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Sample records for sepetiba rj brasil

  1. Microcystins (cyanobacteria hepatotoxins) bioaccumulation in fish and crustaceans from Sepetiba Bay (Brasil, RJ).

    PubMed

    Magalhães, V F; Marinho, M M; Domingos, P; Oliveira, A C; Costa, S M; Azevedo, L O; Azevedo, S M F O

    2003-09-01

    Blooms of cyanobacteria in water bodies cause serious environmental problems and the occurrence of toxic strains are also related with the human health. Aquatic animals could bioaccumulate microcystins (cyanobacteria hepatotoxins) and so, beyond water, the ingestion of contaminated food represents a human health risk. Recently, WHO recommended a maximum concentration of microcystins (MCYSTs) in drinking water and established the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for consumption of cyanobacteria products contends MCYSTs (0.04 microg(-1) kg(-1) day(-1)). Sepetiba Bay is located in the municipal districts of Rio de Janeiro, Mangaratiba and Itaguai; being an important place of fishing activity. Due to the industrial development in the area, this bay is submitted to different environmental impacts, increasing the organic and industrial pollution. A strain of the nanoplanktonic cyanobacteria Synechocystis aquatilis f. aquatilis that produce MCYSTs was already isolated. In this study, we verified MCYSTs presence in muscle tissue of fish and crustaceans, which were harvested monthly in Sepetiba Bay during 11 months, in order to evaluate the potential risk of their ingestion. MCYSTs were analyzed by immunoassay techniques using the ELISA Microcystin Plate Kit (ENVIROLOGIX INC) and the concentration were expressed as microcystin-LR equivalent. The analyses of seston samples, water, muscle tissues showed the presence of this cyanotoxin in all samples and it was verified that 19% of the animals' samples were above the limit recommended by WHO for human consumption. The maximum value found was of 103.3 microg kg(-1) (TDI 0.52 microg kg(-1) day(-1)) and the minimum, was 0.25 microg kg(-1) in crabs muscle tissue (TDI of 0.001 microg kg(-1) day(-1)). Such data demonstrate that, although in low concentrations, there is already a contamination of fish and crustaceans from Sepetiba Bay. We highlight that the recommended limit refers to healthy adult. PMID:14559080

  2. Lignin phenols used to infer organic matter sources to Sepetiba Bay - RJ, Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezende, C. E.; Pfeiffer, W. C.; Martinelli, L. A.; Tsamakis, E.; Hedges, J. I.; Keil, R. G.

    2010-04-01

    Lignin phenols were measured in the sediments of Sepitiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and in bedload sediments and suspended sediments of the four major fluvial inputs to the bay; São Francisco and Guandu Channels and the Guarda and Cação Rivers. Fluvial suspended lignin yields (Σ8 3.5-14.6 mgC 10 g dw -1) vary little between the wet and dry seasons and are poorly correlated with fluvial chlorophyll concentrations (0.8-50.2 μgC L -1). Despite current land use practices that favor grassland agriculture or industrial uses, fluvial lignin compositions are dominated by a degraded leaf-sourced material. The exception is the Guarda River, which has a slight influence from grasses. The Lignin Phenol Vegetation Index, coupled with acid/aldehyde and 3.5 Db/V ratios, indicate that degraded leaf-derived phenols are also the primary preserved lignin component in the bay. The presence of fringe Typha sp. and Spartina sp. grass beds surrounding portions of the Bay are not reflected in the lignin signature. Instead, lignin entering the bay appears to reflect the erosion of soils containing a degraded signature from the former Atlantic rain forest that once dominated the watershed, instead of containing a significant signature derived from current agricultural uses. A three-component mixing model using the LPVI, atomic N:C ratios, and stable carbon isotopes (which range between -26.8 and -21.8‰) supports the hypothesis that fluvial inputs to the bay are dominated by planktonic matter (78% of the input), with lignin dominated by leaf (14% of the input) over grass (6%). Sediments are composed of a roughly 50-50 mixture of autochthonous material and terrigenous material, with lignin being primarily sourced from leaf.

  3. Large submarine groundwater inputs to Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smoak, J. M.; Patchineelam, S. R.; Sanders, C. J.; Moore, W. S.; Godoy, J. M.

    2006-12-01

    Water samples from Sepetiba Bay, adjacent Ilha Grande Bay as well as the open ocean were investigated for their activities of naturally occurring radium isotopes. Surface waters in Sepetiba Bay were significantly higher in radium as compared to the ocean waters. Using the residence time of water in the bay we calculated the flux required to maintain the observed enrichment over the open ocean waters. We then applied a radium mass balance to estimate the volume of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the bay. The mass balance calculation suggests large inputs of groundwater to Sepetiba Bay.

  4. Combined SEM/AVS and attenuation of concentration models for the assessment of bioavailability and mobility of metals in sediments of Sepetiba Bay (SE Brazil).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Andreza Portella; Figueiredo, Ana Maria Graciano; dos Santos, Jos Osman; Dantas, Elizabeth; Cotrim, Marycel Elena Barboza; Figueira, Rubens Cesar Lopes; Silva Filho, Emmanoel V; Wasserman, Julio Cesar

    2013-03-15

    This study proposes a new methodology to study contamination, bioavailability and mobility of metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) using chemical and geostatistics approaches in marine sediments of Sepetiba Bay (SE Brazil). The chemical model of SEM (simultaneously extracted metals)/AVS (acid volatile sulfides) ratio uses a technique of cold acid extraction of metals to evaluate their bioavailability, and the geostatistical model of attenuation of concentrations estimates the mobility of metals. By coupling the two it was observed that Sepetiba Port, the urban area of Sepetiba and the riverine discharges may constitute potential sources of metals to Sepetiba Bay. The metals are concentrated in the NE area of the bay, where they tend to have their lowest mobility, as shown by the attenuation model, and are not bioavailable, as they tend to associate with sulfide and organic matter originated in the mangrove forests of nearby Guaratiba area. PMID:23498658

  5. Reproductive biology of two marine catfishes (Siluriformes, Ariidae) in the Sepetiba Bay, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Iracema David; Araújo, Francisco Gerson

    2004-03-01

    Marine catfish are abundant in the Sepetiba Bay, a 305 km2 area in Southeast Brazilian coast (Lat. 22 degrees 54' - 23 degrees 04' S: Long. 43 degrees 44' - 44 degrees 10' W), but the knowledge on their biology is still scanty. The reproductive biology of Sciadeichthys luniscutis (Valenciennes 1840) and Genidens genidens (Valenciennes 1839) was studied through monthly sampling, from October 1998 to September 1999. Fishes were caught with a standardized otter trawl, in the interior of Sepetiba Bay, and near to the confluence with a major freshwater contributor. Six gonadal stages were described, based on macroscopic observations of gonad form, size, weight, color and oocyte diameter, and microscopic observations of differences in size and staining in the nucleus and cytoplasm structures, as viewed through a light microscope. Changes in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and in stages of gonadal development showed what S. luniscutis spawned in Spring, while G. genidens spawned in Summer. Total spawning was shown for both species as indicated by high concentration of post-ovulatory follicles in spent stages. Fecundity was low (14-38 vitellogenic oocytes for S. luniscutis and 6-24 for G. genidens). when compared with other teleosts. Low fecundity and separation in spawning period suggest that both species are k-strategist, able to avoid interspecific competition in early stages of life cycle to optimize the use of the available niche. PMID:17357411

  6. Assessment of heavy metals in Egretta thula: case study: Coroa Grande mangrove, Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, A P

    2011-02-01

    This study focuses on metals analysis in kidney and liver tissues of Egretta thula which were collected prostrate or newly dead in Coroa Grande mangrove, Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between March 2005 and October 2008. Kidney and liver were collected and analysed to evaluate heavy metal pollution. High values and widest range were detected for all metals in liver and kidney tissues. Geometric mean differences from metals concentrations for Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu, and Cr, respectively, were found in both organs. Results from linear regression analysis were non-significant in kidney (r = -0.79975, P = 0.10428), and in liver (r = -0.53193, P = 0.35618). With ANOVA analysis for metal accumulation differences (kidney*liver), at the 0.05 level, the results were significantly different (F = 33.17676, P = 0.00000; F = 12.47880, P = 0.00000). These results indicate that Sepetiba Bay shows worrying levels of metals in this study with E. thula, showing potential power of widespread biological and mutagenic adverse effects in trophic levels, and therefore, signalling risk to human health. PMID:21437402

  7. Effect of Rj Genotype and Cultivation Temperature on the Community Structure of Soybean-Nodulating Bradyrhizobia

    PubMed Central

    Shiro, Sokichi; Yamamoto, Akihiro; Umehara, Yosuke; Hayashi, Masaki; Yoshida, Naoto; Nishiwaki, Aya; Yamakawa, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    The nodulation tendency and community structure of indigenous bradyrhizobia on Rj genotype soybean cultivars at cultivation temperatures of 33/28°C, 28/23°C, and 23/18°C for 16/8 h (day/night degrees, hours) were investigated using 780 bradyrhizobial DNA samples from an Andosol with 13 soybean cultivars of four Rj genotypes (non-Rj, Rj2Rj3, Rj4, and Rj2Rj3Rj4). A dendrogram was constructed based on restriction fragment length polymorphism of the PCR products (PCR-RFLP) of the 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer region. Eleven Bradyrhizobium U.S. Department of Agriculture strains were used as a reference. The dendrogram indicated seven clusters based on similarities among the reference strains. The occupancy rate of the Bj123 cluster decreased with increasing cultivation temperature, whereas the occupancy rates of the Bj110 cluster, Be76 cluster, and Be94 cluster increased with increasing cultivation temperature. In particular, the Rj2Rj3Rj4 genotype soybeans were infected with a number of Bj110 clusters, regardless of the increasing cultivation temperature, compared to other Rj genotype soybean cultivars. The ratio of beta diversity to gamma diversity (H′β/H′γ), which represents differences in the bradyrhizobial communities by pairwise comparison among cultivation temperature sets within the same soybean cultivar, indicated that the bradyrhizobial communities tended to be different among cultivation temperatures. Multidimensional scaling analysis indicated that the infection of the Bj110 cluster and the Bj123 cluster by host soybean genotype and the cultivation temperature affected the bradyrhizobial communities. These results suggested that the Rj genotypes and cultivation temperatures affected the nodulation tendency and community structures of soybean-nodulating bradyrhizobia. PMID:22156423

  8. Analysis of the Body Distribution of Absorbed Dose in the Organs of Three Species of Fish from Sepetiba Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Wagner de S; Kelecom, Alphonse; Santos Gouvea, Rita de Cassia dos; Azevedo Py Junior, Delcy de

    2008-08-07

    The body distribution of Polonium-210 in three fishes from the Sepetiba Bay (Macrodon ancylodon, Micropogonias furnieri and Mugil curema) has been studied under the approach of the Department of Energy of the United States of America (DOE) that set the limit of absorbed dose rate in biota equal to 3.5x10{sup 3} {mu}Gy/y, and that also established the relation between dose rate (D) and radionuclide concentration (c) on a fish muscle fresh weight basis, as follows: D = 5.05 ExNxC, assuming that the radionuclide distribution is homogenous among organs. Two hypotheses were tested here, using statistical tools: 1) is the body distribution of absorbed dose homogenous among organs? and 2) is the body distribution of absorbed dose identical among studied fishes? It was concluded, as expected, that the distribution among organs is heterogeneous; but, unexpectedly, that the three fishes display identical body distribution pattern, although they belong to different trophic levels. Hence, concerning absorbed dose calculation, the statement that data distribution is homogenous must be understood merely as an approximation, at least in the case of Polonium-210.

  9. Comprehensive royal jelly (RJ) proteomics using one- and two-dimensional proteomics platforms reveals novel RJ proteins and potential phospho/glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Furusawa, Takako; Rakwal, Randeep; Nam, Hyung Wook; Shibato, Junko; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Kim, Yu Sam; Ogawa, Yoko; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Kouzuma, Yoshiaki; Masuo, Yoshinori; Yonekura, Masami

    2008-08-01

    Royal jelly (RJ) is an exclusive food for queen honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) that is synthesized and secreted by young worker bees. RJ is also widely used in medical products, cosmetics, and as health foods. However, little is known about RJ functionality and the total protein components, although recent research is attempting to unravel the RJ proteome. We have embarked on a detailed investigation of the RJ proteome, using a modified protein extraction protocol and two complementary proteomics approaches, one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (1-DGE and 2-DGE) in conjunction with tandem mass spectrometry. Simultaneously, we examined total soluble protein from RJ collected at 24, 48, and 72 h after honey bee larvae deposition twice (in two flower blooming seasons), to check differences, if any, in RJ proteome therein. Both 1- and 2-D gels stained with silver nitrate revealed similar protein profiles among these three time points. However, we observed a clear difference in two bands (ca. MW of 55 and 75 kDa) on 1-D gel between the first and the second collection of RJ. A similar difference was also observed in the 2-D gel. Except for this difference, the protein profiles were similar at the 3 time points. As the RJ from 48 (or sometimes 72) is commercially used, we selected the RJ sample at 48 h for detailed analysis with the first collection. 1-DGE identified 90 and 15 proteins from the first and second selection, respectively; in total, 47 nonredundant proteins were identified. 2-DGE identified 105 proteins comprising 14 nonredundant proteins. In total, 52 nonredundant proteins were identified in this study, and other than the major royal jelly protein family and some other previously identified proteins, 42 novel proteins were identified. Furthermore, we also report potentially post-translationally modified (phosphorylation and glycosylation) RJ proteins based on the Pro-Q diamond/emerald phosphoprotein/glycoprotein gel stains; MRJP 2p and 7p were suggested as potential phosphoproteins. The 2-DGE data were integrated to develop a 2-D gel reference map, and all data are accessible through RJ proteomics portal (http://foodfunc.agr.ibaraki.ac.jp/RJP.html). PMID:18578520

  10. Archaeal and bacterial communities of heavy metal contaminated acidic waters from zinc mine residues in Sepetiba Bay.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Welington I; Vieira, Ricardo P; Cardoso, Alexander Machado; Silveira, Cynthia B; Costa, Rebeca G; Gonzalez, Alessandra M; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Medeiros, João A; Freitas, Flávia A; Albano, Rodolpho M; Martins, Orlando B

    2009-03-01

    Mining of metallic sulfide ore produces acidic water with high metal concentrations that have harmful consequences for aquatic life. To understand the composition and structure of microbial communities in acid mine drainage (AMD) waters associated with Zn mine tailings, molecular diversity of 16S genes was examined using a PCR, cloning, and sequencing approach. A total of 78 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from samples collected at five different sites in and around mining residues in Sepetiba Bay, Brazil. We analyzed metal concentration, physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters related to prokaryotic diversity in low metal impacted compared to highly polluted environments with Zn at level of gram per liter and Cd-Pb at level of microgram per liter. Application of molecular methods for community structure analyses showed that Archaea and Bacteria groups present a phylogenetic relationship with uncultured environmental organisms. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that bacteria present at the five sites fell into seven known divisions, alpha-Proteobacteria (13.4%), beta-Proteobacteria (16.3%), gamma-Proteobacteria (4.3%), Sphingobacteriales (4.3%), Actinobacteria (3.2%) Acidobacteria (2.1%), Cyanobacteria (11.9%), and unclassified bacteria (44.5%). Almost all archaeal clones were related to uncultivated Crenarchaeota species, which were shared between high impacted and low impacted waters. Rarefaction curves showed that bacterial groups are more diverse than archaeal groups while the overall prokaryotic biodiversity is lower in high metal impacted environments than in less polluted habitats. Knowledge of this microbial community structure will help in understanding prokaryotic diversity, biogeography, and the role of microorganisms in zinc smelting AMD generation and perhaps it may be exploited for environmental remediation procedures in this area. PMID:19089530

  11. Acid Volatile Sulfides (avs) and the Bioavailability of Trace Metals in the Channel of the SÃO Francisco River, Sepetiba Bay - de Janeiro-Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monte, Christiane; Rodrigues, Ana Paula; Marinho, Matheus; Quaresma, Tássia; Machado, Wilson

    2014-05-01

    Sepetiba Bay has 430 Km2 of internal and 2,500 Km2 area of the drainage basin (Lacerda et al., 2007), located 60 km west of the city of Rio de Janeiro. Sepetiba Bay has 430 Km2 of internal and 2,500 Km2 area of the drainage basin (Lacerda et al., 2007), located 60 km west of the city of Rio de Janeiro.The San Francisco channel comes from the Guandu River and empties into Sepetiba Bay and is the main contributor of freshwater to the estuarine system. The Guandu River system/channel of San Francisco receives contribution of domestic and industrial effluents, which go largely to Sepetiba Bay. This work aimed to evaluate the .This work aimed to evaluate the ratio SEM/AVS as a way of predicting bioavailability trace metals from industrial sewage, mainly, in the estuarine system of Sepetiba. This model is based on the property of some Divalent metal cations (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn), by presenting a low solubility constant, are removed from the soluble fraction by precipitation, forming secondary metal sulfides. Were held four transects, made up of three points each, the coast line to the center of the Bay. The surface sediment was collected with a van Veen sampler type ,packed in glass jars and kept frozen until analysis.The determination of SEM/AVS followed the methodology described by Allen et al. (1991). The variation between sulfide 159.88 ± 0.05 µmol/g on 12 points. The metals that entered the sum of simultaneous extraction were: Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn ranging from: 6.47 ± 0.11 µmol/g on sum.The means (± standard deviation) ratio SEM/AVS per transect were: 1.04 ± 1.20 (transect 1); 0.48 ± 0.53 (transect 2); 1.26 ± 1.32 (transect 3) and 0.18 ± 0.14 (transect 4). Only transects 1 and 3 had higher results than 1 , meaning that there are more divalent metal sulfides in the environment. This means that only the sulfides would not be capable of complex and may reflect the potential bioavailability of these in the aquatic environment. There is no statistical difference between the transects. According to the studies done previously in the area for concentrations of AVS MADDOCK et at. (2007) found values greater than 290 μmol g-1, MACHADO et al. (2008) found concentrations between 5.2-121 μmol g-1 in the Herons Cove and RODRIGUES (2013) found concentrations between 14.26 to 41.46 μmol g-1 in the Engenho's Sac.The results may reflect the oxic conditions of the environment, which interferes with the reduction of SO4. Additionally, other mechanisms of metal retention in the sediment may be occurring at the site, together with the interfering sulfide. Key words: estuary sediment and simultaneous extraction of metals.

  12. (399307) 1991 RJ2: A New NEA Binary Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Brian D.; Pollock, Joseph T.; Reichart, Daniel E.; Haislip, Joshua B.; LaCluyze, Aaron P.; Verveer, Arie; Spuck, Tim; Harris, Alan W.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of CCD photometric observations of the near- Earth asteroid (399307) 1991 RJ2 made in 2014 August- September show it to be a binary system with a primary period of 3.4907 ± 0.0002 h and orbital period of 15.917 ± 0.001 h. The depth of the secondary mutual event indicates a minimum effective diameter ratio (Ds/Dp) of 0.47 ± 0.02. The lightcurve showing the orbital period and mutual events indicates a slightly elongated (a/b ~ 1.07/1.0) satellite that is tidally-locked to the orbital period.

  13. 75 FR 18253 - R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC-Acquisition Exemption-NC Railroad, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC--Acquisition Exemption--NC Railroad, Inc. R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC (RJC Railroad Property), a Class III rail carrier, has filed a... concurrently filed notice of exemption in STB Finance Docket No. 35364, R.J. Corman Railroad...

  14. 75 FR 75205 - R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Central Kentucky Lines, LLC-Trackage Rights Exemption-CSX...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-02

    ... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Central Kentucky Lines, LLC-- Trackage Rights...,\\1\\ CSX Transportation, Inc. (CSXT) has agreed to grant limited overhead trackage rights to R.J... original notices, R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Central Kentucky Lines, LLC--Acquisition and...

  15. Geochemical behavior and dissolved species control in acid sand pit lakes, Sepetiba sedimentary basin, Rio de Janeiro, SE - Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Eduardo D.; Sella, Sílvia M.; Bidone, Edison D.; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel V.

    2010-12-01

    This work shows the influence of pluvial waters on dissolved components and mineral equilibrium of four sand pit lakes, located in the Sepetiba sedimentary basin, SE Brazil. The sand mining activities promote sediment oxidation, lowering pH and increasing SO 4 contents. The relatively high acidity of these waters, similar to ore pit lakes environment and associated acid mine drainage, increases weathering rate, especially of silicate minerals, which produces high Al concentrations, the limiting factor for fish aquaculture. During the dry season, basic cations (Ca, Mg, K and Na), SiO 2 and Al show their higher values due to evapoconcentration and pH are buffered. In the beginning of the wet season, the dilution factor by rainwater increases SO 4 and decreases pH values. The aluminum monomeric forms (Al(OH) 2+ and Al(OH) 2+), the most toxic species for aquatic organisms, occur during the dry season, while AlSO 4+ species predominate during the wet season. Gibbsite, allophane, alunite and jurbanite are the reactive mineral phases indicated by PHREEQC modeling. During the dry season, hydroxialuminosilicate allophane is the main phase in equilibrium with the solution, while the sulphate salts alunite and jurbanite predominate in the rainy season due to the increasing of SO 4 values. Gibbsite is also in equilibrium with sand pit lakes waters, pointing out that hydrolysis reaction is a constant process in the system. Comparing to SiO 2, sulphate is the main Al retriever in the pit waters because the most samples (alunite and jurbanite) are in equilibrium with the solution in both seasons. This Al hydrochemical control allied to some precaution, like pH correction and fertilization of these waters, allows the conditions for fishpond culture. Equilibrium of the majority samples with kaolinite (Ca, Mg, Na diagrams) and primary minerals (K diagram) points to moderate weathering rate in sand pit sediments, which cannot be considered for the whole basin due to the anomalous acidification of the studied waters.

  16. Identification of Bradyrhizobium elkanii Genes Involved in Incompatibility with Soybean Plants Carrying the Rj4 Allele.

    PubMed

    Faruque, Omar M; Miwa, Hiroki; Yasuda, Michiko; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Kaneko, Takakazu; Sato, Shusei; Okazaki, Shin

    2015-10-01

    Symbioses between leguminous plants and soil bacteria known as rhizobia are of great importance to agricultural production and nitrogen cycling. While these mutualistic symbioses can involve a wide range of rhizobia, some legumes exhibit incompatibility with specific strains, resulting in ineffective nodulation. The formation of nodules in soybean plants (Glycine max) is controlled by several host genes, which are referred to as Rj genes. The soybean cultivar BARC2 carries the Rj4 gene, which restricts nodulation by specific strains, including Bradyrhizobium elkanii USDA61. Here we employed transposon mutagenesis to identify the genetic locus in USDA61 that determines incompatibility with soybean varieties carrying the Rj4 allele. Introduction of the Tn5 transposon into USDA61 resulted in the formation of nitrogen fixation nodules on the roots of soybean cultivar BARC2 (Rj4 Rj4). Sequencing analysis of the sequence flanking the Tn5 insertion revealed that six genes encoding a putative histidine kinase, transcriptional regulator, DNA-binding transcriptional activator, helix-turn-helix-type transcriptional regulator, phage shock protein, and cysteine protease were disrupted. The cysteine protease mutant had a high degree of similarity with the type 3 effector protein XopD of Xanthomonas campestris. Our findings shed light on the diverse and complicated mechanisms that underlie these highly host-specific interactions and indicate the involvement of a type 3 effector in Rj4 nodulation restriction, suggesting that Rj4 incompatibility is partly mediated by effector-triggered immunity. PMID:26187957

  17. Identification of Bradyrhizobium elkanii Genes Involved in Incompatibility with Soybean Plants Carrying the Rj4 Allele

    PubMed Central

    Faruque, Omar M.; Miwa, Hiroki; Yasuda, Michiko; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Kaneko, Takakazu; Sato, Shusei

    2015-01-01

    Symbioses between leguminous plants and soil bacteria known as rhizobia are of great importance to agricultural production and nitrogen cycling. While these mutualistic symbioses can involve a wide range of rhizobia, some legumes exhibit incompatibility with specific strains, resulting in ineffective nodulation. The formation of nodules in soybean plants (Glycine max) is controlled by several host genes, which are referred to as Rj genes. The soybean cultivar BARC2 carries the Rj4 gene, which restricts nodulation by specific strains, including Bradyrhizobium elkanii USDA61. Here we employed transposon mutagenesis to identify the genetic locus in USDA61 that determines incompatibility with soybean varieties carrying the Rj4 allele. Introduction of the Tn5 transposon into USDA61 resulted in the formation of nitrogen fixation nodules on the roots of soybean cultivar BARC2 (Rj4 Rj4). Sequencing analysis of the sequence flanking the Tn5 insertion revealed that six genes encoding a putative histidine kinase, transcriptional regulator, DNA-binding transcriptional activator, helix-turn-helix-type transcriptional regulator, phage shock protein, and cysteine protease were disrupted. The cysteine protease mutant had a high degree of similarity with the type 3 effector protein XopD of Xanthomonas campestris. Our findings shed light on the diverse and complicated mechanisms that underlie these highly host-specific interactions and indicate the involvement of a type 3 effector in Rj4 nodulation restriction, suggesting that Rj4 incompatibility is partly mediated by effector-triggered immunity. PMID:26187957

  18. Genetic analysis of the bacteriocin-encoding plasmids pRJ6 and pRJ9 of Staphylococcus aureus by transposon mutagenesis and cloning of genes involved in bacteriocin production.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, S S; Nascimento, J S; Póvoa, D C; de Araújo, S A; Gamon, M R; Bastos, M C

    1998-12-01

    pRJ6 and pRJ9, small Staphylococcus aureus plasmids which code for bacteriocins, exhibited a bactericidal activity against several lactic acid bacteria and strains of Listeria monocytogenes, an important food-borne pathogen. Filter-mating experiments using plasmid derivatives tagged with either Tn551 or Tn917-lac showed that pRJ6, but not pRJ9, could be mobilized by staphylococcal conjugative plasmids. Transposon mutagenesis of both plasmids was also performed. The bacteriocin and immunity structural genes of pRJ6 are part of the same operon, which is located around co-ordinate 4.0, being transcribed from right to left. However, gene cloning experiments using a staphylococcal vector showed some evidence for the involvement of additional functions of pRJ6 in bacteriocin expression. One function involved in pRJ6 mobilization mapped around co-ordinate 5.2, and it appears to be transcribed from left to right. The bactericidal action exerted by strains harbouring pRJ9 appears to reflect the activity of at least two bacteriocins, whose combined action results in a broader spectrum of activity and in a higher antagonistic activity. Gene cloning experiments also supported these assumptions. PMID:9871317

  19. 75 FR 52818 - R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Central Kentucky Lines, LLC-Trackage Rights Exemption-CSX...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Central Kentucky Lines, LLC-- Trackage Rights... Transportation, Inc. (CSXT) has agreed to grant additional limited overhead trackage rights \\1\\ to R.J. Corman... Louisville, Ky., a distance of approximately 17 miles.\\2\\ \\1\\ The original rights were obtained by...

  20. 77 FR 30588 - R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Pennsylvania Lines Inc.-Construction and Operation Exemption-In...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Pennsylvania Lines Inc.-- Construction and... prior approval requirements of 49 U.S.C. 10901 for R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Pennsylvania Lines...

  1. 75 FR 18254 - R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line-Lease and Operation Exemption-R.J. Corman Railroad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line--Lease and Operation Exemption--R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line (RJC Railroad Company... from R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC (RJC Railroad Property), and to operate approximately 42...

  2. Functional analysis of alternative transcripts of the soybean Rj2 gene that restricts nodulation with specific rhizobial strains.

    PubMed

    Tang, F; Yang, S; Zhu, H

    2016-05-01

    The Rj2 gene is a TIR-NBS-LRR-type resistance gene in soybean (Glycine max) that restricts root nodule symbiosis with a group of Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains including USDA122. Rj2 generates two distinct transcript variants in its expression profile through alternative splicing. Alternative splicing of Rj2 is caused by the retention of the 86-bp intron 4. Inclusion of intron 4 in mature mRNA introduces an in-frame stop codon; as such, the alternative transcript is predicted to encode a truncated protein consisting of the entire portion of the TIR, NBS and LRR domains but missing the C-terminal domain of the full-length Rj2 protein encoded by the regular transcript. Since alternative splicing has been shown to be essential for full activity of several plant R genes, we attempted to test whether the alternative splicing is required for Rj2-mediated nodulation restriction. Here we demonstrated that the Rj2-mediated nodulation restriction does not require the combined presence of the regular and alternative transcripts, and the expression of the regular transcript alone is sufficient to confer nodulation restriction. PMID:26848549

  3. Endophytic Bacillus subtilis Strain E1R-J Is a Promising Biocontrol Agent for Wheat Powdery Mildew

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yufei; Huo, Yunxia; Han, Qingmei; Kang, Zhensheng; Huang, Lili

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the biocontrol efficacies of 14 endophytic bacterial strains were tested against Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) in pot experiments under greenhouse conditions. Bacillus subtilis strain E1R-j significantly reduced disease index and exhibited the best control (90.97%). When different formulations of E1R-j were sprayed 24 h before Bgt inoculation, fermentation liquid without bacterial cell and crude protein suspension displayed the similar effects; and they reduced disease index more than bacterial cell suspension (109 cfu mL−1) and fermentation liquid without protein. The control effects were not significantly different between 1011 and 109 cfu mL−1 of bacterial cell suspension but were higher than 107 cfu mL−1. Further observations showed that conidial germination and appressorial formation of Bgt were retarded by spraying E1R-j 24 h before Bgt inoculation. Compared with the water check, conidial germination and appressorial formation were decreased by 43.3% and 42.7%, respectively. In the treatment with E1R-j, the number of houstoria significantly reduced and the speed of mycelial extension was slowed down in the wheat leaves. Scanning electron microscopy observation revealed that E1R-j significantly suppressed the conidial germination and caused rupture and deformation of germ tubes. On the surface of wheat leaves, mycelia and conidiophores became shrinking. PMID:25759819

  4. 76 FR 39155 - R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC-Acquisition Exemption-NC Railroad, Inc

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... Register on April 9, 2010 (75 FR 18,253), and became effective on April 25, 2010. On May 28, 2010, RJC... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC--Acquisition Exemption--NC Railroad, Inc R. J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC (RJC Railroad Property), a Class III rail carrier, filed a...

  5. RJ 051542+0104.7: A new magnetic, eclipsing, cataclysmic variable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garnavich, Peter M.; Szkody, Paula; Robb, Russell M.; Zurek, David R.; Hoard, D. W.

    1994-01-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of a recently identified X-ray bright, magnetic cataclysmic variable, RJ 051542+0104.7. The X-ray source was discovered serendipitously by Walter et al. (1994; Walter & Zoonematkermani 1994), and their data imply the presence of a heated white dwarf compatible with a magnetic accretion column. Buckley (1994) has reported the presence of circular polarization. Our optical photometry shows that the system undergoes eclipses with a period of 7.9835 +/- 0.0002 hours. The eclipse is 1 magnitude deep and appears to be total. Our spectra were all obtained near eclipse and show a strong blue continuum with broad Balmer emission as well as He II (4686 and 5411 A), C III/N III (4650 A) and He I lines. The blue continuum and emission lines disappear during eclipse, leaving only the spectrum of a M0 star. Using the observed magnitude during eclipse and ignoring interstellar extinction, the distance is approximately 500 pc. For the secondary to fill its Roche lobe, it must be at least 20% larger than that of a normal dM0 star. This may indicate the red dwarf is far from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) due to strong magnetic braking. We find evidence for cyclotron humps in the continuum spectrum which imply a magnetic field strength in the cyclotron emitting region of up to 55 MG. The unexpected existence of a long period AM Her system should provide constraints on models of polar evolution.

  6. Reproductive biology of Astyanax janeiroensis (Osteichthyes, Characidae) from the Ubatiba river, Maricá, RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, R; Mendonça, R S; Caramaschi, E P

    2005-11-01

    Aspects of the reproductive biology of Astyanax janeiroensis in the Ubatiba river in Maricá, RJ, Brazil were evaluated in order to ascertain whether the strategy adopted by the species is causally related to environmental variables. Specimens were collected on a monthly basis from October 1994 to September 1995, through electrofishing. The Sex ratio was not significantly different from the expected frequency of 1:1 (G = 1.29; p > 0.50); nonetheless, considering three standard length classes, significantly larger numbers of females were recorded for the higher SL class (G = 11.07; p < 0.01). Size at first maturation showed no significant differences between sexes. Length-weight ratio analyses showed negative allometry for males and isometry, for females. Length structure was significantly different between sexes, suggesting that females are larger than males (D = 0.027, p < 0.01). Reproductive specimens were recorded during nine months of the annual cycle. Seasonal variations of reproductive specimens belonging to two different standard length classes displayed an asynchronous behavior, with larger specimens having a longer reproductive period and smaller ones reproducing for fewer months during the annual cycle. High values of fecundity (F), varying from 3169 to 18714 oocytes, were recorded for fish of 9.1 and 10.2 cm lengths, respectively. The correlation between weight and number of oocytes/unit of weight was positive, indicating that larger specimens produced more eggs. PMID:16532189

  7. “A Whole ’Nother Smoke” or a Cigarette in Disguise: How RJ Reynolds Reframed the Image of Little Cigars

    PubMed Central

    Delnevo, Cristine D.; Hrywna, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Present-day consumption of little cigars rivals that of the early 1970s when sales of little cigars boomed. This boom was largely attributed to RJ Reynolds, and documents reveal how and why they became a powerful force in little cigar sales. RJ Reynolds designed a little cigar, Winchesters, for cigarette smokers and produced one as close to a cigarette as legally possible. Initially, RJ Reynolds intended to capitalize on the cigarette advertising broadcast ban, but the price and tax structure was more critical to Winchester’s success. Today, the tobacco industry is fighting again to sustain its unique application of federal definitions for little cigars. Regulatory efforts are needed to close taxation loopholes for the little cigar. PMID:17600253

  8. 77 FR 1667 - Nelson S. Galgoul, Av. Edison Passess 909, Rio De Janeiro, R.J., Brazil 20531-070, Respondent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ..., the most recent being that of August 12, 2011 (76 FR 50,661 (Aug. 16, 2011)), has continued the... Bureau of Industry and Security Nelson S. Galgoul, Av. Edison Passess 909, Rio De Janeiro, R.J., Brazil... program from the United States to Iran via Brazil, without the required U.S. Government...

  9. A Putative Type III Secretion System Effector Encoded by the MA20_12780 Gene in Bradyrhizobium japonicum Is-34 Causes Incompatibility with Rj4 Genotype Soybeans

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Syougo; Okizaki, Kouhei; Kanesaki, Yu; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Yamakawa, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    The nodulation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum Is-34 is restricted by Rj4 genotype soybeans (Glycine max). To identify the genes responsible for this incompatibility, Tn5 mutants of B. japonicum Is-34 that were able to overcome this nodulation restriction were obtained. Analysis of the Tn5 mutants revealed that Tn5 was inserted into a region containing the MA20_12780 gene. In addition, direct disruption of this gene using marker exchange overcame the nodulation restriction by Rj4 genotype soybeans. The MA20_12780 gene has a tts box motif in its upstream region, indicating a possibility that this gene encodes a type III secretion system (T3SS) effector protein. Bioinformatic characterization revealed that the MA20_12780 protein contains the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protease domain of the C48 peptidase (ubiquitin-like protease 1 [Ulp1]) family. The results of the present study indicate that a putative T3SS effector encoded by the MA20_12780 gene causes the incompatibility with Rj4 genotype soybeans, and they suggest the possibility that the nodulation restriction of B. japonicum Is-34 may be due to Rj4 genotype soybeans recognizing the putative T3SS effector (MA20_12780 protein) as a virulence factor. PMID:26092458

  10. Purification and characterization of a potential antifungal protein from Bacillus subtilis E1R-J against Valsa mali.

    PubMed

    Wang, N N; Yan, X; Gao, X N; Niu, H J; Kang, Z S; Huang, L L

    2016-04-01

    In order to identify the antagonistic substances produced by Bacillus subtilis E1R-J as candidate of biocontrol agents for controlling Apple Valsa Canker, hydrochloric acid precipitation, reverse phase chromatography, gel filtration, and ion exchange chromatography were used. The purified fraction EP-2 showed a single band in native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (native-PAGE) and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Fraction EP-2 was eluted from native-PAGE and showed a clear inhibition zone against V. mali 03-8. These results prove that EP-2 is one of the most important antifungal substances produced by B. subtilis E1R-J in fermentation broth. SDS-PAGE and Nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis results demonstrated that EP-2 was likely an antifungal peptide (trA0A086WXP9), with a relative molecular mass of 12.44 kDa and isoelectric point of 9.94. The examination of antagonistic mechanism under SEM and TEM showed that EP-2 appeared to inhibit Valsa mali 03-8 by causing hyphal swelling, distortion, abnormality and protoplasts extravasation. Inhibition spectrum results showed that antifungal protein EP-2 had significantly inhibition on sixteen kinds of plant pathogenic fungi. The stability test results showed that protein EP-2 was stable with antifungal activity at temperatures as high as 100 °C for 30 min and in pH values ranging from 1.0 to 8.0, or incubated with each 5 mM Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Mg(2+), or K(+). However, the antifungal activity was negatively affected by Proteinase K treatment. PMID:26925625

  11. [Eating practices during pregnancy: a study of low-income pregnant and postpartum women in Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Baião, Mirian Ribeiro; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira

    2010-10-01

    This study aimed to analyze the self-reported eating practices of pregnant and postpartum women living in a group of slum communities in the city of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. The interpretative methodology used a semi-structured interview and thematic content analysis. The sample (n=26) consisted of 18 pregnant and 8 postpartum women, of whom 7 were adolescents and 19 adults, including both primiparous and multiparous subjects. According to these women, eating while watching television, eating out, and eating with relatives and friends on weekends were forms of associating leisure-time activities with food, thus increasing their pleasure in eating. Income was identified as the principal obstacle to consuming healthier foods, which were reserved for their children as a priority. Thus, milk, vegetables, greens, and fruit were rarely consumed. Their diet consisted mainly of rice, beans and chicken. There was a clear preference for "junk food". The women were limited to a monotonous diet. It is important to understand and value socio-cultural and economic issues that influence eating practices in order for food and nutritional orientation aimed at healthy eating to be negotiated and adjusted to pregnant women's objective and subjective needs. PMID:21049161

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium striatum 1961 BR-RJ/09, a Multidrug-Susceptible Strain Isolated from the Urine of a Hospitalized 37-Year-Old Female Patient.

    PubMed

    Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana L; Guimarães, Luis C; Santos, Carolina S; Veras, Adonney A O; Carneiro, Adriana R; Soares, Siomar C; Ramos, Juliana N; Souza, Cassius; Vieira, Veronica V; Hirata, Raphael; Azevedo, Vasco; Pacheco, Luis G C; Silva, Artur; Ramos, Rommel T J

    2015-01-01

    Corynebacterium striatum commonly colonizes the normal skin and nasopharyngeal tract of humans; however, this potentially pathogenic bacterium has been identified as the causative agent of several nosocomial infections. The current study describes the draft genome of strain 1961 BR-RJ/09, isolated from the urine of a hospitalized patient from Brazil. PMID:26251495

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium striatum 1961 BR-RJ/09, a Multidrug-Susceptible Strain Isolated from the Urine of a Hospitalized 37-Year-Old Female Patient

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Luis C.; Santos, Carolina S.; Veras, Adonney A. O.; Carneiro, Adriana R.; Soares, Siomar C.; Ramos, Juliana N.; Souza, Cassius; Vieira, Veronica V.; Hirata, Raphael; Azevedo, Vasco; Pacheco, Luis G. C.; Silva, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Corynebacterium striatum commonly colonizes the normal skin and nasopharyngeal tract of humans; however, this potentially pathogenic bacterium has been identified as the causative agent of several nosocomial infections. The current study describes the draft genome of strain 1961 BR-RJ/09, isolated from the urine of a hospitalized patient from Brazil. PMID:26251495

  14. “And they told two friends…and so on”: RJ Reynolds’ viral marketing of Eclipse and its potential to mislead the public

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, S J; Ling, P M

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore viral marketing strategies for Eclipse cigarettes used by the RJ Reynolds Company (Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA). Methods Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents and multimedia materials. Results The failure of RJ Reynolds’ (RJR) 1988 “smokeless” cigarette, Premier, was in part due to widespread bad word of mouth about the product’s flavour, quality and difficulty of use. In 1994 RJR introduced an updated version of Premier, the ostensibly “reduced risk” Eclipse cigarette. RJR developed viral marketing channels to promote Eclipse using (1) exploratory interviews to motivate consumers to spread the word about Eclipse prior to market release, (2) promotional videos featuring positive feedback from test group participants to portray majority consensus among triers, (3) “Tupperware”-like parties for Eclipse where participants received samples to pass around in their social circles and (4) the Eclipse website’s bulletin board as a forum for potential users to discuss the brand in their own words. These strategies targeted the brand’s likeliest adopters, recruited informal and credible representatives of the product unaffiliated with RJR, and controlled the information spread about the product. Conclusions Viral marketing techniques may be particularly useful to promote new tobacco products such as Eclipse that have limited appeal and need a highly motivated audience of early adopters and acceptors. Such techniques help evade the mass rejection that could follow mass promotion, circumvent marketing restrictions, and allow tobacco companies to benefit from health claims made by consumers. Cigarette manufacturers must be held accountable for perceived health benefits encouraged by all promotional activities including viral marketing. PMID:18332064

  15. [Domestic violence against children and prospects for intervention of the Family Health Program: the experience of the Family Doctor Program/Niterói (RJ, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Pedro Carlos Xavier da; Moraes, Claudia Leite

    2011-07-01

    This study seeks to estimate the prevalence of psychological and physical violence practiced against children in the family environment among clients of the Family Medical Program in Niterói (RJ). It also discloses some potential opportunities for action in the prevention, early detection and monitoring of families experiencing violence. This population-based survey was conducted with face-to-face interviews with parents or legal sponsors of 278 children registered in 27 teams of the Family Health Program. The population studied was randomly selected among children up to ten years of age. The Brazilian version of Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales - CTSPC was employed to assess the occurrence of this type of violence. Psychological aggression occurred in 96.7% (CI 95%: 94.7-98.8) of the households, and corporal punishment occurred in 93.8% (CI 95%: 92.0-96.7). Minor physical violence was reported by 51.4% (CI 95%: 45.5-57.3) of the respondents, and severe physical maltreatment by 19.8% (CI 95%: 15.1-24.5) of them. Although the mother was the foremost perpetrator of all kinds of maltreatment, most of the children were abused by both parents. In view of these results, domestic violence against children should be seen as a main concern for the Family Health Program. PMID:21808916

  16. [Repeated pregnancy among adolescents and social vulnerability in Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Brazil): data analysis of Information System on Live Births].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Katia Silveira; Rozenberg, Riva; Bonan, Claudia; Chuva, Vânia Cristina Costa; da Costa, Simoni Furtado; Gomes, Maria Auxiliadora de Souza Mendes

    2011-05-01

    Repeated pregnancy (RP) among adolescents is seldom researched in Brazil, even tough the debate on the reproductive rights is important for this extract of population. A transversal study was developed with data from the Declaration of Live Births of adolescent mothers, living in Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Brazil), in 2005. The aim was to estimate the magnitude and features associated with RP. Prevalence ratios (PR) of RP, with 95% confidence interval (CI) for selected variables, were estimated through log-binomial multivariate regression. Among 12,168 adolescents, a RP prevalence of 29.1% was identified and the principal factors associated were: age 15-19 anos (PR=5.42; RI 95% 3.72-7.81); not doing prenatal consultation (RP=2.36; CI 95% 2.16-2.58); educational status<4 anos (PR=1.48; CI 95% 1.25-1.76); housewife job (PR=1.8; CI 95% 1.57-2.15) or other (PR=1.9; CI 95%; 1.73-2.10). Giving birth by cesarean section and low birth weight were negatively associated to repeated pregnancy with RP equal to 0,94 (CI 95%; 0,86-0,99) and 0.69 (CI 95%; 0.62-0.77). The adolescents with RP had worst socioeconomic and assistance indicators than those on their first pregnancy. Specific social policies for adolescent mothers, in vulnerable situation, will enable them to have better conditions to exercise their reproductive rights. PMID:21655722

  17. IDD-BRASIL: Implementation and Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagas, G. O.; Almeida, W. G.; Yoksas, T.; Cutrim, E. M.; Garrana, D.

    2007-05-01

    In response to the academic meteorological community's demand for real-time weather data, and access to datasets not readily available, the Unidata Program of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) developed the Internet Data Distribution, IDD system. With a modest beginning in the early 1990's, IDD has grown to become the leading Internet2 advanced-application by delivering over 20 terabytes of data per week to over 160 institutions in the US and around the world. Meteorological and related real-time data, model output, and a vast amount of experimental products are delivered at no cost to the Unidata participating institutions. In 2004, through a collaboration among three leading universities and research centers in Brazil, the Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos (CPTEC/INPE), the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), and the Universidade de São Paulo (USP), the Unidata IDD has expanded into Brazil creating a data sharing peer, the IDD-Brasil. Throughout a series of outreach initiatives, the IDD-Brasil is extending its reach, providing data to universities in Argentina, Chile, Africa and Portugal. By lowering the barrier between distant institutions, participants are now cooperating and sharing many datasets that were not generally available outside their organizations. Future plans include the deployment of a new data-relay node in cooperation with Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal in order to provide a local source of data for institutions in Portugal and Africa, and the distribution of products derived from the GOES-10 satellite, which covers mainly South America, through IDD in real-time. Jointly, the IDD and IDD-Brasil are fostering new collaborations among universities, WMO Regional Meteorological Training Centers, and national meteorological agencies, empowering the Atmospheric Sciences across several countries.

  18. The geomorphology and ground penetrating radar survey results of the Múlajökull and Þjórsárjökull surge-type glaciers, central Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karušs, Jānis; Lamsters, Kristaps; Běrziņš, Dāvids

    2015-04-01

    Múlajökull and Þjórsárjökull are surge-type outlet glaciers of the Hofsjökull ice cap, central Iceland (Björnsson et al., 2003). The forefield of Múlajökull comprises the active drumlin field of more than 110 drumlins (Johnson et al., 2010; Jónsson et al., 2014) and therefore is an excellent area for studies of glacial geomorphology, subglacial topography and ice structures. This work describes preliminary results obtained during the expedition to Múlajökull and Þjórsárjökull glaciers in August, 2014. In the research ground penetrating radar (GPR) Zond 12-e was used. GPR measurements were performed on both outlet glaciers using 38 MHz and 75 MHz antenna systems. During data acquisition 2000 ns time window was used, while length of profiles was determined using GPS device Garmin GPS-76. In total approximately 3 km of GPR profiles were recorded. GPR signals propagation speed in glacier ice was determined using reflections from internal meltwater channels of glacier. In obtained radarogramms it was possible to trace reflections from the glacier bed till depth of approximately 144 m as well as numerous prominent reflections from internal meltwater channels of glacier. In one of the obtained radarogramms possible subglacial channel below Múlajökull glacier was identified. Also feature of subglacial topography that resembles drumlin was identified. The area of abundant infiltrated water was distinguished close to the ice margin in the radarogramm obtained on Þjórsárjökull suggesting successive supraglacial meltwater infiltration towards glacier margin. During the field work numerous radial crevasses, supraglacial channels and moulins were observed in the marginal zone of Múlajökull. The forefield of Múlajökull mainly consist of subglacial landforms (drumlins, flutes and crevasse-fill ridges), end moraines and sandur plains. Flutes and crevasse-fill ridges were found superimposed on drumlins in places. Till macrofabric was measured close to the surface of two drumlins and at one section on the slope of drumlin. The fabrics possess strong orientations parallel to the axis of drumlins, as well as glacial striations on the boulders exposed at the drumlin surface. These striations indicate glacier sliding over its bed during the termination of the last surge. References Björnsson, H., Pálsson, F., Sigurđsson, O., Flowers, G.E. 2003. Surges of glaciers in Iceland. Annals of Glaciology, 36, 82-90. Johnson, M.D., Schomacker, A., Benediktsson, Í.Ö., Geiger, A.J., Ferguson, A. 2010. Active drumlin field revealed at the margin of Múlajökull, Iceland: a surge-type glacier. Geology, 38, 943-946. Jónsson, S.A., Schomacker, A., Benediktsson, I.Ó., Ingólfsson, Ó., Johnson, M.D. 2014. The drumlin field and the geomorphology of the Múlajökull surge-type glacier, central Iceland. Geomorphology, 207, 213-220.

  19. Glacial and climatic evolution from the Little Ice Age last Maximum to the present in Tröllaskagi Peninsula (North Iceland): the case of Gljúlfurárjökull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Fernández, Jose; Andres, Nuria; Tanarro, Luis Miguel; Palacios, David

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the evolution of the Gljúlfurárjökull glacier (65°42'48'' N, 18°39'13'' W; 980 m), located at the headwall of the Skiðadalur valley, on the Tröllaskagi peninsula (N. Iceland). This is one of many small glaciers situated on the bottom of the Tröllaskagi valleys. This glacier is one of the few "clean" glaciers, i.e. not covered with boulders, as is the case with most of the glaciers on this peninsula. This makes the glacier especially sensitive to climate change, and it has retreated and advanced many times since its last maximum during the Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum in the mid- 19th century (Caseldine and Stötter, 1993), leaving a large number of moraine ridges. This paper analyses the change in this glacier from the LIA up to the present day, with reference to the variations in the surface, ELA and volume. Lichenometry and geomorphological field analysis were used to establish the exact limits of the glacier during the LIA last maximum. An aerial photo from 1946 and two orthophotos from 2000 and 2013 were also used. Using photointerpretation and Geographical Information Systems (GIS), the aerial photos were georeferenced to delimit the glacier in different years, analyse the surface and volume variations, and calculate the ELA for each date. The ELA analysis was carried out using the method: Accumulation Area Ratio (AAR 0.67). The results obtained with this method are: Little Ice Age Maximum: 945 m a.s.l. (almost the same ELA proposed by Caseldine and Stötter, 1993) 1946: 970 m a.s.l. 2000: 980 m a.s.l. 2013: 990 m a.s.l. The ice volume lost from LIA to 2000 was: 111.68 hm3 Reference Caseldine, C., Stötter, J., 1993. "Little Ice Age" glaciation of Tröllaskagi Peninsula, northern Iceland: Climatic implications for reconstructed equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs). Holocene 3: 357-366. Research funded by Cryocrisis project (CGL2012-35858), Government of Spain, and Nils Mobility projects (EEA GRANTS)

  20. Recent results with radioactive ion beams in Brasil (RIBRAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lépine-Szily, A.; Lichtenthäler, R.; Guimarães, V.; Mendes, D. R., Jr.; Descouvemont, P.; de Faria, P. N.; Barioni, A.; Leistenschneider, E.; Morcelle, V.; Morais, M. C.; Pires, K. C. C.; Condori, R. Pampa; Assunção, M. M.; Scarduelli, V.; Gasques, L. R.; Zamora, J. C.

    2012-10-01

    The RIBRAS facility (Radiactive Ion Beams in Brasil) is installed next to the 8 MV Pelletron Tandem of the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the Institute of Physics of the University of São Paulo. It consists of two superconducting solenoids with maximum magnetic field of B=6.5T. Light radioactive ion beams are produced through transfer reactions, using solid or gaseous production targets of Be, LiF, 3He etc. The solenoids make a magnetic rigidity selection and the use of the two solenoids with a degrader between them allows the production of quite pure secondary beams. Beams of 6He, 8Li, 7Be, 10Be, 8B, 12B are currently produced and used to study elastic, inelastic, and transfer reactions on a variety of light, medium mass and heavy secondary targets. Some examples of reactions recently studied are presented below.

  1. Cohort Profile: Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B; Mill, José Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Chor, Dóra; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Aquino, Estela M L; Passos, Valéria Maria Azeredo; Matos, Sheila M A; Molina, Maria del Carmen B; Carvalho, Marilia S; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2015-02-01

    Chronic diseases are a global problem, yet information on their determinants is generally scant in low- and middle-income countries. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) aims to contribute relevant information regarding the development and progression of clinical and subclinical chronic diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, in one such setting. At Visit 1, we enrolled 15 105 civil servants from predefined universities or research institutes. Baseline assessment (2008-10) included detailed interviews and measurements to assess social and biological determinants of health, as well as various clinical and subclinical conditions related to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and mental health. A second visit of interviews and examinations is under way (2012-14) to enrich the assessment of cohort exposures and to detect initial incident events. Annual surveillance has been conducted since 2009 for the ascertainment of incident events. Biological samples (sera, plasma, urine and DNA) obtained at both visits have been placed in long-term storage. Baseline data are available for analyses, and collaboration via specific research proposals directed to study investigators is welcome. PMID:24585730

  2. Cohort Profile: Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B; Mill, José Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Chor, Dóra; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Aquino, Estela ML; Passos, Valéria Maria Azeredo; Matos, Sheila MA; Molina, Maria del Carmen B; Carvalho, Marilia S; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diseases are a global problem, yet information on their determinants is generally scant in low- and middle-income countries. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) aims to contribute relevant information regarding the development and progression of clinical and subclinical chronic diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, in one such setting. At Visit 1, we enrolled 15 105 civil servants from predefined universities or research institutes. Baseline assessment (2008–10) included detailed interviews and measurements to assess social and biological determinants of health, as well as various clinical and subclinical conditions related to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and mental health. A second visit of interviews and examinations is under way (2012–14) to enrich the assessment of cohort exposures and to detect initial incident events. Annual surveillance has been conducted since 2009 for the ascertainment of incident events. Biological samples (sera, plasma, urine and DNA) obtained at both visits have been placed in long-term storage. Baseline data are available for analyses, and collaboration via specific research proposals directed to study investigators is welcome. PMID:24585730

  3. Substitution for petroleum products in Brasil: Urgent issues

    SciTech Connect

    de Araujo, J.L.; Ghirardi, A.

    1986-06-01

    Brazililan energy policy during the last decade has focused on the replacement of imported petroleum with domestic energy sources, combined with efforts at conservation. The substitution results, however, have been more spectacular by far. The strategy of replacement is based on two elements. first, to increase domestic petroleum exploration and production. Second, to promote non-petroleum fuels as alternatives to the industrial and transportation sectors, for the substitution of fuel oil and gasoline, respectively. A combination of the substitution strategy, the country's petroleum refining structure, and the composition of the substitution strategy, the country's petroleum refining structure, and the composition of demand, has resulted in large surpluses of both gasoline and fuel oil, while diesel has become the most used among petroleum products. The surpluses are not easily exportable because there is ample availability of fuel oil in the world market, and because the low octane number of the gasoline produced in Brasil is not compatible with the engines of cars elsewhere in the region and in the world. Furthermore, although gasoline might be upgraded, the question remains that prospects for the world market are not encouraging, and an export-based strategy does not seem justified in view of the growing surpluses. The objective of this analysis is to review the mechanisms of themajor petroleum-substitution programs currently in existence, identifying their past impact on the energy market and the possible consequences of changes in the goals and operating conditions of these programs, in the light of the new prospects for increased domestic oil production and self-sufficiency. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Avana Brasil: environmental and social consequences of Brazil's planned infrastructure in Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Fearnside, Philip M

    2002-12-01

    "Avana Brasil" (Forward Brazil) is a package of 338 projects throughout Brazil; the portion of the plan to be carried out in Brazil's Legal Amazon region totals US$43 billion over 8 years, US$20 billion of which would be for infrastructure causing environmental damage. Brazil's environmental impact assessment system is not yet capable of coping with the challenge presented by Avana Brasil. Generic problems with the licensing process include stimulation of a lobby in favor of construction before decisions are made on the advisability of the projects, the "dragging effect" of third parties, whereby economic activity is attracted to the infrastructure but escapes the environmental impact assessment system, a tendency for consulting firms to produce favorable reports, a bureaucratic emphasis on the existence of steps without regard to the content of what is said, and the inability to take account of the chain of events unleashed when a given project is undertaken. The environmental and social costs of forest loss are high; among them is loss of opportunities for sustainable use of the forest, including loss of environmental services such as biodiversity maintenance, water cycling, and carbon storage. The benefits of export infrastructure are meager, especially from the point of view of generating employment. Much of the transportation infrastructure is for soybeans, while the hydroelectric dams contribute to processing aluminum. The example of Avana Brasil makes clear the need to rethink how major development decisions are made and to reconsider a number of the plan's component projects. PMID:12402090

  5. Explicación de las disparidades raciales en la salud neonatal en Brasil*

    PubMed Central

    Nyarko, Kwame A.; López-Camelo, Jorge; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Wehby, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Buscamos cuantificar la manera en que los efectos socioeconómicos, demográficos, geográficos y de atención de salud explican las disparidades raciales en las tasas de bajo peso al nacer y prematuridad en Brasil. Métodos. Utilizamos una muestra de 8 949 niños nacidos entre 1995 y el 2009 en 15 ciudades y 7 provincias de Brasil. Nos centramos en las disparidades en la prevalencia de bajo peso al nacer (< 2 500 g) y prematuridad (< 37 semanas de gestación) en recién nacidos de ascendencia solo africana o mezclada con otras ascendencias y de ascendencia solo europea. Usamos un modelo de descomposición para cuantificar la contribución de los factores conceptualmente pertinentes a esas disparidades. Resultados. El modelo permitió explicar entre 45% y 94% de las disparidades en cuanto al bajo peso al nacer y entre 64% y 94% de las disparidades en cuanto a la prematuridad entre los grupos de ascendencia africana y de ascendencia europea. Las diferencias en el uso de atención prenatal y en la ubicación geográfica fueron los factores más importantes, seguidos por las diferencias socioeconómicas. El modelo permitió explicar la mayoría de las disparidades en los recién nacidos de ascendencia africana mezclada y parte de las disparidades en los de ascendencia solo africana. Conclusiones. En las políticas públicas para mejorar la salud infantil se deben abordar las diferencias en cuanto a la atención prenatal y la ubicación geográfica a fin de reducir las disparidades en materia de salud entre los recién nacidos de ascendencia africana y los de ascendencia europea en Brasil.

  6. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa1

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; da Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles; Maksud, Ívia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    Resumo O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20428503

  7. Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil): objectives and design.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Estela M L; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Bensenor, Isabela M; Carvalho, Marilia S; Chor, Dóra; Duncan, Bruce B; Lotufo, Paulo A; Mill, José Geraldo; Molina, Maria Del Carmen; Mota, Eduardo L A; Passos, Valéria Maria Azeredo; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Szklo, Moyses

    2012-02-15

    Although low- and middle-income countries still bear the burden of major infectious diseases, chronic noncommunicable diseases are becoming increasingly common due to rapid demographic, epidemiologic, and nutritional transitions. However, information is generally scant in these countries regarding chronic disease incidence, social determinants, and risk factors. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) aims to contribute relevant information with respect to the development and progression of clinical and subclinical chronic diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. In this report, the authors delineate the study's objectives, principal methodological features, and timeline. At baseline, ELSA-Brasil enrolled 15,105 civil servants from 5 universities and 1 research institute. The baseline examination (2008-2010) included detailed interviews, clinical and anthropometric examinations, an oral glucose tolerance test, overnight urine collection, a 12-lead resting electrocardiogram, measurement of carotid intima-media thickness, echocardiography, measurement of pulse wave velocity, hepatic ultrasonography, retinal fundus photography, and an analysis of heart rate variability. Long-term biologic sample storage will allow investigation of biomarkers that may predict cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Annual telephone surveillance, initiated in 2009, will continue for the duration of the study. A follow-up examination is scheduled for 2012-2013. PMID:22234482

  8. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa.

    PubMed

    Seffner, Fernando; da Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles; Maksud, Ivia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2008-01-01

    O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20428503

  9. Reproducibility of Left Ventricular Mass by Echocardiogram in the ELSA-Brasil

    PubMed Central

    Tognon, Alexandre Pereira; Foppa, Murilo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Lotufo, Paulo; El Aouar, Lilia Maria Mameri; Fernandes, Luciana Pereira; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2015-01-01

    Background Echocardiography, though non-invasive and having relatively low-cost, presents issues of variability which can limit its use in epidemiological studies. Objective To evaluate left ventricular mass reproducibility when assessed at acquisition (online) compared to when assessed at a reading center after electronic transmission (offline) and also when assessed by different readers at the reading center. Methods Echocardiographers from the 6 ELSA-Brasil study investigation centers measured the left ventricular mass online during the acquisition from 124 studies before transmitting to the reading center, where studies were read according to the study protocol. Half of these studies were blindly read by a second reader in the reading center. Results From the 124 echocardiograms, 5 (4%) were considered not measurable. Among the remaining 119, 72 (61%) were women, mean age was 50.2 ± 7.0 years and 2 had structural myocardial abnormalities. Images were considered to be optimal/ good by the reading center for 110 (92.4%) cases. No significant difference existed between online and offline measurements (1,29 g, CI 95% −3.60-6.19), and the intraclass correlation coefficient between them was 0.79 (CI 95% 0.71-0.85). For images read by two readers, the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.86 (CI 95% 0.78-0.91). Conclusion There were no significant drifts between online and offline left ventricular mass measurements, and reproducibility was similar to that described in previous studies. Central quantitative assessment of echocardiographic studies in reading centers, as performed in the ELSA-Brasil study, is feasible and useful in clinical and epidemiological studies performed in our setting. PMID:25424165

  10. Reproductive biology of the characid dourado Salminus franciscanus from the São Francisco River, Brasil.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Leonardo J A; Prado, Paula S; Arantes, Fabio P; Santiago, Kleber B; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2013-06-01

    The neotropical characid Salminus franciscanus is an economically valuable migratory fish whose populations have been drastically reduced in recent decades due to industrial and economic development in Brasil. To study its reproduction, a total of 283 adult specimens were captured in the Upper São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias dam, Minas Gerais, south-eastern Brasil, from August 2009 to July 2010. The gonadal maturity stages were determined from histological features of the gonads and gonadosomatic index (GSI). Gametogenesis was assessed by light and electron microscopy. For analysis of the oocyte's surface and fecundity, mature females were subjected to hormonal induction and oocyte stripping. Fish in resting (Stage 1) were common in all samplings, ripening/ripe and spawning (Stages 2 and 3) were predominant in October-November and December-January and post-spawning (Stage 4) occurred from December-January extending until April-May. The GSI followed the morphological changes of gonadal maturation, with a peak in October-November, when maximum GSI (7.08 in females and 3.46 in males) was achieved. From scanning electron microscopy, stripped oocytes showed a funnel-shaped micropyle and a simple oocyte surface arrangement, which is typical for non-adhesive eggs. Fecundity ranged from 160 to 440×10(3) oocytes per female and 129 to 175×10(3)oocytes/kg. The results of this study indicate that S. franciscanus reproduces in the Upper São Francisco River from October to January, exhibiting a total spawning pattern, non-adhesive eggs and high fecundity, providing support for aquaculture and conservation biology of this important neotropical characid fish. PMID:23618945

  11. Tendências de teses e dissertações sobre ensino de astronomia no Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Megid Neto, J.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia. Teve por objetivo identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. O procedimento inicial consistiu de um levantamento bibliográfico junto ao Centro de Documentação em Ensino de Ciências (CEDOC) da Faculdade de Educação da UNICAMP e ao Banco de Teses da CAPES disponível na Internet. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: instituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Deste conjunto de pesquisas, 13 (81,3%) delas foram defendidas a partir da segunda metade dos anos 90, indicando uma preocupação mais recente com temas relativos ao ensino de Astronomia no conjunto da produção acadêmica em programas de pós-graduação no Brasil. Verificou-se que 43,7% dos trabalhos foram produzidas na USP e 18,8% na UNICAMP. Quanto ao nível escolar abrangido nos estudos, predominaram os estudos direcionados ao Ensino Fundamental de 5a a 8a séries (62,5%). No que diz respeito ao foco temático das pesquisas, as principais tendências voltaram-se: 56,3% para Conteúdo e Método; 43,8% para Concepções do Professor; 37,5% para Currículo e Programas; 37,5% para Recursos Didáticos. Quanto ao gênero de trabalho acadêmico, verificou-se que 43,8% são de Pesquisa Experimental e 31,3% de Pesquisa de Análise de Conteúdo. Estudos de revisão bibliográfica como este visam colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica em determinada área, traçando algumas de suas tendências. Ao mesmo tempo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as suas contribuições para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  12. [Reproductive cycle of the mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae (Bivalvia: Ostreidae) in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brasil].

    PubMed

    Lenz, Tiago; Boehs, Guisla

    2011-03-01

    The mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae is important fishery resource along the entire Brasilian coast with excellent potential for marine culture. The purpose of this paper was to examine the reproductive characteristics of the oyster of the Maraú river estuary in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brasil. The samples were collected monthly, from September 2006 to August 2007, at two points (I and II) in Camamu Bay. At each site 20 oysters were collected for histological analysis, fixed in Davidson's solution, embedded in paraffin, dehydrated in an ethanol series, sectioned (7 microm thick) and stained with Harris hematoxylin and Eosin (HE). Additionally, 30 oysters were sampled, at each point, for a condition index analysis. The water temperature ranged from 23.5 degrees C to 30 degrees C and the salinity from 15 to 25 ups at Point I (Maraú) and from 25 to 35 at Point II (Tanque Island). The oyster's height ranged from 30 to 92 mm at Point I and from 27 to 102 mm at Point II, with an average of 49.0 mm +/- 9.1 (n = 230) and 49.9 mm +/- 9.9 (n = 237), respectively. Among the sampled oysters at Point I, 59.1% were females, 31.3% males, 1.3% hermaphrodites and 8.2% of the oysters of undetermined sex. At Point II, 66.2% were females, 30.4% males, 0.8% hermaphrodites and 2.5% (n = 237) of undetermined sex. The gonadic stage analysis indicated that the reproduction period of the C. rhizophorae in the Maraú Peninsula was continuous all year, without any regressive phase. The condition index (R) ranged from 8.0% to 17.7%. The peak periods of R coincided with the expressive oyster's percentage in the maturation and liberation gametic stages. The results of these findings will contribute information for the oyster spat collection and to the process installation of the oyster culture in Camamu Bay. PMID:21516642

  13. Maternal education, anthropometric markers of malnutrition and cognitive function (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The early exposure to poor social and nutritional conditions may influence cognitive function during adult age. However, the relative impact of these factors has not yet been established and they can vary during the course of life. Methods Analysis of data from 12,997 participants (35-64 years) of the baseline exams (2008-2010) of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a cohort of Brazilian civil servants. Four cognitive tests were applied: learning, recall and word recognition; semantic and phonemic verbal fluency; trail-making test version B. The markers of early nutritional and social conditions were maternal educational level, birth weight, and length of trunk and leg. The presence of independent association between every early marker and the poor performance in each cognitive test was investigated by multiple logistic regression, after mutual adjustment and considering the effects of gender, age and participant’s schooling level. The cut off for poor performance was the worst age-specific percentile of the final score distribution for each test. Results After full adjustments, lower maternal education increased the chances of poor performance in all cognitive tests, with a dose-response gradient; low birth-weight was related to poor performance in the trail-making test B (OR = 1.63, 95% IC = 1.29-2.06); and greater trunk length decreased the chances of poor performance in the semantic and phonemic verbal fluency (OR = 0.96, 95% IC = 0.94-0.97) and in the trail-making test B (OR = 0.94, 95% IC = 0.92-0.95). Leg length was not associated with any of the tests examined. The associations found were not modified by the educational attainment of the participants. Conclusions Early exposure to adverse social and nutritional conditions appear detrimental to semantic memory, learning, concentration, executive control and language among adults, independent of adulthood educational achievement. PMID:24989981

  14. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Carolina G; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D C B; Nunes, Maria A A; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2015-06-01

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34-65 years (n=13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender. PMID:26035664

  15. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Carolina G.; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D. C. B.; Nunes, Maria A. A.; Barreto, Sandhi M.

