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Sample records for sepetiba rj brasil

  1. Microcystins (cyanobacteria hepatotoxins) bioaccumulation in fish and crustaceans from Sepetiba Bay (Brasil, RJ).

    PubMed

    Magalhães, V F; Marinho, M M; Domingos, P; Oliveira, A C; Costa, S M; Azevedo, L O; Azevedo, S M F O

    2003-09-01

    Blooms of cyanobacteria in water bodies cause serious environmental problems and the occurrence of toxic strains are also related with the human health. Aquatic animals could bioaccumulate microcystins (cyanobacteria hepatotoxins) and so, beyond water, the ingestion of contaminated food represents a human health risk. Recently, WHO recommended a maximum concentration of microcystins (MCYSTs) in drinking water and established the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for consumption of cyanobacteria products contends MCYSTs (0.04 microg(-1) kg(-1) day(-1)). Sepetiba Bay is located in the municipal districts of Rio de Janeiro, Mangaratiba and Itaguai; being an important place of fishing activity. Due to the industrial development in the area, this bay is submitted to different environmental impacts, increasing the organic and industrial pollution. A strain of the nanoplanktonic cyanobacteria Synechocystis aquatilis f. aquatilis that produce MCYSTs was already isolated. In this study, we verified MCYSTs presence in muscle tissue of fish and crustaceans, which were harvested monthly in Sepetiba Bay during 11 months, in order to evaluate the potential risk of their ingestion. MCYSTs were analyzed by immunoassay techniques using the ELISA Microcystin Plate Kit (ENVIROLOGIX INC) and the concentration were expressed as microcystin-LR equivalent. The analyses of seston samples, water, muscle tissues showed the presence of this cyanotoxin in all samples and it was verified that 19% of the animals' samples were above the limit recommended by WHO for human consumption. The maximum value found was of 103.3 microg kg(-1) (TDI 0.52 microg kg(-1) day(-1)) and the minimum, was 0.25 microg kg(-1) in crabs muscle tissue (TDI of 0.001 microg kg(-1) day(-1)). Such data demonstrate that, although in low concentrations, there is already a contamination of fish and crustaceans from Sepetiba Bay. We highlight that the recommended limit refers to healthy adult. PMID:14559080

  2. Lignin phenols used to infer organic matter sources to Sepetiba Bay - RJ, Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezende, C. E.; Pfeiffer, W. C.; Martinelli, L. A.; Tsamakis, E.; Hedges, J. I.; Keil, R. G.

    2010-04-01

    Lignin phenols were measured in the sediments of Sepitiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and in bedload sediments and suspended sediments of the four major fluvial inputs to the bay; São Francisco and Guandu Channels and the Guarda and Cação Rivers. Fluvial suspended lignin yields (?8 3.5-14.6 mgC 10 g dw -1) vary little between the wet and dry seasons and are poorly correlated with fluvial chlorophyll concentrations (0.8-50.2 ?gC L -1). Despite current land use practices that favor grassland agriculture or industrial uses, fluvial lignin compositions are dominated by a degraded leaf-sourced material. The exception is the Guarda River, which has a slight influence from grasses. The Lignin Phenol Vegetation Index, coupled with acid/aldehyde and 3.5 Db/V ratios, indicate that degraded leaf-derived phenols are also the primary preserved lignin component in the bay. The presence of fringe Typha sp. and Spartina sp. grass beds surrounding portions of the Bay are not reflected in the lignin signature. Instead, lignin entering the bay appears to reflect the erosion of soils containing a degraded signature from the former Atlantic rain forest that once dominated the watershed, instead of containing a significant signature derived from current agricultural uses. A three-component mixing model using the LPVI, atomic N:C ratios, and stable carbon isotopes (which range between -26.8 and -21.8‰) supports the hypothesis that fluvial inputs to the bay are dominated by planktonic matter (78% of the input), with lignin dominated by leaf (14% of the input) over grass (6%). Sediments are composed of a roughly 50-50 mixture of autochthonous material and terrigenous material, with lignin being primarily sourced from leaf.

  3. Hydrodynamics and water quality models applied to Sepetiba Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Cynara de L. da N.; Rosman, Paulo C. C.; Ferreira, Aldo Pacheco; Carlos do Nascimento Monteiro, Teófilo

    2006-10-01

    A coupled hydrodynamic and water quality model is used to simulate the pollution in Sepetiba Bay due to sewage effluent. Sepetiba Bay has a complicated geometry and bottom topography, and is located on the Brazilian coast near Rio de Janeiro. In the simulation, the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) are used as indicators for the presence of organic matter in the body of water, and as parameters for evaluating the environmental pollution of the eastern part of Sepetiba Bay. Effluent sources in the model are taken from DO and BOD field measurements. The simulation results are consistent with field observations and demonstrate that the model has been correctly calibrated. The model is suitable for evaluating the environmental impact of sewage effluent on Sepetiba Bay from river inflows, assessing the feasibility of different treatment schemes, and developing specific monitoring activities. This approach has general applicability for environmental assessment of complicated coastal bays.

  4. Combined SEM/AVS and attenuation of concentration models for the assessment of bioavailability and mobility of metals in sediments of Sepetiba Bay (SE Brazil).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Andreza Portella; Figueiredo, Ana Maria Graciano; dos Santos, José Osman; Dantas, Elizabeth; Cotrim, Marycel Elena Barboza; Figueira, Rubens Cesar Lopes; Silva Filho, Emmanoel V; Wasserman, Julio Cesar

    2013-03-15

    This study proposes a new methodology to study contamination, bioavailability and mobility of metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) using chemical and geostatistics approaches in marine sediments of Sepetiba Bay (SE Brazil). The chemical model of SEM (simultaneously extracted metals)/AVS (acid volatile sulfides) ratio uses a technique of cold acid extraction of metals to evaluate their bioavailability, and the geostatistical model of attenuation of concentrations estimates the mobility of metals. By coupling the two it was observed that Sepetiba Port, the urban area of Sepetiba and the riverine discharges may constitute potential sources of metals to Sepetiba Bay. The metals are concentrated in the NE area of the bay, where they tend to have their lowest mobility, as shown by the attenuation model, and are not bioavailable, as they tend to associate with sulfide and organic matter originated in the mangrove forests of nearby Guaratiba area. PMID:23498658

  5. Case report of flipper anatomic anomaly of Sotalia guianensis from Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Marigo, Juliana; Pinto, Nelson S; Simões-Lopes, Paulo C; Leonardo, Flach; Azevedo, Alexandre F; Lailson-Brito, José

    2013-07-01

    The cetacean flipper consists of a soft tissue that encases most of the forelimb containing humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges. Several studies have documented the typical cetacean's flipper anatomy, but only a few described digital anomalies and the most common are fusions and supernumerary such as polydactily and polyphalangy. The flippers of the Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis have a falciform general aspect showing individual differences and marks produced by individual contact in social interactions that mainly occur on the posterior border. Here, we report for the first time a case of flippers with anatomical anomalies of loss of digits and deviation of radius of an adult S. guianensis from Baía de Sepetiba (22°54'-23°04', 43°36'-44°02'W), Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. PMID:23630189

  6. FDA Bans Sale of New R.J. Reynolds Cigarettes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... news/fullstory_154630.html FDA Bans Sale of New R.J. Reynolds Cigarettes Products didn't meet ... J. Reynolds Tobacco Co. to stop selling four new cigarette brands because they violate provisions of the ...

  7. Effect of Rj Genotype and Cultivation Temperature on the Community Structure of Soybean-Nodulating Bradyrhizobia

    PubMed Central

    Shiro, Sokichi; Yamamoto, Akihiro; Umehara, Yosuke; Hayashi, Masaki; Yoshida, Naoto; Nishiwaki, Aya; Yamakawa, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    The nodulation tendency and community structure of indigenous bradyrhizobia on Rj genotype soybean cultivars at cultivation temperatures of 33/28°C, 28/23°C, and 23/18°C for 16/8 h (day/night degrees, hours) were investigated using 780 bradyrhizobial DNA samples from an Andosol with 13 soybean cultivars of four Rj genotypes (non-Rj, Rj2Rj3, Rj4, and Rj2Rj3Rj4). A dendrogram was constructed based on restriction fragment length polymorphism of the PCR products (PCR-RFLP) of the 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer region. Eleven Bradyrhizobium U.S. Department of Agriculture strains were used as a reference. The dendrogram indicated seven clusters based on similarities among the reference strains. The occupancy rate of the Bj123 cluster decreased with increasing cultivation temperature, whereas the occupancy rates of the Bj110 cluster, Be76 cluster, and Be94 cluster increased with increasing cultivation temperature. In particular, the Rj2Rj3Rj4 genotype soybeans were infected with a number of Bj110 clusters, regardless of the increasing cultivation temperature, compared to other Rj genotype soybean cultivars. The ratio of beta diversity to gamma diversity (H??/H??), which represents differences in the bradyrhizobial communities by pairwise comparison among cultivation temperature sets within the same soybean cultivar, indicated that the bradyrhizobial communities tended to be different among cultivation temperatures. Multidimensional scaling analysis indicated that the infection of the Bj110 cluster and the Bj123 cluster by host soybean genotype and the cultivation temperature affected the bradyrhizobial communities. These results suggested that the Rj genotypes and cultivation temperatures affected the nodulation tendency and community structures of soybean-nodulating bradyrhizobia. PMID:22156423

  8. Analysis of the Body Distribution of Absorbed Dose in the Organs of Three Species of Fish from Sepetiba Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Kelecom, Alphonse; dos Santos Gouvea, Rita de Cássia; Py Júnior, Delcy de Azevedo

    2008-08-01

    The body distribution of Polonium-210 in three fishes from the Sepetiba Bay (Macrodon ancylodon, Micropogonias furnieri and Mugil curema) has been studied under the approach of the Department of Energy of the United States of America (DOE) that set the limit of absorbed dose rate in biota equal to 3.5×103 ?Gy/y, and that also established the relation between dose rate (D) and radionuclide concentration (c) on a fish muscle fresh weight basis, as follows: D = 5.05 E×N×C, assuming that the radionuclide distribution is homogenous among organs. Two hypotheses were tested here, using statistical tools: 1) is the body distribution of absorbed dose homogenous among organs? and 2) is the body distribution of absorbed dose identical among studied fishes? It was concluded, as expected, that the distribution among organs is heterogeneous; but, unexpectedly, that the three fishes display identical body distribution pattern, although they belong to different trophic levels. Hence, concerning absorbed dose calculation, the statement that data distribution is homogenous must be understood merely as an approximation, at least in the case of Polonium-210.

  9. Analysis of the Body Distribution of Absorbed Dose in the Organs of Three Species of Fish from Sepetiba Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Wagner de S; Kelecom, Alphonse; Santos Gouvea, Rita de Cassia dos; Azevedo Py Junior, Delcy de

    2008-08-07

    The body distribution of Polonium-210 in three fishes from the Sepetiba Bay (Macrodon ancylodon, Micropogonias furnieri and Mugil curema) has been studied under the approach of the Department of Energy of the United States of America (DOE) that set the limit of absorbed dose rate in biota equal to 3.5x10{sup 3} {mu}Gy/y, and that also established the relation between dose rate (D) and radionuclide concentration (c) on a fish muscle fresh weight basis, as follows: D = 5.05 ExNxC, assuming that the radionuclide distribution is homogenous among organs. Two hypotheses were tested here, using statistical tools: 1) is the body distribution of absorbed dose homogenous among organs? and 2) is the body distribution of absorbed dose identical among studied fishes? It was concluded, as expected, that the distribution among organs is heterogeneous; but, unexpectedly, that the three fishes display identical body distribution pattern, although they belong to different trophic levels. Hence, concerning absorbed dose calculation, the statement that data distribution is homogenous must be understood merely as an approximation, at least in the case of Polonium-210.

  10. (399307) 1991 RJ2: A New NEA Binary Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Brian D.; Pollock, Joseph T.; Reichart, Daniel E.; Haislip, Joshua B.; LaCluyze, Aaron P.; Verveer, Arie; Spuck, Tim; Harris, Alan W.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of CCD photometric observations of the near- Earth asteroid (399307) 1991 RJ2 made in 2014 August- September show it to be a binary system with a primary period of 3.4907 ± 0.0002 h and orbital period of 15.917 ± 0.001 h. The depth of the secondary mutual event indicates a minimum effective diameter ratio (Ds/Dp) of 0.47 ± 0.02. The lightcurve showing the orbital period and mutual events indicates a slightly elongated (a/b ~ 1.07/1.0) satellite that is tidally-locked to the orbital period.

  11. FATE AND TOXICITY OF HIGH DENSITY MISSILE FUELS RJ-5 AND JP-9 IN AQUATIC TEST SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The high density missile fuels RJ-5 and JP-9 resisted biodegradation when incubated with water/sediment suspensions collected from aquatic habitats. RJ-5 and JP-9 were not toxic to the microbial communities at concentrations of 400 mg per liter, but RJ-5 was toxic to Mysidopsis b...

  12. 75 FR 75205 - R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Central Kentucky Lines, LLC-Trackage Rights Exemption-CSX...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-02

    ... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Central Kentucky Lines, LLC-- Trackage Rights...,\\1\\ CSX Transportation, Inc. (CSXT) has agreed to grant limited overhead trackage rights to R.J... original notices, R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Central Kentucky Lines, LLC--Acquisition and...

  13. 75 FR 18253 - R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC-Acquisition Exemption-NC Railroad, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC--Acquisition Exemption--NC Railroad, Inc. R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC (RJC Railroad Property), a Class III rail carrier, has filed a... concurrently filed notice of exemption in STB Finance Docket No. 35364, R.J. Corman Railroad...

  14. Archaeal and bacterial communities of heavy metal contaminated acidic waters from zinc mine residues in Sepetiba Bay.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Welington I; Vieira, Ricardo P; Cardoso, Alexander Machado; Silveira, Cynthia B; Costa, Rebeca G; Gonzalez, Alessandra M; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Medeiros, João A; Freitas, Flávia A; Albano, Rodolpho M; Martins, Orlando B

    2009-03-01

    Mining of metallic sulfide ore produces acidic water with high metal concentrations that have harmful consequences for aquatic life. To understand the composition and structure of microbial communities in acid mine drainage (AMD) waters associated with Zn mine tailings, molecular diversity of 16S genes was examined using a PCR, cloning, and sequencing approach. A total of 78 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from samples collected at five different sites in and around mining residues in Sepetiba Bay, Brazil. We analyzed metal concentration, physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters related to prokaryotic diversity in low metal impacted compared to highly polluted environments with Zn at level of gram per liter and Cd-Pb at level of microgram per liter. Application of molecular methods for community structure analyses showed that Archaea and Bacteria groups present a phylogenetic relationship with uncultured environmental organisms. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that bacteria present at the five sites fell into seven known divisions, alpha-Proteobacteria (13.4%), beta-Proteobacteria (16.3%), gamma-Proteobacteria (4.3%), Sphingobacteriales (4.3%), Actinobacteria (3.2%) Acidobacteria (2.1%), Cyanobacteria (11.9%), and unclassified bacteria (44.5%). Almost all archaeal clones were related to uncultivated Crenarchaeota species, which were shared between high impacted and low impacted waters. Rarefaction curves showed that bacterial groups are more diverse than archaeal groups while the overall prokaryotic biodiversity is lower in high metal impacted environments than in less polluted habitats. Knowledge of this microbial community structure will help in understanding prokaryotic diversity, biogeography, and the role of microorganisms in zinc smelting AMD generation and perhaps it may be exploited for environmental remediation procedures in this area. PMID:19089530

  15. Acid Volatile Sulfides (avs) and the Bioavailability of Trace Metals in the Channel of the SÃO Francisco River, Sepetiba Bay - de Janeiro-Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monte, Christiane; Rodrigues, Ana Paula; Marinho, Matheus; Quaresma, Tássia; Machado, Wilson

    2014-05-01

    Sepetiba Bay has 430 Km2 of internal and 2,500 Km2 area of the drainage basin (Lacerda et al., 2007), located 60 km west of the city of Rio de Janeiro. Sepetiba Bay has 430 Km2 of internal and 2,500 Km2 area of the drainage basin (Lacerda et al., 2007), located 60 km west of the city of Rio de Janeiro.The San Francisco channel comes from the Guandu River and empties into Sepetiba Bay and is the main contributor of freshwater to the estuarine system. The Guandu River system/channel of San Francisco receives contribution of domestic and industrial effluents, which go largely to Sepetiba Bay. This work aimed to evaluate the .This work aimed to evaluate the ratio SEM/AVS as a way of predicting bioavailability trace metals from industrial sewage, mainly, in the estuarine system of Sepetiba. This model is based on the property of some Divalent metal cations (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn), by presenting a low solubility constant, are removed from the soluble fraction by precipitation, forming secondary metal sulfides. Were held four transects, made up of three points each, the coast line to the center of the Bay. The surface sediment was collected with a van Veen sampler type ,packed in glass jars and kept frozen until analysis.The determination of SEM/AVS followed the methodology described by Allen et al. (1991). The variation between sulfide 159.88 ± 0.05 µmol/g on 12 points. The metals that entered the sum of simultaneous extraction were: Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn ranging from: 6.47 ± 0.11 µmol/g on sum.The means (± standard deviation) ratio SEM/AVS per transect were: 1.04 ± 1.20 (transect 1); 0.48 ± 0.53 (transect 2); 1.26 ± 1.32 (transect 3) and 0.18 ± 0.14 (transect 4). Only transects 1 and 3 had higher results than 1 , meaning that there are more divalent metal sulfides in the environment. This means that only the sulfides would not be capable of complex and may reflect the potential bioavailability of these in the aquatic environment. There is no statistical difference between the transects. According to the studies done previously in the area for concentrations of AVS MADDOCK et at. (2007) found values greater than 290 μmol g-1, MACHADO et al. (2008) found concentrations between 5.2-121 μmol g-1 in the Herons Cove and RODRIGUES (2013) found concentrations between 14.26 to 41.46 μmol g-1 in the Engenho's Sac.The results may reflect the oxic conditions of the environment, which interferes with the reduction of SO4. Additionally, other mechanisms of metal retention in the sediment may be occurring at the site, together with the interfering sulfide. Key words: estuary sediment and simultaneous extraction of metals.

