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Sample records for seoul korea 2003-2008

  1. Wood Decay Fungi in South Korea: Polypores from Seoul

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yeongseon; Jang, Seokyoon; Lee, Jaejung; Lee, Hwanhwi; Lee, Hanbyul; Lee, Young Min; Hong, Joo-Hyun; Min, Mihee; Lim, Young Woon; Kim, Changmu

    2014-01-01

    In Seoul, a majority of plant communities have undergone significant changes over the last few decades; however, how wood decay fungi have responded and adapted to the changes in vegetation remains unknown. Through an ongoing investigation of Korean indigenous fungi, ca. 300 specimens with poroid basidiocarp were collected in Seoul during 2008~2012. Morphological examination and molecular analysis using the internal transcribed spacer and nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA region sequences helped identify 38 species belonging to 28 genera, 10 families, and 5 orders in this area. Among them, three polypores, Abundisporus pubertatis, Coriolopsis strumosa, and Perenniporia maackiae were found to be new to South Korea. PMID:25071382

  2. The impact of biomass burning in North Korea to the air quality in Seoul, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, I.; Lee, J.; Kim, Y.

    2011-12-01

    South Korea is contiguous to China, Japan and North Koreas, so air pollutants transported from outside South Korea should be investigated. Nevertheless, few researches have dealt with the influences of air pollutants from North Korea to other areas. The objectives of this study are to understand the influences of air pollutants' emission from North Korea to South Korea, especially Seoul, using the chemical mass balance (CMB) model and the backward trajectory analysis. CMB model were applied to analyze the source apportionment of PAHs at Seoul between 2006 and 2007. To understand the transport of air pollutants emitted from North Korea, the backward trajectories in sampling days were classified to four cases depending on which area the trajectories predominantly passed through. Based on the contribution of biomass burning calculated by CMB and the trajectories, the influence of air pollutants from North Korea to Seoul is quantified. In order to strengthen the uncertainty of CMB result, the trend of levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-b-D-glucopyranose) concentration at Seoul is also discussed depending on the classification of trajectories.

  3. The Climate Analysis Seoul (CAS) simulation for thermal characteristics in different urban locations in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Gon; Lee, Jisu; Kim, Baek-Jo

    2016-04-01

    The Climate Analysis Seoul (CAS) being tailored for simulating detailed climate was applied to investigate the temperature distribution around the Seonjeongneung Royal Tombs that includes forest and grassland and in the surrounding high-density buildings in Seoul, Korea for a hot summer days of August 6-7, 2015. In this study, we used the digitalized topographical and land-use data of the 5 m resolution and wind and air temperature fields of 100 m resolution produced by the numerical model MetPhoMod (MPM), part of the CAS for the area of interest with an area of 25,000,000 m2. The difference of the temperatures compared with the representative meteorological station of Seoul was analyzed by considering the presence or absence of the Seonjeongneung Royal Tombs. For the case of heat wave issued in Seoul from August 6th, 06 LST to 7th, 18 LST, 2015, the simulation results presented that averaged temperatures in the green area were 2 °C lower than the one of the standard weather station, whereas they showed 1.5 °C higher when the green area was replaced with the building area. From this simulation result, we can suggest that the green area has a temperature reduction effect of 1-3 °C and its influence can be extended up to 150 m from the boundary of the green area. This fact reconfirms that the urban green area generates a micro-scale cool-island effect and this local phenomenon can reduce heat stress produced by surplus thermal sources of the surrounding buildings and paved roads during the hot summer days. Key words: Climate Analysis Seoul (CAS), Urban Green Area, Cool-Island Effect

  4. Evaluation of WRF-Urban Canopy Model over Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byon, J.; Seo, B.; Choi, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Numerical models with a fine grid can be a useful tool for investigation of urban forecast which provide input to air dispersion and pollution model. Simulation for urban forecast may be conducted using CFD model or mesoscale model. A small domain of the CFD model limits for the study of larger scale forcing to the urban environment. Improvement of computational environment and physics in mesoscale model allows urban scale prediction with a larger domain using mososcale model. It is implemented the parameterization of urban effect in the WRF mesoscale model which is developed in NCAR. NCAR coupled an urban canopy model (UCM) with Noah land surface model in the WRF model to realistically represent the urban by high resolution of land-use and building information. This study is focus on evaluation of WRF-UCM over the urban region of Seoul, South Korea during July 1-10 and October 6-12, 2007. WRF-UCM is conducted with 1km resolution and a 10km WRF model result which is forecasted at Korea Meteorological Administration numerical weather prediction center employed as initial and boundary condition. The urban land-use is remapped using data from Korean Ministry of Environment(KME). The KME land-use data is retrieved from Landsat satellite which has a 30-m resolution. The air temperature of WRF model is lower than observation, while wind speed increase in the model forecast. The temperature from the WRF-UCM is higher than that from the standard WRF over Seoul. The coupled WRF-UCM represents increase of urban heat which is caused from urban effects such as anthropogenic heat and building, etc. The performance of the WRF-UCM results over Seoul, South Korea would be presented in the conference. The WRF-UCM results will contribute to the study of urban heat and air flow in the city.

  5. Source apportionment of PM2.5 in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, J.-B.; Hopke, P. K.; Yi, S.-M.

    2009-07-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected at a centrally located urban monitoring site in Seoul, Korea, every third day from March 2003 to December 2006 and analyzed for their chemical constituents. Sources were identified using positive matrix factorization (PMF). A total of 393 samples were obtained during the sampling period, and 20 chemical species were measured. Nine PM2.5 source categories were identified providing physically realistic profiles and interesting insights into the source contributions to the ambient mass concentrations. The major contributors of PM2.5 were secondary nitrate (20.9%), secondary sulfate (20.5%), gasoline-fueled vehicles (17.2%), and biomass burning (12.1%), with lesser contributions from diesel emissions (8.1%), soil (7.4%), industry (6.7%), road salt and two-stroke vehicles (5.1%), and aged sea salt (2.2%). PM2.5 levels in Seoul were influenced by both local urban activities and regional-scale transport. Conditional probability function (CPF) results identified possible source directions of local sources such as motor vehicles (gasoline and diesel), industry, and road salt. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) results showed that possible source areas contributing to the elevated secondary particle concentrations (sulfate and nitrate) in Seoul to be the major industrial areas in China.

  6. Source apportionment of PM2.5 in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, J.-B.; Hopke, P. K.; Yi, S.-M.

    2008-12-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected at a centrally located urban monitoring site in Seoul, Korea, every third day from March 2003 to December 2006 and analyzed for their chemical constituents. Sources were identified using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). A total of 393 samples were obtained during the sampling period, and 20 chemical species were measured. Nine PM2.5 sources were identified providing physically realistic profiles and interesting insights into the source contributions to the ambient mass concentrations. The major sources of PM2.5 were secondary nitrate (20%), secondary sulfate (20%), gasoline-fueled vehicles (17%), and biomass burning (12%), with lesser contributions from diesel emissions (8%), soil (7%), industry (6%), road salt and two-stroke engine (5%), and aged sea salt (2%). PM2.5 levels in Seoul were influenced by both local urban activities and regional-scale transport. Conditional Probability Function (CPF) results identified possible source directions of local sources such as motor vehicles (gasoline and diesel), industry, and road salt. Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) results showed that possible source areas contributing to the elevated secondary particle concentrations (sulfate and nitrate) in Seoul to be the major industrial areas in China.

  7. Air pollution and daily mortality in Seoul and Ulsan, Korea.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J T; Shin, D; Chung, Y

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between air pollution and daily mortality for the period 1991-1995 was examined in two Korean cities, Seoul and Ulsan. The observed concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2; mean = 28.7 ppb), ozone (O3; mean = 29.2 ppb), and total suspended particulates (TSP; mean = 82.3 microg/m3) during the study period were at levels below Korea's current ambient air quality standards. Daily death counts were regressed separately in the two cities, using Poisson regression on SO2, O3, and/or TSP controlling for variability in the weather and seasons. When considered singly in Poisson regression models controlling for seasonal variations and weather conditions, the nonaccidental mortality associated with a 50-ppb increment in a 3-day moving average of SO2 concentrations, including the concurrent day and the preceding 2 days, was 1.078 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.057-1.099] for Seoul and 1.051 (CI, 0.991-1.115) for Ulsan. The rate ratio was 1.051 (CI, 1.031-1.072) in Seoul and 0.999 (CI, 0. 961-1.039) in Ulsan per 100 microg/m3 for TSP, and 1.015 (CI, 1. 005-1.025) in Seoul and 1.020 (0.889-1.170) in Ulsan per 50 ppb for 1-hr maximum O3. When TSP was considered simultaneously with other pollutants, the TSP association was no longer significant. We observed independent pollution effects on daily mortality even after using various approaches to control for either weather or seasonal variables in the regression model. This study demonstrated increased mortality associated with air pollution at both SO2 and O3 levels below the current World Health Organization recommendations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9924011

  8. Vulnerability to temperature-related mortality in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Anderson, G. Brooke; Bell, Michelle L.

    2011-07-01

    Studies indicate that the mortality effects of temperature may vary by population and region, although little is known about the vulnerability of subgroups to these risks in Korea. This study examined the relationship between temperature and cause-specific mortality for Seoul, Korea, for the period 2000-7, including whether some subgroups are particularly vulnerable with respect to sex, age, education and place of death. The authors applied time-series models allowing nonlinear relationships for heat- and cold-related mortality, and generated exposure-response curves. Both high and low ambient temperatures were associated with increased risk for daily mortality. Mortality risk was 10.2% (95% confidence interval 7.43, 13.0%) higher at the 90th percentile of daily mean temperatures (25 °C) compared to the 50th percentile (15 °C). Mortality risk was 12.2% (3.69, 21.3%) comparing the 10th (-1 °C) and 50th percentiles of temperature. Cardiovascular deaths showed a higher risk to cold, whereas respiratory deaths showed a higher risk to heat effect, although the differences were not statistically significant. Susceptible populations were identified such as females, the elderly, those with no education, and deaths occurring outside of a hospital for heat- and cold-related total mortality. Our findings provide supportive evidence of a temperature-mortality relationship in Korea and indicate that some subpopulations are particularly vulnerable.

  9. Vulnerability to temperature-related mortality in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Anderson, G Brooke; Bell, Michelle L

    2012-01-01

    Studies indicate that the mortality effects of temperature may vary by population and region, although little is known about the vulnerability of subgroups to these risks in Korea. This study examined the relationship between temperature and cause-specific mortality for Seoul, Korea, for the period 2000–7, including whether some subgroups are particularly vulnerable with respect to sex, age, education and place of death. The authors applied time-series models allowing nonlinear relationships for heat- and cold-related mortality, and generated exposure–response curves. Both high and low ambient temperatures were associated with increased risk for daily mortality. Mortality risk was 10.2% (95% confidence interval 7.43, 13.0%) higher at the 90th percentile of daily mean temperatures (25 °C) compared to the 50th percentile (15 °C). Mortality risk was 12.2% (3.69, 21.3%) comparing the 10th (−1 °C) and 50th percentiles of temperature. Cardiovascular deaths showed a higher risk to cold, whereas respiratory deaths showed a higher risk to heat effect, although the differences were not statistically significant. Susceptible populations were identified such as females, the elderly, those with no education, and deaths occurring outside of a hospital for heat- and cold-related total mortality. Our findings provide supportive evidence of a temperature–mortality relationship in Korea and indicate that some subpopulations are particularly vulnerable. PMID:23335945

  10. EZ lidar dust transit phenomena observations in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lolli, S.; Sauvage, L.; Loaec, S.

    2009-09-01

    Duststorms and sandstorms regularly devastate Northeast Asia and cause considerable damage to transportation system and public health; further, these events are conceived to be one of the very important indices for estimating the global warming and desertification. Previously, yellow sand events were considered natural phenomena that originate in deserts and arid areas. However, the greater scale and frequency of these events in recent years are considered to be the result of human activities such as overgrazing and over-cultivation. Japan, Korea, Cina and Mongolia are directly concerned to prevent and control these storms and have been able to some extent to provide forecasts and early warnings. In this framework, to improve the accuracy of forecasting , a compact and rugged eye safe lidar, the EZ LIDATM, developed together by Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et l'Environnement (LSCE) (CEA-CNRS) and LEOSPHERE, France) to study and investigate structural and optical properties of clouds and aerosols, thanks to the strong know-how of CEA and CNRS in the field of air quality measurements and cloud observation and analysis, was deployed in Seoul, Korea in order to detect and study yellow sand events, thanks to its depolarization channel and scan capabilities. The preliminary results, showed in this paper, of this measurement campaign put in evidence that EZ Lidar, for its capabilities of operating unattended day and night under each atmospheric condition, is mature to be deployed in a global network to study long-range transport, crucial in the forecasting model.

  11. Properties of 21 Urban Agricultural Soils in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. W.

    2012-04-01

    The number of urban agriculture practitioners has been increasing rapidly in Korea like many other urbanized countries recently. The Korean government enacted a law for promoting urban agriculture in 2011. However, urban soil environment can be potential sources of many toxic contaminants including heavy metals making people concern about the safety of the agricultural products from the urban agriculture. The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and plant by overuse of compost from animal waste was one of the raised concerns. This study was carried out to find out properties and total and phytoavailable (1.0 M NH4NO3 extractable) contents of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) in 21 urban agricultural soils in Seoul. On the average, the investigated urban soils showed pH1:5 6.89, EC1:5 0.14 dS m-1, organic mater 2.22%, available P2O5 139 mg kg-1, cation exchange capacity (CEC) 11.36 cmolc kg-1 and total nitrogen 0.15%. The average exchangeable-Ca, -Mg, -K and -Na of the 21 samples were 6.71, 1.44, 1.06 and 0.30 cmol+ kg-1, respectively. Total heavy metal concentrations (Cd 0.97-3.17 mg kg-1, average 1.89 mg kg-1; Pb 8.10-46.27 mg kg-1, average 19.96 mg kg-1; Cu 8.97-133.40 mg kg-1, average 38.37 mg kg-1; and Zn 38.97-180.06 mg kg-1, average 97.73 mg kg-1) in urban agricultural soils were lower than those of the warning standard in the area 1 according to the Soil Environmental Conservation Act of Korea. Phytoavailable-Cu, -Pb, and -Zn concentrations of the samples showed 0.02-0.28, N.D-0.09 and 0.01-0.43 mg kg-1, respectively. Phytoavailable-Cd was not detected. The average phytoavailable-Cu concentration from this study was similar to that from the previous phytoavailable-Cu of the highly contaminated soils from nearby abandoned mines, which might be resulted from overuse of compost from animal waste. Results showed a necessity of long-term monitoring of soils for sustainable urban agriculture in Korea.

  12. 76 FR 51350 - Aerospace Executive Service Trade Mission (AESTM) to Seoul, Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... participants will also be briefed by key local industry players and Joint U.S. Military Affairs Group--Korea... exports growing 51% from 2004 and 2010. With the world's sixth largest military, and continued spending... military sectors of the international aerospace and ground support industry, Seoul ADEX is the...

  13. Calculated Hydraulic Conductivity of Soil in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D.

    2001-12-01

    Because of growing evidence and public concern that the quality of the subsurface environment is being adversely affected by industrial, municipal and agricultural activities, environmental issue relating the unsaturated zone has dramatically increased in recent years. Especially, advection and dispersion mechanism of contaminants should be studied first for accurate prediction and optimal conservation of environmental system in metropolitan area. In this study, physical properties and water retention characteristics of soil samples collected through Seoul area were obtained as primary input data for evaluating unsaturated hydraulic conductivities of the samples. Comparing results of grain size analyses of 11 soil samples with detailed soil map, loam may covers about 50.83% of Seoul area and sandy loam, silt loam, fine sandy loam and silt clay loam account for about 20.9%, 10.18%, 7.93% and 0.86%, respectively. As physical properties of the samples, porosity, wet, saturate and dry densities of 11 soil samples ranged 0.33-0.51, 1.68-2.01, 1.81-2.07, and 1.37-1.78, respectively. In addition, soil water characteristic function of 11 soil samples showing the relation between volumetric moisture content of soil and hydraulic head were obtained. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivities of the samples were also calculated on the basis of theoretical method which predict the conductivity more easily from measured soil water retention data. The calculated conductivities of the samples ranged 1.08-101.44 cm/sec.

  14. Comparison of Asian aerosol's radiative effect in Seoul and Gosan, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, S.; Lee, S.; Choi, I.

    2007-05-01

    Seasonal variations of aerosol optical properties as well as their direct radiative effects were investigated using the ground-based aerosol measurements and an optical model calculation in Seoul, a mega city, and Gosan, a background rural island, Korea. From the yearly AERONET dataset, our analysis of seasonal and monthly cycle of aerosol optical depth (AOD) shows that AODs in Seoul are higher than those in Gosan because of the higher concentrations of water soluble ions in Seoul. Especially, seasonal AOD differences of both sites becomes maximum in Summer due to the synoptic meteorological patterns and hygroscopic growth of anthropogenic aerosols. OPAC (Optical Properties of Aerosol and Clouds) model and Fu-Liou RTM (Radiative Transfer Model) were employed for the evaluation of aerosol direct radiative forcing (ADRF) at surface and top of the atmosphere (TOA). A method of determining the values of aerosol optical properties as input parameters was utilized for the ADRF calculation from the AERONET dataset. In each season, the mean ADRF in Seoul turned out to be larger than that of Gosan. The ADRF in Gosan from RTM calculation was compared with the ground-based radiation measurements during the ACE-Asia IOP in 2001 and the ABC-EAREX2005 IOP in 2005. In addition, ADRF contributions by chemical compositions were compared in this study between Seoul and Gosan.

  15. Radon exposure assessment for underground workers: a case of Seoul Subway Police officers in Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, Myeong Han; Chang, Byung-Uck; Kim, Yongjae; Cho, Kun-Woo

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study is the systematic and individual assessment of the annual effective dose due to inhaled radon for the Seoul Subway Police officers, Korea. The annual average radon concentrations were found to be in the range of 18.9-114 Bq·m(-3) in their workplaces. The total annual effective doses which may likely to be received on duty were assessed to be in the range of 0.41-1.64 mSv·y(-1). These were well below the recommended action level 10 mSv·y(-1) by ICRP. However, the effective doses were higher than subway station staff in Seoul, Korea. PMID:21242168

  16. Air Shower Events of High-Energy Cosmic Rays Measured at Seoul, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Wooram; Shin, Jae-Ik; Kim, Hongki; Lee, Seulgi; Lim, Sunin; Nam, Sinwoo; Yang, Jongmann; Cheon, Byunggu; Bang, Hyungchan; Kwon, Youngjoon

    2011-09-01

    The COsmic ray Research and Education Array (COREA) collaboration has installed an array of six detector stations at two high schools in and near Seoul, Korea for measurement of air-shower events from high-energy cosmic rays. Three stations are installed at each site, where each station consists of four plastic scintillation detectors covering an area of 2m2. In this presentation, we report the currenst status of the COREA project, describing the experimental equipment and measurement of coincident events.

  17. Full PACS installation in Seoul National University Hospital, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, HyunWoo; Kim, DongOok; Ahn, JinYoung; Lee, DongHyuk; Lee, JinHyung; Park, HeeJung; Kim, JongHyo; Han, Jungu

    2002-05-01

    Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) is composed of two buildings and has more than 1500 beds for patients needing hospitalization. Marotech has provided full PACS to SNUH with total HIS Integration in this year. In this paper, the installation process and management experience for seven months will be presented. At SNUH, 1643.8 exams were held per day during seven month after PACS installation. It is about 40 Gigabytes per day. Two acquisition servers (ACQ 1, 2), two database servers (DB 1, 2), two storage servers (LTA, network attached storage-NAS), one backup server (DLT) totally 8 servers were installed. SNUH has 11 CRs, 4 CTs, 3 MRIs, 9 NMs, 4 RFs, 20 USs, 7 ESs, 4 SCs, 5 XAs, and 5 Film Ditigers. All these modalities were integrated with PACS. DICOM 3.0 standard was conformed for images. DICOM Gateways were installed for modalities that do not support DICOM. The doctor can query and view Endoscopes, pathologic and anatomic data as well as radiological data. All the past five years exams is accessed less than 10 Seconds via on-line. Through the cooperation with SNUH and Marotech, HIS and PACS work together in stable state. These systems were integrated with HL7 standards and IHE.

  18. Urbanization and the groundwater budget, metropolitan Seoul area, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yoon-Young; Lee, Kang-Kun; Sung, Ig Hwan

    2001-07-01

    The city of Seoul is home to more than 10 million people in an area of 605 km2. Groundwater is ed for public water supply and industrial use, and to drain underground facilities and construction sites. Though most tap water is supplied from the Han River, the quantity and quality of groundwater is of great concern to Seoul's citizens, because the use of groundwater for drinking water is continuously increasing. This study identifies the major factors affecting the urban water budget and quality of groundwater in the Seoul area and estimates the urban water budget. These factors include leakage from the municipal water-supply system and sewer systems, precipitation infiltration, water-level fluctuations of the Han River, the subway pumping system, and domestic pumping. The balance between groundwater recharge and discharge is near equilibrium. However, the quality of groundwater and ability to control contaminant fluxes are impeded by sewage infiltration, abandoned landfills, waste dumps, and abandoned wells. Résumé. La ville de Séoul possède une population de plus de 10 millions d'habitants, pour une superficie de 605 km2. Les eaux souterraines sont pompées pour l'eau potable et pour les usages industriels, ainsi que pour drainer les équipements souterrains et les sites en construction. Bien que l'essentiel de l'eau potable provienne de la rivière Han, la quantité et la qualité de l'eau souterraine présentent un grand intérêt pour les habitants de Séoul, parce qu'on utilise de plus en plus l'eau souterraine pour l'eau potable. Cette étude identifie les facteurs principaux qui affectent la qualité de l'eau souterraine dans la région de Séoul et fait l'estimation du bilan d'eau urbaine. Les principaux facteurs affectant le bilan d'eau urbaine et la qualité de l'eau souterraine sont les fuites du réseau d'adduction et du réseau d'égouts, l'infiltration des eaux de précipitation, les fluctuations du niveau de la rivière Han, le réseau de pompage

  19. Source apportionment of the particulate PAHs at Seoul, Korea: impact of long range transport to a megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. Y.; Kim, Y. P.

    2007-07-01

    Northeast Asia including China, Korea, and Japan is one of the world's largest fossil fuel consumption regions. Seoul, Korea, is a megacity in Northeast Asia. Its emissions of air pollutants can affect the region, and in turn it is also affected by regional emissions. To understand the extent of these influences, major sources of ambient particulate PAHs in Seoul were identified and quantified based on measurements made between August 2002 and December 2003. The chemical mass balance (CMB) model was applied. Seven major emission sources were identified based on the emission data in Seoul and Northeast Asia: Gasoline and diesel vehicles, residential coal use, coke ovens, coal power plants, biomass burning, and natural gas (NG) combustion. The major sources of particulate PAHs in Seoul during the whole measurement period were gasoline and diesel vehicles, together accounted for 31% of the measured particulate PAHs levels. However, the source contributions showed distinct daily and seasonal variations. High contributions of biomass burning and coal (residential and coke oven) were observed in fall and winter, accounting for 63% and 82% of the total concentration of PAHs, respectively. Since these sources were not strong in and around Seoul, they are likely to be related to transport from outside of Seoul, from China and/or North Korea. This implies that the air quality in a mega-city such as Seoul can be influenced by the long range transport of air pollutants such as PAHs.

  20. Source apportionment of the particulate PAHs at Seoul, Korea: impact of long range transport to a megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. Y.; Kim, Y. P.

    2007-01-01

    Northeast Asia including China, Korea, and Japan is one of the world's largest fossil fuel consumption regions. Seoul is a megacity in Northeast Asia and its emissions of air pollutants can affect the region and is also affected by the regional emissions. To understand the degree of this relationship, major sources of ambient particulate PAHs at Seoul, Korea were identified and quantified based on the measurement data between August 2002 and December 2003. The chemical mass balance (CMB) model was applied. Seven major emission sources were identified based on the emission data in Seoul and Northeast Asia: Gasoline and diesel vehicles, coal residential, coke oven, coal power plant, biomass burning, natural gas (NG) combustion. The major source of particulate PAHs at Seoul on the whole measurement period was gasoline and diesel vehicles, accounted for 31% of the measured particulate PAHs levels. However, the source contributions showed distinct seasonal variations. High contributions of biomass burning and coal (residential and coke oven) were shown in fall and winter accounted for 63% and 82% of the total PAHs concentration, respectively. Since these sources were not strong in and around Seoul, these might be related to transport from outside of Seoul, from China and/or North Korea. It implies that the air quality in the large urban city such as Seoul can be influenced by the long range transport of air pollutants such as PAHs.

  1. Assessment of airborne environmental bacteria and related factors in 25 underground railway stations in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Yoon, Chung Sik; Ryu, Kyong Nam; Paik, Samuel Y.; Cho, Jun Ho

    2010-05-01

    This study assessed bacterial concentrations in indoor air at 25 underground railway stations in Seoul, Korea, and investigated various related factors including the presence of platform screen doors (PSD), depth of the station, year of construction, temperature, relative humidity, and number of passengers. A total of 72 aerosol samples were collected from all the stations. Concentrations of total airborne bacteria (TAB) ranged from not detected (ND) to 4997 CFU m -3, with an overall geometric mean (GM) of 191 CFU m -3. Airborne bacteria were detected at 23 stations (92%) and Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) were detected at two stations (8%). TAB concentrations of four stations (16%) exceeded 800 CFU m -3, the Korea indoor bio-aerosol guideline. The results of the study showed that TAB concentrations at the stations without PSD showed higher TAB concentrations than those with PSD, though not at statistically significant levels. TAB concentrations of deeper stations revealed significantly higher levels than those of shallower stations. Based on this study, it is recommended that mitigation measures be applied to improve the indoor air quality (IAQ) of underground railway stations in Seoul, with focused attention on deeper stations.

  2. First molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in shelter dogs in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sukyee; Lee, Seung-Hun; VanBik, Dorene; Kim, Neung-Hee; Kim, Kyoo-Tae; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Rhee, Man Hee; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kwak, Dongmi

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the status of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection was assessed in shelter dogs in Seoul, Korea, with PCR and phylogenetic analyses. Nested PCR on 1058 collected blood samples revealed only one A. phagocytophilum positive sample (female, age <1year, mixed breed, collected from the north of the Han River). The genetic variability of A. phagocytophilum was evaluated by genotyping, using the 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp2 gene sequences of the positive sample. BLASTn analysis revealed that the 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp2 genes had 99.6%, 99.9%, and 100% identity with the following sequences deposited in GenBank: a cat 16S rRNA sequence from Korea (KR021166), a rat groEL sequence from Korea (KT220194), and a water deer msp2 sequence from Korea (HM752099), respectively. Phylogenetic analyses classified the groEL gene into two distinct groups (serine and alanine), whereas the msp2 gene showed a general classification into two groups (USA and Europe) that were further subgrouped according to region. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to describe the molecular diagnosis of A. phagocytophilum in dogs reared in Korea. In addition, the high genetic identity of the 16S rRNA and groEL sequences between humans and dogs from the same region suggests a possible epidemiological relation. Given the conditions of climate change, tick ecology, and recent incidence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis in Korea, the findings of this study underscore the need to establish appropriate control programs for tick-borne diseases in Korea. PMID:27130537

  3. Analysis of Land Surface Temperature Retrieved from High Resolution Satellites in Seoul, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jee, Joon-Bum; Choi, Young-Jean

    2015-04-01

    In order to analyze the land surface properties in Seoul and its surrounding metropolitan area in the South Korea, several indices and LST were calculated by the Landsat 8 and TERRA and AQUA MODIS satellites. The land surface properties used are the indices that represented Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Modified Normalized Difference Wetness Index (MNDWI), Normalized Difference Wetness Index (NDWI), Tasseled cap Brightness, Tasseled cap Greenness, Tasseled cap Wetness Index, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI) and the LST of the area in and around Seoul. Most indices distinguish very well between urban, rural, mountain, building, river and road. In particular, most of the urbanization is represented in the new cities around Seoul. According to NDVI, NDBI and LST, urban expansion is displayed in the surrounding area of Seoul. The LST and surface elevation have a strong relationship with the distribution and structure of the vegetation/built-up indices such as NDVI and NDBI. While the NDVI is positively correlated with the LST and is also negatively correlated with the surface elevation, the NDBI have just the opposite correlations, respectively. In addition, in order to investigate the thermal properties in metropolitan, Landsat and MODIS land surface temperature, AWS (Automatic Weather Station) temperature, digital elevation model and landuse are used. Analysis method among the Landsat and MODIS LST and AWS temperature is basic statistics using by correlation coefficient, root-mean-square error (RMSE) and linear regression function etc. As a result, statistics of Landsat and MODIS LST are a correlation coefficient of 0.32 and RMSE of 4.61K, respectively. And statistics of Landsat and MODIS LST and AWS temperature have the correlations of 0.83 and 0.96 and the RMSE of 3.28K and 2.25K, respectively. Landsat and MODIS LST have relatively high correlation with AWS temperature, and the slope of the

  4. Impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions from North Korea to the air quality in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, In Sun; Lee, Ji Yi; Kim, Yong Pyo

    2013-05-01

    Due to its proximity to the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) (40 km from Seoul proper to North Korea) and the characteristics of energy consumption (coal and biomass burning as major primary energy sources), air pollutants emitted from North Korea are likely to influence the air quality in the SMA. To understand the transport of air pollutants emitted from North Korea, backward trajectories arriving in Seoul were estimated and classified into four cases depending on which area the trajectories predominantly passed through for the sampling days between 2002 and 2003. The ambient data of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed for the samples. Then, based on the contribution of biomass burning calculated by the chemical mass balance (CMB) model applied and the influence of air pollutants' emissions from North Korea to SMA is semi-quantified. The result was verified by the spatial and seasonal variations of the PAH emission in China based on the previous works. It is estimated that the influence from North Korea on the particulate PAHs concentration in Seoul was up to 20% of the observed values. Further study directions are discussed to make more quantitative and reliable estimation.

  5. Changes in the association between summer temperature and mortality in Seoul, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Jongsik; Kim, Ho

    2013-07-01

    The health impact of climate change depends on various conditions at any given time and place, as well as on the person. Temporal variations in the relationship between high temperature and mortality need to be explored in depth to explain how changes in the level of exposure and public health interventions modify the temperature-mortality relationship. We examined changes in the relationship between human mortality and temperature in Seoul, which has the highest population in South Korea, considering the change in population structure from 1993-2009. Poisson regression models were used to estimate short-term temperature-related mortality impacts. Temperature-related risks were divided into two "time periods" of approximately equal length (1993 and 1995-2000, and 2001-2009), and were also examined according to early summer and late summer. Temperature-related mortality in summer over the past 17 years has declined. These decreasing patterns were stronger for cardiovascular disease-related mortality than for all non-accidental deaths. The novel finding is that declines in temperature-related mortality were particularly noteworthy in late summer. Our results indicate that temperature-related mortality is decreasing in Seoul, particularly during late summer and, to a lesser extent, during early summer. This information would be useful for detailed public health preparedness for hot weather.

  6. Wet precipitation of major ions, polonium-210, and organic carbon in a metropolitan city, Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, G.; Kim, G.

    2011-12-01

    An extensive survey of chemical constituents in precipitation including dissolved organic carbon, dissolved nitrogen, major ions, trace elements, and radionuclides was conducted in a representative urban environment of Seoul over one-year period from 2009 to 2010. The sources for these chemical species were apportioned by applying principal component analysis (PCA) in association with commonly acknowledged key tracers, such as Na, K, Ca, and V. The fossil fuel combustion (especially coal) was shown to be the dominant source for most constituents being investigated, with biomass burning being recognized as another significant source. With the aid of air mass backward trajectory analyses, we concluded that the primary fraction of the chemical species in our precipitation samples originated locally in Korea, albeit the frequent long-range transport from the eastern and northeastern China might contribute substantially. Overall, our study suggests the significant role of human activities in altering the atmospheric environment of Seoul and presumably most urban areas around the world, highlighting its profound environmental implications, such as health risks posed by excessive polonium-210, enhanced rainwater acidity from organic acids, and radiative forcing by organic aerosols.

  7. The rate of Salmonella spp. infection in zoo animals at Seoul Grand Park, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Y. H.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, J. G.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, T. J.; Park, J. H.; Chung, B. H.

    2008-01-01

    Salmonellosis is an important zoonotic disease that affects both people and animals. The incidence of reptile-associated salmonellosis has increased in Western countries due to the increasing popularity of reptiles as pets. In Korea, where reptiles are not popular as pets, many zoos offer programs in which people have contact with animals, including reptiles. So, we determined the rate of Salmonella spp. infection in animals by taking anal swabs from 294 animals at Seoul Grand Park. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 14 of 46 reptiles (30.4%), 1 of 15 birds (6.7%) and 2 of 233 mammals (0.9%). These findings indicate that vigilance is required for determining the presence of zoonotic pathogen infections in zoo animals and contamination of animal facilities to prevent human infection with zoonotic diseases from zoo facilities and animal exhibitions. In addition, prevention of human infection requires proper education about personal hygiene. PMID:18487939

  8. Pooled nucleic acid testing to identify antiretroviral treatment failure during HIV infection in Seoul, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    KIM, SUN BEAN; KIM, HYE WON; KIM, HYON-SUK; ANN, HEA WON; KIM, JAE KYOUNG; CHOI, HEUN; KIM, MIN HYUNG; SONG, JE EUN; AHN, JIN YOUNG; KU, NAM SU; OH, DONG HYUN; KIM, YONG CHAN; JEONG, SU JIN; HAN, SANG HOON; KIM, JUNE MYUNG; SMITH, DAVEY M.; CHOI, JUN YONG

    2013-01-01

    Background There have been various efforts to identify less costly but still accurate methods for monitoring the response to HIV treatment. We evaluated a pooling method to determine if this could improve screening efficiency and reduce costs while maintaining accuracy in Seoul, South Korea. Methods We conducted the first prospective study of pooled nucleic acid testing (NAT) using a 5 minipool + algorithm strategy versus individual viral load testing for patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) between November 2011 and August 2012 at an urban hospital in Seoul, South Korea. The viral load assay used has a lower level of detection of 20 HIV RNA copies/ml, and the cost per assay is US$136. The 5 minipool + algorithm strategy was applied and 43 pooled samples were evaluated. The relative efficiency and accuracy of the pooled NAT were compared with those of individual testing. Results Using the individual viral load assay, 15 of 215 (7%) plasma samples had more than 200 HIV RNA copies/ml. The pooled NAT using the 5 minipool + algorithm strategy was applied to 43 pooled samples; 111 tests were needed to test all samples when virologic failure was defined at HIV RNA ≥ 200 copies/ml. Therefore, 104 tests were saved over individual testing, with a relative efficiency of 0.48. When evaluating costs, a total of US$ 14,144 was saved for 215 individual samples during 10 months. The negative predictive value was 99.5% for all samples with HIV RNA ≥ 200 copies/ml. Conclusions The pooled NAT with 5 minipool + algorithm strategy seems to be a very promising approach to effectively monitor patients receiving ART and to save resources. PMID:24228824

  9. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter and Associations between Particulate Chemical Constituents and Mortality in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jung, Kweon

    2012-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have linked fine particles [≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)] and health. Most studies focused on the total mass of the particles, although the chemical composition of the particles varies substantially. Which chemical components of fine particles that are the most harmful is not well understood, and research on the chemical composition of PM2.5 and the components that are the most harmful is particularly limited in Asia. Objectives: We characterized PM2.5 chemical composition and estimated the effects of cause-specific mortality of PM2.5 mass and constituents in Seoul, Korea. We compared the chemical composition of particles to those of the eastern and western United States. Methods: We examined temporal variability of PM2.5 mass and its composition using hourly data. We applied an overdispersed Poisson generalized linear model, adjusting for time, day of week, temperature, and relative humidity to investigate the association between risk of mortality and PM2.5 mass and its constituents in Seoul, Korea, for August 2008 through October 2009. Results: PM2.5 and chemical components exhibited temporal patterns by time of day and season. The chemical characteristics of Seoul’s PM2.5 were more similar to PM2.5 found in the western United States than in the eastern United States. Seoul’s PM2.5 had lower sulfate (SO4) contributions and higher nitrate (NO3) contributions than that of the eastern United States, although overall PM2.5 levels in Seoul were higher than in the United States. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in magnesium (Mg) (0.05 μg/m3) was associated with a 1.4% increase (95% confidence interval: 0.2%, 2.6%) in total mortality on the following day. Several components that were among the largest contributors to PM2.5 total mass—NO3, SO4, and ammonium (NH4)—were moderately associated with same-day cardiovascular mortality at the p < 0.10 level. Other components with smaller mass contributions [Mg and

  10. A Multilevel Analysis of the Compositional and Contextual Association of Social Capital and Subjective Well-Being in Seoul, South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Sehee; Kim, Heaseung; Lee, Hee-Sun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association between social capital and subjective well-being (life satisfaction) by using multilevel analysis considering both individual and area-level social capital while adjusting for various control variables at multiple-levels in Seoul, South Korea. The data was from the 2010 (Wave 2) Seoul Welfare…

  11. 2008 springtime size-segregated aerosol composition observed in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Lee, H.; Kim, J.; Cho, C.; Song, S.; Lim, J.; Kim, S.

    2008-12-01

    A total of 19 size-segregated particle samples were collected using two Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactors (MOUDI) in order to characterize aerosol chemical composition (mass, ions and elements) in the springtime of 2008 in Seoul, Korea. During the sampling period, there were three Asian Dust events in Seoul (March 16, April 3, and May 30-31). The average concentrations of PM10 and PM1.8 were 50.1±31.4 μg/m3 and 28.3±16.1μg/m3, respectively, with PM1.8/PM10 ratio of 0.61±0.15 indicating that fine particles dominated PM10 during the period. The high PM1.8/PM10 ratio might be explained by the location of sampling site which lies in the center of urban area. However, PM1.8/PM10 ratio was between 0.25 and 0.44 for Asian dust cases. According to our results, in general, aerosol mass concentration showed bimodal size distribution, peaked at the size range of 0.56-1μm in fine mode and 3.2-5.6μm in coarse mode. Ammonium, sulfate and nitrate ions were major components in fine mode (particles less than 1.8μm). However, unlike the other ions, nitrate ion showed peaks in both coarse mode and fine mode. Interestingly, on May 30(heavy Asian dust case), the highest nitrate ion concentration was observed in coarse mode rather than in fine mode.

  12. Platinum pollution in road dusts, roadside soils, and tree barks in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hea-Youn; Chon, Hyo-Taek; Sager, Manfred; Marton, Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the level of platinum in urban environment in and around Seoul, the capital city of Korea. Road dust, roadside soil, and tree bark samples were collected from the sites of various traffic volumes and from control sites in the suburbs. The above samples were analyzed for Pt by ICP-MS and other heavy metals by ICP-OES. Platinum levels in road dusts and roadside soils from Seoul were in the range of 3.8-444 ng/g (av. 115.0 ng/g) and 0.7-221 ng/g (av. 49.7 ng/g), respectively, whereas those in the suburbs were in the range of 2.3-5.2 ng/g (av. 3.9 ng/g) in road dusts and 0.4-5.1 ng/g (av. 2.4 ng/g) in roadside soils. The highest Pt levels in road dusts were found from major roads with high traffic volume. The remarkable difference in average Pt level between heavy traffic roads (av. 132.2 ng/g) and light traffic roads (av. 22.8 ng/g) reflects that an important source of Pt in roadside environment is automobile catalytic converter. High Pt level in road dust was found from the site of erratic stop-start driving condition, for example, 178 ng/g Pt in road dust around a vehicle crossing gate. Platinum level in tree barks ranged from 0.9 to 4.5 ng/g, which indicates the existence of Pt-containing particulate matter in the atmosphere. Road dusts with high Pt level were enriched in traffic-related heavy metals. PMID:21847550

  13. Microseismicity in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea, and its implications for the seismic hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kang, S.; Ryoo, Y.; Kim, M.; Park, Y.; Kyung, J.

    2012-12-01

    On 9 February 2010, a minor earthquake occurred in the northwest of South Korea. The earthquake was widely felt in the Seoul National Capital Area (SNCA). The earthquake attracted much attention from media, politicians, policy makers and the public, who raised concerns about seismic hazards and risks in the Korea Peninsula, in particular, to the SNCA. SNCA includes the Seoul and Incheon metropolitans and most of the Gyeonggi province. It has a population of 24.5 million (as of 2007) and is ranked as the second largest metropolitan area in the world. The SNCA has been the center of the economics, politics, and culture during the past half millennium since the city has been designated as the capital city in 1394. We applied waveform correlation detector to 2007-2010 continuously recorded seismic data to identify repeating earthquakes. We identify 9 micro-earthquakes during 2007-2010 periods which are not reported in the KNSN bulletin because their magnitudes are too small. Estimated magnitudes using amplitude ratios measured at the station SEO indicate the smallest event detected by the waveform cross correlation technique in the study is as low as 0.19. The number of events for our interpretation becomes 11 including two previously reported events and nine newly identified micro-earthquakes. All of them occur in a very small area. While there are historic documents reporting earthquakes in the SNCA, repeating earthquakes or clustered seismicity from the instrumental earthquake record have not reported before. We have determined the focal mechanism solution for the representative events (9 February 2010, ML 3.0) using the first-motion polarities. The preferred focal mechanism solution for the representative event is the WNW-ESE striking fault, which are consistent with the precisely determined earthquake hypocenter distribution. It is also consistent with the results in the previous studies of stress orientation in and around the Korean peninsula. The new list of

  14. Effect of diurnal temperature range on cardiovascular markers in the elderly in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Youn-Hee; Kim, Ho; Kim, Jin Hee; Bae, Sanghyuk; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2013-07-01

    While diurnal temperature range (DTR) has been found to be a risk factor for mortality, evaluation of the underlying mechanisms involved in this association are lacking. To explain the association between DTR and health effects, we investigated how cardiovascular markers responded to DTR. Data was obtained from 560 participants who regularly attended a community elderly welfare center located in Seoul, Korea. Data collection was conducted a total of five times over a 3-year period beginning in August, 2008. We examined systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV). Mixed-effects models and generalized additive mixed models were used to assess the relationship of DTR with BP, HR, and HRV. BP was not associated significantly with rapid temperature changes during the day. While HR was associated linearly with increments of DTR, the relationship between DTR and HRV showed nonlinear associations, or the presence of a cutoff around median DTR. At the cutoff level of DTR determined by an inflection point in the graph, standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) and root mean square successive difference (RMSSD) were peaked, whereas the low frequency:high frequency (LF:HF) ratio was elevated with decreasing DTR below the cutoff level. The study demonstrated that HR increases with increasing temperature range during the day, and that HRV is reduced at small or large DTR, which suggests minimal cardiovascular stress around the median level of temperature range during the day.

  15. Ambient particulate matter in a central urban area of Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Vellingiri, Kowsalya; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ma, Chang-Jin; Kang, Chang-Hee; Lee, Jin-Hong; Kim, Ik-Soo; Brown, Richard J C

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 were monitored at a central urban area of Yongsan (YS), Seoul, Korea during 2013. The daily average concentrations of both PM2.5 and PM10 fractions, were 26.6±12.6 and 45.0±20.4 μg m(-3), respectively. The observed PM2.5 concentration slightly exceeded the annual standard value (25 μg m(-3)) set by the Korean Ministry of Environment (KMOE), while that of PM10 was slightly lower than its guideline value (50 μg m(-3)). Comparison of the monthly mean values (μg m(-3)) of both PM fractions showed maximum concentrations in January (PM2.5: 36.9 and PM10: 59.7) and minimum concentrations in September (PM10: 28.1) and October (PM2.5: 14.9). The existence of strong correlations between the concentrations of PM and some gaseous pollutants (e.g., CO, SO2, and NOx) indicated the commonality of contributing source processes, such as traffic and industrial emissions. The results of a back-trajectory (BT) analysis also suggests that the PM pollution in the study area is likely to have been affected by many sources such as Asian dust, volcanic emissions, and industrial activities in the surrounding countries (China, Russia, and Japan). PMID:25218979

  16. Current status of managing food allergies in schools in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soyoung; Yoon, Jihyun; Kwon, Sooyoun; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Youngshin

    2012-12-01

    Recently the need to manage food allergies in schools has been growing. This study aimed to examine the current status of managing food allergies in schools in Seoul, Korea. A questionnaire survey was conducted in cooperation with the School Dietician Association during April 2009. Among the participating 154 schools, a total of 109 (71%) were determining students' food allergy status through parental surveys based on self-reported food allergies. A total of 72 (47%) had experienced student visits to a school health room due to food allergies within one year before the survey. Over 80 percent of the schools relied on self-care only without any school-wide measures for food allergies in place. Among the 890 menu items most frequently served in school lunch programs, a total of 664 (75%) were found to contain more than one food allergen. It is highly suggested that preventive plans and treatment measures should be established to manage food allergies in schools. PMID:23059601

  17. Volatile Organic Compounds in Ambient Air at Four Residential Locations in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ho, Duy Xuan; Park, Chan Goo; Ma, Chang-Jin; Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Lee, Sung Chun; Jeong, Ho Jin; Lee, Soon Hee

    2012-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the environmental behavior of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urban areas, their concentrations were measured at four urban monitoring sites (namely, N, S, E, and W) in Seoul, Korea (February to December 2009). A total of 27 compounds were quantified that consist of four chemical groups: aromatic (AR), halogenated aromatic, halogenated paraffin, and halogenated olefin. Results were evaluated by focusing on these four functional groups just mentioned and their summation term as total VOC (TVOC) along with several individual species (mainly AR species, that is, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene). The highest concentration of chemical groups was found from AR (71.1±42.1 ppbC), while that for individual species confirmed the dominance of toluene (7.48±3.88 ppb). The analysis of spatial distribution indicated that high TVOC levels were recorded at sites N and W, while it was not so significant such as S and E in terms of TVOC budget. Seasonal variation of these VOCs was characterized by the peak values in December to reflect the combined effects of pronounced source activities and meteorological conditions. Analysis of spatial variations in VOC levels between the four urban sites indicated that their distributions are tightly affected by local source processes in each area. PMID:22969269

  18. Prevalence, correlates, and comorbidities of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders in children in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Jae-Won; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee-Jeong

    2015-03-01

    The present study reports past-year prevalence of and comorbidities associated with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) disorders in 1645 children aged 6 to 12 years in Seoul, Korea. The diagnosis was based on the parental version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV). Our participants completed the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). The estimated prevalence of any full-syndrome and subthreshold DSM-IV disorders were 16.2% and 28.1%, respectively. The most prevalent disorders were specific phobia (9.6%), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; 5.9%), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD; 4.9%). The estimated prevalence of depressive disorder was 0.1% according to the DISC-IV and1.9% according to the CDI. ADHD, ODD, and anxiety disorders were highly comorbid. Our study highlights the importance of obtaining children's self-report data in addition to the parents' interview, particularly for depression, and the importance of early detection of subthreshold conditions and considering comorbid diagnoses. PMID:25113525

  19. A multilevel analysis of social capital and self-reported health: evidence from Seoul, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aims to resolve two limitations of previous studies. First, as only a few studies examining social capital have been conducted in non-western countries, it is inconclusive that the concept, which has been developed in Western societies, applies similarly to an Asian context. Second, this study considers social capital at the individual-level, area-level and cross-levels of interaction and examines its associations with health while simultaneously controlling for various confounders at both the individual-level and area-level, whereas previous studies only considered one of the two levels. The purpose of this study is therefore to examine the associations between social capital and health by using multilevel analysis after controlling for various confounders both at the individual and area-levels (i.e., concentrated disadvantage) in non-western countries. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey from December 2010 to April 2011 in Seoul, South Korea. The target population included respondents aged 25 years and older who have resided in the same administrative area since 2008. The final sample for this study consisted of 4,730 respondents within all 25 of Seoul's administrative areas. Results In our final model, individual-level social capital, including network sources (OR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.11-1.37) and organizational participation (OR = 2.55; 95% CI = 2.11-3.08) was positively associated with good/very good health. Interestingly, the individual × area organizational participation cross-level interaction was negatively associated with good/very good health (OR = 0.40; 95% CI = 0.32-0.50), indicating that in areas with higher organizational participation, individuals with high organizational participation were less likely to report good/very good health when compared to low organizational participation individuals. Conclusion Our study provides evidence that individual-level social capital is associated with self-reported health, even

  20. Survival to admission after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Seoul, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Hue; Uhm, Tai-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) data derived according to the Utstein Style guidelines was used to try to determine factors influencing survival to admission (STA) and epidemiological rates of OHCA. Patients and methods This was an observational study of all age groups based on data from prehospital care reports in Seoul, South Korea. The collected data were reported according to the Utstein Style template for OHCA and analyzed in order to compare STA with non-STA. Univariate analysis was conducted using a binomial logistic regression model to identify predictors associated with trauma patients. Results Eighty-three (4.8%) OHCA survivors were admitted to the emergency department with carotid pulse. The median time from arrest to emergency medical personnel defibrillation was statistically significantly shorter in STA cases (8.0 minutes) than in non-STA cases (12.0 minutes; P<0.001). Factors independently associated with better prognosis in terms of trauma patients were female sex (odds ratio [OR]: 0.67; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.50–0.91; P=0.01), arrest at home (OR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.27–0.49; P<0.001), and witnessed arrest (OR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.94–3.39; P<0.001). Conclusion Early basic life support, performed by either a layperson or emergency medical personnel, had a positive effect on STA. Male sex, arrest outside of the home, and witnessed arrest are significantly associated with trauma. PMID:27147881

  1. Hydrochemistry of urban groundwater, Seoul, Korea: the impact of subway tunnels on groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Chae, Gi-Tak; Yun, Seong-Taek; Choi, Byoung-Young; Yu, Soon-Young; Jo, Ho-Young; Mayer, Bernhard; Kim, Yun-Jong; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2008-10-23

    Hydrogeologic and hydrochemical data for subway tunnel seepage waters in Seoul (Republic of Korea) were examined to understand the effect of underground tunnels on the degradation of urban groundwater. A very large quantity of groundwater (up to 63 million m3 year(-1)) is discharged into subway tunnels with a total length of 287 km, resulting in a significant drop of the local groundwater table and the abandonment of groundwater wells. For the tunnel seepage water samples (n = 72) collected from 43 subway stations, at least one parameter among pathogenic microbes (total coliform, heterotrophic bacteria), dissolved Mn and Fe, NH4+, NO3(-), turbidity, and color exceeded the Korean Drinking Water Standards. Locally, tunnel seepage water was enriched in dissolved Mn (avg. 0.70 mg L(-1), max. 5.58 mg L(-1)), in addition to dissolved Fe, NH4+, and pathogenic microbes, likely due to significant inflow of sewage water from broken or leaking sewer pipes. Geochemical modeling of redox reactions was conducted to simulate the characteristic hydrochemistry of subway tunnel seepage. The results show that variations in the reducing conditions occur in urban groundwater, dependent upon the amount of organic matter-rich municipal sewage contaminating the aquifer. The organic matter facilitates the reduction and dissolution of Mn- and Fe-bearing solids in aquifers and/or tunnel construction materials, resulting in the successive increase of dissolved Mn and Fe. The present study clearly demonstrates that locally significant deterioration of urban groundwater is caused by a series of interlinked hydrogeologic and hydrochemical changes induced by underground tunnels. PMID:18725171

  2. Chemical compositions of subway particles in Seoul, Korea determined by a quantitative single particle analysis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sunni; Hwang, HeeJin; Park, YooMyung; Kim, HyeKyoung; Ro, Chul-Un

    2008-12-15

    A novel single particle analytical technique, low-Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis, was applied to characterize seasonal subway samples collected at a subway station in Seoul, Korea. For all 8 samples collected twice in each season, 4 major types of subway particles, based on their chemical compositions, are significantly encountered: Fe-containing; soil-derived; carbonaceous; and secondary nitrate and/or sulfate particles. Fe-containing particles are generated indoors from wear processes at rail-wheel-brake interfaces while the others may be introduced mostly from the outdoor urban atmosphere. Fe-containing particles are the most frequently encountered with relative abundances in the range of 61-79%. In this study, it is shown that Fe-containing subway particles almost always exist either as partially or fully oxidized forms in underground subway microenvironments. Their relative abundances of Fe-containing particles increase as particle sizes decrease. Relative abundances of Fe-containing particles are higher in morning samples than in afternoon samples because of heavier train traffic in the morning. In the summertime samples, Fe-containing particles are the most abundantly encountered, whereas soil-derived and nitrate/sulfate particles are the least encountered, indicating the air-exchange between indoor and outdoor environments is limited in the summer, owing to the air-conditioning in the subway system. In our work, it was observed that the relative abundances of the particles of outdoor origin vary somewhat among seasonal samples to a lesser degree, reflecting that indoor emission sources predominate. PMID:19174870

  3. Effects of land-use type on urban groundwater quality, Seoul metropolitan city, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, S.; Yun, S.; Chae, G.; So, C.; Kweon, S.; Lee, P.

    2001-12-01

    The progressive degradation of urban groundwater becomes an important environmental problem encountered in South Korea. This study aims to examine the relationships between land-use type and groundwater quality in Seoul metropolitan city, based on the results of hydrogeochemical monitoring. For this purpose, land-use type was divided into five categories (green zone, housing, agricultural, traffic, and industrialized). The mean concentrations of TDS (total dissolved solids) effectively reflect the degree of anthropogenic contamination and increase in the following order: green zone (152.5 mg/l), then agricultural (380.7 mg/l) and housing (384.2 mg/l), then traffic (457.0 mg/l), and finally industrialized area (554.5 mg/l). Among major dissolved solutes, the concentrations of Na, Ca, Mg, HCO3, and Cl increase with increasing TDS. In case of Na and Ca, de-icing salts and sewage are considered as major contamination sources. The corrosion of cements may also increase Ca. Nitrate concentration is characteristically very high in housing and agricultural areas, reflecting the severe contamination from domestic sewage and fertilizer. Sulfate and magnesium are enriched in industrialized area, possibly due to their derivation from industrial facilities. Chlorine ion is considered to be derived from de-chlorination of hydrocarbons as well as de-icing salts. Bicarbonate also increases with increasing TDS, for which cement dissolution and oxidation of organics are considered as source materials. However, enhanced water-rock(or construction materials) interaction also may increase the bicarbonate, because acidic wastewater in urban area is very corrosive. Trace metals and organic compounds generally does not show any distinct pattern of regional variation. However, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, Zn, TCE, and PCE tend to increase locally in industrialized area, whereas high concentrations of Br, Ni, and Cu are found in traffic area. The groundwaters with very high concentrations of Fe, Zn, and

  4. Evaluation, modification, and application of the Effective Drought Index to 200-Year drought climatology of Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do-Woo; Byun, Hi-Ryong; Choi, Ki-Seon

    2009-11-01

    SummaryIn this paper, progressive methods for assessing drought severity from diverse points of view were conceived. To select a fundamental drought index, the performances of the Effective Drought Index (EDI) and 1-, 3-, 6-, 9-, 12-, and 24-month Standardized Precipitation Indices (SPIs) were compared for drought monitoring data accumulated over 200-year period from 1807 to 2006 for Seoul, Korea. The results confirmed that the EDI was more efficient than the SPIs in assessing both short and long-term droughts. We then proposed the following methods for modifying and supplementing the EDI: (1) CEDI, a corrected EDI that considers the rapid runoff of water resources after heavy rainfall; (2) AEDI, an accumulated EDI that considers the drought severity and duration of individual drought events; and (3) YAEDI, a year-accumulated negative EDI representing annual drought severity. In addition to these indices, to more accurately measure and diagnose droughts, we proposed the utilization of (4) the Available Water Resources Index (AWRI), an existing index that expresses the actual amount of available water. Using the improved methods above, we assessed and summarized important droughts that have occurred in Seoul over the 200 years from 1807 to 2006.

  5. OH reactivity in urban and suburban regions in Seoul, South Korea - an East Asian megacity in a rapid transition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Saewung; Sanchez, Dianne; Wang, Mark; Seco, Roger; Jeong, Daun; Hughes, Stacey; Barletta, Barbara; Blake, Donald R; Jung, Jinsang; Kim, Deugsoo; Lee, Gangwoong; Lee, Meehye; Ahn, Joonyoung; Lee, Sang-Deok; Cho, Gangnam; Sung, Min-Young; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Dan Bi; Kim, Younha; Woo, Jung-Hun; Jo, Duseong; Park, Rokjin; Park, Jeong-Hoo; Hong, You-Deog; Hong, Ji-Hyung

    2016-07-18

    South Korea has recently achieved developed country status with the second largest megacity in the world, the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA). This study provides insights into future changes in air quality for rapidly emerging megacities in the East Asian region. We present total OH reactivity observations in the SMA conducted at an urban Seoul site (May-June, 2015) and a suburban forest site (Sep, 2015). The total OH reactivity in an urban site during the daytime was observed at similar levels (∼15 s(-1)) to those previously reported from other East Asian megacity studies. Trace gas observations indicate that OH reactivity is largely accounted for by NOX (∼50%) followed by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (∼35%). Isoprene accounts for a substantial fraction of OH reactivity among the comprehensive VOC observational dataset (25-47%). In general, observed total OH reactivity can be accounted for by the observed trace gas dataset. However, observed total OH reactivity in the suburban forest area cannot be largely accounted for (∼70%) by the trace gas measurements. The importance of biogenic VOC (BVOCs) emissions and oxidations used to evaluate the impacts of East Asian megacity outflows for the regional air quality and climate contexts are highlighted in this study. PMID:27138104

  6. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in feral cats in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Eun; Kim, Neung-Hee; Chae, Hee-Sun; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Nam, Ho-Woo; Lee, Won-Ja; Kim, Sun-Heung; Lee, Jung-Hark

    2011-02-01

    The present study assessed the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in feral cat populations in Seoul using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 456 feral cats from 17 wards in Seoul was surveyed. The overall prevalence of T. gondii infection was 15.8% (69/456) by ELISA and 17.5% (80/456) by PCR; by gender, 17% (44/259) by ELISA and 16.2% (42/259) by PCR in males and 14.3% (28/196) by ELISA and 19.4% (38/196) by PCR in females. On a baseline of the Han River, prevalence was 15.1% (29/192) by ELISA and 15.6% (30/192) by PCR in the upper region and 16.4% (43/264) by ELISA and 18.9% (50/264) by PCR in the lower area. This suggested that toxoplasmosis is widespread throughout Seoul's feral cat population and it is critical that the city institute policies for the control of the feral cat population to reduce the risk of toxoplasmosis transmission to animals, including humans. PMID:21348626

  7. Seasonal variations in the light-absorbing properties of water-soluble and insoluble organic aerosols in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hwajin; Kim, Jin Young; Jin, Hyoun Cher; Lee, Ji Yi; Lee, Se Pyo

    2016-03-01

    The spectral properties of light-absorbing organic aerosol extractions were investigated using 24-h average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) measurements from October 2012 to September 2013 in Seoul, Korea. The light-absorption spectra of water and methanol extracts exhibited strong evidence of brown carbon with Absorption Angstrom Exponent (AAE; fitted between 300 and 700 nm) ranges of 5.84-9.17 and 4.08-5.75, with averages of 7.23 ± 1.58 and 5.05 ± 0.67, respectively. The light absorption of both extracts at 365 nm (Abs365), which is typically used as a proxy for brown carbon (BrC), displayed strong seasonal variations and was well correlated with both water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC; r = 0.81) and organic carbon (OC; r = 0.85), indicating that both primary and secondary organics were sources of BrC in this region. Normalizing the Abs365 of water and methanol extracts to the mass of WSOC and OC yielded average solution mass absorption efficiency (MAE365) of 0.28-1.18 and 0.44-1.45 m2 g-1 C, respectively. MAE365 in Korea were in the same range or slightly lower than those in China, however, despite the same ranges, the seasonal variations were different, suggesting that the sources of light absorbers could be different. Combining the AAE, Abs365, and MAE365 of both extracts and a detailed chemical speciation of filter extracts identified the compounds responsible for the temporal variations of BrC in Korea. During summer, secondary organic aerosol (SOA), photochemically generated from anthropogenic emissions, was the major source; however, during winter, long range transported organics or transported BrC seem to be a source of BrC in Korea, a downwind site of China, where severe smog and BrC were observed during this season. Biomass burning was also an important source; however, unlike in previous studies, where it was identified as a major source during winter, here, it contributed during the whole year. Although many of its properties, sources, and potential

  8. Source identification and trends in concentrations of gaseous and fine particulate principal species in Seoul, South Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Choong-Min Kang; Byung-Wook Kang; Hak Sung Lee

    2006-07-15

    Ambient measurements were made using two sets of annular denuder system during the four seasons and were then compared with the results during the period of 1996-1997 to estimate the trends and seasonal variations in concentrations of gaseous and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) principal species. Annual averages of gaseous HNO{sub 3} and NH{sub 3} increased by 11% and 6%, respectively, compared with those of the previous study, whereas HONO and SO{sub 2} decreased by 11% and 136%, respectively. The PM2.5 concentration decreased by {approximately} 17%, 35% for SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, and 29% for NH{sub 4}{sup +}, whereas NO{sub 3}{sup -} increased by 21%. Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were 12.8 and 5.98 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, accounting for {approximately} 26 and 12% of PM2.5 concentration, respectively. The species studied accounted for 84% of PM2.5 concentration, ranging from 76% in winter to 97% in summer. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis was used to identify possible source areas affecting air pollution levels at a receptor site in Seoul. High possible source areas in concentrations of PM2.5, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}2, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, and K{sup +} were coastal cities of Liaoning province, inland areas of Heibei/Shandong provinces in China, and typical port cities of South Korea. The PSCF results may suggest that air pollution levels in Seoul are affected considerably by long-range transport from external areas, such as the coastal zone in China and other cities in South Korea, as well as Seoul itself. It appears that the NO{sub 3} contribution to PM2.5 increased by {approximately} 4%, whereas the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} contribution decreased by {approximately} 2%. This trend may be explained by a shift of fuel patterns from fossil fuel to LNG, according to the governmental policies. 44 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Spatio-temporal pollution features in Seoul, Korea using magnetic measurements of roadside dusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doh, S.; Kim, W.; Lee, J.; Park, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Recently, rapid and non-destructive magnetic measurements have been increasingly used as a proxy method for the assessment of heavy metal pollution in urban areas. The spatio-temporal variations of anthropogenic particulate matter in roadside dust of the Seoul metropolitan area have been investigated using 1,353 dust samples collected monthly from 33 locations during 13 months period (February 2002 through February 2003). The S-ratio values and the acquisition patterns of isothermal remanent magnetization indicate that low- coercivity ferrimagnetic minerals are dominant in these roadside dusts. The similar spatial distributions between the magnetic susceptibility values (magnetic concentration) and the reported heavy metal concentrations indicate that magnetic susceptibility can be a useful proxy indicator for heavy metal pollution. Spatially, samples from industrial areas show relatively higher magnetic concentration than those from heavy traffic areas. Samples from residential and park areas reveal the lowest magnetic concentration in this study. Mapping of magnetic susceptibility shows highly polluted areas to be around southwestern, central and northeastern part of Seoul throughout the year. It is considered that anthropogenic materials from industrial complex may be transported along the southwestern part of the city to northeastward because of dominant westerly wind and topographic highs located in the north-northwestern and southern regions of the city. Temporally, the magnetic concentration in winter is higher than that in summer, indicating the seasonal fluctuation of anthropogenic magnetic material influx. It is interpreted that high magnetic concentration during cold and dry winter season might be caused from increased fossil fuel combustion. This interpretation can be supported by that residential areas also show relatively higher magnetic concentration in winter compared to the other seasons. The present study indicates that pollution in the city of

  10. Total mercury, methylmercury and ethylmercury in marine fish and marine fishery products sold in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju-Sung; Jung, So-Young; Son, Yeo-Joon; Choi, Su-Jeong; Kim, Mi-Sun; Kim, Jeong-Gon; Park, So-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Me; Chae, Young-Zoo; Kim, Min-Young

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, a survey of 177 samples of fish and fishery products from the markets in Seoul was carried out to investigate total mercury and organic mercury (methylmercury) concentrations and to establish a correlation, if any, between total and organic mercury levels. Concentrations of total and organic mercury in canned tuna ranged 0.001-2.581 and 0.003-1.307 mg/kg, respectively; those for fish, such as cod or salmon, ranged 0.012-2.529 and 0.021-0.507 mg/kg, respectively. Ethylmercury was not detected. More than 50% of total mercury in the samples existed as organic mercury. The correlation coefficients (r(2)) between total mercury and methylmercury concentrations of fish and fishery products found to have methylmercury were 0.844 and 0.976, respectively, which was statistically significant. There was a higher correlation in fishery products than in fish. Although there was no product in which mercury exceeded the standard set by the Food Code in 2008, with the exception of marlin steak, a processed food, which contained 1.307 mg/kg methylmercury. None exceeded the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) for mercury. Collectively, the results indicate that fish or fishery products marketed in Seoul, with the exception of marlin, have low levels of total or organic mercury and, thus, intake of these products is not a risk to public health. PMID:24786250

  11. Determination of micropollutants in combined sewer overflows and their removal in a wastewater treatment plant (Seoul, South Korea).