    2015-01-01

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34–65 years (n = 13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender. PMID:26035664

  16. Tendências De Teses e Dissertações Sobre Educação em Astronomia No Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio; Megid Neto, Jorge

    2005-07-01

    Apresentam-se os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia, com objetivo de identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: isntituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Pretende-se assim colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica na área. Ao mesmo tempo o estudo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as contribuições dessa produção para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  17. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF AMERICAN CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN THE TRI‑BORDER AREA OF ASSIS BRASIL, ACRE STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    TELES, Carolina Bioni Garcia; MEDEIROS, Jansen Fernandes; dos SANTOS, Ana Paula de Azevedo; de FREITAS, Luís Antônio Rodrigues; KATSURAGAWA, Tony Hiroshi; CANTANHÊDE, Lilian Motta; FERREIRA, Ricardo de Godoi Mattos; CAMARG, Luís Marcelo Aranha

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In this study, Leishmaniaspecies were identified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The epidemiology of patients suspected of having American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the municipality of Assis Brasil, Acre State, located in the Brazil/Peru/Bolivia triborder was also investigated. By PCR, the DNA of Leishmaniawas detected in 100% of the cases (37 samples) and a PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) of the hsp 70gene identified the species in 32 samples: Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (65.6%) , L. (V.) shawi (28.1%) , L. (V.) guyanensis (3.1%) and mixed infection L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (Leishmania) amazonensis (3.1%)This is the first report of L. (V.) shawiand L. (L.) amazonensis in Acre. The two predominant species were found in patients living in urban and rural areas. Most cases were found in males living in rural areas for at least three years and involved in rural work. This suggests, in most cases, a possible transmission of the disease from a rural/forest source, although some patients had not engaged in activities associated with permanence in forestall areas, which indicate a possible sandflies adaptation to the periurban setting. PMID:26422160

  18. Effect of sediment composition on methane concentration and production in the transition zone of a mangrove (Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Marinho, C C; Campos, E A; Guimarães, J R D; Esteves, F A

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of sediment composition on methane (CH4) dynamics in sediments of different areas in the transition zone between a mangrove and the sea. This research was conducted in a mangrove at Coroa Grande, on the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro. Samples were collected at three stations: (1) region colonised by Rhizophora mangle L. on the edge of the mangrove, (2) region colonised by seagrasses and (3) infra-littoral region without vegetation. Samples were collected from the surface layer of the sediment to determine the concentrations of nutrients (C, N and P) and CH4 concentration and production. We observed that concentrations of CH4 and carbon (C) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in station 1 than station 3. The molar ratios (C:N, C:P and N:P) suggest that the origin of the substrate is mainly autochthonous. Methanogenesis was initially low, possibly due to competition between methanogens and sulfate reducers, and increased significantly (p < 0.05) on the twenty-sixth day in the sediment of station 1, probably due to higher organic matter (OM) availability in this region. Results indicate that methanogenic activity observed herein is not regulated by the amount or quality of OM, but by other factors. The concentration of CH4 in the sea-land ecotone at Mangrove Coroa Grande is a function of available OM suggesting a possible inhibition of methanotrophy by intense oxygen consumption in the soil surface covered by detritus of Rhizophora mangle vegetation. PMID:22990811

  19. Epicardial fat thickness: distribution and association with diabetes mellitus, hypertension and the metabolic syndrome in the ELSA-Brasil study.

    PubMed

    Graeff, Daniela Bertol; Foppa, Murilo; Pires, Julio Cesar Gall; Vigo, Alvaro; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-04-01

    Epicardial fat thickness (EFT) has emerged as a marker of cardiometabolic risk, but its clinical use warrants proper knowledge of its distribution and associations in populations. We aimed to describe the distribution of EFT, its demographic correlates and independent associations with diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome (MS) in free-living Brazilian adults. From the baseline echocardiography of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)-a cohort study of civil servants aged 35-74 years-EFT was measured from a randomly selected sample of 998 participants as the mean of two paraesternal windows obtained at end systole (EFTsyst) and end diastole (EFTdiast). From the 421 individuals free of diabetes, hypertension and MS, we defined EFT reference values and the EFTsyst 75th percentile cut-off. Median EFTsyst was 1.5 (IQR 0-2.6) mm; a large proportion (84 %) had EFTdiast = 0. EFT was higher in women and lower in blacks, and increased with age and BMI. Although EFT was higher in those with diabetes, hypertension, and MS, EFT associations were reduced when adjusted for age, sex and ethnicity, and were non-significant after adjusting for obesity measures. In conclusion, the amount of EFT in this large multiethnic population is smaller than reported in other populations. EFT reference values varied across demographic and clinical variables, EFT associations with cardiometabolic variables being largely explained by age, sex, ethnicity and central obesity. Although EFT can help identify individuals at increased cardiometabolic risk, it will likely have a limited additional role compared to current risk stratification strategies. PMID:26585750

  20. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa acerca da Pastoral de DST/Aids da Igreja Católica1

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles da; Maksud, Ívia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20442806

  1. Night work is associated with glycemic levels and anthropometric alterations preceding diabetes: Baseline results from ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Silva-Costa, Aline; Rotenberg, Lucia; Coeli, Claudia Medina; Nobre, Aline Araújo; Härter Griep, Rosane

    2016-01-01

    Night work has been suggested as a risk factor for diabetes. Individuals with high triglyceride levels, high LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol and obesity, especially abdominal obesity, have a greater chance of developing diabetes. The aim of this study was to analyze glycemic levels, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides and the anthropometric alterations that precede diabetes, considering their possible association with nigh work among a non-diabetic population. Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) comprises of 15,105 civil servants (35-74 years old) at baseline (2008-2010). The following parameters were analyzed: serum cholesterol (total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C), triglycerides and glucose drawn from 12-hour fasting blood sample, glycated hemoglobin and 2-hour plasma glucose obtained after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, BMI, hip and waist measurements using standard equipment and techniques. Participants with diabetes, retired workers and day workers with previous experience of night work were excluded. Generalized linear models, a gamma regression model with an identity link function, were performed to test the association of night work with metabolic and anthropometric variables. The study sample consisted of 3918 men and 4935 women; 305 (7.8%) and 379 (7.7%) of the participants were men and women who worked at night, respectively. Among the men, the exposure to night work was associated with an increase in BMI (b-value = 0.542; p = 0.032) and waist circumference (b-value = 1.66; p = 0.014). For women, increased fasting plasma glucose (b-value = 2.278; p < 0.001), glycated hemoglobin (b-value = 0.099, p < 0.001) and 2 hour plasma glucose (b-value = 5.479, p = 0.001) were associated with night work after adjustments. No significant associations between night work and triglycerides, LDL-C, HDL-C, total cholesterol levels or waist-hip ratio were found. The influences of night work on metabolic and anthropometric factors suggest night work as a potential risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Further studies are needed to investigate the inconclusive data on gender differences in the associations. PMID:26731697

  2. Evaluation and control of ergonomics actions in federal public service: the case of FIOCRUZ-RJ.

    PubMed

    Ricarta, Simone L Santa Isabel; Vidala, Mario Cesar Rodriguez; Bonfattia, Renato José

    2012-01-01

    This article presents information about the development of the dissertation. Deals with the production of ergonomic diagnosis in the environments and work processes of an important center of research and development in Public Health, FIOCRUZ. Critically evaluates the performance of a team promoting and facilitating the process of implementing ergonomic changes suggested. Through analysis of documents and statements by some managers and representatives of Human Resources was possible to identify the factors that facilitate and hinder the implementation process, linking them to the organization of the institution and conduct of the agents involved. Finally, it makes a reflection on practice, results and developments involved in the processes of change initiated by the ergonomic actions, proposing its replication along with other institutes of the Civilian Personnel of Federal Public Administration. PMID:22316778

  3. Preliminary statistical studies concerning the Campos RJ sugar cane area, using LANDSAT imagery and aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Costa, S. R. X.; Paiao, L. B. F.; Mendonca, F. J.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Duarte, V.

    1983-01-01

    The two phase sampling technique was applied to estimate the area cultivated with sugar cane in an approximately 984 sq km pilot region of Campos. Correlation between existing aerial photography and LANDSAT data was used. The two phase sampling technique corresponded to 99.6% of the results obtained by aerial photography, taken as ground truth. This estimate has a standard deviation of 225 ha, which constitutes a coefficient of variation of 0.6%.

  4. Use of elephant grass for energy production in Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Daher, R F; Souza, L B; Gravina, G A; Machado, J C; Ramos, H C C; Silva, V Q R; Menezes, B R S; Schneider, L S A; Oliveira, M L F; Gottardo, R D

    2014-01-01

    Elephant grass is a tropical forage plant widely distributed throughout Brazil. It was first exclusively used in the livestock sector as cattle feed. The grass is characterized by its high productivity and photosynthetic capacity and is considered as an alternative source of renewable energy. Here, we estimated the general combining ability of the parents and specific combining ability of the hybrids based on morpho-agronomic biomass-quality traits. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with 3 replicates. The diallel was composed of 16 hybrids and 2 groups of genitors. In the diallel analysis of variance, we observed a significant difference among treatments. A significant difference was observed among genitors for dry matter production (DMP). For the general combining ability of group 1, the traits leaf blade width, DMP, height, percentage of neutral detergent fiber, percentage of hemicellulose, percentage of lignin, percentage of acid detergent fiber, and percentage of cellulose were significant. For the estimates of general combining ability of DMP, parents Porto Rico 534-B, Vruckwona, Taiwan A-146, and Mercker S. E. A. were 0.4748, 3.2819, 1.1659, and 0.4317. The parents of Mercker S. E. A. and Porto Rico 534-B produced the highest percentage of detergent fiber and percentage of lignin with values of 0.1482 and 0.0856. Thus, parents Vruckwona, Porto Rico 534-B, and Taiwan A-146 are promising for integration into breeding programs. The best hybrid combinations for DMP were 1 x 5, 1 x 8, 2 x 6, 3 x 7, and 4 x 5. PMID:25526210

  5. Results of the radiological survey at 48 Schlosser Drive, Rochelle Park, New Jersey (RJ005)

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, R.D.; Brown, K.S.

    1992-10-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956.MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from thisthorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy(DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally [sup 232]Tb, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 48 Schlosser Drive, Rochelle Park, New Jersey (RJO05), was conducted on July 14, 1991. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. The radionuclide distributions were not significantly different from normal background levels in the northern New Jersey area.

  6. Reproductive biology of a Characidiinae (Osteichthyes, Characidae) from the Ubatiba River, Maricá-RJ.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, R; Caramaschi, E P; Fenerich-Verani, N

    2002-08-01

    The Ubatiba river is a coastal stream subject to stochastic spates all over the year and, Characidium sp.n. is among the twenty-two species that compose its ichthyofauna. In this study we analyse some traits of its reproductive biology and discuss whether the adopted strategy has causal relationship with the environmental variables. Specimens were collected in the upper Ubatiba river. Samplings, were carried out monthly by electrofishing, between Oct./94 and Sep./95. Some differences between male and female strategies were observed. Females were significantly (p < 0.05) bigger than males; length--weight relationship was different (p < 0.05) between sexes with the onset of sexual maturity occuring at smaller sizes among males. Reproductive investment is high for both males and females but higher for males, maximum Gonadosomatic Index for females and males were 40.97% and 44.90%, respectively. Reproductive specimens were registered all over the year, suggesting continuous reproduction. High values of fecundity were also registered varying from 1342 to 5535 eggs for ripe females of 4.4 and 7.0 cm, respectively and an amount of 1105 oocytes per grams of fish. We suggest that differences in the reproductive strategy, between sexes, determine the observed patterns in the size structure; the absence of males in the higher SL classes could be a consequence of high mortality rates and/or reduction in the growth rates as a precocity consequence in the onset of reproduction and/or high reproductive investment. Relationship between continuous reproduction and environmental condition could be explained as an adaptation to maximise supervivency of the young fishes that is: guarantee the species maintenance in a stochastic environment. PMID:12530186

  7. Serum Uric Acid and Prehypertension Among Adults Free of Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes: Baseline of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Lotufo, Paulo A; Baena, Cristina P; Santos, Itamar S; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2016-02-01

    The association between serum uric acid (SUA) and prehypertension was evaluated in a racially admixed sample of civil servants aged 35 to 74 years, enrolled (2008-2010) in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Health (ELSA-Brasil). Of the 15 105 patients who enrolled in the study, we analyzed 3412 after excluding those who reported previous cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, or hypertension; were heavy drinkers; or had a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m(2). Among the men, logistic regression, adjusted for age, race, income, birth weight, salt intake, insulin resistance, BMI, and renal function revealed odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of prehypertension from the bottom quartile (referent) to the top quartile of SUA levels as follows: 0.84 (95% CI, 0.61-1.38), 0.97 (0.71-1.34) and 1.44 (1.04-2.0; P for trend .01). Analyzing for 1-standard deviation of change in SUA, the ORs were 1.19 (1.06-1.32). This association persisted in the subgroup analysis consisting of patients who were white, overweight, with a high salt intake but with normal renal function, and without metabolic syndrome. No association was found among women. In conclusion, SUA levels were associated with prehypertension among men. PMID:25972396

  8. Acute suicidal ideation in middle-aged adults from Brazil. Results from the baseline data of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Brunoni, André R; Nunes, Maria A; Lotufo, Paulo A; Benseñor, Isabela M

    2015-02-28

    Suicidal ideation represents an important burden worldwide. However, little is known about it in low-/middle-income countries. We investigated this issue in a large cross-sectional of Brazilian civil servants (ELSA-Brasil, the Brazilian Health Longitudinal Study, n=15,105). Logistic univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the strength of association (odds ratio, OR) between clinical and sociodemographic variables with acute life-weariness (tiredness of life) and suicidal thoughts. The presence of major depressive disorder (MDD), common mental disorders (CMDs), stressful life-events (SLEs) and poor self-perceived physical health was also collected. MDD and CMDs were strongly associated with suicidal ideation in univariate and multivariate analyses. For life-weariness thoughts, a modest, consistent association was found for female gender, being single, non-White ethnicity and poor education. SLEs and poor self-perceived physical health were also associated with suicidal ideation. Espiritism-Kardecism, but not other religions or Atheism/Agnosticism, was associated with lower rates of life-weariness and suicidal thoughts. To conclude, suicidal ideation does not differ in Brazil compared to developed countries, being primarily associated with psychiatric disorders and, to a lesser but significant extent, to social disadvantage, SLEs, poor self-perceived health and being single. PMID:25510906

  9. DEZ ANOS DE EXPERIÊNCIA DO COMITÊ DE ÉTICA EM PESQUISA DA SECRETARIA DE SAÚDE DO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita C. G.; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo é relatar a experiência do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Secretaria de Estado de Saúde do Distrito Federal (CEP/SES/DF) Brasil, durante o período de 10 anos a partir de sua fundação. Trata-se de uma avaliação descritiva e documental, na modalidade estudo de caso, utilizando-se a totalidade de projetos protocolados no CEP/SES/DF (N° 052/08) nesse período. As pendências mais freqüentes dos projetos foram: termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido (30%), folha de rosto (25%), metodologia (20%), curriculum vitae (12%), planilha de orçamento (9%), outros (4%). O relato das atividades do CEP/SES/DF no período de 10 anos revelou, através de sua produtividade, a legitimidade do processo de análise ética dos protocolos visando à proteção dos participantes da pesquisa. PMID:19888441

  10. Controls on the seasonality of photosynthesis across the Amazon basin -A cross-site analysis of eddy flux tower measurements from the Brasil flux network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Saleska, S. R.; Da Rocha, H. R.

    2009-04-01

    The Amazon Basin is categorized as a terrestrial biogeochemical "hotspot" where climate change and deforestation can trigger substantial changes on atmospheric CO. However, model skill at predicting seasonality of photosynthetic metabolism and ecosystem productivity in the Amazon is limited. To enhance our understanding of these processes, we investigated the seasonal and spatial patterns of Amazonian forest photosynthetic activity by integrating data from a network of ground-based eddy flux towers in Brazil established as part of the ‘Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia' project. We present the results of a simple model of leaf-flush for two central Amazon BrasilFlux sites, based on the eddy covariance estimates of canopy photosynthetic capacity (Pc) and measured canopy structure parameters. We found that in contrast to studies of Amazon evapotranspiration, which is highly correlated with available energy, Amazon ecosystem photosynthetic flux surprisingly showed no simple relationship with measures of available energy. We hypothesize that the seasonality of Amazon photosynthesis is controlled by the interaction of adaptive mechanisms (which biologically determine photosynthetic capacity through leaf flush and litter fall seasonality) and sunlight availability (which determines the fraction of photosynthetic capacity utilized). Equatorial climates advantage vegetation that can grow leaves in the dry season, when surface solar radiation peaks, but southerly sites may not because of reduced seasonality in surface radiation.

  11. Relations of Digital Vascular Function, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Arterial Stiffness: The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA‐Brasil) Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Brant, Luisa C. C.; Hamburg, Naomi M.; Barreto, Sandhi M.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Ribeiro, Antonio L. P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vascular dysfunction is an early expression of atherosclerosis and predicts cardiovascular (CV) events. Peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) evaluates basal pulse amplitude (BPA), endothelial function (PAT ratio), and wave reflection (PAT‐AIx) in the digital microvessels. In Brazilian adults, we investigated the correlations of PAT responses to CV risk factors and to carotid‐femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), a measure of arterial stiffness. Methods and Results In a cross‐sectional study, 1535 participants of the ELSA‐Brasil cohort underwent PAT testing (52±9 years; 44% women). In multivariable analyses, more‐impaired BPA and PAT ratios were associated with male sex, higher body mass index (BMI), and total cholesterol/high‐density lipoprotein. Higher age and triglycerides were related to higher BPA, whereas lower systolic blood pressure, hypertension (HTN) treatment, and prevalent CV disease (CVD) were associated with lower PAT ratio. PAT‐AIx correlated positively with female sex, advancing age, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and smoking and inversely to heart rate, height, BMI, and prevalent CVD. Black race was associated with lower BPA, higher PAT ratio, and PAT‐AIx. Microvessel vasodilator function was not associated with PWV. Higher PAT‐AIx was modestly correlated to higher PWV and PAT ratio and inversely correlated to BPA. Conclusion Metabolic risk factors are related to impaired microvessel vasodilator function in Brazil. However, in contrast to studies from the United States, black race was not associated with an impaired microvessel vasodilator response, implying that vascular function may vary by race across populations. PAT‐AIx relates to HTN, may be a valid measure of wave reflection, and provides distinct information from arterial stiffness. PMID:25510401

  12. Earlier age at menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk and cardiometabolic disease risk factors in Brazilian adults: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Early menarche has been linked to higher risk of type 2 diabetes in Western and Asian societies, yet whether age at menarche is associated with diabetes in Latin America, where puberty and diabetes may have different life courses, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk in Brazilian adults. Methods We used data from 8,075 women aged 35-74 years in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) who had complete information on age at menarche, diabetes status, and covariates. Diabetes was defined based on self-reported physician diagnosis, medication use, and laboratory variables (fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, and glycated hemoglobin). Poisson regression was used to generate risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Menarche onset < 11 years [vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher risk of diabetes (RR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.14-1.57) after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, maternal education, maternal and paternal diabetes, and birth weight. This persisted after further control for BMI at age 20 years and relative leg length. Additionally, among those not taking diabetes medications, earlier menarche [<11 years vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher % glycated hemoglobin (p < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (p = 0.003), waist circumference (p < 0.001), and BMI measured at baseline exam (p < 0.001). Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with greater risk for adult diabetes and cardiometabolic disease in the Brazilian context. PMID:24438044

  13. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Influence of Socioeconomic Variables on Control of High Blood Pressure: Results of the ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    Chor, Dóra; Pinho Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz; Sá Carvalho, Marilia; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Andrade Lotufo, Paulo; Araújo Nobre, Aline; de Aquino, Estela Mota Lima Leão; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Griep, Rosane Härter; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Passos, Valéria Maria de Azeredo; Benseñor, Isabela Judith Martins; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Mill, José Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    High blood pressure (HBP) is the leading risk factor for years of life lost in Brazil. Factors associated with HBP awareness, treatment and control need to be understood better. Our aim is to estimate prevalence, awareness, and types of anti-hypertensive treatment and to investigate the association of HBP control with social position. Data of 15,103 (54% female) civil servants in six Brazilian state capitals collected at the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline (2008-2010) were used to estimate prevalence and cross-sectional association of HBP control with education, per capita family income and self-reported race, using multiple logistic regression. Blood pressure was measured by the oscillometric method. 35.8% were classified as presenting HBP; 76.8% of these used anti-hypertensive medication. Women were more aware than men (84.8% v. 75.8%) and more often using medication (83.1% v. 70.7%). Adjusted HBP prevalence was, in ascending order, Whites (30.3%), Browns (38.2%) and Blacks (49.3%). The therapeutic schemes most used were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, in isolation (12.4%) or combined with diuretics (13.3%). Among those in drug treatment, controlled blood pressure was more likely in the (postgraduate) higher education group than among participants with less than secondary school education (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.14–1.28), and among Asian (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.12–1.32) and ‘Whites (PR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.12–1.26) compared to Blacks. Socioeconomic and racial inequality—as measured by different indicators—are strongly associated with HBP control, beyond the expected influence of health services access. PMID:26102079

  14. Coffee Consumption, Newly Diagnosed Diabetes, and Other Alterations in Glucose Homeostasis: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Yarmolinsky, James; Mueller, Noel T.; Duncan, Bruce B.; Bisi Molina, Maria del Carmen; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Observational studies have reported fairly consistent inverse associations between coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes, but this association has been little investigated with regard to lesser degrees of hyperglycemia and other alterations in glucose homeostasis. Additionally, the association between coffee consumption and diabetes has been rarely investigated in South American populations. We examined the cross-sectional relationships of coffee intake with newly diagnosed diabetes and measures of glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion, in a large Brazilian cohort of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Methods We used baseline data from 12,586 participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes. Analysis of covariance was used to assess coffee intake in relation to two-hour glucose from an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, fasting and –2-hour postload insulin and measures of insulin sensitivity. Results We found an inverse association between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes, after adjusting for multiple covariates [23% and 26% lower odds of diabetes for those consuming coffee 2–3 and >3 times per day, respectively, compared to those reporting never or almost never consuming coffee, (p = .02)]. An inverse association was also found for 2-hour postload glucose [Never/almost never: 7.57 mmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 7.48 mmol/L, 2-3 times/day: 7.22 mmol/L, >3 times/day: 7.12 mol/L, p<0.0001] but not with fasting glucose concentrations (p = 0.07). Coffee was additionally associated with 2-hour postload insulin [Never/almost never: 287.2 pmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 280.1 pmol/L, 2–3 times/day: 275.3 pmol/L, >3 times/day: 262.2 pmol/L, p = 0.0005) but not with fasting insulin concentrations (p = .58). Conclusion Our present study provides further evidence of a protective effect of coffee on risk of adult-onset diabetes. This effect appears to act primarily, if not exclusively, through postprandial, as opposed to fasting, glucose homeostasis. PMID:25978631

  15. Presentation of the Multimédia Game "Geolover" Concept, to Educational Enchancement of the Geolocical Heritage of the Following Regions: "Ilha do Fogo" (Cabo-Verde), Seridó (Brasil), Sabugal (Portugal) and Açores (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, João; Gomes, Ana; Alfama, Vera; Oliveira, Sirlene; Pinharandas, Carlos; Fonseca, Pedro; Campos, José; Nobre, José

    2013-04-01

    "Geolover" - Presentation of the multimédia game concept, to educational enchancement of the geolocical heritage of the following regions: : "Ilha do Fogo" (Cabo-Verde), Seridó (Brasil), Sabugal and Açores (Portugal). "Geolover" is a multitouch game, played by four players simultaneously, identified by 4 mascots and using as sceneries, the four regions landscapes, aimed to the young people with ages between 8 and 12 years old. The main objective is value the geological heritage of the Ilha do Fogo (Cabo Verde), Seridó in State of Rio Grande do Norte (Brasil) , Sabugal in Beira Alta province (Portugal) and Arquipélago dos Açores (Portuguese autonomous region). These regions have a great geological heritage like volcanology, plutonic rocks, sedimentar formations, metamorphic, paleontologic, mineralogic, geomorphologic, hydric and mining resources. Such heritage is being used in the different regions has base of studies to senior scientists and were used to great scientific researches. The diversified and distinguished cultural heritage of these four regions is referenced and it's a value to the union of the students from these three continents, with the Portuguese language as communication tool. The variety of the geological wealth and cultural of these regions, results in the common objective of their valuing like Geoparks. His creation on these three regions is a strategy with a great relevance to the socio-economic development. With the creation of this game, we promote the union of these 3 countries from these three continents, the universal values of the heritage richness that are offered by our planet.

  16. Efectos combinados de la ampliación de la atención primaria de salud y de las transferencias condicionadas de dinero en efectivo sobre la mortalidad infantil en Brasil, 1998–2010*

    PubMed Central

    Guanais, Frederico C.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Examiné los efectos combinados del acceso a la atención primaria mediante el Programa de Salud Familiar (PSF) y las transferencias condicionadas de dinero en efectivo del Programa Bolsa Familia (PBF) sobre la mortalidad infantil posneonatal (MIPN) en Brasil. Métodos. Empleé un análisis ecológico longitudinal usando datos en panel de 4 583 municipios brasileños de 1998 al 2010, con 54 253 observaciones en total. Estimé modelos de regresión de efectos fijos por mínimos cuadrados ordinarios, con la tasa de MIPN como la variable dependiente y el PSF, el PBF y sus interacciones como las principales variables independientes de interés. Resultados. La asociación de una mayor cobertura del PSF con una menor tasa de MIPN se volvió más fuerte conforme aumentaba la cobertura del PBF. En los promedios de todas las demás variables, cuando la cobertura de PBF era 25%, la MIPN predicha fue 5,24 (intervalo de confianza [IC] de 95% = 4,95, 5,53) para una cobertura del PSF de 0%, y de 3,54 (IC de 95% = 2,77, 4,31) para una cobertura del PSF de 100%. Cuando la cobertura del PBF era de 60%, la MIPN predicha fue 4,65 (IC de 95% = 4,36, 4,94) para una cobertura del PSF de 0%, y de 1,38 (IC de 95% = 0,88, 1,89) para una cobertura del PSF de 100%. Conclusiones. El efecto del PSF depende de la ampliación del PBF. Para las poblaciones empobrecidas y subatendidas, la combinación de intervenciones tanto del lado de la oferta como del lado de la demanda podría ser necesaria para mejorar los resultados en salud.

  17. 76 FR 59011 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... was published in the Federal Register on June 22, 2011 (76 FR 36398). That NPRM proposed to correct an... public the opportunity to participate in developing this AD. We received no comments on the NPRM (76 FR... ''significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and...

  18. 75 FR 27419 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ70A, 146...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... was published in the Federal Register on January 12, 2010 (75 FR 1560). That NPRM proposed to correct... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... visual inspection and a visual inspection; Method 2 is a detailed visual inspection. You may...

  19. 76 FR 36398 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE SYSTEMS (OPERATIONS) LIMITED Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... review copies of the referenced service information at the FAA, Transport Airplane Directorate, 1601 Lind..., Transport Airplane Directorate, FAA, 1601 Lind Avenue, SW., Renton, Washington 98057-3356; telephone (425... Order 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44...

  20. 75 FR 1560 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ70A, 146...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... may review copies of the referenced service information at the FAA, Transport Airplane Directorate..., International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane Directorate, FAA, 1601 Lind Avenue, SW., Renton, Washington... proposed ADs is now typically 45 days, which is consistent with the comment period for domestic...

  1. 75 FR 49377 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model Avro 146-RJ and BAe 146 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Engineer, International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane Directorate, FAA, 1601 Lind Avenue, SW., Renton... to the specified products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on March 15, 2010 (75 FR... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive...

  2. 75 FR 4480 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ...-116, Transport Airplane Directorate, FAA, 1601 Lind Avenue, SW., Renton, Washington 98057-3356... products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on October 19, 2009 (74 FR 53433). That NPRM... Order 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44...

  3. 75 FR 12158 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE SYSTEMS (Operations) Limited Model Avro 146-RJ and BAe 146 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... FAA, Transport Airplane Directorate, 1601 Lind Avenue, SW., Renton, Washington. For information on the... Thompson, Aerospace Engineer, International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane Directorate, FAA, 1601 Lind... with the comment period for domestic transport ADs. We will post all comments we receive,...

  4. 75 FR 38058 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... information at the FAA, Transport Airplane Directorate, 1601 Lind Avenue, SW., Renton, Washington. For... Thompson, Aerospace Engineer, International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane Directorate, FAA, 1601 Lind... with the comment period for domestic transport ADs. We will post all comments we receive,...

  5. 76 FR 6575 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... may review copies of the referenced service information at the FAA, Transport Airplane Directorate..., ANM-116, Transport Airplane Directorate, FAA, 1601 Lind Avenue, SW., Renton, Washington 98057-3356..., which was published in the Federal Register on July 7, 2010 (75 FR 38953). That earlier NPRM proposed...

  6. 75 FR 53855 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ...-116, Transport Airplane Directorate, FAA, 1601 Lind Avenue, SW., Renton, Washington 98057-3356... products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on May 19, 2010 (75 FR 27959). That NPRM proposed... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive...

  7. 76 FR 31459 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE SYSTEMS (OPERATIONS) LIMITED Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Todd Thompson, Aerospace Engineer, International Branch, ANM-116, Transport... was published in the Federal Register on February 7, 2011 (76 FR 6575), and proposed to supersede AD 2002-03-10, Amendment 39-12651 (67 FR 6855, February 14, 2002). That NPRM proposed to correct an...

  8. 75 FR 27959 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ...Aircraft/index.htm . You may review copies of the referenced service information at the FAA, Transport... Engineer, International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane Directorate, FAA, 1601 Lind Avenue, SW., Renton... comment period for domestic transport ADs. We will post all comments we receive, without change, to...

  9. 75 FR 38953 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (OPERATIONS) LIMITED Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... referenced service information at the FAA, Transport Airplane Directorate, 1601 Lind Avenue, SW., Renton... INFORMATION CONTACT: Todd Thompson, Aerospace Engineer, International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane... typically 45 days, which is consistent with the comment period for domestic transport ADs. We will post...

  10. A historical review of R.J. Reynolds' strategies for marketing tobacco to Hispanics in the United States.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Rios, Lisbeth; Parascandola, Mark

    2013-05-01

    Hispanics are the fastest growing racial/ethnic group in the United States, and smoking is the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality among this population. We analyzed tobacco industry documents on R. J. Reynolds' marketing strategies toward the Hispanic population using tobacco industry document archives from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February-July 2011 and April-August 2012. Our analysis revealed that by 1980 the company had developed a sophisticated surveillance system to track the market behavior of Hispanic smokers and understand their psychographics, cultural values, and attitudes. This information was translated into targeted marketing campaigns for the Winston and Camel brands. Marketing targeted toward Hispanics appealed to values and sponsored activities that could be perceived as legitimating. Greater understanding of tobacco industry marketing strategies has substantial relevance for addressing tobacco-related health disparities. PMID:23488493

  11. Habitat use by Oryzomys subflavus (Rodentia) in an open shrubland formation in Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bergallo, H G; Luz, J L; Raíces, D S; Hatano, F H; Martins-Hatano, F

    2005-11-01

    The Restinga de Jurubatiba has at least 10 plant formations, including open Clusia shrubland. This formation is composed of dense shrubs of many shapes and sizes, where Clusia hilariana is one of the most important plant species. Shrublands with Clusia (CC) are poorer in plant species and less dense than shrublands without Clusia (SC). Oryzomys subflavus (Rodentia) is the most abundant small mammal species in the open Clusia shrubland. We tested the hypothesis that the abundance of rodents would increase with the size of the patch and would be higher in SC shrublands. Rodents were captured, marked and released in three 780-m-long transects. At each capture site, we evaluated the shape of the shrubland patch, calculated the area and noted the category of the shrubland. Using ANCOVA, we ascertained whether the abundance of Oryzomys subflavus increased with the sampled area and used CC and SC shrublands differently. We also verified if the size of patches used by rodents varies in the same frequency as the size of available shrublands. Rodent abundance was found to increase significantly with the area. There were no differences in the size of the patches used by rodents and the frequency of the size of available patches. This finding indicates that O. subflavus, in the study area, is a generalist species that uses its habitat according to availability. PMID:16532181

  12. Baetid mayflies are very messy eaters: evidence from field experiments in a tropical stream, Ilha Grande, RJ, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krsulovic, F.; Moulton, T.

    2005-05-01

    Mayflies may play an important role in periphyton dynamics. In previous field exclusion experiments, we had found that baetid mayflies (Americabaetis sp. and Cloeodes sp.) had a strong negative impact on periphyton. In this study we quantified the contributions of mayfly consumptive and non-consumptive effects on periphyton in the absence of shrimp. We carried out five field experiments: an egestion rate experiment to quantify periphyton consumed by mayflies and four shrimp exclusion experiments using electricity to exclude shrimps from natural substrate to estimate total removal of periphyton by mayflies. By comparing total removal with estimated ingestion, we estimated non-consumptive loss. We starved mayflies for 0, 3 and 6 h and assumed that periphyton egested would be replaced by ingestion at the same time. We found that, after 3h, 52.8% of the initial amount of periphyton in the mayfly alimentary canal was lost due to egestion, and 77.9% after 6h. During shrimp absence mayflies accumulated over control level and significantly reduced periphyton. Estimated ingestion was 2 to 23% of the periphyton depletion, thus mayfly non-consumptive periphyton removal contributed 98 to 77% of all periphyton lost inside electrified areas. Our results suggest that mayfly have strong negative non-consumptive effects on periphyton.

  13. 75 FR 63045 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE SYSTEMS (OPERATIONS) LIMITED Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... July 1, 2010 (75 FR 38058). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant... Doing either an ultrasonic inspection for damaged bolts or torque check of the tension bolts....

  14. Retail promotions and perceptions of R.J. Reynolds' novel dissolvable tobacco in a US test market

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With declining cigarette sales, tobacco manufacturers have been developing and marketing new smokeless products, such as R. J. Reynolds' dissolvable tobacco, Camel Sticks, Strips and Orbs. This study assessed the availability, price and point-of-purchase promotional strategies for Camel Dissolvables, and investigated consumer awareness, interest and perception of these products in the Indiana test market. Methods An exploratory retail audit of point-of-purchase promotions was conducted in a random sample of retailers from 6 store categories (n = 81) in the test market area. Data included: store type, location, product placement, forms/flavors carried, price, types and locations of advertisements and promotions, and ad messages. An Awareness-Attitude-Usage (AAU) survey was used to gauge consumer awareness and knowledge of tobacco products including Camel Dissolvables. Respondents were shown promotional materials from a package onsert and perceptions and interest in the Camel Dissolvables were assessed. An Intended Target Survey (ITS) compared subjects' perceptions of ad targets for several non-tobacco products, as well as Camel Snus, Camel No. 9 and Camel Dissolvables. Respondents were asked to identify each ad's intended target category, perceived targetedness, and purchase intent. Results The products were carried by 46% of stores, most frequently gas stations (100%) and convenience stores (75%). They were shelved near smokeless tobacco (70%), cigarettes (25%) or candy (5%). Prices ranged from $3.59 -$4.19 per package; most stores carried at least 1 promotional item. Ad messages included: "Dissolvable Tobacco" (60%). "Free Trial" (24%), "Special Price" (24%), "What's Your Style?" (22%). At 14% of stores, free trial packs of Camel Dissolvables were offered with another Camel purchase. Awareness was reported by 42% of respondents (n = 243), and trial by 3%. Consumer interest was very low, but younger respondents (< 40 years) were more familiar with Camel Dissolvables (60% vs. 45% for those > 40 years, p < .01). Males, as well as current and former smokers had higher rates of interest and trial; only 1% of never smokers reported trial. In the ITS, only for the 3 tobacco product ads, was perceived targetedness for smokers significantly higher than for non-smokers. Smokers and nonsmokers perceived that the ads targeted smokers. Conclusions Current retail promotional strategies for Camel Sticks, Strips & Orbs appear to be targeting a select audience, primarily current smokers. Overall, consumer awareness, interest and trial were low. PMID:21569637

  15. Marine protected area and the spatial distribution of the gill net fishery in Copacabana, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amorim, R B; Monteiro-Neto, C

    2016-02-01

    This study characterizes the gill net fishery at Colônia de Pescadores Z13 (CPZ13), in Copacabana, Rio de Janeiro, and its relationship with the marine protected area 'Monumento Natural do Arquipélago das Ilhas Cagarras - MoNa Cagarras', describing the fleet and fishing gears, identifying fishing spots, species and their associations by gillnet type. From June 2012 to May 2013, every Tuesday to Sunday, gill net landings were monitored and fishers interviewed regarding their catch. Small boats (dory whaleboats) are used to set three types of gillnets: "Corvineira" (target species - whitemouth croaker), "linguadeira" (target species - flounders) and "rede-alta" (target species - bluefish). Fifty-nine species within 37 families were captured at 14 fishing spots, showing association with bottom type and distance from shore. The use of fisher's local ecological knowledge defines gear placement at specific sites targeting fisheries resources. All fishing sites are not within the limits of MoNa Cagarras but would benefit from management plans including an MPA buffering zone. PMID:26909618

  16. Simultaneous evaluation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carbonyl compounds in the atmosphere of Niterói City, RJ, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Caroline Fernandes Jaegger; de Mendonça Ochs, Soraya; de Oliveira Grotz, Lucas; de Almeida Furtado, Leonardo; Pereira Netto, Annibal Duarte

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (total suspended particulate - TSP - and inhalable particles - PM10) and gas-phase samples were collected in three periods of seven to nine consecutive days in June and December 2011, and May 2012, in the central area of Niterói City, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. TSP (48.8-214 μg m-3) showed higher concentrations than PM10 (nd - 82.6 μg m-3). Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and thirty-one carbonyl compounds (CC) were evaluated. Concentrations of individual PAH ranged from

  17. Degree of threat to the biological diversity in the Ilha Grande State Park (RJ) and guidelines for conservation.

    PubMed

    Alho, C J R; Schneider, M; Vasconcellos, L A

    2002-08-01

    The State Park of Ilha Grande is only a part (5,594 hectares) of the entire island (19,300 hectares) which is located off the south coast of Rio de Janeiro state, between the cities of Mangaratiba and Angra dos Reis. Approximately half of the Park area (47%) is covered by dense Atlantic forest. The secondary forest growth is in a process of ecological succession close to attaining maturity (43%) and the remaining part (10%) is composed of human-altered areas (1%), rocky outcrops with herbaceous vegetation (7%), mangroves and beaches (2%). The fauna is well represented but already shows signs of degradation with introduced species. The analysis of the degree of threat has shown that the dense forest habitat has a relatively stable status of conservation while the secondary forest, the mangrove and the herbaceous vegetation on rocky outcrops (and their fauna) are categorized as vulnerable. The area altered by human occupation is considered threatened. Since the coastal area where Ilha Grande is located is well known for its beautiful scenery (known as the green coast, because of the contrast between the ocean and the Atlantic forest covering the Serra do Mar mountain chain). There is a strong possibility for tourism to become the means in which to achieve economic sustainability for conservation. Contradictorily, tourism is also the major threat to local biodiversity and its landscape units. Because tourism is not organized and controlled, during high season the numbers grow above local capacity, giving rise to a proliferation of hotels, guesthouses and camping grounds. The resulting untreated open sewage, random garbage disposal and other harmful activities form the major threats to biodiversity. PMID:12530174

  18. How brasil grows motor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, V.; Trindade, S.C.; Branco, J.R.C.

    1981-03-01

    The general background in technical, economic, and political terms is discussed, along with the experience of using alcohol in automobiles. Since 1973 a concerted effort has been made to utilize various crops for the production of alcohol. The disposal of stillage is considered. 10 refs.

  19. Astronomy, Art and Mythology in a Public Elementary School in Itaocara/rj. (Spanish Title: Astronomía, Arte y Mitologia en el Ensino Fundamental en Una Escuela de la Red Estatal en ITAOCARA/RJ.) Astronomia, Arte e Mitologia no Ensino Fundamental em Escola da Rede Estadual em ITAOCARA/RJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira Bernardes, Adriana; Ramos dos Santos, Arleidimar

    2008-12-01

    Volunteer advisors at Itaocara Astronomy Club Marcos Pontes(CAIMP), in their majority high school students, introduced students at Teotônio Brandão Vilela Elementary School to basic concepts in Astronomy, Physics, and Mythology. Computer Science, Arts, puppetry, and educational videos were used to stimulate students to share their feelings and test their knowledge of the concepts presented. The work done by the volunteers helped boost the student's self-esteem and improved their oral skills by applying their knowledge of Physics and Astronomy in Lab experiments. The main goals of the CAIMP are the possibility of including astronomy in Elementary school curricula and developing an interdisciplinary work involving Astronomy, Arts, and Mythology. Through tests and reports, the students who participated in the Brazilian Astronomy Olympics, showed an increase in their knowldge of the sujects presented during the volunteer work. Durante el curso de un trabajo voluntario con estudiantes de nivel primario (1 º a 4 º grado), los guías de Astronomía miembros del CAIMP (Club de Astronomía de Itaocara "Marcos Puentes"), en su mayoría estudiantes secundarios, desarrollaron un trabajo de introducción a las Ciencias y Astronomía con alumnos del colegio estatal Teotônio Vilela Brandão. A través de talleres de informática, artes, videos educativos y teatro de títeres, los estudiantes pudieron expresar sus conocimientos y emociones frente a las leyendas mitológicas con las que se inició el trabajo de introducción. La labor desarrollada por los guías con los alumnos promovió la integración entre las aulas del colegio haciéndolos participar en actividades con el fin de estimular su expresión verbal y aumentar su autoestima. Trabajando diversas formas de expresión, los alumnos pudieron realizar experimentos y conocer algunos conceptos de Física y Astronomía al mismo tiempo que adquirían autonomía para la libre expresión de sus sentimientos y de los conocimientos recibidos. El trabajo en sí ha mostrado además de la posibilidad de la inclusión de la Astronomía en la Educación Primaria, la posibilidad de un trabajo interdisciplinario en los niveles iniciales incluyendo Astronomía, Arte y Mitología. Los resultados presentados por los estudiantes en las Olimpiadas promovidas en la escuela y por la OBA (Olimpiada Brasilera de Astronomía) permitieron verificar un creciente aprendizaje y estimulo hacia las materias científicas, comprobados por la apropiada expresión de los conceptos adquiridos de astronomía y presentados en evaluaciones o en informes obtenidos de ellos mismos, sus familias y profesores. Desenvolvendo um trabalho voluntário junto aos alunos do ensino fundamental no 1º ciclo (1ª a 4ª série), os monitores de Astronomia membros do CAIMP (Clube de Astronomia de Itaocara Marcos Pontes), que eram em sua maioria alunos do ensino médio, desenvolveram um trabalho de aproximação entre os alunos do Colégio Estadual Teotônio Brandão Vilela e os temas envolvendo Ciências e Astronomia. Através de oficinas de informática, artes, vídeos educativos e teatros de fantoches, os alunos puderam expressar seus conhecimentos e emoções diante das lendas mitológicas com as quais começaram a ter contato. O trabalho desenvolvido pelos monitores junto aos alunos proporcionou a integração entre as turmas do colégio e os levou a participação em atividades de maneira a estimular sua oralidade e aumentar sua auto-estima. Trabalhando várias formas de expressões, os alunos puderam realizar seus experimentos e conhecer alguns conceitos de Física e Astronomia, enquanto adquiriam autonomia para se expressarem de acordo com seus sentimentos e conhecimentos adquiridos. O trabalho em si mostrou além da possibilidade de inserção de Astronomia no Ensino Fundamental, a possibilidade de realização de um trabalho interdisciplinar nas séries iniciais envolvendo Astronomia, Arte e Mitologia. Os resultados apresentados pelos alunos nas Olimpíadas promovidas na escola e pela OBA (Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia) possibilitaram a verificação de uma crescente aprendizagem e estímulo ao conhecimento de temas científicos, que foi comprovado diante da apropriação dos conceitos de Astronomia adquiridos e apresentados em resultados como avaliações, ou ainda, diante dos relatos obtidos dos mesmos, suas famílias e professores.

  20. The association between mood and anxiety disorders, and coronary heart disease in Brazil: a cross-sectional analysis on the Brazilian longitudinal study of adult health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Andrew H.; Brunoni, Andre R.; Nunes, Maria A.; Santos, Itamar S.; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Benseñor, Isabela M.; Lotufo, Paulo A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Associations between major depressive disorder (MDD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) have been established, and these associations increase risk of future morbidity and mortality. Prior research has been carried out in high-income countries. Here we examine associations between the mood and anxiety disorders, and CHD in a large cohort at baseline from Brazil, a country facing a variety of challenges that may affect these associations. Methods: Participants included 15,105 civil servants aged 35 to 74 at baseline (2008–2010) from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). CHD (N = 721) included self-reported angina pectoris (n = 305), myocardial infarction (n = 259) and coronary revascularization (n = 239). Hierarchical logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate odds ratios and confidence intervals. Results: Major findings indicate that comorbid MDD and anxiety disorders (n = 434) are associated with a threefold increase in CHD, MDD alone (n = 170) with a twofold increase in CHD, while generalized anxiety disorder alone (n = 1,394) and mixed anxiety and depression disorder (n = 1,844) – symptoms present, but diagnostic threshold not reached – are associated with a 1.5-fold increase in CHD, after full adjustment for covariates. Conclusion: The association with CHD is greatest in those with psychiatric comorbidity, while associations were also observed in MDD and generalized anxiety disorder without comorbidity. While findings are limited by the cross-sectional design of the study, given the known risks associated with comorbidity of the mood and anxiety disorders with CHD, findings reinforce the importance of comprehensive health assessment in Brazil. PMID:25762963

  1. Life Course Socioeconomic Position and C-Reactive Protein: Mediating Role of Health-Risk Behaviors and Metabolic Alterations. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Camelo, Lidyane V.; Giatti, Luana; Neves, Jorge Alexandre Barbosa; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Benseñor, Isabela M.; Chor, Dóra; Griep, Rosane Härter; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Kawachi, Ichiro; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation has been postulated to be one mediating mechanism explaining the association between low socioeconomic position (SEP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We sought to examine the association between life course SEP and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in adulthood, and to evaluate the extent to which health-risk behaviors and metabolic alterations mediate this association. Additionally, we explored the possible modifying influence of gender. Methods and Findings Our analytical sample comprised 13,371 participants from ELSA-Brasil baseline, a multicenter prospective cohort study of civil servants. SEP during childhood, young adulthood, and adulthood were considered. The potential mediators between life course SEP and CRP included clusters of health-risk behaviors (smoking, low leisure time physical activity, excessive alcohol consumption), and metabolic alterations (obesity, hypertension, low HDL, hypertriglyceridemia, and diabetes). Linear regression models were performed and structural equation modeling was used to evaluate mediation. Although lower childhood SEP was associated with higher levels of CRP in adult life, this association was not independent of adulthood SEP. However, CRP increased linearly with increasing number of unfavorable social circumstances during the life course (p trend <0.001). The metabolic alterations were the most important mediator between cumulative SEP and CRP. This mediation path accounted for 49.5% of the total effect of cumulative SEP on CRP among women, but only 20.2% among men. In consequence, the portion of the total effect of cumulative SEP on CRP that was mediated by risk behaviors and metabolic alterations was higher among women (55.4%) than among men (36.8%). Conclusions Cumulative SEP across life span was associated with elevated systemic inflammation in adulthood. Although health-risk behaviors and metabolic alterations were important mediators of this association, a sizable fraction of this association was not mediated by these factors, suggesting that other pathways might play a role, especially among men. PMID:25309988

  2. ANÁLISE DA INSERÇÃO DOS TEMAS DE HUMANIDADES E ÉTICA, COM METODOLOGIA DE APRENDIZAGEM BASEADA EM PROBLEMAS, EM CURRICULO MÉDICO INTEGRADO EM ESCOLA PÚBLICA NO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando; Silveira, Carla; Guiotti, Murilo

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo Realizar uma análise da inserção da ética e humanidades no currículo do Curso de Medicina da Escola Superior em Ciências da Saúde - ESCS, escola pública do Distrito Federal, Brasil, de forma a contribuir com o processo de gestão curricular. Metodologia O Estudo é de coorte e documental. Foram pesquisados 37 termos relacionados à ética e 36 referentes à humanização nos objetivos educacionais e conteúdo dos módulos temáticos, habilidades e atitudes e interação ensino-serviço-comunidade, de 1a a 4a série e no programa do internato no currículo (ano 2006) e no projeto pedagógico do Curso de Medicina (2001). Resultados Maior inserção da humanização, ética e bioética na 1a e 2a série, quando comparado à inserção na 3a e 4a série e no internato, (IC95%-α=0,034, pvalue=0,007). Unidade de habilidades e atitudes: freqüência das 3 temáticas no currículo da 1a a 4a séries (IC95%-α=0,026, pvalue=0,013). Quando comparada a inserção entre o internato e as quatro primeiras séries, observa-se que nestas a inserção da temática humanização é superior (IC95%-α=0,042, pvalue=0,029). Conclusão O currículo desenvolvido no ano de 2006 na ESCS apresentou correlação com o projeto pedagógico do curso e contemplou a temática de forma abrangente, em todas as séries e internato. PMID:20396594

  3. Memories of Astronomy Education in Brazil: Clippings from the Discourses of Interviewed Researchers on the Subject. (Spanish Title: Memorias de la Educación en Astronomía en Brasil: Recortes de los Discursos de Investigadores Entrevistados Acerca del Tema ) Memórias da Educação em Astronomia no Brasil: Recortes a Partir das Falas de Pesquisadores Entrevistados sobre o Tema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo; Nardi, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a historical retrospective concerning data from a research in Astronomy Education in Brazil, after 1973. It was organized on the basis of the speech analysis of national researchers considered references in this field by their peers. Furthermore, it was elaborated on the basis of other studies from the areas of Science Education, Physics and Astronomy. This historical overview was developed in order to facilitate understanding of the contexts in which the interviewed researchers have developed professionally. Moreover, we attempted to recover the memory of the growing field of research in Astronomy Education in the country. We believe that the history presented can help those trying to understand the past in an attempt to resolve current and future demands. Se presenta en este artículo una retrospectiva histórica referente a datos provenientes de la investigación en enseñanza de la astronomía en el Brasil, después de 1973, organizada sobre la base del análisis de los discursos de los investigadores nacionales considerados referencias en este campo, y también en la lectura de las publicaciones en las áreas de Enseñanza de las Ciencias, Física y Astronomía. Este repaso histórico se desarrolló con el fin de facilitar la comprensión de los contextos en los que los investigadores entrevistados se han desarrollado profesionalmente. Por otra parte, se intentó recuperar la memoria del creciente campo de la investigación en Educación en Astronomía en el país. Creemos que el relato presentado puede contribuir a quien trata de comprender el pasado, en un intento de resolver las demandas actuales y futuras. Relata-se neste artigo uma retrospectiva histórica referente a dados provenientes de pesquisa em Educação em Astronomia no país, pós 1973, organizada com base na análise das falas de pesquisadores considerados referências nacionais nesse campo, como também na leitura de publicações das áreas de ensino de Ciências, Física e Astronomia. Tal panorama histórico foi desenvolvido com o intuito de favorecer nossa compreensão sobre os contextos nos quais os pesquisadores entrevistados se desenvolveram profissionalmente. Ademais, buscou-se recobrar a memória do crescente campo de pesquisa em Educação em Astronomia no país. Entendemos que o histórico apresentado possa contribuir para com os que buscam entender o passado na tentativa de solucionar demandas atuais e futuras.

  4. Origin of pegmatites and fluids at Ponta Negra (RJ, Brazil) during late- to post-collisional stages of the Gondwana Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiolo, Everton Marques; Renac, Christophe; Piza, Patricia d'Almeida de Toledo; Schmitt, Renata da Silva; Mexias, André Sampaio

    2016-01-01

    The Ponta Negra Pegmatites (PNP), part of a pegmatitic province in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, crop out along an intensely deformed, medium- to high-grade metamorphic area that is proximal to a crustal-scale thrust zone developed during the Brasiliano/Pan-African Orogeny. Fieldwork shows that the pegmatites formed in two distinct stages: (i) syn-collisional leucosome veins (Group I) conformable with the tectonic foliation of the gneissic host rocks and (ii) late- to post-collisional dykes (Group II) that cross-cut the same tectonic foliation at a high angle. In this paper, we use geochemistry of whole-rock and mineral separates (alkali-feldspar and biotite), fluid inclusion microthermometry and stable isotopic (δ18O, δD, δ13C) determinations on minerals (quartz, alkali-feldspar, biotite and magnetite) and fluid inclusions to provide insights into the composition of the pegmatite-forming melts, associated fluids, and their geotectonic significance. U-Pb SHRIMP dating of the Cajú syenogranite was performed to evaluate and compare the timing of magmatic events along the Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain as this is the closest post-collisional pluton to the studied pegmatites. The calculated temperature for the Group I syn-collisional veins (740 °C) is similar to previous estimates for the peak metamorphic conditions in the study area. Variations in the temperature of the Group II pegmatite dykes obtained from stable isotopes (380 to 720 °C), and microthermometric data from primary fluid inclusions with traces of N2 (Th = 280 to 360 °C), may reflect the thermodynamics of the pegmatite crystallization, exsolution textures and isotopic exchange. The composition of fluids in equilibrium within the pegmatite dykes consists of magmatic and metamorphic components. The minimum pressures calculated for the emplacement of the pegmatites are equivalent to a shallow crustal depth between 1.7 and 3.5 km, which corresponds to the exhumation of the orogen since the emplacement of the pegmatites. A linear trend of decreasing CO2 content and δ13CCO2 is consistent with mixtures between (i) carbon derived from organic matter or volatilization of skarns and (ii) inorganic carbon (carbonate). Based on the data obtained, we propose that the pegmatites of Ponta Negra are close to an LCT-type geochemical signature (highly peraluminous magmas with normative corundum), and originated by partial melting of the metasedimentary Palmital succession at depth, during the waning stages of the Búzios Orogeny. The primary melts of the PNP cross-cut both the Neoproterozoic supracrustals and the Paleoproterozoic orthogneissic basement during its ascent and emplacement at higher crustal levels. Variable melt sources explain the slight differences in geochemical compositions among the studied rocks within the metasedimentary succession, which probably include Mn-bearing exhalites, as well as differentiation processes. The 454 ± 5 Ma U-Pb (zircon) age of the Cajú syenogranite overlaps previous geochronological data of 440 ± 11 Ma obtained on a pegmatite dyke at Ponta Negra, bracketing and extending the time interval for the Gondwana assembly collapse magmatism in the region. The heat that triggered this magmatic event could still be a consequence of the collisional orogeny, increasing contents of heat-producing elements, or, a large intraplate extension that followed the Gondwana amalgamation and initiated the formation of Paleozoic basins.

  5. [Struthiolipeurus rheae Harrison, 1916 (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) infesting ostriches (Struthio camelus) in one farming in the Municipality of Três Rios, RJ].

    PubMed

    Fagundes, Tais F; Soleiro, Carla A; de Cássia A A de Menezes, Rita

    2009-12-01

    In Brazil ostriches farming began at the end of 20th Century, to supply the international market of meat, feathers and leather. Feathers are economically important to industry and artisanal sectors. Lice can cause intense pruritus that depending on the intensity of infestation can lead to depreciation of feathers. In Rio de Janeiro there are unknown species of lice infesting ostriches. Thus the objective of this study was to identify the lice that happen in birds from commercial farms in the Municipality of Três Rios. From 2003 to 2006 ostriches were monthly examined for the presence of ectoparasites. When infestations were detected some feathers were removed, placed into plastic bags and sent to the laboratory for further analysis. After removed from feathers, ectoparasites were examined using a stereoscope, followed by clarification in 10% potassium hydroxide and dehydrated in ethanol. Permanent slides were mounted in natural Canada balsam for observation in optical microscope. Based on observed characteristics, it was possible to determine that collected specimens belong to the species Struthiolipeurus rheae. PMID:20040199

  6. [The impact of professional activities on the physical and mental health of the civil and military police of Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; de Oliveira, Raquel Vasconcellos Carvalhaes

    2011-04-01

    In this article, we analyze the physical and mental stress and illness of military and civil police force officers in the State of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) due to their working conditions and professional activities. The same methodology was used for the study of two categories, namely a quantitative approach (simple random sampling by conglomerates, involving a total of 1,458 civil police officers and 1,108 military police officers, who answered questionnaires anonymously) and a qualitative approach (focal groups involving 143 professionals and 18 interviews with managers of both police forces). The data presented here are all original. Disorders identified were: overweight and obesity in both forces but mainly in the Military Police; low frequency of physical exercise and high levels of cholesterol, especially in the Civil Police. The main health complaints are neck, back or spinal cord pain, eyesight complaints and headaches/ migraines. Sixteen point two per cent of officers of both forces reported physical lesions that were more prevalent in the Military Police, among whom psychic suffering was also more frequent (SRQ20). The need for changes in the individual and professional dimensions and in institutional aspects regarding the conditions and organization of work and of health services is emphasized. PMID:21584461

  7. Kinship and Leprosy in the Contacts of Leprosy Patients: Cohort at the Souza Araújo Outpatient Clinic, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 1987–2010

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Daiane Santos; Duppre, Nadia Cristina; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Hacker, Mariana Andréa

    2013-01-01

    A broad variety of factors have been associated with leprosy among contacts, including socioeconomic, epidemiological, and genetic characteristics. Data from 7,174 contacts of leprosy patients from a leprosy outpatient clinic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1987–2010, were analyzed to investigate the effects of kinship, individual, and contextual factors on leprosy. Multivariate analyses were performed using a robust estimation method. In the prevalence analysis, close kinship (sibling OR = 2.75, offspring OR = 2.00, and other relatives OR = 1.70), socioeconomic factors, and the duration of exposure to the bacillus were associated to leprosy. In the incidence analysis, significant risks were found for all categories of kinship (parents RR = 10.93, spouse, boyfriend/girlfriend, and bride/groom RR = 7.53, sibling RR = 7.03, offspring RR = 5.34, and other relatives RR = 3.71). Once the treatment of the index case was initiated, other factors lost their significance, and the index case bacteriological index and BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine) protection had a greater impact. Our findings suggested that both genetic susceptibility and physical exposure play an important role in the epidemiology of leprosy, but it was not possible establishing the role of genetic factor. Analyses of other factors related to the genotype of individuals, such as genetic polymorphisms, are needed. PMID:23690793

  8. Kinship and Leprosy in the Contacts of Leprosy Patients: Cohort at the Souza Araújo Outpatient Clinic, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 1987-2010.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Daiane Santos; Duppre, Nadia Cristina; Sales, Anna Maria; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Hacker, Mariana Andréa

    2013-01-01

    A broad variety of factors have been associated with leprosy among contacts, including socioeconomic, epidemiological, and genetic characteristics. Data from 7,174 contacts of leprosy patients from a leprosy outpatient clinic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1987-2010, were analyzed to investigate the effects of kinship, individual, and contextual factors on leprosy. Multivariate analyses were performed using a robust estimation method. In the prevalence analysis, close kinship (sibling OR = 2.75, offspring OR = 2.00, and other relatives OR = 1.70), socioeconomic factors, and the duration of exposure to the bacillus were associated to leprosy. In the incidence analysis, significant risks were found for all categories of kinship (parents RR = 10.93, spouse, boyfriend/girlfriend, and bride/groom RR = 7.53, sibling RR = 7.03, offspring RR = 5.34, and other relatives RR = 3.71). Once the treatment of the index case was initiated, other factors lost their significance, and the index case bacteriological index and BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine) protection had a greater impact. Our findings suggested that both genetic susceptibility and physical exposure play an important role in the epidemiology of leprosy, but it was not possible establishing the role of genetic factor. Analyses of other factors related to the genotype of individuals, such as genetic polymorphisms, are needed. PMID:23690793

  9. Brazil = Brasil. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Brazil's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include Brazil's form of government; geographic regions; holidays; climate; people; music; carnaval celebration;…

  10. Future of alcohol fuels programs in Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, A. V., Jr.; Rechtschaffen, E.; Goldstein, L., Jr.

    An updating is given of the Brazilian National Alcohol Program's production and utilization achievements to date in the substitution of ethanol and methanol for imported oil products. A series of Eucalyptus forestry and processing-industry projections are made for fuel output and jobs creation that may be expected by the year 2000. With few exceptions, methanol produced from wood grown on poorer soils than can now be used for sugarcane substitute for oil products and result in jobs creation several orders of magnitude higher than petroleum fuels.

  11. Micoinseticidas e Micoacaricidas no Brasil: Como estamos?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoinsecticides and mycoacaricides can be defined as biopesticide products based on living propagules of entomopathogenic fungi developed for inundative and inoculative biological control of insects and mites. Based on recently published data on global use of entomopathogenic fungi and a proposal f...

  12. Brazil = Brasil. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Brazil's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include Brazil's form of government; geographic regions; holidays; climate; people; music; carnaval celebration;

  13. Royal Jelly-Mediated Prolongevity and Stress Resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans Is Possibly Modulated by the Interplays of DAF-16, SIR-2.1, HCF-1, and 14-3-3 Proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Cook, Lauren F; Grasso, Lindsay M; Cao, Min; Dong, Yuqing

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies suggest that royal jelly (RJ) and its related substances may have antiaging properties. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects remain elusive. We report that the effects of RJ and enzyme-treated RJ (eRJ) on life span and health span in Caenorhabditis elegans (C elegans) are modulated by the sophisticated interplays of DAF-16, SIR-2.1, HCF-1, and 14-3-3 proteins. Dietary supplementation with RJ or eRJ increased C. elegans life span in a dose-dependent manner. The RJ and eRJ consumption increased the tolerance of C elegans to oxidative stress, ultraviolet irradiation, and heat shock stress. Our genetic analyses showed that RJ/eRJ-mediated life-span extension requires insulin/IGF-1 signaling and the activities of DAF-16, SIR-2.1, HCF-1, and FTT-2, a 14-3-3 protein. Earlier studies reported that DAF-16/FOXO, SIR-2.1/SIRT1, FTT-2, and HCF-1 have extensive interplays in worms and mammals. Our present findings suggest that RJ/eRJ-mediated promotion of longevity and stress resistance in C elegans is dependent on these conserved interplays. From an evolutionary point of view, this study not only provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms of RJ's action on health span promotion in C elegans, but also has imperative implications in using RJ/eRJ as nutraceuticals to delay aging and age-related disorders. PMID:25073462

  14. Royal jelly prevents the progression of sarcopenia in aged mice in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Niu, Kaijun; Guo, Hui; Guo, Yinting; Ebihara, Satoru; Asada, Masanori; Ohrui, Takashi; Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Ichinose, Masakazu; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Kudo, Yukitsuka; Arai, Hiroyuki; Okazaki, Tatsuma; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2013-12-01

    Sarcopenia is characterized by the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength. One of the mechanisms of sarcopenia is the loss in the function and number of muscle satellite cells. Royal jelly (RJ) is a health food used worldwide. To obtain better digestion and absorption than RJ, protease-treated RJ (pRJ) has been developed. RJ and pRJ have been suggested to have potential pharmacological benefits such as prolonging the life span and reducing fatigue. Because these effects may improve sarcopenia and the functions of satellite cells, we examined the effects of RJ or pRJ treatment on the skeletal muscles in an animal model using aged mice. In vivo, RJ/pRJ treatment attenuated the decrease in the muscle weight and grip strength and increased the regenerating capacity of injured muscles and the serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels compared with controls. In vitro, using isolated satellite cells from aged mice, pRJ treatment increased the cell proliferation rate, promoted cell differentiation, and activated Akt intracellular signaling pathway compared with controls. These findings suggest that RJ/pRJ treatment had a beneficial effect on age-related sarcopenia. PMID:23657970

  15. FOREWORD International Conference on Defects in Insulating Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valerio, Mário Ernesto Giroldo; Jackson, R. A.