  16. PCR-based karyotyping of Anopheles gambiae inversion 2Rj identifies the BAMAKO chromosomal form

    PubMed Central

    Coulibaly, Mamadou B; Pombi, Marco; Caputo, Beniamino; Nwakanma, Davis; Jawara, Musa; Konate, Lassana; Dia, Ibrahima; Fofana, Abdrahamane; Kern, Marcia; Simard, Frédéric; Conway, David J; Petrarca, Vincenzo; Torre, Alessandra della; Traoré, Sékou; Besansky, Nora J

    2007-01-01

    Background The malaria vector Anopheles gambiae is polymorphic for chromosomal inversions on the right arm of chromosome 2 that segregate nonrandomly between assortatively mating populations in West Africa. One such inversion, 2Rj, is associated with the BAMAKO chromosomal form endemic to southern Mali and northern Guinea Conakry near the Niger River. Although it exploits a unique ecology and both molecular and chromosomal data suggest reduced gene flow between BAMAKO and other A. gambiae populations, no molecular markers exist to identify this form. Methods To facilitate study of the BAMAKO form, a PCR assay for molecular karyotyping of 2Rj was developed based on sequences at the breakpoint junctions. The assay was extensively validated using more than 700 field specimens whose karyotypes were determined in parallel by cytogenetic and molecular methods. As inversion 2Rj also occurs in SAVANNA populations outside the geographic range of BAMAKO, samples were tested from Senegal, Cameroon and western Guinea Conakry as well as from Mali. Results In southern Mali, where 2Rj polymorphism in SAVANNA populations was very low and most of the 2Rj homozygotes were found in BAMAKO karyotypes, the molecular and cytogenetic methods were almost perfectly congruent. Elsewhere agreement between the methods was much poorer, as the molecular assay frequently misclassified 2Rj heterozygotes as 2R+j standard homozygotes. Conclusion Molecular karyotyping of 2Rj is robust and accurate on 2R+j standard and 2Rj inverted homozygotes. Therefore, the proposed approach overcomes the lack of a rapid tool for identifying the BAMAKO form across developmental stages and sexes, and opens new perspectives for the study of BAMAKO ecology and behaviour. On the other hand, the method should not be applied for molecular karyotyping of j-carriers within the SAVANNA chromosomal form. PMID:17908310

  17. Identification of Bradyrhizobium elkanii Genes Involved in Incompatibility with Soybean Plants Carrying the Rj4 Allele.

    PubMed

    Faruque, Omar M; Miwa, Hiroki; Yasuda, Michiko; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Kaneko, Takakazu; Sato, Shusei; Okazaki, Shin

    2015-10-01

    Symbioses between leguminous plants and soil bacteria known as rhizobia are of great importance to agricultural production and nitrogen cycling. While these mutualistic symbioses can involve a wide range of rhizobia, some legumes exhibit incompatibility with specific strains, resulting in ineffective nodulation. The formation of nodules in soybean plants (Glycine max) is controlled by several host genes, which are referred to as Rj genes. The soybean cultivar BARC2 carries the Rj4 gene, which restricts nodulation by specific strains, including Bradyrhizobium elkanii USDA61. Here we employed transposon mutagenesis to identify the genetic locus in USDA61 that determines incompatibility with soybean varieties carrying the Rj4 allele. Introduction of the Tn5 transposon into USDA61 resulted in the formation of nitrogen fixation nodules on the roots of soybean cultivar BARC2 (Rj4 Rj4). Sequencing analysis of the sequence flanking the Tn5 insertion revealed that six genes encoding a putative histidine kinase, transcriptional regulator, DNA-binding transcriptional activator, helix-turn-helix-type transcriptional regulator, phage shock protein, and cysteine protease were disrupted. The cysteine protease mutant had a high degree of similarity with the type 3 effector protein XopD of Xanthomonas campestris. Our findings shed light on the diverse and complicated mechanisms that underlie these highly host-specific interactions and indicate the involvement of a type 3 effector in Rj4 nodulation restriction, suggesting that Rj4 incompatibility is partly mediated by effector-triggered immunity. PMID:26187957

  18. Spatial, temporal and diel variations of fish assemblages at two sandy beaches in the Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessanha, André Luiz Machado; Araújo, Francisco Gerson

    2003-08-01

    Fish assemblages from two beaches, one in the inner and the other in the outer Sepetiba Bay (latitude: 22°54'-23°04'S; longitude: 43°34'-44°10'W), Southeast Brazil, were sampled by beach seine net, simultaneously, on both seasonal and diel scales, between August 1998 and June 1999. Sites were selected to encompass different environmental conditions which reflect the two bay zones, thus providing a comprehensive assessment of the factors influencing surf zone fish assemblages, and their spatial, seasonal and diel variations. A total of 55 fish species was recorded, mostly young-of-the-year. Anchoa tricolor, Micropogonias furnieri, Gerres aprion, Diapterus rhombeus, Harengula clupeola, Atherinella brasiliensis and Mugil liza were numerically dominant and contributed to 95.2% of the total fish catches. Strong differences in fish assemblages were observed between the two areas, with higher number of species in the outer bay. Increases in fish numbers occurred in winter, while the highest biomass occurred in winter and summer. Transparency, followed by salinity, was responsible for most of the spatial variability and played an important role in structuring fish assemblages. Overall, diel patterns did not reveal any significant trends; however, if we consider each season separately, an increase in fish numbers during the day with peak at sunset was observed in winter, and a higher biomass occurred at night in winter and summer. Species preferences for various combinations of environmental variables are responsible for shifts in the structure and overall abundance of assemblages and dictated some patterns. The sciaenid M. furnieri, the second most abundant species, occurred only in the inner zone, being more abundant in winter. The species of Engraulidae were more abundant in the outer zone in winter/spring during the day. The gerreids G. aprion and D. rhombeus occurred mainly in summer. Overall, temporal fluctuations act more at a specific level than at a structural one, and may be linked to some particular stages of the fish life cycle, but do not significantly influence the spatial organization.

  19. Geochemical behavior and dissolved species control in acid sand pit lakes, Sepetiba sedimentary basin, Rio de Janeiro, SE - Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Eduardo D.; Sella, Sílvia M.; Bidone, Edison D.; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel V.

    2010-12-01

    This work shows the influence of pluvial waters on dissolved components and mineral equilibrium of four sand pit lakes, located in the Sepetiba sedimentary basin, SE Brazil. The sand mining activities promote sediment oxidation, lowering pH and increasing SO 4 contents. The relatively high acidity of these waters, similar to ore pit lakes environment and associated acid mine drainage, increases weathering rate, especially of silicate minerals, which produces high Al concentrations, the limiting factor for fish aquaculture. During the dry season, basic cations (Ca, Mg, K and Na), SiO 2 and Al show their higher values due to evapoconcentration and pH are buffered. In the beginning of the wet season, the dilution factor by rainwater increases SO 4 and decreases pH values. The aluminum monomeric forms (Al(OH) 2+ and Al(OH) 2+), the most toxic species for aquatic organisms, occur during the dry season, while AlSO 4+ species predominate during the wet season. Gibbsite, allophane, alunite and jurbanite are the reactive mineral phases indicated by PHREEQC modeling. During the dry season, hydroxialuminosilicate allophane is the main phase in equilibrium with the solution, while the sulphate salts alunite and jurbanite predominate in the rainy season due to the increasing of SO 4 values. Gibbsite is also in equilibrium with sand pit lakes waters, pointing out that hydrolysis reaction is a constant process in the system. Comparing to SiO 2, sulphate is the main Al retriever in the pit waters because the most samples (alunite and jurbanite) are in equilibrium with the solution in both seasons. This Al hydrochemical control allied to some precaution, like pH correction and fertilization of these waters, allows the conditions for fishpond culture. Equilibrium of the majority samples with kaolinite (Ca, Mg, Na diagrams) and primary minerals (K diagram) points to moderate weathering rate in sand pit sediments, which cannot be considered for the whole basin due to the anomalous acidification of the studied waters.

  20. Purification and Characterization of a Novel Bacteriocin Produced by Enterococcus faecalis Strain RJ-11†

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Yukio; Togawa, Yoshikazu; Shimosaka, Makoto; Okazaki, Mitsuo

    2003-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria exhibiting activity against the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis were isolated from rice bran. One of the isolates, identified as Enterococcus faecalis RJ-11, exhibited a wide spectrum of growth inhibition with various gram-positive bacteria. A bacteriocin purified from culture fluid, designated enterocin RJ-11, was heat stable and was not sensitive to acid and alkaline conditions, but it was sensitive to several proteolytic enzymes. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that enterocin RJ-11 had a molecular weight of 5,000 in its monomeric form. The amino acid sequence determined for purified enterocin RJ-11 exhibited high levels of similarity to the sequences of enterocins produced by Enterococcus faecium. PMID:14532021

  1. Purification and characterization of a novel bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecalis strain RJ-11.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yukio; Togawa, Yoshikazu; Shimosaka, Makoto; Okazaki, Mitsuo

    2003-10-01

    Lactic acid bacteria exhibiting activity against the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis were isolated from rice bran. One of the isolates, identified as Enterococcus faecalis RJ-11, exhibited a wide spectrum of growth inhibition with various gram-positive bacteria. A bacteriocin purified from culture fluid, designated enterocin RJ-11, was heat stable and was not sensitive to acid and alkaline conditions, but it was sensitive to several proteolytic enzymes. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that enterocin RJ-11 had a molecular weight of 5,000 in its monomeric form. The amino acid sequence determined for purified enterocin RJ-11 exhibited high levels of similarity to the sequences of enterocins produced by Enterococcus faecium. PMID:14532021

  2. Segmental Duplication Implicated in the Genesis of Inversion 2Rj of Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Coulibaly, Mamadou B.; Lobo, Neil F.; Fitzpatrick, Meagan C.; Kern, Marcia; Grushko, Olga; Thaner, Daniel V.; Traoré, Sékou F.; Collins, Frank H.; Besansky, Nora J.

    2007-01-01

    The malaria vector Anopheles gambiae maintains high levels of inversion polymorphism that facilitate its exploitation of diverse ecological settings across tropical Africa. Molecular characterization of inversion breakpoints is a first step toward understanding the processes that generate and maintain inversions. Here we focused on inversion 2Rj because of its association with the assortatively mating Bamako chromosomal form of An. gambiae, whose distinctive breeding sites are rock pools beside the Niger River in Mali and Guinea. Sequence and computational analysis of 2Rj revealed the same 14.6 kb insertion between both breakpoints, which occurred near but not within predicted genes. Each insertion consists of 5.3 kb terminal inverted repeat arms separated by a 4 kb spacer. The insertions lack coding capacity, and are comprised of degraded remnants of repetitive sequences including class I and II transposable elements. Because of their large size and patchwork composition, and as no other instances of these insertions were identified in the An. gambiae genome, they do not appear to be transposable elements. The 14.6 kb modules inserted at both 2Rj breakpoint junctions represent low copy repeats (LCRs, also called segmental duplications) that are strongly implicated in the recent (?0.4Ne generations) origin of 2Rj. The LCRs contribute to further genome instability, as demonstrated by an imprecise excision event at the proximal breakpoint of 2Rj in field isolates. PMID:17786220

  3. 75 FR 52818 - R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Central Kentucky Lines, LLC-Trackage Rights Exemption-CSX...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Central Kentucky Lines, LLC-- Trackage Rights... Transportation, Inc. (CSXT) has agreed to grant additional limited overhead trackage rights \\1\\ to R.J. Corman... Louisville, Ky., a distance of approximately 17 miles.\\2\\ \\1\\ The original rights were obtained by...

  4. 77 FR 30588 - R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Pennsylvania Lines Inc.-Construction and Operation Exemption-In...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Pennsylvania Lines Inc.-- Construction and... prior approval requirements of 49 U.S.C. 10901 for R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Pennsylvania Lines...

  5. 75 FR 18254 - R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line-Lease and Operation Exemption-R.J. Corman Railroad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line--Lease and Operation Exemption--R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line (RJC Railroad Company... from R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC (RJC Railroad Property), and to operate approximately 42...

  6. Map of Montgomery County, N.Y. by Samuel Geil and R.J. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Map of Montgomery County, N.Y. by Samuel Geil and R.J. Hunter. Philadelphia: Peter A. Griner and Robert P. Smith, 1853. From New York State Library, Albany. - Erie Canal (Enlarged), Schoharie Creek Aqueduct, Spanning Schoharie Creek, Fort Hunter, Montgomery County, NY

  7. Rj4, a Gene Controlling Nodulation Specificity in Soybeans, Encodes a Thaumatin-Like Protein But Not the One Previously Reported.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fang; Yang, Shengming; Liu, Jinge; Zhu, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Rj4 is a dominant gene in soybeans (Glycine max) that restricts nodulation by many strains of Bradyrhizobium elkanii. The soybean-B. elkanii symbiosis has a low nitrogen-fixation efficiency, but B. elkanii strains are highly competitive for nodulation; thus, cultivars harboring an Rj4 allele are considered favorable. Cloning the Rj4 gene is the first step in understanding the molecular basis of Rj4-mediated nodulation restriction and facilitates the development of molecular tools for genetic improvement of nitrogen fixation in soybeans. We finely mapped the Rj4 locus within a small genomic region on soybean chromosome 1, and validated one of the candidate genes as Rj4 using both complementation tests and CRISPR/Cas9-based gene knockout experiments. We demonstrated that Rj4 encodes a thaumatin-like protein, for which a corresponding allele is not present in the surveyed rj4 genotypes, including the reference genome Williams 82. Our conclusion disagrees with the previous report that Rj4 is the Glyma.01G165800 gene (previously annotated as Glyma01g37060). Instead, we provide convincing evidence that Rj4 is Glyma.01g165800-D, a duplicated and unique version of Glyma.01g165800, that has evolved the ability to control symbiotic specificity. PMID:26582727

  8. Endophytic Bacillus subtilis Strain E1R-J Is a Promising Biocontrol Agent for Wheat Powdery Mildew

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yufei; Huo, Yunxia; Han, Qingmei; Kang, Zhensheng; Huang, Lili

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the biocontrol efficacies of 14 endophytic bacterial strains were tested against Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) in pot experiments under greenhouse conditions. Bacillus subtilis strain E1R-j significantly reduced disease index and exhibited the best control (90.97%). When different formulations of E1R-j were sprayed 24?h before Bgt inoculation, fermentation liquid without bacterial cell and crude protein suspension displayed the similar effects; and they reduced disease index more than bacterial cell suspension (109?cfu?mL?1) and fermentation liquid without protein. The control effects were not significantly different between 1011 and 109?cfu?mL?1 of bacterial cell suspension but were higher than 107?cfu?mL?1. Further observations showed that conidial germination and appressorial formation of Bgt were retarded by spraying E1R-j 24?h before Bgt inoculation. Compared with the water check, conidial germination and appressorial formation were decreased by 43.3% and 42.7%, respectively. In the treatment with E1R-j, the number of houstoria significantly reduced and the speed of mycelial extension was slowed down in the wheat leaves. Scanning electron microscopy observation revealed that E1R-j significantly suppressed the conidial germination and caused rupture and deformation of germ tubes. On the surface of wheat leaves, mycelia and conidiophores became shrinking. PMID:25759819

  9. 77 FR 1667 - Nelson S. Galgoul, Av. Edison Passess 909, Rio De Janeiro, R.J., Brazil 20531-070, Respondent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ..., the most recent being that of August 12, 2011 (76 FR 50,661 (Aug. 16, 2011)), has continued the... Bureau of Industry and Security Nelson S. Galgoul, Av. Edison Passess 909, Rio De Janeiro, R.J., Brazil... a last known address of Av. Edison Passess 909, Rio De Janeiro, R.J., Brazil 20531-070, and...

  10. Road Marking Extraction Using a MODEL&DATA-DRIVEN Rj-Mcmc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervieu, A.; Soheilian, B.; Brédif, M.

    2015-03-01

    We propose an integrated bottom-up/top-down approach to road-marking extraction from image space. It is based on energy minimization using marked point processes. A generic road marking object model enable us to define universal energy functions that handle various types of road-marking objects (dashed-lines, arrows, characters, etc.). A RJ-MCMC sampler coupled with a simulated annealing is applied to find the configuration corresponding to the minimum of the proposed energy. We used input data measurements to guide the sampler process (data driven RJ-MCMC). The approach is enhanced with a model-driven kernel using preprocessed autocorrelation and inter-correlation of road-marking templates, in order to resolve type and transformation ambiguities. The method is generic and can be applied to detect road-markings in any orthogonal view produced from optical sensors or laser scanners from aerial or terrestrial platforms. We show the results an ortho-image computed from ground-based laser scanning.

  11. 76 FR 39155 - R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC-Acquisition Exemption-NC Railroad, Inc

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... Register on April 9, 2010 (75 FR 18,253), and became effective on April 25, 2010. On May 28, 2010, RJC... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC--Acquisition Exemption--NC Railroad, Inc R. J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC (RJC Railroad Property), a Class III rail carrier, filed a...

  12. RJ 051542+0104.7: A new magnetic, eclipsing, cataclysmic variable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garnavich, Peter M.; Szkody, Paula; Robb, Russell M.; Zurek, David R.; Hoard, D. W.

