes that warrant further investigation. PMID:18829056

  1. Echinococcus equinus and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto from the United Kingdom: genetic diversity and haplotypic variation.

    PubMed

    Boufana, Belgees; Lett, Wai San; Lahmar, Samia; Buishi, Imad; Bodell, Anthony J; Varcasia, Antonio; Casulli, Adriano; Beeching, Nicholas J; Campbell, Fiona; Terlizzo, Monica; McManus, Donald P; Craig, Philip S

    2015-02-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is endemic in Europe including the United Kingdom. However, information on the molecular epidemiology of Echinococcus spp. from the United Kingdom is limited. Echinococcus isolates from intermediate and definitive animal hosts as well as from human cystic echinococcosis cases were analysed to determine species and genotypes within these hosts. Echinococcus equinus was identified from horse hydatid isolates, cysts retrieved from captive UK mammals and copro-DNA of foxhounds and farm dogs. Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) was identified from hydatid cysts of sheep and cattle as well as in DNA extracted from farm dog and foxhound faecal samples, and from four human cystic echinococcosis isolates, including the first known molecular confirmation of E. granulosus s.s. infection in a Welsh sheep farmer. Low genetic variability for E. equinus from various hosts and from different geographical locations was detected using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1), indicating the presence of a dominant haplotype (EQUK01). In contrast, greater haplotypic variation was observed for E. granulosus s.s. cox1 sequences. The haplotype network showed a star-shaped network with a centrally placed main haplotype (EgUK01) that had been reported from other world regions. PMID:25479251

  2. First insights into the genetic diversity of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Debeljak, Zoran; Boufana, Belgees; Interisano, Maria; Vidanovic, Dejan; Kulisic, Zoran; Casulli, Adriano

    2016-06-15

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) is a cosmopolitan zoonotic infection which is endemic in Serbia where it is subject to mandatory reporting. However, information on the incidence of the disease in humans and prevalence of hydatid infection in livestock remains limited. We used sequenced data of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) mitochondrial gene to examine the genetic diversity and population structure of E. granulosus (s.s.) from intermediate hosts from Serbia. We also compared our generated nucleotide sequences with those reported for neighbouring European countries. Echinococcus canadensis was molecularly confirmed from pig and human hydatid isolates. E. granulosus (G1) was confirmed from sheep and cattle hydatid isolates as well as the first molecular confirmation in Serbia of E. granulosus G2 in sheep and E. granulosus G3 in sheep and cattle hydatid isolates. The Serbian E. granulosus (s.s.) parsimony network displayed 2 main haplotypes (SB02 and SB05) which together with the neutrality indices were suggestive of bottleneck and/or balancing selection. Haplotype analysis showed the presence of the common E. granulosus haplotype described from other worldwide regions. Investigation of the pairwise fixation (Fst) index suggested that Serbian populations of E. granulosus (s.s.) from sheep and cattle hosts showed moderate genetic differentiation. Six of the Serbian haplotypes (SB02-SB07) were shared with haplotypes from Bulgaria, Hungary and/or Romania. Further studies using a larger number of hydatid isolates from various locations across Serbia will provide more information on the genetic structure of E. granulosus (s.s.) within this region. PMID:27198778

  3. Genetic diversity of ospC in a local population of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, I N; Dykhuizen, D E; Qiu, W; Dunn, J J; Bosler, E M; Luft, B J

    1999-01-01

    The outer surface protein, OspC, is highly variable in Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the agent of Lyme disease. We have shown that even within a single population OspC is highly variable. The variation of ospA and ospC in the 40 infected deer ticks collected from a single site on Shelter Island, New York, was determined using PCR-SSCP. There is very strong apparent linkage disequilibrium between ospA and ospC alleles, even though they are located on separate plasmids. Thirteen discernible SSCP mobility classes for ospC were identified and the DNA sequence for each was determined. These sequences, combined with 40 GenBank sequences, allow us to define 19 major ospC groups. Sequences within a major ospC group are, on average, <1% different from each other, while sequences between major ospC groups are, on average, approximately 20% different. The tick sample contains 11 major ospC groups, GenBank contains 16 groups, with 8 groups found in both samples. Thus, the ospC variation within a local population is almost as great as the variation of a similar-sized sample of the entire species. The Ewens-Watterson-Slatkin test of allele frequency showed significant deviation from the neutral expectation, indicating balancing selection for these major ospC groups. The variation represented by major ospC groups needs to be considered if the OspC protein is to be used as a serodiagnostic antigen or a vaccine. PMID:9872945

  4. Discrimination between E. granulosus sensu stricto, E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus Using a Multiplex PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Yan, Hong-Bin; Blair, David; Lei, Meng-Tong; Cai, Jin-Zhong; Fan, Yan-Lei; Li, Jian-Qiu; Fu, Bao-Quan; Yang, Yu-Rong; McManus, Donald P.; Jia, Wan-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Background Infections of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s), E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus are commonly found co-endemic on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China, and an efficient tool is needed to facilitate the detection of infected hosts and for species identification. Methodology/Principal Findings A single-tube multiplex PCR assay was established to differentiate the Echinococcus species responsible for infections in intermediate and definitive hosts. Primers specific for E. granulosus, E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus were designed based on sequences of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (nad5) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) genes, respectively. This multiplex PCR accurately detected Echinococcus DNA without generating nonspecific reaction products. PCR products were of the expected sizes of 219 (nad1), 584 (nad5) and 471 (cox1) bp. Furthermore, the multiplex PCR enabled diagnosis of multiple infections using DNA of protoscoleces and copro-DNA extracted from fecal samples of canine hosts. Specificity of the multiplex PCR was 100% when evaluated using DNA isolated from other cestodes. Sensitivity thresholds were determined for DNA from protoscoleces and from worm eggs, and were calculated as 20 pg of DNA for E. granulosus and E. shiquicus, 10 pg of DNA for E. multilocularis, 2 eggs for E. granulosus, and 1 egg for E. multilocularis. Positive results with copro-DNA could be obtained at day 17 and day 26 after experimental infection of dogs with larval E. multilocularis and E. granulosus, respectively. Conclusions/Significance The multiplex PCR developed in this study is an efficient tool for discriminating E. granulosus, E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus from each other and from other taeniid cestodes. It can be used for the detection of canids infected with E. granulosus s.s. and E. multilocularis using feces collected from these definitive hosts. It can also be used for the identification

  5. Computer-Assisted In Sensu Exposure for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Development and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Priebe, Kathlen; Deuschel, Tilman; Schüller, Martin; Schriner, Friederike; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Ludäscher, Petra; Schmahl, Christian; Bohus, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Dissociative states during psychotherapy sessions reduce the benefit of exposure-based therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Thus, in evidence-based therapeutic programs such as dialectical behavior therapy for PTSD (DBT-PTSD), therapists apply specific antidissociative skills to reduce dissociative features during in sensu exposure. In addition to therapist-guided sessions, exposure protocols often require that the patients listen to audio recordings of exposure sessions in self-management. The problem of how to prevent dissociative features during such self-administered exposure exercises has not been resolved yet. Hence, we developed the computer program MORPHEUS that supports the application of self-administered exposure exercises. MORPHEUS continuously monitors the level of dissociative states and offers state-related antidissociative skills. Objective This study sought to examine the acceptance and feasibility of the MORPHEUS program. Methods Patients who underwent 12 weeks of residential DBT-PTSD treatment used MORPHEUS during exposure exercises in self-management. After the treatment, they filled out evaluation questionnaires. Results In sum, 26 patients receiving a 12-week standard DBT-PTSD program participated in this study; 2 participants could not be analyzed because of missing data. All the patients used MORPHEUS as often as it was required according to the DBT-PTSD treatment (2 to 5 times a week). The overall acceptance and feasibility as rated by the patients was high: for example, patients found the skills useful to block dissociation (mean 4.24 on a scale from 0 to 5, SD 0.24) and stated that they would use the program again (mean 4.72 on a scale from 0 to 5, SD 0.11). Furthermore, patients indicated that they would recommend MORPHEUS to a friend (mean 4.44 on a scale from 0 to 5, SD 0.12). In 82% (32/39) of the cases, the use of antidissociative skills was related to a decrease in dissociation. In 18% (5/39), dissociation

  6. Differences in Genotype, Clinical Features, and Inflammatory Potential of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto Strains from Europe and the United States.

    PubMed

    Cerar, Tjasa; Strle, Franc; Stupica, Dasa; Ruzic-Sabljic, Eva; McHugh, Gail; Steere, Allen C; Strle, Klemen

    2016-05-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto isolates from patients with erythema migrans in Europe and the United States were compared by genotype, clinical features of infection, and inflammatory potential. Analysis of outer surface protein C and multilocus sequence typing showed that strains from these 2 regions represent distinct genotypes. Clinical features of infection with B. burgdorferi in Slovenia were similar to infection with B. afzelii or B. garinii, the other 2 Borrelia spp. that cause disease in Europe, whereas B. burgdorferi strains from the United States were associated with more severe disease. Moreover, B. burgdorferi strains from the United States induced peripheral blood mononuclear cells to secrete higher levels of cytokines and chemokines associated with innate and Th1-adaptive immune responses, whereas strains from Europe induced greater Th17-associated responses. Thus, strains of the same B. burgdorferi species from Europe and the United States represent distinct clonal lineages that vary in virulence and inflammatory potential. PMID:27088349

  7. Differences in Genotype, Clinical Features, and Inflammatory Potential of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto Strains from Europe and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cerar, Tjasa; Strle, Franc; Stupica, Dasa; Ruzic-Sabljic, Eva; McHugh, Gail; Steere, Allen C.

    2016-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto isolates from patients with erythema migrans in Europe and the United States were compared by genotype, clinical features of infection, and inflammatory potential. Analysis of outer surface protein C and multilocus sequence typing showed that strains from these 2 regions represent distinct genotypes. Clinical features of infection with B. burgdorferi in Slovenia were similar to infection with B. afzelii or B. garinii, the other 2 Borrelia spp. that cause disease in Europe, whereas B. burgdorferi strains from the United States were associated with more severe disease. Moreover, B. burgdorferi strains from the United States induced peripheral blood mononuclear cells to secrete higher levels of cytokines and chemokines associated with innate and Th1-adaptive immune responses, whereas strains from Europe induced greater Th17-associated responses. Thus, strains of the same B. burgdorferi species from Europe and the United States represent distinct clonal lineages that vary in virulence and inflammatory potential. PMID:27088349

  8. A molecular phylogeny of the Dactylogyridae sensu Kritsky & Boeger (1989) (Monogenea) based on the D1-D3 domains of large subunit rDNA.

    PubMed

    Simková, A; Matejusová, I; Cunningham, C O

    2006-07-01

    Phylogenetic analyses based on the partial large subunit rDNA (LSU) sequences of polyonchoinean monogeneans belonging to the Dactylogyridea and Monocotylidea were generated to investigate relationships among various subfamilies of the Dactylogyridae sensu Kritsky & Boeger, 1989. Monophyly of the Dactylogyridae was supported by all analyses performed. Status of the Ancyrocephalidae sensu Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1978 and Ancyrocephalinae sensu Kritsky & Boeger, 1989 was revised based on the present data. All phylogenetic analyses indicated polyphyletic origins of the Ancyrocephalidae and Ancyrocephalinae. Freshwater species of Ancyrocephalinae (Actinocleidus, Ancyrocephalus, Cleidodiscus and Urocleidus) and Ancylodiscoidinae (Thaparocleidus) collected from the fish in European waters were positioned at the base of the Dactylogyridae. The Dactylogyrinae formed a monophyletic group, sister to a clade including the Pseudodactylogyrinae and the tropical and subtropical Ancyrocephalinae. Analyses including only data set on Dactylogyridea were focused on relationships between representatives of the Asian and European Dactylogyrus species. Dactylogyrus species formed a monophyletic group, and the parasite colonization appeared to follow the dispersal history of the Cyprinidae from Asia to Europe. Three lineages of Dactylogyrus species were recognized: the first including species specific to hosts of Asian origin, the second by Dactylogyrus species from Chinese fish hosts, and the third included Dactylogyrus species from European cyprinids and one species from a percid host. The position of D. cryptomeres from Gobio gobio seems to be unresolved. PMID:16515727

  9. Trans-Atlantic exchanges have shaped the population structure of the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Ramírez, S.; Fingerle, V.; Jungnick, S.; Straubinger, R. K.; Krebs, S.; Blum, H.; Meinel, D. M.; Hofmann, H.; Guertler, P.; Sing, A.; Margos, G.

    2016-01-01

    The origin and population structure of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), the agent of Lyme disease, remain obscure. This tick-transmitted bacterial species occurs in both North America and Europe. We sequenced 17 European isolates (representing the most frequently found sequence types in Europe) and compared these with 17 North American strains. We show that trans-Atlantic exchanges have occurred in the evolutionary history of this species and that a European origin of B. burgdorferi s.s. is marginally more likely than a USA origin. The data further suggest that some European human patients may have acquired their infection in North America. We found three distinct genetically differentiated groups: i) the outgroup species Borrelia bissettii, ii) two divergent strains from Europe, and iii) a group composed of strains from both the USA and Europe. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that different genotypes were likely to have been introduced several times into the same area. Our results demonstrate that irrespective of whether B. burgdorferi s.s. originated in Europe or the USA, later trans-Atlantic exchange(s) have occurred and have shaped the population structure of this genospecies. This study clearly shows the utility of next generation sequencing to obtain a better understanding of the phylogeography of this bacterial species. PMID:26955886

  10. Trans-Atlantic exchanges have shaped the population structure of the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Ramírez, S; Fingerle, V; Jungnick, S; Straubinger, R K; Krebs, S; Blum, H; Meinel, D M; Hofmann, H; Guertler, P; Sing, A; Margos, G

    2016-01-01

    The origin and population structure of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), the agent of Lyme disease, remain obscure. This tick-transmitted bacterial species occurs in both North America and Europe. We sequenced 17 European isolates (representing the most frequently found sequence types in Europe) and compared these with 17 North American strains. We show that trans-Atlantic exchanges have occurred in the evolutionary history of this species and that a European origin of B. burgdorferi s.s. is marginally more likely than a USA origin. The data further suggest that some European human patients may have acquired their infection in North America. We found three distinct genetically differentiated groups: i) the outgroup species Borrelia bissettii, ii) two divergent strains from Europe, and iii) a group composed of strains from both the USA and Europe. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that different genotypes were likely to have been introduced several times into the same area. Our results demonstrate that irrespective of whether B. burgdorferi s.s. originated in Europe or the USA, later trans-Atlantic exchange(s) have occurred and have shaped the population structure of this genospecies. This study clearly shows the utility of next generation sequencing to obtain a better understanding of the phylogeography of this bacterial species. PMID:26955886

  11. Entomopathogens of Amazonian stick insects and locusts are members of the Beauveria species complex (Cordyceps sensu stricto).

    PubMed

    Sanjuan, Tatiana; Tabima, Javier; Restrepo, Silvia; Læssøe, Thomas; Spatafora, Joseph W; Franco-Molano, Ana Esperanza

    2014-01-01

    In the Amazon the only described species of Cordyceps sensu stricto (Hypocreales, Cordycipitaceae) that parasitize insects of Orthopterida (orders Orthoptera and Phasmida) are Cordyceps locustiphila and C. uleana. However, the type specimens for both taxa have been lost and the concepts of these species are uncertain. To achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the systematics of these species, collections of Cordyceps from the Amazon regions of Colombia, Ecuador and Guyana were subjected to morphological, ecological and molecular phylogenetic studies. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted on partial sequences of SSU, LSU, TEF, RPB1 and RPB2 nuclear loci. Two new species are proposed including C. diapheromeriphila, a parasite of Phasmida, and C. acridophila, a parasite of the superfamily Acridomorpha (Orthoptera), which is broadly distributed across the Amazon. For C. locustiphila a lectotypification and an epitypification are made. Cordyceps locustiphila is host specific with Colpolopha (Acridomorpha: Romaleidae), and its distribution coincides with that of its host. The phylogenetic placement of these three species was resolved with strong support in the Beauveria clade of Cordyceps s. str. (Cordycipitaceae). This relationship and the morphological similarity of their yellow stromata with known teleomorphs of the clade, suggest that the holomorphs of these species may include Beauveria or Beauveria-like anamorphs. The varying host specificity of the beauverioid Cordyceps species suggest the potential importance of identifying the natural host taxon before future consideration of strains for use in biological control of pest locusts. PMID:24782494

  12. The mode of action of spatial repellents and their impact on vectorial capacity of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto.

    PubMed

    Ogoma, Sheila B; Ngonyani, Hassan; Simfukwe, Emmanuel T; Mseka, Antony; Moore, Jason; Maia, Marta F; Moore, Sarah J; Lorenz, Lena M

    2014-01-01

    Malaria vector control relies on toxicity of insecticides used in long lasting insecticide treated nets and indoor residual spraying. This is despite evidence that sub-lethal insecticides reduce human-vector contact and malaria transmission. The impact of sub-lethal insecticides on host seeking and blood feeding of mosquitoes was measured. Taxis boxes distinguished between repellency and attraction inhibition of mosquitoes by measuring response of mosquitoes towards or away from Transfluthrin coils and humans. Protective effective distance of coils and long-term effects on blood feeding were measured in the semi-field tunnel and in a Peet Grady chamber. Laboratory reared pyrethroid susceptible Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto mosquitoes were used. In the taxis boxes, a higher proportion of mosquitoes (67%-82%) were activated and flew towards the human in the presence of Transfluthrin coils. Coils did not hinder attraction of mosquitoes to the human. In the semi-field Tunnel, coils placed 0.3 m from the human reduced feeding by 86% (95% CI [0.66; 0.95]) when used as a "bubble" compared to 65% (95% CI [0.51; 0.76]) when used as a "point source". Mosquitoes exposed to coils inside a Peet Grady chamber were delayed from feeding normally for 12 hours but there was no effect on free flying and caged mosquitoes exposed in the semi-field tunnel. These findings indicate that airborne pyrethroids minimize human-vector contact through reduced and delayed blood feeding. This information is useful for the development of target product profiles of spatial repellent products that can be used to complement mainstream malaria vector control tools. PMID:25485850

  13. The Mode of Action of Spatial Repellents and Their Impact on Vectorial Capacity of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto

    PubMed Central

    Ogoma, Sheila B.; Ngonyani, Hassan; Simfukwe, Emmanuel T.; Mseka, Antony; Moore, Jason; Maia, Marta F.; Moore, Sarah J.; Lorenz, Lena M.

    2014-01-01

    Malaria vector control relies on toxicity of insecticides used in long lasting insecticide treated nets and indoor residual spraying. This is despite evidence that sub–lethal insecticides reduce human–vector contact and malaria transmission. The impact of sub–lethal insecticides on host seeking and blood feeding of mosquitoes was measured. Taxis boxes distinguished between repellency and attraction inhibition of mosquitoes by measuring response of mosquitoes towards or away from Transfluthrin coils and humans. Protective effective distance of coils and long-term effects on blood feeding were measured in the semi–field tunnel and in a Peet Grady chamber. Laboratory reared pyrethroid susceptible Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto mosquitoes were used. In the taxis boxes, a higher proportion of mosquitoes (67%–82%) were activated and flew towards the human in the presence of Transfluthrin coils. Coils did not hinder attraction of mosquitoes to the human. In the semi–field Tunnel, coils placed 0.3 m from the human reduced feeding by 86% (95% CI [0.66; 0.95]) when used as a “bubble” compared to 65% (95% CI [0.51; 0.76]) when used as a “point source”. Mosquitoes exposed to coils inside a Peet Grady chamber were delayed from feeding normally for 12 hours but there was no effect on free flying and caged mosquitoes exposed in the semi–field tunnel. These findings indicate that airborne pyrethroids minimize human–vector contact through reduced and delayed blood feeding. This information is useful for the development of target product profiles of spatial repellent products that can be used to complement mainstream malaria vector control tools. PMID:25485850

  14. Investigation of an unrecognized large-scale outbreak of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto fungaemia in a tertiary-care hospital in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, He; Zhang, Li; Kudinha, Timothy; Kong, Fanrong; Ma, Xiao-Jun; Chu, Yun-Zhuo; Kang, Mei; Sun, Zi-Yong; Li, Ruo-Yu; Liao, Kang; Lu, Juan; Zou, Gui-Ling; Xiao, Meng; Fan, Xin; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2016-01-01

    A data analysis of yeast collections from the National China Hospital Invasive Fungal Surveillance Net (CHIF-NET) programme in 2013 revealed a sudden increase in the proportion of Candida parapsilosis complex isolates (n = 98) in one participating hospital (Hospital H). Out of 443 yeast isolates submitted to the CHIF-NET reference laboratory by Hospital H (2010–2014), 212 (47.9%) were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto by sequencing analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region and D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. Among the 212 C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates, 176 (83.0%) bloodstream-based isolates and 25 isolates from tip cultures of various vascular catheters from 25 patients with candidaemia, were subjected to microsatellite genotyping, and a phylogenetic relationship analysis was performed for 152 isolates. Among the 152 isolates, 45 genotypes (T01 to T45) were identified, and two prevalent genotypes (63.8%) were found: T15 (n = 74, 48.7%) and T16 (n = 23, 15.1%). These two main clones were confined mainly to three different wards of the hospital, and they persisted for 16–25 months and 12–13 months, respectively. The lack of proper coordination between the clinical microbiology laboratory and infection control staff as part of public health control resulted in the failure to timely identify an outbreak, which led to the wide and long-term dissemination of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto in Hospital H. PMID:27251023

  15. Experimental Infection of Ornithodoros erraticus sensu stricto with Two Portuguese African Swine Fever Virus Strains. Study of Factors Involved in the Dynamics of Infection in Ticks.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Rita; Otte, Joachim; Madeira, Sara; Hutchings, Geoff H; Boinas, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a frequently devastating hemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs and wild boar and Ornithodoros erraticus sensu stricto argasid ticks are the only biological vectors of African swine fever virus (ASFV) known to occur in Europe. Recently this disease emerged in Eastern Europe and Russian Federation, showing a huge potential for a rapid spread between countries. There is some risk of re-emergence of ASF in the countries where these ticks exist, that can contribute for the persistence of infection and compromise control measures. In this study we aimed to identify factors that determine the probability of infection and its dynamics in the tick vector Ornithodoros erraticus sensu stricto, with two Portuguese strains of ASFV. Our results suggest that these ticks have a high likelihood of excreting the two haemadsorbing ASF viruses of different host origins and that, in field surveys, the analysis of adults and 5th nymphal stage can provide the best chance of detecting virus infection. The results also indicate that infection of pigs with highly virulent ASF viruses will promote higher rates of infection and a higher likelihood for virus excretion by ticks. Nevertheless, there is also a risk, although lower, that ticks can become infected on pigs that have overcome the acute phase of infection, which was simulated in our study by membrane feeding ticks with low titres of virus. We believe these results can be valuable in designing and interpreting the results of ASF control programmes, and future work can also be undertaken as our dataset is released under open access, to perform studies in risk assessment for ASFV persistence in a region where O. erraticus sensu stricto ticks are present. PMID:26366570

  16. Investigation of an unrecognized large-scale outbreak of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto fungaemia in a tertiary-care hospital in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, He; Zhang, Li; Kudinha, Timothy; Kong, Fanrong; Ma, Xiao-Jun; Chu, Yun-Zhuo; Kang, Mei; Sun, Zi-Yong; Li, Ruo-Yu; Liao, Kang; Lu, Juan; Zou, Gui-Ling; Xiao, Meng; Fan, Xin; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2016-01-01

    A data analysis of yeast collections from the National China Hospital Invasive Fungal Surveillance Net (CHIF-NET) programme in 2013 revealed a sudden increase in the proportion of Candida parapsilosis complex isolates (n = 98) in one participating hospital (Hospital H). Out of 443 yeast isolates submitted to the CHIF-NET reference laboratory by Hospital H (2010-2014), 212 (47.9%) were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto by sequencing analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region and D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. Among the 212 C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates, 176 (83.0%) bloodstream-based isolates and 25 isolates from tip cultures of various vascular catheters from 25 patients with candidaemia, were subjected to microsatellite genotyping, and a phylogenetic relationship analysis was performed for 152 isolates. Among the 152 isolates, 45 genotypes (T01 to T45) were identified, and two prevalent genotypes (63.8%) were found: T15 (n = 74, 48.7%) and T16 (n = 23, 15.1%). These two main clones were confined mainly to three different wards of the hospital, and they persisted for 16-25 months and 12-13 months, respectively. The lack of proper coordination between the clinical microbiology laboratory and infection control staff as part of public health control resulted in the failure to timely identify an outbreak, which led to the wide and long-term dissemination of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto in Hospital H. PMID:27251023

  17. Experimental Infection of Ornithodoros erraticus sensu stricto with Two Portuguese African Swine Fever Virus Strains. Study of Factors Involved in the Dynamics of Infection in Ticks

    PubMed Central

    Madeira, Sara; Hutchings, Geoff H.; Boinas, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a frequently devastating hemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs and wild boar and Ornithodoros erraticus sensu stricto argasid ticks are the only biological vectors of African swine fever virus (ASFV) known to occur in Europe. Recently this disease emerged in Eastern Europe and Russian Federation, showing a huge potential for a rapid spread between countries. There is some risk of re-emergence of ASF in the countries where these ticks exist, that can contribute for the persistence of infection and compromise control measures. In this study we aimed to identify factors that determine the probability of infection and its dynamics in the tick vector Ornithodoros erraticus sensu stricto, with two Portuguese strains of ASFV. Our results suggest that these ticks have a high likelihood of excreting the two haemadsorbing ASF viruses of different host origins and that, in field surveys, the analysis of adults and 5th nymphal stage can provide the best chance of detecting virus infection. The results also indicate that infection of pigs with highly virulent ASF viruses will promote higher rates of infection and a higher likelihood for virus excretion by ticks. Nevertheless, there is also a risk, although lower, that ticks can become infected on pigs that have overcome the acute phase of infection, which was simulated in our study by membrane feeding ticks with low titres of virus. We believe these results can be valuable in designing and interpreting the results of ASF control programmes, and future work can also be undertaken as our dataset is released under open access, to perform studies in risk assessment for ASFV persistence in a region where O. erraticus sensu stricto ticks are present. PMID:26366570

  18. Calosoma aethiops (Jeannel, 1940) as a new synonym of Calosoma imbricatum hottentotum Chaudoir, 1852, a new status of Calosoma roeschkei Breuning, 1927, and a revision of the Calosoma senegalense group sensu Häckel, 2012 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Carabini)

    PubMed Central

    Häckel, Martin; Farkač, Jan; Sehnal, Rostislav

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Calosoma aethiops (Jeannel, 1940) as a new synonym of Calosoma imbricatum hottentotum Chaudoir, 1852, a new status of Calosoma roeschkei Breuning, 1927, and a revision of the Calosoma senegalense group sensu Häckel, 2012 (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Carabini). Conducted is a taxonomic revision of the Calosoma senegalense group sensu Häckel, 2012. Placed in the group sensu stricto are four species: Calosoma planicolle Chaudoir, 1869, Calosoma scabrosum Chaudoir, 1843, Calosoma senegalense Dejean, 1831, and Ctenosta strandi Breuning, 1934. Calosoma aethiops Jeannel, 1940 is synonymized with Calosoma imbricatum hottentotum Chaudoir, 1852, and Calosoma roeschkei Breuning, 1927 is newly regarded as a subspecies of Calosoma scabrosum. The taxonomic conclusions are based on morphometry of the holotypes and 10 male and 10 female specimens of each taxon, and on morphology of the aedeagus including inflated endophalus. PMID:27563269

  19. Calosoma aethiops (Jeannel, 1940) as a new synonym of Calosoma imbricatum hottentotum Chaudoir, 1852, a new status of Calosoma roeschkei Breuning, 1927, and a revision of the Calosoma senegalense group sensu Häckel, 2012 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Carabini).

    PubMed

    Häckel, Martin; Farkač, Jan; Sehnal, Rostislav

    2016-01-01

    Calosoma aethiops (Jeannel, 1940) as a new synonym of Calosoma imbricatum hottentotum Chaudoir, 1852, a new status of Calosoma roeschkei Breuning, 1927, and a revision of the Calosoma senegalense group sensu Häckel, 2012 (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Carabini). Conducted is a taxonomic revision of the Calosoma senegalense group sensu Häckel, 2012. Placed in the group sensu stricto are four species: Calosoma planicolle Chaudoir, 1869, Calosoma scabrosum Chaudoir, 1843, Calosoma senegalense Dejean, 1831, and Ctenosta strandi Breuning, 1934. Calosoma aethiops Jeannel, 1940 is synonymized with Calosoma imbricatum hottentotum Chaudoir, 1852, and Calosoma roeschkei Breuning, 1927 is newly regarded as a subspecies of Calosoma scabrosum. The taxonomic conclusions are based on morphometry of the holotypes and 10 male and 10 female specimens of each taxon, and on morphology of the aedeagus including inflated endophalus. PMID:27563269

  20. Pyriproxyfen for mosquito control: female sterilization or horizontal transfer to oviposition substrates by Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of gravid mosquitoes as vehicles to auto-disseminate larvicides was recently demonstrated for the transfer of pyriproxyfen (PPF) by container-breeding Aedes mosquitoes and presents an appealing idea to explore for other disease vectors. The success of this approach depends on the female’s behaviour, the time of exposure and the amount of PPF that can be carried by an individual. We explore the effect of PPF exposure at seven time points around blood feeding on individual Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Culex quinquefasciatus fecundity and ability to transfer in laboratory assays. Method Mosquitoes were exposed to 2.6 mg PPF per m2 at 48, 24 and 0.5 hours before and after a blood meal and on the day of egg-laying. The proportion of exposed females (N = 80-100) laying eggs, the number of eggs laid and hatched was studied. Transfer of PPF to oviposition cups was assessed by introducing 10 late instar insectary-reared An. gambiae s.s. larvae into all the cups and monitored for adult emergence inhibition. Results Exposure to PPF between 24 hours before and after a blood meal had significant sterilizing effects: females of both species were 6 times less likely (Odds ratio (OR) 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.10-0.26) to lay eggs than unexposed females. Of the few eggs laid, the odds of an egg hatching was reduced 17 times (OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.04-0.08) in Anopheles but only 1.2 times (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.73-0.93) in Culex. Adult emergence inhibition from larvae introduced in the oviposition cups was observed only from cups in which eggs were laid. When females were exposed to PPF close to egg laying they transferred enough PPF to reduce emergence by 65-71% (95% CI 62-74%). Conclusion PPF exposure within a day before and after blood feeding affects egg-development in An. gambiae s.s. and Cx. quinquefasciatus and presents a promising opportunity for integrated control of vectors and nuisance mosquitoes. However, sterilized females are

  1. A review of Norwegian Gymnometriocnemus (Diptera, Chironomidae) including the description of two new species and a new name for Gymnometriocnemus volitans (Goetghebuer) sensu Brundin

    PubMed Central

    Stur, Elisabeth; Ekrem, Torbjørn

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Examination of the syntypes of Metriocnemus volitans Goetghebuer, 1940 revealed that these specimens belong to the genus Chaetocladius and are not con-specific with Gymnometriocnemus volitans (Goetghebuer, 1940) sensu Brundin (1956) and Sæther (1983). A literature search showed that Gymnometriocnemus kamimegavirgus Sasa & Hirabayashi, 1993 fits well with the species figured and diagnosed by Brundin (1956) as well as with specimens of this species from Norway. We present arguments for Chaetocladius volitans (Goetghebuer) comb. n. and for the use of Gymnometriocnemus kamimegavirgus for Gymnometriocnemus volitans sensu Brundin. In addition, we provide DNA barcode data that indicate the presence of at least seven Gymnometriocnemus species in Norway of which six are collected as male adults. Two of these, Gymnometriocnemus (Gymnometriocnemus) pallidus sp. n. and Gymnometriocnemus (Raphidocladius) autumnalis sp. n. are regarded as new to science and diagnosed based on adult male morphology and DNA barcodes. The species Gymnometriocnemus (Gymnometriocnemus) marionensis Sæther, 1969 is re-established and a key to all Holarctic species is provided. PMID:26167125

  2. Studies on the Biology of Hypogeococcus pungens (sensu stricto) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Argentina to Aid the Identification of the Mealybug Pest of Cactaceae in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, M B; Diaz-Soltero, H; Claps, L E; Saracho Bottero, A; Triapitsyn, S; Hasson, E; Logarzo, G A

    2016-01-01

    Hypogeococcus pungens Granara de Willink, sensu stricto, is a serious pest of cacti in Puerto Rico threating many Caribbean islands. A classical biological control program for H. pungens was initiated for Puerto Rico in 2010 with a survey for natural enemies of H. pungens in its native range of Argentina. Biological differences were observed between populations of H. pungens sampled on Amaranthaceae and Cactaceae. Molecular studies suggested that H. pungens populations from different host plant families are likely a complex of species. Our objective was to study the biology of H. pungens sensu stricto on specimens collected in the same locality and host plant as the holotype [Tucumán Province, Argentina; Alternanthera pungens Kunth (Amaranthaceae)]. We were interested in the reproductive biology of females, longevity and survival of adults, the effect of temperature on the development, and nymph performance (survival and development) on five Cactaceae species. We found that H. pungens s.s showed marked biological differences from the populations collected on Cactaceae and exported to Australia for the biological control of the cactus Harrisia spp. The main differences were the presence of deuterotoky parthenogenesis and the fact that H. pungens did not attack Cactaceae in the laboratory. Our results provide biological evidence that H. pungens is a species complex. We propose that the population introduced to Australia is neither Hypogeococcus festerianus Lizer y Trelles nor H. pungens, but an undescribed species with three circuli, and that the Hypogeococcus pest of cacti in Puerto Rico is not H. pungens. PMID:27324585

  3. Studies on the Biology of Hypogeococcus pungens (sensu stricto) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Argentina to Aid the Identification of the Mealybug Pest of Cactaceae in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, M. B.; Diaz-Soltero, H.; Claps, L. E.; Saracho Bottero, A.; Triapitsyn, S.; Hasson, E.; Logarzo, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    Hypogeococcus pungens Granara de Willink, sensu stricto, is a serious pest of cacti in Puerto Rico threating many Caribbean islands. A classical biological control program for H. pungens was initiated for Puerto Rico in 2010 with a survey for natural enemies of H. pungens in its native range of Argentina. Biological differences were observed between populations of H. pungens sampled on Amaranthaceae and Cactaceae. Molecular studies suggested that H. pungens populations from different host plant families are likely a complex of species. Our objective was to study the biology of H. pungens sensu stricto on specimens collected in the same locality and host plant as the holotype [Tucumán Province, Argentina; Alternanthera pungens Kunth (Amaranthaceae)]. We were interested in the reproductive biology of females, longevity and survival of adults, the effect of temperature on the development, and nymph performance (survival and development) on five Cactaceae species. We found that H. pungens s.s. showed marked biological differences from the populations collected on Cactaceae and exported to Australia for the biological control of the cactus Harrisia spp. The main differences were the presence of deuterotoky parthenogenesis and the fact that H. pungens did not attack Cactaceae in the laboratory. Our results provide biological evidence that H. pungens is a species complex. We propose that the population introduced to Australia is neither Hypogeococcus festerianus Lizer y Trelles nor H. pungens, but an undescribed species with three circuli, and that the Hypogeococcus pest of cacti in Puerto Rico is not H. pungens. PMID:27324585

  4. Magma-sediment interactions in the Limagne trench (Massif Central, France): distinction between phreatomagmatic and stricto-sensu peperitic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibrandt, Sebastien; Bénard, Antoine; Brigaud, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    can solely give birth to the stricto-sensu fluidal to blocky peperite microtexture, which we clearly distinguish for the first time in the Limagne area. A second outcome emerges thanks to the several approaches we use for microscopic characterization, which possibly reveal high-grade, non-explosive mingling of liquefied sediment with magma at the sub-millimetre scale. These observations provide new insights into peperite formation processes in carbonate sediments, when both considering experiments (e.g. Zimanowski and Büttner, 2002) and worldwide field observations in contrasting environments (e.g. McClintock & White, 2002). McClintock, M.K., White, J.D.L., 2002. Granulation of weak rock as a precursor to peperite formation: coal peperite, Coombs Hill, Antartica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 114, 205-217. Skilling, I.P., White, J.D.L., McPhie, J., 2002. Peperite: a review of magma-sediment mingling. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 114, 1-17. Zimanowski, B., Büttner, R., 2002. Dynamic mingling of magma and liquefied sediments. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 114, 37-44.

  5. Ecological and genetic relationships of the Forest-M form among chromosomal and molecular forms of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoosook; Cornel, Anthony J; Meneses, Claudio R; Fofana, Abdrahamane; Andrianarivo, Aurélie G; McAbee, Rory D; Fondjo, Etienne; Traoré, Sekou F; Lanzaro, Gregory C

    2009-01-01

    Background Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, one of the principal vectors of malaria, has been divided into two subspecific groups, known as the M and S molecular forms. Recent studies suggest that the M form found in Cameroon is genetically distinct from the M form found in Mali and elsewhere in West Africa, suggesting further subdivision within that form. Methods Chromosomal, microsatellite and geographic/ecological evidence are synthesized to identify sources of genetic polymorphism among chromosomal and molecular forms of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. Results Cytogenetically the Forest M form is characterized as carrying the standard chromosome arrangement for six major chromosomal inversions, namely 2La, 2Rj, 2Rb, 2Rc, 2Rd, and 2Ru. Bayesian clustering analysis based on molecular form and chromosome inversion polymorphisms as well as microsatellites describe the Forest M form as a distinct population relative to the West African M form (Mopti-M form) and the S form. The Forest-M form was the most highly diverged of the An. gambiae s.s. groups based on microsatellite markers. The prevalence of the Forest M form was highly correlated with precipitation, suggesting that this form prefers much wetter environments than the Mopti-M form. Conclusion Chromosome inversions, microsatellite allele frequencies and habitat preference all indicate that the Forest M form of An. gambiae is genetically distinct from the other recognized forms within the taxon Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto. Since this study covers limited regions of Cameroon, the possibility of gene flow between the Forest-M form and Mopti-M form cannot be rejected. However, association studies of important phenotypes, such as insecticide resistance and refractoriness against malaria parasites, should take into consideration this complex population structure. PMID:19383163

  6. Development of SCAR markers and UP-PCR cross-hybridization method for specific detection of four major subgroups of Rhizoctonia from infected turfgrasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several species and hyphal anastomosis groups (AG) of Rhizoctonia solani (sensu lato) cause brown patch diseases of turfgrasses. Conventional methods of identification of Rhizoctonia pathogens are time consuming and often inaccurate. A rapid identification assay for Waitea circinata (anamorph: Rhizo...

  7. Taxonomy and distribution pattern of the African rain forest butterfly genus Euphaedra Hübner sensu stricto with the description of three new subspecies of Euphaedra cyparissa (Cramer) and one of E. sarcoptera (Butler) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Limenitidinae, Adoliadini)

    PubMed Central

    Pyrcz, Tomasz W.; Warren-Gash, Haydon; Lorenc-Brudecka, Jadwiga; Dieuwko Knoop; Oremans, Philippe; Sáfián, Szabolcs

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Updated data on the distribution, ecology and taxonomy of Euphaedra cyparissa (Cramer) and Euphaedra sarcoptera (Butler) are presented. Three new subspecies of Euphaedra cyparissa and one of Euphaedra sarcoptera are described and their geographic distribution is presented. The monophyly of the genus Euphaedra sensu Hecq is assessed based on morphological, in particular male and female genitalia, and behavioural traits. Possible evolutionary reasons for the convergence of colour pattern between the sympatric subspecies of Euphaedra cyparissa and Euphaedra sarcoptera are discussed. PMID:23794883

  8. High-resolution melting analysis (HRM) for differentiation of four major Taeniidae species in dogs Taenia hydatigena, Taenia multiceps, Taenia ovis, and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Mansoureh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Ali; Rostami, Sima; Shamsaddini, Saeedeh; Mirbadie, Seyed Reza; Harandi, Majid Fasihi

    2016-07-01

    Tapeworms of the genus Taenia include several species of important parasites with considerable medical and veterinary significance. Accurate identification of these species in dogs is the prerequisite of any prevention and control program. Here, we have applied an efficient method for differentiating four major Taeniid species in dogs, i.e., Taenia hydatigena, T. multiceps, T. ovis, and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto. High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis is simpler, less expensive, and faster technique than conventional DNA-based assays and enables us to detect PCR amplicons in a closed system. Metacestode samples were collected from local abattoirs from sheep. All the isolates had already been identified by PCR-sequencing, and their sequence data were deposited in the GenBank. Real-time PCR coupled with HRM analysis targeting mitochondrial cox1 and ITS1 genes was used to differentiate taeniid species. Distinct melting curves were obtained from ITS1 region enabling accurate differentiation of three Taenia species and E. granulosus in dogs. The HRM curves of Taenia species and E .granulosus were clearly separated at Tm of 85 to 87 °C. In addition, double-pick melting curves were produced in mixed infections. Cox1 melting curves were not decisive enough to distinguish four taeniids. In this work, the efficiency of HRM analysis to differentiate four major taeniid species in dogs has been demonstrated using ITS1 gene. PMID:27008188

  9. Coinfection of western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus) and other sciurid rodents with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in California.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Nathan C; Leonhard, Sarah; Foley, Janet E; Lane, Robert S

    2010-01-01

    Overlapping geographic distributions of tick-borne disease agents utilizing the same tick vectors are common, and coinfection of humans, domestic animals, wildlife, and ticks with both Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum has been frequently reported. This study was undertaken in order to evaluate the prevalence of both B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (hereinafter referred to as B. burgdorferi) and A. phagocytophilum in several species of sciurid rodents from northern California, USA. Rodents were either collected dead as road-kills or live-trapped in four state parks from 13 counties. Thirty-seven western gray squirrels (Sciurus griseus), nine nonnative eastern gray squirrels (S. carolinensis) and an eastern fox squirrel (S. niger), four Douglas squirrels (Tamiasciurus douglasii), and two northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serology for evidence of coinfection. Of the 14 individual S. griseus that were PCR-positive for B. burgdorferi, two (14%) also were PCR-positive for A. phagocytophilum and 11 (79%) had serologic evidence of A. phagocytophilum exposure. Two of the four Douglas squirrels were PCR positive for B. burgdorferi and seropositive to A. phagocytophilum. Evidence of coinfection with these zoonotic pathogens in western gray squirrels suggests that both bacteria may be maintained in a similar transmission cycle involving this sciurid and the western black-legged tick Ixodes pacificus, the primary bridging vector to humans in the far-western US. PMID:20090047

  10. Genetic diversity of four closely related wild tomato species revealed by genotyping-by-sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild tomato species have been exploited for many decades to develop cultivated tomato varieties that can resist biotic and abiotic stresses. The most variable wild tomato species Solanum peruvianum sensu lato (s.l.) has been reclassified into four distinct species - Solanum peruvianum sensu stricto...

  11. Brevipalpus Phoenicis (Geijskes) species complex – a closer look

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brevipalpus phoenicis sensu stricto is redescribed and the species diagnosis established. Two former synonyms of B. phoenicis sensu lato, B. yothersi and B. papayensis, are resurrected and redescribed, and their species diagnoses established. Four new species, previously misidentified as B. phoeni...

  12. Near-infrared spectroscopy as a complementary age grading and species identification tool for African malaria vectors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was recently applied to age-grade and differentiate laboratory reared Anopheles gambiae sensu strico and Anopheles arabiensis sibling species of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato. In this study, we report further on the accuracy of this tool in simultaneously estimating ...