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jaena; Oh, Jeill; Snyder, Shane A; Yoon, Yeomin

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigated the occurrence of 29 selected micropollutants such as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in surface waters and wastewaters in Seoul (South Korea) during both dry and wet weather conditions. The study area was selected based on the lack of available information regarding the suspected contamination of rivers/creeks by EDCs and PPCPs in the Seoul region and the presence of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), which serves approximately 4.1 million inhabitants and has a design capacity of 1,297 × 10(3) m(3)/day. Many target compounds (83 %) were detected in samples collected from wastewater treatment influent/effluent, creek water, and combined sewer overflow (CSO). The total EDC/PPCP concentrations were as follows: WWTP influent (69,903 ng/L) > WWTP effluent (50,175 ng/L) >3 creek samples (16,035-44,446 ng/L) during dry weather, and WWTP influent (53,795 ng/L) > WWTP bypass (38,653 ng/L) >5 creek samples (15,260-29,113 ng/L) >2 CSO samples (11,109-11,498 ng/L) during wet weather. EDCs and PPCPs were found to be present at high daily loads (65.1 and 69.8 kg/day during dry and wet weather, respectively) in the WWTP effluent. Compound removal by the WWTP varied significantly by compound: caffeine, diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen, and propylparaben (>90 %), and acesulfame, DEET, iohexol, iopromide, and iopamidol (<5 %). These findings and literature information support the hypothesis that the efficiency of removal of EDCs and PPCPs is strongly dependent on both removal mechanism (e.g., biodegradation, adsorption to sludge, and oxidation by chlorine) and compound physicochemical properties (e.g., pK a and hydrophobicity). PMID:24415065

  12. Assessment of radiation exposure from cesium-137 contaminated roads for epidemiological studies in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun-Keun; Ju, Young-Su; Lee, Won Jin; Hwang, Seung Sik; Yim, Sang-Hyuk; Yoo, Sang-Chul; Lee, Jieon; Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Burm, Eunae; Ha, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to assess the radiation exposure for epidemiologic investigation in residents exposed to radiation from roads that were accidentally found to be contaminated with radioactive cesium-137 (137Cs) in Seoul. Methods Using information regarding the frequency and duration of passing via the 137Cs contaminated roads or residing/working near the roads from the questionnaires that were obtained from 8875 residents and the measured radiation doses reported by the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission, we calculated the total cumulative dose of radiation exposure for each person. Results Sixty-three percent of the residents who responded to the questionnaire were considered as ever-exposed and 1% of them had a total cumulative dose of more than 10 mSv. The mean (minimum, maximum) duration of radiation exposure was 4.75 years (0.08, 11.98) and the geometric mean (minimum, maximum) of the total cumulative dose was 0.049 mSv (<0.001, 35.35) in the exposed. Conclusions An individual exposure assessment was performed for an epidemiological study to estimate the health risk among residents living in the vicinity of 137Cs contaminated roads. The average exposure dose in the exposed people was less than 5% of the current guideline. PMID:26184047

  13. Statistical properties of effective drought index (EDI) for Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Mokpo in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-Hyeok; Kim, Ki-Beom; Chang, Heon-Young

    2014-08-01

    Time series of drought indices has been considered mostly in view of temporal and spatial distributions of a drought index so far. Here we investigate the statistical properties of a daily Effective Drought Index (EDI) itself for Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Mokpo for the period of 100 years from 1913 to 2012. We have found that both in dry and wet seasons the distribution of EDI as a function of EDI follows the Gaussian function. In dry season the shape of the Gaussian function is characteristically broader than that in wet seasons. The total number of drought days during the period we have analyzed is related both to the mean value and more importantly to the standard deviation. We have also found that according to the distribution of the number of occasions where the EDI values of several consecutive days are all less than a threshold, the distribution follows the exponential distribution. The slope of the best fit becomes steeper not only as the critical EDI value becomes more negative but also as the number of consecutive days increases. The slope of the exponential distribution becomes steeper as the number of the city in which EDI is simultaneously less than a critical EDI in a row increases. Finally, we conclude by pointing out implications of our findings.

  14. Assessment of Urban Vegetation using Remote Sensing Data: a Case Study in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Kim, J.; Yeom, J.; Kim, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Vegetation in the city has various positive effects on the entire urban ecosystem: it reduces CO2 and air temperature, improves air quality, helps to maintain the water balance of natural ground, decreases surface overflow during floods, and provides food source as well as living space for diverse wildlife. Urban green areas also have a social and educational role, e.g. for recreational activity, positive experience in a natural environment, and perception of seasonal changes. In addition, citizens can find a balance between urban green and built up spaces. However, the very high intensity of land use in urban areas changes the local urban ecosystem to a large degree and leads to enormous stress for the urban vegetation. In this study, we aim to develop a method for assessing effects of urban vegetation on ecosystem function using remote sensing technology. We use multispectral RapidEye satellite and LiDAR data for the classification of urban vegetation types in metropolitan area Seoul and test different kinds of vegetation indices focusing on the red edge of RapidEye data to assess the stress degree of the vegetation.

  15. Speciation and source identification of organic compounds in PM₁₀ over Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Na Rae; Lee, Se Pyo; Lee, Ji Yi; Jung, Chang Hoon; Kim, Yong Pyo

    2016-02-01

    Seventy three individual organic compounds in the atmospheric particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to a nominal 10 μm (PM10) over Seoul were identified and quantified from April 2010 to April 2011 using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These organic compounds were classified into five groups, n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mono-carboxylic acids, di-carboxylic acids (DCAs), and sugars based on their chemical structures and properties. The organic compounds showed higher seasonal average concentrations from fall to winter than from spring to summer due to source strength, except some organic compounds among mono-carboxylic acids, DCAs, sugars such as undecanoic acid, methylmalonic acid, and fructose. Through qualitative data analysis using seasonal concentration variations and relevant diagnostic parameters, it was found that (1) anthropogenic sources such as combustion of fossil fuel and biomass burning attributed more to the formation of the organic aerosols than biogenic sources, and (2) the ambient level of n-alkanes, PAHs, and some compounds of DCAs and sugars was elevated in winter due to the increased primary emissions and larger transport from outside of the organic compounds in winter. PMID:26517386

  16. Hydrochemistry of urban groundwater in Seoul, South Korea: effects of land-use and pollutant recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byoung-Young; Yun, Seong-Taek; Yu, Soon-Young; Lee, Pyeong-Koo; Park, Seong-Sook; Chae, Gi-Tak; Mayer, Bernhard

    2005-10-01

    The ionic and isotopic compositions (δD, δ18O, and 3H) of urban groundwaters have been monitored in Seoul to examine the water quality in relation to land-use. High tritium contents (6.1-12.0 TU) and the absence of spatial/seasonal change of O-H isotope data indicate that groundwaters are well mixed within aquifers with recently recharged waters of high contamination susceptibility. Statistical analyses show a spatial variation of major ions in relation to land-use type. The major ion concentrations tend to increase with anthropogenic contamination, due to the local pollutants recharge. The TDS concentration appears to be a useful contamination indicator, as it generally increases by the order of forested green zone (average 151 mg/l), agricultural area, residential area, traffic area, and industrialized area (average 585 mg/l). With the increased anthropogenic contamination, the groundwater chemistry changes from a Ca-HCO3 type toward a Ca-Cl(+NO3) type. The source and behavior of major ions are discussed and the hydrochemical backgrounds are proposed as the basis of a groundwater management plan.

  17. Leisure time physical activity in patients with epilepsy in Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Kihye; Choi-Kwon, Smi; Lee, Sang-Kun

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequencies of and barriers to leisure time physical activity (LTPA) of people with epilepsy (PWE), and influencing factors, particularly those related to mood. Data were obtained from 178 PWE who visited the Seoul National University Hospital outpatient clinic in January and February 2007. Most PWE reported not being involved in LTPA as much as they wished. PWE reported hiking (n=32, 18%) and walking (n=25, 14%) as the most common LTPA. Many PWE identified epilepsy-specific barriers such as "the fear of experiencing seizures during activity" and "discouragement from activity by family and/or friends." In multiple logistic regression analysis, PWE who were on antiepileptic drug polytherapy (OR=2.49, 95% CI=1.22-5.08, P=0.01), had anxiety (OR=3.25, 95% CI=1.22-8.60, P=0.02), and had had previous seizure experiences during activities (OR=2.84, 95% CI=1.30-6.20, P=0.01) were significantly more likely to be inactive. Educational programs for reducing anxiety and misunderstanding about activity of PWE and guidelines for promoting LTPA among PWE are needed. PMID:21212026

  18. Source identification of particulate matter collected at underground subway stations in Seoul, Korea using quantitative single-particle analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hae-Jin; Kim, BoWha; Ryu, JiYeon; Maskey, Shila; Kim, Jo-Chun; Sohn, Jongryeul; Ro, Chul-Un

    2010-06-01

    Subway particle samples collected at four underground subway stations in Seoul, Korea were characterized by a single-particle analytical technique, low- Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis. To clearly identify indoor sources of subway particles, four sets of samples collected in tunnels, at platforms, near ticket offices, and outdoors were investigated. For the samples collected in tunnels, Fe-containing particles predominate, with relative abundances of 75-91% for the four stations. The amounts of Fe-containing particles decrease as the distance of sampling locations from the tunnel increases. In addition, samples collected at the platform in subway stations with platform screen doors (PSDs) that limit air-mixing between the platform and the tunnel showed marked decreases in relative abundances of Fe-containing particles, clearly indicating that Fe-containing subway particles are generated in the tunnel. PM 10 mass concentration levels are the highest in the tunnels, becoming lower as the distance of sampling locations from the tunnel increases. The extent of the decrease in PM 10 in stations with PSDs is also larger than that in stations without PSDs. The results clearly indicate that Fe-containing particles originating in tunnels predominate in the indoor microenvironment of subway stations, resulting in high indoor PM 10 levels, and that PSDs play a significant role in reducing Fe-containing particles at platforms and near ticket offices.

  19. Analysis of foodborne disease outbreaks for improvement of food safety programs in Seoul, Republic of Korea, from 2002 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jib Ho; Lee, Joon-Hak; Kim, Moo Sang; Park, Seog Gee

    2009-03-01

    Foodborne disease (FBD) is a common food safety problem in Seoul, Republic of Korea. To identify target areas for improvement of the food safety programs, FBD outbreaks from 2002 to 2006 were analyzed with regard to facility, monthly occurrences, and causative agents. A total of 147 FBD outbreaks were reported, with an average of 29.4 FBD outbreaks per year and 49 cases per outbreak. Restaurants and school lunches were two main facilities associated with 76.2% of the outbreaks. A majority of FBD cases (73.1%) were from school lunches. The highest number of outbreaks and cases occurred in June, followed by March. Among the seven identified causative agents, norovirus was the most significant in the number of outbreaks and cases. Among the outbreaks and cases with causative agents identified, norovirus and Staphylococcus aureus were responsible for 61.7% of outbreaks and 81.5% of cases. The analysis indicates that the efficiency of current food safety programs could be enhanced if critical control points in school lunch programs are identified and incorporated in the training and inspection. Identifying risk factors for contamination of norovirus and Staphylococcus aureus would also be beneficial. PMID:19326670

  20. Two-year magnetic monitoring in conjunction with geochemical and electron microscopic data of roadside dust in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Wonnyon; Doh, Seong-Jae; Park, Yong-Hee; Yun, Seong-Taek

    Mineral magnetic properties of roadside dusts in Seoul, Korea, were measured and compared with the results of geochemical analyses in order to investigate the spatio-temporal patterns of urban pollution. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses were carried out to verify the magnetic materials and their potential sources. A total of 1956 dust samples were collected monthly at eight sites, from June 1998 to June 2000. Thermomagnetic data and SEM observations for magnetic extracts indicated that the major magnetic phase was magnetite-like material. In particular, the highest and the lowest magnetic concentrations were observed in industrial areas and a park area, respectively, whereas, heavy traffic areas showed low to intermediate concentration. A linear correlation between enrichment indexes of magnetic susceptibility and heavy metals suggests that magnetic susceptibility can be used as a proxy for heavy metal pollution. The magnetic concentrations and magnetic particle sizes showed systematic seasonal fluctuations (high and large in winter versus low and small in summer) due to the seasonal influx variations of anthropogenic magnetic materials. On the basis of the morphology and elemental composition, the magnetic materials were grouped into three types: magnetic spherules possibly emitted from factories and domestic heating systems, aggregates derived from vehicle emission or motor vehicle brake system, and angular magnetic particles of natural origin.

  1. An analysis on the concentration characteristics of PM2.5 in Seoul, Korea from 2005 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Miyeon

    2014-11-01

    PM2.5 is a big issue as it is considerably more harmful than other sizes of particulate matter. World Health Organization (WHO) recommends 25 μg m-3 as the daily average concentration, and 10 μg m-3 per day as an annual average. To keep up with global trends, it is first necessary to understand the current status and characteristics of PM2.5 concentrations in Korea. Using the PM2.5 data measured by Seoul Metropolitan City from November 2005 to March 2012, the author analyzed its statistical characteristics and correlations with other air pollutants. For the time period from 2005 to 2012, the annual average concentration of PM2.5 was 27 μg m-3, three times the WHO standard. Also, the daily average PM2.5 concentration of 215 days per year also exceeded the WHO standard. However, the number days exceeding the Korean daily average standard of 50 μg m-3 to be enacted in 2014 was only three. PM2.5 concentration had a high correlation (r = 0.84) with PM10, and also showed high correlations with gaseous pollutants, such as SO2, NO2, and CO, but not O3. This study suggests that the Korean government should strengthen their standard to match the criteria used by WHO.

  2. Triazole Susceptibilities in Thermotolerant Fungal Isolates from Outdoor Air in the Seoul Capital Area in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seungeun; Xu, Siyu; Bivila, Chemmeri Padasseri; Lee, Hyeyoung; Park, Myung Soo; Lim, Young Woon; Yamamoto, Naomichi

    2015-01-01

    Emerging fungi resistant to triazoles are a concern because of the increased use of medical triazoles and exposure to agricultural triazoles. However, little is known about the levels of triazole susceptibility in outdoor airborne fungi making it difficult to assess the risks of inhalation exposure to airborne, antifungal-resistant fungi. This study examined triazole susceptibilities of the airborne thermotolerant fungi isolated from the ambient air of the Seoul Capital Area of South Korea. We used impactor air sampling with triazole-containing nutrient agar plates as the collection substrates to screen for airborne fungal isolates based on their triazole susceptibilities. This study estimated that 0.17% of all the culturable fungi belong to the pathogenic thermotolerant taxa, among which each isolate of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 μg/mL or greater for itraconazole. Their concentration in air was 0.4 CFU/m3. Seven human pathogenic Paecilomyces variotii isolates had MICs of 32 μg/mL or greater and lower than 2 μg/mL for the agricultural fungicide tebuconazole and the medical triazole itraconazole, respectively. Though the concentration was low, our results confirm the presence of airborne fungi with high MICs for itraconazole in ambient air. Inhalation is an important exposure route because people inhale more than 10 m3 of air each day. Vigilance is preferred over monitoring for the emergence of triazole-resistant fungal pathogens in ambient outdoor air. PMID:26405807

  3. The Study on Flood Reduction and Securing Instreamflow by applying Decentralized Rainwater Retention Facilities for Chunggyechun in Seoul of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. H.; Jun, S. M.; Park, C. G.

    2014-12-01

    Recently abnormal climate phenomena and urbanization recently causes the changes of the hydrological environment. To restore the hydrological cycle in urban area some fundamental solutions such as decentralized rainwater management system and Low Impact Development (LID) techniques may be choosed. In this study, SWMM 5 was used to analyze the effects of decentralized stormwater retention for preventing the urban flood and securing the instreamflow. The Chunggyechun stream watershed(21.29㎢) which is located in Seoul city(Korea) and fully developed as urban area was selected as the study watershed, and the runoff characteristics of urban stream with various methods of LID techniques (Permeable pavement, small rainwater storage tank, large rainwater storage tank) were analyzed. By the simulation results, the permeability of pavement materials and detention storage at the surface soil layer make high effect to the flood discharge, and the initial rainfall retention at the rainwater storage tank effected to reduce the flood peak. The peak discharge was decreased as 22% for the design precipitation. Moreover the instreamflow was increased as 55% by using adequate LID techniques These kind of data could be used as the basis data for designing urban flood prevention facilities, urban regeneration planning in the view of the integrated watershed management.

  4. Risk factors for perceived unmet medical needs in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Cho Ryok; Bang, Ji Hwan; Cho, Sung-Il; Kim, Kui Nam; Lee, Hee-Jin; Lee, Young Hwa; Ryu, Bo Yeong; Cho, Soo Kyung; Oh, Myoung-Don; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2016-09-01

    To identify the factors associated with perceived unmet medical needs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults, we analyzed the results from a series of city-wide cross-sectional surveys of HIV-infected adults living in Seoul, Korea. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors related to unmet medical needs. Among the 775 subjects included in the study, 15.4% had perceived unmet medical needs. Significant factors included age group (35-49 years; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-3.06), lower monthly income (aOR, 3.75 for the <$900/mo group and 2.44 for the $900-$1800/mo group; 95% CI, 1.68-8.35 and 1.18-5.04, respectively), beneficiaries of the National Medical Aid Program (aOR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.01-3.17), recent CD4 cell counts <500/µL (aOR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.01-2.33). Taken together, these data reveal strong associations of middle age and low socioeconomic status with perceived unmet medical needs among HIV-infected adults. PMID:27009447

  5. General characteristics of causes of urban flood damage and flood forecasting/warning system in Seoul, Korea Young-Il Moon1, 2, Jong-Suk Kim1, 2 1 Department of Civil Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743, South Korea 2 Urban Flood Research Inst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Young-Il; Kim, Jong-Suk

    2015-04-01

    Due to rapid urbanization and climate change, the frequency of concentrated heavy rainfall has increased, causing urban floods that result in casualties and property damage. As a consequence of natural disasters that occur annually, the cost of damage in Korea is estimated to be over two billion US dollars per year. As interest in natural disasters increase, demands for a safe national territory and efficient emergency plans are on the rise. In addition to this, as a part of the measures to cope with the increase of inland flood damage, it is necessary to build a systematic city flood prevention system that uses technology to quantify flood risk as well as flood forecast based on both rivers and inland water bodies. Despite the investment and efforts to prevent landside flood damage, research and studies of landside-river combined hydro-system is at its initial stage in Korea. Therefore, the purpose of this research introduces the causes of flood damage in Seoul and shows a flood forecasting and warning system in urban streams of Seoul. This urban flood forecasting and warning system conducts prediction on flash rain or short-term rainfall by using radar and satellite information and performs prompt and accurate prediction on the inland flooded area and also supports synthetic decision-making for prevention through real-time monitoring. Although we cannot prevent damage from typhoons or localized heavy rain, we can minimize that damage with accurate and timely forecast and a prevention system. To this end, we developed a flood forecasting and warning system, so in case of an emergency there is enough time for evacuation and disaster control. Keywords: urban flooding, flood risk, inland-river system, Korea Acknowledgments This research was supported by a grant (13AWMP-B066744-01) from Advanced Water Management Research Program (AWMP) funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  6. Impacts of different plant functional types on ambient ozone predictions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas (SMAs), Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.-K.; Woo, J.-H.; Park, R. S.; Song, C. H.; Kim, J.-H.; Ban, S.-J.; Park, J.-H.

    2014-07-01

    Plant functional type (PFT) distributions affect the results of biogenic emission modeling as well as O3 and particulate matter (PM) simulations using chemistry-transport models (CTMs). This paper analyzes the variations of both surface biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions and O3 concentrations due to changes in the PFT distributions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas, Korea. The Fifth-Generation NCAR/Pennsylvania State Meso-scale Model (MM5)/the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN)/the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE)/the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations were implemented over the Seoul Metropolitan Areas in Korea to predict surface O3 concentrations for the period of 1 May to 31 June 2008. Starting from a performance check of CTM predictions, we consecutively assessed the effects of PFT area deviations on the MEGAN BVOC and CTM O3 predictions, and we further considered the basis of geospatial and statistical analyses. The three PFT data sets considered were (1) the Korean PFT, developed with Korea-specific vegetation database; (2) the CDP PFT, adopted from the community data portal (CDP) of US National Center for Atmospheric Research in the United States (NCAR); (3) MODIS PFT, reclassified from the NASA Terra and Aqua combined land cover products. Although the CMAQ performance check reveals that all of the three different PFT data sets are applicable choices for regulatory modeling practice, noticeable primary data (i.e., PFT and Leaf Area Index (LAI)) was observed to be missing in many geographic locations. Based on the assessed effect of such missing data on CMAQ O3 predictions, we found that this missing data can cause spatially increased bias in CMAQ O3. Thus, it must be resolved in the near future to obtain more accurate biogenic emission and chemistry transport modeling results. Comparisons of MEGAN biogenic emission results with the three different PFT data showed that broadleaf

  7. Impacts of different plant functional types on ambient ozone predictions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas (SMA), Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.-K.; Woo, J.-H.; Park, R. S.; Song, C. H.; Kim, J.-H.; Ban, S.-J.; Park, J.-H.

    2013-09-01

    Plant functional type (PFT) distributions affect the results of biogenic emission modeling as well as O3 and PM simulations using chemistry-transport models (CTMs). This paper analyzes the variations of both surface biogenic VOC emissions and O3 concentrations due to changes in the PFT distributions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas, Korea. Also, this paper attempts to provide important implications for biogenic emissions modeling studies for CTM simulations. MM5-MEGAN-SMOKE-CMAQ model simulations were implemented over the Seoul Metropolitan Areas in Korea to predict surface O3 concentrations for the period of 1 May to 31 June 2008. Starting from MEGAN biogenic emissions analysis with three different sources of PFT input data, US EPA CMAQ O3 simulation results were evaluated by surface O3 monitoring datasets and further considered on the basis of geospatial and statistical analyses. The three PFT datasets considered were "(1)KORPFT", developed with a region specific vegetation database; (2) CDP, adopted from US NCAR; and (3) MODIS, reclassified from the NASA Terra and Aqua combined land cover products. Comparisons of MEGAN biogenic emission results with the three different PFT data showed that broadleaf trees (BT) are the most significant contributor, followed by needleleaf trees (NT), shrub (SB), and herbaceous plants (HB) to the total biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). In addition, isoprene from BT and terpene from NT were recognized as significant primary and secondary BVOC species in terms of BVOC emissions distributions and O3-forming potentials in the study domain. Multiple regression analyses with the different PFT data (δO3 vs. δPFTs) suggest that KORPFT can provide reasonable information to the framework of MEGAN biogenic emissions modeling and CTM O3 predictions. Analyses of the CMAQ performance statistics suggest that deviations of BT areas can significantly affect CMAQ isoprene and O3 predictions. From further evaluations of the isoprene and O

  8. Spatial variation of contaminant elements of roadside dust samples from Budapest (Hungary) and Seoul (Republic of Korea), including Pt, Pd and Ir.

    PubMed

    Sager, Manfred; Chon, Hyo-Taek; Marton, Laszlo

    2015-02-01

    Roadside dusts were studied to explain the spatial variation and present levels of contaminant elements including Pt, Pd and Ir in urban environment and around Budapest (Hungary) and Seoul (Republic of Korea). The samples were collected from six sites of high traffic volumes in Seoul metropolitan city and from two control sites within the suburbs of Seoul, for comparison. Similarly, road dust samples were obtained two times from traffic focal points in Budapest, from the large bridges across the River Danube, from Margitsziget (an island in the Danube in the northern part of Budapest, used for recreation) as well as from main roads (no highways) outside Budapest. The samples were analysed for contaminant elements by ICP-AES and for Pt, Pd and Ir by ICP-MS. The highest Pt, Pd and Ir levels in road dusts were found from major roads with high traffic volume, but correlations with other contaminant elements were low, however. This reflects automobile catalytic converter to be an important source. To interpret the obtained multi-element results in short, pollution index, contamination index and geo-accumulation index were calculated. Finally, the obtained data were compared with total concentrations encountered in dust samples from Madrid, Oslo, Tokyo and Muscat (Oman). Dust samples from Seoul reached top level concentrations for Cd-Zn-As-Co-Cr-Cu-Mo-Ni-Sn. Just Pb was rather low because unleaded gasoline was introduced as compulsory in 1993. Concentrations in Budapest dust samples were lower than from Seoul, except for Pb and Mg. Compared with Madrid as another continental site, Budapest was higher in Co-V-Zn. Dust from Oslo, which is not so large, contained more Mn-Na-Sr than dust from other towns, but less other metals. PMID:25108588

  9. Deinococcus seoulensis sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from sediment at Han River in Seoul, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Jin; Lee, Yeon-Hee; Park, Su-Jin; Lim, Sangyong; Jeong, Sun-Wook; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Cho, Young-Je; Kim, Myung Kyum; Jung, Hee-Young

    2016-08-01

    Strain 16F1E(T) was isolated from a 3-kGy-irradiated sediment sample collected at Han River in Seoul, Republic of Korea. Cells of this strain were observed to be Gram-positive, pililike structure, and short rod shape, and colonies were red in color. The strain showed the highest degree of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Deinococcus aquaticus PB314(T) (98.8%), Deinococcus depolymerans TDMA-24(T) (98.1%), Deinococcus caeni Ho-08(T) (98.0%), and Deinococcus grandis DSM 3963(T) (97.0%). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis identified this strain as a member of the genus Deinococcus (Family: Deinococcaceae). The genomic DNA G+C content of strain 16F1ET was 66.9 mol%. The low levels of DNA-DNA hybridization (< 56.2%) with the species mentioned above identified strain 16F1E(T) as a novel Deinococcus species. Its oxidase and catalase activities as well as the production of acid from glucose were positive. Growth of the strain was observed at 10-37°C (optimum: 20-30°C) and pH 4-10 (optimum: pH 7-8). The cells tolerated less than 5% NaCl and had low resistance to gamma radiation (D10 < 4 kGy). Strain 16F1ET possessed the following chemotaxonomic characteristics: C16:0, C15:1 ω6c, and C16:1 ω7c as the major fatty acids; phosphoglycolipid as the predominant polar lipid; and menaquinone-8 as the predominant respiratory isoprenoid quinone. Based on the polyphasic evidence, as well as the phylogenetic, genotypic, phenotypic, and chemotaxonomic characterization results, strain 16F1E(T) (=KCTC 33793(T) =JCM 31404(T)) is proposed to represent the type strain of a novel species, Deinococcus seoulensis sp. nov. PMID:27480633

  10. Chemical speciation of size-segregated floor dusts and airborne magnetic particles collected at underground subway stations in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hae-Jin; Kim, BoWha; Malek, Md Abdul; Koo, Yong Sung; Jung, Jong Hoon; Son, Youn-Suk; Kim, Jo-Chun; Kim, HyeKyoung; Ro, Chul-Un

    2012-04-30

    Previous studies have reported the major chemical species of underground subway particles to be Fe-containing species that are generated from wear and friction processes at rail-wheel-brake and catenaries-pantographs interfaces. To examine chemical composition of Fe-containing particles in more details, floor dusts were collected at five sampling locations of an underground subway station. Size-segregated floor dusts were separated into magnetic and non-magnetic fractions using a permanent magnet. Using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDX), iron metal, which is relatively harmless, was found to be the dominating chemical species in the floor dusts of the <25 μm size fractions with minor fractions of Mg, Al, Si, Ca, S, and C. From SEM analysis, the floor dusts of the <25 μm size fractions collected on railroad ties appeared to be smaller than 10 μm, indicating that their characteristics should somewhat reflect the characteristics of airborne particles in the tunnel and the platform. As most floor dusts are magnetic, PM levels at underground subway stations can be controlled by removing magnetic indoor particles using magnets. In addition, airborne subway particles, most of which were smaller than 10 μm, were collected using permanent magnets at two underground subway stations, namely Jegi and Yangjae stations, in Seoul, Korea. XRD and SEM/EDX analyses showed that most of the magnetic aerosol particles collected at Jegi station was iron metal, whereas those at Yangjae station contained a small amount of Fe mixed with Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, and C. The difference in composition of the Fe-containing particles between the two subway stations was attributed to the different ballast tracks used. PMID:22381374

  11. Distributions of fossil fuel originated CO2 in five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) according to the Δ14C in ginkgo leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. H.; Hong, W.; Park, G.; Sung, K. S.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, Y. E.; Kim, J. K.; Choi, H. W.; Kim, G. D.; Woo, H. J.

    2013-01-01

    We collected a batch of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba Linnaeus) leaf samples at five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) in 2009 to obtain the regional distribution of fossil fuel originated CO2 (fossil fuel CO2) in the atmosphere. Regions assumed to be free of fossil fuel CO2 were also selected, namely Mt. Chiak, Mt. Kyeryong, Mt. Jiri, Anmyeon Island, and Jeju Island and ginkgo leaf samples were collected in those areas during the same period. The Δ14C values of the samples were measured using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and the fossil fuel CO2 ratios in the atmosphere were obtained in the five metropolitan areas. The average ratio of fossil fuel CO2 in Seoul was higher than that in the other four cities. The leaves from the Sajik Tunnel in Seoul recorded the highest FFCTC (fossil fuel CO2 over total CO2 in atmosphere), 13.9 ± 0.5%, as the air flow of the surrounding neighborhood of the Sajik Tunnel was blocked.

  12. Vitamin E status of 20- to 59-year-old adults living in the Seoul metropolitan area of South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Nam

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin and functions primarily as a lipid antioxidant. Inadequate vitamin E status may increase risk of several chronic diseases. Thus, the objectives of this study were to estimate intake and plasma concentration of each tocopherol and to evaluate vitamin E status of Korean adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS Three consecutive 24-h food recalls and fasting blood samples were collected from healthy 20- to 59-y-old adults (33 males and 73 females) living in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea. α-, β-, δ-, and γ-tocopherol intakes and plasma concentrations of tocopherols (α-, δ-, and γ-tocopherol) were analyzed by gender. RESULTS Dietary vitamin E and total vitamin E intake (dietary plus supplemental vitamin E) was 17.68 ± 14.34 and 19.55 ± 15.78 mg α-tocopherol equivalents, respectively. The mean daily α-tocopherol, and γ-tocopherol intakes were 3.07 ± 2.27 mg and 5.98 ± 3.74 mg, respectively. Intakes of total vitamin E and each tocopherol of males were significantly higher than those of females (P < 0.05). Plasma α-tocopherol concentration was 15.45 ± 10.16 of males and 15.00 ± 4.54 µmol/L of females, respectively. There were no significant differences in plasma tocopherol concentrations by gender (P ≥ 0.05). Plasma α-tocopherol was negatively correlated with γ-tocopherol intake (P < 0.05). Twenty-three percent of the subjects had plasma α-tocopherol concentrations < 12 µmol/L indicating a biochemical deficiency of vitamin E. Approximately 8% and 9% of these participants had plasma α-tocopherol:total lipid ratio less than 1.59 µmol/mmol and plasma α-tocopherol:total cholesterol ratio less than 2.22 µmol/mmol, respectively, which are also indicative of vitamin E deficiency. CONCLUSIONS Vitamin E intakes of Korean adults were generally adequate with the Korean Dietary Reference Intakes for vitamin E. However, α-tocopherol intake was lower than that reported in other countries, and 23% of the

  13. The relationship between estimated water content and water soluble organic carbon of PM10 at Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Kim, Y.; Lee, J.; Lee, S.; Yi, S.

    2011-12-01

    The organic carbon (OC) in atmospheric aerosols can be divided in water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and water insoluble organic carbon (WISOC). WSOC constitutes a significant fraction of the carbon mass of aerosols, ranging from 27% to 83% (Yu et al., 2004). WSOC and absorbed water in atmospheric aerosol can impact climate directly by scattering solar radiation. Also, these can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) (Saxena et al., 1995; Yu et al., 2004). The role of WSOC in water absorption is especially unclear. So, it is essential to understand the relevance of water content and WSOC. In this study, we have analyzed relationship between the measured WSOC concentrations and estimated aerosol water content of PM10 (particles in the atmosphere with a diameter of less than or equal to a nominal 10 μm) for the period between September 2006 and August 2007 at Seoul, Korea. Water content of PM10 was estimated by using a gas/particle equilibrium model, SCAPE2 (Kim et al., 1993). WSOC and estimated water content showed a positive correlation when the ambient relative humidity (RH) was less than 70%. But when RH was higher than 70%, WSOC and estimated water content did not show a correlation. However, WISOC over OC showed negative correlation with estimated water content of PM10 when RH was less than 70%. It was found that WSOC was correlated well with NO3- that is a secondary component formed by photochemical oxidation. References Kim, Y. P., Seinfeld, J. H., Saxena, P., 1993, Atmospheric gas-aerosol equilibrium I. Thermodynamic model, Aerosol Science and Technology, 19, 157-181. Saxena, P., Hildemann, L. M., McMurry, P. H., Seinfeld, J. H., 1995, Organics alter hygroscopic behavior of atmospheric particles, Journal of Geophysical Research, 100(D9), 18755-18770. Yu, J. Z., Yang, H., Zhang, H. and Lau, A. K. H., 2004, Size distributions of water-soluble organic carbon in ambient aerosols and its size-resolved thermal characteristics, Atmospheric Environment, 38, 1061-1071.

  14. Preliminary Results from High Time-Resolution Measurements of Particulate Inorganic Ions and Black Carbon Downwind of Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghim, Y.; Lee, Y.; Kim, C.; Choi, Y.; Lee, T.

    2011-12-01

    Concentrations of inorganic ions and black carbon (BC) in PM2.5 were measured using PILS (particle-into-liquid sampler, ADI 2081, Applikon) and MAAP (Multiangle Absorption Photometer, Model 5012, Thermo), respectively, at intervals of 20-30 minutes. The measurements were made at the Yongin campus of Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, about 35 km southeast of downtown Seoul, which is affected by prevailing northwesterlies. The site is considered as an ideal place for exploring transport of air pollutants and variations of secondary ion formation caused by photochemical reactions since there are no major emission sources nearby except a 4-lane road running about 1.4 km to the west. The concentration of BC has been continuously measured since July 2010. However, the concentrations of inorganic ions were measured intermittently since February 2011. In the measurements in February, nitrate accounted for about 39% of the total inorganic ion concentrations and showed the highest correlation coefficient of 0.93 with ammonium. The fraction of sulfate among inorganic ions was about 31%, and the correlation coefficient with ammonium was 0.85, lower than that of nitrate. As was in other rural areas in Korea, potassium was highly correlated with major secondary ions such as sulfate, nitrate and ammonium, whose correlation coefficients were 0.70-0.74. Total inorganic ion concentrations were highest at 09:30 local time (LT) on February 9 probably due to the effect of vehicle emissions during the morning rush hour, but the concentration of nitrate was the highest at 13:00 LT on February 17 because of secondary ion formation just before a full development of the convective boundary layer. BC concentrations during the measurement period in February were generally higher at midnight than in the daytime including rush hours. BC showed moderately higher correlations with secondary ions. The BC concentration from MAAP obtained by aerosol absorption coefficient divided by mass

  15. In-situ measurements of nighttime radical species (NO3 and N2O5) from Seoul N Tower in Korea during MAPS 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    The importance of nitrate radical (NO3) chemistry has been emphasized in the nocturnal atmosphere which influences on the air quality in following day. This chemistry could gather its importance even more in urban setting or in downwind area of large urban emission sources. In support of these issue, efforts in investigating the nighttime chemical mechanisms has been made during MAPS 2015 (Megacity Air Pollution Study 2015) at Seoul in Korea from May 18th to June 12th of 2015. By deploying NOAA's state-of-the-art instrument, ARNOLD (Airborne Ring-down Nitrogen Oxide Laser Detector), high time resolution in-situ measurement of nitrate (NO3), dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) as well as other related trace gases species (e.g. NO, NO2, NOy, and O3) were made on the Seoul N Tower (inlet height: 362m ASL). The in-situ measurements of NO3 radical will provide good observational constraints on night time oxidation processes. The NO3 and N2O5 equilibrium and reactivity will be analyzed by comparison of their lifetimes to those calculated from VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds) measurements and kinetic calculations. Implications for nitrogen oxides species will be discussed.

  16. Photochemical characteristics of high and low ozone episodes observed in the Taehwa Forest observatory (TFO) in June 2011 near Seoul South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soyoung; Lee, Meehye; Kim, Suyeon; Choi, Soonho; Seok, Sonjung; Kim, Saewung

    2013-05-01

    We present a comprehensive discussion on what cause high ozone episodes at a suburban photochemical observation site of the Seoul Metropolitan Area (population ˜23 million). The observational site, Taehwa Research Forest (TRF), is situated ˜30 km from the center of Seoul. In June 2011, we observed two very distinctive ozone periods-high ozone (peak up to 120 ppbv) and low ozone (peak up to 60 ppbv) in the mid and early month, respectively. The trace gas measurement dataset, especially CO and NO X clearly indicate that less anthropogenic influences during the high ozone period. Volatile organic compound (VOC) measurement results show that at the observational site, biogenic VOCs (mostly isoprene) contribute most of chemical reactivity towards OH, although toluene from anthropogenic activities was observed in higher concentrations. Back-trajectory analysis indicates that air-masses from the forest part of Korea Peninsula were dominant influences during the high ozone episode event. On the other hand, Aged air masses from China were the dominant influence during the low ozone episode event. Model calculations conducted using the University of Washington Chemical Mechanism (UWCM) box model, also consistently show that BVOC, especially isoprene photochemistry, can be the significantly contribution to local ozone formation in the given photochemical environments of TRF. These research results strongly suggest that ozone control strategy in the Eastern Asian megacities, mostly situated in surrounding forest areas should be based on the comprehensive scientific understanding in BVOC photochemistry and interplays between anthropogenic and biogenic interactions.

  17. Asian dust event observed in Seoul, Korea, during 29-31 May 2008: analysis of transport and vertical distribution of dust particles from lidar and surface measurements.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Yoon, Soon-Chang; Kim, Jiyoung; Kang, Jung-Yoon; Sugimoto, Nobuo

    2010-03-01

    In this study, we investigate the transport of dust particles, its vertical distribution, and the associated meteorological conditions during an Asian dust event that was observed in Seoul, Korea on May 29-31, 2008. This study analyzes data from ground-based and space-borne 2-wavelength polarization lidars, particulate mass concentrations, and synoptic weather data. Surface meteorological station observations of dust phenomena, dust transport model, and weather maps consistently show that the dust particles were transported from the source regions (Inner Mongolia, Man-Ju, and Ordos areas) to Korea via the northeastern part of China. Network observations of the PM(10) concentrations in Korea revealed that a majority of the heavy dust particles traveled across South Korea from the northwest to the southeast direction with a horizontal scale of 250-300km and a traveling speed of approximately 40kmh(-1). This extraordinary dust event, in terms of its intensity and timing during the year, occurred due to the blockage of an unusually intensified low-pressure system in the northeastern part of China as well as high-pressure system centered over the Sea of Okhotsk and the Kuril Islands. The low values of the particle depolarization ratio (delta(532)) (Seoul (delta(532) approximately 0.136+/-0.027). The value of delta(532) during the 2nd multilayered dust episode ranged between 0.081 and 0.120 for near-surface dust layers, and between 0.076 and 0.114 for elevated dust layers. The CALIPSO measurements of beta(532), delta(532), and CR also revealed the presence of dense dust

  18. Toxoplasma gondii B1 Gene Detection in Feces of Stray Cats around Seoul, Korea and Genotype Analysis of Two Laboratory-Passaged Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Sang-Eun; Lim, Hyemi; Cho, Jaeeun; Kim, Deok-Gyu; Song, Hyemi; Kim, Min-Jae; Shin, Eun-Hee; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in the human population in the Republic of Korea (= Korea) is due to various reasons such as an increase in meat consumption. However, the importance of cats in transmitting T. gondii infection through oocysts to humans has seldom been assessed. A total of 300 fecal samples of stray cats captured around Seoul from June to August 2013 were examined for T. gondii B1 gene (indicating the presence of oocysts) using nested-PCR. Fourteen (4.7%) of 300 cats examined were positive for B1 gene. Female cats (7.5%) showed a higher prevalence than male cats (1.4%). Cats younger than 3 months (5.5%) showed a higher prevalence than cats (1.5%) older than 3 months. For laboratory passage of the positive samples, the fecal suspension (0.2 ml) of B1 gene positive cats was orally inoculated into experimental mice. Brain tissues of the mice were obtained after 40 days and examined for the presence of tissue cysts. Two isolates were successfully passaged (designated KNIH-1 and KNIH-2) and were molecularly analyzed using the SAG5D and SAG5E gene sequences. The SAG5D and SAG5E gene sequences showed high homologies with the ME49 strain (less virulent strain). The results indicated the importance of stray cats in transmitting T. gondii to humans in Korea, as revealed by detection of B1 gene in fecal samples. T. gondii isolates from cats were successfully passaged in the laboratory for the first time in Korea. PMID:26174818

  19. Burden of disease attributable to air pollutants from municipal solid waste incinerators in Seoul, Korea: a source-specific approach for environmental burden of disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Min; Kim, Jung-Wk; Lee, Hyun-Jung

    2011-05-01

    Few studies have attempted to quantify the integrated health burden, incorporating both mortality and morbidity as these factors pertain to air pollutants, on the population in the vicinity of the incinerators. The aims of this study are to estimate the attributable burden of disease caused by incinerators in Seoul, Korea and to present an approach based on source-specific exposure for the estimation of the environmental burden of disease (EBD). With particular attention on the development of a measurement means of the source-specific, exposure-based population attributable fraction (PAF), we integrated air dispersion modeling, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), the population distribution of exposure, and the exposure-response relationship. We then estimated the PAFs caused by additional concentrations of four air pollutants (PM(10), NO(2,) SO(2), and CO) emitted from four municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in Seoul in 2007. We, finally, estimated the attributable burden of disease, using the estimated PAF and the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) method developed by the Global Burden of Disease Group of the World Health Organization (WHO). The PAF for NO(2) to all-cause mortality was assessed at approximately 0.02% (95% CI: 0.003-0.036%), which was the highest among all air pollutants. The PAFs for respiratory and cardiovascular disease were 0.12% (95% CI: 0.01-0.16%) and 0.10% (95% CI: 0.04-0.16%), respectively. The sum of the attributable burden of disease for four pollutants was about 297 person-years (PYs) (95% CI: 121-472 PYs) when the incinerators observed to the emission standards. The attributable burdens of respiratory disease and cardiovascular disease were about 0.2% and 0.1%, respectively, of the total burden of respiratory disease and cardiovascular disease of Seoul citizens for the year 2007. Although the air emissions from one risk factor, an incinerator, are small, the burden of disease can be significant to the public health when

  20. Correlation between bioaerosol microbial community characteristics and real-time measurable environmental items: A case study from KORUS-AQ pre-campaign in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, H.

    2015-12-01

    Due to global climate change, bioaerosols are more globally mixed with a more random manner. During a long-distance traveling dust event, the number of microbes significantly increases in bioaerosol, and the chance for bioaerosol to contain human pathogenic microorganisms may also increase. Recently, we have found that bioaerosol microbial community characteristics (copy number of total bacterial 16S rRNA genes, and population diversity and composition) are correlated with the quantitative detection of potential human pathogens. However, bioaerosol microbial community characteristics cannot be directly used in real-time monitoring because the DNA-based detection method requires at least couple days or a week to get reliable data. To circumvent this problem, a correlation of microbial community characteristics with real-time measurable environmental items (PM10, PM2.5, temperature, humidity, NOx, O3 etc.), if any, will be useful in frequent assessment of microbial risk from available real-time measured environmental data. In this work, we monitored bioaerosol microbial communities using a high-throughput DNA sequencing method (Mi-seq) during the KORUS-AQ (KoreaUS-Air Quality) pre-campaign (May to June, 2015) in Seoul, and investigated whether any correlation exists between the bioaerosol microbial community characteristics and the real-time measureable environmental items simultaneously attained during the pre-campaign period. At the pre-campaign site (Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul), bioaerosol samples were collected using high volume air sampler, and their 16S rRNA gene based bacterial communities were analyzed by Miseq sequencing and bioinformatics. Simultaneously, atmosphere environmental items were monitored at the same site. Using Decision Tree, a non-linear multi-variant correlation was observed between the bioaerosol microbial community characteristics and the real-time measured atmosphere chemistry data, and a rule induction was developed

  1. Characteristics of anthropogenic magnetic materials in roadside dusts in Seoul, Korea using thermo-magnetic behaviors and electron microscope observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.; Doh, S.; Park, Y.

    2006-12-01

    It has been previously reported that magnetic concentration parameter (e.g., magnetic susceptibility) has a close affinity with heavy metal concentration in roadside dust of the Seoul metropolitan area. Magnetic concentration and magnetic particle size show systematic seasonal fluctuations (high and large during winter; low and small in summer) because of seasonal influx variation of anthropogenic magnetic materials. These observations suggest that magnetic parameters could be utilized as a proxy method of assessing heavy metal pollution in urban areas. In order to characterize anthropogenic magnetic materials and to find their potential sources, magnetic extracts from roadside dusts of Seoul metropolitan area were subject to SEM observation, elemental analysis (EDS), and thermo-magnetic experiments. Magnetic materials from vehicle emission and abraded brake lining were also observed for the comparison. The magnetic particles can be classified based on the morphology and elemental composition of the particles. Magnetic spherules are the most frequently observed type of particle throughout the study area. These particles are often associated with the elemental C and Al-Ca-Na-Si materials, and are believed to be the product of fossil fuel combustions in power plants, industries, and domestic heating systems. Aggregates of iron-oxides and Fe-C-S materials are probably originated from vehicle emission, while aggregates of pure Fe and Al-Ca-Fe-K-Mg-Si materials appear to be derived from abrasion of motor vehicle brake system. These aggregates are frequently observed in industrial sections of the city as well as areas of heavy traffic. Angular magnetic particles accompanied by silicates are only observed in park area and probably formed by natural process such as pedogenesis or weathering. Thermo-magnetic experiments indicate that the major magnetic phase in the studied samples is magnetite. Two distinctive behaviors observed are the presence of low Curie temperature

  2. Cyanide Poisoning Deaths Detected at the National Forensic Service Headquarters in Seoul of Korea: A Six Year Survey (2005~2010)

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Jong Sook; Yum, Hye Sun

    2012-01-01

    The records of 255 cyanide poisoning deaths obtained from National Forensic Service (NFS) headquarters, located in Seoul of Korea, from 2005 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. The mean age was 41.88 ± 13.09 and range was 6~80 years (unknown in seven cases). The number of deaths of males and females were 200 and 53, respectively (unknown in two cases). The largest number of cases occurred in people aged 40-49 years (81 cases, 31.8%), followed by the age groups 30~39 years (51 cases, 20%), 50~59 years (44 cases, 17.2%) and 20~29 years (43 cases, 16.9%). The total number of deaths among other age groups (below 10, 10~19, 60~69, 70~79, over 80 years and unknown) were 36, representing only 14.1%. Of all cyanide poisoning deaths, 97.3% were due to suicide, and 14.5% of the total number who died received medical treatment. The most frequent site for ingestion was the person's own residence (120 cases, 47.1%) and the route of administration was mainly oral (252, 98.8%). From the total of 255 cyanide poisoning cases, white powders were submitted for analysis in 92 cases. Potassium cyanide and sodium cyanide occupied 51 and 41 cases, respectively. This study showed that poisoning deaths due to cyanide are one of the continuously reported public health problems in Korea. Enforcement of regulations and safety education to prevent cyanide poisoning should be carried out by the government. PMID:24278610

  3. Assessing the Performance of the Photovoltaic Cells on the Effects of Yellow Dust Events and Haze in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jiyeon; Kim, Yong Pyo; Wee, DaeHyun

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the potential effects of the Asian yellow dust Events and haze on the performance of Korean photovoltaic systems. Particulate matters from the Asian yellow dust outbreaks in the deserts of Mongolia and northern China are typically transported to Korea. Haze is an atmospheric phenomenon where dust, smoke and other dry particles obscure the clarity of the sky. Hence, we conjecture that the effects of the Asian yellow dust and haze block the incident solar irradiance. The potential reduction of the solar spectral irradiance due to Asian yellow dust events and haze in Korea is investigated using a clear-sky spectral radiation model, and the performance of photovoltaic systems under reduced irradiance is estimated by using a simple analytic model representing typical photovoltaic cells. Comparison of photovoltaic performance under Asian dust events, haze and that under a clear condition is made to evaluate overall influence of the particulate air pollution, respectively.

  4. Optical and microphysical properties of column-integrated aerosols at a SKYNET site downwind of Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Park, J. S.; Ghim, Y. S.

    2014-12-01

    A skyradiometer (POM-02, Prede Co. Ltd.) has been operated to investigate aerosol properties at a SKYNET (SKYradiometer NETwork) site, YGN (Yongin) for six years starting from November 2008. The site is at the rooftop of a five-story building on the hill, about 35 km southeast of downtown Seoul (37.34 °N, 127.27 °E and 167 m above sea level). POM-02 measures the diffuse radiation at six minute intervals at 11 wavelengths. Using version 5 of the skyrad.pack, aerosol optical (aerosol optical depth and single scattering albedo) and microphysical (volume size distribution) properties were retrieved from the measurements at five wavelengths such as 400, 500, 675, 870 and 1020 nm. In comparison with CIMEL sun photometers used in AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork), another worldwide ground-based network, skyradiometers have an advantage that they can provide larger number of aerosol property data at shorter time intervals. However, standard procedures for instrument operation and data retrieval have not been established. In this study, we first showed how we calibrated the instrument and how we obtained cloud screened and quality assured data. Next, we presented variations in aerosol optical and microphysical properties, depending on air masses and/or meteorological conditions, and examined the characteristic of high aerosol loading episodes including Asian dust storm and smog.

  5. Effects of land use on the spatial distribution of trace metals and volatile organic compounds in urban groundwater, Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seong-Sook; Kim, Soon-Oh; Yun, Seong-Taek; Chae, Gi-Tak; Yu, Soon-Young; Kim, Seungki; Kim, Young

    2005-10-01

    To investigate the urban groundwater contamination by eight trace metals and 69 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in relation to land use in Seoul, a total of 57 groundwater samples collected from wells were examined using a non-parametric statistical analysis. Land use was classified into five categories: less-developed, residential, agricultural, traffic, and industrial. A comparison of analyzed data with US EPA and Korean standards for drinking water showed that some metals and VOCs exceeded the standards in a few localities, such as Fe ( N=5), Mn ( N=6), Cu ( N=1), TCE ( N=6), PCE ( N=8), 1,2-DCA ( N=1), and 1,2-dichloropropane ( N=1). Among the 69 investigated VOCs, 19 compounds such as some gasoline-related compounds (e.g., toluene) and chlorinated compounds (e.g., chloroform, PCE, TCE) were detected in groundwater. Non-parametric statistical analysis showed that the concentrations of most trace metals (Fe, Mn, As, Cr, Pb, Cd) and some VOCs (especially, TCE, PCE, chloroform; toluene, carbon tetrachloride, bromodichloromethane, CFC113) are significantly higher in the industrial, residential, and traffic areas ( P<0.05), indicating that anthropogenic contamination of urban groundwater by those chemicals is growing. Those chemicals can be used as effective indicators of anthropogenic contamination of groundwater in urban areas and therefore a special attention is warranted for a safe water supply in those areas. The results of this study suggest that urban groundwater quality in urban areas is closely related with land use.

  6. Association between Maternal Characteristics and Neonatal Birth Weight in a Korean Population Living in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea: A Birth Cohort Study (COCOA)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Youn Ho; Choi, Suk-Joo; Kim, Kyung Won; Yu, Jinho; Ahn, Kang Mo; Kim, Hyung Young; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Shim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Song, Dae Jin; Lee, So-Yeon; Lee, Soo Young; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Kwon, Ja-Young; Lee, Kyung-Ju; Park, Hee Jin; Lee, Pil Ryang; Won, Hye-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that maternal characteristics may be associated with neonatal outcomes. However, the influence of maternal characteristics on birth weight (BW) has not been adequately determined in Korean populations. We investigated associations between maternal characteristics and BW in a sample of 813 Korean women living in the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea recruited using data from the prospective hospital-based COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA) between 2007 and 2011. The mean maternal age at delivery was 32.3 ± 3.5 yr and prepregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI) was 20.7 ± 2.5 kg/m2. The mean BW of infant was 3,196 ± 406 g. The overall prevalence of a maternal history of allergic disease was 32.9% and the overall prevalence of allergic symptoms was 65.1%. In multivariate regression models, prepregnancy maternal BMI and gestational age at delivery were positively and a maternal history of allergic disease and nulliparity were negatively associated with BW (all P < 0.05). Presence of allergic symptoms in the mother was not associated with BW. In conclusion, prepregnancy maternal BMI, gestational age at delivery, a maternal history of allergic disease, and nulliparity may be associated with BW, respectively. PMID:23579316

  7. Validation of aerosol and cloud layer structures from the space-borne lidar CALIOP using a ground-based lidar in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.-W.; Berthier, S.; Raut, J.-C.; Chazette, P.; Dulac, F.; Yoon, S.-C.

    2008-07-01

    We present initial validation results of the space-borne lidar CALIOP onboard CALIPSO satellite using coincidental observations from a ground-based lidar in Seoul National University (SNU), Seoul, Korea (37.46° N, 126.95° E). We analyze six selected cases between September 2006 and February 2007, including 3 daytime and 3 night-time observations and covering different types of clear and cloudy atmospheric conditions. Apparent scattering ratios calculated from the two lidar measurements of total attenuated backscatter at 532 nm show similar aerosol and cloud layer structures both under cloud-free conditions and in cases of multiple aerosol layers underlying semi-transparent cirrus clouds. Agreement on top and base heights of cloud and aerosol layers is generally within 0.10 km, particularly during night-time. This result confirms that the CALIPSO science team algorithms for the discrimination of cloud and aerosol as well as for the detection of layer top and base altitude provide reliable information in such atmospheric conditions. This accuracy of the planetary boundary layer top height under cirrus cloud appears, however, limited during daytime. Under thick cloud conditions, however, information on the cloud top (bottom) height only is reliable from CALIOP (ground-based lidar) due to strong signal attenuations. However, simultaneous space-borne CALIOP and ground-based SNU lidar (SNU-L) measurements complement each other and can be combined to provide full information on the vertical distribution of aerosols and clouds. An aerosol backscatter-to-extinction ratio (BER) estimated from lidar and sunphotometer synergy at the SNU site during the CALIOP overpass is assessed to be 0.023±0.004 sr-1 (i.e. a lidar ratio of 43.2±6.2 sr) from CALIOP and 0.027±0.006 sr-1 (37.4±7.2 sr) from SNU-L. For aerosols within the planetary boundary layer under cloud-free conditions, the aerosol extinction profiles from both lidars are in agreement within about 0.02 km-1. Under semi

  8. Effects of cloud, aerosol, and ozone on surface spectral Ultraviolet and total irradiance observed in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hana; Kim, Jhoon; Kim, Woogyung; Lee, Yun Gon; Cho, Hi Ku

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, there have been substantial attempts to model the radiative transfer for climatological and biological purposes. However, the incorporation of clouds, aerosols and ozone into the modeling process is one of the difficult tasks due to their variable transmission in both temporal and space domains. In this study we quantify the atmospheric transmissions by clouds, aerosol optical depth (AOD at 320 nm) and total ozone (Ozone) together with all skies in three solar radiation components of the global solar (GS 305-2800nm), total ultraviolet (TUV 290-363nm) and the erythemal weighted ultraviolet (EUV 290-325nm) irradiances with statistical methods using the data at Seoul. The purpose of this study also is to clarify the different characteristics between cloud, AOD and Ozone in the wavelength-dependent solar radiation components. The ozone, EUV and TUV used in this study (March 2003 - February 2014) have been measured with Dobson Spectrophotometer (Beck #124) and Brewer Spectrophotometer (SCI-TEC#148) at Yonsei University, respectively. GS, Cloud Cover (CC) are available from the Korean Meteorological Agency. The measured total (effect of cloud, aerosol, and ozone) transmissions on annual average showed 74%, 76% and 80% of GS, TUV and EUV irradiance, respectively. For the comparison of the measured values with modeled, we have also constructed a multiple linear regression model for the total transmission. The average ratio of measured to modeled total transmission were 0.94, 0.96 and 0.96 with higher measured than modeled value in the three components, respectively, The individual transmission by clouds under the constant AOD and Ozone atmosphere on average showed 68%, 71% and 76% and further the overcast clouds reduced the transmissions to the 45%, 54% and 59% of the clear sky irradiance in the GS, TUV and EUV, respectively. The annual transmissions by AOD showed on average 67%, 70% and 74% and further the high loadings 2.5-4.0 AOD reduced the

  9. Geometric and optical properties of cirrus clouds inferred from three-year ground-based lidar and CALIOP measurements over Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yumi; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kim, Man-Hae; Yoon, Soon-Chang

    2014-03-01

    This study examines cirrus cloud top and bottom heights (CTH and CBH, respectively) and the associated optical properties revealed by ground-based lidar in Seoul (SNU-L), Korea, and space-borne Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), which were obtained during a three-year measurement period between July 2006 and June 2009. From two selected cases, we determined good agreement in CTH and CBH with cirrus cloud optical depth (COD) between ground-based lidar and space-borne CALIOP. In particular, CODs at a wavelength of 532 nm calculated from the three years of SNU-L and CALIOP measurements were 0.417 ± 0.394 and 0.425 ± 0.479, respectively. The fraction of COD lower than 0.1 was approximately 17% and 25% of the total SNU-L and CALIOP profiles, respectively, and approximately 50% of both lidar profiles were classified as sub-visual or optically thin such that COD was < 0.3. The mean depolarization ratio was estimated to be 0.30 ± 0.06 for SNU-L and 0.34 ± 0.08 for CALIOP. The monthly variation of CODs from SNU-L and CALIOP measurements was not distinct, whereas cirrus altitudes from both SNU-L and CALIOP showed distinct monthly variation. CALIOP observations showed that cirrus clouds reached the tropopause level in all months, whereas the up-looking SNU-L did not detect cirrus clouds near the tropopause in summer due to signal attenuation by underlying optically thick clouds. The cloud layer thickness (CLT) and COD showed a distinct linear relationship up to approximately 2 km of the CLT; however, the COD did not increase, but remained constant when the CLT was greater than 2.0 km. The ice crystal content, lidar signal attenuation, and the presence of multi-layered cirrus clouds may have contributed to this tendency.

  10. Susceptibility to air pollution effects on mortality in Seoul, Korea: a case-crossover analysis of individual-level effect modifiers.

    PubMed

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Kim, Ho; Yi, Okhee; Bell, Michelle L

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution's mortality effects may differ by subpopulation; however, few studies have investigated this issue in Asia. We investigated susceptibility to air pollutants on total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality in Seoul, Korea for the period 2000-2007. We applied time-stratified case-crossover analysis, which allows direct modeling of interaction terms, to estimate susceptibility based on sex, age, education, marital status, and occupation. An interquartile range increase in pollution was associated with odds ratios of 0.94 (95% confidence interval, 0.25-1.62), 2.27 (1.03-3.53), 1.94 (0.80-3.09), and 2.21 (1.00-3.43) for total mortality and 1.95 (0.64-3.27), 4.82 (2.18-7.54), 3.64 (1.46-5.87), and 4.32 (1.77-6.92) for cardiovascular mortality for PM(10), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), and carbon monoxide (CO), respectively. Ozone effect estimates were positive, but not statistically significant. Results indicate that some populations are more susceptible than others. For total or cardiovascular mortality, associations were higher for males, those 65-74 years, and those with no education or manual occupation for some pollutants. For example, the odds ratio for SO(2) and cardiovascular mortality was 1.19 (1.03-1.37) times higher for those with manual occupations than professional occupations. Our findings provide evidence that some populations are more susceptible to the effects of air pollution than others, which has implications for public policy and risk assessment for susceptible subpopulations. PMID:22395258

  11. Analysis of Regional Climate Changes adjusted Future Urban Growth Scenarios and possibility of the future air quality prediction in Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Jeong, J.

    2012-12-01

    Land-use changes give effects to physical properties such as albedo, moisture availability and roughness length in the atmosphere, but future urban growth has not been considered widely to predict the future regional climate change because it is hard to predict the future land-use changes. In this study, we used the urban growth model called SLEUTH (Slope, Land-use, Excluded, Urban, Transportation, Hill-shade) based on Cellular Automata (CA) technique to predict the future land-use (especially, urban growth) changes. Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), the research area in this study, is the most explosively developed region in the Korean peninsula due to the continuous industrialization since 1970s. SLEUTH was calibrated to know the pattern and process of the urban growth and expansion in SMA with historical data for 35 years (1975-2000) provided from WAter Management Information System (WAMIS) in Korea and then future urban growth was projected out to 2050 assuming three different scenarios: (1) historical trends of urban growth (SC1), (2) future urban policy and plan (SC2), (3) ecological protection and growth (SC3). We used the FNL data of NCEP/NCAR for one month, Oct. in 2005 to evaluate the performance of the WRF on the long-term climate simulation and compared results of WRF with the ASOS/AWS (Automated Surface Observing Systems and Automated Weather System) observation data of the Korea Meteorology Administration. Based on the accuracy of the model, we performed various numerical experiments by the urban growth scenarios using the 6 hourly data of ECHAM5/OM-1 A1B scenarios generated by Max-Plank Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany on Oct. for 5 years (2046-2050), respectively. The difference of urban ratio under various urban growth scenarios in SMA consequently caused the spatial distributions of temperature to change, the average temperature to increase in the urban area. PBL height with a maximum of about 200m also appeared locally in newly

  12. Annual and seasonal variations in atmospheric PCDDs/PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs levels in satellite cities of Seoul, Korea during 2003-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Yoonki; Lee, Meehye; Kim, Donggi; Heo, Jongwon

    2013-10-01

    Long-term measurements of atmospheric polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were conducted in six satellite cities of Seoul, the capital of South Korea, from January 2003 to December 2009. Of the six sites, three were located in residential areas (Suwon, Anyang, and Seongnam) and the other three were in industrial areas (Ansan, Bucheon, and Siheung). For the 7 years, the average concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs and dl-PCBs were higher at industrial sites than those at residential sites, and their lowest and highest concentrations were 0.113 ± 0.073 pg international toxicity equivalency quantity (I-TEQ) m-3 and 0.0071 ± 0.0040 pg World Health Organization (WHO)-TEQ m-3 at Seongnam and 0.625 ± 0.597 pg I-TEQ m-3 and 0.0376 ± 0.0285 pg WHO-TEQ m-3 at Ansan, respectively. The annual averages of these compounds tended to decrease from 2003 to 2009, with the most apparent change in 2006 when the regulation of dioxin emission standard was reinforced for flue gas from incineration facilities. Complying with the reinforced standard, the concentrations of PCDFs were reduced more effectively than those of PCDDs, leading to increase in ratios of PCDDs to PCDFs since 2006. Additionally, a seasonal tendency was observed for PCDDs/PCDFs with higher concentrations in winter than summer, which was opposite for dl-PCBs. This seasonal difference suggests their sources such as combustion processes and volatilization and the influence of synoptic-scale circulation. The congener profiles indicated that 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, OCDF, OCDD, and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD were the most abundant, comprising 65.0% of the 17 toxic 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs/PCDFs mass. The three congeners of 2,3‧,4,4‧,5-PeCB, 2,3,3‧,4,4‧-PeCB, and 3,3‧,4,4‧-TeCB comprised 75.9% of the 12 dl-PCBs.

  13. Science in Basic Functional Education: Philosophy, Approaches, Methods and Materials. Report of a Preparatory Working Group Meeting (Seoul, Rep. of Korea, July 7-12, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This report presents papers delivered at a 1975 meeting on science education held in the Republic of Korea and attended by participants from India, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Phillipines, Singapore, and Sri Lanka. The objectives of the meeting were: (1) to explore problems, issues, approaches, and strategies in science education at the…

  14. Long-range transport of air pollutants originating in China: A possible major cause of multi-day high-PM10 episodes during cold season in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hye-Ryun; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Kim, Jinwon; Chen, Deliang; Lee, Seungmin; Choi, Yong-Sang; Chang, Lim-Seok; Song, Chang-Keun

    2015-05-01

    Massive air pollutants originating in China and their trans-boundary transports are an international concern in East Asia. Despite its importance, details in the trans-boundary transport of air pollutants over East Asia and its impact on regional air quality remain to be clarified. This study presents an evidence which strong support that aerosols emitting in China play a major role in the occurrence of multi-day (≥4 days) severe air pollution episodes in cold seasons (October through March) for 2001-2013 in Seoul, Korea, where the concentration of PM10 (particulates with diameters ≤ 10 μm) exceeds 100 μg m-3. Observations show that these multi-day severe air pollution episodes occur when a strong high-pressure system resides over the eastern China-Korea region. In such weather conditions, air pollutants emitted in eastern China/southwestern Manchuria are trapped within the atmospheric boundary layer, and gradually spread into neighboring countries by weak lower tropospheric westerlies. Understanding of trans-boundary transports of air pollutants will advance the predictability of local air quality, and will encourage the development of international measures to improve air quality.

  15. Supporting Innovations in Education: Preparing Administrators, Supervisors and Other Key Personnel. Report of a Technical Working Group Meeting (Seoul, South Korea, September 29-October 11, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    Eleven countries (Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, South Korea, Sri Lanka, and Thailand) participated in a 1980 meeting on methods of training educational administrators and supervisors to be supportive of educational innovation. This report summarizes the proceedings of that meeting and the…

  16. Histopathological retrospective study of canine renal disease in Korea, 2003~2008

    PubMed Central

    Yhee, Ji-Young; Yu, Chi-Ho; Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Im, Keum-Soon; Chon, Seung-Ki

    2010-01-01

    Renal disease includes conditions affecting the glomeruli, tubules, interstitium, pelvis, and vasculature. Diseases of the kidney include glomerular diseases, diseases of the tubules and interstitium, diseases of renal pelvis, and developmental abnormalities. Renal tissue samples (n = 70) submitted to the Department of Veterinary Pathology of Konkuk University from 2003 to 2008 were included in this study. Tissue histopathology was performed using light microscopy with hematoxylin and eosin stains. Masson's trichrome, Congo Red, and Warthin starry silver staining were applied in several individual cases. Glomerular diseases (22.9%), tubulointerstitial diseases (8.6%), neoplastic diseases (8.6%), conditions secondary to urinary obstruction (24.3%), and other diseases (35.7%) were identified. Glomerulonephritis (GN) cases were classified as acute proliferative GN (5.7%), membranous GN (4.3%), membranoproliferative GN (4.3%), focal segmental GN (2.9%), and other GN (4.2%). The proportion of canine GN cases presently identified was not as high as the proportions identified in human studies. Conversely, urinary obstruction and end-stage renal disease cases were relatively higher in dogs than in human populations. PMID:21113095

  17. Time-course monitoring of urban bioaerosol bacterial communities and its use in microbial hazard identification during Asian Dust events in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.

    2015-12-01

    The microbial communities transported by Asian dust events have attracted much attention as bioaerosols because the transported airborne microbes may strongly influence the downwind ecosystems and potentially human health in East Asia. Bioaerosol study has received relatively little attention and their characterization and risk assessments remain poorly developed. We used high throughput 16S rRNA gene targeted pyrosequencing and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) to monitor airborne bacterial communities and assess their potential risk. We monitored microbial communities in bioaerosol in Seoul between 2011 and 2013 using high volume air samplers. Six samples were collected during Asian dust (AD) events and the other 34 samples were urban air collected during non-Asian dust (non-AD) events. According to the qPCR result, the gene copy numbers of 16S rRNA genes were significantly higher during the AD events (P < 0.05) and their abundances were positively correlated with PM10 concentrations and bacterial diversities. The most abundant bacterial members (genus level) in the AD samples were Bacillus, Neisseria and E.coli/Shigella. To identify pathogenic populations, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and virulence tests were applied using culture methods. 16S rRNA gene sequences of several pathogens were detected and their relative abundances appeared to have increased with increased concentrations of PM10. About 1% of Bacillus isolates were identified as known pathogenic B. cereus, confirming their presence in Asian dust samples. The qPCR detection of bceT gene, which codes for an enterotoxin in B. cereus group, was significantly increased in the AD dust samples over the non-AD samples. The following MLST assessment and virulence test of cultivated Bacillus isolates showed that B. cereus, B. licheniformis and B. mycoides were identified as pathogenic bacteria, and these pathogenic bacteria were usually more abundant during AD events. To assess the possible associations of

  18. A multivariate study for characterizing particulate matter (PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1)) in Seoul metropolitan subway stations, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Bark; Jeong, Wootae; Park, Duckshin; Kim, Ki-Tae; Cho, Kyung Hwa

    2015-10-30

    Given that around eight million commuters use the Seoul Metropolitan Subway (SMS) each day, the indoor air quality (IAQ) of its stations has attracted much public attention. We have monitored the concentration of particulate matters (PMx) (i.e., PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) in six major transfer stations per minute for three weeks during the summer, autumn, and winter in 2014 and 2015. The data were analyzed to investigate the relationship between PMx concentration and multivariate environmental factors using statistical methods. The average PM concentration observed was approximately two or three times higher than outdoor PM10 concentration, showing similar temporal patterns at concourses and platforms. This implies that outdoor PM10 is the most significant factor in controlling indoor PM concentration. In addition, the station depth and number of trains passing through stations were found to be additional influences on PMx. Principal component analysis (PCA) and self-organizing map (SOM) were employed, through which we found that the number of trains influences PM concentration in the vicinity of platforms only, and PMx hotspots were determined. This study identifies the external and internal factors affecting PMx characteristics in six SMS stations, which can assist in the development of effective IAQ management plans to improve public health. PMID:26010475

  19. Chemical characterization of outdoor and subway fine (PM(2.5-1.0)) and coarse (PM(10-2.5)) particulate matter in Seoul (Korea) by computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM).