    1994-01-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of a recently identified X-ray bright, magnetic cataclysmic variable, RJ 051542+0104.7. The X-ray source was discovered serendipitously by Walter et al. (1994; Walter & Zoonematkermani 1994), and their data imply the presence of a heated white dwarf compatible with a magnetic accretion column. Buckley (1994) has reported the presence of circular polarization. Our optical photometry shows that the system undergoes eclipses with a period of 7.9835 +/- 0.0002 hours. The eclipse is 1 magnitude deep and appears to be total. Our spectra were all obtained near eclipse and show a strong blue continuum with broad Balmer emission as well as He II (4686 and 5411 A), C III/N III (4650 A) and He I lines. The blue continuum and emission lines disappear during eclipse, leaving only the spectrum of a M0 star. Using the observed magnitude during eclipse and ignoring interstellar extinction, the distance is approximately 500 pc. For the secondary to fill its Roche lobe, it must be at least 20% larger than that of a normal dM0 star. This may indicate the red dwarf is far from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) due to strong magnetic braking. We find evidence for cyclotron humps in the continuum spectrum which imply a magnetic field strength in the cyclotron emitting region of up to 55 MG. The unexpected existence of a long period AM Her system should provide constraints on models of polar evolution.

  13. Results of the radiological survey at 31 Schlosser Drive, Rochelle Park, New Jersey (RJ003)

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, R.D.; Brown, K.S.

    1992-10-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally {sup 232}Tb, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 31 Schlosser Drive, Rochelle Park, New Jersey (RJ003), was conducted on July 14, 1991. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. The radionuclide distributions were not significantly different from normal background levels in the northern New Jersey area.

  14. Results of the radiological survey at 37 Schlosser Drive, Rochelle Park, New Jersey (RJ002)

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, R.D.; Brown, K.S.

    1992-10-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally [sup 232]Th derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 37 Schlosser Drive, Rochelle Park, New Jersey (RJ002), was conducted on July 14, 1991. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. The radionuclide distributions were not significantly different from normal background levels in the northern New Jersey area.

  15. Results of the radiological survey at 27 Schlosser Drive, Rochelle Park, New Jersey (RJ004)

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, R.D.; Brown, K.S.

    1992-10-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally {sup 232}Tb, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 27 Schlosser Drive, Rochelle Park, New Jersey (RJ004), was conducted on July 14, 1991. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. The radionuclide distributions were not significantly different from normal background levels in the northern New Jersey area.

  16. Results of the radiological survey at 31 Schlosser Drive, Rochelle Park, New Jersey (RJ003)

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, R.D.; Brown, K.S.

    1992-10-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally [sup 232]Tb, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 31 Schlosser Drive, Rochelle Park, New Jersey (RJ003), was conducted on July 14, 1991. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. The radionuclide distributions were not significantly different from normal background levels in the northern New Jersey area.

  17. Results of the radiological survey at 27 Schlosser Drive, Rochelle Park, New Jersey (RJ004)

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, R.D.; Brown, K.S.

    1992-10-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally [sup 232]Tb, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 27 Schlosser Drive, Rochelle Park, New Jersey (RJ004), was conducted on July 14, 1991. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. The radionuclide distributions were not significantly different from normal background levels in the northern New Jersey area.

  18. Results of the radiological survey at 37 Schlosser Drive, Rochelle Park, New Jersey (RJ002)

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, R.D.; Brown, K.S.

    1992-10-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally {sup 232}Th derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 37 Schlosser Drive, Rochelle Park, New Jersey (RJ002), was conducted on July 14, 1991. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. The radionuclide distributions were not significantly different from normal background levels in the northern New Jersey area.

  19. A Putative Type III Secretion System Effector Encoded by the MA20_12780 Gene in Bradyrhizobium japonicum Is-34 Causes Incompatibility with Rj4 Genotype Soybeans

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Syougo; Okizaki, Kouhei; Kanesaki, Yu; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Yamakawa, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    The nodulation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum Is-34 is restricted by Rj4 genotype soybeans (Glycine max). To identify the genes responsible for this incompatibility, Tn5 mutants of B. japonicum Is-34 that were able to overcome this nodulation restriction were obtained. Analysis of the Tn5 mutants revealed that Tn5 was inserted into a region containing the MA20_12780 gene. In addition, direct disruption of this gene using marker exchange overcame the nodulation restriction by Rj4 genotype soybeans. The MA20_12780 gene has a tts box motif in its upstream region, indicating a possibility that this gene encodes a type III secretion system (T3SS) effector protein. Bioinformatic characterization revealed that the MA20_12780 protein contains the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protease domain of the C48 peptidase (ubiquitin-like protease 1 [Ulp1]) family. The results of the present study indicate that a putative T3SS effector encoded by the MA20_12780 gene causes the incompatibility with Rj4 genotype soybeans, and they suggest the possibility that the nodulation restriction of B. japonicum Is-34 may be due to Rj4 genotype soybeans recognizing the putative T3SS effector (MA20_12780 protein) as a virulence factor. PMID:26092458

  20. Purification and characterization of a potential antifungal protein from Bacillus subtilis E1R-J against Valsa mali.

    PubMed

    Wang, N N; Yan, X; Gao, X N; Niu, H J; Kang, Z S; Huang, L L

    2016-04-01

    In order to identify the antagonistic substances produced by Bacillus subtilis E1R-J as candidate of biocontrol agents for controlling Apple Valsa Canker, hydrochloric acid precipitation, reverse phase chromatography, gel filtration, and ion exchange chromatography were used. The purified fraction EP-2 showed a single band in native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (native-PAGE) and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Fraction EP-2 was eluted from native-PAGE and showed a clear inhibition zone against V. mali 03-8. These results prove that EP-2 is one of the most important antifungal substances produced by B. subtilis E1R-J in fermentation broth. SDS-PAGE and Nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis results demonstrated that EP-2 was likely an antifungal peptide (trA0A086WXP9), with a relative molecular mass of 12.44 kDa and isoelectric point of 9.94. The examination of antagonistic mechanism under SEM and TEM showed that EP-2 appeared to inhibit Valsa mali 03-8 by causing hyphal swelling, distortion, abnormality and protoplasts extravasation. Inhibition spectrum results showed that antifungal protein EP-2 had significantly inhibition on sixteen kinds of plant pathogenic fungi. The stability test results showed that protein EP-2 was stable with antifungal activity at temperatures as high as 100 °C for 30 min and in pH values ranging from 1.0 to 8.0, or incubated with each 5 mM Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Mg(2+), or K(+). However, the antifungal activity was negatively affected by Proteinase K treatment. PMID:26925625

  1. Estimate of jovian high-energy equatorial electron flux at range R > 2 Rj, using data from the Galileo spacecraft's final full orbit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratliff, J. M.; Fieseler, P. D.; Jun, I.; Garrett, H. B.

    2003-04-01

    Periapse of the Galileo spacecraft's 34th orbit of Jupiter occurred at a magnetic radial L-value of 2 Rj (jovian radii) and +4 degrees magnetic latitude (both as given by an Offset Tilted Dipole magnetic field model). This is Galileo's only orbit to sample the jovian radiation belts inside 4 Rj. The primary Galileo instrument for this measurement is the Applied Physics Lab's Energetic Particle Detector (EPD), whose data are, as of this writing, being downlinked to Earth. Evidence of the electron radiation was also recorded as background noise in the star scanner (SS). That data is available, and will be reported here. Comparison of the EPD's DC3 channel with SS background counts on previous orbits shows that the SS and DC3 count rates approximately track one another from 10 Rj, inward to the measurement limit of 5.5 Rj. The DC3 channel measures electrons of energy E > ~11 MeV. This is consistent with the energy of electrons that are expected to penetrate the thick shielding around the SS. Therefore, the SS data can be used as a proxy for ~11 MeV electron data. A multiplicative factor of ~ 500 makes the SS counts numerically equal to the DC3 count rates. Inside of 6 Rj, the SS data begins to require correction for photomultiplier tube dead-time. The corrections become quite significant, but a unique aspect of the SS allows us to determine the correction factor to a fair degree of accuracy. The SS is continually measuring the light from a known star. The change in this starlight's measured intensity due to dead-time effects is inversely proportional to the dead-time correction factor we need to apply to the background of radiation-induced counts to get the true magnitude of the counts. Then by scaling the corrected SS counts to produce an equivalent DC3 count rate, and applying the appropriate geometric factor, we derive an integral flux of ~ 11 MeV, near-equatorial electrons. The results, with comparisons to existing models and data, will be presented.

  2. Charophytes as a nutrient and energy reservoir in a tropical coastal Lagoon impacted by humans (RJ, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Palma-Silva, C; Albertoni, E F; Esteves, F A

    2004-08-01

    In the Imboassica Lagoon (22 degrees 24'S and 42 degrees 42'W) (Macaé, RJ, Brazil), two species of macroalgae of the genus Chara (C. angolensis and C. fibrosa) registered in large areas were identified. The lagoon is subject to several relevant anthropic impacts, of which untreated sewage is one of the most important. Results of the biomass distribution as analyzed in different areas of the lagoon showed values ranging from 172 to 510 gDW x m(-2). As for the nutrient concentration, the results presented large fluctuations, with carbon values ranging from 325 to 392 mg x g(-1)DW, those of nitrogen, from 14 to 27 mg x g DW, and of phosphorus from 0.45 to 0.85 mg.g(-1) DW. This led to large fluctuations of the C:N:P ratio (from 387:24:1 to 872:47:1). The minimum and maximum energetic values of the biomass were 9.54 e 12.34 kJ x g(-1)DW. Smaller C:N:P ratios tended to occur in more eutrophic areas. The association between biomass and nutrient concentration showed that the highest quantities in the beds are found in oligotrophic areas. The Spearman correlation between nutrient concentration in the water column and biomass was r(s) = 0.45 (p < 0.05) for nitrogen and r(s) = 0.50 (p < 0.01) for phosphorus (n = 30). The large total biomass associated with nutrient concentration and energy content indicates that Charophytes are an important biological compartment in the structure and metabolism of the lagoon. PMID:15622845

  3. Results of the radiological survey at Route 17(S) and Becker Avenue, Rochelle Park, New Jersey (RJ001)

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, R.D.; Carrier, R.F.

    1989-11-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally {sup 232}Th, derived from the MCW site. The surveys typically include direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this commercial property at Route 17(S) and Becker Avenue, Rochelle Park, New Jersey (RJ001), was conducted in 1986. Measurements taken at the commercial property located at Route 17(S) and Becker Avenue indicate slightly elevated gamma exposure rates in three areas of the parking lot. Although results of analysis of the asphalt disclosed radionuclide concentrations in excess of the applicable criterion, their presence is due to naturally radioactive substances in asphalt patching materials and is not associated with material from the MCW site. Therefore, it is recommended that this site be eliminated from consideration for inclusion in the DOE remedial action program. 5 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium striatum 1961 BR-RJ/09, a Multidrug-Susceptible Strain Isolated from the Urine of a Hospitalized 37-Year-Old Female Patient.

    PubMed

    Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana L; Guimarães, Luis C; Santos, Carolina S; Veras, Adonney A O; Carneiro, Adriana R; Soares, Siomar C; Ramos, Juliana N; Souza, Cassius; Vieira, Veronica V; Hirata, Raphael; Azevedo, Vasco; Pacheco, Luis G C; Silva, Artur; Ramos, Rommel T J

    2015-01-01

    Corynebacterium striatum commonly colonizes the normal skin and nasopharyngeal tract of humans; however, this potentially pathogenic bacterium has been identified as the causative agent of several nosocomial infections. The current study describes the draft genome of strain 1961 BR-RJ/09, isolated from the urine of a hospitalized patient from Brazil. PMID:26251495

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium striatum 1961 BR-RJ/09, a Multidrug-Susceptible Strain Isolated from the Urine of a Hospitalized 37-Year-Old Female Patient

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Luis C.; Santos, Carolina S.; Veras, Adonney A. O.; Carneiro, Adriana R.; Soares, Siomar C.; Ramos, Juliana N.; Souza, Cassius; Vieira, Veronica V.; Hirata, Raphael; Azevedo, Vasco; Pacheco, Luis G. C.; Silva, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Corynebacterium striatum commonly colonizes the normal skin and nasopharyngeal tract of humans; however, this potentially pathogenic bacterium has been identified as the causative agent of several nosocomial infections. The current study describes the draft genome of strain 1961 BR-RJ/09, isolated from the urine of a hospitalized patient from Brazil. PMID:26251495

  6. “And they told two friends…and so on”: RJ Reynolds’ viral marketing of Eclipse and its potential to mislead the public

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, S J; Ling, P M

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore viral marketing strategies for Eclipse cigarettes used by the RJ Reynolds Company (Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA). Methods Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents and multimedia materials. Results The failure of RJ Reynolds’ (RJR) 1988 “smokeless” cigarette, Premier, was in part due to widespread bad word of mouth about the product’s flavour, quality and difficulty of use. In 1994 RJR introduced an updated version of Premier, the ostensibly “reduced risk” Eclipse cigarette. RJR developed viral marketing channels to promote Eclipse using (1) exploratory interviews to motivate consumers to spread the word about Eclipse prior to market release, (2) promotional videos featuring positive feedback from test group participants to portray majority consensus among triers, (3) “Tupperware”-like parties for Eclipse where participants received samples to pass around in their social circles and (4) the Eclipse website’s bulletin board as a forum for potential users to discuss the brand in their own words. These strategies targeted the brand’s likeliest adopters, recruited informal and credible representatives of the product unaffiliated with RJR, and controlled the information spread about the product. Conclusions Viral marketing techniques may be particularly useful to promote new tobacco products such as Eclipse that have limited appeal and need a highly motivated audience of early adopters and acceptors. Such techniques help evade the mass rejection that could follow mass promotion, circumvent marketing restrictions, and allow tobacco companies to benefit from health claims made by consumers. Cigarette manufacturers must be held accountable for perceived health benefits encouraged by all promotional activities including viral marketing. PMID:18332064

  7. [Domestic violence against children and prospects for intervention of the Family Health Program: the experience of the Family Doctor Program/Niterói (RJ, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Pedro Carlos Xavier da; Moraes, Claudia Leite

    2011-07-01

    This study seeks to estimate the prevalence of psychological and physical violence practiced against children in the family environment among clients of the Family Medical Program in Niterói (RJ). It also discloses some potential opportunities for action in the prevention, early detection and monitoring of families experiencing violence. This population-based survey was conducted with face-to-face interviews with parents or legal sponsors of 278 children registered in 27 teams of the Family Health Program. The population studied was randomly selected among children up to ten years of age. The Brazilian version of Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales - CTSPC was employed to assess the occurrence of this type of violence. Psychological aggression occurred in 96.7% (CI 95%: 94.7-98.8) of the households, and corporal punishment occurred in 93.8% (CI 95%: 92.0-96.7). Minor physical violence was reported by 51.4% (CI 95%: 45.5-57.3) of the respondents, and severe physical maltreatment by 19.8% (CI 95%: 15.1-24.5) of them. Although the mother was the foremost perpetrator of all kinds of maltreatment, most of the children were abused by both parents. In view of these results, domestic violence against children should be seen as a main concern for the Family Health Program. PMID:21808916

  8. The geomorphology and ground penetrating radar survey results of the Múlajökull and Þjórsárjökull surge-type glaciers, central Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karušs, Jānis; Lamsters, Kristaps; Běrziņš, Dāvids

    2015-04-01

    Múlajökull and Þjórsárjökull are surge-type outlet glaciers of the Hofsjökull ice cap, central Iceland (Björnsson et al., 2003). The forefield of Múlajökull comprises the active drumlin field of more than 110 drumlins (Johnson et al., 2010; Jónsson et al., 2014) and therefore is an excellent area for studies of glacial geomorphology, subglacial topography and ice structures. This work describes preliminary results obtained during the expedition to Múlajökull and Þjórsárjökull glaciers in August, 2014. In the research ground penetrating radar (GPR) Zond 12-e was used. GPR measurements were performed on both outlet glaciers using 38 MHz and 75 MHz antenna systems. During data acquisition 2000 ns time window was used, while length of profiles was determined using GPS device Garmin GPS-76. In total approximately 3 km of GPR profiles were recorded. GPR signals propagation speed in glacier ice was determined using reflections from internal meltwater channels of glacier. In obtained radarogramms it was possible to trace reflections from the glacier bed till depth of approximately 144 m as well as numerous prominent reflections from internal meltwater channels of glacier. In one of the obtained radarogramms possible subglacial channel below Múlajökull glacier was identified. Also feature of subglacial topography that resembles drumlin was identified. The area of abundant infiltrated water was distinguished close to the ice margin in the radarogramm obtained on Þjórsárjökull suggesting successive supraglacial meltwater infiltration towards glacier margin. During the field work numerous radial crevasses, supraglacial channels and moulins were observed in the marginal zone of Múlajökull. The forefield of Múlajökull mainly consist of subglacial landforms (drumlins, flutes and crevasse-fill ridges), end moraines and sandur plains. Flutes and crevasse-fill ridges were found superimposed on drumlins in places. Till macrofabric was measured close to the surface of two drumlins and at one section on the slope of drumlin. The fabrics possess strong orientations parallel to the axis of drumlins, as well as glacial striations on the boulders exposed at the drumlin surface. These striations indicate glacier sliding over its bed during the termination of the last surge. References Björnsson, H., Pálsson, F., Sigurđsson, O., Flowers, G.E. 2003. Surges of glaciers in Iceland. Annals of Glaciology, 36, 82-90. Johnson, M.D., Schomacker, A., Benediktsson, Í.Ö., Geiger, A.J., Ferguson, A. 2010. Active drumlin field revealed at the margin of Múlajökull, Iceland: a surge-type glacier. Geology, 38, 943-946. Jónsson, S.A., Schomacker, A., Benediktsson, I.Ó., Ingólfsson, Ó., Johnson, M.D. 2014. The drumlin field and the geomorphology of the Múlajökull surge-type glacier, central Iceland. Geomorphology, 207, 213-220.