  13. Genetic and Environmental Factors Associated with Laboratory Rearing Affect Survival and Assortative Mating but Not Overall Mating Success in Anopheles gambiae Sensu Stricto

    PubMed Central

    Paton, Doug; Touré, Mahamoudou; Sacko, Adama; Coulibaly, Mamadou B.; Traoré, Sékou F.; Tripet, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, the main vector of malaria in Africa, is characterized by its vast geographical range and complex population structure. Assortative mating amongst the reproductively isolated cryptic forms that co-occur in many areas poses unique challenges for programs aiming to decrease malaria incidence via the release of sterile or genetically-modified mosquitoes. Importantly, whether laboratory-rearing affects the ability of An. gambiae individuals of a given cryptic taxa to successfully mate with individuals of their own form in field conditions is still unknown and yet crucial for mosquito-releases. Here, the independent effects of genetic and environmental factors associated with laboratory rearing on male and female survival, mating success and assortative mating were evaluated in the Mopti form of An. gambiae over 2010 and 2011. In semi-field enclosures experiments and despite strong variation between years, the overall survival and mating success of male and female progeny from a laboratory strain was not found to be significantly lower than those of the progeny of field females from the same population. Adult progeny from field-caught females reared at the larval stage in the laboratory and from laboratory females reared outdoors exhibited a significant decrease in survival but not in mating success. Importantly, laboratory individuals reared as larvae indoors were unable to mate assortatively as adults, whilst field progeny reared either outdoors or in the laboratory, as well as laboratory progeny reared outdoors all mated significantly assortatively. These results highlight the importance of genetic and environment interactions for the development of An. gambiae's full mating behavioral repertoire and the challenges this creates for mosquito rearing and release-based control strategies. PMID:24391719

  14. A 3D Analysis of Flight Behavior of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto Malaria Mosquitoes in Response to Human Odor and Heat

    PubMed Central

    Spitzen, Jeroen; Spoor, Cornelis W.; Grieco, Fabrizio; ter Braak, Cajo; Beeuwkes, Jacob; van Brugge, Sjaak P.; Kranenbarg, Sander; Noldus, Lucas P. J. J.; van Leeuwen, Johan L.; Takken, Willem

    2013-01-01

    Female mosquitoes use odor and heat as cues to navigate to a suitable landing site on their blood host. The way these cues affect flight behavior and modulate anemotactic responses, however, is poorly understood. We studied in-flight behavioral responses of females of the nocturnal malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto to human odor and heat. Flight-path characteristics in a wind tunnel (flow 20 cm/s) were quantified in three dimensions. With wind as the only stimulus (control), short and close to straight upwind flights were recorded. With heat alone, flights were similarly short and direct. The presence of human odor, in contrast, caused prolonged and highly convoluted flight patterns. The combination of odor+heat resulted in longer flights with more landings on the source than to either cue alone. Flight speed was greatest (mean groundspeed 27.2 cm/s) for odor+heat. Odor alone resulted in decreased flight speed when mosquitoes arrived within 30 cm of the source whereas mosquitoes exposed to odor+heat maintained a high flight speed while flying in the odor plume, until they arrived within 15 cm of the source. Human odor evoked an increase in crosswind flights with an additive effect of heat at close range (<15 cm) to the source. This was found for both horizontal and vertical flight components. However, mosquitoes nevertheless made upwind progress when flying in the odor+heat generated plume, suggesting that mosquitoes scan their environment intensively while they progress upwind towards their host. These observations may help to improve the efficacy of trapping systems for malaria mosquitoes by (1) optimizing the site of odor release relative to trap entry and (2) adding a heat source which enhances a landing response. PMID:23658792

  15. Development of an FgMito assay: A highly sensitive mitochondrial based qPCR assay for quantification of Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Tomasz; Ostrowska, Anna; Buśko, Maciej; Pasquali, Matias; Beyer, Marco; Stenglein, Sebastian; Załuski, Dariusz; Sawicki, Jakub; Treder, Kinga; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2015-10-01

    An ascomycete fungus, Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto (s.s.), is the major cause of Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease of cereals worldwide. The fungus contaminates crops with mycotoxins, which pose a serious threat to food and feed safety. In this study, we developed a highly sensitive mitochondrial based qPCR assay (FgMito qPCR) for quantification of F. graminearum s.s. To ensure high sensitivity of the assay, primers and a Minor-groove binding (MGB) probe were designed based on multi-copy mitochondrial DNA. The FgMito assay was successfully validated against a range of geographically diverse F. graminearum s.s. strains to ensure uniformity of the assay at an intraspecific level, as well as with other fungal species to ensure specificity. The assay was further evaluated in terms of efficiency and sensitivity against a test panel of different F. graminearum s.s. strains with various levels of pure fungal DNA and in the presence of wheat background DNA. The results showed a high efficiency of the assay developed, ranging from 93% to 101% with r(2)-values of >0.99. We further showed that three low concentrations of fungal template 2 pg, 0.6 pg and 0.2 pg could be reliably quantified in the presence of wheat background DNA. The FgMito assay was used to quantify F. graminearum s.s. DNA on 65 field samples from a range of hosts with defined levels of trichothecenes. We revealed a significant positive correlation between fungal DNA quantity and the sum of trichothecenes. Lastly, we showed a higher sensitivity of the FgMito assay than the nuclear based qPCR assay for F. graminearum s.s. by comparing Ct-values from both assays. PMID:26087129

  16. Comparative molecular analyses of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strains B31 and N40D10/E9 and determination of their pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lyme disease in the United States is caused primarily by B. burgdorferi sensu stricto while other species are also prevalent in Europe. Genetic techniques have identified several chromosomal and plasmid-borne regulatory and virulence factors involved in Lyme pathogenesis. B31 and N40 are two widely studied strains of B. burgdorferi, which belong to two different 16 S-23 S rRNA spacer types (RST) and outer surface protein C (OspC) allelic groups. However, the presence of several known virulence factors in N40 has not been investigated. This is the first comprehensive study that compared these two strains both in vitro and using the mouse model of infection. Results Phylogenetic analyses predict B31 to be more infectious. However, our studies here indicate that N40D10/E9 is more infectious than the B31 strain at lower doses of inoculation in the susceptible C3H mice. Based-upon a careful analyses of known adhesins of these strains, it is predicted that the absence of a known fibronectin-glycosaminoglycan binding adhesin, bbk32, in the N40 strain could at least partially be responsible for reduction in its binding to Vero cells in vitro. Nevertheless, this difference does not affect the infectivity of N40D10/E9 strain. The genes encoding known regulatory and virulence factors critical for pathogenesis were detected in both strains. Differences in the protein profiles of these B. burgdorferi strains in vitro suggest that the novel, differentially expressed molecules may affect infectivity of B. burgdorferi. Further exacerbation of these molecular differences in vivo could affect the pathogenesis of spirochete strains. Conclusion Based upon the studies here, it can be predicted that N40D10/E9 disseminated infection at lower doses may be enhanced by its lower binding to epithelial cells at the site of inoculation due to the absence of BBK32. We suggest that complete molecular analyses of virulence factors followed by their evaluation using the mouse infection

  17. Molecular Evidence for Multiple Origins of the European Spined Loaches (Teleostei, Cobitidae)

    PubMed Central

    Perdices, Anabel; Bohlen, Joerg; Šlechtová, Vendula; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    We present a phylogenetic investigation of the Northern Clade, the major monophyletic clade within the freshwater fish family Cobitidae, one of the most prominent families of freshwater fishes found in Asian and European waters. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on the cytochrome b and RAG-1 genes show the genera Microcobitis, Sabanejewia, Koreocobitis and Kichulchoia as monophyletic groups. These reconstructions also show a Cobitis sensu lato and a Misgurnus sensu lato group. The Cobitis sensu lato group includes all species of Cobitis, Iksookimia, Niwaella and Kichulchoia, while the Misgurnus sensu lato group includes Misgurnus, Paramisgurnus and Koreocobitis. Although the monophyly of both the Cobitis sensu lato and Misgurnus sensu lato groups is supported, relationships within the groups are incongruent with current generic definitions. The absence of monophyly of most genera included in the Cobitis sensu lato group (Cobitis, Iksookimia and Niwaella) or their low genetic differentiation (Kichuchoia) supports their consideration as synonyms of Cobitis. Molecular phylogenies indicate that the Asian species of Misgurnus experienced a mitochondrial introgression from a lineage of Cobitis. We also find two nuclear haplotypes in the same Cobitis species from the Adriatic area that, in the absence of morphological differentiation, may indicate molecular introgression. Most lineages within the Northern Clade consist of species found in East Asia. However, some lineages also contain species from Europe and Asia Minor. The phylogenetic relationships presented here are consistent with previous studies suggesting an East Asian origin of the Northern Clade. According to the current distributions and phylogenetic relationships of the Misgurnus sensu lato and Cobitis clade lineages, particularly of M. fossilis and C. melanoleuca, the range expansion of East Asian species into Europe was most likely via Siberia into Northern and Central Europe. Phylogenetic analyses also show

  18. Molecular Evidence for Multiple Origins of the European Spined Loaches (Teleostei, Cobitidae).

    PubMed

    Perdices, Anabel; Bohlen, Joerg; Šlechtová, Vendula; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    We present a phylogenetic investigation of the Northern Clade, the major monophyletic clade within the freshwater fish family Cobitidae, one of the most prominent families of freshwater fishes found in Asian and European waters. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on the cytochrome b and RAG-1 genes show the genera Microcobitis, Sabanejewia, Koreocobitis and Kichulchoia as monophyletic groups. These reconstructions also show a Cobitis sensu lato and a Misgurnus sensu lato group. The Cobitis sensu lato group includes all species of Cobitis, Iksookimia, Niwaella and Kichulchoia, while the Misgurnus sensu lato group includes Misgurnus, Paramisgurnus and Koreocobitis. Although the monophyly of both the Cobitis sensu lato and Misgurnus sensu lato groups is supported, relationships within the groups are incongruent with current generic definitions. The absence of monophyly of most genera included in the Cobitis sensu lato group (Cobitis, Iksookimia and Niwaella) or their low genetic differentiation (Kichuchoia) supports their consideration as synonyms of Cobitis. Molecular phylogenies indicate that the Asian species of Misgurnus experienced a mitochondrial introgression from a lineage of Cobitis. We also find two nuclear haplotypes in the same Cobitis species from the Adriatic area that, in the absence of morphological differentiation, may indicate molecular introgression. Most lineages within the Northern Clade consist of species found in East Asia. However, some lineages also contain species from Europe and Asia Minor. The phylogenetic relationships presented here are consistent with previous studies suggesting an East Asian origin of the Northern Clade. According to the current distributions and phylogenetic relationships of the Misgurnus sensu lato and Cobitis clade lineages, particularly of M. fossilis and C. melanoleuca, the range expansion of East Asian species into Europe was most likely via Siberia into Northern and Central Europe. Phylogenetic analyses also show

  19. Review of Apanteles sensu stricto (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica, with keys to all described species from Mesoamerica

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Triana, Jose L.; Whitfield, James B.; Rodriguez, Josephine J.; Smith, M. Alex; Janzen, Daniel H.; Hallwachs, Winnie D.; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; Burns, John M.; Solis, M. Alma; Brown, John; Cardinal, Sophie; Goulet, Henri; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract More than half a million specimens of wild-caught Lepidoptera caterpillars have been reared for their parasitoids, identified, and DNA barcoded over a period of 34 years (and ongoing) from Area de Conservación de Guanacaste (ACG), northwestern Costa Rica. This provides the world’s best location-based dataset for studying the taxonomy and host relationships of caterpillar parasitoids. Among Hymenoptera, Microgastrinae (Braconidae) is the most diverse and commonly encountered parasitoid subfamily, with many hundreds of species delineated to date, almost all undescribed. Here, we reassess the limits of the genus Apanteles sensu stricto, describe 186 new species from 3,200+ parasitized caterpillars of hundreds of ACG Lepidoptera species, and provide keys to all 205 described Apanteles from Mesoamerica – including 19 previously described species in addition to the new species. The Mesoamerican Apanteles are assigned to 32 species-groups, all but two of which are newly defined. Taxonomic keys are presented in two formats: traditional dichotomous print versions and links to electronic interactive versions (software Lucid 3.5). Numerous illustrations, computer-generated descriptions, distributional information, wasp biology, and DNA barcodes (where available) are presented for every species. All morphological terms are detailed and linked to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology website. DNA barcodes (a standard fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial gene), information on wasp biology (host records, solitary/gregariousness of wasp larvae), ratios of morphological features, and wasp microecological distributions were used to help clarify boundaries between morphologically cryptic species within species-complexes. Because of the high accuracy of host identification for about 80% of the wasp species studied, it was possible to analyze host relationships at a regional level. The ACG species of Apanteles attack mainly species of Hesperiidae

  20. The Rare ospC Allele L of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto, Commonly Found among Samples Collected in a Coastal Plain Area of the Southeastern United States, Is Associated with Ixodes affinis Ticks and Local Rodent Hosts Peromyscus gossypinus and Sigmodon hispidus

    PubMed Central

    Golovchenko, Maryna; Grubhoffer, Libor; Oliver, James H.

    2013-01-01

    The rare ospC allele L was detected in 30% of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strains cultured from a tick species, Ixodes affinis, and two rodent host species, Peromyscus gossypinus and Sigmodon hispidus, collected in a coastal plain area of Georgia and South Carolina, in the southeastern United States. PMID:23220965

  1. An age–size reaction norm yields insight into environmental interactions affecting life-history traits: a factorial study of larval development in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Conan; Rotiberg, Bernard D

    2013-01-01

    Environmental factors frequently act nonindependently to determine growth and development of insects. Because age and size at maturity strongly influence population dynamics, interaction effects among environmental variables complicate the task of predicting dynamics of insect populations under novel conditions. We reared larvae of the African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) under three factors relevant to changes in climate and land use: food level, water depth, and temperature. Each factor was held at two levels in a fully crossed design, for eight experimental treatments. Larval survival, larval development time, and adult size (wing length) were measured to indicate the importance of interaction effects upon population-level processes. For age and size at emergence, but not survival, significant interaction effects were detected for all three factors, in addition to sex. Some of these interaction effects can be understood as consequences of how the different factors influence energy usage in the context of a nonindependent relationship between age and size. Experimentally assessing interaction effects for all potential future sets of conditions is intractable. However, considering how different factors affect energy usage within the context of an insect's evolved developmental program can provide insight into the causes of complex environmental effects on populations. PMID:23919132

  2. Nitrate affects sensu-stricto germination of after-ripened Sisymbrium officinale seeds by modifying expression of SoNCED5, SoCYP707A2 and SoGA3ox2 genes.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Barral, Néstor; Matilla, Angel J; Rodríguez-Gacio, María del Carmen; Iglesias-Fernández, Raquel

    2014-03-01

    The influence of nitrate upon the germination of Sisymbrium officinale seeds is not entirely controlled by after-ripening (AR), a process clearly influenced by nitrate. Recently, we have reported that nitrate affects sensu-stricto germination of non-AR (AR0) seeds by modifying the expression of crucial genes involved in the metabolism of GA and ABA. In this study, we demonstrate that nitrate affects also the germination of AR seeds because: (i) the AR negatively alters the ABA sensitivity being the seed more ABA-sensible as the AR is farthest from optimal (AR0 and AR20 versus AR7); in the presence of diniconazole (DZ), a competitive inhibitor of ABA 8'-hydroxylase, testa rupture is affected while the endosperm rupture is not. (ii) AR7 seed-coat rupture is not inhibited by paclobutrazol (PBZ) suggesting that nitrate can act by a mechanism GA-independent. (iii) The germination process is accelerated by nitrate, most probably by the increase in the expression of SoNCED5, SoCYP707A2 and SoGA3ox2 genes. Taken together, these and previous results demonstrate that nitrate promotes germination of AR and non-AR seeds through transcriptional changes of different genes involved in ABA and GA metabolism. PMID:24467901

  3. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto ospC Alleles Associated with Human Lyme Borreliosis Worldwide in Non-Human-Biting Tick Ixodes affinis and Rodent Hosts in Southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Golovchenko, Maryna; Hönig, Václav; Mallátová, Nadja; Krbková, Lenka; Mikulášek, Peter; Fedorova, Natalia; Belfiore, Natalia M.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Lane, Robert S.; Oliver, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Comparative analysis of ospC genes from 127 Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strains collected in European and North American regions where Lyme disease is endemic and where it is not endemic revealed a close relatedness of geographically distinct populations. ospC alleles A, B, and L were detected on both continents in vectors and hosts, including humans. Six ospC alleles, A, B, L, Q, R, and V, were prevalent in Europe; 4 of them were detected in samples of human origin. Ten ospC alleles, A, B, D, E3, F, G, H, H3, I3, and M, were identified in the far-western United States. Four ospC alleles, B, G, H, and L, were abundant in the southeastern United States. Here we present the first expanded analysis of ospC alleles of B. burgdorferi strains from the southeastern United States with respect to their relatedness to strains from other North American and European localities. We demonstrate that ospC genotypes commonly associated with human Lyme disease in European and North American regions where the disease is endemic were detected in B. burgdorferi strains isolated from the non-human-biting tick Ixodes affinis and rodent hosts in the southeastern United States. We discovered that some ospC alleles previously known only from Europe are widely distributed in the southeastern United States, a finding that confirms the hypothesis of transoceanic migration of Borrelia species. PMID:23263953

  4. The calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporin A exhibits synergism with antifungals against Candida parapsilosis species complex.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Macedo, Ramila de Brito; Teixeira, Carlos Eduardo Cordeiro; Marques, Francisca Jakelyne de Farias; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Moreira, José Luciano Bezerra; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2014-07-01

    Candida parapsilosis complex comprises three closely related species, C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida metapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis. In the last decade, antifungal resistance to azoles and caspofungin among C. parapsilosis sensu lato strains has been considered a matter of concern worldwide. In the present study, we evaluated the synergistic potential of antifungals and the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporin A (Cys) against planktonic and biofilms of C. parapsilosis complex from clinical sources. Susceptibility assays with amphotericin, fluconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin and Cys were performed by microdilution in accordance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Synergy testing against planktonic cells of C. parapsilosis sensu lato strains was assessed by the chequerboard method. Combinations formed by antifungals with Cys were evaluated against mature biofilms in microtitre plates. No differences in the antifungal susceptibility pattern among species were observed, but C. parapsilosis sensu stricto strains were more susceptible to Cys than C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Synergism between antifungals and Cys was observed in C. parapsilosis sensu lato strains. Combinations formed by antifungals and Cys were able to prevent biofilm formation and showed an inhibitory effect against mature biofilms of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis. These results strengthen the potential of calcineurin inhibition as a promising approach to enhance the efficiency of antifungal drugs. PMID:24722799

  5. Taxonomic revision of the spider genera Agyneta and Tennesseellum (Araneae, Linyphiidae) of North America north of Mexico with a study of the embolic division within Micronetinae sensu Saaristo & Tanasevitch 1996.

    PubMed

    Dupérré, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    The genera Agyneta Hull 1911 and Tennesseellum Petrunkevitch 1925 are revised for North America north of Mexico. The synonymy of Meioneta Hull 1920 with Agyneta Hull 1911 proposed by Saaristo 1973 is corroborated. The North American fauna north of Mexico of Agyneta now includes a total of 69 species, of which 31 are new species: A. watertoni n. sp., A. perspicua n. sp., A. aquila n. sp., A. yukona n. sp., A. darrelli n. sp., A. bucklei n. sp., A. erinacea n. sp., A. crawfordi n. sp., A. vinki n. sp., A. panthera n. sp., A. miniata n. sp., A. danielbelangeri n. sp., A. pistrix n. sp., A. flax n. sp., A. barfoot n. sp., A. sandia n. sp., A. spicula n. sp., A. grandcanyon n. sp., A. chiricahua n. sp., A. crista n. sp., A. tuberculata n. sp., A. catalina n. sp., A. ledfordi n. sp., A. platnicki n. sp., A. bronx n. sp., A. paquini n. sp., A. girardi n. sp., A. flibuscrocus n. sp., A. delphina n. sp., A. okefenokee n. sp. and A. issaqueena n. sp. The genus Tennesseellum includes two spe-cies, with one new species, T. gollum n. sp. Ten new synonyms are recognized: Meioneta grayi Barnes 1953 = Anibontes mimus Chamberlin 1924; Meioneta dactylata Chamberlin & Ivie 1944, Meioneta officiosa (Barrows 1940) = Meioneta micaria (Emerton 1882); Meioneta imitata Chamberlin & Ivie 1944 = Meioneta leucophora Chamberlin & Ivie 1944; Meioneta ferosa (Chamberlin & Ivie 1943) = Meioneta fillmorana (Chamberlin 1919); Meioneta fuscipes Chamberlin & Ivie 1944 = Meioneta floridana (Banks 1896); Meioneta alaskensis Holm 1960 = Meioneta maritima (Emerton 1919); Meioneta meridionalis (Crosby & Bishop 1936), Meioneta zebrina Chamberlin & Ivie, 1944 = Meioneta parva (Banks 1896); Meioneta zygia (Keyserling 1886) = Meioneta fabra (Keyserling 1886). Ten informal species groups are proposed based on the study on the male palpal conformation of the embolus and radical division; these groups are not intened to be phylogenetic hypotheses. The limits and composition of the subfamily Micronetinae sensu

  6. Defoliation by introduced Diorhabda elongata leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) reduces carbohydrate reserves and regrowth of Tamarix (Tamaricacceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diorhabda elongate (Brulle) sensu lato leaf beetles have been released in the United States for the classical biological control of invasive Tamarix L. species, which are exotic trees that are causing deterioration of riparian ecosystems in western North America. The impact of D. elongate defoliat...

  7. A new species of Chaneusa (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared from Hydrellia pakistanae and Hydrellia sarahae laticapsula Diptera: Ephydridae) infesting Hydrilla verticillata (Alismatales: Hydrocharitaceae) in India and Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chaenusa glabra Kula, new species from India and Pakistan is described, and sexual dimorphism is reported and discussed. A diagnosis is provided to differentiate it from all other species of Chaenusa Haliday sensu lato. It was reared from Hydrellia pakistanae Deonier and Hydrellia sarahae laticapsul...

  8. Genetic structure of the four wil tomato species in the Solanum peruvianum s.l. species complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most diverse wild tomato species Solanum peruvianum sensu lato (s.l.) has been reclassified into four separate species. However, reproductive barriers among the species are incomplete and this can lead to discrepancies regarding genetic identity of germplasm. We used genotyping by sequencing (...

  9. METAL CONTENT OF DANDELION (TARAXACUM OFFICINALE) LEAVES IN RELATION TO SOIL CONTAMINATION AND AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER. (R826602)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The global distribution of the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Weber, sensu lato; Asteraceae), along with its ability to tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions, make this `species' a particularly attractive candidate to evaluate for its ...

  10. Quantification of brown dog tick repellents, 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde, and release from tick-resistant beagles, Canis lupus familiaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have recently shown that repellency of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato by the tick resistant dog breed Beagle is mediated by volatile organic compounds 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde present in Beagle dog odour. Ectoparasite location on animal hosts is affected by variation in odour com...

  11. Improving the evaluation process of Cosmobaris scolopacea (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a prospective biocontrol agent of Salsola tragus, using a molecular approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian thistle, Salsola tragus L. (sensu lato), (Chenopodiaceae) is a weed native to Central Asia that was accidentally introduced in the U.S. in the early 1870s with seeds imported from Russia. Due to the dramatic impacts of its invasiveness on ecology and human activities, the weed has been targe...

  12. A conspectus on the Canacidae (Diptera) of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Wayne N.; Marinoni, Luciane

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Species of Canacidae sensu lato of Brazil are reviewed, including the subfamilies Canacinae and Tethininae. Included are seven species in five genera with two species, Nocticanace austra and Nocticanace packhamorum, from southern Brazil being newly described. To facilitate identification, we have included keys and diagnose to taxa at all levels. PMID:22303126

  13. Open field host selection and behavior by tamarisk beetles (Diorhabda spp.)(Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in biological control of exotic saltcedars (Tamarix spp.) and risks to non-target athel (T. aphylla) and native Frankenia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control of exotic, invasive saltcedars (Tamarix spp.) in the western USA involves releases of exotic saltcedar leaf beetles, Diorhabda elongata Brullé sensu lato. Adults in cages alight, feed and oviposit on athel (Tamarix aphylla), an evergreen cold-intolerant tree used for shade and as...

  14. Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) species complex – resurrection of E. W. Baker’s species (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brevipalpus phoenicis sensu lato has been identified from countries all over the world and has been associated with many different host plant species. As a taxon, it shows a degree of morphological variation. A combination such as this often indicates that the taxon actually represents a complex o...

  15. Genome Sequence of Borrelia chilensis VA1, a South American Member of the Lyme Borreliosis Group

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Weihua; Ojaimi, Caroline; Fallon, John T.; Travisany, Dante; Maass, Alejandro; Ivanova, Larisa; Tomova, Alexandra; González-Acuña, Daniel; Cabello, Felipe C.

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia chilensis strain VA1 is a recently described South American member of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex from Chile. Whole-genome sequencing analysis determined its linear chromosome and plasmids lp54 and cp26, confirmed its membership in the Lyme borreliosis group, and will open new research avenues regarding its pathogenic potential. PMID:25676758

  16. DNA fingerprinting and anastomosis grouping reveal similar genetic diversity in Rhizoctonia species infecting turfgrasses in the transition zone of USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia blight (sensu lato) is a common and serious disease of many turfgrass species. The most widespread causal agent, R. solani, consists of several genetically different subpopulations. Though hyphal anastomosis reactions have been used to group Rhizoctonia species, they are time consuming a...

  17. Biological Control of Saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) in South Texas with the Saltcedar Leaf Beetle, Diorhabda elongata, and Effects on Athel (T.aphylla).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) has involved releases of exotic saltcedar leaf beetles, Diorhabda elongata Brullé sensu lato, in the western U.S. Adults in field cages feed, oviposit, and produce larvae on athel (Tamarix aphylla), an evergreen tree used in the southwestern U.S. and n...

  18. Quantification of brown dog tick repellent, 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde, release from tick-resistant Beagle dogs, Canis lupus familiaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have recently shown that repellency of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato by the tick resistant dog breed Beagle is mediated by volatile organic compounds 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde present in Beagle dog odour. Ectoparasite location on animal hosts is affected by variation in odour com...

  19. The production and uses of Beauveria bassiana as a microbial insecticide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among invertebrate fungal pathogens, Beauveria bassiana sensu lato has assumed a key role as a ubiquitous bio-regulator that induces “white muscardine disease” in numerous arthropod pests of economic agricultural, veterinary and forestry importance. This fungus species is also known to display diffe...

  20. Genetic and morphological studies of Trichosirocalus species introduced to North America, Australia and New Zealand for the biological control of thistles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichosirocalus horridus sensu lato has been used as a classical biological control agent of several invasive alien thistles (Carduus spp., Cirsium spp. and Onopordum spp.) since 1974. Trichosirocalus horridus was recognized as a single species until 2002, when it was split into three species based ...

  1. Overwintering survival, phenology, voltinism, and reproduction among different populations of the leaf beetle Diorhabda elongata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The classical biological control program for exotic saltcedars (various Tamarix species and hybrids) has involved the assessment of different populations of the leaf beetle Diorhabda elongata (Brullé) sensu lato that are promising for release in areas of North America that are located south of 37°N ...

  2. Phylogenetic relationships of Phytophthora andina, a new species from the highlands of Ecuador that is closely related to the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Alpizar, Luis; Hu, Chia-Hui; Oliva, Ricardo; Forbes, Gregory; Ristaino, Jean Beagle

    2008-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of Phytophthora infestans sensu lato in the Andean highlands of South America were examined. Three clonal lineages (US-1, EC-1, EC-3) and one heterogeneous lineage (EC-2) were found in association with different host species in genus Solanum. The EC-2 lineage includes two mitochondrial (mtDNA) haplotypes, Ia and Ic. Isolates of P. infestans sensu lato EC-2 fit the morphological description of P. infestans but are different from any genotypes of P. infestans described to date. All isolates of P. infestans sensu lato from Ecuador were amplified by a P. infestans specific primer (PINF), and restriction fragment length patterns were identical in isolates amplified with ITS primers 4 and 5. The EC-1 clonal lineage of P. infestans sensu lato from S. andreanum, S. columbianum, S. paucijugum, S. phureja, S. regularifolium, S. tuberosum and S. tuquerense was confirmed to be P. infestans based on sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I (cox I) gene and intron 1 of ras gene. The EC-2 isolates with the Ic haplotype formed a distinct branch in the same clade with P. infestans and P. mirabilis, P. phaseoli and P. ipomoeae for both cox I and ras intron 1 phylogenies and were identified as the newly described species P. andina. Ras intron 1 sequence data suggests that P. andina might have arisen via hybridization between P. infestans and P. mirabilis. PMID:18833752

  3. How many species of Salsola tumbleweeds (Russian thistle) occur in the Western USA?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian thistle or common tumbleweed, Salsola tragus (sensu lato), is an alien weedy annual plant that infests over 41 million hectares in the western United States. The taxonomy of this plant has had a long confusing history, with frequent misapplication of the species names kali and australis. R...

  4. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus in a hyperendemic European focus, the Republic of Moldova.

    PubMed

    Umhang, Gérald; Chihai, Oleg; Boué, Franck

    2014-12-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a zoonosis caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato. The lifecycle of the parasite is mainly domestic, requiring dogs as definitive hosts and livestock species as intermediate hosts. Although human cystic echinococcosis is a high public health priority in the Republic of Moldova, the rare animal data available concerns only infection in cattle. A preliminary slaughterhouse survey was conducted to assess prevalence and perform the first molecular characterization of E. granulosus sensu lato in sheep and cattle. For the survey, 40 sheep and 19 cattle were inspected. Very high prevalence in sheep (82.5%) and in cattle (78.9%) was found. Molecular analyses identified genotypes G1 and G3 of E. granulosus sensu stricto in all the liver and lung samples. Based on the concatenated sequences of cox1 + nad3 (701 bp), 23 different haplotypes were obtained. Mixed infections by different haplotypes/genotypes were frequently identified in both sheep and cattle. The relatively high (20.0%) cyst fertility observed in cattle argues for the potential contribution of cattle to the lifecycle of E. granulosus sensu stricto, unlike previous observations in Europe. The hyperendemic situation of Moldova can be explained by a high majority of animals slaughtered at home usually without veterinary inspection. Further extensive slaughterhouse surveys with molecular identification also involving pigs and goats are needed to obtain a better overview of the epidemiological situation of E. granulosus sensu lato in this hyperendemic focus in the Republic of Moldova. PMID:25217976

  5. Comparison of biotyping methods as alternative identification tools to molecular typing of pathogenic Cryptococcus species in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Nyazika, Tinashe K; Robertson, Valerie J; Nherera, Brenda; Mapondera, Prichard T; Meis, Jacques F; Hagen, Ferry

    2016-03-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is the leading fungal infection and AIDS defining opportunistic illness in patients with late stage HIV infection, particularly in South-East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Given the high mortality, clinical differences and the extensive ecological niche of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii species complexes, there is need for laboratories in sub-Sahara African countries to adopt new and alternative reliable diagnostic algorithms that rapidly identify and distinguish these species. We biotyped 74 and then amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genotyped 66 Cryptococcus isolates from a cohort of patients with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. C. gattii sensu lato was isolated at a prevalence of 16.7% (n = 11/66) and C. neoformans sensu stricto was responsible for 83.3% (n = 55/66) of the infections. l-Canavanine glycine bromothymol blue, yeast-carbon-base-d-proline-d-tryptophan and creatinine dextrose bromothymol blue thymine were able to distinguish pathogenic C. gattii sensu lato from C. neoformans sensu stricto species when compared with AFLP genotyping. This study demonstrates high C. gattii sensu lato prevalence in Zimbabwe. In addition, biotyping methods can be used as alternative diagnostic tools to molecular typing in resource-limited areas for differentiating pathogenic Cryptococcus species. PMID:26661484

  6. Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) species complex (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)--a closer look.

    PubMed

    Beard, Jennifer J; Ochoa, Ronald; Braswell, W Evan; Bauchan, Gary R

    2015-01-01

    Brevipalpus phoenicis sensu stricto (Geijskes) is redescribed and the species diagnosis established. Two former synonyms of B. phoenicis sensu lato, B. yothersi Baker and B. papayensis Baker, are resurrected and redescribed and their species diagnoses established. Brevipalpus hondurani Evans is also redescribed and diagnosed. Four new species, previously misidentified as B. phoenicis sensu lato or B. obovatus Donnadieu, are described--B. azores sp. nov., B. feresi sp. nov., B. ferraguti sp. nov., and B. tucuman sp. nov. Four new junior synonyms of B. yothersi are listed--Brevipalpus amicus Chaudhri and B. recula Chaudhri (new synonymies), and B. mcbridei Baker and B. deleoni Pritchard and Baker (misidentifications). A key is provided to separate these species. New morphological characters significant for species separation are presented and discussed. PMID:25947538

  7. Determinación de la orientación global SAO-Hipparcos mediante una expansión en armónicos vectoriales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cionco, R. G.; Vucetich, H.; Orellana, R.; Arias, E. F.

    En base a las diferencias de posición y movimientos propios de 101352 estrellas con posición SAO observadas por HIPPARCOS y utilizando la naturaleza vectorial de esas diferencias, determinamos 6 parámetros de orientación global (3 de rotación y 3 de desplazamiento axial), para los sistemas de referencia asociados a los marcos mencionados, mediante una descomposición en serie de armónicos vectoriales ortogonales.

  8. High-pressure mafic oceanic rocks from the Makbal Complex, Tianshan Mountains (Kazakhstan & Kyrgyzstan): Implications for the metamorphic evolution of a fossil subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Melanie; Klemd, Reiner; Konopelko, Dmitry

    2013-09-01

    The Makbal Complex in the western Tianshan Mountains of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan consists of HP/UHP metasedimentary host rocks which enclose various HP mafic blocks or boudins. These mafic rocks comprise rare eclogites (sensu stricto and sensu lato), garnet amphibolites (retrograded eclogites) and a newly discovered glaucophanite (glaucophane-garnet-omphacite bearing rock). So far the Makbal Complex has been interpreted to predominantly consist of continental lithologies and the mafic rocks were considered as dismembered dikes intruding continental metasediments. This interpretation is mainly based on the geological relationship and bulk rock chemistry of the different rock types. It was further suggested that the continental lithologies of the Makbal Complex underwent eclogite-facies metamorphism in a former subduction zone. In the present study we combined conventional geothermometry, P-T pseudosection modeling and major and trace element whole rock geochemistry for different mafic samples (glaucophanite and eclogites (sensu lato)) in order to shed light on both the metamorphic evolution and the protoliths of the mafic HP rocks in the Makbal Complex. Prograde to peak-pressure clockwise P-T paths of glaucophanite and eclogites (sensu lato) were modeled using garnet isopleth thermobarometry. The results show that the glaucophanite and eclogite (sensu lato) samples experienced similar prograde P-T paths and slightly different peak metamorphic conditions at ~ 560 °C at 2.4 GPa for the former and between ~ 520 °C at 2.2 GPa and ~ 555 °C at ~ 2.5 GPa for the latter, corresponding to burial depths between 70 and 85 km. Whole rock major and trace element analyses and petrological evidence imply that the various rock types at the Makbal Complex most likely originated from different precursor rocks. Eclogites (sensu lato) are believed to represent strongly retrogressed former eclogite-facies rocks that had never been eclogites (sensu stricto, i.e. > 70 vol.% garnet and

  9. Delimitation of Neonectria and Cylindrocarpon (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota) and related genera with Cylindrocarpon-like anamorphs

    PubMed Central

    Chaverri, P.; Salgado, C.; Hirooka, Y.; Rossman, A.Y.; Samuels, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Neonectria is a cosmopolitan genus and it is, in part, defined by its link to the anamorph genus Cylindrocarpon. Neonectria has been divided into informal groups on the basis of combined morphology of anamorph and teleomorph. Previously, Cylindrocarpon was divided into four groups defined by presence or absence of microconidia and chlamydospores. Molecular phylogenetic analyses have indicated that Neonectria sensu stricto and Cylindrocarpon sensu stricto are phylogenetically congeneric. In addition, morphological and molecular data accumulated over several years have indicated that Neonectria sensu lato and Cylindrocarpon sensu lato do not form a monophyletic group and that the respective informal groups may represent distinct genera. In the present work, a multilocus analysis (act, ITS, LSU, rpb1, tef1, tub) was applied to representatives of the informal groups to determine their level of phylogenetic support as a first step towards taxonomic revision of Neonectria sensu lato. Results show five distinct highly supported clades that correspond to some extent with the informal Neonectria and Cylindrocarpon groups that are here recognised as genera: (1) N. coccinea-group and Cylindrocarpon groups 1 & 4 (Neonectria/Cylindrocarpon sensu stricto); (2) N. rugulosa-group (Rugonectria gen. nov.); (3) N. mammoidea/N. veuillotiana-groups and Cylindrocarpon group 2 (Thelonectria gen. nov.); (4) N. radicicola-group and Cylindrocarpon group 3 (Ilyonectria gen. nov.); and (5) anamorph genus Campylocarpon. Characteristics of the anamorphs and teleomorphs correlate with the five genera, three of which are newly described. New combinations are made for species where their classification is confirmed by phylogenetic data. PMID:21523189

  10. A new species of Paraproto (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Phtisicidae) collected from the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2015-12-01

    A new species of amphipod crustacean (Amphipoda: Phtisicidae), Paraproto mccaini n. sp. is described based on specimens collected from south of Elephant Island, the South Shetland Islands near the Antarctic Peninsula. This species was first reported as Paraproto condylata (Haswell, 1885) [sensu lato], recorded from a temperate region of Australia. P. mccaini n. sp. is distinct from P. condylata [sensu stricto] by an elongated head with pereonite 1, presence of a mid-lateral projection on pereonites 2-4, and lack of a distal round projection on the propodus of gnathopod 2. Paraproto differs from Pseudoprotomima, the most phylogenetically similar genus, in having gills on pereonites 3 and 4.

  11. Affinities of the Swartkrans early Homo mandibles.

    PubMed

    Curnoe, Darren

    2008-01-01

    The southern African early Homo assemblage continues to make important contributions to understanding the systematics, adaptations and evolutionary history of the human genus. However, the taxonomy of this sample is in a state of flux. This study examines the size and shape of the mandibular bodies of Swartkrans SK 15 and SK 45 comparing them with variation in two early Homo taxa (H. habilis sensu lato and H. sapiens erectus). The research aims to clarify their phenetic affinities and systematics through univariate statistics, inferential testing and multivariate analysis employing size (Log-transformed) and shape (Mosimann variables). Neither of them strongly resembles H. habilis sensu lato or H. sapiens erectus, rather, they probably sample a novel species of Homo not seen in East Africa. Moreover, there is considerable morphological variability within the Swartkrans sample and the possibility of more than one novel species being sampled at this site cannot be excluded. PMID:18402959

  12. [Lyme borreliosis].

    PubMed

    Herzer, P; Fingerle, V; Pfister, H-W; Krause, A

    2014-07-01

    Lyme borreliosis is a multisystem infectious disease affecting mainly the skin, nervous system, joints and heart. It is caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex which are transmitted by ticks. The diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis is based primarily on typical clinical symptoms and signs with serological confirmation. Antibiotic therapy is beneficial for all manifestations and treatment refractory cases are rare. The diagnosis "chronic Lyme borreliosis" is increasingly being misused for all conceivable medically unexplained symptoms. PMID:24969608

  13. Drivers of Change in a 7300-Year Holocene Diatom Record from the Hemi-Boreal Region of Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Kristen K.; Medeiros, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    A Holocene lake sediment record spanning the past 7300 years from Wishart Lake in the Turkey Lakes Watershed in the Hemi-Boreal of central Ontario, Canada, was used to evaluate the potential drivers of long-term change in diatom assemblages at this site. An analysis of diatom assemblages found that benthic and epiphytic taxa dominated the mid-Holocene (7300–4000 cal yr BP), indicating shallow, oligotrophic, circum-neutral conditions, with macrophytes present. A significant shift in diatom assemblages towards more planktonic species (mainly Cyclotella sensu lato, but also several species of Aulacoseira, and Tabellaria flocculosa) occurred ~4000 cal yr BP. This change likely reflects an increase in lake level, coincident with the onset of a more strongly positive moisture balance following the drier climates of the middle Holocene, established by numerous regional paleoclimate records. Pollen-inferred regional changes in vegetation around 4000 yrs BP, including an increase in Betula and other mesic taxa, may have also promoted changes in diatom assemblages through watershed processes mediated by the chemistry of runoff. A more recent significant change in limnological conditions is marked by further increases in Cyclotella sensu lato beginning in the late 19th century, synchronous with the Ambrosia pollen rise and increases in sediment bulk density, signaling regional and local land clearance at the time of Euro-Canadian settlement (1880 AD). In contrast to the mid-Holocene increase in planktonic diatoms, the modern increase in Cyclotella sensu lato likely indicates a response to land use and vegetation change, and erosion from the watershed, rather than a further increase in water level. The results from Wishart Lake illustrate the close connection between paleoclimate change, regional vegetation, watershed processes, and diatom assemblages and also provides insight into the controls on abundance of Cyclotella sensu lato, a diatom taxonomic group which has shown

  14. Lyme disease in central Europe.

    PubMed

    Hercogova, J; Brzonova, I

    2001-04-01

    Lyme borreliosis is a fascinating disease, the aetiopathology of which is not yet completely known. Different subspecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato are responsible for the variable clinical course of the disease. Some new cutaneous (alopecia) and ocular (photophobia and retinal vasculitis) manisfestations have been described and the largest prospective study on erythema migrans during pregnancy was published during the last year. Optimal therapy of Lyme borreliosis is still lacking, but doxycycline, amoxicillin, penicillin, and ceftriaxone are recommended most frequently. PMID:11979122

  15. Drivers of Change in a 7300-Year Holocene Diatom Record from the Hemi-Boreal Region of Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Beck, Kristen K; Medeiros, Andrew S; Finkelstein, Sarah A

    2016-01-01

    A Holocene lake sediment record spanning the past 7300 years from Wishart Lake in the Turkey Lakes Watershed in the Hemi-Boreal of central Ontario, Canada, was used to evaluate the potential drivers of long-term change in diatom assemblages at this site. An analysis of diatom assemblages found that benthic and epiphytic taxa dominated the mid-Holocene (7300-4000 cal yr BP), indicating shallow, oligotrophic, circum-neutral conditions, with macrophytes present. A significant shift in diatom assemblages towards more planktonic species (mainly Cyclotella sensu lato, but also several species of Aulacoseira, and Tabellaria flocculosa) occurred ~4000 cal yr BP. This change likely reflects an increase in lake level, coincident with the onset of a more strongly positive moisture balance following the drier climates of the middle Holocene, established by numerous regional paleoclimate records. Pollen-inferred regional changes in vegetation around 4000 yrs BP, including an increase in Betula and other mesic taxa, may have also promoted changes in diatom assemblages through watershed processes mediated by the chemistry of runoff. A more recent significant change in limnological conditions is marked by further increases in Cyclotella sensu lato beginning in the late 19th century, synchronous with the Ambrosia pollen rise and increases in sediment bulk density, signaling regional and local land clearance at the time of Euro-Canadian settlement (1880 AD). In contrast to the mid-Holocene increase in planktonic diatoms, the modern increase in Cyclotella sensu lato likely indicates a response to land use and vegetation change, and erosion from the watershed, rather than a further increase in water level. The results from Wishart Lake illustrate the close connection between paleoclimate change, regional vegetation, watershed processes, and diatom assemblages and also provides insight into the controls on abundance of Cyclotella sensu lato, a diatom taxonomic group which has shown

  16. Linking Virus Genomes with Host Taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Mihara, Tomoko; Nishimura, Yosuke; Shimizu, Yugo; Nishiyama, Hiroki; Yoshikawa, Genki; Uehara, Hideya; Hingamp, Pascal; Goto, Susumu; Ogata, Hiroyuki

    2016-03-01

    Environmental genomics can describe all forms of organisms--cellular and viral--present in a community. The analysis of such eco-systems biology data relies heavily on reference databases, e.g., taxonomy or gene function databases. Reference databases of symbiosis sensu lato, although essential for the analysis of organism interaction networks, are lacking. By mining existing databases and literature, we here provide a comprehensive and manually curated database of taxonomic links between viruses and their cellular hosts. PMID:26938550

  17. Siderophore-mediated iron acquisition in Bacillus anthracis and related strains.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Kinya; Kim, Chu-Young; Fox, David T; Koppisch, Andrew T

    2010-07-01

    Recent observations have shed light on some of the endogenous iron-acquisition mechanisms of members of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group. In particular, pathogens in the B. cereus group use siderophores with both unique chemical structures and biological roles. This review will focus on recent discoveries in siderophore biosynthesis and biology in this group, which contains numerous human pathogens, most notably the causative agent of anthrax, Bacillus anthracis. PMID:20466767

  18. Automated purification of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. PCR products with KingFisher™ magnetic particle processor prior to genome sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkinen, Johanna; Marttila, Harri; Viljanen, Matti K.

    2001-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies were differentiated by PCR-based sequencing of the borrelial flagellin gene. To evaluate the usefulness of KingFisher™ magnetic particle processor in PCR product purification, borrelia PCR products were purified with KingFisher™ magnetic particle processor prior to cycle sequencing and the quality of the sequence data received was analyzed. KingFisher was found to offer a rapid and reliable alternative for borrelial PCR product purification.

  19. Linking Virus Genomes with Host Taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Mihara, Tomoko; Nishimura, Yosuke; Shimizu, Yugo; Nishiyama, Hiroki; Yoshikawa, Genki; Uehara, Hideya; Hingamp, Pascal; Goto, Susumu; Ogata, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Environmental genomics can describe all forms of organisms—cellular and viral—present in a community. The analysis of such eco-systems biology data relies heavily on reference databases, e.g., taxonomy or gene function databases. Reference databases of symbiosis sensu lato, although essential for the analysis of organism interaction networks, are lacking. By mining existing databases and literature, we here provide a comprehensive and manually curated database of taxonomic links between viruses and their cellular hosts. PMID:26938550

  20. Position of the dentifera-group in the Coronatella-branch and its relocation to a new genus: Magnospina gen. n. (Crustacea, Chydoridae, Aloninae)

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Francisco Diogo R.; Elmoor-Loureiro, Lourdes Maria Abdu; Santos, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Magnospina gen. n. was created to relocate species of the dentifera-group from Alona sensu lato (Crustacea: Cladocera) and include Magnospina dentifera comb. n. and Magnospina siamensis comb. n. The synapomorphies of the Magnospina gen. n. are (1) basal spines longer than 2/3 of the postabdominal claw, (2) presence of 1–4 large denticles, broad at their bases, protruding downwards, without setules between them. Morphological traits such as habitus, rostrum and postabdomen shape, armature of IDL setae, number of setae on the exopod of limb III are also important in the distinction between Magnospina gen. n. and other genera from the Coronatella-branch. The morphology of Magnospina dentifera comb. n. male confirms the closer relationship with the clade composed by the elgans-group from Alona sensu lato, Ovalona and Leberis, but the external morphology, morphology of the postabdominal claw, basal spine and setae 2–3 of IDL support their separation from any of the group cited. It is concluded that the Coronatella-lineage of Aloninae is composed of the genera Coronatella, Anthalona, Karualona, Bergamina, Extremalona, Ovalona, Celsinotum, Leberis and Magnospina gen. n. The elegans-group from Alona sensu lato also belongs to Coronatella-lineage, but still need formal allocation. PMID:27199609

  1. Trends in antifungal susceptibility and virulence of Candida spp. from the nasolacrimal duct of horses.

    PubMed

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Bittencourt, Paula Vago; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; de Oliveira, Jonathas Sales; Alencar, Lucas Pereira de; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Pinheiro, Mariana; Nogueira-Filho, Evilázio Fernandes; Pereira-Neto, Waldemiro de Aquino; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2016-02-01

    This was a cross-sectional study to investigate the antifungal susceptibility and production of virulence factors in strains of Candida isolated from the outlet and the lumen of the nasolacrimal duct of horses in the state of Ceará, Brazil. The samples were obtained from 103 horses. Sterile cotton swabs were used to collect the material from the outlet of the nasolacrimal duct and urethral probes, for the instillation of 2 ml of saline solution, were used to collect samples from the lumen of the nasolacrimal duct. A total of 77 Candida isolates were obtained, with C. famata, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, and C. parapsilosis sensu lato as the most prevalent species. One isolate (C. glabrata) was resistant to caspofungin. One isolate was resistant only to fluconazole (C. parapsilosis sensu lato), 11 were resistant only to itraconazole (7 C. tropicalis, 2 C. guilliermondii, 1 C. famata, 1 C. parapsilosis sensu lato), while eight C. tropicalis showed resistance to both azoles. Overall, 28 isolates produced phospholipases and 12 produced proteases. These results highlight the importance of investigating the antifungal susceptibility and virulence trends of Candida spp. from the microbiota of the nasolacrimal duct of horses. PMID:26483435

  2. Lyme Borreliosis in Human Patients in Florida and Georgia, USA

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Kerry L.; Leydet, Brian; Hartman, Shirley

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the cause of illness in several human patients residing in Florida and Georgia, USA, with suspected Lyme disease based upon EM-like skin lesions and/or symptoms consistent with early localized or late disseminated Lyme borreliosis. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays developed specifically for Lyme group Borrelia spp., followed by DNA sequencing for confirmation, we identified Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA in samples of blood and skin and also in lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) removed from several patients who either live in or were exposed to ticks in Florida or Georgia. This is the first report to present combined PCR and DNA sequence evidence of infection with Lyme Borrelia spp. in human patients in the southern U.S., and to demonstrate that several B. burgdorferi sensu lato species may be associated with Lyme disease-like signs and symptoms in southern states. Based on the findings of this study, we suggest that human Lyme borreliosis occurs in Florida and Georgia, and that some cases of Lyme-like illness referred to as southern tick associated rash illness (STARI) in the southern U.S. may be attributable to previously undetected B. burgdorferi sensu lato infections. PMID:23781138

  3. A new fish haemogregarine from South Africa and its suspected dual transmission with trypanosomes by a marine leech.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Polly M; Smit, Nico J; Seddon, Alan M; Wertheim, David F; Davies, Angela J

    2006-12-01

    Twenty two percent (22/98) of intertidal fishes of 10 species captured in South Africa at Koppie Alleen, De Hoop Nature Reserve (south coast) and Mouille Point, Cape Town (west coast), harboured single or combined infections of haemogregarines, trypanosomes and an intraerythrocytic parasite resembling a Haemohormidium sp. The haemogregarines included the known species Haemogregarina (sensu lato) bigemina (Laveran et Mesnil, 1901) Siddall, 1995 and Haemogregarina (sensu lato) koppiensis Smit et Davies, 2001, while Haemogregarina (sensu lato) curvata sp. n. was observed in Clinus cottoides Valenciennes and Parablennius cornutus (L.) at Koppie Alleen. This last haemogregarine is characterised particularly by its distinctly curved gamonts. Also at Koppie Alleen, squash and histological preparations of 9/10 leeches, Zeylanicobdella arugamensis De Silva, 1963, taken from infected C. cottoides and P. cornutus contained developmental stages of H. curvata and/or trypanosomes, but these were absent from haematophagous gnathiid isopods (Gnathia africana Barnard, 1914) taken from infected fishes. It is suspected that Z. arugamensis transmits the haemogregarine and trypanosomes simultaneously between fishes, a double event unreported previously from the marine environment. PMID:17252920

  4. Detección y estudio mediante Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser de radicales libres formados por Disociación Multifotónica Infrarroja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M.; Díaz, L.; Torresano, J. A.; Rubio, L.; Samoudi, B.

    Una de las principales aplicaciones actuales de los procesos de disociación multifotónica inducidos por radiación láser infrarroja (DMI) es la producción de radiales libres, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades cinéticas y espectroscópicas. La disociación de moléculas poliatómicas en el IR con láseres de CO2 tiene lugar desde la superficie de energía molecular mas baja y conduce generalmente a la formación de fragmentos en el estado electrónico fundamental, con diversos grados de excitación vibracional. En el Grupo de Procesos Multifotónicos del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia del C.S.I.C. hemos puesto a punto la técnica de Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser (LIF) para la detección y análisis en tiempo real de los fragmentos producidos en la DMI inducida mediante uno o dos campos láseres de diferentes longitudes de onda. Objetivos de nuestro trabajo han sido el estudio de los canales de disociación mayoritarios y de las especies transitoria producidas, así como de la distribución de energía interna con que éstas son generadas. En particular hemos detectado mediante LIF las especies: C2, CF, CH, SiH2, CF2, CH2, SiHCl, y CF3 a partir de la disociación de, entre otras, las siguientes moléculas: C2H3Br, C3F6, C4H8Si, C2H5ClSi y CH5ClSi. En este trabajo presentamos algunos de los resultados obtenidos mediante el estudio por LIF de estos radicales: estudio temporal de la señal LIF obtenida con determinación de tiempos de vida, espectros de excitación y fluorescencia, temperaturas vibracionales de formación, variación de la intensidad LIF con el tiempo de retraso entre los láseres de disociación y prueba, etc.

  5. Acylated Cholesteryl Galactosides Are Specific Antigens of Borrelia Causing Lyme Disease and Frequently Induce Antibodies in Late Stages of Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stübs, Gunthard; Fingerle, Volker; Wilske, Bettina; Göbel, Ulf B.; Zähringer, Ulrich; Schumann, Ralf R.; Schröder, Nicolas W. J.