    PubMed

    Byeon, Sang-Hoon; Willis, Robert; Peters, Thomas M

    2015-02-01

    Outdoor and indoor (subway) samples were collected by passive sampling in urban Seoul (Korea) and analyzed with computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM-EDX). Soil/road dust particles accounted for 42%-60% (by weight) of fine particulate matter larger than 1 µm (PM(2.5-1.0)) in outdoor samples and 18% of PM2.5-1.0 in subway samples. Iron-containing particles accounted for only 3%-6% in outdoor samples but 69% in subway samples. Qualitatively similar results were found for coarse particulate matter (PM(10-2.5)) with soil/road dust particles dominating outdoor samples (66%-83%) and iron-containing particles contributing most to subway PM(10-2.5) (44%). As expected, soil/road dust particles comprised a greater mass fraction of PM(10-2.5) than PM(2.5-1.0). Also as expected, the mass fraction of iron-containing particles was substantially less in PM(10-2.5) than in PM(2.5-1.0). Results of this study are consistent with known emission sources in the area and with previous studies, which showed high concentrations of iron-containing particles in the subway compared to outdoor sites. Thus, passive sampling with CCSEM-EDX offers an inexpensive means to assess PM(2.5-1.0) and PM(10-2.5) simultaneously and by composition at multiple locations. PMID:25689348

  20. Review of Doctoral Research in Second Language Acquisition in Wales (2003-2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Tess

    2010-01-01

    An objective selection protocol identified 25 Ph.D. theses from Welsh universities in the period 2003-2008 which are relevant to the field of second language acquisition. Most of these fall into three broad subject areas: language in school, acquisition and assessment of spoken language, and lexical issues. The last of these encompasses the…

  1. Physician-prescribed Asthma Treatment Regimen does not differ Between Smoking and Non-smoking Patients With Asthma in Seoul and Gyunggi province of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kian Fan; Allen-Ramey, Felicia; Pollard, Ryan; Perry, Richard; Price, David

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Smoking has detrimental effects on asthma symptom control and response to treatment and is prevalent among asthma patients in South Korea. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of smoking among asthma patients in South Korea and to compare the medication regimens of asthma patients who do and do not smoke. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted from August 2010 to January 2011. Participating physicians (N=25) recorded demographic and clinical data on all asthma patients presenting during the study period (N=2,032), and then recruited a subset of patients (N=500) for the survey such that half were self-reported current smokers. Recruited patients were between the ages of 18 and 60. Results Among presenting asthma patients, 17.3% were current smokers, 19.2% were former smokers, and 63.5% had never smoked. Within the analyzable study population (N=471), 212 patients reported smoking currently, 79 smoking formerly, and 180 never smoking. Among current and former smokers, 79.7% and 81.0%, respectively, were men, while women represented 80.5% of patients who had never smoked. Agreement was strong between physician-determined smoking status and patient-reported smoking status (κ=0.82; P<0.001). However, asthma medication regimens examined according to GINA treatment steps did not differ by smoking status. In addition, mean quality of life scores and level of asthma control did not differ by smoking status. Conclusions In South Korea, physicians are well aware of the smoking status of their patients. However, smoking status did not affect the prescribed medication regimens of this population of asthma patients. PMID:25553260

  2. Chemical Characterization of Outdoor and Subway Fine (PM2.5–1.0) and Coarse (PM10–2.5) Particulate Matter in Seoul (Korea) by Computer-Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM)

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Sang-Hoon; Willis, Robert; Peters, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor and indoor (subway) samples were collected by passive sampling in urban Seoul (Korea) and analyzed with computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM-EDX). Soil/road dust particles accounted for 42%–60% (by weight) of fine particulate matter larger than 1 µm (PM2.5–1.0) in outdoor samples and 18% of PM2.5–1.0 in subway samples. Iron-containing particles accounted for only 3%–6% in outdoor samples but 69% in subway samples. Qualitatively similar results were found for coarse particulate matter (PM10–2.5) with soil/road dust particles dominating outdoor samples (66%–83%) and iron-containing particles contributing most to subway PM10–2.5 (44%). As expected, soil/road dust particles comprised a greater mass fraction of PM10–2.5 than PM2.5–1.0. Also as expected, the mass fraction of iron-containing particles was substantially less in PM10–2.5 than in PM2.5–1.0. Results of this study are consistent with known emission sources in the area and with previous studies, which showed high concentrations of iron-containing particles in the subway compared to outdoor sites. Thus, passive sampling with CCSEM-EDX offers an inexpensive means to assess PM2.5–1.0 and PM10-2.5 simultaneously and by composition at multiple locations. PMID:25689348

  3. The OGLE-III planet detection efficiency from six years of microlensing observations (2003-2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsapras, Y.; Hundertmark, M.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Horne, K.; Udalski, A.; Snodgrass, C.; Street, R.; Bramich, D. M.; Dominik, M.; Bozza, V.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Kains, N.; Skowron, J.; Szymański, M. K.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; Ulaczyk, K.; Kozłowski, S.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Poleski, R.

    2016-04-01

    We use six years (2003-2008) of Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment-III microlensing observations to derive the survey detection efficiency for a range of planetary masses and projected distances from the host star. We perform an independent analysis of the microlensing light curves to extract the event parameters and compute the planet detection probability given the data. 2433 light curves satisfy our quality selection criteria and are retained for further processing. The aggregate of the detection probabilities over the range explored yields the expected number of microlensing planet detections. We employ a Galactic model to convert this distribution from dimensionless to physical units, α/au and M⊕. The survey sensitivity to small planets is highest in the range 1-4 au, shifting to slightly larger separations for more massive ones.

  4. Fatal injuries among grounds maintenance workers: United States, 2003--2008.

    PubMed

    2011-05-01

    A total of 1,142 grounds maintenance workers (GMWs) were fatally injured at work during 2003--2008, an average of 190 each year. GMWs accounted for 3.4% of all occupational fatalities, and 31% of those GMWs were Hispanic or Latino. Approximately 83% of the Hispanic or Latino GMWs who died were born outside the United States. In 2008, approximately 1.52 million persons were employed as GMWs, constituting 1.0% of the U.S. workforce. During 2003--2007, an average of 13.3 per 100,000 employed GMWs died each year, compared with an overall rate of 4.0 fatalities per 100,000 U.S. workers. The rate of on-the-job fatal injuries among GMWs has remained elevated relative to other workers for >20 years. This report characterizes events leading to GMW fatalities and differences in fatality characteristics across demographic groups among GMWs, based on an evaluation of 2003--2008 data from the U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) program. The report also identifies workplace interventions that might reduce the incidence of fatal injuries. Major events leading to GMW occupational fatalities included transportation incidents (31%), contact with objects and equipment (25%), falls (23%), and traumatic acute exposures to harmful substances or environments (e.g., electrocution and drowning) (16%). To reduce the incidence of such fatalities, employers, trade and worker associations, and policy makers should focus on effective, targeted workplace safety interventions such as frequent hazard identification and training for specific hazards. Diversity among the populations of workers requires use of culture- and language-appropriate training techniques as part of comprehensive injury and illness prevention programs. PMID:21544043

  5. Chemical Characterization of Outdoor and Subway Fine (PM2.5-1.0) and Coarse (PM10-2.5) Particulate Matter in Seoul (Korea) Computer-Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outdoor and indoor (subway) samples were collected by passive sampling in urban Seoul and analyzed with computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM-EDX). Soil/road dust particles accounted for 42-60% (by weight) of fin...

  6. 2015 summertime characteristic variations of NMHCs in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, J.

    2015-12-01

    Nonmethane hydrocarbons(NMHCs) is well known as a precursor of ozone and organic aerosols along with nitrogen oxides compounds. Recently, SOA(secondary Organic Aerosol) dominant fine particles and episodic high O3 are frequently observed throughout major cities of the East Asia, especially SMA(Seoul Metropolitan Area). Even though NMHCs play an important role in their producions, we still have great uncertainties of it's emission, transport and chemistry. During MAPS-Seoul 2015 (Magacity Air Pollution Studies- Seoul)/KORUS-AQ(Korea-US Air Quality Study), we measured NMHCs using automated dual column/FID GC system with thermal desorption unit to address science questions both defined in KORUS-AQ and MAPS-Seoul White papers. One column was designed to separate low boiling point NMHC(C2~C6), the other for high boiling point NMHC(C7~C12). 56 NMHC compounds were measured from 18th May to 12th June, 2015 at an urban site in hill top of Korea Institute of Science and Technology campus.During the observation period, sum of NMHCs ranged from 27.6 ppbv to 54.1 ppbv. Among them, the mean concentrations of ethane was the highest (7.0 ppbv), and propane(6.7 ppbv), toluene(4.9ppbv), n-butane(3.3 ppbv) were followed. These four species represented 54% of total NMHCs concentration. The detailed behaviors of NMHC species were discussed further.

  7. Special Education in South Korea: Daegu University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byung Ha; Rhee, Kun Yong; Burns, Carol; Lerner, Janet W.

    2009-01-01

    Daegu University has enjoyed a long and remarkable history of special education. Daegu University is large University located in Daegu, South Korea, a large city in South Korea that is south of Seoul. Since the 1970's, South Korea has achieved unusual and comprehensive growth in its economy, and the field of special education continued to thrive…

  8. An Incidence Survey of Battered Children in Two Elementary Schools of Seoul.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kwang-iel; Ko, Bokja

    1990-01-01

    A survey of 1,142 elementary school students in Seoul (Korea) found that 8 percent were seriously battered, 58 percent were mildly battered, and 34 percent were unbattered in a 1-year period. Child battering was more serious in families in lower social strata, with poor living conditions, in broken families, and where parents were unskilled or…

  9. A Case Study of MOOCs Design and Administration at Seoul National University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Cheolil; Kim, Sunyoung; Kim, Mihwa; Han, Songlee; Seo, Seungil

    2014-01-01

    This research, based on the case study of edX at Seoul National University, which is running Korea's first Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), discussed and proposed the roles of principal facilitators, the process, and the relationships among various facilitators in selecting, designing, opening and administrating MOOCs classes. Researches on…

  10. Summing up the Global Health Security Agenda 2015 High Level Meeting in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Ghsa Preparation Task Force Team

    2015-12-01

    The Second Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) 2015 High Level Meeting was successfully held in September 7 to 9 in Seoul, the Republic of Korea (ROK). Delegations from 46 countries including 26 ministerial level officials and 9 international organizations participated in the meeting. ROK, one of the 10 steering group countries of GHSA, shared the importance of multi-sectoral response through the experiences of Able Response Exercise, and MERS outbreak countermeasure with international communities. ROK promised to input 10 billion USD to strengthen the capacities to respond infectious diseases in developing countries. Seoul Declaration, the first collaborative efforts on heal security, was announced at the end of the meeting. Seoul Declaration holds GHSA vision promising international collaboration and commitment. PMID:27429903

  11. Characterization of the winter atmospheric aerosols in Kyoto and Seoul using PIXE, EAS and IC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chang-Jin; Kasahara, Mikio; Tohno, Susumu; Hwang, Kyung-Chul

    Characteristics of atmospheric aerosols in Kyoto, Japan and Seoul, Korea were investigated using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), elemental analysis system (EAS) and ion chromatograph (IC). Atmospheric aerosols were collected into fine and coarse fractions using a two-stage filter pack sampler in Kyoto and Seoul in winter of 1998. PIXE was applied to analyze the middle and heavy elements with atomic number greater than 14 (Si), and EAS was applied to analyze the light elements such as H, C and N. The total mass concentration in Seoul was about two times higher than in Kyoto and the concentration of Ca, Si, and Ti that are mainly originated from soil were remarkably higher in Seoul. During an Asian dust storm event, the concentration of soil components increased dramatically and amounted to about 15 times higher than average concentration. The fine/coarse ratios of NH 4+, NO 3-, and SO 42- were extremely high in both sites. The fact that nearly 70% of fine particles in both Kyoto and Seoul consist of the light elements (N, C, and H) suggests the importance of light elements measurement. Good mass closure for fine particles with light element data was achieved.

  12. Letter from Seoul: Correspondence from the International Arts Education Symposium and the Asia-Pacific Regional Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aprill, Arnold; Schroeder-Yu, Gigi

    2006-01-01

    Arts educator Gigi Schroeder-Yu and Arnold Aprill arrived in Seoul, Korea to participate in the International Arts Education Symposium and in the Asia-Pacific Regional Conference that are part of the wind up for the pitch of the UNESCO World Conference on Arts Education to be held in Lisbon in March 2006. In this article, they reflect on their…

  13. Terrorism in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Soon Joo; Choi, Jin Tae; Arnold, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    South Korea has experienced > 30 suspected terrorism-related events since 1958, including attacks against South Korean citizens in foreign countries. The most common types of terrorism used have included bombings, shootings, hijackings, and kidnappings. Prior to 1990, North Korea was responsible for almost all terrorism-related events inside of South Korea, including multiple assassination attempts on its presidents, regular kidnappings of South Korean fisherman, and several high-profile bombings. Since 1990, most of the terrorist attacks against South Korean citizens have occurred abroad and have been related to the emerging worldwide pattern of terrorism by international terrorist organizations or deranged individuals. The 1988 Seoul Olympic Games provided a major stimulus for South Korea to develop a national emergency response system for terrorism-related events based on the participation of multiple ministries. The 11 September 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks and the 2001 United States of America (US) anthrax letter attacks prompted South Korea to organize a new national system of emergency response for terrorism-related events. The system is based on five divisions for the response to specific types of terrorist events, involving conventional terrorism, bioterrorism, chemical terrorism, radiological terrorism, and cyber-terrorism. No terrorism-related events occurred during the 2002 World Cup and Asian Games held in South Korea. The emergency management of terrorism-related events in South Korea is adapting to the changing risk of terrorism in the new century. PMID:15074497

  14. Drought over Seoul and Its Association with Solar Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-Hyeok; Chang, Heon-Young

    2013-12-01

    We have investigated drought periodicities occurred in Seoul to find out any indication of relationship between drought in Korea and solar activities. It is motivated, in view of solar-terrestrial connection, to search for an example of extreme weather condition controlled by solar activity. The periodicity of drought in Seoul has been re-examined using the wavelet transform technique as the consensus is not achieved yet. The reason we have chosen Seoul is because daily precipitation was recorded for longer than 200 years, which meets our requirement that analyses of drought frequency demand long-term historical data to ensure reliable estimates. We have examined three types of time series of the Effective Drought Index (EDI). We have directly analyzed EDI time series in the first place. And we have constructed and analyzed time series of histogram in which the number of days whose EDI is less than -1.5 for a given month of the year is given as a function of time, and one in which the number of occasions where EDI values of three consecutive days are all less than -1.5 is given as a function of time. All the time series data sets we analyzed are periodic. Apart from the annual cycle due to seasonal variations, periodicities shorter than the 11 year sunspot cycle, ~ 3, ~ 4, ~ 6 years, have been confirmed. Periodicities to which theses short periodicities (shorter than Hale period) may be corresponding are not yet known. Longer periodicities possibly related to Gleissberg cycles, ~ 55, ~ 120 years, can be also seen. However, periodicity comparable to the 11 year solar cycle seems absent in both EDI and the constructed data sets.

  15. Morning calm, nuclear sunset: South Korea`s atomic option

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, A.D.

    1998-09-01

    US national security strategy sets nuclear nonproliferation as a high priority. However pursuing nonproliferation without regard for important traditional security relationships might yield undesired results. The Republic of Korea (ROK) requires a high degree of confidence in the US security guarantee one that includes an extended nuclear deterrent. The nuclear weapons program that South Korea began and abandoned in the 1970s was prompted by a decrease in confidence in US security commitments. Conciliatory actions taken recently by the United States toward the Democratic Peoples` Republic of Korea (DPRK) to prevent a possible nuclear weapons program may undermine the US-ROK security arrangement that has been in place for decades. This work examines perceived threats to South Korea and the US security commitment to Korea since 1945 to reveal how US nuclear nonproliferation policy affects Seoul`s propensity to develop nuclear weapons. Recommendations are provided for policy makers regarding strengthening of ROK confidence in the US commitment on the peninsula, with particular emphasis on preventing South Korea from pursuing a nuclear arsenal.

  16. Light Pollution Surveys around the Seoul Capital Area: Results from 2009 and 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jinhee; An, Sung-Ho; Bae, Hyun-Jin; Roh, Eunji; Chiang, Howoo; Kim, Jinhyub; Kim, Seongjoong; Park, Songyoun

    2015-08-01

    We conducted a series of light pollution surveys in the periods of 2009/2010 and 2014/2015 at ~130 sites within the Seoul Capital Area of South Korea. We quantitatively measured the night sky brightness in the unit of mag/arcsec2 with the ‘SQM (Sky Quality Meter)-L’ by considering the following conditions: 1) fully dark sky after astronomical twilight, 2) good weather with the cloud amount less than 10%, and 3) ensure no contaminations from nearby street lights to the measured value. We find that the night sky is getting darker from the center of Seoul to the outskirts of Gyeonggi-do by a factor of ~40. In both surveys, for example, the brightest site is Namsan Elementary School (Jung-gu, Seoul: 16.3 and 16.5 mag/arcsec2 in 2009/2010 and 2014/2015, respectively), located nearly at the middle of Seoul. Also, the darkest site is Goseong-ri (Gapyeong-gun, Gyeonggi-do: 20.1 and 20.6 mag/arcsec2 in 2009/2010 and 2014/2015, respectively), situated ~50 km northeast of the brightest site. In addition, the night sky brightness in 2014/2015 is on average darker by ~0.4 mag/arcsec2 compared to the brightness in 2009/2010, which indicates the reduced light pollution in the Seoul Capital Area. In this contribution, we will present the maps of the night sky brightness in the capital region of Korea from both surveys, and discuss the possible reasons for the changes in night sky brightness within 5 years.

  17. Neonatal mortality due to preterm birth at 28-36 weeks' gestation in China, 2003-2008.

    PubMed

    Liang, Juan; Mao, Meng; Dai, Li; Li, Xiaohong; Miao, Lei; Li, Qi; He, Chunhua; Li, Mingrong; Wang, He; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Yanping

    2011-11-01

    Almost all (99%) neonatal deaths occur in developing countries, where the progress in reducing neonatal mortality rates (NMR) has been small; the Millennium Development Goal for child survival cannot be met if this situation continues. China is among the 10 countries that have the largest numbers of neonatal deaths. In order to provide effective interventions to reduce the national NMR for government policy makers, we analyse the trends, causes and characteristics of the neonatal deaths of preterm babies in different regions of China during the period 2003-2008. The data for this retrospective study were retrieved from the population-based Maternal and Child Health Surveillance System of China. The Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to analyse the trend of NMRs due to immaturity. The national NMR due to immaturity has decreased by 38.7% in 6 years. However, the proportion of preterm births among the causes of neonatal death has increased significantly from 33.6% in 2003 to 40.9% in 2008. The relative risk of neonatal death among preterm babies has shown significant regional disparity. In 2008, the adjusted relative risk was 1.30 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95, 1.78] in the inland regions and 2.37 [95% CI 1.56, 3.60] in the remote regions, both compared with the coastal regions. The proportion of neonatal deaths with a gestational age <32 weeks or a birthweight <1500 g was highest among the coastal regions. Most neonatal deaths of preterm babies in remote areas were born at home and were not treated before death. Our study suggests that preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal death in China and neonatal mortality due to immaturity displayed regional differences. The Chinese government should implement major effective strategies for reducing the mortality of preterm infants to further decrease the total NMR. Priority interventions should be region-specific, depending on the availability of economic and health care resources. PMID:21980948

  18. A Pediatric Case of Thelaziasis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Chung Hyuk; Ko, Jeong Hee; Lee, Jung Hyun; Choi, Yu Mi; Lee, Won Wook; Ahn, Sang Ki; Ahn, Myoung Hee; Choi, Kyong Eun

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we intended to report a clinical pediatric case of thelaziasis in Korea. In addition, we briefly reviewed the literature on pediatric cases of thelaziasis in Korea. In the present case, 3 whitish, thread-like eye-worms were detected in a 6-year-old-boy living in an urban area and contracted an ocular infection known as thelaziasis incidentally during ecological agritainment. This is the first report of pediatric thelaziasis in Seoul after 1995. PMID:27417087

  19. Added effect of heat wave on mortality in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Won Kyung; Lee, Hye Ah; Lim, Youn Hee; Park, Hyesook

    2016-05-01

    A heat wave could increase mortality owing to high temperature. However, little is known about the added (duration) effect of heat wave from the prolonged period of high temperature on mortality and different effect sizes depending on the definition of heat waves and models. A distributed lag non-linear model with a quasi-Poisson distribution was used to evaluate the added effect of heat wave on mortality after adjusting for long-term and intra-seasonal trends and apparent temperature. We evaluated the cumulative relative risk of the added wave effect on mortality on lag days 0-30. The models were constructed using nine definitions of heat wave and two relationships (cubic spline and linear threshold model) between temperature and mortality to leave out the high temperature effect. Further, we performed sensitivity analysis to evaluate the changes in the effect of heat wave on mortality according to the different degrees of freedom for time trend and cubic spline of temperature. We found that heat wave had the added effect from the prolonged period of high temperature on mortality and it was considerable in the aspect of cumulative risk because of the lagged influence. When heat wave was defined with a threshold of 98th percentile temperature and ≥2, 3, and 4 consecutive days, mortality increased by 14.8 % (7.5-22.6, 95 % confidence interval (CI)), 18.1 % (10.8-26.0, 95 % CI), 18.1 % (10.7-25.9, 95 % CI), respectively, in cubic spline model. When it came to the definitions of 90th and 95th percentile, the risk increase in mortality declined to 3.7-5.8 % and 8.6-11.3 %, respectively. This effect was robust to the flexibility of the model for temperature and time trend, while the definitions of a heat wave were critical in estimating its relationship with mortality. This finding could help deepen our understanding and quantifying of the relationship between heat wave and mortality and select an appropriate definition of heat wave and temperature model in the future studies.

  20. Added effect of heat wave on mortality in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Kyung; Lee, Hye Ah; Lim, Youn Hee; Park, Hyesook

    2016-05-01

    A heat wave could increase mortality owing to high temperature. However, little is known about the added (duration) effect of heat wave from the prolonged period of high temperature on mortality and different effect sizes depending on the definition of heat waves and models. A distributed lag non-linear model with a quasi-Poisson distribution was used to evaluate the added effect of heat wave on mortality after adjusting for long-term and intra-seasonal trends and apparent temperature. We evaluated the cumulative relative risk of the added wave effect on mortality on lag days 0-30. The models were constructed using nine definitions of heat wave and two relationships (cubic spline and linear threshold model) between temperature and mortality to leave out the high temperature effect. Further, we performed sensitivity analysis to evaluate the changes in the effect of heat wave on mortality according to the different degrees of freedom for time trend and cubic spline of temperature. We found that heat wave had the added effect from the prolonged period of high temperature on mortality and it was considerable in the aspect of cumulative risk because of the lagged influence. When heat wave was defined with a threshold of 98th percentile temperature and ≥2, 3, and 4 consecutive days, mortality increased by 14.8 % (7.5-22.6, 95 % confidence interval (CI)), 18.1 % (10.8-26.0, 95 % CI), 18.1 % (10.7-25.9, 95 % CI), respectively, in cubic spline model. When it came to the definitions of 90th and 95th percentile, the risk increase in mortality declined to 3.7-5.8 % and 8.6-11.3 %, respectively. This effect was robust to the flexibility of the model for temperature and time trend, while the definitions of a heat wave were critical in estimating its relationship with mortality. This finding could help deepen our understanding and quantifying of the relationship between heat wave and mortality and select an appropriate definition of heat wave and temperature model in the future studies. PMID:26428482

  1. Air pollution trends and countermeasures of Seoul metropolitan area last 20 years

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, K.C.; Ghim, Y.S.; Kim, Y.P.; Kim, J.Y.

    1999-07-01

    The city of Seoul is a mega-city with the area of 605 km{sup 2} (0.6% of the total area of South Korea) but has about 25% (11 million) of the total population, 32% of the total vehicles, and more than 40% of the total national production. As a result, severe environmental problems have arisen in Seoul including frequent visibility impairment episodes and signs of photochemical smog. The visibility, air quality and gaseous characteristics of Seoul metropolitan were measured during the last several years, and investigated the air pollution trends and causes of last twenty years. The major parameters such as particle size distribution, light extinction budget, meteorological parameters and particle characteristics were measured and simulated. For this study, many different measurements of previous researchers' results were used in order to analyze the causes and counter measures. The yearly average concentrations of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and total suspended particles were decreased due to strong Korean government air quality control and clean fuel supplying policies. But the yearly average concentrations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide have not been decreased due to the drastically increased the number of vehicles and other impacts, such as transport of air pollutants from outside of Seoul. The smog phenomena and visibility impairment causes are to be more investigated in near future.

  2. Great hospitals of Asia: the Department of Neurosurgery at Seoul National University College of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Gyu; Park, Chul-Kee; Paek, Sun Ha; Kim, Jeong Eun; Kim, Chi Heon; Phi, Ji Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Established in 1957, the Department of Neurosurgery at Seoul National University College of Medicine is the one of the oldest neurosurgical departments in Korea. The seven past Chairmen (Bo Sung Sim, Kil Soo Choi, Dae Hee Han, Byung-Kyu Cho, Hyun Jib Kim, Hee-Won Jung, and Dong Gyu Kim) have devoted themselves to the development of the department. The current chair, Chun Kee Chung, assumed the position in July 2010. The current department comprises several clinical programs that encompass the entire spectrum of neurosurgical disorders, with 29 specialized faculty members and care teams in three hospitals: Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH), Boramae Medical Center (BMC), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (SNUBH). The remarkable growth of the department during the last half century made it possible to perform 5,666 operations (3,299 at SNUH, 411 at BMC and 1,860 at SNUBH) during 2009. A total of 1,201 articles authored by faculty members were published in scientific journals between 1958 and 2009, approximately 32% of which were published in international journals. The department is regarded as the "Mecca" of neurosurgery in Korea because of its outstanding achievement and the many distinguished alumni with leadership roles in the academic field. This article traces the clinical, academic, and scientific development of the department, its present activities, and its future direction. PMID:21600472

  3. The relationship between changes in employment status and mortality risk based on the Korea Labor and Income Panel Study (2003-2008).

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Man; Son, Nak-Hoon; Park, Eun-Cheol; Nam, Chung Mo; Kim, Tae Hyun; Cho, Woo-Hyun

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the mortality rate and changes in employment status. This study used mortality data from the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study. To analyze the relationship between the mortality rate and changes in employment status, the population was classified into employed, unemployed, or economically inactive. Demographic and socioeconomic variables such as gender, age, educational level, annual household income, marital status, and self-rated health status were controlled. In this study, the generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the relationship between the morality rate and the changes in employment status. The mortality rate was higher (odds ratio = 4.31) among the population that experienced a change in economic status from employed to unemployed than those who maintained employment. The mortality rate for the population who became unemployed or economically inactive was higher (odds ratio = 5.05) in cases of death by disease. PMID:23674827

  4. Evaluation of Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Forecasts during the MAPS-Seoul Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, C.; Kim, S.; Kim, H. C.; Kim, B. U.

    2015-12-01

    We report forecasting model performance analysis results of Comprehensive Air quality Model with extensions (CAMx) simulation evaluated with flight measurements during Megacity Air Pollution Studies-Seoul (MAPS-Seoul) field campaign. The primary focus of this study is two-fold: (1) the air quality forecasting model performance for O3, PM10/2.5 and their precursors over the Yellow Sea to measure the model's ability to account for the transport process and (2) the utilization of modeled source-receptor relationship to understand the root of systematic model under-prediction for PM10 and PM2.5 forecasts. MAPS-Seoul, conducted in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) in the summer of 2015, was an integrated research program covering ground monitoring and aloft measurement with aircrafts. To support this field campaign, air quality forecasting was performed with Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) - Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) - CAMx modeling framework. WRF model simulations initialized with National Centers for Environmental Prediction Global Forecasting System (NOAA/NCEP-GFS) were prepared for daily meteorological forecasts. Emission inventories used in this study are Model Inter-Comparison Study-Asia (MICS-Asia) 2010 for Asia and Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS) 2010 for South Korea. Simulated PM10 concentrations were evaluated with observed PM10 concentrations at ground monitoring sites of the AirKorea network in SMA. During the campaign period, average simulated PM10 concentrations showed significant underprediction, over 30% (~35 ㎍/㎥) lower than those observed at sites. To examine source-receptor relationship as a way to identify the cause of underprediction, we ran CAMx with Particulate matter Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT). The air quality forecasting model is based on the with 27-km horizontal grid resolution over Northeast Asia.

  5. Protective Informal Social Control of Child Maltreatment and Child Abuse Injury in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Emery, Clifton R; Eremina, Tatiana; Yang, Hye Lin; Yoo, Changgeun; Yoo, Jieun; Jang, Ja Kyung

    2015-11-01

    Previous findings on the relationship between neighborhood informal social control and child abuse have been mixed. We implemented a scale created by Emery, Trung, and Wu to study protective informal social control of child maltreatment (ISC_CM) by neighbors in a three-stage random cluster sample of 541 families in Seoul, South Korea. Random-effects regression models found that protective ISC_CM significantly moderated the relationship between very severe abuse and child injuries. Very severe abuse was associated with fewer injuries when levels of protective ISC_CM were higher. Implications are discussed. PMID:25392376

  6. Assessing Reading Performance with Curriculum-Based Reading Inventories: The Case of Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dong-il; Hwang, Mae-hyang; Lim, Ji-hyun; Lim, Hyo-jin; Kim, Kwang-seon

    This paper reports the findings of a study that explored the validity of curriculum-based measures of reading in order to develop a valid and practical instrument for regular education teachers as well as special education teachers in Korea. Participants in the study were 213 students from 7 elementary schools in Seoul, Korea. Of the total, 183…

  7. OH Reactivity Observations during the MAPS-Seoul Campaign: Contrasts between Urban and Suburban Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, D.; Jeong, D.; Blake, D. R.; Wang, M. D.; Kim, D. S.; Lee, G.; Lee, M.; Jung, J.; Ahn, J.; Cho, G.; Guenther, A. B.; Kim, S.

    2015-12-01

    Direct total OH reactivity was observed in the urban and suburban environments of Seoul, South Korea using a comparative reactivity method (CRM) during the MAPS-Seoul field campaign. In addition, CO, NOx, SO2, ozone, VOCs, aerosol, physical, and chemical parameters were also deployed. By comparing the observed total OH reactivity results with calculated OH reactivity from the trace gas observational datasets, we will evaluate our current status in constraining reactive gases in the urban and suburban environments in the East Asian megacity. Observed urban OH reactivity will be presented in the context of the ability to constrain anthropogenic reactive trace gas emissions. It will then be compared to the observed suburban results from Taehwa Research Forest (located ~ 50 km from the Seoul City Center). Our understanding of reactive trace gases in an environment of high BVOC emissions in a mildly aged anthropogenic influences will be evaluated. Using an observational constrained box model with detailed VOC oxidation schemes (e.g. MCM), we will discuss: 1) what is the amount of missing OH reactivity 2) what are the potential sources of the missing OH reactivity, and 3) what are the implications on regional air quality?

  8. Development and assessment of road weather information in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sanghoo; Lee, Jonghak; Kim, Mingyu; Choi, Youngjean

    2016-04-01

    Road-based transport is essential for populations operating in large urban environments. Driving conditions are impacted by the intensity of rainfall. However, rainfall is not directly measured on roads. In this study, we evaluated road weather prediction accuracy using representative rainfall days in Seoul, South Korea, during 2013.Data were collected by 190 weather stations, of which 33 were located within 20 meters of a road and were used as model validation sites, while the remaining 157 were used as model fitting sites. Inverse distance weighting (IDW) and ordinary kriging (OK) based on variograms were considered for interpolation. We used the bias, root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and correlation coefficient (CC) as the prediction performance criteria. The prediction performance of OK was higher than that of IDW. As expected, prediction performance increased when the number of rainfall observations increased. We also simulated road conditions using the accumulated historical rainfall data. Generating road information for the entire urban road network is very expensive; therefore, 177,599 road positions were reproduced from 22,184 road link units. Finally, safe driving speeds were calculated from simulated rainfall, stopping distance, and visibility distance.We hope that the results of this study will provide a basis for the safety information given to road users.

  9. Role of Chinese wind-blown dust in enhancing environmental pollution in Metropolitan Seoul.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wonnyon; Doh, Seong-Jae; Yu, Yongjae; Lee, Meehye

    2008-05-01

    A suite of rock magnetic experiments and intensive microscopic observations were carried out on Asian dust deposits in Seoul, Korea, collected on 19 and 23 March 2002, 9 April 2002 and 12 April 2003. Desert-sand and loess from the dust source regions in China were also analyzed as a comparison. Asian dust showed a higher magnetic concentration than the source region samples, indicating a significant influx of magnetic particles into Asian dust had occurred during its transportation. Electron microscopy identified carbon-bearing iron-oxides as the added material. These iron-oxides were likely to have been produced by anthropogenic pollution (fossil fuel combustion) while the wind-blown dusts passing across the industrial areas of eastern China and western Korea. Such wind-paths were confirmed by a simulation of the air-mass trajectories. The magnetic technique appears to be useful for determining the anthropogenic pollution of Asian dust. PMID:17904713

  10. Korea's developmental program for superconductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Gye-Won; Won, Dong-Yeon; Kuk, Il-Hyun; Park, Jong-Chul

    1995-01-01

    Superconductivity research in Korea was firstly carried out in the late 70's by a research group in Seoul National University (SNU), who fabricated a small scale superconducting magnetic energy storage system under the financial support from Korea Electric Power Company (KEPCO). But a few researchers were involved in superconductivity research until the oxide high Tc superconductor was discovered by Bednorz and Mueller. After the discovery of YBaCuO superconductor operating above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77 K)(exp 2), Korean Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) sponsored a special fund for the high Tc superconductivity research to universities and national research institutes by recognizing its importance. Scientists engaged in this project organized 'High Temperature Superconductivity Research Association (HITSRA)' for effective conducting of research. Its major functions are to coordinate research activities on high Tc superconductivity and organize the workshop for active exchange of information. During last seven years the major superconductivity research has been carried out through the coordination of HITSRA. The major parts of the Korea's superconductivity research program were related to high temperature superconductor and only a few groups were carrying out research on conventional superconductor technology, and Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI) have led this research. In this talk, the current status and future plans of superconductivity research in Korea will be reviewed based on the results presented in interim meeting of HITSRA, April 1-2, 1994. Taejeon, as well as the research activity of KAERI.

  11. Culture Clash: U.S. Television Programs in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Jong Geun; Morgan, Michael

    A study examined the influence that the United States media have on the values, morality, and traditions of other countries, and more specifically the effects on Korean values of American television as it is broadcast on the U.S. Forces Korean Network. College students in Seoul, Korea (46% male and 54% female with a mean age of 24.6) answered a…

  12. An analysis of the characteristics of aerosol light scattering coefficients at Seoul and Baengnyeongdo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B.; Eun, S.; Seo, W.; Park, J.; Ahn, J.; Moon, K.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosols in the atmosphere can scatter and absorb solar radiation and their spatial/temporal distributions are highly inhomogeneous due to short lifetimes (about a few weeks or less). Through scattering and absorption of solar radiation, aerosols directly affect visibility and climate through the modification of the Earth's energy budget (Charlson et al., 1992; Yan, 2007; Wang, 2012). This study investigates long-term trends and characteristics of aerosol light scattering coefficient at Seoul and Baengnyeongdo, 100 km upstream of Seoul, in Korea. Aerosol scattering coefficients were measured continuously with nephelometers. The analysis period is limited to one year of 2011. For the relationship analysis of extinction coefficients (σext) to visibility and aerosol optical depth, σsp observed at 3 p.m. have been used with help of aerosol absorption coefficients (σap) in order to remove its dependence upon relative humidity (RH), and also those of rainy period have been excluded. As expected, σext estimated are inversely proportional to visibility observation by eye. Aerosol extinction coefficients have been vertically integrated with an assumption of nearly well-mixed within an e-folding height to determine aerosol optical depth (τa), and compared with those retrieved from sunphotometer. The results show a reasonable agreement in spite of an inherent difference of each definition. We expect these findings would help to eventually understand aerosol radiative forcing and its effect on the regional climate change around Korea.

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Seoul Virus Strain Tchoupitoulas.

    PubMed

    Miles, Rory W; Lewandowski, Kuiama; Atkinson, Barry; Pullan, Steven T; Lloyd, Graham; Bailey, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Seoul virus (genus Hantavirus; family Bunyaviridae) is an emerging pathogen associated with cases of acute kidney injury in several countries across the globe. We report here the whole-genome sequence of the Tchoupitoulas strain of Seoul virus isolated in New Orleans, LA. PMID:27284149

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Seoul Virus Strain Tchoupitoulas

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowski, Kuiama; Pullan, Steven T.; Lloyd, Graham; Bailey, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Seoul virus (genus Hantavirus; family Bunyaviridae) is an emerging pathogen associated with cases of acute kidney injury in several countries across the globe. We report here the whole-genome sequence of the Tchoupitoulas strain of Seoul virus isolated in New Orleans, LA. PMID:27284149

  15. Spatial regression analysis of traffic crashes in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Kyoung-Ah; Kim, Joon-Ki; Lee, Young-ihn; Ulfarsson, Gudmundur F

    2016-06-01

    Traffic crashes can be spatially correlated events and the analysis of the distribution of traffic crash frequency requires evaluation of parameters that reflect spatial properties and correlation. Typically this spatial aspect of crash data is not used in everyday practice by planning agencies and this contributes to a gap between research and practice. A database of traffic crashes in Seoul, Korea, in 2010 was developed at the traffic analysis zone (TAZ) level with a number of GIS developed spatial variables. Practical spatial models using available software were estimated. The spatial error model was determined to be better than the spatial lag model and an ordinary least squares baseline regression. A geographically weighted regression model provided useful insights about localization of effects. The results found that an increased length of roads with speed limit below 30 km/h and a higher ratio of residents below age of 15 were correlated with lower traffic crash frequency, while a higher ratio of residents who moved to the TAZ, more vehicle-kilometers traveled, and a greater number of access points with speed limit difference between side roads and mainline above 30 km/h all increased the number of traffic crashes. This suggests, for example, that better control or design for merging lower speed roads with higher speed roads is important. A key result is that the length of bus-only center lanes had the largest effect on increasing traffic crashes. This is important as bus-only center lanes with bus stop islands have been increasingly used to improve transit times. Hence the potential negative safety impacts of such systems need to be studied further and mitigated through improved design of pedestrian access to center bus stop islands. PMID:26994374

  16. Daily Mean Temperature Affects Urolithiasis Presentation in Seoul: a Time-series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the overall cumulative exposure-response and the lag response relationships between daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation in Seoul. Using a time-series design and distributing lag nonlinear methods, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of urolithiasis presentation associated with mean daily temperature, including the cumulative RR for a 20 days period, and RR for individual daily lag through 20 days. We analyzed data from 14,518 patients of 4 hospitals emergency department who sought medical evaluation or treatment of urolithiasis from 2005-2013 in Seoul. RR was estimated according to sex and age. Associations between mean daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation were not monotonic. Furthermore, there was variation in the exposure-response curve shapes and the strength of association at different temperatures, although in most cases RRs increased for temperatures above the 13°C reference value. The RRs for urolothiasis at 29°C vs. 13°C were 2.54 in all patients (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67-3.87), 2.59 in male (95% CI, 1.56-4.32), 2.42 in female (95% CI, 1.15-5.07), 3.83 in male less than 40 years old (95% CI, 1.78-8.26), and 2.47 in male between 40 and 60 years old (95% CI, 1.15-5.34). Consistent trends of increasing RR of urolithiasis presentation were observed within 5 days of high temperatures across all groups. Urolithiasis presentation increased with high temperature with higher daily mean temperatures, with the strongest associations estimated for lags of only a few days, in Seoul, a metropolitan city in Korea. PMID:27134497

  17. The Seoul Metropolitan Lifestyle Intervention Program and Metabolic Syndrome Risk: A Retrospective Database Study

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Jina; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Ryu, Hosihn; Park, Mi-Suk; Lee, Hyang Sook; Park, Yoo Mi; Lim, Do-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Since 2011, the Seoul Metabolic Syndrome Management (SMESY) program has been employed as a community-wide, lifestyle modification intervention in Seoul, Korea. We aimed to determine if the SMESY intervention would be significantly associated with improvements in metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors. This retrospective database study included data from 25,449 participants aged 30–64 years between 1 January 2013 and 30 June 2013. In the SMESY program, 3 risk-stratified groups by the number of MetS factors were followed for 12 months with different intensity and timeframe of intervention. Among the high-(n = 7116) and moderate-risk groups (n = 14,762), all MetS factors (except triglycerides among the moderate-risk group) as well as MetS z-scores significantly improved over 12 months (all p < 0.05). Among the low-risk group (n = 3571), all factors aggravated significantly over 12 months (all p < 0.05). We observed temporal associations between the implementation of the SMESY program and improvements in MetS risk factors. However, such improvements differed by risk-stratified group, being most robust for the high-risk group, modest for the moderate-risk group, and aggravated for the low-risk group. Thus, more intensive interventions targeting different risk-stratified groups are needed, given a better understanding of the increase in risk factors observed in the low-risk group. PMID:27384576

  18. Evaluation of stage acoustics in Seoul Arts Center Concert Hall by measuring stage support.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jin Yong; Barron, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Stage acoustics is an important characteristic for concert halls, both for the acoustic quality on stage and for the audience. However, relatively little research has been conducted into the question. This study was based on the investigation of an actual concert hall stage, that of the Seoul Arts Center Concert Hall in Korea. The stage acoustics was evaluated in the actual hall, and with two models: a 1:25 scale model and a computer model. The study was based on the stage support parameter ST1 proposed by Gade as a measure of support for individual performers [Acustica 65, 193-203 (1989)]. The variation of support was measured on the empty stage of the actual hall and in the two models. The effect of musicians on stage, the effect of moving the orchestra, the effect of ceiling height and of stage-wall profile were also investigated. Conclusions are drawn both relating to the Seoul Concert Hall stage and stages in general. PMID:15704416

  19. Does the restoration of an inner-city stream in Seoul affect local thermal environment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.-H.; Ryoo, S.-B.; Baik, J.-J.; Park, I.-S.; Koo, H.-J.; Nam, J.-C.

    2008-05-01

    Changes in local thermal environment associated with the restoration of an inner-city stream in Seoul, Korea, are investigated using observational data. The stream, called the Cheonggye stream, which had been hidden and covered with cement/asphalt for 46 years, runs 5.8 km eastward through a central region of Seoul. Intensive observations were made in the stream area for a number of summertime periods before, during, and after the stream restoration to detect the effects of the stream on local environment and to quantify them. It is estimated that after the stream restoration the near-surface temperature averaged over the stream area dropped by 0.4 °C, with the largest local temperature drop being 0.9 °C. However, it cannot be stated that this 0.4 °C temperature drop is due entirely to the stream effect only, because synoptic-scale and local-scale weather conditions during the two periods were inevitably not identical. The stream effect on air temperature is also evident in the temperature distribution along a street traversing the stream. In the daytime after the stream restoration, the sensible heat flux was greatly reduced and the ratio of sensible heat flux to net radiative flux dramatically decreased. These first-time results of the restored-stream effects on urban thermal environment could contribute to the scientific basis of urban planning which aims to make a large city comfortable to live in and nature- and environment-friendly.

  20. Seasonal Variations of Quantified Organic Compounds in PM10 over Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, N.; Lee, J.; Kim, Y. P.

    2014-12-01

    The concentrations of 87 individual organic matters in the PM10 samples, systematically collected on the roof of the School of Public Health building at Seoul National University (mixed commercial and residential area), Seoul, South Korea on a daily basis from April 2010 to April 2011, were quantified by mean of Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). The daily average concentrations of five organic groups, alkanes, PAHs, fatty acid, DCAs, and sugars were ranged from 498.40 ng m3 to 10.20 μg m3. The seasonal concentrations of the total quantified organic species were 1.73 μg m3 (Spring), 2.04 μg m3 (Summer), 3.11 μg m3 (Fall), and 3.60 μg m3 (Winter), respectively. All the organic groups showed higher average concentration in winter than in summer. However, some organic compounds among fatty acids, DCAs, and sugars showed reverse pattern. The seasonal concentration patterns and episode variation of individual organic compounds were studied to clarify the emission characteristics of organic matters in PM10.

  1. About contaminant element composition of roadside dust samples from Budapest and Seoul, including Pt and Pd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sager, M.; Chon, H. T.; Marton, L.

    2012-04-01

    Roadside dust was sampled in Seoul megacity /Korea as well as in Budapest and some other places in Hungary, digested with reverse aqua regia in presence of bromine, and analyzed for 29 chemical elements with ICP-OES and ICP-MS methods. In addition to rather traditionally investigated elements, like Pb-Cd-Cr-Ni-As-Sb, newly emerging Pt and Pd from abrasion of automotive catalysts were included in the study. For the analysis of Pd, separation by precipitation with dithizone had to be applied. Principal component analysis was used as a tool to estimate the contribution of various sources. Geogenic element contents were used to estimate geogenic backgrounds und inputs from soils erosion. Seoul is an East Asian densely populated megacity, not far from the seaside, and surrounded by granite rocks. To the contrary, Budapest is a European continental city surrounded mainly by plains formed in the tertiary. Background concentrations were estimated from median concentrations in soils over alluvial deposits from the East of Austria, as well as from Poland. Background concentrations for Seoul were estimated from Shiheung farmland soil, a town close to the megacity. As a result, traffic related contaminations were highly effected by traffic related activities, like stop and go. Pt and Pb levels in roadside dusts from Budapest citiy were in the range of 2-133 μg/kg (av. 62,9 μg/kg), and 88 - 2838 mg/kg (av. 662 mg/kg) respectively. The highest Pt and Pb levels in roadside dust were found at major roads with high traffic volumes. Due to the geo-accumulation index, in all roadside soils sampled in Hungary, Cu-Pb-Zn were enriched, and Cd-Mo and occasionally Ba from Budapest in addition, but As-Co-Cr-Hg-Ni-Tl-V were not. In roadside dusts from Seoul, heavy contaminations of As-Cd-Cu-Mo-Pb-Zn were found, but no significant increase of Co-Cr-Ni-V. The pollution index, which refers to the permissible levels of As-Cd-Cu-Hg-Pb-Sb-Tl-V, indicates heavy pollution for roadside dusts from

  2. Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) PM 2.5 speciation program: Methodology and PM 2.5 chemical composition for the years 2003-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Dann, Tom F.; Kalyani Martinelango, P.; Celo, Valbona; Brook, Jeffrey R.; Mathieu, David; Ding, Luyi; Austin, Claire C.

    2011-01-01

    The Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) network, monitoring criteria gases (CO, O 3, NO x, and SO 2), PM 2.5, PM 10, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and particle chemical mass and composition, has been in operation for over 40 years. Since 1984 both fine (<2.5 μm - PM 2.5) and coarse (2.5-10 μm - PM 10-2.5) particle mass measurements have been made at NAPS network sites using dichotomous samplers. In January 2003, the NAPS PM 2.5 speciation program was initiated with the purpose of measuring all major components of PM 2.5, including ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, metals, and organic and elemental carbon. The present paper describes the improved sampling (e.g. Teflon/Nylon filter packs for nitrate loss, and an active blank for each and every sample in the determination of positive organic carbon artifacts), and analytical methods used in the Canadian NAPS PM 2.5 speciation program. A detailed dataset was then analyzed for seasonal and geographical variations in the major components of 24-h time integrated PM 2.5 samples collected at eight urban and three rural measurement sites across Canada (2003-2008). Chemical mass reconstruction was used for assessment of the adequacy of selected sampling and chemical parameters as well as for the determination of the relative contributions of different compound classes to PM 2.5 mass. The highest frequency of PM 2.5 episodes exceeding 30 μg m -3 were observed in Ontario and southern Quebec. In general, the most important contributions to PM 2.5 mass were secondary aerosol sulphate and nitrate (38-63% for western sites and 3-44% for eastern sites), depending on the season. Organic matter (OM) was found to be the second most important component (21-45%), while particle-bound water (PBW) accounted for 6-12% of the PM 2.5 mass. Golden B.C. was an exception, exhibiting high levels of OM (60-70%) and low levels of PBW (˜3%).

  3. Caregiver Burden and Social Support among Mothers Raising Children with Developmental Disabilities in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Heykyung; Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia

    2009-01-01

    This study examines caregiver burden and social supports perceived by mothers raising children with developmental disabilities in South Korea. Mothers residing in the metropolitan areas of Seoul (n = 181) responded to the mail survey with a 56.6% response rate. Respondents expressed a high level of overall burden, particularly in financial…

  4. Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide poisoning in urban Korea.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Y S

    1985-01-01

    Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during 1969-78 was examined using the monthly hospital admissions and environmental weather data from Seoul, Korea. The results showed that there were nine times as many cases of CO poisoning in December as in August. CO poisoning cases were significantly correlated with temperature and domestic fires but not significantly with relative humidity. The epidemiological and clinical investigation of CO poisoning in the home needs to be studied in further detail. PMID:3989440

  5. Korean arms control: Arms control policies of the two Koreas

    SciTech Connect

    Park, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the arms control proposals suggested by South and North Korea since the end of the Korean War and suggests some arms control measures that would be applied to the Korean Peninsula. Pyongyang has persistently proposed arms reduction measures since 1953, but Seoul has refused to discuss the issue because it suspected the North's true motive. The study points out that the objective reality of the two Koreas does not show any strong possibility of a war on the Peninsula. The most destabilizing factor in the South-North military relations is the possibility of misperception and miscalculation about the military capabilities and intentions of the other side. The study recommends that Seoul government not entirely adhere to the European CSBM model centered on the transparency of military activities. There are many other policy options for Seoul. The area between Seoul and Pyongyang can be made into a [open quotes]limited forces area[close quotes] as experienced by Egypt and Israel on the Sinai Peninsula. The study notes the utility of applying Charles Osgood's GRIT strategy to the Korean situation, a unilateral arms control approach. Among the structural arms control issues, the withdrawal of the US forces and its nuclear weapons are the most important ones which have to be dealt with before seriously negotiating arms reductions between the two Koreas. Considering the increasing capability of the South Korean armed forces and the availability of the US air and naval forces in and around South Korea, the US ground forces and the nuclear weapons would best be withdrawn from the South. Although these withdrawals cannot be used as bargaining chips by the South in the arms control negotiations with the North, these can be effectively utilized as GRIT measures. The South needs to persuade the North to reduce its redundant offensive weapons including chemical weapons and SCUD missiles as priority targets for arms reduction.

  6. Sensitivity Analysis of PM2.5 in Seoul to Emissions and Reaction Rates Using the GEOS-Chem and its Adjoint Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. M.; Park, R.; Henze, D. K.; Shim, C.; Shin, H. J.; Song, I. H.; Park, J. S.; Park, S. M.; Moon, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    The sources of PM2.5 are poorly quantified in Seoul, Korea, where tens of millions of populations are daily exposed to the exceedance of PM2.5 concentrations to the air quality criteria. We used a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) and its adjoint to investigate the sensitivities of PM2.5 concentrations in Seoul to emission sources, sectors, and chemical reaction rates. We first conduct forward model simulations using a nested version of GEOS-Chem with 0.25°x0.3125° spatial resolutions in East Asia for July 2012 - July 2013. We evaluated the model by comparing it with PM2.5 mass and chemical composition observations at National Institute of Environmental Research sites in Korea. The model reasonably reproduces the observed seasonal variability of PM2.5 concentrations (R=0.3-0.6), but tends to overestimate the observations in summer and underestimate them in winter. Our sensitivity analyses show the dominant contributions from local emission sources to PM2.5 concentrations in Seoul compared to the trans-boundary transport influences from the outside, which are important for long-lived tracers in spring. Other results including the model sensitivity to input parameters and the updated emissions are used to improve the model performance and to provide strategic information for the KORUS-AQ flight measurement campaign in May-June, 2016.

  7. The Department of Neurosurgery at Seoul National University: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Kim, D G; Kim, H J

    2001-04-01

    The Department of Neurosurgery at Seoul National University College of Medicine is one of the oldest neurosurgical departments in Korea, and it is a center of academic leadership in neurosurgery. In September 1957, the department was established by Bo Sung Sim, and it has produced many leaders of neurosurgery in Korea. Chairmen Bo Sung Sim, Kil Soo Choi, Dae Hee Han, and Byung-Kyu Cho each brought special skills and talents to the development of the department. The current and fifth chair, Hyun Jib Kim, assumed the chairmanship in July 2000. The department comprises 11 full-time faculty members, 5 fellows, and 14 residents. More than 1,700 neurosurgical procedures are performed annually in four operating theaters. A gamma knife was installed in 1997, and approximately 200 gamma knife procedures are performed each year. In addition to clinical activities, research and education for graduate and postgraduate students are also particular strengths of the department. This article traces the clinical, academic, and scientific development of the department, its present activities, and its future direction. PMID:11322453

  8. Weekend effect of O3, NO, NO2, CO and PM10 concentrations in the south of Spain during 2003-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adame Carnero, Jose Antonio; Lozano, Antonio; Sorribas, Mar; Contreras, Juan; Ángel Hernández-Ceballos, Miguel; Godoy, Francisca; Fernández-León, Mercedes; Bolívar, Juan Pedro; de La Morena, Benito A.

    2010-05-01

    The weekly evolutions and the difference between labour and non-labour days for O3, NO, NO2, CO and PM10 concentrations have been analysed in the south of Spain (Andalusia). The hourly data have been collected in 70 stations (urban, suburban and rural) belong to the Air Quality Network of Andalusia. The data period used was 2003-2008. The study has been focused in order to identify the weekend effect for those pollutants. The weekly patterns has been evaluated using daily mean of O3 and CO and 90th percentile daily values of NO, NO2 and PM10. The mean daily ozone concentrations show similar values during the week days with a maximum increase of the concentrations during weekend days of 5 ?g m-3 in urban stations. The NO and NO2 levels present in general a decrease of 90th percentile daily values during weekend days. The maximum decrease observed was of 50 and 25 ?g m-3 for NO and NO2 respectively. The most of stations show similar concentrations for the mean daily CO levels during the week. In the event of PM10 while some stations present an increase of the concentrations during the weekdays others have similar values during all days with 90th percentile of 45 ?g m-3. The daily pollutants variation between week and weekend days has been evaluated from the hourly differences between weekend and week concentrations. The ozone daily evolution show negative differences from 00:00 to 5:00 local time (LT) while during the rest of the day the differences are positives. The maximum differences were registered early in the morning ranging between 4 ?g m-3 for rural stations to 14 ?g m-3 for urban stations. The NO and NO2 show positive differences between 00:00 to 7:00 (LT) with negative values within the next hours. The higher differences could reach 80 ?g m-3 for NO and 25 ?g m-3 for NO2, both in urban stations, with values lower than 10 ?g m-3and 5 ?g m-3 in suburban and rural stations respectively. The CO daily evolution show similar values in week and weekend days. The

  9. Urbanization of Scrub Typhus Disease in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-Won; Ha, Na-Young; Ryu, Boyeong; Bang, Ji Hwan; Song, Hoyeon; Kim, Yuri; Kim, Gwanghun; Oh, Myoung-don; Cho, Nam-Hyuk; Lee, Jong-koo

    2015-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus is an endemic disease in Asia. It has been a rural disease, but indigenous urban cases have been observed in Seoul, South Korea. Urban scrub typhus may have a significant impact because of the large population. Methods Indigenous urban scrub typhus was epidemiologically identified in Seoul, the largest metropolitan city in South Korea, using national notifiable disease data from 2010 to 2013. For detailed analysis of clinical features, patients from one hospital that reported the majority of cases were selected and compared to a historic control group. Chigger mites were prospectively collected in the city using a direct chigger mite-collecting trap, and identified using both phenotypic and 18S rDNA sequencing analyses. Their infection with Orientia tsutsugamushi was confirmed by sequencing the 56-kDa antigen gene. Results Eighty-eight cases of urban scrub typhus were determined in Seoul. The possible sites of infection were mountainous areas (56.8%), city parks (20.5%), the vicinity of one’s own residence (17.0%), and riversides (5.7%). Eighty-seven chigger mites were collected in Gwanak mountain, one of the suspected infection sites in southern Seoul, and seventy-six (87.4%) of them were identified as Helenicula miyagawai and eight (9.2%) as Leptotrombidium scutellare. Pooled DNA extracted from H. miyagawai mites yielded O. tsutsugamushi Boryong strain. Twenty-six patients from one hospital showed low APACHE II score (3.4 ± 2.7), low complication rate (3.8%), and no hypokalemia. Conclusions We identified the presence of indigenous urban scrub typhus in Seoul, and a subgroup of them had mild clinical features. The chigger mite H. miyagawai infected with O. tsutsugamushi within the city was found. In endemic area, urban scrub typhus needs to be considered as one of the differential febrile diseases and a target for prevention. PMID:26000454

  10. A case of human thelaziasis in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jae Sook; Im, Kyung Il; Byun, Young Ja; Kim, Sang Chul

    1987-06-01

    The 15th case of human thelaziasis is reported from Korea. The patient was a 15-year-old girl from Seoul. Both of the worms which were removed from her eye were female and were identified by the number of transverse cuticular striations (281, 172 and 162/mm in the oesophageal, middle and posterior portions, respectively), as Thelazia callipaeda. The patient owned a pet dog ADDITIONAL ABSTRACT: The 15-year-old patient had herself removed a worm from one eye. Two worms were identified morphologically as Thelazia callipaeda. The source of infection was uncertain, but the patient was known to have close contact with a dog. The authors refer to 14 previously reported cases of thelaziasis in Korea. PMID:12886085

  11. High resolution mapping of flood hazard for South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sourima; Nzerem, Kechi; Zovi, Francesco; Li, Shuangcai; Mei, Yi; Assteerawatt, Anongnart; Hilberts, Arno; Tillmanns, Stephan; Mitas, Christos

    2015-04-01

    Floods are one of primary natural hazards that affect South Korea. During the past 15 years, catastrophic flood events which mainly have occurred during the rainy and typhoon seasons - especially under condition where soils are already saturated, have triggered substantial property damage with an average annual loss of around US1.2 billion (determined from WAter Management Information System's flood damage database for years 2002-2011) in South Korea. According to Seoul Metropolitan Government, over 16,000 households in the capital city Seoul were inundated during 2010 flood events. More than 10,000 households in Seoul were apparently flooded during one major flood event due to torrential rain in July 2011. Recently in August 2014, a serious flood event due to heavy rainfall hit the Busan region in the south east of South Korea. Addressing the growing needs, RMS has recently released country-wide high resolution combined flood return period maps for post-drainage local "pluvial" inundation and undefended large-scale "fluvial" inundation to aid the government and the insurance industry in the evaluation of comprehensive flood risk. RMS has developed a flood hazard model for South Korea to generate inundation depths and extents for a range of flood return periods. The model is initiated with 30 years of historical meteorological forcing data and calibrated to daily observations at over 100 river gauges across the country. Simulations of hydrologic processes are subsequently performed based on a 2000 year set of stochastic forcing. Floodplain inundation processes are modelled by numerically solving the shallow water equations using finite volume method on GPUs. Taking into account the existing stormwater drainage standards, economic exposure densities, etc., reasonable flood maps are created from inundation model output. Final hazard maps at one arcsec grid resolution can be the basis for both evaluating and managing flood risk, its economic impacts, and insured flood

  12. Evaluation of the virus and viroid infection status of flowering cherry (Prunus yedoensis) collections in Korea and the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The virus and viroid infection status of flowering cherry trees (Prunus yedoensis) in prominent ornamental collections in Korea (Seoul, Jinhae, Jeju) and the U.S. (Washington, D.C.) was investigated. A total of 344 trees were tested by conventional RT-PCR for 13 viruses and 2 viroids. Eight viruses ...

  13. Genetic and environmental influences on self-concept in female preadolescent twins: comparison of Minnesota and Seoul data.

    PubMed

    Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2005-08-01

    It has been argued that culture significantly influences the developmental basis of self-concept. The goal of the present study is to compare the relative importance of genetic and environmental factors to explain individual differences in various dimensions of self-concept in female preadolescents of Minnesota in the United States and Seoul in South Korea. Two hundred and eighteen monozygotic (MZ) and 137 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs from the Minnesota Twin Family Study (MTFS) and 74 MZ and 42 DZ twin pairs from the Seoul Twin Family Study (STFS) completed the 6 cluster scales of the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (P-H). The 6 cluster scales of the P-H include Popularity, Physical Appearance and Attributes, Behavior, Intellectual Competence and School Status, Anxiety, and Happiness and Satisfaction. Univariate model-fitting analyses were performed. In both samples, a model incorporating shared and nonshared environmental influences fitted the data best for Popularity, Anxiety, and Intellectual Competence and School Status, whereas a model including additive genetic and nonshared environmental factors provided the best fit for Physical Appearance and Attributes, and Behavior. The univariate model did not yield an adequate fit for Happiness and Satisfaction. For Physical Appearance and Attributes, and Intellectual Competence and School Status, estimates of additive genetic and environmental factors were significantly different between the MTFS and the STFS samples. For Popularity, Anxiety, and Behavior, however, the genetic and environmental estimates were comparable between the two samples. PMID:16176711

  14. Separating boys and girls and increasing weight? Assessing the impacts of single-sex schools through random assignment in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaesung; Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R

    2015-06-01

    A growing body of research reports associations of school contexts with adolescents' weight and weight-related behaviors. One interesting, but under-researched, dimension of school context that potentially matters for adolescents' weight is the gender composition. If boys and girls are separated into single-sex schools, they might be less concerned about physical appearance, which may result in increased weight. Utilizing a unique setting in Seoul, Korea where students are randomly assigned to single-sex and coeducational schools within school districts, we estimate causal effects of single-sex schools on weight and weight-related behaviors. Our results show that students attending single-sex schools are more likely to be overweight, and that the effects are more pronounced for girls. We also find that girls in single-sex schools are less likely to engage in strenuous activities than their coeducational counterparts. PMID:25863424

  15. Separating boys and girls and increasing weight? Assessing the impacts of single-sex schools through random assignment in Seoul

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jaesung; Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research reports associations of school contexts with adolescents’ weight and weight-related behaviors. One interesting, but under-researched, dimension of school context that potentially matters for adolescents’ weight is the gender composition. If boys and girls are separated into single-sex schools, they might be less concerned about physical appearance, which may result in increased weight. Utilizing a unique setting in Seoul, Korea where students are randomly assigned to single-sex and coeducational schools within school districts, we estimate causal effects of single-sex schools on weight and weight-related behaviors. Our results show that students attending single-sex schools are more likely to be overweight, and that the effects are more pronounced for girls. We also find that girls in single-sex schools are less likely to engage in strenuous activities than their coeducational counterparts. PMID:25863424

  16. Genetic analysis of hepatitis A virus strains that induced epidemics in Korea during 2007-2009.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeokjin; Jeong, Hyesook; Yun, Heasun; Kim, Kisang; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Yang, Jai Myung; Cheon, Doo-Sung

    2012-04-01

    Hepatitis A virus is one of the most prominent causes of fecally transmitted acute hepatitis worldwide. In order to characterize the viral agents causing an outbreak in Korea (comprising North and South Korea) from June 2007 to May 2009, we collected specimens and performed genotyping of the VP1/P2A and VP3/VP1 regions of hepatitis A virus. We then used a multiple-alignment algorithm to compare the nucleotide sequences of the 2 regions with those of reference strains. Hepatitis A virus antibodies were detected in 64 patients from 5 reported outbreaks (North Korea, June 2007 [n = 11]; Jeonnam, April 2008 [n = 15]; Daegu, May 2008 [n = 13]; Seoul, May 2009 [n = 22]; and Incheon, May 2009 [n = 3]). We found 100% homology between strains isolated from the Kaesong Industrial Region and Jeonnam. While those strains were classified as genotype IA strains, strains from Seoul and Incheon were identified as genotype IIIA strains and showed 98.9 to 100% homology. Genotype IIIA was also dominant in Daegu, where strains were 95.7 to 100% homologous. All hepatitis A virus strains isolated from the Kaesong Industrial Region, Jeonnam, Seoul, and Incheon belonged to a single cluster. However, strains from Daegu could be classified into 2 clusters, suggesting that the outbreak had multiple sources. This study indicates that hepatitis A virus strains of 2 different genotypes are currently cocirculating in Korea. Moreover, it documents an increasing prevalence of genotype IIIA strains in the country. PMID:22238447

  17. South Korea.

    PubMed

    1991-04-01

    Background notes and statistics on South Korea are provided in the document. 98,500 sq. km. of diversified terrain are encompassed by the country, with a 1988 population of 43 million growing at the annual rate of 1%. The work force totals 17 million. South Korea claims a population comprised of Koreans with a small Chinese minority, 4 religious beliefs, and native Korean-speakers. 6 years of education are compulsory, with the country overall enjoying 98% literacy. The infant mortality rate is 6/1,000, while life expectancy is 67-73 years. 1990 estimated GNP was $224 billion, and was growing at the estimated rate of 9%. Per capita GNP was $5,500, while a 9% increase was reported in the consumer price index for 1990. Agriculture accounts for 9% of GNP, mining and manufacturing for 35%; 1990 international trade deficit totalled $5 billion. Additional data are provided on South Korea's people, government, economy, international affiliations, history, political conditions, principal government officials, foreign relations, and bilateral relations with the United States. South Korea has enjoyed remarkable economic growth over the past 25 years, and has grown to become a middle-ranking industrial power. Korea's bilateral trade surpluses with the United States of nearly $10 billion in 1987 and 1988 declined decisively in 1989 due to a variety of factors. Surplus remained, however, approximately $4 billion in 1990. Whether or not these declines are indicative of structural, lasting trends is not yet discernible. Long-term growth prospects remain good, Korea's ability to adapt to a more open democratic system playing an important role. PMID:12178031

  18. Sarcoptic mange in wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Eo, Kyung-Yeon; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Shin, Nam-Shik; Shin, Taekyun; Kwak, Dongmi

    2008-12-01

    Infestation with Sarcoptes scabiei was diagnosed from four wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) accidentally captured and presented to the Animal Health Center in Seoul Grand Park Zoo, Korea. Diagnosis was done by microscopic and histologic examination from skin lesions. Sarcoptes scabiei was the only species detected from the lesions and characterized by dorsoventrally flattened and round bodies, sucker-like pulvilli borne on long nonjointed pretarsi, triangular scales and spinelike setae on the dorsum, and three epimeres that are chitinous extensions of the coxae of the legs. In addition, infiltration of mast cells in the dermis was associated with infestation of the burrowing mite. This is the first report of sarcoptic mange in raccoon dogs in Korea. Because heavy infestation with S. scabiei was found in all of the captured wild raccoon dogs, further work is necessary to develop prophylactic interventions to prevent the spread of sarcoptic mange in free-living raccoon dogs in Korea. PMID:19110717

  19. The Spatial and Temporal Pattern of Heavy Precipitation in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K. S.; Yu, J.; Im, J.; Jin, R.