  9. Glacial and climatic evolution from the Little Ice Age last Maximum to the present in Tröllaskagi Peninsula (North Iceland): the case of Gljúlfurárjökull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Fernández, Jose; Andres, Nuria; Tanarro, Luis Miguel; Palacios, David

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the evolution of the Gljúlfurárjökull glacier (65°42'48'' N, 18°39'13'' W; 980 m), located at the headwall of the Skiðadalur valley, on the Tröllaskagi peninsula (N. Iceland). This is one of many small glaciers situated on the bottom of the Tröllaskagi valleys. This glacier is one of the few "clean" glaciers, i.e. not covered with boulders, as is the case with most of the glaciers on this peninsula. This makes the glacier especially sensitive to climate change, and it has retreated and advanced many times since its last maximum during the Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum in the mid- 19th century (Caseldine and Stötter, 1993), leaving a large number of moraine ridges. This paper analyses the change in this glacier from the LIA up to the present day, with reference to the variations in the surface, ELA and volume. Lichenometry and geomorphological field analysis were used to establish the exact limits of the glacier during the LIA last maximum. An aerial photo from 1946 and two orthophotos from 2000 and 2013 were also used. Using photointerpretation and Geographical Information Systems (GIS), the aerial photos were georeferenced to delimit the glacier in different years, analyse the surface and volume variations, and calculate the ELA for each date. The ELA analysis was carried out using the method: Accumulation Area Ratio (AAR 0.67). The results obtained with this method are: Little Ice Age Maximum: 945 m a.s.l. (almost the same ELA proposed by Caseldine and Stötter, 1993) 1946: 970 m a.s.l. 2000: 980 m a.s.l. 2013: 990 m a.s.l. The ice volume lost from LIA to 2000 was: 111.68 hm3 Reference Caseldine, C., Stötter, J., 1993. "Little Ice Age" glaciation of Tröllaskagi Peninsula, northern Iceland: Climatic implications for reconstructed equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs). Holocene 3: 357-366. Research funded by Cryocrisis project (CGL2012-35858), Government of Spain, and Nils Mobility projects (EEA GRANTS)

  10. Factors affecting the hydrochemistry of a mangrove tidal creek, sepetiba bay, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovalle, A. R. C.; Rezende, C. E.; Lacerda, L. D.; Silva, C. A. R.

    1990-11-01

    We studied the porewater chemistry, and spatial and temporal variation of mangrove creek hydrochemistry. Except for nitrate porewater, the concentrations of nutrients we analysed were higher than for creek water. Groundwater is a source of silica and phosphate, whereas total alkalinity and ammonium are related to mangrove porewater migration to the creek. Open bay waters contribute chlorine, dissolved oxygen and elevated pH. The results also suggest that nitrate is related to nitrification inside the creek. During flood tides, salinity, chlorine, dissolved oxygen and pH increase, whereas total alkalinity decreases. This pattern is reversed at ebb tides. Silica, phosphate, nitrate and ammonium show an erratic behaviour during the tidal cycle. Tidal dynamics, precipitation events and nitrification inside the creek were identified as major control factors and an estimate of tidal exchanges indicate that the system is in an equilibrium state.

  11. Substitution for petroleum products in Brasil: Urgent issues

    SciTech Connect

    de Araujo, J.L.; Ghirardi, A.

    1986-06-01

    Brazililan energy policy during the last decade has focused on the replacement of imported petroleum with domestic energy sources, combined with efforts at conservation. The substitution results, however, have been more spectacular by far. The strategy of replacement is based on two elements. first, to increase domestic petroleum exploration and production. Second, to promote non-petroleum fuels as alternatives to the industrial and transportation sectors, for the substitution of fuel oil and gasoline, respectively. A combination of the substitution strategy, the country's petroleum refining structure, and the composition of the substitution strategy, the country's petroleum refining structure, and the composition of demand, has resulted in large surpluses of both gasoline and fuel oil, while diesel has become the most used among petroleum products. The surpluses are not easily exportable because there is ample availability of fuel oil in the world market, and because the low octane number of the gasoline produced in Brasil is not compatible with the engines of cars elsewhere in the region and in the world. Furthermore, although gasoline might be upgraded, the question remains that prospects for the world market are not encouraging, and an export-based strategy does not seem justified in view of the growing surpluses. The objective of this analysis is to review the mechanisms of themajor petroleum-substitution programs currently in existence, identifying their past impact on the energy market and the possible consequences of changes in the goals and operating conditions of these programs, in the light of the new prospects for increased domestic oil production and self-sufficiency. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Avança Brasil: environmental and social consequences of Brazil's planned infrastructure in Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Fearnside, Philip M

    2002-12-01

    "Avança Brasil" (Forward Brazil) is a package of 338 projects throughout Brazil; the portion of the plan to be carried out in Brazil's Legal Amazon region totals US$43 billion over 8 years, US$20 billion of which would be for infrastructure causing environmental damage. Brazil's environmental impact assessment system is not yet capable of coping with the challenge presented by Avança Brasil. Generic problems with the licensing process include stimulation of a lobby in favor of construction before decisions are made on the advisability of the projects, the "dragging effect" of third parties, whereby economic activity is attracted to the infrastructure but escapes the environmental impact assessment system, a tendency for consulting firms to produce favorable reports, a bureaucratic emphasis on the existence of steps without regard to the content of what is said, and the inability to take account of the chain of events unleashed when a given project is undertaken. The environmental and social costs of forest loss are high; among them is loss of opportunities for sustainable use of the forest, including loss of environmental services such as biodiversity maintenance, water cycling, and carbon storage. The benefits of export infrastructure are meager, especially from the point of view of generating employment. Much of the transportation infrastructure is for soybeans, while the hydroelectric dams contribute to processing aluminum. The example of Avança Brasil makes clear the need to rethink how major development decisions are made and to reconsider a number of the plan's component projects. PMID:12402090

  13. Explicación de las disparidades raciales en la salud neonatal en Brasil*

    PubMed Central

    Nyarko, Kwame A.; López-Camelo, Jorge; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Wehby, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Buscamos cuantificar la manera en que los efectos socioeconómicos, demográficos, geográficos y de atención de salud explican las disparidades raciales en las tasas de bajo peso al nacer y prematuridad en Brasil. Métodos. Utilizamos una muestra de 8 949 niños nacidos entre 1995 y el 2009 en 15 ciudades y 7 provincias de Brasil. Nos centramos en las disparidades en la prevalencia de bajo peso al nacer (< 2 500 g) y prematuridad (< 37 semanas de gestación) en recién nacidos de ascendencia solo africana o mezclada con otras ascendencias y de ascendencia solo europea. Usamos un modelo de descomposición para cuantificar la contribución de los factores conceptualmente pertinentes a esas disparidades. Resultados. El modelo permitió explicar entre 45% y 94% de las disparidades en cuanto al bajo peso al nacer y entre 64% y 94% de las disparidades en cuanto a la prematuridad entre los grupos de ascendencia africana y de ascendencia europea. Las diferencias en el uso de atención prenatal y en la ubicación geográfica fueron los factores más importantes, seguidos por las diferencias socioeconómicas. El modelo permitió explicar la mayoría de las disparidades en los recién nacidos de ascendencia africana mezclada y parte de las disparidades en los de ascendencia solo africana. Conclusiones. En las políticas públicas para mejorar la salud infantil se deben abordar las diferencias en cuanto a la atención prenatal y la ubicación geográfica a fin de reducir las disparidades en materia de salud entre los recién nacidos de ascendencia africana y los de ascendencia europea en Brasil.

  14. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa1

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; da Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles; Maksud, Ívia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    Resumo O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20428503

  15. Low energy nuclear reactions with RIBRAS, Radioactive Ion Beam in Brasil, system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães, V.; Lépine-Szily, A.; Lichtenthäler, R.; de Faria, P. N.; Barioni, A.; Pires, K. C. C.; Morcelle, V.; Mendes, D. R.; Zamora, J. C.; Morais, M. C.; Condori, R. P.; Benjamim, E. A.; Monteiro, D. S.; Crema, E.; Moro, A. M.; Lubian, J.

    2011-09-01

    RIBRAS, Radioactive Ion beam in Brasil, is a system based on superconducting solenoids which can produce low energy RNB (Radioactive Nuclear Beams) at the University of São Paulo, Brazil. Secondary radioactive beams of light particles such as 6He, 7Be and 8Li have been produced and low energy elastic scattering and transfer reaction experiments have been performed. The recent scientific program using this facility includes elastic scattering and transfer reactions of 6He halo nucleus on 9Be, 27Al, 51V and 120Sn targets and 8Li on 9Be, 12C and 51V targets. The total reaction cross section as a function of energy has been extracted from the elastic scattering data and the role of breakup of weakly bound or exotic nuclei is discussed. Also spectroscopic factors have been obtained from the transfer reactions.

  16. Tendências de teses e dissertações sobre ensino de astronomia no Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Megid Neto, J.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia. Teve por objetivo identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. O procedimento inicial consistiu de um levantamento bibliográfico junto ao Centro de Documentação em Ensino de Ciências (CEDOC) da Faculdade de Educação da UNICAMP e ao Banco de Teses da CAPES disponível na Internet. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: instituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Deste conjunto de pesquisas, 13 (81,3%) delas foram defendidas a partir da segunda metade dos anos 90, indicando uma preocupação mais recente com temas relativos ao ensino de Astronomia no conjunto da produção acadêmica em programas de pós-graduação no Brasil. Verificou-se que 43,7% dos trabalhos foram produzidas na USP e 18,8% na UNICAMP. Quanto ao nível escolar abrangido nos estudos, predominaram os estudos direcionados ao Ensino Fundamental de 5a a 8a séries (62,5%). No que diz respeito ao foco temático das pesquisas, as principais tendências voltaram-se: 56,3% para Conteúdo e Método; 43,8% para Concepções do Professor; 37,5% para Currículo e Programas; 37,5% para Recursos Didáticos. Quanto ao gênero de trabalho acadêmico, verificou-se que 43,8% são de Pesquisa Experimental e 31,3% de Pesquisa de Análise de Conteúdo. Estudos de revisão bibliográfica como este visam colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica em determinada área, traçando algumas de suas tendências. Ao mesmo tempo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as suas contribuições para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  17. Maternal education, anthropometric markers of malnutrition and cognitive function (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The early exposure to poor social and nutritional conditions may influence cognitive function during adult age. However, the relative impact of these factors has not yet been established and they can vary during the course of life. Methods Analysis of data from 12,997 participants (35-64 years) of the baseline exams (2008-2010) of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a cohort of Brazilian civil servants. Four cognitive tests were applied: learning, recall and word recognition; semantic and phonemic verbal fluency; trail-making test version B. The markers of early nutritional and social conditions were maternal educational level, birth weight, and length of trunk and leg. The presence of independent association between every early marker and the poor performance in each cognitive test was investigated by multiple logistic regression, after mutual adjustment and considering the effects of gender, age and participant’s schooling level. The cut off for poor performance was the worst age-specific percentile of the final score distribution for each test. Results After full adjustments, lower maternal education increased the chances of poor performance in all cognitive tests, with a dose-response gradient; low birth-weight was related to poor performance in the trail-making test B (OR?=?1.63, 95% IC?=?1.29-2.06); and greater trunk length decreased the chances of poor performance in the semantic and phonemic verbal fluency (OR?=?0.96, 95% IC?=?0.94-0.97) and in the trail-making test B (OR?=?0.94, 95% IC?=?0.92-0.95). Leg length was not associated with any of the tests examined. The associations found were not modified by the educational attainment of the participants. Conclusions Early exposure to adverse social and nutritional conditions appear detrimental to semantic memory, learning, concentration, executive control and language among adults, independent of adulthood educational achievement. PMID:24989981

  18. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Carolina G.; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D. C. B.; Nunes, Maria A. A.; Barreto, Sandhi M.

    2015-01-01

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34–65 years (n = 13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender. PMID:26035664

  19. DEZ ANOS DE EXPERIÊNCIA DO COMITÊ DE ÉTICA EM PESQUISA DA SECRETARIA DE SAÚDE DO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita C. G.; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo é relatar a experiência do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Secretaria de Estado de Saúde do Distrito Federal (CEP/SES/DF) Brasil, durante o período de 10 anos a partir de sua fundação. Trata-se de uma avaliação descritiva e documental, na modalidade estudo de caso, utilizando-se a totalidade de projetos protocolados no CEP/SES/DF (N° 052/08) nesse período. As pendências mais freqüentes dos projetos foram: termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido (30%), folha de rosto (25%), metodologia (20%), curriculum vitae (12%), planilha de orçamento (9%), outros (4%). O relato das atividades do CEP/SES/DF no período de 10 anos revelou, através de sua produtividade, a legitimidade do processo de análise ética dos protocolos visando à proteção dos participantes da pesquisa. PMID:19888441

  20. Effect of sediment composition on methane concentration and production in the transition zone of a mangrove (Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Marinho, C C; Campos, E A; Guimarães, J R D; Esteves, F A

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of sediment composition on methane (CH4) dynamics in sediments of different areas in the transition zone between a mangrove and the sea. This research was conducted in a mangrove at Coroa Grande, on the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro. Samples were collected at three stations: (1) region colonised by Rhizophora mangle L. on the edge of the mangrove, (2) region colonised by seagrasses and (3) infra-littoral region without vegetation. Samples were collected from the surface layer of the sediment to determine the concentrations of nutrients (C, N and P) and CH4 concentration and production. We observed that concentrations of CH4 and carbon (C) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in station 1 than station 3. The molar ratios (C:N, C:P and N:P) suggest that the origin of the substrate is mainly autochthonous. Methanogenesis was initially low, possibly due to competition between methanogens and sulfate reducers, and increased significantly (p < 0.05) on the twenty-sixth day in the sediment of station 1, probably due to higher organic matter (OM) availability in this region. Results indicate that methanogenic activity observed herein is not regulated by the amount or quality of OM, but by other factors. The concentration of CH4 in the sea-land ecotone at Mangrove Coroa Grande is a function of available OM suggesting a possible inhibition of methanotrophy by intense oxygen consumption in the soil surface covered by detritus of Rhizophora mangle vegetation. PMID:22990811

  1. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF AMERICAN CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN THE TRI‑BORDER AREA OF ASSIS BRASIL, ACRE STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    TELES, Carolina Bioni Garcia; MEDEIROS, Jansen Fernandes; dos SANTOS, Ana Paula de Azevedo; de FREITAS, Luís Antônio Rodrigues; KATSURAGAWA, Tony Hiroshi; CANTANHÊDE, Lilian Motta; FERREIRA, Ricardo de Godoi Mattos; CAMARG, Luís Marcelo Aranha

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In this study, Leishmaniaspecies were identified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The epidemiology of patients suspected of having American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the municipality of Assis Brasil, Acre State, located in the Brazil/Peru/Bolivia triborder was also investigated. By PCR, the DNA of Leishmaniawas detected in 100% of the cases (37 samples) and a PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) of the hsp 70gene identified the species in 32 samples: Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (65.6%) , L. (V.) shawi (28.1%) , L. (V.) guyanensis (3.1%) and mixed infection L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (Leishmania) amazonensis (3.1%)This is the first report of L. (V.) shawiand L. (L.) amazonensis in Acre. The two predominant species were found in patients living in urban and rural areas. Most cases were found in males living in rural areas for at least three years and involved in rural work. This suggests, in most cases, a possible transmission of the disease from a rural/forest source, although some patients had not engaged in activities associated with permanence in forestall areas, which indicate a possible sandflies adaptation to the periurban setting. PMID:26422160

  2. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF AMERICAN CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN THE TRI?BORDER AREA OF ASSIS BRASIL, ACRE STATE, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Teles, Carolina Bioni Garcia; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; dos Santos, Ana Paula de Azevedo; de Freitas, Luís Antônio Rodrigues; Katsuragawa, Tony Hiroshi; Cantanhêde, Lilian Motta; Ferreira, Ricardo de Godoi Mattos; Camarg, Luís Marcelo Aranha

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Leishmania species were identified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The epidemiology of patients suspected of having American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the municipality of Assis Brasil, Acre State, located in the Brazil/Peru/Bolivia tri-border was also investigated. By PCR, the DNA of Leishmania was detected in 100% of the cases (37 samples) and a PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) of the hsp 70 gene identified the species in 32 samples: Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (65.6%) , L. (V.) shawi (28.1%) , L. (V.) guyanensis (3.1%) and mixed infection L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (Leishmania) amazonensis(3.1%)This is the first report of L. (V.) shawi and L. (L.) amazonensis in Acre. The two predominant species were found in patients living in urban and rural areas. Most cases were found in males living in rural areas for at least three years and involved in rural work. This suggests, in most cases, a possible transmission of the disease from a rural/forest source, although some patients had not engaged in activities associated with permanence in forestall areas, which indicate a possible sandflies adaptation to the periurban setting. PMID:26422160

  3. Tendências De Teses e Dissertações Sobre Educação em Astronomia No Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio; Megid Neto, Jorge

    2005-07-01

    Apresentam-se os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia, com objetivo de identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: isntituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Pretende-se assim colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica na área. Ao mesmo tempo o estudo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as contribuições dessa produção para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  4. Epicardial fat thickness: distribution and association with diabetes mellitus, hypertension and the metabolic syndrome in the ELSA-Brasil study.