    2010-11-01

    These proceedings represent a sample of the scientific works presented during ICDIM2008, the 16th International Conference on Defects in Insulating Materials, held at the Federal University of Sergipe, Aracaju, Brazil from 24-29 August 2008. The conference was the latest in a series which began at Argonne in 1956, and which has been held most recently in Riga, Latvia (2004) and Johannesburg, South Africa (2000). The conference was also related scientifically to the EURODIM series, which have been held most recently in Milan, Italy (2006), Wroclaw, Poland (2002) and Pecs, Hungary (2010). The aim of the conference was to bring together physicists, chemists and materials scientist to discuss defects in insulating materials and their effect on materials, including their optical, mass/charge transport, energy storage and sensor properties. The conference featured 6 plenary lectures, 60 contributed lectures and about 130 posters. The posters were displayed for the whole conference, but discussed in two three-hour sessions. We are grateful to the International Advisory Committee for suggesting invited speakers and to the Programme Committee for their help in refereeing all the abstracts and choosing the contributed oral contributions. We would also like to thank the Local Organising Committee and the Brazilian Physical Society for their help with local organisation and the online registration/payment process respectively. The chairpersons would like to specially thanks all the sponsors listed below for financial support. The Federal University of Sergipe, one of the public and 'free tuition' Universities of the Country, run by the Brazilian Ministry of Education, were pleased to host this 16th meeting, the first one in Latin America. Mario E G Valerio Conference Chair Robert A Jackson Programme Chair Conference Scope Scope of the Conference was the presentation of the latest investigations on point and extended defects in bulk materials and thin films. Technological applications will be presented alongside fundamental measurements and theories. The main scientific areas included: 1 Fundamental physical phenomena Point and extended defects in wide band-gap systems: oxides, fluorides, nitrides, alkali- and silver-halides, perovskites, minerals, ceramics, nano-structures, organic molecular crystals, glasses, high-k and low-k materials, photonic crystals. 2 Defects at surfaces and interfaces Thin films and low-dimensional systems. Colloids, nano-crystals, and aggregates. Defects and material preparation technology. Defects modelling and computational methods. Radiation effects, radiation induced defects, colour centres. Luminescence of excitons, impurities, and defects. Electronic excitations, excited state dynamics, radiative and non-radiative relaxations. Scintillation, energy transfer and storage, carrier trapping phenomena. Non-linear optical phenomena. Laser active centres. Phonons and defects, electron-phonon interactions. Defect diffusion, ionic relaxations, ionic transport. 3 Technological applications Radiologic imaging and detection, scintillators, and dosimeters. Optical devices and photonics, photorefractive electro-optics, optical fibres, lasers. Materials for micro-electronics. Solid electrolytes, fuel cells, electrochemical sensors, fast ionic conductors. Conference chairpersons: Mário E G Valerio (Conference Chairman), Physics Department, Federal University of Sergipe, SE, Brasil Robert A Jackson (Programme Chairman), School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, UK Conference committees: International Advisory Committee R Capelletti, Italy A V Chadwick, UK J Corish, Ireland J D Comins, South Africa H W den Hartog, The Netherlands K Funke, Germany Robert A Jackson, UK O Kanert, Germany A A Kaplyanskii, Russia A Lushchik, Estonia F Lüty, USA M Moreno, Spain P E Ngoepe, South Africa M Nikl, Czech Republic S V Nistor, Romania Ch Pedrini, France O F Schirmer, Germany J-M Spaeth, Germany A M Stoneham, UK M Suszynska, Poland I Tale, Latvia M E G Valerio, Brasil R T Williams, USA Programme Committee Robert A Jackson (Chair), University of Keele, UK R M Montereali, ENEA C.R. Frascati, Rome, Italy M Moreno, University of Cantabria, Spain Ch Pedrini, University Lyon, France Klaus W H Krambrock, UFMG, MG, Brasil Volkmar Dierolf, Lehigh University, USA Laszlo Kovács, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary M E G Valerio, UFS, SE, Brasil Local Organizing Committee M E G Valerio, UFS, SE, Brasil Sonia L Baldochi, IPEN, SP, Brasil Klaus W H Krambrock, UFMG, MG, Brasil Livio Amaral, UFRGS, RS, Brasil Ana R Blak, USP, SP, Brasil Marco Cremona, PUC-RJ, RJ, Brasil Anderson S L Gomes, UFPE, PE, Brasil Spero Penha Morato, LaserTools, SP, Brasil Alejandro Ayala, UFC, CE, Brasil ICDIM2008 Sponsors: Sponsors

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Schindler disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... 08.021. Epub 2009 Aug 14. Desnick RJ, Wang AM. Schindler disease: an inherited neuroaxonal dystrophy due ... Kanzaki T, Yokota M, Irie F, Hirabayashi Y, Wang AM, Desnick RJ. Angiokeratoma corporis diffusum with glycopeptiduria ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: C3 glomerulopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jones M, Maga T, Katz LM, Zhang Y, Smith RJ. Allelic variants of complement genes associated with ... Frees K, Schnieders MJ, Thomas C, Nester C, Smith RJ. High-Throughput Genetic Testing for Thrombotic Microangiopathies ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: branchiootorenal/branchiootic syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Darbro BW, Clarke J, Nishimura C, Cobb B, Smith RJ, Manak JR. Genome-wide copy number variation ... Meyer NC, Cucci RA, Vervoort VS, Schwartz CE, Smith RJ. Branchio-oto-renal syndrome: the mutation spectrum ...

  19. Neonatal sepsis

    MedlinePlus

    ... BE. Perinatal viral infections. In Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal ... K. Postnatal bacterial infections. In Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal ...

  20. Talcum powder poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Acute responses to toxic exposures. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray & Nadel's ... Cowie RL, Becklake MR. Pneumoconioses. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray & Nadel's ...

  1. Caplan syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wells AU. Connective tissue diseases. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and ... Cowie RL, Becklake MR. Pneumoconioses. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and ...

  2. A.W.D., Larkum, R.J. Orth, C.M. Duarte (eds.), 2006, Seagrasses: Biology, Ecology and Conservation, Springer, ISBN: 978-1-4020-2942-4 (hardback), US$ 99.00, 691 pages.

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.

    2008-01-01

    The relish of scientists for, and funding of research on, seagrasses probably stems from two sources: seagrasses are a defined taxonomic unit often growing in monotypic stands, making academic study tractable; and, seagrasses are increasingly recognized globally as important components of shallow water systems, and potential key indicators of ecosystem health. The 26 chapters covering ~700 pages provide a long overdue treatment of the state of the science on seagrasses. This book is an honest, thorough and heroic attempt to compile a mass of knowledge by a herd of 80 researcher “cats” representing 15 countries. The chapters “…provide the necessary background on what brought each topic where it is today and indicate where future research needs to go to advance the field to the next level.” Seagrass science is in its infancy, but, as demonstrated, is advancing rapidly. Volumes with recent topical treatments of seagrasses include World Atlas of Seagrasses (Green and Short 2003), Seagrass Ecology (Hemminga and Duarte 2000), and Global Seagrass Research Methods (Short and Coles 2001) are useful compliments to this book.

  3. Situation Reports--Bahamas, Brasil, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General…

  4. The Scientific program with RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil)

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenthaeler, R.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Faria, P. N. de; Mendes, D. R. Jr.; Pires, K. C. C.; Morcelle, V.; Hussein, M. S.; Barioni, A.; Condori, R. Pampa; Morais, M. C.; Alcantara Nunez, J.; Camargo, O. Jr.; Otani, Y.; Leistenschneider, E.; Scarduelli, V.; Benjamim, E. A.; Arazi, A.; Assuncao, M.

    2009-06-03

    The Radioactive Ion Beams Facility (RIBRAS) is in operation since 2004 at the Pelletron Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Sao Paulo and consists of two superconducting solenoids capable of producing low energy secondary beams of light exotic nuclei. Measurements of the elastic scattering, breakup and transfer reactions with radioactive projectiles such as {sup 6}He,{sup 8}Li,{sup 7}Be on several targets have been performed. A review of the research program carried on along the last four years using the RIBRAS facility is presented.

  5. Curriculum Studies in Brasil: A Study of the Teaching Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcondes, Maria Ines; Tura, Maria de Lourdes Rangel; de Macedo, Elizabeth Fernandes

    This study analyzes how undergraduate university teachers are thinking in the classroom about the theoretical and practical contents related to the subject called "Curriculum Studies." The study focuses on the aspects of the theory-practice relationship, the idea of curriculum, and the theoretical references used by the undergraduate teachers. The…

  6. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  7. Disciplines and Professors of Astronomy in Undergraduate Physics Teachers Formation Courses in Brazilian Universities. (Spanish Title: Disciplinas y Profesores de Astronomia en los Cursos de Licenciatura en Física en Las Universidades Brasileñas.) Disciplinas e Professores de Astronomia Nos Cursos de Licenciatura em Física das Universidades Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberto, Artur Justiniano, Jr.; Reis, Thiago Henrique; dos Reis Germinaro, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    This article is the result of a research on basic training in Astronomy in physics degrees that performed the ENADE 2011 national examination. The objective was to identify whether there are disciplines of Astronomy in these courses, whether are mandatory or optional, its workload and when it is offered. The relationship between astronomers, physics degrees and disciplines of Astronomy was investigated. To perform this research we examined the results of ENADE 2011 and also the census of Brazilian Astronomical Society. As a result it is observed that in only 15% of the courses there is a mandatory subject of Astronomy, and therefore there is a high probability that 85% of physics teachers trained in 2011 have not had any discipline of Astronomy during their graduation. In addition, the data collected in this study shows a low number of members of SAB (Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira) among the surveyed courses. We have verified that the presence of astronomers in a given university does not imply to have a mandatory discipline of Astronomy in physics degrees at the same university. Este artículo es el resultado de una investigación sobre la formación básica en Astronomía en los cursos de Profesorado en Física que hicieron el examen nacional ENADE 2011. El objetivo del trabajo fue identificar se existen disciplinas de Astronomía en estos cursos, si son obligatorias u optativas, cuál es su carga horaria y el semestre en que son ofrecidas. Se investigó también la correlación entre astrónomos, los cursos de licenciatura en Física y las disciplinas de Astronomía. Para realizar esta investigación se utilizaron los datos del ENADE 2011 y también del censo de la Astronomía brasileña. Como resultado, se observó que en solo 15% de los cursos existe una disciplina obligatoria de Astronomía y que existe una grande probabilidad de que 85% de los profesores de Física formados en el año de 2011 no hayan cursado ninguna disciplina de Astronomía durante su formación. Aparte de eso, los datos levantados en este trabajo apuntan para un número bajo de afiliados a la SAB (Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira) en los cursos investigados. Se verificó que tener astrónomos en una institución no implica tener una disciplina obligatoria de Astronomía en el curso de licenciatura en Física. Este artigo é o resultado de uma pesquisa sobre a formação básica em Astronomia nos cursos de Licenciatura em Física que fizeram o exame nacional ENADE 2011. O objetivo do trabalho foi identificar se há disciplinas de Astronomia nesses cursos, se ela é obrigatória ou optativa/eletiva, qual a sua carga horária e o período em que é oferecida. Pesquisou-se também a relação entre astrônomos, cursos de Licenciatura em Física e disciplinas de Astronomia. Para realizar essa pesquisa utilizamos os dados do ENADE 2011 e também do censo da Astronomia brasileira. Como resultado, se observa que em apenas 15% dos cursos existe uma disciplina obrigatória de Astronomia e que há uma grande probabilidade de que 85% dos professores de Física formados em 2011 não cursaram nenhuma disciplina de Astronomia durante a graduação. Além disso, os dados levantados nesse trabalho apontam um baixo número de filiados à SAB nos cursos pesquisados. Identifica-se que ter astrônomos na instituição não implica em disciplina obrigatória de Astronomia no curso de Licenciatura em Física.

  8. Impact of supplementary royal jelly on in vitro maturation of sheep oocytes: genes involved in apoptosis and embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Valiollahpoor Amiri, Mohammad; Deldar, Hamid; Ansari Pirsaraei, Zarbakht

    2016-02-01

    Optimizing culture conditions lead to the improvement of oocyte developmental competence and additives with anti-oxidative activity in culture media improved embryonic development. Royal jelly (RJ) is a product from the cephalic glands of nurse bees that has considerable health effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different concentrations of RJ on the maturation, cleavage, and blastocyst rates and gene expression in the oocyte and cumulus cells during in vitro maturation (IVM) of sheep oocyte. IVM of oocyte was performed in the presence of control (RJ0), 2.5 (RJ2.5), 5 (RJ5), 10 (RJ10), 20 (RJ20), and 40 (RJ40) mg/mL of RJ. Following the maturation period, parthenogenetic activation was carried out in two treatment groups (RJ0 and RJ10) and embryonic development was examined three and eight days thereafter. Moreover, the relative expression of BCL2 and BAX in oocyte as well as BCL2, BAX, HAS2, PTGS2, and STAR in cumulus cells were assessed. The results indicated that the addition of 10 mg/mL of RJ (90 ± 4.51%) to the maturation medium linearly increased the oocyte maturation rate compared to the control group (57 ± 2.42%), then it remained constant to the RJ40 (93 ± 3.10%) group. The higher RJ concentrations were associated with increased (p < 0.01) cleavage (53.3 ± 1.55% to 82.3 ± 2.82%) and blastocyst rate (15.5 ± 1.16% to 33.8 ± 3.09%) from the RJ0 to the RJ10 group. The relative mRNA expression of BCL2 and BAX in the oocyte was higher at RJ10. In cumulus cells, the expression of BCL2 was not affected, but that of BAX decreased, and expression of HAS2, PTGS2, and STAR were increased following the addition of RJ to the maturation media. In conclusion, the addition of 10 mg/mL of RJ to maturation medium improved blastocyst formation and decreased the apoptotic incidence in sheep cumulus cells and the oocyte during the in vitro development. PMID:26636725

  9. Royal jelly protects against ultraviolet B-induced photoaging in human skin fibroblasts via enhancing collagen production.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Min; Hwang, Eunson; Lee, Kwang Gill; Han, Sang-Mi; Cho, Yunhi; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2011-09-01

    Royal jelly (RJ) is a honeybee product containing proteins, carbohydrates, fats, free amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. As its principal unsaturated fatty acid, RJ contains 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA), which may have antitumor and antibacterial activity and a capacity to stimulate collagen production. RJ has attracted interest in various parts of the world for its pharmacological properties. However, the effects of RJ on ultraviolet (UV)-induced photoaging of the skin have not been reported. In this study we measured the 10-HDA content of RJ by high-performance liquid chromatography and tested the effects of RJ on UVB-induced skin photoaging in normal human dermal fibroblasts. The effects of RJ and 10-HDA on UVB-induced photoaging were tested by measuring procollagen type I, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 after UVB irradiation. The RJ contained about 0.211% 10-HDA. The UVB-irradiated human skin fibroblasts treated with RJ and 10-HDA had increased procollagen type I and TGF-β1 productions, but the level of MMP-1 was not changed. Thus RJ may potentially protect the skin from UVB-induced photoaging by enhancing collagen production. PMID:21812645

  10. In-depth phosphoproteomic analysis of royal jelly derived from western and eastern honeybee species.

    PubMed

    Han, Bin; Fang, Yu; Feng, Mao; Lu, Xiaoshan; Huo, Xinmei; Meng, Lifeng; Wu, Bin; Li, Jianke

    2014-12-01

    The proteins in royal jelly (RJ) play a pivotal role in the nutrition, immune defense, and cast determination of honeybee larvae and have a wide range of pharmacological and health-promoting functions for humans as well. Although the importance of post-translational modifications (PTMs) in protein function is known, investigation of protein phosphorylation of RJ proteins is still very limited. To this end, two complementary phosphopeptide enrichment materials (Ti(4+)-IMAC and TiO2) and high-sensitivity mass spectrometry were applied to establish a detailed phosphoproteome map and to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the phosphoproteomes of RJ produced by Apis mellifera ligustica (Aml) and Apis cerana cerana (Acc). In total, 16 phosphoproteins carrying 67 phosphorylation sites were identified in RJ derived from western bees, and nine proteins phosphorylated on 71 sites were found in RJ produced by eastern honeybees. Of which, eight phosphorylated proteins were common to both RJ samples, and the same motif ([S-x-E]) was extracted, suggesting that the function of major RJ proteins as nutrients and immune agents is evolutionary preserved in both of these honeybee species. All eight overlapping phosphoproteins showed significantly higher abundance in Acc-RJ than in Aml-RJ, and the phosphorylation of Jelleine-II (an antimicrobial peptide, TPFKLSLHL) at S(6) in Acc-RJ had stronger antimicrobial properties than that at T(1) in Aml-RJ even though the overall antimicrobial activity of Jelleine-II was found to decrease after phosphorylation. The differences in phosphosites, peptide abundance, and antimicrobial activity of the phosphorylated RJ proteins indicate that the two major honeybee species employ distinct phosphorylation strategies that align with their different biological characteristics shaped by evolution. The phosphorylation of RJ proteins are potentially driven by the activity of extracellular serine/threonine protein kinase FAM20C-like protein (FAM20C-like) through the [S-x-E] motif, which is supported by evidence that mRNA and protein expression of FAM20C-like protein kinase are both found in the highest level in the hypopharyngeal gland of nurse bees. Our data represent the first comprehensive RJ phosphorylation atlas, recording patterns of phosphorylated RJ protein abundance and antibacterial activity of some RJ proteins in two major managed honeybee species. These data constitute a firm basis for future research to better understand the biological roles of each RJ protein for honeybee biology and human health care. PMID:25265229

  11. Comprehensive identification of novel proteins and N-glycosylation sites in royal jelly

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Royal jelly (RJ) is a proteinaceous secretion produced from the hypopharyngeal and mandibular glands of nurse bees. It plays vital roles in honeybee biology and in the improvement of human health. However, some proteins remain unknown in RJ, and mapping N-glycosylation modification sites on RJ proteins demands further investigation. We used two different liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry techniques, complementary N-glycopeptide enrichment strategies, and bioinformatic approaches to gain a better understanding of novel and glycosylated proteins in RJ. Results A total of 25 N-glycosylated proteins, carrying 53 N-glycosylation sites, were identified in RJ proteins, of which 42 N-linked glycosylation sites were mapped as novel on RJ proteins. Most of the glycosylated proteins were related to metabolic activities and health improvement. The 13 newly identified proteins were also mainly associated with metabolic processes and health improvement activities. Conclusion Our in-depth, large-scale mapping of novel glycosylation sites represents a crucial step toward systematically revealing the functionality of N-glycosylated RJ proteins, and is potentially useful for producing a protein with desirable pharmacokinetic and biological activity using a genetic engineering approach. The newly-identified proteins significantly extend the proteome coverage of RJ. These findings contribute vital and new knowledge to our understanding of the innate biochemical nature of RJ at both the proteome and glycoproteome levels. PMID:24529077

  12. Implementing Restorative Justice Practice in Schools: What Pedagogy Reveals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaandering, Dorothy

    2014-01-01

    In the ongoing pursuit for creating safe, nurturing and relational school cultures, educators continue to turn to restorative justice (rj) principles and practice. Predominantly, schools begin to engage with rj in an effort to address harm done, causing its discourse to be situated in literature tied to classroom management and behaviour. However,…

  13. Contextualizing Restorative Justice for Hate Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavrielides, Theo

    2012-01-01

    The application of restorative justice (RJ) with hate crime remains an underdeveloped field of research, policy, and practice. This article aims to advance the understanding of these two areas of inquiry: RJ and hate crime. It is known that while most hate incidents involve minor, punishable offenses, their impact can be long lasting and

  14. The Lyophilization Process Maintains the Chemical and Biological Characteristics of Royal Jelly.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Andresa Piacezzi; Moraes, Larissa Ariana Roveroni; Ferreira, Nathália Ursoli; Moreno, Gabriela de Padua; Uahib, Fernanda Grassi Mangolini; Barizon, Edna Aparecida; Berretta, Andresa Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    The alternative use of natural products, like royal jelly (RJ), may be an important tool for the treatment of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. RJ presents a large number of bioactive substances, including antimicrobial compounds. In this study, we carried out the chemical characterization of fresh and lyophilized RJ and investigated their antibacterial effects with the purpose of evaluating if the lyophilization process maintains the chemical and antibacterial properties of RJ. Furthermore, we evaluated the antibacterial efficacy of the main fatty acid found in RJ, the 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10H2DA). Chromatographic profile of the RJ samples showed similar fingerprints and the presence of 10H2DA in both samples. Furthermore, fresh and lyophilized RJ were effective against all bacteria evaluated; that is, the lyophilization process maintains the antibacterial activity of RJ and the chemical field of 10H2DA. The fatty acid 10H2DA exhibited a good antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Therefore, it may be used as an alternative and complementary treatment for infections caused by antibiotic-resistant S. pneumoniae. PMID:26064175

  15. The Lyophilization Process Maintains the Chemical and Biological Characteristics of Royal Jelly

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Larissa Ariana Roveroni; Ferreira, Nathália Ursoli; Moreno, Gabriela de Padua; Uahib, Fernanda Grassi Mangolini; Barizon, Edna Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    The alternative use of natural products, like royal jelly (RJ), may be an important tool for the treatment of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. RJ presents a large number of bioactive substances, including antimicrobial compounds. In this study, we carried out the chemical characterization of fresh and lyophilized RJ and investigated their antibacterial effects with the purpose of evaluating if the lyophilization process maintains the chemical and antibacterial properties of RJ. Furthermore, we evaluated the antibacterial efficacy of the main fatty acid found in RJ, the 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10H2DA). Chromatographic profile of the RJ samples showed similar fingerprints and the presence of 10H2DA in both samples. Furthermore, fresh and lyophilized RJ were effective against all bacteria evaluated; that is, the lyophilization process maintains the antibacterial activity of RJ and the chemical field of 10H2DA. The fatty acid 10H2DA exhibited a good antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Therefore, it may be used as an alternative and complementary treatment for infections caused by antibiotic-resistant S. pneumoniae. PMID:26064175

  16. Discipline with Dignity: Oakland Classrooms Try Healing Instead of Punishment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Fania

    2014-01-01

    Nelson Mandela's adage, "I destroy my enemies when I make them my friends" captures the profoundly inclusive nature of restorative justice (RJ). The hallmark of RJ is intentionally bringing together people with seemingly diametrically opposed viewpoints--particularly people who have harmed with people who have been harmed--in a…

  17. Discipline with Dignity: Oakland Classrooms Try Healing Instead of Punishment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Fania

    2014-01-01

    Nelson Mandela's adage, "I destroy my enemies when I make them my friends" captures the profoundly inclusive nature of restorative justice (RJ). The hallmark of RJ is intentionally bringing together people with seemingly diametrically opposed viewpoints--particularly people who have harmed with people who have been harmed--in a

  18. Contextualizing Restorative Justice for Hate Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavrielides, Theo

    2012-01-01

    The application of restorative justice (RJ) with hate crime remains an underdeveloped field of research, policy, and practice. This article aims to advance the understanding of these two areas of inquiry: RJ and hate crime. It is known that while most hate incidents involve minor, punishable offenses, their impact can be long lasting and…

  19. Energetic particles in the jovian magnetotail.

    PubMed

    McNutt, R L; Haggerty, D K; Hill, M E; Krimigis, S M; Livi, S; Ho, G C; Gurnee, R S; Mauk, B H; Mitchell, D G; Roelof, E C; McComas, D J; Bagenal, F; Elliott, H A; Brown, L E; Kusterer, M; Vandegriff, J; Stern, S A; Weaver, H A; Spencer, J R; Moore, J M

    2007-10-12

    When the solar wind hits Jupiter's magnetic field, it creates a long magnetotail trailing behind the planet that channels material out of the Jupiter system. The New Horizons spacecraft traversed the length of the jovian magnetotail to >2500 jovian radii (RJ; 1 RJ identical with 71,400 kilometers), observing a high-temperature, multispecies population of energetic particles. Velocity dispersions, anisotropies, and compositional variation seen in the deep-tail (greater, similar 500 RJ) with a approximately 3-day periodicity are similar to variations seen closer to Jupiter in Galileo data. The signatures suggest plasma streaming away from the planet and injection sites in the near-tail region (approximately 200 to 400 RJ) that could be related to magnetic reconnection events. The tail structure remains coherent at least until it reaches the magnetosheath at 1655 RJ. PMID:17932283

  20. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. XXII. CoRoT-16b: a hot Jupiter with a hint of eccentricity around a faint solar-like star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollivier, M.; Gillon, M.; Santerne, A.; Wuchterl, G.; Havel, M.; Bruntt, H.; Bordé, P.; Pasternacki, T.; Endl, M.; Gandolfi, D.; Aigrain, S.; Almenara, J. M.; Alonso, R.; Auvergne, M.; Baglin, A.; Barge, P.; Bonomo, A. S.; Bouchy, F.; Cabrera, J.; Carone, L.; Carpano, S.; Cavarroc, C.; Cochran, W. D.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Deeg, H. J.; Deleuil, M.; Diaz, R. F.; Dvorak, R.; Erikson, A.; Ferraz-Mello, S.; Fridlund, M.; Gazzano, J.-C.; Grziwa, S.; Guenther, E.; Guillot, T.; Guterman, P.; Hatzes, A.; Hébrard, G.; Lammer, H.; Léger, A.; Lovis, C.; MacQueen, P. J.; Mayor, M.; Mazeh, T.; Moutou, C.; Ofir, A.; Pätzold, M.; Queloz, D.; Rauer, H.; Rouan, D.; Samuel, B.; Schneider, J.; Tadeu dos Santos, M.; Tal-Or, L.; Tingley, B.; Weingrill, J.

    2012-05-01

    Aims: We report the discovery of CoRoT-16b, a low density hot jupiter that orbits a faint G5V star (mV = 15.63) in 5.3523 ± 0.0002 days with slight eccentricity. A fit of the data with no a priori assumptions on the orbit leads to an eccentricity of 0.33 ± 0.1. We discuss this value and also derive the mass and radius of the planet. Methods: We analyse the photometric transit curve of CoRoT-16 given by the CoRoT satellite, and radial velocity data from the HARPS and HIRES spectrometers. A combined analysis using a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is used to get the system parameters. Results: CoRoT-16b is a 0.535 -0.083/+0.085 MJ, 1.17 -0.14/+0.16 RJ hot Jupiter with a density of 0.44 -0.14/+0.21 g cm-3. Despite its short orbital distance (0.0618 ± 0.0015 AU) and the age of the parent star (6.73 ± 2.8 Gyr), the planet orbit exhibits significantly non-zero eccentricity. This is very uncommon for this type of objects as tidal effects tend to circularise the orbit. This value is discussed taking into account the characteristics of the star and the observation accuracy. The CoRoT space mission, launched on December 27, 2006, has been developed and is operated by the CNES with the contribution of Austria, Belgium, Brasil, ESA, Germany, and Spain.Observations made with the HARPS spectrograph at ESO La Silla Observatory (HARPS programs 083.C-0186 and 184.C-0639) and the HIRES spectrograph at the Keck Observatory (NASA-Keck programs N035Hr, N143Hr and N095Hr).

  1. Royal jelly supplementation in semen extender enhances post-thaw quality and fertility of Nili-Ravi buffalo bull sperm.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Qaisar; Mehmood, Muhammad Usman; Khan, Hamayun; Husna, Asma Ul; Qadeer, Saima; Azam, Asima; Naseer, Zahid; Ahmad, Ejaz; Safdar, Muhammad; Ahmad, Mushtaq

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of royal jelly (RJ) on post-thaw sperm quality, in vitro and in vivo fertility rate of cryopreserved buffalo bull sperm. The semen was collected from three mature regular donor buffalo bulls, ejaculates were pooled and semen evaluated initially. In Experiment 1, the ejaculates were extended in tris-citric acid diluter supplemented with different RJ concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 or 0.4%). The diluted semen was cooled to 4°C, packaged into 0.5mL straws and frozen using standard procedure. The straws were thawed and assessed for sperm progressive motility, viability, plasma membrane, acrosome, and chromatin integrity. The results indicated that sperm progressive motility was significantly greater (P<0.05) in 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% RJ than 0.4% RJ supplemented and control groups. The sperm viability, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity were significantly improved (P<0.05) in 0.1% RJ supplemented group the compared to other treatment groups. In Experiment 2, cryopreserved sperm with 0.1% RJ supplementation and control (without RJ supplementation) were used to observe the in vitro fertilizing potential and in vivo fertility. In vitro fertilization method was applied to assess the cleavage rate; whereas, AI was performed in buffalo during in vivo fertility trial. The buffaloes were inseminated 12h after standing estrus and pregnancy diagnosis was performed through ultrasonography. The results revealed that the cleavage rate was higher (P<0.05) in 0.1% RJ as compared to control group. However, the pregnancy rate was similar (P>0.05) between 0.1% RJ supplemented and control groups. It is concluded that supplementation of RJ in freezing extender can improve the cryosurvival rate and in vitro fertilizing capacity of buffalo bull sperm. PMID:26896924

  2. Does offshore crustal taper control an onshore topographic displacement gradient in SE Brasil?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redfield, Tim; Terje Osmundsen, Per; Peron-Pinvidic, Gwenn

    2015-04-01

    The SE Brasilian Serras da Mantiqueira and do Mar topographic envelopes exhibit coast-parallel displacement gradients typical of linked normal faults in extending terrain. Between southern Curitiba and Cabo Frio, coast-perpendicular profiles show the distance from the maximum escarpment elevation to the likely location of the extended margin's flexural/rheological coupling point (Taper Break, or TB) is inversely correlative to the height of the escarpment. The correlation is similar to previously-published scaling relationships derived from Scandinavian and global datasets. Although Precambrian ductile shear zones guided brittle phase faulting during Mesozoic extension and Cenozoic margin uplift, the primary control governing fault reactivation and source-to-sink evolution of the SE Brasilian rifted margin seems rooted in crustal thinning. We see two lines of interest for petroleum exploration: Preferential reactivation of high angle faults at sharply-tapered margin sectors is expected to guide onshore to offshore sediment routing along margin-parallel corridors, and (should the TB-escarpment correlation be better validated with proposed analyses of high-quality marine geophysical datasets) a partial constraint upon architectural end member interpretations of deep crustal structure may be contemplated.

  3. Between control and hacker activism: the political actions of Anonymous Brasil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Murilo Bansi

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses the political actions of Anonymous, the principal expression of current hacker activism, arguing that hacktivism is a form of political resistance in control societies. To this end, it focuses on studying the Brazilian, hacktivist facet of the collective. In order to stress its political character, it scrutinizes the principal expressions of hacking in the literature. It describes motivations, methods and the ethics of its political actions, based on a comparative analysis of two operations carried out by Brazilian Anonymous adherents in 2012: #OpWeeksPayment and #OpGlobo. And it finishes by identifying four of its main forms of political engagement: promotion of anonymity; "evangelization;" the formation of distributed networks; and the fact that the collective carries out and facilitates several types of political actions. PMID:26785867

  4. Reactions with 8Li at RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil): Astrophysical and nuclear structure applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, D. R., Jr.; Lépine-Szily, A.; Descouvemont, P.

    2012-02-01

    We present the results of the 8Li(p, α) 5He reaction of astrophysical interest, measured at the RIBRAS system. It was realized in inverse kinematics and using a thick CH2 polyethylene target. Using the thick target method the complete excitation function could be measured between Ecm = 0.2-2.5 MeV, which includes the Gamow peak energy region. The contribution of contaminating 12C(8Li,4He) 16N and 12C(7Li, 4He) 15N reactions is still under analysis. However, if the cross section is expected to be somewhat reduced, the subtraction of the contamination will not change the general feature of the excitation function.

  5. New observations on seuratoid nematodes parasitic in fishes of the Paraná River, Brasil.

    PubMed

    Moravec, F; Kohn, A; Fernandes, B M

    1997-01-01

    The present paper comprises a systematic survey of nematodes of the superfamily Seuratoidea collected from fishes of the Paraná River, southern Brazil, in 1992-1995. The following species were recorded: Neoparaseuratum travassosi Moravec, Kohn et Fernandes, 1992, Spectatus sp., Seuratoidea gen. sp. larvae, Cucullanus brevispiculus Moravec, Kohn et Fernandes, 1993, C. pinnai pinnai Travassos, Artigas et Pereira, 1928, C. pinnai pterodorasi subsp. n., C. rhamphichthydis sp. n., C. zungaro Vaz et Pereira, 1934, and Dichelyne pimelodi sp. n. C. pinnai pterodorasi (type host Pterodoras granulosus) differs from C. p. pinnai in the shape of the oesophagus and in the position of the nerve ring. C. rhamphichthydis (only females) (type host Rhamphichthys rostratus) is characterized mainly by the postoesophageal position of the excretory pore and deirids, complex structure of the cuticular lining of oesophastome and by markedly narrow body, whereas D. pimelodi (one male) (type host Pimelodus sp.) by the length of spicules (1.46 mm), postoesophageal position of the excretory pore and deirids and by the arrangement of genital papillae. Most species are briefly described (females of C. brevispiculus and Seuratoidea gen. sp. larvae for the first time) and illustrated and some problems concerning their taxonomy, hosts and geographical distribution are discussed. PMID:9332979

  6. Astrometry and numerical methods for the solar heliometer at Observatorio Nacional in Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrei, A.; Boscardin, S.; Penna, J.; Sigismondi, C.; Reis Neto, E.; d'Avila, V.

    2015-08-01

    Started its regular, daily operational phase in 2011, the results so far obtained show that the Heliometer from Observatorio Nacional (O.N.) fulfilled its planed performance of single measurement to the level of few tens of mas, freely pivoting around the heliolatitudes without systematic deviations or error enhancement. Such fruition led to evaluate high order terms that are commonly neglected in other solar astrometric observations. Namely, these are: the constancy of the basic heliometric angle, the dependence to meteorological and pointing conditions, the second order terms for diurnal aberration and parallax, the accounting of the Earth's ellipticity of the orbit, and the second order atmospheric refraction. We present and discuss these astrometric additions that are seldom required on ground base astronomic programs.

  7. The Research Program at RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil)-III

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenthaeler, R.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Faria, P. N. de; Mendes, D. R. Jr; Pires, K. C. C.; Morcelle, V.; Barioni, A.; Morais, M. C.; Pampa Condori, R.; Assuncao, M.; Moro, A. M.; Rodriguez-Gallardo, M.; Arazi, A.

    2010-04-30

    A part of the research program developed in the RIBRAS facility over the last four years is presented. Experiments using radioactive secondary beams of light exotic nuclei such as {sup 6}He, {sup 7}Be, {sup 8}Li on several targets have been performed. Elastic angular distributions have been analysed by the Optical Model and four body Continuous Discretized Coupled Channels Calculations (4b-CDCC) and the total reaction cross sections have been obtained. A comparison between the reaction cross sections of {sup 6}He and other stable projectiles with medium-heavy targets was performed. Measurements of the proton transfer reaction {sup 12}C({sup 8}Li,{sup 9}Be){sup 11}B are also presented.

  8. Situation Reports--Brasil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in six foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Brazil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General background…

  9. Diversity of low chill peaches from Asia, Brasil, Europe and the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred fifty-five peach (Prunus persica) cultivars, from Asia, Brazil, Europe, and the USA, were examined using eleven SSRs to study the genetic relationships among low chill as compared to high chill peach germplasm. Data was analyzed by NTSYSpc to form a similarity matrix using Nei and Li’s ...

  10. Consideracoes Historicas sobre o Ensino Profissionalizante no Brasil (Historical Considerations about Professional Education in Brazil).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barros, Marta Silene Ferreira

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes the paths taken in professional education in Brazil from the colonial period until the formation of the republic. Refers to specialists as well as specific laws for each period described in the study. (BT)

  11. The Effects of Royal Jelly on Fitness Traits and Gene Expression in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Shorter, John R.; Geisz, Matthew; Özsoy, Ergi; Magwire, Michael M.; Carbone, Mary Anna; Mackay, Trudy F. C.

    2015-01-01

    Royal Jelly (RJ) is a product made by honey bee workers and is required for queen differentiation and accompanying changes in queen body size, development time, lifespan and reproductive output relative to workers. Previous studies have reported similar changes in Drosophila melanogaster in response to RJ. Here, we quantified viability, development time, body size, productivity, lifespan and genome wide transcript abundance of D. melanogaster reared on standard culture medium supplemented with increasing concentrations of RJ. We found that lower concentrations of RJ do induce significant differences in body size in both sexes; higher concentrations reduce size, increase mortality, shorten lifespan and reduce productivity. Increased concentrations of RJ also consistently lengthened development time in both sexes. RJ is associated with changes in expression of 1,581 probe sets assessed using Affymetrix Drosophila 2.0 microarrays, which were enriched for genes associated with metabolism and amino acid degradation. The transcriptional changes are consistent with alterations in cellular processes to cope with excess nutrients provided by RJ, including biosynthesis and detoxification, which might contribute to accelerated senescence and reduced lifespan. PMID:26226016

  12. Protective Effect of Royal Jelly on In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) in Male Mice Treated with Oxymetholone

    PubMed Central

    Zahmatkesh, Ensieh; Najafi, Gholamreza; Nejati, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the effects of royal jelly (RJ) on catalase, total antioxidant capacity and embryo development in adult mice treated with oxymetholone (OXM). Materials and Methods In this exprimental study, 32 male and 96 female adult Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice (7-9 weeks of age) with a ratio of 1:3 for fertili- zation purposes were randomly divided into 4 groups as follows: i. Control group (n=8) receiving 0.1 ml/mice saline daily by gavage for 30 day, ii. RJ group (n=8) treated with RJ at a dose of 100 mg/kg daily by gavage for 30 days, iii. OXM group (n=8) receiving OXM at the dose of 5 mg/kg daily by gavage for 30 days and iv. RJ+OXM group (n=8) receiving RJ at the dose of 100 mg/kg daily by gavage concomitant with 100 mg/kg OXM adminis- tration for 30 days. Results Analysis revealed a significant reduction in catalase, total antioxidant, as well as embryo development in OXM group (P<0.05). However, RJ group showed a salient recovery in the all of the above mentioned parameters and embryo toxicity. Conclusion The results of this study indicated a partially protective effect of RJ against OXM-induced embryo toxicity. PMID:26464831

  13. Understanding Light Harvesting in Radial Junction Amorphous Silicon Thin Film Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Linwei; Misra, Soumyadeep; Wang, Junzhuan; Qian, Shengyi; Foldyna, Martin; Xu, Jun; Shi, Yi; Johnson, Erik; Cabarrocas, Pere Roca i

    2014-01-01

    The radial junction (RJ) architecture has proven beneficial for the design of a new generation of high performance thin film photovoltaics. We herein carry out a comprehensive modeling of the light in-coupling, propagation and absorption profile within RJ thin film cells based on an accurate set of material properties extracted from spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. This has enabled us to understand and evaluate the impact of varying several key parameters on the light harvesting in radially formed thin film solar cells. We found that the resonance mode absorption and antenna-like light in-coupling behavior in the RJ cell cavity can lead to a unique absorption distribution in the absorber that is very different from the situation expected in a planar thin film cell, and that has to be taken into account in the design of high performance RJ thin film solar cells. When compared to the experimental EQE response of real RJ solar cells, this modeling also provides an insightful and powerful tool to resolve the wavelength-dependent contributions arising from individual RJ units and/or from strong light trapping due to the presence of the RJ cell array. PMID:24619197

  14. Understanding light harvesting in radial junction amorphous silicon thin film solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Linwei; Misra, Soumyadeep; Wang, Junzhuan; Qian, Shengyi; Foldyna, Martin; Xu, Jun; Shi, Yi; Johnson, Erik; Cabarrocas, Pere Roca I

    2014-01-01

    The radial junction (RJ) architecture has proven beneficial for the design of a new generation of high performance thin film photovoltaics. We herein carry out a comprehensive modeling of the light in-coupling, propagation and absorption profile within RJ thin film cells based on an accurate set of material properties extracted from spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. This has enabled us to understand and evaluate the impact of varying several key parameters on the light harvesting in radially formed thin film solar cells. We found that the resonance mode absorption and antenna-like light in-coupling behavior in the RJ cell cavity can lead to a unique absorption distribution in the absorber that is very different from the situation expected in a planar thin film cell, and that has to be taken into account in the design of high performance RJ thin film solar cells. When compared to the experimental EQE response of real RJ solar cells, this modeling also provides an insightful and powerful tool to resolve the wavelength-dependent contributions arising from individual RJ units and/or from strong light trapping due to the presence of the RJ cell array. PMID:24619197

  15. Antioxidant properties of royal jelly associated with larval age and time of harvest.

    PubMed

    Liu, Je-Ruei; Yang, Yuan-Chang; Shi, Li-Shian; Peng, Chi-Chung

    2008-12-10

    This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant properties of royal jelly (RJ) collected from larvae of different ages that were transferred in artificial bee queen cells for 24, 48, and 72 h. RJ harvested from the 1 day old larvae 24 h after the graft displayed predominant antioxidant properties, including scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation, and reducing power. Regardless of the initial larval age, lower antioxidant activities were observed in the RJ harvested later than 24 h except for the activity of superoxide dismutase. In addition, higher contents of proteins and polyphenolic compounds were determined in the RJ harvested 24 h than that harvested 48 or 72 h after the graft. It implied that the polyphenolic compounds may be the major component for giving the antioxidant activities in RJ. In summary, the time of harvest and the initial larval age did affect the antioxidant potencies in RJ, and RJ collected 24 h after the larval transfer showed the most substantial antioxidant activities. PMID:19007163

  16. The Effects of Royal Jelly on Fitness Traits and Gene Expression in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Shorter, John R; Geisz, Matthew; Özsoy, Ergi; Magwire, Michael M; Carbone, Mary Anna; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2015-01-01

    Royal Jelly (RJ) is a product made by honey bee workers and is required for queen differentiation and accompanying changes in queen body size, development time, lifespan and reproductive output relative to workers. Previous studies have reported similar changes in Drosophila melanogaster in response to RJ. Here, we quantified viability, development time, body size, productivity, lifespan and genome wide transcript abundance of D. melanogaster reared on standard culture medium supplemented with increasing concentrations of RJ. We found that lower concentrations of RJ do induce significant differences in body size in both sexes; higher concentrations reduce size, increase mortality, shorten lifespan and reduce productivity. Increased concentrations of RJ also consistently lengthened development time in both sexes. RJ is associated with changes in expression of 1,581 probe sets assessed using Affymetrix Drosophila 2.0 microarrays, which were enriched for genes associated with metabolism and amino acid degradation. The transcriptional changes are consistent with alterations in cellular processes to cope with excess nutrients provided by RJ, including biosynthesis and detoxification, which might contribute to accelerated senescence and reduced lifespan. PMID:26226016

  17. Identification of the distribution of adenosine phosphates, nucleosides and nucleobases in royal jelly.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liming; Chen, Lanzhen; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Wei, Yue; Wang, Yong; Li, Yi; Zhao, Jing; Xue, Xiaofeng

    2015-04-15

    Nucleotides, nucleosides and nucleobases play a greater role in the physiological activity of organisms which are highly present in royal jelly (RJ). The objective of the present study is to develop a HPLC method to simultaneous determine nucleotides, nucleosides and nucleobases in RJ and access them in fresh and commercial RJ samples. The LOD and LOQ were 12.2-99.6 μg/L and 40.8-289.4 μg/L, respectively with nearly 100.9% recoveries. Except uric acid, all other compounds were found in RJ samples. Significant difference in the average content of compounds in fresh (2682.93 mg/kg) and commercial samples (3152.78 mg/kg) were observed. AMP, adenosine and adenine were found predominant in all the samples. Significant higher levels of ATP, ADP and AMP was seen in fresh RJ samples, and IMP, uridine, guanosine, and thymidine was seen in commercial RJ samples. The investigated compounds can be used as indexes for assessment RJ freshness and quality. PMID:25466132

  18. In-Depth N-Glycosylation Reveals Species-Specific Modifications and Functions of the Royal Jelly Protein from Western (Apis mellifera) and Eastern Honeybees (Apis cerana).

    PubMed

    Feng, Mao; Fang, Yu; Han, Bin; Xu, Xiang; Fan, Pei; Hao, Yue; Qi, Yuping; Hu, Han; Huo, Xinmei; Meng, Lifeng; Wu, Bin; Li, Jianke

    2015-12-01

    Royal jelly (RJ), secreted by honeybee workers, plays diverse roles as nutrients and defense agents for honeybee biology and human health. Despite being reported to be glycoproteins, the glycosylation characterization and functionality of RJ proteins in different honeybee species are largely unknown. An in-depth N-glycoproteome analysis and functional assay of RJ produced by Apis mellifera lingustica (Aml) and Apis cerana cerana (Acc) were conducted. RJ produced by Aml yielded 80 nonredundant N-glycoproteins carrying 190 glycosites, of which 23 novel proteins harboring 35 glycosites were identified. For Acc, all 43 proteins glycosylated at 138 glycosites were reported for the first time. Proteins with distinct N-glycoproteomic characteristics in terms of glycoprotein species, number of N-glycosylated sites, glycosylation motif, abundance level of glycoproteins, and N-glycosites were observed in this two RJ samples. The fact that the low inhibitory efficiency of N-glycosylated major royal jelly protein 2 (MRJP2) against Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae) and the absence of antibacterial related glycosylated apidaecin, hymenoptaecin, and peritrophic matrix in the Aml RJ compared to Acc reveal the mechanism for why the Aml larvae are susceptible to P. larvae, the causative agent of a fatal brood disease (American foulbrood, AFB). The observed antihypertension activity of N-glycosylated MRJP1 in two RJ samples and a stronger activity found in Acc than in Aml reveal that specific RJ protein and modification are potentially useful for the treatment of hypertensive disease for humans. Our data gain novel understanding that the western and eastern bees have evolved species-specific strategies of glycosylation to fine-tune protein activity for optimizing molecular function as nutrients and immune agents for the good of honeybee and influence on the health promoting activity for human as well. This serves as a valuable resource for the targeted probing of the biological functions of RJ proteins for honeybee and medical communities. PMID:26496797

  19. Effect of Fresh Royal Jelly Ingestion on Glycemic Response in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Mobasseri, Majid; Ghiyasvand, Shahram; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Noshad, Hamid; Pourmoradian, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes is the fourth major public health problem worldwide. Royal Jelly (RJ) insulin-like activity and blood glucose modulating properties have been reported in animal and healthy volunteers. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effect of a single dose of fresh RJ as a complementary therapy on glycemic response in patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 40 patients with type 2 diabetes were assigned into the RJ (n = 20) and placebo (n = 20) groups and received either 10 g fresh RJ or placebo after overnight fasting. Serum glucose, insulin and C-peptide concentrations were determined at 0, 60, 120 minutes after the intervention. Independent t-tests and repeated measures ANOVA were used to analyze data. Results: The mean serum glucose levels were significantly decreased in RJ and placebo groups; however, mean serum level was different but not statistically. (P = 0.77). One hour after RJ ingestion the mean serum insulin concentrations were increased and after 2 hours it was decreased insignificantly (P = 0.54, P = 0.20). The mean C-peptide concentrations were significantly increased after 1 and 2 hours of RJ ingestion; however, in the placebo group we observed a slight but insignificant reduction at the time of 1 and 2 hours in the mean C-peptide serum levels (P = 0.40). Moreover, there was no significant difference in none of the glycemic control parameters between both studied groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: It seems that RJ does not appear to have significant immediate effects on glycemic factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, further studies with larger sample sizes and different doses of RJ are needed to achieve more precise results. PMID:26473074

  20. Protective effect of royal jelly in 2,4,6 trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Karaca, Turan; Uz, Yesim Hulya; Demirtas, Selim; Karaboga, Ihsan; Can, Guray

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): In the present study, we evaluated immunological and immunomodulatory properties of royal jelly (RJ) in 2,4,6 trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods: Eighteen adult female Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups of six animals each: a control group that received only saline solution, a TNBS-induced colitis group, and a TNBS-colitis+RJ group that received 250 mg/kg/day of RJ for seven days before the induction of colitis, following by the same treatment for an additional seven days. At the end of the experiment, cardiac blood and colon samples were obtained under deep anaesthesia from the animals in all groups. Serum interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and IL-10 levels were analyzed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Five-micrometre-thick sections were stained with haematoxylin-eosin (H&E) for microscopic evaluations. For immunohistochemical evaluations, the paraffin sections were stained with anti-CD3 (cluster of differentiation), anti-CD5, anti-CD8 and anti-CD45. Results: The results showed that the oral RJ treatment inhibited proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α secretion, while increasing anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 production in the TNBS-induced colitis+RJ group compared with the colitis group not treated with RJ. The colitis was not as severe in the colitis+RJ group, with ulcerative damage, weight loss and inflammatory scores suggesting that impaired CD3-, CD5-, CD8- and CD45-positive T cell immune responses likely mediated the anti-inflammatory effect. Conclusion: The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of RJ protected colon mucosa against TNBS-induced colitis in rats orally treated with RJ. PMID:26019800

  1. Proteomic analysis of Apis cerana and Apis mellifera larvae fed with heterospecific royal jelly and by CSBV challenge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Guozhi; Huang, Xiu; Han, Richou

    2014-01-01

    Chinese honeybee Apis cerana (Ac) is one of the major Asian honeybee species for local apiculture. However, Ac is frequently damaged by Chinese sacbrood virus (CSBV), whereas Apis mellifera (Am) is usually resistant to it. Heterospecific royal jelly (RJ) breeding in two honeybee species may result in morphological and genetic modification. Nevertheless, knowledge on the resistant mechanism of Am to this deadly disease is still unknown. In the present study, heterospecific RJ breeding was conducted to determine the effects of food change on the larval mortality after CSBV infection at early larval stage. 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS proteomic technology was employed to unravel the molecular event of the bees under heterospecific RJ breeding and CSBV challenge. The change of Ac larval food from RJC to RJM could enhance the bee resistance to CSBV. The mortality rate of Ac larvae after CSBV infection was much higher when the larvae were fed with RJC compared with the larvae fed with RJM. There were 101 proteins with altered expressions after heterospecific RJ breeding and viral infection. In Ac larvae, 6 differential expression proteins were identified from heterospecific RJ breeding only, 21 differential expression proteins from CSBV challenge only and 7 differential expression proteins from heterospecific RJ breeding plus CSBV challenge. In Am larvae, 17 differential expression proteins were identified from heterospecific RJ breeding only, 26 differential expression proteins from CSBV challenge only and 24 differential expression proteins from heterospecific RJ breeding plus CSBV challenge. The RJM may protect Ac larvae from CSBV infection, probably by activating the genes in energy metabolism pathways, antioxidation and ubiquitin-proteasome system. The present results, for the first time, comprehensively descript the molecular events of the viral infection of Ac and Am after heterospecific RJ breeding and are potentially useful for establishing CSBV resistant populations of Ac for apiculture. PMID:25102167

  2. Proteomic Analysis of Apis cerana and Apis mellifera Larvae Fed with Heterospecific Royal Jelly and by CSBV Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiu; Han, Richou

    2014-01-01

    Chinese honeybee Apis cerana (Ac) is one of the major Asian honeybee species for local apiculture. However, Ac is frequently damaged by Chinese sacbrood virus (CSBV), whereas Apis mellifera (Am) is usually resistant to it. Heterospecific royal jelly (RJ) breeding in two honeybee species may result in morphological and genetic modification. Nevertheless, knowledge on the resistant mechanism of Am to this deadly disease is still unknown. In the present study, heterospecific RJ breeding was conducted to determine the effects of food change on the larval mortality after CSBV infection at early larval stage. 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS proteomic technology was employed to unravel the molecular event of the bees under heterospecific RJ breeding and CSBV challenge. The change of Ac larval food from RJC to RJM could enhance the bee resistance to CSBV. The mortality rate of Ac larvae after CSBV infection was much higher when the larvae were fed with RJC compared with the larvae fed with RJM. There were 101 proteins with altered expressions after heterospecific RJ breeding and viral infection. In Ac larvae, 6 differential expression proteins were identified from heterospecific RJ breeding only, 21 differential expression proteins from CSBV challenge only and 7 differential expression proteins from heterospecific RJ breeding plus CSBV challenge. In Am larvae, 17 differential expression proteins were identified from heterospecific RJ breeding only, 26 differential expression proteins from CSBV challenge only and 24 differential expression proteins from heterospecific RJ breeding plus CSBV challenge. The RJM may protect Ac larvae from CSBV infection, probably by activating the genes in energy metabolism pathways, antioxidation and ubiquitin-proteasome system. The present results, for the first time, comprehensively descript the molecular events of the viral infection of Ac and Am after heterospecific RJ breeding and are potentially useful for establishing CSBV resistant populations of Ac for apiculture. PMID:25102167

  3. Talking energy with R. J. Reynolds industries

    SciTech Connect

    Glorioso, J.

    1982-06-01

    Energy management takes a high priority among the various companies making up R.J. Reynolds (RJR) Industries, whose corporate energy program could serve as a model for other large, diversified organizations. Placing energy as a part of corporate business planning helps to integrate it into capital and business development programs. Each company prepares an annual five-year plan for energy strategy. The company provides technical seminars for professional training for both the domestic and international staff. Summaries of energy-management activities at individual companies cover RJR Tobacco International, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., R.J. Reynolds Archers, Sea-Land Services, and Del Monte Corporation. (DCK)

  4. Ordeal by Desegregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorr, Robin

    1972-01-01

    Describes some of the typical" incidents reported by the Southern Regional Council relating to the atmosphere of terror" that exists in the Southern school system: black teacher and student displacement, illegal student suspensions, racial intimidation, and physical violence. (RJ)

  5. "Black Capitalism": Toward Controlled Development of Black America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Robert E.

    1969-01-01

    Argues in favor of the connotation of the term "Black capitalism as the accumulation of capital resources by the Black people in a collective fashion for the benefit of the masses of Black people. (RJ)

  6. Schooling and Inequality from Generation to Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Samuel

    1972-01-01

    Shows that substantial inequality of economic opportunity exists in the U.S. and that the educational system is a major vehicle for the transmission of economic status from one generation to the next. (RJ)

  7. "If You Give Him Seeds, He'll Eat Forever"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Betty

    1972-01-01

    Focuses on an OEO-funded farming project through which northern New Mexico Pueblo American Indians are growing crops indoors in nutritive water and gravel through a cultivation process known as hydroponics. (RJ)

  8. Modal Personality in the Bahamas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefley, Harriet P.

    1972-01-01

    Reports investigation of modal personality of a colonial people evolving toward independence--Phase I of a longitudinal study of behavioral adaptation to sociopolitical change. Comparative data from Thailand and the Philippines are also presented. (RJ)

  9. Black Themes in the Literature of the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Ben

    1973-01-01

    Those Africans brought over to the Western Hemisphere left a strong impression on culture and language of Spanish colonizers. This effect has been exemplified in the religion, music, dance, and food of the republics of the Caribbean. (Author/RJ)

  10. Primary alveolar hypoventilation

    MedlinePlus

    Duffin J, Phillipson EA. Hypoventilation and hyperventilation syndromes. In: Mason RJ, Broaddus CV, Martin TR, et al. Murray & Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; ...

  11. Contextualizing restorative justice for hate crime.

    PubMed

    Gavrielides, Theo

    2012-12-01

    The application of restorative justice (RJ) with hate crime remains an underdeveloped field of research, policy, and practice. This article aims to advance the understanding of these two areas of inquiry: RJ and hate crime. It is known that while most hate incidents involve minor, punishable offenses, their impact can be long lasting and detrimental to victims and affected communities. The article investigates how RJ is conceptualized within the hate crime context. The findings are based on a 3-year research program, which combined theoretical analysis, literature review, and U.K.-focused field research that was carried out through a combination of qualitative methods. These included semistructured interviews with an expert sample of practitioners and policy makers as well as focus groups with young victims and offenders of hate incidents. Direct observation was also carried out with two RJ practices. PMID:22645026

  12. Methadone Maintenance as Law and Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyman, Florence

    1972-01-01

    Argues that substitution of methadone for heroin would not rehabilitate the drug addict, but it may be used as a method of tranquilizing a potentially troublesome ghetto and poor white population. (RJ)

  13. Culture Shock: Remedial Teaching and the Immigrant Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts-Holmes, Joy

    1973-01-01

    Investigates the causes and effects of culture shock of immigrant children in a London primary school at first hand by going over to Jamaica, West Indies, and gaining insights which have important implications in the classroom environment. (RJ)

  14. Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3-4):251-258. [PubMed Abstract] Lee RJ, Smith MR. Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer. In: Chabner ... 1, 2014. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1405095 Ryan CJ, Smith MR, Fizazi K, et al. Abiraterone acetate plus ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Perrault syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Syndrome Jenkinson EM, Rehman AU, Walsh T, Clayton-Smith J, Lee K, Morell RJ, Drummond MC, Khan ... NA, Mehta S, Cilliers D, Clayton PE, Kingston H, Smith MJ, Warner TT; University of Washington Center for ...

  16. Optimal Utilization of Limited Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatley, Richard V.

    1972-01-01

    Article is an outgrowth of two conference presentations by the author at the Regional Seminar on Financing and Cost of Education in Central America and Panama, Guatemala City, Guatemala, September 6-11, 1971. (RJ)

  17. Sputum direct fluorescent antibody (DFA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... BS, Yao JDC. Microbiologic diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infection. In: Mason RJ, Murray JF, Broaddus VC, et al., eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2010:chap ...

  18. Facelift

    MedlinePlus

    ... Managing the cosmetic patient. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap ... 27. Warren RJ. Facelift. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: oculofaciocardiodental syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... with this condition may be born with a hole between two chambers of the heart (an atrial ... Smagt JJ, Gorlin RJ, Burgess SM, Bardwell VJ, Black GC, Biesecker LG. Oculofaciocardiodental and Lenz microphthalmia syndromes ...

  20. Serum herpes simplex antibodies

    MedlinePlus

    ... when it detects harmful substances such as the herpes virus. This test does not detect the virus itself. ... Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2014:chap 308. Whitley RJ. Herpes simplex virus infections. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  1. Some Implications for Afro-American Culture: Rationalism and Western Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Ortiz M.

    1973-01-01

    Will the computer or instruments powered by electrical energy become the most efficient means by which to produce Western music, replacing the live performer? If so, what will be the effects of electronic, mechanical music on society? (Author/RJ)

  2. Genetics Home Reference: mucolipidosis III alpha/beta

    MedlinePlus

    ... Simensen RJ, Kudo M, Stevenson RE, Friez MJ. Phenotype and genotype in mucolipidoses II and III alpha/ ... mutation analysis of 40 Japanese patients showed genotype-phenotype correlation. J Hum Genet. 2009 Mar;54(3): ...

  3. Motives of Negro Americans who Aspire to Traditionally Open and Closed Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littig, Lawrence W.

    1971-01-01

    Portions of this paper were presented at the 16th International Congress of Applied Psychology, Amsterdam, Netherlands, August, 1968, and at the 7th International Congress of Rorschach And Other Projective Techniques, London, England, August, 1968. (RJ)

  4. Postural drainage

    MedlinePlus

    Chest physical therapy; CPT ... Celli BR, ZuWallack RL. Pulmonary rehabilitation. In: Mason RJ, Murray JF, Broaddus VC, et al., eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  5. Facts about Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2008;199:237.e1-9. Margulis AV, Mitchell AA, Gilboa SM, Werler MM, Glynn RJ, Hernandez-Diaz S, ... e7. Werler MM, Ahrens KA, Bosco JL, Michell AA, Anderka MT, Gilboa SM, Holmes LB, National Birth ...

  6. Dextrocardia

    MedlinePlus

    Zahka KG. Cardiovascular problems of the neonate. In: Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier; 2010:part ...

  7. Facial trauma

    MedlinePlus

    Kellman RM. Maxillofacial trauma. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 23. Mayersak RJ. Facial trauma. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, ...

  8. Examining the effectiveness of a restorative justice program for various types of juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Bergseth, Kathleen J; Bouffard, Jeffrey A

    2013-09-01

    Restorative justice (RJ) programs have become widespread in the United States and in other countries. These programs are often seen as a viable alternative to traditional retributive processing, especially for minor, and sometimes more serious, forms of delinquency and adult criminality. The programs hold promise for achieving several goals, including increased community and victim involvement, greater satisfaction with the case outcomes, improved offender compliance, increased perceptions of fairness, and even recidivism reduction. Meta-analyses have demonstrated varying degrees of program success in recidivism reduction, which may in part reflect differential effectiveness of the RJ approach for various kinds of offenders. This study examined whether an RJ program for juvenile offenders had differential impacts on recidivism across various offender characteristics (including age, gender, racial group, offending history, and current offense). Results generally support the effectiveness of the program for many types of offenders. Implications for future research and potential improvements to the RJ model are discussed. PMID:22811474

  9. Pulmonary hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Channick RN, Rubin LJ. Pulmonary hypertension. In: Mason RJ, Broaddus VC, Martin TR, et al., eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2010:chap ...

  10. Viral pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    Lee FE, Treanor J. Viral infections. In: Mason RJ, VC Broaddus, Martin TR, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel’s Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2010:chap ...

  11. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease

    MedlinePlus

    Channick RN, Rubin LJ. Pulmonary hypertension. In: Mason RJ, Broaddus VC, Martin TR, et al., eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2010:chap ...

  12. How to breathe when you are short of breath

    MedlinePlus

    Celli BR, ZuWallack RL. Pulmonary rehabilitation. In: Mason RJ, Murray JF, Broaddus VC, et al., eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2010:chap ...

  13. Nephrotic syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... may suggest a moderate-protein diet (1 gram [gm] of protein per kilogram [kg] of body weight ... RJ. Primary glomerular disease. In: Taal MW, Chertow GM, Marsden PA, Skorecki K, Yu ASL, Brenner BM, ...

  14. Let's Make the Next Generation Tobacco-Free: Your Guide to the 50th Anniversary Surgeon General's Report on Smoking and ...

    MedlinePlus

    ... l Online As a result of tobacco industry marketing and other influences, more than 3,200 children ... adults smoke. 1990 R.J. Reynolds ends a marketing test targeting 26 % African Americans in response to ...

  15. Optically pumped isotopic ammonia laser system

    DOEpatents

    Buchwald, Melvin I.; Jones, Claude R.; Nelson, Leonard Y.

    1982-01-01

    An optically pumped isotopic ammonia laser system which is capable of producing a plurality of frequencies in the middle infrared spectral region. Two optical pumping mechanisms are disclosed, i.e., pumping on R(J) and lasing on P(J) in response to enhancement of rotational cascade lasing including stimulated Raman effects, and, pumping on R(J) and lasing on P(J+2). The disclosed apparatus for optical pumping include a hole coupled cavity and a grating coupled cavity.