    2009-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is the causative agent of Lyme disease (LD), an infectious disease occurring in North America, Europe, and Asia in different clinical stages. B. burgdorferi sensu lato encompasses at least 12 species, with B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, and B. afzelii being of highest clinical importance. Immunologic testing for LD as well as recent vaccination strategies exclusively refer to proteinaceous antigens. However, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto exhibits glycolipid antigens, including 6-O-acylated cholesteryl β-d-galactopyranoside (ACGal), and first the data indicated that this compound may act as an immunogen. Here we investigated whether B. garinii and B. afzelii also possess this antigen, and whether antibodies directed against these compounds are abundant among patients suffering from different stages of LD. Gas-liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy and NMR spectroscopy showed that both B. garinii and B. afzelii exhibit ACGal in high quantities. In contrast, B. hermsii causing relapsing fever features 6-O-acylated cholesteryl β-d-glucopyranoside (ACGlc). Sera derived from patients diagnosed for LD contained antibodies against ACGal, with 80% of patients suffering from late stage disease exhibiting this feature. Antibodies reacted with ACGal from all three B. burgdorferi species tested, but not with ACGlc from B. hermsii. These data show that ACGal is present in all clinically important B. burgdorferi species, and that specific antibodies against this compound are frequently found during LD. ACGal may thus be an interesting tool for improving diagnostics as well as for novel vaccination strategies. PMID:19307181

  6. Characteristics and distribution of Listeria spp., including Listeria species newly described since 2009.

    PubMed

    Orsi, Renato H; Wiedmann, Martin

    2016-06-01

    The genus Listeria is currently comprised of 17 species, including 9 Listeria species newly described since 2009. Genomic and phenotypic data clearly define a distinct group of six species (Listeria sensu strictu) that share common phenotypic characteristics (e.g., ability to grow at low temperature, flagellar motility); this group includes the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. The other 11 species (Listeria sensu lato) represent three distinct monophyletic groups, which may warrant recognition as separate genera. These three proposed genera do not contain pathogens, are non-motile (except for Listeria grayi), are able to reduce nitrate (except for Listeria floridensis), and are negative for the Voges-Proskauer test (except for L. grayi). Unlike all other Listeria species, species in the proposed new genus Mesolisteria are not able to grow below 7 °C. While most new Listeria species have only been identified in a few countries, the availability of molecular tools for rapid characterization of putative Listeria isolates will likely lead to future identification of isolates representing these new species from different sources. Identification of Listeria sensu lato isolates has not only allowed for a better understanding of the evolution of Listeria and virulence characteristics in Listeria but also has practical implications as detection of Listeria species is often used by the food industry as a marker to detect conditions that allow for presence, growth, and persistence of L. monocytogenes. This review will provide a comprehensive critical summary of our current understanding of the characteristics and distribution of the new Listeria species with a focus on Listeria sensu lato. PMID:27129530

  7. Links between Genetic Groups, Indole Alkaloid Profiles and Ecology within the Grass-Parasitic Claviceps purpurea Species Complex

    PubMed Central

    Negård, Mariell; Uhlig, Silvio; Kauserud, Håvard; Andersen, Tom; Høiland, Klaus; Vrålstad, Trude

    2015-01-01

    The grass parasitic fungus Claviceps purpurea sensu lato produces sclerotia with toxic indole alkaloids. It constitutes several genetic groups with divergent habitat preferences that recently were delimited into separate proposed species. We aimed to 1) analyze genetic variation of C. purpurea sensu lato in Norway, 2) characterize the associated indole alkaloid profiles, and 3) explore relationships between genetics, alkaloid chemistry and ecology. Approximately 600 sclerotia from 14 different grass species were subjected to various analyses including DNA sequencing and HPLC-MS. Molecular results, supported by chemical and ecological data, revealed one new genetic group (G4) in addition to two of the three known; G1 (C. purpurea sensu stricto) and G2 (C. humidiphila). G3 (C. spartinae) was not found. G4, which was apparently con-specific with the recently described C. arundinis sp. nov, was predominantly found in very wet habitats on Molinia caerulea and infrequently in saline habitats on Leymus arenarius. Its indole-diterpene profile resembled G2, while its ergot alkaloid profile differed from G2 in high amounts of ergosedmam. In contrast to G1, indole-diterpenes were consistently present in G2 and G4. Our study supports and complements the newly proposed species delimitation of the C. purpurea complex, but challenges some species characteristics including host spectrum, habitat preferences and sclerotial floating ability. PMID:25928134

  8. Links between Genetic Groups, Indole Alkaloid Profiles and Ecology within the Grass-Parasitic Claviceps purpurea Species Complex.

    PubMed

    Negård, Mariell; Uhlig, Silvio; Kauserud, Håvard; Andersen, Tom; Høiland, Klaus; Vrålstad, Trude

    2015-05-01

    The grass parasitic fungus Claviceps purpurea sensu lato produces sclerotia with toxic indole alkaloids. It constitutes several genetic groups with divergent habitat preferences that recently were delimited into separate proposed species. We aimed to 1) analyze genetic variation of C. purpurea sensu lato in Norway, 2) characterize the associated indole alkaloid profiles, and 3) explore relationships between genetics, alkaloid chemistry and ecology. Approximately 600 sclerotia from 14 different grass species were subjected to various analyses including DNA sequencing and HPLC-MS. Molecular results, supported by chemical and ecological data, revealed one new genetic group (G4) in addition to two of the three known; G1 (C. purpurea sensu stricto) and G2 (C. humidiphila). G3 (C. spartinae) was not found. G4, which was apparently con-specific with the recently described C. arundinis sp. nov, was predominantly found in very wet habitats on Molinia caerulea and infrequently in saline habitats on Leymus arenarius. Its indole-diterpene profile resembled G2, while its ergot alkaloid profile differed from G2 in high amounts of ergosedmam. In contrast to G1, indole-diterpenes were consistently present in G2 and G4. Our study supports and complements the newly proposed species delimitation of the C. purpurea complex, but challenges some species characteristics including host spectrum, habitat preferences and sclerotial floating ability. PMID:25928134

  9. Further contributions to the Aleocharinae (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) fauna of New Brunswick and Canada including descriptions of 27 new species

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Klimaszewski, Jan; Bourdon, Caroline; Sweeney, Jon D.; Hughes, Cory C.; Labrecque, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper treats the discovery of new species and new records of aleocharine beetles for the province of New Brunswick. We report here 27 species new to science, one new North American record, six new Canadian records, and 29 new provincial records. The following are the new species: Acrotona brachyoptera Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Acrotona sphagnorum Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Atheta (Dimetrota) alphacrenuliventris Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Atheta (Dimetrota) chartersensis Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Atheta (Dimetrota) cranberriensis Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Atheta (Dimetrota) bubo Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Atheta (Dimetrota) mcalpinei Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Atheta (Dimetrota) makepeacei Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Atheta (Dimetrota) giguereae Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Atheta (Dimetrota) petitcapensis Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Atheta (sensu lato) pseudoschistoglossa Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Atheta (sensu lato) sphagnicola Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Atheta (sensu lato) thujae Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Atheta (Pseudota) pseudoklagesi Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Philhygra atypicalis Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Schistoglossa (Schistoglossa) pelletieri Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Thamiaraea corverae Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Thamiaraea claydeni Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Pleurotobia bourdonae Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Pleurotobia brunswickensis Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Agaricomorpha vincenti Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Gyrophaena (Gyrophaena) aldersonae Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Oligota polyporicola Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Oligota sevogle Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Hylota cryptica Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Oxypoda sunpokeana Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., and Phloeopora gilbertae Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n. The spermatheca of Dinaraea curtipenis Klimaszewski & Webster, Dinaraea longipenis Klimaszewski & Webster, and

  10. Identification and Characterization of Psychrotolerant Sporeformers Associated with Fluid Milk Production and Processing

    PubMed Central

    Ivy, Reid A.; Ranieri, Matthew L.; Martin, Nicole H.; den Bakker, Henk C.; Xavier, Bruno M.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Psychrotolerant spore-forming bacteria represent a major challenge to the goal of extending the shelf life of pasteurized dairy products. The objective of this study was to identify prominent phylogenetic groups of dairy-associated aerobic sporeformers and to characterize representative isolates for phenotypes relevant to growth in milk. Analysis of sequence data for a 632-nucleotide fragment of rpoB showed that 1,288 dairy-associated isolates (obtained from raw and pasteurized milk and from dairy farm environments) clustered into two major divisions representing (i) the genus Paenibacillus (737 isolates, including the species Paenibacillus odorifer, Paenibacillus graminis, and Paenibacillus amylolyticus sensu lato) and (ii) Bacillus (n = 467) (e.g., Bacillus licheniformis sensu lato, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus weihenstephanensis) and genera formerly classified as Bacillus (n = 84) (e.g., Viridibacillus spp.). When isolates representing the most common rpoB allelic types (ATs) were tested for growth in skim milk broth at 6°C, 6/9 Paenibacillus isolates, but only 2/8 isolates representing Bacillus subtypes, grew >5 log CFU/ml over 21 days. In addition, 38/40 Paenibacillus isolates but only 3/47 Bacillus isolates tested were positive for β-galactosidase activity (including some isolates representing Bacillus licheniformis sensu lato, a common dairy-associated clade). Our study confirms that Paenibacillus spp. are the predominant psychrotolerant sporeformers in fluid milk and provides 16S rRNA gene and rpoB subtype data and phenotypic characteristics facilitating the identification of aerobic spore-forming spoilage organisms of concern. These data will be critical for the development of detection methods and control strategies that will reduce the introduction of psychrotolerant sporeformers and extend the shelf life of dairy products. PMID:22247129

  11. Characterization and comparative genomic analysis of bacteriophages infecting members of the Bacillus cereus group.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Hoon; Shin, Hakdong; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2014-05-01

    The Bacillus cereus group phages infecting B. cereus, B. anthracis, and B. thuringiensis (Bt) have been studied at the molecular level and, recently, at the genomic level to control the pathogens B. cereus and B. anthracis and to prevent phage contamination of the natural insect pesticide Bt. A comparative phylogenetic analysis has revealed three different major phage groups with different morphologies (Myoviridae for group I, Siphoviridae for group II, and Tectiviridae for group III), genome size (group I > group II > group III), and lifestyle (virulent for group I and temperate for group II and III). A subsequent phage genome comparison using a dot plot analysis showed that phages in each group are highly homologous, substantiating the grouping of B. cereus phages. Endolysin is a host lysis protein that contains two conserved domains: a cell-wall-binding domain (CBD) and an enzymatic activity domain (EAD). In B. cereus sensu lato phage group I, four different endolysin groups have been detected, according to combinations of two types of CBD and four types of EAD. Group I phages have two copies of tail lysins and one copy of endolysin, but the functions of the tail lysins are still unknown. In the B. cereus sensu lato phage group II, the B. anthracis phages have been studied and applied for typing and rapid detection of pathogenic host strains. In the B. cereus sensu lato phage group III, the B. thuringiensis phages Bam35 and GIL01 have been studied to understand phage entry and lytic switch regulation mechanisms. In this review, we suggest that further study of the B. cereus group phages would be useful for various phage applications, such as biocontrol, typing, and rapid detection of the pathogens B. cereus and B. anthracis and for the prevention of phage contamination of the natural insect pesticide Bt. PMID:24264384

  12. Is the small mammal (Clethrionomys glareolus) or the tick vector (Ixodes ricinus) the primary overwintering reservoir for the Lyme borreliosis spirochete in Sweden?

    PubMed

    Tälleklint, L; Jaenson, T G

    1995-10-01

    We determined the capacity of bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) to infect feeding Ixodes ricinus ticks with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (infectivity), during June to October 1991 and June to September 1992 in south-central Sweden. In both years, the infectivity of older voles to ticks was higher in August to September (48% to 59%) than in June to July (20% to 32%). We propose that the infectivity of bank vole populations in Sweden decreases during winter and spring due to death of highly infective voles and recruitment of uninfective young ones, and that the tick vector, rather than the mammalian host, is the primary overwintering reservoir of B. burgdorferi. PMID:8592387

  13. A taxa summary for the Simulium damnosum complex, with special reference to distribution outside the control areas of West Africa.

    PubMed

    Crosskey, R W

    1987-04-01

    A synoptic list is provided of currently recognized taxa in the Simulium damnosum complex, with an indication of their geographical distributions. Outline maps are given for the distribution of S. damnosum sensu lato, and for the West African cytospecies of the complex. Short reports on the identities and distributions of member taxa are given for countries other than those of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River Basin (OCP) and its Senegambia Extension; these are mainly based on collation of published and unpublished data for the post-1976 period (since the last WHO Expert Committee Report on Onchocerciasis). PMID:3689026

  14. [Visitation of orchid by Melipona capixaba Moure & Camargo (Hymenoptera: Apidae), bee threatened with extinction].

    PubMed

    Resende, Helder C; Barros, Fábio de; Campos, Lúcio A O; Fernandes-Salomão, Tânia M

    2008-01-01

    The stingless bee Melipona capixaba Moure & Camargo is a species restricted to the Atlantic forest in the Domingos Martins, Conceição do Castelo, Venda Nova do Imigrante and Afonso Cláudio County, in the Espírito Santo State, Brazil. Despite its cological importance as pollinator few studies have examined the ecology and biology of this bee. This note relates a case of the M. capixaba workers carrying pollinarium attached to the scuttellum. The pollinaria were identified as belonging to the orchid subtribe Maxillariinae species possibly of the genus Maxillaria sensu lato or Xylobium. PMID:19061051

  15. PCR assay for identification of Anopheles quadriannulatus species B from Ethiopia and other sibling species of the Anopheles gambiae complex.

    PubMed

    Fettene, M; Koekemoer, L L; Hunt, R H; Coetzee, M

    2002-06-01

    Sibling species A and B of Anopheles quadriannulatus (Theobald) are recognized as allopatric members of the Anopheles gambiae Giles complex of Afrotropical mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Species A represents An. quadriannulatus sensu stricto, widespread in southern Africa, whereas An. quadriannulatus species B occurs in Ethiopia. Because of difficulty of identification, distribution of An. quadriannulatus sensu lato remains poorly known. Cytotaxonomy and the standard DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay do not distinguish between species A and B of An. quadriannulatus. By optimizing the standard PCR assay (Scott et al., 1993) for identification of members of the An. gambiae complex, we identified two discriminant fragments of 153 bp and 900 bp from DNA of An. quadriannulatus species B, whereas only the 153 bp fragment was amplified for species A from South Africa. This modified PCR assay can therefore be used to distinguish between species A and B of An. quadriannulatus s.l. as well as other members of the An. gambiae complex. PMID:12109717

  16. Genotypic Variation and Mixtures of Lyme Borrelia in Ixodes Ticks from North America and Europe

    PubMed Central

    Crowder, Chris D.; Matthews, Heather E.; Schutzer, Steven; Rounds, Megan A.; Luft, Benjamin J.; Nolte, Oliver; Campbell, Scott R.; Phillipson, Curtis A.; Li, Feng; Sampath, Ranga; Ecker, David J.; Eshoo, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Lyme disease, caused by various species of Borrelia, is transmitted by Ixodes ticks in North America and Europe. Studies have shown the genotype of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) or the species of B. burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) affects the ability of the bacteria to cause local or disseminated infection in humans. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a multilocus PCR electrospray mass spectrometry assay to determine the species and genotype Borrelia from ticks collected in New York, Connecticut, Indiana, Southern Germany, and California and characterized isolates from parts of the United States and Europe. These analyses identified 53 distinct genotypes of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto with higher resolution than ospC typing. Genotypes of other members of the B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex were also identified and genotyped including B. afzelii, B. garinii, B. lusitaniae, B. spielmanii, and B. valaisiana. While each site in North America had genotypes unique to that location, we found genotypes shared between individual regions and two genotypes found across the United States. Significant B. burgdorferi s.s. genotypic diversity was observed between North America and Europe: only 6.6% of US genotypes (3 of 45) were found in Europe and 27% of the European genotypes (3 of 11) were observed in the US. Interestingly, 39% of adult Ixodes scapularis ticks from North America were infected with more than one genotype of B. burgdorferi s.s. and 22.2% of Ixodes ricinus ticks from Germany were infected with more than one genotype of B. burgdorferi s.l. Conclusions/Significance The presence of multiple Borrelia genotypes in ticks increases the probability that a person will be infected with more than one genotype of B. burgdorferi, potentially increasing the risks of disseminated Lyme disease. Our study indicates that the genotypic diversity of Borrelia in ticks in both North America and Europe is higher then previously reported and can have

  17. The role of the Anaxagoras Mountain in the Miocene to Recent tectonic evolution of the eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbourne, Mark; Hall, Jeremy; Aksu, Ali; Çifçi, Günay

    2014-05-01

    The Anaximander Mountains are one of the many enigmatic structures situated along the morphologically and structurally complicated junction between the Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs, in the eastern Mediterranean. Interpretation of ~750 km of marine multi-channel seismic reflection data show that the present day Anaximander Mountains underwent several distinct phases of tectonic activity since Miocene. During the mid-late Miocene, a protracted, contractional tectonic regime produced the east-west trending, south-verging fold-thrust belt observed in the area. The Messinian was a period of relatively low tectonic activity, and is marked by the deposition of an evaporite layer. This phase lasted until the latest Miocene - earliest Pliocene, when a major erosional event associated with the Messinian salinity crisis occurred. Beginning in the early-mid Pliocene-Quaternary a transpressional and rotational tectonic regime prevailed over the area. The Anaximander Mountain (sensu stricto) and Anaximenes Mountain developed in the Pliocene-Quaternary associated with the reactivation, uplift and rotation of a linked, thick skinned pre-Messinian imbricate thrust fan. Back thrusting in the region accentuated the morphology of these mountains. The Anaxagoras Mountain differs both lithologically and morphologically from the Anaximander Mountain (sensu stricto) and the Anaximenes Mountain. It is probably developed associated with the emplacement of the ophiolitic Antalya Nappe Complex. Faulting in the Anaxagoras region is characterized by southwest striking thrust and/or oblique thrust faults. Due to the similarities in morphology between the Isparta Angle of southwestern Turkey and the Anaximander Mountains (sensu lato), it is hypothesized that the tectonic evolution of the two regions are similar in nature. The Anaximander Mountains (sensu lato) can thus be considered the offshore replication of the Isparta Angle, produced by similar mechanisms, but being of a younger age.

  18. Horizontal Transfer of Genetic Material among Saccharomyces Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Marinoni, Gaelle; Manuel, Martine; Petersen, Randi Føns; Hvidtfeldt, Jeanne; Sulo, Pavol; Piškur, Jure

    1999-01-01

    The genus Saccharomyces consists of several species divided into the sensu stricto and the sensu lato groups. The genomes of these species differ in the number and organization of nuclear chromosomes and in the size and organization of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). In the present experiments we examined whether these yeasts can exchange DNA and thereby create novel combinations of genetic material. Several putative haploid, heterothallic yeast strains were isolated from different Saccharomyces species. All of these strains secreted an a- or α-like pheromone recognized by S. cerevisiae tester strains. When interspecific crosses were performed by mass mating between these strains, hybrid zygotes were often detected. In general, the less related the two parental species were, the fewer hybrids they gave. For some crosses, viable hybrids could be obtained by selection on minimal medium and their nuclear chromosomes and mtDNA were examined. Often the frequency of viable hybrids was very low. Sometimes putative hybrids could not be propagated at all. In the case of sensu stricto yeasts, stable viable hybrids were obtained. These contained both parental sets of chromosomes but mtDNA from only one parent. In the case of sensu lato hybrids, during genetic stabilization one set of the parental chromosomes was partially or completely lost and the stable mtDNA originated from the same parent as the majority of the nuclear chromosomes. Apparently, the interspecific hybrid genome was genetically more or less stable when the genetic material originated from phylogenetically relatively closely related parents; both sets of nuclear genetic material could be transmitted and preserved in the progeny. In the case of more distantly related parents, only one parental set, and perhaps some fragments of the other one, could be found in genetically stabilized hybrid lines. The results obtained indicate that Saccharomyces yeasts have a potential to exchange genetic material. If Saccharomyces

  19. Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) malaria vectors in the municipality of Puerto Carreno, Vichada, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Pilar; Conn, Jan E.; Wirtz, Robert; Brochero, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The study of the biological aspects of Anopheles spp., strengthens the entomological surveillance. Objective To determine biological aspects and behavior of adult Anopheles mosquitoes in the urban area of Puerto Carreño municipality, Vichada, Colombia. Materials and methods Wild anophelines were collected landing on humans both indoors and outdoors between 18:00h and 06:00h for 50 min/h during two consecutive nights/month for eight months in the urban area of Puerto Carreño. The biting rate activity, the natural infection by Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax VK247 and VK210 using ELISA, and the annual entomological inoculation rate were determined for each species. The members of the Albitarsis complex were determined by amplificacion of the white gene by polymerase chain reaction. Results In order of abundance the species found were An. darlingi (n=1,166), An. marajoara sensu stricto (n=152), An. braziliensis (n=59), An. albitarsis F (n=25), An. albitarsis sensu lato (n=16), An. argyritarsis (n=3) and An. oswaldoi sensu lato (n=2). An. darlingi showed two activity peaks between 21:00 to 22:00 and 05:00 to 06:00 hours outdoors and between 21:00 to 22:00 and 04:00 to 05:00 indoors. Natural infection of this species was found with P. vivax VK210 and its annual entomological inoculation rate was 2. Natural infection of An marajoara sensu stricto with P. falciparum was found, with an annual entomological inoculation rate of 5 and a peak biting activity between 18:00 to 19:00 hrs both indoors and outdoors. Conclusion Transmission of malaria in the urban area of Puerto Carreño, Vichada, can occur by An. darlingi and An. marajoara s. s. PMID:23235809

  20. Molecular genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded preparations from human isolates in unusual tissue sites.

    PubMed

    Hizem, A; M'rad, S; Oudni-M'rad, M; Mestiri, S; Hammedi, F; Mezhoud, H; Zakhama, A; Mokni, M; Babba, H

    2016-07-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus remains a serious problem worldwide for issues relating to public health and the economy. The most predominantly affected sites are the liver and the lungs, but other organs such as the heart, the spleen and the peritoneum can also be infected. Access to cysts from uncommon sites has limited genomic and molecular investigations. In the present study, genotypes of E. granulosus sensu lato were identified from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues (FF-PETs) implicated in human CE. Tissue samples were obtained from 57 patients with histologically confirmed CE. DNA samples were analysed using Egss 1 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specific to the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene of E. granulosus sensu stricto. All cysts were typed as E. granulosus sensu stricto with up to 35% of the liver and 16.6% of lungs being the most frequently infected, and up to 48.4% of samples being from rare sites. No correlation was found between cyst site and either the gender or the age of patients. This study demonstrates the possibility of exploiting atypical cysts using FF-PET samples and highlights the predominance of E. granulosus sensu stricto species in the Tunisian population, even in unusual infection sites. PMID:26190231

  1. TOWARD A MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY FOR PEROMYSCUS: EVIDENCE FROM MITOCHONDRIAL CYTOCHROME-b SEQUENCES

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Robert D.; Durish, Nevin D.; Rogers, Duke S.; Miller, Jacqueline R.; Engstrom, Mark D.; Kilpatrick, C. William

    2009-01-01

    One hundred DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene of 44 species of deer mice (Peromyscus (sensu stricto), 1 of Habromys, 1 of Isthmomys, 2 of Megadontomys, and the monotypic genera Neotomodon, Osgoodomys, and Podomys were used to develop a molecular phylogeny for Peromyscus. Phylogenetic analyses (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference) were conducted to evaluate alternative hypotheses concerning taxonomic arrangements (sensu stricto versus sensu lato) of the genus. In all analyses, monophyletic clades were obtained that corresponded to species groups proposed by previous authors; however, relationships among species groups generally were poorly resolved. The concept of the genus Peromyscus based on molecular data differed significantly from the most current taxonomic arrangement. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian trees depicted strong support for a clade placing Habromys, Megadontomys, Neotomodon, Osgoodomys, and Podomys within Peromyscus. If Habromys, Megadontomys, Neotomodon, Osgoodomys, and Podomys are regarded as genera, then several species groups within Peromyscus (sensu stricto) should be elevated to generic rank. Isthmomys was associated with the genus Reithrodontomys; in turn this clade was sister to Baiomys, indicating a distant relationship of Isthmomys to Peromyscus. A formal taxonomic revision awaits synthesis of additional sequence data from nuclear markers together with inclusion of available allozymic and karyotypic data. PMID:19924266

  2. A multimarker phylogeography of crested newts (Triturus cristatus superspecies) reveals cryptic species.

    PubMed

    Wielstra, B; Baird, A B; Arntzen, J W

    2013-04-01

    The crested newt Triturus cristatus superspecies is composed of five recognized species. One of these, T. karelinii sensu lato, comprises three geographically structured mitochondrial DNA lineages: 'eastern', 'central' and 'western T. karelinii'. Genetic divergence among these lineages is comparable to that of recognized crested newt species, but morphologically they are indistinguishable. Here, we conduct a multimarker phylogeographical survey to explore the evolutionary independence of these mitochondrial DNA lineages and we include representatives of the other species to guide our interpretation of the results. All markers show distinct patterns when analyzed singly (as a phylogeny or haplotype network) and none of them sort haplotypes fully in line with species or mitochondrial DNA lineage. A multilocus approach (BAPS and *BEAST) on the other hand shows that not only the recognized species, but also the three mitochondrial DNA lineages represent discrete nuclear DNA gene pools. A mismatch is found in the northwest of Asiatic Turkey, where several populations identified as 'central T. karelinii' based on nuclear DNA possesses 'western T. karelinii' mitochondrial DNA. We invoke asymmetric mitochondrial DNA introgression to explain this pattern and support this with a historical biogeographical scenario. The three spatial groups in T. karelinii sensu lato should be regarded as distinct species. PMID:23353071

  3. Genetics of Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Brisson, Dustin; Drecktrah, Dan; Eggers, Christian H.; Samuels, D. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The spirochetes in the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies group cycle in nature between tick vectors and vertebrate hosts. The current assemblage of B. burgdorferi sensu lato, of which three species cause Lyme disease in humans, originated from a rapid species radiation that occurred near the origin of the clade. All of these species share a unique genome structure that is highly segmented and predominantly composed of linear replicons. One of the circular plasmids is a prophage that exists as several isoforms in each cell and can be transduced to other cells, likely contributing to an otherwise relatively anemic level of horizontal gene transfer, which nevertheless appears to be adequate to permit strong natural selection and adaptation in populations of B. burgdorferi. Although the molecular genetic toolbox is meager, several antibiotic-resistant mutants have been isolated, and the resistance alleles, as well as some exogenous genes, have been fashioned into markers to dissect gene function. Genetic studies have probed the role of the outer membrane lipoprotein OspC, which is maintained in nature by multiple niche polymorphisms and negative frequency-dependent selection. One of the most intriguing genetic systems in B. burgdorferi is vls recombination, which generates antigenic variation during infection of mammalian hosts. PMID:22974303

  4. Genetics of Cordyceps and related fungi.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Peng; Xia, Yongliang; Zhang, Siwei; Wang, Chengshu

    2013-04-01

    Ascomycete Cordyceps sensu lato consists of hundreds of species of fungi capable of infecting different insects. Species of these fungi are either valued traditional Chinese medicines or used for biocontrol of insect pests. Phylogenomic analysis indicated that fungal entomopathogenicity has evolved for multiple times, and the species of Cordyceps were diverged from the mycoparasite or plant endophyte. Relative to plant pathogens and saprophytes, Cordyceps species demonstrate characteristic genome expansions of proteases and chitinases that are used by the fungi to target insect cuticles. Only a single mating-type gene identified in the sequenced species of Cordyceps sensu lato indicates that these fungi are sexually heterothallic, but the gene structure of the mating-type loci and frequency in performing sexual cycle are considerably different between different species. Similar to the model fungus Neurospora crassa, Cordyceps and related fungi contain the full components for RNA interference pathways. However, the mechanism of repeat-induced point mutation varies between different fungi. Epigenetic rather than genetic alterations are majorly responsible for the frequent occurrence of culture degeneration in Cordyceps-related species. Future genetic and epigenetic studies of fungal sexuality controls and culture degeneration mechanisms will benefit the cost-effective applications of Cordyceps and related fungi in pharmaceuticals and agriculture. PMID:23435902

  5. Global epidemiology of sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Mochizuki, Takashi; Li, Shanshan

    2015-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is an endemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato. It has gained importance in recent years due to its worldwide prevalence, recognition of multiple cryptic species within the originally described species, and its distinctive ecology, distribution, and epidemiology across the globe. In this review, we describe the current knowledge of the taxonomy, ecology, prevalence, molecular epidemiology, and outbreaks due to S. schenckii sensu lato. Despite its omnipresence in the environment, this fungus has remarkably diverse modes of infection and distribution patterns across the world. We have delved into the nuances of how sporotrichosis is intimately linked to different forms of human activities, habitats, lifestyles, and environmental and zoonotic interactions. The purpose of this review is to stimulate discussion about the peculiarities of this unique fungal pathogen and increase the awareness of clinicians and microbiologists, especially in regions of high endemicity, to its emergence and evolving presentations and to kindle further research into understanding the unorthodox mechanisms by which this fungus afflicts different human populations. PMID:25526781

  6. Evidence of In Vivo Existence of Borrelia Biofilm in Borrelial Lymphocytomas.

    PubMed

    Sapi, E; Balasubramanian, K; Poruri, A; Maghsoudlou, J S; Socarras, K M; Timmaraju, A V; Filush, K R; Gupta, K; Shaikh, S; Theophilus, P A S; Luecke, D F; MacDonald, A; Zelger, B

    2016-03-01

    Lyme borreliosis, caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, has grown into a major public health problem. We recently identified a novel morphological form of B. burgdorferi, called biofilm, a structure that is well known to be highly resistant to antibiotics. However, there is no evidence of the existence of Borrelia biofilm in vivo; therefore, the main goal of this study was to determine the presence of Borrelia biofilm in infected human skin tissues. Archived skin biopsy tissues from borrelial lymphocytomas (BL) were reexamined for the presence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato using Borrelia-specific immunohistochemical staining (IHC), fluorescent in situ hybridization, combined fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)-IHC, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and fluorescent and atomic force microscopy methods. Our morphological and histological analyses showed that significant amounts of Borrelia-positive spirochetes and aggregates exist in the BL tissues. Analyzing structures positive for Borrelia showed that aggregates, but not spirochetes, expressed biofilm markers such as protective layers of different mucopolysaccharides, especially alginate. Atomic force microscopy revealed additional hallmark biofilm features of the Borrelia/alginate-positive aggregates such as inside channels and surface protrusions. In summary, this is the first study that demonstrates the presence of Borrelia biofilm in human infected skin tissues. PMID:27141311

  7. Rhizospheric bacteria of maize with potential for biocontrol of Fusarium verticillioides.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-López, Alejandro Miguel; Cordero-Ramírez, Jesús Damián; Martínez-Álvarez, Juan Carlos; López-Meyer, Melina; Lizárraga-Sánchez, Glenda Judith; Félix-Gastélum, Rubén; Castro-Martínez, Claudia; Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    The stalk, ear and root rot (SERR) of maize caused by Fusarium verticillioides (Fv) severely impacts crop production in tropical and subtropical regions. The aim of the present work was to screen bacterial isolates in order to find novel native biocontrol agents against Fv. A culturable bacterial collection consisting of 11,520 isolates enriched in Firmicutes and Proteobacteria was created from rhizosphere samples taken from SERR symptomatic or asymptomatic maize plants. The complete collection was screened for potential activity against Fv using a liquid antagonism assay followed by dual cultures in solid medium, selecting for 42 bacteria (Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Paenibacillus) that inhibit Fv growth (>45 %). In planta assays demonstrated that three Bacillus isolates: B. megaterium (B5), B. cereus sensu lato (B25) and Bacillus sp. (B35) displayed the highest antagonistic activity against Fv. Pot experiments performed in a greenhouse with Bacillus cereus sensu lato B25 confirmed these findings and showed a reduction of Fv disease severity and incidence on plants. Antagonistic activity analysis revealed that these strains produce glucanases, proteases or chitinases, as well as siderophores and auxins and suggests these as possible control mechanisms against Fv. PMID:27066355

  8. A serological and molecular survey of Babesia vogeli, Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia spp. among dogs in the state of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Andréa Pereira; Costa, Francisco Borges; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Silveira, Iara; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Soares, João Fábio; Spolidorio, Mariana Granziera; Guerra, Rita de Maria Seabra Nogueira de Candanedo

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated exposure and infection by tick-borne agents (Babesia vogeli, Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia spp.) in 172 dogs in rural areas and 150 dogs in urban areas of the municipality of Chapadinha, state of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil, using molecular and serological methods. Overall, 16.1% of the sampled dogs (52/322) were seroreactive to B. vogeli, with endpoint titers ranging from 40 to 640. For E. canis, 14.6% of the dogs (47/322) were seroreactive, with endpoint titers from 80 to 163,840. Antibodies reactive to at least one of the five species of Rickettsia were detected in 18.9% of the dogs (61/322), with endpoint titers ranging from 64 to 4,096. High endpoint titers were observed for Rickettsia amblyommii. Three (0.9%) and nine (2.8%) canine blood samples were PCR-positive for Babesia spp. and E. canis. The ticks collected from urban dogs were all Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, whereas the rural dogs were infested by R. sanguineus s.l, Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato and Amblyomma ovale. One A. ovale tick was found to be infected by Rickettsia bellii. This study provides an epidemiological background for controlling and preventing canine tick-borne diseases in a neglected region of Brazil. PMID:25909250

  9. A survey of tick-borne pathogens in dogs and their ticks in the Pantanal biome, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Melo, A L T; Witter, R; Martins, T F; Pacheco, T A; Alves, A S; Chitarra, C S; Dutra, V; Nakazato, L; Pacheco, R C; Labruna, M B; Aguiar, D M

    2016-03-01

    Tick and blood samples collected from domestic dogs in the Brazilian Pantanal were tested by molecular methods for the presence of tick-borne protozoa and bacteria. Among 320 sampled dogs, 3.13% were infected by Babesia vogeli (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae), 8.75% by Hepatozoon canis (Eucoccidiorida: Hepatozoidae), 7.19% by Anaplasma platys (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), and 0.94% by an unclassified Anaplasma sp. In three tick species collected from dogs, the following tick-borne agents were detected: (a) B. vogeli, An. platys and Ehrlichia canis (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), infecting Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks; (b) H. canis, an unclassified Anaplasma sp. and Rickettsia amblyommii (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), infecting Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks, and (c) Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, an emerging human pathogen, infecting Amblyomma ovale ticks. Molecular analysis, based on a mitochondrial gene, revealed that the Am. cajennense s.l. ticks of the present study corresponded to Amblyomma sculptum, a member of the Am. cajennense species complex, and that Rh. sanguineus s.l. belonged to the tropical lineage. Whereas dogs are exposed to a number of tick-borne bacterial and protozoan agents in the Pantanal biome, humans are potentially exposed to infection by spotted fever group rickettsiae (e.g. R. amblyommii and Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest) because both Am. sculptum and Am. ovale are among the most important human-biting ticks in Brazil. PMID:26467462

  10. Nosocomial candidiasis in Rio de Janeiro State: Distribution and fluconazole susceptibility profile.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Paulo Murillo; Melhem, Marcia de Souza Carvalho; Szeszs, Maria Walderez; Ribeiro, Marcos Dornelas; Amorim, Efigênia de Lourdes Teixeira; da Silva, Manuela; Lazéra, Marcia dos Santos

    2015-06-01

    One hundred and forty-one Candida species isolated from clinical specimens of hospitalized patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during 2002 to 2007, were analized in order to evaluate the distribution and susceptibility of these species to fluconazole. Candida albicans was the most frequent species (45.4%), followed by C. parapsilosis sensu lato (28.4%), C. tropicalis (14.2%), C. guilliermondii (6.4%), C. famata (2.8%), C. glabrata (1.4%), C. krusei (0.7%) and C. lambica (0.7%). The sources of fungal isolates were blood (47.5%), respiratory tract (17.7%), urinary tract (16.3%), skin and mucous membrane (7.1%), catheter (5.6%), feces (2.1%) and mitral valve tissue (0.7%). The susceptibility test was performed using the methodology of disk-diffusion in agar as recommended in the M44-A2 Document of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The majority of the clinical isolates (97.2%) was susceptible (S) to fluconazole, although three isolates (2.1%) were susceptible-dose dependent (S-DD) and one of them (0.7%) was resistant (R). The S-DD isolates were C. albicans, C. parapsilosis sensu lato and C. tropicalis. One isolate of C. krusei was resistant to fluconazole. This work documents the high susceptibility to fluconazole by Candida species isolated in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:26273262

  11. Naturally occurring entomopathogenic fungi infecting stored grain insect species in Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Wakil, Waqas; Usman Ghazanfar, Muhammad; Yasin, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi isolated from stored grain insect pests sampled from various geographical regions of Punjab, Pakistan, was investigated. In total, 25,720 insects from six different species were evaluated, and 195 isolates from 24 different fungal species were recovered. These included the Ascomycetes Beauveria bassiana sensu lato (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thorn) Samson (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae), and Lecanicillium attenuatum (Zare and W. Gams) (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). The cadavers of red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) were significantly infected with the fungi followed by rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), rusty grain beetle Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Cucujidae), and cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae); however, the least were recovered from khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium (Everts) (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). The geographical attributes (altitude, longitude, and latitude) greatly influenced the occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi with highest number of isolates found from >400 (m) altitude, 33°-34' N latitude, and 73°-74' E longitude. The findings of the current surveys clearly indicated that the entomopathogenic fungi are widely distributed in the insect cadavers, which may later be used in successful Integrated Pest Management programs. PMID:25480970

  12. Leptospirosis in pigs, dogs, rodents, humans, and water in an area of the Colombian tropics.

    PubMed

    Calderón, Alfonso; Rodríguez, Virginia; Máttar, Salim; Arrieta, Germán

    2014-02-01

    Leptospirosis is a reemerging zoonosis of global distribution and is one of the causes of hemorrhagic fevers in the tropics. We sought to determine seroprevalence in humans and animals and isolate Leptospira interrogans sensu lato in domestic animals, rodents, and water sources. The study was conducted in a tropical area of the middle Sinú in Cordoba, Colombia. In a prospective descriptive study, we collected blood and urine from pigs and dogs, sera from rural human workers, sera and kidney macerates of rodents, and water samples from environmental sources. We used microagglutination to screen for antibodies to 13 serovars. Strains were cultured on the Ellinghausen-McCullough-Johnson-Harris medium and confirmed by PCR amplifying lipL32 gene. Seroprevalence was 55.9% in pigs, 35.2% in dogs, and 75.8% in humans; no antibody was detected, and no Leptospira were isolated from kidney macerates of rodents. Seven L. interrogans sensu lato strains were isolated: three from pigs, two from dogs, and two from water. High seroprevalence in pigs, dogs, and humans, concomitant to isolation of strains, demonstrates that in Cordoba, transmission exists among animals, the environment, and humans, which warrants the implementation of public health intervention measures to reduce the epidemiological impact of leptospirosis in the region. PMID:24254419

  13. Evidence of In Vivo Existence of Borrelia Biofilm in Borrelial Lymphocytomas

    PubMed Central

    Sapi, E.; Balasubramanian, K.; Poruri, A.; Maghsoudlou, J. S.; Socarras, K. M.; Timmaraju, A. V.; Filush, K. R.; Gupta, K.; Shaikh, S.; Theophilus, P. A. S.; Luecke, D. F.; MacDonald, A.; Zelger, B.

    2016-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis, caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, has grown into a major public health problem. We recently identified a novel morphological form of B. burgdorferi, called biofilm, a structure that is well known to be highly resistant to antibiotics. However, there is no evidence of the existence of Borrelia biofilm in vivo; therefore, the main goal of this study was to determine the presence of Borrelia biofilm in infected human skin tissues. Archived skin biopsy tissues from borrelial lymphocytomas (BL) were reexamined for the presence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato using Borrelia-specific immunohistochemical staining (IHC), fluorescent in situ hybridization, combined fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)–IHC, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and fluorescent and atomic force microscopy methods. Our morphological and histological analyses showed that significant amounts of Borrelia-positive spirochetes and aggregates exist in the BL tissues. Analyzing structures positive for Borrelia showed that aggregates, but not spirochetes, expressed biofilm markers such as protective layers of different mucopolysaccharides, especially alginate. Atomic force microscopy revealed additional hallmark biofilm features of the Borrelia/alginate-positive aggregates such as inside channels and surface protrusions. In summary, this is the first study that demonstrates the presence of Borrelia biofilm in human infected skin tissues. PMID:27141311

  14. Parasites in harbour seals ( Phoca vitulina) from the German Wadden Sea between two Phocine Distemper Virus epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, K.; Raga, J. A.; Siebert, U.

    2007-12-01

    Parasites were collected from 107 harbour seals ( Phoca vitulina) found on the coasts of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, between 1997 and 2000. The prevalence of the parasites and their associated pathology were investigated. Eight species of parasites, primarily nematodes, were identified from the examined organs: two anisakid nematodes ( Pseudoterranova decipiens (sensu lato) , Contracaecum osculatum (sensu lato)) from the stomach, Otostrongylus circumlitus (Crenosomatidae) and Parafilaroides gymnurus (Filaroididae) from the respiratory tract, one filarioid nematode ( Acanthocheilonema spirocauda) from the heart, two acanthocephalans, Corynosoma strumosum and C. semerme (Polymorphidae), from the intestine and an ectoparasite, Echinophthirius horridus (Anoplura, Insecta). Lungworm infection was the most prominent parasitological finding and secondary bacterial bronchopneumonia the most pathogenic lesion correlated with the parasites. Heavy nematode burdens in the respiratory tract were highly age-related and more frequent in young seals. A positive correlation was observed between high levels of pulmonary infection and severity of bronchopneumonia. The prevalence of lungworms in this study was higher than in seals that died during the 1988/1989 Phocine Distemper Virus epidemic, and the prevalence of acanthocephalans and heartworms had decreased compared to findings from the first die-off.

  15. Ophiostoma species (Ascomycetes: Ophiostomatales) associated with bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) colonizing Pinus radiata in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Romón, Pedro; Zhou, XuDong; Iturrondobeitia, Juan Carlos; Wingfield, Michael J; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2007-06-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) are known to be associated with fungi, especially species of Ophiostoma sensu lato and Ceratocystis. However, very little is known about these fungi in Spain. In this study, we examined the fungi associated with 13 bark beetle species and one weevil (Coleoptera: Entiminae) infesting Pinus radiata in the Basque Country of northern Spain. This study included an examination of 1323 bark beetles or their galleries in P. radiata. Isolations yielded a total of 920 cultures, which included 16 species of Ophiostoma sensu lato or their asexual states. These 16 species included 69 associations between fungi and bark beetles and weevils that have not previously been recorded. The most commonly encountered fungal associates of the bark beetles were Ophiostoma ips, Leptographium guttulatum, Ophiostoma stenoceras, and Ophiostoma piceae. In most cases, the niche of colonization had a significant effect on the abundance and composition of colonizing fungi. This confirms that resource overlap between species is reduced by partial spatial segregation. Interaction between niche and time seldom had a significant effect, which suggests that spatial colonization patterns are rarely flexible throughout timber degradation. The differences in common associates among the bark beetle species could be linked to the different niches that these beetles occupy. PMID:17668036

  16. Delimitation of Neonectria and Cylindrocarpon (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota) and related genera with Cylindrocarpon-like anamorphs.

    PubMed

    Chaverri, P; Salgado, C; Hirooka, Y; Rossman, A Y; Samuels, G J

    2011-01-01

    Neonectria is a cosmopolitan genus and it is, in part, defined by its link to the anamorph genus Cylindrocarpon. Neonectria has been divided into informal groups on the basis of combined morphology of anamorph and teleomorph. Previously, Cylindrocarpon was divided into four groups defined by presence or absence of microconidia and chlamydospores. Molecular phylogenetic analyses have indicated that Neonectriasensu stricto and Cylindrocarponsensu stricto are phylogenetically congeneric. In addition, morphological and molecular data accumulated over several years have indicated that Neonectria sensu lato and Cylindrocarponsensu lato do not form a monophyletic group and that the respective informal groups may represent distinct genera. In the present work, a multilocus analysis (act, ITS, LSU, rpb1, tef1, tub) was applied to representatives of the informal groups to determine their level of phylogenetic support as a first step towards taxonomic revision of Neonectriasensu lato. Results show five distinct highly supported clades that correspond to some extent with the informal Neonectria and Cylindrocarpon groups that are here recognised as genera: (1) N. coccinea-group and Cylindrocarpon groups 1 & 4 (Neonectria/Cylindrocarponsensu stricto); (2) N.rugulosa-group (Rugonectria gen. nov.); (3) N. mammoidea/N. veuillotiana-groups and Cylindrocarpon group 2 (Thelonectria gen. nov.); (4) N. radicicola-group and Cylindrocarpon group 3 (Ilyonectria gen. nov.); and (5) anamorph genus Campylocarpon. Characteristics of the anamorphs and teleomorphs correlate with the five genera, three of which are newly described. New combinations are made for species where their classification is confirmed by phylogenetic data. PMID:21523189

  17. Members of the Candida parapsilosis Complex and Candida albicans are Differentially Recognized by Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Mata, Eine; Navarro-Arias, María J.; Pérez-García, Luis A.; Mellado-Mojica, Erika; López, Mercedes G.; Csonka, Katalin; Gacser, Attila; Mora-Montes, Héctor M.

    2016-01-01

    The systemic infections caused by members of the Candida parapsilosis complex are currently associated to high morbility and mortality rates, and are considered as relevant as those caused by Candida albicans. Since the fungal cell wall is the first point of contact with the host cells, here we performed a comparison of this organelle in members of the C. parapsilosis complex, and its relevance during interaction with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We found that the wall of the C. parapsilosis complex members is similar in composition, but differs to that from C. albicans, with less mannan content and more β-glucan and porosity levels. Furthermore, lectin-based analysis showed increased chitin and β1,3-glucan exposure at the surface of C. parapsilosis sensu lato when compared to C. albicans. Yeast cells of members of the C. parapsilosis complex stimulated more cytokine production by human PBMCs than C. albicans cells; and this significantly changed upon removal of O-linked mannans, indicating this wall component plays a significant role in cytokine stimulation by C. parapsilosis sensu lato. When inner wall components were exposed on the wall surface, C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and C. metapsilosis, but not C. orthopsilosis, stimulated higher cytokine production. Moreover, we found a strong dependency on β1,3-glucan recognition for the members of the C. parapsilosis complex, but not for live C. albicans cells; whereas TLR4 was required for TNFα production by the three members of the complex, and stimulation of IL-6 by C. orthopsilosis. Mannose receptor had a significant role during TNFα and IL-1β stimulation by members of the complex. Finally, we demonstrated that purified N- and O-mannans from either C. parapsilosis sensu lato or C. albicans are capable to block the recognition of these pathogens by human PBMCs. Together; our results suggest that the innate immune recognition of the members of the C. parapsilosis complex is differential

  18. Labellar Micromorphology of Two Euglossine-pollinated Orchid Genera; Scuticaria Lindl. and Dichaea Lindl.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Kevin L.; Stpiczyńska, Malgorzata

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Until recently, there was no consensus regarding the phylogenetic relationships of the Neotropical orchid genera Scuticaria Lindl. and Dichaea Lindl. However, recent evidence derived from both gross morphological and molecular studies supports the inclusion of Scuticaria and Dichaea in sub-tribes Maxillariinae and Zygopetalinae, respectively. The present paper describes the labellar micromorphology of both genera and seeks to establish whether labellar characters support the assignment of Scuticaria and Dichaea to these sub-tribes. Methods The labella of four species of Scuticaria and 14 species of Dichaea were examined using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and their micromorphology was compared with that of representative species of Maxillariinae sensu lato and Zygopetalinae (Huntleya clade). Key Results and Conclusions In most specimens of Scuticaria examined, the papillose labella bear uniseriate, multicellular, unbranched trichomes. However, in S. steelii (Lindl.) Lindl., branched hairs may also be present and some trichomes may fragment and form pseudopollen. Multicellular, leaf-like scales were also present in one species of Scuticaria. Similar, unbranched hairs are present in certain species of Maxillaria Ruiz & Pav. (Maxillariinae sensu stricto) and Chaubardia Rchb.f. (Huntleya clade). As yet, moniliform, pseudopollen-forming hairs have not been observed for Zygopetalinae, but their presence in Scuticaria steelii, Maxillaria and Heterotaxis Lindl. supports the placing of Scuticaria in Maxillariinae. As other genera are sampled, the presence of branched hairs, hitherto unknown for Maxillariinae sensu lato, may prove to be a useful character in taxonomy and phylogenetic studies. Euglossophily occurs in Dichaea, as well as Chondrorhyncha Lindl. and Pescatorea Rchb.f. (Huntleya clade), and all three genera tend to lack distinctive labellar features. Instead, lip micromorphology is relatively simple and glabrous or

  19. Zwicknia gen. n., a new genus for the Capnia bifrons species group, with descriptions of three new species based on morphology, drumming signals and molecular genetics, and a synopsis of the West Palaearctic and Nearctic genera of Capniidae (Plecoptera).

    PubMed

    Murányi, Dávid; Gamboa, Maribet; Orci, Kirill Márk

    2014-01-01

    Zwicknia Murányi, gen. n. is erected for the Capnia bifrons species group sensu Zhiltzova, 2001 with the description of three new species based on morphology, mating call, and the mitochondrial DNA marker cytochrome c oxidase I: Z. acuta Murányi & Orci, sp. n., Z. kovacsi Murányi & Gamboa, sp. n. and Z. rupprechti Murányi, Orci & Gamboa, sp. n.. Zwicknia bifrons (Newman, 1838) comb. n. is selected as the type species and redescribed. The other three species placed into Zwicknia, gen. n., Z. sevanica (Zhiltzova, 1964) comb. n., Z. tuberculata (Zhiltzova, 1964) comb. n., and Z. turkestanica (Kimmins, 1950) comb. n. are redescribed based only on morphological characters. Comparative morphological studies and newly discovered characters of the genitalia has allowed for the first time a synopsis of the adults of the West Palaearctic and Nearctic genera of Capniidae. Arsapnia Banks, 1897 (type species: A. decepta Banks, 1897 comb. rev.) is removed from synonymy with Capnia Pictet, 1841 with new combinations, Arsapnia arapahoe (Nelson & Kondratieff, 1988) comb. n., A. coyote (Nelson & Baumann, 1987) comb. n., A. pileata (Jewett, 1966) comb. n., A. sequoia (Nelson & Baumann, 1987) comb. n., A. teresa (Claassen, 1924) comb. n., A. tumida (Claassen, 1924) comb. n., and A. utahensis (Gaufin & Jewett, 1962) comb. n. A new sensu stricto diagnosis of Capnia is proposed with comments on the taxa retained in Capnia sensu lato. PMID:24943267

  20. Phylogenetic relationships within caniform carnivores based on analyses of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene.