    PubMed

    Graeff, Daniela Bertol; Foppa, Murilo; Pires, Julio Cesar Gall; Vigo, Alvaro; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-04-01

    Epicardial fat thickness (EFT) has emerged as a marker of cardiometabolic risk, but its clinical use warrants proper knowledge of its distribution and associations in populations. We aimed to describe the distribution of EFT, its demographic correlates and independent associations with diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome (MS) in free-living Brazilian adults. From the baseline echocardiography of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)-a cohort study of civil servants aged 35-74 years-EFT was measured from a randomly selected sample of 998 participants as the mean of two paraesternal windows obtained at end systole (EFTsyst) and end diastole (EFTdiast). From the 421 individuals free of diabetes, hypertension and MS, we defined EFT reference values and the EFTsyst 75th percentile cut-off. Median EFTsyst was 1.5 (IQR 0-2.6) mm; a large proportion (84 %) had EFTdiast = 0. EFT was higher in women and lower in blacks, and increased with age and BMI. Although EFT was higher in those with diabetes, hypertension, and MS, EFT associations were reduced when adjusted for age, sex and ethnicity, and were non-significant after adjusting for obesity measures. In conclusion, the amount of EFT in this large multiethnic population is smaller than reported in other populations. EFT reference values varied across demographic and clinical variables, EFT associations with cardiometabolic variables being largely explained by age, sex, ethnicity and central obesity. Although EFT can help identify individuals at increased cardiometabolic risk, it will likely have a limited additional role compared to current risk stratification strategies. PMID:26585750

  5. Preliminary statistical studies concerning the Campos RJ sugar cane area, using LANDSAT imagery and aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Costa, S. R. X.; Paiao, L. B. F.; Mendonca, F. J.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Duarte, V.

    1983-01-01

    The two phase sampling technique was applied to estimate the area cultivated with sugar cane in an approximately 984 sq km pilot region of Campos. Correlation between existing aerial photography and LANDSAT data was used. The two phase sampling technique corresponded to 99.6% of the results obtained by aerial photography, taken as ground truth. This estimate has a standard deviation of 225 ha, which constitutes a coefficient of variation of 0.6%.

  6. Seasonal variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in urban streams at Niterói City, RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Angelo Morgado; da Rocha, Camila Coimbra Martins; Franco, Caroline Fernandes Jaegger; Fontana, Luiz Francisco; Pereira Netto, Annibal D

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in water samples collected in two streams and a lake located at Niteroi City, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil between October 2008 and September 2009. Samples were extracted using liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The limits of quantification were sufficiently low to accomplish PAH determination below the maximum concentration levels established by the Brazilian (50 ng/L) and USEPA legislations, with recoveries larger than 81.6%. Phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene and benz[a]anthracene predominated among PAHs. Total concentrations of PAHs were well correlated with rainfall indicating a possible role of runoff to local pollution of water by PAHs and showed a seasonal variation in wet and dry seasons. Our results highlight the contribution of the widespread streams located around Guanabara Bay to the PAH burden found in its waters. PMID:23083927

  7. Eutrophication and hypoxia in four streams discharging in Guanabara Bay, RJ, Brazil, a case study.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Aguiar, Valquiria Maria; Neto, José Antônio Baptista; Rangel, Carlos Marclei

    2011-08-01

    Four streams in the city of São Gonçalo, were sampled to evaluate their potential as sources of nutrients to Guanabara Bay aiming to contribute with the government program to decrease the levels of pollution in this area. Imbuaçu, Guaxindiba, Marimbondo and Brandoas streams were sampled in 2007, 2008 and 2009. The streams revealed to be hipereutrophic with severe limitation of primary production by nitrogen, as shown by the N/P molar ratio. Phosphate levels were abnormally high varying between 4.35 and 130.82 ?M, whereas nitrate and nitrite ranged from 0.06 to 54.05 ?M and from 0.28 to 19.23 ?M, respectively. The streams also presented severe hypoxia and anoxia, with oxygen values varying from non-detected to 3.72 ml l(-1). Heavy loads of particulate suspended material were recorded in the studied streams, ranging between 6.00 and 400.00 mg l(-1). The streams were considered inexorable sources of nutrients, enhancing the severe eutrophication process in Guanabara Bay. PMID:21708390

  8. Superficial distribution of aromatic compounds and geomicrobiology of sediments from Suruí Mangrove, Guanabara Bay, RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Luiz F; da Silva, Frederico S; de Figueiredo, Natália G; Brum, Daniel M; Netto, Annibal D Pereira; de Gigueiredo Junior, Alberto G; Crapez, Mirian A C

    2010-12-01

    The distribution of selected aromatic compounds and microbiology were assessed in superficial sediments from Suruí Mangrove, Guanabara Bay. Samples were collected at 23 stations, and particle size, organic matter, aromatic compounds, microbiology activity, biopolymers, and topography were determined. The concentration of aromatic compounds was distributed in patches over the entire mangrove, and their highest total concentration was determinated in the mangrove's central area. Particle size differed from most mangroves in that Suruí Mangrove has chernies on the edges and in front of the mangrove, and sand across the whole surface, which hampers the relationship between particle size and hydrocarbons. An average @ 10% p/p of organic matter was obtained, and biopolymers presented high concentrations, especially in the central and back areas of the mangrove. The biopolymers were distributed in high concentrations. The presence of fine sediments is an important factor in hydrocarbon accumulation. With high concentration of organic matter and biopolymers, and the topography with chernies and roots protecting the mangrove, calmer areas are created with the deposition of material transported by wave action. Compared to global distributions, concentrations of aromatic compounds in Suruí Mangrove may be classified from moderate to high, showing that the studied area is highly impacted. PMID:21152774

  9. Use of elephant grass for energy production in Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Daher, R F; Souza, L B; Gravina, G A; Machado, J C; Ramos, H C C; Silva, V Q R; Menezes, B R S; Schneider, L S A; Oliveira, M L F; Gottardo, R D

    2014-01-01

    Elephant grass is a tropical forage plant widely distributed throughout Brazil. It was first exclusively used in the livestock sector as cattle feed. The grass is characterized by its high productivity and photosynthetic capacity and is considered as an alternative source of renewable energy. Here, we estimated the general combining ability of the parents and specific combining ability of the hybrids based on morpho-agronomic biomass-quality traits. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with 3 replicates. The diallel was composed of 16 hybrids and 2 groups of genitors. In the diallel analysis of variance, we observed a significant difference among treatments. A significant difference was observed among genitors for dry matter production (DMP). For the general combining ability of group 1, the traits leaf blade width, DMP, height, percentage of neutral detergent fiber, percentage of hemicellulose, percentage of lignin, percentage of acid detergent fiber, and percentage of cellulose were significant. For the estimates of general combining ability of DMP, parents Porto Rico 534-B, Vruckwona, Taiwan A-146, and Mercker S. E. A. were 0.4748, 3.2819, 1.1659, and 0.4317. The parents of Mercker S. E. A. and Porto Rico 534-B produced the highest percentage of detergent fiber and percentage of lignin with values of 0.1482 and 0.0856. Thus, parents Vruckwona, Porto Rico 534-B, and Taiwan A-146 are promising for integration into breeding programs. The best hybrid combinations for DMP were 1 x 5, 1 x 8, 2 x 6, 3 x 7, and 4 x 5. PMID:25526210

  10. Outbreak of tinea capitis by Trichophyton tonsurans and Microsporum canis in Niterói, RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Towersey, L; Hay, R J; Monteiro, M H; Lago, M B; Martins, E de C; Estrella, R R

    1992-01-01

    18 girls from an orphanage (Orfanato Santo Antônio) in Niterói presented tinea capitis due to Trichophyton tonsurans (15 cases-83.3%) and Microsporum canis (3 cases-26.7%). Comments are made about clinical, mycological and therapeutic aspects of this microepidemic. PMID:1342076

  11. Results of the radiological survey at 48 Schlosser Drive, Rochelle Park, New Jersey (RJ005)

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, R.D.; Brown, K.S.

    1992-10-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956.MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from thisthorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy(DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally {sup 232}Tb, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 48 Schlosser Drive, Rochelle Park, New Jersey (RJO05), was conducted on July 14, 1991. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. The radionuclide distributions were not significantly different from normal background levels in the northern New Jersey area.

  12. Results of the radiological survey at 48 Schlosser Drive, Rochelle Park, New Jersey (RJ005)

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, R.D.; Brown, K.S.

    1992-10-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956.MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from thisthorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy(DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally [sup 232]Tb, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 48 Schlosser Drive, Rochelle Park, New Jersey (RJO05), was conducted on July 14, 1991. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. The radionuclide distributions were not significantly different from normal background levels in the northern New Jersey area.

  13. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa acerca da Pastoral de DST/Aids da Igreja Católica1

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles da; Maksud, Ívia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20442806

  14. Night work is associated with glycemic levels and anthropometric alterations preceding diabetes: Baseline results from ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Silva-Costa, Aline; Rotenberg, Lucia; Coeli, Claudia Medina; Nobre, Aline Araújo; Härter Griep, Rosane

    2016-01-01

    Night work has been suggested as a risk factor for diabetes. Individuals with high triglyceride levels, high LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol and obesity, especially abdominal obesity, have a greater chance of developing diabetes. The aim of this study was to analyze glycemic levels, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides and the anthropometric alterations that precede diabetes, considering their possible association with nigh work among a non-diabetic population. Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) comprises of 15,105 civil servants (35-74 years old) at baseline (2008-2010). The following parameters were analyzed: serum cholesterol (total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C), triglycerides and glucose drawn from 12-hour fasting blood sample, glycated hemoglobin and 2-hour plasma glucose obtained after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, BMI, hip and waist measurements using standard equipment and techniques. Participants with diabetes, retired workers and day workers with previous experience of night work were excluded. Generalized linear models, a gamma regression model with an identity link function, were performed to test the association of night work with metabolic and anthropometric variables. The study sample consisted of 3918 men and 4935 women; 305 (7.8%) and 379 (7.7%) of the participants were men and women who worked at night, respectively. Among the men, the exposure to night work was associated with an increase in BMI (b-value = 0.542; p = 0.032) and waist circumference (b-value = 1.66; p = 0.014). For women, increased fasting plasma glucose (b-value = 2.278; p < 0.001), glycated hemoglobin (b-value = 0.099, p < 0.001) and 2 hour plasma glucose (b-value = 5.479, p = 0.001) were associated with night work after adjustments. No significant associations between night work and triglycerides, LDL-C, HDL-C, total cholesterol levels or waist-hip ratio were found. The influences of night work on metabolic and anthropometric factors suggest night work as a potential risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Further studies are needed to investigate the inconclusive data on gender differences in the associations. PMID:26731697

  15. Comparative study of satellite and ground techiniques for cloudcover determination and their effect over the radiative transfer model BRASIL-SR.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, F.; Souza, M.; Pereira, E.

    Information about cloud cover is a very important input data for radiative transfer models and great effort is being made to improve its measurements. The BRASIL- SR model is a radiative transfer model that evaluates surface solar irradiation from cloud cover coefficient and climatological values of temperature and albedo. The original algorithm to derive cloud cover coefficient is based on the fact that clouds presents a bigger reflectance than Earth surface. Then, cloud cover coefficient is obtained for each pixel from GOES 8 visible channel-1 (0.52-0.75?m) from a linear relation between the maximum and minimum values over a specific time period. To minimize systematic errors caused by permanent cloudy or clear sky conditions, or caused by electronic noise, Martins has proposed two new algorithms. The first one is based on the albedo variability of clouds and Earth surface over a time period. The algorithm calculates the mean value and standard deviation of five minor visible radiance values measured by GOES-8 for each pixel in a one-month period. Clouds present a larger variability and, therefore, the standard deviation will be also larger when cloud contamination is present. The mean value is assigned to clear sky condition if cloud contamination is absent. Overcast condition is associated with the maximum radiance value measured. The second algorithm uses the ratio between the infrared radiance (10.2-11.2?m) and the visible radiance to identify cloud contamination in a pixel. The clear sky condition is associated to high values of this ratio and the overcast condition is associated to low ratio values (if snow coverage is absent). A linear relation between the two conditions is employed to obtain the cloud cover coefficient in both algorithms. Souza has developed an algorithm to determine cloud cover coefficient from images obtained by a CCD sensor on a ground platform. The CCD sensor operates in the visible range (0.4-0.7?m) and is adapted to a fisheye lens. The algorithm defines thresholds values for the saturation component of the IHS system to classify a pixel. Clear skies are identified by high values of saturation in the visible range while cloudy condition presents a mixture of various wavelengths and consequently lower saturation values. In this work we compare these three satellite techniques using data collected in the BSRN radiation station of Florianópolis (27° 28'S, 48° 29'W) with the data obtained from the camera in the ground platform. The main goal is to optimize the results obtained by each of these three satellite techniques when applied as input data for the BRASIL-SR model. The study encompasses the period from January/2002 to March/2002.

  16. Serum Uric Acid and Prehypertension Among Adults Free of Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes: Baseline of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Lotufo, Paulo A; Baena, Cristina P; Santos, Itamar S; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2016-02-01

    The association between serum uric acid (SUA) and prehypertension was evaluated in a racially admixed sample of civil servants aged 35 to 74 years, enrolled (2008-2010) in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Health (ELSA-Brasil). Of the 15 105 patients who enrolled in the study, we analyzed 3412 after excluding those who reported previous cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, or hypertension; were heavy drinkers; or had a body mass index (BMI) ≥35 kg/m(2). Among the men, logistic regression, adjusted for age, race, income, birth weight, salt intake, insulin resistance, BMI, and renal function revealed odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of prehypertension from the bottom quartile (referent) to the top quartile of SUA levels as follows: 0.84 (95% CI, 0.61-1.38), 0.97 (0.71-1.34) and 1.44 (1.04-2.0; P for trend .01). Analyzing for 1-standard deviation of change in SUA, the ORs were 1.19 (1.06-1.32). This association persisted in the subgroup analysis consisting of patients who were white, overweight, with a high salt intake but with normal renal function, and without metabolic syndrome. No association was found among women. In conclusion, SUA levels were associated with prehypertension among men. PMID:25972396

  17. Gender, race and socioeconomic influence on diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Olmos, R D; Figueiredo, R C de; Aquino, E M; Lotufo, P A; Bensenor, I M

    2015-08-01

    Thyroid diseases are common, and use of levothyroxine is increasing worldwide. We investigated the influence of gender, race and socioeconomic status on the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders using data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a multicenter cohort study of civil servants (35-74 years of age) from six Brazilian cities. Diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction was by thyrotropin (TSH), and free thyroxine (FT4) if TSH was altered, and the use of specific medications. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed using overt hyperthyroidism/hypothyroidism and levothyroxine use as dependent variables and sociodemographic characteristics as independent variables. The frequencies of overt hyper- and hypothyroidism were 0.7 and 7.4%, respectively. Using whites as the reference ethnicity, brown, and black race were protective for overt hypothyroidism (OR=0.76, 95%CI=0.64-0.89, and OR=0.53, 95%CI=0.43-0.67, respectively, and black race was associated with overt hyperthyroidism (OR=1.82, 95%CI=1.06-3.11). Frequency of hypothyroidism treatment was higher in women, browns, highly educated participants and those with high net family incomes. After multivariate adjustment, levothyroxine use was associated with female gender (OR=6.06, 95%CI=3.19-11.49) and high net family income (OR=3.23, 95%CI=1.02-10.23). Frequency of hyperthyroidism treatment was higher in older than in younger individuals. Sociodemographic factors strongly influenced the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders, including the use of levothyroxine. PMID:26108100

  18. Gender, race and socioeconomic influence on diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Olmos, R.D.; de Figueiredo, R.C.; Aquino, E.M.; Lotufo, P.A.; Bensenor, I.M.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid diseases are common, and use of levothyroxine is increasing worldwide. We investigated the influence of gender, race and socioeconomic status on the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders using data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a multicenter cohort study of civil servants (35-74 years of age) from six Brazilian cities. Diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction was by thyrotropin (TSH), and free thyroxine (FT4) if TSH was altered, and the use of specific medications. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed using overt hyperthyroidism/hypothyroidism and levothyroxine use as dependent variables and sociodemographic characteristics as independent variables. The frequencies of overt hyper- and hypothyroidism were 0.7 and 7.4%, respectively. Using whites as the reference ethnicity, brown, and black race were protective for overt hypothyroidism (OR=0.76, 95%CI=0.64-0.89, and OR=0.53, 95%CI=0.43-0.67, respectively, and black race was associated with overt hyperthyroidism (OR=1.82, 95%CI=1.06-3.11). Frequency of hypothyroidism treatment was higher in women, browns, highly educated participants and those with high net family incomes. After multivariate adjustment, levothyroxine use was associated with female gender (OR=6.06, 95%CI=3.19-11.49) and high net family income (OR=3.23, 95%CI=1.02-10.23). Frequency of hyperthyroidism treatment was higher in older than in younger individuals. Sociodemographic factors strongly influenced the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders, including the use of levothyroxine. PMID:26108100

  19. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Influence of Socioeconomic Variables on Control of High Blood Pressure: Results of the ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    Chor, Dóra; Pinho Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz; Sá Carvalho, Marilia; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Andrade Lotufo, Paulo; Araújo Nobre, Aline; de Aquino, Estela Mota Lima Leão; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Griep, Rosane Härter; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Passos, Valéria Maria de Azeredo; Benseñor, Isabela Judith Martins; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Mill, José Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    High blood pressure (HBP) is the leading risk factor for years of life lost in Brazil. Factors associated with HBP awareness, treatment and control need to be understood better. Our aim is to estimate prevalence, awareness, and types of anti-hypertensive treatment and to investigate the association of HBP control with social position. Data of 15,103 (54% female) civil servants in six Brazilian state capitals collected at the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline (2008-2010) were used to estimate prevalence and cross-sectional association of HBP control with education, per capita family income and self-reported race, using multiple logistic regression. Blood pressure was measured by the oscillometric method. 35.8% were classified as presenting HBP; 76.8% of these used anti-hypertensive medication. Women were more aware than men (84.8% v. 75.8%) and more often using medication (83.1% v. 70.7%). Adjusted HBP prevalence was, in ascending order, Whites (30.3%), Browns (38.2%) and Blacks (49.3%). The therapeutic schemes most used were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, in isolation (12.4%) or combined with diuretics (13.3%). Among those in drug treatment, controlled blood pressure was more likely in the (postgraduate) higher education group than among participants with less than secondary school education (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.14–1.28), and among Asian (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.12–1.32) and ‘Whites (PR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.12–1.26) compared to Blacks. Socioeconomic and racial inequality—as measured by different indicators—are strongly associated with HBP control, beyond the expected influence of health services access. PMID:26102079