  16. Identification of a Novel Hypocholesterolemic Protein, Major Royal Jelly Protein 1, Derived from Royal Jelly

    PubMed Central

    Asai, Saori; Kusada, Mio; Watanabe, Suzuyo; Kawashima, Takuji; Nakamura, Tadashi; Shimada, Masaya; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Nagaoka, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Royal jelly (RJ) intake lowers serum cholesterol levels in animals and humans, but the active component in RJ that lowers serum cholesterol level and its molecular mechanism are unclear. In this study, we set out to identify the bile acid-binding protein contained in RJ, because dietary bile acid-binding proteins including soybean protein and its peptide are effective in ameliorating hypercholesterolemia. Using a cholic acid-conjugated column, we separated some bile acid-binding proteins from RJ and identified the major RJ protein 1 (MRJP1), MRJP2, and MRJP3 as novel bile acid-binding proteins from RJ, based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Purified MRJP1, which is the most abundant protein of the bile acid-binding proteins in RJ, exhibited taurocholate-binding activity in vitro. The micellar solubility of cholesterol was significantly decreased in the presence of MRJP1 compared with casein in vitro. Liver bile acids levels were significantly increased, and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) mRNA and protein tended to increase by MRJP1 feeding compared with the control. CYP7A1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased by MRJP1 tryptic hydrolysate treatment compared with that of casein tryptic hydrolysate in hepatocytes. MRJP1 hypocholesterolemic effect has been investigated in rats. The cholesterol-lowering action induced by MRJP1 occurs because MRJP1 interacts with bile acids induces a significant increase in fecal bile acids excretion and a tendency to increase in fecal cholesterol excretion and also enhances the hepatic cholesterol catabolism. We have identified, for the first time, a novel hypocholesterolemic protein, MRJP1, in RJ. Interestingly, MRJP1 exhibits greater hypocholesterolemic activity than the medicine β-sitosterol in rats. PMID:25144734

  17. Royal jelly stimulates bone formation: physiologic and nutrigenomic studies with mice and cell lines.

    PubMed

    Narita, Yukio; Nomura, Johji; Ohta, Shozo; Inoh, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Kazu-Michi; Araki, Yoko; Okada, Shinji; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Isohama, Yoichiro; Abe, Keiko; Miyata, Takeshi; Mishima, Satoshi

    2006-10-01

    Royal jelly (RJ) has diverse physiological and pharmacological functions. We observed its weak estrogenic activity in the previous study. RJ stimulated the proliferation of mouse osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells at 0.1 mg/ml, and the effect was blocked by the specific estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780. The addition of 0.1-1.0 mg/ml RJ enhanced collagen production in culture medium. Oral administration of RJ to normal female mice for 9 weeks increased the ash content of their tibiae. DNA microarray analysis revealed significant changes in gene expression related to extracellular matrix formation when the femurs of mice fed RJ were analyzed. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) confirmed up-regulation of procollagen I alpha1 gene expression. These data suggest that RJ as a whole or some of its individual components stimulates production of type I collagen and other activities for bone formation through action on osteoblasts. PMID:17031045

  18. How tilting and cavity-mode-resonant absorption contribute to light harvesting in 3D radial junction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiawen; Qian, Shengyi; Yu, Zhongwei; Misra, Soumyadeep; Yu, Linwei; Xu, Jun; Shi, Yi; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere; Chen, Kunji

    2015-09-21

    Radial junction (RJ) architecture has proven beneficial in boosting light harvesting and fast carrier separation in thin film solar cells. While a comprehensive understanding of the detailed absorption distribution and light incoupling mechanism within such a 3D RJ configuration remains largely unexplored. Taking hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si:H) RJ solar cells as an example, we here address in both experimental and theoretical manners the impacts of tilting and spacing configuration on the light absorption and external quantum efficiency (EQE) responses. A nice agreement between the calculated and experimental EQE responses indicates that the light harvesting realized within RJ thin film solar cells is quite robust against geometric variations and shadowing effects. Following the concepts of optical fiber injection, we have been able to single out the contribution arising solely from a resonant-mode-incoupling into the RJ cavities against a sidewall scattering incidence scenario. These results provide insightful viewpoints as well as practical guides in developing a new generation of high performance RJ thin film solar cells. PMID:26406758

  19. The Effect of Topical Application of Royal Jelly on Chemoradiotherapy-Induced Mucositis in Head and Neck Cancer: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Kogashiwa, Yasunao; Moro, Yorihisa; Kohno, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. One of the common side effects experienced by head and neck cancer patients on chemoradiotherapy is mucositis. Severe mucositis may be controllable by limiting cancer therapy, but it has resulted in decreasing the completion rate of chemoradiotherapy. The efficacy of royal jelly (RJ) as prophylaxis against chemoradiotherapy-induced mucositis was evaluated through clinical scoring of oral and pharyngeal mucositis. Methods. In this randomized, single-blind (physician-blind), clinical trial, 13 patients with head and neck cancer requiring chemoradiation were randomly assigned to two groups. Seven patients assigned to the study group received RJ, and 6 patients were assigned to the control group. RJ group patients took RJ three times per day during treatment. The patients in both groups were evaluated twice a week for the development of mucositis using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Results. A significant reduction in mucositis was seen among RJ-treated patients compared with controls (P < 0.001). Conclusion. This study demonstrated that prophylactic use of RJ was effective in reducing mucositis induced by chemoradiotherapy in head and neck cancer patients. However, further studies are needed because of the small sample size and the absence of double blinding. PMID:25400667

  20. Royal Jelly and its dual role in TNBS colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Manzo, Luis Paulo; de-Faria, Felipe Meira; Dunder, Ricardo José; Rabelo-Socca, Eduardo Augusto; Consonni, Silvio Roberto; de Almeida, Ana Cristina Alves; Souza-Brito, Alba Regina Monteiro; Luiz-Ferreira, Anderson

    2015-01-01

    Royal Jelly (RJ) is widely consumed in diets throughout the world due to its beneficial effects: antioxidant, antitumor and anti-inflammatory. We have investigated the role of RJ in the development of TNBS colitis in mice. Colitis was induced by a rectal instillation of TNBS at 0.1 mL per mouse. Intestine samples of the animals orally treated with RJ (100, 150, and 200 mg/kg) were collected for antioxidant assays (GSH and GSH-Px), proinflammatory protein quantification (COX-2 and NF-κB), and histological analyses. RJ 100 mg/kg maintained GSH levels and increased the activity of GSH-Px, downregulated key inflammatory mediators (COX-2 and NF-κB), and decreased the lesions caused by TNBS as shown by the histological analyses. In conclusion, RJ showed anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in experimental colitis, resulting in the amelioration of the macroscopic and histological analyses. These results corroborate with the RJ supplementation in diets. PMID:25821860

  1. Royal Jelly and Its Dual Role in TNBS Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Manzo, Luis Paulo; de-Faria, Felipe Meira; Dunder, Ricardo José; Rabelo-Socca, Eduardo Augusto; Consonni, Silvio Roberto; de Almeida, Ana Cristina Alves; Souza-Brito, Alba Regina Monteiro; Luiz-Ferreira, Anderson

    2015-01-01

    Royal Jelly (RJ) is widely consumed in diets throughout the world due to its beneficial effects: antioxidant, antitumor and anti-inflammatory. We have investigated the role of RJ in the development of TNBS colitis in mice. Colitis was induced by a rectal instillation of TNBS at 0.1 mL per mouse. Intestine samples of the animals orally treated with RJ (100, 150, and 200 mg/kg) were collected for antioxidant assays (GSH and GSH-Px), proinflammatory protein quantification (COX-2 and NF-κB), and histological analyses. RJ 100 mg/kg maintained GSH levels and increased the activity of GSH-Px, downregulated key inflammatory mediators (COX-2 and NF-κB), and decreased the lesions caused by TNBS as shown by the histological analyses. In conclusion, RJ showed anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in experimental colitis, resulting in the amelioration of the macroscopic and histological analyses. These results corroborate with the RJ supplementation in diets. PMID:25821860

  2. Queda dos homicídios em São Paulo, Brasil: uma análise descritiva

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Vicentin, Diego; Nery, Marcelo Batista; de Lima, Renato Sérgio; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Cerda, Magdalena; Cardia, Nancy; Adorno, e Sérgio

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo Descrever a evolução da mortalidade por homicídios no Município de São Paulo segundo tipo de arma, sexo, raça ou cor, idade e áreas de exclusão/inclusão social entre 1996 e 2008. Métodos Estudo ecológico de série temporal. Os dados sobre óbitos ocorridos no Município foram coletados da base de dados do Programa de Aprimoramento das Informações sobre Mortalidade, seguindo a Classificação Internacional de Doenças, Décima Revisão (CID-10). Foram calculadas as taxas de mortalidade por homicídio (TMH) para a população total, por sexo, raça ou cor, faixa etária, tipo de arma e área de exclusão/inclusão social. As TMH foram padronizadas por idade pelo método direto. Foram calculados os percentuais de variação no período estudado. Para as áreas de exclusão/inclusão social foram calculados os riscos relativos de morte por homicídio. Resultados As TMH apresentaram queda de 73,7% entre 2001 e 2008. Foi observada redução da TMH em todos os grupos analisados, mais pronunciada em homens (−74,5%), jovens de 15 a 24 anos (−78,0%) e moradores de áreas de exclusão social extrema (−79,3%). A redução ocorreu, sobretudo, nos homicídios cometidos com armas de fogo (−74,1%). O risco relativo de morte por homicídio nas áreas de exclusão extrema (tendo como referência áreas com algum grau de exclusão social) foi de 2,77 em 1996, 3,9 em 2001 e 2,13 em 2008. Nas áreas de alta exclusão social, o risco relativo foi de 2,07 em 1996 e 1,96 em 2008. Conclusões Para compreender a redução dos homicídios no Município, é importante considerar macrodeterminantes que atingem todo o Município e todos os subgrupos populacionais e microdeterminantes que atuam localmente, influenciando de forma diferenciada os homicídios com armas de fogo e os homicídios na população jovem, no sexo masculino e em residentes em áreas de alta exclusão social. PMID:21390415

  3. Spatial distribution of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brasil, 1994-1997.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C D; Assunção, R M; Reis, I A; Proietti, F A

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we present spatial analysis of the association between all incidents cases of human Visceral Leishmaniasis and seropositive dogs, from 1994 to 1997 in Belo Horizonte, a large Brazilian city. We geocoded 158 human cases and 11,048 seropositive dogs and compared canine prevalence rates with Human Bayesian Incidence rates in the same areas. We also used Knox's test to evaluate the hypothesis of space-time clustering of human cases in the period. Additionally, we used Kernel's maps for seropositive dogs distribution and located the human cases in the resulting smooth maps. We concluded that human and dog rates are correlated. Also, the Visceral Leishmaniasis in Belo Horizonte spread quickly, but apart from the rates' magnitude, it has kept the same spatial pattern through time. We believe it is possible to use this technique to choose areas to implement control measures against Visceral Leishmaniasis in a more efficient way. PMID:11679897

  4. Dogmatism and the "Knowledge Gap" among Users of the Mass Media of Communication: A Study in Brasilia, Brasil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robert E.; Garda, Eduardo Carlos

    A study was conducted to discover whether (1) use of each of the print and broadcast media could be correlated with subjects' knowledge level, and (2) whether controlling for dogmatism would increase the proportion of media users, with higher levels of knowledge among those less dogmatic, and decrease the proportion among the more dogmatic.…

  5. [Seasonal evaluation of mammal species richness and abundance in the "Mrio Viana" municipal reserve, Mato Grosso, Brasil].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ednaldo Cndido; Silva, Elias; Martins, Sebastio Venncio; Barreto, Francisco Cndido Cardoso

    2006-09-01

    We evaluated seasonal species presence and richness, and abundance of medium and large sized mammalian terrestrial fauna in the "Mrio Viana" Municipal Biological Reserve, Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso, Brazil. During 2001, two monthly visits were made to an established transect, 2,820 m in length. Records of 22 mammal species were obtained and individual footprint sequences quantified for seasonal calculation of species richness and relative abundance index (x footprints/km traveled). All 22 species occurred during the rainy season, but only 18 during the dry season. Pseudalopex vetulus (Lund, 1842) (hoary fox), Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758) (tayra), Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771) (cougar) and Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) (capybara) were only registered during the rainy season. The species diversity estimated using the Jackknife procedure in the dry season (19.83, CI = 2.73) was smaller than in the rainy season (25.67, CI = 3.43). Among the 18 species common in the two seasons, only four presented significantly different abundance indexes: Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 (nine-banded armadillo), Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) (six-banded armadillo), Dasyprocta azarae Lichtenstein, 1823 (Azara's Agouti) and Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) (tapir). On the other hand, Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792) (giant armadillo) and Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758) (ocelot) had identical abundance index over the two seasons. Distribution of species abundance in the sampled area followed the expected pattern for communities in equilibrium, especially in the rainy season, suggesting that the environment still maintains good characteristics for mammal conservation. The present study shows that the reserve, although only 470 ha in size, plays an important role for conservation of mastofauna of the area as a refuge in an environment full of anthropic influence (mainly cattle breeding in exotic pasture). PMID:18491629

  6. Further Spread of bla NDM-5 in Enterobacteriaceae via IncX3 Plasmids in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fangfang; Xie, Lianyan; Wang, Xiaoli; Han, Lizhong; Guo, Xiaokui; Ni, Yuxing; Qu, Hongping; Sun, Jingyong

    2016-01-01

    One hundred and two carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) strains were isolated in a teaching hospital in Shanghai, China from 2012 to 2015. In a follow-up study, four New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-5 (NDM-5)-producing strains were identified after screening these CRE strains, including 1 Klebsiella pneumoniae strain (RJ01), 1 Proteus mirabilis strain (RJ02), and 2 Escherichia coli strains (RJ03 and RJ04). All K. pneumoniae and E. coli isolates were resistant to carbapenems, third-generation cephalosporins, and piperacillin-tazobactam, but were susceptible to amikacin. No epidemiological links for either E. coli isolate were found by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). However, MLST revealed a novel sequence type, ST2250, of the K. pneumoniae RJ01 strain. Inc types and sizes of bla NDM-5-carrying plasmids differed among the four isolates, although in P. mirabilis RJ02 and E. coli RJ03, bla NDM-5 was carried by conjugative IncX3 plasmids of nearly the same size (∼40 kb). Investigation of the genetic background of sequences flanking the bla NDM-5 gene showed that all four isolates shared the same genetic content (IS3000-ΔISAba125-IS5-bla NDM-5-ble-trpF-dsbC-IS26-ΔumuD), which was identical to that of the pNDM_MGR194 plasmid circulating in India. This is the first identification of bla NDM-5 in P. mirabilis, which suggests its further spread to Enterobacteriaceae, and indicates that IncX3 plasmids may play an important role in potentiating the spread of bla NDM. PMID:27065982

  7. Study on The Effect of Royal Jelly on Reproductive Parameters in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Elham; Nejati, Vahid; Najafi, Gholamreza; Khazaei, Mozafar; Babaei, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus has a variety of structural and functional effects on the male reproductive system. Diabetes results in reduced sperm parameters and libido. The present study aims to investigate the effects of royal jelly (RJ) on reproductive parameters of testosterone and malondialdehyde (MDA) production in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods This experimental study was conducted on adult male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups (n=8 per group): control, RJ, diabetic and diabetic treated with RJ. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg body weight (BW) of streptozotocin (STZ). RJ, at a dose of 100 mg/kg BW was given by gavage. The duration of treatment was six weeks. After the treatment period the rats were sacrificed. The testes were weighed and changes in sperm count, motility, viability, deformity, DNA integrity and chromatin quality were analyzed. Serum testosterone and MDA concentrations of testicular tissue were determined. Data were analyzed by oneway ANOVA with p<0.05 as the significant level. Results STZ-induced diabetes decreased numerous reproductive parameters in rats. Testicular weight, sperm count, motility, viability and serum testosterone levels increased in the diabetic group treated with RJ. There was a significant decrease observed in sperm deformity, DNA integrity, chromatin quality, and tissue MDA levels in diabetic rats treated with RJ compared to the diabetic group (p<0.05). Conclusion RJ improved reproductive parameters such as testicular weight, sperm count, viability, motility, deformity, DNA integrity, chromatin quality, serum testosterone and testicular tissue MDA levels in diabetic rats. PMID:25918599

  8. Determination of royal jelly freshness by ELISA with a highly specific anti-apalbumin 1, major royal jelly protein 1 antibody*

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Li-rong; Wang, Yi-ran; Zhai, Liang; Zhou, Wen-xiu; Tan, Liang-liang; Li, Mei-lu; Liu, Dan-dan; Xiao, Fa

    2015-01-01

    Major royal jelly protein 1 (MRJP1), designated apalbumin 1, has been regarded as a freshness marker of royal jelly (RJ). A MRJP1-specific peptide (IKEALPHVPIFD) identified by bioinformatics analysis of homologous members of the major royal protein family was synthesized and used to raise polyclonal anti-MRJP1 antibody (anti-SP-MRJP1 antibody). Western blot analysis showed that anti-SP-MRJP1 antibody only reacted with MRJP1 in RJ. In contrast, the previously reported antibody against recombinant MRJP1 (anti-R-MRJP1 antibody) reacted with other members of MRJP family in RJ. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using anti-SP-MRJP1 antibody demonstrated that MRJP1 content in RJ stored at 40 °C significantly degraded by 37.3%, 55.9%, 58.0%, 60.6%, 65.7%, 72.7%, and 73.1% at 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, and 49 d, respectively, when compared with MRJP1 content in fresh RJ (0 d). Optical density analysis of MRJP bands from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) profiles demonstrated that the degradation of MRJP1, MRJP2, MRJP3, and MRJP5 in RJ was strongly and positively correlated with the period of storage (P<0.0001). Our results indicated anti-SP-MRJP1 antibody was highly specific for MRJP1, and ELISA using the antibody is a sensitive and easy-to-use method to determine the freshness and authenticity of RJ. PMID:25644470

  9. Further Spread of blaNDM-5 in Enterobacteriaceae via IncX3 Plasmids in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fangfang; Xie, Lianyan; Wang, Xiaoli; Han, Lizhong; Guo, Xiaokui; Ni, Yuxing; Qu, Hongping; Sun, Jingyong

    2016-01-01

    One hundred and two carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) strains were isolated in a teaching hospital in Shanghai, China from 2012 to 2015. In a follow-up study, four New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-5 (NDM-5)-producing strains were identified after screening these CRE strains, including 1 Klebsiella pneumoniae strain (RJ01), 1 Proteus mirabilis strain (RJ02), and 2 Escherichia coli strains (RJ03 and RJ04). All K. pneumoniae and E. coli isolates were resistant to carbapenems, third-generation cephalosporins, and piperacillin-tazobactam, but were susceptible to amikacin. No epidemiological links for either E. coli isolate were found by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). However, MLST revealed a novel sequence type, ST2250, of the K. pneumoniae RJ01 strain. Inc types and sizes of blaNDM-5-carrying plasmids differed among the four isolates, although in P. mirabilis RJ02 and E. coli RJ03, blaNDM-5 was carried by conjugative IncX3 plasmids of nearly the same size (∼40 kb). Investigation of the genetic background of sequences flanking the blaNDM-5 gene showed that all four isolates shared the same genetic content (IS3000-ΔISAba125-IS5-blaNDM-5-ble-trpF-dsbC-IS26-ΔumuD), which was identical to that of the pNDM_MGR194 plasmid circulating in India. This is the first identification of blaNDM-5 in P. mirabilis, which suggests its further spread to Enterobacteriaceae, and indicates that IncX3 plasmids may play an important role in potentiating the spread of blaNDM. PMID:27065982

  10. Determination of royal jelly freshness by ELISA with a highly specific anti-apalbumin 1, major royal jelly protein 1 antibody.

    PubMed

    Shen, Li-rong; Wang, Yi-ran; Zhai, Liang; Zhou, Wen-xiu; Tan, Liang-liang; Li, Mei-lu; Liu, Dan-dan; Xiao, Fa

    2015-02-01

    Major royal jelly protein 1 (MRJP1), designated apalbumin 1, has been regarded as a freshness marker of royal jelly (RJ). A MRJP1-specific peptide (IKEALPHVPIFD) identified by bioinformatics analysis of homologous members of the major royal protein family was synthesized and used to raise polyclonal anti-MRJP1 antibody (anti-SP-MRJP1 antibody). Western blot analysis showed that anti-SP-MRJP1 antibody only reacted with MRJP1 in RJ. In contrast, the previously reported antibody against recombinant MRJP1 (anti-R-MRJP1 antibody) reacted with other members of MRJP family in RJ. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using anti-SP-MRJP1 antibody demonstrated that MRJP1 content in RJ stored at 40 °C significantly degraded by 37.3%, 55.9%, 58.0%, 60.6%, 65.7%, 72.7%, and 73.1% at 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, and 49 d, respectively, when compared with MRJP1 content in fresh RJ (0 d). Optical density analysis of MRJP bands from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) profiles demonstrated that the degradation of MRJP1, MRJP2, MRJP3, and MRJP5 in RJ was strongly and positively correlated with the period of storage (P<0.0001). Our results indicated anti-SP-MRJP1 antibody was highly specific for MRJP1, and ELISA using the antibody is a sensitive and easy-to-use method to determine the freshness and authenticity of RJ. PMID:25644470

  11. Epidermal Hydration Is Improved by Enhanced Ceramide Metabolism in Aged C57BL/6J Mice After Dietary Supplementation of Royal Jelly.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Sanghun; Cho, Yunhi

    2015-09-01

    Epidermal hydration is maintained by the epidermal lipid barrier, of which ceramide (Cer) is the major constituent. We examined the dietary effect of royal jelly (RJ) on epidermal hydration in aged mice. Altered Cer metabolism was further determined by measuring epidermal levels of individual Cer, glucosylceramide (GC), and sphingomyelin (SM) species, and of Cer-metabolizing enzymes. Aged C57BL/6J mice were fed a control diet (group AGED) or diets with 1% RJ harvested from two different areas (groups AGED+RJ1:AGED + RJ2) for 16 weeks. Aged C57BL/6J mice with no dietary intervention (the control group: group C) represented the onset of aging. In group AGED, epidermal levels of hydration, Cer1/2/5/6/7, GC-A/B/C/D, SM1/2/3, and β-glucocerebrosidase (GCase) protein, an enzyme of GC hydrolysis for Cer generation, were lower than in group C; these levels, as well as those of Cer3/4 and acidic sphingomyelinase (aSMase) protein, an enzyme of SM hydrolysis for Cer generation, were higher in group AGED + RJ1 than in group AGED. Despite increases in GC-B, SM1/2/3, and serine palmitoyltransferase2 protein, an enzyme of de novo Cer synthesis, in group AGED + RJ2 to levels higher than in group AGED, epidermal levels of hydration, Cer1-7, GC-A/C/D, GCase, and aSMase proteins were similar in these two groups. Expression of GCase and aSMase mRNAs, and of Cer synthase3 and ceramidase proteins, enzymes of de novo Cer synthesis and degradation, did not differ among groups. Dietary RJ1 improved epidermal hydration by enhancing Cer metabolism with increased levels of all Cer, GC, and SM species, and of GCase and aSMase proteins. PMID:26355951

  12. Genetic Diversity and Geographical Distribution of Indigenous Soybean-Nodulating Bradyrhizobia in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Shiro, Sokichi; Matsuura, Syota; Saiki, Rina; Sigua, Gilbert C.; Yamamoto, Akihiro; Umehara, Yosuke; Hayashi, Masaki

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between the genetic diversity of indigenous soybean-nodulating bradyrhizobia and their geographical distribution in the United States using nine soil isolates from eight states. The bradyrhizobia were inoculated on three soybean Rj genotypes (non-Rj, Rj2Rj3, and Rj4). We analyzed their genetic diversity and community structure by means of restriction fragment length polymorphisms of PCR amplicons to target the 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer region, using 11 USDA Bradyrhizobium strains as reference strains. We also performed diversity analysis, multidimensional scaling analysis based on the Bray-Curtis index, and polar ordination analysis to describe the structure and geographical distribution of the soybean-nodulating bradyrhizobial community. The major clusters were Bradyrhizobium japonicum Bj123, in the northern United States, and Bradyrhizobium elkanii, in the middle to southern regions. Dominance of bradyrhizobia in a community was generally larger for the cluster belonging to B. elkanii than for the cluster belonging to B. japonicum. The indigenous American soybean-nodulating bradyrhizobial community structure was strongly correlated with latitude. Our results suggest that this community varies geographically. PMID:23563944

  13. Spectroscopic Observation of Velocity Distribution of Sodium Atoms Originated from Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoi, K.; Kagitani, M.; Ueto, H.; Okano, S.

    2004-12-01

    In order to study the ejection processes of sodium atoms from Jovian satellite Io, high dispersion spectroscopic observation was carried out at Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, using a 188-cm telescope and a High Dispersion Echelle Spectrograph (HIDES: R=100,000) in February, 2004. High dispersion spectra of sodium emission were obtained for a region of ±1.5RJ (1RJ : Jovian radius = 71400km) centered on Io. Observation results on February 27, 2004 showed distinctive slow velocity component and fast velocity components. Slow components at 0.27RJ eastward and westward from Io showed different profile at their wings. Fast components between 0.1RJ eastward and 0.2RJ westward of Io showed several peaks in the velocity distribution. Particularly, three fast components with peaks at 15km/sec, 30km/sec, and 40km/sec were observed on the Io disk. Several physical processes have so far been proposed for ejection of sodium atoms from Io. These ejection processes include atmospheric sputtering for producing the banana cloud, pick-up ion neutralization in Io's atmosphere for the jet, pick-up molecular ion destruction in Io plasma torus for the stream, and charge exchange between Io's atmosphere and the torus. Computer simulations taking these four processes to explain the observation results are now in progress. In the presentation, observation and computer simulation results will be given.

  14. The efficacy of topical royal jelly on healing of diabetic foot ulcers: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Siavash, Mansour; Shokri, Saeideh; Haghighi, Sepehr; Shahtalebi, Mohammad Ali; Farajzadehgan, Ziba

    2015-04-01

    Foot ulcers are major sources of morbidity in individuals with diabetes mellitus. As royal jelly (RJ, a worker honey bee product) contains enzymatic, antibacterial and vasodilative properties, it can potentially help in healing of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of topical RJ on healing of DFUs. Diabetic patients with foot ulcers who were referred to us at Khorshid Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, were managed by offloading, infection control, vascular improvement and debridement (if required). Then, all ulcers were randomly selected to receive either 5% sterile topical RJ or placebo on their total surface area. Patients were followed for 3 months or until complete healing. Twenty-five patients (6 females and 19 males) and a total of 64 ulcers were included and randomly allocated to case or control group (32 per group). Four ulcers were excluded and 60 ulcers included in the final analysis. Healing parameters including depth, length and width reduction rate, duration of complete healing and incidence of complete healing did not show any significant difference (P = 0·69, 0·95, 0·7, 0·74 and 0·6, respectively) between groups. We did not observe any side effect of topical RJ application. This study could not confirm any significant superiority of 5% topical RJ over placebo for the treatment of DFUs. PMID:23566071

  15. Does Supplementation with Royal Jelly Improve Oxidative Stress and Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetic Patients?

    PubMed Central

    SHIDFAR, Farzad; JAZAYERI, Shima; MOUSAVI, Seyedeh Neda; MALEK, Mojtaba; HOSSEINI, Agha fateme; KHOSHPEY, Basmeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Animal studies have shown antioxidant effects of Royal Jelly (RJ) and its effect on insulin resistance as the most common complication of Type 2 diabetes. This study was conducted to determine the effect of RJ intake on serum total antioxidant capacity, Malondialdehyde and insulin resistance in T2DM. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, forty-six type 2 diabetic patients, aged 2565 years, with BMI of 2030 kg/m2, and HbA1c of 68% were included. The patients were randomly assigned to receive 1000 mg of RJ supplement or placebo, 3 times daily for 8 weeks. HOMA-IR, anthropometric measurements, fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, total antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde level were measured. Results: In comparison with placebo, HOMA-IR decreased (P=0.015) while serum total antioxidant capacity increased significantly in RJ group (P=0.016). No significant difference was detected for serum insulin and MDA in two groups. Conclusions: RJ intake may have favorable effects on serum TAC and HOMA-IR in diabetic patients. PMID:26258092

  16. Immediate Effects of Different Trunk Exercise Programs on Jump Performance.

    PubMed

    Imai, A; Kaneoka, K; Okubo, Y; Shiraki, H

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of trunk stabilization exercise (SE) and conventional trunk exercise (CE) programs on jump performance. 13 adolescent male soccer players performed 2 kinds of jump testing before and immediate after 3 experimental conditions: SE, CE, and non-exercise (NE). The SE program consisted of the elbow-toe, hand-knee, and back bridge, and the CE program consisted of the sit-up, sit-up with trunk rotation and back extension. Testing of a countermovement jump (CMJ) and rebound jump (RJ) were performed to assess jump performance. Jump height of the CMJ and RJ-index, contact time, and jump height of the RJ were analyzed. The RJ index was improved significantly only after SE (p=0.017). However, contact time and jump height did not improve significantly in the SE condition. Moreover, no significant interaction or main effects of time or group were observed in the CMJ. Consequently, this study showed the different immediate effect on the RJ between the SE and CE, and suggested the possibility that the SE used in this study is useful as a warm-up program to improve the explosive movements. PMID:26667924

  17. Errors from Rayleigh-Jeans approximation in satellite microwave radiometer calibration systems.

    PubMed

    Weng, Fuzhong; Zou, Xiaolei

    2013-01-20

    The advanced technology microwave sounder (ATMS) onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite is a total power radiometer and scans across the track within a range of ±52.77° from nadir. It has 22 channels and measures the microwave radiation at either quasi-vertical or quasi-horizontal polarization from the Earth's atmosphere. The ATMS sensor data record algorithm employed a commonly used two-point calibration equation that derives the earth-view brightness temperature directly from the counts and temperatures of warm target and cold space, and the earth-scene count. This equation is only valid under Rayleigh-Jeans (RJ) approximation. Impacts of RJ approximation on ATMS calibration biases are evaluated in this study. It is shown that the RJ approximation used in ATMS radiometric calibration results in errors on the order of 1-2 K. The error is also scene count dependent and increases with frequency. PMID:23338200

  18. Resistance to the mainlandization of criminal justice practices: a barrier to the development of restorative justice in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lo, T Wing

    2012-06-01

    This article examines the political and legal barriers to introducing restorative justice (RJ) in Hong Kong. It argues that the processes involved in RJ may be in conflict with the rule of law, which is regarded by the citizens of Hong Kong as sacrosanct in their resistance to the "mainlandization" of criminal justice practices after China resumed sovereignty of Hong Kong. It is argued that, because it could admit such potentially harmful Chinese criminal justice concepts as "rule by the people," "absence of the presumption of innocence," "leniency for self-confession and severity for resistance," and "toeing the party line," RJ would be devoid of any restorative substance and could breach the principles of due process. PMID:21490000

  19. Rapid assessment of cardiac contractility on a home bathroom scale.

    PubMed

    Etemadi, Mozziyar; Inan, Omer T; Giovangrandi, Laurent; Kovacs, Gregory T A

    2011-11-01

    Analyzing systolic time intervals-specifically the preejection-period (PEP)-is widely accepted as one of the few methods for the noninvasive assessment of cardiac contractility. In this paper, we investigated the ballistocardiogram (BCG) as a way to noninvasively measure myocardial contractility when combined with the ECG. Specifically, we derived a parameter from the BCG and ECG that we hypothesized would be highly correlated to PEP. This is the time delay between the J-wave peak of the BCG and the R-wave of the ECG, which we refer to as the RJ interval. The RJ interval was correlated to PEP (r(2) = 0.86) for 2126 heartbeats across ten subjects, with a y-intercept of 138 ms and slope of 1.05. This suggests that the RJ interval can be reliably used as a noninvasive assessment of cardiac contractility. PMID:21843998

  20. Temporal and spatial distribution of high energy electrons at Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, I.; Garrett, H. B.; Ratliff, J. M.

    2003-04-01

    Measurements of the high energy, omni-directional electron environment by the Galileo spacecraft Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) were used to study the high energy electron environment in the Jovian magnetosphere, especially in the region between 8 to 18 Rj (1 Rj = 1 Jovian radius = 71,400 km). 10-minute averages of the EPD data collected between Jupiter orbit insertion (JOI) in 1995 and the orbit number 33 (I33) in 2002 form an extensive dataset, which has been extremely useful to observe temporal and spatial variability of the Jovian high energy electron environment. The count rates of the EPD electron channels (0.174, 0.304, 0.527, 1.5, 2.0, and 11 MeV) were grouped into 0.5 Rj or 0.5 L bins and analyzed statistically. The results indicate that: (1) a log-normal Gaussian distribution well describes the statistics of the high energy electron environment (for example, electron differential fluxes) in the Jovian magnetosphere, in the region studied here; (2) the high energy electron environments inferred by the Galileo EPD measurements are in a close agreement with the data obtained using the Divine model, which was developed more than 30 years ago from Pioneer 10, 11 and Voyager 1, 2 data; (3) the data are better organized when plotted against magnetic radial parameter L than Rj; (4) the standard deviations of the 0.174, 0.304, 0.527 MeV channel count rates are larger than those of the 1.5, 2.0, 11 MeV count rates in <12 Rj, and comparable in >12 Rj. These observations are very helpful to understand short- and long-term, and local variability of the Jovian high energy electron environment, and are discussed in detail.

  1. On the Radii of Brown Dwarfs Measured with AKARI Near-infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorahana, S.; Yamamura, I.; Murakami, H.

    2013-04-01

    We derive the radii of 16 brown dwarfs observed by AKARI using their parallaxes and the ratios of observed to model fluxes. We find that the brown dwarf radius ranges between 0.64-1.13 RJ with an average radius of 0.83 RJ . We find a trend in the relation between radii and T eff; the radius is at a minimum at T eff ~ 1600 K, which corresponds to the spectral types of mid- to late-L. The result is interpreted by a combination of radius-mass and radius-age relations that are theoretically expected for brown dwarfs older than 108 yr.

  2. ASSESSMENT OF TECHNETIUM LEACHABILITY IN CEMENT STABILIZED BASIN 43 GROUNDWATER BRINE

    SciTech Connect

    COOKE GA; DUNCAN JB; LOCKREM LL

    2008-09-30

    This report is an initial report on the laboratory effort executed under RPP-PLAN-33338, Test Plan for the Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement-Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine. This report delineates preliminary data obtained under subcontract 21065, release 30, from the RJ Lee Group, Inc., Center for Laboratory Sciences. The report is predicated on CLS RPT-816, Draft Report: Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine. This document will be revised on receipt of the final RJ Lee Group, Inc., Center for Laboratory Sciences report, which will contain data subjected to quality control and quality assurance criteria.

  3. An overview of plasma wave observations obtained during the Galileo A34 pass through the inner region of the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Menietti, J. D.; Roux, A.; Bolton, S. J.; Alexander, C. J.

    2003-04-01

    On November 5, 2002, the Galileo spacecraft, which is in orbit around Jupiter, made a pass in to a radial distance of 1.98 RJ (Jovian radii) from Jupiter, much closer than on any previous orbit. Data were successfully acquired during the entire inbound pass through the hot and cold plasma torii, and through the region inside the cold torus to a radial distance of 2.32 RJ, at which point the data system went into safing due to the intense radiation in the inner region of the magnetosphere. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the results obtained from the plasma wave investigation during this pass, which is designated A34. As on previous passes through the Io plasma torus a narrowband electrostatic emission at the upper hybrid resonance frequency provided a very accurate measurement of the electron density. The peak electron density, 2.6 x 103 cm-3, occurs just before the inner edge of the hot torus, which is at 5.62 RJ. As the spacecraft enters the cold torus the electron density drops to about 6.0 x 102 cm-3 and then gradually increases as the spacecraft approaches Jupiter, reaching a peak of about 2.5 x 103 cm-3 at 4.86 RJ, shortly before the inner edge of the cold torus. At the inner edge of the cold torus, which occurs at 4.76 RJ, the electron density drops dramatically to levels on the order of 1 cm-3. The electron density in this inner region is difficult to interpret because the upper hybrid emission can no longer be clearly identified, and there are numerous narrowband emissions with cutoffs that may or may not be associated with the local electron plasma frequency. As in the hot torus, the low density region inside the cold torus has a persistent level of plasma wave noise below about 103 Hz that is tentatively interpreted as whistler mode noise. The intensity of the whistler mode noise increases noticeably as the spacecraft crosses Thebe's orbit at 3.1 RJ, and increases markedly as the spacecraft crosses Amalthea's orbit at 2.6 RJ. The wideband waveform data show considerable evidence of dust impacts at radial distances inside of about 3 RJ, at rates as high as a few impacts per second.

  4. The influence of royal jelly and human interferon-alpha (HuIFN-αN3) on proliferation, glutathione level and lipid peroxidation in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells in vitro / Vpliv matičnega mlečka in humanega interferona-alfa (HuIFN-αN3) na proliferacijo, nivo glutationa in na preoksidacijo lipidov v humanih kolorektalnih adenokarcinomskih celicah in vitro.

    PubMed

    Filipič, Bratko; Gradišnik, Lidija; Rihar, Klemen; Šooš, Eugen; Pereyra, Adriana; Potokar, Jana

    2015-12-01

    Among royal jelly's (RJ) various biological activities, its possible antitumour activity deserves particular attention. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of RJ, its bioactive component 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10- HDA), and human interferon-alpha (HuIFN-αN3) on the proliferation of human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (CaCo- 2), and ascertain their effect on intracellular glutathione (GSH) level and lipid peroxidation. We studied the antiproliferative (AP) activity of RJ [(0.1 g/10 mL phosphate buffer saline (PBS)], HuIFN-αN3 (1000 I.U. mL-1), 10-HDA at 100.0 μmol L-1, and their different combinations, in the ratio 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 on CaCo-2 cells. The GSH level was measured by glutathione assay. The lipid peroxidation was measured by malondialdehyde (MDA) assay. Single RJ had a low AP activity: 2.0 (0.5 mg mL-1). HuIFN-αN3 had an AP activity of 2.5 (208.33 I.U. mL-1), while 10-HDA had an AP activity of 1.5 (37.5 μmol mL-1). The highest AP activity of 3.8 was obtained when RJ and HuIFN-αN3 were applied at the ratio 2:1. In that combination the level of GSH was 24.9±2.4 nmol g-3 of proteins (vs. 70.2±3.2 nmol g-3 in the control) and the level of MDA was 72.3±3.1 nmol g-3 (vs. 23.6±9.1 nmol g-3 in the control). It is generally assumed that 10-HDA, an important constituent of RJ, together with HuIFN-αN3, is responsible for the inhibition of CaCo-2 cells proliferation in vitro. In our study, however, RJ and HuIFN-αN3 applied at 2:1 decreased the level of GSH the most and significantly increased lipid peroxidation via MDA in CaCo-2 cells. Future studies should show whether these GSH- and MDA-related activities of RJ, HuIFN-αN3, 10-HDA, and their combinations may decrease the tumorigenicity index and tumorigenic potential of various tumour cells in vitro. PMID:26751858

  5. Protective role of Royal Jelly (honeybee) on genotoxicity and lipid peroxidation, induced by petroleum wastewater, in Allium cepa L. root tips.

    PubMed

    Trkmen, Zafer; Cavu?o?lu, Klti?in; Cavu?o?lu, Kr?at; Yapar, Kr?ad; Yalin, Emine

    2009-10-01

    In the present study, the protective effect of Royal Jelly (RJ) on genotoxicity and lipid peroxidation, induced by petroleum wastewater, in Allium cepa L. root-tip cells was investigated. For this purpose, we used the malondialdehyde (MDA) level, mitotic index (MI), frequency of micronucleus (MN) and chromosomal aberrations (CAs) as indicators of genotoxicity and lipid peroxidation, and correlated these data with statistical parameters. In additional to the genotoxic analysis, we examined changes in the root anatomy of A. cepa seeds treated with the wastewater. Heavy metal concentrations in the wastewater were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The seeds were divided into six groups as control, wastewater and RJ treatment groups. They were treated with the wastewater alone, RJ alone (25 and 50 microm doses) and RJ + wastewater for 10 consecutive days. As a result, the mean concentrations of heavy metals in the wastewater were observed to be in the order: Pb > Fe > Al > Ni > Cu > Zn > Cr > Cd. The results showed that there was a significant alteration in MI and in the frequency of MN and CAs in the seeds exposed to the wastewater when compared with the controls. The wastewater exposure resulted in a significant increase in CAs and MN formation (P < 0.05). The wastewater also caused a decrease in MI (P < 0.05). Additionally, there was a significant increase in the MDA levels of the roots exposed to the wastewater (P < 0.05). Heavy metals in the petroleum wastewater significantly increased the MDA production, indicating lipid peroxidation. Moreover, light micrographs showed anatomical damages such as an accumulation of chemical compounds in cortex parenchyma, cell death, an unusual form of cell nucleus and unclear vascular tissue. However, the RJ treatment caused amelioration in the indices of lipid peroxidation and MI, and in the frequency of CAs and MN, when compared with the group treated with petroleum wastewater alone (P < 0.05). Also, the RJ application caused the recuperation of anatomical structural damages induced by the petroleum wastewater. Each dose of RJ provided protection against the wastewater toxicity, and the strongest protective effect was observed at dose of 50 microm. In vivo results showed that RJ is a potential protector against toxicity induced by petroleum wastewater, and its protective role is dose-dependent. PMID:19947151

  6. Clinical and Pharmaceutical Solutions through Analysis (CPSA BRASIL 2015): on the way to innovation - pharmaceutical/analytical technology, regulation and knowledge management.

    PubMed

    Needham, Shane; Yates, Nathan; Barrientos, Rafael; Steel, Martin; Lee, Mike

    2015-12-01

    Clinical and Pharmaceutical Solutions through Analysis, São Paulo, Brazil, 3-5 August 2015 The 2nd Annual Symposium on Clinical and Pharmaceutical Solutions through Analysis was held on 3-5 August 2015 at Club Transatlântico, São Paulo, Brazil. This annual meeting began in 2014 and was the first industry-led event in Brazil to focus on the specific needs of industry researchers while bringing together technology and regulators. The goal of CPSA is to provide an in-depth review of innovative technology and industry practices through open discussion of industry-related issues and needs. Education and specialized training are the foundation of all CPSA events. As the industry has evolved so has CPSA. The CPSA annual meeting thrived with high quality scientific content, open interaction from industry opinion leaders and a collegial environment. PMID:26617112

  7. Impact of vinasse application in the C and N in the soils cultivaded with sugarcane in South Brasil, using Isotopic Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossete, A. M.; Medeiros, G. G.; Adorno, F. C.; Possignolo, N. V.; Moreira, M. Z.; Camargo, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    The main anthropogenic sources in the environment are fertilizers, pesticides, biomass burning, vehicle emissions, and disposal of urban and industrial waste. Vinasse is characterized as a residual of sugarcane distillery effluent with high concentrations of potassium and organic matter. The environmental impact caused by its use in the vinasse is modification chemical and physical properties in the soil and water. For this, the isotopic technique can be a powerful tool to understand the biogeochemical cycling of light elements (C and N). Some environmental studies have been conducted involving isotopic characterization of Carbon and Nitrogen in soil. Several soils cultivated with sugarcane of different regions of São Paulo state, Brazil, were analyzed to perform the isotopic characterization. The study area was selected where soil management is by mechanical harvesting of sugarcane and vinasse application. The area was divided into three parts: control (without cultivation); after mechanical harvesting of sugarcane; after mechanical harvesting of sugarcane and vinasse application. Three days after the harvest of sugarcane the vinasse was applied and sampling of soil surface was carried out in two periods of 7 and 30 days after application of vinasse. The isotopic determination in the sample soil and concentration of C and N was by IRMS, Thermo Delta Plus, allowing simultaneous determination of 13C/12C isotope ratios (δ13C) and 15N/14N (δ15N). The results of the C and N concentration in the vinasse applied were average values 2.52% and 0.02% and isotopic values of 13C and 15N were -14.1‰ and 5.2‰. The results for the C concentration of the three areas in two periods showed values around 0.86 to 1.01%. The 13C isotopic values were -16.8 to -15.0‰, demonstrating the predominant cultivation in the region in relation to δ13C values of C4 plant (sugarcane). The results of N analysis were 0.08 to 0.10% and 15N isotope analysis, showing values ranging from 7.9 to 8.5‰. No significant variation in concentration of N and C in three study areas was observed. Considering 13C and 15N isotopic characterization independent of management, there was noted no isotopic fractionation by microbial activity. The results evidenced that the addition of vinasse in the soil did not increase the concentration of C and N does not represent a source of C and N. Furthermore, the isotopic technique can be applied in studies involving biogeochemical cycling, aiming to identify progress or setbacks in the quality of soil and possible impact in ecosystem.

  8. Cidadania Negada: A Educacao como Instrumento de Combate a Pobreza no Brasil (Denial of Citizenship: Education as a Way to Fight Poverty in Brazil).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germano, Jose Willington

    1995-01-01

    Compares two compensatory social/educational programs developed by the Brazilian government in the last 15 years. States that although one was formulated during the military regime and one during the present government, they both combat poverty and encourage privatization. Concludes that this promotes a process that sees education as social…

  9. A Ideia de Universidade no Brasil: Influencia do Movimento de Cordoba (The Idea of the University in Brazil: Influences of the Cordoba Movement).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzilli, Sueli

    2000-01-01

    Examines influences of the Cordoba Movement in formulation of ideas concerning the inseparability among teaching, research, and extension--a new paradigm for the Brazilian university. Finds the formulation of this inseparability had its origins in the Brazilian student movement of the 1960s which included theses of the Cordoba Manifesto. (BT)

  10. Simulated Extreme Prepitation Indices over Northeast Brasil in Current Climate and Future Scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wender Santiago Marinho, Marcos; Araújo Costa, Alexandre; Cassain Sales, Domingo; Oliveira Guimarães, Sullyandro; Mariano da Silva, Emerson; das Chagas Vasconcelos Júnior, Francisco

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we analyzed extreme precipitation indices, for present and future modeled climates over Northeast of Brazil (NEB), from CORDEX simulations over the domain of Tropical Americas. The period for the model validation was from 1989-2007, using data from the European Center (ECWMF) Reanalysis, ERA-INTERIM, as input to drive the regional model (RAMS 6.0). Reanalysis data were assimilated via both lateral boundaries and the entire domain (a much weaker "central nudging"). Six indices of extreme precipitation were calculated over NEB: the average number of days above 10, 20 and 30 mm in one year (R10, R20, R30), the number of consecutive dry days (CDD), the number of consecutive wet days (CWD) and the maximum rainfall in five consecutive days (RX5). Those indices were compared against two independent databases: MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications) and TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission). After validation, climate simulations were performed for the present climate (1985-2005) and short-term (2015-2035), mid-term (2045-2065) and long-term (2079 to 2099) future climates for two scenarios: RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, nesting RAMS into HadGEM2-ES global model (a participant of CMIP5). Along with the indices, we also calculated Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) to study the behavior of daily precipitation in the present and by the end of the 21st century (2079 to 2099) to assess possible changes under RCPs 4.5 and 8.5. The regional model is capable of representing relatively well the extreme precipitation indices for current climate, but there is some difficulties in performing a proper validation since the observed databases disagree significantly. Future projections show significant changes in most extreme indices. Rnn generally tend to increase, especially under RCP8.5. More significant changes are projected for the long-term period, under RCP8.5, which shows a pronounced R30 enhancement over northern states. CDD tends to decrease over most of NEB in the short but this trend is reverted toward the end of the century in both scenarios with a significant increase in the duration of the dry season over Northwestern and Eastern NEB (exceeding 50 days over certain areas), whereas projected CWD changes are smaller. Rx5 shows a general increasing trend especially in the long term period,under RCP8.5.

  11. Taxonomic Treatment of Solanum Section Petota (Wild Potatoes) in Catálogo de Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, y sur del Brasil)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum section Petota (Solanaceae), which includes the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its wild relatives, contains over 150 wild species distributed from the southwestern U.S.A. (38°N) to central Argentina and adjacent Chile (41°S). This catalog includes all species from the Southern Con...

  12. A Educacao dos Portadores de Necessidades Especiais no Brasil no Periodo de 1910 a 1949 (Education of Those with Special Needs in Brazil from 1920 to 1949).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques, Carlos Alberto; Santiago, Mylene Cristina; de Moura, Simone Moreira

    2000-01-01

    Examines education given to those with special needs in Brazil from 1910-1949. Shows the dichotomy of meanings in which the education of special needs persons during that period, besides being marked by concepts related to the exclusion paradigm, already indicated signs of respect for diversity and civil rights. (BT)

  13. Inconsistency of Association between Coffee Consumption and Cognitive Function in Adults and Elderly in a Cross-Sectional Study (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Larissa Fortunato; Giatti, Luana; dos Reis, Rodrigo C. Padilha; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B.; Ikram, Mohammad Arfan; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages worldwide and the effect on cognition appears to be task specific and vary by age. Method: In cohort of 14,563 public service workers (35–74 years old) we assessed coffee consumption habits and examined cognitive function using standardized neuropsychological test battery. By linear regression and generalize linear regression with logarithmic link and gamma distribution we investigated the relation of coffee consumption (never/almost never, ≤1 cup/day, 2–3 cups/day, ≥3 cups/day) in the last 12 months to performance on specific domains of cognition for adults and elderly separately. Results: Among elderly, after adjustments, coffee consumption was associated only with an increase in the mean words remembered on learning, recall, and word recognition tests when comparing the 2–3 cups/day to never/almost never category (arithmetic mean ratio (AMR): 1.03; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.00 to 1.07), and to an increase in the mean words pronounced in semantic verbal fluency test when comparing the ≥3 cups/day to never/almost never category (difference of the mean: 1.23; 95% CI: 0.16 to 2.29). However, coffee consumption was not associated with any cognitive function tests in adults and also was not associated with the phonemic verbal fluency test and trail-making test B in elderly. Conclusions: Results suggest that coffee consumption might be slightly beneficial to memory in elderly but lacks a dose response relationship. Longitudinal analyses are needed to investigate possible, even if subtle, positive effects of coffee drinking on specific cognitive domains in elderly. PMID:26610556

  14. Inconsistent Correlation Between Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness and Peripheral Arterial Tonometry: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Lemos, Sara P; Passos, Valria Maria A; Brant, Luisa C C; Bensenor, Isabela J M; Ribeiro, Antnio Luiz P; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2015-08-01

    To estimate the association between 2 markers for atherosclerosis, measurements of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and of peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT), and to evaluate the role of traditional cardiovascular risk factors in this association.We applied the 2 diagnostic tests to 588 participants from the ELSA-Brazil longitudinal study cohort. The PAT measurements, obtained with the EndoPAT2000, were the reactive hyperemia index (RHI), the Framingham RHI (F-RHI), and the mean basal pulse amplitude (BPA). We used the mean of the mean scores of carotid IMT of the distal layers of the left and right common carotids obtained by ultrasonography after 3 cardiac cycles. We used linear regression and the Spearman correlation coefficient to test the relationship between the 2 markers, and multiple linear regressions to exam the relationship between the RHI/F-RHI scores and the mean BPA and IMT scores after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors.In the multivariate analysis, RHI (but not F-RHI) was positively correlated with the mean of the means of the IMT values after adjusting for sex and risk factors connected with both measures (??=?0.05, P?=?0.02). Mean BPA did not remain significantly associated with IMT after adjusting for common risk factors.We found that the higher the IMT (or the worse the IMT), the higher the RHI (or the better the endothelial function). F-RHI was not associated with IMT. These 2 results are against the direction that one would expect and may imply that digital endothelial function (RHI and F-RHI) and IMT correspond to distinct and independent stages of the complex atherosclerosis process and represent different pathways in the disease's progression. Therefore, IMT and PAT measures may be considered complementary and not interchangeable. PMID:26287431

  15. Cidadania Negada: A Educacao como Instrumento de Combate a Pobreza no Brasil (Denial of Citizenship: Education as a Way to Fight Poverty in Brazil).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germano, Jose Willington

    1995-01-01

    Compares two compensatory social/educational programs developed by the Brazilian government in the last 15 years. States that although one was formulated during the military regime and one during the present government, they both combat poverty and encourage privatization. Concludes that this promotes a process that sees education as social

  16. Landslide Susceptibility Analysis by the comparison and integration of Random Forest and Logistic Regression methods; application to the disaster of Nova Friburgo - Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (January 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Carlo; Barra, Anna; Evans, Stephen G.; Scarascia Mugnozza, Gabriele; Delaney, Keith

    2014-05-01

    The study of landslide susceptibility by multivariate statistical methods is based on finding a quantitative relationship between controlling factors and landslide occurrence. Such studies have become popular in the last few decades thanks to the development of geographic information systems (GIS) software and the related improved data management. In this work we applied a statistical approach to an area of high landslide susceptibility mainly due to its tropical climate and geological-geomorphological setting. The study area is located in the south-east region of Brazil that has frequently been affected by flood and landslide hazard, especially because of heavy rainfall events during the summer season. In this work we studied a disastrous event that occurred on January 11th and 12th of 2011, which involved Região Serrana (the mountainous region of Rio de Janeiro State) and caused more than 5000 landslides and at least 904 deaths. In order to produce susceptibility maps, we focused our attention on an area of 93,6 km2 that includes Nova Friburgo city. We utilized two different multivariate statistic methods: Logistic Regression (LR), already widely used in applied geosciences, and Random Forest (RF), which has only recently been applied to landslide susceptibility analysis. With reference to each mapping unit, the first method (LR) results in a probability of landslide occurrence, while the second one (RF) gives a prediction in terms of % of area susceptible to slope failure. With this aim in mind, a landslide inventory map (related to the studied event) has been drawn up through analyses of high-resolution GeoEye satellite images, in a GIS environment. Data layers of 11 causative factors have been created and processed in order to be used as continuous numerical or discrete categorical variables in statistical analysis. In particular, the logistic regression method has frequent difficulties in managing numerical continuous and discrete categorical variables together; therefore in our work we tried different methods to process categorical variables , until we obtained a statistically significant model. The outcomes of the two statistical methods (RF and LR) have been tested with a spatial validation and gave us two susceptibility maps. The significance of the models is quantified in terms of Area Under ROC Curve (AUC resulted in 0.81 for RF model and in 0.72 for LR model). In the first instance, a graphical comparison of the two methods shows a good correspondence between them. Further, we integrated results in a unique susceptibility map which maintains both information of probability of occurrence and % of area of landslide detachment, resulting from LR and RF respectively. In fact, in view of a landslide susceptibility classification of the study area, the former is less accurate but gives easily classifiable results, while the latter is more accurate but the results can be only subjectively classified. The obtained "integrated" susceptibility map preserves information about the probability that a given % of area could fail for each mapping unit.

  17. Physical demands during the hauling of fishing nets for artisan fishing using rafts in beach of Ponta Negra, Natal--Brasil.

    PubMed

    Jaeschke, Anelena; Saldanha, Maria Christine Werba

    2012-01-01

    The current article aims to analyse the activity and the repercussions in the health of the artisan fishermen who use rafts in the urban Beach of Ponta Negra in Natal - RN, with emphasis on the physical demands at the step of hauling the nets from the ocean. It has been taken as a reference the methodology of Work Ergonomic Analysis-WEA. 21 fishermen participated in the study (50% of the population). It was used applying observational techniques and methodologies (open and sistematic observations and simulations) interactional ( social and economic questionnaire, conversational actions, verbalizations, self confrontations and collective analysis) and health assessment (static postural assessment, movement flexibility of flexo extension of the shoulder and the ischiotibial muscle, lumbar region and hang grip. Applying the diagram of painful areas and the Nordic Questionnaire of mucleskeletal symptoms). The results were submeted to restitutions and validations with the raftmen. The hauling of the nets represents a high muscleskeletal risk, joining physical effort, adopting forced postures with the rotation of the spine and movement repetition, mainly flexo extension of vertebral spine, aggravated by the demand of strength fo the stabilizing muscles of the human body to keep the poise. The impacts of the activity of the fisherman of Ponta Negra, related to postures and strength demand were observed in the postural assessment and are related to the activity. PMID:22316760

  18. O Direito Costumeiro na Legislacao e na Jurisprudencia do Brasil: A Desescravizacao (Common Law in Legislation and Jurisprudence in Brazil: Abolition of Slavery).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebara, Ademir

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates that in Brazil, common law was an important component for development of the political project, elaborated with the objective of organizing and disciplining the formation of a market of free workers. Considers that the history of work relations originated in the Portuguese discovery of Brazil in the 16th century. (BT)

  19. [Quality of life of primary care patients in Rio de Janeiro and SoPaulo, Brasil: associations with stressful life events and mental health].

    PubMed

    Portugal, Flvia Batista; Campos, Mnica Rodrigues; Gonalves, Daniel Almeida; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Fortes, Sandra Lcia Correia Lima

    2016-02-01

    Quality of life (QoL) is a subjective construct, which can be negatively associated with factors such as mental disorders and stressful life events (SLEs). This article seeks to identify the association between socioeconomic and demographic variables, common mental disorders, symptoms suggestive of depression and anxiety, SLEs with QoL in patients attended in Primary Care (PC). It is a transversal study, conducted with 1,466 patients attended in PC centers in the cities of So Paulo and Rio de Janeiro in 2009 and 2010. Bivariate analysis was performed using the T-test and four multiple linear regressions for each QoL domain. The scores for the physical, psychological, social relations and environment domains were, respectively, 64.7; 64.2; 68.5 and 49.1. By means of multivariate analysis, associations of the physical domain were found with health problems and discrimination; of the psychological domain with discrimination; of social relations with financial/structural problems; of external causes and health problems; and of the environment with financial/structural problems, external causes and discrimination. Mental health variables, health problems and financial/structural problems were the factors negatively associated with QoL. PMID:26910157

  20. Estimation of atmospheric turbidity and surface radiative parameters using broadband clear sky solar irradiance models in Rio de Janeiro-Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, José L.; Karam, Hugo A.; Marques Filho, Edson P.; Pereira Filho, Augusto J.

    2016-02-01

    The main goal of this paper is to estimate a set of optimal seasonal, daily, and hourly values of atmospheric turbidity and surface radiative parameters Ångström's turbidity coefficient ( β), Ångström's wavelength exponent ( α), aerosol single scattering albedo ( ω o ), forward scatterance ( F c ) and average surface albedo ( ρ g ), using the Brute Force multidimensional minimization method to minimize the difference between measured and simulated solar irradiance components, expressed as cost functions. In order to simulate the components of short-wave solar irradiance (direct, diffuse and global) for clear sky conditions, incidents on a horizontal surface in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro (MARJ), Brazil (22° 51' 27″ S, 43° 13' 58″ W), we use two parameterized broadband solar irradiance models, called CPCR2 and Iqbal C, based on synoptic information. The meteorological variables such as precipitable water ( u w ) and ozone concentration ( u o ) required by the broadband solar models were obtained from moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on Terra and Aqua NASA platforms. For the implementation and validation processes, we use global and diffuse solar irradiance data measured by the radiometric platform of LabMiM, located in the north area of the MARJ. The data were measured between the years 2010 and 2012 at 1-min intervals. The performance of solar irradiance models using optimal parameters was evaluated with several quantitative statistical indicators and a subset of measured solar irradiance data. Some daily results for Ångström's wavelength exponent α were compared with Ångström's parameter (440-870 nm) values obtained by aerosol robotic network (AERONET) for 11 days, showing an acceptable level of agreement. Results for Ångström's turbidity coefficient β, associated with the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere, show a seasonal pattern according with increased precipitation during summer months (December-February) in the MARJ.

  1. Toward a Better Understanding of First Language Vocabulary Knowledge: The Case of Second-Generation Russian-Jewish Immigrants in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Mila; Kozminsky, Ely; Leikin, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the first language (L1) vocabulary knowledge in a large-scale sample (n = 70) of second-generation Russian-Jewish immigrants in Israel. The interest in this research population follows from the unique demographic, sociocultural, linguistic, and psychological distinctiveness of RJ immigration in Israel.…

  2. PHARMACOLOGIC PROBING OF AMPHOTERICIN B-INDUCED RENAL DYSFUNCTION IN THE NEONATAL RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pharmacologic Probing of Amphotericin B-Induced Renal Dysfunction in the Neonatal Rat. Gray, J.A., and Kavlock, R.J. (1988). Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 93, 360-368. Acetazolamide, furosemide, chlorothiazide, and amiloride pharmacologic agents that act primarily in the proximal tub...

  3. USE OF THE RIBONUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAY FOR IDENTIFYING CHEMICALS WHICH ELLICIT HYPERSENSITIVITY RESPONSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of the Ribonuclease Protection Assay (RPA) for Identifying Chemicals that Elicit Hypersensitivity Responses. L.M. Plitnick, 1, D.M. Sailstad, 2, and R.J. Smialowicz, 2 1UNC, Curriculum in Toxicology, Chapel Hill, NC and 2USEPA, NHEERL, RTP, NC.

    The incidence of aller...

  4. Fetal, Infant, and Maternal Mortality During Periods of Economic Instability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    One of the most sensitive indicators of the general socioeconomic level of a nation is the infant mortality rate. Evidence indicates that economic recessions and upswings have played a significant role in fetal, infant, and maternal mortality in the last 45 years. (RJ)

  5. Fair Play: Teaching the Logical Fallacies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Susan

    This paper describes a freshman composition course which looks at racism and sexism in science, and within which the instructor uses a 1989 "Atlantic Monthly" piece by R.J. Herrnstein, co-author with Charles Murray of "The Bell Curve." In his article, Herrnstein argues that the intelligence of the nation is declining because educated young women…

  6. Restorative Justice as Reflective Practice and Applied Pedagogy on College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinker, Jeremy A.; Jonason, Chelsey

    2014-01-01

    Restorative justice (RJ) is both a methodology for dealing with conflict and a process for modeling more positive human relations after social harm. As both method and process, the benefits of developing restorative practices on college campuses go well beyond just the many positive community-oriented outcomes of facilitated conflict resolution…

  7. Thematic Patterns in Baldwin's Essays: A Study in Chaos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Eugene

    1972-01-01

    Describes how James Baldwin in his essays unravels the complexities of the present--complexities which involve the history and projected future of blacks, as well as their turbulent present. Baldwin's vision is not of a monolithic society but of tranquility within duality, an acceptance of two-ness in American society. (RJ)

  8. 78 FR 14311 - Statement of Organization, Functions and Delegations of Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... Administration (HRSA) (60 FR 56605, as amended November 6, 1995; as last amended at 78 FR 956-957, dated January... electronic grant management system function from the Division of Grants Management Operations (RJ3) to the... Administration. This notice updates the functional statement for the Office of Federal Assistance Management...

  9. 76 FR 77840 - Statement of Organization, Functions and Delegations of Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... Administration (HRSA) (60 FR 56605, as amended November 6, 1995; as last amended at 76 FR 64953-64954 dated... Management (RJ). The update to the functional statement will better align functional responsibility with improved management and administrative efficiencies and improved alignment of current liaison functions...

  10. Statistical analysis of earthquakes after the 1999 MW 7.7 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake based on a modified Reasenberg-Jones model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuh-Ing; Huang, Chi-Shen; Liu, Jann-Yenq

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the temporal-spatial hazard of the earthquakes after the 1999 September 21 MW = 7.7 Chi-Chi shock in a continental region of Taiwan. The Reasenberg-Jones (RJ) model (Reasenberg and Jones, 1989, 1994) that combines the frequency-magnitude distribution (Gutenberg and Richter, 1944) and time-decaying occurrence rate (Utsu et al., 1995) is conventionally employed for assessing the earthquake hazard after a large shock. However, it is found that the b values in the frequency-magnitude distribution of the earthquakes in the study region dramatically decreased from background values after the Chi-Chi shock, and then gradually increased up. The observation of a time-dependent frequency-magnitude distribution motivated us to propose a modified RJ model (MRJ) to assess the earthquake hazard. To see how the models perform on assessing short-term earthquake hazard, the RJ and MRJ models were separately used to sequentially forecast earthquakes in the study region. To depict the potential rupture area for future earthquakes, we further constructed relative hazard (RH) maps based on the two models. The Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves (Swets, 1988) finally demonstrated that the RH map based on the MRJ model was, in general, superior to the one based on the original RJ model for exploring the spatial hazard of earthquakes in a short time after the Chi-Chi shock.

  11. Glomerular filtration rate

    MedlinePlus

    ... LA, Fan L, Levey AS. Assessment of renal function. In: Johnson RJ, Feehally J, Floege J. Comprehensive Clinical Nephrology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 3. Landry DW, Bazari H. Approach to the patient with renal disease. In: ...

  12. IS THE DOSE-RESPONSE LINEAR OR NONLINEAR FOR GENOTOXIC EFFECTS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    IS THE DOSE-RESPONSE LINEAR OR NONLINEAR FOR GENOTOXIC EFFECTS?
    Preston, RJ. Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, NHEERL, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711

    For considerations of cancer risk assessment from exposure to environmenta...

  13. Motivation and Outcomes for University Students in a Restorative Justice Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher Dahl, Meghan; Meagher, Peter; Vander Velde, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    A restorative justice program (RJP) was developed at a large university in the housing student conduct office. Students accused of misconduct who participated in a restorative justice (RJ) conference completed surveys regarding their motivations and perceived outcomes. Results showed that students who were motivated to make reparations to others…

  14. The Significance of Critical Theory for Restorative Justice in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaandering, Dorothy

    2010-01-01

    Restorative justice (RJ), a distinctive philosophical approach that seeks to replace punitive, managerial structures of schooling with those that emphasize the building and repairing of relationships has been embraced in the past two decades by a variety of school systems worldwide in an effort to build safe school communities. Early studies…

  15. ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTING CHEMICALS: PREPUBERTAL EXPOSURES AND EFFECTS ON SEXUAL MATURATION AND THYROID ACTIVITY IN THE FEMALE RAT. A FOCUS ON THE EDSTAC RECOMMENDATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals: prepubertal exposures and effects on sexual maturation and thyroid activity in the female rat. A focus on the EDSTAC recommendations.

    Goldman JM, Laws SC, Balchak SK, Cooper RL, Kavlock RJ.

    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National H...

  16. REVISING EPA'S GUIDELINES FOR THE DERIVATIONS OF AQUATIC LIFE AMBIENT WATER QUALITY CRITERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Henry, T.R., H.E. Bell, C.G. Delos, R.J. Erickson, K.M. Kubena and F.L. Mayer. In press. Revising EPA's Guidelines for the Derivation of Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November 2004, Portland, OR. ...

  17. 40 CFR 798.5375 - In vitro mammalian cytogenetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the following specific information shall be reported: (i) Cells...:337-354 (1975). (5) Preston, R.J., Au, W., Bender, M.A., Brewen, J.G., Carrano, A.V., Heddle, J.A.,...

  18. 40 CFR 798.5375 - In vitro mammalian cytogenetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the following specific information shall be reported: (i) Cells...:337-354 (1975). (5) Preston, R.J., Au, W., Bender, M.A., Brewen, J.G., Carrano, A.V., Heddle, J.A.,...

  19. Valence Specific Laterality Effects in Prosody: Expectancy Account and the Effects of Morphed Prosody and Stimulus Lead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodway, Paul; Schepman, Astrid

    2007-01-01

    The majority of studies have demonstrated a right hemisphere (RH) advantage for the perception of emotions. Other studies have found that the involvement of each hemisphere is valence specific, with the RH better at perceiving negative emotions and the LH better at perceiving positive emotions [Reuter-Lorenz, P., & Davidson, R.J. (1981)

  20. CYTOKINE PROFILING FOR CHEMICAL SENSITIZERS: APPLICATION OF THE RIBONUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAY AND EFFECT OF DOSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cytokine Profiling for Chemical Sensitizers: Application of the Ribonuclease Protection Assay and Effect of Dose. L.M. Plitnick1, S.E. Loveless3, G.S. Ladics3, M.P. Holsapple4, M.J. Selgrade2, D.M. Sailstad2 and R.J. Smialowicz2. 1UNC, Curriculum in Toxicology, Chapel Hill, NC a...

  1. Coleman Report II: Courts, Bussing and White Flight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeG. Ford, Maurice

    1975-01-01

    Asserts that it seems illusory that much progress can be made toward achieving a truly integrated society unless some way is found to attract the missled class--both black and white--back into the urban public schools across the nation. Available from Nation Associates, Inc., 333 Sixth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10014. (Author/RJ)

  2. 40 CFR 798.5375 - In vitro mammalian cytogenetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the following specific information shall be reported: (i) Cells...:337-354 (1975). (5) Preston, R.J., Au, W., Bender, M.A., Brewen, J.G., Carrano, A.V., Heddle, J.A.,...

  3. 40 CFR 798.5375 - In vitro mammalian cytogenetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the following specific information shall be reported: (i) Cells...:337-354 (1975). (5) Preston, R.J., Au, W., Bender, M.A., Brewen, J.G., Carrano, A.V., Heddle, J.A.,...

  4. 40 CFR 798.5375 - In vitro mammalian cytogenetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the following specific information shall be reported: (i) Cells...:337-354 (1975). (5) Preston, R.J., Au, W., Bender, M.A., Brewen, J.G., Carrano, A.V., Heddle, J.A.,...

  5. Language, Vision and the Black Writer: Dealing With Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kgositsile, Keorapetse

    1972-01-01

    Argues that African blacks have not begun the serious task of creating a language that sytematically strives to express black life; that blacks have not begun to think for themselves despite African independence rhetoric, national flags and anthems, and fists raised proclaiming or celebrating power they do not have. (RJ)

  6. Why We Must Abolish Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illich, Ivan

    1970-01-01

    Argues that obligatory schooling inevitably polarizes society, and that alienation of modern society in a pedagogical sense is even worse than economic alienation. Concludes that the belief that one can distinguish between what is necessary education for others and what is not is a delusion shared in one and all. (RJ)

  7. Electrical limit of silver nanowire electrodes: Direct measurement of the nanowire junction resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selzer, Franz; Floresca, Carlo; Kneppe, David; Bormann, Ludwig; Sachse, Christoph; Weiß, Nelli; Eychmüller, Alexander; Amassian, Aram; Müller-Meskamp, Lars; Leo, Karl

    2016-04-01

    We measure basic network parameters of silver nanowire (AgNW) networks commonly used as transparent conducting electrodes in organic optoelectronic devices. By means of four point probing with nanoprobes, the wire-to-wire junction resistance and the resistance of single nanowires are measured. The resistance RNW of a single nanowire shows a value of RNW=(4.96 ±0.18 ) Ω/μm . The junction resistance RJ differs for annealed and non-annealed NW networks, exhibiting values of RJ=(25.2 ±1.9 ) Ω (annealed) and RJ=(529 ±239 ) Ω (non-annealed), respectively. Our simulation achieves a good agreement between the measured network parameters and the sheet resistance RS of the entire network. Extrapolating RJ to zero, our study show that we are close to the electrical limit of the conductivity of our AgNW system: We obtain a possible RS reduction by only ≈20 % (common RS≈10 Ω/sq ). Therefore, we expect further performance improvements in AgNW systems mainly by increasing NW length or by utilizing novel network geometries.