    PubMed

    Ledje, C; Arnason, U

    1996-12-01

    The complete 12S rRNA gene of 32 carnivore species, including four feliforms and 28 caniforms, was sequenced. The sequences were aligned on the basis of their secondary structures and used in phylogenetic analyses that addressed several evolutionary relationships within the Caniformia. The analyses showed an unresolved polytomy of the basic caniform clades; pinnipeds, mustelids, procyonids, skunks, Ailurus (lesser panda), ursids, and canids. The polytomy indicates a major diversification of caniforms during a relatively short period of time. The lesser panda was distinct from other caniforms, suggesting its inclusion in a monotypic family, Ailuridae. The giant panda and the bears were joined on the same branch. The skunks are traditionally included in the family Mustelidae. The present analysis, however, showed a less close molecular relationship between the skunks and the remaining Mustelidae (sensu stricto) than between Mustelidae (sensu stricto) and Procyonidae, making Mustelidae (sensu lato) paraphyletic. The results suggest that the skunks should be included in a separate family, Mephitidae. Within the Pinnipedia, the grouping of walrus, sea lions, and fur seals was strongly supported. Analyses of a combined set of 12S rRNA and cytochrome b data were generally consistent with the findings based on each gene. PMID:8995061

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of nlpH, encoding a novel, surface-exposed, polymorphic, plasmid-encoded 33-kilodalton lipoprotein of Borrelia afzelii.

    PubMed Central

    Theisen, M

    1996-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato organisms, comprising B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia garinii, are tick-borne pathogens causing Lyme borreliosis in humans. To identify putative virulence determinants, a B. afzelii DNA library was screened for Congo red dye binding, a property associated with virulence in pathogenic bacteria. One clone was found to carry a 663-nucleotide-long open reading frame encoding a Congo red dye-binding protein with a calculated molecular mass of 25,660 Da. The amino acid sequence deduced from its nucleotide sequence was found to include a consensus bacterial lipidation site present at residues 15 to 18 (Leu-Ser-Gly-Cys). The lipoprotein nature was demonstrated by incorporation of radioactive palmitate; hence, this protein has been termed NlpH, for new lipoprotein H. NlpH is located on the surface of B. afzelii, and the nlpH gene is found on a circular plasmid. The nlpH gene is also found in B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. garinii. Immediately upstream of nlpH is located a smaller reading frame encoding a polypeptide containing the casein kinase II phosphorylation recognition sequence, (Ser/Thr)-X-Y-(Glu/Asp), repeated 10 times. PMID:8932298

  2. Variation and diversity in Homo erectus: a 3D geometric morphometric analysis of the temporal bone.

    PubMed

    Terhune, Claire E; Kimbel, William H; Lockwood, Charles A

    2007-07-01

    Although the level of taxonomic diversity within the fossil hominin species Homo erectus (sensu lato) is continually debated, there have been relatively few studies aiming to quantify the morphology of this species. Instead, most researchers have relied on qualitative descriptions or the evaluation of nonmetric characters, which in many cases display continuous variation. Also, only a few studies have used quantitative data to formally test hypotheses regarding the taxonomic composition of the "erectus" hypodigm. Despite these previous analyses, however, and perhaps in part due to these varied approaches for assessing variation within specimens typically referred to H. erectus (sensu lato) and the general lack of rigorous statistical testing of how variation within this taxon is partitioned, there is currently little consensus regarding whether this group is a single species, or whether it should instead be split into separate temporal or geographically delimited taxa. In order to evaluate possible explanations for variation within H. erectus, we tested the general hypothesis that variation within the temporal bone morphology of H. erectus is consistent with that of a single species, using great apes and humans as comparative taxa. Eighteen three-dimensional (3D) landmarks of the temporal bone were digitized on a total of 520 extant and fossil hominid crania. Landmarks were registered by Generalized Procrustes Analysis, and Procrustes distances were calculated for comparisons of individuals within and between the extant taxa. Distances between fossil specimens and between a priori groupings of fossils were then compared to the distances calculated within the extant taxa to assess the variation within the H. erectus sample relative to that of known species, subspecies, and populations. Results of these analyses indicate that shape variation within the entire H. erectus sample is generally higher than extant hominid intraspecific variation, and putative H. ergaster

  3. First molecular evidence of Hepatozoon canis infection in red foxes and golden jackals from Hungary

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, Hepatozoon canis infection has been detected among shepherd, hunting and stray dogs in the southern part of Hungary, which is considered to be free of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and close to the border with Croatia. The aim of this study was to acquire information on the possibility that red foxes and/or golden jackals could play a role in the appearance and spread of H. canis in Hungary. Methods A conventional PCR was used to amplify a 666 bp long fragment of the Hepatozoon 18S rRNA gene from blood samples collected from 334 foxes shot in 231 locations in 16 counties and 15 golden jackals shot in 9 locations in two southwestern counties close to Croatia. A second PCR assay was performed in some of the samples positive by the first PCR to amplify a larger segment (approximately 1500 bp) of the 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. for further phylogenetic analysis. Results Hepatozoon infection was detected in canids shot in 30 locations and 9 counties. Altogether 26 foxes (8.0%, 95% CI: 5-11%) and 9 jackals (60%, 95% CI: 33-81%) were PCR positive. Hepatozoon canis sequences were obtained from 12 foxes and 7 jackals. DNA sequences from 16 animals were 99-100% similar to H. canis from Croatian foxes or dogs while two of the sequences were 99% similar to an Italian fox. Half (13/26) of the infected red foxes and all golden jackals were shot in the two southwestern counties. Conclusions This is the first report on molecular evidence of H. canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (Canis aureus) from Hungary, which is considered free from the tick vector of H. canis, R. sanguineus. Although no R. sanguineus sensu lato had been found on infected or non-infected wild canids, the detection of authochnous canine hepatozoonosis in Hungary might imply that the range of R. sanguineus sensu lato has reached this country. PMID:24985073

  4. Camarosporium arezzoensis on Cytisus sp., an addition to sexual state of Camarosporium sensu stricto

    PubMed Central

    Tibpromma, Saowaluck; Wijayawardene, Nalin N.; Manamgoda, Dimuthu S.; Boonmee, Saranyaphat; Wanasinghe, Dhanushka N.; Camporesi, Erio; Yang, Jun-Bo; Hyde, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    During a study of saprobic fungi from Bagno di Cetica Province, Italy, we collected a pleosporoid ascomycete on stems of Cytisus sp. In morphology, our collection is similar to Cucurbitaria species, but molecular analysis of SSU, LSU and ITS genes reveals it can be referred to Camarosporium. In this study we compare all other Cucurbitaria species from Cytisus sp. and based on both morphology and molecular data, we introduce our collection as a new species in Camarosporium viz. C. arezzoensis. PMID:26858532

  5. Genome Sequencing and Comparative Analysis of the Biocontrol Agent Trichoderma harzianum sensu stricto TR274

    SciTech Connect

    Steindorff, Andrei S.; Noronha, Elilane F.; Ulhoa, Cirano J.; Kuo, Alan; Salamov, Asaf A.; Haridas, Sajeet; Riley, Robert W.; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Kubicek, Christian P.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2015-03-17

    Biological control is a complex process which requires many mechanisms and a high diversity of biochemical pathways. The species of Trichoderma harzianum are well known for their biocontrol activity against many plant pathogens. To gain new insights into the biocontrol mechanism used by T. harzianum, we sequenced the isolate TR274 genome using Illumina. The assembly was performed using AllPaths-LG with a maximum coverage of 100x. The assembly resulted in 2282 contigs with a N50 of 37033bp. The genome size generated was 40.8 Mb and the GC content was 47.7%, similar to other Trichoderma genomes. Using the JGI Annotation Pipeline we predicted 13,932 genes with a high transcriptome support. CEGMA tests suggested 100% genome completeness and 97.9% of RNA-SEQ reads were mapped to the genome. The phylogenetic comparison using orthologous proteins with all Trichoderma genomes sequenced at JGI, corroborates the Trichoderma (T. asperellum and T. atroviride), Longibrachiatum (T. reesei and T. longibrachiatum) and Pachibasium (T. harzianum and T. virens) section division described previously. The comparison between two Trichoderma harzianum species suggests a high genome similarity but some strain-specific expansions. Analyses of the secondary metabolites, CAZymes, transporters, proteases, transcription factors were performed. The Pachybasium section expanded virtually all categories analyzed compared with the other sections, specially Longibrachiatum section, that shows a clear contraction. These results suggests that these proteins families have an important role in their respective phenotypes. Future analysis will improve the understanding of this complex genus and give some insights about its lifestyle and the interactions with the environment.

  6. Comparative karyotypic analysis in the Alstroemeria hookeri Lodd. (Alstroemeriaceae) complex sensu Bayer (1987).

    PubMed

    Baeza, Carlos; Ruiz, Eduardo; Negritto, María

    2010-01-01

    Alstroemeria L. (Alstroemeriaceae) is an American genus of monocots with two principal distribution centers in Chile and Brazil. In Chile, it is represented by about 32 species, most of them in central Chile, an area known for its high level of endemism. The "complex" Alstroemeriahookeri is endemic to Chile, where it is distributed from the Coquimbo to the Bío-Bío Region. We analyzed the karyotypes of 36 populations of this complex along its natural distribution. Ten metaphases per population were used for chromosome measurements. All analyzed subspecies presented a well defined asymmetric karyotype. The populations of A. hookeri subsp. hookeri collected in the coastal range of the Bío-Bío Region and the populations from the Central Valley of this Region (Pangal del Laja) presented striking morphological differences in the karyotype, mainly on chromosome 3. The population of A. hookeri subsp. recumbens from Pichicuy showed a polymorphism on chromosome 7, which differed from the other analyzed populations of this subspecies. Phenetic analysis suggested that A. hookeri subsp. cummingiana, which showed a more symmetrical karyotype and did not grow in sandy soil, should be alocated to A. cummingiana rather than considered as part of the hookeri complex. PMID:21637614

  7. Visual and olfactory associative learning in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Memory and learning are critical aspects of the ecology of insect vectors of human pathogens because of their potential effects on contacts between vectors and their hosts. Despite this epidemiological importance, there have been only a limited number of studies investigating associative learning in insect vector species and none on Anopheline mosquitoes. Methods A simple behavioural assays was developed to study visual and olfactory associative learning in Anopheles gambiae, the main vector of malaria in Africa. Two contrasted membrane qualities or levels of blood palatability were used as reinforcing stimuli for bi-directional conditioning during blood feeding. Results Under such experimental conditions An. gambiae females learned very rapidly to associate visual (chequered and white patterns) and olfactory cues (presence and absence of cheese or Citronella smell) with the reinforcing stimuli (bloodmeal quality) and remembered the association for up to three days. Associative learning significantly increased with the strength of the conditioning stimuli used. Importantly, learning sometimes occurred faster when a positive reinforcing stimulus (palatable blood) was associated with an innately preferred cue (such as a darker visual pattern). However, the use of too attractive a cue (e.g. Shropshire cheese smell) was counter-productive and decreased learning success. Conclusions The results address an important knowledge gap in mosquito ecology and emphasize the role of associative memory for An. gambiae's host finding and blood-feeding behaviour with important potential implications for vector control. PMID:22284012

  8. Seed dispersal and predation of Buchenavia tomentosa Eichler (Combretaceae) in a Cerrado sensu stricto, midwest Brazil.

    PubMed

    Farias, J; Sanchez, M; Abreu, M F; Pedroni, F

    2015-11-01

    The ecology of seed dispersal is critical to understand the patterns of distribution and abundance of plant species. We investigated seed dispersal aspects associated with the high abundance of Buchenavia tomentosa in the Serra Azul State Park (PESA). We estimated fruit production and conducted fruit removal experiments. We carried out diurnal and nocturnal observations on frugivory as well as germination tests. Fruiting occurred in the dry season and totaled 1,365,015 ± 762,670 fruits.ha-1. B. tomentosa fruits were utilized by eight animal species. The lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) was considered the main seed disperser. Leafcutter ants (Atta laevigata and Atta sexdens) participated in the seed cleaning and occasionally dispersed seeds. The beetle Amblycerus insuturatus, blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara ararauna) and red-and-green macaw (Ara chloropterus) were considered pre-dispersal seed predators. The seeds manually cleaned presented higher germination rate (100%) and speed index (4.2 seeds.d-1) than that of seeds with pulp. Germination of seeds found in tapirs'feces was 40%, while for the seeds without pulp it was 25%. The high abundance of B. tomentosa in the cerrado of PESA may be due to massive fruit production, low rates of seed predation, and efficient seed dispersal by tapirs, occurring before the rains which promote germination and recruitment of this species. PMID:26602355

  9. Fumigant toxicity of the essential oils of some African plants against Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto.

    PubMed

    Omolo, M O; Okinyo, D; Ndiege, I O; Lwande, W; Hassanali, A

    2005-03-01

    The essential oils from 15 species of African plants selected by ethnobotanical considerations and field inspection (odour and presence of insects) were screened for fumigant toxicity to Anopheles gambiae s.s. in the laboratory. Essential oils from 6 species showed varying levels of toxicity, with Conyza newii (Compositae) and Plectranthus marruboides (Labiateae) being the most potent. Fifty compounds representing approximately 74% of the essential oil of C. newii were identified by GC-MS and GC-coinjection (for available standards). The major and some of the minor constituents of the two oils were assayed at different doses. Two compounds, from C. newii, perillaldehyde and perillyl alcohol, exhibited higher fumigant toxicity (LD50 = 1.05 x 10(-4) and 2.52 x 10(-4) mg cm(-3), respectively) than the parent oil (2.0 x 10(-3) mg cm(-3)). GC-MS analysis of the essential oil of P. marruboides gave results similar to that previously reported. Interestingly, none of its components were active, suggesting that the insecticidal activity of the oil results from either some of the minor components or as a blend effect of some of the major constituents. PMID:15830848

  10. The spatial distribution of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and An. arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mali.

    PubMed

    Sogoba, N; Vounatsou, P; Bagayoko, M M; Doumbia, S; Dolo, G; Gosoniu, L; Traore, S F; Toure, Y T; Smith, T

    2007-05-01

    Variations in the biology and ecology and the high level of genetic polymorphism of malaria vectors in Africa highlight the value of mapping their spatial distribution to enhance successful implementation of integrated vector management. The objective of this study was to collate data on the relative frequencies of Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis mosquitoes in Mali, to assess their association with climate and environmental covariates, and to produce maps of their spatial distribution. Bayesian geostatistical logistic regression models were fitted to identify environmental determinants of the relative frequencies of An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis species and to produce smooth maps of their geographical distribution. The frequency of An. arabiensis was positively associated with the normalized difference vegetation index, the soil water storage index, the maximum temperature and the distance to water bodies. It was negatively associated with the minimum temperature and rainfall. The predicted map suggests that, in West Africa, An. arabiensis is concentrated in the drier savannah areas, while An. gambiae s.s. prefers the southern savannah and land along the rivers, particularly the inner delta of Niger. Because the insecticide knockdown resistance (kdr) gene is reported only in An. gambiae s.s. in Mali, the maps provide valuable information for vector control. They may also be useful for planning future implementation of malaria control by genetically manipulated mosquitoes. PMID:18686246

  11. Nucleotide polymorphisms and protein structure changes in the Fg16 gene of Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto.

    PubMed

    Abedi-Tizaki, Mostafa; Zafari, Doustmorad

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium graminearum is one of the most important causes of wheat scab in different parts of the world. This fungus is able to produce widespread trichothecene mycotoxins such as nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) which are harmful for both human and animals. The Fg16 target is located in chromosome 1 of the F. graminearum genome coding for a hypothetical protein whose function is not yet known. The Fg16 gene is involved in lipid biosynthesis and leads to sexual development during colonization in wheat stalks. This gene is used to detect F. graminearum and determine the lineage of F. graminearum complex species. In the present study, polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and DNA sequencing methods were employed in screening for genetic variation in 172 F. graminearum s.s. isolates. The PCR reaction forced the amplification of 410-bp fragments of Fg16. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (T82C and A352T) and one amino acid exchange (C65S) with three patterns (TA/TA, CT/CT and TA/CT genotypes) were found in the Fg16 gene fragment. Two haplotypes, 1A and 1B, were identified within F. graminearum s.s. populations in northern and western regions of Iran. Two different secondary structures of protein were predicted for CT/CT and TA/CT genotypes of Fg16 gene. The average diversity levels detected were relatively high (He: 0.3238; Heu: 0.334; Ho: 0.2894; mean PIC: 0.514; mean Shannon's information index: 0.4132; mean number of alleles per locus: 1.473). On the basis of the obtained results, it was revealed that the Fg16 gene had a high degree of polymorphism that can be considered for future control programming strategies and thus the associations between the SSCP patterns with different traits of F. graminearum such as wheat colonization, perithecium formation on stalk tissues and lineage discrimination should be investigated. PMID:27222818

  12. An assessment of natural product discovery from marine (sensu strictu) and marine-derived fungi

    PubMed Central

    Overy, David P.; Bayman, Paul; Kerr, Russell G.; Bills, Gerald F.

    2014-01-01

    The natural products community has been investigating secondary metabolites from marine fungi for several decades, but when one attempts to search for validated reports of new natural products from marine fungi, one encounters a literature saturated with reports from ‘marine-derived’ fungi. Of the 1000+ metabolites that have been characterized to date, only approximately 80 of these have been isolated from species from exclusively marine lineages. These metabolites are summarized here along with the lifestyle and habitats of their producing organisms. Furthermore, we address some of the reasons for the apparent disconnect between the stated objectives of discovering new chemistry from marine organisms and the apparent neglect of the truly exceptional obligate marine fungi. We also offer suggestions on how to reinvigorate enthusiasm for marine natural products discovery from fungi from exclusive marine lineages and highlight the need for critically assessing the role of apparently terrestrial fungi in the marine environment. PMID:25379338

  13. Cases of Echinococcus granulosus Sensu Stricto Isolated from Polish Patients: Imported or Indigenous?

    PubMed Central

    Dybicz, Monika; Borkowski, Piotr Karol; Dąbrowska, Julia; Chomicz, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    The cases of nine Polish patients with diagnosed cystic echinococcosis (CE) were examined. A total of nine isolates obtained postoperatively were investigated using PCR and sequencing. The mitochondrial region of nad1 gene was amplified. This PCR and sequencing analysis revealed the presence of Echinococcus canadensis G7 in seven patients and E. granulosus G1 in two patients. These data demonstrate that E. canadensis is the predominant causative agent of human cystic echinococcosis in Poland. E. granulosus G1 detection in Polish patients suggests that the parasite was imported; however it does not exclude the possibility that these cases could have been of Polish origin. PMID:26491683

  14. Acinetobacter variabilis sp. nov. (formerly DNA group 15 sensu Tjernberg & Ursing), isolated from humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Krizova, Lenka; McGinnis, Jana; Maixnerova, Martina; Nemec, Matej; Poirel, Laurent; Mingle, Lisa; Sedo, Ondrej; Wolfgang, William; Nemec, Alexandr

    2015-03-01

    We aimed to define the taxonomic status of 16 strains which were phenetically congruent with Acinetobacter DNA group 15 described by Tjernberg & Ursing in 1989. The strains were isolated from a variety of human and animal specimens in geographically distant places over the last three decades. Taxonomic analysis was based on an Acinetobacter-targeted, genus-wide approach that included the comparative sequence analysis of housekeeping, protein-coding genes, whole-cell profiling based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), an array of in-house physiological and metabolic tests, and whole-genome comparative analysis. Based on analyses of the rpoB and gyrB genes, the 16 strains formed respective, strongly supported clusters clearly separated from the other species of the genus Acinetobacter. The distinctness of the group at the species level was indicated by average nucleotide identity values of ≤82 % between the whole genome sequences of two of the 16 strains (NIPH 2171(T) and NIPH 899) and those of the known species. In addition, the coherence of the group was also supported by MALDI-TOF MS. All 16 strains were non-haemolytic and non-gelatinase-producing, grown at 41 °C and utilized a rather limited number of carbon sources. Virtually every strain displayed a unique combination of metabolic and physiological features. We conclude that the 16 strains represent a distinct species of the genus Acinetobacter, for which the name Acinetobacter variabilis sp. nov. is proposed to reflect its marked phenotypic heterogeneity. The type strain is NIPH 2171(T) ( = CIP 110486(T) = CCUG 26390(T) = CCM 8555(T)). PMID:25510976

  15. Acinetobacter variabilis sp. nov. (formerly DNA group 15 sensu Tjernberg & Ursing), isolated from humans and animals

    PubMed Central

    Krizova, Lenka; McGinnis, Jana; Maixnerova, Martina; Nemec, Matej; Poirel, Laurent; Mingle, Lisa; Sedo, Ondrej; Wolfgang, William

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to define the taxonomic status of 16 strains which were phenetically congruent with Acinetobacter DNA group 15 described by Tjernberg & Ursing in 1989. The strains were isolated from a variety of human and animal specimens in geographically distant places over the last three decades. Taxonomic analysis was based on an Acinetobacter-targeted, genus-wide approach that included the comparative sequence analysis of housekeeping, protein-coding genes, whole-cell profiling based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), an array of in-house physiological and metabolic tests, and whole-genome comparative analysis. Based on analyses of the rpoB and gyrB genes, the 16 strains formed respective, strongly supported clusters clearly separated from the other species of the genus Acinetobacter. The distinctness of the group at the species level was indicated by average nucleotide identity values of ≤82 % between the whole genome sequences of two of the 16 strains (NIPH 2171T and NIPH 899) and those of the known species. In addition, the coherence of the group was also supported by MALDI-TOF MS. All 16 strains were non-haemolytic and non-gelatinase-producing, grown at 41 °C and utilized a rather limited number of carbon sources. Virtually every strain displayed a unique combination of metabolic and physiological features. We conclude that the 16 strains represent a distinct species of the genus Acinetobacter, for which the name Acinetobacter variabilis sp. nov. is proposed to reflect its marked phenotypic heterogeneity. The type strain is NIPH 2171T ( = CIP 110486T = CCUG 26390T = CCM 8555T). PMID:25510976

  16. Comparative karyotypic analysis in the Alstroemeria hookeri Lodd. (Alstroemeriaceae) complex sensu Bayer (1987)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Alstroemeria L. (Alstroemeriaceae) is an American genus of monocots with two principal distribution centers in Chile and Brazil. In Chile, it is represented by about 32 species, most of them in central Chile, an area known for its high level of endemism. The “complex” Alstroemeriahookeri is endemic to Chile, where it is distributed from the Coquimbo to the Bío-Bío Region. We analyzed the karyotypes of 36 populations of this complex along its natural distribution. Ten metaphases per population were used for chromosome measurements. All analyzed subspecies presented a well defined asymmetric karyotype. The populations of A. hookeri subsp. hookeri collected in the coastal range of the Bío-Bío Region and the populations from the Central Valley of this Region (Pangal del Laja) presented striking morphological differences in the karyotype, mainly on chromosome 3. The population of A. hookeri subsp. recumbens from Pichicuy showed a polymorphism on chromosome 7, which differed from the other analyzed populations of this subspecies. Phenetic analysis suggested that A. hookeri subsp. cummingiana, which showed a more symmetrical karyotype and did not grow in sandy soil, should be alocated to A. cummingiana rather than considered as part of the hookeri complex. PMID:21637614

  17. Camarosporium arezzoensis on Cytisus sp., an addition to sexual state of Camarosporium sensu stricto.

    PubMed

    Tibpromma, Saowaluck; Wijayawardene, Nalin N; Manamgoda, Dimuthu S; Boonmee, Saranyaphat; Wanasinghe, Dhanushka N; Camporesi, Erio; Yang, Jun-Bo; Hyde, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    During a study of saprobic fungi from Bagno di Cetica Province, Italy, we collected a pleosporoid ascomycete on stems of Cytisus sp. In morphology, our collection is similar to Cucurbitaria species, but molecular analysis of SSU, LSU and ITS genes reveals it can be referred to Camarosporium. In this study we compare all other Cucurbitaria species from Cytisus sp. and based on both morphology and molecular data, we introduce our collection as a new species in Camarosporium viz. C. arezzoensis. PMID:26858532

  18. Nucleotide polymorphisms and protein structure changes in the Fg16 gene of Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto

    PubMed Central

    Abedi-Tizaki, Mostafa; Zafari, Doustmorad

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is one of the most important causes of wheat scab in different parts of the world. This fungus is able to produce widespread trichothecene mycotoxins such as nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) which are harmful for both human and animals. The Fg16 target is located in chromosome 1 of the F. graminearum genome coding for a hypothetical protein whose function is not yet known. The Fg16 gene is involved in lipid biosynthesis and leads to sexual development during colonization in wheat stalks. This gene is used to detect F. graminearum and determine the lineage of F. graminearum complex species. In the present study, polymerase chain reaction–single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR–SSCP) and DNA sequencing methods were employed in screening for genetic variation in 172 F.graminearum s.s. isolates. The PCR reaction forced the amplification of 410-bp fragments of Fg16. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (T82C and A352T) and one amino acid exchange (C65S) with three patterns (TA/TA, CT/CT and TA/CT genotypes) were found in the Fg16 gene fragment. Two haplotypes, 1A and 1B, were identified within F. graminearum s.s. populations in northern and western regions of Iran. Two different secondary structures of protein were predicted for CT/CT and TA/CT genotypes of Fg16 gene. The average diversity levels detected were relatively high (He: 0.3238; Heu: 0.334; Ho: 0.2894; mean PIC: 0.514; mean Shannon's information index: 0.4132; mean number of alleles per locus: 1.473). On the basis of the obtained results, it was revealed that the Fg16 gene had a high degree of polymorphism that can be considered for future control programming strategies and thus the associations between the SSCP patterns with different traits of F. graminearum such as wheat colonization, perithecium formation on stalk tissues and lineage discrimination should be investigated. PMID:27222818

  19. Tenuipalpus sensu stricto (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) from Brazil, with ontogeny and a key to the known species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cerrado is the second largest Brazilian biome, and is considered to be a “hotspot” due the great concentration of en-demic species and high rate of deforestation. Surveys of the mite fauna present in this biome have revealed a great number of new species. In this paper, we describe Tenuipalpus s...

  20. Evidence for Ixodes holocyclus (Acarina: Ixodidae) as a vector for human lyme Borreliosis infection in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mayne, P; Song, S; Shao, R; Burke, J; Wang, Y; Roberts, T

    2014-01-01

    Ixodes holocyclus (Acarina: Ixodidae) and Ixodes cornuatus (Acarina: Ixodidae) are two tick species found in the more densely populated areas of Australia and are known to be the cause of the neurotoxic disease tick paralysis in humans and mammals. Borreliosis otherwise known as Lyme disease is an emerging infectious disease in humans in Australia. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) and sensu lato are closely related spirochetal species that are the causative agents of Lyme disease in humans. Clinical transmission of this tick-borne disease can be identified in several but not all cases by a characteristic rash known as erythema migrans. However, there has been no study of the tick vectors of this infection in Australia. We used morphological and molecular techniques to identify unequivocally the ticks on the patients of this study to be I. holocyclus and then show the presence of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto infection in erythema migrans biopsies. I. holocyclus has not previously been associated with erythema migrans or Lyme disease. Two patients presented to the lead author's medical practice with erythema migrans in mid and late 2012. The morphology and cytochrome oxidase 1 and ITS2 genes of the two ticks were studied. The skin at the attachment site was sampled by central biopsy for both real time and endpoint Borrelia polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and subsequent sequencing. Morphologically, the two ticks were either I. holocyclus or I. cornuatus. Molecular studies and nucleotide sequencing revealed that both ticks were I. holocyclus. Real time and endpoint PCR on the central tissue biopsy samples returned positive results for B. burgdorferi DNA. Our results are evidence for transmission of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto species to humans by the tick I. holocyclus in Australia. I. holocyclus is commonly associated with human tick bites on virtually the entire eastern coastline of Australia. PMID:25434042

  1. Complement Evasion by Borrelia burgdorferi: Serum-Resistant Strains Promote C3b Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Alitalo, Antti; Meri, Taru; Rämö, Lasse; Jokiranta, T. Sakari; Heikkilä, Tero; Seppälä, Ilkka J. T.; Oksi, Jarmo; Viljanen, Matti; Meri, Seppo

    2001-01-01

    The most characteristic features of the Lyme disease pathogens, the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) group, are their ability to invade tissues and to circumvent the immune defenses of the host for extended periods of time, despite elevated levels of borrelia-specific antibodies in serum and other body fluids. Our aim in the present study was to determine whether B. burgdorferi is able to interfere with complement (C) at the level of C3 by accelerating C3b inactivation and thus to inhibit the amplification of the C cascade. Strains belonging to different genospecies (Borrelia garinii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, and Borrelia afzelii) were compared for their sensitivities to normal human serum and abilities to promote factor I-mediated C3b degradation. B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. afzelii strains were found to be serum resistant. When the spirochetes were incubated with radiolabeled C3b, factor I-mediated degradation of C3b was observed in the presence of C-resistant B. afzelii (n = 3) and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (n = 1) strains but not in the presence of C-sensitive B. garinii (n = 7) strains or control bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis). Immunoblotting and radioligand binding analyses showed that the C-resistant strains had the capacity to acquire the C inhibitors factor H and factor H-like protein 1 (FHL-1) from growth medium and human serum. A novel surface protein with an apparent molecular mass of 35 kDa was found to preferentially bind to the N terminus region of factor H. Thus, the serum-resistant B. burgdorferi s.l. strains can circumvent C attack by binding the C inhibitors factor H and FHL-1 to their surfaces and promoting factor I-mediated C3b degradation. PMID:11349031

  2. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry applied to identifying species of insect-pathogenic fungi from the Metarhizium anisopliae complex.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Rogério Biaggioni; Faria, Marcos; Souza, Daniela Aguiar; Bloch, Carlos; Silva, Luciano P; Humber, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has proven to be a powerful tool for taxonomic resolution of microorganisms. In this proof-of-concept study, we assessed the effectiveness of this technique to track the current gene sequence-based phylogenetic classification of species in the Metarhizium anisopliae complex. Initially the phylogenetic analysis of 5' strains by sequencing of the 59' end of the TEF-1α gene region revealed seven species within M. anisopliae sensu lato and two varieties outside this complex. Because initial studies on MS profiles from different cell types showed that mycelial fragments or conidia produced on nutrient-poor medium may yield too much background noise, all subsequent spectrometric analyses were performed with acidhydrolyzed conidia from 10-12 d old PDA cultures. The initial MALDI-TOF reference library included protein spectral profiles from nine taxonomically distinct, molecularly identified isolates sharing high genetic homology with the ex-type or ex-epitype isolates of these taxa in Metarhizium. A second reference library added one isolate each for M. anisopliae sensu stricto and M. robertsii. The second, larger reference library (including 11 taxa) allowed nearly perfect MALDI-TOF matching of DNA-based species identification for the 40 remaining isolates molecularly recognized as M. anisopliae sensu stricto (n = 19), M. robertsii (n = 6), M. majus (n = 3), M. lepidiotae (n = 1), M. acridum (n = 3), M. flavoviride var. pemphigi (n = 1), plus seven unidentified strains (six of them phylogenetically close to M. anisopliae sensu stricto and one outside the Metarhizium pingshaense-anisopliae-robertsii-brunneum clade). Due to the increasing frequency of phylogenetically (genomically) based taxonomic revisions of fungi, this approach is especially useful for culture collections, because once the protein profiles of Metarhizium isolates are obtained taxonomic updating of MALDI

  3. Borrelia garinii in Seabird Ticks (Ixodes uriae), Atlantic Coast, North America

    PubMed Central

    Muzaffar, Sabir Bin; Lavers, Jennifer; Lacombe, Eleanor H.; Cahill, Bruce K.; Lubelczyk, Charles B.; Kinsler, Allen; Mathers, Amy J.; Rand, Peter W.

    2006-01-01

    Borrelia garinii is the most neurotropic of the genospecies of B. burgdorferi sensu lato that cause Lyme disease in Europe, where it is transmitted to avian and mammalian reservoir hosts and to humans by Ixodes ricinus. B. garinii is also maintained in an enzootic cycle in seabirds by I. uriae, a tick found at high latitudes in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. To determine whether B. garinii is present in seabird ticks on the Atlantic Coast of North America, we examined 261 I. uriae ticks by polyclonal antiborrelial fluorescent antibody. Ten of 61 ticks from Gull Island, Newfoundland, were positive for borreliae by this screen. Amplicons of DNA obtained by PCR that targeted the B. garinii rrs-rrla intergenic spacer were sequenced and matched to GenBank sequences for B. garinii. The potential for introduction of this agent into the North American Lyme disease enzootic is unknown. PMID:17326943

  4. Molecular phylogeny of labyrinthulids and thraustochytrids based on the sequencing of 18S ribosomal RNA gene.

    PubMed

    Honda, D; Yokochi, T; Nakahara, T; Raghukumar, S; Nakagiri, A; Schaumann, K; Higashihara, T

    1999-01-01

    Labyrinthulids and thraustochytrids are unicellular heterotrophs, formerly considered as fungi, but presently are recognized as members in the stramenopiles of the kingdom Protista sensu lato. We determined the 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences of 14 strains from different species of the six genera and analyzed the molecular phylogenetic relationships. The results conflict with the current classification based on morphology, at the genus and species levels. These organisms are separated, based on signature sequences and unique inserted sequences, into two major groups, which were named the labyrinthulid phylogenetic group and the thraustochytrid phylogenetic group. Although these groupings are in disagreement with many conventional taxonomic characters, they correlated better with the sugar composition of the cell wall. Thus, the currently used taxonomic criteria need serious reconsideration. PMID:10568038

  5. Virtual ancestor reconstruction: Revealing the ancestor of modern humans and Neandertals.

    PubMed

    Mounier, Aurélien; Mirazón Lahr, Marta

    2016-02-01

    The timing and geographic origin of the common ancestor of modern humans and Neandertals remain controversial. A poor Pleistocene hominin fossil record and the evolutionary complexities introduced by dispersals and regionalisation of lineages have fuelled taxonomic uncertainty, while new ancient genomic data have raised completely new questions. Here, we use maximum likelihood and 3D geometric morphometric methods to predict possible morphologies of the last common ancestor of modern humans and Neandertals from a simplified, fully resolved phylogeny. We describe the fully rendered 3D shapes of the predicted ancestors of humans and Neandertals, and assess their similarity to individual fossils or populations of fossils of Pleistocene age. Our results support models of an Afro-European ancestral population in the Middle Pleistocene (Homo heidelbergensis sensu lato) and further predict an African origin for this ancestral population. PMID:26852813

  6. Phylogenetic relationships in the Niviventer-Chiromyscus complex (Rodentia, Muridae) inferred from molecular data, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Balakirev, Alexander E; Abramov, Alexei V; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav V

    2014-01-01

    Based on molecular data for mitochondrial (Cyt b, COI) and nuclear (IRBP, GHR) genes, and morphological examinations of museum specimens, we examined diversity, species boundaries, and relationships within and between the murine genera Chiromyscus and Niviventer. Phylogenetic patterns recovered demonstrate that Niviventer sensu lato is not monophyletic but instead includes Chiromyscuschiropus, the only previously recognized species of Chiropus. To maintain the genera Niviventer and Chiropus as monophyletic lineages, the scope and definition of the genus Chiromyscus is revised to include at least three distinct species: Chiromyscuschiropus (the type species of Chiromyscus), Chiromyscuslangbianis (previously regarded as a species of Niviventer), and a new species, described in this paper under the name Chiromyscusthomasi sp. n. PMID:25493050

  7. A contribution to the study of the Lower Volga center of scarab beetle diversity in Russia: checklist of the tribe Aphodiini (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) of Dosang environs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The field sampling of the Aphodiini scarab beetles in Dosang environs (Astrakhan Province, European Russia) in 2006–2012 resulted in the collection of 44 species. All but one of them belong to Aphodius Hellwig (sensu lato). This is apparently the richest recorded local Aphodiini fauna in Russia. The high Aphodiini diversity in the area can be explained by the long vegetative season with high effective heat sum, large livestock providing abundant food resources throughout the year, and location in the transition belt between Volga-Akhtuba Floodplain and Desert floristic districts. The core fauna consists of mesophilous species widely distributed in the Palearctic region and confined to the intrazonal habitats. Other species have ranges mostly limited to the steppe, semidesert, and desert zones. PMID:24723773

  8. Optimization of large-scale culture conditions for the production of cordycepin with Cordyceps militaris by liquid static culture.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chao; Wen, Ting-Chi; Kang, Ji-Chuan; Meng, Ze-Bing; Li, Guang-Rong; Hyde, Kevin D

    2014-01-01

    Cordycepin is one of the most important bioactive compounds produced by species of Cordyceps sensu lato, but it is hard to produce large amounts of this substance in industrial production. In this work, single factor design, Plackett-Burman design, and central composite design were employed to establish the key factors and identify optimal culture conditions which improved cordycepin production. Using these culture conditions, a maximum production of cordycepin was 2008.48 mg/L for 700 mL working volume in the 1000 mL glass jars and total content of cordycepin reached 1405.94 mg/bottle. This method provides an effective way for increasing the cordycepin production at a large scale. The strategies used in this study could have a wide application in other fermentation processes. PMID:25054182

  9. 16S rDNA sequence analysis of bacterial isolates from biodeteriorated mural paintings in the Servilia tomb (Necropolis of carmona, Seville, Spain).

    PubMed

    Heyrman, J; Swings, J

    2001-11-01

    Bacteria were isolated from damaged mural paintings of the Servilia tomb (necropolis of Carmona, Seville, Spain). Selected strains, representative for different clusters of isolates with similar fatty acid profiles, were analysed by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Bacillus is the dominant genus among the isolates: members of the rRNA species complexes of B. megaterium, B. pumilus and B. firmus were found as well as several other Bacillus species. One group of halotolerant isolates falls in the Bacillus sensu lato group, with closest relatedness to the genera Salibacillus and Virgibacillus. Other genera found are Artbrobacter, Micrococcus, Streptomyces, Sphingomonas, Paenibacillus, and a genus closely related to Paracraurococcus. Many isolates showed low 16S rDNA sequence similarities with the closest related database entries, a strong indication for the presence of several new species among the isolates. PMID:11822679

  10. Phylogenetic relationships in the Niviventer-Chiromyscus complex (Rodentia, Muridae) inferred from molecular data, with description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Balakirev, Alexander E.; Abramov, Alexei V.; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav V.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Based on molecular data for mitochondrial (Cyt b, COI) and nuclear (IRBP, GHR) genes, and morphological examinations of museum specimens, we examined diversity, species boundaries, and relationships within and between the murine genera Chiromyscus and Niviventer. Phylogenetic patterns recovered demonstrate that Niviventer sensu lato is not monophyletic but instead includes Chiromyscus chiropus, the only previously recognized species of Chiropus. To maintain the genera Niviventer and Chiropus as monophyletic lineages, the scope and definition of the genus Chiromyscus is revised to include at least three distinct species: Chiromyscus chiropus (the type species of Chiromyscus), Chiromyscus langbianis (previously regarded as a species of Niviventer), and a new species, described in this paper under the name Chiromyscus thomasi sp. n. PMID:25493050

  11. Barnyard grasses were processed with rice around 10000 years ago.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Fuller, Dorian Q; Huan, Xiujia; Perry, Linda; Li, Quan; Li, Zhao; Zhang, Jianping; Ma, Zhikun; Zhuang, Yijie; Jiang, Leping; Ge, Yong; Lu, Houyuan

    2015-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is regarded as the only grass that was selected for cultivation and eventual domestication in the Yangtze basin of China. Although both macro-fossils and micro-fossils of rice have been recovered from the Early Neolithic site of Shangshan, dating to more than 10,000 years before present (BP), we report evidence of phytolith and starch microfossils taken from stone tools, both for grinding and cutting, and cultural layers, that indicating barnyard grass (Echinochloa spp.) was a major subsistence resource, alongside smaller quantities of acorn starches (Lithocarpus/Quercus sensu lato) and water chestnuts (Trapa). This evidence suggests that early managed wetland environments were initially harvested for multiple grain species including barnyard grasses as well as rice, and indicate that the emergence of rice as the favoured cultivated grass and ultimately the key domesticate of the Yangtze basin was a protracted process. PMID:26536839

  12. Description and identification of Alnus acuminata ectomycorrhizae from Argentinean alder stands.

    PubMed

    Pritsch, Karin; Becerra, Alejandra; Põlme, Sergei; Tedersoo, Leho; Schloter, Michael; Agerer, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the morphological and anatomical features of five unidentified ectomycorrhizal types of Alnus acuminata and to complement their identification based on ITS-rDNA sequence analysis. The combined approach of morphotyping and sequence analysis based on ITS sequence comparison with sequences contained in GenBank and the UNITE database let us assign three of the five field-collected ectomycorrhiza morphotypes to the tomentella-thelephora lineage that closely matched European and North American species. The sequencing results within Tomentella point toward alder specific clades within T. sublilacina, T. ellisii and T. stuposa sensu lato. The two other EcM morphotypes matched Lactarius omphaliiformis and a Russula sp. Better focused, concomitant fruit body surveys are needed for accurate identification of South American ectomycorrhizal fungi because of the evidence of cryptic speciation in both agaricoid and resupinate mycobionts. PMID:20943556

  13. Adapted to change: The rapid development of symbiosis in newly settled, fast-maturing chemosymbiotic mussels in the deep sea.

    PubMed

    Laming, Sven R; Duperron, Sébastien; Gaudron, Sylvie M; Hilário, Ana; Cunha, Marina R

    2015-12-01

    Symbioses between microbiota and marine metazoa occur globally at chemosynthetic habitats facing imminent threat from anthropogenic disturbance, yet little is known concerning the role of symbiosis during early development in chemosymbiotic metazoans: a critical period in any benthic species' lifecycle. The emerging symbiosis of Idas (sensu lato) simpsoni mussels undergoing development is assessed over a post-larval-to-adult size spectrum using histology and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). Post-larval development shows similarities to that of both heterotrophic and chemosymbiotic mussels. Data from newly settled specimens confirm aposymbiotic, planktotrophic larval development. Sulphur-oxidising (SOX) symbionts subsequently colonise multiple exposed, non-ciliated epithelia shortly after metamorphosis, but only become abundant on gills as these expand with greater host size. This wide-spread bathymodiolin recorded from sulphidic wood, bone and cold-seep habitats, displays a suite of adaptive traits that could buffer against anthropogenic disturbance. PMID:26275834

  14. An annotated update of the scale insect checklist of Hungary (Hemiptera, Coccoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Kozár, Ferenc; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Fetykó, Kinga; Kiss, Balázs; Szita, Éva

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The number of scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) known from Hungary has increased in the last 10 years by 39 (16.6 %), to a total of 274 species belonging to 112 genera in10 families. The family Pseudococcidae is the most species rich, with 101 species in 34 genera; Diaspididae contains 59 species in 27 genera; Coccidae contains 54 species in 27 genera; and the Eriococcidae contains 33 species in 8 genera. The other 6 coccoid families each contain only a few species: Asterolecaniidae (7 species in 3 genera); Ortheziidae (7 species in 4 genera); Margarodidae sensu lato (5 species in 5 genera); Cryptococcidae (3 species in 2 genera); Kermesidae (4 species in 1genus); and Cerococcidae (1 species). Of the species in the check list, 224 were found in outdoor conditions, while 50 species occurred only in indoor conditions. This paper contains 22 species recorded for the first time in the Hungarian fauna. PMID:23794928

  15. On the Austral-Antarctic stenothoids Proboloides, Metopoides, Torometopa and Scaphodactylus (Crustacea Amphipoda) Part 2: the genus Proboloides, with description of two new genera and the transfer of two nominal species to Metopoides

    PubMed Central

    Krapp-Schickel, Traudl

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This is the second part of a revision of the most plesiomorphic genera in the amphipod family Stenothoidae sensu lato (see Krapp-Schickel and Koenemann 2006 for an overview and Krapp-Schickel 2008 for the first part). 41 species not belonging to Metopoides were plotted in a matrix using the same 61 characters as in the first part. The resulting group of Proboloides species (most probably not existing in the Austral-Antarctic region) is discussed, a key for the members given and two new genera erected. Some species described as Proboloides are redescribed and 2 species transferred to Metopoides. A key for all actual members of. The remaining species, i.e. those actually being in the genera Torometopa and Scaphodactylus, will be dealt with in the final part of this series, together with a key to all of them. PMID:21594091

  16. Optimization of Large-Scale Culture Conditions for the Production of Cordycepin with Cordyceps militaris by Liquid Static Culture

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Chao; Wen, Ting-Chi; Kang, Ji-Chuan; Meng, Ze-Bing; Li, Guang-Rong; Hyde, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Cordycepin is one of the most important bioactive compounds produced by species of Cordyceps sensu lato, but it is hard to produce large amounts of this substance in industrial production. In this work, single factor design, Plackett-Burman design, and central composite design were employed to establish the key factors and identify optimal culture conditions which improved cordycepin production. Using these culture conditions, a maximum production of cordycepin was 2008.48 mg/L for 700 mL working volume in the 1000 mL glass jars and total content of cordycepin reached 1405.94 mg/bottle. This method provides an effective way for increasing the cordycepin production at a large scale. The strategies used in this study could have a wide application in other fermentation processes. PMID:25054182

  17. Improved Molecular Technique for the Differentiation of Neotropical Anopheline Species

    PubMed Central

    Matson, Ryan; Rios, Carlos Tong; Chavez, Cesar Banda; Gilman, Robert H.; Florin, David; Sifuentes, Victor Lopez; Greffa, Roldan Cardenas; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Fernandez, Roberto; Portocarrero, Daniel Velasquez; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Kosek, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated a PCR-RFLP of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 region (ITS2) to distinguish species of Anopheles commonly reported in the Amazon and validated this method using reared F1 offspring. The following species of Anopheles were used for molecular analysis: An. (Nys.) benarrochi, An. (Nys.) darlingi, An. (Nys.) nuneztovari, An. (Nys.) konderi, An. (Nys.) rangeli, and An. (Nys.) triannulatus sensu lato (s.l.). In addition, three species of the subgenus Anopheles, An. (Ano.) forattini, An. (Ano.) mattogrossensis, and An. (Ano.) peryassui were included for testing. Each of the nine species tested yielded diagnostic banding patterns. The PCR-RFLP method was successful in identifying all life stages including exuviae with small fractions of the sample. The assay is rapid and can be applied as an unbiased confirmatory method for identification of morphologic variants, disputed samples, imperfectly preserved specimens, and life stages from which taxonomic keys do not allow for definitive species determination. PMID:18337348

  18. In vitro activities of faropenem, ertapenem, imipenem and meropenem against Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.