    2014-12-01

    1.Introduction Combined with summer heavy rainfall and urbanization today's urban area face higher frequency of heavy rainfall with higher intensity in summer than before. Heavy rainfall in short time makes it low elevation area to be susceptible to more flooding than before. According to KMA it is announced as heavy rainfall warning whose precipitation amount is equal to or greater than 150mm per 12 hours. And sometimes, these rainfall events bring out severe disasters such as the case of flooding in Gangnam Station, Daechi Station and landslides which resulted in 20 person death in downtown Seoul on July 27th, 2011. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the spatial and temporal pattern of heavy precipitation in Seoul. Ultimately it aims to contribute these results to the proper urban planning and management. 2. Materials and Methods In this study, the digital topograhic data and weather data in Seoul Metropolitan Area were used to figure out the spatial distribution of summer heavy rainfall. The precipitation data in summer (June to Sep.) season were used to detect the recent changes of temporal and spatial features from 1995 to 2014 (20 years) using Automatic Weather tation (AWS) data in Seoul Metropolitan Area. The precipitation amount in summer during the past 20 years has been on the rise but rainy days have barely changed,which reveals the daily precipitation intensity has increased. After deriving the characteristic of heavy rainfall, the relationship among precipitation, topography and land uses were interpreted and discussed. This study is to investigate the characteristics of flood prone area by focusing topographic and land use characteristics. Ultimately it contributes to prepare the guideline for flood preventive urban plannig.

  20. Responses of Two Invasive Plants Under Various Microclimate Conditions in the Seoul Metropolitan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Uhram; Mun, Saeromi; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Lee, Eun Ju

    2012-06-01

    The possible consequences of global warming on plant communities and ecosystems have wide-ranging ramifications. We examined how environmental change affects plant growth as a function of the variations in the microclimate along an urban-suburban climate gradient for two allergy-inducing, invasive plants, Humulus japonicus and Ambrosia artemisiifolia var. elatior. The environmental factors and plant growth responses were measured at two urban sites (Gangbuk and Seongbuk) and two suburban sites (Goyang and Incheon) around Seoul, South Korea. The mean temperatures and CO2 concentrations differed significantly between the urban (14.8 °C and 439 ppm CO2) and suburban (13.0 °C and 427 ppm CO2) sites. The soil moisture and nitrogen contents of the suburban sites were higher than those at the urban sites, especially for the Goyang site. The two invasive plants showed significantly higher biomasses and nitrogen contents at the two urban sites. We conducted experiments in a greenhouse to confirm the responses of the plants to increased temperatures, and we found consistently higher growth rates under conditions of higher temperatures. Because we controlled the other factors, the better performance of the two invasive plants appears to be primarily attributable to their responses to temperature. Our study demonstrates that even small temperature changes in the environment can confer significant competitive advantages to invasive species. As habitats become urbanized and warmer, these invasive plants should be able to displace native species, which will adversely affect people living in these areas.

  1. Responses of two invasive plants under various microclimate conditions in the Seoul metropolitan region.

    PubMed

    Song, Uhram; Mun, Saeromi; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Lee, Eun Ju

    2012-06-01

    The possible consequences of global warming on plant communities and ecosystems have wide-ranging ramifications. We examined how environmental change affects plant growth as a function of the variations in the microclimate along an urban-suburban climate gradient for two allergy-inducing, invasive plants, Humulus japonicus and Ambrosia artemisiifolia var. elatior. The environmental factors and plant growth responses were measured at two urban sites (Gangbuk and Seongbuk) and two suburban sites (Goyang and Incheon) around Seoul, South Korea. The mean temperatures and CO(2) concentrations differed significantly between the urban (14.8 °C and 439 ppm CO(2)) and suburban (13.0 °C and 427 ppm CO(2)) sites. The soil moisture and nitrogen contents of the suburban sites were higher than those at the urban sites, especially for the Goyang site. The two invasive plants showed significantly higher biomasses and nitrogen contents at the two urban sites. We conducted experiments in a greenhouse to confirm the responses of the plants to increased temperatures, and we found consistently higher growth rates under conditions of higher temperatures. Because we controlled the other factors, the better performance of the two invasive plants appears to be primarily attributable to their responses to temperature. Our study demonstrates that even small temperature changes in the environment can confer significant competitive advantages to invasive species. As habitats become urbanized and warmer, these invasive plants should be able to displace native species, which will adversely affect people living in these areas. PMID:22484518

  2. Characterization of particulate matter concentrations and bioaerosol on each floor at a building in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyeon-Ju; Jeong, Na-Na; Chi, Woo-Bae; Seo, Ji-Hoon; Jun, Si-Moon; Sohn, Jong-Ryeul

    2015-10-01

    Particulate matter (PM) in buildings are mostly sourced from the transport of outdoor particles through a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system and generation of particle within the building itself. We investigated the concentrations and characteristic of indoor and outdoor particles and airborne bacteria concentrations across four floors of a building located in a high-traffic area. In all the floors we studied (first, second, fifth, and eighth), the average concentrations of particles less than 10 μm (PM10) in winter for were higher than those in summer. On average, a seasonal variation in the PM10 level was found for the first, fifth, and eighth floors, such that higher values occurred in the winter season, compared to the summer season. In addition, in winter, the indoor concentrations of PM10 on the first, fifth, and eighth floors were higher than those of the outdoor PM10. The maximum level of airborne bacteria concentration was found in a fifth floor office, which held a private academy school consisting of many students. Results indicated that the airborne bacteria remained at their highest concentration throughout the weekday period and varied by students' activity. The correlation coefficient (R (2)) and slope of linear approximation for the concentrations of particulate matter were used to evaluate the relationship between the indoor and outdoor particulate matter. These results can be used to predict both the indoor particle levels and the risk of personal exposure to airborne bacteria. PMID:26062466

  3. Exposure and Toxicity Assessment of Ultrafine Particles from Nearby Traffic in Urban Air in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Jin-Yong; Jang, Ji-Young; Lee, Gun-Woo; Kim, Soo-Hwan; Shin, Dong-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the particle mass size distribution and chemical properties of air pollution particulate matter (PM) in the urban area and its capacity to induce cytotoxicity in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells. Methods To characterize the mass size distributions and chemical concentrations associated with urban PM, PM samples were collected by a 10-stage Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor close to nearby traffic in an urban area from December 2007 to December 2009. PM samples for in vitro cytotoxicity testing were collected by a mini-volume air sampler with PM10 and PM2.5 inlets. Results The PM size distributions were bi-modal, peaking at 0.18 to 0.32 and 1.8 to 3.2 µm. The mass concentrations of the metals in fine particles (0.1 to 1.8 µm) accounted for 45.6 to 80.4% of the mass concentrations of metals in PM10. The mass proportions of fine particles of the pollutants related to traffic emission, lead (80.4%), cadmium (69.0%), and chromium (63.8%) were higher than those of other metals. Iron was the dominant transition metal in the particles, accounting for 64.3% of the PM10 mass in all the samples. We observed PM concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects on BEAS-2B cells. Conclusions We found that exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 from a nearby traffic area induced significant increases in protein expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8). The cell death rate and release of cytokines in response to the PM2.5 treatment were higher than those with PM10. The combined results support the hypothesis that ultrafine particles from vehicular sources can induce inflammatory responses related to environmental respiratory injury. PMID:23882447

  4. Teaching Religious Studies to Undergraduate Non-Majors at Seoul National University, South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Yohan

    2015-01-01

    This essay is part of a collection of short essays solicited from authors around the globe who teach religion courses at the college level (not for professional religious training). They are published together with an introduction in "Teaching Theology and Religion" 18:3 (July 2015). The authors were asked to provide a brief overview of…

  5. A mechanism of institutional isomorphism in referral networks among hospitals in Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo; Choi, Mankyu

    2010-01-01

    Hospitals engage in medical referral system relations voluntarily, by virtue of their own service capacities. These capacities include medical technology, equipment supply, and patient management, which are assessed individually by medical institutions in efforts to control costs and maintain efficiency in tertiary hospitals. This study assessed referral networks according to the institutional isomorphism theory of new economic sociology. As a result, the referral networks were shown to exhibit emergent structural hierarchy via cumulative clustering by established year and were not affected by attributive variables such as region, bed number, and year of establishment. In particular, the networks evidenced institutional isomorphism with certain central hospitals. As a consequence, personal indices were shown to decrease in accordance with its period, and only the structural index increased. Normative pressures cause organizations to become hierarchically homogenized, in accordance with the principle of organizational learning in specialized fields. Therefore, normative isomorphism on the basis of public domains should be considered an inherent factor in the development of referral networks. PMID:20436330

  6. Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Network (DRAGON) - Korea 2012 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Jeong, U.; Kim, W. V.; Choi, M.; Kim, D. S.; Kim, B.; Kim, S.; Ghim, Y.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, J. H.; Park, R.; Seo, M.; Song, C.; Yum, S.; Woo, J.; Yoon, S.; Lee, K.; Lee, M.; Lim, J.; Chang, I.; Jeong, M. J.; Bae, M.; Sorokin, M.; Giles, D. M.; Schafer, J.; Herman, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    One of the main objectives of Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Network (DRAGON) campaign in Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) mission is to understand the relationship between the column optical properties of the atmosphere and the surface level air quality in terms of aerosols and gases. Recently, with the cooperative efforts with NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) / GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center), Korean University research groups, and KME (Korea Ministry of Environment) / NIER (National Institute of Environmental Research), DRAGON-Korea 2012 campaign was successfully performed from March to May 2012. The campaign sites were divided into two groups, the National scale sites and Seoul metropolitan sites. Thirteen Cimel sunphotometers were distributed at National scale sites including two metropolitan cities and several remote sites. Nine Cimel sunphotometers were distributed at Seoul Metropolitan sites including several residential sites and traffic source areas. The measured datasets are being analyzed in diverse fields of air quality communities including in-situ measurement groups, satellite remote sensing groups, chemical modeling groups, and airplane measurement groups. We will introduce several preliminary results of the analysis and discuss the future planes and corporations in Korea.

  7. Observation of Periodic and Transient Cosmic Ray Flux Variations by the Daejeon Neutron Monitor and the Seoul muon Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Suyeon; Kang, Jeongsoo

    2013-09-01

    Recently, two instruments of cosmic ray are operating in South Korea. One is Seoul muon detector after October 1999 and the other is Daejeon neutron monitor (Kang et al. 2012) after October 2011. The former consists of four small plastic scintillators and the latter is the standard 18 NM 64 type. In this report, we introduce the characteristics of both instruments. We also analyze the flux variations of cosmic ray such as diurnal variation and Forbush decrease. As the result, the muon flux shows the typical seasonal and diurnal variations. The neutron flux also shows the diurnal variation. The phase which shows the maximum flux in the diurnal variation is around 13-14 local time. We found a Forbush decrease on 7 March 2012 by both instruments. It is also identified by Nagoya multi-direction muon telescope and Oulu neutron monitor. The observation of cosmic ray at Jangbogo station as well as in Korean peninsula can support the important information on space weather in local area. It can also enhance the status of Korea in the international community of cosmic ray experiments.

  8. Diversity and spatial distribution of surname structure in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Okyu; Son, Woo-Sik

    2015-11-01

    We studied the population structure of South Korea by using the distributions of surnames for all 246 administrative regions. Every 4,177 surnames are distinguished by their bon-gwan which indicates the place of their family clans. Using Fisher's Alpha, we found that the level of inbreeding increases as the distance from the capital Seoul increases. We introduced the Shannon index to measure the level of spatial diffusion for each surname population, and the geographical clusters based on similarities of the surname compositions among the regions show almost exact agreement with those at the administrative districts.

  9. Evidence of Diachronic Sound Change: A Comparative Acoustic Study of Seoul and Kyungsang Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyunjung

    2013-01-01

    The phonetics and phonology of the Kyungsang dialect of Korean is distinct from those of the standard Seoul dialect with regard to segments and lexical pitch. However, whether the distinctive phonetics and phonology of Kyungsang Korean are maintained by younger speakers is questionable due to the increased exposure to Seoul Korean and the…

  10. Socio-economic Vulnerability Assessment of Natural Disaster Considering Urban Characteristics in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yoonkyung; Jun, Hwandon; Kim, Sangdan

    2015-04-01

    In this presentation, an indicator-based model is proposed to quantify socio-economic damage under natural disaster in Seoul, Korea. Seoul is the highest population density in Korea. Scales of the model are divided into two classes. First scale is "borough", which is town, or a district with a large town, and has its own council. In the case of Seoul, average size of boroughs is 24.28 square kilometers. Second one is "census output area", which is the finest level of statistical information. Average size of census output area in Seoul is 0.0374 kilometers. The Census output area has high resolution than boroughs. For the purpose of considering various aspects on socio-economic vulnerability under natural disaster, the proposed socio-economic vulnerability assessment model is composed of demographic/social indicator, economic indicator, and prepare/response/recovery indicator. Each of them is consist of 5, 3, and 6 proxy variables, respectively. Using the suggested model, the socio-economic vulnerability for 25 boroughs and 16,230 census output areas of Seoul is assessed. As a result, it is shown that southeastern boroughs in Seoul (Gangnam and Seocho) have lower vulnerability scores than other boroughs. According to this results, these places are much safer than other regions under natural disaster. Additionally, the socio-economic vulnerability was assessed in scale of census output data. Socio-economic vulnerability scores are shown similar results comparing with results of borough scale. However, socio-economic vulnerability scores are calculated in higher resolution. These results are caused by different demographic and social factors in each census output area even census output areas are located same borough. The additional importance of vulnerability assessment in the scale of census output areas will be presented. Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant(13SCIPS04) from Smart Civil Infrastructure Research Program funded by Ministry of Land

  11. Relationship Between the Formation Conditions and Durations of One-Person Households in the Seoul Metropolitan Region.

    PubMed

    Yi, Changhyo

    2016-06-01

    Rapid demographic changes have occurred in Korea, with the number of one-person households almost doubling between 2000 and 2010 in the Seoul metropolitan region. Developed countries experienced these changes previously through the so-called second demographic transition. The purpose of this article is to ascertain how both the socioeconomic attributes and the location characteristics of one-person households at the time of their formation affect the durations of these households under the rapidly changing Korean demography. The spatial distribution of the areal location quotient indexes for one-person households indicated that the concentration of these households is relatively higher in the inner cities of metropolitan areas and the outskirts of the Seoul metropolitan region. Meanwhile, the distribution patterns of the relative concentration levels for one-person households by age group exhibited obvious differences. In the survival analysis for the entire sample of this research, household attributes were the primary determinants. However, the results of the empirical analyses by age group indicated that location characteristics were significant as well, although the significance of the variables varied with the types of one-person households. The duration of households of one person under 40 years old was affected by their access to employment districts and the concentration level of one-person households in the area. In contrast, the duration of households of one person 65 years old and older was influenced by the distribution of affordable housing. The findings of this study provide a framework that is able to make sense of the changing characteristics of the one-person households of nations in transition from developing to developed countries. PMID:27080119

  12. GIS-based Association Between PM10 and Allergic Diseases in Seoul: Implications for Health and Environmental Policy

    PubMed Central

    Seo, SungChul; Min, Soojin; Paul, Christopher; Yoo, Young; Choung, Ji Tae

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The role of PM10 in the development of allergic diseases remains controversial among epidemiological studies, partly due to the inability to control for spatial variations in large-scale risk factors. This study aims to investigate spatial correspondence between the level of PM10 and allergic diseases at the sub-district level in Seoul, Korea, in order to evaluate whether the impact of PM10 is observable and spatially varies across the subdistricts. Methods PM10 measurements at 25 monitoring stations in the city were interpolated to 424 sub-districts where annual inpatient and outpatient count data for 3 types of allergic diseases (atopic dermatitis, asthma, and allergic rhinitis) were collected. We estimated multiple ordinary least square regression models to examine the association of the PM10 level with each of the allergic diseases, controlling for various sub-district level covariates. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) models were conducted to evaluate how the impact of PM10 varies across the sub-districts. Results PM10 was found to be a significant predictor of atopic dermatitis patient count (P<0.01), with greater association when spatially interpolated at the sub-district level. No significant effect of PM10 was observed on allergic rhinitis and asthma when socioeconomic factors were controlled for. GWR models revealed spatial variation of PM10 effects on atopic dermatitis across the sub-districts in Seoul. The relationship of PM10 levels to atopic dermatitis patient counts is found to be significant only in the Gangbuk region (P<0.01), along with other covariates including average land value, poverty rate, level of education and apartment rate (P<0.01). Conclusions Our findings imply that PM10 effects on allergic diseases might not be consistent throughout Seoul. GIS-based spatial modeling techniques could play a role in evaluating spatial variation of air pollution impacts on allergic diseases at the sub-district level, which could provide

  13. Ten-Year Experience With Bowel Transplantation at Seoul St. Mary's Hospital.

    PubMed

    Chang, H K; Kim, S Y; Kim, J I; Kim, S I; Whang, J K; Choi, J Y; Park, J M; Jung, E S; Rha, S E; Kim, D G; Moon, I S; Lee, M D

    2016-03-01

    A retrospective review of intestinal transplantation (ITx) at Seoul St. Mary's Hospital was made by collecting clinical data over the past 10 years. Fifteen consecutive cases from 2004 were analyzed. Five children and 10 adults (6 months to 69 years of age) were included. Primary diseases in adults included 4 mesenteric vessel thromboses, 2 strangulations, and 1 each of visceral myopathy, malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), mesenteric lymphangiectasis, and injury. Pediatric cases involved 2 Hirschsprung disease, 2 visceral myopathy, and 1 necrotizing enterocolitis. Three of 7 stomas were closed using a serial transverse enteroplasty procedure before transplantation. The ITx were performed using 3 living-donor Itx, 12 deceased-donor ITx, 14 isolated Itx, and 1 modified multivisceral transplantation. Daclizumab, basiliximab, alemtusumab, or basiliximab with rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) was used for the induction; tacrolimus monotherapy was used as the basic maintenance immunosuppressant; and m-TOR inhibitor was used for renal dysfunction patients. Seven cases of acute cellular rejection were treated with rATG. Three cases of antibody-mediated rejection were treated with rituximab alone or with rituximab and bortezomib combination. There were 4 cases of early mortality within 6 months after Itx. Causes of death were declamping shock, cardiac tamponade with acute cellular rejection, dysmotility, and sepsis. Surgical complications consisted of 1 feeding jejunostomy displacement, and a minor leakage at a colo-colostomy site. One-year survival of the patient and graft was 73.33% (Kaplan-Meier survival curve). Although the total number of ITx is small, its social impact has been remarkable in changing the related laws and reimbursement policy in Korea. PMID:27109981

  14. Landslide and debris flow susceptibility zonation using TRIGRS for the 2011 Seoul landslide event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, D. W.; Nikhil, N. V.; Lee, S. R.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the results from application of a regional, physically-based stability model: Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-based Regional Slope-stability analysis (TRIGRS) for a catchment on Woomyeon Mountain, Seoul, Korea. This model couples an infinite-slope stability analysis with a one-dimensional analytical solution to predict the transient pore pressure response to the infiltration of rainfall. TRIGRS also adopts the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) framework for determining the whole behaviour of a slope. In this paper, we suggest an index for evaluating the results produced by the model. Particular attention is devoted to the prediction of routes of debris flow, using a runoff module. In this context, the paper compares observed landslide and debris flow events with those predicted by the TRIGRS model. The TRIGRS model, originally developed to predict shallow landslides, has been extended in this study for application to debris flows. The results predicted by the TRIGRS model are presented as safety factor (FS) maps corresponding to transient rainfall events, and in terms of debris flow paths using methods proposed by several researchers in hydrology. In order to quantify the accuracy of the model, we proposed an index called LRclass (landslide ratio for each predicted FS class). The LRclass index is mainly applied in regions where the landslide scar area is not well defined (or is unknown), in order to avoid over-estimation of the model results. The use of the TRIGRS routing module was proposed to predict the paths of debris flow, especially in areas where the rheological properties and erosion rates of the materials are difficult to obtain. Although an improvement in accuracy is needed, this module is very useful for preliminary spatiotemporal assessment over wide areas. In summary, the TRIGRS model is a powerful tool of use to decision makers for susceptibility mapping, particularly when linked with various advanced applications using

  15. Landslide and debris flow susceptibility zonation using TRIGRS for the 2011 Seoul landslide event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, D. W.; Nikhil, N. V.; Lee, S. R.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the results from the application of a regional, physically based stability model: Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-based Regional Slope-stability analysis (TRIGRS) for a region on Woomyeon Mountain, Seoul, South Korea. This model couples an infinite-slope stability analysis with a one-dimensional analytical solution to predict the transient pore pressure response to the infiltration of rainfall. TRIGRS also adopts the geographic information system (GIS) framework for determining the whole behaviour of a slope. In this paper, we suggest an index for evaluating the results produced by the model. Particular attention is devoted to the prediction of routes of debris flow, using a runoff module. In this context, the paper compares observed landslide and debris flow events with those predicted by the TRIGRS model. The TRIGRS model, originally developed to predict shallow landslides, has been extended in this study for application to debris flows. The results predicted by the TRIGRS model are presented as safety factor (FS) maps corresponding to transient rainfall events, and in terms of debris flow paths using methods proposed by several researchers in hydrology. In order to quantify the effectiveness of the model, we proposed an index called LRclass (landslide ratio for each predicted FS class). The LRclass index is mainly applied in regions where the landslide scar area is not well defined (or is unknown), in order to avoid overestimation of the model results. The use of the TRIGRS routing module was proposed to predict the paths of debris flow, especially in areas where the rheological properties and erosion rates of the materials are difficult to obtain. Although an improvement in accuracy is needed, this module is very useful for preliminary spatio-temporal assessment over wide areas. In summary, the TRIGRS model is a powerful tool of use to decision makers for susceptibility mapping, particularly when linked with various advanced

  16. Assessment of Flood Vulnerability to Climate Change Using Fuzzy Operators in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this study is to apply the IPCC(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) concept of vulnerability to climate change and verify the use of a combination of vulnerability index and fuzzy operators to flood vulnerability analysis and mapping in Seoul using GIS. In order to achieve this goal, this study identified indicators influencing floods based on literature review. We include indicators of exposure to climate(daily max rainfall, days of 80㎜ over), sensitivity(slope, geological, average DEM, Impermeability layer, topography and drainage), and adaptive capacity(retarding basin and green-infra). Also, this research used fuzzy operator model for aggregating indicators, and utilized frequency ratio to decide fuzzy membership values. Results show that number of days of precipitation above 80㎜, the distance from river and impervious surface have comparatively strong influence on flood damage. Furthermore, when precipitation is over 269㎜, areas with scare flood mitigation capacities, industrial land use, elevation of 16˜20m, within 50m distance from rivers are quite vulnerable to floods. Yeongdeungpo-gu, Yongsan-gu, Mapo-gu include comparatively large vulnerable areas. The relative weight of each factor was then converted into a fuzzy membership value and integrated as a flood vulnerability index using fuzzy operators (fuzzy AND, fuzzy OR, fuzzy algebraic sum, and fuzzy algebraic product). Comparing the results of the highest for the fuzzy AND operator, fuzzy gamma operator (γ = 0.2) is higher with improved computational. This study improved previous flood vulnerability assessment methodology by adopting fuzzy operator model. Also, vulnerability map provides meaningful information for decision makers regarding priority areas for implementing flood mitigation policies. Acknowledgements: The authors appreciate the support that this study has received from "Development of Time Series Disaster Mapping Technologies through Natural Disaster Factor Spatial

  17. Special Education in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byung Ha, Ed.; Yeo, Kwang Eung

    The text on special education in Korea is divided into four major sections--a brief history of special education in Korea, the present status of special education in Korea, the special education plan of the Young Kwang Educational Foundation, and directory of schools and classes for the exceptional in Korea. Topics covered include the following:…

  18. Seoul Searching: Transitioning Basic Writers within the Global Frontiers Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Tabetha; Meyer, Connie

    2014-01-01

    The course described here was designed especially for students enrolled in a collaborative program between Texas A&M University-Commerce and Konkuk University in South Korea. This course was created specifically for students who did not earn a qualifying score on a standardized placement exam required of all first-year students for enrollment…

  19. Chemical Composition Characteristics of Particulate Matter in Seoul Metropolitan Area during the Pre-campaign Period of KORUS-AQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Ahn, J.; Seong, M.; Jeon, H.; Yoo, S.; Kim, H.; Soo, C. J.; Hong, Y.; Hong, J.

    2015-12-01

    While the current concentration of particulate matter (PM10) in the metropolitan areas of South Korea shows a continuous decreasing tendency, the high concentration episodes have reportedly been increasing. The Ministry of Environment of Korea plans to promote the Korea-US Air Quality Campaign (hereinafter referred to as KORUS-AQ) in cooperation with NASA, to identify the drivers of particulate matter and ozone and improve the accuracy of forecasting models. The purpose of this research is to identify the chemical composition characteristics of particulate matters (PM10 and PM2.5) by analyzing the filters collected at the Seoul intensive monitoring site during the pre-campaign period. From May 18 through June 19 in 2015, we collected the PM10 and PM2.5 samples from 10 am to 9 am the next day every day for 23 hours by using the low-volume air sampler at KIST, located in Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, Korea, to analyse fine dust concentration and ionic, carbonaceous, and elemental components. During the research period, the PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentrations were within 21.1 - 78.5 ug/m3 and 12.0 - 56.0 ug/m3, respectively and the average PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentrations were 42.5 ug/m3 and 24.6 ug/m3, respectively. In 24.6 ug/m3 of the average PM2.5 mass concentration, anions were 37.1 %( 9.7 ug/m3) and cations were 13.9%( 3.6 ug/m3), indicating that 51% of the PM2.5 components were ions. In the ionic components of PM2.5, sulfate showed the highest concentration (7.03 ug/m3), followed by nitrate (2.61 ug/m3), chloride (0.08 ug/m3), ammonium (3.14 mu/m3), sodium (0.17 ug/m3), kalium (0.15 ug/m3), calcium (0.11 ug/m3), and magnesium (0.01 ug/m3). The average concentrations of carbonaceous components of PM2.5 were 4.2 ug/m3 (18.7 %) for organic carbon (OC) and 2.2 ug /m3 (9.8 %) for inorganic carbon (EC), indicating that PM2.5 had total 6.4 ug/m3 (28.5 %) of carbon. As a result of the analysis on elemental components, it was shown that PM2.5 had 1.61 ug/m3

  20. Seoul National University Bundang Hospital's Electronic System for Total Care

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Sooyoung; Lee, Kee Hyuck; Lee, Hak Jong; Ha, Kyooseob; Lim, Cheong; Chin, Ho Jun; Yun, Jonghoar; Cho, Eun-Young; Chung, Eunja; Baek, Rong-Min; Chung, Chin Youb; Wee, Won Ryang; Lee, Chul Hee; Lee, Hai-Seok; Byeon, Nam-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, which is the first Stage 7 hospital outside of North America, has adopted and utilized an innovative and emerging information technology system to improve the efficiency and quality of patient care. The objective of this paper is to briefly introduce the major components of the SNUBH information system and to describe our progress toward a next-generation hospital information system (HIS). Methods SNUBH opened in 2003 as a fully digital hospital by successfully launching a new HIS named BESTCare, "Bundang hospital Electronic System for Total Care". Subsequently, the system has been continuously improved with new applications, including close-loop medication administration (CLMA), clinical data warehouse (CDW), health information exchange (HIE), and disaster recovery (DR), which have resulted in the achievement of Stage 7 status. Results The BESTCare system is an integrated system for a university hospital setting. BESTCare is mainly composed of three application domains: the core applications, an information infrastructure, and channel domains. The most critical and unique applications of the system, such as the electronic medical record (EMR), computerized physician order entry (CPOE), clinical decision support system (CDSS), CLMA, CDW, HIE, and DR applications, are described in detail. Conclusions Beyond our achievement of Stage 7 hospital status, we are currently developing a next-generation HIS with new goals of implementing infrastructure that is flexible and innovative, implementing a patient-centered system, and strengthening the IT capability to maximize the hospital value. PMID:22844650

  1. Shallow hydraulic fracturing measurements in Korea support tectonic and seismic indicators of regional stress.

    SciTech Connect

    Haimson, Bezalel Cecil; Lee, Moo Yul; Song, I.

    2003-07-01

    We have conducted five hydraulic fracturing stress measurement campaigns in Korea, involving 13 test holes ranging in depth from 30 to 250 m, at locations from North Seoul to the southern coast of the peninsula. The measurements reveal consistent crustal stress magnitudes and directions that suggest persistence throughout western and southern Korea. The maximum horizontal stress {sigma}{sub H} is oriented between ENE-WSW and E-W, in accord with plate movement and deformation, and with directions indicated by both focal mechanism solutions from earthquakes inland and offshore as well as borehole breakouts in mainland China close to its eastern coast. With respect to magnitudes, the vertical stress is the overall minimum stress at all tested locations, suggesting a thrust faulting regime within the relatively shallow depths reached by our tests. Typically, such a stress regime becomes one favoring strike-slip at greater depths, as is also indicated by the focal mechanism solutions around Korea.

  2. The State and Development Direction of the Geodetic VLBI Station in Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ju, Hyunhee; Kim, Myungho; Kim, Suchul; Park, Jinsik; Kondo, Tetsuro; Kim, Tuhwan; Oh, Hongjong; Yi, Sangoh

    2010-01-01

    A permanent geodetic VLBI station with a 22-m diameter antenna will be newly constructed in Korea by the National Geographic Information Institute (NGII) under the project Korea VLBI system for Geodesy (KVG) that aims at maintaining the Korean geodetic datum accurately on the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). KVG can receive 2, 8, 22, and 43 GHz bands simultaneously in order to conduct geodetic and astronomical VLBI observations with Korea astronomical VLBI stations along with geodetic observations with IVS stations. This simultaneous four-band receiving capability is a unique feature of the KVG system. The KVG has started officially in October 2008. A new geodetic VLBI station will be constructed at Sejong city (about 120 km south of Seoul and about 20 km north-northwest of Daejeon) and construction of all systems will be completed in 2011.

  3. Modeling Study on Air Quality Improvement due to Mobile Source Emission control Plan in Seoul Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. J.; Sunwoo, Y.; Hwang, I.; Song, S.; Sin, J.; Kim, D.

    2015-12-01

    A very high population and corresponding high number of vehicles in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) are aggravating the air quality of this region. The Korean government continues to make concerted efforts to improve air quality. One of the major policies that the Ministry of Environment of Korea enforced is "The Special Act for Improvement of Air Quality in SMA" and "The 1st Air Quality Management Plan of SMA". Mobile Source emission controls are an important part of the policy. Thus, it is timely to evaluate the air quality improvement due to the controls. Therefore, we performed a quantitative analysis of the difference in air quality using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and December, 2011 was set as the target period to capture the impact of the above control plans. We considered four fuel-type vehicle emission scenarios and compared the air quality improvement differences between them. The scenarios are as follows: no-control, gasoline vehicle control only, diesel vehicle control only, and control of both; utilizing the revised mobile source emissions from the Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS), which is the national emission inventory reflecting current policy.In order to improve the accuracy of the modeling data, we developed new temporal allocation coefficients based on traffic volume observation data and spatially reallocated the mobile source emissions using vehicle flow survey data. Furthermore, we calculated the PM10 and PM2.5 emissions of gasoline vehicles which is omitted in CAPSS.The results of the air quality modeling shows that vehicle control plans for both gasoline and diesel lead to a decrease of 0.65ppb~8.75ppb and 0.02㎍/㎥~7.09㎍/㎥ in NO2 and PM10 monthly average concentrations, respectively. The large percentage decreases mainly appear near the center of the metropolis. However, the largest NO2 decrease percentages are found in the northeast region of Gyeonggi-do, which is the province that surrounds the

  4. Chemical weathering of granite under acid rainfall environment, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung Yeop; Kim, Soo Jin; Baik, Min Hoon

    2008-08-01

    Chemical weathering was investigated by collecting samples from five selected weathering profiles in a high elevation granitic environment located in Seoul, Korea. The overall changes of chemistry and mineralogical textures were examined reflecting weathering degrees of the samples, using polarization microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron probe micro analysis (EPMA), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The chemical distribution in the weathering profiles shows that few trace elements are slightly immobile, whereas most major (particularly Ca and Na) and trace elements are mobile from the beginning of the granite weathering. On the other hand, there were mineralogical changes initiated from a plagioclase breakdown, which shows a characteristic circular dissolved pattern caused by a preferential leaching of Ca cation along grain boundaries and zoning. The biotite in that region is also supposed to be sensitive to exterior environmental condition and may be easily dissolved by acidic percolated water. As a result, it seems that some rock-forming minerals in the granitic rock located in Seoul are significantly unstable due to the environmental condition of acidic rainfall and steep slopes, where they are susceptible to be dissolved incongruently leading some elements to be highly depleted.

  5. Korea space program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryoo, Jang-Soo

    1992-11-01

    An overview of the missions, history, and organization of the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) is presented. The following three projects included in the Korean space program are presented: (1) KOREASAT procurement project to procure multipurpose satellites and have them launched through international tenders to be used for communication and broadcasting in Korea; (2) exploration rocket project, Korea's self-developed rocket project, conducted by KARI to observe the ozone concentration and ionosphere over the country, and conduct microgravity experiment; and (3) KITSAT (Korea Institute of Technology Satellite-A) minisatellite project undergoing joint development with the UK Surrey University to be launched by a ARIANE launch vehicle.

  6. Activities of the women in physics committee in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Soon; Yoon, Jin Hee; Yim, Haein; Jung, Ranju; Chung, Ok Hee; Yang, Ho-Soon; Chun, Seung-Hyun; Oh, Wonkun; Kim, Hyunjung; Park, Youngah

    2013-03-01

    Established in 2002 as a result of the first IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, and subsequently ratified as one of the permanent committees in the Korean Physical Society (KPS), the Women in Physics Committee in Korea has been playing a central role in making society aware of improvement of women's status through a variety of efforts, such as organizing workshops, site visits, and special sessions; holding the third ICWIP in Seoul in 2008; and hosting an annual KPS physics camp for high school girls since 2002. We present some details about these activities in order to share our experiences and discuss our future goals with members of the corresponding committees from other countries.

  7. Radiocarbon ages of Sorori ancient rice of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyeong Ja; Lee, Yung-Jo; Woo, Jong-Yoon; Jull, A. J. Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Samples of Sorori ancient rice were excavated in 1998 from the Sorori Paleolithic site located at Sorori, Oksan-myeon, Cheong-won County in Chungcheongbuk-do, Korea. We have made new radiocarbon measurements for Sorori samples in 2009 at the NSF Arizona AMS Laboratory. Both ancient rice samples and surrounded peat from the Sorori site were dated. The AMS results confirmed that the ages of the rice and peat soil were 12,520 ± 150 and 12,552 ± 90 BP, respectively. These radiocarbon ages are consistent with the previously published data of quasi rice measured at Seoul National University and confirm that the Sorori rice is the oldest ancient rice currently reported.

  8. The Geography of Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Young-Han

    1988-01-01

    Briefly surveys the geography of both North and South Korea, examining mountain ranges, rivers, soil, and climate. Also discusses the economic activities of South Korea, including industrialization, transportation, population, and the urban system. Provides a map of the Korean peninsula and a table of land area and population by province. (GEA)

  9. An international survey of physicians regarding clinical trials: a comparison between Kyoto University Hospital and Seoul National University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background International clinical trials are now rapidly expanding into Asia. However, the proportion of global trials is higher in South Korea compared to Japan despite implementation of similar governmental support in both countries. The difference in clinical trial environment might influence the respective physicians’ attitudes and experience towards clinical trials. Therefore, we designed a questionnaire to explore how physicians conceive the issues surrounding clinical trials in both countries. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted at Kyoto University Hospital (KUHP) and Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) in 2008. The questionnaire consisted of 15 questions and 2 open-ended questions on broad key issues relating to clinical trials. Results The number of responders was 301 at KUHP and 398 at SNUH. Doctors with trial experience were 196 at KUHP and 150 at SNUH. Among them, 12% (24/196) at KUHP and 41% (61/150) at SUNH had global trial experience. Most respondents at both institutions viewed clinical trials favorably and thought that conducting clinical trials contributed to medical advances, which would ultimately lead to new and better treatments. The main reason raised as a hindrance to conducting clinical trials was the lack of personnel support and time. Doctors at both university hospitals thought that more clinical research coordinators were required to conduct clinical trials more efficiently. KUHP doctors were driven mainly by pure academic interest or for their desire to find new treatments, while obtaining credits for board certification and co-authorship on manuscripts also served as motivation factors for doctors at SNUH. Conclusions Our results revealed that there might be two different approaches to increase clinical trial activity. One is a social level approach to establish clinical trial infrastructure providing sufficient clinical research professionals. The other is an individual level approach that would provide incentives to

  10. Volatile organic compounds concentrations in residential indoor and outdoor and its personal exposure in Korea.

    PubMed

    Son, Busoon; Breysse, Patrick; Yang, Wonho

    2003-04-01

    To date, personal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) exposure and residential indoor and outdoor VOCs levels have not been characterized in Korea. In this study, residential indoor and outdoor VOCs concentrations were measured and compared simultaneously with the personal exposure for each of 30 participants in a medium city, Asan, and in a metropolitan city, Seoul. Factors that influence personal VOCs exposures were assessed in relation to house characteristics and time activity information. All VOC concentrations were measured using passive samplers during a 24-h period and analyzed using GC-MS. Ten target VOCs were benzene, trichloroethylene, toluene, o-xylene, p-xylene, ethylbenzene, MIBK, n-octane, styrene, and 1,2-dichlorobenzene. Residential indoor and outdoor VOCs concentrations measured in Seoul were significantly higher than those in Asan. Indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios for all target compounds ranged from 0.94 to 1.51 and I/O ratios of Asan were a little higher than those of Seoul. Results indicate that time activity information can be used to predict personal exposures, although such predictions will result in an over estimation compared to measured exposures. Factors which influence the indoor VOCs level and its personal exposure in relation to house characteristics included house age, indoor smoking, and house type. PMID:12605940

  11. A decrease in mesospheric water vapour detected in South-Korea in February 2008; from observation to interpretation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wachter, Evelyn; Kaempfer, Niklaus; Flury, Thomas; Ka, Soohyun; Oh, Jung Jin

    Since November 2006, the University of Bern in Switzerland has been operating a ground-based microwave [GBMW] radiometer in Seoul, S-Korea [37.32N, 126.57E]. At the end of February 2008 we observed a significant decrease in mesospheric water vapour of more than 2 ppmv [around 40Trajectories were calculated and the temperature and wind field distribution in the northern hemisphere was analyzed. We validated the trajectory model results by a match tech-nique with other GBMW radiometer data from stations of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change [NDACC]. In addition, we investigated the possible impact of the major sudden stratospheric warming [SSW], which occured in February 2008 at midlat-itudes, to the mesospheric region, leaving signatures in the water vapour distribution at the observation site in Seoul.

  12. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its related factors among North Korean refugees in South Korea: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon Jung; Lee, Yo Han; Lee, Yun Jeong; Kim, Kyeong Jin; An, Jee Hyun; Kim, Nam Hoon; Kim, Hee Young; Choi, Dong Seop; Kim, Sin Gon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its related factors among North Korean refugees (NKR) in South Korea. Design Cross-sectional study conducted using a questionnaire and anthropometric and biochemical data on NKR in South Korea. Setting Seoul, South Korea. Participants A sample of NKR who voluntarily underwent medical examinations in Anam Hospital of Korea University, Seoul, South Korea (N=708, consisting of 161 males and 547 females). To compare the prevalence of MetS, 1416 age- and gender-matched individuals from the South Korean population (SKP, at a ratio of 1:2 to NKR) were randomly selected from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Main outcome measures The prevalence of MetS and its related factors among NKR in South Korea and comparison with its prevalence among the general SKP. Results The prevalence of MetS among male and female NKR in South Korea was 19.7% and 17.2%, respectively. Although obesity is more prevalent in South than in North Korea, we found no difference in the prevalence of MetS between the female NKR and SKP groups (17.2% vs 16.6%, respectively; p=0.830). As regards the males, the small sample size of the NKR group yielded insufficient evidence of any difference in MetS prevalence between the NKR and SKP groups (19.7% vs 26.2%, respectively; p=0.134). We found that excess weight gain (≥5%) in South Korea was significantly associated with MetS among NKR. Conclusions The prevalence of MetS among NKR did not differ from that in the SKP group despite the lower prevalence of obesity in NKR than in the general SKP. The fact that excess weight gain in South Korea was associated with the risk of MetS suggests that public health policy makers should focus on preventing excess weight gain in NKR during resettlement in South Korea. PMID:27251685

  13. Validation of Senge's Learning Organization Model with Teachers of Vocational High Schools at the Seoul Megalopolis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Joo Ho

    2008-01-01

    This study measured and applied Senge's (1990) fifth discipline model of learning organizations in a culturally distinct population, namely teachers in 17 vocational high schools located in the Seoul megalopolis. The participants were 976 full-time vocational and academic teachers in public trade/industry-technical and business high schools in the…

  14. Review of Suicide Prevention Programs: Massachusetts, United States, in Comparison with Seoul

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Ji Hyun; Park, Jong-Ik; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Roh, Sung-won; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a tragedy that has massive impact on society. In order to prevent suicide, active government intervention is necessary. The suicide rate in Seoul is rapidly increasing and is more than five times higher than that in the state of Massachusetts (MA) during the last decade, especially in the elderly. The suicide prevention program of MA is one of the most effective suicide prevention programs in the United States. The program views suicide as a preventable public health problem, and emphasizes treatment of depression and de-stigmatization of mental health illnesses to prevent suicide. Also, through active collaboration with mental health professionals, they try to identify at-risk populations and help them to get medical interventions. The program also actively collaborates with the regional coalition program and the Samaritans in taking care of the elderly, and supports the elderly in feeling worthwhile after retirement by helping them to work for communities as volunteers. For its part, the Seoul suicide prevention program puts more emphasis on "life respect culture" and "emotional support to high risk individuals by regular visiting". The annual budget of the Seoul suicide prevention program is one-quarter and that for mental health is about one-twentieth that of MA. Considering the high suicide rate and lower mental health service usage in Seoul, it is crucial to raise awareness of depression and decrease the stigma on mental illnesses. Furthermore, educational efforts with long-term investment in research on suicide are necessary. PMID:26207119

  15. Re-Locating the National: Spatialization of the National Past in Seoul

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Soochul

    2009-01-01

    This article is an attempt to make sense of the emerging culture of mobility in Seoul in the 1990s. The 1990s in a South Korean context is emblematic of a changed social reality and transformation. Grand narratives of development, anti-state democratization activism and Cold War politics were losing their effect and authority. Meanwhile, new…

  16. Review of Suicide Prevention Programs: Massachusetts, United States, in Comparison with Seoul.

    PubMed

    Baek, Ji Hyun; Park, Jong-Ik; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Roh, Sung-Won; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2015-07-01

    Suicide is a tragedy that has massive impact on society. In order to prevent suicide, active government intervention is necessary. The suicide rate in Seoul is rapidly increasing and is more than five times higher than that in the state of Massachusetts (MA) during the last decade, especially in the elderly. The suicide prevention program of MA is one of the most effective suicide prevention programs in the United States. The program views suicide as a preventable public health problem, and emphasizes treatment of depression and de-stigmatization of mental health illnesses to prevent suicide. Also, through active collaboration with mental health professionals, they try to identify at-risk populations and help them to get medical interventions. The program also actively collaborates with the regional coalition program and the Samaritans in taking care of the elderly, and supports the elderly in feeling worthwhile after retirement by helping them to work for communities as volunteers. For its part, the Seoul suicide prevention program puts more emphasis on "life respect culture" and "emotional support to high risk individuals by regular visiting". The annual budget of the Seoul suicide prevention program is one-quarter and that for mental health is about one-twentieth that of MA. Considering the high suicide rate and lower mental health service usage in Seoul, it is crucial to raise awareness of depression and decrease the stigma on mental illnesses. Furthermore, educational efforts with long-term investment in research on suicide are necessary. PMID:26207119

  17. International Symposium on Analysis Program for Constructing Database about Nutrient Composition of Foods, Seoul, Korea, May 11-15, 2009.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For more than 100 years the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) has supported the generation and compilation of food composition data. Today the Agricultural Research Service, USDA develops and maintains the National Nutrient Data Bank, a repository of food composition data which provides the found...

  18. Analysis of effects of climate change on runoff in an urban drainage system: a case study from Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, M; Kim, H; Mallari, K J B; Pak, G; Yoon, J

    2015-01-01

    Both water quantity and quality are impacted by climate change. In addition, rapid urbanization has also brought an immeasurable loss of life and property resulting from floods. Hence, there is a need to predict changes in rainfall events to effectively design stormwater infrastructure to protect urban areas from disaster. This study develops a framework for predicting future short duration rainfall intensity and examining the effects of climate change on urban runoff in the Gunja Drainage Basin. Non-stationarities in rainfall records are first analysed using trend analysis to extrapolate future climate change scenarios. The US Environmental Protection Agency Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) was used for single event simulation of runoff quantity from the study area. For the 1-hour and 24-hour durations, statistically significant upward trends were observed. Although the 10-minute duration was only nearly significant at the 90% level, the steepest slope was observed for this short duration. Moreover, it was observed that the simulated peak discharge from SWMM increases as the short duration rainfall intensity increases. The proposed framework is thought to provide a means to review the current design of stormwater infrastructures to determine their capacity, along with consideration of climate change impact. PMID:25768210

  19. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis Infection in Stray Cats by Nested PCR in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Sang-Eun; Lee, Won-Ja; Oh, Jung-Hyun; Maheswaran, Easwaran; Seo, Kyoung-Won

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a survey of Dirofilaria immitis infection among stray cats in Korea using nested PCR. We included 235 stray cats (121 females and 114 males) and evaluated each for the presence of feline heartworm infection. Blood samples were collected from 135 cats in Daejeon, 50 cats in Seoul, and 50 cats from Gyeonggi-do (Province). Of the 235 DNA samples, 14 (6.0%) were positive for D. immitis. The prevalence of infection in male cats (8/114, 7.0%) tended to be higher than that in female cats (6/121, 5.0%), but the difference was not statistically significant. In each location, 8, 2, and 4 cats were positive for infection, respectively, based on DNA testing. No significant differences in the prevalence were observed among the geographic regions, although the rate of infection was higher in Gyeonggi-do (8.0%) than Daejeon (5.9%) and Seoul (4.0%). We submitted 7 of the 14 D. immitis DNA-positive samples for sequencing analysis. All samples corresponded to partial D. immitis cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene sequences with 99% homology to the D. immitis sequence deposited in GenBank (accession no. FN391553). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first survey using nested PCR to analyze the prevalence of D. immitis in stray cats in Korea. PMID:25548424

  20. China and Korea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Dust Obscures Liaoning Province, China     View Larger Image ... acquired 16 days apart, covers the Liaoning region of China and parts of northern and western Korea. They contrast a relatively clear ...

  1. Numerical Simulation and Analysis of the Localized Heavy Precipitation Event in South Korea based on diagnostic variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Joon-Woo; Choi, Young-Jean

    2016-04-01

    Accurate prediction of precipitation is one of the most difficult and significant tasks in weather forecasting. Heavy precipitations in the Korean Peninsula are caused by various physical mechanisms, which are affected by shortwave trough, quasi-stationary moisture convergence zone among varying air masses, and a direct/indirect effect of tropical cyclone. Many previous studies have used observations, numerical modeling, and statistics to investigate the potential causes of warm-season heavy precipitation in South Korea. Especially, the frequency of warm-season torrential rainfall events more than 30 mm/h precipitation has increased threefold in Seoul, a metropolitan city in South Korea, in recent 30 years. Localized heavy rainfall events in South Korea generally arise from mesoscale convective systems embedded in these synoptic scale disturbances along the Changma front, or from convective instabilities resulting from unstable air masses. In order to investigate localized heavy precipitation system in Seoul metropolitan area, analysis and numerical experiment were performed for a typical event in 20 June 2014. This case is described to a structure of baroclinic instability associated with a short-wave trough from the northwest and high moist and warm air by a thermal low from the southwest of the Korean Peninsula. We investigated localized heavy precipitation in narrow zone of the Seoul urban area using numerical simulations based on the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model with convective scale. The topography and land use data of the revised U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) data and the appropriate set of physical scheme options for WRF model simulation were deliberated. Simulation experiments showed patches of primary physical structures related to the localized heavy precipitation using the diagnostic fields, which are storm relative helicity (SRH), updraft helicity (UH), and instantaneous contraction rates (ICON). SRH and UH are dominantly related to

  2. Protocol of a Thyroid Cancer Longitudinal Study (T-CALOS): a prospective, clinical and epidemiological study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu Eun; Park, Young Joo; Cho, Belong; Hwang, Yunji; Choi, June Young; Kim, Su-jin; Choi, Hoonsung; Choi, Ho-Chun; An, Ah Reum; Park, Do Joon; Park, Sue K; Youn, Yeo-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Thyroid cancer incidence in Korea is the highest in the world and has recently increased steeply. However, factors contributing to this sudden increase have not been fully elucidated, and few studies have explored the postoperative prognosis. The Thyroid Cancer Longitudinal Study (T-CALOS) was initiated with three aims: (1) to identify factors predicting quality of life, recurrence, and incidence of other diseases after thyroid cancer treatments; (2) to investigate environmental exposure to radiation, toxicants and molecular factors in relation to tumour aggressiveness; and (3) to evaluate gene–environment interactions that increase thyroid cancer in comparison with healthy participants from a pool of nationwide population-based healthy examinees. Methods and analysis T-CALOS enrols patients with incident thyroid cancer from three general hospitals, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital and National Medical Center, Korea. The study is an ongoing project expecting to investigate 5000 patients with thyroid cancer up until 2017. Healthy examinees with a normal thyroid confirmed by sonography have been enrolled at the Healthy Examination Center at Seoul National University Hospital. We are also performing individual matching using two nationwide databases that are open to the public. Follow-up information is obtained at patients’ clinical visits and by linkage to the national database. For statistical analysis, we will use conditional logistic regression models and a Cox proportional hazard regression model. A number of stratifications and sensitivity analyses will be performed to confirm the results. Ethics and dissemination Based on a large sample size, a prospective study design, comprehensive data collection and biobank, T-CALOS has been independently peer-reviewed and approved by the three hospitals and two funding sources (National Research Foundation of Korea and Korean Foundation for Cancer Research

  3. Older Adults’ Perception of Chronic Illness Management in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Minah; Kim, Jaiyong; Bae, Sang-Soo; Choi, Yong-Jun; Shin, Dong-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Despite the recent emphasis on a patient-centered chronic care model, few studies have investigated its use in older adults in South Korea. We explored how older Korean adults perceive and cope with their chronic illness. Methods: We conducted focus group interviews in Seoul, Korea in January 2010. Focus groups were formed by disease type (hypertension and type 2 diabetes) and gender using purposive sampling. Inclusion criteria were patients aged 60 and over who had been diagnosed with diabetes or hypertension and received care at a community health center for at least six months prior to participation. Interview data were analyzed through descriptive content analysis. Results: Among personal factors, most participants felt overwhelmed when they received their diagnosis. However, with time and control of their acute symptoms using medication, their worry diminished and participants tended to denying being identified as a patient or sick person. Among socio-familial factors, participants reported experiencing stigma with their chronic illness and feeling it was a symbol of weakness. Instead of modifying their lifestyles, which might interfere with their social relationships, they resorted to only following their medicine regime prescribed by their doctor. Participants also reported feeling that their doctor only prescribed medications and acted in an authoritative and threatening manner to induce and reinforce participants’ compliance with treatment. Conclusions: For successful patient-centered management of chronic illnesses, supportive environments that include family, friends, and healthcare providers should be established. PMID:25139170

  4. Measurements of physical and chemical properties of urban aerosols and their CCN activities in Seoul during the KORUS-AQ pre-campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, N.; Yum, S. S.; Park, M.; Shin, H. J.; Bae, G. N.; Kwak, K. H.; Park, J. S.; Park, S. M.; Ahn, J.

    2015-12-01

    Interest in cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) has been increasing for the last few decades due to their first order effects on radiative and microphysical properties of clouds. Particularly, scientific understanding of CCN from anthropogenic sources becomes important because it is now considered that large uncertainties in climate change predictions stem from insufficient understanding of CCN. CCN activity is influenced by size and chemical component of aerosols. The KORUS-AQ campaign, jointly organized by National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER) of Korea and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) aims at understanding various aspects of air quality problem in Korea and will be held in spring, 2016. In preparation for this campaign, pre-campaign was held during May 18-June 13, 2015, in Seoul where numerous local anthropogenic sources exist and influence of Chinese continental outflow directly affects. Here we present some of the important results from the pre-campaign. Chemical properties of aerosols were measured with AMS. Aerosol and CCN number concentrations, aerosol size distribution and aerosol hygroscopic growth factor were measured by CPC, CCN counter, SMPS and H-TDMA, respectively. Average diurnal variation of aerosol number concentration showed three dominant peaks at around 0600_UTC and morning and evening rush hours. Each peak seemed to have different characteristics and therefore detailed analyses of physical and chemical properties of aerosols during the peaks as well as during some special events will be made. The hygroscopicity parameter, kappa, will be estimated by examining CCN activity, H-TDMA measured hygroscopic growth factor and mixing rule of aerosol chemical components, and the result will be compared as well.

  5. Characteristics of MSW and heat energy recovery between residential and commercial areas in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sora; Yoo, Kee-Young; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2011-03-01

    This paper analyzes the amount and characteristics of municipal solid waste (MSW) according to the inhabitant density of population and the business concentration in 25 districts in Seoul. Further, the heat energy recovery and avoided CO(2) emissions of four incineration plants located in residential and commercial areas in Seoul are examined. The amount of residential waste per capita tended to increase as the density of inhabitants decreased. The amount of commercial waste per capita tended to increase as the business concentration increased. The examination of the heat energy recovery characteristics indicated that the four incineration plants produced heat energy that depended on residential or commercial areas based on population and business. The most important result regarding avoided CO(2) emissions was that commercial areas with many office-type businesses had the most effective CO(2) emission savings by combusting 1 kg of waste. Assuming the full-scale operation of the four incineration plants, the amount of saved CO(2) emissions per year was 444 Gg CO(2) and 57,006 households in Seoul can be provided with heat energy equivalent to 542,711 Nm(3) of LNG. PMID:20933381

  6. BCG vaccine in Korea.

    PubMed

    Joung, Sun Myung; Ryoo, Sungweon

    2013-07-01

    The anti-tuberculosis Bacille de Calmette et Guérin (BCG) vaccine was developed between 1905 and 1921 at Pasteur Institutes of Lille in France, and was adopted by many countries. BCG strains comprise natural mutants of major virulence factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and that BCG sub-strains differ markedly in virulence levels. The tuberculosis became endemic in Korea after the Korean War (1950s). The BCG strain, which was donated by Pasteur Institutes, was brought to Korea in 1955, and the first domestic BCG vaccine was produced by the National Defense Research Institute (NDRI), current Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC), in 1960. Since 1987, BCG manufacture work was handed over to the Korean Institute of Tuberculosis (KIT), the freeze-dried BCG vaccine was manufactured at a scale required to meet the whole amount of domestic consumption. However, since 2006, the manufacture of BCG vaccine suspended and the whole amount of BCG was imported at this point of time. Now KIT is planning to re-produce the BCG vaccine in Korea under the supervision of KCDC, this will be render great role to National Tuberculosis Control Program (NTP) and provide initiating step for developing new tuberculosis vaccines in Korea. PMID:23858398

  7. The current status and future perspectives of nuclear medicine in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Chul; Oh, So Won; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Dong Soo

    2010-06-01

    Since the introduction of nuclear medicine in 1959, Korea accomplished a brilliant development in terms of both clinical practice and research activities, which was mainly due to the dedication of nuclear medicine specialists, consisting of physicians, technicians, and scientists, and strong support from the Korean Government. Now, Korea has 150 medical institutes, performing approximately 561,000 nuclear imaging procedures and 11.6 million in vitro studies in 2008, and ranked fourth in the number of presentations at the Annual Meeting of the Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM) in 2008. The successful progress in this field has allowed Korea to focus on the international promotion of nuclear medicine, especially in the developing and underdeveloped countries. In consequence, the Asian Regional Cooperative Council for Nuclear Medicine (ARCCNM) was established in 2001, and Seoul hosted the 9th Congress of the World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB) in 2006. In the future, Korea will strive to sustain its rate of advancement in the field and make every effort to share its progress and promote the exchange of scientific information at the international level. PMID:25013521

  8. Retrospective study of canine cutaneous tumors in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Pakhrin, Bidur; Kang, Min-Soo; Bae, Il-Hong; Park, Mi-Sun; Jee, Hyang; You, Mi-Hyeon; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Yoon, Byung-Il; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2007-01-01

    Over the 42 month period from January 2003 to June 2006, a total of 2,952 canine biopsy specimens were received from the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of Seoul National University and from veterinary practitioners across the nation. Out of these, 748 (25.34%) cases were diagnosed as canine cutaneous tumors in the Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Korea. Thirty-eight different types of cutaneous tumors were identified and categorized into epithelial and melanocytic tumors (56.95%), mesenchymal tumors (38.90%), and hematopoietic tumors (4.14%) located in the skin. Among these, 69.25% were benign and 30.74% were malignant. The top ten most frequently diagnosed cutaneous tumors were epidermal and follicular cysts (12.70%), lipoma (11.36%), mast cell tumors (8.82%), cutaneous histiocytoma (7.49%), basal cell tumors (6.82%), sebaceous gland adenoma (6.68%), sebaceous gland hyperplasia (5.08%), hepatoid gland adenoma (3.61%), apocrine adenocarcinoma (3.07%), and fibroma (2.81%), in order of prevalence. They comprised 68.45% of all cutaneous tumors. These top ten cutaneous tumors were distributed on the trunk (30.08%), head and neck (20.9%), extremities (19.14%), anal and perianal area (8.59%), and tail (3.91%). The age of the dogs with the ten most frequent tumors had a mean age of 8.3 years, with a range of 2 months to 19 years. When all types of tumors were considered together in the entire population, there was no difference in incidence according to sex. PMID:17679768

  9. Retrospective study of canine cutaneous tumors in Korea.

    PubMed

    Pakhrin, Bidur; Kang, Min Soo; Bae, Il Hong; Park, Mi Sun; Jee, Hyang; You, Mi Hyeon; Kim, Jae Hoon; Yoon, Byung Il; Choi, Yang Kyu; Kim, Dae Yong

    2007-09-01

    Over the 42 month period from January 2003 to June 2006, a total of 2,952 canine biopsy specimens were received from the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of Seoul National University and from veterinary practitioners across the nation. Out of these, 748 (25.34%) cases were diagnosed as canine cutaneous tumors in the Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Korea. Thirty-eight different types of cutaneous tumors were identified and categorized into epithelial and melanocytic tumors (56.95%), mesenchymal tumors (38.90%), and hematopoietic tumors (4.14%) located in the skin. Among these, 69.25% were benign and 30.74% were malignant. The top ten most frequently diagnosed cutaneous tumors were epidermal and follicular cysts (12.70%), lipoma (11.36%), mast cell tumors (8.82%), cutaneous histiocytoma (7.49%), basal cell tumors (6.82%), sebaceous gland adenoma (6.68%), sebaceous gland hyperplasia (5.08%), hepatoid gland adenoma (3.61%), apocrine adenocarcinoma (3.07%), and fibroma (2.81%), in order of prevalence. They comprised 68.45% of all cutaneous tumors. These top ten cutaneous tumors were distributed on the trunk (30.08%), head and neck (20.9%), extremities (19.14%), anal and perianal area (8.59%), and tail (3.91%). The age of the dogs with the ten most frequent tumors had a mean age of 8.3 years, with a range of 2 months to 19 years. When all types of tumors were considered together in the entire population, there was no difference in incidence according to sex. PMID:17679768

  10. Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Livestock Agriculture in 16 Local Administrative Districts of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Eun Sook; Park, Kyu-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from livestock agriculture in 16 local administrative districts of Korea from 1990 to 2030. National Inventory Report used 3 yr averaged livestock population but this study used 1 yr livestock population to find yearly emission fluctuations. Extrapolation of the livestock population from 1990 to 2009 was used to forecast future livestock population from 2010 to 2030. Past (yr 1990 to 2009) and forecasted (yr 2010 to 2030) averaged enteric CH4 emissions and CH4 and N2O emissions from manure treatment were estimated. In the section of enteric fermentation, forecasted average CH4 emissions from 16 local administrative districts were estimated to increase by 4%–114% compared to that of the past except for Daejeon (−63%), Seoul (−36%) and Gyeonggi (−7%). As for manure treatment, forecasted average CH4 emissions from the 16 local administrative districts were estimated to increase by 3%–124% compared to past average except for Daejeon (−77%), Busan (−60%), Gwangju (−48%) and Seoul (−8%). For manure treatment, forecasted average N2O emissions from the 16 local administrative districts were estimated to increase by 10%–153% compared to past average CH4 emissions except for Daejeon (−60%), Seoul (−4.0%), and Gwangju (−0.2%). With the carbon dioxide equivalent emissions (CO2-Eq), forecasted average CO2-Eq from the 16 local administrative districts were estimated to increase by 31%–120% compared to past average CH4 emissions except Daejeon (−65%), Seoul (−24%), Busan (−18%), Gwangju (−8%) and Gyeonggi (−1%). The decreased CO2-Eq from 5 local administrative districts was only 34 kt, which was insignificantly small compared to increase of 2,809 kt from other 11 local administrative districts. Annual growth rates of enteric CH4 emissions, CH4 and N2O emissions from manure management in Korea from 1990 to 2009 were 1.7%, 2.6%, and 3.2%, respectively. The

  11. Introduction of the Republic of Korea-the United States of America's Joint Exercise Against Biothreats in 2013: Able Response 13.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Sun; Oh, Dong Whan; Jo, Hyun Jung; Chu, Chaeshin

    2013-10-01

    The Republic of Korea (ROK) and the the United States of America (USA) has held joint exercises to respond to biothreats in the Korean Peninsula since 2011. The exercise was called Able Response (AR) and it aims to coordinate interministerial procedures inside Korea and international procedures in requesting the medical resources urgently between ROK and USA, and among ROK and the United Nations, and nongovernmental organizations. AR13 was a functional exercise with a scenario that presumed a series of attack by terrorists, dispersing Bacillus anthracis in Seoul. The participants conducted exercises with action cells and using point-to-point communication system. It was followed by Senior Leadership Seminar participated by high-ranking officials in ROK and USA to discuss possible collaboration in advance. AR and its following actions will fortify collaboration between ROK and USA and enhance the capability of countermeasures against biothreats in Korea. PMID:24298445

  12. Tsunami Run-up Heights at Imwon Port, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Yong-Sik; Cho, Jeong-Seon

    2015-04-01

    Tsunami Run-up Heights at Imwon Port, Korea Yong-Sik Cho and Jeong-Seon Cho Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791, Korea. The Eastern Coast of the Korean Peninsula has been attacked frequently by a number of tsunamis causing severe damages during this century. Among them, 1983 Central East Sea and 1993 Hokkaido Tsunami events were recorded as the most devastating events in Korea. More recently, the Great East Japan Tsunami had also attacked the Korean Peninsula. The Eastern Coast of the Korean Peninsula is the terminal place where tsunamis climb up inland after it generated along the western coast of Japan. The central part of the coast, in special, is worried as a tsunami danger zone because much tsunami energy is concentrated on by a topographic condition of this region. Recently, several coastal facilities including harbors and breakwaters are built and operated along the Eastern Coast of the Korean Peninsula. Furthermore, several nuclear power plants are already operating and several more units are now under construction. Residents who lived alongside the coast want free from unexpected danger, so the tsunami hazard mitigation becomes an important issue of coastal problems in Korea. Through the historical tsunami events, the Imwon Port is known as the place where most severe damage occurred, especially in 1983. An effective and economic way for the tsunami hazard mitigation planning is to construct inundation maps along the coast vulnerable to tsunami flooding. These maps should be built based on the historical tsunami events and the projected scenarios. For this purpose, an accurate estimation of tsunami run-up height and inundation process through the numerical model is needed. As a first step to tsunami mitigation program, the maximum run-up heights at the Imwon Port are computed and compared with field observed data. For this, tsunami run-up heights in this region were filed

  13. Korea's School Grounds Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Joohun

    2003-01-01

    This article describes two projects which Korea has undertaken to improve its school grounds: (1) the Green School Project; and (2) the School Forest Pilot Project. The Korean Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development (MOE&HRI) recently launched the Green School Project centred on existing urban schools with poor outdoor environments.…

  14. Dance Education in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byeon, Jae-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Despite a structured physical education system and related policies, dance education in Korea largely exists as a course in name only, without achieving its unique goals. It lacks standards within the physical education curriculum, which indicates that dance education is not conducted properly. Thus, the content and level of dance education vary…

  15. South Korea's Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihm, Chon-Sun

    1988-01-01

    Examines South Korea's economic development from being one of the poorest nations in the world in the 1950s to becoming a "rising giant" in international trade. Surveys the path to growth, the reasons for success, and problems and new challenges facing the country as it seeks developed nation status. (GEA)

  16. Teaching About South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schisgall, Jane

    1983-01-01

    Identifies reasons why social studies educators should improve their teaching about South Korea. Included in the list is the increasing numbers of Koreans being educated in the United States, the summer Olympics in 1988, and the use of Korean culture as a case study demonstrating the effects of cultural transmission and society in transition. (JDH)

  17. Divided Korea: United Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumings, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Korea's recorded history extends back before the birth of Christ. Through their long history, the Koreans have endured a variety of social, political, and economical crises. Confucianism has long been one of the most popular religions by which the Korean people have lived. However, Koreans also have embraced Buddhism and Christianity while…

  18. Emergence of criticality in the transportation passenger flow: scaling and renormalization in the Seoul bus system.

    PubMed

    Goh, Segun; Lee, Keumsook; Choi, Moo Young; Fortin, Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    Social systems have recently attracted much attention, with attempts to understand social behavior with the aid of statistical mechanics applied to complex systems. Collective properties of such systems emerge from couplings between components, for example, individual persons, transportation nodes such as airports or subway stations, and administrative districts. Among various collective properties, criticality is known as a characteristic property of a complex system, which helps the systems to respond flexibly to external perturbations. This work considers the criticality of the urban transportation system entailed in the massive smart card data on the Seoul transportation network. Analyzing the passenger flow on the Seoul bus system during one week, we find explicit power-law correlations in the system, that is, power-law behavior of the strength correlation function of bus stops and verify scale invariance of the strength fluctuations. Such criticality is probed by means of the scaling and renormalization analysis of the modified gravity model applied to the system. Here a group of nearby (bare) bus stops are transformed into a (renormalized) "block stop" and the scaling relations of the network density turn out to be closely related to the fractal dimensions of the system, revealing the underlying structure. Specifically, the resulting renormalized values of the gravity exponent and of the Hill coefficient give a good description of the Seoul bus system: The former measures the characteristic dimensionality of the network whereas the latter reflects the coupling between distinct transportation modes. It is thus demonstrated that such ideas of physics as scaling and renormalization can be applied successfully to social phenomena exemplified by the passenger flow. PMID:24599221

  19. Emergence of Criticality in the Transportation Passenger Flow: Scaling and Renormalization in the Seoul Bus System

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Segun; Lee, Keumsook; Choi, MooYoung; Fortin, Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    Social systems have recently attracted much attention, with attempts to understand social behavior with the aid of statistical mechanics applied to complex systems. Collective properties of such systems emerge from couplings between components, for example, individual persons, transportation nodes such as airports or subway stations, and administrative districts. Among various collective properties, criticality is known as a characteristic property of a complex system, which helps the systems to respond flexibly to external perturbations. This work considers the criticality of the urban transportation system entailed in the massive smart card data on the Seoul transportation network. Analyzing the passenger flow on the Seoul bus system during one week, we find explicit power-law correlations in the system, that is, power-law behavior of the strength correlation function of bus stops and verify scale invariance of the strength fluctuations. Such criticality is probed by means of the scaling and renormalization analysis of the modified gravity model applied to the system. Here a group of nearby (bare) bus stops are transformed into a (renormalized) “block stop” and the scaling relations of the network density turn out to be closely related to the fractal dimensions of the system, revealing the underlying structure. Specifically, the resulting renormalized values of the gravity exponent and of the Hill coefficient give a good description of the Seoul bus system: The former measures the characteristic dimensionality of the network whereas the latter reflects the coupling between distinct transportation modes. It is thus demonstrated that such ideas of physics as scaling and renormalization can be applied successfully to social phenomena exemplified by the passenger flow. PMID:24599221

  20. Development of recombinant canine adenovirus type-2 expressing the Gn glycoprotein of Seoul virus.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ziguo; Zhang, Xiuxiang; Zhang, Shoufeng; Liu, Ye; Gao, Shengyan; Zhang, Fei; Xu, Huijuan; Wang, Xiaohu; Hu, Rongliang

    2008-05-01

    Seoul virus glycoprotein Gn is a major structural protein and candidate antigen of hantavirus that induces a highly immunogenic response for hantavirus vaccine. In this study, a replication-competent recombinant canine adenovirus type-2 expressing Gn was constructed by the in vitro ligation method. The Gn expression cassette, including the human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) promoter/enhancer and the SV40 early mRNA polyadenylation signal, was cloned into the SspI site of the E3 region which is not essential for proliferation of CAV-2. Expression of Gn was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. PMID:18249007

  1. Classification and its scale analysis of Severe Haze recently observed in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K. M.; Eun, S. H.; Kim, B. G.; Kim, S. W.; Park, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Cloud-aerosol-precipitation interactions mechanism is heavily dependent upon scale problems, and thus the first thing to understand its mechanism is to quantify the time (or spatial) scale of forcing driver, aerosols. This study is focused on recently occurring dense haze episodes accompanied with severe visibility impairment from 2011 to 2013 at two adjacent monitoring stations (Baengnyeongdo and Seoul) in Korea. Baengnyeongdo is an island being located 200 km west from Seoul. First of all, we have tested various flow charts to classify the various categories of heavy haze events by making use of aerosol scattering coefficient, PM2.5, and time lag difference of PM2.5 increase time at both stations, backward trajectories, and the ratio of PM2.5 to PM10 specifically in the quantitative perspective. One of them is selected for this study. Long range transported haze (LH) and Yellow Sand (YS) show very distinctive time lags of both PM2.5 and PM10 between both stations, but much higher ratio of PM2.5 to PM10 for LH in comparison with YS. Meanwhile urban haze (UH) has a significant increase in PM2.5 only at Seoul as easily expected. Time scales (e-folding time) of aerosol light scattering coefficients for LH and UH are 6-12 hrs and 7-16 hrs, respectively calculated for several episodes according to the criteria developed, which eventually corresponds to spatial scale of 120 - 240 km, 140 - 320 km, respectively by assuming average boundary wind speed, 5.6 m/s (Anderson et al., 2003). In general, long-range transported hazes have larger temporal and spatial dimension (about meso-a scale) than domestic hazes, after carefully designed classification of haze episodes. These results can be an useful basis for the estimation of regional aerosol radiative forcings in East Asia.