  8. The Prejudice of Having No Prejudice in Puerto Rice; Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betances, Samuel

    1973-01-01

    Second part of a two-part series which began in the Winter 1972 issue of The Rican.'' The issue of identity as it relates to race and color in Puerto Rican life is very important. The myth that Puerto Rico is a kind of human relations paradise where racism is nonexistent has to be exploded. (Author/RJ)

  9. Racism and Pluralism: A Dimensional Analysis of Forty-Eight Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagley, Christopher

    1972-01-01

    Argues that pluralistic societies, characterized by the number of blocs, recency of colonial rule, and existence of several religious minorities, are not in essence racialist; racialism arises out of pluralism when one group has a powerful advantage over other groups, as in the U.S., South Africa, and Brazil. (RJ)

  10. Tuskegee-in-Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Edward H.

    1972-01-01

    Examines the converging forces in U.S. and Britain responsible for the belief that the educational experience of Hampton and Tuskegee had a particular lesson for Black Africa. Studies the transference of the Tuskegee model to Liberia in the late 1920's and 1930's, and the role of the Phelps-Stokes Foundation of New York. (RJ)

  11. Curriculum, Pedagogy, and the Cambridge Primary Review: A Response to R. J. Campbell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to R.J. Campbell's critique of the "Cambridge Primary Review," which was published in the autumn of 2009. The author argues that Campbell's description of the "Review's" central proposals on curriculum and pedagogy as "backward-looking and inadequately theorised" is so misjudged as to call for a

  12. CYTOKINE MRNA PROFILES FOR ISOCYANATES WITH KNOWN AND UNKNOWN POTENTIAL TO INDUCE RESPIRATORY SENSITIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cytokine mRNA Profiles for Isocyanates with Known and Unknown Potential to Induce Respiratory Sensitization. Plitnick, L.M., Loveless, S.E., Ladics, G.S., Holsapple, M.P., Smialowicz, R.J., Woolhiser, M.R., Anderson, P.K., Smith, C., Sailstad, D.M. and Selgrade, M.J.K (2002) Tox...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: otopalatodigital syndrome type 2

    MedlinePlus

    ... pathological, and molecular findings. Am J Med Genet A. 2007 May 15;143A(10):1120-5. OMIM: OTOPALATODIGITAL SYNDROME, TYPE II Robertson SP, Twigg SR, Sutherland-Smith AJ, Biancalana V, Gorlin RJ, Horn D, Kenwrick SJ, Kim CA, Morava E, Newbury-Ecob R, Orstavik KH, ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: otopalatodigital syndrome type 1

    MedlinePlus

    ... skewed X chromosome inactivation. Am J Med Genet A. 2005 Jul 15;136(2):190-3. OMIM: OTOPALATODIGITAL SYNDROME, TYPE I Robertson SP, Twigg SR, Sutherland-Smith AJ, Biancalana V, Gorlin RJ, Horn D, Kenwrick SJ, Kim CA, Morava E, Newbury-Ecob R, Orstavik KH, ...

  15. Center of Excellence in HIV/AIDS & Cancer Virology

    Cancer.gov

    Large intestine-targeted, nanoparticle-releasing oral vaccine to control genitorectal viral infection Zhu Q, Talton J, Zhang G, Cunningham T, Wang Z, Waters RC, Kirk J, Eppler B, Klinman DM, Sui Y, Gagnon S, Belyakov IM, Mumper RJ, and Berzofsky JA Most n

  16. JB6 Mouse Model

    Cancer.gov

    Keene AM, Allaway RJ, Sadrieh N, Tyner KM.  Gold nanoparticle trafficking of typically excluded compounds across the cell membrane in JB6 Cl 41-5a cells causes assay interference.  Nanotoxicology, 2010.  Abstract    Son YO, Hitron JA, Cheng S, Budhraja A,

  17. JB6 Mouse Model

    Cancer.gov

    JB6 References 2001 Berdyshev EV, Schmid PC, Krebsbach RJ, Hillard CJ, Huang C, Chen N, Dong Z, Schmid HH. Cannabinoid-receptor-independent cell signaling by N-acylethanolamines. Biochem J 360: 67-75, 2001.  Abstract  Full Text    Chung JY, Park JO, Phyu

  18. Diverse plasma populations and structures in Jupiter's magnetotail.

    PubMed

    McComas, D J; Allegrini, F; Bagenal, F; Crary, F; Ebert, R W; Elliott, H; Stern, A; Valek, P

    2007-10-12

    Jupiter's magnetotail is the largest cohesive structure in the solar system and marks the loss of vast numbers of heavy ions from the Jupiter system. The New Horizons spacecraft traversed the magnetotail to distances exceeding 2500 jovian radii (R(J)) and revealed a remarkable diversity of plasma populations and structures throughout its length. Ions evolve from a hot plasma disk distribution at approximately 100 R(J) to slower, persistent flows down the tail that become increasingly variable in flux and mean energy. The plasma is highly structured-exhibiting sharp breaks, smooth variations, and apparent plasmoids-and contains ions from both Io and Jupiter's ionosphere with intense bursts of H(+) and H(+)(3). Quasi-periodic changes were seen in flux at approximately 450 and approximately 1500 R(J) with a 10-hour period. Other variations in flow speed at approximately 600 to 1000 R(J) with a 3- to 4-day period may be attributable to plasmoids moving down the tail. PMID:17932282

  19. A Matter of Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierpont, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    In 2001, in partnership with the Waterloo, Iowa school system, the R.J. McElroy Trust, Janice Freeburg-Cannon, Tri-County Head Start, Allen Health System, the University of Northern Iowa and the Regents' Center for Early Developmental Education created a special model for early childhood education that would eventually become The Freeburg School.…

  20. Valence Specific Laterality Effects in Prosody: Expectancy Account and the Effects of Morphed Prosody and Stimulus Lead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodway, Paul; Schepman, Astrid

    2007-01-01

    The majority of studies have demonstrated a right hemisphere (RH) advantage for the perception of emotions. Other studies have found that the involvement of each hemisphere is valence specific, with the RH better at perceiving negative emotions and the LH better at perceiving positive emotions [Reuter-Lorenz, P., & Davidson, R.J. (1981)…

  1. Day Care for Children: The European Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Marsden G.; Wagner, Mary

    1973-01-01

    The need for day-care centers for young children is an idea which is now questioned less and less. The largeness of the numbers of these centers over Europe facilitates formation of a certain number of principles. Day care programs were studied by the authors in Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, and Czechoslovakia. (Authors/RJ)

  2. Will the Real Mexican American Please Stand Up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montez, Philip

    1970-01-01

    Revised version of speech delivered at the National Conference of Mexican American School Board Members, Washington, D.C., June 26-29, 1969. Argues for the retention of biculturalism and bilingualism despite assimilation of Mexican Americans into mainstream American life. (RJ)

  3. THE GRK4 SUBFAMILY OF G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTOR KINASES: ALTERNATIVE SPLICING, GENE ORGANIZATION, AND SEQUENCE CONSERVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The GRK4 subfamily of G protein-coupled receptor kinases. Alternative splicing, gene organization, and sequence conservation.

    Premont RT, Macrae AD, Aparicio SA, Kendall HE, Welch JE, Lefkowitz RJ.

    Department of Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke Univer...

  4. Demodernizing Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Peter L.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Youth culture and counterculture in contemporary Western societies are complex phenomena that may be viewed from a variety of social science perspectives. The authors analyze these cultures as embodiments of demodernizing consciousness with which they hold they have considerable firsthand experience. (RJ)

  5. The Life of White Ethnics: Toward More Effective Working-Class Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Irving M.; Herman, Judith

    1972-01-01

    Contends that if issues are articulated, work is done, are communities developed with sensitivity--without hardening of organizational forms or premature alliances between fearful groups--then the ethnic factor in working-class life can be an important tool for creating both individual fulfillment and social unity. (RJ)

  6. CYTOKINE PROFILING FOR CHEMICAL RESPIRATORY SENSITIZERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CYTOKINE PROFILING FOR CHEMICAL RESPIRATORY SENSITIZERS. LM Plitnick1, SE Loveless2, GS Ladics2, MP Holsapple3, MJ Selgrade4, DM Sailstad4 & RJ Smialowicz4. 1UNC, Chapel Hill, NC; 2DuPont Co., Haskell Laboratory, Newark, DE; 3Dow Chemical, Midland, MI & 4USEPA, NHEERL, RTP, NC.

  7. TISSUE REMODELING IN THE HUMAN LUNG IN RELATION TO PARTICLE CONCENTRATION AND METAL CONTENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    TISSUE REMODELING IN THE HUMAN LUNG IN RELATION TO PARTICLE CONCENTRATION AND METAL CONTENT. J Gallagher1, J Inmon1, S Schlaegle2, A Levine2, T Rogers3, J Scott1, F Green4, M Schenker5, K Pinkerton5 1NHEERL, US-EPA, RTP, NC, USA; 2RJ Lee Group Inc, Monroeville, Pa, USA; ...

  8. A Cross-Cultural Study of the Affective Meanings of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Frances M.; Osgood, Charles E.

    1973-01-01

    Color data from the Osgood et al. 23-culture semantic differential study of affective meanings reveal cross-cultural similarities in feelings about colors. The concept RED is affectively quite salient; BLACK and GREY are bad, and WHITE, BLUE, and GREEN are good; YELLOW, WHITE, and GREY are weak; RED and BLACK are strong. (RJ)

  9. Asthma - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy Principles and Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2014:chap 53. Lugogo N, Que LG, Gilstrap DL, Kraft M. Asthma: clinical diagnosis and management. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et ...

  10. 3D scientific visualization of reservoir simulation post-processing

    SciTech Connect

    Sousa, M.C.; Miranda-Filho, D.N.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a 3D visualization software designed at PETROBRAS and TecGraf/PUC-RJ in Brazil for the analysis of reservoir engineering post-processing data. It offers an advanced functional environment on graphical workstations with intuitive and ergonomic interface. Applications to real reservoir models show the enriching features of the software.

  11. Race, Social Class and the Motive to Avoid Success in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Peter J.; Mednick, Martha T.

    1970-01-01

    Based on senior author's M.A thesis in Psychology at Howard University. Examines race and social class differences in the expression of fear of success (termed M-s) in college women. Hypothesis that black women would show less M-s than white women was supported. Social class differences not found. (RJ)

  12. The modulating effect of royal jelly consumption against radiation-induced apoptosis in human peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Rafat, Navid; Monfared, Ali Shabestani; Shahidi, Maryam; Pourfallah, Tayyeb Allahverdi

    2016-01-01

    The present work was designed to assess the radioprotective effect of royal jelly (RJ) against radiation-induced apoptosis in human peripheral blood leukocytes. In this study, peripheral blood samples were obtained on days 0, 4, 7, and 14 of the study from six healthy male volunteers taking a 1000 mg RJ capsule orally per day for 14 consecutive days. On each sampling day, all collected whole blood samples were divided into control and irradiated groups which were then exposed to the selected dose of 4 Gy X-ray. Percentage of apoptotic cells (Ap %) was evaluated for all samples immediately after irradiation (Ap0) and also after a 24 h postirradiation incubation at 37°C in 5% CO2 (Ap24) by the use of neutral comet assay. Concerning Ap0, collected data demonstrated that the percentage of apoptotic cells in both control and irradiated groups did not significantly change during the study period. However, with respect to Ap24, the percentage of apoptotic cells in irradiated groups gradually reduced during the experiment, according to which a significant decrease was found after 14 days RJ consumption (P = 0.002). In conclusion, the present study revealed the protective role of 14 days RJ consumption against radiation-induced apoptosis in human peripheral blood leukocytes. PMID:27051171

  13. A Possible Freshness Marker for Royal Jelly: Formation of 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde as a Function of Storage Temperature and Time.

    PubMed

    Ciulu, Marco; Floris, Ignazio; Nurchi, Valeria M; Panzanelli, Angelo; Pilo, Maria I; Spano, Nadia; Sanna, Gavino

    2015-04-29

    In this article we present a study of the variability of the concentration of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF) in natural royal jelly (RJ) as a function of its storage temperature (-18, 4, and 25 °C) and time (up to 9 months after harvesting). For this work HMF is evaluated using an RP-HPLC method we previously assessed. While all RJ samples stored at 4 and -18 °C always showed levels of HMF under the limit of detection (0.13 mg kg(-1)), samples kept at 25 °C showed an exponential increase in the concentration of HMF as a function of the storage time. This behavior and a number of desirable features of the analytical method used (ease of use in routine laboratories, availability of a complete validation protocol specifically developed for RJ, based on consolidated chemical knowledge) allow us to hypothesize the use of HMF as a possible, reliable freshness marker for RJ. PMID:25858076

  14. Collegiate Impasse-- or We Want Heaven Now!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Lewis B.

    1970-01-01

    Contends it is time to declare to students that there are some matters over which they can exert no direct control; however, that they should be allowed to determine their own private lives, and they should be heard on issues provided their discourse is rational and their protest legal. (RJ)

  15. Retention as a School Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, William A.

    1970-01-01

    Argues that because of the need for the experiences of a child to be positive and successful, a process of uninterrupted promotion into each succeeding grade merits consideration; that each such retention be considered as an individual case, the school system instigating new programs for such retained students. (RJ)

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF THE USE OF ORIMULSION: REPORT TO CONGRESS ON PHASE 1 OF THE ORIMULSION TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMERNT PROGRAM: VOLUME 1: PROJECT REPORT/SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    PUB REPORT NRMRL-RTP-193a Miller*, C.A., Dreher, KL, Wentsel*, R., and Nadeau*, R.J. Environmental Impacts of the Use of Orimulsion: Report to Congress on Phase 1 of the Orimulsion Technology Assessmernt Program: Volume 1:. 2001. EPA/600/R-01/056a (NTIS PB2002-109039). 05/15/200...

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF THE USE OF ORIMULSION (R): REPORT TO CONGRESS ON PHASE I OF THE ORIMULSION TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT PROGRAM, VOLUME 2: PROJECT REPORT/SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-RTP-193b Miller*, C.A., Dreher, KL, Wentsel*, R., and Nadeau*, R.J. Environmental Impacts of the Use of Orimulsion (R): Report to Congress on Phase I of the Orimulsion Technology Assessment Program, Volume 2. 2001. EPA/600/R-01/056b (NTIS PB2002-109040). 05/15/2000 The rep...

  18. Report of the Twenty-First Annual Round Table Meeting on Linguistics and Languages Studies [Bilingualism and Language Contact: Anthropological, Linguistic, Psychological, and Sociological Aspects].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alatis, James E., Ed.

    This report contains 23 papers dealing with various aspects of bilingualism: E. Haugen, "Linguistics and Dialinguistics"; R.J. DiPietro, "The Discovery of Universals in Multilingualism"; J. Macnamara, "Bilingualism and Thought"; J. A. Fishman, "The Politics of Bilingual Education"; V. John, "Cognitive Development in the Bilingual Child"; D. Hymes,…

  19. Restorative Justice as Reflective Practice and Applied Pedagogy on College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinker, Jeremy A.; Jonason, Chelsey

    2014-01-01

    Restorative justice (RJ) is both a methodology for dealing with conflict and a process for modeling more positive human relations after social harm. As both method and process, the benefits of developing restorative practices on college campuses go well beyond just the many positive community-oriented outcomes of facilitated conflict resolution

  20. The modulating effect of royal jelly consumption against radiation-induced apoptosis in human peripheral blood leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rafat, Navid; Monfared, Ali Shabestani; Shahidi, Maryam; Pourfallah, Tayyeb Allahverdi

    2016-01-01

    The present work was designed to assess the radioprotective effect of royal jelly (RJ) against radiation-induced apoptosis in human peripheral blood leukocytes. In this study, peripheral blood samples were obtained on days 0, 4, 7, and 14 of the study from six healthy male volunteers taking a 1000 mg RJ capsule orally per day for 14 consecutive days. On each sampling day, all collected whole blood samples were divided into control and irradiated groups which were then exposed to the selected dose of 4 Gy X-ray. Percentage of apoptotic cells (Ap %) was evaluated for all samples immediately after irradiation (Ap0) and also after a 24 h postirradiation incubation at 37°C in 5% CO2 (Ap24) by the use of neutral comet assay. Concerning Ap0, collected data demonstrated that the percentage of apoptotic cells in both control and irradiated groups did not significantly change during the study period. However, with respect to Ap24, the percentage of apoptotic cells in irradiated groups gradually reduced during the experiment, according to which a significant decrease was found after 14 days RJ consumption (P = 0.002). In conclusion, the present study revealed the protective role of 14 days RJ consumption against radiation-induced apoptosis in human peripheral blood leukocytes. PMID:27051171

  1. EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICALLY BASED DOSE-RESPONSE MODELING FOR DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY: A WORKSHOP REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of biologically based dose-response modeling for developmental toxicity: a workshop report.

    Lau C, Andersen ME, Crawford-Brown DJ, Kavlock RJ, Kimmel CA, Knudsen TB, Muneoka K, Rogers JM, Setzer RW, Smith G, Tyl R.

    Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL...

  2. The Assessment and Development of Potential of High School Pupils in the Third World Context of Kwa-Zulu/Natal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Harvey B.; Wallace, Belle

    1988-01-01

    Described is an approach to the teaching of thinking and problem-solving for gifted and regular education students, based on R.J. Sternberg's "Suggested Criteria for the Development of Thinking Skills Programmes." The program provides specific skills training and ample practice, emphasizes cooperative learning and motivation, and develops…

  3. 76 FR 50737 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Experimental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... ``Experimental Study: Disease Information in Branded Promotional Material.'' The proposed research will explore... experimental investigation,'' Journal of Consumer Research, 14(4), 483-494, 1988; Harris, R.J., ``Comprehension... Collection; Comment Request; Experimental Study: Disease Information in Branded Promotional Material...

  4. A Matter of Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierpont, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    In 2001, in partnership with the Waterloo, Iowa school system, the R.J. McElroy Trust, Janice Freeburg-Cannon, Tri-County Head Start, Allen Health System, the University of Northern Iowa and the Regents' Center for Early Developmental Education created a special model for early childhood education that would eventually become The Freeburg School.

  5. Alternatives and Consequences: Proceedings of the Home Economics-Community Resource Development Regional Conference on Public Policy (Windsor Locks, Connecticut, October. 23-25, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northeast Regional Center for Rural Development, Ithaca, NY.

    Issues clarification, skills and techniques, and methods and strategy in Extension public policy education were the themes of the conference. The first keynote speaker, R.J. Hildreth, justified public policy education by home economist and community resource development educators. The second keynote speaker, J.B. Wyckoff, described the function of…

  6. Teaching Perspectives and Usage of Journal Writing by Clinical Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alschuler, Mari L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between teaching perspectives (TPs), faculty usage and perceptions of reflective journaling (RJ), and demographic characteristics among clinical faculty in nursing, social work, and counseling. A combination of causal-comparative and correlational designs was utilized, with stratified…

  7. HIV among African American Gay and Bisexual Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... targeting “The Down Low” (“The DL”). Ann Epidemiol 2007;17(3):209-16. PubMed abstract . Wolitski RJ, Fenton KA. Sexual health, HIV, and sexually transmitted infections among gay, bisexual, ...

  8. Book review: old fields: dynamics and restoration of abandoned farmland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2007 volume, “Old Fields: Dynamics and Restoration of Abandoned Farmland”, edited by VA Cramer and RJ Hobbs and published by the Society for Ecological Restoration International (Island Press), is a valuable attempt to synthesize a dozen case studies on agricultural abandonment from all of the ...

  9. Birth Control Experience Among Pregnant Adolescents: The Process of Unplanned Parenthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furstenberg, Frank F.

    1971-01-01

    Questions the common assumption that premarital pregnancy is specially motivated. Contends that it is usually the unanticipated outcome of sexual activity. Results of research on sample of 337 unmarried black teenagers indicates that experience with birth control was strongly related to the way sex was viewed by their mothers. (RJ)

  10. Sky Observation with the Use of the Software Stellarium for Teaching Astronomy in Classes of Youth and Adult Education. (Spanish Title: Observación del Cielo con la Utilización del Software Stellarium en Las Clases de Educación de Jóvenes y Adultos.) Observação do Céu Aliada À Utilização do Software Stellarium no Ensino de Astronomia em Turmas de Educação de Jovens e Adultos (EJA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira Bernardes, Adriana

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a project developed through a partnership between the Astronomy Club of Itaocara Marcos Pontes (CAIMP) and Jaime de Souza Queiroz College, both located in the town of Itaocara, in the Northwest Fluminense, to disseminate Astronomy in adult education (Education for Youth and Adult). Given the interdisciplinary nature of Astronomy, we have developed this work to motivate the learning of this science by students in adult education, who attend the subjects Chemistry, Physics and Biology. Initially, we conducted a research in the school to assess the prior knowledge of Astronomy class of adult education, noting that there is little knowledge of basic concepts of the discipline. With these data, we were able to elaborate several activities that would enable a greater involvement of students with this science, performing in the school a work of improvement of scientific literacy, whose activities will be presented in this article. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar los resultados de un proyecto realizado por el Club de Astronomía de Itaocara "Marcos Pontes" (CAIMP), conjuntamente con el Colegio Estatal" Jaime de Souza Queiroz", ambos de la ciudad de Itaocara (Noroeste Fluminense - RJ, Brasil), para la difusión de la Astronomía entre los estudiantes, tanto adultos como adolescentes. Teniendo en cuenta la naturaleza interdisciplinaria de la Astronomía, se determinó motivar el estudio de esta ciencia en los estudiantes adultos de nivel secundario matriculados en las asignaturas de Química, Física y Biología. Como primer paso, se investigó el grado de conocimiento sobre astronomía del estudiante. Este estudio inicial mostró niveles de conocimiento muy bajos de los conceptos básicos de esta ciencia, muchos de los cuales deberían haber sido asimilados dentro del plan curricular del curso de Física. Este estudio previo permitió determinar las actividades adecuadas para promover un mayor envolvimiento de los estudiantes en las ciencias, o sea, elaborar y desarrollar un plan de alfabetización científica. Se describe en detalle este plan, las actividades realizadas y los resultados obtenidos hasta el presente. O objetivo do presente artigo é apresentar um projeto desenvolvido através de parceria entre o Clube de Astronomia de Itaocara Marcos Pontes (CAIMP) e o Colégio Estadual Jaime Queiroz de Souza, ambos localizados na cidade de Itaocara, no Noroeste Fluminense, no sentido de divulgar junto às turmas de EJA (Ensino de Jovens e Adultos) a disciplina Astronomia. Conhecendo o caráter interdisciplinar da Astronomia, desenvolvemos este trabalho para motivar o aprendizado de Ciências junto a alunos de EJA do Ensino Médio que cursam as disciplinas Química, Física e Biologia. Inicialmente, realizamos na escola pesquisa sobre o conhecimento prévio de Astronomia da turma de EJA, observando que é escasso o conhecimento de conceitos básicos do tema, muitos dos quais deveriam ser assimilados através do conteúdo da disciplina Física. Com esses dados, foi possível elaborar várias atividades que possibilitassem um maior envolvimento dos estudantes com a Ciência, realizando dentro da escola um trabalho de alfabetização científica, cujas atividades serão apresentadas neste artigo.

  11. Soil carbon stocks in response to management changes due to vinasse application in sugarcane production in southeast of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes Zani, Caio; Simoes Barneze, Arlete; Clemente Cerri, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Brazilian commodities, such as ethanol, are looking for sustainable production to suit the international market demands. Thus, studies about variations in soil carbon (C) stocks on the ethanol production are essential. Researches in relation of land use change are already been developed; however information about management changes on the sugarcane production is needed. According to Six et al. (2004) changing the management to conservationist practices can provide an organic matter accumulation to the soil and in a long-term, can increase the soil C stocks. The vinasse is a waste product of the sugarcane industry fuel which contains potassium and considerable quantities of other mineral nutrients. It is estimated that for each litre of ethanol produced is generated approximately 13 L of vinasse. Nowadays, almost all vinasse is applied to the soil as fertigation (Soares et al., 2009). The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in soil C stocks after the management change with or without vinasse application into sugarcane production in southeast Brazil. The soil sampling was carried out in a fuel industry located in São Paulo state, on July 2013. This area was always used a conventional management at least 34 years with application of mineral fertilizer. However, in the mid of 1990, one part of this area started to use vinasse as source of potassium in sugarcane production. In view of this, we conducted the experiment in these two areas of conventional management: i) without vinasse and ii) with vinasse application. Soil samples were collected in the nine trenches in each site: three trenches at 1 m soil depth and six mini-trenches up to 0.3 m. Samples were used to calculate the bulk density using the undisturbed method with a steel cylinder. Total C was measured by dry combustion on Carbon Analyzer - LECO® CN 2000®. The results showed that C content was a decrease with an increase soil depth. Soil C stocks for areas without vinasse application and vinasse application at 1 m depth were 117.23 Mg ha-1 and 126.92 Mg ha-1, and at 0.3 m depth we found 50.34 Mg ha-1 and 55.54 Mg ha-1, respectively. It represented an increase 8.3% and 10.3% in soil C stocks in areas with vinasse application at 1 m and 0.3 m soil depth. This information may be used as a basis for public policies decision which dealing of the land use and global warming. The scientific information obtained in this research will be included in carbon footprint calculation of ethanol production and its use as biofuel. References Ellert B.H., Bettany J.R. 1995. Calculation of organic matter and nutrients stored in soils under contrasting management regimes. Can. J. Soil Sci. 75:529-538. Six J., Ogle S.M., Breidt F.J., Conant R.T., Mosier A.R., Paustian K. 2004. The potential to mitigate global warming with no-tillage management is only realized when practiced in the long term. Glob. Chang. Biol. 10:155-160. Soares L.H.B., Alves B.J.R., Urquiaga S., Boddey R.M. 2009. Mitigação das emissões de gases efeito estufa pelo uso de etanol da cana-de-açúcar produzido no Brasil. Embrapa Agrobiologia, Seropédica, RJ. 14p. (Circular Técnica, 27).

  12. Reversion of a transcriptionally defective MHC class II-negative human B-cell mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Ombra, M N; Perfetto, C; Autiero, M; Anzisi, A M; Pasquinelli, R; Maffei, A; Del Pozzo, G; Guardiola, J

    1993-01-01

    RJ2.2.5, a mutant derived from the human B-lymphoma cell, Raji, is unable to express the MHC class II genes because of a recessive transcriptional defect attributed to the lack of an activator function. We report the isolation of a RJ2.2.5 revertant, namely AR, in which the expression of the mRNAs encoded by these genes is restored. Comparison of the binding of nuclear extracts or of partially purified nuclear preparations from the wild-type, the mutant and the revertant cells to a conserved MHC class II promoter element, the X-box, showed no alteration in the mobility of the complexes thus formed. However, in extracts from RJ2.2.5, and other MHC class II negative cell lines, such as HeLa, the amount of complex observed was significantly higher than in wild-type Raji cells. Furthermore, the binding activity exhibited by the AR revertant was lower than that of the RJ2.2.5 and higher than that of Raji. The use of specific monoclonal antibodies indicated that in all cases c-Jun and c-Fos or antigenically related proteins were required for binding. An inverse correlation between the level of DNA-protein complex formed and the level of MHC class II gene mRNA expressed in the three cell lines was apparent, suggesting that overexpression of a DNA binding factor forming complexes with class II promoter elements may cause repression of MHC class II transcription. A model which reconciles the previously ascertained recessivity of the phenotype of the mutation carried by RJ2.2.5 with the findings reported here is discussed. Images PMID:8441650

  13. Annealed Importance Sampling Reversible Jump MCMC algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Karagiannis, Georgios; Andrieu, Christophe

    2013-03-20

    It will soon be 20 years since reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (RJ-MCMC) algorithms have been proposed. They have significantly extended the scope of Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation methods, offering the promise to be able to routinely tackle transdimensional sampling problems, as encountered in Bayesian model selection problems for example, in a principled and flexible fashion. Their practical efficient implementation, however, still remains a challenge. A particular difficulty encountered in practice is in the choice of the dimension matching variables (both their nature and their distribution) and the reversible transformations which allow one to define the one-to-one mappings underpinning the design of these algorithms. Indeed, even seemingly sensible choices can lead to algorithms with very poor performance. The focus of this paper is the development and performance evaluation of a method, annealed importance sampling RJ-MCMC (aisRJ), which addresses this problem by mitigating the sensitivity of RJ-MCMC algorithms to the aforementioned poor design. As we shall see the algorithm can be understood as being an “exact approximation” of an idealized MCMC algorithm that would sample from the model probabilities directly in a model selection set-up. Such an idealized algorithm may have good theoretical convergence properties, but typically cannot be implemented, and our algorithms can approximate the performance of such idealized algorithms to an arbitrary degree while not introducing any bias for any degree of approximation. Our approach combines the dimension matching ideas of RJ-MCMC with annealed importance sampling and its Markov chain Monte Carlo implementation. We illustrate the performance of the algorithm with numerical simulations which indicate that, although the approach may at first appear computationally involved, it is in fact competitive.

  14. Comparative protective effects of royal jelly and cod liver oil against neurotoxic impact of tartrazine on male rat pups brain.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Amany Abdel-Rahman; Galal, Azza A A; Elewa, Yaser H A

    2015-09-01

    This study is aimed to evaluate the possible neurotoxic effect of tartrazine (T), an extensively used synthetic azo dye, as well as to determine the potential modulatory role of cod liver oil (CLO) or royal jelly (RJ) against such effects. For this purpose, thirty-six male rat pups were allocated into six groups. The 1st group received distilled water (control group), the 2nd group was given 300 mg RJ/kg bw (RJ group), the 3rd group was given 0.4 ml CLO/kg bw (CLO group), the 4th was given 500 mg T/kg bw (T group). The 5th group was given T concurrently with RJ (TRJ group) and the 6th group was given T concurrently with CLO (TCLO group), at the same doses as the former groups. All treatments were given orally for 30 consecutive days. The concentrations of different brain neurotransmitters, gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) as well as the antioxidant and oxidative stress biomarkers were measured in the brain homogenates. An immunohistochemical staining of the cerebral cortex was applied with the anti-ssDNA antibody (an apoptotic cell marker) to reveal the changes in brain structure. The T group revealed a significant decrease in the concentration of the brain neurotransmitters, a sharp shortage in the level of antioxidant biomarkers (super oxide dismutase, catalase and the reduced glutathione), a marked increase in malondialdehyde levels, and numerous apoptotic cells in the brain cortex compared with the other groups. Interestingly, all the previously mentioned parameters were almost retrieved in both the TRJ and TCLO groups compared to the T group. These results conclusively demonstrate that RJ and CLO administration provides sufficient protection against the ruinous effects of T on rat pups brain tissue function and structure. PMID:26190785

  15. Rejection Thresholds in Chocolate Milk: Evidence for Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Harwood, Meriel L; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2012-10-01

    Bitterness is generally considered a negative attribute in food, yet many individuals enjoy some bitterness in products like coffee or chocolate. In chocolate, bitterness arises from naturally occurring alkaloids and phenolics found in cacao. Fermentation and roasting help develop typical chocolate flavor and reduce the intense bitterness of raw cacao by modifying these bitter compounds. As it becomes increasingly common to fortify chocolate with `raw' cacao to increase the amount of healthful phytonutrients, it is important to identify the point at which the concentration of bitter compounds becomes objectionable, even to those who enjoy some bitterness. Classical threshold methods focus on the presence or absence of a sensation rather than acceptability or hedonics. A new alternative, the rejection threshold, was recently described in the literature. Here, we sought to quantify and compare differences in Rejection Thresholds (RjT) and Detection Thresholds (DT) in chocolate milk spiked with a food safe bitterant (sucrose octaacetate). In experiment 1, a series of paired preference tests was used to estimate the RjT for bitterness in chocolate milk. In a new group of participants (experiment 2), we determined the RjT and DT using the forced choice ascending method of limits. In both studies, participants were segmented on the basis of self-declared preference for milk or dark solid chocolate. Based on sigmoid fits of the indifference-preference function, the RjT was ~2.3 times higher for those preferring dark chocolate than the RjT for those preferring milk chocolate in both experiments. In contrast, the DT for both groups was functionally identical, suggesting that differential effects of bitterness on liking of chocolate products are not based on the ability to detect bitterness in these products. PMID:22754143

  16. Jupiter revisited: first results from the university of chicago charged particle experiment on pioneer 11.

    PubMed

    Simpson, J A; Hamilton, D C; Lentz, G A; McKibben, R B; Perkins, M; Pyle, K R; Tuzzolino, A J; O'gallagher, J J

    1975-05-01

    During the December 1974 Pioneer 11 Jupiter encounter our experiment provided measurements of Jovian energetic protons and electrons both in the magnetic equatorial zone and at previously unexplored high magnetic latitudes. Many of the observations and conclusions from the Pioneer 10 encounter in 1973 were confirmed, with several important exceptions and new findings. We report evidence from Pioneer 11 for protons ( approximately 1 million electron volts) of Jovian origin in interplanetary space. In the outer magnetosphere particle intensities at high magnetic latitudes were comparable to those observed in the equatorial zone, and 10-hour variations in particle intensities and spectra were observed at both high and low magnetic latitudes. Therefore, confinement of particles in the outer magnetosphere to a thin equatorial magnetodisc is adequate neither as a description of the particle distribution nor as a complete explanation of the 10-hour variations. Pioneer 11 data support a model in which the intensity varies with a 10-hour period in phase throughout the sunward side of the magnetosphere and is relatively independent of position within the magnetosphere. Transient, highly anisotropic bursts of protons with energies of approximately 1 million electron volts observed near the orbit of Ganymede suggest local acceleration in some regions of the magnetosphere. In the inner core where particles are stably trapped, a maximum in the high-energy nucleonic flux was again found, corresponding to the Pioneer 10 maximum at approximately 3.4 Jupiter radii (R(J)), which is apparently a persistent feature of, the inner radiation zone. In addition, Pioneer 11 data indicate two more local maxima in the nucleonic flux inside 3.4 R(J), one of which may be associated with absorption by Amalthea, and a maximum intensity at 1.9 R(J) more than 20 times that at 3.4 R(J), The flux of relativistic electrons reached a maximum on the magnetic equator at 1.8 R(J), only slightly less its closest approach at 3.1 R(J). PMID:17734360

  17. Trophic Relationships and Habitat Preferences of Delphinids from the Southeastern Brazilian Coast Determined by Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Composition

    PubMed Central

    Bisi, Tatiana Lemos; Dorneles, Paulo Renato; Lailson-Brito, José; Lepoint, Gilles; Azevedo, Alexandre de Freitas; Flach, Leonardo; Malm, Olaf; Das, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the foraging habitats of delphinids in southeastern Brazil, we analyzed stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes in muscle samples of the following 10 delphinid species: Sotalia guianensis, Stenella frontalis, Tursiops truncatus, Steno bredanensis, Pseudorca crassidens, Delphinus sp., Lagenodelphis hosei, Stenella attenuata, Stenella longirostris and Grampus griseus. We also compared the δ13C and δ15N values among four populations of S. guianensis. Variation in carbon isotope results from coast to ocean indicated that there was a significant decrease in δ13C values from estuarine dolphins to oceanic species. S. guianensis from Guanabara Bay had the highest mean δ13C value, while oceanic species showed significantly lower δ13C values. The highest δ15N values were observed for P. crassidens and T. truncatus, suggesting that these species occupy the highest trophic position among the delphinids studied here. The oceanic species S. attenuata, G. griseus and L. hosei had the lowest δ15N values. Stable isotope analysis showed that the three populations of S. guianensis in coastal bays had different δ13C values, but similar δ15N results. Guiana dolphins from Sepetiba and Ilha Grande bays had different foraging habitat, with specimens from Ilha Grande showing more negative δ13C values. This study provides further information on the feeding ecology of delphinids occurring in southeastern Brazil, with evidence of distinctive foraging habitats and the occupation of different ecological niches by these species in the study area. PMID:24358155

  18. Severity of tegumentary leishmaniasis is not exclusively associated with Leishmania RNA virus 1 infection in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Luiza de Oliveira Ramos; Maretti-Mira, Ana Cláudia; Rodrigues, Káris Maria; Lima, Rosimar Baptista; de Oliveira-Neto, Manoel Paes; Cupolillo, Elisa; Pirmez, Claude; de Oliveira, Márcia Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Leishmania RNA virus (LRV) has been shown to be a symbiotic component of Leishmania parasites in South America. Nested retro-transcription polymerase chain reaction was employed to investigate LRV1 presence in leishmaniasis lesions from Brazil. In endemic areas of Rio de Janeiro (RJ), no LRV1 infection was observed even with mucosal involvement. LRV1 was only detected in Leishmania (V.) guyanensis cutaneous lesions from the northern region, which were obtained from patients presenting with disease reactivation after clinical cure of their primary lesions. Our results indicated that the severity of leishmaniasis in some areas of RJ, where Leishmania (V.) brazi-liensis is the primary etiological agent, was not associated with Leishmania LRV1 infection. PMID:23903986

  19. Experimental Transmission Spectra of Hot Ammonia in the Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, Christopher A.; Hargreaves, Robert J.; Dulick, Michael; Bernath, Peter F.

    2015-06-01

    High resolution absorption spectra of hot ammonia have been recorded in the 2400--5500 cm-1 region and the line lists are presented. This extends our previous work on ammonia in the 740--4000 cm-1 region and utilizes our improved cell design that has been successfully applied to methane in a similar spectral region. Transmission spectra were acquired for seven temperatures up to 700°C using a Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform spectrometer and empirical lower state energies are obtained from the temperature dependence of intensities. Applications of our spectra and line lists include modeling of brown dwarfs and (exo)planetary atmospheres. R.J. Hargreaves, G. Li and P.F. Bernath. 2011, ApJ, 735, 111 R.J. Hargreaves, G. Li and P.F. Bernath. 2011, JQSRT, 113, 670

  20. The Creation of Industry Front Groups: The Tobacco Industry and “Get Government Off Our Back”

    PubMed Central

    Apollonio, Dorie E.; Bero, Lisa A.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated how industries use front groups to combat public health measures by analyzing tobacco industry documents, contemporaneous media reports, journal articles, and press releases regarding “Get Government Off Our Back,” a coalition created by the tobacco industry. RJ Reynolds created Get Government Off Our Back in 1994 to fight federal regulation of tobacco. By keeping its involvement secret, RJ Reynolds was able to draw public and legislative support and to avoid the tobacco industry reputation for misrepresenting evidence. The tobacco industry is not unique in its creation of such groups. Research on organizational background and funding could identify other industry front groups. Those who seek to establish measures to protect public health should be prepared to counter the argument that government should not regulate private behavior. PMID:17267719

  1. Observation of Diffractive J/ψ Production at the Fermilab Tevatron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affolder, T.; Akimoto, H.; Akopian, A.; Albrow, M. G.; Amaral, P.; Amidei, D.; Anikeev, K.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asakawa, T.; Ashmanskas, W.; Azfar, F.; Azzi-Bacchetta, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bachacou, H.; Bailey, S.; de Barbaro, P.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Baroiant, S.; Barone, M.; Bauer, G.; Bedeschi, F.; Belforte, S.; Bell, W. H.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Bensinger, J.; Beretvas, A.; Berge, J. P.; Berryhill, J.; Bhatti, A.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Bishai, M.; Blair, R. E.; Blocker, C.; Bloom, K.; Blumenfeld, B.; Blusk, S. R.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bokhari, W.; Bolla, G.; Bonushkin, Y.; Borras, K.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Brandl, A.; van den Brink, S.; Bromberg, C.; Brozovic, M.; Brubaker, E.; Bruner, N.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Byon-Wagner, A.; Byrum, K. L.; Cabrera, S.; Calafiura, P.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Carlson, J.; Carlsmith, D.; Caskey, W.; Castro, A.; Cauz, D.; Cerri, A.; Chan, A. W.; Chang, P. S.; Chang, P. T.; Chapman, J.; Chen, C.; Chen, Y. C.; Cheng, M.-T.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chirikov-Zorin, I.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Christofek, L.; Chu, M. L.; Chung, Y. S.; Ciobanu, C. I.; Clark, A. G.; Connolly, A.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Cordelli, M.; Cranshaw, J.; Cropp, R.; Culbertson, R.; Dagenhart, D.; D'Auria, S.; Dejongh, F.; dell'Agnello, S.; dell'Orso, M.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; Derwent, P. F.; Devlin, T.; Dittmann, J. R.; Dominguez, A.; Donati, S.; Done, J.; D'Onofrio, M.; Dorigo, T.; Eddy, N.; Einsweiler, K.; Elias, J. E.; Engels, E.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Fan, Q.; Feild, R. G.; Fernandez, J. P.; Ferretti, C.; Field, R. D.; Fiori, I.; Flaugher, B.; Foster, G. W.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J.; Friedman, J.; Fukui, Y.; Furic, I.; Galeotti, S.; Gallas, A.; Gallinaro, M.; Gao, T.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Gatti, P.; Gay, C.; Gerdes, D. W.; Giannetti, P.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldstein, J.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Gotra, Y.; Goulianos, K.; Green, C.; Grim, G.; Gris, P.; Groer, L.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Guenther, M.; Guillian, G.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Haas, R. M.; Haber, C.; Hahn, S. R.; Hall, C.; Handa, T.; Handler, R.; Hao, W.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hardman, A. D.; Harris, R. M.; Hartmann, F.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hauser, J.; Heinrich, J.; Heiss, A.; Herndon, M.; Hill, C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Holck, C.; Hollebeek, R.; Holloway, L.; Hughes, R.; Huston, J.; Huth, J.; Ikeda, H.; Incandela, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iwai, J.; Iwata, Y.; James, E.; Jones, M.; Joshi, U.; Kambara, H.; Kamon, T.; Kaneko, T.; Karr, K.; Kasha, H.; Kato, Y.; Keaffaber, T. A.; Kelley, K.; Kelly, M.; Kennedy, R. D.; Kephart, R.; Khazins, D.; Kikuchi, T.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, B. J.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kirby, M.; Kirk, M.; Kirsch, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehn, P.; Kondo, K.; Konigsberg, J.; Korn, A.; Korytov, A.; Kovacs, E.; Kroll, J.; Kruse, M.; Kuhlmann, S. E.; Kurino, K.; Kuwabara, T.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lai, N.; Lami, S.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, J.; Lancaster, M.; Lander, R.; Lath, A.; Latino, G.; Lecompte, T.; Lee, A. M.; Lee, K.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Lindgren, M.; Liss, T. M.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, Y. C.; Litvintsev, D. O.; Lobban, O.; Lockyer, N.; Loken, J.; Loreti, M.; Lucchesi, D.; Lukens, P.; Lusin, S.; Lyons, L.; Lys, J.; Madrak, R.; Maeshima, K.; Maksimovic, P.; Malferrari, L.; Mangano, M.; Mariotti, M.; Martignon, G.; Martin, A.; Matthews, J. A.; Mayer, J.; Mazzanti, P.; McFarland, K. S.; McIntyre, P.; McKigney, E.; Menguzzato, M.; Menzione, A.; Mesropian, C.; Meyer, A.; Miao, T.; Miller, R.; Miller, J. S.; Minato, H.; Miscetti, S.; Mishina, M.; Mitselmakher, G.; Moggi, N.; Moore, E.; Moore, R.; Morita, Y.; Moulik, T.; Mulhearn, M.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, T.; Munar, A.; Murat, P.; Murgia, S.; Nachtman, J.; Nagaslaev, V.; Nahn, S.; Nakada, H.; Nakano, I.; Nelson, C.; Nelson, T.; Neu, C.; Neuberger, D.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Ngan, C.-Y. P.; Niu, H.; Nodulman, L.; Nomerotski, A.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Ohmoto, T.; Ohsugi, T.; Oishi, R.; Okusawa, T.; Olsen, J.; Orejudos, W.; Pagliarone, C.; Palmonari, F.; Paoletti, R.; Papadimitriou, V.; Partos, D.; Patrick, J.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Pellett, D.; Pescara, L.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pitts, K. T.; Pompos, A.; Pondrom, L.; Pope, G.; Popovic, M.; Prokoshin, F.; Proudfoot, J.; Ptohos, F.; Pukhov, O.; Punzi, G.; Rakitine, A.; Ratnikov, F.; Reher, D.; Reichold, A.; Ribon, A.; Riegler, W.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Riveline, M.; Robertson, W. J.; Robinson, A.; Rodrigo, T.; Rolli, S.; Rosenson, L.; Roser, R.; Rossin, R.; Roy, A.; Ruiz, A.; Safonov, A.; Denis, R. St.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Saltzberg, D.; Sanchez, C.; Sansoni, A.; Santi, L.; Sato, H.; Savard, P.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schmidt, M. P.; Schmitt, M.; Scodellaro, L.; Scott, A.; Scribano, A.; Segler, S.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Semeria, F.; Shah, T.; Shapiro, M. D.; Shepard, P. F.; Shibayama, T.; Shimojima, M.; Shochet, M.; Sidoti, A.; Siegrist, J.; Sill, A.; Sinervo, P.; Singh, P.; Slaughter, A. J.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, C.; Snider, F. D.; Solodsky, A.; Spalding, J.; Speer, T.; Sphicas, P.; Spinella, F.; Spiropulu, M.; Spiegel, L.; Steele, J.; Stefanini, A.; Strologas, J.; Strumia, F.; Stuart, D.; Sumorok, K.; Suzuki, T.; Takano, T.; Takashima, R.; Takikawa, K.; Tamburello, P.; Tanaka, M.; Tannenbaum, B.; Tecchio, M.; Tesarek, R.; Teng, P. K.; Terashi, K.; Tether, S.; Thompson, A. S.; Thurman-Keup, R.; Tipton, P.; Tkaczyk, S.; Toback, D.; Tollefson, K.; Tollestrup, A.; Tonelli, D.; Toyoda, H.; Trischuk, W.; de Troconiz, J. F.; Tseng, J.; Turini, N.; Ukegawa, F.; Vaiciulis, T.; Valls, J.; Vejcik, S.; Velev, G.; Veramendi, G.; Vidal, R.; Vila, I.; Vilar, R.; Volobouev, I.; von der Mey, M.; Vucinic, D.; Wagner, R. G.; Wagner, R. L.; Wallace, N. B.; Wan, Z.; Wang, C.; Wang, M. J.; Ward, B.; Waschke, S.; Watanabe, T.; Waters, D.; Watts, T.; Webb, R.; Wenzel, H.; Wester, W. C.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wicklund, E.; Wilkes, T.; Williams, H. H.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Winn, D.; Wolbers, S.; Wolinski, D.; Wolinski, J.; Wolinski, S.; Worm, S.; Wu, X.; Wyss, J.; Yao, W.; Yeh, G. P.; Yeh, P.; Yoh, J.; Yosef, C.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, I.; Yu, S.; Yu, Z.; Zanetti, A.; Zetti, F.; Zucchelli, S.

    2001-12-01

    We report the first observation of diffractive J/ψ(-->μ+μ-) production in pbarp collisions at (s) = 1.8 TeV. Diffractive events are identified by their rapidity gap signature. In a sample of events with two muons of transverse momentum pμT>2 GeV/c within the pseudorapidity region \\|η\\|<1.0, the ratio of diffractive to total J/ψ production rates is found to be RJ/ψ = [1.45+/-0.25]%. The ratio RJ/ψ(x) is presented as a function of x-Bjorken. By combining it with our previously measured corresponding ratio Rjj(x) for diffractive dijet production, we extract a value of 0.59+/-0.15 for the gluon fraction of the diffractive structure function of the proton.

  2. Tuning properties and dynamic range of type 1 vomeronasal receptors

    PubMed Central

    Haga-Yamanaka, Sachiko; Ma, Limei; Yu, C. Ron

    2015-01-01

    The mouse vomeronasal organ (VNO) expresses chemosensory receptors that detect intra-species as well as inter-species cues. The vomeronasal neurons are thought to be highly selective in their responses. The tuning properties of individual receptors remain difficult to characterize due to the lack of a robust heterologous expression system. Here, we take a transgenic approach to ectopically express two type 1 vomeronasal receptors in the mouse VNO and characterize their responses to steroid compounds. We find that V1rj2 and V1rj3 are sensitive to two sulfated estrogens (SEs) and can be activated by a broad variety of sulfated and glucuronidated steroids at high concentrations. Individual neurons exhibit narrow range of concentration-dependent activation. Collectively, a neuronal population expressing the same receptor covers a wide dynamic range in their responses to SEs. These properties recapitulate the response profiles of endogenous neurons to SEs. PMID:26236183

  3. Quantum state transfer and controlled-phase gate on one-dimensional superconducting resonators assisted by a quantum bus.

    PubMed

    Hua, Ming; Tao, Ming-Jie; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2016-01-01

    We propose a quantum processor for the scalable quantum computation on microwave photons in distant one-dimensional superconducting resonators. It is composed of a common resonator R acting as a quantum bus and some distant resonators rj coupled to the bus in different positions assisted by superconducting quantum interferometer devices (SQUID), different from previous processors. R is coupled to one transmon qutrit, and the coupling strengths between rj and R can be fully tuned by the external flux through the SQUID. To show the processor can be used to achieve universal quantum computation effectively, we present a scheme to complete the high-fidelity quantum state transfer between two distant microwave-photon resonators and another one for the high-fidelity controlled-phase gate on them. By using the technique for catching and releasing the microwave photons from resonators, our processor may play an important role in quantum communication as well. PMID:26907366

  4. Quantum state transfer and controlled-phase gate on one-dimensional superconducting resonators assisted by a quantum bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Ming; Tao, Ming-Jie; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2016-02-01

    We propose a quantum processor for the scalable quantum computation on microwave photons in distant one-dimensional superconducting resonators. It is composed of a common resonator R acting as a quantum bus and some distant resonators rj coupled to the bus in different positions assisted by superconducting quantum interferometer devices (SQUID), different from previous processors. R is coupled to one transmon qutrit, and the coupling strengths between rj and R can be fully tuned by the external flux through the SQUID. To show the processor can be used to achieve universal quantum computation effectively, we present a scheme to complete the high-fidelity quantum state transfer between two distant microwave-photon resonators and another one for the high-fidelity controlled-phase gate on them. By using the technique for catching and releasing the microwave photons from resonators, our processor may play an important role in quantum communication as well.

  5. Factorization of Operators Evolved with the Similarity Renormalization Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, E. R.; Bogner, S. K.; Furnstahl, R. J.; Perry, R. J.

    2010-02-01

    The Similarity Renormalization Group (SRG) flow equations are a series of unitary transformations which can be used to to achieve different patterns of decoupling in a Hamiltonian. An SRG transformation applied to internucleon interactions leads to greatly improved convergence properties.footnotetextS.K. Bogner, R.J. Furnstahl, and R.J. Perry, Phys. Rev. C 75 (2007) 061001. A principal advantage of SRG transformations is that all operators can be consistently transformed, so that all observables are invariant. Calculations of the two-body momentum-distribution reveal an apparent factorization of the unitary transformation, (U(k,q) K(k)Q(q)) for (kλ) and (qλ). The emergence of a nonrelativistic operator product expansion and factorization will be discussed. )

  6. Operator Evolution Using SRG Flow Equations for Few-Body Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, E. R.; Bogner, S. K.; Furnstahl, R. J.; Jurgenson, E. D.; Perry, R. J.

    2009-10-01

    The Similarity Renormalization Group (SRG) flow equations are a series of unitary transformations which can be used to to achieve different patterns of decoupling in a Hamiltonian. An SRG transformation applied to internucleon interactions leads to greatly improved convergence properties while preserving observables. Not only does it provide a way to consistently evolve many-body potentials, but also other operators.footnotetextS.K. Bogner, R.J. Furnstahl, and R.J. Perry, Phys. Rev. C 75 (2007) 061001. Here, a method to implement SRG evolved few-body operators is applied to both model and realistic calculations. Properties of the corresponding observables are explored for both long- and short- range operators. Methods to improve their convergence in a truncated model space are also considered.

  7. Tuning properties and dynamic range of type 1 vomeronasal receptors.

    PubMed

    Haga-Yamanaka, Sachiko; Ma, Limei; Yu, C Ron

    2015-01-01

    The mouse vomeronasal organ (VNO) expresses chemosensory receptors that detect intra-species as well as inter-species cues. The vomeronasal neurons are thought to be highly selective in their responses. The tuning properties of individual receptors remain difficult to characterize due to the lack of a robust heterologous expression system. Here, we take a transgenic approach to ectopically express two type 1 vomeronasal receptors in the mouse VNO and characterize their responses to steroid compounds. We find that V1rj2 and V1rj3 are sensitive to two sulfated estrogens (SEs) and can be activated by a broad variety of sulfated and glucuronidated steroids at high concentrations. Individual neurons exhibit narrow range of concentration-dependent activation. Collectively, a neuronal population expressing the same receptor covers a wide dynamic range in their responses to SEs. These properties recapitulate the response profiles of endogenous neurons to SEs. PMID:26236183

  8. Quantum state transfer and controlled-phase gate on one-dimensional superconducting resonators assisted by a quantum bus

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Ming; Tao, Ming-Jie; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2016-01-01

    We propose a quantum processor for the scalable quantum computation on microwave photons in distant one-dimensional superconducting resonators. It is composed of a common resonator R acting as a quantum bus and some distant resonators rj coupled to the bus in different positions assisted by superconducting quantum interferometer devices (SQUID), different from previous processors. R is coupled to one transmon qutrit, and the coupling strengths between rj and R can be fully tuned by the external flux through the SQUID. To show the processor can be used to achieve universal quantum computation effectively, we present a scheme to complete the high-fidelity quantum state transfer between two distant microwave-photon resonators and another one for the high-fidelity controlled-phase gate on them. By using the technique for catching and releasing the microwave photons from resonators, our processor may play an important role in quantum communication as well. PMID:26907366

  9. Oral Administration of Royal Jelly Restores Tear Secretion Capacity in Rat Blink-Suppressed Dry Eye Model by Modulating Lacrimal Gland Function

    PubMed Central

    Imada, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Shigeru; Kitamura, Naoki; Shibuya, Izumi; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Tears are secreted from the lacrimal gland (LG), a dysfunction in which induces dry eye, resulting in ocular discomfort and visual impairment. Honey bee products are used as a nutritional source in daily life and medicine; however, little is known about their effects on dry eye. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of honey bee products on tear secretion capacity in dry eye. We selected raw honey, propolis, royal jelly (RJ), pollen, or larva from commercially available honey bee products. Tear secretion capacity was evaluated following the oral administration of each honey bee product in a rat blink-suppressed dry eye model. Changes in tear secretion, LG ATP content, and LG mitochondrial levels were measured. RJ restored the tear secretion capacity and decrease in LG ATP content and mitochondrial levels to the largest extent. Royal jelly can be used as a preventative intervention for dry eye by managing tear secretion capacity in the LG. PMID:25243778

  10. An ear-worn continuous ballistocardiogram (BCG) sensor for cardiovascular monitoring.

    PubMed

    He, David Da; Winokur, Eric S; Sodini, Charles G

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, ballistocardiogram (BCG) has been measured using large and stationary devices. In this work, we demonstrate a portable and continuous BCG monitor that is wearable at the ear. The device has the form factor of a hearing aid and is wirelessly connected to a PC for data recording and analysis. With the ear as an anchoring point, the device uses a MEMS tri-axial accelerometer to measure BCG at the head. Morphological differences exist between head BCG and traditional BCG, but the principal peaks (J waves) and their vectors are preserved. The frequency of J waves corresponds to heart rate, and when used in conjunction with an electrocardiogram's (ECG) R wave, the timing of J waves yields the RJ interval. Results from our clinical study show linear correlation between the RJ interval and the heart's pre-ejection period during hemodynamic maneuvers, thus revealing important information about cardiac contractility and its regulation. PMID:23367058

  11. An Ear-worn Continuous Ballistocardiogram (BCG) Sensor for Cardiovascular Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    He, David Da; Winokur, Eric S.; Sodini, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, ballistocardiogram (BCG) has been measured using large and stationary devices. In this work, we demonstrate a portable and continuous BCG monitor that is wearable at the ear. The device has the form factor of a hearing aid and is wirelessly connected to a PC for data recording and analysis. With the ear as an anchoring point, the device uses a MEMS tri-axial accelerometer to measure BCG at the head. Morphological differences exist between head BCG and traditional BCG, but the principal peaks (J waves) and their vectors are preserved. The frequency of J waves corresponds to heart rate, and when used in conjunction with an electrocardiogram's (ECG) R wave, the timing of J waves yields the RJ interval. Results from our clinical study show linear correlation between the RJ interval and the heart's pre-ejection period during hemodynamic maneuvers, thus revealing important information about cardiac contractility and its regulation. PMID:23367058

  12. Non-invasive estimation of cardiovascular parameters using ballistocardiography.

    PubMed

    van Rooij, B J M; Tavakolian, K; Arzanpour, S; Blaber, A P; Leguy, C A D

    2015-08-01

    Ballistocardiography is a non-invasive technique to estimate heart function and relative changes in cardiac output. The goal of this study was to establish the relationship between ballistocardiogram (BCG) parameters and changes in cardiovascular parameters. A group of 20 subjects performed three different exercises on a force plate. In this study, we have characterized the significant differences induced by static and dynamic squats, and controlled respiration exercises on BCG parameters such as IJ-amplitude and RJ-time. The dynamic squat exercise induced the largest changes in IJ-amplitude (107-123% higher) and the RJ-time (21-23% lower). Furthermore, the IJ-amplitude of the BCG signal was found to be positively related to the cardiac output. PMID:26736493

  13. Characterizing the Energetic Heavy Ion Environment Inside 4 Jovian Radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, C. M.; Stone, E. C.

    2004-05-01

    On 21 September 2003 Galileo impacted Jupiter to end its 8-year tour of the Jovian magentosphere. During this last phase data was collected in the very inner part of the magnetosphere at distances < 4 Rj. The region from 2 to 4 Rj was previously explored by Galileo during its 34th orbit around Jupiter. We present the combined data from these two passes obtained by the Heavy Ion Counter (HIC) for heavy ions at energies above 2 MeV/nucleon. In particular we discuss the significant ion absorption near the moons Thebe and Amalthea, the anisotropic pitch angle distribution and the dramatic increase in heavy ion intensity with decreasing radius seen in this region

  14. Campus Sexual Misconduct: Restorative Justice Approaches to Enhance Compliance With Title IX Guidance.

    PubMed

    Koss, Mary P; Wilgus, Jay K; Williamsen, Kaaren M

    2014-04-27

    Campus response to sexual violence is increasingly governed by federal law and administrative guidance such as the 1972 Title IX, the 2011 Dear Colleague Letter (DCL), and the 2013 Violence Against Women Act. Educational institutions are directed to expand disciplinary responses and establish coordinated action to eliminate sexual violence and remedy its effects. Compliance fosters a quasi-criminal justice approach not suited to all sexual misconduct and inconsistent with developing practice in student conduct management. This article envisions restorative justice (RJ) enhancements to traditional student conduct processes that maintain compliance, expand options, empower victim choice, and increase responsiveness to DCL aims. The article (1) defines sexual violence and sexual harassment within the DCL scope, (2) elaborates the DCL position on permissible alternative resolutions and differentiates mediation from RJ, (3) sequences action steps from case report to finalization, including both restorative and traditional justice pathways; and (4) discusses building support for innovation beginning with existing campus response. PMID:24776460

  15. [Lonomia erucism in Teresópolis, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil: report of a probable case and review].

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Maria Sueli; Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Gomes, Andréia Patrícia; Franco-Barbosa, Adbell; Verzola, Ana Candida Arruda; Oliveira, Fabiana Ribeiro Queiroz de; Squeff, Fabiano Alves; Motta-Leal-Filho, Joaquim Maurício da; Tavares, Renato Henriques; Amorim, Daniela Silva de; De-Maria-Moreira, Nelson Luís; Santos, Sávio Silva

    2004-01-01

    This is a case report of a 44-year-old male living in Teresópolis, RJ, Brazil, probably poisoned by contact with a Lonomia caterpillar, who presented hemolytic anemia, decreased platelet count and acute renal insufficiency. Lonomia erucism diagnosis was established by anamnesis and clinical and laboratory manifestations. Therapeutic measures consisting of hemotransfusion and hemodialysis were successful. Physiopathologic and clinical features of erucism by Lonomia are discussed. PMID:15361962

  16. The Graduate Record Examination as an indicator of learning of the curriculum taught to physics majors in US institutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halley, J. W.; Adjoudani, Azin; Heller, Patricia; Terwilliger, James S.

    1991-05-01

    A study is described to evaluate the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) as an indicator of learning by undergraduate physics majors. Measures were obtained of the overlap of the Graduate Record Examination in physics with the curriculum as it is taught to physics majors in US colleges and universities. The output of the project, for a given subfield f and set j of institutions, was two numbers Rj, f1 and Rj, f2. These two numbers estimated the extent to which (1) for Rj, f1, the curriculum prepares students at institutions j to take that part of the GRE which covers subfield f and (2) for Rj, f2, the GRE covers the materials in subfield f taught in the curriculum of institutions j. The subfields f were mechanics, electricity and magnetism, statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, modern physics, and ``other'' (including experimental, mathematical, and solid-state physics). The institutions j were grouped into four categories: ``top graduate'' (those with the 20 best-ranked graduate programs); ``top undergraduate'' (those participating in the Oberlin Conference on College Science); ``random graduate'' (other institutions with graduate programs); and ``random undergraduate'' (other institutions without graduate programs). Generally the results show that the GRE does not cover the entire curriculum (low values of R2) for any institutional type. With regard to the coverage of the GRE by the curriculum (R1 values), there are significant differences between institutions of different types. Institutions with graduate programs have curricula that cover the modern physics and statistical mechanics aspects of the GRE significantly better than institutions without graduate programs.

  17. Vatnajökull Jökulhlaup

    Photograph of the large jökulhlaup that spread out across Skeiðarársandur (glacial outwash plain) from the terminus of Skeiðarárjökull, an outlet glacier of Vatnajökull. The Skeiðarárhlaup was from the accumulation of glacial meltwater in the Grímsvötn caldera from the Gjálp eruption in late Septemb...

  18. Dr. von Braun Briefing Walt Disney

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Dr. von Braun began his association with Walt Disney in the 1950s when the rocket scientist appeared in three Disney television productions related to the exploration of space. Years later, Dr. von Braun invited Disney and his associates to tour the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. This photograph is dated April 13, 1965. From left are R.J. Schwinghamer from the MSFC, Disney, B.J. Bernight, and Dr. von Braun.

  19. Prediction of interest rate using CKLS model with stochastic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Khor Chia; Hin, Pooi Ah

    2014-06-01

    The Chan, Karolyi, Longstaff and Sanders (CKLS) model is a popular one-factor model for describing the spot interest rates. In this paper, the four parameters in the CKLS model are regarded as stochastic. The parameter vector φ(j) of four parameters at the (J+n)-th time point is estimated by the j-th window which is defined as the set consisting of the observed interest rates at the j'-th time point where j≤j'≤j+n. To model the variation of φ(j), we assume that φ(j) depends on φ(j-m), φ(j-m+1),…, φ(j-1) and the interest rate rj+n at the (j+n)-th time point via a four-dimensional conditional distribution which is derived from a [4(m+1)+1]-dimensional power-normal distribution. Treating the (j+n)-th time point as the present time point, we find a prediction interval for the future value rj+n+1 of the interest rate at the next time point when the value rj+n of the interest rate is given. From the above four-dimensional conditional distribution, we also find a prediction interval for the future interest rate rj+n+d at the next d-th (d≥2) time point. The prediction intervals based on the CKLS model with stochastic parameters are found to have better ability of covering the observed future interest rates when compared with those based on the model with fixed parameters.

  20. Constraints on past orbital states of Io derived from its interaction with the small inner satellites of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussmann, H.; Spohn, T.

    2004-05-01

    The inner Galilean Satellites Io, Europa, and Ganymede are locked in the three-body Laplace resonance. Different conceivable scenarios have been suggested for the formation of the resonance. One possibility involves expansion of Io's orbit due to tidal torques exerted by Jupiter. The rate of expansion depends on the Jovian dissipation factor QJ. In this scenario Io has been closer to Jupiter in the past. However, the initial distance of Io to Jupiter is unknown. Because of their small mass and small eccentricities, tidal evolution of the inner four satellites of Jupiter, Metis, Adrastea, Amalthea, and Thebe can be neglected. Thus we expect the small satellites to be at present close to the distance to Jupiter where they were formed. With Io being closer to the small satellites in the past, perturbations were stronger than at present. As a first step we calculate the orbital evolution of the inner satellites, with Io as an external perturber using a Lie-series method for the numerical integration. The model resembles the elliptical restricted three-body problem, with the inner satellites being test particles. To investigate the phase space and possible mean motion resonances we calculated the orbits over 105 years using different values of Io's semi-major axis and eccentricity. For Io's present eccentricity, we get chaotic behaviour of Thebe, the outermost of the small satellites, with Io being as close as 3.42 RJ. Tidal evolution of Io from 3.42RJ to its current 5.91RJ will require a Jovian dissipation factor of QJ= 3.0 X 105, if dissipation in Io is neglected. Due to the resonances (especially 3:2 and 2:1, at 4.1 and 4.9 RJ, respectively) Thebe's eccentricities are enhanced but do not ecceed a value of 0.04.

  1. Evaluation of Structure Recognition Using Labelled Facade Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripperda, Nora; Brenner, Claus

    In 3d city modelling the request for details is permanently growing. Because of that automatic facade reconstruction methods are needed. Structure information plays an important role in facade reconstruction since facade elements like windows are arranged in structural patterns. In this paper we present a facade grammar which models these structures. This grammar is used in an rjMCMC based facade reconstruction method. We evaluate the reconstruction method using the eTRIMS [1] image database.

  2. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY EVALUATION OF WATER FROM ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTION SCENARIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    NAROTSKY1, M.G., D.S. BEST1, E.H. ROGERS1, A. McDONALD1, Y.M. SEY1, E.S. HUNTER III 1, L.K. TEUSCHLER2, R.J. MILTNER3, T.F. SPETH3, G. RICE2, K.M. SCHENCK3, S.D. RICHARDSON4, M.C. MARR5, and J.E. SIMMONS1. 1US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Health and Environment...

  3. The Galileo Heavy Ion Environment as Modeled by the HIC Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, H. B.; Evans, R. W.; Kokorowski, M.; Jun, I.; Cohen, C. M.; Stone, E. C.