    PubMed

    Rödel, Rebecca; Freyer, Alexandra; Bittner, Thomas; Schäfer, Volker; Hunfeld, Klaus-Peter

    2007-07-01

    Little is known about the in vitro activity of penems and carbapenems against the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Here, faropenem, ertapenem, imipenem and meropenem as well as the third-generation cephalosporin ceftriaxone and tobramycin were tested in vitro against 11 isolates of the B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex. On a microg/mL basis, ertapenem was the most potent carbapenem (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) range: 0.015-0.125 microg/mL), with in vitro activity comparable with that of ceftriaxone against Borrelia. These findings are supported by the results of time-kill experiments in a Borrelia afzelii skin isolate, demonstrating a >3 log10 unit (99.9%) reduction of the inoculum after 96 h of exposure to either drug at a concentration of three log2 unit dilutions above the respective MIC. PMID:17512703

  19. Molecular phylogeny and morphology reveal a new species of Amyloporia (Basidiomycota) from China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Bao-Kai; Dai, Yu-Cheng

    2013-11-01

    Amyloporia pinea sp. nov. is described and illustrated on the basis of collections from southern China. Morphology and phylogenetic analysis of rDNA ITS sequences support this new species. Morphologically, it is characterized by resupinate, annual basidiocarps, cream to yellowish buff pore surface when fresh, which becomes yellowish brown to clay-buff upon drying, a dimitic hyphal system with clamped generative hyphae and inamyloid skeletal hyphae, fusoid cystidioles, and cylindrical basidiospores; moreover, it causes a brown rot. Molecular phylogeny inferred from ITS sequence data suggested a close relationship between A. pinea and Amyloporia crassa sensu lato. Antrodia subxantha has amyloid skeletal hyphae, and grouped within the Amyloporia clade, hence, it is transferred to Amyloporia, and a new combination Amyloporia subxantha is proposed. PMID:23912447

  20. Molecular Identification of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes ricinus from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Mónica; Parreira, Ricardo; Lopes, Nádia; Maia, Carla; Carreira, Teresa; Sousa, Carmelita; Faria, Sofia; Campino, Lenea; Vieira, M Luísa

    2015-08-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochete, has been found recently in Ixodes ricinus ticks; however, little is known about its spatial distribution and potential local impact on human health. A total of 640 ticks (447 nymphs and 193 adults) collected throughout Portugal were analyzed using two nested PCR protocols, one targeting the flagellin gene and the other the internal transcribed space region between the 5S and the 23S rRNA. As a result, B. miyamotoi was detected, for the first time, in one guesting I. ricinus nymph collected in the Lisboa district. In addition, a prevalence of 11% (71/640) for B. burgdorferi sensu lato was obtained. Even though no human relapsing fever cases due to infection by B. miyamotoi have been reported yet in Portugal, surveillance must be improved to provide better insight into the prevalence and distribution of this spirochete in ticks. PMID:26273814

  1. Scanning electron microscopic observations of Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae) eggs.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, M H; Chavez, B; Orozco, A; Loyola, E G; Martinez-Palomo, A

    1992-05-01

    To investigate the existence of subspecies of Anopheles albimanus Wiedeman in southern Mexico, the egg morphology of specimens obtained from several field populations and from insectary-adapted colonies of uniform pupal phenotype was examined. Scanning electron microscopic observations have shown that the eggs of An. albimanus are polymorphic in respect to the size and shape of their floats, but not in their ornamentation. Four types of eggs were found. Differences in the proportion of the various morphological types were statistically significant, although proportions of egg types were variable among individuals within the same population. These observations are suggestive of distinctive populations and warrant further studies using more sensitive methods to investigate sibling species in An. albimanus sensu lato. PMID:1625289

  2. Synopsis of the hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of Romania with update on host associations and geographical distribution.

    PubMed

    Mihalca, A D; Dumitrache, M O; Magdaş, C; Gherman, C M; Domşa, C; Mircean, V; Ghira, I V; Pocora, V; Ionescu, D T; Sikó Barabási, S; Cozma, V; Sándor, A D

    2012-10-01

    The current paper is a synoptic review of the distribution and host associations of the 25 species of hard tick fauna (family Ixodidae) in Romania. In addition to a full literature survey, original data is presented, based on eight years of occasional or targeted sample collection. The literature data on geographical distribution was transposed digitally to the decimal degree coordinate system. For each species, an updated distribution map is given together with all historical data and new host associations. Overall, our paper records 58 new tick-host associations for Romania: 20 for Ixodes ricinus, 1 for I. apronophorus, 6 for I. arboricola, 2 for I. hexagonus, 9 for I. redikorzevi, 1 for I. trianguliceps, 2 for I. vespertilionis, 2 for Haemaphysalis punctata, 1 for H. sulcata, 2 for H. concinna, 1 for D. marginatus, 4 for Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, 1 for R. bursa and 6 for Hyalomma marginatum. PMID:22544174

  3. Entomopathogenic fungi in cornfields and their potential to manage larval western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera.

    PubMed

    Rudeen, Melissa L; Jaronski, Stefan T; Petzold-Maxwell, Jennifer L; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2013-11-01

    Entomopathogenic ascomycete fungi are ubiquitous in soil and on phylloplanes, and are important natural enemies of many soil-borne arthropods including larval western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, which is a major pest of corn. We measured the prevalence of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato in ten cornfields in Iowa, USA by baiting with larval insects. B. bassiana and M. anisopliae s.l. were present in 60% ± 6.3% and 55% ± 6.4% of soil samples, respectively. Subsequent laboratory bioassays found that some M. anisopliae s.l. strains collected from cornfields killed a greater proportion of D.v. virgifera larvae than a standard commercial strain. PMID:24120889

  4. Ménage à trois: Borrelia, dendritic cells, and tick saliva interactions.

    PubMed

    Mason, Lauren M K; Veerman, Christiaan C; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B H; Hovius, Joppe W R

    2014-02-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, is inoculated into the skin during an Ixodes tick bite where it is recognised and captured by dendritic cells (DCs). However, considering the propensity of Borrelia to disseminate, it would appear that DCs fall short in mounting a robust immune response against it. Many aspects of the DC-driven immune response to Borrelia have been examined. Recently, components of tick saliva have been identified that sabotage DC responses and aid Borrelia infection. In this review, we summarise what is currently known about the immune response of DCs to Borrelia and explore the mechanisms by which Borrelia manages to circumvent this immune response, with or without the help of tick salivary proteins. PMID:24388562

  5. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis strain HD521.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiao; Xu, Li Z; Zou, Ting; Ai, Peng; Huang, Gang H; Li, Ping; Zheng, Ai P

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is the most widely used biological pesticide in the world. It belongs to the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group, which contains six species. Among these six species, B. thuringiensis, B. anthracis, and B. cereus have a low genetic diversity. B. thuringiensis strain HD521 shows maroon colony which is different from most of the B. thuringiensis strains. Strain HD521 also displays an ability to inhibit plant sheath blight disease pathogen (Rhizoctonia solani AG1 IB) growth and can form bipyramidal parasporal crystals consisting of three cry7 genes. These crystals have an insecticidal activity against Henosepilachna vigintioctomaculata larva (Coleoptera). Here we report the complete genome sequence of strain HD521, which has one chromosome and six circular plasmids. PMID:26380647

  6. Porphyra Species: A Mini-Review of Its Pharmacological and Nutritional Properties.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jin; Wang, Jianping; Wang, Shicheng; Xu, Ximing

    2016-02-01

    Porphyra sensu lato belongs to Bangiales, the most genetically diverse order of red algae. Porphyra or Pyropia is widely cultivated in East Asian countries, such as China, Japan, and Korea. Dried Porphyra contains numerous nutritional and biofunctional compounds, including proteins, minerals, dietary fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids, carotenoids, saccharides, and mycosporine-like amino acids. In addition, the compound is most abundant in Porphyra, such as polysaccharides and phycobiliproteins, and demonstrates various immunomodulating, anticancer, antihyperlipidemic, and antioxidative activities. This review summarizes our current knowledge concerning the pharmacologically active substances found in Porphyra species. The biological activities and potential applications of certain carbohydrates, proteins, peptides, and other small molecules purified from Porphyra are also described, and possible areas for future studies are discussed. PMID:26653974

  7. Borrelia bavariensis sp. nov. is widely distributed in Europe and Asia.

    PubMed

    Margos, Gabriele; Wilske, Bettina; Sing, Andreas; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Cao, Wu-Chun; Chu, Chenyi; Scholz, Holger; Straubinger, Reinhard K; Fingerle, Volker

    2013-11-01

    Since the original description of Borrelia bavariensis sp. nov. in 2009, additional samples available from humans and ticks from Europe and Mongolia, respectively, have been used to further characterize Borrelia strains belonging to this group of spirochaetes that utilize rodents as reservoir hosts. These investigations suggested the presence of related strains in Europe and Asia and confirmed their status as representing a distinct species. Furthermore, samples that were investigated by researchers from China and Japan confirm the ecological relationship of members of this proposed species with rodents and suggest that it has a wide distribution in Eurasia. Here, we use phylogenetic and genetic distance analyses to validate B. bavariensis sp. nov. as a species within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species complex. The type strain is PBi(T) ( = DSM 23469(T) = BAA-2496(T)). PMID:23838444

  8. On the potential roles of ticks and migrating birds in the ecology of West Nile virus

    PubMed Central

    Hagman, Karl; Barboutis, Christos; Ehrenborg, Christian; Fransson, Thord; Jaenson, Thomas G. T.; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Lundkvist, Åke; Nyström, Fredrik; Waldenström, Jonas; Salaneck, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background Mosquitoes are the primary vectors of West Nile virus (WNV). Ticks have, however, been suggested to be potential reservoirs of WNV. In order to investigate their role in the spread of the virus, ticks, which had been collected from birds migrating northwards from Africa to Europe, were analyzed for the potential presence of WNV-RNA. Methods On the Mediterranean islands Capri and Antikythira a total of 14,824 birds were captured and investigated from which 747 ticks were collected. Results and conclusion Most of the identified ticks (93%) were nymphs and larvae of Hyalomma marginatum sensu lato, most of which were or appear to be Hyalomma rufipes. Of these ticks 729 were individually screened for WNV-RNA. None of the ticks was found to be WNV positive. Thus, there was no evidence that Hyalomma marginatum s.l. ticks play a role in the spread of WNV from Africa to Europe. PMID:24455105

  9. Nanoscopic Localization of Surface-Exposed Antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Lemgruber, Leandro; Sant'Anna, Celso; Griffths, Caron; Abud, Yuri; Mhlanga, Musa; Wallich, Reinhard; Frischknecht, Friedrich

    2015-06-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative agent of Lyme disease, is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Ixodes spp. ticks. Successful infection of vertebrate hosts necessitates sophisticated means of the pathogen to escape the vertebrates' immune system. One strategy employed by Lyme disease spirochetes to evade adaptive immunity involves a highly coordinated regulation of the expression of outer surface proteins that is vital for infection, dissemination, and persistence. Here we characterized the expression pattern of bacterial surface antigens using different microscopy techniques, from fluorescent wide field to super-resolution and immunogold-scanning electron microscopy. A fluorescent strain of B. burgdorferi spirochetes was labeled with monoclonal antibodies directed against various bacterial surface antigens. Our results indicate that OspA is more evenly distributed over the surface than OspB and OspC that were present as punctate areas. PMID:25739645

  10. The anti-borreliae efficacy of phytochemicals and micronutrients: an update.

    PubMed

    Goc, Anna; Rath, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Naturally occurring substances have been used for centuries to fight against various pathogens. They serve as a source for new chemical entities or provide options to already existing therapeutics. While there is an increasing interest in studying antimicrobial properties of naturally derived agents, little is known about their effects against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative pathogens of Lyme disease. A better understanding of this aspect could advance knowledge about pathophysiology of these bacteria and help improve the efficacy of current approaches against Lyme disease. Here, we review all naturally occurring substances scientifically evaluated to date, including plant extracts, their metabolites, and micronutrients, against vegetative (spirochetes) and latent (rounded bodies, biofilm) forms of Borrelia sp. This summary reveals the potent anti-borreliae activity of several of these natural compounds indicating their potential in enhancing the efficacy of current treatments for Lyme disease, and offering new options to already existing therapeutic regiments. PMID:27536352

  11. Serologic evidence for selected infectious diseases in Marsican brown bears (Ursus arctos marsicanus) in Italy (2004-09).

    PubMed

    Di Francesco, Cristina Esmeralda; Gentile, Leonardo; Di Pirro, Vincenza; Ladiana, Lara; Tagliabue, Silvia; Marsilio, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    We tested 30 serum samples collected during 2004-09 from 22 free-ranging Marsican brown bears (Ursus arctos marsicanus) in the National Park of Abruzzo, Lazio, and Molise, Italy, for antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), Brucella spp., and eight Leptospira interrogans sensu lato serovars. Antibody to CDV was detected in 11 samples (37%); only two bears (10%) had detectable CAV-2 and Brucella spp. antibodies; three bears were positive for L. interrogans serovar Bratislava; and one sample had antibody against L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni. All samples were positive for CPV-2 antibody. The CPV-2 antibody titers varied from 1∶640 to 1∶10,240, suggesting that transmission was still active. Fifty percent of bears were positive for antibody to two or more pathogens. Our results highlight the need to consider infectious diseases as a potential risk for Marsican brown bear conservation. PMID:25375945

  12. Taxonomic redescription and biological notes on Diaugia angusta (Diptera, Tachinidae): parasitoid of the palm boring weevils Metamasius ensirostris and M. hemipterus (Coleoptera, Dryophthoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Nihei, Silvio Shigueo; Pavarini, Ronaldo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Diaugia angusta Perty, 1833 is a Neotropical species of Tachinidae (Diptera) reported here as a parasitoid of Metamasius ensirostris (Germar, 1824) and Metamasius hemipterus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) in Brazil. Several species of Dryophthoridae and Curculionidae cause damage to bromeliad and palm species, and most are regarded as pests. In the present study, the male and female of Diaugia angusta are morphologically characterized and illustrated to provide a means for the identification of this parasitoid. Data obtained from preliminary field research show that natural parasitism of Metamasius pupae by Diaugia angusta varies by year but can reach nearly 30%. A network of parasitoid-host interactions among tachinid parasitoids and coleopteran hosts reported as bromeliad and palm pests (Dryophthoridae and Curculionidae) in the Americas indicates that the species of the tribe Dexiini sensu lato (including Diaugia angusta) might be promising as biological control agents of these pests. PMID:21594164

  13. Borrelia burgdorferi infection and Lyme disease in children.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Bosis, Samantha; Sabatini, Caterina; Tagliaferri, Laura; Principi, Nicola

    2013-03-01

    Lyme disease is a multisystem disease that frequently affects children. It is caused by a group of related spirochetes, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, that are transmitted by ticks belonging to species of the genus Ixodes. The clinical characteristics of Lyme disease in pediatrics resemble those observed in adults, although the symptoms may last for a shorter time and the outcome may be better. However, identifying Lyme disease in children can be significantly more difficult because some of its signs and symptoms can be similar to those of other common pediatric clinical manifestations. Finally, the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to childhood Lyme disease is frequently not codified, and guidelines specifically prepared for adults are used for children without having been validated. This review of the currently available data will evaluate what may be the best approach to the diagnosis and treatment of B. burgdorferi infection and disease in the pediatric population. PMID:23141587

  14. Treatment of Lyme borreliosis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis in humans. This inflammatory disease can affect the skin, the peripheral and central nervous system, the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular system and rarely the eyes. Early stages are directly associated with viable bacteria at the site of inflammation. The pathogen-host interaction is complex and has been elucidated only in part. B. burgdorferi is highly susceptible to antibiotic treatment and the majority of patients profit from this treatment. Some patients develop chronic persistent disease despite repeated antibiotics. Whether this is a sequel of pathogen persistence or a status of chronic auto-inflammation, auto-immunity or a form of fibromyalgia is highly debated. Since vaccination is not available, prevention of a tick bite or chemoprophylaxis is important. If the infection is manifest, then treatment strategies should target not only the pathogen by using antibiotics but also the chronic inflammation by using anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:20067594

  15. Description of a new species of crested newt, previously subsumed in Triturus ivanbureschi (Amphibia: Caudata: Salamandridae).

    PubMed

    Wielstra, B; Arntzen, J W

    2016-01-01

    Multilocus molecular data play a pivotal role in diagnosing cryptic species (i.e. genetically distinct but morphologically similar species). A multilocus phylogeographic survey has provided compelling evidence that Triturus ivanbureschi sensu lato comprises two distinct gene pools with restricted gene flow. We conclude that this taxon had better be treated as two distinct (albeit morphologically cryptic) species. The name T. ivanbureschi should be restricted to the western species, which is distributed in western Asiatic Turkey plus the south-eastern Balkan Peninsula. No name is as yet available for the eastern species, which is distributed in northern Asiatic Turkey. We propose the name T. anatolicus sp. nov. for the eastern species and provide a formal species description. PMID:27394852

  16. Identification of Communal Oviposition Pheromones from the Black Fly Simulium vittatum

    PubMed Central

    McGaha, Tommy W.; Young, Ryan M.; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D.; Iburg, Joseph P.; Beau, Jeremy M.; Hassan, Sayed; Katholi, Charles R.; Cupp, Eddie W.; Baker, Bill J.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Noblet, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    The suite of pheromones that promote communal oviposition by Simulium vittatum, a North American black fly species, was identified and characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, electrophysiological, and behavioral bioassays. Behavioral assays demonstrated that communal oviposition was induced by egg-derived compounds that were active at short range and whose effect was enhanced through direct contact. Three compounds (cis-9-tetradecen-1-ol, 1-pentadecene, and 1-tridecene) were identified in a non-polar solvent extract of freshly deposited S. vittatum eggs that were capable of inducing the oviposition response. Electroantennography demonstrated that two of these three compounds (1-pentadecene and 1-tridecene) actively stimulated antennal neurons. Identification of the oviposition pheromones of this family may be helpful in developing control measures for nuisance black flies and for medically-important species such as Simulium damnosum sensu lato. PMID:25786206

  17. Spionidae (Annelida) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia: the genera Aonides, Dipolydora, Polydorella, Prionospio, Pseudopolydora, Rhynchospio, and Tripolydora.

    PubMed

    Radashevsky, Vasily I

    2015-01-01

    Nineteen species in seven genera of spionid polychaetes are described and illustrated based on new material collected from the intertidal and shallow waters around the Lizard Island Group, northern Great Barrier Reef. Only one of these species had been previously reported from the Reef. Six species are described as new to science, and the taxonomy of seven species should be clarified in the future. Prionospio sensu lato is the most diverse group with 11 species identified in the present study. One species is identified in each of the genera Dipolydora, Polydorella, Rhynchospio and Tripolydora, and two species are identified in each of the genera Aonides and Pseudopolydora. The fauna of spionid polychaetes of the Great Barrier Reef seems to be more diverse than previously described and more species are expected to be found in the future. An identification key is provided to 16 genera of Spionidae reported from or likely to be found on the Great Barrier Reef. PMID:26624082

  18. Vaccination against Lyme disease: past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Embers, Monica E.; Narasimhan, Sukanya

    2013-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato bacteria transmitted to humans and domestic animals by the bite of an Ixodes spp. tick (deer tick). Despite improvements in diagnostic tests and public awareness of Lyme disease, the reported cases have increased over the past decade to approximately 30,000 per year. Limitations and failed public acceptance of a human vaccine, comprised of the outer surface A (OspA) lipoprotein of B. burgdorferi, led to its demise, yet current research has opened doors to new strategies for protection against Lyme disease. In this review we discuss the enzootic cycle of B. burgdorferi, and the unique opportunities it poses to block infection or transmission at different levels. We present the correlates of protection for this infectious disease, the pros and cons of past vaccination strategies, and new paradigms for future vaccine design that would include elements of both the vector and the pathogen. PMID:23407755

  19. Cantharellus chicagoensis sp. nov. is supported by molecular and morphological analysis as a new yellow chanterelle in midwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Leacock, Patrick R; Riddell, Jill; Wilson, Andrew W; Zhang, Rui; Ning, Chen; Mueller, Gregory M

    2016-01-01

    Recent molecular systematic studies of Cantharellus cibarius sensu lato have revealed previously unknown species in different regions of North America. This study investigates yellow chanterelles in the Midwest using phylogenetic analysis of three DNA regions: nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and 28S sequences and translation elongation factor 1α gene (EF1α). This analysis reveals a locally common taxon Cantharellus chicagoensis sp. nov. as distinct from sympatric species present in northeastern Illinois, northwestern Indiana and Wisconsin. This chanterelle features a pileus that often has a greenish yellow margin when immature, a squamulose disk when mature, a yellow spore print and the absence of a fragrant odor. Multiple Cantharellus specimens group with C. flavus and C. phasmatis, expanding their known range, and others with C. roseocanus Our observations highlight the diversity of Cantharellus in midwestern USA and further document the need for additional systematic focus on the region's fungi. PMID:27153882

  20. Barnyard grasses were processed with rice around 10000 years ago

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Fuller, Dorian Q; Huan, Xiujia; Perry, Linda; Li, Quan; Li, Zhao; Zhang, Jianping; Ma, Zhikun; Zhuang, Yijie; Jiang, Leping; Ge, Yong; Lu, Houyuan

    2015-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is regarded as the only grass that was selected for cultivation and eventual domestication in the Yangtze basin of China. Although both macro-fossils and micro-fossils of rice have been recovered from the Early Neolithic site of Shangshan, dating to more than 10,000 years before present (BP), we report evidence of phytolith and starch microfossils taken from stone tools, both for grinding and cutting, and cultural layers, that indicating barnyard grass (Echinochloa spp.) was a major subsistence resource, alongside smaller quantities of acorn starches (Lithocarpus/Quercus sensu lato) and water chestnuts (Trapa). This evidence suggests that early managed wetland environments were initially harvested for multiple grain species including barnyard grasses as well as rice, and indicate that the emergence of rice as the favoured cultivated grass and ultimately the key domesticate of the Yangtze basin was a protracted process. PMID:26536839

  1. Development of a molecular assay to detect predation on Anopheles gambiae complex larval stages.

    PubMed

    Schielke, Erika; Costantini, Carlo; Carchini, Gianmaria; Sagnon, N'falé; Powell, Jeffrey; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2007-09-01

    We developed a molecular assay to detect predation on Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) mosquitoes. This intergenic spacer ribosomal DNA polymerase chain reaction assay and restriction enzyme analysis uses An. gambiae-specific primers to detect mosquito DNA in the DNA extracts from whole invertebrate predators, which enables identification of species (An. gambiae s.s. versus An. arabiensis) and molecular forms (M versus S in An. gambiae s.s.). We show that An. gambiae s.l. DNA can be detected after ingestion by members of the families Lestidae (order Odonata) after four hours, Libellulidae (order Odonata) after six hours, and Notonectidae (order Hemiptera) after 24 hours. This method is an improvement over previously published methods because of ease of execution and increased time of detection after ingestion. PMID:17827361

  2. Ticks and tick-borne pathogens in South Bohemia (Czech Republic)--Spatial variability in Ixodes ricinus abundance, Borrelia burgdorferi and tick-borne encephalitis virus prevalence.

    PubMed

    Hönig, V; Svec, P; Halas, P; Vavruskova, Z; Tykalova, H; Kilian, P; Vetiskova, V; Dornakova, V; Sterbova, J; Simonova, Z; Erhart, J; Sterba, J; Golovchenko, M; Rudenko, N; Grubhoffer, L

    2015-07-01

    Spatial distribution of Ixodes ricinus tick host-seeking activity, as well as prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) were studied in the TBE endemic area of South Bohemia (Czech Republic). High variability in tick abundance detected in a network of 30 study sites was most closely associated with characteristics of vegetation cover. Of 11,182 tested tick samples, 12% carried DNA of spirochete from B. burgdorferi s.l. complex. B. afzelii and B. garinii prevailed among spirochete species. The presence of B. spielmanii in the region was confirmed. The median number of borrelial genome copies in positive samples reached 6.6 × 10(3) by real-time PCR. The total prevalence of TBEV in pooled samples reached 0.32% (20,057 samples tested), at least one TBEV positive tick was present in 21 out of 30 sampling sites. PMID:25976235

  3. The anti-borreliae efficacy of phytochemicals and micronutrients: an update

    PubMed Central

    Goc, Anna; Rath, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring substances have been used for centuries to fight against various pathogens. They serve as a source for new chemical entities or provide options to already existing therapeutics. While there is an increasing interest in studying antimicrobial properties of naturally derived agents, little is known about their effects against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative pathogens of Lyme disease. A better understanding of this aspect could advance knowledge about pathophysiology of these bacteria and help improve the efficacy of current approaches against Lyme disease. Here, we review all naturally occurring substances scientifically evaluated to date, including plant extracts, their metabolites, and micronutrients, against vegetative (spirochetes) and latent (rounded bodies, biofilm) forms of Borrelia sp. This summary reveals the potent anti-borreliae activity of several of these natural compounds indicating their potential in enhancing the efficacy of current treatments for Lyme disease, and offering new options to already existing therapeutic regiments. PMID:27536352

  4. Crystal structure of tetrakis­(acetyl­acetonato)di­chloridodi-μ3-methano­lato-tetra-μ2-methano­lato-tetra­iron(III)

    PubMed Central

    Richers, Casseday P.; Bertke, Jeffery A.; Gray, Danielle L.; Rauchfuss, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    The title complex, [Fe4(C5H7O2)4(CH3O)6Cl2] or [Fe4(acac)4(μ2-OMe)4(μ3-OMe)2Cl2] (acac = acetyl­acetonate), crystallizes in the ortho­rhom­bic Pbca space group with one half of the mol­ecule per asymmetric unit, the other half being completed by inversion symmetry. The core structure consists of a face-sharing double pseudo-cubane entity with two opposite corners missing. Weak C—H⋯Cl inter­molecular inter­actions result in a two-dimensional layered structure parallel to the ac plane. PMID:26396769

  5. A revised taxonomy of crested newts in the Triturus karelinii group (Amphibia: Caudata: Salamandridae), with the description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Wielstra, B; Litvinchuk, S N; Naumov, B; Tzankov, N; Arntzen, J W

    2013-01-01

    We present a taxonomic revision of the crested newt Triturus karelinii sensu lato. Based on the presence of discrete nuclear DNA gene pools, deep genetic divergence of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, and no indication of gene flow, we interpret this taxon as comprising two species: one covering the southern Caspian Sea shore, the Caucasus and the Crimea, i.e. the eastern part of the total range and another covering northern Asiatic Turkey and western Asiatic Turkey plus the southeastern Balkan Peninsula, i.e. the central and western part of the total range. We acknowledge that the central/western species should likely be further subdivided into a central and a western taxon, but we prefer to await a more detailed genetic analysis of the putative contact zone, positioned in northwestern Asiatic Turkey. The name T. karelinii (Strauch, 1870) applies to the eastern species as the type locality is positioned along the coast of the Gulf of Gorgan, Iran. The name T. arntzeni has been applied to the central/western species with Vrtovać, Serbia as the type locality. We show that not T. karelinii sensu lato but T. macedonicus occurs at Vrtovać. Hence, the name T. arntzeni Litvinchuk, Borkin, Dzukić and Kalezić, 1999 (in Litvinchuk et al., 1999) is a junior synonym of T. macedonicus (Karaman, 1922) and should not be used for the central/western species. We propose the name T. ivanbureschi sp. nov. for the central/western species and provide a formal species description. PMID:25243299

  6. Prevalence of Bacillus anthracis-Like Organisms and Bacteriophages in the Intestinal Tract of the Earthworm Eisenia fetida▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Schuch, R.; Pelzek, A. J.; Kan, S.; Fischetti, V. A.

    2010-01-01

    Stable infection of Bacillus anthracis laboratory strains with environmental bacteriophages confers survival phenotypes in soil and earthworm intestinal niches (R. Schuch and V. A. Fischetti, PLoS One 4:e6532, 2009). Here, the natural occurrence of two such B. anthracis-infective bacteriophages, Wip1 and Wip4, was examined in the intestines of Eisenia fetida earthworms as part of a 6-year longitudinal study at a Pennsylvania forest site. The Wip1 tectivirus was initially dominant before being supplanted by the Wip4 siphovirus, which was then dominant for the next 3 years. In a host range analysis of a wide-ranging group of Bacillus species and related organisms, Wip1 and Wip4 were both infective only toward B. anthracis and certain B. cereus strains. The natural host of Wip4 remained constant for 3 years and was a B. cereus strain that expressed a B. anthracis-like surface polysaccharide at septal positions on the cell surface. Next, a novel metagenomic approach was used to determine the extent to which such B. cereus- and B. anthracis-like strains are found in worms from two geographical locations. Three different enrichment strategies were used for metagenomic DNA isolation, based either on the ability of B. cereus sensu lato to form heat-resistant spores, the sensitivity of B. anthracis to the PlyG lysin, or the selective amplification of environmental phages cocultured with B. anthracis. Findings from this work indicate that B. cereus sensu lato and its phages are common inhabitants of earthworm intestines. PMID:20118353

  7. Evidence for the introduction of the Asian red alga Neosiphonia japonica and its introgression with Neosiphonia harveyi (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) in the Northwest Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Savoie, Amanda M; Saunders, Gary W

    2015-12-01

    There is currently conflict in the literature on the taxonomic status of the reportedly cosmopolitan species Neosiphonia harveyi, a common red alga along the coast of Atlantic Canada and New England, USA. Neosiphonia harveyi sensu lato was assessed using three molecular markers: COI-5P, ITS and rbcL. All three markers clearly delimited three genetic species groups within N. harveyi sensu lato in this region, which we identified as N. harveyi, N. japonica and Polysiphonia akkeshiensis (here resurrected from synonymy with N. japonica). Although Neosiphonia harveyi is considered by some authors to be introduced to the Atlantic from the western Pacific, it was only confirmed from the North Atlantic suggesting it is native to this area. In contrast, Neosiphonia japonica was collected from only two sites in Rhode Island, USA, as well as from its reported native range in Asia (South Korea), which when combined with data in GenBank indicates that this species was introduced to the Northwest Atlantic. The GenBank data further indicate that N. japonica was also introduced to North Carolina, Spain, Australia and New Zealand. Despite the fact that all three markers clearly delimited N. harveyi and N. japonica as distinct genetic species groups, the ITS sequences for some N. harveyi individuals displayed mixed patterns and additivity indicating introgression of nuclear DNA from N. japonica into N. harveyi in the Northwest Atlantic. Introgression of DNA from an introduced species to a native species (i.e. 'genetic pollution') is one of the possible consequences of species introductions, and we believe this is the first documented evidence for this phenomenon in red algae. PMID:26477438

  8. A molecular phylogeny of Alpine subterranean Trechini (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Alpine region harbours one of the most diverse subterranean faunas in the world, with many species showing extreme morphological modifications. The ground beetles of tribe Trechini (Coleoptera, Carabidae) are among the best studied and widespread groups with abundance of troglobionts, but their origin and evolution is largely unknown. Results We sequenced 3.4 Kb of mitochondrial (cox1, rrnL, trnL, nad1) and nuclear (SSU, LSU) genes of 207 specimens of 173 mostly Alpine species, including examples of all subterranean genera but two plus a representation of epigean taxa. We applied Bayesian methods and maximum likelihood to reconstruct the topology and to estimate divergence times using a priori rates obtained for a related ground beetle genus. We found three main clades of late Eocene-early Oligocene origin: (1) the genus Doderotrechus and relatives; (2) the genus Trechus sensu lato, with most anisotopic subterranean genera, including the Pyrenean lineage and taxa from the Dinaric Alps; and (3) the genus Duvalius sensu lato, diversifying during the late Miocene and including all subterranean isotopic taxa. Most of the subterranean genera had an independent origin and were related to epigean taxa of the same geographical area, but there were three large monophyletic clades of exclusively subterranean species: the Pyrenean lineage, a lineage including subterranean taxa from the eastern Alps and the Dinarides, and the genus Anophthalmus from the northeastern Alps. Many lineages have developed similar phenotypes independently, showing extensive morphological convergence or parallelism. Conclusions The Alpine Trechini do not form a homogeneous fauna, in contrast with the Pyrenees, and show a complex scenario of multiple colonisations of the subterranean environment at different geological periods and through different processes. Examples go from populations of an epigean widespread species going underground with little morphological modifications to

  9. Comparison of Freshwater Diatom Assemblages from a High Arctic Oasis to Nearby Polar Desert Sites and Their Application to Environmental Inference Models.

    PubMed

    Michelutti, Neal; McCleary, Kathryn; Douglas, Marianne S V; Smol, John P

    2013-02-01

    Arctic oases are regions of atypical warmth and relatively high biological production and diversity. They are small in area (<5 km(2) ) and uncommon in occurrence, yet they are relatively well studied due to the abundance of plant and animal life contained within them. A notable exception is the lack of research on freshwater ecosystems within polar oases. Here, we aim to increase our understanding of freshwater diatom ecology in polar oases. Diatoms were identified and enumerated from modern sediments collected in 23 lakes and ponds contained within the Lake Hazen oasis on Ellesmere Island, and compared with diatom assemblages from 29 sites located outside of the oasis across the northern portion of the island. There were significant differences in water chemistry variables between oasis and northern sites, with oasis sites having higher conductivity and greater concentrations of nutrients and related variables such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Taxa across all sites were typical of those recorded in Arctic freshwaters, with species from the genera Achnanthes sensu lato, Fragilaria sensu lato, and Nitzschia dominating the assemblages. A correspondence analysis (CA) ordination showed that oasis sites generally plotted separately from the northern sites, although the sites also appear to plot separately based on whether they were lakes or ponds. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) identified specific conductivity, DOC, and SiO2 as explaining significant (P < 0.05) and additional amounts of variation in the diatom data set. The most robust diatom-based inference model was generated for DOC, which will provide useful reconstructions on long-term changes in paleo-optics of high Arctic lakes. PMID:27008387

  10. The Genomic Aftermath of Hybridization in the Opportunistic Pathogen Candida metapsilosis

    PubMed Central

    Pryszcz, Leszek P.; Németh, Tibor; Saus, Ester; Ksiezopolska, Ewa; Hegedűsová, Eva; Nosek, Jozef; Wolfe, Kenneth H.; Gacser, Attila; Gabaldón, Toni

    2015-01-01

    Candida metapsilosis is a rarely-isolated, opportunistic pathogen that belongs to a clade of pathogenic yeasts known as the C. parapsilosis sensu lato species complex. To gain insight into the recent evolution of C. metapsilosis and the genetic basis of its virulence, we sequenced the genome of 11 clinical isolates from various locations, which we compared to each other and to the available genomes of the two remaining members of the complex: C. orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis. Unexpectedly, we found compelling genomic evidence that C. metapsilosis is a highly heterozygous hybrid species, with all sequenced clinical strains resulting from the same past hybridization event involving two parental lineages that were approximately 4.5% divergent in sequence. This result indicates that the parental species are non-pathogenic, but that hybridization between them formed a new opportunistic pathogen, C. metapsilosis, that has achieved a worldwide distribution. We show that these hybrids are diploid and we identified strains carrying loci for both alternative mating types, which supports mating as the initial mechanism for hybrid formation. We trace the aftermath of this hybridization at the genomic level, and reconstruct the evolutionary relationships among the different strains. Recombination and introgression -resulting in loss of heterozygosis- between the two subgenomes have been rampant, and includes the partial overwriting of the MTLa mating locus in all strains. Collectively, our results shed light on the recent genomic evolution within the C. parapsilosis sensu lato complex, and argue for a re-definition of species within this clade, with at least five distinct homozygous lineages, some of which having the ability to form hybrids. PMID:26517373

  11. Prevalence of Bacillus anthracis-like organisms and bacteriophages in the intestinal tract of the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Schuch, R; Pelzek, A J; Kan, S; Fischetti, V A

    2010-04-01

    Stable infection of Bacillus anthracis laboratory strains with environmental bacteriophages confers survival phenotypes in soil and earthworm intestinal niches (R. Schuch and V. A. Fischetti, PLoS One 4:e6532, 2009). Here, the natural occurrence of two such B. anthracis-infective bacteriophages, Wip1 and Wip4, was examined in the intestines of Eisenia fetida earthworms as part of a 6-year longitudinal study at a Pennsylvania forest site. The Wip1 tectivirus was initially dominant before being supplanted by the Wip4 siphovirus, which was then dominant for the next 3 years. In a host range analysis of a wide-ranging group of Bacillus species and related organisms, Wip1 and Wip4 were both infective only toward B. anthracis and certain B. cereus strains. The natural host of Wip4 remained constant for 3 years and was a B. cereus strain that expressed a B. anthracis-like surface polysaccharide at septal positions on the cell surface. Next, a novel metagenomic approach was used to determine the extent to which such B. cereus- and B. anthracis-like strains are found in worms from two geographical locations. Three different enrichment strategies were used for metagenomic DNA isolation, based either on the ability of B. cereus sensu lato to form heat-resistant spores, the sensitivity of B. anthracis to the PlyG lysin, or the selective amplification of environmental phages cocultured with B. anthracis. Findings from this work indicate that B. cereus sensu lato and its phages are common inhabitants of earthworm intestines. PMID:20118353

  12. Systematics of the Podarcis hispanicus complex (Sauria, Lacertidae) III: valid nomina of the western and central Iberian forms.

    PubMed

    Geniez, Philippe; Sá-Sousa, Paulo; Guillaume, Claude P; Cluchier, Alexandre; Crochet, Pierre-André

    2014-01-01

    Recent genetic works have suggested that the Iberian wall lizard Podarcis hispanicus (Steindachner, 1870) sensu lato is a species complex. Several forms have already been elevated to species rank and linked to available nomina, but at least three still have to be formally named, including the western Iberian forms currently designated as Podarcis hispanicus "type 1A", "type 1B" and "type 2". The aim of the present work is to assign a valid nomen to these taxa. Using multivariate analyses, we first checked that the morphological differences reported in Portugal between type 1 and type 2 are maintained over their distribution range. We then investigated phenotypic differentiation between type 1A and type 1B, which were found to be so similar that identification based on phenotype is currently not advisable. We propose to treat type 1 and type 2 as distinct species because of their level of genetic and phenotypic divergence, large area of distribution and ample evidence for reduced or absent introgression in contact zones. We maintain type 1A and 1B as subspecies for the time being, pending further analyses of their contact zone. The valid nomen for "Podarcis hispanica type 1 (sensu lato)" is Lacerta muralis guadarramae Boscá, 1916 which becomes Podarcis guadarramae (Boscá, 1916). Lineage type 1A is here described as a new taxon: P. guadarramae lusitanicus ssp. nov., inhabiting northern Portugal and northwestern Spain. The type 1B lineage corresponds to the nominotypical subspecies that inhabits Spain, mostly the Central Iberian Mountains. We were unable to locate an available nomen for "Podarcis hispanica type 2", which is here described as Podarcis virescens sp. nov. This species is widely distributed in the plains and plateaus of central and parts of south-western Spain as well as central and southern Portugal. PMID:24870311

  13. Alpheid shrimps (Decapoda: Caridea) of the Trindade & Martin Vaz Archipelago, off Brazil, with new records, description of a new species of Synalpheus and remarks on zoogeographical patterns in the oceanic islands of the tropical southern Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Anker, Arthur; Tavares, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The present study deals with shrimps of the family Alpheidae collected in the shallow waters around the remote Trindade & Martin Vaz Archipelago, situated 1200 km off the coast of Espírito Santo, Brazil. A few additional samples came from dredges on top of the seamounts of the Vitória-Trindade Seamount Chain. A total of 23 species in eight genera are reported, the vast majority representing new records for the area. One species is described as new, Synalpheus trinitatis sp. nov., based on the type material from Trindade Island. The new species clearly belongs to the Synalpheus brooksi Coutière, 1909 species complex, differing from all its other members by at least two morphological features. Four species represent new records for Brazil and the southwestern Atlantic: Alpheopsis aequalis Coutière, 1897 sensu lato, Alpheopsis chalciope de Man, 1910 sensu lato, Alpheus crockeri (Armstrong, 1941) and Prionalpheus gomezi Martínez-Iglesias & Carvacho, 1991; the two species of Alpheopsis are recorded from the Atlantic Ocean for the first time. The colour pattern of the recently described Alpheus rudolphi Almeida & Anker, 2011, a species endemic to Brazil, is shown for the first time and compared to the colour patterns of the four closely related species of the A. armatus Rathbun, 1901 complex from the Caribbean-Florida region. A brief zoogeographical analysis of the alpheid fauna of the oceanic islands of the tropical southern Atlantic (Trindade & Martin Vaz, Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, São Pedro & São Paulo, Ascension, Saint Helena, Cape Verde, São Tomé & Príncipe) is also provided. PMID:27470751

  14. Geographical differences in seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in Norway, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Vestrheim, Didrik F; White, Richard A; Aaberge, Ingeborg S; Aase, Audun

    2016-07-01

    Detection of specific antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a useful aid for the diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. However, antibodies are present in the general population. The seroprevalence increase with age, and varies according to the prevalence of infected ticks. We performed a seroprevalence study of IgM and IgG antibody reactivity against B. burgdorferi sensu lato in Norway by age-groups and geography, in order to provide a reference set of seroprevalence to inform the interpretation of positive test results. We used two commercially available enzyme immuno assays (EIA) and a multiplexed bead assay to detect Borrelia IgG antibodies in a convenience sample of 3057 sera collected from clinical chemistry laboratories in 10 of 19 counties in Norway between December 2011 and January 2013. We estimated seroprevalence by age and county by a logistic regression model. IgM antibodies were detected by two commercially available EIAs and a multiplexed bead assay. The overall seroprevalence of Borrelia IgG was 4.0% (95% CI: 2.4-6.6%) and 4.2% (2.6-6.8%) by the two EIAs, respectively. The seroprevalence increased by age, and by geography from north to south. The IgG assays showed a good agreement for positive test results. All sera positive for IgG in the multiplexed bead assay reacted with the VlsE antigen, and also had high antibody levels by EIA. The Borrelia seroprevalence varied by geography and increased by age. The results indicate regional differences in pre-test probabilities for positive test results, and can inform the interpretation of laboratory results. PMID:26961275

  15. Molecular characterization of Ehrlichia canis infecting dogs, Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Cicuttin, Gabriel L; De Salvo, María N; Gury Dohmen, Federico E

    2016-07-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) is a worldwide potentially fatal tick-borne rickettsial disease of dogs caused by Ehrlichia canis and transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. CME diagnosis includes indirect (serology) and direct (e.g. blood smears and PCR) methods. PCR is more sensitive and specific than direct microscopic examination and positive PCR results confirm infection, whereas positive serologic test results only confirm exposure. The aim of the present study was to perform a molecular characterization of E. canis from canine samples of the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires. We studied 223 blood samples of dogs submitted to our institute for CME diagnoses. The samples were initially screened for Anaplasmataceae family by PCR, resulting in 30 positive dogs (13.4%). Subsequently, positive DNAs were analyzed by nested PCR 16S rRNA specific for E. canis or Anaplasma platys, resulting in 15 (6.7%) and 16 (7.2%) positive dogs, respectively. For molecular characterization, samples positive for E. canis were subjected to amplification of a fragment of the dsb and p28 genes. The nucleotide sequences obtained for the dsb fragment resulted in 100% identity with others E. canis found in dogs from different regions of worldwide. The nucleotide sequences obtained for p28 gene resulted in 100% of identity with each other and closely with E. canis str. Jaboticabal (Brazil). Identity with others sequences of E. canis ranged from 76.9 to 79.7%. The occurrence of canine cases molecularly confirmed in Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires highlights the need for more studies in order to understand epidemiological factors associated with CME, especially the disease transmission dynamic in South America given the existence of two lineages of R. sanguineus sensu lato with different vectorial capacity for transmission of E. canis. PMID:27236582

  16. Circumstantial evidence for an increase in the total number and activity of borrelia-infected ixodes ricinus in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Between 1994 and 2009, a threefold increase has been observed in consultations of general practitioners for tick bites and Lyme disease in The Netherlands. The objective of this study was to determine whether an increase in the number of questing ticks infected with B. burgdorferi sensu lato is a potential cause of the rise in Lyme disease incidence. Methods Historic data on land usage, temperature and wildlife populations were collected and analyzed together with data from two longitudinal field studies on density of questing ticks. Effective population sizes of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. were calculated. Results Long-term trend analyses indicated that the length of the annual tick questing season increased as well as the surface area of tick-suitable habitats in The Netherlands. The overall abundances of feeding and reproductive hosts also increased. Mathematical analysis of the data from the field studies demonstrated an increase in mean densities/activities of questing ticks, particularly of larvae between 2006 and 2009. No increase in infection rate of ticks with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was found. Population genetic analysis of the collected Borrelia species points to an increase in B. afzelii and B. garinii populations. Conclusions Together, these findings indicate an increase in the total number of Borrelia-infected ticks, providing circumstantial evidence for an increase in the risk of acquiring a bite of a tick infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. Due to the high spatiotemporal variation of tick densities/activities, long-term longitudinal studies on population dynamics of I. ricinus are necessary to observe significant trends. PMID:23244453

  17. A re-consideration of the taxonomic status of Nebria lacustris Casey (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Nebriini) based on multiple datasets – a single species or a species complex?

    PubMed Central

    Kavanaugh, David H.; Archambeault, Sophie L.; Roopnarine, Peter D.; Ledford, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This study gathered evidence from principal component analysis (PCA) of morphometric data and molecular analyses of nucleotide sequence data for four nuclear genes (28S, TpI, CAD1, and Wg) and two mitochondrial genes (COI and 16S), using parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods. This evidence was combined with morphological and chorological data to re-evaluate the taxonomic status of Nebria lacustris Casey sensu lato. PCA demonstrated that both body size and one conspicuous aspect of pronotal shape vary simultaneously with elevation, latitude, and longitude and served to distinguish populations from the southern Appalachian highlands, south of the French Broad, from all other populations. Molecular analyses revealed surprisingly low overall genetic diversity within Nebria lacustris sensu lato, with only 0.39% of 4605 bp varied in the concatenated dataset. Evaluation of patterns observed in morphological and genetic variation and distribution led to the following taxonomic conclusions: (1) Nebria lacustris Casey and Nebria bellorum Kavanaugh should be considered distinct species, which is a NEW STATUS for Nebria bellorum. (2) No other distinct taxonomic subunits could be distinguished with the evidence at hand, but samples from northeastern Iowa, in part of the region known as the “Driftless Zone”, have unique genetic markers for two genes that hint at descent from a local population surviving at least the last glacial advance. (3) No morphometric or molecular evidence supports taxonomic distinction between lowland populations on the shores of Lake Champlain and upland populations in the adjacent Green Mountains of Vermont, despite evident size and pronotal shape differences between many of their members. PMID:22379387

  18. (Acetyl­acetonato-κ2 O,O′)dichlorido­bis(methano­lato-κO)niobium(V)

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Leandra; Visser, Hendrik G.; Roodt, Andreas; Pretorius, Carla

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, [Nb(CH3O)2(C5H7O2)Cl2], a slightly distorted octa­hedral coordination geometry is observed around the NbV atom with Nb—O distances in the range of 1.8254 (16)–2.0892 (16) Å and Nb—Cl distances of 2.3997 (14) and 2.4023 (12) Å. The O—Nb—O angles vary between 81.36 (7) and 172.65 (7) °, while the trans Cl—Nb—Cl angle is 167.34 (2)°. There are no hydrogen bonds observed. PMID:23284364

  19. Global ecology and epidemiology of Borrelia garinii spirochetes

    PubMed Central

    Comstedt, Pär; Jakobsson, Tobias; Bergström, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a tick-transmitted infectious disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s. l.). In Europe, three different Borrelia species are the main causative agents of LB: B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia garinii. The latter depends heavily on birds as its main reservoir hosts. In fact, birds can act both as biological carriers of Borrelia and transporters of infected ticks. The seasonal migration of many bird species not only aid in the spread of B. garinii to new foci but also influence the high level of diversity found within this species. B. garinii have been isolated not only from terrestrial birds in Europe, but also from seabirds worldwide, and homology between isolates in these two different infection cycles suggests an overlap and exchange of strains. In addition, it has been shown that birds can maintain and spread B. garinii genotypes associated with LB in humans. This review article discusses the importance of birds in the ecology and epidemiology of B. garinii spirochetes. PMID:22957111

  20. Does the Cosmopolitan Diatom Gomphonema parvulum (Kützing) Kützing Have a Biogeography?

    PubMed Central

    Abarca, Nelida; Jahn, Regine; Zimmermann, Jonas; Enke, Neela

    2014-01-01

    Diatom cultures of the G. parvulum species complex were established from seven different sites in the Faroe Islands, Sweden, Germany, Mexico and Korea, and were studied in detail. Eight morphodemes were identified which corresponded to the descriptions of the cosmopolitan taxon G. parvulum (Kützing) Kützing sensu lato: its nominate variety (var. parvulum), G. parvulum var. exilissimum Grunow and G. parvulum f. saprophilum Lange-Bertalot & Reichardt, G. [parvulum var.] lagenula Kützing plus four unidentifiable morphodemes. The concatenated analysis of the sequences of the markers 18SV4, rbcL, and ITS as well as morphological data resulted in a separation of four taxa based on their biogeography in Mexico, Korea, central Continental Europe and Northern Atlantic Europe. Mantel tests showed a significant correlation between molecular and geographical distances. The diagnoses of two taxa, G. parvulum sensu stricto, and G. lagenula, were emended, G. saprophilum elevated to species rank and epitypes designated. One species was newly described. PMID:24489799

  1. Genista anglica (Fabaceae): One very diverse species or one species complex?

    PubMed

    Fernández Prieto, José A; Sanna, Mauro; Bueno, Álvaro; Pérez, Marta

    2016-05-01

    Genista anglica represents a widely distributed group of shrubs in the Iberian Peninsula, as well as in the North of the Moroccan Mountains, the South of Italy and in most oceanic territories of Western Europe, with its northern limit in Sweden. Up to five different species within the group have been described in these territories: Genista ancistrocarpa, G. acutifolia, G. brutia and G. silana, as well as G. anglica sensu stricto. The diversity of Genista anglica sensu lato as well as the phylogenetic patterns that have generated this diversity have been analyzed through the use of nuclear (ITS, ETS) and chloroplastic (trnL, trnL-F, rbcL, matK) DNA sequences. Our results show that the group probably originated in the West of the Iberian Peninsula and subsequently spread to the rest of the European oceanic territories. Additionally, the results support the idea that the presence of a group of plants in the South of Italy, where G. brutia and G. silana were previously described, has been the consequence of the introduction of seeds collected in the Northwest of the Iberian Peninsula. Our results also indicate that, in contrast to some authors, the populations from the West of the Iberian Peninsula are not isolated and, consequently, they should be grouped into one species with high diversity, therefore differentiation into different taxa is no longer adequate. PMID:26879932

  2. Chronic lymphomonocytic meningoencephalitis, oligoarthritis and erythema nodosum: report of Baggio-Yoshinari syndrome of long and relapsing evolution.