  20. Relations of Digital Vascular Function, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Arterial Stiffness: The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA‐Brasil) Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Brant, Luisa C. C.; Hamburg, Naomi M.; Barreto, Sandhi M.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Ribeiro, Antonio L. P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vascular dysfunction is an early expression of atherosclerosis and predicts cardiovascular (CV) events. Peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) evaluates basal pulse amplitude (BPA), endothelial function (PAT ratio), and wave reflection (PAT‐AIx) in the digital microvessels. In Brazilian adults, we investigated the correlations of PAT responses to CV risk factors and to carotid‐femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), a measure of arterial stiffness. Methods and Results In a cross‐sectional study, 1535 participants of the ELSA‐Brasil cohort underwent PAT testing (52±9 years; 44% women). In multivariable analyses, more‐impaired BPA and PAT ratios were associated with male sex, higher body mass index (BMI), and total cholesterol/high‐density lipoprotein. Higher age and triglycerides were related to higher BPA, whereas lower systolic blood pressure, hypertension (HTN) treatment, and prevalent CV disease (CVD) were associated with lower PAT ratio. PAT‐AIx correlated positively with female sex, advancing age, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and smoking and inversely to heart rate, height, BMI, and prevalent CVD. Black race was associated with lower BPA, higher PAT ratio, and PAT‐AIx. Microvessel vasodilator function was not associated with PWV. Higher PAT‐AIx was modestly correlated to higher PWV and PAT ratio and inversely correlated to BPA. Conclusion Metabolic risk factors are related to impaired microvessel vasodilator function in Brazil. However, in contrast to studies from the United States, black race was not associated with an impaired microvessel vasodilator response, implying that vascular function may vary by race across populations. PAT‐AIx relates to HTN, may be a valid measure of wave reflection, and provides distinct information from arterial stiffness. PMID:25510401

  1. Presentation of the Multimédia Game "Geolover" Concept, to Educational Enchancement of the Geolocical Heritage of the Following Regions: "Ilha do Fogo" (Cabo-Verde), Seridó (Brasil), Sabugal (Portugal) and Açores (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, João; Gomes, Ana; Alfama, Vera; Oliveira, Sirlene; Pinharandas, Carlos; Fonseca, Pedro; Campos, José; Nobre, José

    2013-04-01

    "Geolover" - Presentation of the multimédia game concept, to educational enchancement of the geolocical heritage of the following regions: : "Ilha do Fogo" (Cabo-Verde), Seridó (Brasil), Sabugal and Açores (Portugal). "Geolover" is a multitouch game, played by four players simultaneously, identified by 4 mascots and using as sceneries, the four regions landscapes, aimed to the young people with ages between 8 and 12 years old. The main objective is value the geological heritage of the Ilha do Fogo (Cabo Verde), Seridó in State of Rio Grande do Norte (Brasil) , Sabugal in Beira Alta province (Portugal) and Arquipélago dos Açores (Portuguese autonomous region). These regions have a great geological heritage like volcanology, plutonic rocks, sedimentar formations, metamorphic, paleontologic, mineralogic, geomorphologic, hydric and mining resources. Such heritage is being used in the different regions has base of studies to senior scientists and were used to great scientific researches. The diversified and distinguished cultural heritage of these four regions is referenced and it's a value to the union of the students from these three continents, with the Portuguese language as communication tool. The variety of the geological wealth and cultural of these regions, results in the common objective of their valuing like Geoparks. His creation on these three regions is a strategy with a great relevance to the socio-economic development. With the creation of this game, we promote the union of these 3 countries from these three continents, the universal values of the heritage richness that are offered by our planet.

  2. 76 FR 6575 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ..., which was published in the Federal Register on July 7, 2010 (75 FR 38953). That earlier NPRM proposed to supersede AD 2002- 03-10, Amendment 39-12651 (67 FR 6855, February 14, 2002), to require actions intended to... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3....

  3. 76 FR 31459 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE SYSTEMS (OPERATIONS) LIMITED Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... was published in the Federal Register on February 7, 2011 (76 FR 6575), and proposed to supersede AD 2002-03-10, Amendment 39-12651 (67 FR 6855, February 14, 2002). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe... ''significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and...

  4. 75 FR 38953 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (OPERATIONS) LIMITED Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... proposed AD. Discussion On February 6, 2002, we issued AD 2002-03-10, Amendment 39-12651 (67 FR 6855... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034.... 39.13 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by removing Amendment 39-12651 (67 FR 6855, February 14, 2002)...

  5. 76 FR 36398 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE SYSTEMS (OPERATIONS) LIMITED Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Order 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR.../RegionalAircraft/index.htm . For Messier-Dowty service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Messier Services Americas, Customer Support Center, 45360 Severn Way, Sterling, Virginia...

  6. 76 FR 59011 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... was published in the Federal Register on June 22, 2011 (76 FR 36398). That NPRM proposed to correct an... public the opportunity to participate in developing this AD. We received no comments on the NPRM (76 FR... ''significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and...

  7. 75 FR 27419 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ70A, 146...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... was published in the Federal Register on January 12, 2010 (75 FR 1560). That NPRM proposed to correct... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... visual inspection and a visual inspection; Method 2 is a detailed visual inspection. You may...

  8. 75 FR 49377 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model Avro 146-RJ and BAe 146 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... to the specified products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on March 15, 2010 (75 FR... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or.... List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 39 Air transportation, Aircraft, Aviation safety, Incorporation...

  9. 75 FR 53855 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on May 19, 2010 (75 FR 27959). That NPRM proposed... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... reported where insulation material was found to be fouling pulleys in the aileron interconnect circuit...

  10. 75 FR 27959 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... have been reported where insulation material was found to be fouling pulleys in the aileron... and corrected, could lead to restricted ] aileron movement and consequently, reduced control of...

  11. Degree of threat to the biological diversity in the Ilha Grande State Park (RJ) and guidelines for conservation.

    PubMed

    Alho, C J R; Schneider, M; Vasconcellos, L A

    2002-08-01

    The State Park of Ilha Grande is only a part (5,594 hectares) of the entire island (19,300 hectares) which is located off the south coast of Rio de Janeiro state, between the cities of Mangaratiba and Angra dos Reis. Approximately half of the Park area (47%) is covered by dense Atlantic forest. The secondary forest growth is in a process of ecological succession close to attaining maturity (43%) and the remaining part (10%) is composed of human-altered areas (1%), rocky outcrops with herbaceous vegetation (7%), mangroves and beaches (2%). The fauna is well represented but already shows signs of degradation with introduced species. The analysis of the degree of threat has shown that the dense forest habitat has a relatively stable status of conservation while the secondary forest, the mangrove and the herbaceous vegetation on rocky outcrops (and their fauna) are categorized as vulnerable. The area altered by human occupation is considered threatened. Since the coastal area where Ilha Grande is located is well known for its beautiful scenery (known as the green coast, because of the contrast between the ocean and the Atlantic forest covering the Serra do Mar mountain chain). There is a strong possibility for tourism to become the means in which to achieve economic sustainability for conservation. Contradictorily, tourism is also the major threat to local biodiversity and its landscape units. Because tourism is not organized and controlled, during high season the numbers grow above local capacity, giving rise to a proliferation of hotels, guesthouses and camping grounds. The resulting untreated open sewage, random garbage disposal and other harmful activities form the major threats to biodiversity. PMID:12530174

  12. Habitat use by Oryzomys subflavus (Rodentia) in an open shrubland formation in Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bergallo, H G; Luz, J L; Raíces, D S; Hatano, F H; Martins-Hatano, F

    2005-11-01

    The Restinga de Jurubatiba has at least 10 plant formations, including open Clusia shrubland. This formation is composed of dense shrubs of many shapes and sizes, where Clusia hilariana is one of the most important plant species. Shrublands with Clusia (CC) are poorer in plant species and less dense than shrublands without Clusia (SC). Oryzomys subflavus (Rodentia) is the most abundant small mammal species in the open Clusia shrubland. We tested the hypothesis that the abundance of rodents would increase with the size of the patch and would be higher in SC shrublands. Rodents were captured, marked and released in three 780-m-long transects. At each capture site, we evaluated the shape of the shrubland patch, calculated the area and noted the category of the shrubland. Using ANCOVA, we ascertained whether the abundance of Oryzomys subflavus increased with the sampled area and used CC and SC shrublands differently. We also verified if the size of patches used by rodents varies in the same frequency as the size of available shrublands. Rodent abundance was found to increase significantly with the area. There were no differences in the size of the patches used by rodents and the frequency of the size of available patches. This finding indicates that O. subflavus, in the study area, is a generalist species that uses its habitat according to availability. PMID:16532181

  13. 75 FR 38058 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... fuel leaks and loose or broken bolts. Modification HCM01447A introduced tension bolts in the attachment... Doing either an ultrasonic inspection for damaged bolts or torque check of the tension bolts....

  14. 75 FR 63045 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE SYSTEMS (OPERATIONS) LIMITED Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... July 1, 2010 (75 FR 38058). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant... installations for fuel leaks and loose or broken bolts. Modification HCM01447A ] introduced tension bolts in...

  15. 75 FR 4480 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ...-047-AD; Amendment 39-16182; AD 2010-02-11] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems... products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on October 19, 2009 (74 FR 53433). That NPRM... average labor rate is $80 per work-hour. Based on these figures, we estimate the cost of this AD to the...

  16. A historical review of R.J. Reynolds' strategies for marketing tobacco to Hispanics in the United States.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Rios, Lisbeth; Parascandola, Mark

    2013-05-01

    Hispanics are the fastest growing racial/ethnic group in the United States, and smoking is the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality among this population. We analyzed tobacco industry documents on R. J. Reynolds' marketing strategies toward the Hispanic population using tobacco industry document archives from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February-July 2011 and April-August 2012. Our analysis revealed that by 1980 the company had developed a sophisticated surveillance system to track the market behavior of Hispanic smokers and understand their psychographics, cultural values, and attitudes. This information was translated into targeted marketing campaigns for the Winston and Camel brands. Marketing targeted toward Hispanics appealed to values and sponsored activities that could be perceived as legitimating. Greater understanding of tobacco industry marketing strategies has substantial relevance for addressing tobacco-related health disparities. PMID:23488493

  17. Simultaneous evaluation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carbonyl compounds in the atmosphere of Niterói City, RJ, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Caroline Fernandes Jaegger; de Mendonça Ochs, Soraya; de Oliveira Grotz, Lucas; de Almeida Furtado, Leonardo; Pereira Netto, Annibal Duarte

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (total suspended particulate - TSP - and inhalable particles - PM10) and gas-phase samples were collected in three periods of seven to nine consecutive days in June and December 2011, and May 2012, in the central area of Niterói City, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. TSP (48.8-214 μg m-3) showed higher concentrations than PM10 (nd - 82.6 μg m-3). Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and thirty-one carbonyl compounds (CC) were evaluated. Concentrations of individual PAH ranged from

  18. 75 FR 12158 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE SYSTEMS (Operations) Limited Model Avro 146-RJ and BAe 146 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Airworthiness Directive (AD) requires the accomplishment of inspections and rectification actions, as necessary... rectification actions, as necessary.'' The unsafe condition could result in loss of a wing or controllability...

  19. Marine protected area and the spatial distribution of the gill net fishery in Copacabana, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amorim, R B; Monteiro-Neto, C

    2016-02-01

    This study characterizes the gill net fishery at Colônia de Pescadores Z13 (CPZ13), in Copacabana, Rio de Janeiro, and its relationship with the marine protected area 'Monumento Natural do Arquipélago das Ilhas Cagarras - MoNa Cagarras', describing the fleet and fishing gears, identifying fishing spots, species and their associations by gillnet type. From June 2012 to May 2013, every Tuesday to Sunday, gill net landings were monitored and fishers interviewed regarding their catch. Small boats (dory whaleboats) are used to set three types of gillnets: "Corvineira" (target species - whitemouth croaker), "linguadeira" (target species - flounders) and "rede-alta" (target species - bluefish). Fifty-nine species within 37 families were captured at 14 fishing spots, showing association with bottom type and distance from shore. The use of fisher's local ecological knowledge defines gear placement at specific sites targeting fisheries resources. All fishing sites are not within the limits of MoNa Cagarras but would benefit from management plans including an MPA buffering zone. PMID:26909618

  20. Retail promotions and perceptions of R.J. Reynolds' novel dissolvable tobacco in a US test market

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With declining cigarette sales, tobacco manufacturers have been developing and marketing new smokeless products, such as R. J. Reynolds' dissolvable tobacco, Camel Sticks, Strips and Orbs. This study assessed the availability, price and point-of-purchase promotional strategies for Camel Dissolvables, and investigated consumer awareness, interest and perception of these products in the Indiana test market. Methods An exploratory retail audit of point-of-purchase promotions was conducted in a random sample of retailers from 6 store categories (n = 81) in the test market area. Data included: store type, location, product placement, forms/flavors carried, price, types and locations of advertisements and promotions, and ad messages. An Awareness-Attitude-Usage (AAU) survey was used to gauge consumer awareness and knowledge of tobacco products including Camel Dissolvables. Respondents were shown promotional materials from a package onsert and perceptions and interest in the Camel Dissolvables were assessed. An Intended Target Survey (ITS) compared subjects' perceptions of ad targets for several non-tobacco products, as well as Camel Snus, Camel No. 9 and Camel Dissolvables. Respondents were asked to identify each ad's intended target category, perceived targetedness, and purchase intent. Results The products were carried by 46% of stores, most frequently gas stations (100%) and convenience stores (75%). They were shelved near smokeless tobacco (70%), cigarettes (25%) or candy (5%). Prices ranged from $3.59 -$4.19 per package; most stores carried at least 1 promotional item. Ad messages included: "Dissolvable Tobacco" (60%). "Free Trial" (24%), "Special Price" (24%), "What's Your Style?" (22%). At 14% of stores, free trial packs of Camel Dissolvables were offered with another Camel purchase. Awareness was reported by 42% of respondents (n = 243), and trial by 3%. Consumer interest was very low, but younger respondents (< 40 years) were more familiar with Camel Dissolvables (60% vs. 45% for those > 40 years, p < .01). Males, as well as current and former smokers had higher rates of interest and trial; only 1% of never smokers reported trial. In the ITS, only for the 3 tobacco product ads, was perceived targetedness for smokers significantly higher than for non-smokers. Smokers and nonsmokers perceived that the ads targeted smokers. Conclusions Current retail promotional strategies for Camel Sticks, Strips & Orbs appear to be targeting a select audience, primarily current smokers. Overall, consumer awareness, interest and trial were low. PMID:21569637

  1. 75 FR 1560 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ70A, 146...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will... related to the subject addressed by this AD), corrosion was found on the wing fixed leading edge structure... not have detected the corrosion or fatigue damage. Corrosion or fatigue damage in this area, if...

  2. Astronomy, Art and Mythology in a Public Elementary School in Itaocara/rj. (Spanish Title: Astronomía, Arte y Mitologia en el Ensino Fundamental en Una Escuela de la Red Estatal en ITAOCARA/RJ.) Astronomia, Arte e Mitologia no Ensino Fundamental em Escola da Rede Estadual em ITAOCARA/RJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira Bernardes, Adriana; Ramos dos Santos, Arleidimar

    2008-12-01

    Volunteer advisors at Itaocara Astronomy Club Marcos Pontes(CAIMP), in their majority high school students, introduced students at Teotônio Brandão Vilela Elementary School to basic concepts in Astronomy, Physics, and Mythology. Computer Science, Arts, puppetry, and educational videos were used to stimulate students to share their feelings and test their knowledge of the concepts presented. The work done by the volunteers helped boost the student's self-esteem and improved their oral skills by applying their knowledge of Physics and Astronomy in Lab experiments. The main goals of the CAIMP are the possibility of including astronomy in Elementary school curricula and developing an interdisciplinary work involving Astronomy, Arts, and Mythology. Through tests and reports, the students who participated in the Brazilian Astronomy Olympics, showed an increase in their knowldge of the sujects presented during the volunteer work. Durante el curso de un trabajo voluntario con estudiantes de nivel primario (1 º a 4 º grado), los guías de Astronomía miembros del CAIMP (Club de Astronomía de Itaocara "Marcos Puentes"), en su mayoría estudiantes secundarios, desarrollaron un trabajo de introducción a las Ciencias y Astronomía con alumnos del colegio estatal Teotônio Vilela Brandão. A través de talleres de informática, artes, videos educativos y teatro de títeres, los estudiantes pudieron expresar sus conocimientos y emociones frente a las leyendas mitológicas con las que se inició el trabajo de introducción. La labor desarrollada por los guías con los alumnos promovió la integración entre las aulas del colegio haciéndolos participar en actividades con el fin de estimular su expresión verbal y aumentar su autoestima. Trabajando diversas formas de expresión, los alumnos pudieron realizar experimentos y conocer algunos conceptos de Física y Astronomía al mismo tiempo que adquirían autonomía para la libre expresión de sus sentimientos y de los conocimientos recibidos. El trabajo en sí ha mostrado además de la posibilidad de la inclusión de la Astronomía en la Educación Primaria, la posibilidad de un trabajo interdisciplinario en los niveles iniciales incluyendo Astronomía, Arte y Mitología. Los resultados presentados por los estudiantes en las Olimpiadas promovidas en la escuela y por la OBA (Olimpiada Brasilera de Astronomía) permitieron verificar un creciente aprendizaje y estimulo hacia las materias científicas, comprobados por la apropiada expresión de los conceptos adquiridos de astronomía y presentados en evaluaciones o en informes obtenidos de ellos mismos, sus familias y profesores. Desenvolvendo um trabalho voluntário junto aos alunos do ensino fundamental no 1º ciclo (1ª a 4ª série), os monitores de Astronomia membros do CAIMP (Clube de Astronomia de Itaocara Marcos Pontes), que eram em sua maioria alunos do ensino médio, desenvolveram um trabalho de aproximação entre os alunos do Colégio Estadual Teotônio Brandão Vilela e os temas envolvendo Ciências e Astronomia. Através de oficinas de informática, artes, vídeos educativos e teatros de fantoches, os alunos puderam expressar seus conhecimentos e emoções diante das lendas mitológicas com as quais começaram a ter contato. O trabalho desenvolvido pelos monitores junto aos alunos proporcionou a integração entre as turmas do colégio e os levou a participação em atividades de maneira a estimular sua oralidade e aumentar sua auto-estima. Trabalhando várias formas de expressões, os alunos puderam realizar seus experimentos e conhecer alguns conceitos de Física e Astronomia, enquanto adquiriam autonomia para se expressarem de acordo com seus sentimentos e conhecimentos adquiridos. O trabalho em si mostrou além da possibilidade de inserção de Astronomia no Ensino Fundamental, a possibilidade de realização de um trabalho interdisciplinar nas séries iniciais envolvendo Astronomia, Arte e Mitologia. Os resultados apresentados pelos alunos nas Olimpíadas promovidas na escola e pela OBA (Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia) possibilitaram a verificação de uma crescente aprendizagem e estímulo ao conhecimento de temas científicos, que foi comprovado diante da apropriação dos conceitos de Astronomia adquiridos e apresentados em resultados como avaliações, ou ainda, diante dos relatos obtidos dos mesmos, suas famílias e professores.