    2009-12-01

    The Galileo Heavy Ion Counter (HIC) monitored the high energy (~6 to >200 MeV/nuc), heavy ion (6C--28Ni) fluxes at Jupiter and returned data for all but 2 of the 35 orbits of the Jupiter system from 1995 to 2003. The HIC experiment, based on a re-engineered Voyager Cosmic Ray System instrument, was added to gain a better understanding of the heavy ion radiation environment at Jupiter than that given by the Pioneer and Voyager flybys. HIC, as did these spacecraft, found Oxygen and Sulfur to be the primary constituents in the heavy ion environment at Jupiter. In addition, Carbon was also observed. Whereas the Carbon is believed to be of solar origin, the Oxygen is assumed to be of mixed solar origin and sputtering off the icy moons of Jupiter while the Sulfur is believed to be primarily Io-genic. In earlier presentations, a HIC Model was generated from the instrument data to provide estimates of the SEU environment for Jupiter. This presentation, based on an update to the HIC real time event data, provides estimates of the Carbon, Oxygen, and Sulfur fluxes, F, in terms of a power law fit of the form: F(E,Rj) = Fo (E-a) (1+E/Eo)-b where E is the energy and Rj is the radial distance from Jupiter. The spectra were determined at discrete radial distances between 5 and 25 Rj. The resulting fits provide simple but useful estimates of these important background particle species.

  4. A potential source for cellulolytic enzyme discovery and environmental aspects revealed through metagenomics of Brazilian mangroves

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The mangroves are among the most productive and biologically important environments. The possible presence of cellulolytic enzymes and microorganisms useful for biomass degradation as well as taxonomic and functional aspects of two Brazilian mangroves were evaluated using cultivation and metagenomic approaches. From a total of 296 microorganisms with visual differences in colony morphology and growth (including bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungus), 179 (60.5%) and 117 (39.5%) were isolated from the Rio de Janeiro (RJ) and Bahia (BA) samples, respectively. RJ metagenome showed the higher number of microbial isolates, which is consistent with its most conserved state and higher diversity. The metagenomic sequencing data showed similar predominant bacterial phyla in the BA and RJ mangroves with an abundance of Proteobacteria (57.8% and 44.6%), Firmicutes (11% and 12.3%) and Actinobacteria (8.4% and 7.5%). A higher number of enzymes involved in the degradation of polycyclic aromatic compounds were found in the BA mangrove. Specific sequences involved in the cellulolytic degradation, belonging to cellulases, hemicellulases, carbohydrate binding domains, dockerins and cohesins were identified, and it was possible to isolate cultivable fungi and bacteria related to biomass decomposition and with potential applications for the production of biofuels. These results showed that the mangroves possess all fundamental molecular tools required for building the cellulosome, which is required for the efficient degradation of cellulose material and sugar release. PMID:24160319

  5. The origin of Jupiter's outer radiation belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodfield, Emma; Horne, Richard; Glauert, Sarah; Menietti, John; Shprits, Yuri

    2014-05-01

    The intense inner radiation belt at Jupiter (>50 MeV at 1.5 RJ) is the result of adiabatic transport of electrons from further away from the planet; however, a seed population of high energy electrons is still required at between 6 and 10 RJ with energies that exceed 1 MeV. Here we test the hypothesis that the seed population outside the orbit of the moon Io could be formed from a very soft energy spectrum due to particle injection processes, and acceleration via whistler mode chorus waves. Using particle data as an initial condition at an energy of 20 keV, we use the BAS radiation belt model to calculate the change in the electron energy spectrum between 6.5 and 15 RJ due to whistler mode chorus waves. Simulations show that the resulting energy spectrum lies very close to the empirical Galileo Interim Radiation Electron model (GIRE) spectrum at Jupiter after less than one day at 100 keV and less than 10 days at 1 MeV, suggesting that the seed population could indeed be formed by wave-particle interactions. The results are insensitive to the softness of the initial energy spectrum but do critically depend on the value of the flux at the minimum energy boundary. Simulations for wave acceleration and radial diffusion together show that the resulting spectrum remains close to the GIRE spectrum but the radial profile of phase space density is smoothed.

  6. A recursive algorithm for Zernike polynomials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    The analysis of a function defined on a rotationally symmetric system, with either a circular or annular pupil is discussed. In order to numerically analyze such systems it is typical to expand the given function in terms of a class of orthogonal polynomials. Because of their particular properties, the Zernike polynomials are especially suited for numerical calculations. Developed is a recursive algorithm that can be used to generate the Zernike polynomials up to a given order. The algorithm is recursively defined over J where R(J,N) is the Zernike polynomial of degree N obtained by orthogonalizing the sequence R(J), R(J+2), ..., R(J+2N) over (epsilon, 1). The terms in the preceding row - the (J-1) row - up to the N+1 term is needed for generating the (J,N)th term. Thus, the algorith generates an upper left-triangular table. This algorithm was placed in the computer with the necessary support program also included.

  7. Study of local time dependence of the attenuation band associated to the Jovian hectometric emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudjada, M. Y.; Galopeau, P. H. M.

    2011-10-01

    We study the phenomenological spectral features of the Jovian hectometric (HOM) emission recorded during the Jupiter flyby by the RPWS experiment onboard the Cassini spacecraft. The capability of this experiment allowed a frequency coverage from a few hertz to 16 MHz with a large dynamic range of about 80 dB. HOM emission was regularly observed several weeks before and after the closest approach of the planet. We analyze the Jovian radio dynamic spectra recorded from the end of November 2000 to the second week of January 2001. During this period, the spacecraft approached Jupiter from a distance of more than 500 RJ to 137 RJ (closest approach on December 30, 2010) and back to about 250 RJ. We attempt in this study to investigate the local time (LT) dependence of the attenuation band due to refraction effects caused by the presence of the Io plasma torus. We analyze the spectral features of the attenuation band taking into consideration three local time intervals [10.0 LT, 13.2 LT], [13.6 LT, 16.5 LT], and [16.7 LT, 20 LT]. A statistical study leads us to characterize the spectral features of the attenuation band principally on the day-side and the late afternoon sector of the planet. This will allow us to discuss the LT variation of the electronic density of the Io plasma torus versus the central meridian longitude (CML) and the Jovian magnetic latitude.

  8. Local time dependence of Io plasma torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudjada, M. Y.; Galopeau, P. H. M.

    2012-04-01

    We study the frequency and time variations of the Jovian decametric (DAM) and hectometric (HOM) emissions recorded by the RPWS experiment onboard Cassini spacecraft during its Jupiter flyby. It is shown that the HOM radiations are principally subject to refraction effects caused by the Io plasma torus. We analyze the Jovian radio dynamic spectra recorded from the end of November 2000 to the second week of January 2001. During this period, the spacecraft approached Jupiter from a distance of more than 500 RJ to 137 RJ (closest approach on December 30, 2010) and back to about 250 RJ. We attempt in this study to investigate the local time (LT) dependence of the attenuation band due to refraction effects caused by the presence of the Io plasma torus. We analyze the spectral features of the attenuation band taking into consideration three local time intervals [10.0 LT, 13.2 LT], [13.6 LT, 16.5 LT], and [16.7 LT, 20 LT]. A statistical study leads us to characterize the spectral features of the attenuation band principally on the dayside and the late afternoon sector of the planet. This will allow us to discuss the LT variation of the electronic density of the Io plasma torus versus the central meridian longitude (CML) and the Jovian magnetic latitude.

  9. Major royal jelly proteins as markers of authenticity and quality of honey.

    PubMed

    Bilikova, Katarina; Kristof Krakova, Tatiana; Yamaguchi, Kikuji; Yamaguchi, Yoshihisa

    2015-12-01

    Until now, the properties of honey have been defined based exclusively on the content of plant components in the nectar of given plant. We showed that apalbumin1, the major royal jelly (RJ) protein, is an authentic and regular component of honey. Apalbumin1 and other RJ proteins and peptides are responsible for the immunostimulatory properties and antibiotic activity of honey. For the quantification of apalbumin1, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using polyclonal anti-apalbumin1 antibody. The method is suitable for honey authenticity determination; moreover it is useful for detection of the honey, honeybee pollen and RJ in products of medicine, pharmacy, cosmetics, and food industry, where presences of these honeybee products are declared. Results from the analysis for presence and amount of apalbumin1 in honeys will be used for high-throughput screening of honey samples over the world. On the basis of our experiments which show that royal jelly proteins are regular and physiologically active components of honey we propose to change the definition of honey (according to the EU Honey Directive 2001/110/EC) as follows: Honey is a natural sweet substance produced by honey bees from nectar of plants or from secretions of plants, or excretions of plant sucking insects, which honey bees collect, transform by combining with major royal jelly proteins and other specific substances of their own, deposit, dehydrate, store and leave in the honey comb to ripen and mature. PMID:26751857

  10. Full potential of radial junction Si thin film solar cells with advanced junction materials and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Shengyi; Misra, Soumyadeep; Lu, Jiawen; Yu, Zhongwei; Yu, Linwei; Xu, Jun; Wang, Junzhuan; Xu, Ling; Shi, Yi; Chen, Kunji; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere

    2015-07-01

    Combining advanced materials and junction design in nanowire-based thin film solar cells requires a different thinking of the optimization strategy, which is critical to fulfill the potential of nano-structured photovoltaics. Based on a comprehensive knowledge of the junction materials involved in the multilayer stack, we demonstrate here, in both experimental and theoretical manners, the potential of hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si:H) thin film solar cells in a radial junction (RJ) configuration. Resting upon a solid experimental basis, we also assess a more advanced tandem RJ structure with radially stacking a-Si:H/nanocrystalline Si (nc-Si:H) PIN junctions, and show that a balanced photo-current generation with a short circuit current density of Jsc = 14.2 mA/cm2 can be achieved in a tandem RJ cell, while reducing the expensive nc-Si:H absorber thickness from 1-3 μ m (in planar tandem cells) to only 120 nm. These results provide a clearly charted route towards a high performance Si thin film photovoltaics.

  11. Clinical and demographic features of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araújo, A de Q; Alfonso, C R; Schor, D; Leite, A C; de Andrada-Serpa, M J

    1993-07-01

    In Rio de Janeiro (RJ) most cases of paraparesis of obscure origin are associated with the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I). Thirty-four consecutive patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) from RJ were evaluated. Most patients came from low socio-economic levels. There was no difference in terms of gender. The main affected racial group was white. A history of sexually transmitted diseases was a major risk factor for HAM/TSP and a positive serology for syphilis was found in 26.5% of the patients. The major clinical findings were of a spastic paraparesis with generalized brisk tendon jerks and bilateral Babinki's sign. Sensation was abnormal in 25 patients (73.5%) and five (14.7%) had a sensory level. Three patients (8.8%) had optic atrophy. The cerebrospinal fluid showed a lymphocytic pleocytosis with a mean total protein content of 0.4 g/litre, and an increased intrathecal IgG synthesis in 59.4% of patients. HAM/TSP and multiple sclerosis (MS) occur indigenously in RJ and some HAM/TSP cases can be sometimes confused with MS. Therefore we propose that, in places where MS coexist with HAM/TSP, HTLV-I antibodies should be sought routinely in those MS suspected cases with prominent spastic paraparesis. PMID:8372632

  12. Radio images of Jupiter's synchrotron radiation at 6, 20, and 90 cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Pater, Imke

    1991-01-01

    VLA observations of Jupiter's nonthermal radiation at wavelengths of 6, 20, and 90 cm are presented and compared. The spatial resolution in all images is 0.25 R(J) (R/J/ = Jovian radius). The brightness distribution of Jupiter is very similar at each of the three wavelengths, although the radiation peaks at 6 cm are at a slightly larger distance from Jupiter than those at the longer wavelengths. This is due to the higher rate of synchrotron radiation losses at the shorter wavelengths. Radial profiles through the images clearly show the presence of a 'shoulder' or flattening in the intensity at about 2.5 R(J) due to absorption effects by the satellite Amalthea. In addition, the so-called 'hot region' in Jupiter's radiation belts is clearly present at all three wavelengths: images of the planet at a cml (central meridian longitude) of about 30-40 deg show the radiation peak to the right of Jupiter to be much brighter than the peak at the left, while images at a cml of about 210-220 deg show the opposite. The difference in brightness between the two radiation peaks is similar at all three wavelengths.

  13. Incidence Angle-dependent Transport across a Single Graphene p-n Junction Formed by Buried Split-gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutar, Surajit; Comfort, Everett; Liu, Jian; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Lee, Ji Ung

    2012-02-01

    Due to electron chirality effects, carrier transport across Graphene p-n junctions (GPNJ) is predicted to have strong angular dependence [1]. This work reports evidence of such effects in a single GPNJ for various geometries created by the use of buried split-gates (SG). Standard processes are used to fabricate 2-terminal Graphene devices aligned to buried Polysilicon SG at different angles to the junction. Sweeping the SG biases V1 and V2 allows mapping the doping-dependent device resistance (Rt). For doping levels (V1,V2), subtracting the average unipolar resistance Rt(V1,V1) from the bipolar resistance Rt(V1,V2) gives the average junction resistance Rj(V1,V2), subtracting out both contact and channel resistances. For bipolar doping, Rj shows a sharper peak for tilted channels than one that is normal to the junction, the peak being sharpest for 45 , the largest angle probed. This trend is observed for both exfoliated and CVD Graphene, especially for higher mobility and lower widths, consistent with theory. The ratio of the maximal Rj for 45 and 0 devices is about 2.5, significant for the modest Graphene mobilities of our devices. [1] V. Cheianov et al., Science, 315, 2007, pp 1252.

  14. Protective effect of royal jelly on the sperm parameters and testosterone level and lipid peroxidation in adult mice treated with oxymetholone

    PubMed Central

    Zahmatkesh, Ensieh; Najafi, Gholamreza; Nejati, Vahid; Heidari, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Objectives : The aim of the present study was to evaluate protective effect of royal jelly on sperm parameters, testosterone level, and malondialdehyde (MDA) production in mice. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two adult male NMRI mice weighing 302 g were used. All the animals were divided into 4 groups. Control group: received saline 0.1 ml/mouse/day orally for 30 days. Royal jelly group (RJ): received royal jelly at dose of 100 mg/kg daily for 30 days orally. Oxymetholone group: the received Oxymetholone (OX) at dose of 5 mg/kg daily for 30 days orally. Royal jelly+Oxymetholone group: received royal jelly at dose of 100 mg/kg/day orally concomitant with OX administration. Sperm count, sperm motility, viability, maturity, and DNA integrity were analyzed. Furthermore, serum testosterone and MDA concentrations were determined. Results: In Oxymetholone group, sperm count, motility as well as testosterone concentration reduced significantly (p<0.05), while significant (p<0.05) increases in immature sperm, sperm with DNA damaged, and MDA concentration were announced in Oxymetholone group in comparison with control group and Royal jelly+Oxymetholone group. RJ caused partially amelioration in all of the above- mentioned parameters in Royal Jelly+Oxymetholone group. Conclusion: In conclusion, RJ may be used in combination with OX to improve OX-induced oxidative stress and male infertility. PMID:25050300

  15. Anticipating Juno Observations of the Magnetosphere of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunnell, E.; Fowler, C. M.; Bagenal, F.; Bonfond, B.

    2012-12-01

    The Juno spacecraft will arrive at Jupiter in 2016 and will go into polar orbit. Juno will make the first exploration of the polar regions of Jupiter's vast magnetosphere, combining in situ particles and fields measurements with remote sensing of auroral emissions in the UV, IR and radio. The primary science period comprises ~30 orbits with 11-day periods with a~1.06Rj perijove, allowing Juno to duck under the hazardous synchrotron radiation belts. Apojove is at ~38Rj. The oblateness of the planet causes the orbit to precess with the major axis moving progressively south at about 1 degree per orbit, eventually bringing the spacecraft into the radiation belts. This orbit allows unprecedented views of the aurora and exploration of the auroral acceleration regions. We present an overview of anticipated Juno observations based on models of the Jovian magnetosphere. On approach to Jupiter and over a capture orbit that extends to ~180Rj on the dawn flank, Juno will traverse the magnetosheath, magnetopause and boundary layer regions of the magnetosphere. Due to the high plasma pressures in the magnetospheric plasmasheet the magnetosphere of Jupiter is known to vary substantially with the changes in the solar wind dynamic pressure. We use Ulysses solar wind data obtained around 5 AU to predict the conditions that Juno will observe over the several months it will spend in these boundary regions.

  16. Short and longer term repeatability of ballistocardiography in a sitting position with EMFi sensor.

    PubMed

    Alametsä, Jarmo; Palomäki, Ari; Viik, Jari

    2011-08-01

    Short and long-term alterations of ballistocardiographic parameters (BCG) were studied in a sitting position using Electromechanical Film (EMFi) sensors. Several physiological parameters were recorded from 48 men of middle age in consecutive recordings and after a 2-week interval. The duration and amplitudes of the signal components were studied. The repeatability index R, the Pearson correlation, and Bland-Altman (BA) repeatability methods were used to determine how repeatable the studied signals are. In consecutive and during 2 week recordings, the Pearson correlation rates for BCG systolic component values (from 0.88/0.83 (T(RJ)) to 0.97/0.78 (A(IJ)), PWV values for the left 0.97/0.67 and right ankle 0.98/0.76) were detected indicating excellent repeatability during consecutive recordings. Respectively BA T(RJ) was -0.002 ± 0.028/-0.004 ± 0.030. Corresponding R values were T(RJ) 0.90/0.82 and right ankle PWV 0.98/0.81. Quite modest blood pressure R values were obtained between 2 week recordings (systolic 0.63, diastolic 0.75, and heart rate 0.59). BCG and PWV measured with EMFi sensors are highly repeatable in consecutive recordings. In longer time interval recordings, BCG is influenced by hemodynamic instability, but in spite of this the reproducibility of the main parameters of the BCG and PWV were better than measured heart rate and blood pressure values. PMID:21336678

  17. Radio images of Jupiter's synchrotron radiation at 6, 20, and 90 cm

    SciTech Connect

    De pater, I. )

    1991-08-01

    VLA observations of Jupiter's nonthermal radiation at wavelengths of 6, 20, and 90 cm are presented and compared. The spatial resolution in all images is 0.25 R(J) (R/J/ = Jovian radius). The brightness distribution of Jupiter is very similar at each of the three wavelengths, although the radiation peaks at 6 cm are at a slightly larger distance from Jupiter than those at the longer wavelengths. This is due to the higher rate of synchrotron radiation losses at the shorter wavelengths. Radial profiles through the images clearly show the presence of a 'shoulder' or flattening in the intensity at about 2.5 R(J) due to absorption effects by the satellite Amalthea. In addition, the so-called 'hot region' in Jupiter's radiation belts is clearly present at all three wavelengths: images of the planet at a cml (central meridian longitude) of about 30-40 deg show the radiation peak to the right of Jupiter to be much brighter than the peak at the left, while images at a cml of about 210-220 deg show the opposite. The difference in brightness between the two radiation peaks is similar at all three wavelengths. 21 refs.

  18. The genetic diversity and phenotypic characterisation of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Ana Beatriz de Almeida; Silva, Lígia Guedes da; Pinto, Tatiana de Castro Abreu; Oliveira, Ivi Cristina Menezes de; Fernandes, Flávio Gimenis; Costa, Natalia Silva da; Mattos, Marcos Corrêa de; Fracalanzza, Sergio Eduardo Longo; Benchetrit, Leslie Claude

    2011-12-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae isolates are more common among pregnant women, neonates and nonpregnant adults with underlying diseases compared to other demographic groups. In this study, we evaluate the genetic and phenotypic diversity in S. agalactiae strains from Rio de Janeiro (RJ) that were isolated from asymptomatic carriers. We analysed these S. agalactiae strains using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, as well as by determining the macrolide resistance phenotype, and detecting the presence of the ermA/B, mefA/E and lnuB genes. The serotypes Ia, II, III and V were the most prevalent serotypes observed. The 60 strains analysed were susceptible to penicillin, vancomycin and levofloxacin. Resistance to clindamycin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, rifampin and tetracycline was observed. Among the erythromycin and/or clindamycin resistant strains, the ermA, ermB and mefA/E genes were detected and the constitutive macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramin B-type resistance was the most prevalent phenotype observed. The lnuB gene was not detected in any of the strains studied. We found 56 PFGE electrophoretic profiles and only 22 of them were allocated in polymorphism patterns. This work presents data on the genetic diversity and prevalent capsular serotypes among RJ isolates. Approximately 85% of these strains came from pregnant women; therefore, these data may be helpful in developing future prophylaxis and treatment strategies for neonatal syndromes in RJ. PMID:22241124

  19. Rapid detection of immunity against bacteria in Asian honeybee and Western honeybee with quantification of royalisin in the hemolymphe by fast ELISA.

    PubMed

    Shen, Li-Rong; Dilireba, Shatar; Zhou, Wen-Xiu; Wang, Yi-Ran; Li, Mei-Lu; Zhai, Liang

    2014-09-24

    Royalisin from royal jelly (RJ) is a valuable peptide both for the prevention of honeybee diseases and for RJ preservation. ELISA for fast determination of royalisin content in hemolymphe (RCH) of honeybees with polyclonal antibody against recombinant royalisin from Asian honeybee was established. Assay on RCHs of health samples from Asian honeybee and Western honeybee showed the former (7.06 μg/mL) was significantly higher than that of the latter (5.64 μg/mL, p < 0.01). Moreover, relative to the non infection, the RCHs of Asian honeybees at 24 and 48 h post infection of Eschericha coli were higher than those of Western honeybees by 32.90% and 29.66%, respectively. Evidence revealed that Asian honeybee possesses higher innate immunity and immune response against bacteria in relation to the Western honeybee. The method will be a potential tool for detection of resistant levels to pathogens in honeybees and for quantification of royalisin in RJ products. PMID:25183454

  20. Policies for English Language Teacher Education in Brazil Today: Preliminary Remarks (Políticas para la formación de profesores de inglés en el Brasil de hoy: primeras aproximaciones)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gimenez, Telma; Ferreira, Aparecida de Jesus; Alves Basso, Rosângela Aparecida; Carvalho Cruvinel, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade Brazil has begun to tackle the educational challenges of a developing country with a young population. The scale of such a demand is a result of the social and cultural inequalities that have historically been existent. Recent official policies and programs have addressed this gap by promoting greater opportunities for teacher…

  1. Planificacion linguistica y constitucion de un bloque regional: El caso del Mercosur (Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uraguay) y de Chile (Language Planning and the Constitution of a Regional Bloc: The Case of Mercosur (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay) and Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chareille, Samantha

    2003-01-01

    The common market of the South is a new linguistic and cultural area. The resurgence of innermost identities within member states proves that Mercosur identity can neither be universal nor specific. The outcome of this quest for identity will depend on the ability to carefully handle an area of cultural diversity and a place of common allegiance…

  2. Prospección de hongos Entomophthorales para el control natural de insectos en Bahía, Brasil [Prospecting Entomophthoralean fungi for the natural control of insects in Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on Entomophthorales fungi in southern Bahia State, Brazil, included enzootic and epizootic studies on the dynamics of entomophthoromycosis and their interrelations with insect populations of various insect orders, geographical distributions and incidence on crops, natural grasses and other ...

  3. Planificacion linguistica y constitucion de un bloque regional: El caso del Mercosur (Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uraguay) y de Chile (Language Planning and the Constitution of a Regional Bloc: The Case of Mercosur (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay) and Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chareille, Samantha

    2003-01-01

    The common market of the South is a new linguistic and cultural area. The resurgence of innermost identities within member states proves that Mercosur identity can neither be universal nor specific. The outcome of this quest for identity will depend on the ability to carefully handle an area of cultural diversity and a place of common allegiance

  4. Differential gene expression in femoral bone from red junglefowl and domestic chicken, differing for bone phenotypic traits

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Carl-Johan; Lindberg, Johan; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn; Savolainen, Peter; Jensen, Per; Lundeberg, Joakim; Andersson, Leif; Kindmark, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is frequently observed among aging hens from egg-producing strains (layers) of domestic chicken. White Leghorn (WL) has been intensively selected for egg production and it manifests striking phenotypic differences for a number of traits including several bone phenotypes in comparison with the wild ancestor of chicken, the red junglefowl (RJ). Previously, we have identified four Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) affecting bone mineral density and bone strength in an intercross between RJ and WL. With the aim of further elucidating the genetic basis of bone traits in chicken, we have now utilized cDNA-microarray technology in order to compare global RNA-expression in femoral bone from adult RJ and WL (five of each sex and population). Results When contrasting microarray data for all WL-individuals to that of all RJ-individuals we observed differential expression (False discovery rate adjusted p-values < 0.015) for 604 microarray probes. In corresponding male and female contrasts, differential expression was observed for 410 and 270 probes, respectively. Altogether, the three contrasts between WL and RJ revealed differential expression of 779 unique transcripts, 57 of which are located to previously identified QTL-regions for bone traits. Some differentially expressed genes have previously been attributed roles in bone metabolism and these were: WNT inhibitory factor 1 (WIF1), WD repeat-containing protein 5 (WDR5) and Syndecan 3 (SDC3). Among differentially expressed transcripts, those encoding structural ribosomal proteins were highly enriched and all 15 had lower expression in WL. Conclusion We report the identification of 779 differentially expressed transcripts, several residing within QTL-regions for bone traits. Among differentially expressed transcripts, those encoding structural ribosomal proteins were highly enriched and all had lower expression levels in WL. In addition, transcripts encoding four translation initiation and translation elongation factor proteins also had lower expression levels in WL, possibly indicating perturbation of protein biosynthesis pathways between the two populations. Information derived from this study could be relevant to the bone research field and may also aid in further inference of genetic changes accompanying animal domestication. PMID:17605776

  5. 76 FR 36923 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... Previdencia dos Funcionarios do Banco do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; to become bank holding companies by... notice (FR Doc. 2011-15233) published on pages 35893 and 35894 of the issue for Monday June 20, 2011. Under the Federal Reserve Bank of New York heading, the entry for Banco do Brasil S.A., Brasilia,...

  6. Metal bioaccumulation in consumed marine bivalves in Southeast Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Lino, A S; Galvão, P M A; Longo, R T L; Azevedo-Silva, C E; Dorneles, P R; Torres, J P M; Malm, O

    2016-03-01

    This work aimed to investigate metal bioaccumulation by mussels (Perna perna) and Lion's Scallop (Nodipecten nodosus) farmed in tropical bays, in order to estimate spatial and temporal variation in the exposure to these elements, as well as human health risk. The concentration of each measured element was considered for this evaluation, using maximum residue level (MRL) in foods established by the Brazilian (ANVISA), American (USFDA) and European Communities (EC) legislations. Values for estimated daily ingestion (EDI) were determined for metals intake through mussel and scallop consumption. These estimates were compared with the reference value of (PTDI) proposed by World Health Organization (WHO). Trace elements concentration was measured on ninety mussels P. perna (tissue) and ninety Lion's Scallop N. nodosus (muscle and gonad) reared in four different tropical areas of the Southeast Brazilian coast, between 2009 and 2010. Zinc (Zn), Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Chrome (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) concentrations were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after acid mineralization. Cd and Mn were more efficiently bioaccumulated by scallops than mussels and the opposite was found for Fe, Cu and Ni. Guanabara Bay and Sepetiba Bay were considered the most impacted between ecosystems studied. Higher Cd values in Arraial do Cabo in the other sites studied were associated with upwelling that occurs in the region. Consumption of both species cannot be considered safe, because the Cu and Cr concentrations, in accordance with the limits established by the Brazilian Agency (ANVISA). On the other hand, any EDI value exceeded the corresponding value of the PTDI, proposed by World Health Organization (WHO). PMID:26854245

  7. A chemical status predictor. A methodology based on World-Wide sediment samples.

    PubMed

    Gredilla, A; Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, S; de Diego, A; Arana, G; Stoichev, T; Amigo, J M; Wasserman, J C; Botello, A V; Sarkar, S K; Schäfer, J; Moreno, C; de la Guardia, M; Madariaga, J M

    2015-09-15

    As a consequence of the limited resources of underdeveloped countries and the limited interest of the developed ones, the assessment of the chemical quality of entire water bodies around the world is a utopia in the near future. The methodology described here may serve as a first approach for the fast identification of water bodies that do not meet the good chemical status demanded by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). It also allows estimating the natural background (or reference values of concentration) of the areas under study using a simple criterion. The starting point is the calculation the World-Wide Natural Background Levels (WWNBLs) and World-Wide Threshold Values (WWTVs), two indexes that depend on the concentration of seven elements present in sediments. These elements, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, have been selected taking into account the recommendations of the UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) and USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency), that describe them as elements of concern with respect to environmental toxicity. The methodology has been exemplified in a case study that includes 134 sediment samples collected in 11 transitional water bodies from 7 different countries and 4 different continents. Six of the water bodies considered met the good chemical status demanded by the WFD. The rest of them exceeded the reference WWTVs, at least for one of the elements. The estuaries of the Nerbioi-Ibaizabal (Basque Country) and Cavado (Portugal), the sea inlet of Río San Pedro (Spain), the Sepetiba Bay (Brazil) and the Yucateco lagoon (Mexico) belong to that group. PMID:26143082

  8. The influence of surface low-salinity waters and cold subsurface water masses on picoplankton and ultraplankton distribution in the continental shelf off Rio de Janeiro, SE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, G. A. O.; Castro, N. O.; Takanohashi, R. A.; Fernandes, A. M.; Pollery, R. C. G.; Tenenbaum, D. R.; Varela-Guerra, J.; Barrera-Alba, J. J.; Ciotti, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    The smallest phytoplankton groups named picoplankton and ultraplankton can be responsible for about 50-80% of the primary production rates in oligotrophic waters, due to their high surface/volume ratios that enables them for competitive growth rates relative to bigger cells under low light and low nutrient availability. The role of picoplankton and ultraplankton in coastal dynamic regions is less clear. This work relates the spatial distribution of autotrophic and heterotrophic components of these communities to the different properties of the water masses in the Southeastern Brazilian Continental Shelf, generally considered oligotrophic. Picoplankton and ultraplankton communities were related to nutrients present in the subsurface South Atlantic Central Water and waters with salinities below 35.5 originated from different estuarine systems. The enhance of autotrophs were also associated with a near shore feature related to topographic effects of São Sebastião Island to the local currents, first reported in this article. A core of higher chlorophyll a concentration, associated with the northeastward current flow at approximately 21 m depth below the surface, was identified as a dome-like shape. This core dissipated in the subsequent days suggesting that the flow towards NE was no longer a permanent feature two days after its observation. Locally enhancement of the contribution of picoplanktonic and ultraplanktonic autotrophs was observed in the surface and at the deep chlorophyll maximum depth associated with the chlorophyll core. Heterotrophs were more abundant inside and at the mouth of Guanabara Bay as well as inside Sepetiba Bay where light levels were low.

  9. A new species of the genus Hypleurochilus (Teleostei: Blenniidae) from Trindade Island and Martin Vaz Archipelago, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Hudson T; Gasparini, João Luiz; Rangel, Carlos A

    2013-01-01

    A new species of the genus Hypleurochilus, endemic to Trindade Island and Martin Vaz Archipelago, off Brazil, is described. Hypleurochilus brasil sp. n. differs from its congeners in color pattern and anal-ray counts. A recent study shows a close relationship between H. brasil sp. n. and H. fissicornis. This new species is recorded from 3 to 15 m depth, solitary or in small groups (up to 10 individuals), always in small holes or associated with sea-urchins and sponges on the rocky reefs. Hypleurochilus brasil sp. n. is the eleventh recognized species of Hypleurochilus and the third species of this genus reported from the Brazilian Province. PMID:26240899

  10. Genetic analyses of new movement traits using detailed evaluations of warmblood foals and mares.

    PubMed

    Becker, A-C; Stock, K F; Distl, O

    2012-10-01

    Detailed movement evaluations of warmblood foals and mares were performed in connection with regular breeding events of the Oldenburg horse breeding societies in 2009 and 2010. Unfavourable movement characteristics considered indicative for impaired balance were noted by a special judge (SJ) and the regular judges of the breeding events (RJ) and served as the basis for definition of new movement traits. Detailed movement information on 3374 foals and 2844 mares showed that more severe findings like irregular motion pattern in hind legs or irregularity in general motion pattern occurred only sporadically (prevalences of 1-2%). Irregular tail tone or posture was documented for 4% of the foals and 5% of the mares, resulting in prevalences of the comprehensive trait indications of imbalance (IMB) of 6.2% (foals) and 5.5% (mares). Binary coding was used for all traits, and genetic parameters were estimated bivariately in linear animal models with residual maximum likelihood. Comparative analyses between judges revealed that differences between trait definitions of SJ and RJ were larger in the mares than in the foals, but justified combined use of SJ and RJ information in both age groups. Heritability estimates for the movement traits ranged on the original scale from 0.02 to 0.26 in the foals and from 0.03 to 0.12 in the mares, with heritabilities for IMB on the underlying liability scale of 0.46 (foals) and 0.22 (mares). Comparative analyses between age groups indicated that common genetic factors may be responsible for findings of impaired balance in foals and mares. The results implied that horse breeding may benefit from using the early available information on the movement of foals obtained by detailed movement evaluations, although favourable combination of foal and mare data in future genetic evaluations may require refined recording of unfavourable movement characteristics in the adult horses. PMID:22963360

  11. The Origin of Jupiter's Outer Radiation Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, R. B.; Woodfield, E. E.; Glauert, S.; Menietti, J. D.; Shprits, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The intense inner radiation belt at Jupiter (>50 MeV at 1.5 RJ) is generally accepted to be created by radial diffusion of electrons from further away from the planet. However, this requires a source with energies that exceed 1 MeV outside the orbit of the moon Io at 5.9 RJ, which has never been explained satisfactorily. Here we test the hypothesis that this source population could be formed from a very soft energy spectrum, by particle injection processes and resonant electron acceleration via whistler mode chorus waves. Using the first simulations at Jupiter combining wave particle interactions and radial diffusion, we calculate the change in the electron flux between 6.5 and 15 RJ with the BAS Radiation Belt Model starting from a very soft spectrum. The resulting electron flux at 100 keV and 1 MeV lies very close to the Galileo Interim Radiation Electron model spectrum after 1 and 10 days respectively. The primary driver for the increase in the flux is cyclotron resonant acceleration by chorus waves. A peak in phase space density forms such that inside L≈9 radial diffusion transports electrons towards Jupiter, but outside L≈9 radial diffusion acts away from the planet. The results are insensitive to the softness of the initial energy spectrum but do depend on the value of the flux at the minimum energy boundary. We conclude by suggesting that the source population for the inner radiation belt at Jupiter could indeed be formed by wave-particle interactions.

  12. Electron distributions in the inner Jovian magnetosphere: Voyager 1 observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, G.; Armstrong, T. P.

    1993-12-01

    Using several improvements in the analysis of the observations of the Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) experiment on Voyager 1, electron phase space densities in the inner Jovian magnetosphere (5 - 10 RJ were first calculated at constant first and second invariants (represented by mu and K, respectively), based on the LECP measurements. The calculated electron phase space density profiles show that in the inner Jovian magnetosphere there exist evident time and longitude variations, energetic electron injections, and present radial transport and distributed losses. To study the radial and pitch angle diffusions of Jovian electrons, we have calculated the phase space densities in the K-L space. It is found that the electron population in the inner Jovian magnetosphere seems to consist of two components: electrons radially diffusing from a main external source and electrons generated from local sources. The radially diffusing electrons have a relatively time stationary and isotropic distribution, while the locally created electrons mainly concentrate around the equatorial plane and have relatively lower energies, in comparison with the inward diffusing electrons. Consequently, the sources of precipitation losses to the ionosphere must be primarily electrons transported from outer sources, and the major precipitations occur in the inner magnetosphere (L less than 7.5 RJ. In the inner Jovian magnetosphere (L = 5 to approximately 10 RJ) it is estimated that for electrons with magnetic moment mu = 300 MeV/G, the diffusion coefficient D is roughly 10-8 to approximately 10-6 R2J/s, and the lifetime against the diffusion losses is of the order of 104 to approximately 106 s.

  13. Origin and Effect of Alpha 2.2 Acetobacteraceae in Honey Bee Larvae and Description of Parasaccharibacter apium gen. nov., sp. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Lucy A.; Schwan, Melissa R.; Maes, Patrick; McFrederick, Quinn S.; Anderson, Kirk E.

    2014-01-01

    The honey bee hive environment contains a rich microbial community that differs according to niche. Acetobacteraceae Alpha 2.2 (Alpha 2.2) bacteria are present in the food stores, the forager crop, and larvae but at negligible levels in the nurse and forager midgut and hindgut. We first sought to determine the source of Alpha 2.2 in young larvae by assaying the diversity of microbes in nurse crops, hypopharyngeal glands (HGs), and royal jelly (RJ). Amplicon-based pyrosequencing showed that Alpha 2.2 bacteria occupy each of these environments along with a variety of other bacteria, including Lactobacillus kunkeei. RJ and the crop contained fewer bacteria than the HGs, suggesting that these tissues are rather selective environments. Phylogenetic analyses showed that honey bee-derived Alpha 2.2 bacteria are specific to bees that “nurse” the hive's developing brood with HG secretions and are distinct from the Saccharibacter-type bacteria found in bees that provision their young differently, such as with a pollen ball coated in crop-derived contents. Acetobacteraceae can form symbiotic relationships with insects, so we next tested whether Alpha 2.2 increased larval fitness. We cultured 44 Alpha 2.2 strains from young larvae that grouped into nine distinct clades. Three isolates from these nine clades flourished in royal jelly, and one isolate increased larval survival in vitro. We conclude that Alpha 2.2 bacteria are not gut bacteria but are prolific in the crop-HG-RJ-larva niche, passed to the developing brood through nurse worker feeding behavior. We propose the name Parasaccharibacter apium for this bacterial symbiont of bees in the genus Apis. PMID:25239902

  14. The origin of Jupiter's outer radiation belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodfield, E. E.; Horne, R. B.; Glauert, S. A.; Menietti, J. D.; Shprits, Y. Y.

    2014-05-01

    The intense inner radiation belt at Jupiter (>50 MeV at 1.5 RJ) is generally accepted to be created by radial diffusion of electrons from further away from the planet. However, this requires a source with energies that exceed 1 MeV outside the orbit of the moon Io at 5.9 RJ, which has never been explained satisfactorily. Here we test the hypothesis that this source population could be formed from a very soft energy spectrum, by particle injection processes and resonant electron acceleration via whistler mode chorus waves. We use the British Antarctic Survey Radiation Belt Model to calculate the change in the electron flux between 6.5 and 15 RJ; these are the first simulations at Jupiter combining wave particle interactions and radial diffusion. The resulting electron flux at 100 keV and 1 MeV lies very close to the Galileo Interim Radiation Electron model spectrum after 1 and 10 days, respectively. The primary driver for the increase in the flux is cyclotron resonant acceleration by chorus waves. A peak in phase space density forms such that inside L≈9 radial diffusion transports electrons toward Jupiter, but outside L≈9 radial diffusion acts away from the planet. The results are insensitive to the softness of the initial energy spectrum but do depend on the value of the flux at the minimum energy boundary. We conclude by suggesting that the source population for the inner radiation belt at Jupiter could indeed be formed by wave-particle interactions.

  15. Fatty acids derived from royal jelly are modulators of estrogen receptor functions.

    PubMed

    Moutsatsou, Paraskevi; Papoutsi, Zoi; Kassi, Eva; Heldring, Nina; Zhao, Chunyan; Tsiapara, Anna; Melliou, Eleni; Chrousos, George P; Chinou, Ioanna; Karshikoff, Andrey; Nilsson, Lennart; Dahlman-Wright, Karin

    2010-01-01

    Royal jelly (RJ) excreted by honeybees and used as a nutritional and medicinal agent has estrogen-like effects, yet the compounds mediating these effects remain unidentified. The possible effects of three RJ fatty acids (FAs) (10-hydroxy-2-decenoic-10H2DA, 3,10-dihydroxydecanoic-3,10DDA, sebacic acid-SA) on estrogen signaling was investigated in various cellular systems. In MCF-7 cells, FAs, in absence of estradiol (E(2)), modulated the estrogen receptor (ER) recruitment to the pS2 promoter and pS2 mRNA levels via only ERβ but not ERα, while in presence of E(2) FAs modulated both ERβ and ERα. Moreover, in presence of FAs, the E(2)-induced recruitment of the EAB1 co-activator peptide to ERα is masked and the E(2)-induced estrogen response element (ERE)-mediated transactivation is inhibited. In HeLa cells, in absence of E(2), FAs inhibited the ERE-mediated transactivation by ERβ but not ERα, while in presence of E(2), FAs inhibited ERE-activity by both ERβ and ERα. Molecular modeling revealed favorable binding of FAs to ERα at the co-activator-binding site, while binding assays showed that FAs did not bind to the ligand-binding pocket of ERα or ERβ. In KS483 osteoblasts, FAs, like E(2), induced mineralization via an ER-dependent way. Our data propose a possible molecular mechanism for the estrogenic activities of RJ's components which, although structurally entirely different from E(2), mediate estrogen signaling, at least in part, by modulating the recruitment of ERα, ERβ and co-activators to target genes. PMID:21203528

  16. A model of force balance in Jupiter's magnetodisc including hot plasma pressure anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, J. D.; Achilleos, N.; Cowley, S. W. H.

    2015-12-01

    We present an iterative vector potential model of force balance in Jupiter's magnetodisc that includes the effects of hot plasma pressure anisotropy. The fiducial model produces results that are consistent with Galileo magnetic field and plasma data over the whole radial range of the model. The hot plasma pressure gradient and centrifugal forces dominate in the regions inward of ˜20 RJ and outward of ˜50 RJ, respectively, while for realistic values of the pressure anisotropy, the anisotropy current is either the dominant component or at least comparable with the hot plasma pressure gradient current in the region in between. With the inclusion of hot plasma pressure anisotropy, the ˜1.2 and ˜2.7° shifts in the latitudes of the main oval and Ganymede footprint, respectively, associated with variations over the observed range of the hot plasma parameter Kh, which is the product of hot pressure and unit flux tube volume, are comparable to the shifts observed in auroral images. However, the middle magnetosphere is susceptible to the firehose instability, with peak equatorial values of βh∥e-βh⊥e≃1 - 2, for Kh=2.0 - 2.5 × 107 Pa m T-1. For larger values of Kh,βh∥e-βh⊥e exceeds 2 near ˜25 RJ and the model does not converge. This suggests that small-scale plasmoid release or "drizzle" of iogenic plasma may often occur in the middle magnetosphere, thus forming a significant mode of plasma mass loss, alongside plasmoids, at Jupiter.

  17. Accelerometer body sensor network improves systolic time interval assessment with wearable ballistocardiography.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Andrew D; Inan, Omer T

    2015-08-01

    Systolic time intervals (STI) are non-invasive measures of cardiac function. Due to the fact that STI can be measured noninvasively outside the clinic, STI are a promising method for long-term monitoring of patients with cardiovascular disease. In particular, the pre-ejection period (PEP) has been measured successfully from body vibrations of the beating heart, a technique called ballistocardiography (BCG), using a weighing scale. Similar measurements can be made with on-body accelerometers, however these wearable BCG signals are typically more challenging to interpret than whole-body BCG. In this paper, we conducted a small pilot study with four subjects to investigate whether a body sensor network of four accelerometers positioned on the wrist, arm, sternum, and head could improve beat-by-beat PEP prediction beyond that of each sensor alone. Linear models were fitted from the R-J and R-I intervals of the four BCG signals to PEP measured with impedance cardiography from 5-minute recordings after isometric lower-body exercise. Specifically, we found that (i) the RMS error of PEP estimation from the wearable BCG sensors can be reduced by using double integration, (ii) the standard deviation of PEP estimates from R-I intervals was smaller than from R-J intervals, and (iii) linear models combining both R-J and R-I measurements from all sensors resulted in the best average correlation (r(2) = 0.96 ± 0.01) and lowest average root mean square error (2.5 ± 0.8 ms) from 5×2-fold cross validation. PMID:26736637

  18. Origin and effect of Alpha 2.2 Acetobacteraceae in honey bee larvae and description of Parasaccharibacter apium gen. nov., sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Corby-Harris, Vanessa; Snyder, Lucy A; Schwan, Melissa R; Maes, Patrick; McFrederick, Quinn S; Anderson, Kirk E

    2014-12-01

    The honey bee hive environment contains a rich microbial community that differs according to niche. Acetobacteraceae Alpha 2.2 (Alpha 2.2) bacteria are present in the food stores, the forager crop, and larvae but at negligible levels in the nurse and forager midgut and hindgut. We first sought to determine the source of Alpha 2.2 in young larvae by assaying the diversity of microbes in nurse crops, hypopharyngeal glands (HGs), and royal jelly (RJ). Amplicon-based pyrosequencing showed that Alpha 2.2 bacteria occupy each of these environments along with a variety of other bacteria, including Lactobacillus kunkeei. RJ and the crop contained fewer bacteria than the HGs, suggesting that these tissues are rather selective environments. Phylogenetic analyses showed that honey bee-derived Alpha 2.2 bacteria are specific to bees that "nurse" the hive's developing brood with HG secretions and are distinct from the Saccharibacter-type bacteria found in bees that provision their young differently, such as with a pollen ball coated in crop-derived contents. Acetobacteraceae can form symbiotic relationships with insects, so we next tested whether Alpha 2.2 increased larval fitness. We cultured 44 Alpha 2.2 strains from young larvae that grouped into nine distinct clades. Three isolates from these nine clades flourished in royal jelly, and one isolate increased larval survival in vitro. We conclude that Alpha 2.2 bacteria are not gut bacteria but are prolific in the crop-HG-RJ-larva niche, passed to the developing brood through nurse worker feeding behavior. We propose the name Parasaccharibacter apium for this bacterial symbiont of bees in the genus Apis. PMID:25239902

  19. Simple Analytic Collisional Rates for non-LTE Vibrational Populations in Astrophysical Environments: the Cases of Circumstellar SiO Masers and Shocked H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieniek, Ronald

    2008-05-01

    Rates for collisionally induced transitions between molecular vibrational levels are important in modeling a variety of non-LTE processes in astrophysical environments. Two examples are SiO masering in circumstellar envelopes in certain late-type stars [1] and the vibrational populations of molecular hydrogen in shocked interstellar medium [cf 2]. A simple exponential-potential model of molecular collisions leads to a two-parameter analytic expression for state-to-state and thermally averaged rates for collisionally induced vibrational-translational (VT) transitions in diatomic molecules [3,4]. The thermally averaged rates predicted by this formula have been shown to be in excellent numerical agreement with absolute experimental and quantum mechanical rates over large temperature ranges and initial vibrational excitation levels in a variety of species, e.g., OH, O2, N2 [3] and even for the rate of H2(v=1)+H2, which changes by five orders of magnitude in the temperature range 50-2000 K [4]. Analogous analytic rates will be reported for vibrational transitions in SiO due to collisions with H2 and compared to the numerical fit of quantum-mechanical rates calculated by Bieniek and Green [5]. [1] Palov, A.P., Gray, M.D., Field, D., & Balint-Kurti, G.G. 2006, ApJ, 639, 204. [2] Flower, D. 2007, Molecular Collisions in the Interstellar Medium (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press) [3] Bieniek, R.J. & Lipson, S.J. 1996, Chem. Phys. Lett. 263, 276. [4] Bieniek, R.J. 2006, Proc. NASA LAW (Lab. Astrophys. Workshop) 2006, 299; http://www.physics.unlv.edu/labastro/nasalaw2006proceedings.pdf. [5] Bieniek, R.J., & Green, S. 1983, ApJ, 265, L29 and 1983, ApJ, 270, L101.

  20. Thermal resistance at constrictions in 2D mesoscopic ribbons at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramiere, A.; Amrit, J.; Volz, S.

    2014-12-01

    Phonon transport in junctions formed between suspended membranes of the same material is studied using Monte Carlo method. The investigation is conducted at 1K for systematically chosen ratios of (d/D) where d is the junction width and D the membrane length. The influence of surface roughness is taken into account. The dependency of the constriction thermal resistance (in μmK/W) is established: RJ ≈ [2.4 + 2.0 × (d /D)-1/2] × 109. The average and frequency dependent transmission coefficients are determined as a function of (d/D). These structural configurations are inherent in thermoelectric; and graphene and silicene related applications.

  1. Self broadening in the nu-1 band of NH3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markov, V. N.; Pine, A. S.; Buffa, G.; Tarrini, O.

    1993-01-01

    Self-broadening coefficients, pressure shifts, and integrated intensities have been measured for Q- and R-branch transitions in the nu-1 fundamental band of ammonia using a difference-frequency laser spectrometer. A strong, systematic J and K dependence of the broadening coefficients, reminiscent of the ground-state inversion transitions, is observed and compared with semiclassical line broadening calculations. Dicke narrowing is evident at intermediate pressures for the sharpest lines, primarily the R(J, 0) transitions. Incipient line mixing is apparent in the Q branch at pressures above about 0.1 bar.

  2. Galileo dust data from the jovian system: 2000 to 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, H.; Bindschadler, D.; Dermott, S. F.; Graps, A. L.; Grün, E.; Gustafson, B. A.; Hamilton, D. P.; Hanner, M. S.; Horányi, M.; Kissel, J.; Linkert, D.; Linkert, G.; Mann, I.; McDonnell, J. A. M.; Moissl, R.; Morfill, G. E.; Polanskey, C.; Roy, M.; Schwehm, G.; Srama, R.

    2010-06-01

    The Galileo spacecraft was the first man-made satellite of Jupiter, orbiting the planet between December 1995 and September 2003. The spacecraft was equipped with a highly sensitive dust detector that monitored the jovian dust environment between approximately 2 and 370 RJ (jovian radius RJ=71 492 km). The Galileo dust detector was a twin of the one flying on board the Ulysses spacecraft. This is the tenth in a series of papers dedicated to presenting Galileo and Ulysses dust data. Here we present data from the Galileo dust instrument for the period January 2000 to September 2003 until Galileo was destroyed in a planned impact with Jupiter. The previous Galileo dust data set contains data of 2883 particles detected during Galileo's interplanetary cruise and 12 978 particles detected in the jovian system between 1996 and 1999. In this paper we report on the data of additional 5389 particles measured between 2000 and the end of the mission in 2003. The majority of the 21 250 particles for which the full set of measured impact parameters (impact time, impact direction, charge rise times, charge amplitudes, etc.) was transmitted to Earth were tiny grains (about 10 nm in radius), most of them originating from Jupiter's innermost Galilean moon Io. They were detected throughout the jovian system and the impact rates frequently exceeded 10 min -1. Surprisingly large impact rates up to 100 min -1 occurred in August/September 2000 when Galileo was far away (≈280RJ) from Jupiter, implying dust ejection rates in excess of 100 kg s -1. This peak in dust emission appears to coincide with strong changes in the release of neutral gas from the Io torus. Strong variability in the Io dust flux was measured on timescales of days to weeks, indicating large variations in the dust release from Io or the Io torus or both on such short timescales. Galileo has detected a large number of bigger micron-sized particles mostly in the region between the Galilean moons. A surprisingly large number of such bigger grains was measured in March 2003 within a four-day interval when Galileo was outside Jupiter's magnetosphere at approximately 350 RJ jovicentric distance. Two passages of Jupiter's gossamer rings in 2002 and 2003 provided the first actual comparison of in-situ dust data from a planetary ring with the results inferred from inverting optical images. Strong electronics degradation of the dust instrument due to the harsh radiation environment of Jupiter led to increased calibration uncertainties of the dust data.

  3. Inference of the angular velocity of plasma in the Jovian magnetosphere from the sweepback of magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khurana, Krishan K.; Kivelson, Margaret G.

    1993-01-01

    The averaged angular velocity of plasma from magnetic observations is evaluated using plasma outflow rate as a parameter. New techniques are developed to calculate the normal and azimuthal components of the magnetic field in and near to the plasma sheet in a plasma sheet coordinate system. The revised field components differ substantially from the quantities used in previous analyses. With the revised field values, it appears that during the Voyager 2 flyby for an outflow rate of 2.5 x 10 exp 29 amu/s, the observed magnetic torque may be sufficient to keep the plasma in corotation to radial distances of 50 Rj in the postmidnight quadrant.

  4. Technology transfer in Europe: a case study of invertebrate neuroscience research.

    PubMed

    Edwards, H A; Bell, E R

    1994-08-01

    Originally identified and defined as a concept in industrial and business communities, technology transfer is now being recognized as an important factor within the scientific research community. A recent study undertaken within the field of UK invertebrate neuroscience research generates several interesting conclusions. In this article, Huw A. Edwards and Elizabeth R.J. Bell discuss the study and its conclusions of a need for increased post-doctoral research mobility, the formation of consortia of research laboratories to apply for funding on an international scale, and the increased interest of the pharmaceutical industry in molecular and cellular techniques developed from fundamental invertebrate research. PMID:7526501

  5. Solution of Newly Observed Transit of the Exoplanet Hat-P-24B:No TTV and TDV Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjurkchieva, Diana; Dimitrov, Dinko; Ibryamov, Sunay

    2016-01-01

    We present photometric observations of transit of the exoplanet HAT-P-24b using the Rozhen 2 m telescope. Its solution gives relative stellar radius r_s=0.1304 (a/R_s = 7.669), relative planet radius r_p=0.01304 and orbital inclination of 90°. The calculated planet radius is R_p = 1.316 R_J and corresponds to planet density of ρ_p = 0.37 g cm^{-3}. Our parameter values are between those of the previous two solutions. We did not find evidences of TTV and TDV signals of HAT-P-24b.

  6. [Health politics in Brazil: historical reconstruction and current perspectives].

    PubMed

    Bertolozzi, M R; Greco, R M

    1996-12-01

    Authors presents an evolution of the public health's politics in Brasil through a critical review of the historical process. Besides this they call to the importance of this issue in the undergraduate curricular in nursing. PMID:9016155

  7. Modelling the spectroscopic behaviour of hot molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennyson, Jonathan

    2010-05-01

    At elevated temperatures the molecules absorb and emit light in a very complicated fashion which is hard to characterise on the basis of laboraroty measurement. Computed line lists of molecule transitions therefore provide a vital input for models of hot atmospheres. I will describe the calculation and use of such line lists including the BT2 water line list [1], which contains some 500 million distinct rotation-vibration transitions. This linelist proved crucial in the detection of water in extrasolar planet HD189733b and has been used extensively in atmospheric modelling. Illustrations will be given at the meeting. A new linelist for the ammonia molecule has just been completed [2] which shows that standard compilations for this molecule need to be improved. Progress on a more extensive linelist for hot ammonia and linelists for other molecules will be discussed at the meeting. [1] R.J. Barber, J. Tennyson, G.J. Harris and R.N. Tolchenov, Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 368, 1087-1094 (2006) [2] S.N. Yurchenko, R.J. Barber, A. Yachmenev, W. Theil, P. Jensen and J. Tennyson, J. Phys. Chem. A, 113, 11845-11855 (2009).

  8. The global morphology of the Europa neutral torus from Cassini Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) observations and implications for JUICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, P. C.; Mauk, B.; Mitchell, D. G.; Paranicas, C.; Barabash, S. V.

    2013-12-01

    From about December 2000 to January 2001 the Ion Neutral Camera (INCA) on board the Cassini spacecraft imaged Jupiter in Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENA) that are created when singly charged ions charge exchange with neutral gas atoms or molecules. The INCA observations were obtained from a distance of about 137-250 Jovian planetary radii (RJ) over an energy range from about 10 to 300 keV. We present underlying neutral torus gas morphologies by simulating INCA images using an empirical ion distribution model and a range of theoretical gas model distributions. Just like Mauk et al. (2003), who used a different analysis technique, we find that the INCA images are consistent with a neutral torus at the orbital distance of Europa (9.5 RJ). However, within the limitations of instrument resolution, we present also possible solutions of a longitudinally asymmetric torus distribution and its implication for neutral gas release and loss rates from Europa. The Jovian Energetic Neutral and Ions (JENI) camera is the second generation ENA camera based on INCA and was selected for the science payload of the Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer (JUICE) mission, planned for launch around 2022 and orbit insertion around Jupiter in 2030. Using the same forward simulation technique as above, we use the INCA observations to demonstrate what we expect the JENI camera to observe in orbit around Jupiter and Ganymede.

  9. Quantum Threshold Effects On The Determination Of RKR Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisseau, C.; Cote, R.

    2000-06-01

    In 1970, R.J. LeRoy and R.B. Berstein and independantly W.C. Stwalley (LeR) R.J. LeRoy and R.B. Bernstein, J. Chem. Phys. 52, 3869 (1970). W.C. Stwalley, Chem. Phys. Lett. 6, 241 (1970). used semiclassical JWKB calculations to represent vibrational levels converging toward the dissociation limit by an analytic formula. This formula is well adapted for low lying states of potentials varying asymptotically as -C_n/r^n (n>2), but it is not accurate for the last few levels near the dissociation limit. For these last levels, one needs to include a correction term in the standard JWKB quantization condition (Trost) J. Trost, C. Eltschka and H. Friedrich, J. Phys. B 31, 361 (1998). C. Boisseau, E. Audouard and J. Vigué, Europhys. Lett. 41, 349 (1998). C. Boisseau, E. Audouard, J. Vigué and V.V. Flambaum submitted to Euro. Phys. J. D.. We present an extension of LeRoy, Bernstein and Stwalley formulas, and show how the RKR method can be modified to include the corrected JWKB quantization condition formula. We also illustrate how this modification can be used to extrapolate C_n.

  10. Magnetic and electromagnetic properties of composites of iron oxide and Co-B alloy prepared by chemical reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, XueAi; Han, XiJiang; Du, YunChen; Xu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic and electromagnetic properties were investigated on the composites of iron oxide and Co-B alloy, which were prepared by a modified chemical reduction method. The composites are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The complex electromagnetic parameters (permittivity ?r= ?r'+j ?r? and permeability ?r= ?r'+j ?r?) of paraffin mixed composite samples (paraffin:composites=1:1 in mass ratio) were measured in the frequency range 2-18 GHz by vector network analyzer. The measured real part ( ?r') and imaginary part ( ?r?) of the relative permittivity show two resonant peaks in the range of 2-18 GHz. The imaginary parts of relative permeability ( ?r?) of all samples exhibited one broad resonant peak over the 2-8 GHz range. The ?r? of samples with higher molar ratio of Co to Fe (C and D) shows negative values within 13-18 GHz, which exhibit resonant and antiresonant permeabilities simultaneously. Calculation results indicated that the reflection loss values of the composites and paraffin wax mixtures are less than -10 dB with frequency width of about 6 GHz at the matching thickness.

  11. Dpf Analyses Yield Fully Analytic Potentials for the B ^1Πu ``BARRIER'' States of {Rb}_2 and {Li}_2 and AN Improved Ground-State Well Depth for {Rb}_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaughter, Kai; Dattani, Nikesh S.; Amiot, Claude S.; Ross, Amanda J.; Le Roy, Robert J.

    2015-06-01

    Determining full model potential energy functions for molecular states that have a `natural' rotationless barrier which protrudes above the potential asymptote, such as the B ^1Π_u states of alkali dimers, is a challenging problem. The present work extends our previous Direct-Potential-Fit (DPF) analysis of data for the B ^1Π_u state of Li_2 by introducing a more sophisticated model for the long-range tail of the fully analytic `Double Exponential Long-Range' (DELR) potential function form^a that takes account of the interstate coupling that occurs near the asymptotes of nS+nP alkali dimers. This type of analysis is then applied to data for the B ^1Π_u state of Rb_2, and a concurrent extension of the DPF analysis of Seto and Le Roy yields an improved fully analytic potential energy function for its ground X ^1σ_g^+ state. The effect of taking account of the long-range inter-state coupling on the shapes of the outer walls of the B ^1Π_u state potential functions for these two species will also be examined. Y. Huang and R.J. Le Roy, J. Chem. Phys., 119, 7398 (2003) M. Aubert-Frécon and G. Hadinger and S. Magnier and S. Rousseau, J. Mol. Spectosc., 288, 182 (1998). J.Y. Seto and R.J. Le Roy, J. Chem. Phys., 113, 3067 (2000).

  12. ‘Acceptable rebellion’: marketing hipster aesthetics to sell Camel cigarettes in the US

    PubMed Central

    Hendlin, Yogi; Anderson, Stacey J; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present work was to understand why and how RJ Reynolds and other tobacco companies have marketed tobacco products to young adult social trendsetting consumers (termed ‘hipsters’) to recruit trendsetters and average consumers to smoke. Methods Analysis of tobacco industry documents and industry marketing materials. Results Since 1995, RJ Reynolds developed its marketing campaigns to better suit the lifestyle, image identity and attitudes of hip trendsetters (so-called ‘hipsters’), and Camel’s brand identity actively shifted to more closely convey the hipster persona. Camel emphasised in-venue events such as promotional music tours to link the brand and smoking to activities and symbols appealing to hipsters and their emulating masses. Conclusions To reach this targeted and socially valuable trend-setting population, public health advocates must tap into hipster psychology and expose to the targeted community the tobacco company’s efforts to infiltrate the hipster community to turn hipsters into tobacco-using role models. PMID:20501494

  13. The RESTORE program of restorative justice for sex crimes: vision, process, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Koss, Mary P

    2014-06-01

    The article reports empirical evaluation of RESTORE, a restorative justice (RJ) conferencing program adapted to prosecutor-referred adult misdemeanor and felony sexual assaults. RESTORE conferences included voluntary enrollment, preparation, and a face-to-face meeting where primary and secondary victims voice impacts, and responsible persons acknowledge their acts and together develop a re-dress plan that is supervised for 1 year. Process data included referral and consent rates, participant characteristics, observational ratings of conferences compared with program design, services delivered, and safety monitoring. Outcome evaluation used 22 cases to assess (a) pre-post reasons for choosing RESTORE, (b) preparation and conference experiences, (c) overall program and justice satisfaction, and (d) completion rates. This is the first peer-reviewed quantitative evaluation of RJ conferencing for adult sexual assault. Although the data have limitations, the results support cautious optimism regarding feasibility, safety, and satisfactory outcomes. They help envision how conferencing could expand and individualize justice options for sexual assault. PMID:24368680

  14. Description of leprosy classification at baseline among patients enrolled at the uniform multidrug therapy clinical trial for leprosy patients in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moura, Rodrigo Scaliante; Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Cardoso, Ludimila Paula Vaz; de Andrade Pontes, Maria Araci; Cruz, Rossilene; de Sá Gonçalves, Heitor; Fernandes Penna, Maria Lúcia; de Araújo Stefani, Mariane Martins; Bührer-Sékula, Samira

    2015-06-01

    The uniform multidrug therapy clinical trial, Brazil (U-MDT/CT-BR), database was used to describe and report the performance of available tools to classify 830 leprosy patients as paucibacillary (PB) and multibacillary (MB) at baseline. In a modified Ridley and Jopling (R&J) classification, considering clinical features, histopathological results of skin biopsies and the slit-skin smear bacterial load results were used as the gold standard method for classification. Anti-phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I) serology by ML Flow test, the slit skin smear bacterial load, and the number of skin lesions were evaluated. Considering the R&J classification system as gold standard, ML Flow tests correctly allocated 70% patients in the PB group and 87% in the MB group. The classification based on counting the number of skin lesions correctly allocated 46% PB patients and 99% MB leprosy cases. Slit skin smears properly classified 91% and 97% of PB and MB patients, respectively. Based on U-MDT/CT-BR results, classification of leprosy patients for treatment purposes is unnecessary because it does not impact clinical and laboratories outcomes. In this context, the identification of new biomarkers to detect patients at a higher risk to develop leprosy reactions or relapse remains an important research challenge. PMID:25940192

  15. Taxonomy of Cotylea (Platyhelminthes: Polycladida) from Cabo Frio, southeastern Brazil, with the description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Bahia, Juliana; Padula, Vinicius; Lavrado, Helena Passeri; Quiroga, Sigmer

    2014-01-01

    Polyclads are free-living Platyhelminthes with a simple, dorsoventrally flattened body and a much ramified intestine. In Brazil, 66 species are reported; only three from Rio de Janeiro State (RJ). The main objective of this study is to describe and illustrate coloration pattern, external morphology, reproductive system morphology and, when possible, biological and ecological aspects of species of the suborder Cotylea found in Cabo Frio, RJ. Of the 13 cotylean polyclad species found, Pseudobiceros pardalis, Cycloporus variegatus and Eurylepta aurantiaca are new records from the Brazilian coast and one species is new to science, Pseudoceros juani sp. nov. Feeding observations were made of four species. It is the first time that Lurymare utarum, Cycloporus gabriellae, C. variegatus and E. aurantiaca are illustrated with digital photographs of live specimens and histological preparations. This study increases to 70 the number of Brazilian Polycladida and to 14 the number of species known from Rio de Janeiro State. However, the knowledge about Polycladida in Brazil still has gaps, with great parts of the coast remaining unsampled.  PMID:25544234

  16. Effect of Royal Jelly on new bone formation in rapid maxillary expansion in rats

    PubMed Central

    Özan, Fatih; Çörekçi, Bayram; Halicioğlu, Koray; Irgin, Celal; Yilmaz, Fahri; Hezenci, Yasin

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of long and short term systemic usage of royal jelly on bone formation in the expanded maxillary suture in a rat model. Material and Methods Twenty eight Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups: Control (C); Only Expansion (OE), Royal Jelly (RJ) group, Royal Jelly was given to rats by oral gavage only during the expansion and retention period; Royal Jelly plus Nursery (RJN) group, Royal Jelly was given to rats by oral gavage during their nursery phase of 40 days and during the retention period. After the 5 day expansion period was completed, the rats underwent 12 days of mechanical retention. All rats were sacrificed in same time. Histological examination was performed to determine the number of osteoclasts, number of osteoblasts, number of capillaries, inflammatory cell infiltration, and new bone formation. Results New bone formation, number of osteoclasts, number of osteoblasts, and the number of capillaries in the expanded maxillary sutures were higher in the RJ and RJN groups than in the other groups. Statistical analysis also demonstrated that new bone formation and the number of osteoblasts was also highest in the RJN group. Conclusions The systemic administration of Royal Jelly in conjunction with rapid maxillary expansion may increase the quality of regenerated bone. Key words:Bone formation, rapid maxillary expansion, Royal jelly. PMID:26449428

  17. Microwave Spectroscopy and Internal Dynamics of the Ne-NO2 Van Der Waals Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Brian J.; Economides, George; Dyer, Lee

    2012-06-01

    The rotational spectrum of the open-shell complex Ne-NO2 in the 6 - 18 GHz region is reported. Both fine and hyperfine structure are observed. However, the spectrum does not fit a semi-rigid model as well as the related species Ar-NO2, Kr-NO2 and Xe-NO2. This is almost certainly a result of the "floppy" nature of this species. In order to model the dynamics of the complex and to reproduce the observed spectrum, we have obtained an accurate intermolecular potential surface using the RCCSD(T) method and aug-cc-pV(D/T)Z basis sets (extrapolated to the complete basis set limit). Full quantum dynamics calculations were then performed on this surface to give the rotational energy levels and the effective fine and hyperfine structure constants. R.J. Low, M.D. Brooks, C.J. Whitham and B.J. Howard J. Chem. Phys., 105, 6756 (1996) S. Blanco, C.J. Whitham, H. Qian and B.J. Howard, PCCP., 3, 3895 (2001). C.J. Whitham, R.J. Low and B.J. Howard, Chem. Phys. Lett., 286, 408 (1998).