  2. Tsunami Catalog in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Sobeom; Hyun, Seung Gyu; Noh, Myunghyun

    2015-04-01

    Significant tsunamis are described in historic and instrumental earthquake sources for all regions around the Korean Peninsula. According to the low seismicity near the Peninsula, there are relatively few tsunami events in Korea. Most of the tsunami events are associated with big earthquakes at the eastern margin of the East Sea. One historical event is associated with a volcanic eruption. For that reason, the eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula is the affectable area for tsunami. One historical event at the Yellow Sea area is inferred a result from a big earthquake in China. And one plate boundary earthquake between the Philippine Plate and the Eurasian Plate affected to an island located in south of the Korean Peninsula. We confirmed the historic tsunami events by review the foreign literatures. More detailed information is presented for the instrumental earthquake source events. This work was supported by the Nuclear Safety Research Program through the Korea Radiation Safety Foundation (KORSAFe) and the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC), Republic of Korea (Grant No. 1305001).

  3. Urologic cancers in Korea.

    PubMed

    Koo, Kyo Chul; Lee, Kwang Suk; Chung, Byung Ha

    2015-09-01

    The incidence and prevalence of prostate and kidney cancers have been increasing in Korea during the last decade, and a marked improvement in survival rates has been noted. With a substantial proportion of the cancers diagnosed at an earlier stage of the disease, the landscape of urologic cancer treatment in Korea has been characterized by an exponential increase in the number of patients receiving surgical treatment. Throughout the last decade, an increasing proportion of surgeries have been performed using minimally invasive methods, with a notable increase in robot-assisted surgery.The evaluation and management strategies of urologic cancer in Korea are primarily based on an existing evidence-based framework provided by international guidelines. The adoption and clinical application of novel surgical techniques and systemic agents targeted at advanced stage cancer are promptly adopted; accordingly, multidisciplinary treatment options are often available for various cancers at different stages. At the same time, treatment decisions are greatly influenced by the availability of healthcare resources, which may be limited due to the National Health Insurance reimbursement policy.A racial disparity in cancer features appears to exist for certain urologic cancers among Korean patients, and the optimal management strategy specific for the Korean population has yet to be confirmed. A national comprehensive cancer database is needed for better insight into risk factors, selection of sequential strategies, tumor biology and survival outcome of Korean urologic cancer patients. PMID:26117494

  4. PACS industry in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hee-Joung

    2002-05-01

    PACS industry in Korea has been rapidly growing, since government had supported collaborative PACS project between industry and university hospital. In the beginning, PACS industry had focused on developing peripheral PACS solutions, while the Korea PACS society was being formed. A few companies had started developing and installing domestic large-scale full-PACS system for teaching hospitals. Several years later, many hospitals have installed full-PACS system with national policy of reimbursement for PACS exams in November 1999. Both experiences of full-PACS installation and national policy generated tremendous intellectual and technological expertise about PACS at all levels, clinical, hospital management, education, and industrial sectors. There are now more than 20 domestic PACS companies. They have enough experiences which are capable of installing a truly full-PACS system for large-scale teaching hospitals. As an example, a domestic company had installed more than 40 full-PACS systems within 2-3 years. Enough experiences of full-PACS installation in Korea lead PACS industry to start exporting their full-PACS solutions. However, further understanding and timely implementation of continuously evolving international standard and integrated healthcare enterprise concepts may be necessary for international leading of PACS technologies for the future.

  5. Discovering the knowledge creation process of an expert group in women-friendly policy: The policy case of Seoul City.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Sam; Nam, SungHee; Kim, Yuna

    2016-01-01

    This research explores how expert knowledge is created in the process of women-friendly policy making, based on actor network theory (ANT). To address this purpose, this study uses the "Women's Happiness in the City of Seoul" policy initiated by the local government of Seoul as one example of policy development. Research findings demonstrate that knowledge creation in expert groups followed the four stages suggested by ANT. In addition, this study found that various types of knowledge emerged from individual experts. This research elucidates the process of knowledge creation and its meanings for women-friendly policy. PMID:26684220

  6. Projections of Future Summer Weather in Seoul and Their Impacts on Urban Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. O.; Kim, J. H.; Yun, J. I.

    2015-12-01

    Climate departure from the past variability was projected to start in 2042 for Seoul. In order to understand the implication of climate departure in Seoul for urban agriculture, we evaluated the daily temperature for the June-September period from 2041 to 2070, which were projected by the RCP8.5 climate scenario. These data were analyzed with respect to climate extremes and their effects on growth of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum), one of the major crops in urban farming. The mean daily maximum and minimum temperatures in 2041-2070 approached to the 90th percentile in the past 30 years (1951- 1980). However, the frequency of extreme events such as heat waves and tropical nights appeared to exceed the past variability. While the departure of mean temperature might begin in or after 2040, the climate departure in the sense of extreme weather events seems already in progress. When the climate scenario data were applied to the growth and development of hot pepper, the departures of both planting date and harvest date are expected to follow those of temperature. However, the maximum duration for hot pepper cultivation, which is the number of days between the first planting and the last harvest, seems to have already deviated from the past variability.

  7. Korea's Robotland: Merging Intelligent Robotics Strategic Policy, Business Development, and Fun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Eugene

    South Korea specializes in the design and manufacture of service and entertainment robots for consumer use. The government of South Korea considers robotics one of the countries main growth industries. To boost robot industry and accelerate the social demand of intelligent robots, a theme park titled ’Robotland’ is being constructed in Korea near Incheon International airport, the gateway to Seoul. A total of 700 million will be invested by the Korean government, the city of Incheon and financial investors. The 760,000 square meter site (188 acres) will contains a number of displays featuring famous robots and robot characters from around the world. Ultra-modern rides and amusement facilities, exhibition halls, shopping arcades and hotels, featuring advanced ubiquitous environments, will also be included in the park. In addition, Robotland will contain R&D centers and educational institutions. The Grand opening is scheduled in 2012. In this session, attendees will hear of development plans for Robotland, along with the social and business issues that are driving the development of the world’s first theme park.

  8. Seasonal variations in atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in urban and rural areas of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, Hyun-Gu; Choi, Minkyu; Sunwoo, Young

    Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in both rural (Ansung) and urban (Seoul) areas in Korea from July, 1999 to May, 2000. The chemicals measured in this study include heptachlor, chlordanes, DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and endosulfan. Endosulfan and α-HCH, with values of a few 100s to 1000s of pg m -3, were found to have higher concentrations than other compounds in both areas. Most OCPs showed higher concentrations in Ansung, with many potential sources, such as contaminated surfaces, relative to Seoul. The maximum and minimum concentrations of OCPs at both sites occurred in summer and winter, respectively. It can be partly explained by the variation of temperature. The correlation between atmospheric concentration and temperature was observed using Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) plots. The CC plots for most OCPs in both areas showed good linearity and steep slopes. It is hence inferred that their atmospheric concentrations might be mostly affected by re-volatilization from surfaces of local surroundings at the sampling sites.

  9. Characteristics of atmospheric visibility and its relationship with air pollution in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Young; Jo, Wan-Kuen; Chun, Ho-Hwan

    2014-09-01

    Although analysis of long-term data is necessary to obtain reliable information on characteristics of atmospheric visibility and its relationship with air pollution, it has rarely been performed. Therefore, a long-term evaluation of atmospheric visibility in characteristically different Korean cities, as well as a remote island, during 2001 to 2009, was performed in this study. In general, visibility decreased in the studied areas during the 9-yr study period. In addition, all areas displayed a distinct seasonal trend, with high visibility in the cold season relative to the warm season. Weekday visibility, however, did not significantly differ from weekend visibility. Similarly, the number of days per year for both low (<10 km) and high visibility (>19 km) fluctuated during the study period. Busan (a coastal city) exhibited the highest visibility, with an overall average of 17.6 km, followed by Daegu (a basin city), Ulsan (with concentrated petrochemical industries), Ullungdo (a remote island), and Seoul (the capital of Korea). Visibility was found to be significantly correlated with target air pollutants, except for ozone, for all metropolitan cities, whereas it was significantly correlated only with particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM10) and ozone on the remote island (Ullungdo). Among the metropolitan cities, Seoul exhibited the lowest visibility for both the PM10 standard exceedance and non-exceedance days, followed by Ulsan, Daegu, and Busan. The results of this study can be used to establish effective strategies for improving urban visibility and air quality. PMID:25603237

  10. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Suicide Re-attempts in Persons with Chronic Mental Disabilities in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sun-Jin; Ko, Jung-A; Park, Jung-Suk; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Kyung-Min; Lee, Myung-Soo

    2016-07-01

    Suicide re-attempters are clinically different from single-episode attempters and are at higher risk of completed suicide. This study explored psychosocial risk factors and modifiable factors related to suicide re-attempt in a representative sample of 441 chronic mentally disabled individuals in Seoul, Korea. The participants were listed on the public sector registry based on the Act for the Welfare of Disabled Persons. Individualized interviews were conducted, and the authors analyzed the data via multiple logistic regression analysis. The results showed that physical illness (under treatment OR 1.7; left untreated OR 4.2) and no leisure activities (OR 1.9) were factors related to a higher risk of re-attempted suicide. Unmet and modifiable needs in addition to mental health services should be considered to prevent suicide re-attempts in the chronic mentally disabled. PMID:27154333

  11. The First Survey of Forensically Important Entomofauna Collected from Medicolegal Autopsies in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sang Eon; Lee, Hyun Ju; Park, Ji Hye; Ko, Kwang Soo; Kim, Yu-Hoon; Kim, Kyung Ryoul; Park, Seong Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Forensic entomology applies insect evidence to legal problems such as the estimation of minimum postmortem interval (mPMI). For this purpose, knowledge of the insect fauna that are attracted to human cadavers in each geographic region is a prerequisite. Despite many studies investigating the insect fauna attracted to meat, there has been no survey of the entomofauna on human cadavers in the East Asian temperate climate zone, particularly in Korea. Therefore, this study reports the entomofauna collected from medicolegal autopsies in northeastern Seoul and its suburbs. Insect samples were collected from 35 medicolegal autopsies in 2010, 2011, and 2013. Molecular and morphological methods were utilized for taxonomic identification. Among 1398 individual samples belonging to 3 orders, 13 families, 18 genera, and 32 species, the dominant family and species were Calliphoridae and Lucilia sericata, respectively. Despite its limited scale, this study provides a snapshot of the general entomofauna that are attracted to human cadavers in this region. PMID:26185759

  12. Characterization of microbial community during Asian dust events in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunghee; Choi, Bora; Yi, Seung-Muk; Ko, Gwangpyo

    2009-10-01

    An Asian dust event, also sometimes known as a Yellow Sand event, is a seasonal meteorological phenomenon affecting East Asia, typically in the early spring. Because of the significant ecological and health effects of these events on East Asia, and the large amount of dust that is transported from the desert in China to Korea and Japan, these events have been receiving increased attention. It is likely that these storms often provide long-range transport to various microorganisms. However, despite a certain level of attention to the chemical analysis of these storms, microbiological studies of Yellow Sand dust have been scarce. We collected a total of 30 microbiological air samples using a PM(2.5) cyclone sampler in Seoul, Korea from April 2007 to March 2008. Six of these samples were collected during Yellow Sand events, while 24 were from non-Yellow Sand events. Chemical analysis was performed on the samples using a thermal-optical transmittance (TOT) method. Total nucleic acids were also extracted, and the 16S rDNA was amplified by PCR and analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Dendrogram analysis, based on DGGE, indicated that the microbial profiles from the Yellow Sand were distinctive from those of the non-Yellow Sand samples. Microorganisms identified in Yellow Sand samples included Aquabacterium sp., Flavobacteriales bacterium sp., Prevotellaceae bacterium sp., and others, whereas microorganisms in non-Yellow Sand samples included Propionibacterium sp., Bacillus sp., Acinetobacter sp., and others. These results suggest that, as a result of Yellow Sand events, humans in the affected regions are exposed to communities of microorganisms that might cause various adverse health effects. PMID:19631361

  13. Asian dust effect on cause-specific mortality in five cities across South Korea and Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashima, Saori; Yorifuji, Takashi; Bae, Sanghyuk; Honda, Yasushi; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2016-03-01

    Desert dust is considered to be potentially toxic and its toxicity may change during long-range transportation. In Asian countries, the health effects of desert dust in different locations are not well understood. We therefore evaluated the city-combined and city-specific effects of Asian dust events on all-cause and cause-specific mortality in five populous cities in South Korea (Seoul) and Japan (Nagasaki, Matsue, Osaka and Tokyo). We obtained daily mean concentrations of Asian dust using light detection and ranging (lidar) between 2005 and 2011. We then evaluated city-specific and pooled associations of Asian dust with daily mortality for elderly residents (≥65 years old) using time-series analyses. Each 10 μg/m3 increase in the concentration of same-day (lag 0) or previous-day (lag 1) Asian dust was significantly associated with an elevated pooled risk of all-cause mortality (relative risk (RR): 1.003 [95% CI: 1.001-1.005] at lag 0 and 1.001 [95% CI: 1.000-1.003] at lag 1) and cerebrovascular disease (RR: 1.006 [95% CI: 1.000-1.011] at lag 1). This association was especially apparent in Seoul and western Japan (Nagasaki and Matsue). Conversely, no significant associations were observed in Tokyo, which is situated further from the origin of Asian dust and experiences low mean concentrations of Asian dust. Adverse health effects on all-cause and cerebrovascular disease mortality were observed in South Korea and Japan. However, the effects of Asian dust differed across the cities and adverse effects were more apparent in cities closer to Asian dust sources.

  14. North Korea: A Geographical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palka, Eugene J., Ed.; Galgano, Francis A., Ed.

    North Korea is a country about the size of the state of New York, inhabited by about 23 million people. It came into existence after the conclusion of World War II following decades of occupation of the Korean Peninsula by the Japanese empire. Dividing the peninsula into North and South Korea was the politically expedient solution to one of the…

  15. Women in Physics in Nigeria: 2003-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuwape, Ibiyinka; Okeke, Francisca; Ajayi, Modupe; Popoola, Oyebola; Olayanju, Olugbenga

    2009-04-01

    One of the vital ingredients for development of any nation is knowledge of basic science, of which physics is the root source. There is poor enrollment of women in physics at both secondary and tertiary levels of education in Nigeria. Recently, the number of women enrolling in physics in Nigeria has increased slightly, but women are yet to distinguish themselves fully in the field. With a population of about 140 million people, of which more than 50% are women, Nigeria still has low student enrollment for females in physics compared with other courses. After the first and second IUPAP Women in Physics conferences in 2002 and 2005, there has been some improvement for women in physics in Nigeria, through the implementation of some of the resolutions reached at these conferences. We anticipate that implementing the strategies from this Third IUPAP Women in Physics Conference will yield positive fruits, as well.

  16. Electronic Play, Study, Communication, and Adolescent Achievement, 2003-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; Moon, Ui Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents' time spent messaging, exploring websites, and studying on the computer increased between 2003 and 2008. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics Child Development Supplement, this study examines how such changes have influenced individual achievement and behavior from childhood to adolescence. Greater communications and…

  17. Emulating Multiple Inheritance in Fortran 2003/2008

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Morris, Karla

    2015-01-01

    Although the high-performance computing (HPC) community increasingly embraces object-oriented programming (OOP), most HPC OOP projects employ the C++ programming language. Until recently, Fortran programmers interested in mining the benefits of OOP had to emulate OOP in Fortran 90/95. The advent of widespread compiler support for Fortran 2003 now facilitates explicitly constructing object-oriented class hierarchies via inheritance and leveraging related class behaviors such as dynamic polymorphism. Although C++ allows a class to inherit from multiple parent classes, Fortran and several other OOP languages restrict or prohibit explicit multiple inheritance relationships in order to circumvent several pitfalls associated with them. Nonetheless, whatmore » appears as an intrinsic feature in one language can be modeled as a user-constructed design pattern in another language. The present paper demonstrates how to apply the facade structural design pattern to support a multiple inheritance class relationship in Fortran 2003. The design unleashes the power of the associated class relationships for modeling complicated data structures yet avoids the ambiguities that plague some multiple inheritance scenarios.« less

  18. Design Features and Commissioning of the Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST) at Seoul National University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    J. Chung, K.; H. An, Y.; K. Jung, B.; Y. Lee, H.; C., Sung; S. Na, Y.; S. Hahm, T.; S. Hwang, Y.

    2013-03-01

    A new spherical torus called VEST (Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus) is designed, constructed and successfully commissioned at Seoul National University. A unique design feature of the VEST is two partial solenoid coils installed at both vertical ends of a center stack, which can provide sufficient magnetic fluxes to initiate tokamak plasmas while keeping a low aspect ratio configuration in the central region. According to initial double null merging start-up scenario using the partial solenoid coils, appropriate power supplies for driving a toroidal field coil, outer poloidal field coils, and the partial solenoid coils are fabricated and successfully commissioned. For reliable start-up, a pre-ionization system with two cost-effective homemade magnetron power supplies is also prepared. In addition, magnetic and spectroscopic diagnostics with appropriate data acquisition and control systems are well prepared for initial operation of the device. The VEST is ready for tokamak plasma operation by completing and commissioning most of the designed components.

  19. Exposure level and distribution characteristics of airborne bacteria and fungi in Seoul metropolitan subway stations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Youn; Kim, Yoon Shin; Kim, Daekeun; Kim, Hyeon Tae

    2011-01-01

    The exposure level and distribution characteristics of airborne bacteria and fungi were assessed in the workers' activity areas (station office, bedroom, ticket office and driver's seat) and passengers' activity areas (station precinct, inside the passenger carriage, and platform) of the Seoul metropolitan subway. Among investigated areas, the levels of airborne bacteria and fungi in the workers' bedroom and station precincts were relatively high. No significant difference was found in the concentration of airborne bacteria and fungi between the underground and above ground activity areas of the subway. The genera identified in all subway activity areas with a 5% or greater detection rate were Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Bacillus and Corynebacterium for airborne bacteria and Penicillium, Cladosporium, Chrysosporium, Aspergillus for airborne fungi. Staphylococcus and Micrococcus comprised over 50% of the total airborne bacteria and Penicillium and Cladosporium comprised over 60% of the total airborne fungi, thus these four genera are the predominant genera in the subway station. PMID:21173524

  20. [Trade, wars and the venereal disease: VD epidemic and control of Korea in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century].

    PubMed

    Sihn, Kyu-hwan

    2008-12-01

    This paper examines the spread of venereal disease from the Opening of Korea to the early Japanese colonial period. It focuses on the formation and expansion of Japanese settlement in Korea, the influence of wars, and the state control of VD. The Opening of Korea made the foreign settlement, and Japanese licensed prostitution flourished in Japanese settlement. According to the First Annual Report of the Korean Government Hospital (1886) and Gyelimuisa (1887), VD patients occupied 18.3% of outpatients in Jejungwon hospital of Seoul and 8.9% of outpatients in Busan hospital. Directly after the Opening of Korea, Korean people's VD became lesser critical than Japanese people's VD. But the expansion of Japanese settlement and outbreak of two wars such as Sino-Japanese War and Russo-Japanese War made worse Korean people's VD. According to the Residency-General resources (1904-1909), syphilis patients was registered in 0.8-6.6% (average 3.6%). If it add to gonorrhea and chancroid patients which often could not be found out by the naked eyes, the number of VD patients will be increase. Ji Seok-yeong (1855-1935), the earliest smallpox vaccinarian in Korea, asserted the need of VD control. Though he warned men bought sex as well as prostitutes became the main culprit of VD diffusion, he supported licensed prostitution because of realistic possibility. The Great Han Empire (1897-1910) tried to control the lower grade whore, and gathered prostitutes in some area by police power. After Japanese annexation of Korea, while Japanese has gradually decreased in VD patients, Korean has gradually increased in VD patients. PMID:19174628

  1. Potential Impact of the National Plan for Future Electric Power Supply on Air Quality in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, C.; Hong, J.

    2014-12-01

    Korean Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) announced the national plan for Korea's future electric power supply (2013 - 2027) in 2013. According to the plan, the national demand for electricity will be increased by 60% compared to that of 2010 and primary energy sources for electric generation will still lean on the fossil fuels such as petroleum, LNG, and coal, which would be a potential threat to air quality of Korea. This study focused on two subjects: (1) How the spatial distribution of the primary air pollutant's emissions (i.e., NOx, SOx, CO, PM) will be changed and (2) How the primary emission changes will influence on the national ambient air quality including ozone in 2027. We used GEOS-Chem model simulation with modification of Korean emissions inventory (Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS)) to simulate the current and future air quality in Korea. The national total emissions of CO, NOx, SOx, PM in year 2027 will be increased by 3%, 8%, 13%, 2%, respectively compared to 2010 and there are additional concern that the future location of the power plants will be closer to the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), where there are approximately 20 million population vulnerable to the potentially worsened air quality. While there are slight increase of concentration of CO, NOx, SOx, and PM in 2027, the O3 concentration is expected to be similar to the level of 2010. Those results may imply the characteristics of air pollution in East Asia such as potentially severe O3 titration and poorer O3/CO or O3/NOx ratio. Furthermore, we will discuss on the impact of transboundary pollution transport from China in the future, which is one of the large factors to control the air quality of Korea.

  2. Trend Analysis of GPS Precipitable Water Vapor Above South Korea Over the Last 10 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Dong-Hyo; Cho, Jungho

    2010-09-01

    We analyzed global positioning system (GPS)-derived precipitable water vapor (PWV) trends of the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute 5 stations (Seoul, Daejeon, Mokpo, Milyang, Sokcho) where Korea Meteorological Administration meteorological data can be obtained at the same place. In the least squares analysis, the GPS PWV time series showed consistent positive trends (0.11 mm/year) over South Korea from 2000 to 2009. The annual increase of GPS PWV was comparable with the 0.17 mm/year and 0.02 mm/year from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Earth Observing Laboratory and Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder, respectively. For seasonal analysis, the increasing tendency was found by 0.05 mm/year, 0.16 mm/year, 0.04 mm/year in spring (March-May), summer (June-August) and winter (December-February), respectively. However, a negative trend (-0.14 mm/year) was seen in autumn (September-November). We examined the relationship between GPS PWV and temperature which is the one of the climatic elements. Two elements trends increased during the same period and the correlation coefficient was about 0.8. Also, we found the temperature rise has increased more GPS PWV and observed a stronger positive trend in summer than in winter. This is characterized by hot humid summer and cold dry winter of Korea climate and depending on the amount of water vapor the air contains at a certain temperature. In addition, it is assumed that GPS PWV positive trend is caused by increasing amount of saturated water vapor due to temperature rise in the Korean Peninsula. In the future, we plan to verify GPS PWV effectiveness as a tool to monitor changes in precipitable water through cause analysis of seasonal trends and indepth/ long-term comparative analysis between GPS PWV and other climatic elements.

  3. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in household cats in Korea and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung-Hee; Jeong, Young-Il; Kim, Jae-Young; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja; Lee, Sang-Eun

    2013-06-01

    Several epidemiological surveys have reported the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in stray cats in Korea, but little information is available on T. gondii infection in household cats. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors of T. gondii infection among household cats reared in Seoul, Korea. A total of 474 blood samples were collected from clinically healthy household cats. All samples were tested using ELISA and PCR. The risk factor analysis was based on a questionnaire filled out by the owners. The overall positive rate for ELISA and PCR assays was 2.2% (10/437) and 2.1% (10/474), respectively. With regard to the origin of cats, the positive rates among cats adopted from the animal shelter and veterinary clinic for stray cats were significantly different (P<0.05). Our study demonstrated that the positive rate of T. gondii infection in household cats was low and that this low prevalence was assumed to be associated with keeping the cats indoors and restriction of eating raw food and uncooked meat. Therefore, we suggest that the owners check the origin of the cats prior to adoption to prevent infection of other animals, including humans. PMID:23864749

  4. Analysis of Hospital Disaster in South Korea from 1990 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Back, Min-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to systematically review and analyze disasters involving South Korean hospitals from 1990 and to introduce a newly developed implement to manage patients' evacuation. Materials and Methods We searched for studies reporting disaster preparedness and hospital injuries in South Korean hospitals from 1990 to 2008, by using the Korean Studies Information Service System (KISS, copyright Korean Studies Information Co, Ltd, Seoul, Korea) and, simultaneously, hospital injuries which were reported and regarded as a disaster. Then, each study and injury were analyzed. Results Five studies (3 on prevention and structure, 1 on implement of new device, and 1 on basic supplement to current methods) and 8 injuries were found within this period. During the evacuations, the mean gait speed of walking patients was 0.82 m/s and the mean time of evacuation of individual patients was 38.39 seconds. Regarding structure evaluation, almost all hospitals had no balconies in patient rooms; hospital elevators were placed peripherally and were insufficient in number. As a new device, Savingsun (evacuation elevator) was introduced and had some merits as a fast and easy tool, regardless of patient status or the height of hospital. Conclusion In South Korea, preparation for hospital disasters was noted to be insufficient but has involved various departments such as architectural, clinical, and building operations. In addition, Savignsun has been shown to effectively evacuate and save patients in a hospital disaster. PMID:20879068

  5. Variables predicting students' first semester achievement in a graduate-entry dental school in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minkang; Lee, Jae Il

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore factors that influence academic achievement for dental students during their first semester of graduate-entry programs. Nine variables were considered, including students' age, gender, undergraduate grade point averages (UGPAs), Dental Education Eligibility Test (DEET) scores, oral exam, and interview selection scores. DEET is a standardized aptitude test developed for graduate-entry dental programs in Korea. The test consists of four separate sections: reading comprehension, scientific reasoning parts I and II, and perceptual ability. GPA scores were obtained as a measure of academic achievement from ninety students at the graduate-entry dental program at Seoul National University, Korea. Path analysis was used to test the hypothetical model of causal influence. The most significant predictors with direct influence on achievement were scores from both scientific reasoning parts I and II, undergraduate GPAs, and gender. Age, scores from the other subjects in DEET (reading comprehension and perceptual ability), and oral exam scores were found to bear no relation to the students' achievement. PMID:17468318

  6. Estimation of anthropogenic heat emission over South Korea using a statistical regression method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Soon-Tae

    2015-05-01

    Anthropogenic heating by human activity is one of the key contributing factors in forming urban heat islands, thus inclusion of the heat source plays an important role in urban meteorological and environmental modeling. In this study, gridded anthropogenic heat flux (AHF) with high spatial (1-km) and temporal (1-hr) resolution is estimated for the whole South Korea region in year 2010 using a statistical regression method which derives based on similarity of anthropogenic air pollutant emissions and AHF in their emission inventories. The bottom-up anthropogenic pollutant emissions required for the regression method are produced using the intensive Korean air pollutants emission inventories. The calculated regression-based AHF compares well with the inventory-based AHF estimation for the Gyeong-In region, demonstrating that the statistical regression method can reasonably represent spatio-temporal variation of the AHF within the region. The estimated AHF shows that for major Korean cities (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Gwangju, Daejeon, and Ulsan) the annual mean AHF range 10-50 Wm-2 on a grid scale and 20-30W m-2 on a city-scale. The winter AHF are larger by about 22% than that in summer, while the weekday AHF are larger by 4-5% than the weekend AHF in the major Korean cities. The gridded AHF data estimated in this study can be used in mesoscale meteorological and environmental modeling for the South Korea region.

  7. Performance of Momguard, a new non-invasive prenatal testing protocol developed in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Young; Cho, Dae-Yeon; Hwang, Ah Reum; Jeong, Bada; Kim, Jihun; Oh, Mijin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the performance of Momguard, non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) for detecting trisomy (T) 21, T18, T13, and sex-chromosome abnormalities recently developed in Korea. Methods This preliminary study formed part of a large prospective cohort study conducted at Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. Only pregnant women who underwent both NIPT and confirmatory karyotyping were included in this study. NIPT results were compared with those of karyotype analyses. Results Among 93 eligible cases, NIPT results could not be obtained in one case due to a low fetal cell-free DNA fraction. Based on NIPT, eight cases of fetal aneuploidies, including T21 (n=5), T18 (n=2), and T13 (n=1), were identified. For T21 and T18, the sensitivity and specificity of NIPT were both 100%, with a false-positive and false-negative rate of 0% and a positive-predictive value of 100%. One patient classified as having intermediate risk for T13 by NIPT was confirmed to have T13 by karyotyping, and there were no false-negative cases. No cases of sex-chromosome anomalies were detected by NIPT or karyotyping during the study period. Conclusion Momguard is a reliable screening tool for detecting T21 and T18. For T13 and sex-chromosome anomalies, further prospective studies are necessary to confirm its utility. PMID:26430657

  8. Broadcasting health programmes among audience and professionals in Korea: perceptions and needs.

    PubMed

    Park, C Y; Yi, J J; Joo, M H; You, H S

    2001-01-01

    Mass media has become an essential part of modern society, and it should be noted that mass media plays an important role in delivering information even in the area of health. This study was intended to investigate the perceptions of and needs for broadcasting health programmes among audience and related professionals in Korea, which will serve to help in the development of valuable health programmes. Data were collected through a series of self-administered questionnaire surveys conducted on two types of subjects sampled from residents in the areas around Seoul, Korea, and health or broadcasting professionals working on health programmes. There were some discrepancies in the perceptions of and needs for health programmes between audience and professionals, especially the main audience age group and image, needs for topics and mode of health programme. In conclusion, in order to enhance current health programmes which focus on aspects of diagnosis and treatment of diseases, the range of health programmes should be expanded to fulfill various needs. PMID:12109241

  9. Design and development of 500 m long HTS cable system in the KEPCO power grid, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, S. H.; Lim, J. H.; Yang, B. M.; Lee, S. K.; Jang, H. M.; Kim, Y. H.; Yang, H. S.; Kim, D. L.; Kim, H. R.; Yim, S. W.; Won, Y. J.; Hwang, S. D.

    2010-11-01

    In Korea, two long-term field demonstrations for high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable have been carried out for several years; Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) and LS Cable Ltd. (LSC) independently. Encouraged at the result of the projects performed in parallel, a new project targeting the real grid operation was launched in the fourth quarter of 2008 with the Korean government’s financial support. KEPCO and LSC are jointly collaborating in the selection of substation, determination of cable specification, design of cryogenic system, and the scheme of protection coordination. A three phase 500 m long HTS cable at a distribution level voltage of 22.9 kV is to be built at 154/22.9 kV Icheon substation located in near Seoul. A hybrid cryogenic system reflecting the contingency plan is being designed including cryocoolers. The HTS cable system will be installed in the second quarter of 2010, being commissioned by the fall of 2010. This paper describes the objectives of the project and design issues of the cable and cryogenic system in detail.

  10. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: Clinical phenotype among a high-risk group of children and adolescents in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Seung; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Lee, Hae Kook; Chambers, Christina D

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and phenotype of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or spectrum disorders (FASD) in Korea. This study was performed to describe the distribution of alcohol-related physical features in a genetically homogeneous sample of children and adolescents in institutional settings in Korea. Children and adolescents receiving services in one of seven institutions in Seoul, Korea were screened for growth deficiency. Those who screened positive were assessed using a structured protocol for the key cardinal features of FAS, and for 11 additional alcohol-related dysmorphologic features. Based on these findings, children and adolescents were categorized as FAS, Deferred (some characteristic features of FAS), and No FAS. Groups were compared on the prevalence of specific additional features and number of additional features, stratified by gender and age. Of 307 children and adolescents screened, 87 received the dysmorphology evaluation. Thirteen were classified as FAS, 44 Deferred, and 30 No FAS. The frequency of 10 of the 11 additional alcohol-related features did not differ significantly by FAS category. Palmar crease abnormalities were more common in FAS (53.8%) than in the Deferred category (25.0%) or the No FAS category (6.7%) (P = 0.003). A high prevalence across all groups was found for midfacial hypoplasia and epicanthal folds, whereas only one child exhibited ptosis. This study suggests that an FASD phenotype variant related to ethnic differences in the range of defects specific to prenatal alcohol exposure may be present in the Korean population. PMID:26384109

  11. Korea Research Reactor -1 & 2 Decommissioning Project in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S. K.; Chung, U. S.; Jung, K. J.; Park, J. H.

    2003-02-24

    Korea Research Reactor 1 (KRR-1), the first research reactor in Korea, has been operated since 1962, and the second one, Korea Research Reactor 2 (KRR-2) since 1972. The operation of both of them was phased out in 1995 due to their lifetime and operation of the new and more powerful research reactor, HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor; 30MW). Both are TRIGA Pool type reactors in which the cores are small self-contained units sitting in tanks filled with cooling water. The KRR-1 is a TRIGA Mark II, which could operate at a level of up to 250 kW. The second one, the KRR-2 is a TRIGA Mark III, which could operate at a level of up 2,000 kW. The decontamination and decommissioning (D & D) project of these two research reactors, the first D & D project in Korea, was started in January 1997 and will be completed to stage 3 by 2008. The aim of this decommissioning program is to decommission the KRR-1 & 2 reactors and to decontaminate the residual building structure s and the site to release them as unrestricted areas. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) submitted the decommissioning plan and the environmental impact assessment reports to the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) for the license in December 1998, and was approved in November 2000.

  12. Occupational Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun A

    2010-01-01

    Korea has industrialized since the 1970s. Pneumoconiosis in coal miners was the most common occupational disease in the 1970s to 1980s. With the industrialization, the use of many chemicals have increased since the 1970s. As a consequence, there were outbreaks of occupational diseases caused by poisonous chemicals, such as heavy metal poisoning, solvent poisoning and occupational asthma in the late 1980s and early 1990s with civil movement for democracy. Many actions have been taken for prevention by the government, employers and employees or unions. In the 1990s most chemical related diseases and pneumoconiosis have rapidly decreased due to improving work environment. In the late 1990s, cerebro-cardiovascular diseases related to job stress or work overloads have abruptly increased especially after the economic crisis in 1998. After the year 2000, musculoskeletal disorders became a major problem especially in assembly lines in the manufacturing industry and they were expanded to the service industry. Mental diseases related to job stress have increased. Infectious diseases increased in health care workers and afforestation workers. Occupational cancers are increasing because of their long latency, although the use of carcinogenic substances are reduced, limited, and even banned. PMID:21258589

  13. Occupational diseases in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seong-Kyu; Kim, Eun A

    2010-12-01

    Korea has industrialized since the 1970s. Pneumoconiosis in coal miners was the most common occupational disease in the 1970s to 1980s. With the industrialization, the use of many chemicals have increased since the 1970s. As a consequence, there were outbreaks of occupational diseases caused by poisonous chemicals, such as heavy metal poisoning, solvent poisoning and occupational asthma in the late 1980s and early 1990s with civil movement for democracy. Many actions have been taken for prevention by the government, employers and employees or unions. In the 1990s most chemical related diseases and pneumoconiosis have rapidly decreased due to improving work environment. In the late 1990s, cerebro-cardiovascular diseases related to job stress or work overloads have abruptly increased especially after the economic crisis in 1998. After the year 2000, musculoskeletal disorders became a major problem especially in assembly lines in the manufacturing industry and they were expanded to the service industry. Mental diseases related to job stress have increased. Infectious diseases increased in health care workers and afforestation workers. Occupational cancers are increasing because of their long latency, although the use of carcinogenic substances are reduced, limited, and even banned. PMID:21258589

  14. Dust Obscures Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The dust cloud over eastern Asia was so thick on March 21, 2002, that the Korean Peninsula completely disappeared from view in this Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) image of the region. Parts of South Korea report that visibility at the surface is less than 50 m (165 feet). Airports throughout the region canceled flights due to the poor visibility. Eyewitnesses in China report that the dust was so thick in Beijing at times that visibility was limited to 100 m (330 feet), while in parts of the Gansu Province visibility was reported at less than 10 m (33 feet). Chinese officials say this is the worst dust storm to hit in more than 10 years. Dust from an earlier event still colors the air to the east of Japan. (The island of Honshu is just peeking out from under the cloud cover in these images.) Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  15. Injury severity in delivery-motorcycle to vehicle crashes in the Seoul metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Chung, Younshik; Song, Tai-Jin; Yoon, Byoung-Jo

    2014-01-01

    More than 56% of motorcycles in Korea are used for the purpose of delivering parcels and food. Since such delivery requires quick service, most motorcyclists commit traffic violations while delivering, such as crossing the centerline, speeding, running a red light, and driving in the opposite direction down one-way streets. In addition, the fatality rate for motorcycle crashes is about 12% of the fatality rate for road traffic crashes, which is considered to be high, although motorcycle crashes account for only 5% of road traffic crashes in South Korea. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the injury severity of vehicle-to-motorcycle crashes that have occurred during delivery. To examine the risk of different injury levels sustained under all crash types of vehicle-to-motorcycle, this study applied an ordered probit model. Based on the results, this study proposes policy implications to reduce the injury severity of vehicle-to-motorcycle crashes during delivery. PMID:24161584

  16. Urban Flood Management with Integrated Inland-River System in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Y. I.; Kim, J. S.; Yuk, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Global warming and climate change have caused significant damage and loss of life worldwide. The pattern of natural disasters has gradually diversified and their frequency is increasing. The impact of climate change on flood risk in urban rivers is of particular interest because these areas are typically densely populated. The occurrence of urban river flooding due to climate change not only causes significant loss of life and property but also causes health and social problems. It is therefore necessary to develop a scientific urban flood management system to cope with and reduce the impacts of climate change, including flood damage. In this study, we are going to introduce Integrated Inland-River Flood Analysis System in Seoul to conduct predictions on flash rain or short-term rainfall by using radar and satellite information and perform prompt and accurate prediction on the inland flooded areas. In addition, this urban flood management system can be used as a tool for decision making of systematic disaster prevention through real-time monitoring.

  17. Changes in the Seoul Metropolitan Area Urban Heat Environment with Residential Redevelopment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Je-Woo; Hong, Jinkyu

    2016-04-01

    Since the industrial revolution, the geographical extent of cities has increased around the world. In particular, following three decades of rapid regional economic growth, many Asian megacities have emerged and continue to expand. Short-term urban redevelopment is, therefore, inevitable. However, in this region the microclimatic impacts of urban redevelopment have not been extensively investigated using long-term in-situ observations. In this study, changes in surface sensible heat exchange, heat storage, and anthropogenic heat emissions due to urban residential redevelopment were quantified and analyzed based on a three-year micrometeorological record from the Seoul metropolitan area. The results show that following urban redevelopment of compact high-rise residential buildings, 1) the daily minimum air temperature near the ground surface increased by ˜0.6 K; 2) the ratio between surface sensible heat and net radiation increased by ˜ 9% (summer) to 31% (winter), anthropogenic heat emissions increased by 12 Wm‑2 (spring) to 26 Wm‑2 (summer), and daily maximum heat storage ranged by 35 Wm‑2 (spring) to 55 Wm‑2 (summer), and; 3) there was a transition of local circulation with changes in the surface properties of heat sources and roughness.

  18. Diurnal and vertical variations of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) at Mt. Taehwa near Seoul Metropolitan Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, H.; Lee, M.; Song, D.; Lee, G.; Kim, S.

    2013-12-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), O3, and its precursors were measured at six heights of a 40m tower in Mt. Taehwa near Seoul Metropolitan Areas during August 2011, and April-June and October 2012. Volatile organic compounds were determined using PTR-QMS (proton transfer reaction-quadrupole mass spectrometry). The maximum concentrations of isoprene and monoterpene were visible in the late afternoon and night, respectively and at ~15 m right below the canopy. The diurnal variations of PAN and O3, often showed a pronounced second peak after 5 PM, which was accompanied with elevated NO2 and CO. The occurrence of elevated PAN and other pollutants was more noticeable at the top layers over the canopy than near the surface. It suggests that the preformed PAN was transported from nearby cities. These two types of PAN peaks were distinguished by the relative enhancement of PAN against O3. The vertical profiles of PAN and O3 indicate that the deposition loss of PAN was less evident than that of O3. More detailed results will be presented at the meeting.

  19. Classification of diurnal patterns of particulate inorganic ions downwind of metropolitan Seoul.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Hwan; Choi, Yongjoo; Ghim, Young Sung

    2016-05-01

    The inorganic ions in PM2.5 were measured downwind of metropolitan Seoul using a particle-into-liquid sampler over three periods. Five diurnal patterns, including a low-concentration pattern (L) and a high-concentration pattern with a decreasing trend during the day (H-), were distinguished for the first period from February to June 2012. The sum of ion concentrations increased primarily due to NO3 (-) with decreasing temperature and increasing relative humidity, which caused preferential partitioning of NO3 (-) into the particulate phase. The peak concentration occurred during the morning rush hour for L but was delayed until the next morning for H- due to the time required to form secondary inorganic ions from accumulated pollutants under lower wind speeds. The characteristic features of the patterns observed during the first period were generally similar with those obtained for the other two periods. However, for the second period, comprised of colder months, changes in the diurnal patterns from L to H- were accompanied by increasing temperature, as the effect of photochemical formation of NO3 (-) was larger than that of volatilization. Although the role of long-range transport was not distinct on the whole, the inflow of air masses from cleaner sectors was observed to lower the concentrations. PMID:26817472

  20. Design and Construction of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST) at Seoul National University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Younghwa; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Jung, Bongki; Lee, Hyunyeong; Sung, Choongki; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Na, Yong-Su; Hwang, Yong-Seok

    2011-10-01

    A new spherical torus, named as VEST (Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus), has been built at Seoul National University to investigate versatile research topics such as double null merging start-up, divertor engineering and non-inductive current drive. VEST is characterized by two partial solenoid coils installed at both vertical ends of a center stack, which will be used for double null merging start-up schemes. A poloidal field (PF) coil system including the partial solenoids for break-down and a long solenoid for the sustainment of merged plasma has been designed by solving circuit equations for the PF coils and vacuum vessel elements in consideration of required volt-second, null configuration and eddy current. To supply required currents to the PF coils and solenoids, power supplies based on double-swing circuit have been designed and fabricated with capacitor banks and thyristor switch assemblies. Also a power supply utilizing cost-effective commercial batteries has been developed for toroidal field(TF) coils. Detailed descriptions on the design of VEST and some initial test results will be presented.

  1. Roles of Uncontrollable VOC Emissions in the Regional Air Quality of the Seoul Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Jeong, D.; Lee, M.; Shim, H.; Kim, H. Y.; Park, J.; Park, H.; Kim, S.; Wolfe, G. M.; Guenther, A. B.; He, A.; Hong, Y.; Han, J.

    2014-12-01

    Roles of natural (uncontrollable) reactive gas emissions in the suburbs of East Asian megacities have been highlighted in determining secondary pollutant formation processes. We will discuss oxidation capacity controlled by anthropogenic-biogenic interactions by presenting a trace gas observational dataset from a forest research site near the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA). As uncertainty in isoprene-OH interaction from low to intermediate NO conditions has not been fully resolved yet, we will particularly highlight implications of uncertainty in OH levels to ozone production regimes and OVOC production potentials using an observationally constrained 0-D box model (UWCM v 2.1). Multiple scenarios such as different isopreneperoxy radical photochemistry schemes are adapted for the assessments. In addition, the evaluation of NO2 overestimation by a conventional chemiluminescence instrument with a Mo-converter routinely utilized NO2 observations in East Asia will be also discussed by comparing observational datasets from a Thermo 42i NOx analyzer and a LGR CRDS NO2 instrument from summer to fall. The discussion will be evolved to assess potential uncertainty caused by the overestimation from the previous regional photochemistry assessment studies.

  2. Modeling of a 22.9 kV 50 MVA superconducting power cable based on PSCAD/EMTDC for application to the Icheon substation in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Yoon, J.; Lee, B.; Yang, B.

    2011-11-01

    Two projects for high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable have been carried out in Korea since 2001. One of them is a HTS cable project in DAPAS (Development of Advanced Power system by Applied Superconductivity technologies) program funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. In this project, LS Cable Ltd. (LSC) and Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI) jointly developed a 22.9 kV, 50 MVA, 3 phase, 100 m HTS cable using first generation (1G) HTS wire in 2006. The HTS cable system has been tested in a power test center of Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO). LSC and KEPCO have been developing a 22.9 kV, 50 MVA, 3 phase, 500 m HTS cable system using second generation (2G) HTS wire since 2008, based on the technology of the DAPAS project. This project is called as GENI (Green Superconducting Electric Power Network at the Icheon Substation) project. The target of GENI project is to install and operate the HTS cable system in the Icheon substation located in near Seoul. In order to analyze the Icheon substation power system employing the HTS cable, an analysis model of the HTS cable is necessary. This paper describes the development of an analysis model for the 22.9 kV, 50 MVA HTS cable that will be applied to the Icheon substation in Korea.

  3. 78 FR 66785 - Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... COMMISSION Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation AGENCY: Nuclear... APR1400 Standard Plant Design submitted by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) and Korea... documents at the NRC's PDR, Room O1-F21, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville,...

  4. Microbiological examination of vegetable seed sprouts in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoikyung; Lee, Youngjun; Beuchat, Larry R; Yoon, Bong-June; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2009-04-01

    Sprouted vegetable seeds used as food have been implicated as sources of outbreaks of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections. We profiled the microbiological quality of sprouts and seeds sold at retail shops in Seoul, Korea. Ninety samples of radish sprouts and mixed sprouts purchased at department stores, supermarkets, and traditional markets and 96 samples of radish, alfalfa, and turnip seeds purchased from online stores were analyzed to determine the number of total aerobic bacteria (TAB) and molds or yeasts (MY) and the incidence of Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and Enterobacter sakazakii. Significantly higher numbers of TAB (7.52 log CFU/g) and MY (7.36 log CFU/g) were present on mixed sprouts than on radish sprouts (6.97 and 6.50 CFU/g, respectively). Populations of TAB and MY on the sprouts were not significantly affected by location of purchase. Radish seeds contained TAB and MY populations of 4.08 and 2.42 log CFU/g, respectively, whereas populations of TAB were only 2.54 to 2.84 log CFU/g and populations of MY were 0.82 to 1.69 log CFU/g on alfalfa and turnip seeds, respectively. Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 were not detected on any of the sprout and seed samples tested. E. sakazakii was not found on seeds, but 13.3% of the mixed sprout samples contained this potentially pathogenic bacterium. PMID:19435238

  5. Computation of geographic variables for air pollution prediction models in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Eum, Youngseob; Song, Insang; Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Leem, Jong-Han; Kim, Sun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Recent cohort studies have relied on exposure prediction models to estimate individuallevel air pollution concentrations because individual air pollution measurements are not available for cohort locations. For such prediction models, geographic variables related to pollution sources are important inputs. We demonstrated the computation process of geographic variables mostly recorded in 2010 at regulatory air pollution monitoring sites in South Korea. On the basis of previous studies, we finalized a list of 313 geographic variables related to air pollution sources in eight categories including traffic, demographic characteristics, land use, transportation facilities, physical geography, emissions, vegetation, and altitude. We then obtained data from different sources such as the Statistics Geographic Information Service and Korean Transport Database. After integrating all available data to a single database by matching coordinate systems and converting non-spatial data to spatial data, we computed geographic variables at 294 regulatory monitoring sites in South Korea. The data integration and variable computation were performed by using ArcGIS version 10.2 (ESRI Inc., Redlands, CA, USA). For traffic, we computed the distances to the nearest roads and the sums of road lengths within different sizes of circular buffers. In addition, we calculated the numbers of residents, households, housing buildings, companies, and employees within the buffers. The percentages of areas for different types of land use compared to total areas were calculated within the buffers. For transportation facilities and physical geography, we computed the distances to the closest public transportation depots and the boundary lines. The vegetation index and altitude were estimated at a given location by using satellite data. The summary statistics of geographic variables in Seoul across monitoring sites showed different patterns between urban background and urban roadside sites. This study

  6. A novel overall approach for sediment-related disaster prevention in urban areas, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongyeob; Lee, Changwoo; Woo, Choongshik; Jeong, Seonhwan

    2015-04-01

    In South Korea, we had 140 landslides around Mt. Umyeon of Seoul city on July 27, 2011, which caused 16 deaths and more than 150 house damages. These landslides were triggered by a severe rainfall event with the total amount of 365 mm, equivalent to a 100-year-recurrence interval event. The landslide disaster in Mt. Umyeon is the first sediment-related disaster posing the significant serious damages to urban areas in South Korea which requires overall reconsideration about prevention, warning, countermeasure and rehabilitation to sediment-related disasters in urban areas. To meet such demands of society, the Korea Forest Research Institute (KFRI), competent to the sediment-related disasters research, is committed to conducting on a research project of development of a prevention system for sediment-related disasters in urban areas including non-structural countermeasures such as construction of landslide early warning system and structural ones such as development of urban-typed debris flow barriers. Of these countermeasures, a proto-type of landslide early warning system consisting of a variety of sensors such as soil moisture content sensor and tensiometer has been tested in-situ in a point view of system performance maintenance. We have also tried to find the threshold of the sensors by slope failure experiments. Meanwhile, two types of debris flow barriers for urban areas were developed and their functioning abilities have been tested by both of flume test and computational structure analysis. We hope these research results would mitigate potential damages efficiently by sediment-related disasters in urban areas.

  7. Computation of geographic variables for air pollution prediction models in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Eum, Youngseob; Song, Insang; Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Leem, Jong-Han; Kim, Sun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Recent cohort studies have relied on exposure prediction models to estimate individuallevel air pollution concentrations because individual air pollution measurements are not available for cohort locations. For such prediction models, geographic variables related to pollution sources are important inputs. We demonstrated the computation process of geographic variables mostly recorded in 2010 at regulatory air pollution monitoring sites in South Korea. On the basis of previous studies, we finalized a list of 313 geographic variables related to air pollution sources in eight categories including traffic, demographic characteristics, land use, transportation facilities, physical geography, emissions, vegetation, and altitude. We then obtained data from different sources such as the Statistics Geographic Information Service and Korean Transport Database. After integrating all available data to a single database by matching coordinate systems and converting non-spatial data to spatial data, we computed geographic variables at 294 regulatory monitoring sites in South Korea. The data integration and variable computation were performed by using ArcGIS version 10.2 (ESRI Inc., Redlands, CA, USA). For traffic, we computed the distances to the nearest roads and the sums of road lengths within different sizes of circular buffers. In addition, we calculated the numbers of residents, households, housing buildings, companies, and employees within the buffers. The percentages of areas for different types of land use compared to total areas were calculated within the buffers. For transportation facilities and physical geography, we computed the distances to the closest public transportation depots and the boundary lines. The vegetation index and altitude were estimated at a given location by using satellite data. The summary statistics of geographic variables in Seoul across monitoring sites showed different patterns between urban background and urban roadside sites. This study

  8. Urban growth in Korea, 1970-1980: an application of the human ecological perspective.

    PubMed

    Ko, S H

    1994-07-01

    This study supports the ecological perspective proposed by Duncan (population, environment, organization, and technology) explaining urban population growth. Data were obtained from the 1970 and 1980 Korean Population Census and Korean Municipal Yearbook on cities with a minimum size of 20,000-50,000 people (108 cities and towns). Urban growth is most strongly influenced by indigenous labor surplus and the population potential of the city to be in contact with another city. Nine multiple regression variables explained just under 66% of the variance in urban growth. Net migration was influential among those aged 15-24 years. The extent of differentiation of industry affected net migration only among those aged 15-24 years and those aged 35-44 years. Population redistribution was more affected directly by changes in industrial organization, and migration was affected indirectly by environmental and technological effects on organization. Urban growth through migration of older age groups was affected by government expenditure on public works. Urban growth was not much affected by transportation/communication concentration, manufacturing concentration, urban labor surplus, population size, and site. Urban growth was viewed as the interaction between the unemployment rate and the urban wage, following Todaro's equilibrium models. In Korea, larger cities only grew faster during the 1960s. By the 1970s, upper middle-sized cities grew faster. Location was not a significant factor in explaining urban growth, but growth was rapid along a corridor within 100 km from Seoul and 50 km from Pusan, the second largest city in Korea. Caution was urged in interpreting Korea's ecological urban growth patterns as indicative of developing countries. PMID:12345852

  9. Health impact assessment in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Eunjeong; Lee, Youngsoo; Harris, Patrick; Koh, Kwangwook; Kim, Keonyeop

    2011-07-15

    Recently, Health Impact Assessment has gained great attention in Korea. First, the Ministry of Environment introduced HIA within existing Environment Impact Assessment. Second, the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs began an HIA program in 2008 in alliance with Healthy Cities. In this short report, these two different efforts are introduced and their opportunities and challenges discussed. We believe these two approaches complement each other and both need to be strengthened. We also believe that both can contribute to the development of health in policy and project development and ultimately to improvements in the Korean population's health.

  10. Source apportionment of PM2.5 in Incheon, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.; Ban, S.; Lee, C.; Yi, S.; Zoh, K.

    2011-12-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected at a centrally located urban monitoring site in Incheon, Korea, every third day from Jun 2009 to may 2010 and analyzed their chemical species. In this study, we investigated the source of PM2.5 using Positive Matrix Factorization(PMF), the source area from Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) and Conditional Probability Function(CPF), and characterized source variation among episode, non-episode, yellow sand events. Incheon, study site, is located at the mid-western tip of the Korean Peninsula with a population of 2.6 million people and area of 1029.4 km2, respectively. As a transportation hub, the city also holds the importance of meteological/geological aspect affecting the air quality of capital region, in that is prevailing westerlies zone and a air passageway from China to Japan passing through seoul, korea. In the study, the Four channel based on Annular Denuder System(ADS) were used for sample collection(URG co, USA). The filter samples were analyzed with respect to species type such as ion group, metal, and OC/EC compound using ion chromatography, ICP/MS, and NIOSH TOT method, respectively. The PM2.5 concentration was 43ug/m3 that is almost three times higher than the US NAAQS annual PM2.5 standard of 15ug/m3. Nine PM2.5 sources were resolved from PMF analysis that provided reasonable source profiles and interesting insights into the source contributions to the ambient mass concentrations. The major sources of PM2.5 were secondary nitrate(26.4%), secondary sulfate(17.3%), gasoline(16.4%), and residual oil combustion(13.5%), with lesser contributions from biomass burning (7.5%), road dust(6.9%), soil (5.5%), coal fire powerplant (4.0%), and free sea salt(2.4%). CPF results identified possible local source directions such as motor vehicles, free sea salt. PSCF results indicated that likely pollution areas increased secondary particle concentrations(sulfate and nitrate) in Incheon to be the major industrial areas in China

  11. Holmium Laser Enucleation of Prostate for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Seoul National University Hospital Experience

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jungbum; Choo, Minsoo; Park, Ji Hyun; Oh, Jin Kyu; Paick, Jae-Seung

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to report the experience acquired at the Seoul National University Hospital with Holmium Laser Enucleation of Prostate (HoLEP), combined with mechanical morcellation for symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Methods A retrospective review was performed on the clinical data of 309 consecutive patients who underwent HoLEP at our institution between July 2008 and June 2010. All patients were evaluated preoperatively for prostate volume by transrectal ultrasound, maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS) and quality of life (QoL) score. Peri- and postoperative parameters were evaluated and patients were followed-up at 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12- months with the aforementioned investigations. Results The patients' mean age was 68.3 (±6.5) years and mean prostate volume was 55.6 (±23.6) mL. Mean enucleation time was 56.2 (±25.1) minutes, mean morcellation time was 11.3 (±9.5) minutes, and the mean resected weight of the prostate was 20.8 (±16.9) g. The mean catheter indwelling period was 1.9 (±1.7) days and mean hospital stay was 2.9 (±1.5) days. Significant improvement was noted in Qmax, IPSS, and QoL at the 1-year follow-up compared with baseline (P<0.01). At 1 month 17.2% of patients complained of irritative urinary symptoms, which were typically self-limiting within 3 months. Transient stress incontinence was reported in 15.2% of patients. No patient experienced persistent obstructive symptoms that required reoperation. Conclusions Our study showed that HoLEP is a safe and effective therapeutic modality for BPH. PMID:21468284

  12. Installation of platform screen doors and their impact on indoor air quality: Seoul subway trains.

    PubMed

    Son, Youn-Suk; Jeon, Jae-Sik; Lee, Hyung Joo; Ryu, In-Cheol; Kim, Jo-Chun

    2014-09-01

    In this study, variations of particulate matter (PM) concentrations in subway trains following installation of platform screen doors (PSDs) in the Seoul subway system were investigated. PM samples were collected in the trains on subway lines 1-8 before and after installation of PSDs. It was found that the mean PM10 concentration in the trains after PSDs installation increased significantly by 29.9% compared to that before installation. In particular, the increase of PM10 in line 6 was the highest at 103%. When the relationship between PM10 and PM2.5 was compared, coefficients of determination (r2) before and after PSDs installations were 0.696 and 0.169, respectively. This suggests that air mixing between the platform and the tunnel after PSDs installation was extremely restricted. In addition, the indoor/outdoor PM10 ratio following PSDs installation increased from 1.32 to 2.97 relative to the period with no installed PSDs. Furthermore, this study revealed that PM levels in subway trains increased significantly after all underground PSDs were put in use. Several potential factors were examined that could result in this PM increase, such as train ventilation systems, operational conditions, passenger volume, subway depth, and the length of underground segments. Implications: PM10 concentrations inside the subway trains increased after PSDs installation. This indicates that air quality in trains was very seriously impacted by PSDs. PM10 levels were also influenced by the tunnel depth and length of the underground segments. To prevent the adverse effect on human health by PM10 emitted from the tunnel, an applicable ventilation system to reduce PM10 is required inside trains and tunnels. PMID:25283003

  13. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (31st, Seoul, Korea, July 8-13, 2007). Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Jeong-Ho, Ed.; Lew, Hee-Chan, Ed.; Park, Kyo-Sik Park, Ed.; Seo, Dong-Yeop, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This second volume of the 31st annual proceedings of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education conference presents research reports for author surnames beginning Alc- through Hal-. Reports include: (1) How Do Your Students Think about Proof? A DVD Resource for Mathematicians (Lara Alcock); (2) Teachers' Conceptions of…

  14. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (31st, Seoul, Korea, July 8-13, 2007). Volume 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Jeong-Ho, Ed.; Lew, Hee-Chan, Ed.; Park, Kyo-Sik, Ed.; Seo, Dong-Yeop, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This fourth and final volume of the 31st annual proceedings of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education conference presents research reports for author surnames beginning Na- through Zod-. Reports include: (1) Mathematically Gifted Students' Problem Solving Approaches on Conditional Probability (GwiSoo Na, DaeHee Han,…

  15. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (31st, Seoul, Korea, July 8-13, 2007). Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Jeong-Ho, Ed.; Lew, Hee-Chan, Ed.; Park, Kyo-Sik Park, Ed.; Seo, Dong-Yeop, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The first volume of the 31st annual proceedings of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education conference presents plenary lectures; research forums; discussion groups; working sessions; short oral communications; and posters from the meeting. Plenary lecture papers include: (1) On Humanistic Mathematics Education: A…

  16. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (31st, Seoul, Korea, July 8-13, 2007). Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Jeong-Ho, Ed.; Lew, Hee-Chan, Ed.; Park, Kyo-Sik Park, Ed.; Seo, Dong-Yeop, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This third volume of the 31st annual proceedings of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education conference presents research reports for author surnames beginning Han- through Miy-. Reports include: (1) Elementary Education Students' Memories of Mathematics in Family Context (Markku S. Hannula, Raimo Kaasila, Erkki…

  17. UNESCO-UNEVOC Regional Forum Asia and Pacific: Advancing TVET for Youth Employability and Sustainable Development (Seoul, Republic of Korea, September 4-6, 2013). Meeting Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    To strengthen global and regional harmonization for the advancement of TVET transformation through the capacities of UNEVOC's unique global Network of specialized TVET institutions and affiliated partners, the UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre organized a series of meetings to be held in all regions of the world. The meetings are organized…

  18. The International Conference on Human Resources Development Strategies in the Knowledge-Based Society [Proceedings] (Seoul, South Korea, August 29, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korea Research Inst. for Vocational Education and Training, Seoul.

    This document contains the following seven papers, all in both English and Korean, from a conference on human resources development and school-to-work transitions in the knowledge-based society: "The U.S. Experience as a Knowledge-based Economy in Transition and Its Impact on Industrial and Employment Structures" (Eric Im); "Changes in the…

  19. Teachers and Their Use of Educational Technology. Report of a Regional Training Workshop (Seoul, South Korea, September 16-27, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    The workshop described in this report focused on uses of educational technology in the training and upgrading of teachers and on promoting the use of appropriate educational technology techniques by teachers. Experiences in the use of educational technology are described for each of the participating nations, i.e., Bangladesh, India, Indonesia,…

  20. Education and the New Technologies. Report of the WCOTP Asian and South Pacific Regional Conference (10th, Seoul, South Korea, August 7-13, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession, Morges (Switzerland).

    This report on the 1985 Asian and South Pacific Regional Conference of the World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession (WCOTP) presents the full text of three addresses presented during the opening ceremony, as well as four major presentations by invited speakers and three addresses from the closing ceremony. A day of…

  1. VET through One's Lifetime: New Approaches and Implementation. Proceedings of the KRIVET International Conference on VET (2nd, Seoul, Korea, October 15-16, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korea Research Inst. for Vocational Education and Training, Seoul.

    This document contains 13 papers from an international conference on new approaches to and implementation of lifelong vocational education and training (VET) and technical and vocational education and training (TVET). The document begins with two keynote speeches and five topic presentations, which are titled as follows: "Current Issues Regarding…

  2. Yahak Movement in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Sik

    2004-01-01

    "Yahak" means "night school" in Korean and its history can be traced back to the 1920s when Korea was under Japanese colonial rule. This paper will focus on the yahak movement during the years from 1960 to the 1990s. Yahak played an important role in raising workers' consciousness during this democratic movement. Yahak started as a movement trying…

  3. Democratic Citizenship Education in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eoh, Myung-Ha

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the importance of democratic citizenship education in Korea. Highlights the forces enhancing democratic citizenship education especially the role of the nongovernmental organizations and the Korean Educational Developmental Institute. Considers the various forces inhibiting democratic citizenship education, such as corruption in the…

  4. Fuel Safety Activities in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Auh, Geun-Sun; Shin, A.D.; Lee, J.S.; Woo, S.W.; Ryu, Y.H.; Kim, Jun-Hwan; Kim, S.K.; Jeong, Y.H.