  3. Coffee Consumption, Newly Diagnosed Diabetes, and Other Alterations in Glucose Homeostasis: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Yarmolinsky, James; Mueller, Noel T.; Duncan, Bruce B.; Bisi Molina, Maria del Carmen; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Observational studies have reported fairly consistent inverse associations between coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes, but this association has been little investigated with regard to lesser degrees of hyperglycemia and other alterations in glucose homeostasis. Additionally, the association between coffee consumption and diabetes has been rarely investigated in South American populations. We examined the cross-sectional relationships of coffee intake with newly diagnosed diabetes and measures of glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion, in a large Brazilian cohort of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Methods We used baseline data from 12,586 participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes. Analysis of covariance was used to assess coffee intake in relation to two-hour glucose from an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, fasting and –2-hour postload insulin and measures of insulin sensitivity. Results We found an inverse association between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes, after adjusting for multiple covariates [23% and 26% lower odds of diabetes for those consuming coffee 2–3 and >3 times per day, respectively, compared to those reporting never or almost never consuming coffee, (p = .02)]. An inverse association was also found for 2-hour postload glucose [Never/almost never: 7.57 mmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 7.48 mmol/L, 2-3 times/day: 7.22 mmol/L, >3 times/day: 7.12 mol/L, p<0.0001] but not with fasting glucose concentrations (p = 0.07). Coffee was additionally associated with 2-hour postload insulin [Never/almost never: 287.2 pmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 280.1 pmol/L, 2–3 times/day: 275.3 pmol/L, >3 times/day: 262.2 pmol/L, p = 0.0005) but not with fasting insulin concentrations (p = .58). Conclusion Our present study provides further evidence of a protective effect of coffee on risk of adult-onset diabetes. This effect appears to act primarily, if not exclusively, through postprandial, as opposed to fasting, glucose homeostasis. PMID:25978631

  4. Efectos combinados de la ampliación de la atención primaria de salud y de las transferencias condicionadas de dinero en efectivo sobre la mortalidad infantil en Brasil, 1998–2010*

    PubMed Central

    Guanais, Frederico C.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Examiné los efectos combinados del acceso a la atención primaria mediante el Programa de Salud Familiar (PSF) y las transferencias condicionadas de dinero en efectivo del Programa Bolsa Familia (PBF) sobre la mortalidad infantil posneonatal (MIPN) en Brasil. Métodos. Empleé un análisis ecológico longitudinal usando datos en panel de 4 583 municipios brasileños de 1998 al 2010, con 54 253 observaciones en total. Estimé modelos de regresión de efectos fijos por mínimos cuadrados ordinarios, con la tasa de MIPN como la variable dependiente y el PSF, el PBF y sus interacciones como las principales variables independientes de interés. Resultados. La asociación de una mayor cobertura del PSF con una menor tasa de MIPN se volvió más fuerte conforme aumentaba la cobertura del PBF. En los promedios de todas las demás variables, cuando la cobertura de PBF era 25%, la MIPN predicha fue 5,24 (intervalo de confianza [IC] de 95% = 4,95, 5,53) para una cobertura del PSF de 0%, y de 3,54 (IC de 95% = 2,77, 4,31) para una cobertura del PSF de 100%. Cuando la cobertura del PBF era de 60%, la MIPN predicha fue 4,65 (IC de 95% = 4,36, 4,94) para una cobertura del PSF de 0%, y de 1,38 (IC de 95% = 0,88, 1,89) para una cobertura del PSF de 100%. Conclusiones. El efecto del PSF depende de la ampliación del PBF. Para las poblaciones empobrecidas y subatendidas, la combinación de intervenciones tanto del lado de la oferta como del lado de la demanda podría ser necesaria para mejorar los resultados en salud.

  5. How brasil grows motor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, V.; Trindade, S.C.; Branco, J.R.C.

    1981-03-01

    The general background in technical, economic, and political terms is discussed, along with the experience of using alcohol in automobiles. Since 1973 a concerted effort has been made to utilize various crops for the production of alcohol. The disposal of stillage is considered. 10 refs.

  6. The association between mood and anxiety disorders, and coronary heart disease in Brazil: a cross-sectional analysis on the Brazilian longitudinal study of adult health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Andrew H.; Brunoni, Andre R.; Nunes, Maria A.; Santos, Itamar S.; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Benseñor, Isabela M.; Lotufo, Paulo A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Associations between major depressive disorder (MDD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) have been established, and these associations increase risk of future morbidity and mortality. Prior research has been carried out in high-income countries. Here we examine associations between the mood and anxiety disorders, and CHD in a large cohort at baseline from Brazil, a country facing a variety of challenges that may affect these associations. Methods: Participants included 15,105 civil servants aged 35 to 74 at baseline (2008–2010) from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). CHD (N = 721) included self-reported angina pectoris (n = 305), myocardial infarction (n = 259) and coronary revascularization (n = 239). Hierarchical logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate odds ratios and confidence intervals. Results: Major findings indicate that comorbid MDD and anxiety disorders (n = 434) are associated with a threefold increase in CHD, MDD alone (n = 170) with a twofold increase in CHD, while generalized anxiety disorder alone (n = 1,394) and mixed anxiety and depression disorder (n = 1,844) – symptoms present, but diagnostic threshold not reached – are associated with a 1.5-fold increase in CHD, after full adjustment for covariates. Conclusion: The association with CHD is greatest in those with psychiatric comorbidity, while associations were also observed in MDD and generalized anxiety disorder without comorbidity. While findings are limited by the cross-sectional design of the study, given the known risks associated with comorbidity of the mood and anxiety disorders with CHD, findings reinforce the importance of comprehensive health assessment in Brazil. PMID:25762963

  7. Life Course Socioeconomic Position and C-Reactive Protein: Mediating Role of Health-Risk Behaviors and Metabolic Alterations. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Camelo, Lidyane V.; Giatti, Luana; Neves, Jorge Alexandre Barbosa; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Benseñor, Isabela M.; Chor, Dóra; Griep, Rosane Härter; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Kawachi, Ichiro; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation has been postulated to be one mediating mechanism explaining the association between low socioeconomic position (SEP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We sought to examine the association between life course SEP and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in adulthood, and to evaluate the extent to which health-risk behaviors and metabolic alterations mediate this association. Additionally, we explored the possible modifying influence of gender. Methods and Findings Our analytical sample comprised 13,371 participants from ELSA-Brasil baseline, a multicenter prospective cohort study of civil servants. SEP during childhood, young adulthood, and adulthood were considered. The potential mediators between life course SEP and CRP included clusters of health-risk behaviors (smoking, low leisure time physical activity, excessive alcohol consumption), and metabolic alterations (obesity, hypertension, low HDL, hypertriglyceridemia, and diabetes). Linear regression models were performed and structural equation modeling was used to evaluate mediation. Although lower childhood SEP was associated with higher levels of CRP in adult life, this association was not independent of adulthood SEP. However, CRP increased linearly with increasing number of unfavorable social circumstances during the life course (p trend <0.001). The metabolic alterations were the most important mediator between cumulative SEP and CRP. This mediation path accounted for 49.5% of the total effect of cumulative SEP on CRP among women, but only 20.2% among men. In consequence, the portion of the total effect of cumulative SEP on CRP that was mediated by risk behaviors and metabolic alterations was higher among women (55.4%) than among men (36.8%). Conclusions Cumulative SEP across life span was associated with elevated systemic inflammation in adulthood. Although health-risk behaviors and metabolic alterations were important mediators of this association, a sizable fraction of this association was not mediated by these factors, suggesting that other pathways might play a role, especially among men. PMID:25309988

  8. Origin of pegmatites and fluids at Ponta Negra (RJ, Brazil) during late- to post-collisional stages of the Gondwana Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiolo, Everton Marques; Renac, Christophe; Piza, Patricia d'Almeida de Toledo; Schmitt, Renata da Silva; Mexias, André Sampaio

    2016-01-01

    The Ponta Negra Pegmatites (PNP), part of a pegmatitic province in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, crop out along an intensely deformed, medium- to high-grade metamorphic area that is proximal to a crustal-scale thrust zone developed during the Brasiliano/Pan-African Orogeny. Fieldwork shows that the pegmatites formed in two distinct stages: (i) syn-collisional leucosome veins (Group I) conformable with the tectonic foliation of the gneissic host rocks and (ii) late- to post-collisional dykes (Group II) that cross-cut the same tectonic foliation at a high angle. In this paper, we use geochemistry of whole-rock and mineral separates (alkali-feldspar and biotite), fluid inclusion microthermometry and stable isotopic (δ18O, δD, δ13C) determinations on minerals (quartz, alkali-feldspar, biotite and magnetite) and fluid inclusions to provide insights into the composition of the pegmatite-forming melts, associated fluids, and their geotectonic significance. U-Pb SHRIMP dating of the Cajú syenogranite was performed to evaluate and compare the timing of magmatic events along the Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain as this is the closest post-collisional pluton to the studied pegmatites. The calculated temperature for the Group I syn-collisional veins (740 °C) is similar to previous estimates for the peak metamorphic conditions in the study area. Variations in the temperature of the Group II pegmatite dykes obtained from stable isotopes (380 to 720 °C), and microthermometric data from primary fluid inclusions with traces of N2 (Th = 280 to 360 °C), may reflect the thermodynamics of the pegmatite crystallization, exsolution textures and isotopic exchange. The composition of fluids in equilibrium within the pegmatite dykes consists of magmatic and metamorphic components. The minimum pressures calculated for the emplacement of the pegmatites are equivalent to a shallow crustal depth between 1.7 and 3.5 km, which corresponds to the exhumation of the orogen since the emplacement of the pegmatites. A linear trend of decreasing CO2 content and δ13CCO2 is consistent with mixtures between (i) carbon derived from organic matter or volatilization of skarns and (ii) inorganic carbon (carbonate). Based on the data obtained, we propose that the pegmatites of Ponta Negra are close to an LCT-type geochemical signature (highly peraluminous magmas with normative corundum), and originated by partial melting of the metasedimentary Palmital succession at depth, during the waning stages of the Búzios Orogeny. The primary melts of the PNP cross-cut both the Neoproterozoic supracrustals and the Paleoproterozoic orthogneissic basement during its ascent and emplacement at higher crustal levels. Variable melt sources explain the slight differences in geochemical compositions among the studied rocks within the metasedimentary succession, which probably include Mn-bearing exhalites, as well as differentiation processes. The 454 ± 5 Ma U-Pb (zircon) age of the Cajú syenogranite overlaps previous geochronological data of 440 ± 11 Ma obtained on a pegmatite dyke at Ponta Negra, bracketing and extending the time interval for the Gondwana assembly collapse magmatism in the region. The heat that triggered this magmatic event could still be a consequence of the collisional orogeny, increasing contents of heat-producing elements, or, a large intraplate extension that followed the Gondwana amalgamation and initiated the formation of Paleozoic basins.

  9. Use of GIS for the evaluation of heavy metal contamination in the Cunha Canal watershed and west of the Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, RJ.

    PubMed

    Borges, Renata Coura; Caldas, Vanessa Godoy; Filho, Francisco Fernando Lamego Simões; Ferreira, Marcos Manoel; Lapa, Celso Marcelo Franklin

    2014-12-15

    The Cunha Canal watershed, which is located in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, suffered severe environmental degradation in recent decades due to rapid urban population growth. However, this substantial growth did not result in social development; instead, it exacerbated existing environmental and social problems. This study aimed to evaluate the pollution of the Canal do Cunha and Guanabara Bay, using GIS for mapping based on the result of the heavy metal concentrations obtained by spectrometry (ICP-OES). The analyzed data were monitored at five collection points. Five heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni and Zn) were evaluated. The results showed that the waters of the Cunha Canal watershed and the west side of Guanabara Bay have been altered and degraded. The concentration of heavy metals in the water was lower than the concentration in the sediments. The behaviors of the studied metals differed during the rainy and dry periods. PMID:25455374

  10. Bacterial and Archaeal Communities Variability Associated with Upwelling and Anthropogenic Pressures in the Protection Area of Arraial do Cabo (Cabo Frio region - RJ).

    PubMed

    Coelho-Souza, Sergio A; Araújo, Fábio V; Cury, Juliano C; Jesus, Hugo E; Pereira, Gilberto C; Guimarães, Jean R D; Peixoto, Raquel S; Dávila, Alberto M R; Rosado, Alexandre S

    2015-09-01

    Upwelling systems contain a high diversity of pelagic microorganisms and their composition and activity are defined by factors like temperature and nutrient concentration. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) technique was used to verify the spatial and temporal genetic variability of Bacteria and Archaea in two stations of the Arraial do Cabo coastal region, one under upwelling pressure and another under anthropogenic pressure. In addition, biotic and abiotic variables were measured in surface and deep waters from three other stations between these stations. Six samplings were done during a year and adequately represented the degrees of upwelling and anthropogenic pressures to the system. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed negative correlations between the concentrations of ammonia and phosphorous with prokaryotic secondary production and the total heterotrophic bacteria. PCA also showed negative correlation between temperature and the abundance of prokaryotic cells. Bacterial and archaeal compositions were changeable as were the oceanographic conditions, and upwelling had a regional pressure while anthropogenic pressure was punctual. We suggest that the measurement of prokaryotic secondary production was associated with both Bacteria and Archaea activities, and that substrate availability and temperature determine nutrients cycling. PMID:26375020

  11. [Struthiolipeurus rheae Harrison, 1916 (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) infesting ostriches (Struthio camelus) in one farming in the Municipality of Três Rios, RJ].