    PubMed

    Rosa Neto, Nilton Salles; Gauditano, Giancarla; Yoshinari, Natalino Hajime

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian human borreliosis, also known as Baggio-Yoshinari Syndrome (BYS), is a tickborne disease but whose ticks do not pertain to the Ixodes ricinus complex. It is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato microorganisms and resembles clinical and laboratory features of Lyme disease (LD). BYS is also distinguished from LD by its prolonged clinical evolution, with relapsing episodes and autoimmune dysfunction. We describe the case of a young female who, over one year, progressively presented with oligoarthritis, cognitive impairment, menigoencephalitis and erythema nodosum. Diagnosis was established by means of the clinical history and a positive serology to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu strictu. The patient received Ceftriaxone 2 g IV/day during 30 days, followed by 2 months of doxicycline 100 mg bid. Symptoms remitted and the Borrelia serology tests returned to normality. BYS is a new disease described only in Brazil, which has a raising frequency and deserves the attention from the country´s medical board because of clinical, epidemiological and laboratory differences from LD. Despite the fact that it is a hard-to-diagnose zoonosis, it is important to pursuit an early diagnosis because the symptoms respond well to antibiotics or it might be resistant to treatment and may evolve to a chronic phase with both articular and neurological sequelae. PMID:24878862

  3. Sylvatic maintenance of Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales) in Northern California: untangling the web of transmission.

    PubMed

    Brown, R N; Peot, M A; Lane, R S

    2006-07-01

    Lyme borreliosis is associated with several genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) (Spirochaetales), but human disease has been associated only with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner in the western United States. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of rrf-rrl amplicons from 124 tick and mammalian isolates from various habitats yielded 13 RFLP patterns. Of these patterns, six were patterns previously associated either with Borrelia bissettii Postic, Marti Ras, Lane, Hendson & Baranton or Borrelia burgdorferi s.s., and the remaining seven patterns belonged to diverse and previously uncharacterized Borrelia spp. Uncharacterized Borrelia spp. were cultured most frequently from Ixodes spinipalpis Hadwen & Nuttall and California kangaroo rats, Dipodomys californicus Merriam, inhabiting grasslands, and B. bissettii from I. spinipalpis and dusky-footed woodrats, Neotoma fuscipes Baird, associated with oak woodlands or chaparral. B. burgdorferi s.s. typically was isolated from host-seeking Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls collected in dense oak woodlands, woodland-grass, or redwood forests. Although some isolates of B. burgdorferi s.s. were cultured from woodrats, there was no clear association of this human pathogen with any vertebrate host. These findings, along with recent evidence indicating that the western gray squirrel, Sciurus griseus Ord, may be an important reservoir of B. burgdorferi s.s. in Californian oak woodlands, suggest that our earlier hypothesis implicating an enzootic cycle involving woodrats and I. spinipalpis is insufficient to account for observed patterns of infection in nature. PMID:16892634

  4. First record of Borrelia burgdorferi B31 strain in Dermacentor nitens ticks in the northern region of Parana (Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Daniela Dib; Carreira, Teresa; Nunes, Mónica; Benitez, Aline; Lopes-Mori, Fabiana Maria Ruiz; Vidotto, Odilon; de Freitas, Julio Cesar; Vieira, Maria Luísa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) in ticks that feed on horses used for animal traction in rural Jataizinho, Parana, Brazil. Between February and June 2008, a total of 224 ticks was collected of which 75% were identified as Dermacentor nitens and 25% as Amblyomma cajenense. To amplify B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA, the intergenic space region (ISR) between the 5S (rrf) 23S (rrl) rRNA genes was used as targets for nested-PCR. Two ticks of the D. nitens species were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. Both species showed a fragment of 184 bp, but the sequencing revealed 99.9% homology with the B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) strain B31. These results showed, for the first time, the presence of spirochete DNA infecting ticks that parasitize horses used for animal traction, in the rural municipality mentioned. In conclusion, this study opens up promising prospects for determining the infection rate of B. burgdorferi s.s. genospecies or other species in the equine population, as well as the impact of the infection rate on Lyme disease in the state of Parana. PMID:24516456

  5. Floral homeotic genes were recruited from homologous MADS-box genes preexisting in the common ancestor of ferns and seed plants

    PubMed Central

    Münster, Thomas; Pahnke, Jens; Di Rosa, Alexandra; Kim, Jan T.; Martin, William; Saedler, Heinz; Theissen, Günter

    1997-01-01

    Flowers sensu lato are short, specialized axes bearing closely aggregated sporophylls. They are typical for seed plants (spermatophytes) and are prominent in flowering plants sensu stricto (angiosperms), where they often comprise an attractive perianth. There is evidence that spermatophytes evolved from gymnosperm-like plants with a fern-like mode of reproduction called progymnosperms. It seems plausible, therefore, that the stamens/carpels and pollen sacs/nucelli of spermatophytes are homologous to fern sporophylls and sporangia, respectively. However, the exact mode and molecular basis of early seed and flower evolution is not yet known. Comparing flower developmental control genes to their homologs from lower plants that do not flower may help to clarify the issue. We have isolated and characterized MADS-box genes expressed in gametophytes and sporophytes of the fern Ceratopteris. The data indicate that at least two different MADS-box genes homologous to floral homeotic genes existed in the last common ancestor of contemporary vascular plants, some descendants of which underwent multiple duplications and diversifications and were recruited into novel developmental networks during the evolution of floral organs. PMID:9122209

  6. Asperisporium and Pantospora (Mycosphaerellaceae): epitypifications and phylogenetic placement.

    PubMed

    Minnis, A M; Kennedy, A H; Grenier, D B; Rehner, S A; Bischoff, J F

    2011-12-01

    The species-rich family Mycosphaerellaceae contains considerable morphological diversity and includes numerous anamorphic genera, many of which are economically important plant pathogens. Recent revisions and phylogenetic research have resulted in taxonomic instability. Ameliorating this problem requires phylogenetic placement of type species of key genera. We present an examination of the type species of the anamorphic Asperisporium and Pantospora. Cultures isolated from recent port interceptions were studied and described, and morphological studies were made of historical and new herbarium specimens. DNA sequence data from the ITS region and nLSU were generated from these type species, analysed phylogenetically, placed into an evolutionary context within Mycosphaerellaceae, and compared to existing phylogenies. Epitype specimens associated with living cultures and DNA sequence data are designated herein. Asperisporium caricae, the type of Asperisporium and cause of a leaf and fruit spot disease of papaya, is closely related to several species of Passalora including P. brachycarpa. The status of Asperisporium as a potential generic synonym of Passalora remains unclear. The monotypic genus Pantospora, typified by the synnematous Pantospora guazumae, is not included in Pseudocercospora sensu stricto or sensu lato. Rather, it represents a distinct lineage in the Mycosphaerellaceae in an unresolved position near Mycosphaerella microsora. PMID:22403473

  7. Negative effect of the arthropod parasite, Sarcoptes scabiei, on testes mass in Iberian ibex, Capra pyrenaica.

    PubMed

    Sarasa, Mathieu; Serrano, Emmanuel; Soriguer, Ramón C; Granados, José-Enrique; Fandos, Paulino; Gonzalez, Georges; Joachim, Jean; Pérez, Jesús M

    2011-02-10

    Testes mass is a key factor in male reproductive success and is potentially exposed to so-called 'parasitic castration'. This is the result of the direct destruction or alteration of reproductive cell lineages (parasitic castration sensu stricto), or the indirect detrimental effects - for example, via body condition - on the ability of progenitors to produce or rear offspring (parasitic castration sensu lato). There are enormous gaps in our knowledge on the effects of parasites on the testes of wild mammals and in an attempt to rectify this dearth of data we examined the relationship between the skin parasite Sarcoptes scabiei and testes mass in Iberian ibex Capra pyrenaica. We considered data from 222 males that were culled in the population from the Sierra Nevada in Spain. Our results provide evidence that sarcoptic mange is associated with reduced size-corrected testes mass in Iberian ibex which supports the hypothesis that parasitism is a determining factor in gonad plasticity in male mammals. We discuss several hypothetical causes of this relationship and highlight the need to deepen the sub-lethal effects of pathogens if we are to accurately understand their modulator effects on host population dynamics. PMID:21074328

  8. On the uncertainty beneath the name Oithona similis Claus, 1866 (Copepoda, Cyclopoida).

    PubMed

    Cepeda, Georgina D; Sabatini, Marina E; Scioscia, Cristina L; Ramírez, Fernando C; Viñas, María D

    2016-01-01

    The marine cyclopoid Oithona similis sensu lato Claus, 1866, is considered to be one of the most abundant and ubiquitous copepods in the world. However, its minimal original diagnosis and the unclear connection with its (subjective) senior synonym Oithona helgolandica Claus, 1863, may have caused frequent misidentification of the species. Consequently, it seems possible that several closely related but distinct forms are being named Oithona similis or Oithona helgolandica without explicit and accurate discrimination. Here the current situation concerning the correct assignment of the two species is revised, the morphological characters commonly used to identify and distinguish each species are summarized, and the nomenclatural implications of indiscriminately using these names in current taxonomic and ecological practice is considered. It is not intended to upset a long-accepted name in its accustomed meaning but certainly the opposite. "In pursuit of the maximum stability compatible with taxonomic freedom" (International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature), we consider that reassessment of the diagnostic characters of Oithona similis sensu stricto cannot be postponed much longer. While a consensus on taxonomy and nomenclatural matters can be attained, we strongly recommend specifically reporting the authority upon which the identification of either Oithona similis s.l. or Oithona helgolandica s.l. has been accomplished. PMID:26865812

  9. Babesia microti in rodents and raccoons from northeast Florida.

    PubMed

    Clark, Kerry; Savick, Kyla; Butler, Joseph

    2012-12-01

    Human babesiosis in the United States is caused most commonly by the intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite, Babesia microti . Although a few reports have described evidence of Babesia species in animals in Florida, to date Babesia microti specifically has not been reported from Florida or most other southern states. To determine if the organism is present in vertebrates in the region, small mammals were trapped and sampled at 2 sites in northeastern Florida, and DNA extracts from blood samples were screened for B. microti DNA via PCR assays targeting portions of the nuclear small subunit rRNA (18S rDNA) and beta-tubulin genes. Amplified fragments from representative samples of PCR-positive hosts were sequenced and compared phylogenetically to reference strains of Babesia species. The B. microti strains found in cotton rats ( Sigmodon hispidus ) most closely resembles B. microti sensu stricto strains that are pathogenic to humans, and strains found in raccoons ( Procyon lotor ) most closely resembles previously described raccoon-related strains of B. microti sensu lato. The results of this study suggest that B. microti is prevalent among cotton rats and raccoons at some sites in northeast Florida and may pose a risk to humans in the region. PMID:22646851

  10. Phylogeny of Amaryllidaceae tribe Amaryllideae based on nrDNA ITS sequences and morphology.

    PubMed

    Meerow, A W; Snijman, D A

    2001-12-01

    We present the results of cladistic analyses of morphology, nrDNA ITS sequences, and a combination of the two for tribe Amaryllideae of the Amaryllidaceae. The morphologically based analysis supports the recognition of Amaryllis as sister to two major clades, equivalent to Snijman and Linder's (1996, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 83: 362-386) Crininae and Amaryllidinae (less Amaryllis). A single tree is found with a successively weighted ITS sequence matrix. Amaryllis and Boophone form a grade at the base of the tree. All the other genera are included in two clades conforming to Snijman and Linder's (1996) subtribes Amaryllidinae (less Amaryllis, thus now Strumariinae) and Crininae (less Boophone). Within Strumariinae, Strumaria sensu lato is resolved as polyphyletic. Strumaria subg. Gemmaria is sister to the rest of the subtribe. Hessea is monophyletic only if Namaquanula is excluded. The monotypic Carpolyza is embedded within Strumaria sensu stricto. The consensus of the combined analysis is highly resolved, and most similar to the sequence topology. Based on the results of the combined analyses, the major clades are recognized as subtribes, and Carpolyza is placed into synonymy under Strumaria. PMID:21669663

  11. Resting behaviour of Anopheles gambiae s.l. and its implication on malaria transmission in Uyui District, western Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Sindato, Calvin; Kabula, Bilali; Mbilu, Togolai J N K; Manga, Chacha; Tungu, Patrick; Kazimoto, John P; Kibonai, Stafford N; Kisinza, William N; Magesa, Stephen M

    2011-10-01

    An entomological survey to determine resting behaviour and species composition of malaria vectors was carried out in Uyui District in western Tanzania in May 2009. Mosquitoes were collected using indoor resting catch, window exit trap and outdoor "bed-net" techniques. The mosquitoes were identified using morphological key and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 672 Anopheles gambiae sensu lato were collected. Of these, 661 (98.4%) were collected outdoor whereas few (1.6%) were collected indoor. The exit trap catch: mechanical aspirator catch ratio was 1:1.75. The overall indoor resting density of An. gambiae s.l. as determined by mechanical aspirator and exit trap was 0.7 and 0.5 mosquitoes per room, respectively. The overall density of the host-seeking as determined by bed net trap outdoor was 44.1 mosquitoes per person. A sample of 44 specimens taken randomly from morphologically identified An.gambiae s.l. population was further analyzed to species level using PCR techniques. Of these 44 specimens 26 (59%) and 18 (41%) were Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto respectively. This study contributes to the understanding of the distribution of malaria vectors with respect to species composition and their resting behaviour that could contribute to vector control operations in western Tanzania. A longitudinal study considering dry and wet seasons is recommended to provide more information on the seasonal distribution, abundance and biting behaviour of malaria vectors in the study area. PMID:26592058

  12. First record of Borrelia burgdorferi B31 strain in Dermacentor nitens ticks in the northern region of Parana (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Daniela Dib; Carreira, Teresa; Nunes, Mónica; Benitez, Aline; Lopes-Mori, Fabiana Maria Ruiz; Vidotto, Odilon; de Freitas, Julio Cesar; Vieira, Maria Luísa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) in ticks that feed on horses used for animal traction in rural Jataizinho, Parana, Brazil. Between February and June 2008, a total of 224 ticks was collected of which 75% were identified as Dermacentor nitens and 25% as Amblyomma cajenense. To amplify B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA, the intergenic space region (ISR) between the 5S (rrf) 23S (rrl) rRNA genes was used as targets for nested-PCR. Two ticks of the D. nitens species were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. Both species showed a fragment of 184 bp, but the sequencing revealed 99.9% homology with the B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) strain B31. These results showed, for the first time, the presence of spirochete DNA infecting ticks that parasitize horses used for animal traction, in the rural municipality mentioned. In conclusion, this study opens up promising prospects for determining the infection rate of B. burgdorferi s.s. genospecies or other species in the equine population, as well as the impact of the infection rate on Lyme disease in the state of Parana. PMID:24516456

  13. Valsaria and the Valsariales

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, J.; Dai, D. Q.; Hyde, K. D.; Voglmayr, H.

    2016-01-01

    More than 100 recent collections of Valsaria sensu lato mostly from Europe were used to elucidate the species composition within the genus. Multigene phylogeny based on SSU, LSU, ITS, rpb2 and tef1 sequences revealed a monophyletic group of ten species within the Dothideomycetes, belonging to three morphologically similar genera. This group could not be accommodated in any known family and are thus classified in the new family Valsariaceae and the new order Valsariales. The genus Valsaria sensu stricto comprises V. insitiva, V. robiniae, V. rudis, V. spartii, V. lopadostomoides sp. nov. and V. neotropica sp. nov., which are phylogenetically well-defined, but morphologically nearly indistinguishable species. The new monotypic genus Bambusaria is introduced to accommodate Valsaria bambusae. Munkovalsaria rubra and Valsaria fulvopruinata are combined in Myrmaecium, a genus traditionally treated as a synonym of Valsaria, which comprises three species, with M. rubricosum as its generic type. This work is presented as a basis for additional species to be detected in future. PMID:27274717

  14. P13, an Integral Membrane Protein of Borrelia burgdorferi, Is C-Terminally Processed and Contains Surface-Exposed Domains

    PubMed Central

    Noppa, Laila; Östberg, Yngve; Lavrinovicha, Marija; Bergström, Sven

    2001-01-01

    To elucidate antigens present on the bacterial surface of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato that may be involved in pathogenesis, we characterized a protein, P13, with an apparent molecular mass of 13 kDa. The protein was immunogenic and was expressed in large amounts during in vitro cultivation compared to other known antigens. An immunofluorescence assay, immunoelectron microscopy, and protease sensitivity assays indicated that P13 is surface exposed. The deduced sequence of the P13 peptide revealed a possible signal peptidase type I cleavage site, and computer analysis predicted that P13 is an integral membrane protein with three transmembrane-spanning domains. Mass spectrometry, in vitro translation, and N- and C-terminal amino acid sequencing analyses indicated that P13 was posttranslationally processed at both ends and modified by an unknown mechanism. Furthermore, p13 belongs to a gene family with five additional members in B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. The p13 gene is located on the linear chromosome of the bacterium, in contrast to five paralogous genes, which are located on extrachromosomal plasmids. The size of the p13 transcript was consistent with a monocistronic transcript. This new gene family may be involved in functions that are specific for this spirochete and its pathogenesis. PMID:11292755

  15. Geographical distribution and prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies in questing Ixodes ricinus from Romania: a countrywide study.

    PubMed

    Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Mihalca, Andrei D; Dumitrache, Mirabela O; Gherman, Călin M; Magdaş, Cristian; Mircean, Viorica; Oltean, Miruna; Domşa, Cristian; Matei, Ioana A; Mărcuţan, Daniel I; Sándor, Attila D; D'Amico, Gianluca; Paştiu, Anamaria; Györke, Adriana; Gavrea, Raluca; Marosi, Béla; Ionică, Angela; Burkhardt, Etelka; Toriay, Hortenzia; Cozma, Vasile

    2013-09-01

    The paper reports the prevalence and geographical distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) and its genospecies in 12,221 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks collected at 183 locations from all the 41 counties of Romania. The unfed ticks were examined for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. by PCR targeting the intergenic spacer 5S-23S. Reverse line blot hybridization (RLB) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis were performed for identification of B. burgdorferi genospecies. The overall prevalence of infection was 1.4%, with an average local prevalence between 0.75% and 18.8%. B. burgdorferi s.l. was found in ticks of 55 of the 183 localities. The overall prevalence B. burgdorferi s.l. in ticks in the infected localities was 3.8%. The total infection prevalence was higher in female ticks than in other developmental stages. Three Borrelia genospecies were detected. The most widely distributed genospecies was B. afzelii, followed by B. garinii and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.). The study is the first countrywide study and the first report of B. burgdorferi s.s. in Romania. The distribution maps show that higher prevalences were recorded in hilly areas, but Lyme borreliosis spirochetes were also present in forested lowlands, albeit with a lower prevalence. PMID:23890805

  16. Globigerinoides ruber morphotypes in the Gulf of Mexico: a test of null hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thirumalai, Kaustubh; Richey, Julie N.; Quinn, Terrence M.; Poore, Richard Z.

    2014-01-01

    Planktic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber (G. ruber), due to its abundance and ubiquity in the tropical/subtropical mixed layer, has been the workhorse of paleoceanographic studies investigating past sea-surface conditions on a range of timescales. Recent geochemical work on the two principal white G. ruber (W) morphotypes, sensu stricto (ss) and sensu lato (sl), has hypothesized differences in seasonal preferences or calcification depths, implying that reconstructions using a non-selective mixture of morphotypes could potentially be biased. Here, we test these hypotheses by performing stable isotope and abundance measurements on the two morphotypes in sediment trap, core-top, and downcore samples from the northern Gulf of Mexico. As a test of null hypothesis, we perform the same analyses on couplets of G. ruber (W) specimens with attributes intermediate to the holotypic ss and sl morphologies. We find no systematic or significant offsets in coeval ss-sl δ18O, and δ13C. These offsets are no larger than those in the intermediate pairs. Coupling our results with foraminiferal statistical model INFAUNAL, we find that contrary to previous work elsewhere, there is no evidence for discrepancies in ss-sl calcifying depth habitat or seasonality in the Gulf of Mexico.

  17. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. in Ixodes ricinus ticks from four localities in Bavaria, Germany.

    PubMed

    Vögerl, Maria; Zubriková, Dana; Pfister, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    As a part of a larger survey a total of 599 Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from four locations (Neustadt an der Waldnaab, Amberg, Poppenricht and Lintach) in the north of the Upper Palatinate in Bavaria were investigated for infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s. l.) species using the 5S-23S intergenic spacer of rRNA gene as a target in a nested PCR (Rijpkema et al., 1995) and a sequencing method. Overall, 15.8% ticks were infected with B. burgdorferi s. I. Borrelia afzelii (43.1%) was the predominant genospecies, followed by Borrelia valaisiana (14.7%), Borrelia garinii (13.7%) and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (6.3%). Also Borrelia spielmanii was found (1.1%). Of the infected ticks, 21.1% harbored multiple infections with B. burgdorferi s. I. The highest number of infected ticks was found in Amberg (22.5%) and the lowest number in Neustadt an der Waldnaab (11.9%). In Poppenricht and Lintach, the numbers of infected ticks were 12% and 18.7%, respectively. Human pathogenic Borrelia species were found to be prevalent at each study site thus representing the potential risk for people living and visiting these areas. PMID:23045802

  18. Sensitivity of Lyme Borreliosis Spirochetes to Serum Complement of Regular Zoo Animals: Potential Reservoir Competence of Some Exotic Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Ticha, Lucie; Golovchenko, Maryna; Oliver, James H; Grubhoffer, Libor; Rudenko, Nataliia

    2016-01-01

    Reaction of vertebrate serum complement with different Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species is used as a basis in determining reservoir hosts among domesticated and wild animals. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia afzelii were tested for their sensitivity to sera of exotic vertebrate species housed in five zoos located in the Czech Republic. We confirmed that different Borrelia species have different sensitivity to host serum. We found that tolerance to Borrelia infection possessed by hosts might differ among individuals of the same genera or species and is not affected by host age or sex. Of all zoo animals included in our study, carnivores demonstrated the highest apparent reservoir competency for Lyme borreliosis spirochetes. We showed that selected exotic ungulate species are tolerant to Borrelia infection. For the first time we showed the high tolerance of Siamese crocodile to Borrelia as compared to the other studied reptile species. While exotic vertebrates present a limited risk to the European human population as reservoirs for the causative agents of Lyme borreliosis, cases of incidental spillover infection could lead to successful replication of the pathogens in a new host, changing the status of selected exotic species and their role in pathogen emergence or maintenance. The question if being tolerant to pathogen means to be a competent reservoir host still needs an answer, simply because the majority of exotic animals might never be exposed to spirochetes in their natural environment. PMID:26783940

  19. On the uncertainty beneath the name Oithona similis Claus, 1866 (Copepoda, Cyclopoida)

    PubMed Central

    Cepeda, Georgina D.; Sabatini, Marina E.; Scioscia, Cristina L.; Ramírez, Fernando C.; Viñas, María D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The marine cyclopoid Oithona similis sensu lato Claus, 1866, is considered to be one of the most abundant and ubiquitous copepods in the world. However, its minimal original diagnosis and the unclear connection with its (subjective) senior synonym Oithona helgolandica Claus, 1863, may have caused frequent misidentification of the species. Consequently, it seems possible that several closely related but distinct forms are being named Oithona similis or Oithona helgolandica without explicit and accurate discrimination. Here the current situation concerning the correct assignment of the two species is revised, the morphological characters commonly used to identify and distinguish each species are summarized, and the nomenclatural implications of indiscriminately using these names in current taxonomic and ecological practice is considered. It is not intended to upset a long-accepted name in its accustomed meaning but certainly the opposite. “In pursuit of the maximum stability compatible with taxonomic freedom” (International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature), we consider that reassessment of the diagnostic characters of Oithona similis sensu stricto cannot be postponed much longer. While a consensus on taxonomy and nomenclatural matters can be attained, we strongly recommend specifically reporting the authority upon which the identification of either Oithona similis s.l. or Oithona helgolandica s.l. has been accomplished. PMID:26865812

  20. Globigerinoides ruber morphotypes in the Gulf of Mexico: a test of null hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Thirumalai, Kaustubh; Richey, Julie N; Quinn, Terrence M; Poore, Richard Z

    2014-01-01

    Planktic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber (G. ruber), due to its abundance and ubiquity in the tropical/subtropical mixed layer, has been the workhorse of paleoceanographic studies investigating past sea-surface conditions on a range of timescales. Recent geochemical work on the two principal white G. ruber (W) morphotypes, sensu stricto (ss) and sensu lato (sl), has hypothesized differences in seasonal preferences or calcification depths, implying that reconstructions using a non-selective mixture of morphotypes could potentially be biased. Here, we test these hypotheses by performing stable isotope and abundance measurements on the two morphotypes in sediment trap, core-top, and downcore samples from the northern Gulf of Mexico. As a test of null hypothesis, we perform the same analyses on couplets of G. ruber (W) specimens with attributes intermediate to the holotypic ss and sl morphologies. We find no systematic or significant offsets in coeval ss-sl δ(18)O, and δ(13)C. These offsets are no larger than those in the intermediate pairs. Coupling our results with foraminiferal statistical model INFAUNAL, we find that contrary to previous work elsewhere, there is no evidence for discrepancies in ss-sl calcifying depth habitat or seasonality in the Gulf of Mexico. PMID:25109442

  1. Introduced Siberian Chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus barberi) Contribute More to Lyme Borreliosis Risk than Native Reservoir Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Marsot, Maud; Chapuis, Jean-Louis; Gasqui, Patrick; Dozières, Anne; Masséglia, Sébastien; Pisanu, Benoit; Ferquel, Elisabeth; Vourc’h, Gwenaël

    2013-01-01

    The variation of the composition in species of host communities can modify the risk of disease transmission. In particular, the introduction of a new host species can increase health threats by adding a new reservoir and/or by amplifying the circulation of either exotic or native pathogens. Lyme borreliosis is a multi-host vector-borne disease caused by bacteria belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. It is transmitted by the bite of hard ticks, especially Ixodes ricinus in Europe. Previous studies showed that the Siberian chipmunk, Tamias sibiricus barberi, an introduced ground squirrel in the Forest of Sénart (near Paris, France) was highly infested by I. ricinus, and consequently infected by B. burgdorferi sl. An index of the contribution of chipmunks to the density of infected questing nymphs on the vegetation (i.e., the acarological risk for humans) was compared to that of bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and of wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus), two known native and sympatric competent reservoir hosts. Chipmunks produced nearly 8.5 times more infected questing nymphs than voles and mice. Furthermore, they contribute to a higher diversity of B. burgdorferi sl genospecies (B. afzelii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. garinii). The contribution of chipmunks varied between years and seasons, according to tick availability. As T. s. barberi must be a competent reservoir, it should amplify B. burgdorferi sl infection, hence increasing the risk of Lyme borreliosis in humans. PMID:23383170

  2. Identification and safety evaluation of Bacillus species occurring in high numbers during spontaneous fermentations to produce Gergoush, a traditional Sudanese bread snack.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, Line; Abdelgadir, Warda S; Rønsbo, Mie H; Abban, Stephen; Hamad, Siddig H; Nielsen, Dennis S; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2011-04-29

    Gergoush is a naturally fermented Sudanese Bread snack produced in three fermentation steps (primary starter, adapted starter and final dough), followed by three baking steps for a half to one hour at above 200 °C. This study examines the microbiota of two sets of fermentations performed at a traditional production site in Khartoum, Sudan in 2006 and 2009, respectively. In 2006 four different milk/legume based primary starters (faba bean, chick pea, lentil and white bean) were sampled in order to enumerate and identify the Bacillus at species or group level. In 2009 specific focus was on the enumeration and safety evaluation of the dominant Bacillus cereus group species occurring during various Gergoush productions (including the three fermentations steps and after baking). In 2006, the primary starters contained Bacillus spp. in the order of between 7.7 and 8.1 log(10) CFU/g. Species identifications were performed by M13-PCR typing using the Escherichia coli phage M13 derived primer PM13 combined with internally transcribed 16-23S rRNA PCR, 16S rRNA gene and gyrA or gyrB gene sequencing, and selected phenotypic tests. Depending on the legume used, 40-68% of the isolates were identified as B. cereus sensu lato, 16-27% as Bacillus licheniformis, 8-32% as Bacillus subtilis and 4-20% as Bacillus sonorensis. During the second set of fermentation trials performed in 2009, the Bacillus spp. and B. cereus occurred in numbers of between 7.7-9.9 and 6.1-7.8 log(10) CFU/g, respectively, while no bacteria were detected after baking. A total of 180 B. cereus sensu lato isolates from four different primary starters, adapted starters and final doughs were further identified as B. cereus sensu stricto (118 isolates) and Bacillus thuringiensis (62 isolates). The safety of Gergoush was evaluated based on the counts and toxin gene profiles of the dominant B. cereus species. Considering that no bacteria survived the baking process, and that the cereulide synthetase gene ces

  3. Lyme disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi with two homeologous 16S rRNA genes: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sin Hang

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease (LD), the most common tick-borne disease in North America, is believed to be caused exclusively by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and is usually diagnosed by clinical evaluation and serologic assays. As reported previously in a peer-reviewed article, a 13-year-old boy living in the Northeast of the USA was initially diagnosed with LD based on evaluation of his clinical presentations and on serologic test results. The patient was treated with a course of oral doxycycline for 28 days, and the symptoms resolved. A year later, the boy developed a series of unusual symptoms and did not attend school for 1 year. A LD specialist reviewed the case and found the serologic test band patterns nondiagnostic of LD. The boy was admitted to a psychiatric hospital. After discharge from the psychiatric hospital, a polymerase chain reaction test performed in a winter month when the boy was 16 years old showed a low density of B. burgdorferi sensu lato in the blood of the patient, confirmed by partial 16S rRNA (ribosomal RNA) gene sequencing. Subsequent DNA sequencing analysis presented in this report demonstrated that the spirochete isolate was a novel strain of B. burgdorferi with two homeologous 16S rRNA genes, which has never been reported in the world literature. This case report shows that direct DNA sequencing is a valuable tool for reliable molecular diagnosis of Lyme and related borrelioses, as well as for studies of the diversity of the causative agents of LD because LD patients infected by a rare or novel borrelial variant may produce an antibody pattern that can be different from the pattern characteristic of an infection caused by a typical B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strain. PMID:27186082

  4. Lyme disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi with two homeologous 16S rRNA genes: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sin Hang

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease (LD), the most common tick-borne disease in North America, is believed to be caused exclusively by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and is usually diagnosed by clinical evaluation and serologic assays. As reported previously in a peer-reviewed article, a 13-year-old boy living in the Northeast of the USA was initially diagnosed with LD based on evaluation of his clinical presentations and on serologic test results. The patient was treated with a course of oral doxycycline for 28 days, and the symptoms resolved. A year later, the boy developed a series of unusual symptoms and did not attend school for 1 year. A LD specialist reviewed the case and found the serologic test band patterns nondiagnostic of LD. The boy was admitted to a psychiatric hospital. After discharge from the psychiatric hospital, a polymerase chain reaction test performed in a winter month when the boy was 16 years old showed a low density of B. burgdorferi sensu lato in the blood of the patient, confirmed by partial 16S rRNA (ribosomal RNA) gene sequencing. Subsequent DNA sequencing analysis presented in this report demonstrated that the spirochete isolate was a novel strain of B. burgdorferi with two homeologous 16S rRNA genes, which has never been reported in the world literature. This case report shows that direct DNA sequencing is a valuable tool for reliable molecular diagnosis of Lyme and related borrelioses, as well as for studies of the diversity of the causative agents of LD because LD patients infected by a rare or novel borrelial variant may produce an antibody pattern that can be different from the pattern characteristic of an infection caused by a typical B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strain. PMID:27186082

  5. A revision of male ants of the Malagasy Amblyoponinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with resurrections of the genera Stigmatomma and Xymmer.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Masashi; Fisher, Brian L

    2012-01-01

    In a male-based revision of ants of the subfamily Amblyoponinae from the Southwest Indian Ocean islands (SWIO: Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mayotte, Reunion, and Seychelles), we explore and reconsider male morphological characters that distinguish genera within the group. Our investigation redefines Amblyopone Erichson sensu Brown (1960), here referred to as Amblyopone sensu lato, into three genera: Xymmer Santschi stat. rev.,Amblyopone sensu stricto, Stigmatomma Roger stat. rev. All species names under Amblyopone s. l. reassign into Xymmer and Amblyopone s. s., which are small, well-defined genera, and Stigmatomma, a large group with a generic delimitation that still needs further refinement. Based on a study of male mandible characters and our scenario for mandibular evolution of the worker caste within Amblyopone s. l, we conclude that Amblyopone s. s. nests outside of XMAS (Xymmer+Mystrium+Adetomyrma+Stigmatomma) clade. The following names are transferred from Amblyopone s. l. to Xymmer as comb. rev.: muticus. The following names are transferred from Amblyopone s. l. to Stigmatomma as comb. rev.: amblyops, armigerum, bellii, bierigi, bruni, celata, chilense, denticulatum, elongatum, emeryi, feae, impressifrons, luzonicum, minuta, normandi, oregonense, pallipes, quadratum, reclinatum, rothneyi, santschii, saundersi, silvestrii, zwaluwenburgi; as comb. nov.: agostii, annae, besucheti, boltoni, caliginosum, cleae, crenatum, degeneratum, egregium, electrinum, eminia, exiguum, falcatum, ferrugineum, fulvidum, gaetulicum, gingivalis, glauerti, gnoma, gracile, groehni, heraldoi, lucidum, lurilabes, monrosi, mystriops, noonadan, octodentatum, ophthalmicum, orizabanum, papuanum, pertinax, pluto, punctulatum, rubiginoum, sakaii, smithi, trigonignathum, trilobum, wilsoni, zaojun, and testaceum. A male-based key to the genera of Malagasy amblyoponine ants, their diagnoses, and a discussion of the evolution of the morphological character of males in the subfamily are

  6. Coupled Hf-Nd-Pb isotope co-variations of HIMU oceanic island basalts from Mangaia, Cook-Austral islands, suggest an Archean source component in the mantle transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebel, Oliver; Arculus, Richard J.; van Westrenen, Wim; Woodhead, Jon D.; Jenner, Frances E.; Nebel-Jacobsen, Yona J.; Wille, Martin; Eggins, Stephen M.

    2013-07-01

    Although it is widely accepted that oceanic island basalts (OIB) sample geochemically distinct mantle reservoirs including recycled oceanic crust, the composition, age, and locus of these reservoirs remain uncertain. OIB with highly radiogenic Pb isotope signatures are grouped as HIMU (high-μ, with μ = 238U/204Pb), and exhibit unique Hf-Nd isotopic characteristics, defined as ΔɛHf, deviant from a terrestrial igneous rock array that includes all other OIB types. Here we combine new Hf isotope data with previous Nd-Pb isotope measurements to assess the coupled, time-integrated Hf-Nd-Pb isotope evolution of the most extreme HIMU location (Mangaia, French Polynesia). In comparison with global MORB and other OIB types, Mangaia samples define a unique trend in coupled Hf-Nd-Pb isotope co-variations (expressed in 207Pb/206Pb vs. ΔɛHf). In a model employing subducted, dehydrated oceanic crust, mixing between present-day depleted MORB mantle (DMM) and small proportions (˜5%) of a HIMU mantle endmember can re-produce the Hf-Nd-Pb isotope systematics of global HIMU basalts (sensu stricto; i.e., without EM-1/EM-2/FOZO components). An age range of 3.5 to <2 Ga is required for HIMU endmember(s) that mix with DMM to account for the observed present-day HIMU isotope compositions, suggesting a range of age distributions rather than a single component in the mantle. Our data suggest that mixing of HIMU mantle endmembers and DMM occurs in the mantle transition zone by entrainment in secondary plumes that rise at the edge of the Pacific Large Low Seismic Velocity Zone (LLSVP). These create either pure HIMU (sensu stricto) or HIMU affected by other enriched mantle endmembers (sensu lato). If correct, this requires isolation of parts of the mantle transition zone for >3 Gyr and implies that OIB chemistry can be used to test geodynamic models.

  7. Occurrence of Anisakis simplex sensu stricto in imported Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) represents a risk for Turkish consumers.

    PubMed

    Pekmezci, Gokmen Zafer

    2014-08-18

    Anisakid larvae are a prevalent food-borne pathogen that has been found in numerous fish species destined for human consumption. The accidental consumption of infected raw or poorly cooked fish may cause gastroenteric diseases and allergies in humans. In spite of the fact that thorough cooking or freezing kills Anisakis worms, this method does not destroy their allergenic capacity. The presence of A. simplex (s.s.) in seafood products may present a health risk for consumers. In Turkey, Atlantic mackerels are marketed as frozen and mainly imported from Norway. The aim of this study was to identify the Anisakis species found in deep-frozen whole Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) destined for human consumption in fish markets that imported fish from Norway to Turkey. All Anisakis larvae isolated from imported Atlantic mackerel were identified via morphology as third larvae of Anisakis Type I. The ITS region (ITS-1, 5.8S subunit, ITS-2) was amplified and digested with the restriction enzymes Hinf I and Hha I. Larvae of the genus Anisakis were identified via PCR-RFLP as belonging to Anisakis simplex (s.s.), and this was confirmed by sequencing the cox2 gene. The overall prevalence of Anisakis larvae was 25% (95% confidence limits: 13-41%), and the mean intensity was 19.1 (bootstrap 95% confidence limits: 15.3-25.5). Recognized zoonotic A. simplex (s.s.) larvae found in imported Atlantic mackerel could represent a risk. Those who consume them could acquire parasitic allergies. The results will have an important impact on public health risk assessment in that they suggest reviewing critical control points at the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) programmer to reduce the risk of anisakid-induced allergies among consumers. Consequently, the present study provides the first data regarding the occurrence of A. simplex (s.s.) larvae in imported Atlantic mackerel in Turkish markets. PMID:24935687

  8. CONTRASTING PATTERNS OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AND POPULATION STRUCTURE OF ARMILLARIA MELLEA SENSU STRICTO IN THE EASTERN AND WESTERN UNITED STATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Armillaria mellea infects over 300 hosts in natural and managed ecosystems throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Previously reported nuclear genetic divergenece between eastern and western US isolates is consistent with the disjunct range of A. mellea in N. America, which is restricted mainly to the ...

  9. MULTIPLE ENZYME RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM ANALYSIS FOR HIGH RESOLUTION DISTINCTION OF PSEUDOMONAS (SENSU STRICTO) 16S RRNA GENES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pseudomonas specific 16S rDNA PCR amplification and multiple enzyme restriction fragment length polymorphism (MERFLP) analysis using a single digestion mixture of Alu I, Hinf I, Rsa I, and Tru 9I distinguished 150 published sequences and reference strains of authentic Pseudomonas...

  10. Effect of temperature on the development of the aquatic stages of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Bayoh, M N; Lindsay, S W

    2003-10-01

    Global warming may affect the future pattern of many arthropod-borne diseases, yet the relationship between temperature and development has been poorly described for many key vectors. Here the development of the aquatic stages of Africa's principal malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles, is described at different temperatures. Development time from egg to adult was measured under laboratory conditions at constant temperatures between 10 and 40 degrees C. Rate of development from one immature stage to the next increased at higher temperatures to a peak around 28 degrees C and then declined. Adult development rate was greatest between 28 and 32 degrees C, although adult emergence was highest between 22 and 26 degrees C. No adults emerged below 18 degrees C or above 34 degrees C. Non-linear models were used to describe the relationship between developmental rate and temperature, which could be used for developing process-based models of malaria transmission. The utility of these findings is demonstrated by showing that a map where the climate is suitable for the development of aquatic stages of A. gambiae s.s. corresponded closely with the best map of malaria risk currently available for Africa. PMID:14641976

  11. Comparative Genome Hybridization Reveals Substantial Variation among Clinical Isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto with Different Pathogenic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Terekhova, Darya; Iyer, Radha; Wormser, Gary P.; Schwartz, Ira

    2006-01-01

    Clinical and murine studies suggest that there is a differential pathogenicity of different genotypes of Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochetal agent of Lyme disease. Comparative genome hybridization was used to explore the relationship between different genotypes. The chromosomes of all studied isolates were highly conserved (>93%) with respect to both sequence and gene order. Plasmid sequences were substantially more diverse. Plasmids lp54, cp26, and cp32 were present in all tested isolates, and their sequences and gene order were conserved. The majority of linear plasmids showed variation both in terms of presence among different isolates and in terms of sequence and gene order. The data strongly imply that all B. burgdorferi clinical isolates contain linear plasmids related to each other, but the structure of these replicons may vary substantially from isolate to isolate. These alterations include deletions and presumed rearrangements that are likely to result in unique plasmid elements in many isolates. There is a strong correlation between complete genome hybridization profiles and other typing methods, which, in turn, also correlate to differences in pathogenicity. Because there is substantially less variation in the chromosomal and circular plasmid portions of the genome, the major differences in open reading frame content and genomic diversity among isolates are linear plasmid driven. PMID:16923879

  12. A HIGHLY SELECTIVE PCR PROTOCOL FOR DETECTING 16S RRNA GENES OF THE GENUS PSEUDOMONAS (SENSU STRICTO) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pseudomonas species are plant, animal, and human pathogens; exhibit plant pathogen-suppressing properties useful in biological control; or express metabolic versatilities valued in biotechnology and bioremediation. Specific detection of Pseudomonas species in the environment may ...

  13. Differential Induction of Proteins in Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Cullicidae) Larvae in Response to Heavy Metal Selection

    PubMed Central

    Mireji, Paul O.; Keating, Joseph; Kenya, Eucharia; Mbogo, Charles; Nyambaka, Hudson; Osir, Ellie; Githure, John; Beier, John

    2009-01-01

    Investigations were conducted to establish the magnitude and pattern of differential expression of proteins due to generational selection of third instar An. gambiae s.s. larvae by cadmium, copper and lead heavy metals, three possible common urban pollutants. A susceptible strain of An. gambiae s.s. third instar larvae was separately placed under selection pressure with cadmium, copper and lead at LC30 and controls through five generations. First, third and fifth generation selection survivors were screened for differentially expressed proteins relative to non-exposed control by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Distribution patterns of the spots were analysed by Chi Square or Fishers exact test and variations in expressions between and within generation by ANOVA. Most differentially expressed spots were acidic and of low molecular weight among all metals and generations. Type of heavy metals and generation were main indicators of variations in differential expressions. Variation between generations was most significant among cadmium-selected populations of which most number of spots were induced in the fifth generation. Most spots were induced in the copper-selected population in the third generation. The induced protein spots may be products from respective genes that respond to heavy metals and counter their toxicity, thus building An. gambiae s.s. tolerance to these pollutants. The differential pattern and magnitude of expressed spots has potential application as molecular markers for assessment of anopheline adaptation status to heavy metals, and provide insight into the extent of environmental pollution. PMID:20651951

  14. Genetic diversity, endemism and phylogeny of lampreys within the genus Lampetra sensu stricto (Petromyzontiformes: Petromyzontidae) in western North America.

    PubMed

    Boguski, D A; Reid, S B; Goodman, D H; Docker, M F

    2012-11-01

    Phylogenetic structure of four Lampetra species from the Pacific drainage of North America (western brook lamprey Lampetra richardsoni, Pacific brook lamprey Lampetra pacifica, river lamprey Lampetra ayresii and Kern brook lamprey Lampetra hubbsi) and unidentified Lampetra specimens (referred to as Lampetra sp.) from 36 locations was estimated using the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inferences did not correspond with any taxonomic scheme proposed to date. Rather, although L. richardsoni (from Alaska to California) and L. ayresii (from British Columbia to California) together constituted a well-supported clade distinct from several genetically divergent Lampetra populations in Oregon and California, these two species were not reciprocally monophyletic. The genetically divergent populations included L. pacifica (from the Columbia River basin) and L. hubbsi (from the Kern River basin) and four Lampetra sp. populations in Oregon (Siuslaw River and Fourmile Creek) and California (Kelsey and Mark West Creeks). These four Lampetra sp. populations showed genetic divergence between 2.3 and 5.7% from any known species (and up to 8.0% from each other), and may represent morphologically cryptic and thus previously undescribed species. A fifth population (from Paynes Creek, California) may represent a range extension of L. hubbsi into the Upper Sacramento River. PMID:23130690

  15. Modeling the role of environmental variables on the population dynamics of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The impact of weather and climate on malaria transmission has attracted considerable attention in recent years, yet uncertainties around future disease trends under climate change remain. Mathematical models provide powerful tools for addressing such questions and understanding the implications for interventions and eradication strategies, but these require realistic modeling of the vector population dynamics and its response to environmental variables. Methods Published and unpublished field and experimental data are used to develop new formulations for modeling the relationships between key aspects of vector ecology and environmental variables. These relationships are integrated within a validated deterministic model of Anopheles gambiae s.s. population dynamics to provide a valuable tool for understanding vector response to biotic and abiotic variables. Results A novel, parsimonious framework for assessing the effects of rainfall, cloudiness, wind speed, desiccation, temperature, relative humidity and density-dependence on vector abundance is developed, allowing ease of construction, analysis, and integration into malaria transmission models. Model validation shows good agreement with longitudinal vector abundance data from Tanzania, suggesting that recent malaria reductions in certain areas of Africa could be due to changing environmental conditions affecting vector populations. Conclusions Mathematical models provide a powerful, explanatory means of understanding the role of environmental variables on mosquito populations and hence for predicting future malaria transmission under global change. The framework developed provides a valuable advance in this respect, but also highlights key research gaps that need to be resolved if we are to better understand future malaria risk in vulnerable communities. PMID:22877154

  16. Traduccion automatica mediante el ordenador (Automatic Translation Using a Computer).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bueno, Julian L.

    This report on machine translation contains a brief history of the field; a description of the processes involved; a discussion of systems currently in use, including three software packages on the market (Teaching Assistant, Translate, and Globalink); reflections on implications for teaching; observations of results obtained when elements of…

  17. Meningococco B: controllo di due focolai epidemici mediante vaccinazione

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Riassunto La problematica di un efficace approccio vaccinale nei confronti del Meningococco B (MenB) è stata superata identificando con la metodica della "reverse vaccinology" alcuni antigeni capaci di indurre una risposta verso la maggior parte dei ceppi di MenB circolanti nel mondo. Il nuovo vaccino MenB a 4 componenti (4CMenB) è stato autorizzato in Europa, Australia e Canada, ed è entrato nei calendari di immunizzazione pediatrica internazionali: Australia, Canada, UK. In Italia, le prime regioni che hanno raccomandato la vaccinazione contro il MenB sono state Basilicata e Puglia. La gestione di epidemie/focolai epidemici richiede la messa in atto di una risposta rapida da parte delle autorità sanitarie nei confronti di una emergenza sanitaria ad elevato impatto, anche emotivo, sulla popolazione, come recentemente dimostrato in due università americane. Alla dichiarazione di focolaio epidemico in atto, in entrambi i contesti si è attivata una procedura per l'uso del vaccino 4CMenB non ancora autorizzato negli USA. È stato così possibile organizzare gli interventi di profilassi attiva nei due campus universitari, adottando il primo impiego su larga scala del nuovo vaccino 4CMenB e conseguendo, in tempi relativamente brevi, elevati tassi di copertura vaccinale. A fronte di circa 14000 studenti immunizzati con almeno una dose, non è stata segnalata alcuna problematica di eventi avversi conseguenti all'immunizzazione; ad oggi non si sono verificati casi nei soggetti che hanno ricevuto il vaccino. Come conseguenza dei due focolai descritti, è oggi in corso la valutazione da parte dell'FDA per l'estensione dell'uso del vaccino 4CMenB negli Stati Uniti negli adolescenti e giovani adulti. PMID:25916017

  18. Comparative Bioinformatics and Experimental Analysis of the Intergenic Regulatory Regions of Bacillus cereus hbl and nhe Enterotoxin Operons and the Impact of CodY on Virulence Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Maria-Elisabeth; Krey, Viktoria M.; Jeßberger, Nadja; Frenzel, Elrike; Scherer, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a food contaminant with greatly varying enteropathogenic potential. Almost all known strains harbor the genes for at least one of the three enterotoxins Nhe, Hbl, and CytK. While some strains show no cytotoxicity, others have caused outbreaks, in rare cases even with lethal outcome. The reason for these differences in cytotoxicity is unknown. To gain insight into the origin of enterotoxin expression heterogeneity in different strains, the architecture and role of 5′ intergenic regions (5′ IGRs) upstream of the nhe and hbl operons was investigated. In silico comparison of 142 strains of all seven phylogenetic groups of B. cereus sensu lato proved the presence of long 5′ IGRs upstream of the nheABC and hblCDAB operons, which harbor recognition sites for several transcriptional regulators, including the virulence regulator PlcR, redox regulators ResD and Fnr, the nutrient-sensitive regulator CodY as well as the master regulator for biofilm formation SinR. By determining transcription start sites, unusually long 5′ untranslated regions (5′ UTRs) upstream of the nhe and hbl start codons were identified, which are not present upstream of cytK-1 and cytK-2. Promoter fusions lacking various parts of the nhe and hbl 5′ UTR in B. cereus INRA C3 showed that the entire 331 bp 5′ UTR of nhe is necessary for full promoter activity, while the presence of the complete 606 bp hbl 5′ UTR lowers promoter activity. Repression was caused by a 268 bp sequence directly upstream of the hbl transcription start. Luciferase activity of reporter strains containing nhe and hbl 5′ IGR lux fusions provided evidence that toxin gene transcription is upregulated by the depletion of free amino acids. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that the branched-chain amino acid sensing regulator CodY binds to both nhe and hbl 5′ UTR downstream of the promoter, potentially acting as a nutrient-responsive roadblock repressor of toxin gene transcription. Plc

  19. Comparative Bioinformatics and Experimental Analysis of the Intergenic Regulatory Regions of Bacillus cereus hbl and nhe Enterotoxin Operons and the Impact of CodY on Virulence Heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Maria-Elisabeth; Krey, Viktoria M; Jeßberger, Nadja; Frenzel, Elrike; Scherer, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a food contaminant with greatly varying enteropathogenic potential. Almost all known strains harbor the genes for at least one of the three enterotoxins Nhe, Hbl, and CytK. While some strains show no cytotoxicity, others have caused outbreaks, in rare cases even with lethal outcome. The reason for these differences in cytotoxicity is unknown. To gain insight into the origin of enterotoxin expression heterogeneity in different strains, the architecture and role of 5' intergenic regions (5' IGRs) upstream of the nhe and hbl operons was investigated. In silico comparison of 142 strains of all seven phylogenetic groups of B. cereus sensu lato proved the presence of long 5' IGRs upstream of the nheABC and hblCDAB operons, which harbor recognition sites for several transcriptional regulators, including the virulence regulator PlcR, redox regulators ResD and Fnr, the nutrient-sensitive regulator CodY as well as the master regulator for biofilm formation SinR. By determining transcription start sites, unusually long 5' untranslated regions (5' UTRs) upstream of the nhe and hbl start codons were identified, which are not present upstream of cytK-1 and cytK-2. Promoter fusions lacking various parts of the nhe and hbl 5' UTR in B. cereus INRA C3 showed that the entire 331 bp 5' UTR of nhe is necessary for full promoter activity, while the presence of the complete 606 bp hbl 5' UTR lowers promoter activity. Repression was caused by a 268 bp sequence directly upstream of the hbl transcription start. Luciferase activity of reporter strains containing nhe and hbl 5' IGR lux fusions provided evidence that toxin gene transcription is upregulated by the depletion of free amino acids. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that the branched-chain amino acid sensing regulator CodY binds to both nhe and hbl 5' UTR downstream of the promoter, potentially acting as a nutrient-responsive roadblock repressor of toxin gene transcription. PlcR binding sites are

  20. The pupae of the biting midges of the world (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), with a generic key and analysis of the phylogenetic relationships between genera.