    2007-07-01

    The current regulatory requirements for fuel performance were based on earlier test data of fresh or low burnup Zircaloy fuels of less than 40 GWD/MTU. Most countries have not changed the current regulatory requirements even if they are actively investigating the high burnup and new cladding alloy effects. Korea agrees with commonly accepted international consensus that although there are technical issues requiring resolutions, these issues do not constitute immediate safety concerns. The high burnup fuel reactor performance experiences of Korea do not show any major problems even if there have been some burnup related fuel failures which are described in the paper. KINS has recommended the industry to have lower fuel failure rates than 1-2 per 50,000 fuel rods. A research project of High Burnup Fuel Safety Tests and Evaluations has started in 2002 under a joint cooperation of KAERI/KNFC/KEPRI and KINS to obtain performance results of high burnup fuel and to develop evaluation technologies of high burnup fuel safety issues. From 1998, KINS has closely monitored and actively participated in international activities such as OECD/NEA CABRI Water Loop Program to reflect on regulatory requirements if needed. KINS will closely monitor the high burnup fuel performances of Korea to strength the regulatory activities if needed. The research activities in Korea including of LOCA and RIA being performed at KAERI with active supports of the industry are summarized in the paper. (authors)

  5. Rural Development in South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Vincent S. R.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews development in rural areas of South Korea since the late nineteenth century, with particular emphasis on rural to urban migration, governmental investment in agriculture, transportation and mass communications, development projects, social leveling processes, upgraded living standards, and cooperative village improvement projects. Journal…

  6. Inclusive Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built…

  7. Biobank Regulation in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Bok

    2016-06-01

    Like many other countries, South Korea has recognized the importance of biobanks as a tool for medical research and has engaged in two very important tasks to foster biobanking infrastructure: funding biobanks and setting up rules to protect the integrity of biobanks that share potentially sensitive personal information. PMID:27338609

  8. Korea Earth Observation Satellite Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Myung-Jin; Kim, Zeen-Chul

    via Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) as the prime contractor in the area of Korea earth observation satellite program to enhance Korea's space program development capability. In this paper, Korea's on-going and future earth observation satellite programs are introduced: KOMPSAT- 1 (Korea Multi Purpose Satellite-1), KOMPSAT-2 and Communication, Broadcasting and Meteorological Satellite (CBMS) program. KOMPSAT-1 satellite successfully launched in December 1999 with Taurus launch vehicle. Since launch, KOMPSAT-1 is downlinking images of Korea Peninsular every day. Until now, KOMPSAT-1 has been operated more than 2 and half years without any major hardware malfunction for the mission operation. KOMPSAT-1 payload has 6.6m panchromatic spatial resolution at 685 km on-orbit and the spacecraft bus had NASA TOMS-EP (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe) spacecraft bus heritage designed and built by TRW, U.S.A.KOMPSAT-1 program was international co-development program between KARI and TRW funded by Korean Government. be launched in 2004. Main mission objective is to provide geo-information products based on the multi-spectral high resolution sensor called Multi-Spectral Camera (MSC) which will provide 1m panchromatic and 4m multi-spectral high resolution images. ELOP of Israel is the prime contractor of the MSC payload system and KARI is the total system prime contractor including spacecraft bus development and ground segment. KARI also has the contract with Astrium of Europe for the purpose of technical consultation and hardware procurement. Based on the experience throughout KOMPSAT-1 and KOMPSAT-2 space system development, Korea is expecting to establish the infrastructure of developing satellite system. Currently, KOMPSAT-2 program is in the critical design stage. are scheduled to launch in 2008 and in 2014, respectively. The mission of CBMS consists of two areas. One is of space technology test for the communications mission, and the other is of a real

  9. Detection of norovirus genogroup IV, klassevirus, and pepper mild mottle virus in sewage samples in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Tae-Hee; Kim, Se-Cheol; Kim, Seong-Taek; Chung, Chang-Hyun; Chung, Ju-Young

    2014-03-01

    Norovirus (NoV) genogroup (G) IV has been infrequently isolated from patients suffering from acute gastroenteritis (AGE), although this virus has not been detected in Korea. Klassevirus, a novel virus belonging to the family Picornaviridae and a possible etiologic agent of AGE, and pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), which originates from processed pepper products and is shed in human feces, are suggested to be new indicators of fecal pollution. We aimed to investigate the presence of NoV-GIV, klassevirus, and PMMoV in sewage samples collected in Korea. Between December 2010 and February 2012, influent sewage samples were collected every month from a wastewater treatment plant located in the eastern part of Seoul in Korea. The sewage samples were concentrated by the adsorption elution method using an HA (pore size of 0.45 μm with mixed cellulose ester) electronegative filter with an acid-rinse procedure. RT-PCR was performed using specific primers for the capsid gene of NoV-GII and NoV-GIV, the coat gene of PMMoV, and the VP0/VP1 gene of klassevirus. Among the 14 sewage samples tested, klassevirus was detected in eight (57.1 %), PMMoV in eight (57.1 %), NoV-GII in five (35.7 %), and NoV-GIV in three (21.4 %). NoV-GIV was detected in December 2010 and January and March 2011. PMMoV and klassevirus were frequently detected in winter. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the NoV-GIV detected in this study belonged to G-IV1 lineage. This is the first study to confirm the presence of NoV-GIV, klassevirus, and PMMoV in sewage samples in Korea. PMID:24052148

  10. The environmental problems in urban communities and the protection of the environment in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, I K

    1994-07-01

    Korea's urban environmental problems, specifically air and water pollution, government environmental policies, and the role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in protecting the environment are described and discussed. Korea's rapid industrialization and urbanization between 1961 and 1985 led to an increased volume of waste and air pollution. Automobiles increased in number from 29,234 in 1961 to 1,113,430 in 1985. In the same period, the number of factories with at least five employees rose from 15,204 to 44,037. The volume of chemical materials and agricultural chemicals dramatically increased. Household wastes in urban areas increased from 26,831 tons per day in 1978 to 61,072 tons per day in 1985. Industrial waste rose from 13,130 to 33,349 tons per day in 1985. Respiratory diseases are precipitated by exposure to sulphur dioxide, which is produced during cooking and heating with coal briquets; to nitrogen dioxide from automobile exhaust; and to carbon monoxide from coal briquets. Indoor air pollution from particles such as radon, asbestos, cigarette smoke, fungus, and bacteria also impacts on health. Tolerance limits have been reached or surpassed in many cities, particularly in Seoul. Air pollution is worse during the winter. The poor are particularly affected because of the continued use of coal briquets for heating. Industry contributes to water pollution. The volume of industrial waste water quadrupled between 1980 and 1990. In Seoul, however, population size directly contributes to 64.3% of water pollution, and the remaining 35.2% is from factories. Although livestock contributes to only 0.5% of water pollution, livestock drainage contributes to 36.3% of chemical materials in polluted water. Biological oxygen demand has also exceeded tolerance limits. Water reservoirs contain toxic chemicals such as lead, copper, mercury, arsenic, phenol, phosphorus, and nitrogen, which take a longer time to affect health. The Anti-Pollution Law of 1963 and the

  11. Study on the obesity and nutrition status of housewives in Seoul and Kyunggi area.

    PubMed

    Chung, Keun-Hee; Shin, Kyung-Ok; Yoon, Jin-A; Choi, Kyung Soon

    2011-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the rate of obesity of 212 women (age 45-60 years) in Seoul and the Kyunggi area through analysis of BMI and the dietary life factors related to obesity using a survey on dietary habits, dietary assessment, and nutrient intake. The height of the underweight group was taller than normal. The height of the obese group was equal to that of the normal group, but the weight was 8.5 kg greater than the normal group. Women in the underweight group consumed meals irregularly, and only 33.4% ate breakfast. Additionally, the rate of overeating was low in the underweight group, and milk, dairy products (yogurt, etc.), fruit, and fruit juice were consumed more than once a day. It was found that 62.1% of the women in the obese group never ate out, and the rate of eating one serving of fruit, drinking one cup of fruit juice, and eating various kinds of foods was high. The average point of women's dietary life was 21.9 ± 2.9, and 12.7% of all women responded that their dietary life was good. However, in the obese group, only 6.9% of the women reported that their dietary life was good. Evaluation of snacking habits revealed that the underweight group consumed a high level of carbonated drinks and ice cream, whereas for in the obese group, 24.1% of the women consumed milk and its products and 5.6% regularly consumed fast and fried foods. Evaluation of nutrient intake revealed that the consumption of energy, protein, vitamin A, vitamin B(1), B(2), B(6), niacin, vitamin C, and vitamin E was high in all of the groups, but the intake of folic acid in the underweight group was lower than the required level. Overall, 24.1% of the women in the obese group were found to have metabolic diseases, mostly hypertension (43%). In conclusion, a balanced diet to avoid excessive nutrient intake is needed to prevent obesity. PMID:21556228

  12. Formation and evolution of mesoscale convective systems that brought the heavy rainfall over Seoul on September 21, 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Woomi; Lee, Tae-Young

    2013-11-01

    An investigation has been carried out using observational data and a numerical model to explain the formation and development of heavy precipitation systems on September 21, 2010. These systems were responsible for heavy rainfall over the middle Korean peninsula, with a maximum 24-h rainfall amount greater than 290 mm in the Seoul metropolitan area. Both observational analysis and a numerical simulation indicate that an important starting condition for this heavy rainfall event is the presence of a pressure trough over the Shandong peninsula and the Yellow Sea. Convective cells formed in the early morning over this trough area, grew into larger systems as they moved eastward, and induced the formation of a meso low over the Yellow Sea around 0000 UTC on September 21, 2010. A stationary front with significant vertical circulation developed in response to the deformation of flow associated with the meso low. In the meantime, multicell-type convective systems continuously developed and moved along the front. These storms developed further and produced heavy rainfall over the middle Korean peninsula, which includes the Seoul metropolitan area. According to observations, the band structure appeared to change after 0700 UTC as a narrow convection band developed over the sea, upstream of the existing band of multicell storms. Numerical simulation showed a similar transition. However, it failed to reproduce the stationary behavior of the observed band.

  13. Sex Differences in Seoul Virus Infection Are Not Related to Adult Sex Steroid Concentrations in Norway Rats

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Sabra L.; Bird, Brian H.; Glass, Gregory E.

    2000-01-01

    Field studies of hantavirus infection in rodents report that a higher percentage of infected individuals are males than females. To determine whether males were more susceptible to hantavirus infection than females, adult male and female Long Evans rats (Rattus norvegicus) were inoculated with doses of Seoul virus ranging from 10−4 to 106 PFU. The 50% infective doses (ID50) were not significantly different for male and female rats (100.05 and 100.8 PFU, respectively). To determine whether sex differences in response to infection were related to circulating sex steroid hormones, sex steroid concentrations were manipulated and antibody responses and virus shedding were assessed following inoculation with the ID90. Regardless of hormone treatment, males had higher anti-Seoul virus immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgG2a (i.e., Th1) responses than females and IgG1 (i.e., Th2) responses similar to those of females. Males also shed virus in saliva and feces longer than females. Manipulation of sex steroids in adulthood did not alter immune responses or virus shedding, suggesting that sex steroids may organize adult responses to hantavirus earlier during ontogeny. PMID:10933735

  14. Correlations among occupational stress, fatigue, and depression in call center employees in Seoul

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yun Kyung; Cha, Nam Hyun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study identified correlations among occupational stress, fatigue, and depression in call center employees in South Korea. [Subjects and Methods] This study consisted of 150 call center workers. A cross-sectional design was adopted. Tools including the Effort-Reward Imbalance, Checklist Individual Strength, and Depression scales were used to measure levels of stress, fatigue, and depression. [Results] There were statistically significant differences between fatigue and depression. We found that fatigue significantly predicted the level of depression among Korean call center employees (adjusted R2= 0.227). [Conclusion] Call center employees who experienced great emotional stress appeared to have high levels of depression, and fatigue was a powerful factor influencing their depression. PMID:26644672

  15. Occupational hepatic disorders in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung Ryoul; Kim, Tae Woo

    2010-12-01

    Occupational hepatic disorders are classified into toxic hepatitis, viral hepatitis, and chemical-induced malignancy in Korea. Toxic hepatitis cases were reported in workers who were exposed to dimethylformamide, dimethylacetamide, or trichloroethylene. Pre-placement medical examination and regular follow-up are necessary to prevent the development of toxic hepatitis. Viral hepatitis was chiefly reported among health care workers such as doctors, nurses and clinical pathology technicians who could easily be exposed to blood. Preventive measures for these groups therefore include vaccination and serum monitoring programs. Hepatic angiosarcoma caused by vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) exposure is a very well known occupational disease and it has not been officially reported in Korea yet. Some cases of hepatocellular carcinoma were legally approved for compensation as an occupational disease largely by overwork and stress, but not supported by enough scientific evidence. Effort to find the evidence of its causal relationship is needed. PMID:21258588

  16. Korea's 2015 cigarette tax increases.

    PubMed

    Cherukupalli, Rajeev

    2016-03-01

    South Korea increased tobacco taxes in 2015 after a 10-year gap. This commentary suggests two lessons for public finance practitioners. Substantive tax increases are crucial to reducing tobacco use; particularly where prices are demonstrably lower and prevalence higher in comparison to other countries ranked similarly on economic development indicators. Second, as a rule of thumb, governments cannot afford to neglect the annual increases that ensure that tobacco taxes do not lose their efficacy over time. PMID:25673328

  17. Occupational Psychiatric Disorders in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    We searched databases and used various online resources to identify and systematically review all articles on occupational psychiatric disorders among Korean workers published in English and Korean before 2009. Three kinds of occupational psychiatric disorders were studied: disorders related to job stress and mental illness, psychiatric symptoms emerging in victims of industrial injuries, and occupational psychiatric disorders compensated by Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance (IACI). Korea does not maintain official statistical records for occupational psychiatric disorders, but several studies have estimated the number of occupational psychiatric disorders using the Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Service (COMWEL, formerly KLWC) database. The major compensated occupational psychiatric disorders in Korea were "personality and behavioral disorders due to brain disease, damage, and dysfunction", "other mental disorders due to brain damage and dysfunction and to physical diseases", "reactions to severe stress and adjustment disorders", and "depressive episodes". The most common work-related psychiatric disorders, excluding accidents, were "neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders" followed by "mood disorders". PMID:21258596

  18. Association of the Length of Doctor-Patient Relationship with Primary Care Quality in Seven Family Practices in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yong-Jun; Lee, Seung Hwa; Sung, Nak-Jin; Kim, Soo-Young; Hong, Jee Young

    2013-01-01

    Countries with historically unlimited patient choice of medical provider, such as Korea, have been promoting rational health care pathways. Factors related to the length of doctor-patient relationship (DPR) for enhancing primary care in those countries should be studied. Participants were patients who had visited their family practices on six or more occasions over a period of more than 6 months. Five domains (21 items) of the Korean Primary Care Assessment Tool (first contact, coordination function, comprehensiveness, family/community orientation, and personalized care) and general questions were administered in the waiting rooms. From seven practices, the response rate was 83.7% (495/591). The older the age, the lower the income, the shorter the duration of education, the more the number of diseases the patients had, and in provincial cities rather than in Seoul, the longer length of DPR ( ≥ 4 yr) was shown. The long-term DPR was associated with total primary care quality score (upper [ ≥ 71.4] vs lower [ < 71.4], OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.10-2.76), especially with coordination function (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00-1.02), being adjusted for confounding variables. Strengthening the coordination function may have to be the first consideration in primary care policy in countries like Korea. PMID:23580064

  19. Aeolian dust event in Korea observed by an EZ Lidar in the frame of global lidar networks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lolli, Simone

    2010-05-01

    Duststorms and sandstorms regularly devastate Northeast Asia and cause considerable damage to transportation system and public health; further, these events are conceived to be one of the very important indices for estimating the global warming and desertification. Previously, yellow sand events were considered natural phenomena that originate in deserts and arid areas. However, the greater scale and frequency of these events in recent years are considered to be the result of human activities such as overgrazing and over-cultivation. Japan, Korea, Cina and Mongolia are directly concerned to prevent and control these storms and have been able to some extent to provide forecasts and early warnings. In this framework, to improve the accuracy of forecasting , a compact and rugged eye safe lidar, the EZ LIDAR™, developed together by Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et l'Environnement (LSCE) (CEA-CNRS) and LEOSPHERE (France) to study and investigate structural and optical properties of clouds and aerosols, thanks to the strong know-how of CEA and CNRS in the field of air quality measurements and cloud observation and analysis, was deployed in Seoul, Korea in order to detect and study yellow sand events, thanks to its depolarization channel and scan capabilities. The preliminary results, showed in this paper, of this measurement campaign put in evidence that EZ Lidar, for its capabilities of operating unattended day and night under each atmospheric condition, is mature to be deployed in a global network to study long-range transport, crucial in the forecasting model.

  20. Relationship between mortality and fine particles during Asian dust, smog-Asian dust, and smog days in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Sun; Kim, Dong-Sik; Kim, Ho; Yi, Seung-Muk

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between all-cause/cardiovascular mortality and PM(2.5) as related to Asian dust (AD), smog-AD, smog, and nonevent days and evaluated the differential risks according to specific events for mortality. The daily records of all-cause/cardiovascular mortality and PM(2.5) from March to May 2003-2006 in Seoul, Korea, were used as independent and dependent variables. Differences in the event effects were assessed using a time-series analysis. Both all-cause and cardiovascular mortalities were significantly associated with PM(2.5) during smog-AD and AD days only. Differences in chemical composition emerging during long-range transport to Korea may explain these observations, especially as regards secondary aerosol, metal-sulfate/or nitrate, and metallic components. These results suggest that exposure to PM(2.5) during specific events is differentially associated with human mortality and that changes in the chemical composition of PM(2.5), occurring during long-range transport, represent important factors in such differential effects on health. PMID:22428926

  1. Suicide mortality and risk factors in the 12 months after discharge from psychiatric inpatient care in Korea: 1989-2006.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Choi, Jae Won; Kyoung Yi, Ki; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2013-07-30

    This study aimed to determine the suicide mortality within 1 year after discharge from psychiatric inpatient care and identify the risk factors for suicide completion during this period. A total of 8403 patients were admitted to general hospitals in Seoul, Korea, for psychiatric disorders from January 1989 to December 2006. The suicide mortality risk of these patients within 1 year of discharge was compared with that of gender- and age-matched subjects from the general population of Korea. The standardized mortality ratios (SMR) for suicide in the year following discharge were 49.7 for males and 45.5 for females. Patients aged 15-24 years had the highest risk for suicide. Among the different diagnostic groups, patients with personality disorders, schizophrenia, or affective disorders had the highest risk for suicide completion. Suicidal ideation at admission and inpatient stay more than 1 month were also associated with increased risk of suicide. In Korean psychiatric patients, the SMR is much higher in young female patients, a high percentage of patients commit suicide by jumping, and there is a stronger association of long duration of hospitalization and suicide. These factors should be considered in the development and implementation of suicide prevention strategies for Korean psychiatric patients. PMID:23058096

  2. Cumulative childhood trauma and psychological maladjustment of sexually abused children in Korea: mediating effects of emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Young; Oh, Kyung Ja

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the mediating effects of emotion regulation on the association between cumulative childhood trauma and behavior problems in sexually abused children in Korea, using structural equation modeling (SEM). Data were collected on 171 children (ages 6-13 years) referred to a public counseling center for sexual abuse in Seoul, Korea. Cumulative childhood traumas were defined on the basis of number of traumas (physical abuse, witnessing domestic violence, neglect, traumatic separation from parent, and sexual abuse) and the severity and duration of traumas. Children were evaluated by their parents on emotion regulation using the Emotion Regulation Checklist and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems using the Korean-Child Behavior Checklist. SEM analyses confirmed the complete mediation model, in which emotion dysregulation fully mediates the relationship between cumulative childhood traumas and internalizing/externalizing behavior problems. These findings indicate that emotion regulation is an important mechanism that can explain the negative effects of cumulative childhood traumas and that there is a need to focus on emotion regulation in sexually abused children exposed to cumulative trauma. PMID:24210271

  3. Who succeeds at dental school? Factors predicting students' academic performance in a dental school in republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Ihm, Jung-Joon; Lee, Gene; Kim, Kack-Kyun; Jang, Ki-Taeg; Jin, Bo-Hyoung

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine what cognitive and non-cognitive factors were responsible for predicting the academic performance of dental students in a dental school in the Republic of Korea. This school is one of those in Korea that now require applicants to have a bachelor's degree. In terms of cognitive factors, students' undergraduate grade point average (GPA) and Dental Education Eligibility Test (DEET) scores were used, while surveys were conducted to evaluate four non-cognitive measures: locus of control, self-esteem, self-directed learning, and interpersonal skills. A total of 353 students matriculating at Seoul National University School of Dentistry in 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008 consented to the collection of records and completed the surveys. The main finding was that applicants who scored higher on internal locus of control and self-efficacy were more likely to be academically successful dental students. Self-directed learning was significantly associated with students ranked in the top 50 percent in cumulative GPA. However, students' interpersonal skills were negatively related to their academic performance. In particular, students' lack of achievement could be predicted by monitoring their first-year GPA. Therefore, the identification of those factors to predict dental school performance has implications for the dental curriculum and effective pedagogy in dental education. PMID:24319133

  4. Rural and urban suicide in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, B C Ben; Lester, David

    2012-10-01

    Suicide rates in 2005 in South Korea were higher in rural areas than in urban areas. Those in rural areas more often used pesticides and chemicals as a method for suicide, and there was a greater proportion of men and the elderly, both groups at higher risk for suicide in South Korea. These three factors may account for the high rural suicide rate in South Korea. PMID:23234093

  5. Seasonal variability of surface ozone in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wie, J.; Moon, B. K.; Choi, H.

    2015-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone around East Asia include Korea impacts on air quality and climate, and has been increased with rapid economic growth. To better understanding, we analyzed seasonal variability of tropospheric ozone simulated by using GEOS-Chem. Surface ozone concentration in Korea has double peaks in April and September. Tropospheric ozone increases primarily associated with westerly wind anomaly in spring, with warming in summer and autumn, and with cloud depletion in winter. Surface ozone in spring elevated after mature-phase El Niño winters. Key words: surface ozone, seasonal variability, Korea, East Asia Acknowledgements This work was supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "Climate Change Correspondence Program."

  6. New policies and measures for saving a great manmade reservoir providing drinking water for 20 million people in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Ahn, K H

    2000-01-01

    Water quality of the Paldang reservoir, the largest drinking water supply source in the Republic Korea provides raw water for about 20 million people living in Seoul Metropolitan area. Water quality has been deteriorating mainly due to improperly treated livestock waste and domestic wastewater discharged from motels, restaurants, and private homes. A recent survey conducted by the Ministry of Environment (MOE) showed that the water quality of this reservoir has been identified as Class III must contain less than 6 ppm of BOD, which will require advanced purification treatment before it can be used as drinking water. The MOE also announced that this water source would no longer be potable unless wastewater in the catchment is treated efficiently. To protect drinking water resources, the MOE has set up comprehensive management. These programmes include new regulations, measures, land use planning and economic incentives. PMID:10842849

  7. Assessment results of the South Korea TRIGA SNF to be shipped to INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, C.M.; Dirk, W.J.; Cottam, R.E.; Paik, S.T.

    1997-10-09

    This paper describes the Training, Research, Isotope, General Atomics (TRIGA) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) examination at the Seoul and the Taejon Research Reactor Facilities in South Korea. The examination was required before the SNF would be accepted for transportation and storage at the INEEL. The results of the aluminum and stainless steel clad TRIGA fuel examination have been summarized. A description of the examination team training, the examination work plan and examination equipment is also included. This paper also explains the technical basis for the examination and physical condition criteria used to determine what, if any, additional packaging would be required for transportation and for the receipt and storage of the fuel at the INEEL. This paper delineates the preparation activities prior to the fuel examinations and includes (1) collecting spent fuel data; (2) preparatory work by the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) for fuel examination: (3) preparation of a radionuclide report, Radionuclide Mass Inventory, Activity, Decay Heat, and Dose Rate Parametric Data for TRIGA Spent Nuclear Fuels needed to provide input data for transportation and fuel acceptance at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL); (4) gathering FRR Facility data; and (5) coordination between the INEEL and KAERI. Included, are the unanticipated conditions encountered in the unloading of fuel from the dry storage casks in Taejon in preparation for examination, a description of the damaged condition of the fuel removed from the casks, and the apparent cause of the damages. Lessons learned from all the activities are also addressed. A brief description of the preparatory work for the shipment of the spent fuel from Korea to INEEL is included.

  8. Disease-Related Knowledge and Information Needs Among Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Yang-Sook; Cha, Kyeong-Sook

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify disease-related knowledge and information needs of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The 313 patients (Crohn disease: n = 169, colitis: n = 144) presenting to an outpatient gastroenterology clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Seoul, Republic of Korea, were scored on their knowledge of Crohn disease and colitis and their information needs were assessed in the questionnaire. Patients with Crohn disease obtained a higher mean knowledge score than patients with colitis. The patients with Crohn disease had significantly higher scores about complications than patients with colitis. The patients with Crohn disease showed significantly higher mean scores relating to the patients' information needs than patients with colitis. The favorite topics of information needed were disease, medication, and diagnosis/operations. The patients with Crohn disease wanted more information than patients with colitis about medications used for treatment, daily life, and pregnancy. The effectiveness of the training and education given to patients can be maximized in this education system when the information about disease and medications for Crohn disease patients or information about disease and diet for colitis patients is primarily provided according to the degree of the patients' need for information. PMID:25159269

  9. Investigation of Aerosol Indirect Effects on Simulated Flash-flood Heavy Rainfall over Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Kyo-Sun; Hong, Songyou

    2012-11-01

    This study investigates aerosol indirect effects on the development of heavy rainfall near Seoul, South Korea, on 12 July 2006, focusing on precipitation amount. The impact of the aerosol concentration on simulated precipitation is evaluated by varying the initial cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Double-Moment 6-class (WDM6) microphysics scheme. The simulations are performed under clean, semi-polluted, and polluted conditions. Detailed analysis of the physical processes that are responsible for surface precipitation, including moisture and cloud microphysical budgets shows enhanced ice-phase processes to be the primary driver of increased surface precipitation under the semi-polluted condition. Under the polluted condition, suppressed autoconversion and the enhanced evaporation of rain cause surface precipitation to decrease. To investigate the role of environmental conditions on precipitation response under different aerosol number concentrations, a set of sensitivity experiments are conducted with a 5 % decrease in relative humidity at the initial time, relative to the base simulations. Results show ice-phase processes having small sensitivity to CCN number concentration, compared with the base simulations. Surface precipitation responds differently to CCN number concentration under the lower humidity initial condition, being greatest under the clean condition, followed by the semi-polluted and polluted conditions.

  10. Population-Based Regional Cancer Incidence in Korea: Comparison between Urban and Rural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Song, Haa-Na; Go, Se-Il; Lee, Won Sup; Kim, Yire; Choi, Hye Jung; Lee, Un Seok; Kang, Myoung Hee; Lee, Gyeong-Won; Kim, Hoon-Gu; Kang, Jung Hun; Kang, Yune Sik; Lee, Jeong-Hee; Jung, Jin-Myung; Hong, Soon Chan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate differences in organ-specific cancer incidence according to the region and population size in Korea. Materials and Methods We reviewed the data of the cancer registration program of Gyeongnam Regional Cancer Center between 2008 and 2011. Age-standardized rates of cancer incidence were analyzed according to population size of the region and administrative zone. Results Incidence of thyroid cancer has been increasing rapidly in both urban and rural areas. However, the thyroid cancer incidence was much lower in rural areas than in urban areas and megalopolis such as Seoul. Gastric cancer was relatively more common in rural areas, in megalopolis near the sea (Ulsan, Busan, and Incheon), and other southern provinces (Chungcheongnam-do, Gyeongsangbuk-do, and Gyeongsangnam-do). A detailed analysis in Gyeongsangnam-do revealed that rural areas have relatively low incidence of thyroid and colorectal cancer, and relatively high incidence of gastric and lung cancer compared to urban areas. Conclusion This study suggests that there are some differences in cancer incidence by population size. Thyroid and colorectal cancer incidence was increasing, and gastric and lung cancer was slightly decreasing in urban areas, whereas gastric and lung cancer incidence still remains high in rural areas. PMID:26194369

  11. Measuring nursing informatics competencies of practicing nurses in Korea: Nursing Informatics Competencies Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seon Yoon; Staggers, Nancy

    2014-12-01

    Informatics competencies are a necessity for contemporary nurses. However, few researchers have investigated informatics competencies for practicing nurses. A full set of Informatics competencies, an instrument to measure these competencies, and potential influencing factors have yet to be identified for practicing nurses. The Nursing Informatics Competencies Questionnaire was designed, tested for psychometrics, and used to measure beginning and experienced levels of practice. A pilot study using 54 nurses ensured item comprehension and clarity. Internal consistency and face and content validity were established. A cross-sectional survey was then conducted on 230 nurses in Seoul, Korea, to determine construct validity, describe a complete set of informatics competencies, and explore possible influencing factors on existing informatics competencies. Principal components analysis, descriptive statistics, and multiple regression were used for data analysis. Principal components analysis gives support for the Nursing Informatics Competencies Questionnaire construct validity. Survey results indicate that involvement in a managerial position and self-directed informatics-related education may be more influential for improving informatics competencies, whereas general clinical experience and workplace settings are not. This study provides a foundation for understanding how informatics competencies might be integrated throughout nurses' work lives and how to develop appropriate strategies to support nurses in their informatics practice in clinical settings. PMID:25393832

  12. Incidence and Level of Aflatoxins Contamination in Medicinal Plants in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Deuk; Yu, In Sil; Jung, Kweon

    2014-01-01

    During 2011~2013, a total of 729 samples for 19 types of medicinal plant were collected from Seoulyekryungsi in Seoul, Korea, and investigated for the presence of aflatoxins. The samples were analyzed using immunoaffinity column cleanup and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a fluorescence detector after post-column derivatization. Aflatoxins were found in 124 out of the 729 analyzed samples: 65 containing aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), 24 with aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), 15 with aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), and 20 samples with aflatoxin G2 (AFG2). The ranges for positive samples were 0.1~404.7 µg/kg for AFB1, 0.1~10.0 µg/kg for AFB2, 0.1~635.3 µg/kg for AFG1, 0.1~182.5 µg/kg for AFG2, and 0.1~1,043.9 µg/kg for total aflatoxins. Most of the medicinal plant samples (721, 98.9%) were below legal limits, but 8 samples exceeded the legal limits of 10 and 15 µg/kg established by the Korean standard for AFB1 and total aflatoxins (the sum of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2), respectively. PMID:25606005

  13. Prevalence and predictors of self-reported student maltreatment by teachers in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hyeon

    2015-08-01

    This study first investigated the prevalence of emotional and physical maltreatment by teachers in South Korea and then identified factors that predict student maltreatment by teachers. Specific areas of interest were the associations between student demographic characteristics (gender and grade level), family (economic status), and school experience (academic performance and student-teacher relationships) and how these characteristics were related to student maltreatment. Data were obtained by questionnaire from a random sample of 1,777 students in middle schools in Seoul, the largest metropolitan area, and its surrounding province, Gyeonggi-Do. Questionnaires were completed during school time. All information was collected anonymously. Of those surveyed, 18.2% reported emotional maltreatment by teachers and 24.3% physical maltreatment. Overall, 30.7% reported being either emotionally or physically mistreated by teachers at least once in the previous year. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that gender, family economic status, academic performance, and student-teacher relationships were predictors of student maltreatment by teachers. The results have practical and policy implications for the design of programs that will results in altering abusive teacher classroom behavior. PMID:25828860

  14. Evaluation of the weather generator CLIGEN with daily precipitation characteristics in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Young-Mi; Kryjov, Vladimir N.; An, Kyong-Hee; Hameed, Saji N.; Sohn, Soo-Jin; Lee, Woo-Jin; Oh, Jai-Ho

    2011-05-01

    The ability of the CLImate GENerator (CLIGEN) weather generator to reproduce daily precipitation characteristics for Korea was assessed on the basis of 55-year long historical daily precipitation records from eight weather stations (Seoul, Incheon, Daegu, Ulsan, Gwangju, Busan, Kangneung, and Jeonju) representing different parts of the Korean peninsula. The basic statistics of daily precipitation (mean, standard deviation, skewness of daily precipitation, number of rainy days, and the lengths of wet/dry period), probability distribution characteristics of daily precipitation (percentiles and maximum value), and the spatial covariance statistic generated by CLIGEN were compared with those derived from the observed weather series. Significance tests were conducted on the difference between the historical and generated statistics with the 1% significance level. The results show that CLIGEN simulates most of the daily precipitation characteristics satisfactorily with a tendency to slightly underestimate the mean and variability of daily precipitation. Especially, the number of rainy days is perfectly reproduced with mean relative error of 0.4% across all the stations. It is also found that the spatial covariance statistic from eight different stations is well reproduced by CLIGEN with respect to the leading EOF mode of summer season daily precipitation.

  15. Numerical simulations of heavy rainfall over central Korea on 21 September 2010 using the WRF model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Ui-Yong; Hong, Jinkyu; Hong, Song-You; Shin, Hyeyum Hailey

    2015-06-01

    On 21 September 2010, heavy rainfall with a local maximum of 259 mm d-1 occurred near Seoul, South Korea. We examined the ability of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in reproducing this disastrous rainfall event and identified the role of two physical processes: planetary boundary layer (PBL) and microphysics (MPS) processes. The WRF model was forced by 6-hourly National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Final analysis (FNL) data for 36 hours form 1200 UTC 20 to 0000 UTC 22 September 2010. Twenty-five experiments were performed, consisting of five different PBL schemes—Yonsei University (YSU), Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ), Quasi Normal Scale Elimination (QNSE), Bougeault and Lacarrere (BouLac), and University of Washington (UW)—and five different MPS schemes—WRF Single-Moment 6-class (WSM6), Goddard, Thompson, Milbrandt 2-moments, and Morrison 2-moments. As expected, there was a specific combination of MPS and PBL schemes that showed good skill in forecasting the precipitation. However, there was no specific PBL or MPS scheme that outperformed the others in all aspects. The experiments with the UW PBL or Thompson MPS scheme showed a relatively small amount of precipitation. Analyses form the sensitivity experiments confirmed that the spatial distribution of the simulated precipitation was dominated by the PBL processes, whereas the MPS processes determined the amount of rainfall. It was also found that the temporal evolution of the precipitation was influenced more by the PBL processes than by the MPS processes.

  16. Non-validation of Lanchester's original equations in the Inchon-Seoul campaign of the Korean War

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, D.S. III

    1988-03-01

    Daily attrition in the Inchon-Seoul campaign of the Korean War is analyzed using statistical mewthodology. This method yields a numerical measure of the goodness of fit and a measure of the statistical significance of the fit as opposed to the visual measure used previously. It also provides information as to reasons for poor fit. Neither Lanchester's Square Law Equations, nor his Linear Law Equation, provide statistically significant explanations of the course of the attrition in this battle. Their failure together with the modifications of the data which improve the fit imiply that other factors besides numerical strengths must be considered. While the data is insufficient to provide reliable determinants for these factors, the extent to which the fit can be improved supports the heuristic attrition equations used in most modern models. 13 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Stable isotope analysis of Joseon people skeletons from the cemeteries of Old Seoul City, the capital of Joseon Dynasty

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jeong-A; Oh, Chang Seok; Hong, Jong Ha; Min, So Ri; Oh, Seugn Whan; Kim, Yi-Suk; Park, Jun Bum

    2014-01-01

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis reveals the diets of different human populations in history. In this study, we performed stable isotope analysis on human skeletons from Joseon-period cemeteries discovered around Old Seoul City (Hansung). Our data clearly showed that Joseon individuals consumed more C3-based than C4-based foods as the main staples, and that the proteins they ate were mainly of terrestrial, but not of marine origin. Stable isotope values exhibited unique patterns in each of our sample subgroups. Whereas the δ13C values did not show any statistical differences among the subgroups, significantly higher values of δ15N were found in males than in females, which might reflect dietary differences between the sexes. For a fuller understanding of the dietary patterns of pre-industrial (pre-20th century) Koreans, additional studies on Joseon samples from Korean archaeological sites will be necessary. PMID:25548722

  18. Divorce in Korea: Trends and Educational Differentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyunjoon; Raymo, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The authors extend comparative research on educational differences in divorce by analyzing data from Korea. A primary motivation was to assess whether the theoretically unexpected negative educational gradient in divorce in Japan is also observed in Korea. Using vital statistics records for marriages and divorces registered between 1991 and 2006,…

  19. How much plutonium does North Korea have?

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, D.

    1994-09-01

    U.S. intelligence discovered in the 1980s that North Korea was building a small nuclear reactor. The reactor was described as a gas-cooled, graphite-moderated model similar to those Britian and France used to produce electric power as well as plutonium for nuclear weapons. When Western nations expressed concern about the reactor Russia pressed North Korea to sign the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) which it did on December 12, 1985. However, North Korea stalled on signing the required safeguards agreement that allows the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to inspect nuclear facilities until January 1992. Inspections by the IAEA revealed discrepancies with the amounts of plutonium separated as declared by the North Koreans. The IAEA also received reports that two North Korean waste sites were hidden. By February 1993 the IAEA and the North Koreans has reached an impasse: North Koreas initial declarations of plutonium inventory could not be confirmed and North Korea refused to cooperate. At the least, North Korea admits to having separated 100 grams of plutonium. At the most, worst case estimate, they could have a total of 6 - 13 kilograms of separated plutonium. A first nuclear weapon can require up to 10 kilograms of weapon-grade plutonium. Any settlement needs to include a way to insure that the IAEA can verify North Korea`s past nuclear activities and determine the amount of plutonium that may have been separated in the past. 2 refs.

  20. South Korea Powers Ahead with Globalization Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2009-01-01

    For government officials in South Korea, it's a vision worth savoring: Within the next decade, South Korea becomes Southeast Asia's top higher-education destination, poaching thousands of Chinese, Indian, and Japanese students from American universities and overtaking rivals Singapore, Malaysia, and Hong Kong. The higher-education system's…

  1. International University Will Open in North Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reports that construction is nearing completion on Pyongyang University of Science and Technology in North Korea, in which academics from around the world will teach the best of the country's graduate students. This will be North Korea's first international university and will let the world know that the capacity of their scientists…

  2. Teaching about Korea in Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Decar, Patricia

    1988-01-01

    Presents 12 study guides for teaching secondary school students about Korean history and culture. The study guides deal with ancient legends, history, family, women's roles, traditions, folk customs, economic development, the division of Korea, the Korean War, links with the United States, and comparisons between North and South Korea. (GEA)

  3. 76 FR 35740 - North Korea Sanctions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Part 510 North Korea Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of... Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') is amending the North Korea Sanctions Regulations to implement Executive... (50 U.S.C. 1601- 1651) (the ``NEA''), issued Executive Order 13466 (73 FR 36787, June 27, 2008)...

  4. Variations in Label Information and Nicotine Levels in Electronic Cigarette Refill Liquids in South Korea: Regulation Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungroul; Goniewicz, Maciej L.; Yu, Sol; Kim, Bokyeong; Gupta, Ribhav

    2015-01-01

    Background: In South Korea, the consumption of liquid nicotine used in electronic cigarettes has dramatically increased from 4310 L in 2012 to 7220 L in 2013. This study aimed to examine the level of heterogeneity of contents of the labels and discrepancy of the nicotine content between that indicated on the label and the actual values for electronic cigarette liquid refill products in South Korea. Methods: We purchased 32 electronic cigarette liquid refill products (17 Korean domestic, 15 imported ones) and one pure nicotine product at six different electronic cigarette retail stores in Seoul between May and June 2014. The actual nicotine concentrations of each product were measured by a blinded analyst at Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA. Results: Three out of 15 imported liquid refill products provided manufacturing dates, while expiration dates were available on eight products. The range of nicotine concentration was from “not detected” to 17.5 mg/mL. Labeling discrepancies of the concentrations ranged from −32.2% to 3.3% among electronic cigarette liquid refill products. The highest concentration (150.3 ± 7.9 mg/mL) was found in a sample labeled as “pure nicotine”. Conclusions: There is no standardization of labelling among electronic cigarette liquids sampled from retail stores and the labels did not accurately reflect the content. One product labeled “pure nicotine” raises concerns, since it may be poisonous to consumers, especially to children. This study revealed the urgent need for the development of product regulations in South Korea. PMID:25950652

  5. Sofosbuvir-based therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C: Early experience of its efficacy and safety in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yuri; Cho, Eun Ju; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Yu, Su Jong; Yoon, Jung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The previous standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients, comprising a combination of pegylated interferon (IFN) and ribavirin, was associated with suboptimal efficacy and severe adverse reactions. A new era of direct-acting antivirals is now dawning in Korea. Early experience of applying sofosbuvir-based therapy to CHC patients in Korea is reported herein. Methods Data on efficacy and safety were collected for CHC patients treated with a combination of sofosbuvir plus ribavirin or sofosbuvir/ledipasvir with or without ribavirin. Results This retrospective study included 25 consecutive patients who received sofosbuvir-based therapy (19 with genotype 1b and 6 with genotype 2) at Seoul National University Hospital from May 2014 to April 2015. A virologic response was achieved at week 4 by 85.7% and 80% of the patients with genotypes 1b and 2, respectively. The HCV-RNA level decreased more slowly in IFN-experienced than in treatment-naïve patients with genotype 1b. However, the sustained virologic response at week 12 (SVR12) rate did not differ among these patients, and was as high as 100%. The presence of cirrhosis significantly increased the risk of a virologic response failure at week 4 (OR, 11.0; P=0.011) among patients with HCV genotype 1b. Only five patients (20%) experienced minor adverse events, including grade 1 fatigue and headache. The hemoglobin level decreased slightly after sofosbuvir-based therapy, but there was no case of premature discontinuation of this therapy. Conclusions In a real clinical practice, sofosbuvir-based therapy for CHC patients in Korea achieved optimal antiviral efficacy with insignificant adverse events. Long-term follow-up data are warranted to ensure the sustained antiviral efficacy and long-term safety of sofosbuvir-based IFN-free therapy. PMID:26770924

  6. Evaluation of medium-range weather forecasts about Korea Institute of Atmospheric Prediction Systems (KIAPS) Integrated Model System (KIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Seol, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Korea Institute of Atmospheric Prediction Systems (KIAPS) is a government funded non-profit research and development institute located in Seoul, South Korea. KIAPS was established in 2011 by the Korea Meteorological Administration, KIAPS' primary sponsor. KIAPS is developing the KIAPS Integrated Model System (KIM), a backbone for the next-generation operational global numerical weather prediction (NWP) system. The KIM will be a unified model that can be used for global modeling as well as local areas, particularly optimized to topographic and meteorological features of the Korean Peninsula. We have been completed developing major model components based on KIAPS own research and release the KIAPS beta version model on September 2014. We evaluated the results of KIM by using verification system developed KIAPS, it is composed of standard verification score based on WMO report. The system consists of four parts: verification against analysis, observations, vertical verification and quantitative precipitation forecasts. The results of verification against analysis, we found that increase of error for temperature under 700 hPa. In case of MSLP, poor performance except for tropical region is represented, and the increase of error for geopotential height is shown in tropical region. For verification against observations, positive bias is represented for upper level geopotential height, for low level wind speed in tropical region in summer, for all level wind speed in Northern Hemisphere in winter, and for specific humidity in Northern Hemisphere in summer. As previously stated about the result against analysis, cold bias for low level temperature is shown in Northern Hemisphere in summer. In case of verification for rain about KIM, the model value is underestimated in heavy rain category in summer, on the contrary, that is overestimated in heavy rain category in winter. Overall, there is overestimation in ocean for all models. Our findings indicate that continuing

  7. Occupational Hearing Loss in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In this article, current status of noise exposure in workplaces, trend of workers with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), and prevalence of NIHL in workers by industry and job category in Korea were reviewed. In addition, trends of research on the audiological effects such as hearing loss from noise and occupational hearing loss from non-noise in Korea were addressed through reports in industrial audiology. Though noise exposure level has improved, noise still shows the highest rate of cases exceeding exposure limit among workplace hazards. NIHL is the most common occupational disease except work-related disease such as musculoskeletal disorders and cerebrovascular diseases, and NIHL prevalence is thought to be much higher than reported in official publications. Noise affecting hearing comes from various sources such as workplaces, military settings, areas with exposure to high noise, and specific noise sources. There is also occupational hearing loss by non-noise including chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals, barotrauma, and trauma due to welding spark. Noise affects daily life through audiological effects such as hearing loss and tinnitus, non-audiological physical effects (e.g., cardiovascular), and psychosocial and behavioral effects. Development of systematic and comprehensive hearing conservation programs for lowering the noise level in workplaces and preventing the NIHL, and preparation of technological, administrative system for its settlement at workplace are urgently needed. PMID:21258593

  8. Nutrition policy in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Since 1970s, the economic and social development in South Korea, as well as dietary pattern, has undergone various changes. Concerns for the decreased nutrition quality and physical activities among Koreans, especially young population, call for a need of a holistic approach in national food and nutrition policy. The National Health Promotion Act of 1995 included national interventions and programs to deal with nutrition-related chronic diseases and obesity prevention. A nation-wide monitoring system, which includes nutrition and health examination survey, is being built and run by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and its affiliated organizations every three years. The Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) is another key agency undertaking national food and nutrition policies. The KFDA recently promulgated the national strategic plans for improving food safety and nutrition, focusing on children. Nutrition labelling policy for processed food is managed by KFDA and various education programs are developed and disseminated to enhance the awareness of nutrition labelling. The agency also makes standards and regulates foods for special dietary uses and health functional food. The Rural Development Administration (RDA) is responsible for maintaining the food composition database. Finally, the National School Lunch Program is mainly governed by the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development. The above central government agencies along with regional health centers are making efforts to promote the healthy eating habits in addition to constructing healthy environment by making laws and programs and by research and social marketing. PMID:18296374

  9. Occupational Skin Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Gi

    2010-01-01

    Skin disease is the most common occupational disease, but the reported number is small in Korea due to a difficulty of detection and diagnosis in time. We described various official statistics and data from occupational skin disease surveillance system, epidemiological surveys and cases published in scientific journals. Until 1981, 2,222 cases of occupational skin disease were reported by Korean employee's regular medical check-up, accounting for 4.9% of the total occupational diseases. There was no subsequent official statistics to figure out occupational skin diseases till 1998. From 1999, the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA) published the number of occupational skin diseases through the statistics of Cause Investigation for Industrial Accidents. A total of 301 cases were reported from 1999 to 2007. Recent one study showed the figures of compensated occupational skin diseases. Many of them belonged to daily-paid workers in the public service, especially forestry workers. Also, it described the interesting cases such as vitiligo and trichloroethylene-induced Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. Skin diseases are still important though the number of cases has decreased, and therefore it is recommended to grasp the status of occupational skin diseases through continuous surveillance system and to make policy protecting high-risk group. PMID:21258591

  10. Household Arthropod Allergens in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong

    2009-01-01

    Arthropods are important in human health, which can transmit pathogens to humans, parasitize, or produce important allergens. Allergy prevalence becomes higher in Korea recently as well as other developed countries in contrast to a decrease of infectious diseases. Allergic diseases caused by household arthropods have increased dramatically during the last few decades since human beings spend more their time for indoor activities in modernized life style. Household arthropods are one of the most common causes of allergic diseases. Biological characterization of household arthropods and researches on their allergens will provide better understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and suggest new therapeutic ways. Therefore, studies on arthropods of allergenic importance can be considered one of the major research areas in medical arthropodology and parasitology. Here, the biology of several household arthropods, including house dust mites and cockroaches, the 2 most well known arthropods living indoor together with humans worldwide, and characteristics of their allergens, especially the research activities on these allergens performed in Korea, are summarized. PMID:19885330

  11. Occupational neurological disorders in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-A; Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this article was to provide a literature review of occupational neurological disorders and related research in Korea, focusing on chemical hazards. We reviewed occupational neurological disorders investigated by the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute of Korean Occupational Safety and Health Agency between 1992 and 2009, categorizing them as neurological disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) or as neurodegenerative disorders. We also examined peer-reviewed journal articles related to neurotoxicology, published from 1984 to 2009. Outbreaks of occupational neurological disorder of the CNS due to inorganic mercury and carbon disulfide poisoning had helped prompt the development of the occupational safety and health system of Korea. Other major neurological disorders of the CNS included methyl bromide intoxication and chronic toxic encephalopathy. Most of the PNS disorders were n-hexane-induced peripheral neuritis, reported from the electronics industry. Reports of manganese-induced Parkinsonism resulted in the introduction of neuroimaging techniques to occupational medicine. Since the late 1990s, the direction of research has been moving toward degenerative disorder and early effect of neurotoxicity. To understand the early effects of neurotoxic chemicals in the preclinical stage, more follow-up studies of a longer duration are necessary. PMID:21258587

  12. Occupational Neurological Disorders in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to provide a literature review of occupational neurological disorders and related research in Korea, focusing on chemical hazards. We reviewed occupational neurological disorders investigated by the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute of Korean Occupational Safety and Health Agency between 1992 and 2009, categorizing them as neurological disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) or as neurodegenerative disorders. We also examined peer-reviewed journal articles related to neurotoxicology, published from 1984 to 2009. Outbreaks of occupational neurological disorder of the CNS due to inorganic mercury and carbon disulfide poisoning had helped prompt the development of the occupational safety and health system of Korea. Other major neurological disorders of the CNS included methyl bromide intoxication and chronic toxic encephalopathy. Most of the PNS disorders were n-hexane-induced peripheral neuritis, reported from the electronics industry. Reports of manganese-induced Parkinsonism resulted in the introduction of neuroimaging techniques to occupational medicine. Since the late 1990s, the direction of research has been moving toward degenerative disorder and early effect of neurotoxicity. To understand the early effects of neurotoxic chemicals in the preclinical stage, more follow-up studies of a longer duration are necessary. PMID:21258587

  13. [Hundred years' psychiatry in Korea (1899-1999)].

    PubMed

    Rhi, B Y

    1999-01-01

    The western medical knowledges of the human anatomy and physiology including knowledges of central nervous system have probably been introduced into Korea by Prince Sohyŏn Seja in 1645. The authentic education for the western medicine at the governmental and private medical schools, however, originated from 1899 and the education of mental disease was included in curriculum of Tai-Han-uiwon, the governmental medical school before 1910. In 1913 the first department of psychiatry (Department of Mental Disease) was established at the Chongdokbu-uiwon, the clinic of the Japanese colonial government, the former Korean governmental hospital which has later developed to the Kyŏngs ŏng Imperial University Hospital. On the other hand, there was in Severance Hospital Medical College, one Australian missionary psychiatrist McLaren, who has served at Paton Memorial Hospital in Jinju, Korea from 1911, taught neurology and psychiatry from 1913 at Severance Hospital Medical College, established psychiatry ward in 1923 at the Hospital, conducted the ward in humanistic way until 1940. It was the German psychiatry which the Japanese psychiatrists have brought to the Korean peninsula and it remained as major trends of psychiatry in Korea during the Japanese occupation between 1911 and 1945. The academic levels of Kyŏngsŏng Imperial University in psychiatry as well as the quality of mental care seemed to be almost equivocal to the psychiatry in Japan. However, psychiatrists scope of social psychiatric issues and of the research interests seemed to be somewhat narrow. Due to the political discrimination for the Korean students, the Koreans had less opportunity for the promotion at the university than Japanese residents in Korea. In 1945, after the end of the Pacific War only about 11 Korean psychiatrists were left in Korea, who organized Korean Neuropsychiatric Association. The Department of Neuropsychiatry of Seoul National University (former Department of Neurology and

  14. The Restoration of a Local Energy Regime Amid Trends of Power Liberalization in East Asia: The Seoul Sustainable Energy Utility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Jung-Min

    2009-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, power sector liberalization has been embraced at different levels in the East Asian countries of China, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. The dominant rationale underlying power liberalization has been a quest for efficiency improvements, to be achieved by substituting private market activity for public regulations and by opening…

  15. Recommendations for Carotid Stenting in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hyuk Won; Suh, Sang-il; Jeong, Hae Woong; Suh, Dae Chul

    2015-01-01

    Carotid artery angioplasty with stenting (CAS) is being performed in many hospitals in Korea. Most of the guidelines which are being used are similar, but the practical aspects such as techniques are different between hospitals. For example, usage of various protective devices, the oral antiplatelet regimen prior to procedure and placing of temporary pacemaker to prevent bradycardia are different between hospitals. In this article, we summarize and propose the guidelines for CAS which is currently being accepted in Korea. These guidelines may be helpful in providing protocol to neurointerventionalist who perform CAS and to standardize the process including reporting of CAS in the future comparative trials in Korea. PMID:25763292

  16. Morphological and chemical composition characteristics of summertime atmospheric particles collected at Tokchok Island, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Hong; Jung, Hae-Jin; Park, YooMyung; Hwang, HeeJin; Kim, HyeKyeong; Kim, Yoo Jung; Sunwoo, Young; Ro, Chul-Un

    Determination of the chemical compositions of atmospheric single particles in the Yellow Sea region is critical for evaluating the environmental impact caused by air pollutants emitted from mainland China and the Korean peninsula. After ambient aerosol particles were collected by the Dekati PM10 cascade impactor on July 17-23, 2007 at Tokchok Island (approximately 50 km west of the Korean coast nearby Seoul), Korea, overall 2000 particles (on stage 2 and 3 with cut-off diameters of 2.5-10 μm and 1.0-2.5 μm, respectively) in 10 samples were determined by using low- Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis. X-ray spectral and secondary electron image (SEI) data showed that soil-derived and sea-salt particles which had reacted or were mixed with SO 2 and NO x (or their acidic products) outnumbered the primary and "genuine" ones (59.2% vs. 19.2% in the stage 2 fraction and 41.3% vs. 9.9% in the stage 3 fraction). Moreover, particles containing nitrate in the secondary soil-derived species greatly outnumbered those containing sulfate. Organic particles, mainly consisting of marine biogenic species, were more abundant in the stage 2 fraction than in the stage 3 fraction (11.6% vs. 5.1%). Their relative abundance was greater than the sum of carbon-rich, K-containing, Fe-containing, and fly ash particles, which exhibited low frequencies in all the samples. In addition, many droplets rich in C, N, O, and S were observed. They tended to be small, exhibiting a dark round shape on SEI, and generally included 8-20 at.% C, 0-12 at.% N, 60-80 at.% O, and 4-10 at.% S (sometimes with <3 at.% Mg and Na). They were attributed to be a mixture of carbonaceous matter, H 2SO 4, and NH 4HSO 4/(NH 4) 2SO 4, mostly from the reaction of atmospheric SO 2 with NH 3 under high relative humidity. The analysis of the relationship between the aerosol particle compositions and 72-h backward air-mass trajectories suggests that ambient aerosols at Tokchok Island are strongly affected not only

  17. Space Weather Services of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, K.; Hong, S.; Park, S.; Kim, Y. Y.; Wi, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  18. Space Weather Services of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, KiChang; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Young Yun; Kwon, Yongki; Wi, Gwan-sik

    2016-07-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, DREAM model estimating electron in satellite orbit, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  19. Korea`s choice of a new generation of nuclear plants

    SciTech Connect

    Redding, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    The ABWR and SBWR design, both under development at GE, provide the best platform for developing the next generation advanced plants. The ABWR, which is rapidly setting the standard for new nuclear reactor plants, is clearly the best choice to meet the present energy needs of Korea. And through a GE/Korea partnership to develop the plant of the next century, Korea will establish itself as a leader in innovative reactor technology.

  20. Men's health in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sae-Chul; Kim, Sang Wook; Chung, Yun Jae

    2011-07-01

    Over the last four decades, rapid industrialisation and a Westernized lifestyle have changed disease patterns in South Korea. This study was conducted to review the current state of men's health in South Korea. By reviewing reports of government authorities and domestic and foreign studies related to men's health, we found that in men ≥ 65 years of age, 28.4% considered their health status good, whereas 38.3% considered their health status poor. The prevalence of moderate-to-severe lower urinary tract symptoms was similar to that in Caucasians. The prevalence of erectile dysfunction was higher than the global average. The incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias showed a tendency towards increase. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus continuously increased by 10.8% in 2008 and was the fifth leading cause of death in 2008. The prevalence of obesity increased from 26.0% in 1998 to 31.7% in 2007. The prevalence of ischaemic heart disease has continuously increased, with heart diseases causing one of every 12 deaths. The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 2005 was 17.2% among adults ≥ 45 years of age. The top five prevalent cancers in men, in descending order, were cancers of the stomach, lung, liver, large bowel and prostate, among which the incidence of stomach, lung and liver cancers decreased by 0.7%, 0.6% and 2.2%, respectively, from 1999 to 2007, whereas the incidence of large bowel and prostate cancers increased by 7.0% and 13.2%, respectively. The prevalence of depression, dementia and sleep disorders was estimated as 17.3%, 4.21% and 20.2%, respectively. Together, these findings suggest that disease patterns in South Korean men are becoming Westernized. PMID:21478896

  1. Republic of Korea`s security in northeast Asia. Regional strategic appraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, S.J.

    1996-04-15

    Although the Cold War is over, the security environment in Northeast Asia is not stable. This study summarizes Korea`s national interests from a Korean soldier`s perspective. The threats and issues are described according to the format of a regional strategic appraisal. This study recommends the organization of a Conference on Security and Cooperation in Northeast Asia (CSCNEA). This organization would be composed of the two Koreas(or eventually a reunified Korea), the United States, Japan, China, and Russia. Before the establishment of the organization, the enlargement of bilateral cooperation is recommended.

  2. Molecular epidemiology of norovirus in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Geun; Cho, Han-Gil; Paik, Soon-Young

    2015-02-01

    Norovirus is a major cause of viral gastroenteritis and a common cause of foodborne and waterborne outbreaks. Norovirus outbreaks are responsible for economic losses, most notably to the public health and food industry field. Norovirus has characteristics such as low infectious dose, prolonged shedding period, strong stability, great diversity, and frequent genome mutations. Besides these characteristics, they are known for rapid and extensive spread in closed settings such as hospitals, hotels, and schools. Norovirus is well known as a major agent of food-poisoning in diverse settings in South Korea. For these reasons, nationwide surveillance for norovirus is active in both clinical and environmental settings in South Korea. Recent studies have reported the emergence of variants and novel recombinants of norovirus. In this review, we summarized studies on the molecular epidemiology and nationwide surveillance of norovirus in South Korea. This review will provide information for vaccine development and prediction of new emerging variants of norovirus in South Korea. PMID:25441425

  3. The dynamic evolution of rheumatology in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho-Youn; Song, Yeong-Wook

    2016-03-01

    Rheumatology was first recognized as a distinct clinical specialty in Korea just 35 years ago. Young professors who were trained in rheumatology in the USA and afterwards returned to Korea contributed substantially to advances in rheumatology clinical practice, educational programmes and research activities. They also established the Korean Rheumatism Association, later renamed the Korean College of Rheumatology. These young rheumatologists had a major role not only in raising the level of clinical and scientific activities, but also in promoting academic exchanges around the Asia-Pacific region, the USA and Europe. Subsequently, Korea's rapid economic growth and high education level enabled rheumatology to advance rapidly. Today, continued efforts are required to raise the standard of clinical and basic research, to optimize clinical practice with regard to new biologic agents, to exploit personalized and targeted therapies for the rheumatic diseases, and to meet the medical demands of Korea's ageing society. PMID:26676083

  4. North Korea: War drums or peace pipes?

    SciTech Connect

    Keeny, S.M. Jr.

    1994-07-01

    President Clinton has wisely seized the opportunity, presented by former President Jimmy Carter`s meeting with North Korea leader Kim Il Sung, for renewed negotiations with Pyongyang on its nuclear program. While a successful outcome cannot be guaranteed, both sides have backed off the mounting confrontation that threatened to lead to either the emergence of a nuclear North Korea or a second Korean war.

  5. Landscape pattern and its effect on ecosystem functions in Seoul Metropolitan area: urban ecology on distribution of the naturalized plant species.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sun-Kee; Song, In-Ju; Kim, Hyun-Ok; Lee, Eung-Kyong

    2003-03-01

    During land transformation process in the human history, naturalized plants were introduced to several land use patterns by the different ways of plant itself. Including some naturalized plants that had been contribute to land restoration, many naturalized plants have been invaded to original habitat or landscape for native plants. Once the plants were colonized, they extend their area and population size. Urban developed areas often give an important role of source habitat for naturalized plants and expanding their population size. In recent, this situation is appearing as one of environmental problem about the urban landscape management controlling the naturalized plants that invaded in the developed area and conserving the native vegetation. This paper is focusing on relationships between distribution of habitat of naturalized plants and landscape patch in urban areas in Seoul. Gangdong-Gu, one of the administrative areas in Seoul was selected for this study. We examined the recent land use change using LANDSAT TM data and spreading of the representative naturalized plants (Robinia pseudocacia and Eupatorium rugosum) by Seoul Biotope Mapping Project and field survey in 1999. As a result, these two species were often occurred in the same habitat and distributed in forest edge disturbed by man. Their distribution patterns were related to landscape indices (patch size and shape) in the forest edge. PMID:12765262

  6. Causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exams and college attendance: random assignment in Seoul high schools.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R; Choi, Jaesung

    2013-04-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul-the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools-to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools, rather than coeducational schools, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the school district fixed-effects models, we find that single-sex schools produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after we take into account various school-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private. PMID:23073751

  7. A study on the ozone formation using CMAQ with PA and HDDM in the Seoul Metropolitan Area.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jong Hee, K.; Koo, Y. S.

    2014-12-01

    HDDM (High-order Decoupled Direct Method) is an efficient method to understand sensitivity of ozone peak concentration on the precursor emission of NOx and VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds). PA (Process Analysis) in the CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality Model) is a probing tool to identify the formation pathways of the ozone. CMAQ with the HDDM and PA was used to simulate the high peak ozone concentrations in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) for 2009. The predicted ozone concentrations by CMAQ were compared with observations at air quality monitoring stations in the SMA. The results showed that the model could depict observed diurnal variations of ozone concentration but it had a tendency of underestimating the ozone peak concentration. One of the main reasons for such discrepancies is due to uncertainties of precursor emissions of NOx and VOCs. The main processes inducing peak ozone were the horizontal transport and gas phase chemistry according to the PA. In order to improve capacity of prediction high peak ozone concentration, sensitivity test of the precursor emissions on ozone formation using HDDM was carried out to determine which emission of VOCs and NOx is a controlling one in the ozone formation. The results showed that the ozone concentrations increased with VOCs emissions and decreased with NOx emission, which implies the VOC-limited region. The further details of model comparisons with observations and results of HDDM and PA will be discussed in the presentation.

  8. Lee Sang Gak Telescope (LSGT): A Remotely Operated Robotic Telescope for Education and Research at Seoul National University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Myungshin; Choi, Changsu; Kim, Kihyun

    2015-08-01

    We introduce the Lee Sang Gak Telescope (LSGT), a remotely operated, robotic 0.43-meter telescope. The telescope was installed at the Siding Spring Observatory, Australia, in 2014 October, to secure regular and exclusive access to the dark sky and excellent atmospheric conditions in the southern hemisphere from the Seoul National University (SNU) campus. Here, we describe the LSGT system and its performance, present example images from early observations, and discuss a future plan to upgrade the system. The use of the telescope includes (i) long-term monitoring observations of nearby galaxies, active galactic nuclei, and supernovae; (ii) rapid follow-up observations of transients such as gamma-ray bursts and gravitational wave sources; and (iii) observations for educational activities at SNU. Based on observations performed so far, we find that the telescope is capable of providing images to a depth of R=21.5 mag (point source detection) at 5-σ with 15 min total integration time under good obs-erving conditions.

  9. Spatial distribution of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) in Seoul Metropolitan Subway stations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Youn; Kim, Yoon Shin; Roh, Young Man; Lee, Cheol Min; Kim, Chi Nyon

    2008-06-15

    The aims of this study are to examine the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in areas within the Seoul Metropolitan Subway network and to provide fundamental data in order to protect respiratory health of subway workers and passengers from air pollutants. A total of 22 subway stations located on lines 1-4 were selected based on subway official's guidance. At these stations both subway worker areas (station offices, rest areas, ticket offices and driver compartments) and passengers areas (station precincts, subway carriages and platforms) were the sites used for measuring the levels of PM. The mean concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were relatively higher on platforms, inside subway carriages and in driver compartments than in the other areas monitored. The levels of PM10 and PM2.5 for station precincts and platforms exceeded the 24-h acceptable threshold limits of 150 microg/m3 for PM10 and 35 microg/m3 for PM2.5, which are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). However, levels measured in station and ticket offices fell below the respective threshold. The mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations on platforms located underground were significantly higher than those at ground level (p<0.05). PMID:18036738

  10. Evaluation of CMAQ and CAMx Ensemble Air Quality Forecasts during the 2015 MAPS-Seoul Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E.; Kim, S.; Bae, C.; Kim, H. C.; Kim, B. U.

    2015-12-01

    The performance of Air quality forecasts during the 2015 MAPS-Seoul Field Campaign was evaluated. An forecast system has been operated to support the campaign's daily aircraft route decisions for airborne measurements to observe long-range transporting plume. We utilized two real-time ensemble systems based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE)-Comprehensive Air quality Model with extensions (CAMx) modeling framework and WRF-SMOKE- Community Multi_scale Air Quality (CMAQ) framework over northeastern Asia to simulate PM10 concentrations. Global Forecast System (GFS) from National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) was used to provide meteorological inputs for the forecasts. For an additional set of retrospective simulations, ERA Interim Reanalysis from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) was also utilized to access forecast uncertainties from the meteorological data used. Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) and National Institute of Environment Research (NIER) Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS) emission inventories are used for foreign and domestic emissions, respectively. In the study, we evaluate the CMAQ and CAMx model performance during the campaign by comparing the results to the airborne and surface measurements. Contributions of foreign and domestic emissions are estimated using a brute force method. Analyses on model performance and emissions will be utilized to improve air quality forecasts for the upcoming KORUS-AQ field campaign planned in 2016.