  18. AMP N1-oxide, a unique compound of royal jelly, induces neurite outgrowth from PC12 cells via signaling by protein kinase A independent of that by mitogen-activated protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Noriko; Nomoto, Hiroshi; Fukumitsu, Hidefumi; Mishima, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    Earlier we identified adenosine monophosphate (AMP) N1-oxide as a unique compound of royal jelly (RJ) that induces neurite outgrowth (neuritegenesis) from cultured rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells via the adenosine A2A receptor. Now, we found that AMP N1-oxide stimulated the phosphorylation of not only mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) but also that of cAMP/calcium-response element-binding protein (CREB) in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of MAPK activation by a MEK inhibitor, PD98059, did not influence the AMP N1-oxide-induced neuritegenesis, whereas that of protein kinase A (PKA) by a selective inhibitor, KT5720, significantly reduced neurite outgrowth. AMP N1-oxide also had the activity of suppressing the growth of PC12 cells, which correlated well with the neurite outgrowth-promoting activity. KT5720 restored the growth of AMP N1-oxide-treated PC12 cells. It is well known that nerve growth factor suppresses proliferation of PC12 cells before causing stimulation of neuronal differentiation. Thus, AMP N1-oxide elicited neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells, as evidenced by generation of neurites, and inhibited cell growth through adenosine A2A receptor-mediated PKA signaling, which may be responsible for characteristic actions of RJ. PMID:18955270

  19. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic Acid, a Major Fatty Acid from Royal Jelly, Inhibits VEGF-induced Angiogenesis in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Izuta, Hiroshi; Chikaraishi, Yuichi; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Mishima, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is reported to be a potent pro-angiogenic factor that plays a pivotal role in both physiological and pathological angiogenesis. Royal jelly (RJ) is a honeybee product containing various proteins, sugars, lipids, vitamins and free amino acids. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10HDA), a major fatty acid component of RJ, is known to have various pharmacological effects; its antitumor activity being especially noteworthy. However, the mechanism underlying this effect is unclear. We examined the effect of 10HDA on VEGF-induced proliferation, migration and tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our findings showed that, 10HDA at 20 µM or more significantly inhibited such proliferation, migration and tube formation. Similarly, 10 µM GM6001, a matrix metalloprotease inhibitor, prevented VEGF-induced migration and tube formation. These findings indicate that 10HDA exerts an inhibitory effect on VEGF-induced angiogenesis, partly by inhibiting both cell proliferation and migration. Further experiments will be needed to clarify the detailed mechanism. PMID:18955252

  20. Malaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, an Atlantic Forest area: an assessment using the health surveillance service

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, Renata Bortolasse; Peiter, Paulo Cesar; de Albuquerque, Hermano; Coura, José Rodrigues; Moza, Patrícia Ganzenmüller; Costa, Anielle de Pina; Brasil, Patricia; Suárez-Mutis, Martha Cecília

    2014-01-01

    The lethality of malaria in the extra-Amazonian region is more than 70 times higher than in Amazonia itself. Recently, several studies have shown that autochthonous malaria is not a rare event in the Brazilian southeastern states in the Atlantic Forest biome. Information about autochthonous malaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ) is scarce. This study aims to assess malaria cases reported to the Health Surveillance System of the State of Rio de Janeiro between 2000-2010. An average of 90 cases per year had parasitological malaria confirmation by thick smear. The number of malaria notifications due to Plasmodium falciparum increased over time. Imported cases reported during the period studied were spread among 51% of the municipalities (counties) of the state. Only 35 cases (4.3%) were autochthonous, which represents an average of 3.8 new cases per year. Eleven municipalities reported autochthonous cases; within these, six could be characterised as areas of residual or new foci of malaria from the Atlantic Forest system. The other 28 municipalities could become receptive for transmission reintroduction. Cases occurred during all periods of the year, but 62.9% of cases were in the first semester of each year. Assessing vulnerability and receptivity conditions and vector ecology is imperative to establish the real risk of malaria reintroduction in RJ. PMID:25185004

  1. Operator Evolution via the Similarity Renormalization Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, E. R.; Bogner, S. K.; Furnstahl, R. J.; Perry, R. J.

    2007-10-01

    The Similarity Renormalization Group (SRG) uses unitary transformations to suppress off-diagonal matrix elements, forcing the Hamiltonian towards a band-diagonal form. An SRG transformation applied to nucleon-nucleon interactions leads to greatly improved convergence properties while preserving observables, and provides a method to consistently evolve many-body potentials and other operators.ootnotetextS.K. Bogner, R.J. Furnstahl, and R.J. Perry, Phys. Rev. C 75 (2007) 061001. Here the nature of operator evolution is explored, taking as an example the operator for the bare momentum distribution. The equivalence of a direct evolution via SRG equations and a construction from evolved eigenstates is shown. The flow of the operator and its matrix elements in the deuteron is exhibited and analyzed on the basis of the SRG flow equations for the operator. ConjecturesootnotetextS.K. Bogner et al., Phys. Lett. B 649 (2007) 488. on the factorization of the unitary operator U(k,q) into Kλ(k)Q(q) for k<λ and q λ are explored pictorially and analytically.

  2. Decoupling via the Similarity Renormalization Group for Nucleon-Nucleon Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurgenson, E. D.; Furnstahl, R. J.; Bogner, S. K.

    2007-10-01

    The Similarity Renormalization Group (SRG) provides a compelling new method for decoupling low-energy nuclear physics from high-energy details. While observables are unchanged by the SRG's unitary transformations, the dependence of matrix elements on high-momentum contributions is modified by the running transformation. The SRG has the effect of partially diagonalizing the potential to a width of order the evolution parameter lambda. Because of this diagonalization, one expects a simple decoupling of the low-energy observables for these high-energy degrees of freedom. In a previous work,ootnotetextS.K. Bogner, R.J. Furnstahl, R.J. Perry and A. Schwenk, Phys. Lett. B 649 (2007) 488. evidence for decoupling in phase shifts and the deuteron was shown for the Argonne V18 potential. Here we extend the demonstration of decoupling to other NN potentials and up to A=6 nuclei to verify its universal nature and to show quantitatively that the residual coupling is perturbative above the energy corresponding to the SRG evolution parameter.

  3. Chemical data as markers of the geographical origins of sugarcane spirits.

    PubMed

    Serafim, F A T; Pereira-Filho, Edenir R; Franco, D W

    2016-04-01

    In an attempt to classify sugarcane spirits according to their geographic region of origin, chemical data for 24 analytes were evaluated in 50 cachaças produced using a similar procedure in selected regions of Brazil: São Paulo - SP (15), Minas Gerais - MG (11), Rio de Janeiro - RJ (11), Paraiba -PB (9), and Ceará - CE (4). Multivariate analysis was applied to the analytical results, and the predictive abilities of different classification methods were evaluated. Principal component analysis identified five groups, and chemical similarities were observed between MG and SP samples and between RJ and PB samples. CE samples presented a distinct chemical profile. Among the samples, partial linear square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) classified 50.2% of the samples correctly, K-nearest neighbor (KNN) 86%, and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) 56.2%. Therefore, in this proof of concept demonstration, the proposed approach based on chemical data satisfactorily predicted the cachaças' geographic origins. PMID:26593483

  4. Particle Pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Increase and Decrease of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 in Human Lung Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Cotto, Rosa I.; Ortiz-Martínez, Mario G.; Rivera-Ramírez, Evasomary; Mateus, Vinicius L.; Amaral, Beatriz S.; Jiménez-Vélez, Braulio D.; Gioda, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Particle pollution from urban and industrialized regions in Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil was analyzed for toxic and pro-inflammatory (cytokines: IL-6, IL-8, IL-10) responses in human bronchial epithelial cells. Trace elements contribution was studied. Airborne particulate matter was collected at: three industrial sites Ind-1 (PM10) and Ind-2a and 2b (PM2.5); Centro urban area (PM10) and two rural sites (PM2.5, PM10). PM10 acetone extracts were toxic and did not elicit cytokine release; aqueous extracts were less toxic and stimulated the release of IL-6 and IL-8. PM2.5 aqueous extracts from Ind-2 decreased the release of IL-6 and IL-8. Zinc concentration was higher at the industrial and rural reference sites (Ref-1-2) although metals were not associated to cytokines changes. These results demonstrate that PM from RJ can either increase or decrease cytokine secretion in vitro while being site specific and time dependent. PMID:25106047

  5. A note on the meaning of mixture viscosity using the classical continuum theories of mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Massoudi, Mehrdad

    2008-07-01

    In this paper we provide a brief review of the basic equations for the flow of two linearly viscous fluids using the mixture theory equations given in Atkin and Craine [R.J. Atkin, R.E. Craine, Continuum theories of mixtures: applications, J. Inst. Math. Appl. 17 (1976) 153; R.J. Atkin, R.E. Craine, Continuum theories of mixtures: basic theory and historical development, Quart. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 29 (1976) 290]. We then look at certain principles (or more accurately assumptions) due to Truesdell [C. Truesdell, Sulle basi della thermomeccanica, Rand Lincei, Series 8 22 (1957) 33–38, and 158–166] and Adkins [J.E. Adkins, Non-linear diffusion, 1. Diffusion and flow of mixtures of fluids, Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London A 255 (1963) 607–633; J.E. Adkins, Non-linear diffusion, 2. Constitutive equations for mixtures of isotropic fluids, Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London A 255 (1963) 635–648] and show that if the ‘assumption of the limiting cases’ of Adkins is to hold, then a very specific structure on the material properties of the two fluids has to be imposed. This new hypothesis provides one such condition for this requirement. An attempt is made to derive a relationship for the mixture viscosity using these ideas.

  6. The dependence of stress in IBAD films on the ion-irradiation energy and flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitz, K. O.; Arndt, J.; Bøttiger, J.; Chevallier, J.

    1997-05-01

    Systematic experimental studies of the stress build-up during e-gun deposition of Ni with simultaneous bombardment by energetic Ar + ions (IBAD) have been carried out. The ion energy E was varied from 60 to 800 eV, and the ratio of the arrival rates of Ni atoms and Ar + ions, {R}/{J}, was varied from 0.5 to 6.4. The Ni-deposition rate was in the range from 0.5 to 2.0 Å/s, with all the depositions carried out near room temperature in a chamber with the base pressure of 5 × 10 -6 Pa. The film stress was measured by use of profilometry and the application of Stoney's equation. The experimental results were compared with predictions of a simple model proposed by Davis. This model assumes that the compressive stress build-up, due to knock-on implantation of film atoms being proportional to E {1}/{2}, is balanced by relaxation by collision-cascade-excited atom migration proportional to E {5}/{3}. To obtain agreement between model and experiment in the investigated ranges of E and {R}/{J}, an additional model parameter had to be added which takes into account that without irradiation, tensile stresses arise.

  7. Changes in brightness of Jupiter's radiation belts at 13 and 22 cm during and after impacts of comet SL-9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, Y.; Dulk, G. A.

    The Australia Telescope provided 2-D images of the changes in Jupiter radiation belts caused by comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with a resolution of 4″ × 18″ at 13 cm and 7″ × 30″ at 22 cm. Before the impacts, at 22 cm, the images and 1-D scans along the magnetic equator were very similar to those observed at 20 cm by the VLA 12 years earlier at the same longitudes. During and after the SL-9 impacts, the belts were brighter than before, and remained bright at least 12 days after the first impact. The increase in brightness was not the same at all longitudes; it was almost entirely confined to one hemisphere, between 100° and 240° longitude, where the magnetic field is the stronger. The separation between the peaks of intensity decreased from 2.92 RJ to 2.82 RJ over the 12 days. The changes in the belts at 13 cm were similar to those observed at 22 cm. The new asymmetry implies the existence of a new or a newly-accelerated population of electrons confined to a portion of the magnetic field of the planet.

  8. Transcriptome Sequencing Analysis Reveals the Regulation of the Hypopharyngeal Glands in the Honey Bee, Apis mellifera carnica Pollmann

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Ling; Shen, Jie; Shen, Fang; Chen, Guohong

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptome sequencing has become the main methodology for analyzing the relationship between genes and characteristics of interests, particularly those associated with diseases and economic traits. Because of its role of functional food for humans, commercial royal jelly (RJ) and its production are major research focuses in the field of apiculture. Multiple lines of evidence have demonstrated that many factors affect RJ output by activating or inhibiting various target genes and signaling pathways. Available coding sequences from the Honey Bee Genome Sequencing Consortium have permitted a pathway-based approach for investigating the development of the hypopharyngeal glands (HGs). In the present study, 3573941, 3562730, 3551541, 3524453, and 3615558 clean reads were obtained from the HGs of five full-sister honey bee samples using Solexa RNA sequencing technology. These reads were then assembled into 18378, 17785, 17065, 17105, and 17995 unigenes, respectively, and aligned to the DFCI Honey Bee Gene Index database. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) data were also correlated with detailed morphological data for HGs acini. PMID:24339892

  9. Particle pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: increase and decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 in human lung cells.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cotto, Rosa I; Ortiz-Martínez, Mario G; Rivera-Ramírez, Evasomary; Mateus, Vinicius L; Amaral, Beatriz S; Jiménez-Vélez, Braulio D; Gioda, Adriana

    2014-11-01

    Particle pollution from urban and industrialized regions in Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil was analyzed for toxic and pro-inflammatory (cytokines: IL-6, IL-8, IL-10) responses in human bronchial epithelial cells. Trace elements contribution was studied. Airborne particulate matter was collected at: three industrial sites Ind-1 (PM10) and Ind-2a and 2b (PM2.5); Centro urban area (PM10) and two rural sites (PM2.5, PM10). PM10 acetone extracts were toxic and did not elicit cytokine release; aqueous extracts were less toxic and stimulated the release of IL-6 and IL-8. PM2.5 aqueous extracts from Ind-2 decreased the release of IL-6 and IL-8. Zinc concentration was higher at the industrial and rural reference sites (Ref-1-2) although metals were not associated to cytokines changes. These results demonstrate that PM from RJ can either increase or decrease cytokine secretion in vitro while being site specific and time dependent. PMID:25106047

  10. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic Acid, the Major Lipid Component of Royal Jelly, Extends the Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans through Dietary Restriction and Target of Rapamycin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Honda, Yoko; Araki, Yoko; Hata, Taketoshi; Ichihara, Kenji; Ito, Masafumi; Tanaka, Masashi; Honda, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Royal jelly (RJ) produced by honeybees has been reported to possess diverse health-beneficial properties and has been implicated to have a function in longevity across diverse species as well as honeybees. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA), the major lipid component of RJ produced by honeybees, was previously shown to increase the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. The objective of this study is to elucidate signaling pathways that are involved in the lifespan extension by 10-HDA. 10-HDA further extended the lifespan of the daf-2 mutants, which exhibit long lifespan through reducing insulin-like signaling (ILS), indicating that 10-HDA extended lifespan independently of ILS. On the other hand, 10-HDA did not extend the lifespan of the eat-2 mutants, which show long lifespan through dietary restriction caused by a food-intake defect. This finding indicates that 10-HDA extends lifespan through dietary restriction signaling. We further found that 10-HDA did not extend the lifespan of the long-lived mutants in daf-15, which encodes Raptor, a target of rapamycin (TOR) components, indicating that 10-HDA shared some longevity control mechanisms with TOR signaling. Additionally, 10-HDA was found to confer tolerance against thermal and oxidative stress. 10-HDA increases longevity not through ILS but through dietary restriction and TOR signaling in C. elegans. PMID:25789174

  11. R gene-controlled host specificity in the legume–rhizobia symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shengming; Tang, Fang; Gao, Muqiang; Krishnan, Hari B.; Zhu, Hongyan

    2010-01-01

    Leguminous plants can enter into root nodule symbioses with nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria known as rhizobia. An intriguing but still poorly understood property of the symbiosis is its host specificity, which is controlled at multiple levels involving both rhizobial and host genes. It is widely believed that the host specificity is determined by specific recognition of bacterially derived Nod factors by the cognate host receptor(s). Here we describe the positional cloning of two soybean genes Rj2 and Rfg1 that restrict nodulation with specific strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Sinorhizobium fredii, respectively. We show that Rj2 and Rfg1 are allelic genes encoding a member of the Toll-interleukin receptor/nucleotide-binding site/leucine-rich repeat (TIR-NBS-LRR) class of plant resistance (R) proteins. The involvement of host R genes in the control of genotype-specific infection and nodulation reveals a common recognition mechanism underlying symbiotic and pathogenic host–bacteria interactions and suggests the existence of their cognate avirulence genes derived from rhizobia. This study suggests that establishment of a root nodule symbiosis requires the evasion of plant immune responses triggered by rhizobial effectors. PMID:20937853

  12. Doppler Follow-up of Kepler Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Borucki, W. J.; Basri, G.; Walkowicz, L.; Latham, D. W.; Buchave, L.; Cochran, W.; Endl, M.; Gautier, T. N.; Batalha, N.; Koch, D.; Johnson, J.; Fischer, D. A.; Howard, A.; Isaacson, H.; Kepler Team

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler Mission consists of a 1-meter Schmidt telescope in an Earth-trailing orbit designed to detect transiting planets in a field of 100 square degrees in the Cygnus-Lyra region, with an input Catalog of over 100,000 stars of V magnitude mostly 12 to 15. Doppler measurements are useful for verifying the planets and measuring their masses and orbits including eccentricity. The Kepler follow-up team is using the Keck telescope and HIRES spectrometer to make Doppler measurements with a precision of 3 m/s, a challenging goal for 13th mag stars. Novel Doppler techniques are being developed. The Doppler observations have helped confirm the discovery of exoplanets with sizes ranging from 0.6 Rj to1.5Rj with orbital periods of 3 to 9 days. Kepler was selected as the 10th mission of the Discovery Program. Funding for this mission is provided by NASA, Science Mission Directorate. Access to the Keck telescope was provided by NASA and by the University of California.

  13. Renal blood flow transit time in the study of renal transplants

    SciTech Connect

    Sfakianakis, G.; Ihmeidan, I.; Kyriakides, G.; Martinez, B.; Hourani, M.; Miller, J.; Serafini, A.

    1985-05-01

    Radio-hippurate scintigraphy has been used to study renal transplant function because of its unique advantages over other noninvasive methods. Despite a great sensitivity in diagnosing the existence of a functional problem the test lacks in specificity. In an effort to differentiate between acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and graft rejection (RJ) the authors preceded hippurate scintigraphy by measurements of renal flow transit time (TT). After an intravenous injection of 8 mCi of Tc-99m-sulfur-colloid flow curves from the kidney and the abdominal aorta in 1 sec intervals for 1 min were obtained. Renal transit time was mathematically calculated and corrected for bolus and circulatory differences by dividing it with the corresponding Aortic TT (corrected Renal TT(cRTT). Radiohippuran (O-I-131-Hippurate), 150 ..mu..Ci was injected subsequently and of the different computer generated parameters the 30 min net cortical residual (% of the peak) activity (Hippuran Residual Activity, HRA) was found more sensitive and reproducible for comparisons. Results of documented cases showed a statistically significant difference. Uncomplicated cases (usually on antirejection therapy) showed a tendency to increasing the cRTTs with time (not significantly) but their HRAs were significantly lower than in ATN and RJ (p< 0.001).

  14. [Impact of a music therapy program on the stress level of health professionals].

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Taets GG; Borba-Pinheiro CJ; de Figueiredo NM; Dantas EH

    2013-05-01

    The study aimed to assess the effects of a music therapy program on the level of stress for female professionals working in a private hospital in Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil. Thirty four female volunteers with 33.3 ± 8.5 years of age from different levels of professional participated in the study. We used the Lipp's inventory of symptoms of stress for adults (ISSL) to evaluate the level of stress of participants before and after music therapy. The program consisted of twelve sessions using the techniques of music therapy Improvisation and Musical Re-creation held once a week with 50 minutes / session in a period of three months. The Wilcoxon test for repeated measures was used for statistical analysis. The study showed a statistically significant decrease (Δ = - 60%, p <0.001) in the level of stress professionals studied after the music therapy program. In conclusion, the present study that the music therapy program was effective in decrease the level of stress of women health professionals working in a private hospital in Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil.

  15. Plasma properties in the deep jovian magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaou, G.; McComas, D. J.; Bagenal, F.; Elliott, H. A.; Wilson, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    New Horizons observed consistently and continuously the jovian magnetotail at distances up to ~2500 Jupiter Radii (Rj) during its Jupiter flyby in 2007. The Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) plasma instrument on New Horizons made in situ observations of plasma ions in the energy per charge range of ~21 eV to 7.8 keV. We analyze the SWAP plasma observations and derive the bulk properties of the plasma ions in the deep jovian magnetotail for 64 intervals from ~500 to 1700 Rj, just before the spacecraft start crossing the jovian magnetopause. There is no clear evolution of the plasma parameters over this distance range and we show that the plasma is very diverse over this entire range. There are significant changes in the plasma parameters and the flow direction over times as short as a few hours, showing evidence that boundaries between different plasma structures pass over the spacecraft rapidly. We discuss in detail a few subintervals where two species are observed within the instrument's energy per charge range and a set of subintervals where the plasma flow rotates ~20° over just six hours. We finally discuss the mass flux during the subintervals we study and the scenario of expanding plasmoids that propagate tailward and expand and interact to fill the magnetotail. This scenario is supported by the observed plasma diversity and flow characteristics.

  16. The effectiveness of reintegrative shaming and restorative justice conferences: focusing on juvenile offenders' perceptions in Australian reintegrative shaming experiments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Joo; Gerber, Jurg

    2012-10-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of diversionary restorative justice (RJ) conferences through the eyes of juvenile offenders. In Australia, Reintegrative Shaming Experiments (RISE) are based on Braithwaite's theory of reintegrative shaming. Previous studies, although showing that RISE reported high levels of victim satisfaction and positive changes in the attitudes of offenders, also demonstrated that it has different outcomes for juvenile offenders depending on the type of offense with which they were charged. However, the effectiveness of RISE in terms of the offenders' perceptions has not been addressed, and the impact of the offenders' perceptions about RISE still remains under investigation. Using Australian data from RISE between 1995 and 1999, this article examines juvenile offenders' perceptions on preventing reoffending, repaying the victim and society, and the degree of repentance. The data were taken from interviews with juvenile offenders to measure their perceptions after the court or RISE processing. A comparison of standard court processing effects and RISE on juvenile offending, including property crime, shoplifting, and violent offenses, was undertaken. The results from this study were somewhat inconsistent with previous research. In this study, there was no significant relationship between RJ conference and the offenders' own perceptions on the prevention of future offending. However, it was found that there were treatment effects on repaying the victim, repaying society, and the degree of feeling repentance, and that younger offenders wanted to repay the victim/society and feel repentance. PMID:21824891

  17. Trace Metals and Lead Isotopes in modern Sediments Near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, E. A.; Lazzari, L.; Wagener, A. L.; Carreira, R.; Godoy, J. M.; Noble, A.; Carrasco, G. G.; Moos, S. B.

    2014-12-01

    This work focuses on the export of trace metals and combustion residues from land to ocean and on the Southeast continental margin of Brazil and its historical variability using stable lead isotopes. Two sediment cores were collected, one in highly impacted Guanabara Bay and the other on the Southeast continental shelf. Continental shelf samples were analyzed for trace element concentrations [Mn (117±50 ppm), Ni (6.5±2.3 ppm), Zn (5.0±1.5), (233±46 ppm), ], Pb (5.4±2.4 ppm), as well as Cu, Ag, Cd, Sr, Ba, Tl, U and Pb isotope ratios & Pb-210. Most of the elements show higher concentrations on the upper part of the core compared to the bottom. Downcore changes of the concentrations of these elements were similar. The sediments of adjacent rivers and bays around the upper section of the southeast continental shelf of Brazil are considered highly enriched with Pb, Zn, Cu and Cr such as Guanabara Bay, Sepetiba Bay and Paraíba do Sul River compared with the natural concentrations and other regions in the world. A [Pb] maximum is seen between samples from 24 to 43 cm (~8 ppm). Utilization of tetraethyl lead (TEL) gasoline in Brazil was phased out beginning in 1983 and was largely completed by 1988. Continental shelf Pb-206/Pb-207 varies between 1.174 near the core top to 1.190 at 100 cm, with a sharp difference between samples at 6 and 8 cm. Higher core top Pb, Zn, and Ni corroborate the recent anthropogenic influence on the southeast continental shelf of Brazil. For Guanabara Bay sediment samples [Pb] varies between 90 ppm near the top to 1 ppm at the bottom. Pb-206/Pb-207 varies between 1.161 near the core top to 1.165 near the bottom. Using triple isotope plots we can discern different sources of lead to the region and how these vary with time.

  18. Apparent discrepancy in contamination history of a sub-tropical estuary evaluated through 210Pb profile and chronostratigraphical markers.

    PubMed

    Marques, Aguinaldo N; Monna, Fabrice; da Silva Filho, Emmanoel V; Fernex, Franois E; Fernando Lamego Simes Filho, F

    2006-05-01

    Zn and Cd concentrations, stable lead isotopes and 210Pb-derived chronology were determined in a sediment core sampled at Sepetiba Bay (South-eastern Brazil). During the last decades, the bay's watershed has been modified by the increase of industrial activities and human interventions. In particular, Zn and Cd ore treatment plants were built near the coast in 1960 and 1970, respectively, and water has been diverted from the adjacent Paraba do Sul River watershed since 1950. The core collected at shallow depth near the industrial area exhibits four successive events: (i) at 50 cm depth, a change in the 206Pb/207Pb ratio from about 1.162 to more than 1.18 might be the result of the So Francisco Channel opening and water diversion from Paraba do Sul river; (ii) at 40 cm depth, Zn concentration starts to increase (up to 0.8 mg g(-1)) (iii) above 30 cm depth, relatively high Cd concentrations (up to 1.6 microg g(-1)) are observed and (iv) at 16 cm depth, change in unsupported 210Pb slope is probably related to a waste dam built to prevent strong metal contamination in the bay. Sediment accumulation rates evaluated by Zn and Cd profiles used as time-markers are higher than those calculated from 210Pb-based chronology models. Using the constant initial concentration (CIC) model both events are supposed to date back to about 1884 and 1902, respectively, while using the constant rate of supply (CRS) model it shifts to about 1925 and 1935. Such discrepancies are probably assigned to the fact that these models do not take into account site-specific local sedimentation dynamics. In the study area, particles deposition seems to be controlled by enrichment with unsupported 210Pb transported by runoff from a mangrove flat bank. Chronology derived from a model that assumes an exponential increase of the initial 210Pb activity fits well with the estimated rates obtained from historical events. PMID:16309713

  19. Cadmium Diagenesis in Polluted Sediments of a Tropical Estuary of SE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patchineelam, S. R.; Metzger, E.; Jézéquel, D.; Sarazin, G.; Smoak, J. M.

    2006-12-01

    Sepetiba bay is a shallow semi enclosed water body located about 70km on the west side of the city of Rio de Janeiro with an area of 450km² separated from the Atlantic Ocean by a sand spit. Fishing, shrimp and tourism are important economic activities. During 35 years a Zinc/Cadmium smelter has polluted the bay. The objective of this investigation is to demonstrate how diagenetic processes are responsible for the cadmium remobilization out or fixation into the sediment column.. Two contrasting sites were selected to compare the diagenetic process. P1 located near to the smelter and P2 is about 20km away from the smelter next to a domestic effluents discharge into the bay. Peeper samplers with 25 cells with a resolution of 2,5cm were introduced into the sediment at both sites. After a period of 3 weeks equilibrium, the pore waters were separated from each cell and analyzed within 24 hours for alkalinity, H2S, NH3 and soluble phosphate by conventional methods An ICP-AES spectrometer was used to analyze Na, Mg, Li, Ba, Sr, Si, Fe and Mn. The total and labile Cd in pore waters were determined by differential-pulse stripping voltammetry. The solute profiles have revealed that the sediments at both sites were anoxic. The slopes of the ferrous and sulfide profile constituents permitted characterization the area at P1 as ferrous dominant with oxic conditions in the overlying water and P2 as a sulfidic rich environment with suboxic conditions in the water column. At P1 total dissolved Cd in the overlying water was about 450pM and labile fraction varied from 85 to 177pM. Just below the sediment water interface 695pM of total dissolved Cd was observed. Probably diagenetic processes are responsible for release of cadmium at the sediment interface. Below this maxima Cd concentrations decreased to 30pM. At P2 a concentration o of 150pM of total dissolved Cd was detected in the overlying water and samples in the pore waters at the sediment interface had an average concentration of 20pM. The downward diffusion of dissolved Cd in the pore water probably facilitated the formation of Cd sulfide or adsorption on particulate matter.

  20. Formacion de Formadores en Planeamiento y Administracion de la Education: Informe Final. Reunion Tecnica de la Red REPLAD, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brasil, 9-13 de noviembre de 1987. (Educational Development of Professionals in Educational Planning and Administration: Final Report. Proceedings of the Meeting of the Major Project for Education (Sao Paulo, Brazil, November 9-13, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    This final report provides a synthesis of conference presentations by representatives from institutions in 17 Latin American and the Caribbean nations. The material includes descriptions about institutions of higher education planning and developing of their respective schools of education, ministries of education, and national and regional

  1. Formacion de Formadores en Planeamiento y Administracion de la Education: Informe Final. Reunion Tecnica de la Red REPLAD, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brasil, 9-13 de noviembre de 1987. (Educational Development of Professionals in Educational Planning and Administration: Final Report. Proceedings of the Meeting of the Major Project for Education (Sao Paulo, Brazil, November 9-13, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    This final report provides a synthesis of conference presentations by representatives from institutions in 17 Latin American and the Caribbean nations. The material includes descriptions about institutions of higher education planning and developing of their respective schools of education, ministries of education, and national and regional…

  2. Training Effects on Immune Function in Judoists

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Namju; Kim, Jongkyu; Hyung, Gu Am; Park, Jeong Hun; Kim, Sung Jin; Kim, Han Byeol; Jung, Han Sang

    2015-01-01

    Background: It has been reported that high intensity long term training in elite athletes may increase risk of immune function. Objectives: This study is to examine training effects on immunoglobulin and changes of physiological stress and physical fitness level induced by increased cold stress during 12-week winter off-season training in elite Judoists. Patients and Methods: Twenty-nine male participants (20 ± 1 years) were assigned to only Judo training (CG, n = 9), resistance training combined with Judo training (RJ, n = 10), and interval training combined with Judo training (IJ, n = 10). Blood samples collected at rest, immediately after all-out exercise, and 30-minute recovery period were analyzed for testing IgA, IgG, and IgM, albumin and catecholamine levels. Results: VO2max and anaerobic mean power in IJ (P < 0.05) and anaerobic power in RJ (P < 0.05) were significantly increased after 12-week training compared to CG. There was no significant interaction effect (group × period) in albumin after 12-week training; however, there was a significant interaction effect (group × period) in epinephrine after 12-week training (F (4, 52) = 3.216, P = 0.002) and immediately after all-out exercise and at 30-minute recovery (F (2, 26) = 14.564, P = 0.008). There was significantly higher changes in epinephrine of RJ compared to IJ at 30-minute recovery (P = 0.045). There was a significant interaction effect (group × period) in norepinephrine after 12-week training (F (4, 52) = 8.141, P < 0.0001), at rest and immediately after all-out exercise (F (2, 26) = 9.570, P = 0.001), and immediately after all-out exercise and at 30-minute recovery (F (2, 26) = 8.862, P = 0.001). Conclusions: Winter off-season training of IJ increased physical fitness level as well as physical stress induced by overtraining. Along with increased physical stress, all groups showed reduced trend of IgA; however, there was no group difference based on different training methods. PMID:26448852

  3. Sustained Accretion on Gas Giants Surrounded by Low-Turbulence Circumplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelo, Gennaro; Marzari, Francesco

    2015-11-01

    Gas giants more massive than Saturn acquire most of their envelope while surrounded by a circumplanetary disk (CPD), which extends over a fraction of the planet’s Hill radius. Akin to circumstellar disks, CPDs may be subject to MRI-driven turbulence and contain low-turbulence regions, i.e., dead zones. It was suggested that CPDs may inhibit sustained gas accretion, thus limiting planet growth, because gas transport through a CPD may be severely reduced by a dead zone, a consequence at odds with the presence of Jupiter-mass (and larger) planets. We studied how an extended dead zone influences gas accretion on a Jupiter-mass planet, using global 3D hydrodynamics calculations with mesh refinements. The accretion flow from the circumstellar disk to the CPD is resolved locally at the length scale Rj, Jupiter's radius. The gas kinematic viscosity is assumed to be constant and the dead zone around the planet is modeled as a region of much lower viscosity, extending from ~Rj out to ~60Rj and off the mid-plane for a few CPD scale heights. We obtain accretion rates only marginally smaller than those reported by, e.g., D'Angelo et al. (2003), Bate et al. (2003), Bodenheimer et al. (2013), who applied the same constant kinematic viscosity everywhere, including in the CPD. As found by several previous studies (e.g., D’Angelo et al. 2003; Bate et al. 2003; Tanigawa et al. 2012; Ayliffe and Bate 2012; Gressel et al. 2013; Szulágyi et al. 2014), the accretion flow does not proceed through the CPD mid-plane but rather at and above the CPD surface, hence involving MRI-active regions (Turner et al. 2014). We conclude that the presence of a dead zone in a CPD does not inhibit gas accretion on a giant planet. Sustained accretion in the presence of a CPD is consistent not only with the formation of Jupiter but also with observed extrasolar planets more massive than Jupiter. We place these results in the context of the growth and migration of a pair of giant planets locked in the 2:1 mean motion resonance

  4. Genetic variation in the 3’ untranslated region of dengue virus serotype 3 strains isolated from mosquitoes and humans in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral infection caused by one of the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes (DENV-1 to 4), replicate alternately on the mosquito vector and human host and are responsible for infections throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Brazil, the disease has become a major public health problem and the introduction of DENV-3 in 2000 in Rio de Janeiro (RJ) was associated with severe dengue epidemics. The potential emergence of strains associated with severe disease highlights the need for the surveillance of DENV in human host and vectors. Methods Aiming to contribute for DENV phylogenetic and vector-virus-human host studies, we sequenced the entire genome of one DENV-3 isolated from naturally infected Aedes aegypti from RJ in 2001 and characterized the 3’ UTR from strains isolated from mosquitoes and humans. Mosquitoes were pooled and submitted to virus isolation in Ae. albopictus C6/36 cells and the infecting serotype was identified by immunofluorescence using type-specific monoclonal antibody. Sequence analysis was performed using BioEdit software, the multiple alignments were performed using CLUSTAL W and the phylogenetic analysis by MEGA 5, using the Neighbor-joining method. Secondary structure prediction was performed by using the MFOLD program. Results Exclusive substitutions and a substitution leading to a stop codon on the NS5 gene were observed in the DENV-3 isolated from a naturally infected Ae. aegypti and fully sequenced. As an 8- nucleotides deletion was observed within the 11- nucleotides (nts) insertion on the variable region (VR) from the 3′UTR in this isolate, we further sequenced other DENV-3 from both mosquitoes and humans. The majority of DENV-3 from RJ analyzed were characterized by the 11-nts insertion in the VR of the 3′UTR, despite the observation of strains carrying the 8-nts deletion. The latter presented similar secondary structures, however not all strains presenting the 11-nts insertion were similar in the predicted secondary structure. Conclusions The phylogeny based on the analysis of the complete genome and 3′UTR characterized the DENV-3 isolated from both vector and human host as belonging to Genotype III (GIII), despite the differences observed on the 3’ UTR. Further studies are needed to address the role of those mutations in the transmission of the different viral populations and vector competence. PMID:23282086

  5. Galileo in-situ dust measurements and the sculpting of Jupiter's gossamer rings by its shadow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Harald; Hamilton, Douglas P.; Moissl, Richard; Grün, Eberhard

    2008-09-01

    Galileo was the first articfiial satellite to orbit Jupiter. During its late orbital mission the spacecraft made two passages through the giant planet's gossamer ring system. The highly sensitive impact-ionization dust detector on board successfully recorded dust impacts during both ring passages and provided the first in-situ measurements from a dusty planetary ring. During the first passage { on 5 November 2002 while Galileo was approaching Jupiter - dust measurements were collected until a spacecraft anomaly at 2:33RJ (Jupiter radii) just 16 min after a close flyby of Amalthea put the spacecraft into a safing mode. The second ring passage on 21 September 2003 provided ring dust measurements down to about 2:5RJ and the Galileo spacecraft was destroyed shortly thereafter in a planned impact with Jupiter. In all, a few thousand dust impacts were counted with the instrument accumulators during both ring passages, but only a total of 110 complete data sets of dust impacts were transmitted to Earth (Krüger et al, Icarus, submitted). Detected particle sizes range from about 0.2 to 5 μm, extending the known size distribution by an order of magnitude towards smaller particles than previously derived from optical imaging (Showalter et al., Icarus 2008). The grain size distribution increases towards smaller particles and shows an excess of these tiny motes in the Amalthea gossamer ring compared to the Thebe ring. The size distribution for the Amalthea ring derived from our in-situ measurements for the small grains agrees very well with the one obtained from images for large grains. Our analysis shows that particles contributing most to the optical cross-section are approximately 5 μm in radius, in agreement with imaging results. The measurements indicate a large drop in particle ux immediately interior to Thebe's orbit and some detected particles seem to be on highly-tilted orbits with inclinations up to 20°. Finally, the faint Thebe ring extension was detected out to at least 5RJ, indicating that grains attain higher eccentricities than previously thought. The drop interior to Thebe, the excess of submicron grains at Amalthea, and the faint ring extension indicate that grain dynamics is strongly in uenced by electromagnetic forces. Recent modelling (Hamilton & Krüger, Nature, 2008) shows that time variable electromagnetic effects (shadow resonance) can account for all of these surprising results. In particular, when the ring particles travel through Jupiter's shadow, dust grain electric charges vary systematically, driving grains out into the Thebe Extension and matching the Galileo in-situ dust measurements.

  6. Galileo in-situ dust measurements in Jupiter’s gossamer rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Harald; Hamilton, Douglas P.; Moissl, Richard; Grün, Eberhard

    2009-09-01

    Galileo was the first artificial satellite to orbit Jupiter. During its late orbital mission the spacecraft made two passages through the giant planet's gossamer ring system. The impact-ionization dust detector on board successfully recorded dust impacts during both ring passages and provided the first in-situ measurements from a dusty planetary ring. During the first passage—on 5 November 2002 while Galileo was approaching Jupiter—dust measurements were collected until a spacecraft anomaly at 2.33 RJ (Jupiter radii) just 16 min after a close flyby of Amalthea put the spacecraft into a safing mode. The second ring passage on 21 September 2003 provided ring dust measurements down to about 2.5 RJ and the Galileo spacecraft was destroyed shortly thereafter in a planned impact with Jupiter. In all, a few thousand dust impacts were counted with the instrument accumulators during both ring passages, but only a total of 110 complete data sets of dust impacts were transmitted to Earth. Detected particle sizes range from about 0.2 to 5 μm, extending the known size distribution by an order of magnitude towards smaller particles than previously derived from optical imaging [Showalter, M.R., de Pater, I., Verbanac, G., Hamilton, D.P., Burns, J.A., 2008. Icarus 195, 361-377; de Pater, I., Showalter, M.R., Macintosh, B., 2008. Icarus 195, 348-360]. The grain size distribution increases towards smaller particles and shows an excess of these tiny motes in the Amalthea gossamer ring compared to the Thebe ring. The size distribution for the Amalthea ring derived from our in-situ measurements for the small grains agrees very well with the one obtained from images for large grains. Our analysis shows that particles contributing most to the optical cross-section are about 5 μm in radius, in agreement with imaging results. The measurements indicate a large drop in particle flux immediately interior to Thebe's orbit and some detected particles seem to be on highly-tilted orbits with inclinations up to 20°. Finally, the faint Thebe ring extension was detected out to at least 5 RJ, indicating that grains attain higher eccentricities than previously thought. The drop interior to Thebe, the excess of submicron grains at Amalthea, and the faint ring extension indicate that grain dynamics is strongly influenced by electromagnetic forces. These findings can all be explained by a shadow resonance as detailed by Hamilton and Krüger [Hamilton, D.P., Krüger, H., 2008. Nature 453, 72-75].

  7. Accurate Analytic Potential Functions for the a ^3Π_1 and X ^1Σ^+ States of {IBr}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukiya, Tokio; Nishimiya, Nobuo; Suzuki, Masao; Le Roy, Robert

    2014-06-01

    Spectra of IBr in various wavelength regions have been measured by a number of researchers using traditional diffraction grating and microwave methods, as well as using high-resolution laser techniques combined with a Fourier transform spectrometer. In a previous paper at this meeting, we reported a preliminary determination of analytic potential energy functions for the A ^3Π_1 and X ^1Σ^+ states of IBr from a direct-potential-fit (DPF) analysis of all of the data available at that time. That study also confirmed the presence of anomalous fluctuations in the v--dependence of the first differences of the inertial rotational constant, Δ Bv=Bv+1-Bv in the A ^3Π_1 state for vibrational levels with v'(A) in the mid 20's. However, our previous experience in a recent study of the analogous A ^3Π_1-X ^1Σ_g^+ system of Br_2 suggested that the effect of such fluctuations may be overcome if sufficient data are available. The present work therefore reports new measurements of transitions to levels in the v'(A)=23-26 region, together with a new global DPF analysis that uses ``robust" least-squares fits to average properly over the effect of such fluctuations in order to provide an optimum delineation of the underlying potential energy curve(s). L.E.Selin,Ark. Fys. 21,479(1962) E. Tiemann and Th. Moeller, Z. Naturforsch. A 30,986 (1975) E.M. Weinstock and A. Preston, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 70, 188 (1978) D.R.T. Appadoo, P.F. Bernath, and R.J. Le Roy, Can. J. Phys. 72, 1265 (1994) N. Nishimiya, T. Yukiya and M. Suzuki, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 173, 8 (1995). T. Yukiya, N. Nishimiya, and R.J. Le Roy, Paper MF12 at the 65th Ohio State University International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, Columbus, Ohio, June 20-24, 2011. T. Yukiya, N. Nishimiya, Y. Samajima, K. Yamaguchi, M. Suzuki, C.D. Boone, I. Ozier and R.J. Le Roy, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 283, 32 (2013) J.K.G. Watson, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 219, 326 (2003).

  8. Mapping beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) forest structure with airborne hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Moses Azong; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Sobhan, Istiak

    2009-06-01

    Estimating forest structural attributes using multispectral remote sensing is challenging because of the saturation of multispectral indices at high canopy cover. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of hyperspectral data in estimating and mapping forest structural parameters including mean diameter-at-breast height (DBH), mean tree height and tree density of a closed canopy beech forest ( Fagus sylvatica L.). Airborne HyMap images and data on forest structural attributes were collected from the Majella National Park, Italy in July 2004. The predictive performances of vegetation indices (VI) derived from all possible two-band combinations (VI ( i, j) = ( Ri - Rj)/( Ri + Rj), where Ri and Rj = reflectance in any two bands) were evaluated using calibration ( n = 33) and test ( n = 20) data sets. The potential of partial least squares (PLS) regression, a multivariate technique involving several bands was also assessed. New VIs based on the contrast between reflectance in the red-edge shoulder (756-820 nm) and the water absorption feature centred at 1200 nm (1172-1320 nm) were found to show higher correlations with the forest structural parameters than standard VIs derived from NIR and visible reflectance (i.e. the normalised difference vegetation index, NDVI). PLS regression showed a slight improvement in estimating the beech forest structural attributes (prediction errors of 27.6%, 32.6% and 46.4% for mean DBH, height and tree density, respectively) compared to VIs using linear regression models (prediction errors of 27.8%, 35.8% and 48.3% for mean DBH, height and tree density, respectively). Mean DBH was the best predicted variable among the stand parameters (calibration R2 = 0.62 for an exponential model fit and standard error of prediction = 5.12 cm, i.e. 25% of the mean). The predicted map of mean DBH revealed high heterogeneity in the beech forest structure in the study area. The spatial variability of mean DBH occurs at less than 450 m. The DBH map could be useful to forest management in many ways, e.g. thinning of coppice to promote diameter growth, to assess the effects of management on forest structure or to detect changes in the forest structure caused by anthropogenic and natural factors.

  9. A symmetry model for genetic coding via a wallpaper group composed of the traditional four bases and an imaginary base E: Towards category theory-like systematization of molecular/genetic biology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previously, we suggested prototypal models that describe some clinical states based on group postulates. Here, we demonstrate a group/category theory-like model for molecular/genetic biology as an alternative application of our previous model. Specifically, we focus on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) base sequences. Results We construct a wallpaper pattern based on a five-letter cruciform motif with letters C, A, T, G, and E. Whereas the first four letters represent the standard DNA bases, the fifth is introduced for ease in formulating group operations that reproduce insertions and deletions of DNA base sequences. A basic group Z5 = {r, u, d, l, n} of operations is defined for the wallpaper pattern, with which a sequence of points can be generated corresponding to changes of a base in a DNA sequence by following the orbit of a point of the pattern under operations in group Z5. Other manipulations of DNA sequence can be treated using a vector-like notation ‘Dj’ corresponding to a DNA sequence but based on the five-letter base set; also, ‘Dj’s are expressed graphically. Insertions and deletions of a series of letters ‘E’ are admitted to assist in describing DNA recombination. Likewise, a vector-like notation Rj can be constructed for sequences of ribonucleic acid (RNA). The wallpaper group B = {Z5×∞, ●} (an ∞-fold Cartesian product of Z5) acts on Dj (or Rj) yielding changes to Dj (or Rj) denoted by ‘Dj◦B(j→k) = Dk’ (or ‘Rj◦B(j→k) = Rk’). Based on the operations of this group, two types of groups—a modulo 5 linear group and a rotational group over the Gaussian plane, acting on the five bases—are linked as parts of the wallpaper group for broader applications. As a result, changes, insertions/deletions and DNA (RNA) recombination (partial/total conversion) are described. As an exploratory study, a notation for the canonical “central dogma” via a category theory-like way is presented for future developments. Conclusions Despite the large incompleteness of our methodology, there is fertile ground to consider a symmetry model for genetic coding based on our specific wallpaper group. A more integrated formulation containing “central dogma” for future molecular/genetic biology remains to be explored. PMID:24885369

  10. Bioclipse-R: integrating management and visualization of life science data with statistical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Spjuth, Ola; Georgiev, Valentin; Carlsson, Lars; Alvarsson, Jonathan; Berg, Arvid; Willighagen, Egon; Wikberg, Jarl E.S.; Eklund, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Bioclipse, a graphical workbench for the life sciences, provides functionality for managing and visualizing life science data. We introduce Bioclipse-R, which integrates Bioclipse and the statistical programming language R. The synergy between Bioclipse and R is demonstrated by the construction of a decision support system for anticancer drug screening and mutagenicity prediction, which shows how Bioclipse-R can be used to perform complex tasks from within a single software system. Availability and implementation: Bioclipse-R is implemented as a set of Java plug-ins for Bioclipse based on the R-package rj. Source code and binary packages are available from https://github.com/bioclipse and http://www.bioclipse.net/bioclipse-r, respectively. Contact: martin.eklund@farmbio.uu.se Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23178637

  11. Spectrum of hot water in the 2000-4750 cm -1 frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zobov, Nikolai F.; Shirin, Sergei V.; Polyansky, Oleg L.; Barber, Robert J.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Coheur, Pierre-François; Bernath, Peter F.; Carleer, Michel; Colin, Reginald

    2006-05-01

    An emission spectrum recorded in an oxyacetylene torch [P.-F. Coheur, P.F. Bernath, M. Carleer, R. Colin, O.L. Polyansky, N.F. Zobov, S.V. Shirin, R.J. Barber, J. Tennyson, J. Chem. Phys. 122 (2005) 074307] is analyzed for the region covering stretching fundamentals and associated hot bands of water. Many lines could be assigned on the basis of previously determined energy levels. New assignments made with a new variational linelist allow a further 800 energy levels covering 15 vibrational states and rotations up to J = 32 to be assigned. A simultaneous re-analysis of previously reported sunspot absorption spectra leads to the assignment of 581 further lines in the L-band spectrum and 67 in the N-band spectrum.

  12. Spitz nevi in the classic histopathological pattern - lamb in wolf`s clothing*

    PubMed Central

    Verardino, Gustavo Costa; Rochael, Mayra Carrijo

    2015-01-01

    Spitz nevus is a benign melanocytic lesion and also one of the main differential diagnosis of melanoma. A descriptive and retrospective study of surgical specimens from patients with a diagnosis of Spitz nevus was conducted at two institutions in Niterói - RJ. 32 cases were analyzed. The most frequent histological subtype was compound (60 %), with a predominance of epithelioid cells (17 cases - 53%). Pagetoid spread was observed in 21 cases (68%). Maturation of melanocytes was present in 13 cases (81%). Kamino bodies were found in eight cases (25%). Atypical melanocytes were present in 18 cases (56%). Mitoses were present in 11 cases (34%). Detailed knowledge of the classical form of Spitz nevi is essential for the differential diagnosis with melanoma. However, no single criterium is definitive in the differential diagnosis between Spitz nevus and melanoma. PMID:25672303

  13. Spitz nevi in the classic histopathological pattern--lamb in wolf`s clothing.

    PubMed

    Verardino, Gustavo Costa; Rochael, Mayra Carrijo

    2015-01-01

    Spitz nevus is a benign melanocytic lesion and also one of the main differential diagnosis of melanoma. A descriptive and retrospective study of surgical specimens from patients with a diagnosis of Spitz nevus was conducted at two institutions in Niterói - RJ. 32 cases were analyzed. The most frequent histological subtype was compound (60 %), with a predominance of epithelioid cells (17 cases - 53%). Pagetoid spread was observed in 21 cases (68%). Maturation of melanocytes was present in 13 cases (81%). Kamino bodies were found in eight cases (25%). Atypical melanocytes were present in 18 cases (56%). Mitoses were present in 11 cases (34%). Detailed knowledge of the classical form of Spitz nevi is essential for the differential diagnosis with melanoma. However, no single criterium is definitive in the differential diagnosis between Spitz nevus and melanoma. PMID:25672303

  14. Measurement of Emittance of Beam in the Debuncher During Stacking

    SciTech Connect

    Halling, Mike

    1991-12-11

    The emittance of antiprotons in the debuncher was measured using two methods during normal stacking conditions. With 2.3 seconds of cooling the vertical emittance was found to be 3.6 {pi} mm-mr using scraper D:TJ308, and 2.9 {pi} mm-mr using the profile on SEM806. With 6.9 seconds of cooling time time the measured horizontal emittance was 2.1 {pi} mm-mr using D:RJ306 v.s. 1.9 {pi} mm-mr using SEM806; but with 2.3 seconds of cooling the measured emittance in the debuncher was larger than in the DTOA line, 4.5 {pi} mm-mr v.s. 2.8 {pi} mm-mr. This suggests that some beam is being scraped on a horizontal aperture restriction someplace in the extraction process.

  15. “Our Reach Is Wide by Any Corporate Standard”: How the Tobacco Industry Helped Defeat the Clinton Health Plan and Why It Matters Now

    PubMed Central

    Tesler, Laura E.

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary health care reformers, like those who promoted the failed Clinton era plan, face opposition from multiple corporate interests. However, scant literature has examined how relationships between corporations and other stakeholders, such as think tanks and advocacy groups, shape health care reform debate. We show how the 2 biggest US tobacco companies, Philip Morris and RJ Reynolds, and their trade association coordinated in mobilizing ideologically diverse constituencies to help defeat the Clinton plan. Unwittingly perhaps, some reform supporters advanced the tobacco industry's public relations blitz, contributing to perceptions of public opposition to the plan. As the current reform debate unfolds, this case highlights the importance of funding transparency for interpreting the activities of think tanks, advocacy groups, and “grassroots” movements. PMID:20466958

  16. Estimating the masses of galaxy groups - Alternatives to the virial theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heisler, J.; Tremaine, S.; Bahcall, J. N.

    1985-11-01

    The authors present three alternatives to the virial theorem for estimating the masses of groups of galaxies. The projected mass estimator uses the mean value of Vi2|Ri|, where Vi and Riare the radial velocity and projected separation of galaxy i from the group center. The other two methods rely on the average and median of (Vi-Vj)2|Ri-Rj| over all pairs of galaxies in the group. These three estimators and the virial theorem estimator are tested using a series of N-body simulations and Monte Carlo realizations of Michie models. The authors use the mass estimators to calculate the masses and mass-to-light ratios of nearby groups catalogued by Huchra and Geller. The results confirm their work, implying that there is a large amount of dark mass in groups on scales of ≡700 kpc.

  17. Scientists in the classroom: A model industry-school partnership

    SciTech Connect

    McKarns, S.C.; Spach, J.; Crouch, N.

    1994-12-31

    Scientists at R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company (RJR) established a partnership with the Western Triad Region of the North Carolina Science and Mathematics Alliance to successfully sponsor a unique hands-on industry-school education program for more than 300 grade school students. The goal of this initiative was to promote and improve science and technology education in the Western Triad Region of North Carolina by incorporating relevant examples of applied science and technology into the fifth grade classroom. Fifth-grade students and teachers worked directly with RJR scientists to design and implement classroom science and technology projects. The students summarized their efforts into formal scientific poster presentations, and presented them at an evening science symposium held at RJR`s state-of-the-art research facility, the Bowman Gray Technical Center.

  18. Anxiety sensitivity as a moderator of association between smoking status and panic-related processes in a representative sample of adults.

    PubMed

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Kotov, Roman; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Schmidt, Norman B; Antipova, Anna V

    2008-01-01

    The present investigation evaluated a moderational role of anxiety sensitivity (fear of anxiety and anxiety-related states; [McNally RJ. Anxiety sensitivity and panic disorder. Biological Psychiatry 2002; 52:938-946.]) in the relation between smoking status and anxiety/depressive symptoms in a Russian epidemiological sample (n = 390; 197 females, Mean age = 43.55). Consistent with prediction, anxiety sensitivity moderated the association of smoking status with indices of anxiety and depressive symptoms; the effects were evident after controlling for the variance accounted for by alcohol use problems, environmental stress (past month), and gender. These findings are discussed with regard to the role of anxiety sensitivity in etiologic connection between smoking and panic-related processes. PMID:17098257

  19. Tobacco Industry Consumer Research on Smokeless Tobacco Users and Product Development

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, Adrienne B.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2006, RJ Reynolds (RJR) and Philip Morris have both introduced new smokeless “snus” tobacco products. We analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents describing the history of RJR and Philip Morris's consumer research, smokeless product development, and marketing strategies. We found that RJR had invested in smokeless research, development, and marketing since 1968. RJR first targeted low-income males through sampling and sponsorship at fishing, rodeo, and baseball events, and through advertising portraying the user as “hard working.” In the early 1990s, Philip Morris and RJR hoped to attract more urban, female smokeless users. The current “snus” campaigns appear to appeal to these targeted consumers and smokers in smoke-free environments. These efforts may expand the tobacco market and undermine smoking cessation. PMID:19910355

  20. Radiation-hardened-by-design clocking circuits in 0.13-μm CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Y.; Huang, D.; Chen, J.; Gong, D.; Liu, T.; Ye, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a single-event-hardened phase-locked loop for frequency generation applications and a digital delay-locked loop for DDR2 memory interface applications. The PLL covers a 12.5 MHz to 500 MHz frequency range with an RMS Jitter (RJ) of 4.70-pS. The DLL operates at 267 MHz and has a phase resolution of 60-pS. Designed in 0.13-μm CMOS technology, the PLL and the DLL are hardened against SEE for charge injection of 250 fC. The PLL and the DLL consume 17 mW and 22 mW of power under a 1.5 V power supply, respectively.

  1. The white marble used in Brasília, a World Heritage and the capital of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heloisa Barros de Oliveira Frascá, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Created as the Brazilian capital, in the central western part of Brazil, Brasilia is a definitive example of 20th century modernist urbanism. It was built in only four years, from 1956 to 1960, following the project of urban planner Lucio Costa and architect Oscar Niemeyer that intended that every element - from the layout of the residential and administrative districts (often compared to the shape of a bird in flight) to the symmetry of the buildings themselves - should be in harmony with the city's overall design. This description is from the World Heritage Centre, of Unesco, that nominated Brasilia as a Cultural Heritage Property in 1987. Most of the remarkable buildings designed Oscar Niemeyer, cited by Unesco, are around the Plaza of Three Powers, as the Planalto ("Plateau") Palace, the National Congress, the Supreme Court, the Cathedral, the National Theatre among others. Aside from the worldwide recognition of the architectonic value of these buildings, it is barely mentioned the expressive use of white marble as cladding. Very few are found in the literature about specification criteria, provenance, fixation method and conservation. According to Oscar Niemeyer Foundation, at this moment they know that the stone come from a supplier in the State of Rio de Janeiro. A preliminary research indicated that the marble used in most of Brasilia buildings are from the municipality of Italva, in the northwest of the State of Rio de Janeiro (DRM-RJ, 2012). In a study carried out by DRM-RJ, in 2003, it is mentioned two white marble commercialized as dimension stone in Italva: "Sparkling Marble" (SM) and "Italva White Marble" (IWM), respectively dolomite-calcite marble and dolomite marble. Their main characteristics are: bulk specific gravity: 2,792 kg/m3 (SM) and 2,852kg/m3 (IWM); water absorption: 0.08 % (SM) and 0.10 % (IWM); uniaxial compression strength: 84.3 MPa (SM) and 88.2 MPa (IWM); modulus of rupture: 9.92 MPa (SM) and 8.75 MPa (IWM); coefficient of linear dilatation: 6.0 10-3mm/m.oC (SM) and 5.2 10-3mm/m.oC (IWM). This data indicate that in spite the marble specification had not followed any technical or scientific criteria, or at least they are not easily available, they show good engineering properties and most of the slabs are still in the buildings. The preservation of this cultural world heritage is an urgent demand, as pointed by Unesco, and one of the main challenges is the stone conservation planning, to which is already necessary serious multidisciplinary technical and scientific studies. References DRM-RJ - DEPARTMENT OF MINERAL RESOURCES OF THE STATE OF RIO DE JANEIRO. (2003) Rio de Janeiro State dimension stones catalogue. DRM: Rio de Janeiro, 12 cards. DRM-RJ (2012) Mineral panorama of the State of Rio de Janeiro. DRM: Rio de Janeiro, 258p. (in Portuguese). UNESCO. World Heritage List. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/445. (05/January/2015). FRASCÁ, M.H.B.O.; NAVARRO, F.C.; QUITETE, E.B. (2014) Staining tests for granitic stone conservation. In: Lollino, G. et al. (org.). Engineering Geology for Society and Territory - Preservation of cultural heritage. London: Springer International Publishing Switzerland, v. 8.

  2. Non-parabolic model for InAs/GaAs quantum dot capacitance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filikhin, I.; Deyneka, E.; Vlahovic, B.

    2006-12-01

    InAs/GaAs quantum dot electron spectra obtained from the capacitance-voltage measurements by B.T. Miller et al. [B.T. Miller, W. Hansen, S. Manus, R.J. Luyken, A. Lorke, J.P. Kotthaus, S. Huant, G. Medeiros-Ribeiro, P.M. Petroff, Phys. Rev. B 56 (1997) 6764] are quantitatively interpreted by applying a three-dimensional model of a semiconductor quantum dot with energy-dependent electron effective mass and finite confinement potential. The Coulomb interaction between tunnelled electrons is taken into account by perturbation theory. The observed significant increase in the electron effective mass of the quantum dot in respect to its bulk value is explained by the non-parabolic effect.

  3. Linear aerospike engine study. [for reusable launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diem, H. G.; Kirby, F. M.

    1977-01-01

    Parametric data on split-combustor linear engine propulsion systems are presented for use in mixed-mode single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle studies. Preliminary design data for two selected engine systems are included. The split combustor was investigated for mixed-mode operations with oxygen/hydrogen propellants used in the inner combustor in Mode 2, and in conjunction with either oxygen/RP-1, oxygen/RJ-5, O2/CH4, or O2/H2 propellants in the outer combustor for Mode 1. Both gas generator and staged combustion power cycles were analyzed for providing power to the turbopumps of the inner and outer combustors. Numerous cooling circuits and cooling fluids (propellants) were analyzed and hydrogen was selected as the preferred coolant for both combustors and the linear aerospike nozzle. The maximum operating chamber pressure was determined to be limited by the availability of hydrogen coolant pressure drop in the coolant circuit.

  4. New measurement technique that uses three near infrared diode lasers for nondestructive evaluation of sugar content in fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimomura, Yoshiaki; Takami, Toshitaka; Ichimaru, Yoshiki; Matsuo, Kenichi; Hyodo, Ryuji

    2005-03-01

    For non-destructive evaluation of sugar content in fruits, it has been proposed new measurement technique that uses three near infrared diode lasers. The reflectance Ri at the wavelength λi is defined by the ratio of two diffuse light powers reaching the two receiving fibers that were positioned at the different distance from a light emitting fiber. The value γ = ln (Ri/Rk)/ln (Rj/Rk) reaches the value that doesn't approximately depend on optical path length. As a simulation result of γ to a modeled apple, it was found that there are some combinations of three near-infrared wavelengths in which the correlation of γ and the sugar content of fruits raise. We actually evaluated the sugar content of apples by the use of three diode lasers 911nm, 936nm and 1055nm. As a result, it was confirmed that the measurement technique proposed here was usefulness.

  5. The High Albedo of the Hot-Jupiter Kepler-7b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demory, Brice-Olivier; Seager, S.; Kjeldsen, H.; Kepler Science Team

    2011-01-01

    Kepler-7b is the least dense extrasolar planet discovered to date. This 4.9-day period hot-Jupiter has a mass of half of Jupiter (0.47 MJ) but a radius 50% larger (1.48 RJ). We present a global analysis of this system including more than 180 high-precision transits and occultations obtained with NASA's Kepler mission. Our best fit to the observations yields a high geometric albedo, with a minor part due to the planetary thermal emission. Therefore most of the planet light observed by Kepler is scattered light, suggesting the presence of a highly reflective layer in its upper atmosphere. We discuss the nature of this layer, possibly made of silicate condensates forming high-altitude clouds decks. Kepler was selected as the 10th mission of the Discovery Program. Funding for this mission is provided by NASA, Science Mission Directorate.

  6. Tobacco industry litigation strategies to oppose tobacco control media campaigns

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, J K; Glantz, Stanton A

    2006-01-01

    Objective To document the tobacco industry's litigation strategy to impede tobacco control media campaigns. Methods Data were collected from news and reports, tobacco industry documents, and interviews with health advocates and media campaign staff. Results RJ Reynolds and Lorillard attempted to halt California's Media Campaign alleging that the campaign polluted jury pools and violated First Amendment rights because they were compelled to pay for anti‐industry ads. The American Legacy Foundation was accused of violating the Master Settlement Agreement's vilification clause because its ads attacked the tobacco industry. The tobacco companies lost these legal challenges. Conclusion The tobacco industry has expanded its efforts to oppose tobacco control media campaigns through litigation strategies. While litigation is a part of tobacco industry business, it imposes a financial burden and impediment to media campaigns' productivity. Tobacco control professionals need to anticipate these challenges and be prepared to defend against them. PMID:16436406

  7. [Susceptibility of Biomphalaria tenagophila and Biomphalaria glabrata from a same region to 2 Schistosoma mansoni strains].

    PubMed

    da Silva, R E; de Melo, A L; Pereira, L H

    1994-01-01

    B. tenagophila snails from Ouro Branco, MG, showed positivity for S. mansoni, with infection rates of 5%, 10%, (SJ strain), and 1% (LE strain) using a pool of miracidia. The mollusks were found to be susceptive from the 3rd generation reared in laboratory onwards. The B. tenagophila (OB, MG) when individually exposed to 10 miracidia, showed infection rate of 2% for LE strain. B. glabrata snails from Gagé, MG, showed a positivity rate of 58% for S. mansoni (LE strain), under experimental conditions. The B. tenagophila from Cabo Frio, RJ and B. glabrata from Belo Horizonte, MG used as a control for SJ strain showed infection rates of 47%-85% and 36% respectivily. For the LE strain, B. glabrata (BH, MG) used as control showed infection rate of 40%-75%. PMID:7569607

  8. Applications of SRG Factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, E. R.; Bogner, S. K.; Furnstahl, R. J.; Hebeler, K.; Hergert, H.; Perry, R. J.

    2012-10-01

    Recent calculations of nuclear structure make use of the similarity renormalization group to soften the nuclear potential through a series of unitary transformations, which suppress short range correlations.footnotetextE.D. Jurgenson, P. Navr'atil, and R.J. Furnstahl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 082501 (2009).(,)footnotetextE. R. Anderson, S. K. Bogner, R. J. Furnstahl, and R. J. Perry, Phys. Rev. C 82, 054001 (2010) Not only does this lead to a decoupling of scales in the potential, but also simplifications for other operators. One consequence, in particular, is that operator expectation values of high-energy probes in low-energy nuclear states exhibit factorization. As a result, phenomena previously attributed to strong short-range correlations induced by the nucleon-nucleon interaction, such as nuclear scaling and the EMC effect, can now be understood more clearly as a result of low-momentum nuclear structure. Recent results are reported.

  9. The Jovian hectometric radiation - an overview after the Voyager mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladreiter, H. P.; Leblanc, Y.