    PubMed

    Borkent, Art

    2014-01-01

    The pupae of species in each of the 45 genera of Ceratopogonidae known in this stage are diagnosed and described. A standard set of terms is provided, with a glossary, for all pertinent structures of the pupal stage within a context of other Culicomorpha. The variety of terms provided by previous authors are synonymized. Some pupal structures are directly related to developing adult structures and these are discussed. A key to the genera (and to the subgenera of Forcipomyia Meigen) allows for their identification. Pupation and pupal behaviour is summarized. A table of all previous descriptions of each stage of the immatures (egg, larva, pupa) is provided, showing that 13% of all validly named extant Ceratopogonidae are known as pupae. This study examined 45% of these species. All species known as fossil pupae are discussed. A phylogenetic analysis based primarily on pupal characters confirms the relationships between the subfamilies as well as the relationships between the genera in Leptoconopinae, Forcipomyiinae and Dasyheleinae. The question of the monophyly of the Culicoidini remains unresolved. Results confirm the paraphyly of the Ceratopogonini and, for the first time, the Sphaeromiini sensu lato, which is divided into Hebetulini (new tribe), Johannsenomyiini Crampton (new status) and Sphaeromiini sensu novum. Sphaeromiini sensu novum includes Sphaeromias Curtis, Leehelea Debenham, Homohelea Kieffer and Xenohelea Kieffer and forms the sister group of the Palpomyiini. Other genera in Sphaeromiini sensu lato not known as pupae are discussed. The genus Mallochohelea Wirth is shown to be polyphyletic and one group of species is therefore recognized as members of the new genus Anebomyia (type species = Mallochohelea atripes Wirth). A number of species previously placed in Stilobezzia Kieffer are shown to belong to Schizonyxhelea Clastrier. Study of the type species of the monotypic genus Nemoromyia Liu and Yu showed it to be a member of the Palpomyia distincta

  1. Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) as hosts for Borrelia spp. in northern California.

    PubMed

    Lane, Robert S; Mun, Jeomhee; Parker, John M; White, Marshall

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of infection of Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) with Borrelia spp. was evaluated in an area of northwestern California (USA) where Lyme disease is endemic and the relapsing-fever group spirochete Borrelia coriaceae is enzootic, and in a far-removed comparison area having a disparate climate and lower density of vector ticks. Blood samples collected from both deer herds in 1987, 1988, and from 2000-02 were assayed for borrelial infection with microscopic and molecular methods. Serum specimens from two (5%) of 39 deer from the Dye Creek Preserve in Tehama County versus 13 (20%) of 64 animals from the Hopland Research and Extension Center (HREC) in Mendocino County, California were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test positive for B. burgdorferi sensu lato. DNA sequencing analyses revealed that eight animals were infected with B. bissettii, six with three unclassified genotypes, and one with B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. One serum sample (2%) from HREC was positive for a relapsing-fever group spirochete that had a 16S rRNA sequence homology of 99% with the C053 type strain of B. coriaceae. Spirochetes undetermined to geno-species were detected in thick-blood drops prepared from three (8%) of 36 deer from the HREC by direct immunofluorescence. Adults of the hippoboscid flies Lipoptena depressa (n=73) and Neolipoptena ferrisi (n=24), the Pacific Coast tick (Dermacentor occidentalis) (n=22), and the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus) (n=1) that had been removed from deer from both study areas in 2002 were PCR test negative for borreliae. The occurrence of diverse borreliae in deer from northern California confounds and, consequently, reduces the utility of borrelial serosurveys for detecting specific genospecies, unless they are complemented by more specific assays (e.g., immunoblotting, PCR/sequencing analysis). PMID:15827217

  2. Acarologic risk of exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi spirochaetes: long-term evaluations in north-western California, with implications for Lyme borreliosis risk-assessment models.

    PubMed

    Eisen, L; Eisen, R J; Chang, C-C; Mun, J; Lane, R S

    2004-03-01

    Over a 5-year period (1997-2001) the population densities of Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs infected with spirochaetes of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) were evaluated in areas of 2000 ha at two localities (CHR, nine sites; HREC, seven sites) 25 km apart in Mendocino County, north-western California. The 5-year median density of infected nymphs was significantly higher at CHR than at HREC (0.51 vs. 0.09 per 100 m(2) and site-specific yearly densities exceeding one infected nymph per 100 m2 were 10-fold more likely to occur at CHR than at HREC. The importance of long-term data in acarologic risk assessment was demonstrated by significantly higher median yearly densities of infected nymphs at CHR from 1997 to 1999, whereas both areas had similar densities during 2000-2001. Overall, the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis in North America, B. burgdorferi Johnson et al. sensu stricto (s.s.) accounted for 76% of 46 genetically characterized B. burgdorferi s.l. infections from I. pacificus nymphs. Tremendous variability in acarologic risk was recorded within both areas: yearly densities of infected nymphs varied 11-97-fold between sites at CHR and 8-30-fold at HREC. Part of this variation could be explained by environmental traits, most notably deer usage. However, correlations between environmental factors and density of infected nymphs (for CHR and HREC combined) did not necessarily apply when these areas were considered separately. Thus, a Lyme borreliosis ecology model developed in one of these areas needs testing in the other area. PMID:15009444

  3. Fifteen from one: a revision of the Galaxias olidus Günther, 1866 complex (Teleostei, Galaxiidae) in south-eastern Australia recognises three previously described taxa and describes 12 new species.

    PubMed

    Raadik, Tarmo A

    2014-01-01

    The systematics of the Galaxias olidus hyper-species complex from freshwater habitats in south-eastern, mainland Australia is revised. Galaxias olidus Günther 1866 is redescribed, Galaxias fuscus Mack 1936 and Galaxias ornatus Castelnau 1873, previously synonymised with G. olidus (sensu lato), are reinstated as valid taxa and redescribed, and 12 taxa are described as new: Galaxias aequipinnis sp. nov., Galaxias arcanus sp. nov., Galaxias brevissimus sp. nov., Galaxias gunaikurnai sp. nov., Galaxias lanceolatus sp. nov., Galaxias longifundus sp. nov., Galaxias mcdowalli sp. nov., Galaxias mungadhan sp. nov., Galaxias oliros sp. nov., Galaxias supremus sp. nov., Galaxias tantangara sp. nov., and Galaxias terenasus sp. nov. These species are morphologically similar and, whilst there is extensive overlap in meristic counts and morphometric characters, each can be diagnosed by unique combinations of characters, including allozyme loci and colour pattern; morphological diagnosis is improved greatly if based on freshly formalin-fixed material. Galaxias schomburgkii Peters 1868, Galaxias bongbong Macleay 1881, Galaxias kayi Ramsay & Ogilby 1886 and Galaxias oconnori Ogilby 1912 are retained as junior synonyms of G. olidus (sensu stricto). The types for Galaxias findlayi Macleay 1882 are lost and no specimens matching its description were collected or examined from the Mt. Kosciuszko region; it is also currently retained as a junior synonym of Galaxias olidus s.s. The species G. terenasus sp. nov. and G. arcanus sp. nov. are the most morphologically specialised in the complex and G. olidus s.s remains the most morphologically variable species. It also remains the most widespread taxon, though its previously known distribution is reduced, particularly in the south-west of its range. Nine species are narrow-range endemics, known from one, or only a few, locations, and these restricted distributions most probably reflect the fragmentation and reduction of former ranges caused

  4. Whence the red panda?

    PubMed

    Flynn, J J; Nedbal, M A; Dragoo, J W; Honeycutt, R L

    2000-11-01

    The evolutionary history of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) plays a pivotal role in the higher-level phylogeny of the "bear-like" arctoid carnivoran mammals. Characters from morphology and molecules have provided inconsistent evidence for placement of the red panda. Whereas it certainly is an arctoid, there has been major controversy about whether it should be placed with the bears (ursids), ursids plus pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, walrus), raccoons (procyonids), musteloids (raccoons plus weasels, skunks, otters, and badgers [mustelids]), or as a monotypic lineage of uncertain phylogenetic affinities. Nucleotide sequence data from three mitochondrial genes and one nuclear intron were analyzed, with more complete taxonomic sampling of relevant taxa (arctoids) than previously available in analyses of primary molecular data, to clarify the phylogenetic relationships of the red panda to other arctoid carnivorans. This study provides detailed phylogenetic analyses (both parsimony and maximum-likelihood) of primary character data for arctoid carnivorans, including bootstrap and decay indices for all arctoid nodes, and three statistical tests of alternative phylogenetic hypotheses for the placement of the red panda. Combined phylogenetic analyses reject the hypotheses that the red panda is most closely related to the bears (ursids) or to the raccoons (procyonids). Rather, evidence from nucleotide sequences strongly support placement of the red panda within a broad Musteloidea (sensu lato) clade, including three major lineages (the red panda, the skunks [mephitids], and a clearly monophyletic clade of procyonids plus mustelids [sensu stricto, excluding skunks]). Within the Musteloidea, interrelationships of the three major lineages are unclear and probably are best considered an unresolved trichotomy. These data provide compelling evidence for the relationships of the red panda and demonstrate that small taxonomic sample sizes can result in misleading or possibly erroneous

  5. Redefining Ceratocystis and allied genera.

    PubMed

    de Beer, Z W; Duong, T A; Barnes, I; Wingfield, B D; Wingfield, M J

    2014-09-01

    The genus Ceratocystis was established in 1890 and accommodates many important fungi. These include serious plant pathogens, significant insect symbionts and agents of timber degradation that result in substantial economic losses. Virtually since its type was described from sweet potatoes, the taxonomy of Ceratocystis has been confused and vigorously debated. In recent years, particulary during the last two decades, it has become very obvious that this genus includes a wide diversity of very different fungi. These have been roughly lumped together due to their similar morphological structures that have clearly evolved through convergent evolution linked to an insect-associated ecology. As has been true for many other groups of fungi, the emergence of DNA-based sequence data and associated phylogenetic inferences, have made it possible to robustly support very distinct boundaries defined by morphological characters and ecological differences. In this study, DNA-sequence data for three carefully selected gene regions (60S, LSU, MCM7) were generated for 79 species residing in the aggregate genus Ceratocystis sensu lato and these data were subjected to rigorous phylogenetic analyses. The results made it possible to distinguish seven major groups for which generic names have been chosen and descriptions either provided or emended. The emended genera included Ceratocystis sensu stricto, Chalaropsis, Endoconidiophora, Thielaviopsis, and Ambrosiella, while two new genera, Davidsoniella and Huntiella, were described. In total, 30 new combinations have been made. This major revision of the generic boundaries in the Ceratocystidaceae will simplify future treatments and work with an important group of fungi including distantly related species illogically aggregated under a single name. PMID:25492989

  6. The taxonomic implications of cranial shape variation in Homo erectus.

    PubMed

    Baab, Karen L

    2008-06-01

    The taxonomic status of Homo erectus sensu lato has been a source of debate since the early 1980s, when a series of publications suggested that the early African fossils may represent a separate species, H. ergaster. To gain further resolution regarding this debate, 3D geometric morphometric data were used to quantify overall shape variation in the cranial vault within H. erectus using a new metric, the sum of squared pairwise Procrustes distances (SSD). Bootstrapping methods were used to compare the H. erectus SSD to a broad range of human and nonhuman primate samples in order to ascertain whether variation in H. erectus most clearly resembles that seen in one or more species. The reference taxa included relevant phylogenetic, ecological, and temporal analogs including humans, apes, and both extant and extinct papionin monkeys. The mean cranial shapes of different temporogeographic subsets of H. erectus fossils were then tested for significance using exact randomization tests and compared to the distances between regional groups of modern humans and subspecies/species of the ape and papionin monkey taxa. To gauge the influence of sexual dimorphism on levels of variation, comparisons were also made between the mean cranial shapes of single-sex samples for the reference taxa. Results indicate that variation in H. erectus is most comparable to single species of papionin monkeys and the genus Pan, which included two species. However, H. erectus encompasses a limited range of variation given its extensive geographic and temporal range, leading to the conclusion that only one species should be recognized. In addition, there are significant differences between the African/Georgian and Asian H. erectus samples, but not between H. ergaster (Georgia+Africa, excluding OH 9 and Daka) and H. erectus sensu stricto. This finding is in line with expectations for intraspecific variation in a long-lived species with a wide, but probably discontinuous, geographic distribution. PMID

  7. Combinatorial Cis-regulation in Saccharomyces Species

    PubMed Central

    Spivak, Aaron T.; Stormo, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional control of gene expression requires interactions between the cis-regulatory elements (CREs) controlling gene promoters. We developed a sensitive computational method to identify CRE combinations with conserved spacing that does not require genome alignments. When applied to seven sensu stricto and sensu lato Saccharomyces species, 80% of the predicted interactions displayed some evidence of combinatorial transcriptional behavior in several existing datasets including: (1) chromatin immunoprecipitation data for colocalization of transcription factors, (2) gene expression data for coexpression of predicted regulatory targets, and (3) gene ontology databases for common pathway membership of predicted regulatory targets. We tested several predicted CRE interactions with chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments in a wild-type strain and strains in which a predicted cofactor was deleted. Our experiments confirmed that transcription factor (TF) occupancy at the promoters of the CRE combination target genes depends on the predicted cofactor while occupancy of other promoters is independent of the predicted cofactor. Our method has the additional advantage of identifying regulatory differences between species. By analyzing the S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus genomes, we identified differences in combinatorial cis-regulation between the species and showed that the predicted changes in gene regulation explain several of the species-specific differences seen in gene expression datasets. In some instances, the same CRE combinations appear to regulate genes involved in distinct biological processes in the two different species. The results of this research demonstrate that (1) combinatorial cis-regulation can be inferred by multi-genome analysis and (2) combinatorial cis-regulation can explain differences in gene expression between species. PMID:26772747

  8. The first report of human-derived G10 genotype of Echinococcus canadensis in China and possible sources and routes of transmission.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong; Zhang, Tiemin; Zeng, Zhaolin; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Weizhe; Liu, Aiqin

    2015-10-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is one of the most important parasitic zoonoses. 10 distinct genotypes, designated G1-G10 genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.), have been split into 4 species: Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) (G1-G3), Echinococcus equinus (G4), Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) and Echinococcus canadensis (G6-G10); Echinococcus felidis has also been suggested as a sister taxon of E. granulosus s.s. recently. Four genotypes belonging to two species (G1 and G3 genotypes of E. granulosus s.s., and G6 and G7 genotypes of E. canadensis) have been identified in humans and animals in China. In the present study, a human-derived hydatid cyst from a patient in northeastern China's Heilongjiang Province was identified as G10 genotype of E. canadensis based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1), cytochrome b (cytb) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) genes. Homology analysis showed the cox1 gene sequence of G10 genotype of E. canadensis had 100% homology with those from wolves in Mongolia and from a moose in Russia. The cytb and nad1 gene sequences of G10 genotype of E. canadensis had 100% homology with the complete sequence from a moose in Finland at an amino acid level. The infection source of the CE patient here might be primarily attributable to wolves. This is the first report of G10 genotype of E. canadensis in a human in China. The finding of G10 genotype of E. canadensis in China shows that this genotype possibly has a more wide geographical distribution than previously considered. PMID:25967082

  9. Effect of heat stress and oil formulation on conidial germination of Metarhizium anisopliae s.s. on tick cuticle and artificial medium.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Lucas P; Luz, Christian; Mascarin, Gabriel M; Roberts, Donald W; Arruda, Walquíria; Fernandes, Éverton K K

    2016-07-01

    The effect of heat stress (45°C) versus non-heat stress (27°C) on germination of Metarhizium anisopliae sensu stricto (s.s.) isolate IP 119 was examined with conidia formulated (suspended) in pure mineral oil or in water (Tween 80, 0.01%), and then applied onto the cuticle of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) engorged females or onto culture medium (PDAY). In addition, bioassays were performed to investigate the effect of conidia heated while formulated in oil, then applied to blood-engorged adult R. sanguineus females. Conidia suspended in water then exposed to 45°C, in comparison to conidia formulated in mineral oil and exposed to the same temperature, germinated less and more slowly when incubated on either PDAY medium or tick cuticle. Also, conidial germination on tick cuticle was delayed in comparison to germination on artificial culture medium; for example, germination was 13% on tick cuticle 72h after inoculation, in contrast to 61.5% on PDAY medium. Unheated (27°C) conidia suspended in either water or oil and applied to tick cuticle developed appressoria 36h after treatment; whereas only heat-stressed conidia formulated in oil developed appressoria on tick cuticle. In comparison to conidia heated in mineral oil, there was a strong negative effect of heat on germination of conidia heated in water before being applied to arthropod cuticle. Nevertheless, bioassays [based primarily on egg production (quantity) and egg hatchability] exhibited high percentages of tick control regardless of the type of conidial suspension; i.e., water- or oil-formulated conidia, and whether or not conidia were previously exposed to heat. In comparison to aqueous conidial preparations, however, conidia formulated in oil reduced egg hatchability irrespective of heat or no-heat exposure. In conclusion, mineral-oil formulation protected conidia against heat-induced delay of both germination and appressorium production when applied to the cuticle of R. sanguineus. PMID

  10. Equivalent susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae M and S molecular forms and Anopheles arabiensis to Plasmodium falciparum infection in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) species complex in Burkina Faso consists of Anopheles arabiensis, and molecular forms M and S of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.). Previous studies comparing the M and S forms for level of infection with Plasmodium falciparum have yielded conflicting results. Methods Mosquito larvae were sampled from natural pools, reared to adulthood under controlled conditions, and challenged with natural P. falciparum by experimental feeding with blood from gametocyte carriers. Oocyst infection prevalence and intensity was determined one week after infection. DNA from carcasses was genotyped to identify species and molecular form. Results In total, 7,400 adult mosquitoes grown from wild-caught larvae were challenged with gametocytes in 29 experimental infections spanning four transmission seasons. The overall infection prevalence averaged 40.7% for A. gambiae M form, 41.4% for A. gambiae S form, and 40.1% for A. arabiensis. There was no significant difference in infection prevalence or intensity between the three population groups. Notably, infection experiments in which the population groups were challenged in parallel on the same infective blood displayed less infection difference between population groups, while infections with less balanced composition of population groups had lower statistical power and displayed apparent differences that fluctuated more often from the null average. Conclusion The study clearly establishes that, at the study site in Burkina Faso, there is no difference in genetic susceptibility to P. falciparum infection between three sympatric population groups of the A. gambiae s.l. complex. Feeding the mosquito groups on the same infective blood meal greatly increases statistical power. Conversely, comparison of the different mosquito groups between, rather than within, infections yields larger apparent difference between mosquito groups, resulting from lower statistical power and greater noise

  11. Enhancing Attraction of African Malaria Vectors to a Synthetic Odor Blend.

    PubMed

    Mweresa, Collins K; Mukabana, Wolfgang R; Omusula, Philemon; Otieno, Bruno; Van Loon, Joop J A; Takken, Willem

    2016-06-01

    The deployment of odor-baited tools for sampling and controlling malaria vectors is limited by a lack of potent synthetic mosquito attractants. A synthetic mixture of chemical compounds referred to as "the Mbita blend" (MB) was shown to attract as many host-seeking malaria mosquitoes as attracted to human subjects. We hypothesized that this effect could be enhanced by adding one or more attractive compounds to the blend. We tested changes in the capability of MB (ammonia + L-lactic acid + tetradecanoic acid +3-methyl-1-butanol + carbon dioxide) to attract host-seeking malaria mosquitoes by addition of selected dilutions of butyl-2-methylbutanoate (1:10,000), 2-pentadecanone (1:100), 1-dodecanol (1:10,000), and butan-1-amine (1:10,000,000). The experiments were conducted in semi-field enclosures and in a village in western Kenya. In semi-field enclosures, the attraction of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto females to MB-baited traps was not enhanced by adding butyl-2-methylbutanoate. There was, however, an increase in the proportion of An. gambiae caught in traps containing MB augmented with the selected dilutions of butan-1-amine, 2-pentadecanone, and 1-dodecanol. When tested in the village, addition of butan-1-amine to MB enhanced catches of female An. gambiae sensu lato, An. funestus, and Culex mosquitoes. 1-Dodecanol increased attraction of An. gambiae s.l. to the MB, while addition of 2-pentadecanone improved trap catches of An. funestus and Culex mosquitoes. This study demonstrates the possibility of enhancing synthetic odor blends for trapping the malarial mosquitoes An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus, as well as some culicine species. The findings provide promising results for the optimization and utilization of synthetic attractants for sampling and controlling major disease vectors. PMID:27349651

  12. Redefining Ceratocystis and allied genera

    PubMed Central

    de Beer, Z.W.; Duong, T.A.; Barnes, I.; Wingfield, B.D.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Ceratocystis was established in 1890 and accommodates many important fungi. These include serious plant pathogens, significant insect symbionts and agents of timber degradation that result in substantial economic losses. Virtually since its type was described from sweet potatoes, the taxonomy of Ceratocystis has been confused and vigorously debated. In recent years, particulary during the last two decades, it has become very obvious that this genus includes a wide diversity of very different fungi. These have been roughly lumped together due to their similar morphological structures that have clearly evolved through convergent evolution linked to an insect-associated ecology. As has been true for many other groups of fungi, the emergence of DNA-based sequence data and associated phylogenetic inferences, have made it possible to robustly support very distinct boundaries defined by morphological characters and ecological differences. In this study, DNA-sequence data for three carefully selected gene regions (60S, LSU, MCM7) were generated for 79 species residing in the aggregate genus Ceratocystis sensu lato and these data were subjected to rigorous phylogenetic analyses. The results made it possible to distinguish seven major groups for which generic names have been chosen and descriptions either provided or emended. The emended genera included Ceratocystis sensu stricto, Chalaropsis, Endoconidiophora, Thielaviopsis, and Ambrosiella, while two new genera, Davidsoniella and Huntiella, were described. In total, 30 new combinations have been made. This major revision of the generic boundaries in the Ceratocystidaceae will simplify future treatments and work with an important group of fungi including distantly related species illogically aggregated under a single name. PMID:25492989

  13. Identification, genetic diversity and cereulide producing ability of Bacillus cereus group strains isolated from Beninese traditional fermented food condiments.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, Line; Azokpota, Paulin; Hansen, Bjarne Munk; Hounhouigan, D Joseph; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2010-08-15

    Bacillus cereus sensu lato is often detected in spontaneously fermented African foods but is rarely identified to species level. Only some of the B. cereus group species are reported to be pathogenic to humans and identification to species level is necessary to estimate the safety of these products. In the present study, a total of 19 Bacillus cereus group spp. isolated from afitin, iru and sonru, three spontaneously fermented African locust (Parkia biglobosa) bean based condiments produced in Benin, were investigated. The strains were isolated at 6, 12, 18, 24 and 48 h fermentation time. By using phenotypic and genotypic methods all of the isolates could be identified as B. cereus sensu stricto. The isolates were grouped according to their PM13 PCR (random amplification of polymorphic DNA PCR) fingerprint and formed two major clusters, one of which contained eight strains isolated from afitin (cluster 1). Highly similar PM13 profiles were obtained for seven of the isolates, one from afitin, one from iru and five from sonru (cluster 2). Four of the isolates, one from afitin and three from sonru, did not form any particular cluster. The PM13 profiles of cluster 2 isolates were identical to those which are specific to emetic toxin producers. Cereulide production of these isolates was confirmed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. This is the first report on cereulide producing B. cereus in African fermented foods. Occurrence of the opportunistic human pathogen B. cereus, which is able to produce emetic toxin in afitin, iru and sonru, could impose a health hazard. Interestingly, no reports on food poisoning from the consumption of the fermented condiments exist. PMID:20599285

  14. Vector competence of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, for the recently recognized Lyme borreliosis spirochete Candidatus Borrelia mayonii.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Marc C; Hojgaard, Andrias; Hoxmeier, J Charles; Replogle, Adam J; Respicio-Kingry, Laurel B; Sexton, Christopher; Williams, Martin A; Pritt, Bobbi S; Schriefer, Martin E; Eisen, Lars

    2016-07-01

    A novel species within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, provisionally named Borrelia mayonii, was recently found to be associated with Lyme borreliosis in the Upper Midwest of the United States. Moreover, B. mayonii was detected from host-seeking Ixodes scapularis, the primary vector of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto in the eastern United States. We therefore conducted a study to confirm the experimental vector competence of I. scapularis for B. mayonii (strain MN14-1420), using colony ticks originating from adults collected in Connecticut and CD-1 white mice. Larvae fed on mice 10 weeks after needle-inoculation with B. mayonii acquired spirochetes and maintained infection through the nymphal stage at an average rate of 12.9%. In a transmission experiment, 40% of naïve mice exposed to a single infected nymph developed viable infections, as compared with 87% of mice fed upon by 2-3 infected nymphs. Transmission of B. mayonii by one or more feeding infected nymphs was uncommon up to 48h after attachment (one of six mice developed viable infection) but occurred frequently when nymphs were allowed to remain attached for 72-96h or feed to completion (11 of 16 mice developed viable infection). Mice infected via tick bite maintained viable infection with B. mayonii, as determined by ear biopsy culture, for at least 28 weeks. Our results demonstrate that I. scapularis is capable of serving as a vector of B. mayonii. This finding, together with data showing that field-collected I. scapularis are infected with B. mayonii, indicate that I. scapularis likely is a primary vector to humans of this recently recognized Lyme borreliosis spirochete. PMID:26922324

  15. Understanding the Long-Lasting Attraction of Malaria Mosquitoes to Odor Baits

    PubMed Central

    Mweresa, Collins K.; Otieno, Bruno; Omusula, Philemon; Weldegergis, Berhane T.; Verhulst, Niels O.; Dicke, Marcel; van Loon, Joop J. A.; Takken, Willem; Mukabana, Wolfgang R.

    2015-01-01

    The use of odor baits for surveillance and control of malaria mosquitoes requires robust dispensing tools. In this study, the residual activity of a synthetic mosquito attractant blend dispensed from nylon or low density polyethylene (LDPE) sachets was evaluated at weekly intervals for one year without re-impregnation. The potential role of bacteria in modulating the attraction of mosquitoes to odor-treated nylon that had been used repeatedly over the one year study period, without re-impregnation, was also investigated. Significantly higher proportions of female Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto mosquitoes were consistently attracted to treated nylon strips than the other treatments, up to one year post-treatment. Additional volatile organic compounds and various bacterial populations were found on the treated nylon strips after one year of repeated use. The most abundant bacteria were Bacillus thuringiensis and Acinetobacter baumannii. Autoclaving of treated nylon strips prior to exposure had no effect on trap collections of laboratory-reared female An. Gambiae (P = 0.17) or wild female An. Gambiae sensu lato (P = 0.26) and Mansonia spp. (P = 0.17) mosquitoes. Trap catches of wild female An. Funestus (P < 0.001) and other anophelines (P < 0.007) were higher when treated strips had been autoclaved prior to deployment as opposed to when the treated nylon strips were not autoclaved. By contrast, wild female Culex mosquitoes were more strongly attracted to non-autoclaved compared to autoclaved treated nylon strips (P < 0.042). This study demonstrates the feasibility of using odor baits for sampling and surveillance of malaria as well as other mosquito vectors over prolonged periods of time. Preliminary evidence points towards the potential role of bacteria in sustaining prolonged use of nylon material for dispensing synthetic attractant odorants for host-seeking malaria and other mosquito vectors but further investigations are required. PMID:25798818

  16. DNA Sequence Analyses Reveal Abundant Diversity, Endemism and Evidence for Asian Origin of the Porcini Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Bang; Xu, Jianping; Wu, Gang; Zeng, Nian-Kai; Li, Yan-Chun; Tolgor, Bau; Kost, Gerhard W.; Yang, Zhu L.

    2012-01-01

    The wild gourmet mushroom Boletus edulis and its close allies are of significant ecological and economic importance. They are found throughout the Northern Hemisphere, but despite their ubiquity there are still many unresolved issues with regard to the taxonomy, systematics and biogeography of this group of mushrooms. Most phylogenetic studies of Boletus so far have characterized samples from North America and Europe and little information is available on samples from other areas, including the ecologically and geographically diverse regions of China. Here we analyzed DNA sequence variation in three gene markers from samples of these mushrooms from across China and compared our findings with those from other representative regions. Our results revealed fifteen novel phylogenetic species (about one-third of the known species) and a newly identified lineage represented by Boletus sp. HKAS71346 from tropical Asia. The phylogenetic analyses support eastern Asia as the center of diversity for the porcini sensu stricto clade. Within this clade, B. edulis is the only known holarctic species. The majority of the other phylogenetic species are geographically restricted in their distributions. Furthermore, molecular dating and geological evidence suggest that this group of mushrooms originated during the Eocene in eastern Asia, followed by dispersal to and subsequent speciation in other parts of Asia, Europe, and the Americas from the middle Miocene through the early Pliocene. In contrast to the ancient dispersal of porcini in the strict sense in the Northern Hemisphere, the occurrence of B. reticulatus and B. edulis sensu lato in the Southern Hemisphere was probably due to recent human-mediated introductions. PMID:22629418

  17. Borrelia burgdorferi mutant lacking Osp: biological and immunological characterization.

    PubMed Central

    Sadziene, A; Thomas, D D; Barbour, A G

    1995-01-01

    All Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates characterized to date have one or a combination of several major outer surface proteins (Osps). Mutants of B. burgdorferi lacking Osps were selected with polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies at a frequency of 10(-6) to 10(-5). One mutant that lacked OspA, -B, -C, and -D was further characterized. It was distinguished from the OspA+B+ cells by its (i) autoaggregation and slower growth rate, (ii) decreased plating efficiency on solid medium, (iii) serum and complement sensitivity, and (iv) diminished capacity to adhere to human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The Osp-less mutant was unable to evoke a detectable immune response after intradermal live cell immunization even though mutant survived in mouse skin for the same duration as wild-type cells. Polyclonal mouse serum raised against Osp-less cells inhibited growth of the mutant but not of wild-type cells, an indication that other antigens are present on the surface of the Osp-less mutant. Two types of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with growth-inhibiting properties for mutant cells were identified. The first type bound to a 13-kDa surface protein of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and of B. afzelii. The MIC of the Fab fragment of one MAb of this type was 0.2 micrograms/ml. The second type of MAb to the Osp-less mutant did not bind to B. burgdorferi components by Western blotting (immunoblotting) but did not bind to unfixed, viable cells in immunofluorescence and growth inhibition assays. These studies revealed possible functions Osp proteins in borrelias, specifically serum resistance, and indicated that in the absence of Osp proteins, other antigens are expressed or become accessible at the cell surface. PMID:7890424

  18. Taxonomic consequences of cryptic speciation in the Golden Whistler Pachycephala pectoralis complex in mainland southern Australia.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Leo; Nyári, Árpád S; Andersen, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The Golden Whistler (Aves: Passeriformes: Pachycephalidae) Pachycephala pectoralis sensu lato has long played a key role in the development of the theory of allopatric speciation (Mayr 1932a, b; Mayr 1942; Galbraith 1956). The P. pectoralis species complex formerly comprised 60-70 nominal subspecies and so had a distribution spanning the Indo-Pacific (Boles 2007). More recent taxonomic treatments consider the complex as multiple species-level taxa largely circumscribed by geography (Dickinson and Christidis 2014; Gill and Donsker 2014). In Australia, the endemic species P. pectoralis sensu stricto is sympatric with the closely related Mangrove Golden Whistler P. melanura. However, as the latter's English name suggests, P. melanura is closely tied to mangroves in Australia, southeast New Guinea, and islets in the Bismarck Archipelago. Diagnostic plumage traits separating the two species are subtle: males of P. melanura have more extensively black tails and a greyer upper surface to the remiges, and females are usually yellower ventrally. All Pachycephala species, especially those in the P. pectoralis-melanura species complex, have recently become the focus of DNA sequence-based studies (Jønsson et al. 2008, 2014; Andersen et al. 2014). Data from most populations have now been analysed phylogenetically to better understand relationships and thus the history of evolution and speciation processes within and between both species. This has also been used in studies of the group's historical biogeography to provide information as to the age of taxa and their spread across oceanic archipelagos and continents (Jønsson et al. 2014). Here we discuss the taxonomic implications of a result that has emerged consistently and independently in these studies, concerning the systematics of the southern Australian populations in south-eastern and south-western Australia, both of which have been ascribed to P. p. fuliginosa since Galbraith (1956), and we show that the name P

  19. Prevalence of the Lyme Disease Spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, in Blacklegged Ticks, Ixodes scapularis at Hamilton-Wentworth, Ontario.

    PubMed

    Scott, John D; Anderson, John F; Durden, Lance A; Smith, Morgan L; Manord, Jodi M; Clark, Kerry L

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease has emerged as a major health concern in Canada, where the etiological agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), a spirochetal bacterium, is typically spread by the bite of certain ticks. This study explores the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, collected at Dundas, Ontario (a locality within the region of Hamilton-Wentworth). Using passive surveillance, veterinarians and pet groomers were asked to collect blacklegged ticks from dogs and cats with no history of travel. Additionally, I. scapularis specimens were submitted from local residents and collected by flagging. Overall, 12 (41%) of 29 blacklegged ticks were infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing, two borrelial amplicons were characterized as B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), a genospecies pathogenic to humans and certain domestic animals. Notably, three different vertebrate hosts each had two engorged I. scapularis females removed on the same day and, likewise, one cat had three repeat occurrences of this tick species. These multiple infestations suggest that a population of I. scapularis may be established in this area. The local public health unit has been underreporting the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l.-infected I. scapularis in the area encompassing Dundas. Our findings raise concerns about the need to erect tick warning signs in parkland areas. Veterinarians, medical professionals, public health officials, and the general public must be vigilant that Lyme disease-carrying blacklegged ticks pose a public health risk in the Dundas area and the surrounding Hamilton-Wentworth region. PMID:27226771

  20. Seed Anatomy and Water Uptake in Relation to Seed Dormancy in Opuntia tomentosa (Cactaceae, Opuntioideae)

    PubMed Central

    Orozco-Segovia, A.; Márquez-Guzmán, J.; Sánchez-Coronado, M. E.; Gamboa de Buen, A.; Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims There is considerable confusion in the literature concerning impermeability of seeds with ‘hard’ seed coats, because the ability to take up (imbibe) water has not been tested in most of them. Seeds of Opuntia tomentosa were reported recently to have a water-impermeable seed coat sensu lato (i.e. physical dormancy), in combination with physiological dormancy. However, physical dormancy is not known to occur in Cactaceae. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if seeds of O. tomentosa are water-permeable or water-impermeable, i.e. if they have physical dormancy. Methods The micromorphology of the seed coat and associated structures were characterized by SEM and light microscopy. Permeability of the seed-covering layers was assessed by an increase in mass of seeds on a wet substrate and by dye-tracking and uptake of tritiated water by intact versus scarified seeds. Key Results A germination valve and a water channel are formed in the hilum–micropyle region during dehydration and ageing in seeds of O. tomentosa. The funicular envelope undoubtedly plays a role in germination of Opuntia seeds via restriction of water uptake and mechanical resistance to expansion of the embryo. However, seeds do not exhibit any of three features characteristic of those with physical dormancy. Thus, they do not have a water-impermeable layer(s) of palisade cells (macrosclereids) or a water gap sensu stricto and they imbibe water without the seed coat being disrupted. Conclusions Although dormancy in seeds of this species can be broken by scarification, they have physiological dormancy only. Further, based on information in the literature, it is concluded that it is unlikely that any species of Opuntia has physical dormancy. This is the first integrative study of the anatomy, dynamics of water uptake and dormancy in seeds of Cactaceae subfamily Opuntioideae. PMID:17298989

  1. Fukuyoa paulensis gen. et sp. nov., a New Genus for the Globular Species of the Dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus (Dinophyceae)

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Fernando; Qiu, Dajun; Lopes, Rubens M.; Lin, Senjie

    2015-01-01

    The marine epiphytic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus is a toxicologically important genus responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning, the principal cause of non-bacterial illness associated with fish consumption. The genus currently contains species exhibiting either globular or anterior-posteriorly compressed morphologies with marked differences in cell shape and plate arrangement. Here we report a third globular, epiphytic and tychoplanktonic species from the coasts of Ubatuba, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished from G. yasumotoi and G. ruetzleri by its broader first apical plate that occupies a larger portion of the epitheca. Accordingly, phylogenetic trees from small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA sequences also showed strongly supported separation of the new species from the G. yasumotoi / G. ruetzleri group albeit with short distance. The molecular phylogenies, which included new sequences of the planktonic species Goniodoma polyedricum, further indicated that the globular species of Gambierdiscus formed a tight clade, clearly separated (with strong bootstrap support) from the clade of lenticular species including the type for Gambierdiscus. The morphological and molecular data in concert support the split of Gambierdiscus sensu lato into two genera. Gambierdiscus sensu stricto should be reserved for the species with lenticular shapes, highly compressed anterioposteriorly, with short-shank fishhook apical pore plate, large 2' plate, low and ascending cingular displacement, and pouch-like sulcal morphology. The new genus name Fukuyoa gen. nov. should be applied to the globular species, slightly laterally compressed, with long-shank fishhook apical pore plate, large 1' plate, greater and descending cingular displacement, and not pouch-like vertically-oriented sulcal morphology. Fukuyoa contains the new species Fukuyoa paulensis gen. et sp. nov., and F. yasumotoi comb. nov. and F. ruetzleri comb. nov. PMID:25831082

  2. Decarboxylation of Sorbic Acid by Spoilage Yeasts Is Associated with the PAD1 Gene▿

    PubMed Central

    Stratford, Malcolm; Plumridge, Andrew; Archer, David B.

    2007-01-01

    The spoilage yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae degraded the food preservative sorbic acid (2,4-hexadienoic acid) to a volatile hydrocarbon, identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry as 1,3-pentadiene. The gene responsible was identified as PAD1, previously associated with the decarboxylation of the aromatic carboxylic acids cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, and coumaric acid to styrene, 4-vinylguaiacol, and 4-vinylphenol, respectively. The loss of PAD1 resulted in the simultaneous loss of decarboxylation activity against both sorbic and cinnamic acids. Pad1p is therefore an unusual decarboxylase capable of accepting both aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids as substrates. All members of the Saccharomyces genus (sensu stricto) were found to decarboxylate both sorbic and cinnamic acids. PAD1 homologues and decarboxylation activity were found also in Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Debaryomyces hansenii, and Pichia anomala. The decarboxylation of sorbic acid was assessed as a possible mechanism of resistance in spoilage yeasts. The decarboxylation of either sorbic or cinnamic acid was not detected for Zygosaccharomyces, Kazachstania (Saccharomyces sensu lato), Zygotorulaspora, or Torulaspora, the genera containing the most notorious spoilage yeasts. Scatter plots showed no correlation between the extent of sorbic acid decarboxylation and resistance to sorbic acid in spoilage yeasts. Inhibitory concentrations of sorbic acid were almost identical for S. cerevisiae wild-type and Δpad1 strains. We concluded that Pad1p-mediated sorbic acid decarboxylation did not constitute a significant mechanism of resistance to weak-acid preservatives by spoilage yeasts, even if the decarboxylation contributed to spoilage through the generation of unpleasant odors. PMID:17766451

  3. Combinatorial Cis-regulation in Saccharomyces Species.

    PubMed

    Spivak, Aaron T; Stormo, Gary D

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional control of gene expression requires interactions between the cis-regulatory elements (CREs) controlling gene promoters. We developed a sensitive computational method to identify CRE combinations with conserved spacing that does not require genome alignments. When applied to seven sensu stricto and sensu lato Saccharomyces species, 80% of the predicted interactions displayed some evidence of combinatorial transcriptional behavior in several existing datasets including: (1) chromatin immunoprecipitation data for colocalization of transcription factors, (2) gene expression data for coexpression of predicted regulatory targets, and (3) gene ontology databases for common pathway membership of predicted regulatory targets. We tested several predicted CRE interactions with chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments in a wild-type strain and strains in which a predicted cofactor was deleted. Our experiments confirmed that transcription factor (TF) occupancy at the promoters of the CRE combination target genes depends on the predicted cofactor while occupancy of other promoters is independent of the predicted cofactor. Our method has the additional advantage of identifying regulatory differences between species. By analyzing the S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus genomes, we identified differences in combinatorial cis-regulation between the species and showed that the predicted changes in gene regulation explain several of the species-specific differences seen in gene expression datasets. In some instances, the same CRE combinations appear to regulate genes involved in distinct biological processes in the two different species. The results of this research demonstrate that (1) combinatorial cis-regulation can be inferred by multi-genome analysis and (2) combinatorial cis-regulation can explain differences in gene expression between species. PMID:26772747

  4. Prevalence of the Lyme Disease Spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, in Blacklegged Ticks, Ixodes scapularis at Hamilton-Wentworth, Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Scott, John D.; Anderson, John F.; Durden, Lance A.; Smith, Morgan L.; Manord, Jodi M.; Clark, Kerry L.

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease has emerged as a major health concern in Canada, where the etiological agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), a spirochetal bacterium, is typically spread by the bite of certain ticks. This study explores the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, collected at Dundas, Ontario (a locality within the region of Hamilton-Wentworth). Using passive surveillance, veterinarians and pet groomers were asked to collect blacklegged ticks from dogs and cats with no history of travel. Additionally, I. scapularis specimens were submitted from local residents and collected by flagging. Overall, 12 (41%) of 29 blacklegged ticks were infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing, two borrelial amplicons were characterized as B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), a genospecies pathogenic to humans and certain domestic animals. Notably, three different vertebrate hosts each had two engorged I. scapularis females removed on the same day and, likewise, one cat had three repeat occurrences of this tick species. These multiple infestations suggest that a population of I. scapularis may be established in this area. The local public health unit has been underreporting the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l.-infected I. scapularis in the area encompassing Dundas. Our findings raise concerns about the need to erect tick warning signs in parkland areas. Veterinarians, medical professionals, public health officials, and the general public must be vigilant that Lyme disease-carrying blacklegged ticks pose a public health risk in the Dundas area and the surrounding Hamilton-Wentworth region. PMID:27226771

  5. Cytotype diversity and genome size variation in eastern Asian polyploid Cardamine (Brassicaceae) species

    PubMed Central

    Marhold, Karol; Kudoh, Hiroshi; Pak, Jae-Hong; Watanabe, Kuniaki; Španiel, Stanislav; Lihová, Judita

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Intraspecific ploidy-level variation is an important aspect of a species' genetic make-up, which may lend insight into its evolutionary history and future potential. The present study explores this phenomenon in a group of eastern Asian Cardamine species. Methods Plant material was sampled from 59 localities in Japan and Korea, which were used in karyological (chromosome counting) and flow cytometric analyses. The absolute nuclear DNA content (in pg) was measured using propidium iodide and the relative nuclear DNA content (in arbitrary units) was measured using 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole fluorochrome. Key Results Substantial cytotype diversity was found, with strikingly different distribution patterns between the species. Two cytotypes were found in C. torrentis sensu lato (4x and 8x, in C. valida and C. torrentis sensu stricto, respectively), which displays a north–south geographical pattern in Japan. Hypotheses regarding their origin and colonization history in the Japanese archipelago are discussed. In Korean C. amaraeiformis, only tetraploids were found, and these populations may in fact belong to C. valida. C. yezoensis was found to harbour as many as six cytotypes in Japan, ranging from hexa- to dodecaploids. Ploidy levels do not show any obvious geographical pattern; populations with mixed ploidy levels, containing two to four cytotypes, are frequently observed throughout the range. C. schinziana, an endemic of Hokkaido, has hexa- and octoploid populations. Previous chromosome records are also revised, showing that they are largely based on misidentified material or misinterpreted names. Conclusions Sampling of multiple populations and utilization of the efficient flow cytometric approach allowed the detection of large-scale variation in ploidy levels and genome size variation attributable to aneuploidy. These data will be essential in further phylogenetic and evolutionary studies. PMID:20007978

  6. Molecular evidence for bacterial pathogens in Ixodes ricinus ticks infesting Shetland ponies.

    PubMed

    Skotarczak, Bogumiła; Wodecka, Beata; Rymaszewska, Anna; Adamska, Małgorzata

    2016-06-01

    Ixodes ricinus has the potential to transmit zoonotic pathogens to humans and domestic animals. The feeding I. ricinus (n = 1737) collected from 49 Shetland ponies and questing ones from vegetation (n = 371) were tested for the presence and differentiation of the bacterial species. DNA of I. ricinus ticks was examined with PCR and sequencing analysis to identify species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl), Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. Altogether, 24.3 % I. ricinus of the infested horses and 12.4 % ticks from vegetation carried at least one pathogen species. Horse-feeding ticks (19.2 %) were significantly more frequently infected with Borrelia spp. than questing ticks (4.8 %). Among Bbsl species, in I. ricinus infesting ponies, B. garinii, B. afzelii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. valaisiana and B. lusitanie and one species, B. miyamotoi related to relapsing fever group, were detected. The 73 flaB gene sequences of Borrelia obtained from feeding I. ricinus have been deposited in GenBank. Among Rickettsia species, two were identified: R. helvetica which was dominant and R. monacensis. Infections with more than one pathogenic species, involving mostly Bbsl and R. helvetica were detected in 6.3 % of infected ticks collected from horses. Shetland ponies may play an important role in the epidemiological cycle of Bbsl and probably could contribute to the natural cycle of A. phagocytophilum and R. helvetica as host for infected ticks. The awareness about these infectious agents in ticks from ponies might be an important criterion for the risk assessment of human diseases, especially as these animals are maintained for recreational purposes. PMID:26920921

  7. Screening Mosquito House Entry Points as a Potential Method for Integrated Control of Endophagic Filariasis, Arbovirus and Malaria Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Ogoma, Sheila B.; Lweitoijera, Dickson W.; Ngonyani, Hassan; Furer, Benjamin; Russell, Tanya L.; Mukabana, Wolfgang R.; Killeen, Gerry F.; Moore, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Partial mosquito-proofing of houses with screens and ceilings has the potential to reduce indoor densities of malaria mosquitoes. We wish to measure whether it will also reduce indoor densities of vectors of neglected tropical diseases. Methodology The main house entry points preferred by anopheline and culicine vectors were determined through controlled experiments using specially designed experimental huts and village houses in Lupiro village, southern Tanzania. The benefit of screening different entry points (eaves, windows and doors) using PVC-coated fibre glass netting material in terms of reduced indoor densities of mosquitoes was evaluated compared to the control. Findings 23,027 mosquitoes were caught with CDC light traps; 77.9% (17,929) were Anopheles gambiae sensu lato, of which 66.2% were An. arabiensis and 33.8% An. gambiae sensu stricto. The remainder comprised 0.2% (50) An. funestus, 10.2% (2359) Culex spp. and 11.6% (2664) Mansonia spp. Screening eaves reduced densities of Anopheles gambiae s. l. (Relative ratio (RR)  = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.84, 0.98; P = 0.01); Mansonia africana (RR = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.26, 0.76; P<0.001) and Mansonia uniformis (RR = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.25, 0.56; P<0.001) but not Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. univittatus or Cx. theileri. Numbers of these species were reduced by screening windows and doors but this was not significant. Significance This study confirms that across Africa, screening eaves protects households against important mosquito vectors of filariasis, Rift Valley Fever and O'Nyong nyong as well as malaria. While full house screening is required to exclude Culex species mosquitoes, screening of eaves alone or fitting ceilings has considerable potential for integrated control of other vectors of filariasis, arbovirus and malaria. PMID:20689815

  8. Plastid DNA sequencing and nuclear SNP genotyping help resolve the puzzle of central American Platanus

    PubMed Central

    De Castro, Olga; Di Maio, Antonietta; Lozada García, José Armando; Piacenti, Danilo; Vázquez-Torres, Mario; De Luca, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Recent research on the history of Platanus reveals that hybridization phenomena occurred in the central American species. This study has two goals: to help resolve the evolutive puzzle of central American Platanus, and to test the potential of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting ancient hybridization. Methods Sequencing of a uniparental plastid DNA marker [psbA-trnH(GUG) intergenic spacer] and qualitative and quantitative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping of biparental nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) markers [LEAFY intron 2 (LFY-i2) and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2)] were used. Key Results Based on the SNP genotyping results, several Platanus accessions show the presence of hybridization/introgression, including some accessions of P. rzedowskii and of P. mexicana var. interior and one of P. mexicana var. mexicana from Oaxaca (= P. oaxacana). Based on haplotype analyses of the psbA-trnH spacer, five haplotypes were detected. The most common of these is present in taxa belonging to P. orientalis, P. racemosa sensu lato, some accessions of P. occidentalis sensu stricto (s.s.) from Texas, P. occidentalis var. palmeri, P. mexicana s.s. and P. rzedowskii. This is highly relevant to genetic relationships with the haplotypes present in P. occidentalis s.s. and P. mexicana var. interior. Conclusions Hybridization and introgression events between lineages ancestral to modern central and eastern North American Platanus species occurred. Plastid haplotypes and qualitative and quantitative SNP genotyping provide information critical for understanding the complex history of Mexican Platanus. Compared with the usual molecular techniques of sub-cloning, sequencing and genotyping, real-time PCR assay is a quick and sensitive technique for analysing complex evolutionary patterns. PMID:23798602

  9. Colletotrichum caudatum s.l. is a species complex.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Jo Anne

    2014-06-01

    Colletotrichum caudatum sensu lato is a widespread fungal pathogen of warm-season grasses. The fungus is easily differentiated from other Colletotrichum species through the presence of a unique filiform appendage at the apex of the conidium. Multi-locus phylogenetic analysis of four DNA sequence markers from 21 isolates of C. caudatum s.l. from six grass hosts recovered the morphospecies as a well-supported monophyletic group. Although closely related to other Colletotrichum species pathogenic to warm-season grasses (e.g. C. sublineola, C. falcatum, C. navitas, C. graminicola), the sister taxon placement of C. caudatum remained unclear. Four major subgroups and three monotypic lineages were identified from the C. caudatum s.l. isolates. Despite the presence of localized, taxon-specific incongruence between gene trees and evidence for recombination in the dataset, application of genealogical concordance species recognition criteria diagnosed the four subgroups as phylogenetic species. Traditional morphology-based species concept defines C. caudatum as one species with a broad host range; however, multi-locus phylogenetic analyses refuted this model. Instead, isolates from different hosts were mainly segregated into different lineages. In particular, isolates from the type locale and host (USA, Sorghastrum nutans) collected within a 400 km radius were divided into three distinct species that corresponded with the three sampling sites. These data established that traditional morphological and ecological features are not informative for recognition of taxa within C. caudatum s.l., although there is some evidence that some species may be host specific. To stabilize the application of the name C. caudatum, DNA sequence data from the lectotype was generated, an epitype strain consistent with the type was designated and illustrated, and an emended description of C. caudatum sensu stricto is provided. Colletotrichum alcornii, C. baltimorense, C. somersetense, and C. zoysiae

  10. Nodule morphology, symbiotic specificity and association with unusual rhizobia are distinguishing features of the genus Listia within the southern African crotalarioid clade Lotononis s.l.