  11. Geo-spatial Hotspots of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome and Genetic Characterization of Seoul Variants in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Shu-Qing; Fang, Li-Qun; Zhan, Lin; Zhang, Pan-He; Jiang, Jia-Fu; Wang, Li-Ping; Ma, Jia-Qi; Wang, Bing-Cai; Wang, Ri-Min; Wu, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Hong; Cao, Zhi-Wei; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Background Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is highly endemic in mainland China, and has extended from rural areas to cities recently. Beijing metropolis is a novel affected region, where the HFRS incidence seems to be diverse from place to place. Methodology/Principal Findings The spatial scan analysis based on geographical information system (GIS) identified three geo-spatial “hotspots” of HFRS in Beijing when the passive surveillance data from 2004 to 2006 were used. The Relative Risk (RR) of the three “hotspots” was 5.45, 3.57 and 3.30, respectively. The Phylogenetic analysis based on entire coding region sequence of S segment and partial L segment sequence of Seoul virus (SEOV) revealed that the SEOV strains circulating in Beijing could be classified into at least three lineages regardless of their host origins. Two potential recombination events that happened in lineage #1 were detected and supported by comparative phylogenetic analysis. The SEOV strains in different lineages and strains with distinct special amino acid substitutions for N protein were partially associated with different spatial clustered areas of HFRS. Conclusion/Significance Hotspots of HFRS were found in Beijing, a novel endemic region, where intervention should be enhanced. Our data suggested that the genetic variation and recombination of SEOV strains was related to the high risk areas of HFRS, which merited further investigation. PMID:21264354

  12. Occupational Respiratory Cancer in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoung Ryoul

    2010-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer are representative examples of occupational cancer. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death, and the incidence of malignant mesothelioma is expected to increase sharply in the near future. Although information about lung carcinogen exposure is limited, it is estimated that the number of workers exposed to carcinogens has declined. The first official case of occupational cancer was malignant mesothelioma caused by asbestos exposure in the asbestos textile industry in 1992. Since then, compensation for occupational respiratory cancer has increased. The majority of compensated lung cancer was due to underlying pneumoconiosis. Other main causative agents of occupational lung cancer included asbestos, hexavalent chromium, and crystalline silica. Related jobs included welders, foundry workers, platers, plumbers, and vehicle maintenance workers. Compensated malignant mesotheliomas were associated with asbestos exposure. Epidemiologic studies conducted in Korea have indicated an elevated risk of lung cancer in pneumoconiosis patients, foundry workers, and asbestos textile workers. Occupational respiratory cancer has increased during the last 10 to 20 yr though carcinogen-exposed population has declined in the same period. More efforts to advance the systems for the investigation, prevention and management of occupational respiratory cancer are needed. PMID:21258597

  13. Seismic noise level variation in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, D.; Shin, J.

    2008-12-01

    The variations of seismic background noise in South Korea have been investigated by means of power spectral analysis. The Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) and the Korea Meteorological Administation (KMA) have national wide seismic networks in South Korea, and, in the end of 2007, there are 30 broadband stations which have been operating for more than a year. In this study, we have estimated the power spectral density of seismic noise for 30 broadband stations from 2005 to 2007. Since we estimate PSDs from a large dataset of continuous waveform in this study, a robust PSD estimate of McNamara and Buland (2004) is used. In the frequency range 1-5 Hz, the diurnal variations of noise are observed at most of stations, which are especially larger at coastal stations and at insular than at inland. Some stations shows daily difference of diurnal variations, which represents that cultural activities contribute to the noise level of a station. The variation of number of triggered stations, however, shows that cultural noise has little influence on the detection capability of seismic network in South Korea. Seasonal variations are observed well in the range 0.1-0.5 Hz, while much less found in the frequency range 1-5 Hz. We observed that strong peaks in the range 0.1-0.5 Hz occur at the summer when Pacific typhoons are close to the Korean Peninsula.

  14. Spatial Variability of AERONET Aerosol Optical Properties and Satellite Data in South Korea during NASA DRAGON-Asia Campaign.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung Joo; Son, Youn-Suk

    2016-04-01

    We investigated spatial variability in aerosol optical properties, including aerosol optical depth (AOD), fine-mode fraction (FMF), and single scattering albedo (SSA), observed at 21 Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites and satellite remote sensing data in South Korea during the spring of 2012. These dense AERONET networks established in a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) field campaign enabled us to examine the spatially detailed aerosol size distribution and composition as well as aerosol levels. The springtime particle air quality was characterized by high background aerosol levels and high contributions of coarse-mode aerosols to total aerosols. We found that between-site correlations and coefficient of divergence for AOD and FMF strongly relied on the distance between sites, particularly in the south-north direction. Higher AOD was related to higher population density and lower distance from highways, and the aerosol size distribution and composition reflected source-specific characteristics. The ratios of satellite NO2 to AOD, which indicate the relative contributions of local combustion sources to aerosol levels, represented higher local contributions in metropolitan Seoul and Pusan. Our study demonstrates that the aerosol levels were determined by both local and regional pollution and that the relative contributions of these pollutions to aerosols generated spatial heterogeneity in the particle air quality. PMID:26953969

  15. Identification of nitrogen dioxide and ozone source regions for an urban area in Korea using back trajectory analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vellingiri, Kowsalya; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Lim, Jong-Myoung; Lee, Jin-Hong; Ma, Chang-Jin; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Sohn, Jong-Ryeul; Kumar, Pawan; Kang, Chang-Hee

    2016-07-01

    The NO2 and O3 in an urban background site of Seoul, Korea (Yongsan), were analyzed using hourly data collected from 2005 to 2013. The potential role of meteorological parameters in controlling air quality at the receptor site was analyzed using a conditional probability function. In addition, the relative contributions of such variables were examined for special cases (i.e., more than 60 ppb of NO2 and O3) with the help of trajectory. A potential source contribution function with a grid size resolution of 0.25° × 0.25° was used to determine the potential exogenous sources of NO2 and O3 for the study area. The results of both the trajectory and potential source contribution function analyses suggest that both the northern China region and local emission sources are the most influential source pathways contributing to the recent increase in NO2 concentration at the study site. In the case of O3, this role was shared by both oceanic and mountainous regions of China and Japan.

  16. Preliminary results from measurement of methane at Gosan, Jeju Island, Korea for understanding emissions in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, E.; Kim, J.; Ahn, K.; Park, M.; Kim, K.

    2010-12-01

    Importance of methane (CH4) to the global biogeochemical cycle and climate change has been well documented, and while the total global methane emissions are relatively well known, the strength of each source component and their trends are not, due to the varied biological and anthropogenic sources of emissions. This is especially true in East Asia, where strong expected emissions of CH4 from fossil fuel mining and burning as well as rice agriculture remain less understood. In this study, we present atmospheric measurements of methane and preliminary analysis of the results. Measurement site for this study is at Gosan, a remote background site located on Jeju Island, Korea. Due to its central location in East Asia, monitoring of both background and pollution from the surrounding regions is possible, thus ideal for monitoring methane emissions in East Asia. To facilitate high-quality continuous measurements, an automated measurement system with a GC-FID has been created and tested at Seoul National University. Identification of the dominant CH4 emission sources could be better understood by analyzing correlation with other anthropogenically and biogenically emitted compounds such as CO (important indicator for fossil fuel burning) and chlorinated compounds (emitted from biomass burning and the use of coal). Advanced air mass transport modeling will also be used to analyze different emission patterns by region.

  17. Development of Source-Receptor matrix over South Korea in support of GAINS-Korea model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, K. C.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, H. K.; Lee, Y. M.; Kim, Y.; Heyes, C.; Lee, J. B.; Song, C. K.; Han, J.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive and combined analysis of air pollution and climate change could reveal important synergies of emission control measures, which could be of high policy relevance. IIASA's GAINS model (The Greenhouse gas - Air pollution Interactions and Synergies) has been developed as a tool to identify emission control strategies that achieve given targets on air quality and greenhouse gas emissions at least costs. The GAINS-Korea Model, which is being jointly developed by Konkuk University and IIASA, should play an important role in understanding the impact of air quality improvements across the regions in Korea. Source-Receptor relationships (S-R) is an useful methodology in air pollution studies to determine the areas of origin of chemical compounds at receptor point, and thus be able to target actions to reduce pollutions. The GAINS model can assess the impact of emission reductions of sources on air quality in receptor regions based on S-R matrix, derived from chemical transport model. In order to develop S-R matrix for GAINS-Korea, the CAMx model with PSAT/OSAT tools was applied in this study. The coarse domain covers East Asia, and a nesting domain as main research area was used for Korea peninsula. To evaluate of S-R relationships, a modeling domain is divided into sixteen regions over South Korea with three outside of S. Korea countries (China, N. Korea and Japan) for estimating transboundary contributions. The results of our analysis will be presented at the conference.

  18. Diet of children under the government-funded meal support program in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sooyoun; Lee, Kiwon; Yoon, Jihyun

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the diet of children under the government-funded meal support program. The 143 children (67 boys and 76 girls) participated in this study among 4(th)-6(th) elementary school students receiving free lunches during the summer vacation of 2007 and living in Gwanak-gu, Seoul, Korea. The subjects consisted of four groups supported by Meal Box Delivery (n = 26), Institutional Foodservice (n = 53), Restaurant Foodservice (n = 27), or Food Delivery (n = 37). A three-day 24-hour dietary recall and a self-administered survey were conducted. In addition, the children's heights and weights were measured. The average energy intake of the children was 1,400 kcal per day, much lower than the Estimated Energy Requirements of the pertinent age groups. The results also showed inadequate intake of all examined nutrients; of particular concern was the extremely low intake of calcium. On average, the children consumed eight dishes and 25 food items per day. The children supported by Meal Box Delivery consumed more various dishes and food items than the other groups. The percentage of children preferring their current meal support method was the highest in those supported by Meal Box Delivery and the lowest in those supported by Food Delivery. We requested 15 children among the 143 children participating in the survey to draw the scene of their lunch time. The drawings of the children supported by Institutional Foodservice showed more positive scenes than the other groups, especially in terms of human aspects. In conclusion, the overall diet of children under the government-funded meal support program was nutritionally inadequate, although the magnitude of the problems tended to differ by the meal support method. The results could be utilized as basic data for policy and programs regarding the government-funded meal support program for children from low-income families. PMID:21286410

  19. Atmospheric mercury at an urban station in Korea across three decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Brown, Richard J. C.; Kwon, Eilhann; Kim, Ik-Soo; Sohn, Jong-Ryeul

    2016-04-01

    The concentrations of total gaseous mercury (TGM) over three decades (1987-2013) were monitored at an urban station at Yan San (YS), Seoul, Korea. The results were examined by considering the prominent patterns in observed concentrations during periods where data were available: [1] period I (P1) = Sep. 1987 to Oct. 1988, [2] period II (P2) = Sep. 1999 to Jul. 2000, [3] period III (P3) = Jan. 2004 to Dec. 2011, and [4] period IV (P4) = Jan. 2012 to Dec. 2013. The data in this study indicate that the concentrations of TGM decreased abruptly from P1 (∼15 ng m-3) to P2 (∼5 ng m-3). Then, during the most of P3 (i.e., from 2004 to 2011), the annual mean values were nearly constant and their concentrations were in the range 3-4 ng m-3. The mean values then decreased to ∼2 ng m-3 in P4. Hg levels in the late 1980s reflect the dominant role of major man-made source processes (e.g., unabated combustion of much dirtier fossil fuels). Unlike the earlier Hg monitoring data, the concentrations of Hg in recent periods could be attributed to a shift from coal to kerosene and natural gas in urban areas and to more stringent emissions regulations and cleaner fuels. It is unclear currently whether the latest and lowest concentrations measured during in P4 will be maintained during upcoming years, although they seem to reflect the direct impact of air quality control efforts since the 1980s.

  20. Awareness of cervical cancer prevention among mothers of adolescent daughters in Korea: qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hae Won; Kim, Duck Hee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Korean adolescent girls are unprepared for cervical cancer prevention due to the lack of a mandatory policy regarding human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination and school health education regarding cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine how aware mothers are about cervical cancer prevention in their adolescent daughters, with a view to developing strategies for expanding primary cervical cancer prevention for adolescent girls through the mothers’ involvement. Design A qualitative design was employed. Nine mothers with adolescent daughters participated in this study and were interviewed using open-ended questions. The themes were extracted by content analysis. Setting A general living area in Seoul, South Korea. Participants The snowball method was used to select mothers. Results Five themes emerged. In general, the mothers’ awareness of cervical cancer was not clear, and they exhibited a lack of awareness of the importance of having a regular Papanicolaou screening test. The mothers recognised that they were role models for their daughters, and realised and accepted the necessity of educating their daughters regarding cervical cancer; however, they perceived barriers related to the prevention of cervical cancer in their daughters. The mothers recommended enforcing sex education in schools and the provision of financial support for HPV vaccination. Conclusions The mothers’ awareness and preparedness with respect to the prevention of cervical cancer in their adolescent daughters were low and inadequate. Mothers should be informed and motivated to play a role in the education of their daughters regarding cervical cancer prevention. Strategies for disseminating information regarding early cervical cancer prevention for adolescent girls are recommended by communicating with both the girls and their mothers and providing them with education regarding cervical cancer prevention. PMID:25976761

  1. Level of radiation dose in university hospital noninsured private health screening programs in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to evaluate radiation exposure resulting from the comprehensive health examinations of selected university hospital programs and to present basic data for research and management strategies on the health effects of medical radiation exposure. Methods Radiation-based diagnostic studies of the comprehensive health examination programs of ten university hospitals in Seoul, Korea, as introduced in their websites, were analyzed. The medical radiation studies of the programs were reviewed by radiologists. Only the effective doses of the basic studies were included in the analysis. The optional studies of the programs were excluded. Results Among the 190 comprehensive health examination programs, 132 programs (69.5%) included computed tomography studies, with an average of 1.4 scans. The average effective dose of radiation by program was 3.62 mSv for an intensive program for specific diseases; 11.12 mSv for an intensive program for cancer; 18.14 mSv for a premium program; and 24.08 mSv for an overnight program. A higher cost of a programs was linked to a higher effective dose (r=0.812). The effective doses of the examination programs for the same purposes differed by as much as 2.1 times by hospital. Inclusion of positron emission tomography–computed tomography was the most critical factor in determining the level of effective dose. Conclusions It was found that radiation exposure dose from comprehensive health exam programs targeted for an asymptomatic, healthy public reached between 3.6 and 24 times the annual dose limit for the general public. Relevant management policies at the national level should be provided to minimize medical radiation exposure. PMID:27032387

  2. Etiologic and immunologic characteristics of thoroughbred horses with bacterial infectious upper respiratory disease at the Seoul Race Park.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Seung-Ho; Koo, Hye Cheong; Park, Young Kyung; Kim, Jun Man; Jung, Woo Kyung; Davis, William C; Park, Yong Ho; Lee, Chang-Woo

    2009-09-01

    Equine respiratory disease is a common cause of poor performance and training interruptions. The higher incidence rate of infectious upper respiratory disease (IURD) in thoroughbred racehorses at the Seoul Race Park coincided with the frequent stabling season, shorter stabling periods, and younger ages in this study. Incidence rates were also correlated with significantly lower proportions of cells expressing MHC class II-, CD2 antigen-, CD4+- or CD8+-T lymphocyte-, and B lymphocyte in IURD patients compared with healthy control groups in the summer and fall and in 2-and-3-year-old groups. The data suggested that movement and new environments may have resulted in immunosuppression and inappropriate responses to respiratory pathogens in IURD patients. The IURD incidence decreased with age, perhaps by the acquisition of immunity, and study results suggested that immunologic protection was associated with IURD, particularly in young thoroughbred racehorses. Streptococci isolates were identified in 11 of 72 IURD horses, and 3 of these isolates were identified as Streptococcus. equi subsp. equi. S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus was isolated from 2 of 23 IURD horses in the spring (8.7%), 5 of 23 in the summer (21.7%), and 1 of 6 in winter (16.7%). S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus (5%) was also identified in 3 of 61 isolates from clinically normal horses. Racetracks should implement anti-IURD protective measures by assessing the capacity of equine immunologic protection at the Park and by limiting the introduction of specific respiratory pathogens (such as S. equi subsp. equi) by preventing the access of infected horses with a respiratory pathogen-free certification system prior to Park entry. PMID:19809264

  3. Accuracy of Korean-Mini-Mental Status Examination Based on Seoul Neuro-Psychological Screening Battery II Results

    PubMed Central

    Kang, In-Woong; Beom, In-Gyu; Cho, Ji-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Background The Korean-Mini-Mental Status Examination (K-MMSE) is a dementia-screening test that can be easily applied in both community and clinical settings. However, in 20% to 30% of cases, the K-MMSE produces a false negative response. This suggests that it is necessary to evaluate the accuracy of K-MMSE as a screening test for dementia, which can be achieved through comparison of K-MMSE and Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery (SNSB)-II results. Methods The study included 713 subjects (male 534, female 179; mean age, 69.3±6.9 years). All subjects were assessed using K-MMSE and SNSB-II tests, the results of which were divided into normal and abnormal in 15 percentile standards. Results The sensitivity of the K-MMSE was 48.7%, with a specificity of 89.9%. The incidence of false positive and negative results totaled 10.1% and 51.2%, respectively. In addition, the positive predictive value of the K-MMSE was 87.1%, while the negative predictive value was 55.6%. The false-negative group showed cognitive impairments in regions of memory and executive function. Subsequently, in the false-positive group, subjects demonstrated reduced performance in memory recall, time orientation, attention, and calculation of K-MMSE items. Conclusion The results obtained in the study suggest that cognitive function might still be impaired even if an individual obtained a normal score on the K-MMSE. If the K-MMSE is combined with tests of memory or executive function, the accuracy of dementia diagnosis could be greatly improved. PMID:27274389

  4. The characteristics of drought occurrence in North Korea and its comparison with drought in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bo-Ra; Oh, Su-Bin; Byun, Hi-Ryong

    2015-07-01

    The characteristics of the drought occurrence in North Korea over a period of 56 years (1952-2007) were analyzed by region, compared with those of South Korea, and graphed as a drought map for easy detection of the drought's history. To assess them, the Effective Drought Index (EDI), which was calculated from the daily precipitation data for 109 grids of the Korean Peninsula, was used. The daily precipitation data were extracted from the Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE). The characteristics of the drought occurrence in North Korea were summed up in the following five points. First, North Korea was divided into four drought sub-regions: the Northeastern region (G1), the Northern region (G2), the Central region (G3), and the Southern region (G4). Second, droughts occurred most frequently in G1 (28) and G4 (28 events) and least frequently in G3 (15 events). Third, in all sub-regions, short-term droughts lasting less than 100 days were the most frequent (53 % or higher) and the longest drought lasted 2,911 days (June 30, 1973 to June 20, 1981), which occurred in G3. Fourth, short-term droughts occurred mainly in spring, mid-term droughts (100-500 days) in spring and summer, and long-term droughts (over 500 days) in summer. Fifth, a dry period (monthly mean EDI <0) appeared in all sub-regions between 1973 and 1981 and between 1990 and 1993, and a strong negative precipitation anomaly appeared during each of these periods. When compared to the droughts in South Korea, those in North Korea were less frequent, but the mean duration was longer. Until 1979, droughts occurred almost at the same time in North Korea as South Korea, but beginning in 1980, the time differences between two regions became larger. Thus, the characteristics of the drought occurrence in North and South Korea differ.

  5. Technical aspects of PACS in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, JongHyo

    2002-05-01

    Korea is one of the fastest growing countries in the number of filmless hospitals. More than 70 hospitals have converted to filmless environments by adopting full PAC systems during the last two years. The patient care environment in Korean hospitals was not favorable to PACS implementation. In many out patient clinics, doctors had to see more than hundred patients a day. It was not rare for a radiologist to read several hundred of exams a day. Also, the PACS teams were mandated to acquire full scale PACS capable of incorporating not only radiological images but also color images produced in other imaging departments. In order to take root in Korean environment, the PACS in Korea had to pass through some technical modifications that included introduction of recent hardware technologies and development of new software features. This paper describes various technical aspects of PAC systems in Korea that have met difficult requirements and enabled wide spread of PAC systems to real clinical practice.

  6. Recent meteorite falls in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Kim, M.; Byun, Y.; Yi, H.; Chang, S.; Choi, J.; Sohn, J.; Moon, H.; Park, J.

    2014-07-01

    In the evening of March 9, 2014, a fireball falling from north to south was observed in South Korea. Multiple explosions were heard and multiple videos recorded in cars from various places, suggesting that the fireball was separated into several pieces. Immediately thereafter, a series of discovery reports about meteorites from the southern part of South Korea followed and, as of today, three meteorites were confirmed and one meteorite, with a mass of about 20 kg, is pending. This discovery of a meteorite in South Korea occurs for the first time in 70 years. The overall trajectory of the fireball matches the area where meteorites were discovered. According to the preliminary analyses, the meteorite is an ordinary chondrite. The origin of the meteorite and its surface properties will be studied.

  7. HEP Data Grid Applications in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Kihyeon; Oh, Youngdo; Son, Dongchul; Kim, Bockjoo; Lee, Sangsan

    2003-04-01

    We will introduce the national HEP Data Grid applications in Korea. Through a five-year HEP Data Grid project (2002-2006) for CMS, AMS, CDF, PHENIX, K2K and Belle experiments in Korea, the Center for High Energy Physics, Kyungpook National University in Korea will construct the 1,000 PC cluster and related storage system such as 1,200 TByte Raid disk system. This project includes one of the master plan to construct Asia Regional Data Center by 2006 for the CMS and AMS Experiments and DCAF(DeCentralized Analysis Farm) for the CDF Experiments. During the first year of the project, we have constructed a cluster of around 200 CPU's with a 50 TBytes of a storage system. We will present our first year's experience of the software and hardware applications for HEP Data Grid of EDG and SAM Grid testbeds.

  8. Epidemiological characteristics of ovarian cancer in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Boyoung; Park, Sohee; Kim, Tae-Joong; Ma, Seung Hyun; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Kim, Yong-Man; Kim, Jae Weon; Kang, Sokbom; Kim, Jaehoon; Kim, Tae Jin; Yoo, Keun-Young

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to examine recent trends in ovarian cancer incidence and mortality and secular trends in demographic factors in Korea. Methods With the data from Korea Central Cancer Registry, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Korean Death Registry, and World Health Organization's Statistical Information System, we calculated age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for ovarian cancer. Also we estimated future incidence of ovarian and cervical cancer using linear regression model. To assess the demographic trend, data from national surveys in Korea or results from published papers were searched. Results Ovarian cancer incidence rate was similar to that in women worldwide but lower than those in Western countries, and the trend has been increased steadily. Ovarian cancer-related mortality rates have been increasing in Korea, even though those in western and some Asian countries, such as China, have been decreasing. Age-specific incidence rate and mortality rate showed steep increases with advancing age. The incidence rate of ovarian cancer was estimated to surpass that of uterine cervix cancer in 2015. Korea showed rapid changes in nutritional, reproductive, and anthropometric factors. Conclusion These recent trends in ovarian cancer incidence and mortality may be partly attributed to gradual westernizing of life styles and to changes in socio-demographic behavior factors. In particular, the increasing trend in ovarian cancer mortality in Korea may be attributed to a real rise in mortality as well as, in part, a decline in misclassification bias related to an increase in the proportion of deaths confirmed by physician diagnosis. PMID:21278886

  9. English Immersion and Educational Inequality in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Mihyon

    2012-01-01

    This article explores what immersion English education means in South Korea (henceforth Korea) and examines various related educational practices. The proposal for English immersion from the Presidential Transition Committee of the Lee administration in early 2008 has highlighted immersion education in Korea. Ironically, since the committee's…

  10. Korea: Balancing Economic Growth and Social Protection for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Population aging in Korea is projected to be the most rapid among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries between 2000 and 2050. However, social spending in Korea remains low, reflecting Korea's relatively young population, limited health and long-term care insurance coverage, and immaturity of its pension system.…

  11. 75 FR 53711 - Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film From Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Department of Commerce (Commerce) issued an antidumping duty order on imports of PET film from Korea (56 FR..., Commerce issued a continuation of the antidumping duty order on imports of PET film from Korea (65 FR 11984... issued a continuation of the antidumping duty order on imports of PET film from Korea (70 FR 61118)....

  12. Brain Korea 21 Phase II: A New Evaluation Model. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seong, Somi; Popper, Steven W.; Goldman, Charles A.; Evans, David K.

    2008-01-01

    In the late 1990s, the Korea Ministry of Education and Human Resources, in response to concern over the relatively low standing of the nation's universities and researchers, launched the Brain Korea 21 program BK21). BK21 seeks to make Korean research universities globally competitive and to produce more high-quality researchers in Korea. It…

  13. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all...

  14. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all...

  15. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all...

  16. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all...

  17. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all...

  18. The association of alcohol drinking pattern and self-inflicted intentional injury in Korea: a cross-sectional WHO collaborative emergency room study

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Sungsoo; Reid, Easton A; Yun, Mieun

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Self-inflicted intentional injuries are increasing at an alarming rate in the Republic of Korea, yet few reports describe their relationship with alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to characterise the association of alcohol drinking patterns and self-inflicted intentional injury in Korean emergency departments (EDs) using WHO collaborative study protocol. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Data were collected from four general hospital EDs in four geographically diverse regions of Korea: Seoul, Suwon, Chuncheon and Gwangju. Participants Information was collected on 1989 patients aged 18 and above. A representative probability sample was drawn from patients admitted to each ED for the first time within 6 h of injury. Primary and secondary outcome measures Alcohol-related non-fatal injuries. Results Among 467 persons with alcohol-related injuries, 33 (7.1%), were self-inflicted intentional injuries and 137 (29.3%) were intentional injuries caused by someone else. The adjusted odds of self-inflicted intentional injury verses unintentional injury were calculated for heavy (OR 1.764; 95% CI 0.783 to 3.976), binge (OR 2.125; 95% CI 0.930 to 4.858) and moderate drinking (OR 3.039; 95% CI 1.129 to 8.178) after controlling for demographic variables. Similar odds were reported for pooled intentional injury data (self-inflicted and caused by someone else) and drinking patterns. Conclusions These data show a strong association between all patterns of acute alcohol consumption and self-inflicted intentional injury in the Republic of Korea. PMID:23633416

  19. Practical Treatments for Constipation in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung-Sik; Park, Moo-In; Shin, Jeong-Eun; Jung, Kee-Wook; Kim, Seong-Eun; Lee, Tae-Hee; Koo, Hoon-Sup

    2012-01-01

    Constipation is a digestive symptom that is frequently seen in clinical practice. Its prevalence has been reported to be 2% to 20%, depending on geographical region. Despite the rapid development of medical science, systematic studies on constipation have been rarely conducted in Korea. Recently, guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders, including constipation, were proposed by The Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. These guidelines are expected to reflect the current situation regarding treatment of constipation in Korea. In this paper, practical constipation treatment methods that are in current use will be reviewed with reference to these recent guidelines. PMID:23019388

  20. Application of satellite infrared data for mapping of thermal plume contamination in coastal ecosystem of Korea.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yu-Hwan; Shanmugam, Palanisamy; Lee, Jae-Hak; Kang, Yong Q

    2006-03-01

    The 5900 MW Younggwang nuclear power station on the west coast of Korea discharges warm water affecting coastal ecology [KORDI report (2003). Wide area observation of the impact of the operation of Younggwang nuclear power plant 5 and 6, No. BSPI 319-00-1426-3, KORDI, Seoul, Korea]. Here the spatial and temporal characteristics of the thermal plume signature of warm water are reported from a time series (1985-2003) of space-borne, thermal infrared data from Landsat and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellites. Sea surface temperature (SST) were characterized using advanced very high resolution radiometer data from the NOAA satellites. These data demonstrated the general pattern and extension of the thermal plume signature in the Younggwang coastal areas. In contrast, the analysis of SST from thematic mapper data using the Landsat-5 and 7 satellites provided enhanced information about the plume shape, dimension and direction of dispersion in these waters. The thermal plume signature was detected from 70 to 100 km to the south of the discharge during the summer monsoon and 50 to 70 km to the northwest during the winter monsoon. The mean detected plume temperature was 28 degrees C in summer and 12 degrees C in winter. The DeltaT varied from 2 to 4 degrees C in winter and 2 degrees C in summer. These values are lower than the re-circulating water temperature (6-9 degrees C). In addition the temperature difference between tidal flats and offshore (SSTtidal flats - SSToffsore) was found to vary from 5.4 to 8.5 degrees C during the flood tides and 3.5 degrees C during the ebb tide. The data also suggest that water heated by direct solar radiation on the tidal flats during the flood tides might have been transported offshore during the ebb tide. Based on these results we suggest that there is an urgent need to protect the health of Younggwang coastal marine ecosystem from the severe thermal impact by the large quantity of warm water discharged from

  1. Do parents prefer sons in North Korea?

    PubMed

    Goodkind, D

    1999-09-01

    Son preference in South Korea is stronger than anywhere else in the world, yet little is known about such preference in North Korea. Simple indicators of son preference in North Korea are constructed from its 1993 population census and a 1998 survey of child nutrition (conducted in the wake of the recent famine). These indicators include sex ratio at birth, sex ratios of infant and child mortality, and sex ratios of child malnutrition. North Koreans do not evince prenatal discrimination against daughters, a finding that may indicate a lack of prenatal sex-testing technologies. Neither is evidence found of excess female mortality or malnutrition in the postnatal period, during which discrimination requires no special technology. The discrepancy in son preference across the Korean peninsula seems due largely to the socialist agenda pursued in the north following political partition after World War II. An important aspect of that agenda challenged the ancient Confucian ideology presumed to underlie son preference. Apparently, this challenge was more successful in North Korea than in other Asian societies instituting similar political changes, because son preference was not eliminated in China or in Vietnam. PMID:10546312

  2. The Quality of Life in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Chong-Min

    2009-01-01

    The AsiaBarometer survey of 1,023 respondents shows Life in Korea is highly modernized and digitalized without being much globalized. Despite the modernization and digitalization of their lifestyles, ordinary citizens still prioritize materialistic values more than post-materialistic values, and they remain least satisfied in the material life…

  3. Telecommunications and Data Communication in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Moon-Suk

    All facilities of the Ministry of Communications of Korea, which monopolizes telecommunications services in the country, are listed and described. Both domestic facilities, including long-distance telephone and telegraph circuits, and international connections are included. Computer facilities are also listed. The nation's regulatory policies are…

  4. Korea targets leadership role in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Matin

    2013-11-01

    The Republic of Korea has transformed itself over the last 50 years from a nation based primarily on agriculture to a hi-tech industrial powerhouse. But now the country is seeing the importance of investing in fundamental science too, as Matin Durrani reports.

  5. Country Profiles, The Republic of Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Dae Woo; And Others

    A profile of the Republic of Korea is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition,…

  6. OUTLINE OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING IN KOREA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Perth.

    THE POPULATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA WAS 27,184,000 IN 1963. AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION, ADVERSELY AFFECTED BY THE KOREAN WAR, HAS RECEIVED EMPHASIS THROUGH EXPORT PROMOTION, TAX REFORM, AND A STABILIZATION PROGRAM. A 6-YEAR FREE COMPULSORY EDUCATION IS SUPPLEMENTED BY "CIVIC SCHOOLS" AND "HIGHER CIVIC SCHOOLS" FOR ADULTS. PRIMARY…

  7. Childhood Maltreatment in South Korea: Retrospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yanghee; Kim, Sangwon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the prevalence of childhood maltreatment in South Korea using the retrospective version of ICAST and the associations between perceptions of abuse experienced during childhood and recent interpersonal problems and depression. Methods: 539 young persons, aged 18-24 years, from various universities, work places, and…

  8. Collaborative Reasoning in China and Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Ting; Anderson, Richard C.; Kim, Il-Hee; Li, Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Students at two sites in China and one site in Korea engaged in Collaborative Reasoning, an approach to discussion that requires self-management, free participation, and critical thinking. The discontinuity between the usual adult-dominated discourse of Chinese and Korean homes and classrooms and the expected discourse of Collaborative Reasoning…

  9. Ten Years of Infrasound Observation in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hee-Il; Che, Il-Young; Kim, Tae Sung

    2010-05-01

    Over the ten years after the installation of our first seismo-acoustic array station (CHNAR) in September 1999, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) has been continuously observing infrasound with an infrasound array network, named KIN (Korean Infrasound Network) in Korea. This network consists of seven seismo-acoustic arrays (BRDAR, KMPAR, CHNAR, YAGAR, KSGAR, ULDAR and TJIAR). The aperture size of the smallest array (KMPAR and TJIAR) is about 300m and the largest is about 1.4km. The number of acoustic gauges are between 4 (TJIAR) and 18 (YAGAR), and 1 or 5 seismometers are collocated at the center of the acoustic array. All seismic and infrasonic signals of the arrays are digitized at 40 samples/sec and transmitted to KIGAM in real time. Many interesting infrasound signals associated with different kind of anthropogenic source as well as natural one are detected by KIN. Ten years of seismo-acoustic data are analyzed by using PMCC program, and identified more than five thousand of infrasonic events and catalogued in our infrasound database. This database is used to study characteristics of seasonally dependent propagation of the infrasound wave in local scale, as well as to better understand how atmospheric condition affects the detection ratio at a specific station throughout the year. It also played a valuable role in discriminating the anthropogenic events such as the second nuclear test on 25 May 2009 in North Korea, from natural earthquakes, which is important in estimating the seismicity in Korea.

  10. Crisis and Employment: The Case of Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Dongchul; Shin, Sukha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines Korea's employment dynamics and analyzes how adverse impacts could be mitigated during the recent economic crisis in comparison with the 1997 to 1998 Asian crisis. A clear lesson is that policies to mitigate adverse impacts of financial crisis on the macroeconomic level should be given priority for preserving employment. In…

  11. Genetic diversity of Lycoris endemic to Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive taxonomic relationships among Lycoris Herb. (Amaryllidaceae) taxa native to Korea have not been analyzed previously. This study was carried out to investigate the hybrid origin, genetic diversity, and relationships of Lycoris taxa (L. flavescens, L. uydoensis, L. chejuensis, L. chinensis ...

  12. Chemical characteristics of size-resolved aerosols from Asian dust and haze episode in Seoul Metropolitan City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Eunha; Han, Jihyun; Lee, Meehye; Lee, Gangwoong; Kim, Jong Chun

    2013-06-01

    We collected aerosol particles in Seoul using a 10 stage Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) to investigate the size distributions of aerosol mass and water-soluble inorganic ions (Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2 +, Ca2 +, Cl-, NO3-, and SO42 -) for the two high-mass episodes taking place in February and April, 2009. The former was a heavy Asian dust (AD) event and the latter was a haze episode associated with stagnant condition that prevailed over the Yellow Sea region. In AD plume, the mass peak was noticeable at coarse mode between 1.0 and 1.8 μm but SO42 - and NH4+ were enriched in condensation mode between 0.056 and 0.1 μm. There was little chance for the heavy AD plume to pick up SO2 and water vapor, which are in good accordance with its transport paths and the chemical characteristics of aerosols and gaseous species. These results imply that the heterogeneous reaction of SO2 on dust particles would not be substantial in determining sulfate concentrations for this particular type of dust plume, considering the possibility of loss of large soil particles in MOUDI. During the haze episode, both total aerosol mass and water-soluble inorganic ions showed bimodal size distributions with the droplet (0.32-0.56 μm) and coarse (1.0-1.8 μm) mode peaks. In this haze event, acidic gases tend to be dissolved more efficiently in larger particles, shifting the peaks of SO42 - and NO3- to larger droplet particles. For NH4+, however, the mode change was not observed, which was probably due to the depleted source and high solubility of NH3. These results demonstrated that the availability of precursor gases such as SO2, NO2, and NH3, and the water-vapor contents were important factor to determine the formation of droplet-mode particles and their sizes.

  13. Feasibility study of EEW application in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, H.; Park, J.; Sheen, D.

    2008-12-01

    At present, it seems almost impossible to predict where and how much strong a earthquake will happen within very limited time such as two or three days before it occurs. However, the advantage of modern electronic techniques can support us very fast communication tools around nation-wide area so that we can receive P- waves arrival information from seismic stations through communication lines before S-waves strike our living site. This is the key of EEW(Earthquake Early Warning) concept that is under development around world especially including Japan, United State of America, and Taiwan. In this pilot study we proposed the direction for developing Korean Earthquake Early Warning System. Considering the state of the art techniques used in Japan, USA and Taiwan, ElarmS would be more adaptable to Korea since ElarmS can work from the low limit of moderate earthquakes around magnitude 3.5, which would annually happen in Korea. We investigate empirical magnitude scaling relationship for South Korea using 27 events ranging in magnitude from 2.2 to 4.9 recorded by the Korea Institute of Geoscience And Mineral Resources (KIGAM) and the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) for 2007. We measure the maximum predominant period and the peak displacement or velocity amplitude from the first 4 seconds of P wave arrivals to derive period-magnitude and amplitude-magnitude scaling relationship, respectively. For the period-magnitude relationship, we find that 10 Hz low-pass filter yields better estimate than 3 Hz. This is because the magnitudes of most events used in this study are too small (<3.0). It is also shown that peak displacement for velocity instruments and peak velocity for accelerometers have their own magnitude scaling relationships, respectively. Thus, for the amplitude-magnitude relationship, like the relationships in northern California, two individual amplitude scaling relationships would be necessary.

  14. 76 FR 56796 - In the Matter of Certain Devices for Improving Uniformity Used in a Backlight Module and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ..., 20 Yeouido-dong, Yeongdeungpo-gu, Seoul, 150-721, South Korea; LG Electronics, Inc., LG Twin Towers, 20 Yeouido-dong, Yeongdeungpo-gu, Seoul 150-721, South Korea; ] LG Electronics, U.S.A., Inc.,...

  15. Prophylaxis of Human Hydrophobia in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Domestic human hydrophobia has not been reported since the one case of 2004 in South Korea, but still a few animal rabies occur persistently since the reemerging stage of rabies from 1993. The government has made efforts to control animal rabies in many aspects, but whether prophylactic strategy for human hydrophobia is performed adequately is in question. The rate of proper post-exposure prophylaxis for animal bite case in 'high-risk region' of rabies is very low with 20% between 2011 and 2013. The National Animal Bite Patient Surveillance targeting 'high-risk region' is missing out animal bite cases who visit directly to hospitals in 'suspect-risk region' of rabies. Little data seems to exist for pre-exposure prophylaxis of domestic hydrophobia. Danger of reoccurrence of human hydrophobia always remain in South Korea. The medical personnel needs to have greater interest on the matter and the government strengthen the management system. PMID:25298903

  16. Status of photonic network research in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Yong Hyub

    2004-10-01

    Korea is small country but has recently dramatic growth in broadband internet subscribers. At the present of December in 2003, about 73% of total households are internet subscribers. The country is now pursuing new internet highway with faster speed and broadband services for future intelligent internet. The viable research targets are the switching technologies, the access network and convergence network technologies. The optical burst switching will be discussed as the intermediate solution before the coming sophisticated optical packet switching technologies. Another important issue is how we accept diverse service types in future network. There are always dilemmas to choose "optical" or "electrical" for the network in both cost and technology views. The WDM PON-based FTTH and the broadband convergence network (BcN) plans in Korea will also be discussed.

  17. The Fifth Outbreak of Trichinosis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Ji-Young; Hong, Sung-Tae; Lee, Hye-Jung; Seo, Min

    2011-01-01

    Trichinosis is a food-borne zoonotic disease caused by the nematode, Trichinella spp., and had been reported several times in Korea. Recently, there was an additional outbreak, involving 5 patients, the findings from which are reported herein. On 30 November 2010, 8 persons ate sashimi of the meat of a wild boar. Then, 2-3 weeks later, they complained of myalgia and fever. Unfortunately, muscle biopsy was not performed, but ELISA was performed using their sera. Two people among 8 were positive for Trichinella on the 34th day post-infection (PI), and 3 patients who initially revealed negative ELISA were additionally proved to be positive for trichinosis on the 42nd day PI. Hence, the confirmed patients of trichinosis were 5 in total in the present outbreak. They were treated with albendazole and discharged uneventfully. This was the fifth outbreak of trichinosis in Korea. PMID:22355208

  18. Divorce in Korea: Trends and Educational Differentials

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyunjoon; Raymo, James M.

    2012-01-01

    The authors extend comparative research on educational differences in divorce by analyzing data from Korea. A primary motivation was to assess whether the theoretically unexpected negative educational gradient in divorce in Japan is also observed in Korea. Using vital statistics records, for marriages and divorces registered between 1991 and 2006, the authors calculated cumulative probabilities of divorce, by marriage cohort (N = 5,734,577) and educational attainment. The results indicated that the relationship between education and divorce was negative even in the earliest cohort and that this negative gradient has become more pronounced in more recent cohorts. Contrary to expectations, however, little evidence was found that the concentration of divorce at lower levels of education was exacerbated by the Asian economic crisis in the late 1990s. The authors discuss these findings in light of conventional emphases on the costs of divorce and highlight the importance of better understanding this distinctive east Asia pattern of divorce. PMID:23440624

  19. The development of an on-line ERM system for the research reactors in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hee Reyoung; Lee, Wanno; Kim, Eun Han; Choi, Geun Sik; Lee, Chang Woo

    2007-08-01

    A real-time on-line environmental radiation monitoring (ERM) system for the research reactor sites of Daejeon and Seoul is established. In the Daejeon site, a radio communication method with a radiofrequency of 468.8 MHz is used between the main computer and the six posts inside the Daejeon research reactor site. A general telephone communication method by a dial modem is applied between the main computer and a comparison point with one post outside the Daejeon research reactor site. In the Seoul site, a null modem communication method is employed between a sub-computer and the three posts inside the Seoul research reactor site, and a high-speed communication network such as ADSL is used between the sub-computer in the Seoul site and the main computer in the Daejeon site. Consequently, the real-time data from a total of 10 places is displayed on-line on a screen and it is statistically treated.

  20. Sleep in Korea: a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Jeong, D U

    1995-05-01

    Sleep is an ubiquitous phenomenon. It is a developmental product, being subjected to the vicissitudes of human behavior and culture. The author will attempt to elaborate on sleep, sleep disorders, and sleep medicine in Korea from various developmental perspectives (i.e. personal, national and scientific). Korea is a rapidly developing industrialized nation and is now experiencing immense cultural changes which force individuals to change their behavior and value systems. For example, shift working is becoming increasingly popular and early working hours are being adopted by more companies as a measure to win competitions in the international market. In the clinical setting it is observed very easily that patients develop and maintain disturbed sleep-wake rhythm and its consequences. More obstructive sleep apnea, presumably due to obesity, are observed and studied in sleep clinics. The nuclear family system, an inevitable outcome of industrialization, produces some profound difference in sleeping arrangement such as children's earlier separation from parental or grandparental sleeping environment. The question is how these and other industrialization-related changes may affect the incidence and the manifestation of sleep and sleep disorders. In the background there is emerging interest in healthy sleep and sleep disorders, exemplified by increasing coverage of the topics in the mass media and the publication business. Development of sleep medicine/research per se also involves a developmental perspective. Interests in sleep and sleep disorders began sporadically decades ago in Korea and are now actively being organized mainly by the Korean Association of Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology as a unified developing force. Understanding of sleep and of sleep disorders is not complete without in-depth understanding of culture, philosophy, and tradition from developmental perspectives. Traditional ideas and wisdom from the past are the unavoidable resources for further

  1. Tritium production, recovery and application in Korea.

    PubMed

    Son, Soon-Hwan; Lee, Sook-Kyung; Kim, Kwang-Sin

    2009-01-01

    Four CANDU reactors have been operating at the site of Wolsong Nuclear Power Generation in Korea. The Wolsong tritium removal facility was constructed to reduce the tritium levels in heavy water systems. This facility was designed to process 100kg/h of tritiated heavy water feed and to produce 99% pure T(2). This recovered tritium will be made available for commercial applications. The initial phases on the tritium applications are made to establish the infrastructure and the tritium controls. PMID:19307127

  2. Metalimnobia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Metalimnobia Matsumura, 1911 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Metalimnobia (Metalimnobia) channpayna new species, is described and figured, M. (M.) bifasciata (Schrank, 1781), M. (M.) quadrinotata (Meigen, 1818) and M. (M.) zetterstedti (Tjeder, 1968) are listed for the first time in Korea, new information for previously known species, M. (M.) quadrimaculata (Linnaeus, 1760) is added. Identification key for all Korean Metalimnobia species is given. Wings, male and female terminalia are illustrated for all species. PMID:27395675

  3. Development of Korea Operational Oceanographic System (KOOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kwang Soon; Jun, Ki Cheon; Lee, Jong Chan; Kwon, Jae Il; Cho, Kyung Ho; Choi, Jung Woon; Kim, Sung Dae; Kim, Jin Ah; Kim, Sang Ik; Kim, Yong Ho; Choi, Byung Ju

    2013-04-01

    Korea Operational Oceanographic System (KOOS) is a research project funded by the Minister of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs (MLTM) in Korea and the goal of this project is to develop an integrated operational oceanographic system that will provide nowcasts and forecasts of ocean information around Korean Peninsula to support marine activities for governmental agencies and to mitigate coastal disasters such as storm surge, oil spill, and search and rescue. Since August 2009, KIOST has been leading the project to develop KOOS, which consists of three parts, 1) observing systems, 2) numerical modeling with data management and skill assessment, and 3) practical application systems. In KOOS about 190 real-time coastal/ocean observing platforms such as tidal stations, buoys, off-shore research stations and satellites from various agencies, KIOST, KHOA (Korea Hydrographic and Oceanographic Administration), NFRDI (National Fisheries Research & Development Institute), and KMA (Korea Meteorological Administration) have been used for input data as well as calibration and validation for numerical models. With observing networks, various atmospheric models and ocean models have been set-up and tested. KOOS enables us to forecast tides, waves, storm surges, currents as well as temperature and salinity for 72-hour time period in two time a day. The performance of numerical models is evaluated by the skill assessment system. For practical purposes, KOOS has various application systems such as storm surge, search and rescues, oil spill, and ports and channel prediction system. All ocean information in KOOS is to be presented via web-based GIS, which is an effective tool that is helpful to decision-makers.

  4. Green Chemistry at the present in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Kyu; Park, Hyeon-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Despite the great contribution made by chemical substances to the development of modern civilization, their indiscriminate use has caused various kinds of damage to the global environment and human beings. Accordingly, the major developed countries and international society have tried to ensure the safe use of chemicals and a reduction in the use of hazardous chemicals through the establishment of the United Nations Environment Programme and various international agreements. In this reason, we tried to introduce about Green Chemistry progress at the present in worldwide and Korea. Methods We checked and analyzed relative journals, reports using keyword as like Green Chemistry, alternative chemicals, eco-friendly etc. and major country’s government homepage search. Results Green Chemistry theory, which argues for the reduction or removal of harmfulness in chemicals throughout their entire life-cycle, has been spreading, and major developed countries, such as the US and Denmark, have developed and operate programs to provide reliable chemical information to help replace hazardous chemicals. Korea has also been conducting studies as like eco-innovation project. Through this project the “Alternative Chemical Search program,” has been developed, distributed, and operated since 2011 to provide reliable information to small and medium-sized businesses that have difficulties collecting information to ensure conformity to international regulations. The program provides information that includes the regulations of major countries and Korea, information on 340 alternative chemicals, 70 application cases, and 1:1 consulting. Conclusions The Alternative Chemical Search program is expected to contribute to the establishment of response systems for regulation of Korean small and medium-sized businesses, and it also will be used to provide basic data for Korean hazardous chemical regulation, together with the Act on the Registration and Evaluation, etc. of

  5. Achievements in and Challenges of Tuberculosis Control in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Han; Yim, Jae-Joon

    2015-11-01

    After the Korean War (1950-1953), nearly 6.5% of South Korea's population had active tuberculosis (TB). In response, South Korea implemented the National Tuberculosis Program in 1962. From 1965 to 1995, the prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB in South Korea decreased from 940 to 219 cases per 100,000 population. Astounding economic growth might have contributed to this result; however, TB incidence in South Korea remains the highest among high-income countries. The rate of decrease in TB incidence seems to have slowed over the past 15 years. A demographic shift toward an older population, many of whom have latent TB and various concurrent conditions, is challenging TB control efforts in South Korea. The increasing number of immigrants also plays a part in the prolonged battle against TB. A historical review of TB in South Korea provides an opportunity to understand national TB control efforts that are applicable to other parts of the world. PMID:26485188

  6. Modeling Flood Risk for South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Y.; Li, S.

    2014-12-01

    Catastrophic flood events have caused significant losses for South Korea each year. It is very important to generate high resolution flood return period map for the government and insurance company to evaluate the flood risk. This research was initiated to achieve this goal. A 2000 year spatial distributed stochastical rainfall was generated by analyzing the historical rainfall of South Korea using principle component analysis. A rainfall-runoff model and a routing model were calibrated by driving the model with historical forcing and calibrated against gauge observations. The calibrated model was used to couple with the stochastical forcing to generate 2000 year discharge and runoff. The flood maps with different return periods were generated by numerically solving the shallow water equations using finite volume method on GPUs. The results of this research showed a reasonable flood map in South Korea, compared with the observed data. Further, this research could be used as an important reference for the government and insurance companies for risk management purpose.

  7. Multi-wavelength polarimetry and variability study of M87 jet during 2003-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avachat, Sayali S.; Perlman, Eric S.; Cara, Mihai; Owen, Frazer N.; Harris, Daniel E.; Sparks, William B.; Li, kunyang; Kosak, Katie; Georganopoulos, Markos

    2016-04-01

    We present the multi-wavelength study of M87’s jet . We compare the radio and optical polarimetry and variability and attempt to study the spectrum of the jet in radio through X-rays wavelengths. By comparing the data with previously published VLA and HST observations, we show that the jet's morphology in total and polarized light is changing significantly on timescales of ~1 decade. We are looking for the variability of different knots and changes in their spectra using our deep, high resolution observations of the jet between 2003 and 2008. The observations have 2-3 times better resolution that any similar previous study (Perlman et al. 1999) in addition allowing us to observe variability. During this time, the nucleus showed month-scale variability in optical and X-rays and also flared twice in all wave- lengths including radio. The knot HST-1, located closest to the nucleus, displayed a huge flare, increasing about 100 times in brightness. The knot A and B complex shows variations in polarization structures indicating the presence of a helical magnetic field which may be responsible for the in-situ particle accelerations in the jet. We compare the evolution of different knots and components of the jet, when our observations overlap with the multi-wavelength monitoring campaigns conducted with HST and Chandra and comment on particle acceleration and main emission processes. We further use the data to investigate the observed 3-dimensional structure of the jet and the magnetic field structure.

  8. [Socioeconomic and geographic constraints to access mammography in Brasil, 2003-2008].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Evangelina Xavier Gouveia; Pinheiro, Rejane Sobrino; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Praates; Carvalho, Marilia Sá

    2011-09-01

    This study examined the effect of population characteristics and geographic location of residences and services on the odds of receiving a mammography in 2003 and 2008. Patterns of mammography use were analyzed using data from the Health Supplements of the National Household Sample Survey for women aged over 25, using prevalence ratios, and for women over 40 using multivariate logistic regression, correcting for complex sample design effects. In 2003, 54.6% of women of 50-69 years of age reported having had a mammography, in 2008, 71.5%. The odds are higher for those 50 to 69 years old, and increase with family income, education, being married, having consulted a doctor and having health insurance. Living in a metropolitan area trebles the chance of mammography. Compared to the Northern region, residents in all other regions have greater odds, greater distances decrease the odds. Coverage increased in the age range targeted by national policy, and inequalities due to income and education on access to mammography were reduced but regional convergence was not marked. Increased access seems to relate more to policies of income distribution and social inclusion, and to the availability of the examination in the Unified Health System, than to an increasing number of mammography units. PMID:21987309

  9. Funding the essentials: the Australian Health Care Agreements, 2003-2008.

    PubMed

    Deeble, John

    2002-01-01

    This editorial reviews a number of papers in a special issue of the Australian Health Review covering the Australian Health Care Agreements to be concluded by June 2003. These include a report on consultations by the Australian Healthcare Association with industry representatives from July-October 2002. For hospitals, the agreements will set the main financial parameters for the next five years. Apart from the quantum of Commonwealth grants, the issues seen as most important involved linkages with primary care providers and aged care facilities, the dominance of inpatient work in current arrangements, workforce planning and public/private sector relationships. The possibility of recent private health insurance changes reducing the sums available for public hospitals was noted. Some estimates are presented of the possible effects of private insurance reform, together with some data from a special AHA survey of public hospital activity this year. PMID:12536854

  10. International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) report, data summary for 2003-2008, issued June 2009.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Victor D; Maki, Dennis G; Jamulitrat, Silom; Medeiros, Eduardo A; Todi, Subhash Kumar; Gomez, David Yepes; Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Abu Khader, Ilham; Miranda Novales, María Guadalupe; Berba, Regina; Ramírez Wong, Fernando Martín; Barkat, Amina; Pino, Osiel Requejo; Dueñas, Lourdes; Mitrev, Zan; Bijie, Hu; Gurskis, Vaidotas; Kanj, S S; Mapp, Trudell; Hidalgo, Rosalía Fernández; Ben Jaballah, Nejla; Raka, Lul; Gikas, Achilleas; Ahmed, Altaf; Thu, Le Thi Anh; Guzmán Siritt, María Eugenia

    2010-03-01

    We report the results of the International Infection Control Consortium (INICC) surveillance study from January 2003 through December 2008 in 173 intensive care units (ICUs) in Latin America, Asia, Africa, and Europe. During the 6-year study, using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) US National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN; formerly the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance system [NNIS]) definitions for device-associated health care-associated infection, we collected prospective data from 155,358 patients hospitalized in the consortium's hospital ICUs for an aggregate of 923,624 days. Although device utilization in the developing countries' ICUs was remarkably similar to that reported from US ICUs in the CDC's NHSN, rates of device-associated nosocomial infection were markedly higher in the ICUs of the INICC hospitals: the pooled rate of central venous catheter (CVC)-associated bloodstream infections (BSI) in the INICC ICUs, 7.6 per 1000 CVC-days, is nearly 3-fold higher than the 2.0 per 1000 CVC-days reported from comparable US ICUs, and the overall rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) was also far higher, 13.6 versus 3.3 per 1000 ventilator-days, respectively, as was the rate of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), 6.3 versus 3.3 per 1000 catheter-days, respectively. Most strikingly, the frequencies of resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolates to methicillin (MRSA) (84.1% vs 56.8%, respectively), Klebsiella pneumoniae to ceftazidime or ceftriaxone (76.1% vs 27.1%, respectively), Acinetobacter baumannii to imipenem (46.3% vs 29.2%, respectively), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to piperacillin (78.0% vs 20.2%, respectively) were also far higher in the consortium's ICUs, and the crude unadjusted excess mortalities of device-related infections ranged from 23.6% (CVC-associated bloodstream infections) to 29.3% (VAP). PMID:20176284

  11. A Longitudinal Study of the CO-OP Upward Bound Program 2003-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Sharmakrenia D.

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal case study examined the effectiveness of the CO-OP Upward Bound Program activities from 2003 through 2008 applying cultural and social capital theories. The program was evaluated in order to give a local perspective to program implementation and operations in a community-based setting. The participant researcher used mixed…

  12. Review of "Graduation Rates for Choice and Public School Students in Milwaukee, 2003-2008"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Casey D.

    2010-01-01

    This review examines a research study that compares high school graduation rates of students who used vouchers to attend private high schools in Milwaukee and students who attended public high schools in that same city. The study reports that for the most recent year of data, a sample of voucher students had estimated graduation rates 12…

  13. The Tail Exponent for Stock Returns in Bursa Malaysia for 2003-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusli, N. H.; Gopir, G.; Usang, M. D.

    2010-07-01

    A developed discipline of econophysics that has been introduced is exhibiting the application of mathematical tools that are usually applied to the physical models for the study of financial models. In this study, an analysis of the time series behavior of several blue chip and penny stock companies in Main Market of Bursa Malaysia has been performed. Generally, the basic quantity being used is the relative price changes or is called the stock price returns, contains daily-sampled data from the beginning of 2003 until the end of 2008, containing 1555 trading days recorded. The aim of this paper is to investigate the tail exponent in tails of the distribution for blue chip stocks and penny stocks financial returns in six years period. By using a standard regression method, it is found that the distribution performed double scaling on the log-log plot of the cumulative probability of the normalized returns. Thus we calculate α for a small scale return as well as large scale return. Based on the result obtained, it is found that the power-law behavior for the probability density functions of the stock price absolute returns P(z)˜z-α with values lying inside and outside the Lévy stable regime with values α>2. All the results were discussed in detail.

  14. District Action Plan 2003-2008: Improving Academic Achievement in Reading, Math and Language Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guam Public School System, 2003

    2003-01-01

    The results of the SAT 9 tests administered to Guam students in grades 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 10, and 11 have consistently indicated below average academic performance in the subjects of reading, math and language arts over the past decade of testing. To ensure that students attain the necessary skills and knowledge in reading, math, and language arts,…

  15. Mass loss of Greenland's glaciers and ice caps 2003-2008 from ICESat data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolch, Tobias; Sandberg Sørensen, Louise; Simonsen, Sebastian B.; Mölg, Nico; Machguth, Horst; Rastner, Philipp; Paul, Frank

    2013-04-01

    The melt water of the glaciers and ice caps (GIC) on Greenland could make a substantial contribution to global sea-level rise during this century. The recently finalized Greenland glacier inventory classified all GIC according to its connectivity to the ice sheet (CL0: no connection, CL1: weak connection, CL2: strong connection). This dataset allowed us for the first time to determine their mass changes separately from the ice sheet using space-borne laser altimetry data from the ICESat GLAS sensor. The accuracy of the altimetry measurements of about ±0.5 m even over rough surfaces along with their small footprint (about 70 m) is making them very suitable to assess elevation changes over GIC. A major challenge with ICESat data is the sparse density of the tracks (horizontal separation is about 30 km in southern and ~10 km in northern Greenland), and the fact that the repeat tracks can be several hundred metres apart. A further challenge is the volume to mass conversion. We extrapolated the elevation changes based on the glacier hypsometry and applied corrections for firn compaction and ice density based on climatic conditions. The Greenland GIC which are clearly separable from the ice-sheet (CL0, CL1) lost 30.1 ± 9.4 Gt a-1 or 0.08 ± 0.026 mm a-1 sea-level equivalent (SLE) between 2003 and 2008. When considering all hydrologically separable GIC (CL0-2, including the Geikie Plateau) the loss is 46.8 ± 13.4 Gt a-1 (0.12 ± 0.038 mm a-1 SLE). This is a significant fraction (about 20%) of the reported overall mass loss of Greenland (including the ice sheet) and up to 10% of the estimated contribution from the world's GIC to global sea-level rise. The mass loss of the GIC is per unit area about 2.5 times higher than for the ice sheet, and marine-terminating glaciers account for about half of the mass loss. The loss was highest in the south-eastern sector and lowest in the northern sector of Greenland.

  16. Erosion of the Barrow Environmental Observatory Coastline 2003-2008, Northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, A.; Brown, J.; Gaylord, A.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2007-12-01

    There is concern that the rate of erosion to Coastal bluffs in the arctic could increase as the duration of ice-free near shore waters also increases. The Barrow Environmental Observatory (BEO,) a coastal research reserve of 7500 acres is bounded on the east by the 11-km long Elson Lagoon shoreline. Rates of erosion to these 2 to 5 m high ice- and organic- rich permafrost bluffs have been monitored at key sites on an annual basis since 2003 as part of the Arctic Coastal Dynamics (ACD) program. Foot surveys using a survey-grade Differential Global Positioning System (DPGS) with centimeter vertical and horizontal accuracy were conducted along the entire length of the BEO coastline in August 2003, 2006 and 2007. The mean erosion rate during the 2003-06 period was 2.69 meters per year. In summer 2007, two DGPS surveys were conducted, one in June before ice breakup and the second in August late in the summer season. The June survey provides a baseline for summer 2007 measurements and will serve to document the rate of erosion between the August 2006 survey and subsequent freeze-up of Elson lagoon during the 2006-07 winter. Detailed characterization of the coastal bluff was also made in summer 2007. At every 100m along the coastal bluff, photographs of the bluff were taken and the steepness of the bluff was measured. Bathymetric measurements were collected using a high-velocity depth sounder along transects parallel and perpendicular to the coastline and up to 2km in to Elson Lagoon. Ongoing analysis is measuring the rate of erosion between each of the measurement periods and estimating the corresponding volumetric loss of bluff soil to Elson Lagoon. We are also identifying in detail, sections of coastline where the rate of erosion is differing and using these to ascertain the relative importance of offshore bathymetry, orientation of the coastline to dominant winds and the physical characteristics of the coastal bluff to the rate of erosion measured. The central goal of this paper is to report and interpret changes in inter-seasonal erosion and to update the record of long-tern erosion measurements for this section of arctic coastline.

  17. The Albert Shanker Institute Five-Year Report, 2003-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert Shanker Institute, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the Albert Shanker Institute's activities over the past five years in the areas of education, labor, and democracy. In the area of education, the Institute has sponsored a wide range of forums, seminars, reports, and other activities that highlight the best thinking and solid research on the most effective ways to improve…

  18. New fossils of Australopithecus anamensis from Kanapoi, West Turkana, Kenya (2003-2008).

    PubMed

    Ward, C V; Manthi, F K; Plavcan, J M

    2013-11-01

    Renewed fieldwork from 2003 through 2008 at the Australopithecus anamensis type-site of Kanapoi, Kenya, yielded nine new fossils attributable to this species. These fossils all date to between 4.195 and 4.108 million years ago. Most were recovered from the lower fluvial sequence at the site, with one from the lacustrine sequence deltaic sands that overlie the lower fluvial deposits but are still below the Kanapoi Tuff. The new specimens include a partial edentulous mandible, partial maxillary dentition, two partial mandibular dentitions, and five isolated teeth. The new Kanapoi hominin fossils increase the sample known from the earliest Australopithecus, and provide new insights into morphology within this taxon. They support the distinctiveness of the early A. anamensis fossils relative to earlier hominins and to the later Australopithecus afarensis. The new fossils do not appreciably extend the range of observed variation in A. anamensis from Kanapoi, with the exception of some slightly larger molars, and a canine tooth root that is the largest in the hominin fossil record. All of the Kanapoi hominins share a distinctive morphology of the canine-premolar complex, typical early hominin low canine crowns but with mesiodistally longer honing teeth than seen in A. afarensis, and large, probably dimorphic, canine tooth roots. The new Kanapoi specimens support the observation that canine crown height, morphology, root size and dimorphism were not altered from a primitive ape-like condition as part of a single event in human evolution, and that there may have been an adaptive difference in canine function between A. anamensis and A. afarensis. PMID:23998457

  19. 77 FR 39319 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Korea Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Korea Environmental Cooperation... the first United States--Korea Environmental Cooperation Work Program. SUMMARY: The Department invites... for implementing the United States--Korea Environmental Cooperation Agreement, which entered...

  20. 77 FR 33181 - Large Residential Washers From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... Washers From the Republic of Korea: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigation, 77 FR 4279 (January... Korea: Postponement of Preliminary Determination in the Countervailing Duty Investigation, 77 FR 13559... Korea: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination, 77 FR 17410 (March 26, 2012)...

  1. The first korean doctor of medicine in ophthalmology: early career of Kong pyung woo (1907-1995) as an unusual example of medical profession in colonial Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Ho

    2013-12-01

    This article traces early career of Kong Pyung Woo, a public figure famous for being the first doctor of medicine in ophthalmology with Korean ethnicity in 1936, for founding and running the oldest and still the most successful private eye clinic in Korea since 1937, and also for his engagement in development of Korean mechanical typewriter since 1949. His case is an illustrative example of how a Korean under the Japanese colonial rule (1910-1945) could build up a career to become a medical doctor, taking full advantage of the chances available. Kong, born in 1907 in a rural province in northwestern Korea, acquired a doctor's license in 1926 by passing the qualifying examination of the Government General in Korea. The qualification test was in itself an outcome of colonial education system, in which the supply of medical doctors by only a few tertiary schools could not meet the demands. After working for a state hospital for one year, Kong volunteered to be a visiting student at Keijo Medical College, to fulfill his dream of "becoming a prominent bacteriologist like Noguchi Hideyo." He was soon officially appointed as a tutor at Department of Ophthalmology, as he had been endorsed by professor Satake Shyuichi for his diligence and earnestness. Satake also encouraged Kong to pursue a doctoral degree and recommended him to Tokumitsu Yoshitomi, a professor in the Department of Pathology at Keijo Imperial University, so that Kong could experience cutting-edge research at the imperial university. Kong reported on his experiments on the pathology of chorioretinitis centralis by 1935. He submitted the reports to Nagoya Imperial University, Japan, as a doctoral thesis, and eventually obtained the degree in 1936, which was the first Korean doctor of medicine in ophthalmology. The doctorate made Kong a public figure and he opened his own private clinic in 1937. The Kong Eye Clinic was the first private eye clinic owned and run by Korean, and soon became popular in Seoul

  2. From Seoul to GHCN Stations in Seeking Solar Cycle Effects on Temporal Variability in the Time Series of Annual Amounts of Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, G.; Suh, A.

    2013-12-01

    We know that the time series of annual amounts of precipitation resembles white-noise processes. Accordingly, the power spectrum of precipitation does not show any notable peak in general, or it is not easy to point out any significant cyclic component of variation in the time series of annual amounts of precipitation. The feeble inter-annual variation of precipitation is vividly in contrast with the diurnal, semidiurnal, and seasonal variation of precipitation. There are scant comments about the solar variations possible effects on the climate of the earth, especially on the rainfall amounts. The conclusion is rather foggy because of probable extremely weak solar variation or by the strong randomness inherent in the time series of the annual amounts. In previous studies, most of them dealt with time series analysis for a very limited area of confined number of the station in a given region. Naturally the results are pretty dependent on the local characteristic of precipitation processes. And also we must accept the probable weakness of the responses of precipitation to the intrinsically weak solar variation. Such weakness is the main motivation of neglecting any relation of sun and climate in general. The argument is quite a bit reasonable if we do not anticipate nonlinear process of atmosphere and feedback mechanisms working in the atmospheric motions. A while ago, we examined Seoul's rainfall by attracted with its record length and good quality for our purposes of any solar signals on precipitation. Notable features are that a statistically robust 11 years coefficient in its autocorrelation function and statistically non-negligible suppression of 11 year period frequency power instead of no expected peak of 11 year periodicity. The fact seems to contradict the general relationship between the autocorrelation function and the corresponding power spectrum. For a reasonable explanation of the feature, we must admit the importance of solar cycles and its probable

  3. Estimation of surface PM10 concentration in Seoul during the DRAGON-Asia campaign based on the physical relationship between AOD and PM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, S.; Kim, J.; Lee, H.; Jeong, U.; Kim, W. V.; Holben, B. N.; Kim, S.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are known to play a role in climate change while it also adverse effects on human health such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Especially, in terms of air quality, many studies have been conducted to estimate surface-level particulate matter (PM) concentration by using the satellite measurements to overcome the spatial limitation of ground-based aerosol measurements. In this study, we investigate the relationship between the column aerosol optical depth (AOD) and the surface PM10 concentration using the aerosol measurements during the DRAGON (Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Network) - Asia campaign took place in Seoul from March to May, 2012. Based on the physical relationship between AOD and PM concentration, we develop various empirical linear models and evaluate the performance of these models. The best correlation (r = 0.67) is shown when vertical and size distribution of aerosols are additionally considered by using the boundary layer height (BLH) from backscattered lidar signals and the effective radius provided in AERONET inversion products. Similarly, MODIS AOD divided by BLH shows the best correlation with hourly PM10 (r = 0.62). We also identify the variability of correlations between AOD and PM10 depending on the environment characteristics in a complex megacity, Seoul by using the aerosol optical properties measured at mesoscale-level at 10 AERONET sites during the DRAGON campaign. Both AERONET and MODIS show higher correlation in residential area than near source area. Finally, we investigate the seasonal effects on the performance of various empirical linear models and find important factors of each season in PM estimation.

  4. Psychometric Properties of a Short Self-Reported Measure of Medication Adherence Among Patients With Hypertension Treated in a Busy Clinical Setting in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeung-Hee; Lee, Weon-Young; Hong, Yeon-Pyo; Ryu, Wang-Seong; Lee, Kwang Je; Lee, Wang-Soo; Morisky, Donald E.