    1991-12-01

    The main characteristics and the inferred properties of the hectometric (HOM) radiation which was observed by IMP-6, RAE-1 and Voyager spacecraft are reviewed. This includes the occurrence of HOM in Jovian longitude, the strong beaming in latitude, the polarization properties, the local time effect, and the solar wind control of the emission. Like many radio emissions observed at the other magnetized planets, the hectometric components is likely to be generated in the R-X mode from sources in the northern and southern auroral zones. The emission is beamed along the surface of hollow cones and is possibly produced by the cyclotron maser mechanism. The HOM sources extend up to 7 R(J) (Jovian radii) along field lines near L = 20 in the auroral zone; they are distinct from the Io-controlled decametric (DAM) sources but are probably the extension of the non-Io DAM sources.

  10. High temperature antenna pointing mechanism for BepiColombo mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mürer, Johan A.; Harper, Richard; Anderson, Mike

    2005-07-01

    This paper describes the two axis Antenna Pointing Mechanism (APM) with dual frequency (X-Ka bands) Rotary Joint (RJ) developed by Kongsberg Defence and Aerospace and BAE Systems, in the frame of the ESA BepiColombo mission to the planet Mercury. The extreme environmental conditions induced by Mercury's proximity to the Sun (up to 14.500 W/m2 direct solar fluxes, up to 5000 W/m2 infrared flux and up to 1200 W/m2 albedo shine form the planet surface), have dictated the need for a specific high temperature development of the pointing mechanism and of its integrated RF Rotary Joint. Global thermal analysis of the antenna predicts qualification temperature for the elevation stage APM between 250°C and 295°C. In addition, the mechanism shall survive extreme cold temperatures during the interplanetary cruise phase. Beside the harsh environment, the stringent pointing accuracy required by the antenna high frequency operations, and the extreme dimensional stability demanded by a radio science experiment (which is using the antenna for range and range rate measurements), have introduced additional, specific challenges to the mechanism design. Innovative solutions have been deemed necessary at system architecture level, in the design of the mechanisms critical areas and in the selection of high temperature compatible materials and processes. The very high working temperature of the mechanism ruled out use of aluminium alloys, which is replaced by Titanium alloy and stainless steels. Special heat treatments of the steel are applied for minimum loss of hardness. The structures are optimised for minimum mass. To handle thermal stresses and distortion, a very compact design of the APM was performed integrating the bearings, position sensor and drive chain within minimum structural length. The Rotary Joint is a unique design tailored to the APM using a common main bearing support. Special manufacturing processes have been tested and applied for manufacture of the very compact RJ being the first of its kind (dual X-Ka band) in European space development. The twin channels are arranged concentrically, permitting continuous 360° rotation. Maximum use of waveguide has been made to minimise the loss in the Ka-band frequency channel and this leads to an unconventional design of the X-band channel. A specific effort and extensive test program at ESTL in the UK have been put in place to identify suitable high temperature solutions for the RJ and APM bearings lubrication. The high temperature demands the use of a dry lubrication system. High working loads due to thermal stresses puts extra challenge to the life duration of the dry film lubrication. Lead lubrication was initially the preferred concept, but has later in the program been substituted by MoS2 film. A design life of 20,000 cycles at 250°C and elevated load has been demonstrated for the bearings with MoS2. Special attention has been paid to the materials in the stepper motor using high temperature solder material and MoS2 dry lubrication in the bearings and gear train. The APM is designed for use of a high accuracy inductive based position sensor with remote signal and amplifier electronics. Electrical signal transfer is via a high temperature Twist Capsule. The activity has included the design, manufacturing and testing in a respresentative environment of a breadboard model of the APM and of its integrated radio frequency RJ. The breadboard does not include a position sensor or the Twist Capsule. The breadboard tests will include functional performance tests in air, vibration tests and thermal vacuum. The thermal vacuum test will include RF testing at high temperature combined with APM pointing performance.

  11. 14th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies Task Force. Report on antiphospholipid syndrome laboratory diagnostics and trends.

    PubMed

    Bertolaccini, Maria Laura; Amengual, Olga; Andreoli, Laura; Atsumi, Tatsuya; Chighizola, Cecilia B; Forastiero, Ricardo; de Groot, Philip; Lakos, Gabriella; Lambert, Marc; Meroni, Pierluigi; Ortel, Thomas L; Petri, Michelle; Rahman, Anisur; Roubey, Robert; Sciascia, Savino; Snyder, Melissa; Tebo, Anne E; Tincani, Angela; Willis, Rohan

    2014-09-01

    Current classification criteria for definite Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) require the use of three laboratory assays to detect antiphospholipid antibodies (aCL, anti-β2GPI and LA) in the presence of at least one of the two major clinical manifestations (i.e. thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity) of the syndrome. However, several other autoantibodies shown to be directed to other proteins or their complex with phospholipids have been proposed to be relevant to APS but their clinical utility and their diagnostic value remains elusive. This report summarizes the findings, conclusions and recommendations of the "APS Task Force 3-Laboratory Diagnostics and Trends" meeting that took place during the 14th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies (APLA 2013, September 18-21, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil). PMID:24824074

  12. Subtilases: the superfamily of subtilisin-like serine proteases.

    PubMed Central

    Siezen, R. J.; Leunissen, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    Subtilases are members of the clan (or superfamily) of subtilisin-like serine proteases. Over 200 subtilases are presently known, more than 170 of which with their complete amino acid sequence. In this update of our previous overview (Siezen RJ, de Vos WM, Leunissen JAM, Dijkstra BW, 1991, Protein Eng 4:719-731), details of more than 100 new subtilases discovered in the past five years are summarized, and amino acid sequences of their catalytic domains are compared in a multiple sequence alignment. Based on sequence homology, a subdivision into six families is proposed. Highly conserved residues of the catalytic domain are identified, as are large or unusual deletions and insertions. Predictions have been updated for Ca(2+)-binding sites, disulfide bonds, and substrate specificity, based on both sequence alignment and three-dimensional homology modeling. PMID:9070434

  13. Advanced high pressure engine study for mixed-mode vehicle applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luscher, W. P.; Mellish, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    High pressure liquid rocket engine design, performance, weight, envelope, and operational characteristics were evaluated for a variety of candidate engines for use in mixed-mode, single-stage-to-orbit applications. Propellant property and performance data were obtained for candidate Mode 1 fuels which included: RP-1, RJ-5, hydrazine, monomethyl-hydrazine, and methane. The common oxidizer was liquid oxygen. Oxygen, the candidate Mode 1 fuels, and hydrogen were evaluated as thrust chamber coolants. Oxygen, methane, and hydrogen were found to be the most viable cooling candidates. Water, lithium, and sodium-potassium were also evaluated as auxiliary coolant systems. Water proved to be the best of these, but the system was heavier than those systems which cooled with the engine propellants. Engine weight and envelope parametric data were established for candidate Mode 1, Mode 2, and dual-fuel engines. Delivered engine performance data were also calculated for all candidate Mode 1 and dual-fuel engines.

  14. Teaching Materials: Stellar Atmospheres/Radiative Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawley, S. L.; Ayres, T. R.

    1996-05-01

    We will present a selection of modern teaching materials for courses in Stellar Atmospheres and Radiative Transfer that have been collected from a wide variety of sources. We will provide brief synopses of each book, or set of of notes, and endeavor to compare and contrast the different presentations of the material. One of the newer additions to the literature is ``Radiative Transfer in Stellar Atmospheres,'' lecture notes from R.J. Rutten based on courses taught at Utrecht University. In addition, I. Hubeny and D. Mihalas presently are writing a new edition of Mihalas' famous ``Stellar Atmospheres.'' Other books we are aware of range from the planning stages to near completion. We will emphasize the diversity of styles and presentation techniques, but will try to make clear the central themes around which any successful Stellar Atmospheres/Radiative Transfer course must be built.

  15. [Analysis of cracking gas compressor fouling by pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yunfeng; Fang, Fei; Wei, Tao; Liu, Shuqing; Jiang, Guangshen; Cai, Jun

    2013-06-01

    The fouling from the different sections of the cracked gas compressor in Daqing Petrochemical Corporation was analyzed by pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py/GC-MS). All the samples were cracked in RJ-1 tube furnace cracker at the cracking temperature of 500 degrees C, and separated with a 60 m DB-1 capillary column. An electron impact ionization (EI) source was used with the ionizing voltage of 70 eV. The results showed the formation of fouling was closely related with cyclopentadiene which accounted for about 50% of the cracking products. Other components detected were 1-butylene, propylene, methane and n-butane. This Py/GC-MS method can be used as an effective approach to analyze the causes of fouling in the petrochemical plants. PMID:24063202

  16. HAT-P-50b, HAT-P-51b, HAT-P-52b, and HAT-P-53b: Three Transiting Hot Jupiters and a Transiting Hot Saturn From the HATNet Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, J. D.; Bhatti, W.; Bakos, G. Á.; Bieryla, A.; Kovács, G.; Latham, D. W.; Csubry, Z.; de Val-Borro, M.; Penev, K.; Buchhave, L. A.; Torres, G.; Howard, A. W.; Marcy, G. W.; Johnson, J. A.; Isaacson, H.; Sato, B.; Boisse, I.; Falco, E.; Everett, M. E.; Szklenar, T.; Fulton, B. J.; Shporer, A.; Kovács, T.; Hansen, T.; Béky, B.; Noyes, R. W.; Lázár, J.; Papp, I.; Sári, P.

    2015-12-01

    We report the discovery and characterization of four transiting exoplanets by the HATNet survey. The planet HAT-P-50b has a mass of 1.35 {M}{{J}} and radius of 1.29 {R}{{J}}, and orbits a bright (V=11.8 mag) M=1.27 {M}⊙ , R=1.70 {R}⊙ star every P=3.1220 days. The planet HAT-P-51b has a mass of 0.31 {M}{{J}} and radius of 1.29 {R}{{J}}, and orbits a V=13.4 mag, M=0.98 {M}⊙ , R=1.04 {R}⊙ star with a period of P=4.2180 days. The planet HAT-P-52b has a mass of 0.82 {M}{{J}} and radius of 1.01 {R}{{J}}, and orbits a V=14.1 mag, M=0.89 {M}⊙ , R=0.89 {R}⊙ star with a period of P=2.7536 days. The planet HAT-P-53b has a mass of 1.48 {M}{{J}} and radius of 1.32 {R}{{J}}, and orbits a V=13.7 mag, M=1.09 {M}⊙ , R=1.21 {R}⊙ star with a period of P=1.9616 days. All four planets are consistent with having circular orbits and have masses and radii measured to better than 10% precision. The low stellar jitter and favorable {R}p/{R}\\star ratio for HAT-P-51 make it a promising target for measuring the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect for a Saturn-mass planet. Based on observations obtained with the Hungarian-made Automated Telescope Network. Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated by the University of California and the California Institute of Technology. Keck time has been granted by NOAO (A245Hr) and NASA (N154Hr, N130Hr). Based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. Based on observations obtained with the Tillinghast Reflector 1.5 m telescope and the 1.2 m telescope, both operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in AZ. Based on radial velocities obtained with the Sophie spectrograph mounted on the 1.93 m telescope at Observatoire de Haute-Provence. Based on observations obtained with facilities of the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope.

  17. Three-dimensional structure of E. Coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase at 0.99 Å resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, V. I.; Abramchik, Yu. A.; Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Muravieva, T. I.; Esipov, R. S.; Kuranova, I. P.

    2016-03-01

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylases (PNPs) catalyze the reversible phosphorolysis of nucleosides and are key enzymes involved in nucleotide metabolism. They are essential for normal cell function and can catalyze the transglycosylation. Crystals of E. coli PNP were grown in microgravity by the capillary counterdiffusion method through a gel layer. The three-dimensional structure of the enzyme was determined by the molecular-replacement method at 0.99 Å resolution. The structural features are considered, and the structure of E. coli PNP is compared with the structures of the free enzyme and its complexes with purine base derivatives established earlier. A comparison of the environment of the purine base in the complex of PNP with formycin A and of the pyrimidine base in the complex of uridine phosphorylase with thymidine revealed the main structural features of the base-binding sites. Coordinates of the atomic model determined with high accuracy were deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB_ID: 4RJ2).

  18. The development of an aluminum toroidal shell-type impact limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Mello, R.M.; Wilson, W.K.; Nair, B.R.

    1989-01-01

    The impact limiters on a Type B transportation cask are designed to absorb the impact energy for the 9-meter (30 foot) drop accident conditions without bottoming out in order to limit deceleration loadings on the cask. Toroidal shell-type impact limiters made from stainless steel have been investigated in the past for transportation cask service in Japan (Y. Sugita and S. Mochizuki) and by the General Electric Company (R.J. Pomares, et al.). These designs were relatively heavy and quite rigid causing high deceleration loads on the cask. This paper presents the results of an investigation to determine the feasibility of an aluminum Alloy 6061-T6 toroidal shell impact limiter for a Legal Weight Truck (LWT) cask being developed by the Westinghouse Corporation for the United States Department of Energy. The incentives for the study were the potential advantages such as a compact configuration, lightweight, durability, and essentially maintenance-free operation. 4 refs., 10 figs.

  19. [First synanthropic record of Loxosceles laeta (Nicolet, 1849) (Araneae, Sicariidae) in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, State of Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Silveira, Adriano Lima

    2009-01-01

    Loxosceles laeta is the species of brown spider of greatest medical importance. It causes accidents of great severity and presents synanthropic habits. In this paper, the first synanthropic record of Loxosceles laeta in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, is presented. This came from occasional encounters and sampling of specimens between August 2005 and June 2009. The species was recorded in a building of the Museu Nacional/UFRJ, located in the Quinta da Boa Vista park, in the urban area of the northern zone of the city of Rio de Janeiro. The focus was considered to be localized and restricted. Loxosceles laeta is adaptable to the climatic conditions of the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, which makes possible for new foci of the species to become established, with occurrences of loxoscelism in the region. PMID:20209362

  20. HRV analysis and blood pressure monitoring on weighing scale using BCG.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jae Hyuk; Park, Kwang Suk

    2012-01-01

    Using the Ballistocardiogram(BCG) measured on weighing scale, heart rate variability(HRV) and blood pressure were estimated. BCG was measured while subjects were on weighing scale in resting state and under the Valsalva maneuver and static exercise condition to induce the change in cardiac autonomic rhythm. Time domain, frequency domain and nonlinear HRV parameters were estimated from the measured BCG and compared with the ones calculated from ECG measured simultaneously. For blood pressure(BP) estimation, ECG was measured additionally on the feet using dry electrodes simultaneously installed on weighing scale and R-J intervals were extracted as a BP correlated parameter at every beat cycle. HRV estimation results shows the correlation higher than 0.97, and the estimated BP was similar to the measured BP with a reliable correlations. PMID:23366753

  1. On time interval measurements using BCG.

    PubMed

    Casanella, R; Gomez-Clapers, J; Pallas-Areny, R

    2012-01-01

    Time intervals measured between the electrocardiogram (ECG), the photoplethysmogram (PPG) or the impedance plethysmogram (IPG), have long been used to noninvasively assess cardiovascular function. Recently, the ballistocardiogram (BCG) has been proposed as an alternative physiological signal to be used in time interval measurements for the same purpose. In this work, we study the behavior of the RJ interval, defined as the time between the R wave of the electrocardiogram (ECG) and the J wave of the BCG, under fast pressure changes induced by paced respiration and tracked by a beat-to-beat blood pressure (SBP and DBP) waveform monitor. The aim of this work is to gain a deeper understanding of these newly proposed time intervals and to further assess their usefulness to determine cardiovascular performance. PMID:23367059

  2. New Galileo and VLA Observations of Jupiter's Radiation Belts near the vicinty of Amalthea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolton, S. J.; Thorne, R. M.; Levin, S.; Michael, K.

    2002-12-01

    In November, 2002, the Galileo spacecraft is scheduled to flyby Amalthea, one of Jupiter's inner most moons (~2.4 RJ). We present VLA observations of Jupiter's synchrotron emission obtained simultaneously with Galileo's flyby of Amalthea. If available, in-situ measurements from Galileo's Energetic Particle Detector and Plasma Wave Subsystem will be compared with the synchrotron emission maps at 6 and 20 cm wavelengths. The total measurement set will provide constraints on the high energy electron distribution functions near Amalthea and the types of waves affecting the particle population in the vicinity of Amalthea. These observations represent the first opportunity for direct comparison of Jupiter's radiation belts by both in-situ and remote observations near Amalthea.

  3. Long distance optical printed circuit board for 10Gbps optical interconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shiqiong; Pang, Fufei; Li, Kang; Wu, Jinhua; Immonen, Marika; Zhang, Xiaobei; Wang, Tingyun

    2012-11-01

    A long-distance Optical Printed Circuit Boards (OPCB) was fabricated to realize high-speed optical interconnects. The OPCB was made up of polymer optical waveguides fabricated by using ultraviolet (UV) photolithography technique. The length of OPCB is 30cm. The minimal transmission loss of the optical waveguide is approximate 5.36dB at 850 nm wavelength. Two MT-RJ optical connecters were assembled on the OPCB to realize optical coupling between optical fibers and waveguides. The dependence of coupling loss on misalignment was obtained with different offset value theoretically and experimentally. The minimal total insertion loss is only 8.06dB. With 10 gigabits-per-second (Gbps) optical transceivers as the input/output module, we tested the performance of the OPCB. The date rate of 10Gbps can be transmitted successfully.

  4. The polypeptide backbone of recombinant human zona pellucida glycoprotein-3 initiates acrosomal exocytosis in human spermatozoa in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, N; Kessopoulou, E; Andrews, P; Hornby, D; Barratt, C R

    1998-01-01

    Human gamete interaction is of fundamental biological importance, yet the molecular interactions between spermatozoa and the zona pellucida are poorly understood. Surprisingly, the role of the polypeptide backbone of zona pellucida glycoprotein 3 (ZP3), the putative ligand for spermatozoa activation, has been largely overlooked. Purified recombinant human ZP3 was expressed in Escherichia coli as a C-terminal fusion to the dimeric glutathione S-transferase (GST) from Schistosoma japonicum and was shown to induce acrosomal exocytosis in live, capacitated human spermatozoa. The level of exocytosis is comparable with that obtained using purified, glycosylated, recombinant human ZP3 [van Duin, M., Polman, J.E.M., DeBreet, I.T.M., Van Ginneken, K., Bunschoten, H., Grootenhuis, A., Brindle, J. and Aitken, R.J. (1994). Biol Reprod. 51, 607-617]. These data imply that the polypeptide chain of human ZP3 contributes to recognition of spermatozoa during acrosomal exocytosis in vitro. PMID:9480899

  5. The orbital evolution of real asteroids near the 4:1 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahlgren, Mats; Hahn, Gerhard; Lagerkvist, C.-I.; Lundstroem, M.

    1992-01-01

    Numerical integrations of the orbits of ten asteroids with osculating elements near the 4:1 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter have been performed over 200,000 years into the future. A variety of orbital evolutions was found, depending on the start values of the semi-major axis. The orbit of asteroid 1983 RJ4, which lies almost exactly at the resonance center, experiences large variations in eccentricity, evolving into an Earth-crosser on a time-scale of a few 10(exp 4) years. This makes this region a potential source for Apollo objects and meteoritic material, although the width of the resonance region in semi-major axis seems to be very narrow.

  6. pt5m - a 0.5 m robotic telescope on La Palma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, L. K.; Butterley, T.; Dhillon, V. S.; Littlefair, S. P.; Wilson, R. W.

    2015-12-01

    pt5m is a 0.5 m robotic telescope located on the roof of the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) building, at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, La Palma. Using a five-position filter wheel and CCD detector, and bespoke control software, pt5m provides a high-quality robotic observing facility. The telescope first began robotic observing in 2012, and is now contributing to transient follow-up and time-resolved astronomical studies. In this paper, we present the scientific motivation behind pt5m, as well as the specifications and unique features of the facility. We also present an example of the science we have performed with pt5m, where we measure the radius of the transiting exoplanet WASP-33b. We find a planetary radius of 1.603 ± 0.014RJ.

  7. Cardiovascular changes in parabolic flights assessed by ballistocardiography.

    PubMed

    Delière, Q; Migeotte, P-F; Neyt, X; Funtova, I; Baevsky, R M; Tank, J; Pattyn, N

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the cardiovascular changes observed in microgravity as compared to ground based measurements. The ballistocardiogram (BCG), the electrocardiogram (ECG) and the transthoracic impedance cardiogram (ICG) were recorded on five healthy subjects during the 57th-European Space Agency (ESA) parabolic flight campaign. BCG is analyzed though its most characteristic wave, the IJ wave complex that can be identified along the longitudinal component of BCG and which has been demonstrated to be linked to cardiac ejection. The timings between the contraction of the heart and the ejection of blood in the aorta are analyzed via the time delay between the R-wave of the ECG and the I and J-waves of BCG (RI and RJ intervals respectively). Our results show that the IJ complex presents a larger amplitude in weightlessness and suggest that stroke volume (SV) increases in microgravity. We assume that ballistocardiography is an efficient method to assess the ventricular performance. PMID:24110559

  8. Non-linear diffusion and pattern formation in vortex matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijngaarden, Rinke J.; Surdeanu, R.; Huijbregtse, J. M.; Rector, J. H.; Dam, B.; Griessen, R.; Einfeld, J.; Woerdenweber, R.

    2000-03-01

    Penetration of magnetic flux in YBa_2Cu_3O7 superconducting thin films and crystals in externally applied magnetic fields is visualized with a magneto-optical technique. A variety of flux patterns due to non-linear vortex behavior is observed: 1. Roughening of the flux front^1 with scaling exponents identical to those observed in burning paper^2. Two regimes are found where respectively spatial disorder and temporal disorder dominate. In the latter regime Kardar-Parisi-Zhang behavior is found. 2. Roughening of the flux profile similar to the Oslo model for rice-piles. 3. Fractal penetration of flux^3 with Hausdorff dimension depending on the critical current anisotropy. 4. Penetration as 'flux-rivers'. 5. The occurrence of commensurate and incommensurate channels in films with anti-dots as predicted in numerical simulations by Reichhardt, Olson and Nori^4. By comparison with numerical simulations, it is shown that most of the observed behavior can be explained in terms of non-linear diffusion of vortices. ^1R. Surdeanu, R.J. Wijngaarden, E. Visser, J.M. Huijbregtse, J.H. Rector, B. Dam and R. Griessen, Phys.Rev. Lett. 83 (1999) 2054 ^2J. Maunuksela, M. Myllys, O.-P. Kähkönen, J. Timonen, N. Provatas, M.J. Alava, T. Ala-Nissila, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1515 (1997) ^3R. Surdeanu, R.J. Wijngaarden, B. Dam, J. Rector, R. Griessen, C. Rossel, Z.F. Ren and J.H. Wang, Phys Rev B 58 (1998) 12467 ^4C. Reichhardt, C.J. Olson and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. B 58, 6534 (1998)

  9. WASP-42 b and WASP-49 b: two new transiting sub-Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lendl, M.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier-Cameron, A.; Doyle, A. P.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lister, T. A.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Smalley, B.; Ségransan, D.; Smith, A. M. S.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2012-08-01

    We report the discovery of two new transiting planets from the WASP survey. WASP-42 b is a 0.500 ± 0.035 MJ planet orbiting a K1 star at a separation of 0.0548 ± 0.0017 AU with a period of 4.9816872 ± 7.3 × 10-6 days. The radius of WASP-42 b is 1.080 ± 0.057 RJ while its equilibrium temperature is Teq = 995 ± 34 K. We detect some evidence for a small but non-zero eccentricity of e = 0.060 ± 0.013. WASP-49 b is a 0.378 ± 0.027 MJ planet around an old G6 star. It has a period of 2.7817387 ± 5.6 × 10-6 days and a separation of 0.0379 ± 0.0011 AU. This planet is slightly bloated, having a radius of 1.115 ± 0.047 RJ and an equilibrium temperature of Teq = 1369 ± 39 K. Both planets have been followed up photometrically, and in total we have obtained 5 full and one partial transit light curves of WASP-42 and 4 full and one partial light curves of WASP-49 using the Euler-Swiss, TRAPPIST and Faulkes South telescopes. Based on photometric observations made with WASP-South, EulerCam on the Euler-Swiss telescope, the Belgian TRAPPIST telescope, the Faulkes South Telescope and spectroscopic observations obtained with CORALIE on the Euler-Swiss telescope and HARPS on the ESO 3.6 m telescope (Prog. ID: 087.C-0649).The photometric time series and radial velocity data in this work are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/544/A72

  10. The impact of an ICME on the Jovian X-ray aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, William R.; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Elsner, Ronald F.; Vogt, Marissa F.; Lamy, Laurent; Ford, Peter G.; Coates, Andrew J.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Jackman, Caitriona M.; Nichols, Jonathan D.; Rae, I. Jonathan; Varsani, Ali; Kimura, Tomoki; Hansen, Kenneth C.; Jasinski, Jamie M.

    2016-03-01

    We report the first Jupiter X-ray observations planned to coincide with an interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME). At the predicted ICME arrival time, we observed a factor of ˜8 enhancement in Jupiter's X-ray aurora. Within 1.5 h of this enhancement, intense bursts of non-Io decametric radio emission occurred. Spatial, spectral, and temporal characteristics also varied between ICME arrival and another X-ray observation two days later. Gladstone et al. (2002) discovered the polar X-ray hot spot and found it pulsed with 45 min quasiperiodicity. During the ICME arrival, the hot spot expanded and exhibited two periods: 26 min periodicity from sulfur ions and 12 min periodicity from a mixture of carbon/sulfur and oxygen ions. After the ICME, the dominant period became 42 min. By comparing Vogt et al. (2011) Jovian mapping models with spectral analysis, we found that during ICME arrival at least two distinct ion populations, from Jupiter's dayside, produced the X-ray aurora. Auroras mapping to magnetospheric field lines between 50 and 70 RJ were dominated by emission from precipitating sulfur ions (S7+,…,14+). Emissions mapping to closed field lines between 70 and 120 RJ and to open field lines were generated by a mixture of precipitating oxygen (O7+,8+) and sulfur/carbon ions, possibly implying some solar wind precipitation. We suggest that the best explanation for the X-ray hot spot is pulsed dayside reconnection perturbing magnetospheric downward currents, as proposed by Bunce et al. (2004). The auroral enhancement has different spectral, spatial, and temporal characteristics to the hot spot. By analyzing these characteristics and coincident radio emissions, we propose that the enhancement is driven directly by the ICME through Jovian magnetosphere compression and/or a large-scale dayside reconnection event.

  11. Effects of propolis, royal jelly, honey and bee pollen on growth performance and immune system of Japanese quails

    PubMed Central

    Babaei, Sakine; Rahimi, Shaeban; Karimi Torshizi, Mohammad Amir; Tahmasebi, Golamhosein; Khaleghi Miran, Seyed Naser

    2016-01-01

    Effect of ethanolic extract of propolis, royal jelly, honey and bee pollen in comparison with virginiamycin (as growth promoter antibiotic) as regards the performance and immune system of Japanese quail were assessed. We used 256 mixed-sex quail chicks in a completely randomized design by eight treatments, including control, ethanolic extract of propolis 1000 (PE1) and 5000 (PE2) mg kg-1, pollen powder 1000 (PO1) and 5000 (PO2) mg kg-1, royal jelly 100 mg kg-1 (RJ), honey 22 g L-1 of drinking water (H) and virginiamycin 150 mg kg-1 (V), and four replicates of eight birds in each replication for 42 days. There was significant differences for weight gain (WG), feed intakes (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) between experimental groups. In addition, WG in V treatment (18.82%), H and PO2 treatments (16.87%) and RJ treatment (12.00%) were significantly higher than to control group (p < 0.01). Significantly higher values of FCR were recorded in control group while group PE2 exhibited a significant decrease for 1 to 42 day (p < 0.05). The results of effect of bee products on antibodies titer showed an increase in the Newcastle disease (ND) titer when compared with control and virginiamycin groups (p < 0.01). There was significant difference in antibody production against avian influenza (AI) and sheep red blood cells (p < 0.01). Significant differences were observed in heterophils to lymphocytes ratio among PE1, PE2, PO1 and PO2 with V and control groups (p < 0.01). PMID:27226882

  12. Global gamesmanship.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Ian C; van Putten, Alexander B; McGrath, Rita Gunther

    2003-05-01

    Competition among multinationals these days is likely to be a three-dimensional game of global chess: The moves an organization makes in one market are designed to achieve goals in another in ways that aren't immediately apparent to its rivals. The authors--all management professors-call this approach "competing under strategic interdependence," or CSI. And where this interdependence exists, the complexity of the situation can quickly overwhelm ordinary analysis. Indeed, most business strategists are terrible at anticipating the consequences of interdependent choices, and they're even worse at using interdependency to their advantage. In this article, the authors offer a process for mapping the competitive landscape and anticipating how your company's moves in one market can influence its competitive interactions in others. They outline the six types of CSI campaigns--onslaughts, contests, guerrilla campaigns, feints, gambits, and harvesting--available to any multiproduct or multimarket corporation that wants to compete skillfully. They cite real-world examples such as the U.S. pricing battle Philip Morris waged with R.J. Reynolds--not to gain market share in the domestic cigarette market but to divert R.J. Reynolds's resources and attention from the opportunities Philip Morris was pursuing in Eastern Europe. And, using data they collected from their studies of consumer-products companies Procter & Gamble and Unilever, the authors describe how to create CSI tables and bubble charts that present a graphical look at the competitive landscape and that may uncover previously hidden opportunities. The CSI mapping process isn't just for global corporations, the authors explain. Smaller organizations that compete with a portfolio of products in just one national or regional market may find it just as useful for planning their next business moves. PMID:12747163

  13. Semi-Empirical Dipole Moment Function of X^{1}Σ^{+} CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Gordon, Iouli E.; Rothman, Laurence S.

    2013-06-01

    A new dipole moment function (DMF) for the ground X^{1}Σ^{+} electronic states of carbon monoxide (CO) has been obtained using a direct fit approach that fits the best available and appropriately weighted experimental line intensity data for individual ro-vibrational transitions. This method was recently successfully applied to HF, HCl, HBr and HI molecules. The new dipole moment function benefits from the use of new accurate and extensive experimental data. Also our method allows proper weighting of the data as well as not being dependent on the amount of measured transitions within a band. Combining the newly developed (taking into account the most recent experiments) empirical potential energy functions and the DMF, line positions and line intensities of CO and their isotopologues have been calculated numerically using program LEVEL. In addition, new semi-empirical algorithms for assigning line-shape parameters and line shifts for these species have been developed. Using these improvements, new line lists for CO were created to update the HITRAN spectroscopic database. G. Li, I.E. Gordon, R.J. Le Roy, P.G. Hajigeorgiou, J.A. Coxon, P.F. Bernath, and L.S. Rothman, ``Reference spectroscopic data for Hydrogen Halides. Part I: Construction and Validation of the Ro-vibrational Dipole Moment Functions,'' JQSRT 2013 (In Press). R. Le Roy, ``LEVEL. 8.0 ed2007'' University of Waterloo Chemical Physics Research Report CP-663 (2007). L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D.Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, et al, ``The HITRAN 2008 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,'' JQSRT 110, 532-572 (2009). L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, R.J. Barber, H. Dothe, R.R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Perevalov, S.A. Tashkun, and J. Tennyson, ``HITEMP, the high-temperature molecular spectroscopic database,'' JQSRT 111, 2139-2150 (2010).

  14. Hot Plasma Environment Model (HPEM): A empirical model for describing time-dependent processes of the jovian energetic electron environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussos, E.; Krupp, N.; Fraenz, M.; Kollmann, P.; Truscott, P.; Futaana, Y.

    2015-10-01

    HPEM is a model designed in order to provide time-series of energetic electron differential or integral energy-flux spectra for Jupiter's magnetosphere which can be used as input for internal charging studies of the JUICE spacecraft. The model describes the electron distribution function between 150 keV keV up to ~50 MeV. It is designed to be applicable between the orbit of Europa (9.5 Rj) up to 30 Rj, which is near Callisto's orbit, and in a latitude range of 40 degrees from the planetary equatorial plane, but it can be extended to larger distances and latitudes. The model is constructed with a goal to describe the time variability that a spacecraft can encounter in Jupiter's energetic electron environment. This variability can have two components: the first comes from the motion of the spacecraft within a spatially-varying jovian magnetosphere. For this purpose an average radiation belt model for the differential electron energy-flux spectra was constructed based on Galileo EPD/LEMMS observations, dependent on L, magnetospheric local time and equatorial pitch angle. The second component includes an empirical description of magnetospheric transients that result from dynamics in the magnetosphere. For this purpose, the probability for a given spectrum to deviate from the average one (at a given location) has been modeled with log-normal distributions and such probabilities are obtained with a Monte-Carlo approach. Temporal changes in the electron spectra are constrained by the L- or time gradients observed with Galileo's EPD/LEMMS detector so as to prevent extreme and unrealistic changes between sequential spectra of the model's output. The model is able to reproduce both the statistical scatter of energetic electron fluxes observed with Galileo/EPD, as well as the lifetimes/time scales and the occurence probability of extreme flux enhancements (temporal radiation belts) that Galileo encountered. An application to the JUICE mission is also shown.

  15. Empirical probability model of cold plasma environment in the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futaana, Yoshifumi; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Barabash, Stas; Roussos, Elias; Truscott, Pete

    2015-04-01

    We analyzed the Galileo PLS dataset to produce a new cold plasma environment model for the Jovian magneto- sphere. Although there exist many sophisticated radiation models, treating energetic plasma (e.g. JOSE, GIRE, or Salammbo), only a limited number of simple models has been utilized for cold plasma environment. By extend- ing the existing cold plasma models toward the probability domain, we can predict the extreme periods of Jovian environment by specifying the percentile of the environmental parameters. The new model was produced in the following procedure. We first referred to the existing cold plasma models of Divine and Garrett, 1983 (DG83) or Bagenal and Delamere 2011 (BD11). These models are scaled to fit the statistical median of the parameters obtained from Galileo PLS data. The scaled model (also called as "mean model") indicates the median environment of Jovian magnetosphere. Then, assuming that the deviations in the Galileo PLS parameters are purely due to variations in the environment, we extended the mean model toward the percentile domain. The input parameter of the model is simply the position of the spacecraft (distance, magnetic longitude and lati- tude) and the specific percentile (e.g. 0.5 for the mean model). All the parameters in the model are described in mathematical forms; therefore the needed computational resources are quite low. The new model can be used for assessing the JUICE mission profile. The spatial extent of the model covers the main phase of the JUICE mission; namely from the Europa orbit to 40 Rj (where Rj is the radius of Jupiter). In addition, theoretical extensions toward the latitudinal direction are also included in the model to support the high latitude orbit of the JUICE spacecraft.

  16. Changes in jump, sprint, and coordinative performances after a senior soccer match.

    PubMed

    Cortis, Cristina; Tessitore, Antonio; Lupo, Corrado; Perroni, Fabrizio; Pesce, Caterina; Capranica, Laura

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to verify the short-term after effects of a soccer match on senior players' all-out and interlimb coordination performances. Right before (prematch) and after (postmatch) a match, 10 senior (52.3 ± 10.2 years) male soccer players were administered jump (countermovement jump [CMJ]; repeated jump [RJ]), sprint (10 m and 10 m while dribbling the ball [10 mDB]), in-phase (IP) and antiphase (AP) interlimb coordination (synchronized hand and foot flexions and extensions at 80, 120, 180 bpm). Heart rate (HR) responses and subjective rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and rating of muscle pain (RMP) were used to evaluate the intensity of the friendly match. During the match, HR >85% of individual HRmax occurred for 50% of playing time. Subjective ratings at the end of the match were 12.9 ± 2.2 pt and 2.7 ± 2.2 pt for RPE and RMP, respectively. Postmatch CMJ, 10 m, 10 mDB, AP, IP 80 bpm, and IP 120 bpm performances did not show any difference with respect to prematch values, whereas improvements (p < 0.05) in RJ (prematch: 17.4 ± 3.9 cm; postmatch: 19.3 ± 4.8 cm) and IP 180 bpm (prematch: 30.4 ± 15.1 second; postmatch: 50.3 ± 18.9 second) emerged. These findings indicate that senior soccer players are able to cope with the high demands of match play and suggest that an acute bout of intense exercise has an arousing effect that counteracts fatigue effects and facilitates the performance of old trained individuals on complex motor behaviors relying on central executive control. In considering that players consider soccer as highly motivating, with advancing years this sport could help players in preserving high mental and physical functions and maintaining active engagement in life through social interactions. PMID:23439333

  17. KELT-4Ab: An Inflated Hot Jupiter Transiting the Bright (V ˜ 10) Component of a Hierarchical Triple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastman, Jason D.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Siverd, Robert J.; Antognini, Joseph M. O.; Penny, Matthew T.; Gonzales, Erica J.; Crepp, Justin R.; Howard, Andrew W.; Avril, Ryan L.; Bieryla, Allyson; Collins, Karen; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Ge, Jian; Gregorio, Joao; Ma, Bo; Mellon, Samuel N.; Oberst, Thomas E.; Wang, Ji; Gaudi, B. Scott; Pepper, Joshua; Stassun, Keivan G.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Latham, David W.; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael L.; Cargile, Phillip A.; Colón, Knicole D.; Dhital, Saurav; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Johnson, John Asher; Kielkopf, John F.; Manner, Mark; Mao, Qingqing; McLeod, Kim K.; Penev, Kaloyan; Stefanik, Robert P.; Street, Rachel; Zambelli, Roberto; DePoy, D. L.; Gould, Andrew; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Pogge, Richard W.; Trueblood, Mark; Trueblood, Patricia

    2016-02-01

    We report the discovery of KELT-4Ab, an inflated, transiting Hot Jupiter orbiting the brightest component of a hierarchical triple stellar system. The host star is an F star with {T}{{eff}} = 6206+/- 75 K, {log}g = 4.108+/- 0.014, [{{Fe}}/{{H}}] = -{0.116}-0.069+0.065, {M}* = {1.201}-0.061+0.067 {M}⊙ , and {R}* = {1.603}-0.038+0.039 {R}⊙ . The best-fit linear ephemeris is {{BJD}}{TDB} \\=\\2456193.29157+/- 0.00021 \\quad +\\quad E(2.9895936+/- 0.0000048). With a magnitude of V ˜ 10, a planetary radius of {1.699}-0.045+0.046 {R}{{J}}, and a mass of {0.902}-0.059+0.060 {M}{{J}}, it is the brightest host among the population of inflated Hot Jupiters (RP > 1.5RJ), making it a valuable discovery for probing the nature of inflated planets. In addition, its existence within a hierarchical triple and its proximity to Earth (210 pc) provide a unique opportunity for dynamical studies with continued monitoring with high resolution imaging and precision radial velocities. The projected separation between KELT-4A and KELT-4BC is 328 ± 16 AU and the projected separation between KELT-4B and KELT-4C is 10.30 ± 0.74 AU. Assuming face-on, circular orbits, their respective periods would be 3780 ± 290 and 29.4 ± 3.6 years and the astrometric motions relative to the epoch in this work of both the binary stars around each other and of the binary around the primary star would be detectable now and may provide meaningful constraints on the dynamics of the system.

  18. Hubble Space Telescope and New-Horizons simultaneous observations: Evidence of particle acceleration in the Jovian magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radioti, A.; Grodent, D.; Hill, M.; Gérard, J.-C.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Krimigis, S. M.

    2008-09-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observed periodic isolated spots on the Jovian aurora, during the HST-ACS (Advanced Camera of Surveys) 2007 campaign. The auroral spots occurwith 2- to 3- day quasi-periodicity (Figure 1), and they magnetically map to the dawn sector of the magnetosphere. Because of their periodic cycle and observed location, it had been suggested that the polar dawn spots are related to the precipitated, heated plasma during reconnection process taking place in the Jovian magnetotail [1]. The New-Horizons spacecraft traversed the length of the Jovian magnetotail to > 2500 RJ in early 2007. The spacecraft's PEPSSI (Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Investigation) instrumentmeasured velocity dispersions, anisotropies and compositional variations in the Jovian magnetotail (> 500 RJ ) with a ˜ 3 day periodicity. They reported signatures of energetic particle streaming away from the planet and injection sites in the near-tail region, possibly associated with magnetic reconnection events [2]. In the present study we compare a set of simultaneous HST and New-Horizons observations. During this period HST observes isolated auroral dawn spots and New- Horizons detects energetic ions exhibiting velocity dispersion streaming away from the planet on the same day, evidence of particle acceleration in the Jovian magnetotail. Based on this unique set of simultaneous observations we examine to what extent the Jovian ionosphere is supplied with accelerated plasma from the magnetotail and discuss the properties of the process. References [1] Radioti, A., D. Grodent, J.-C. Ǵerard, B. Bonfond and J.T. Clarke (2008), GRL, 35, L03104, doi:10.1029/2007GL032460. [2] McNutt R. L., Jr. , et al. (2007), Science, 318, 220.

  19. Tioman virus infection in experimentally infected mouse brain and its association with apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Yaiw, Koon Chu; Ong, Kien Chai; Chua, Kaw Bing; Bingham, John; Wang, Linfa; Shamala, Devi; Wong, Kum Thong

    2007-08-01

    Tioman virus is a newly described bat-urine derived paramyxovirus isolated in Tioman Island, Malaysia in 2001. Hitherto, neither human nor animal infection by this virus has been reported. Nonetheless, its close relationship to another paramyxovirus, the Menangle virus which had caused diseases in humans and pigs [Philbey, A.W., Kirkland, P.D., Ross, A.D., Davis, R.J., Gleeson, A.B., Love, R.J., Daniels, P.W., Gould, A.R., Hyatt, A.D., 1998. An apparently new virus (family Paramyxoviridae) infectious for pigs, humans, and fruit bats. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 4, 269-271], raises the possibility that it may be potentially pathogenic. In this study, mice were experimentally infected with Tioman virus by intraperitoneal and intracerebral routes, and the cellular targets and topographical distribution of viral genome and antigens were examined using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The possible association between viral infection and apoptosis was also investigated using the TUNEL assay and immunohistochemistry to FasL, Caspase-3, Caspase-8, Caspase-9 and bcl-2. The results showed that Tioman virus inoculated intracerebrally was neurotropic causing plaque-like necrotic areas, and appeared to preferentially replicate in the neocortex and limbic system. Viral infection of inflammatory cells was also demonstrated. TUNEL and Caspase-3 positivity was found in inflammatory cells but not in neurons, while FasL, Caspase-8 and Caspase-9 were consistently negative. This suggests that neuronal infection was associated with necrosis rather than apoptosis. Moreover, the data suggest that there may be an association between viral infection and apoptosis in inflammatory cells, and that it could, at least in part, involve Caspase-independent pathways. Bcl-2 was expressed in some neurons and inflammatory cells indicating its possible role in anti-apoptosis. There was no evidence of central nervous system infection via the intraperitoneal route. PMID:17442409

  20. Modeling aggregation of dust monomers in low gravity environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyon, Julien; Rioux, Claude

    The modeling of aggregation phenomena in microgravity is of paramount relevance to the understanding of the formation of planets. Relevant experiments have been carried out at a ground based laboratory and on aircraft providing low gravity during parabolic flight.1 Other possible environments are rockets, shuttles and the international space station. Numerical simulation of aggregation can provide us a tool to understand the formal and the-oretical background of the phenomena. The comparison between low gravity experiment and modeling prediction may confirm a theory. Also, experiments that are hard to perform can be simulated on computers allowing a vast choice of physical properties. Simulations to date have been constrained to ensembles of 100 to 1000 monomers.2 We have been able to extend such numbers to 10 000 monomers and the final goal is about 100 000 monomers, where gravitational effects become relevant yielding spheroidal systems of particles (planetesimals and planetoids). Simulations made are assumed to be diffusion processes where colliding particles will stick together with a certain probability. Future work shall include other interactions like electrostatic or magnetic forces. Recent results are to be shown at the meeting. I acknowledge the support from the ELIPS program (jointly between Canadian and European space agencies). The guidance of Prof. Slobodrian is warmly thanked. References. 1. R.J. Slobodrian, C. Rioux and J.-C. Leclerc, Microgravity Research and Aplications in Phys-ical Sciences and Biotechnology, Proceedings of the First International Symposium, Sorrento, Italy (2000) ESA SP-454, p.779-786. and Refs. therein. 2. P. Deladurantaye, C Rioux and R.J Slobodrian, Chaos, Solitons Fractals , (1997), pp. 1693-1708. Carl Robert and Eric Litvak, Software " Fractal", private communication.

  1. Budget projections 1988, 1989, and 1990 for research in high energy nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    Research programs in experimental high energy physics are carried out at Harvard under the general supervision of a departmental faculty committee on high energy physics. Professor R.F. Schwitters is currently chairman of this committee. The committee members are: G.W. Brandenburg, S. Geer, R.J. Glauber, K. Kinoshita, R. Nickerson, F.M. Pipkin, J. Rohlf, C. Rubbia, R.F. Schwitters, M. Shapiro, K. Strauch, R. Vanelli, and R. Wilson. Of these individuals, Professors R.J. Glauber, F.M. Pipkin, C. Rubbia, R.F. Schwitters, K. Strauch, and R. Wilson are the principal investigators with whom a number of junior faculty members and post-doctoral research fellows are associated. Dr. Brandenburg (Associate Director, High Energy Physics Laboratory) administers the High Energy Physics Laboratory and is in charge of the Computer Facility. Professor Rubbia is currently on leave of absence and will leave Harvard on December 31, 1988 to become the Director General of CERN. A reduced UA1 effort will remain at Harvard after Professor Rubbia`s departure. Harvard is planning to make one or two senior faculty appointments in experimental high energy physics sometime in 1988-89. The principal goals of the work described here are to carry out forefront programs in high energy physics research and to provide first rate educational opportunities for students. The experimental program supported through HEPL is carried out at the major accelerator centers in the world and addresses some of the most important questions in high energy physics. Harvard`s educational efforts are concentrated in graduate education, where they are currently supporting 15 research students. In addition, undergraduate students work in projects at HEPL during the academic year and over summers. Many of these students have gone on to graduate school studying physics at Harvard and elsewhere.

  2. Rapid determination of intraepithelial resistance barriers by alternating current spectroscopy. II. Test of model circuits and quantification of results.

    PubMed

    Kottra, G; Frömter, E

    1984-12-01

    The impedance of Necturus gallbladder epithelium was measured with transepithelial and intracellular microelectrodes in different transport states. The data are analysed with five electrical equivalent circuits, which differ with respect to the configuration of the paracellular shunt path (lumped vs distributed model of the lateral space), and of the apical cell membrane (non-ideal capacitance or surface amplification by micro-tubular infoldings). Least square fits indicate: 1. that the lumped model cannot represent the epithelium properly, even under control conditions; 2. that the distributed model, which considers the lateral intracellular space separately as a cable-like structure, describes the data well, both under control conditions and during collapse of the lateral spaces; and 3. that the above indicated variations of the apical membrane configuration improve the fits, but have little effect on the magnitude of the calculated circuit parameters. Quantitatively the analysis of 214 measurements on 25 gallbladders under control conditions yields the following results: The resistances of the tight junctions, of the lateral intercellular space, and of the apical and basal cell membrane are Rj = 123, Rlis = 35.5, Ra approximately 3,500, and Rb = 225 (all in omega cm2), and the capacitances of the cell membranes are Ca = 4.95 and Cbl = 26.5 (mu F/cm2). In oxygen deficiency and after cessation of chamber perfusion transport decreased, the spaces collapsed, and Rlis increased to approximately 130 omega cm2. Although the accuracy of the estimated Ra values is still limited, the analysis shows that it is possible to determine Rj and Rlis separately and to follow their changes in response to experimental maneuvers. PMID:6522249

  3. Budget projections 1989, 1990, and 1991 for research in high energy nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    Research programs in experimental high energy physics are carried out at Harvard under the general supervision of a departmental faculty committee on high energy physics. The committee members are: G.W. Brandenburg, S. Geer, R.J. Glauber, K. Kinoshita, R. Nickerson, F.M. Pipkin, R.F. Schwitters, M. Shapiro, K. Strauch, R. Vanelli, and R. Wilson. Of these individuals, Professors R.J. Glauber, F.M. Pipkin, R.F. Schwitters, K. Strauch, and R. Wilson are the principal investigators with whom a number of junior faculty members and post-doctoral research fellows are associated. Dr. Brandenburg is the Director of the High Energy Physics Laboratory and administers the DOE high energy physics contract. Professor Schwitters is currently on leave of absence as Director of the Superconducting Super Collider project. In the fall of 1990 Professor G. Feldman, who is currently at SLAC, will join the Harvard faculty and become a principal investigator. Harvard is planning to make one or two additional senior faculty appointments in experimental high energy physics over the next two years. The principal goals of the work described here are to carry out forefront programs in high energy physics research and to provide first rate educational opportunities for students. The experimental program supported through HEPL is carried out at the major accelerator centers in the world. Harvard`s educational efforts are concentrated in graduate education, where they are currently supporting 15 research students. These budget projections cover all of the Harvard based high energy physics experimental activities. The {open_quotes}umbrella{close_quotes} nature of this contract greatly simplifies support of essential central technical and computer services and helps the group to take advantage of new physics opportunities and to respond to unexpected needs. The funding for the operation of the HEPL facility is shared equally by the experimental groups.

  4. Spinning out a star.

    PubMed

    Lord, Michael D; Mandel, Stanley W; Wager, Jeffrey D

    2002-06-01

    Spinouts rarely take off; most, in fact, fall into one or more of four traps that doom them from the start. Some companies spin out ventures that are too close to the core of their businesses, in effect selling off their crown jewels. Sometimes, a parent company uses the spinout primarily to pawn off debt or expenses or to quickly raise external capital for itself. Other times, a company may try to spin out an area of its business that lacks one or more of the critical legs of a successful company--a coherent business model, say, or a solid financial base. And in many cases, parent companies can't bring themselves to sever their ownership ties and give up control of their spinouts. R.J. Reynolds, the tobacco giant, managed to avoid these traps when it successfully spun out a most unlikely venture, the pharmaceutical company Targacept. As the story illustrates, the problem with spinouts is similar to the problem of rich children. Their parents have the wherewithal to spoil them or shelter them or cling to them, but what they need is tough love and discipline--much the same discipline that characterizes successful start-ups. R.J. Reynolds recognized that it didn't know that much about the pharmaceutical business and couldn't merely try to spin out a small clone of itself. It had to treat the venture as if it were essentially starting from scratch, with a passionate entrepreneurial leader, a solid business plan, help from outside partners in the industry, and ultimately substantial venture backing. That these lessons are less obvious to executives contemplating spinning out ventures closer to their core businesses may be why so many spinouts fail. PMID:12048993

  5. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the venom from the Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus junceus.

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, B I; Coronas, F I V; Restano-Cassulini, R; Rodríguez, R R; Possani, L D

    2011-07-01

    This communication describes the first general biochemical, molecular and functional characterization of the venom from the Cuban blue scorpion Rhopalurus junceus, which is often used as a natural product for anti-cancer therapy in Cuba. The soluble venom of this arachnid is not toxic to mice, injected intraperitoneally at doses up to 200 μg/20 g body weight, but it is deadly to insects at doses of 10 μg per animal. The venom causes typical alpha and beta-effects on Na+ channels, when assayed using patch-clamp techniques in neuroblastoma cells in vitro. It also affects K+ currents conducted by ERG (ether-a-go-go related gene) channels. The soluble venom was shown to display phospholipase, hyaluronidase and anti-microbial activities. High performance liquid chromatography of the soluble venom can separate at least 50 components, among which are peptides lethal to crickets. Four such peptides were isolated to homogeneity and their molecular masses and N-terminal amino acid sequence were determined. The major component (RjAa12f) was fully sequenced by Edman degradation. It contains 64 amino acid residues and four disulfide bridges, similar to other known scorpion toxins. A cDNA library prepared from the venomous glands of one scorpion allowed cloning 18 genes that code for peptides of the venom, including RjA12f and eleven other closely related genes. Sequence analyses and phylogenetic reconstruction of the amino acid sequences deduced from the cloned genes showed that this scorpion contains sodium channel like toxin sequences clearly segregated into two monophyletic clusters. Considering the complex set of effects on Na+ currents verified here, this venom certainly warrant further investigation. PMID:21605585

  6. Detection of explosive substances by tomographic inspection using neutron and gamma-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahmand, M.; Boston, A. J.; Grint, A. N.; Nolan, P. J.; Joyce, M. J.; Mackin, R. O.; D'Mellow, B.; Aspinall, M.; Peyton, A. J.; van Silfhout, R.

    2007-08-01

    In recent years the detection and identification of hazardous materials has become increasingly important. This work discusses research and development of a technique which is capable of detecting and imaging hidden explosives. It is proposed to utilise neutron interrogation of the substances under investigation facilitating the detection of emitted gamma radiation and scattered neutrons. Pulsed fast neutron techniques are attractive because they can be used to determine the concentrations of the light elements (hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen) which can be the primary components of explosive materials. Using segmented High Purity Ge (HPGe) detectors and digital pulse processing [R.J. Cooper, G. Turk, A.J. Boston, H.C. Boston, J.R. Cresswell, A.R. Mather, P.J. Nolan, C.J. Hall, I. Lazarus, J. Simpson, A. Berry, T. Beveridge, J. Gillam, R.A. Lewis, in: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Position Sensitive Detectors, Nuclear Instruments and Methods A, in press; I. Lazarus, D.E. Appelbe, A. J. Boston, P.J. Coleman-Smith, J.R. Cresswell, M. Descovich, S.A.A. Gros, M. Lauer, J. Norman, C.J. Pearson, V.F.E. Pucknell, J.A. Sampson, G. Turk, J.J. Valiente-Dobn, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., 51 (2004) 1353; R.J. Cooper, A.J. Boston, H.C. Boston, J.R. Cresswell, A.N. Grint, A.R. Mather, P.J. Nolan, D.P. Scraggs, G. Turk, C.J. Hall, I. Lazarus, A. Berry, T. Beveridge, J. Gillam, R.A. Lewis, in: Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Radiation Measurements and Application, 2006. [1-3

  7. Estimation of sleep onset latency based on the blood pressure regulatory reflex mechanism.

    PubMed

    Jung, Da Woon; Hwang, Su Hwan; Chung, Gih Sung; Lee, Yu-Jin; Jeong, Do-Un; Park, Kwang Suk

    2013-05-01

    Sleep onset latency (SOL) is an objective indicator of sleepiness and is being used clinically as a diagnostic tool for sleep deprivation. This study proposes a new and less intrusive approach to estimate SOL based on the blood pressure (BP) regulatory reflex mechanism.We hypothesized that the arterial baroreflex, one kind of reflex mechanism for BP regulation, maintains the toning-down effect sleep has on BP. The arterial baroreflex is strongly activated after the time of sleep onset in order to maintain the lowered BP by leading to an increase in heart beat interval (HBI). This observation suggests that the arterial baroreflex has a marked influence on the HBI control with the onset of sleep. As a result, a positive correlation is expected between fluctuations of BP and those of subsequent HBI after sleep onset. To investigate our hypothesis, we determined the relationship between BP and HBI using the R-J and R-R intervals measured from an electrocardiogram and a ballistocardiogram.We estimated SOL using the correlation coefficients corresponding to the relationship between fluctuations of the R-J interval and those of the subsequent R-R interval. The SOLs of ten healthy subjects [age (mean ± SD): 28.72 ± 3.21 years] were estimated using our proposed method and compared with the polysomnography data. The mean absolute error was 0.25 ± 0.35 min, corresponding to a half epoch (15 s) on average. We expect our method will be applicable as a nonintrusive and automatic SOL estimation system that does not require the use of electroencephalogram sensors. PMID:24592456

  8. Velocity distribution and its spatial extent of sodium atoms originated from Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoi, Kazuhiro; Kagitani, Masato; Ueto, Hidetaka; Okano, Shoichi

    2005-08-01

    Jovian satellite Io possesses active volcanic activities and the erupted gas supplys neutrals and ions to the Jovian magnetosphere through the interaction between Io plasma torus and Io. Volcanic gas contains neutral sodium atoms and sodium-bearing molecular ions. They escape from Io through several physical processes which have so far been proposed for ejection of sodium from Io. These ejection processes include atmospheric sputtering for producing the banana cloud, pick-up ion neutralization in Io's atmosphere for the sodium jet, pick-up molecular ion destruction in Io plasma torus for the stream, and charge exchange between Io's atmosphere and the torus for the fan shape. In order to understand these ejection processes more clearly, high dispersion spectroscopic observation was carried out at the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, using a 188-cm telescope and the High Dispersion Echelle Spectrograph (HIDES: R=100,000) on 4 nights in February, 2004 and 3 nights in February, 2005. A number of high dispersion spectra of sodium D1 and D2 emissions were obtained for a region of ±1.5RJ (1RJ : Jovian radius = 71492km) centered on Io from the two observations. Analysed results show fast velocity component to the direction of Io's orbital motion on the wing of distinctive slow velocity component in Io's rest frame inside the Io's corona. In the presentation, ejection velocity distributions of neutral sodium atoms at various Io phase angles will be given. Further, the spatial extent of velocity distribution from Io through the Io's corona to the inner Jovian magnetosphere will be discussed in the context of the ejection processes mentioned above.

  9. Velocity anisotropy in tidally limited star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiongco, Maria A.; Vesperini, Enrico; Varri, Anna Lisa

    2016-02-01

    We explore the long-term evolution of the anisotropy in the velocity space of star clusters starting with different structural and kinematical properties. We show that the evolution of the radial anisotropy strength and its radial variation within a cluster contain distinct imprints of the cluster initial structural properties, dynamical history, and of the external tidal field of its host galaxy. Initially isotropic and compact clusters with small initial values of the ratio of the half-mass to Jacobi radius, rh/rJ, develop a strong radial anisotropy during their long-term dynamical evolution. Many clusters, if formed with small values of rh/rJ, should now be characterized by a significant radial anisotropy increasing with the distance from the cluster centre, reaching its maximum at a distance between 0.2 rJ and 0.4 rJ, and then becoming more isotropic or mildly tangentially anisotropic in the outermost regions. A similar radial variation of the anisotropy can also result from an early violent relaxation phase. In both cases, as a cluster continues its evolution and loses mass, the anisotropy eventually starts to decrease and the system evolves towards an isotropic velocity distribution. However, in order to completely erase the strong anisotropy developed by these compact systems during their evolution, they must be in the advanced stages of their evolution and lose a large fraction of their initial mass. Clusters that are initially isotropic and characterized by larger initial values of rh/rJ, on the other hand, never develop a significant radial anisotropy.

  10. Accretion in giant planet circumplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, Sarah L.; Wardle, Mark

    2014-05-01

    During the final growth phase of giant planets, accretion is thought to be controlled by a surrounding circumplanetary disc. Current astrophysical accretion disc models rely on hydromagnetic turbulence or gravitoturbulence as the source of effective viscosity within the disc. However, the magnetically coupled accreting region in these models is so limited that the disc may not support inflow at all radii, or at the required rate. Here, we examine the conditions needed for self-consistent accretion, in which the disc is susceptible to accretion driven by magnetic fields or gravitational instability. We model the disc as a Shakura-Sunyaev α disc and calculate the level of ionization, the strength of coupling between the field and disc using Ohmic, Hall and Ambipolar diffusevities for both a magnetorotational instability (MRI) field and vertical field, and the strength of gravitational instability. We find that the standard constant-α disc is only coupled to the field by thermal ionization within 30 RJ with strong magnetic diffusivity prohibiting accretion through the bulk of the mid-plane. In light of the failure of the constant-α disc to produce accretion consistent with its viscosity, we drop the assumption of constant-α and present an alternate model in which α varies radially according to the level magnetic turbulence or gravitoturbulence. We find that a vertical field may drive accretion across the entire disc, whereas MRI can drive accretion out to ˜ 200 RJ, beyond which Toomre's Q = 1 and gravitoturbulence dominates. The discs are relatively hot (T ≳ 800 K), and consequently massive (Mdisc ˜ 0.5 MJ).

  11. Phylogenetic Analysis Reveals a High Prevalence of Sporothrix brasiliensis in Feline Sporotrichosis Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Melo Teixeira, Marcus; de Hoog, G. Sybren; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Bezerra, Leila Maria Lopes; Felipe, Maria Sueli; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2013-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii, previously assumed to be the sole agent of human and animal sporotrichosis, is in fact a species complex. Recently recognized taxa include S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. mexicana, and S. luriei, in addition to S. schenckii sensu stricto. Over the last decades, large epidemics of sporotrichosis occurred in Brazil due to zoonotic transmission, and cats were pointed out as key susceptible hosts. In order to understand the eco-epidemiology of feline sporotrichosis and its role in human sporotrichosis a survey was conducted among symptomatic cats. Prevalence and phylogenetic relationships among feline Sporothrix species were investigated by reconstructing their phylogenetic origin using the calmodulin (CAL) and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α) loci in strains originated from Rio de Janeiro (RJ, n = 15), Rio Grande do Sul (RS, n = 10), Paraná (PR, n = 4), São Paulo (SP, n = 3) and Minas Gerais (MG, n = 1). Our results showed that S. brasiliensis is highly prevalent among cats (96.9%) with sporotrichosis, while S. schenckii was identified only once. The genotype of Sporothrix from cats was found identical to S. brasiliensis from human sources confirming that the disease is transmitted by cats. Sporothrix brasiliensis presented low genetic diversity compared to its sister taxon S. schenckii. No evidence of recombination in S. brasiliensis was found by split decomposition or PHI-test analysis, suggesting that S. brasiliensis is a clonal species. Strains recovered in states SP, MG and PR share the genotype of the RJ outbreak, different from the RS clone. The occurrence of separate genotypes among strains indicated that the Brazilian S. brasiliensis epidemic has at least two distinct sources. We suggest that cats represent a major host and the main source of cat and human S. brasiliensis infections in Brazil. PMID:23818999

  12. Découverte d'une mégafaune holocène à la Toca do Serrote do Artur (aire archéologique de São Raimundo Nonato, Piauî, Brésil). A gruta do Serrote do Artur (área arqueológica de São Raimundo Nonato, Piaúi, Brasil): dataçoes holocênicas para megafáuna de mamíferos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faure, Martine; Guérin, Claude; Parenti, Fabio

    1999-09-01

    The cave of Toca do Serrote do Artur (São Raimundo Nonato Archaeological Area, southeastern Piauí, Brazil) has yielded a Mammalian community constituted of Dasypus septemcinctus, Propraopus cf. sulcatus, Hoplophorus euphractus, Glyptodon clavipes, Conepatus sp., Panthera onca, Equus neogaeus, Dicotyles tajacu, Tayassu pecari, Palaeolama major, Mazama guazoubira, Mazama americana and a large Cervid. In comparison with the Mammalian fauna of the other sites from the same area, such a list shows a comparatively reduced biodiversity together with the presence of rare ( Hoplophorus, Conepatus) or unknown ( Propraopus, Palaeolama major) taxa. Explanation lies in the more recent age of the fossiliferous layers, probably Lower Holocene, as demonstrated by two 14C dating of 8 490 ± 120 BP and 6 890 ± 60 BP of the highest one. Moreover, that fauna shows the late survival of some genera ( Propraopus, Hoplophorus, Glyptodon, Equus, Palaeolama) together with climatic modifications related to the Pleistocene-Holocene transition.

  13. Blood Evaluation Of Cl and Na Concentration In Crioulo Breed Horses Using NAA: Comparison With Humans Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Baptista, Tatyana S.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Jose Agostinho G. de; Marcelino, Jose R.; Higashi, Hisako G.; Freitas, Monica G.

    2009-06-03

    Neutron Activation Analysis was utilized for determining the concentration of chlorine and sodium in blood of Crioulo breed horses used for hyperimmune sera production (Bothrops, Diphtheria and Tetanus) at Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city, Brasil). These data are an important support for a toxicological control of adverse reactions in patients who will receive the hyperimmune serum.

  14. Computational Technique for Teaching Mathematics (CTTM): Visualizing the Polynomial's Resultant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alves, Francisco Regis Vieira

    2015-01-01

    We find several applications of the Dynamic System Geogebra--DSG related predominantly to the basic mathematical concepts at the context of the learning and teaching in Brasil. However, all these works were developed in the basic level of Mathematics. On the other hand, we discuss and explore, with DSG's help, some applications of the polynomial's…

  15. Educating and Training Undergraduate Applied Statisticians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peres, Clovis A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A course on Applied Statistics, offered since 1978 at the Instituto de Matematica e Estatistica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brasil, is designed to educate statisticians at the bachelor's level for jobs in government statistical offices, industry, and business. (Author/LMO)

  16. Future Expectations of Brasilian Street Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffaelli, M.; Koller, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    Future expectations of youth surviving on the streets of Porto Alegre, Brasil, were examined. The sample consisted of 35 boys and 34 girls aged 10-18 (M age 14.4) who participated in a sentence completion task and semi-structured interviews. Responses to two incomplete sentences regarding the future revealed a mismatch between hoped-for and…

  17. Photoproduction of charm particles at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Cumalat, John P.

    1997-03-15

    A brief description of the Fermilab Photoproduction Experiment E831 or FOCUS is presented. The experiment concentrates on the reconstruction of charm particles. The FOCUS collaboration has participants from several Central American and Latin American institutions; CINVESTAV and Universidad Autonoma de Puebla from Mexico, University of Puerto Rico from the United States, and Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas in Rio de Janeiro from Brasil.

  18. 75 FR 34357 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135ER...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... February 25, 2010 (75 FR 8557). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant..., 2170-- Putim--12227-901 S o Jose dos Campos--SP--BRASIL; telephone: +55 12 3927-5852 or +55 12...

  19. Blood Evaluation Of Cl and Na Concentration In Crioulo Breed Horses Using NAA: Comparison With Humans Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, Tatyana S.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; de Medeiros, José Agostinho G.; Marcelino, José R.; Higashi, Hisako G.; Freitas, Mônica G.

    2009-06-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis was utilized for determining the concentration of chlorine and sodium in blood of Crioulo breed horses used for hyperimmune sera production (Bothrops, Diphtheria and Tetanus) at Butantan Institute (São Paulo city, Brasil). These data are an important support for a toxicological control of adverse reactions in patients who will receive the hyperimmune serum.

  20. Brazilian National Assessment Data and Educational Policy: An Empirical Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paget, Christine L.; Malmberg, Lars-Erik; Martelli, Dale R.

    2016-01-01

    In concert with other Latin American countries, Brazil has developed and implemented its own national assessment system for the purpose of monitoring, evaluating and improving their educational system. Prova Brasil is a census-based bi-annual assessment of Portuguese and mathematics achievement of middle school students in Brazil accompanied by…