    PubMed Central

    Ardley, Julie K.; Reeve, Wayne G.; O'Hara, Graham W.; Yates, Ron J.; Dilworth, Michael J.; Howieson, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The legume clade Lotononis sensu lato (s.l.; tribe Crotalarieae) comprises three genera: Listia, Leobordea and Lotononis sensu stricto (s.s.). Listia species are symbiotically specific and form lupinoid nodules with rhizobial species of Methylobacterium and Microvirga. This work investigated whether these symbiotic traits were confined to Listia by determining the ability of rhizobial strains isolated from species of Lotononis s.l. to nodulate Listia, Leobordea and Lotononis s.s. hosts and by examining the morphology and structure of the resulting nodules. Methods Rhizobia were characterized by sequencing their 16S rRNA and nodA genes. Nodulation and N2 fixation on eight taxonomically diverse Lotononis s.l. species were determined in glasshouse trials. Nodules of all hosts, and the process of infection and nodule initiation in Listia angolensis and Listia bainesii, were examined by light microscopy. Key Results Rhizobia associated with Lotononis s.l. were phylogenetically diverse. Leobordea and Lotononis s.s. isolates were most closely related to Bradyrhizobium spp., Ensifer meliloti, Mesorhizobium tianshanense and Methylobacterium nodulans. Listia angolensis formed effective nodules only with species of Microvirga. Listia bainesii nodulated only with pigmented Methylobacterium. Five lineages of nodA were found. Listia angolensis and L. bainesii formed lupinoid nodules, whereas nodules of Leobordea and Lotononis s.s. species were indeterminate. All effective nodules contained uniformly infected central tissue. Listia angolensis and L. bainesii nodule initials occurred on the border of the hypocotyl and along the tap root, and nodule primordia developed in the outer cortical layer. Neither root hair curling nor infection threads were seen. Conclusions Two specificity groups occur within Lotononis s.l.: Listia species are symbiotically specific, while species of Leobordea and Lotononis s.s. are generally promiscuous and interact with rhizobia of

  11. A revision of Cyanonectria and Geejayessia gen. nov., and related species with Fusarium-like anamorphs

    PubMed Central

    Schroers, H.-J.; Gräfenhan, T.; Nirenberg, H.I.; Seifert, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    A revision of Fusarium-like species associated with the plant genus Buxus led to a reconsideration of generic concepts in the Fusarium clade of the Nectriaceae. Phylogenetic analyses of the partial second largest subunit of the RNA polymerase II (rpb2) and the larger subunit of the ATP citrate lyase (acl1) gene exons confirm the existence of a clade, here called the terminal Fusarium clade, that includes genera such as Fusarium sensu stricto (including its Gibberella teleomorphs), Albonectria, Cyanonectria, “Haematonectria”, the newly described genus Geejayessia, and “Nectria” albida. Geejayessia accommodates five species. Four were previously classified in Nectria sensu lato, namely the black perithecial, KOH–species G. atrofusca and the orange or reddish, KOH+ G. cicatricum, G. desmazieri and G. zealandica. Geejayessia celtidicola is newly described. Following our phylogenetic analyses showing its close relationship with Cyanonectria cyanostoma, the former Gibbera buxi is recombined as the second species of Cyanonectria. A three gene phylogenetic analysis of multiple strains of each morphological species using translation elongation factor 1 α (tef-1), rpb2 and acl1 gene exons and introns confirms their status as distinct phylogenetic species. Internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal RNA gene cluster and nuclear large ribosomal subunit sequences were generated as additional DNA barcodes for selected strains. The connection of Fusarium buxicola, often erroneously reported as the anamorph of G. desmazieri, with the bluish black and KOH+ perithecial species C. buxi is reinstated. Most Cyanonectria and Geejayessia species exhibit restricted host ranges on branches or twigs of Buxus species, Celtis occidentalis, or Staphylea trifolia. Their perithecia form caespitose clusters on well-developed, mostly erumpent stromata on the bark or outer cortex of the host and are relatively thin-walled, mostly smooth, and therefore reminiscent of the more or less

  12. A molecular based strategy for rapid diagnosis of toxigenic Fusarium species associated to cereal grains from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Sampietro, D A; Marín, P; Iglesias, J; Presello, D A; Vattuone, M A; Catalan, C A N; Gonzalez Jaen, M T

    2010-01-01

    Fusarium species are worldwide causal agents of ear rot in cereals. Their toxigenic potential is a health risk for both humans and animals. In Argentina, most identification of these fungi has been based on morphological and cross-fertility criteria which are time consuming and require considerable expertise in Fusarium taxonomy and physiology. DNA based approaches have been reported as rapid, sensitive and specific alternatives to identify the main fumonisin and trichothecene-producing Fusarium species. In this work, we used PCR assays and the partial sequence of TEF1-alpha gene (Translation Elongation Factor-1 alpha) to identify the fumonisin and trichothecene-producing species in Fusarium isolates from diverse regions of Argentina. The relative efficiency and reliability of those methods to improve mycotoxin risk prediction in this country were also assessed. Species-specific PCR assays were targeted toward multicopy IGS (Intergenic Spacer of rDNA units) and on the toxin biosynthetic genes FUM1 (fumonisins) and TRI13 and TRI7 genes (trichothecenes). PCR assays based on FUM1 gene and IGS sequences allowed detection and discrimination of the fumonisin producers Fusarium proliferatum and Fusarium verticillioides. Molecular identification of nonfumonisin producers from Gibberella fujikuroi species complex was possible after determination of TEF1-alplha gene sequences, which indicated the presence of Fusarium subglutinans, Fusarium andiyazi and Fusarium thapsinum. TEF-1 alpha gene sequences also allowed discrimination of the different species of the Fusarium graminearum complex (F. graminearum sensu lato) as F. graminearum sensu stricto, Fusarium meridionale and Fusarium boothii. The last two species belonged to NIV chemotype and were detected for the first time in the subtropical region of Argentina while F. graminearum sensu stricto was DON producer only, which was also confirmed by specific PCR assays based on TRI137/TRI7 genes. Our results indicated that the PCR

  13. Twelve new species and fifty-three new provincial distribution records of Aleocharinae rove beetles of Saskatchewan, Canada (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Larson, David J.; Labrecque, Myriam; Bourdon, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Abstract One hundred twenty species of aleocharine beetles (Staphylinidae) are recognized in the province of Saskatchewan. Sixty-five new provincial records, including twelve new species and one new North American record, are presented. Oligota inflata (Mannerheim), a Palearctic species, is newly recorded for North America. The following twelve species are described as new to science: Acrotona pseudopygmaea Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Agaricomorpha pulchra Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n. (new genus record for Canadian fauna), Aleochara elisabethae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Dimetrota) larsonae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) pseudopittionii Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) spermathecorum Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (sensu lato) richardsoni Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Brachyusa saskatchewanae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota langori Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota simulans Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota websteri Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., and Oxypoda domestica Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n. Colour images of habitus and black and white images of the median lobe of the aedeagus, spermatheca, and tergite and sternite VIII are presented for all new species, Oligota inflata Mannerheim and Dochmonota rudiventris (Eppelsheim). A new synonymy is established: Tetralina filitarsus Casey, syn. n. = Tetralina helenae Casey, now placed in the genus Brachyusa Mulsant & Rey. PMID:27587977

  14. Recurrent evolution of host-specialized races in a globally distributed parasite

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Karen D; Chapuis, Elodie; Tirard, Claire; Boulinier, Thierry; Michalakis, Yannis; Bohec, Céline Le; Maho, Yvon Le; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel

    2005-01-01

    The outcome of coevolutionary interactions is predicted to vary across landscapes depending on local conditions and levels of gene flow, with some populations evolving more extreme specializations than others. Using a globally distributed parasite of colonial seabirds, the tick Ixodes uriae, we examined how host availability and geographic isolation influences this process. In particular, we sampled ticks from 30 populations of six different seabird host species, three in the Southern Hemisphere and three in the Northern Hemisphere. We show that parasite races have evolved independently on hosts of both hemispheres. Moreover, the degree of differentiation between tick races varied spatially within each region and suggests that the divergence of tick races is an ongoing process that has occurred multiple times across isolated areas. As I. uriae is vector to the bacterium responsible for Lyme disease Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, these results may have important consequence for the epidemiology of this disease. With the increased occurrence of novel interspecific interactions due to global change, these results also stress the importance of the combined effects of gene flow and selection for parasite diversification. PMID:16243689

  15. Host-dependent genetic structure of parasite populations: differential dispersal of seabird tick host races.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Karen D; Boulinier, Thierry; Tirard, Claire; Michalakis, Yannis

    2003-02-01

    Despite the fact that parasite dispersal is likely to be one of the most important processes influencing the dynamics and coevolution of host-parasite interactions, little information is available on the factors that affect it. In most cases, opportunities for parasite dispersal should be closely linked to host biology. Here we use microsatellite genetic markers to compare the population structure and dispersal of two host races of the seabird tick Ixodes uriae at the scale of the North Atlantic. Interestingly, tick populations showed high within-population genetic variation and relatively low population differentiation. However, gene flow at different spatial scales seemed to depend on the host species exploited. The black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) had structured tick populations showing patterns of isolation by distance, whereas tick populations of the Atlantic puffin (Fratercula arctica) were only weakly structured at the largest scale considered. Host-dependent rates of tick dispersal between colonies will alter infestation probabilities and local dynamics and may thus modify the adaptation potential of ticks to local hosts. Moreover, as I. uriae is a vector of the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in both hemispheres, the large-scale movements of birds and the subsequent dispersal of ticks will have important consequences for the dynamics and coevolutionary interactions of this microparasite with its different vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. PMID:12683525

  16. Phylogeny and Historical Biogeography of Asian Pterourus Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae): A Case of Intercontinental Dispersal from North America to East Asia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Wei; Yen, Shen-Horn; Lees, David C; Lu, Chih-Chien; Yang, Ping-Shih; Hsu, Yu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The phylogenetic status of the well-known Asian butterflies often known as Agehana (a species group, often treated as a genus or a subgenus, within Papilio sensu lato) has long remained unresolved. Only two species are included, and one of them especially, Papilio maraho, is not only rare but near-threatened, being monophagous on its vulnerable hostplant, Sassafras randaiense (Lauraceae). Although the natural history and population conservation of "Agehana" has received much attention, the biogeographic origin of this group still remains enigmatic. To clarify these two questions, a total of 86 species representatives within Papilionidae were sampled, and four genes (concatenated length 3842 bp) were used to reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships and historical scenarios. Surprisingly, "Agehana" fell within the American Papilio subgenus Pterourus and not as previously suggested, phylogenetically close to the Asian Papilio subgenus Chilasa. We therefore formally synonymize Agehana with Pterourus. Dating and biogeographic analysis allow us to infer an intercontinental dispersal of an American ancestor of Asian Pterourus in the early Miocene, which was coincident with historical paleo-land bridge connections, resulting in the present "East Asia-America" disjunction distribution. We emphasize that species exchange between East Asia and America seems to be a quite frequent occurrence in butterflies during the Oligocene to Miocene climatic optima. PMID:26484776

  17. Consortium of the 'bichlorophyllous' cyanobacterium Prochlorothrix hollandica and chemoheterotrophic partner bacteria: culture and metagenome-based description.

    PubMed

    Velichko, Natalia; Chernyaeva, Ekaterina; Averina, Svetlana; Gavrilova, Olga; Lapidus, Alla; Pinevich, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    'Bacterial consortium' sensu lato applies to mutualism or syntrophy-based systems consisting of unrelated bacteria. Consortia of cyanobacteria have been preferentially studied on Anabaena epibioses; non-photosynthetic satellites of other filamentous or unicellular cyanobacteria were also considered although structure-functional data are few. At the same time, information about consortia of cyanobacteria which have light-harvesting antennae distinct from standard phycobilisome was missing. In this study, we characterized first, via a polyphasic approach, the cultivable consortium of Prochlorothrix hollandica CCAP 1490/1 (filamentous cyanobacterium which contains chlorophylls a, b/carotenoid/protein complex in the absence of phycobilisome) and non-photosynthetic heterotrophic bacteria. The strains of most abundant satellites were isolated and identified. Consortium metagenome reconstructed via 454-pyro and Illumina sequencing was shown to include, except for P. hollandica, several phylotypes of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The ratio of consortium members was essentially stable irrespective of culture age, and restored after artificially imposed imbalance. The consortium had a complex spatial arrangement as demonstrated by FISH and SEM images of the association, epibiosis, and biofilm type. Preliminary data of metagenome annotation agreed with the hypothesis that satellite bacteria contribute to P. hollandica protection from reactive oxygen species (ROS). PMID:25990300

  18. Label-Free Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Puccinia psidii Uredospores Reveals Differences of Fungal Populations Infecting Eucalyptus and Guava

    PubMed Central

    Bini, Andressa Peres; Regiani, Thais; Franceschini, Lívia Maria; Budzinski, Ilara Gabriela Frasson; Marques, Felipe Garbelini; Labate, Mônica Teresa Veneziano; Guidetti-Gonzalez, Simone; Moon, David Henry; Labate, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Puccinia psidii sensu lato (s.l.) is the causal agent of eucalyptus and guava rust, but it also attacks a wide range of plant species from the myrtle family, resulting in a significant genetic and physiological variability among populations accessed from different hosts. The uredospores are crucial to P. psidii dissemination in the field. Although they are important for the fungal pathogenesis, their molecular characterization has been poorly studied. In this work, we report the first in-depth proteomic analysis of P. psidii s.l. uredospores from two contrasting populations: guava fruits (PpGuava) and eucalyptus leaves (PpEucalyptus). NanoUPLC-MSE was used to generate peptide spectra that were matched to the UniProt Puccinia genera sequences (UniProt database) resulting in the first proteomic analysis of the phytopathogenic fungus P. psidii. Three hundred and fourty proteins were detected and quantified using Label free proteomics. A significant number of unique proteins were found for each sample, others were significantly more or less abundant, according to the fungal populations. In PpGuava population, many proteins correlated with fungal virulence, such as malate dehydrogenase, proteossomes subunits, enolases and others were increased. On the other hand, PpEucalyptus proteins involved in biogenesis, protein folding and translocation were increased, supporting the physiological variability of the fungal populations according to their protein reservoirs and specific host interaction strategies. PMID:26731728

  19. Twelve new species and fifty-three new provincial distribution records of Aleocharinae rove beetles of Saskatchewan, Canada (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae).

    PubMed

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Larson, David J; Labrecque, Myriam; Bourdon, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    One hundred twenty species of aleocharine beetles (Staphylinidae) are recognized in the province of Saskatchewan. Sixty-five new provincial records, including twelve new species and one new North American record, are presented. Oligota inflata (Mannerheim), a Palearctic species, is newly recorded for North America. The following twelve species are described as new to science: Acrotona pseudopygmaea Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Agaricomorpha pulchra Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n. (new genus record for Canadian fauna), Aleochara elisabethae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Dimetrota) larsonae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) pseudopittionii Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) spermathecorum Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (sensu lato) richardsoni Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Brachyusa saskatchewanae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota langori Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota simulans Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota websteri Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., and Oxypoda domestica Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n. Colour images of habitus and black and white images of the median lobe of the aedeagus, spermatheca, and tergite and sternite VIII are presented for all new species, Oligota inflata Mannerheim and Dochmonota rudiventris (Eppelsheim). A new synonymy is established: Tetralina filitarsus Casey, syn. n. = Tetralina helenae Casey, now placed in the genus Brachyusa Mulsant & Rey. PMID:27587977

  20. West Nile Virus in Mosquitoes of Iranian Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Masoomeh; Terenius, Olle; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Motazakker, Morteza; Asgari, Sassan; Dabiri, Farrokh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Mohammadi Bavani, Mulood; Chavshin, Ali Reza

    2015-12-01

    The West Nile virus (WNV) transmission cycle includes a wide range of migratory wetland birds as reservoirs, mosquitoes as biological vectors, and equines and humans as dead-end hosts. Despite the presence of potential vector species, there is no information about the existence of WNV in mosquito vectors in Iran. The Iranian West Azerbaijan Province is located in the northwestern part of Iran and has borders with Turkey, Iraq, Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan. The current study was conducted to identify the wetland mosquitoes of the West Azerbaijan Province and their infection with WNV. In this study, 2143 specimens were collected, comprising 1541 adults and 602 larvae. Six species belonging to four genera were collected and identified: Anopheles maculipennis sensu lato (s.l.), Culex (Cx.) hortensis, Cx. pipiens s.l., Cx. theileri, Culiseta longiareolata, and Aedes (Ae.) (Ochlerotatus) caspius. In total, 45 pools of mosquitoes were examined. Two of the adult pools collected from the same location showed the presence of WNV in Ae. (Och.) caspius, from Sangar, Makoo County, as confirmed by PCR and sequencing. Due to the discovery of WNV in the mosquito population of the region, and the presence of wetlands and significant populations of migratory birds, the health sector should carefully monitor the factors involved in the cycle of this disease. PMID:26565610

  1. Transcriptome analysis of Bacillus thuringiensis spore life, germination and cell outgrowth in a vegetable-based food model.

    PubMed

    Bassi, Daniela; Colla, Francesca; Gazzola, Simona; Puglisi, Edoardo; Delledonne, Massimo; Cocconcelli, Pier Sandro

    2016-05-01

    Toxigenic species belonging to Bacillus cereus sensu lato, including Bacillus thuringiensis, cause foodborne outbreaks thanks to their capacity to survive as spores and to grow in food matrixes. The goal of this work was to assess by means of a genome-wide transcriptional assay, in the food isolate B. thuringiensis UC10070, the gene expression behind the process of spore germination and consequent outgrowth in a vegetable-based food model. Scanning electron microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray microanalysis were applied to select the key steps of B. thuringiensis UC10070 cell cycle to be analyzed with DNA-microarrays. At only 40 min from heat activation, germination started rapidly and in less than two hours spores transformed in active growing cells. A total of 1646 genes were found to be differentially expressed and modulated during the entire B. cereus life cycle in the food model, with most of the significant genes belonging to transport, transcriptional regulation and protein synthesis, cell wall and motility and DNA repair groups. Gene expression studies revealed that toxin-coding genes nheC, cytK and hblC were found to be expressed in vegetative cells growing in the food model. PMID:26742618

  2. Exposure of dogs to spotted fever group rickettsiae in urban sites associated with human rickettsioses in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Moreira-Soto, Andrés; Carranza, Marco V; Taylor, Lizeth; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Hun, Laya; Troyo, Adriana

    2016-07-01

    The zoonotic transmission cycles of Rickettsia rickettsii and other spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae in Latin America have usually been associated with rural or sylvatic environments, although domestic dogs can be implicated in more populated settings. In this study, exposure of dogs to SFG rickettsiae in the Greater Metropolitan Area of Costa Rica was investigated. Dogs from sites associated with human cases and from dog shelters were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using antigen of SFG rickettsiae. Rickettsia spp. were detected in ectoparasites by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total 18.5% (31/168) of dogs associated with human cases and 6.8% (11/161) of dogs in shelters had IgG end titers≥64 to Rickettsia spp. The odds of being seropositive were greater in dogs from areas associated with human cases when compared to shelters (OR: 3.2; 95% C.I: 1.5-5.6). Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s. l.) was present in all sites associated with human cases. Rickettsia felis URRWXCal2 and R. felis-like RF2125 were detected in Ctenocephalides felis, and Rickettsia sp. IbR/CRC in Ixodes boliviensis. Results demonstrate that dogs from the main urban center of Costa Rica have been exposed to SFG rickettsiae, especially in areas with known human infection. Both human and animal health sectors must be aware of possible rickettsial diseases in urban areas, where dogs may also serve as sentinels for human infection. PMID:26995323

  3. Pivotal roles of phyllosphere microorganisms at the interface between plant functioning and atmospheric trace gas dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Bringel, Françoise; Couée, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The phyllosphere, which lato sensu consists of the aerial parts of plants, and therefore primarily, of the set of photosynthetic leaves, is one of the most prevalent microbial habitats on earth. Phyllosphere microbiota are related to original and specific processes at the interface between plants, microorganisms and the atmosphere. Recent –omics studies have opened fascinating opportunities for characterizing the spatio-temporal structure of phyllosphere microbial communities in relation with structural, functional, and ecological properties of host plants, and with physico-chemical properties of the environment, such as climate dynamics and trace gas composition of the surrounding atmosphere. This review will analyze recent advances, especially those resulting from environmental genomics, and how this novel knowledge has revealed the extent of the ecosystemic impact of the phyllosphere at the interface between plants and atmosphere. Highlights • The phyllosphere is one of the most prevalent microbial habitats on earth. • Phyllosphere microbiota colonize extreme, stressful, and changing environments. • Plants, phyllosphere microbiota and the atmosphere present a dynamic continuum. • Phyllosphere microbiota interact with the dynamics of volatile organic compounds and atmospheric trace gasses. PMID:26052316

  4. Costs Associated with Surgically Treated Cases of Abdominal Cystic Echinococcosis: A Single Center's Experience from 2008 to 2014, Pavia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Narra, Roberta; Maestri, Marcello; Budke, Christine M; Tamarozzi, Francesca; Mariconti, Mara; Nicoletti, Giovanni J; Rinaldi, Francesca; Brunetti, Enrico

    2016-08-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a globally distributed zoonosis caused by the Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato species complex. Four approaches are available for treatment of abdominal CE: surgery, percutaneous aspiration, chemotherapy with albendazole, and watch-and-wait. Allocation of patients to these different treatment options mainly depends on the stage of the cystic lesion. However, as available guidelines are not widely followed, surgery is often applied even without the correct indication outside referral centers. This is not only a disadvantage for the patient, but also a waste of money. In this study, we evaluated the cost of the surgical approach for abdominal CE by analyzing hospitalization costs for 14 patients admitted to the General Surgery Ward at the "San Matteo" Hospital Foundation in Pavia, Italy, from 2008 through 2014. We found that the total cost of a single hospitalization, including hospital stay, surgical intervention, personnel, drugs, and administrative costs ranged from €5,874 to 23,077 (median €11,033) per patient. Our findings confirm that surgery can be an expensive option. Therefore, surgical intervention should be limited to cyst types that do not benefit from nonsurgical therapies and appropriate case management can best be accomplished by using a cyst stage-specific approach. PMID:27273641

  5. Assessment of the potential contribution of the highly conserved C-terminal motif (C10) of Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein C in transmission and infectivity.

    PubMed

    Earnhart, Christopher G; Rhodes, DeLacy V L; Smith, Alexis A; Yang, Xiuli; Tegels, Brittney; Carlyon, Jason A; Pal, Utpal; Marconi, Richard T

    2014-03-01

    OspC is produced by all species of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex and is required for infectivity in mammals. To test the hypothesis that the conserved C-terminal motif (C10) of OspC is required for function in vivo, a mutant B. burgdorferi strain (B31::ospCΔC10) was created in which ospC was replaced with an ospC gene lacking the C10 motif. The ability of the mutant to infect mice was investigated using tick transmission and needle inoculation. Infectivity was assessed by cultivation, qRT-PCR, and measurement of IgG antibody responses. B31::ospCΔC10 retained the ability to infect mice by both needle and tick challenge and was competent to survive in ticks after exposure to the blood meal. To determine whether recombinant OspC protein lacking the C-terminal 10 amino acid residues (rOspCΔC10) can bind plasminogen, the only known mammalian-derived ligand for OspC, binding analyses were performed. Deletion of the C10 motif resulted in a statistically significant decrease in plasminogen binding. Although deletion of the C10 motif influenced plasminogen binding, it can be concluded that the C10 motif is not required for OspC to carry out its critical in vivo functions in tick to mouse transmission. PMID:24376161

  6. Comparison of the Venom Peptides and Their Expression in Closely Related Conus Species: Insights into Adaptive Post-speciation Evolution of Conus Exogenomes

    PubMed Central

    Barghi, Neda; Concepcion, Gisela P.; Olivera, Baldomero M.; Lluisma, Arturo O.

    2015-01-01

    Genes that encode products with exogenous targets, which comprise an organism's “exogenome,” typically exhibit high rates of evolution. The genes encoding the venom peptides (conotoxins or conopeptides) in Conus sensu lato exemplify this class of genes. Their rapid diversification has been established and is believed to be linked to the high speciation rate in this genus. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie venom peptide diversification and ultimately emergence of new species remain poorly understood. In this study, the sequences and expression levels of conotoxins from several specimens of two closely related worm-hunting species, Conus tribblei and Conus lenavati, were compared through transcriptome analysis. Majority of the identified putative conopeptides were novel, and their diversity, even in each specimen, was remarkably high suggesting a wide range of prey targets for these species. Comparison of the interspecific expression patterns of conopeptides at the superfamily level resulted in the discovery of both conserved as well as species-specific expression patterns, indicating divergence in the regulatory network affecting conotoxin gene expression. Comparison of the transcriptomes of the individual snails revealed that each specimen produces a distinct set of highly expressed conopeptides, reflecting the capability of individual snails to fine-tune the composition of their venoms. These observations reflect the role of sequence divergence and divergence in the control of expression for specific conopeptides in the evolution of the exogenome and hence venom composition in Conus. PMID:26047846

  7. Nervous system Lyme disease, chronic Lyme disease, and none of the above.

    PubMed

    Halperin, John J

    2016-03-01

    Lyme borreliosis, infection with the tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, causes nervous system involvement in 10-15 % of identified infected individuals. Not unlike the other well-known spirochetosis, syphilis, infection can be protracted, but is microbiologically curable in virtually all patients, regardless of disease duration. Diagnosis relies on 2-tier serologic testing, which after the first 4-6 weeks of infection is both highly sensitive and specific. After this early, acute phase, serologic testing should rely only on IgG reactivity. Nervous system involvement most commonly presents with meningitis, cranial neuritis and radiculoneuritis, but can also present with a broader array of peripheral nervous system manifestations. Central nervous system infection typically elicits a cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis and, often, intrathecal production of specific antibody, findings that should not be expected in disease not affecting the CNS. Treatment with recommended courses of oral or, when necessary, parenteral antibiotics is highly effective. The attribution of chronic, non-specific symptoms to "chronic Lyme disease", in the absence of specific evidence of ongoing B. burgdorferi infection, is inappropriate and unfortunate, leading not only to unneeded treatment and its associated complications, but also to missed opportunities for more appropriate management of patients' often disabling symptoms. PMID:26377699

  8. Toll-like receptor cascade and gene polymorphism in host–pathogen interaction in Lyme disease

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Shusmita; Shering, Maria; Ogden, Nicholas H; Lindsay, Robbin; Badawi, Alaa

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease (LD) risk occurs in North America and Europe where the tick vectors of the causal agent Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato are found. It is associated with local and systemic manifestations, and has persistent posttreatment health complications in some individuals. The innate immune system likely plays a critical role in both host defense against B. burgdorferi and disease severity. Recognition of B. burgdorferi, activation of the innate immune system, production of proinflammatory cytokines, and modulation of the host adaptive responses are all initiated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). A number of Borrelia outer-surface proteins (eg, OspA and OspB) are recognized by TLRs. Specifically, TLR1 and TLR2 were identified as the receptors most relevant to LD. Several functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified in TLR genes, and are associated with varying cytokines types and synthesis levels, altered pathogen recognition, and disruption of the downstream signaling cascade. These single-nucleotide polymorphism-related functional alterations are postulated to be linked to disease development and posttreatment persistent illness. Elucidating the role of TLRs in LD may facilitate a better understanding of disease pathogenesis and can provide an insight into novel therapeutic targets during active disease or postinfection and posttreatment stages. PMID:27330321

  9. [Lyme disease--clinical manifestations and treatment].

    PubMed

    Stock, Ingo

    2016-05-01

    Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis) is a systemic infectious disease that can present in a variety of clinical manifestations. The disease is caused by a group of spirochaetes--Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato or Lyme borrelia--that are transmitted to humans by the bite of Ixodes ticks. Lyme disease is the most common arthropode-borne infectious disease in many European countries including Germany. Early localized infection is typically manifested by an erythema migrans skin lesion, in rarer cases as a borrelial lymphocytoma. The most common early disseminated manifestation is (early) neuroborreliosis. In adults, neuroborreliosis appears typically as meningoradiculoneuritis. Neuroborreliosis in children, however, is typically manifested by meningitis. In addition, multiple erythema migrans lesions and Lyme carditis occur relatively frequently. The most common manifestation oflate Lyme disease is Lyme arthritis. Early manifestations (and usually also late manifestations) of Lyme disease can be treated successfully by application of suitable antibacterial agents. For the treatment of Lyme disease, doxycycline, certain penicillins such as amoxicillin and some cephalosporins (ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefuroxime axetil) are recommended in current guidelines. A major challenge is the treatment of chronic, non-specific disorders, i. e., posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome and "chronic Lyme disease". Prevention of Lyme disease is mainly accomplished by protecting against tick bites. Prophylactic administration of doxycycline after tick bites is generally not recommended in Germany. There is no vaccine available for human beings. PMID:27348896

  10. Cutaneous Borreliosis With a T-Cell-Rich Infiltrate and Simultaneous Involvement by B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia With t(14;18)(q32;q21).

    PubMed

    Kempf, Werner; Kazakov, Dmitry V; Hübscher, Eugen; Tinguely, Marianne

    2015-09-01

    Pseudolymphomatous infiltrates in Borrelia infection of the skin most commonly manifest with dense B-cell infiltrates and plasma cells. Cutaneous infiltrates of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) may accumulate at sites of infection, including Borrelia infection. We report an unusual constellation in a patient with synchronously diagnosed B-CLL and Borrelia infection of skin presenting with a dense dermal T-cell-rich infiltrate masking specific leukemic infiltrates of neoplastic B cells in the context of B-CLL harboring t(14;18)(q32;q21). Specific cutaneous involvement by B-CLL was confirmed by the detection of t(14;18)(q32;q21) (BCL2-IGH) using FISH in neoplastic B cells within the skin infiltrates. Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) DNA detected by nested polymerase chain reaction in the skin biopsy and serological findings proved Borrelia infection. Complete resolution of the cutaneous infiltrates was observed after antibiotic treatment. This case demonstrates that Borrelia infection of the skin may present with dense T-cell-rich infiltrates mimicking cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and masking the synchronous presence of neoplastic B cells in the context of B-CLL. PMID:25171429

  11. Development of a multiplex real-time PCR assay for identification of members of the Anopheles gambiae species complex.

    PubMed

    Bass, Chris; Williamson, Martin S; Field, Linda M

    2008-07-01

    Two high-throughput assays for the identification of members of the Anopheles gambiae sensu lato species complex have recently been reported. These methods, are based on TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping that enables rapid scoring of mosquito DNA samples in real-time PCR reactions. Unfortunately, both assays are restricted in the number of species that they can identify and a combination of the two assays may be required to identify all possible species in certain regions. To overcome this limitation, and thereby further increase throughput while reducing costs, we have developed a new multiplex real-time PCR assay for identifying members of the An. gambiae complex. The new method uses three probes labelled with fluorophores with distinct emission and excitation spectra, allowing simultaneous detection of the two main malaria vectors from the non-vector sibling species, and can be used on single mosquito legs from silica-dried specimens. A genotyping trial of over 450 specimens collected from 13 countries in sub-Saharan Africa showed the multiplex assay to be highly specific and sensitive and it compared well against the two previously reported TaqMan assays and standard allele-specific PCR. PMID:18490000

  12. The role of particular tick developmental stages in the circulation of tick-borne pathogens affecting humans in Central Europe. 2. Tick-borne encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Biernat, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Hard-bodied ticks transmit various pathogens, such as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., and carry numerous other microorganisms with an unknown pathogenic potential. Among them, tick-borne encephalitis virus has great importance. In Central European conditions all developmental stages of ticks participate in the zoonotic cycle of the TBE virus. According to pathogen and tick biology, the roles of larvae, nymphs and adults are different. Larvae and nymphs of Ixodes ricinus ticks are responsible for circulation in rodents and medium sized mammals; adults transfer the infection to ruminants and to next generations via transovarial transmission. All active developmental stages of I. ricinus can play role of the bridge vector, transmitting the infection to humans apart males which don't feed. The late summer peak of human infectivity is caused by the summer peak of I. ricinus nymphs' activity. The Dermacentor reticulatus tick attacks humans infrequently, but does participate in the circulation of the virus in the zoonotic foci; larvae and nymphs of the D. reticulatus ticks are responsible for circulation in rodents, mainly Microtinae, while adults transmit the infection to ruminants. PMID:27262951

  13. Is there such a thing as landscape genetics?

    PubMed

    Dyer, Rodney J

    2015-07-01

    For a scientific discipline to be interdisciplinary, it must satisfy two conditions; it must consist of contributions from at least two existing disciplines, and it must be able to provide insights, through this interaction, that neither progenitor discipline could address. In this study, I examine the complete body of peer-reviewed literature self-identified as landscape genetics (LG) using the statistical approaches of text mining and natural language processing. The goal here was to quantify the kinds of questions being addressed in LG studies, the ways in which questions are evaluated mechanistically, and how they are differentiated from the progenitor disciplines of landscape ecology and population genetics. I then circumscribe the main factions within published LG studies examining the extent to which emergent questions are being addressed and highlighting a deep bifurcation between existing individual- and population-based approaches. I close by providing some suggestions on where theoretical and analytical work is needed if LGs is to serve as a real bridge connecting evolution and ecology sensu lato. PMID:26011166

  14. Phylogeny of Trachylepis sp. (Reptilia) from Turkey inferred from mtDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Güçlü, Ozgür; Candan, Kamil; Kankiliç, Tolga; Kumlutaş, Yusuf; Durmuş, Salih Hakan; Poulakakis, Nikos; Ilgaz, Cetin

    2014-12-01

    The taxonomic status of the species included into the genus Trachylepis in Turkey are doubtful. So far, three morphological species have been attributed to this genus in Turkey; Trachylepis aurata. T. vittata, and T. septemtaeniata. Here, we investigated the taxonomy of the Turkish Trachylepis species by employing phylogenetic and phylogeographic approaches and using mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome b and 12 S rRNA). In total, 45 Trachylepis and 6 Mabuya specimens were used analyzed. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out using Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian Inference (BI) methods. The phylogenetic relationships and the genetic distances retrieved, revealed that the Turkish species, which currently recognized as Trachylepis, are highly diversified, forming a distinct clade that shows closer phylogenetic affinity with the species of the genus Mabuya rather than the other Trachylepis species. In this clade, the three Turkish species are monophyletic with T. vittata to branch off first in late Miocene (10.54 Mya). The other two species (T. septemtaeniata and T. aurata) seem to have sister group relationship that diverged at the end of Messinian Salinity Crisis (5.27 Mya). As a whole, the examination of mtDNA lineages in the Turkish lizards of the genus Trachylepis may contribute substantially to the refining of their taxonomic status, since the three species of Turkey, although monophyletic, represent a distinct radiation that would could probably recognized as a different genus in Mabuya sensu lato. PMID:24004307

  15. Characterization of Bacilli Isolated from the Confined Environments of the Antarctic Concordia Station and the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmery, Sophie; Hu, Xiaomin; Mahillon, Jacques

    2011-05-01

    Bacillus and related genera comprise opportunist and pathogen species that can threaten the health of a crew in confined stations required for long-term missions. In this study, 43 Bacilli from confined environments, that is, the Antarctic Concordia station and the International Space Station, were characterized in terms of virulence and plasmid exchange potentials. No specific virulence feature, such as the production of toxins or unusual antibiotic resistance, was detected. Most of the strains exhibited small or large plasmids, or both, some of which were related to the replicons of the Bacillus anthracis pXO1 and pXO2 virulence elements. One conjugative element, the capacity to mobilize and retromobilize small plasmids, was detected in a Bacillus cereus sensu lato isolate. Six out of 25 tested strains acquired foreign DNA by conjugation. Extremophilic bacteria were identified and exhibited the ability to grow at high pH and salt concentrations or at low temperatures. Finally, the clonal dispersion of an opportunist isolate was demonstrated in the Concordia station. Taken together, these results suggest that the virulence potential of the Bacillus isolates in confined environments tends to be low but genetic transfers could contribute to its capacity to spread.

  16. Biology, epidemiology, and control of Heterobasidion species worldwide.

    PubMed

    Garbelotto, Matteo; Gonthier, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato is a species complex comprising five species that are widely distributed in coniferous forests of the Northern Hemisphere and are each characterized by a distinct host preference. More than 1,700 papers have been published on these fungi in the past four decades, making them perhaps the most widely studied forest fungi. Heterobasidion species are at different levels on the saprotroph-necrotroph gradient, and the same individual can switch from one mode to the other. This offers a unique opportunity to study how genomic structure, gene expression, and genetic trade-offs may all interact with environmental factors to determine the life mode of the organism. The abilities of Heterobasidion spp. to infect stumps as saprotrophs and to spread to neighboring trees as pathogens have resulted in significant damages to timber production in managed forests. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the biology, ecology, evolution, and management of these species and is based on classical and modern studies. PMID:23642002

  17. Eruption-controlled epiclastic sedimentation in a Devonian trench-slope basin: Evidence from sandstone petrofacies, Klamath Mountains, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wallin, E.T.; Trabert, D.W. . Dept. of Geoscience)

    1994-04-01

    The Devonian Gazelle Formation comprises sparsely fossiliferous shale, siltstone, siliceous mudstone, volcaniclastic sandstone, and conglomerate whose cumulative thickness is at least 1.25 km. Two end-member sand compositions combined locally to form a third mixed'' petrofacies. The volcaniclastic petrofacies was derived from an undissected magmatic arc, whereas the chert-mudrock petrofacies reflects derivation from melange of the underlying accretionary prism. The stratigraphically restricted mixed petrofacies is compositionally discrete and records thorough mixing of these two compositional end members. Data from sandstone petrography are consistent with independent geologic evidence indicating that the Gazelle Formation represents the fill of a Devonian trench-slope basin that formed above an east-dipping subduction zone. The authors interpretation of the Balaklala Rhyolite as the source of the volcaniclastic petrofacies requires proximity of the Yreka and Eastern Klamath terranes during the Early Devonian, and indicates that the eastern Klamath province has behaved as a single crustal block (sensu lato) ever since. Field study and petrographic analysis indicate that the delivery of coarse terrigenous detritus to the basin was controlled principally by episodic eruptions of rhyolitic tephra in the arc source and also by one discernible episode of change in relative sea level. This study indicates that caution must be used when invoking changes in relative sea level to explain the stratigraphic distribution of epiclastic turbidites in island-arc settings.

  18. Prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis in Central Mozambique from 2002 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Specht, E J K

    2008-03-01

    The study is the result of analyzing 16895 blood smears of cattle collected at 180 sites in the provinces of Manica, Sofala, Zambézia and Tete in Mozambique. Of the blood smears 73.9% were from Manica, 11.8% from Tete, 8.5% from Sofala and 5.8% from Zambézia; 75.6% of these were collected from smallholder cattle. Infections with trypanosomes were highest in smallholder cattle from Sofala Province with 36.8% of the 872 blood smears examined positive for trypanosomes, and lowest in cattle of commercial farmers in Manica Province with only 6.2% of 2252 blood smears being positive. Trypanosoma congolense was the predominant species, followed by Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma brucei sensu lato. Trypanosoma brucei, which also infects humans, was more frequent in the districts of Buzi, Mutarara and Morrumbala with 15.1%, 10.5% and 9.8% of all examined cattle in 2005 being infected with it, respectively. The results show a significant increase in the infection rate with trypanosomes compared with results obtained in previous years by the Regional Veterinary Laboratory in Manica Province and by the Regional Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Control Programme in Zambézia, Tete and Sofala provinces. PMID:18575067

  19. Cordyceps s.l. (Ascomycetes) Species Used as Medicinal Mushrooms are Closely Related with Higher Ability to Produce Cordycepin.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Huang, I-Ching; Chen, Tzong-Yueh

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps s.l. (sensu lato) species have been used as herbal medicines; one of their main constituents is cordycepin. As genome sequencing techniques have become more cost-effective and more popular, more entomogenous fungal genomes have been sequenced and published. Here, we constructed a phylogenetic tree based on 18S rRNA sequences from Cordyceps species and analyzed the copy number of the key enzymes involved in biosynthesis of cordycepin from related fungal genomes that have been published. The sequences of the 18S rRNA gene were examined, and seven single nucleotides were found that could represent the evolutionary history of Cordyceps s.l. and which perfectly fit the phylogenetic tree. Their evolution was influenced mainly by host factors, rather than geographical location. The Cordyceps s.l. species that are used as herbal medicines are closely related in the phylogenetic tree. The major species for Chinese pharmaceutical markets, such as C. militaris and C. sinensis, have higher copy numbers of 5'-nucleotidase and adenylate kinase, and ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs), respectively. Moreover, absence of an RNR inhibitor may cause cordycepin accumulation. Presence of an RNR inhibitor may lead to lower cordycepin levels in fungal species in which no medicinal applications have been described. Cordycepin is not only an important secondary metabolite that is used as an herbal medicine, but it also has significance for understanding the evolution of these entomogenous species. PMID:26853963

  20. Ophiocordyceps barnesii and its relationship to other melolonthid pathogens with dark stromata.

    PubMed

    Luangsa-Ard, J Jennifer; Ridkaew, Rungpet; Mongkolsamrit, Suchada; Tasanathai, Kanoksri; Hywel-Jones, Nigel L

    2010-09-01

    A hypocrealean Coleoptera pathogen with characteristic part-spores, collected from Khao Yai National Park and Kaeng Krachan National Park in Thailand, is reported. The overall morphology was similar to Cordyceps barnesii, which is known from Sri Lanka, with ascospores disarticulating into four unusually long part-spores that were 30-40 μm long. This disarticulation and part-spore size is, so far, unique within Cordyceps sensu lato. The Thai material was identified with C. barnesii and its placement in the genus Ophiocordyceps was confirmed. Multigene analyses based on the ribosomal small subunit, RPB1 and RPB2 genes revealed the close relationship of the Thai material to Ophiocordyceps konnoana as well as O. ravenelii, O. superficialis, and O. nigrella (all of which have significantly smaller part-spores). However, Ophiocordyceps barnesii and these related species were all characterised by dark-brown to purplish stromata and an affinity for melolonthid larval hosts. No anamorph was seen in the field and was not produced in the slow-growing cultures. PMID:20943183

  1. Lyme Borreliosis and Skin

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, Biju; Chatterjee, Manas

    2013-01-01

    Lyme disease is a multisystem illness which is caused by the strains of spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and transmitted by the tick, Ixodes. Though very commonly reported from the temperate regions of the world, the incidence has increased worldwide due to increasing travel and changing habitats of the vector. Few cases have been reported from the Indian subcontinent too. Skin manifestations are the earliest to occur, and diagnosing these lesions followed by appropriate treatment, can prevent complications of the disease, which are mainly neurological. The three main dermatological manifestations are erythema chronicum migrans, borrelial lymphocytoma and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. Many other dermatological conditions including morphea, lichen sclerosus and lately B cell lymphoma, have been attributed to the disease. Immunofluorescence and polymerase reaction tests have been developed to overcome the problems for diagnosis. Culture methods are also used for diagnosis. Treatment with Doxycycline is the mainstay of management, though prevention is of utmost importance. Vaccines against the condition are still not very successful. Hence, the importance of recognising the cutaneous manifestations early, to prevent systemic complications which can occur if left untreated, can be understood. This review highlights the cutaneous manifestations of Lyme borreliosis and its management. PMID:23723463

  2. [Diseases produced by Borrelia].

    PubMed

    Escudero-Nieto, Raquel; Guerrero-Espejo, Antonio

    2005-04-01

    Lyme borreliosis, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, is a multi-organ infection with dermatological, rheumatological, neurological, and cardiac manifestations. The main characteristic is a skin lesion, named erythema migrans. Relapsing fever, caused by numerous species of Borrelia, is characterized by a periodic cycle of acute and afebrile episodes. The serological diagnosis of these infections has limited value in sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. Lyme borreliosis is usually diagnosed by recognition of a characteristic clinical picture with serological confirmation, and the diagnosis of relapsing fever relies on direct observation of spirochetes in peripherical blood. The elected treatment is almost always tetracycline for the young or for adults but not for pregnant women, although betalactamic (such as penicillin or 3rd generation cephalosporin for the central nervous system) or macrolides are indicated in several situations. The prognosis, with adequate treatment, is good. In the majority of Spanish regions, due to the low incidence of these diseases, the prophylactic antimicrobial treatment aft