    2014-01-01

    Background We examined the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) among adults with hypertension. Methods A total of 373 adults with hypertension were given face-to-face interviews in 2 cardiology clinics at 2 large teaching hospitals in Seoul, South Korea. Blood pressure was measured twice, and medical records were reviewed. About one-third of the participants (n = 109) were randomly selected for a 2-week test-retest evaluation of reliability via telephone interview. Results Internal consistency reliability was moderate (Cronbach α = 0.56), and test-retest reliability was excellent (intraclass correlation = 0.91; P < 0.001), although a ceiling effect was detected. The correlation of MMAS-8 scores with scores for the original 4-item scale indicated that convergent validity was good (r = 0.92; P < 0.01). A low MMAS-8 score was significantly associated with poor blood pressure control (χ2 = 29.86; P < 0.001; adjusted odds ratio = 5.08; 95% CI, 2.56–10.08). Using a cut-off point of 6, sensitivity and specificity were 64.3% and 72.9%, respectively. Exploratory factor analysis identified 3 dimensions of the scale, with poor fit for the 1-dimensional construct using confirmatory factory analysis. Conclusions The MMAS-8 had satisfactory reliability and validity and thus might be suitable for assessment and counseling regarding medication adherence among adults with hypertension in a busy clinical setting in Korea. PMID:24463958

  5. The first private-hospital based proton therapy center in Korea; status of the Proton Therapy Center at Samsung Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kwangzoo; Kim, Jinsung; Ahn, Sung Hwan; Ju, Sang Gyu; Jung, Sang Hoon; Chung, Yoonsun; Cho, Sungkoo; Jo, Kwanghyun; Shin, Eun Hyuk; Hong, Chae-Seon; Shin, Jung Suk; Park, Seyjoon; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Kim, Hye Young; Lee, Boram; Shibagaki, Gantaro; Nonaka, Hideki; Sasai, Kenzo; Koyabu, Yukio; Choi, Changhoon; Huh, Seung Jae; Ahn, Yong Chan; Pyo, Hong Ryull; Lim, Do Hoon; Park, Hee Chul; Park, Won; Oh, Dong Ryul; Noh, Jae Myung; Yu, Jeong Il; Song, Sanghyuk; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Bomi; Choi, Doo Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this report is to describe the proton therapy system at Samsung Medical Center (SMC-PTS) including the proton beam generator, irradiation system, patient positioning system, patient position verification system, respiratory gating system, and operating and safety control system, and review the current status of the SMC-PTS. Materials and Methods The SMC-PTS has a cyclotron (230 MeV) and two treatment rooms: one treatment room is equipped with a multi-purpose nozzle and the other treatment room is equipped with a dedicated pencil beam scanning nozzle. The proton beam generator including the cyclotron and the energy selection system can lower the energy of protons down to 70 MeV from the maximum 230 MeV. Results The multi-purpose nozzle can deliver both wobbling proton beam and active scanning proton beam, and a multi-leaf collimator has been installed in the downstream of the nozzle. The dedicated scanning nozzle can deliver active scanning proton beam with a helium gas filled pipe minimizing unnecessary interactions with the air in the beam path. The equipment was provided by Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd., RayStation from RaySearch Laboratories AB is the selected treatment planning system, and data management will be handled by the MOSAIQ system from Elekta AB. Conclusion The SMC-PTS located in Seoul, Korea, is scheduled to begin treating cancer patients in 2015. PMID:26756034

  6. Comparison of the Microsatellite and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Methods for Discriminating among Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle), Imported, and Crossbred Beef in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Eun-Jeong; Seo, Kun-Ho; Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Young-Jo; Park, Hyun-Jung

    2014-01-01

    The identity of 45 Hanwo and 47 imported beef (non-Hanwoo) samples from USA and Australia were verified using the microsatellite (MS) marker and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) methods. Samples were collected from 19 supermarkets located in the city of Seoul and Gyeonggi province, South Korea, from 2009 to 2011. As a result, we obtained a 100% concordance rate between the MS and SNP methods for identifying Hanwoo and non-Hanwoo beef. The MS method presented a 95% higher individual discriminating value for Hanwoo (97.8%) than for non-Hanwoo (61.7%) beef. For further comparison of the MS and SNP methods, blood samples were collected and tested from 54 Hanwoo × Holstein crossbred cattle (first, second, and third generations). By using the SNP and MS methods, we correctly identified all of the first-generation crossbred cattle as non-Hanwoo; in addition, among the second and third generation crossbreds, the ratio identified as Hanwoo was 20% and 10%, respectively. The MS method used in our study provides more information, but requires sophisticated techniques during each experimental process. By contrast, the SNP method is simple and has a lower error rate. Our results suggest that the MS and SNP methods are useful for discriminating Hanwoo from non-Hanwoo breeds. PMID:26761672

  7. A Six-Year Study on the Changes in Airborne Pollen Counts and Skin Positivity Rates in Korea: 2008–2013

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye Jung; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Park, Kyung Hee; Kim, Kyu Rang; Han, Mae Ja; Choe, Hosoeng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The occurrence of pollen allergy is subject to exposure to pollen, which shows regional and temporal variations. We evaluated the changes in pollen counts and skin positivity rates for 6 years, and explored the correlation between their annual rates of change. Materials and Methods We assessed the number of pollen grains collected in Seoul, and retrospectively reviewed the results of 4442 skin-prick tests conducted at the Severance Hospital Allergy-Asthma Clinic from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2013. Results For 6 years, the mean monthly total pollen count showed two peaks, one in May and the other in September. Pollen count for grasses also showed the same trend. The pollen counts for trees, grasses, and weeds changed annually, but the changes were not significant. The annual skin positivity rates in response to pollen from grasses and weeds increased significantly over the 6 years. Among trees, the skin positivity rates in response to pollen from walnut, popular, elm, and alder significantly increased over the 6 years. Further, there was a significant correlation between the annual rate of change in pollen count and the rate of change in skin positivity rate for oak and hop Japanese. Conclusion The pollen counts and skin positivity rates should be monitored, as they have changed annually. Oak and hop Japanese, which showed a significant correlation with the annual rate of change in pollen count and the rate of change in skin positivity rate over the 6 years may be considered the major allergens in Korea. PMID:26996572

  8. School Expansion in North Korea and South Korea: Two Systems, Two Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyangkue

    2001-01-01

    Examines differences in the public-policy objectives and financing of school expansion efforts in North and South Korea. Institutionalizing credentialism and reliance on financing private education dominates South Korean school expansion, while the financing of public schools and greater government control of education dominates North Korean…

  9. Clinico-pathological Analysis of the Lungs from Patients with Lung Transplantation in a Single Institute in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyojin; Jeon, Yoon Kyung; Lee, Hyun Joo; Kim, Young Tae; Chung, Doo Hyun

    2015-10-01

    Recently, the numbers of lung transplantation (LT) has been increased in Korea. However, post-LT outcome has not been successful in all patients, which may be partially affected by the primary lung disease. Therefore comprehensive understanding in original pathological diagnosis of patients with LT would be needed for achieving better clinical outcome. To address this issue, we performed clinico-pathological analysis of the explanted lungs from 29 patients who underwent LT over a 9-yr period in Seoul National University Hospital. Among them, 26 patients received single (1/26) or double (25/26) LT, while heart-lung transplantation was performed in 3 patients. The final clinico-pathological diagnoses were idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) (n = 6), acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP)/diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) (n = 4), AIP/non-specific interstitial pneumonia with DAD (n = 1), collagen vascular disease-related interstitial lung disease (CVD-ILD)/DAD (n = 3), CVD-ILD/UIP (n = 1), lymphangioleiomyomatosis (n = 1), bronchiectasis (n = 4), pulmonary arterial hypertension (n = 2), tuberculosis (n = 1), bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) (n = 1), and lung cancer (n = 1). Moreover, 4 patients who had chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation due to hematologic malignancy showed unclassifiable interstitial pneumonia with extensive fibrosis in the lungs. Our study demonstrates that pathology of the explanted lungs from Korean patients with LT is different from that of other countries except for interstitial lung disease and bronchiectasis, which may be helpful for optimization of selecting LT candidates for Korean patients. PMID:26425040

  10. Outbreaks of Imipenem Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii Producing OXA-23 β-Lactamase in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hee Young; Suh, Jin Tae; Lee, Kyeong Min

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Since November 2006, imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates have increased in Kyung Hee University Hospital in Seoul, Korea. The purpose of this study was to determine the genetic basis and molecular epidemiology of outbreak isolates. Materials and Methods Forty-nine non-repetitive isolates of the 734 IRAB strains were investigated in order to determine their characteristics. The modified Hodge and the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-disk synergy test were performed for the screening of carbapenemase and metallo-β-lactamase production. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were performed for the detection of genes encoding for OXA-23-like, OXA-24-like, OXA-58-like and OXA-51-like carbapenemase. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed for strain identification. Results All isolates showed 100% resistance to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin, 97.9% resistance to cefepime, piperacillin/tazobactam, aztreonam, ceftazidime and piperacillin, 93.9% resistance to tobramycin and 57.1% resistance to amikacin. All of the 49 isolates (100%) showed positive results in the modified Hodge test and negative results in the EDTA-disk synergy test. They all (100%) possessed the encoding gene for an intrinsic OXA-51-like carbapenemase and an acquired OXA-23-like carbapenemase in the multiplex PCR assay. PFGE patterns revealed that all isolates were clonally related from A1 to A14. Conclusion It is concluded that all of the 49 IRAB isolates acquired resistance to imipenem by producing OXA-23 carbapenemase and they might have originated from a common source. PMID:20046415

  11. Urinary paraben concentrations among pregnant women and their matching newborn infants of Korea, and the association with oxidative stress biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sungeun; Kim, Sunmi; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hae-Joong; Lee, Jeongjae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Sungkyoon; Kho, Young Lim; Choi, Kyungho

    2013-09-01

    Parabens have been used in multiple products including personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and foods for more than 50 years but increasing numbers of studies have raised concerns on their safety. The present study was designed to determine urinary paraben levels among pregnant women and their matching newborn infants (<48 h after delivery), and the association between paraben levels and stress markers. Pregnant women (n=46) and their matching newborn infants were recruited from four university hospitals located in Seoul, Ansan and Jeju of Korea, 2011. Parabens including methyl paraben (MP), ethyl paraben (EP), n-propyl paraben (PP), and n-butyl paraben (BP) were measured in the urine using an automatic, high throughput online SPE-LC-MS/MS method. Urinary concentrations were normalized with specific gravity (SG). Free cortisol, malondealdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured in the urine as stress marker. Urinary MP was detected as the highest, and BP was detected as the lowest paraben in the urine samples of both pregnant women and their infants. Significant correlations between paraben concentrations of maternal and their newborn infant's urine were observed. The levels of urinary parabens among Korean pregnant women are comparable to those reported elsewhere, except for EP which were 4-9 folds higher than pregnant women of other countries. The ratios of infant to maternal urinary paraben concentrations varied between 0.5 and 0.6 for MP and PP, but approximately 10 fold lower for EP. Urinary MP or EP levels were associated with several oxidative stress related biomarkers such as urinary 8-OHdG and MDA, even after the adjustment of relevant covariates such as maternal age, mode of delivery, pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational age and parity. This is the first study that reported the levels of major parabens in the first urine of newborn infants. Further studies are warranted to understand the implications of paraben exposure among

  12. A hybrid feature selection algorithm integrating an extreme learning machine for landslide susceptibility modeling of Mt. Woomyeon, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasu, Nikhil N.; Lee, Seung-Rae

    2016-06-01

    An ever-increasing trend of extreme rainfall events in South Korea owing to climate change is causing shallow landslides and debris flows in mountains that cover 70% of the total land area of the nation. These catastrophic, gravity-driven processes cost the government several billion KRW (South Korean Won) in losses in addition to fatalities every year. The most common type of landslide observed is the shallow landslide, which occurs at 1-3 m depth, and may mobilize into more catastrophic flow-type landslides. Hence, to predict potential landslide areas, susceptibility maps are developed in a geographical information system (GIS) environment utilizing available morphological, hydrological, geotechnical, and geological data. Landslide susceptibility models were developed using 163 landslide points and an equal number of nonlandslide points in Mt. Woomyeon, Seoul, and 23 landslide conditioning factors. However, because not all of the factors contribute to the determination of the spatial probability for landslide initiation, and a simple filter or wrapper-based approach is not efficient in identifying all of the relevant features, a feedback-loop-based hybrid algorithm was implemented in conjunction with a learning scheme called an extreme learning machine, which is based on a single-layer, feed-forward network. Validation of the constructed susceptibility model was conducted using a testing set of landslide inventory data through a prediction rate curve. The model selected 13 relevant conditioning factors out of the initial 23; and the resulting susceptibility map shows a success rate of 85% and a prediction rate of 89.45%, indicating a good performance, in contrast to the low success and prediction rate of 69.19% and 56.19%, respectively, as obtained using a wrapper technique.

  13. Varicella and Varicella Vaccination in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun Hwa; Shin, Seon Hee; Kim, Yun-Kyung; Chang, Jin Keun; Choi, Kyong Min; Hur, Jae Kyun; Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Kim, Jae Youn; Chung, Eun Hee; Lee, Soo Young; Park, Su Eun; Cha, Sungho; Kim, Kwang-Nam; Ma, Sang Hyuk; Eun, Byung Wook; Kim, Nam Hee; Jo, Dae Sun; Choi, Bo Youl; Kim, Shin Ah

    2014-01-01

    With continuing occurrence of varicella despite increasing vaccine coverage for the past 20 years, a case-based study, a case-control study, and an immunogenicity and safety study were conducted to address the impact of varicella vaccination in South Korea. Varicella patients under the age of 16 years were enrolled for the case-based study. For the case-control study, varicella patients between 12 months and 15 years of age were enrolled with one control matched for each patient. For the immunogenicity and safety study, otherwise healthy children from 12 to 24 months old were immunized with Suduvax (Green Cross, South Korea). Fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen (FAMA) varicella-zoster virus (VZV) antibody was measured before and 6 weeks after immunization. In the case-based study, the median age of the patients was 4 years. Among 152 patients between 1 and 15 years of age, 139 children received varicella vaccine and all had breakthrough infections. Clinical courses were not ameliorated in vaccinated patients, but more vaccinated patients received outpatient rather than inpatient care. In the case-control study, the adjusted overall effectiveness of varicella vaccination was 54%. In the immunogenicity and safety study, the seroconversion rate and geometric mean titer for FAMA antibody were 76.67% and 5.31. Even with increasing varicella vaccine uptake, we illustrate no upward age shift in the peak incidence, a high proportion of breakthrough disease, almost no amelioration in disease presentation by vaccination, and insufficient immunogenicity of domestic varicella vaccine. There is need to improve the varicella vaccine used in South Korea. PMID:24671555

  14. Korea Community Health Survey Data Profiles.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yang Wha; Ko, Yun Sil; Kim, Yoo Jin; Sung, Kyoung Mi; Kim, Hyo Jin; Choi, Hyung Yun; Sung, Changhyun; Jeong, Eunkyeong

    2015-06-01

    In 2008, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated the first nationwide survey, Korea Community Health Survey (KCHS), to provide data that could be used to plan, implement, monitor, and evaluate community health promotion and disease prevention programs. This community-based cross-sectional survey has been conducted by 253 community health centers, 35 community universities, and 1500 interviewers. The KCHS standardized questionnaire was developed jointly by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention staff, a working group of health indicators standardization subcommittee, and 16 metropolitan cities and provinces with 253 regional sites. The questionnaire covers a variety of topics related to health behaviors and prevention, which is used to assess the prevalence of personal health practices and behaviors related to the leading causes of disease, including smoking, alcohol use, drinking and driving, high blood pressure control, physical activity, weight control, quality of life (European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions, European Quality of Life-Visual Analogue Scale, Korean Instrumental Activities of Daily Living ), medical service, accident, injury, etc. The KCHS was administered by trained interviewers, and the quality control of the KCHS was improved by the introduction of a computer-assisted personal interview in 2010. The KCHS data allow a direct comparison of the differences of health issues among provinces. Furthermore, the provinces can use these data for their own cost-effective health interventions to improve health promotion and disease prevention. For users and researchers throughout the world, microdata (in the form of SAS files) and analytic guidelines can be downloaded from the KCHS website (http://KCHS.cdc.go.kr/) in Korean. PMID:26430619

  15. An Ecological Understanding of Youth Suicide in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Seung-yeon; Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews risk factors for youth suicide in South Korea (hereafter referred to as Korea), based on the ecological systems theory. Although youth suicide is a major concern for Korean society, understanding of this phenomenon has been limited since most of the empirical studies address personal characteristics without much consideration…

  16. Kindergarten Teachers' Professional Training and Their Social Status in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Guang-Lea; Myers, Donald A.; Kim, Kyoung Jin

    2009-01-01

    This article describes kindergarten teachers' professional training and their social status in Korea. It includes discussions of the historical development of Korea's kindergarten teacher training system and pedagogical methods, the unequal social status of kindergarten teachers, and the implementation of innovative pedagogical practices modeled…

  17. Integrating Standardization into Engineering Education: The Case of Forerunner Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Dong Geun; de Vries, Henk J.

    2013-01-01

    The Republic of Korea is a forerunner in integrating the topic of standardization into engineering education at the academic level. This study investigates developments and evolutions in the planning and operating of the University Education Promotion on Standardization (UEPS) in Korea. This paper examines why the Korean government initiated the…

  18. Promoting E-Learning for Human Resource Development in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soo-Kyoung

    In Korea, e-learning is becoming increasingly prevalent and spreading into various aspects of human resources development. Korea's Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development (MOEHRD) and Ministry of Labor (MOL) have been especially active in establishing the legal basis and institutional framework to make e-learning a reality.…

  19. Development and Current Status of Special Education in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Young-Kyoon

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the developmental history and the current situation of special education in Korea. Special Education began in the late 1800s by the commitment of missionaries from the West. Special Education in Korea is well defined by the related laws and regulations; however, Special Education still needs lots of innovative efforts to…

  20. The Beginnings of Modern Education in Korea, 1883-1910

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittrich, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Korea opened up to foreign intercourse in 1876, when the country concluded its first international treaty with Japan. Similar treaties with European and American nations followed during the 1880s. The period until 1910, when Korea was annexed to the Japanese Empire, saw manifold attempts to reform as well as resistance to these reforms. Against…

  1. Motivations and Experiences of Expatriate Educators in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Nicolette

    2009-01-01

    This research is a qualitative case study of native English instructors at the Gyeonggi-do Institute for Foreign Language Education (GIFLE) in South Korea. A literature review of issues regarding expatriate educators is included. The guiding questions for this study include why these instructors chose to become educators, move to South Korea, and…

  2. English Education and Teacher Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Seongja

    2008-01-01

    The spread of the English language is a global phenomenon, but it has a particular resonance in South Korea, where English is second only to Korean as a common language. The paper examines the current educational context in South Korea and the policy and practice issues that arise within this context regarding teacher education in English as a…

  3. Globalization and Higher Education: A South Korea Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine globalization and higher education from a perspective of South Korea. First, the paper reviews the concepts of globalization and internationalization. Second, the author describes a historical synopsis regarding internationalization and higher education in South Korea. Third, Korean government policies on…

  4. Today and Yesterday in Early Childhood Education in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Guang-Lea

    Early childhood education has always been considered important in Korea, with the education of the child valued highly, regardless of the parent's educational background or socioeconomic status. The main social facility for early childhood education outside home in Korea is called "Yoo Chee Won," which means kindergarten. This paper describes the…

  5. 76 FR 54790 - Large Power Transformers From Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ..., and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register of July 20, 2011 (76 FR 43343). The conference... COMMISSION Large Power Transformers From Korea Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... Korea of large power transformers, provided for in subheadings 8504.23.00 and 8504.90.95 of...

  6. 77 FR 52758 - Large Power Transformers From Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of March 21, 2012 (77 FR 16559). The hearing was held in... COMMISSION Large Power Transformers From Korea Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... the United States is materially injured, by reason of imports from Korea of large power...

  7. South Korea: Language Policy and Planning in the Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Jae Jung

    2012-01-01

    This monograph discusses South Korea's language situation in a language policy and planning context. This monograph consists of four parts. Part 1 presents a genetic, typological and sociolinguistic description of South Korea's national language, and an overview of minority languages, including English as well as other languages, recently…

  8. The Two Koreas. Foreign Policy Association Headline Series, No. 269.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumings, Bruce

    One in a series of booklets whose purpose is to stimulate greater and more effective understanding of world affairs among Americans, this seven-chapter report examines the political, economic, and anomalous positions of North and South Korea in the international system. "Traditional Legacies" traces the historical development of the two Koreas.…

  9. 77 FR 51569 - Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the newly revised Commission's... COMMISSION Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico Scheduling of the final phase of countervailing...-fair-value imports from Korea and Mexico of large residential washers, provided for in subheading...

  10. Radiologic Diagnosis of Asbestosis in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cha, Yoon Ki; Kim, Jeung Sook; Kim, Yookyung; Kim, Yoon Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Asbestosis is the most important change noted in the lung parenchyma after environmental and occupational exposure to asbestos fibers. It is characterized by diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. In Korea, the incidence of asbestosis will continue to increase for many years to come and the government enacted the Asbestos Damage Relief Law in 2011 to provide compensation to those suffering from asbestos-related diseases. Radiologic evaluation is necessary for diagnosis of asbestosis, and radiologists play a key role in this process. Therefore, it is important for radiologists to be aware of the various imaging features of asbestosis. PMID:27587956

  11. KIMS : Dark Matter Search Experiment in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sun Kee

    2005-12-02

    KIMS is an experimental group searching for dark matter in an underground laboratory in Korea. Major effort of KIMS has been devoted for the development of low background CsI(Tl) crystal detectors with low threshold for the direct WIMP search. An underground laboratory utilizing the space in a tunnel of Yangyang Pumped Storage Power Plant is established. We present the first result obtained with one crystal detector and the future prospect of WIMP search as well as other research activities carried out by KIMS.

  12. KIMS : Dark Matter Search Experiment in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sun Kee

    2005-12-01

    KIMS is an experimental group searching for dark matter in an underground laboratory in Korea. Major effort of KIMS has been devoted for the development of low background CsI(Tl) crystal detectors with low threshold for the direct WIMP search. An underground laboratory utilizing the space in a tunnel of Yangyang Pumped Storage Power Plant is established. We present the first result obtained with one crystal detector and the future prospect of WIMP search as well as other research activities carried out by KIMS.

  13. Radiologic Diagnosis of Asbestosis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Yoon Ki; Kim, Yookyung; Kim, Yoon Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Asbestosis is the most important change noted in the lung parenchyma after environmental and occupational exposure to asbestos fibers. It is characterized by diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. In Korea, the incidence of asbestosis will continue to increase for many years to come and the government enacted the Asbestos Damage Relief Law in 2011 to provide compensation to those suffering from asbestos-related diseases. Radiologic evaluation is necessary for diagnosis of asbestosis, and radiologists play a key role in this process. Therefore, it is important for radiologists to be aware of the various imaging features of asbestosis. PMID:27587956

  14. Progress in Malassezia Research in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Young; Lee, Yang Won; Choe, Yong Beom

    2015-01-01

    Yeasts of the genus Malassezia are part of the normal flora of human skin. However, they are also associated with various skin diseases. Since the introduction of Malassezia to the Korean Dermatologic Society two decades ago, remarkable progress has been made in our knowledge of this genus. In this paper, we review recent developments in Malassezia research, including taxonomy and methods for species identification, recent genome analyses, Malassezia species distribution in healthy conditions and in specific skin diseases, trials investigating the mechanisms underlying Malassezia-related diseases, as well as therapeutic options. This review will enhance our understanding of Malassezia yeasts and related skin diseases in Korea. PMID:26719632

  15. [Family changes and policy issues in Korea].

    PubMed

    Chung, K

    1997-01-01

    "This study attempted to identify the changes that Korean families have undergone and to consider the policies that are needed to adapt to such changes by examining 43 individual indicators of the family sphere suggested in Korea's Social Indicator Classification." Aspects considered include declining family size due to the increase in one-person households; delayed marriage and childbirth; improved economic status of families; increasing numbers of elderly-only, female-headed, and teen-headed households; and female labor force participation. (EXCERPT) PMID:12179778

  16. Rhipidia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo; Kim, Sam-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Rhipidia Meigen, 1818 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Rhipidia (Rhipidia) serena, new species, is described and figured. Rhipidia (R.) longa Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014, R. (R.) maculata Meigen, 1818 and R. (R.) sejuga Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014 are recorded for the first time in Korea. Previously known species, Rhipidia (R.) septentrionis Alexander, 1913 is redescribed and illustrated. Identification key for all Korean Rhipidia species is given. Most antennae, wings, male and female terminalia of all species are illustrated for the first time. PMID:27395731

  17. Education for International Understanding. Report of Regional Seminar on the Development of Unesco Associated Schools Project in Asia and the Pacific (Seoul, Republic of Korea, October 27-31, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korean National Commission for Unesco, Seoul.

    This report on an Asian Regional Seminar is presented in two parts. In part one, a review of the reports of the countries participating in the seminar shows that there is continuity in adherence to the objectives of the Unesco Associated Schools Project set forth in 1953, which were: (1) to increase knowledge of world problems and global…

  18. Constitutive Interplay midst Discourse of East and West: Modernity & Postmodernity Renderings in Adult & Continuing Education. Proceedings of the International Adult & Continuing Education Conference (Seoul, Korea, May 27-28, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Phyllis, Ed.; And Others

    This document contains 17 papers, organized in three sections, presented at a conference on Eastern and Western adult and continuing education. The following papers are included in Section I, "Ideas and Tasks of Adult Education: Views of East and West": "Imagineries of 'East and West': Slippery Curricular Signifiers in Education" (Ted T. Aoki);…

  19. Vocational and Technical Education: Development of Curricula and Instructional Materials with Focus on Mechanical and Civil/Building Subjects. Asian Programme of Educational Innovation for Development. Report of a Technical Working Group Meeting (Seoul, Korea, October 15-27, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This report contains materials from a meeting of Asian Programme of Educational Innovation for Development member states to identify common trends, issues, and growth points related to the development and implementation of technical and vocational education curricula. Chapter 1 presents extracts from country reports of experiences in curriculum…

  20. National Information Policies for the Asia Oceania Region. Proceedings of the General Assembly and Congress of the International Federation for Information and Documentation Commission for Asia and Oceania (11th, Seoul, Korea, October 29-31, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Ian, Ed.; Dwyer, Lisa, Ed.

    The 18 papers presented at this conference address national information policies, information for industry, and electronic publishing. The titles of the papers are as follows: (1) "Industrial Information Policies of Developing Countries" (keynote address, Sung Jin Choi); (2) "National Information Policy. Current Trends and Issues--an Australian…

  1. National Strategies for Developing Human Resources through Technical and Vocational Education and Training. The 2001 KRIVET International Conference on Technical and Vocational Education and Training [Proceedings] (Seoul, South Korea, November 21-23, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korea Research Inst. for Vocational Education and Training, Seoul.

    This document contains 19 papers and case studies, in English and Korean, from a conference on national strategies for developing human resources through technical and vocational education and training. The following are representative: "The Need to Innovate and Optimize Resources [Keynote]" (Wataru Iwamoto); "School to Work Transition in…

  2. The 1994 heat wave in South Korea: mortality impacts and recurrence probability in a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kysely, J.; Kim, J.

    2010-03-01

    The study deals with mortality impacts of the July-August 1994 heat wave in the population of South Korea, including the megacity of Seoul (with the population exceeding 10 million for the city and 20 million for the metropolitan area), and estimates recurrence probability of the heat wave in a changing climate in terms of simulations of daily temperature series with a stochastic model. The 1994 heat wave is found exceptional with respect to both climatological characteristics and the mortality effects: significantly elevated mortality occurred in all population groups, including children up to 14 years of age, and the total death toll exceeded 3000 in the Korean population, which ranks the 1994 heat wave among the worst weather-related disasters in East Asia. The estimate represents net excess mortality as no mortality displacement effect appeared. A comparison with other documented natural disasters shows that the death toll of the heat wave was much higher than those of the most disastrous floodings and typhoons over Korean Peninsula in the 20th century. The mortality response was stronger in males than females although males are found to be less vulnerable during average heat waves. A climatological analysis reveals that the July-August 1994 heat wave might be considered an extremely rare event with a return period in the order of hundreds of years if stationarity of temperature time series is assumed. However, under a more realistic assumption of gradual warming related to climate change, recurrence probability of an event analogous to the 1994 heat wave sharply rises for near-future time horizons. If warming of 0.04°C/year is assumed over 2001-2060, the recurrence interval of a very long spell of days with temperature exceeding a high threshold (as in the 1994 heat wave) is estimated to decrease to around 40 (10) years in the 2021-2030 (2041-2050) decade. This emphasizes the need for setting up an efficient heat-watch-warning system in this area in order to

  3. Current Status of Management in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus at General Hospitals in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jin-Hee; Lee, Jung-Hwa; Noh, Jin-Won; Park, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Hee-Sook; Yoo, Joo-Wha; Song, Bok-Rye; Lee, Jeong-rim; Hong, Myeong-Hee; Jang, Hyang-Mi; Na, Young; Lee, Hyun-Joo; Lee, Jeong-Mi; Kang, Yang-Gyo; Kim, Sun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Background In Korea, the prevalence, complications, and mortality rate of diabetes are rapidly increasing. However, investigations on the actual condition of diabetes management are very limited due to lack of nation-wide research or multicenter study. Hence, we have minutely inquired the current status of diabetes management and achievement of glucose target goal in general hospital offering education program. That way, we are able to furnish data for policy making of diabetes education and draw up guideline which may allow us to reduce the morbidity and mortality of diabetes. Methods The subjects consisted of 2,610 patients with type 2 diabetes who visited the 13 general hospital in Seoul or Gyeonggi region from March 19 to May 29, 2013. General characteristics, associated diseases, complications, and management status were investigated. Results The mean age was 61.0±11.6 years, body mass index was 25.0±3.3 kg/m2, and family history of diabetes was 50.5%. The mean duration of diabetes was 10.7±7.9 years and 53% received education about diabetes. The prevalence of hypertension and dyslipidemia were 59.2% and 65.5%, respectively, and 18.3% of the subjects were accompanied by liver disease. Diabetic retinopathy appeared in 31.6%, nephropathy in 28.1%, and neuropathy in 19.9% of the subjects. The mean glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level was 7.3%±1.3% and the achieving rate based on Korean Diabetes Association guideline (HbA1c <6.5%) was 24.8%, blood pressure (130/80 mm Hg or less) was 49.4%, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (<100 mg/dL) was 63.6%. The reaching rate to the target level in four parameters (blood glucose, blood pressure, lipids, and body weight) was 7.8%. Conclusion The blood glucose control rate was lower than other parameters, and the implementation rate of diabetes education was only 53%. Thus more appropriate glucose control and systematic diabetes education are imperative. PMID:26301192

  4. Korea: balancing economic growth and social protection for older adults.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyun-Sook

    2013-06-01

    Population aging in Korea is projected to be the most rapid among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries between 2000 and 2050. However, social spending in Korea remains low, reflecting Korea's relatively young population, limited health and long-term care insurance coverage, and immaturity of its pension system. As these factors evolve in coming years, social spending in Korea is likely to rise toward the OECD average. Sustaining economic growth requires policies to mitigate the impact of rapid population aging by providing social protection for the elderly population. Korea confronts difficult challenges in balancing economic growth and social protection for the elderly population, whereas also ensuring efficiency in social spending. PMID:23528291

  5. Emergence and Growth of Solar Astronomy in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Hong Sik

    2003-06-01

    In this article I review the past and current status of solar astronomy in Korea and present some future prospects. Along with a brief historical account on the introduction of modern astronomy to Korea, I describe in detail how solar astronomy in Korea has developed since its birth about 20 years ago. With education of solar astronomers at domestic universities and collaboration with foreign scientists in China, Japan and the U. S., there has been a rapid growth of solar physics in Korea in the past decade. For further advance of solar astronomy in Korea, Korean solar astronomers have to build their own observing facilities and develop instrumentation programs. Also it is very important to bring up manpower competent for these projects.

  6. Vertical dynamics of the aquifer microbial community associated with groundwater chemistry in the artificial recharge site in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Hee Sun; Hyun, Sung Pil; Kim, Boa; Shin, Doyun; Ha, Kyoochul

    2014-05-01

    Artificial groundwater recharge offers an opportunity to better manage groundwater resources by storing water in aquifers and increasing the amount of groundwater available for abstraction during high demand periods. It is important to understand the linkage of microbial ecology to groundwater chemistry to assess changes in groundwater quality caused by artificial groundwater recharge. In this study, we investigated how the structure and diversity of this subsurface microbial community correlates with and impacts upon groundwater chemistry. Groundwater samples at two different depths (10 and 33 m) were collected from three monitoring wells (MLW 1, MLW 2 and MLW 3) in the artificial groundwater recharge demonstration site in Changwon, Korea. The groundwater samples were filtered with 0.45 um membrane filters and then used for the anion and cation analysis. A 4L of each groundwater sample was immediately filtered with 0.2 um membrane filters and the filters were used for DNA extraction using Fast DNA Spin Kit for soil (MP Bio, USA). Further molecular work processes including pyrosequencing were carried out at Chunlab, Inc. (Seoul, Korea). Pyrosequencing results showed all major phyla were OD 1, OD3, and OD 11 in shallow groundwater samples while Proteobacteria (β-proteobacteria and δ-proteobacteria) and Bacterioidetes were dominant phyla in deep groundwater. The Shannon diversity index indicated that the microbial community was much more diverse in shallow groundwater than in deep groundwater. Heat map and hierarchical cluster analysis based on the relative abundance of OTUs at genus level showed a clear distinction between shallow and deep groundwater. Differences in the vertical community structure were driven by the major species such as Sufuicurvum sp., Pseudomonas sp., Acidiferrobacter sp., Gallionella sp., and Ferribacterium sp. The results show that several distinct factors such as iron and sulfate concentration control the vertical composition of microbial

  7. Extensive spatio-temporal analyses of surface ozone and related meteorological variables in South Korea for 1999-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, J.; Youn, D.; Kim, J. Y.; Lee, H.

    2014-01-01

    Spatio-temporal characteristics of surface ozone (O3) variations over South Korea are investigated with consideration of meteorological factors and time-scales based on the Kolmogorov-Zurbenko filter (KZ-filter), using measurement data at 124 air quality monitoring sites and 72 weather stations for the 12 yr period of 1999-2010. In general, O3 levels at coastal cities are high due to dynamic effects of the sea breeze while those at the inland and Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) cities are low due to the NOx titration by local precursor emissions. We examine the meteorological influences on the O3 using a combined analysis of the KZ-filter and linear regressions between O3 and meteorological variables. We decomposed O3 time-series at each site into short-term, seasonal, and long-term components by the KZ-filter and regressed them on meteorological variables. Impact of temperature on the O3 levels is significantly high in the highly populated SMA and inland region while that is low in the coastal region. In particular, the probability of high-O3 occurrence doubled with 4 °C of temperature increase in the SMA during high-O3 months (May to October). It implies that those regions will experience frequent high-O3 events in the future warming climate. In terms of short-term variation, distribution of high-O3 probability classified by wind direction shows the effect of both local precursor emissions and long-range transport from China. In terms of long-term variation, the O3 concentrations have increased by +0.26 ppbv yr-1 on nationwide average, but their trends show large spatial variability. Additional statistical analysis of the singular value decomposition further reveals that the long-term temporal evolution of O3 is similar to that of the nitrogen dioxide measurement although the spatial distributions of their trends are different. This study would be helpful as a reference for diagnostics and evaluation of regional- and local-scale O3 and climate simulations and a

  8. Extensive spatiotemporal analyses of surface ozone and related meteorological variables in South Korea for the period 1999-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, J.; Youn, D.; Kim, J. Y.; Lee, H.

    2014-06-01

    Spatiotemporal characteristics of surface ozone (O3) variations over South Korea are investigated with consideration of meteorological factors and timescales based on the Kolmogorov-Zurbenko filter (KZ filter), using measurement data at 124 air quality monitoring sites and 72 weather stations for the 12 yr period of 1999-2010. In general, O3 levels at coastal cities are high due to dynamic effects of the sea breeze while those at the inland and Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) cities are low due to the NOx titration by local precursor emissions. We examine the meteorological influences on O3 using a combined analysis of the KZ filter and linear regressions between O3 and meteorological variables. We decomposed O3 time series at each site into short-term, seasonal, and long-term components by the KZ filter and regressed on meteorological variables. Impact of temperature on the O3 levels is significantly high in the highly populated SMA and inland region, but low in the coastal region. In particular, the probability of high O3 occurrence doubles with 4 °C of temperature increase in the SMA during high O3 months (May-October). This implies that those regions will experience frequent high O3 events in a future warming climate. In terms of short-term variation, the distribution of high O3 probability classified by wind direction shows the effect of both local precursor emissions and long-range transport from China. In terms of long-term variation, the O3 concentrations have increased by +0.26 ppbv yr-1 (parts per billion by volume) on nationwide average, but their trends show large spatial variability. Singular value decomposition analyses further reveal that the long-term temporal evolution of O3 is similar to that of nitrogen dioxide, although the spatial distribution of their trends is different. This study will be helpful as a reference for diagnostics and evaluation of regional- and local-scale O3 and climate simulations, and as a guide to appropriate O3 control

  9. North Korea: The next nuclear nightmare

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, L.S.; Smith, J.R.

    1991-03-01

    The crisis in the Persian Gulf has reawakened concerns over the spread of nuclear arms. Even before its invasion of Kuwait, Iraq's history of aggression and support for international terrorism triggered fears in Washington that its acquisition of nuclear weapons might damage international stability and US interests far more than the emergence of India, Israel, Pakistan, and South Africa as de facto nuclear powers. Thus, when the Gulf War began on January 16, Iraq's nuclear sites were among the first attacked by allied air strikes. Unfortunately, Iraq has not been the only hostile proliferator looming on the horizon. North Korea, which has been no less dedicated than Iraq to the use of violence to advance its expansionist goals, has also tenaciously pursued a nuclear-weapons capability. Moreover, the North Korean program is considerably closer to bearing fruit than the Iraqi effort. And although North Korea, like Iraq, has signed the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, unlike Iraq it has refused to conclude the safeguards agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency that the treaty requires.

  10. Ionizing Radiation-induced Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Meeseon; Moon, Kieun; Jo, Min-Heui; Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    Radiation risk has become well known through epidemiological studies of clinically or occupationally exposed populations, animal experiments, and in vitro studies; however, the study of radiation related or induced disease has been limited in Korea. This study is to find the level of occupational radiation exposure for various kinds of accidents, compensated occupational diseases, related studies, and estimations on future occupational disease risks. Research data of related institutions were additionally investigated. About 67% of 62,553 radiation workers had no exposure or less than 1.2 mSv per year. The 5 reported cases on radiation accident patients in Korea occurred during nondestructive testing. According to the recent rapid increase in the number of workers exposed to radiation, a higher social recognition of cancer, and an increasing cancer mortality rate, it is expected that occupational disease compensation will rapidly increase as well. Therefore, it is important to develop scientific and objective decision methods, such as probability of causation and screening dose in the establishment of an exposure and health surveillance system. PMID:21258594

  11. Mycobacterium kansasii pulmonary diseases in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yim, Jae-Joon; Park, Young-Kil; Lew, Woo Jin; Bai, Gill-Han; Han, Sung Koo; Shim, Young-Soo

    2005-12-01

    Mycobacterium kansasii is one of the most common cause of pulmonary diseases due to nontuberculous mycobacteria. We investigated the changing in the number of isolation of M. kansasii and the clinical characteristics of M. kansasii pulmonary disease in Korea. Through searching the database of the Korean Institute of Tuberculosis, we identified the cases of isolated M. kansasii from 1992 to 2002. The number of M. kansasii isolation had increased from once in 1992 to 62 in 2002. Fifteen patients with M. kansasii pulmonary disease were identified during the period January 1997 to December 2002. Twelve patients (80%) were male and fourteen (93%) were from highly industrialized areas. The most common symptom was a cough. Seven patients (47%) had a cavitary lesion and right upper lobe was most commonly involved. Patients responded well to isoniazid and rifampicin based regimens both bacteriologically and radiographically. In conclusion, M. kansasii isolation has increased, especially in highly industrialized areas, as well as other nontuberculous mycobacteria in Korea. PMID:16361804

  12. Clinical Characteristics of Cholinergic Urticaria in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Eun; Eun, Young Sun; Park, Young Min; Park, Hyun Jeong; Yu, Dong Su; Kang, Hoon; Cho, Sang Hyun; Park, Chul Jong; Kim, Si Yong

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholinergic urticaria is a type of physical urticaria characterized by heat-associated wheals. Several reports are available about cholinergic urticaria; however, the clinical manifestations and pathogenesis are incompletely understood. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of cholinergic urticaria in Korea. Methods We performed a retrospective study of 92 patients with cholinergic urticaria who were contacted by phone and whose diagnoses were confirmed by the exercise provocation test among those who had visited The Catholic University of Korea, Catholic Medical Center from January 2001 to November 2010. Results All 92 patients were male, and their average age was 27.8 years (range, 17~51 years). Most of the patients had onset of the disease in their 20s and 30s. Non-follicular wheals were located on the trunk and upper extremities of many patients, and the symptoms were aggravated by exercise. Eight patients showed general urticaria symptoms and 15 had accompanying atopic disease. Forty-three patients complained of seasonal aggravation. Most patients were treated with first and second-generation antihistamines. Conclusion Dermatologists should consider these characteristics in patients with cholinergic urticaria. Further investigation and follow-up studies are necessary to better understand the epidemiological and clinical findings of cholinergic urticaria. PMID:24882973

  13. Shifting Prevalence of Gallbladder Polyps in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Only a few studies have evaluated the population-adjusted prevalence of gallbladder polyps (GBP). This study aimed to evaluate the changes in GBP prevalence and risk factors at a single health screening center in Korea from 2002 to 2012. Of 48,591 adults who underwent health screening between 2002 and 2012, 14,250 age- and gender-matched subjects were randomly selected to evaluate prevalence. Risk factors were analyzed between the GBP-positive and GBP-negative groups during 2002-2004 (Period A) and 2010-2012 (Period B). The annual prevalence of GBP over the 11-yr period was 5.4%. Annual prevalence increased from 3.8% in Period A to 7.1% in Period B. Male gender and obesity were independent risk factors for GBP in both periods. Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity was a risk factor for GBP in Period A but not in Period B. The risk factors for GBP changed from HBsAg positivity to lipid profile abnormalities. Other variables including age, hypertension, diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, chronic hepatitis C virus infection, and liver function tests did not correlate with GBP. In conclusion, GBP prevalence is increasing and risk factors for GBP have changed in Korea. More attention should be paid to this issue in the future. PMID:25246743

  14. South Korea's renewed focus on space weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Byung-Ho

    2011-10-01

    Nearly 1000 years before European scientists David Fabricius and Galileo Galilei made historic observations of sunspots, royal astronomers in Korea were recording their observations of blemishes on the Sun. Sunspot records appeared as early as 640 C.E. in Korea [Yang et al., 1998], and records with statistically significant populations of data have been available since 1105 C.E. during the Goryeo dynasty (918-1392). The records are quite meticulous. For example, one entry dated 1151 in the annals of the Goryeo dynasty says, "There is a black spot in the sun as large as an egg" (Goryeo-Sa, 1451). At that time, sunspots were categorized according to size: plum, egg, peach, or pear. In Goryeo-Sa, various celestial phenomena such as solar eclipses, comets, novae, meteors, etc., were also recorded. Along with sunspots, aurorae were carefully described in several Korean chronicles, including Goryeo-Sa. Descriptions of aurorae, commonly referred to as "red energy," include their color, shape, motion, and distribution. For example, a description written in 1770 reads, "It spread across the sky like a piece of silk cloth and then dispersed" [Chanjipcheong, 1908; Park, 2008]. Applying a power spectrum analysis technique to all sunspot and aurora records during the Goryeo dynasty, Yang et al. [1998] and Lee et al. [2005] have shown 10.5-year and 97-year cycles for the sunspot records and 10-year and 87-year cycles for the aurora records.

  15. 77 FR 53177 - Large Power Transformers From the Republic of Korea: Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... Transformers from the Republic of Korea: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, 77 FR 40857... International Trade Administration Large Power Transformers From the Republic of Korea: Antidumping Duty Order... antidumping duty order on large power transformers from the Republic of Korea (Korea). FOR FURTHER...

  16. 77 FR 13952 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... RIN 9000-AM18 Federal Acquisition Regulation; United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement AGENCY... Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to implement the United States- Korea Free Trade Agreement. The...-Korea Free Trade Agreement (see the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act (Pub....

  17. 31 CFR 500.563 - Transactions incident to travel to and within North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and within North Korea. 500.563 Section 500.563 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... Transactions incident to travel to and within North Korea. (a) All transactions of persons subject to U.S... Korea and to maintenance within North Korea are authorized. This authorization extends to...

  18. Standardized Thyroid Cancer Mortality in Korea between 1985 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun Mi; Jang, Eun Kyung; Kwon, Hyemi; Jeon, Min Ji; Kim, Won Gu; Shong, Young Kee; Kim, Won Bae

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of thyroid cancer has increased very rapidly in Korea. However, there is no published report focusing on thyroid cancer mortality in Korea. In this study, we aimed to evaluate standardized thyroid cancer mortality using data from Statistics Korea (the Statistical Office of Korea). Methods Population and mortality data from 1985 to 2010 were obtained from Statistics Korea. Age-standardized rates of thyroid cancer mortality were calculated according to the standard population of Korea, as well as World Health Organization (WHO) standard population and International Cancer Survival Standard (ICSS) population weights. Results The crude thyroid cancer mortality rate increased from 0.1 to 0.7 per 100,000 between 1985 and 2010. The pattern was the same for both sexes. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) for thyroid cancer for Korean resident registration population increased from 0.19 to 0.67 between 1985 and 2000. However, it decreased slightly, from 0.67 to 0.55, between 2000 and 2010. When mortality was adjusted using the WHO standard population and ICSS population weights, the ASMR similarly increased until 2000, and then decreased between 2000 and 2010. Conclusion Thyroid cancer mortality increased until 2000 in Korea. It started to decrease from 2000. PMID:25559576

  19. The Current Situation of Treatment Systems for Alcoholism in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jee Wook; Lee, Boung Chul; Kang, Tae-Cheon

    2013-01-01

    Alcoholism is becoming one of the most serious issues in Korea. The purpose of this review article was to understand the present status of the treatment system for alcoholism in Korea compared to the United States and to suggest its developmental direction in Korea. Current modalities of alcoholism treatment in Korea including withdrawal treatment, pharmacotherapy, and psychosocial treatment are available according to Korean evidence-based treatment guidelines. Benzodiazepines and supportive care including vitamin and nutritional support are mainly used to treat alcohol withdrawal in Korea. Naltrexone and acamprosate are the drugs of first choice to treat chronic alcoholism. Psychosocial treatment methods such as individual psychotherapy, group psychotherapy, family therapy, cognitive behavior therapy, cue exposure therapy, 12-step facilitation therapy, self-help group therapy, and community-based treatment have been carried out to treat chronic alcoholism in Korea. However, current alcohol treatment system in Korea is not integrative compared to that in the United States. To establish the treatment system, it is important to set up an independent governmental administration on alcohol abuse, to secure experts on alcoholism, and to conduct outpatient alcoholism treatment programs and facilities in an open system including some form of continuing care. PMID:23400047

  20. New Nuclear Emergency Prognosis system in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun-Ha; Jeong, Seung-Young; Park, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Kwan-Hee

    2016-04-01

    This paper reviews the status of assessment and prognosis system for nuclear emergency response in Korea, especially atmospheric dispersion model. The Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) performs the regulation and radiological emergency preparedness of the nuclear facilities and radiation utilizations. Also, KINS has set up the "Radiological Emergency Technical Advisory Plan" and the associated procedures such as an emergency response manual in consideration of the IAEA Safety Standards GS-R-2, GS-G-2.0, and GS-G-2.1. The Radiological Emergency Technical Advisory Center (RETAC) organized in an emergency situation provides the technical advice on radiological emergency response. The "Atomic Computerized Technical Advisory System for nuclear emergency" (AtomCARE) has been developed to implement assessment and prognosis by RETAC. KINS developed Accident Dose Assessment and Monitoring (ADAMO) system in 2015 to reflect the lessons learned from Fukushima accident. It incorporates (1) the dose assessment on the entire Korean peninsula, Asia region, and global region, (2) multi-units accident assessment (3) applying new methodology of dose rate assessment and the source term estimation with inverse modeling, (4) dose assessment and monitoring with the environmental measurements result. The ADAMO is the renovated version of current FADAS of AtomCARE. The ADAMO increases the accuracy of the radioactive material dispersion with applying the LDAPS(Local Data Assimilation Prediction System, Spatial resolution: 1.5 km) and RDAPS(Regional Data Assimilation Prediction System, Spatial resolution: 12km) of weather prediction data, and performing the data assimilation of automatic weather system (AWS) data from Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and data from the weather observation tower at NPP site. The prediction model of the radiological material dispersion is based on the set of the Lagrangian Particle model and Lagrangian Puff model. The dose estimation methodology

  1. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; McJeon, Haewon C.; Shui, Bin; Lee, Seung Eon

    2009-04-17

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Korea, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial buildings in Korea.

  2. Contributions to the Foliicolous Lichens Flora of South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jayalal, Udeni; Oh, Soon Ok; Lücking, Robert; Joshi, Santosh; Kim, Jung A; Park, Jung-Shin

    2013-01-01

    South Korea is covered primarily by temperate vegetation; therefore, foliicolous lichens may not be expected to play an important role in its lichen flora. However, this study describes four foliicolous lichen species, Strigula concreta, S. macrocarpa, S. melanobapha, and S. subelegans, which are new to South Korea. These findings will lead to further research on foliicolous lichens and provide a better understanding of their distribution within the East Asian region. This is the first detailed report on foliicolous lichens and their distribution in South Korea. PMID:24493940

  3. A new strategy for tuberculosis control in North Korea

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the most prevalent diseases in North Korea. Despite some positive accomplishments by current aid projects, it is still necessary to investigate the existing aid system. The following are necessary for improvement: sustaining a high degree of expertise, cooperation among various related parties including the international community, mediation to induce this cooperation, a more active role of the South Korean government, and encouragement of North Korea to more actively participate. Achieving these will help solve the issues of current tuberculosis aid projects in North Korea and lead to more successful outcomes. PMID:26657137

  4. Development of a numerical system to improve particulate matter forecasts in South Korea using geostationary satellite-retrieved aerosol optical data over Northeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sojin; Song, Chul-han; Park, Rae Seol; Park, Mi Eun; Han, Kyung man; Kim, Jhoon; Choi, Myungje; Ghim, Young Sung; Woo, Jung-Hun

    2016-04-01

    To improve short-term particulate matter (PM) forecasts in South Korea, the initial distribution of PM composition, particularly over the upwind regions, is primarily important. To prepare the initial PM composition, the aerosol optical depth (AOD) data retrieved from a geostationary equatorial orbit (GEO) satellite sensor, GOCI (Geostationary Ocean Color Imager) which covers a part of Northeast Asia (113-146° E; 25-47° N), were used. Although GOCI can provide a higher number of AOD data in a semicontinuous manner than low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite sensors, it still has a serious limitation in that the AOD data are not available at cloud pixels and over high-reflectance areas, such as desert and snow-covered regions. To overcome this limitation, a spatiotemporal-kriging (STK) method was used to better prepare the initial AOD distributions that were converted into the PM composition over Northeast Asia. One of the largest advantages in using the STK method in this study is that more observed AOD data can be used to prepare the best initial AOD fields compared with other methods that use single frame of observation data around the time of initialization. It is demonstrated in this study that the short-term PM forecast system developed with the application of the STK method can greatly improve PM10 predictions in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA) when evaluated with ground-based observations. For example, errors and biases of PM10 predictions decreased by ˜ 60 and ˜ 70{%}, respectively, during the first 6 h of short-term PM forecasting, compared with those without the initial PM composition. In addition, the influences of several factors on the performances of the short-term PM forecast were explored in this study. The influences of the choices of the control variables on the PM chemical composition were also investigated with the composition data measured via PILS-IC (particle-into-liquid sampler coupled with ion chromatography) and low air-volume sample

  5. Development of a numerical system to improve particulate matter forecasts in South Korea using geostationary satellite-retrieved aerosol optical data over Northeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Song, C. H.; Park, R. S.; Park, M. E.; Han, K. M.; Kim, J.; Choi, M. J.; Ghim, Y. S.; Woo, J.-H.

    2015-07-01

    To improve short-term particulate matter (PM) forecasts in South Korea, the initial distribution of PM composition, particularly over the upwind regions, is primarily important. To prepare the initial PM composition, the aerosol optical depth (AOD) data retrieved from a geostationary equatorial orbit (GEO) satellite sensor, GOCI (Geostationary Ocean Color Imager) which covers Northeast Asia (113-146° E; 25-47° N), were used. Although GOCI can provide a higher number of AOD data in a semi-continuous manner than low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite sensors, it still has a serious limitation in that the AOD data are not available at cloud pixels and over high-reflectance areas, such as desert and snow-covered regions. To overcome this limitation, a spatio-temporal (ST) kriging method was used to better prepare the initial AOD distributions that were converted into the PM composition over Northeast Asia. One of the largest advantages to using the ST-kriging method in this study is that more observed AOD data can be used to prepare the best initial AOD fields. It is demonstrated in this study that the short-term PM forecast system developed with the application of the ST-kriging method can greatly improve PM10 predictions in Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), when evaluated with ground-based observations. For example, errors and biases of PM10 predictions decreased by ~ 60 and ~ 70 %, respectively, during the first 6 h of short-term PM forecasting, compared with those without the initial PM composition. In addition, the influences of several factors (such as choices of observation operators and control variables) on the performances of the short-term PM forecast were explored in this study. The influences of the choices of the control variables on the PM chemical composition were also investigated with the composition data measured via PILS-IC and low air-volume sample instruments at a site near Seoul. To improve the overall performances of the short-term PM forecast system

  6. New enchytraeid species (Enchytraeidae, Oligochaeta) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Dózsa-Farkas, Klára; Felföldi, Tamás; Hong, Yong

    2015-01-01

    We give descriptions of five new enchytraeid species (Enchytraeidae, Oligochaeta) from Korea: Henlea magnaampullacea sp. n., Fridericia sphaerica sp. n., F. cusanicaformis sp. n., F. granulocyta sp. n. and Mesenchytraeus calyx sp. n., with morphological and molecular (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, nuclear histone 3 genes and nuclear ribosomal ITS region sequences) data. In total, 19 enchytraeid species belonging to seven genera have been found in the studied woodland and agronomical soil samples. Apart from the five new species, three further species are new for the Korean enchytraeid fauna, Enchytraeus christenseni, E. dichaetus, and Achaeta cf. brevivasa. Molecular taxonomical analyses show that the Korean species resembling H. ventriculosa is not identical with the European species, furthermore sequence analysis of individuals morphologically identified as F. seoraksani indicate the possibility of species-complexity and the presence of cryptic species. PMID:26623764

  7. Critical Care In Korea: Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chae-Man; Kwak, Sang-Hyun; Suh, Gee Young

    2015-01-01

    Critical (or intensive) care medicine (CCM) is a branch of medicine concerned with the care of patients with potentially reversible life-threatening conditions. Numerous studies have demonstrated that adequate staffing is of crucial importance for patient outcome. Adequate staffing also showed favorable cost-effectiveness in terms of ICU stay, decreased use of resources, and lower re-admission rates. The current status of CCM of our contry is not comparable to that of advanced countries. The global pandemic episodes in the past decade showed that our society is not well prepared for severe illnesses or mass casualty. To improve CCM in Korea, reimbursement of the government must be amended such that referral hospitals can hire sufficient number of qualified intensivists and nurses. For the government to address these urgent issues, public awareness of the role of CCM is also required. PMID:26538995

  8. Women's alcohol use and alcoholism in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wooksoo; Kim, Sungjae

    2008-07-01

    Recently South Korean society has experienced an increase in alcohol use related problems, as well as alcohol use among women. The purpose of this paper is to describe the cultural context of and to summarize the current state of knowledge of women's drinking in South Korea. Subscribing to Confucian principles, traditional Korean society has allowed drinking for men, but not for women. However, as society has changed, contemporary women drink at a younger age and consume larger amounts of alcohol than their prior generations. The current trends suggest an urgent need for research on the etiology and trajectory of women's alcohol use among various populations and the need to develop intervention programs tailored to the specific needs of women. PMID:18649231

  9. [The current status of psychology in Korea].

    PubMed

    Cha, J H

    1992-02-01

    This paper read as the special lecture at the Annual Convention of The Japanese Psychological Association, held at Tokyo Metropolitan University in 1990, and reported on the recent trends of psychology in the Republic of Korea. This report dealt essentially with four topics; 1) the history of Korean psychology which was divided into four periods of creation, reconstruction, development, and current status, after the liberation at the end of the World War II in 1945, 2) the distribution and academic status of 26 universities, with formal department of psychology, 3) general situation of job opportunities for the graduates in psychology of these universities, 4) the composition of Korean Psychological Association (KPA), consisting of nine divisions (social, industrial and organizational, clinical, consultations and psychotherapy, experimental and cognitive, developmental, biological and physiological psychology) with the total of about 400 members. Last, some directions of Korean psychology to the future was suggested. PMID:1507672

  10. Reform of medical education in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyong-Jee; Kee, Changwon

    2010-01-01

    There are 41 medical schools in South Korea with over 3500 students graduating from the medical schools annually with the appropriate qualifications to practice medicine. Korean medical educators have made significant efforts to enhance the effectiveness of medical education by preparing students for the rapidly changing global environment of medicine and healthcare. This article outlines the reform efforts made by Korean medical schools to meet such demands, which includes the adoption of student-centered and competency-based education, e-learning, and authentic assessment of clinical performance. It also discusses the recent reform of the medical education system, driven by the Government's policy to prepare Korean higher education for an increasingly knowledge-based society. PMID:20163225

  11. Technology transfer to a developing nation, Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, C. A.; Uccetta, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental project is reported which was undertaken. to determine if selected types of technology developed for the aerospace program during the past decade are relevant to specific industrial problems of a developing nation and to test whether a structured program could facilitate the transfer of relevant technologies. The Korea Institute of Science and Technology and the IIT Research Institute were selected as the active transfer agents to participate in the program. The pilot project was based upon the approach to the transfer of domestic technology developed by the NASA Technology Utilization Division and utilized the extensive data and technical resources available through the Space Agency and its contractors. This pilot project has helped to clarify some aspects of the international technology transfer process and to upgrade Korean technological capabilities.

  12. Cereal production assessment for North Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhen; Wang, Changyao; Zhang, Qingyuan

    2000-12-01

    Crop production assessments are extremely valuable because of their economic importance in influencing international trade and national economic policies. Associated with the outstanding problems of food supplies in the world, crop production assessments become more and more important. And because of its good time properties and accuracy, remote sensing is becoming an important method of crop production assessments. And models for the forecasting of crop yields using remote sensing satellite data are studied intensively worldwide. After reviewing the experience gained by other researchers in this field, we selected two models, an NDVI-production regression model and a biomass-estimating model, which might be suitable for the estimation of rice and maize production in Korea-north. Satellite data from 1982 to 1997 were utilized within the models to explain the variation of crop production and obtained good results.

  13. Intertidal meiofauna of Jeju Island, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlyuk, Olga N.; Trebukhova, Yulia A.

    2011-03-01

    For the first time, the structure of the meiobenthos community and marine nematodes in particular was investigated in the different intertidal zones of Jeju Island (South Sea of Korea). A relationship was found between the density of meiobenthic communities and the type of the bottom sediment. In addition, in the silty sediments, nematodes were dominant, while in the sandy sediments harpacticoids and ostracods were dominant groups. Sixty eight species belonging to 60 genera and 19 families of nematodes were found in the whole area. Four different nematode taxocenosis were distinguished using a cluster analysis. Dominant feeding groups were omnivores (2B) and epistratum-feeders (2A). The highest number of non-selective deposit-feeders (1B) was detected in the lagoon with the bottom silty sediments.

  14. Critical Care In Korea: Present and Future.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chae-Man; Kwak, Sang-Hyun; Suh, Gee Young; Koh, Younsuck

    2015-11-01

    Critical (or intensive) care medicine (CCM) is a branch of medicine concerned with the care of patients with potentially reversible life-threatening conditions. Numerous studies have demonstrated that adequate staffing is of crucial importance for patient outcome. Adequate staffing also showed favorable cost-effectiveness in terms of ICU stay, decreased use of resources, and lower re-admission rates. The current status of CCM of our country is not comparable to that of advanced countries. The global pandemic episodes in the past decade showed that our society is not well prepared for severe illnesses or mass casualty. To improve CCM in Korea, reimbursement of the government must be amended such that referral hospitals can hire sufficient number of qualified intensivists and nurses. For the government to address these urgent issues, public awareness of the role of CCM is also required. PMID:26538995

  15. Development of Mental Health Indicators in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hyeree; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Song, Jinhee; Hwang, Tae Yeon

    2012-01-01

    Objective Promoting mental health and preventing mental health problems are important tasks for international organizations and nations. Such goals entail the establishment of active information networks and effective systems and indicators to assess the mental health of populations. This being said, there is a need in Korea develop ways to measure the state of mental health in Korea. Methods This paper reviews the mental health indicator development policies and practices of seven organizations, countries, and regions: WHO, OECD, EU, United States, Australia, UK, and Scotland. Using Delphi method, we conducted two surveys of mental health indicators for experts in the field of mental health. The survey questionnaire included 5 domains: mental health status, mental health factor, mental health system, mental health service, and quality of mental health services. We considered 124 potential mental health indicators out of more than 600 from indicators of international organizations and foreign countries. Results We obtained the top 30 mental health indicators from the surveys. Among them, 10 indicators belong to the mental health system. The most important five mental health indicators are suicide rate, rate of increase in mental disorder treatment, burden caused by mental disorders, adequacy of identifying problems of mental health projects and deriving solutions, and annual prevalence of mental disorders. Conclusion Our study provides information about the process for indicator development and the use of survey results to measure the mental health status of the Korean population. The aim of mental health indicator development is to improve the mental health system by better grasping the current situation. We suggest these mental health indicators can monitor progress in efforts to implement reform policies, provide community services, and involve users, families and other stakeholders in mental health promotion, prevention, care and rehabilitation. PMID:23251193

  16. Shanghanlun in Korea, 1610-1945

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Soyoung

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how Korean physicians of traditional medicine have utilized Zhang Ji’s 張 機 (150–219 CE) Shanghanlun 傷寒論 (Treatise on Cold Damage Disorders, just Treatise hereafter) from the 17th century to the early twentieth century. As one of the two most influential pillars of Chinese medicine, the Treatise, with its clinical implications, has inspired many scholars and practitioners in their pursuit of medical innovation. What, then, have been the Korean motivations in referring to the Treatise over the past few centuries? What does the Korean utilization and modification of the Chinese classic tell us about the desires, limits, and possibilities of pursuing medical innovations in Korea? By examining the ways in which major pre-modern Korean texts employed the Treatise, this article primarily aims to reveal patterns of (re)arranging the Treatise that formed an indigenous style of medicine. Under the growing sense of nationalist concern and colonial contestation in the early twentieth century, the Korean compilation of the Treatise began to depart from the earlier interpretations. A range of nationalist rhetoric and editorial designs reflect the Korean urgency in seeking resources to compete with Western medicine. The postcolonial consumption of the Treatise also reflects Korean strategies in navigating medical references from outside to meet their social and clinical agendas. The changing pattern of textual and professional utilization of the Treatise exemplifies how a significant Chinese text continues to be a living tradition in Korea by expanding the targeted audience and satisfying local demands. PMID:26778942

  17. Experiences with constructed wetland systems in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youngchul, Kim; Gilson, Hwang; Jin-Woo, Lee; Je-Chul, Park; Dong-Sup, Kim; Min-Gi, Kang; in-Soung, Chang

    2006-10-01

    In spite of the low temperature during the winter season and the high land environment, the wetland treatment system is gaining popularity in Korea because of its lower construction cost and simplicity in operation and maintenance. Many different types of wetland treatment systems have been built during the last 10 years, among which the free water surface wetland has been predominant. Most of the large-scale systems are government projects for improving the water quality of the streams flowing into the estuary dikes and reservoirs. The covering plants used in this system are different in different areas but cattails and reeds or their combinations are common. Constructed wetlands in Korea can be characterized by their shallow depths and short hydraulic residence times. There is no established flow pattern and configuration rules for constructing wetlands, but many efforts have been made with a view to improving their ecological function. Flow control is the most difficult problem in designing a riverbed or riparian wetland. There have been scores of flow rate control devices developed for wetlands, but none of them guarantee wetlands’ safety against flooding. In earlier wetland construction, the building materials were mainly soil. Recently, strong and durable building materials such as rocks, gravel beds, concrete and steel are used at vulnerable places to protect them from erosion. Our investigation indicated that the wetland system would be an appropriate technology because it is not only cheaper to construct, but also requires less maintenance work. However, we suffer from the reduced effectiveness in performance during the winter. We need to evaluate the partial treatment accomplished during 6 to 7 months per year.

  18. 75 FR 38158 - Korea Finance Corporation; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMISSION Korea Finance Corporation; Notice of Application June 25, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... Finance Corporation (``Applicant''). SUMMARY: Summary of Application: Applicant, a policy finance...-owned policy finance institution established by the Korean Government on October 28, 2009, pursuant...

  19. Trend of Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Technology in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hoo-Kyu; Papk, Ki-Won

    It can be said that refrigeration and air-conditioning technology in Korea dates back to the ancient dynasty, all the way up to the Sokkuram(700s) and Seokbinggo(1700s), But modern refrigeration and air-conditioning technology was first developed in and introduced to Korea in the1960swith the modernization of Korea, Today it is at a level which meets that of advanced countries in both the industrial and domestic fields. As of 2003, there were about 700 companies that owned cold storage/freezing/refrigeration facilities, with cold storage capacity of about 2,000, 000tons and capacity per company of about 3,000 tons. These facilities most are continuously expanding and automating their facilities. 62 million units of refrigeration and air-conditioning machinery and equipment were produced in 2003, worth a total of 7.7 trillion won(about 7.7 thousand million US). On the academic side there are 9 universities and 12 junior colleges with courses in either refrigeration and air-conditioning or architectural equipment. Academic societies such as the Society of Air-conditioning and Refrigerating Engineers of Korea(SAREK), and industrial societies like the Korean Association of Refrigeration(KAR) are active members of the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry. The1eare also national/government-established research institutions such as the Korea Institute of Science and Technology(KIST), the Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM), the Korea Institute of Energy Research(KIER), and the Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH).

  20. Health Care Reform in South Korea: Success or Failure?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Chan

    2003-01-01

    South Korea is one of the world’s most rapidly industrializing countries. Along with industrialization has come universal health insurance. Within the span of 12 years, South Korea went from private voluntary health insurance to government-mandated universal coverage. Since 1997, with the intervention of the International Monetary Fund, Korean national health insurance (NHI) has experienced deficits and disruption. However, there are lessons to be drawn for the United States from the Korean NHI experience. PMID:12511383