    PubMed

    Fagundes, Tais F; Soleiro, Carla A; de Cássia A A de Menezes, Rita

    2009-12-01

    In Brazil ostriches farming began at the end of 20th Century, to supply the international market of meat, feathers and leather. Feathers are economically important to industry and artisanal sectors. Lice can cause intense pruritus that depending on the intensity of infestation can lead to depreciation of feathers. In Rio de Janeiro there are unknown species of lice infesting ostriches. Thus the objective of this study was to identify the lice that happen in birds from commercial farms in the Municipality of Três Rios. From 2003 to 2006 ostriches were monthly examined for the presence of ectoparasites. When infestations were detected some feathers were removed, placed into plastic bags and sent to the laboratory for further analysis. After removed from feathers, ectoparasites were examined using a stereoscope, followed by clarification in 10% potassium hydroxide and dehydrated in ethanol. Permanent slides were mounted in natural Canada balsam for observation in optical microscope. Based on observed characteristics, it was possible to determine that collected specimens belong to the species Struthiolipeurus rheae. PMID:20040199

  12. Acute toxicity bioassay with the amphipod, Grandidierella bonnieroides S. after exposure to sediments from an urban estuary (Macaé River Estuary, RJ, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Molisani, Mauricio Mussi; Costa, Rafael Nogueira; Cunha, Priscila; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo; Ferreira, Maria Inês Paes; de Assis Esteves, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Acute toxicity to Grandidierella bonnieroides and physicochemical analysis were used for quality assessment of the sediment of the Macaé River urban estuary, located in the Brazilian coast where rapid socioeconomic growth has been induced by offshore oil and gas exploration at the Campos Basin. Sediment samples were collected during four events in four sampling sites of the estuary and also in a control site. Organism mortality after exposure to the estuarine sediments was, on average, 30 % a value higher than in the control site where it was 10 %. This result together with the physicochemical analysis suggests an initial toxicity condition of the sediments from this aquatic coastal environment. PMID:23124519

  13. [The impact of professional activities on the physical and mental health of the civil and military police of Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; de Oliveira, Raquel Vasconcellos Carvalhaes

    2011-04-01

    In this article, we analyze the physical and mental stress and illness of military and civil police force officers in the State of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) due to their working conditions and professional activities. The same methodology was used for the study of two categories, namely a quantitative approach (simple random sampling by conglomerates, involving a total of 1,458 civil police officers and 1,108 military police officers, who answered questionnaires anonymously) and a qualitative approach (focal groups involving 143 professionals and 18 interviews with managers of both police forces). The data presented here are all original. Disorders identified were: overweight and obesity in both forces but mainly in the Military Police; low frequency of physical exercise and high levels of cholesterol, especially in the Civil Police. The main health complaints are neck, back or spinal cord pain, eyesight complaints and headaches/ migraines. Sixteen point two per cent of officers of both forces reported physical lesions that were more prevalent in the Military Police, among whom psychic suffering was also more frequent (SRQ20). The need for changes in the individual and professional dimensions and in institutional aspects regarding the conditions and organization of work and of health services is emphasized. PMID:21584461

  14. Kinship and Leprosy in the Contacts of Leprosy Patients: Cohort at the Souza Araújo Outpatient Clinic, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 1987–2010

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Daiane Santos; Duppre, Nadia Cristina; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Hacker, Mariana Andréa

    2013-01-01

    A broad variety of factors have been associated with leprosy among contacts, including socioeconomic, epidemiological, and genetic characteristics. Data from 7,174 contacts of leprosy patients from a leprosy outpatient clinic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1987–2010, were analyzed to investigate the effects of kinship, individual, and contextual factors on leprosy. Multivariate analyses were performed using a robust estimation method. In the prevalence analysis, close kinship (sibling OR = 2.75, offspring OR = 2.00, and other relatives OR = 1.70), socioeconomic factors, and the duration of exposure to the bacillus were associated to leprosy. In the incidence analysis, significant risks were found for all categories of kinship (parents RR = 10.93, spouse, boyfriend/girlfriend, and bride/groom RR = 7.53, sibling RR = 7.03, offspring RR = 5.34, and other relatives RR = 3.71). Once the treatment of the index case was initiated, other factors lost their significance, and the index case bacteriological index and BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine) protection had a greater impact. Our findings suggested that both genetic susceptibility and physical exposure play an important role in the epidemiology of leprosy, but it was not possible establishing the role of genetic factor. Analyses of other factors related to the genotype of individuals, such as genetic polymorphisms, are needed. PMID:23690793

  15. Kinship and Leprosy in the Contacts of Leprosy Patients: Cohort at the Souza Araújo Outpatient Clinic, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 1987-2010.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Daiane Santos; Duppre, Nadia Cristina; Sales, Anna Maria; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Hacker, Mariana Andréa

    2013-01-01

    A broad variety of factors have been associated with leprosy among contacts, including socioeconomic, epidemiological, and genetic characteristics. Data from 7,174 contacts of leprosy patients from a leprosy outpatient clinic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1987-2010, were analyzed to investigate the effects of kinship, individual, and contextual factors on leprosy. Multivariate analyses were performed using a robust estimation method. In the prevalence analysis, close kinship (sibling OR = 2.75, offspring OR = 2.00, and other relatives OR = 1.70), socioeconomic factors, and the duration of exposure to the bacillus were associated to leprosy. In the incidence analysis, significant risks were found for all categories of kinship (parents RR = 10.93, spouse, boyfriend/girlfriend, and bride/groom RR = 7.53, sibling RR = 7.03, offspring RR = 5.34, and other relatives RR = 3.71). Once the treatment of the index case was initiated, other factors lost their significance, and the index case bacteriological index and BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine) protection had a greater impact. Our findings suggested that both genetic susceptibility and physical exposure play an important role in the epidemiology of leprosy, but it was not possible establishing the role of genetic factor. Analyses of other factors related to the genotype of individuals, such as genetic polymorphisms, are needed. PMID:23690793

  16. ANÁLISE DA INSERÇÃO DOS TEMAS DE HUMANIDADES E ÉTICA, COM METODOLOGIA DE APRENDIZAGEM BASEADA EM PROBLEMAS, EM CURRICULO MÉDICO INTEGRADO EM ESCOLA PÚBLICA NO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando; Silveira, Carla; Guiotti, Murilo

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo Realizar uma análise da inserção da ética e humanidades no currículo do Curso de Medicina da Escola Superior em Ciências da Saúde - ESCS, escola pública do Distrito Federal, Brasil, de forma a contribuir com o processo de gestão curricular. Metodologia O Estudo é de coorte e documental. Foram pesquisados 37 termos relacionados à ética e 36 referentes à humanização nos objetivos educacionais e conteúdo dos módulos temáticos, habilidades e atitudes e interação ensino-serviço-comunidade, de 1a a 4a série e no programa do internato no currículo (ano 2006) e no projeto pedagógico do Curso de Medicina (2001). Resultados Maior inserção da humanização, ética e bioética na 1a e 2a série, quando comparado à inserção na 3a e 4a série e no internato, (IC95%-α=0,034, pvalue=0,007). Unidade de habilidades e atitudes: freqüência das 3 temáticas no currículo da 1a a 4a séries (IC95%-α=0,026, pvalue=0,013). Quando comparada a inserção entre o internato e as quatro primeiras séries, observa-se que nestas a inserção da temática humanização é superior (IC95%-α=0,042, pvalue=0,029). Conclusão O currículo desenvolvido no ano de 2006 na ESCS apresentou correlação com o projeto pedagógico do curso e contemplou a temática de forma abrangente, em todas as séries e internato. PMID:20396594

  17. Memories of Astronomy Education in Brazil: Clippings from the Discourses of Interviewed Researchers on the Subject. (Spanish Title: Memorias de la Educación en Astronomía en Brasil: Recortes de los Discursos de Investigadores Entrevistados Acerca del Tema ) Memórias da Educação em Astronomia no Brasil: Recortes a Partir das Falas de Pesquisadores Entrevistados sobre o Tema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo; Nardi, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a historical retrospective concerning data from a research in Astronomy Education in Brazil, after 1973. It was organized on the basis of the speech analysis of national researchers considered references in this field by their peers. Furthermore, it was elaborated on the basis of other studies from the areas of Science Education, Physics and Astronomy. This historical overview was developed in order to facilitate understanding of the contexts in which the interviewed researchers have developed professionally. Moreover, we attempted to recover the memory of the growing field of research in Astronomy Education in the country. We believe that the history presented can help those trying to understand the past in an attempt to resolve current and future demands. Se presenta en este artículo una retrospectiva histórica referente a datos provenientes de la investigación en enseñanza de la astronomía en el Brasil, después de 1973, organizada sobre la base del análisis de los discursos de los investigadores nacionales considerados referencias en este campo, y también en la lectura de las publicaciones en las áreas de Enseñanza de las Ciencias, Física y Astronomía. Este repaso histórico se desarrolló con el fin de facilitar la comprensión de los contextos en los que los investigadores entrevistados se han desarrollado profesionalmente. Por otra parte, se intentó recuperar la memoria del creciente campo de la investigación en Educación en Astronomía en el país. Creemos que el relato presentado puede contribuir a quien trata de comprender el pasado, en un intento de resolver las demandas actuales y futuras. Relata-se neste artigo uma retrospectiva histórica referente a dados provenientes de pesquisa em Educação em Astronomia no país, pós 1973, organizada com base na análise das falas de pesquisadores considerados referências nacionais nesse campo, como também na leitura de publicações das áreas de ensino de Ciências, Física e Astronomia. Tal panorama histórico foi desenvolvido com o intuito de favorecer nossa compreensão sobre os contextos nos quais os pesquisadores entrevistados se desenvolveram profissionalmente. Ademais, buscou-se recobrar a memória do crescente campo de pesquisa em Educação em Astronomia no país. Entendemos que o histórico apresentado possa contribuir para com os que buscam entender o passado na tentativa de solucionar demandas atuais e futuras.

  18. Future of alcohol fuels programs in Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, A. V., Jr.; Rechtschaffen, E.; Goldstein, L., Jr.

    An updating is given of the Brazilian National Alcohol Program's production and utilization achievements to date in the substitution of ethanol and methanol for imported oil products. A series of Eucalyptus forestry and processing-industry projections are made for fuel output and jobs creation that may be expected by the year 2000. With few exceptions, methanol produced from wood grown on poorer soils than can now be used for sugarcane substitute for oil products and result in jobs creation several orders of magnitude higher than petroleum fuels.

  19. Brazil = Brasil. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Brazil's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include Brazil's form of government; geographic regions; holidays; climate; people; music; carnaval celebration;…

  20. Brazil = Brasil. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Brazil's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include Brazil's form of government; geographic regions; holidays; climate; people; music; carnaval celebration;…

  1. Micoinseticidas e Micoacaricidas no Brasil: Como estamos?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoinsecticides and mycoacaricides can be defined as biopesticide products based on living propagules of entomopathogenic fungi developed for inundative and inoculative biological control of insects and mites. Based on recently published data on global use of entomopathogenic fungi and a proposal f...

  2. Neonatal sepsis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... BE. Perinatal viral infections. In Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal ... K. Postnatal bacterial infections. In Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal ...

  3. Honeybee royal jelly and nobiletin stimulate CRE-mediated transcription in ERK-independent and -dependent fashions, respectively, in PC12D cells.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Hironori; Kogure, Ako; Sakamoto, Masahiro; Yamakuni, Tohru; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Murata, Kiyoshi; Hitomi, Nobuyuki; Yamaguchi, Kikuji; Ohizumi, Yasushi

    2011-01-01

    To prove the pharmacological actions of honeybee royal jelly (RJ) on the nervous system, we examined the effects of RJ on CRE-mediated transcription. RJ increased CRE-mediated transcription in PC12D cells. Moreover, CRE-mediated transcriptional activity by RJ was enhanced by nobiletin. U0126, a MEK inhibitor, inhibited CRE-mediated transcription by combining RJ plus nobiletin without affecting transcription by RJ alone. These results suggest that RJ stimulates CRE-mediated transcription via an ERK-independent cascade, whereas the increasing CRE-mediated transcriptional effect by nobiletin is dependent on ERK phosphorylation. Combining RJ plus nobiletin may activate effectively neuronal functions via enhancement of CRE-mediated transcription. PMID:21747212

  4. FOREWORD International Conference on Defects in Insulating Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valerio, Mário Ernesto Giroldo; Jackson, R. A.

    2010-11-01

    These proceedings represent a sample of the scientific works presented during ICDIM2008, the 16th International Conference on Defects in Insulating Materials, held at the Federal University of Sergipe, Aracaju, Brazil from 24-29 August 2008. The conference was the latest in a series which began at Argonne in 1956, and which has been held most recently in Riga, Latvia (2004) and Johannesburg, South Africa (2000). The conference was also related scientifically to the EURODIM series, which have been held most recently in Milan, Italy (2006), Wroclaw, Poland (2002) and Pecs, Hungary (2010). The aim of the conference was to bring together physicists, chemists and materials scientist to discuss defects in insulating materials and their effect on materials, including their optical, mass/charge transport, energy storage and sensor properties. The conference featured 6 plenary lectures, 60 contributed lectures and about 130 posters. The posters were displayed for the whole conference, but discussed in two three-hour sessions. We are grateful to the International Advisory Committee for suggesting invited speakers and to the Programme Committee for their help in refereeing all the abstracts and choosing the contributed oral contributions. We would also like to thank the Local Organising Committee and the Brazilian Physical Society for their help with local organisation and the online registration/payment process respectively. The chairpersons would like to specially thanks all the sponsors listed below for financial support. The Federal University of Sergipe, one of the public and 'free tuition' Universities of the Country, run by the Brazilian Ministry of Education, were pleased to host this 16th meeting, the first one in Latin America. Mario E G Valerio Conference Chair Robert A Jackson Programme Chair Conference Scope Scope of the Conference was the presentation of the latest investigations on point and extended defects in bulk materials and thin films. Technological applications will be presented alongside fundamental measurements and theories. The main scientific areas included: 1 Fundamental physical phenomena Point and extended defects in wide band-gap systems: oxides, fluorides, nitrides, alkali- and silver-halides, perovskites, minerals, ceramics, nano-structures, organic molecular crystals, glasses, high-k and low-k materials, photonic crystals. 2 Defects at surfaces and interfaces Thin films and low-dimensional systems. Colloids, nano-crystals, and aggregates. Defects and material preparation technology. Defects modelling and computational methods. Radiation effects, radiation induced defects, colour centres. Luminescence of excitons, impurities, and defects. Electronic excitations, excited state dynamics, radiative and non-radiative relaxations. Scintillation, energy transfer and storage, carrier trapping phenomena. Non-linear optical phenomena. Laser active centres. Phonons and defects, electron-phonon interactions. Defect diffusion, ionic relaxations, ionic transport. 3 Technological applications Radiologic imaging and detection, scintillators, and dosimeters. Optical devices and photonics, photorefractive electro-optics, optical fibres, lasers. Materials for micro-electronics. Solid electrolytes, fuel cells, electrochemical sensors, fast ionic conductors. Conference chairpersons: Mário E G Valerio (Conference Chairman), Physics Department, Federal University of Sergipe, SE, Brasil Robert A Jackson (Programme Chairman), School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, UK Conference committees: International Advisory Committee R Capelletti, Italy A V Chadwick, UK J Corish, Ireland J D Comins, South Africa H W den Hartog, The Netherlands K Funke, Germany Robert A Jackson, UK O Kanert, Germany A A Kaplyanskii, Russia A Lushchik, Estonia F Lüty, USA M Moreno, Spain P E Ngoepe, South Africa M Nikl, Czech Republic S V Nistor, Romania Ch Pedrini, France O F Schirmer, Germany J-M Spaeth, Germany A M Stoneham, UK M Suszynska, Poland I Tale, Latvia M E G Valerio, Brasil R T Williams, USA Programme Committee Robert A Jackson (Chair), University of Keele, UK R M Montereali, ENEA C.R. Frascati, Rome, Italy M Moreno, University of Cantabria, Spain Ch Pedrini, University Lyon, France Klaus W H Krambrock, UFMG, MG, Brasil Volkmar Dierolf, Lehigh University, USA Laszlo Kovács, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary M E G Valerio, UFS, SE, Brasil Local Organizing Committee M E G Valerio, UFS, SE, Brasil Sonia L Baldochi, IPEN, SP, Brasil Klaus W H Krambrock, UFMG, MG, Brasil Livio Amaral, UFRGS, RS, Brasil Ana R Blak, USP, SP, Brasil Marco Cremona, PUC-RJ, RJ, Brasil Anderson S L Gomes, UFPE, PE, Brasil Spero Penha Morato, LaserTools, SP, Brasil Alejandro Ayala, UFC, CE, Brasil ICDIM2008 Sponsors: Sponsors

  5. Screening for pulmonary tuberculosis in Teresópolis, RJ, Brazil: the search for respiratory symptomatic patients in emergency service of "Hospital das Clínicas de Teresópolis Costantino Ottaviano, Fundação Educacional Serra dos Orgãos".

    PubMed

    Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Gomes, Andréia Patrícia; Bisaglia, Joana B; Borlot, Paulo Estevão W; D'avila Junior, Heraldo X; Faria, Carolina Gonçalves P P de; Braga, Bernardo D; Bezerra, Tiago S; Cedrola, Juan Pedro V; Almeida, Guilherme C; Couto, Lílian S; Nacif, Marcelo; Crivano, Elvira

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the detection percentage of tuberculosis among patients that are respiratory symptomatic (TB suspects). In this work, we present the preliminary results of research carried out at "Hospital das Clínicas de Teresópolis Costantino Ottaviano da Fundacao Educacional Serra dos Orgãos (FESO)" from November 2003 to April 2004. Among the 40 respiratory symptomatic individuals identified and referred to the Tuberculosis Control Program in Teresópolis , two (5.0%) were characterized as smear-positive. These results confirm reports in the literature and underscore the need for and importance of this strategy. PMID:15880227

  6. A.W.D., Larkum, R.J. Orth, C.M. Duarte (eds.), 2006, Seagrasses: Biology, Ecology and Conservation, Springer, ISBN: 978-1-4020-2942-4 (hardback), US$ 99.00, 691 pages.

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.

    2008-01-01

    The relish of scientists for, and funding of research on, seagrasses probably stems from two sources: seagrasses are a defined taxonomic unit often growing in monotypic stands, making academic study tractable; and, seagrasses are increasingly recognized globally as important components of shallow water systems, and potential key indicators of ecosystem health. The 26 chapters covering ~700 pages provide a long overdue treatment of the state of the science on seagrasses. This book is an honest, thorough and heroic attempt to compile a mass of knowledge by a herd of 80 researcher “cats” representing 15 countries. The chapters “…provide the necessary background on what brought each topic where it is today and indicate where future research needs to go to advance the field to the next level.” Seagrass science is in its infancy, but, as demonstrated, is advancing rapidly. Volumes with recent topical treatments of seagrasses include World Atlas of Seagrasses (Green and Short 2003), Seagrass Ecology (Hemminga and Duarte 2000), and Global Seagrass Research Methods (Short and Coles 2001) are useful compliments to this book.

  7. Contribution of lipids in honeybee (Apis mellifera) royal jelly to health.

    PubMed

    Li, Xing'an; Huang, Chaoqun; Xue, Yunbo

    2013-02-01

    Honeybee (Apis mellifera) royal jelly (RJ) has a long history in human medicine because of its health-protecting properties. To develop a fundamental and comprehensive understanding of lipids in RJ, this article reviews the available literature on lipid compounds identified from RJ extracts and in vitro pharmacological effects of 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid in RJ and other closely related compounds, some of which are also identified as lipid compounds in RJ. Overall, the lipids in RJ are composed of mostly (aliphatic) fatty acids, almost all of which are present as free fatty acids and scarcely any as esters. Most fatty acids in RJ are medium-chain fatty acids, whether hydroxylated in terminal and/or internal positions, terminated with mono- or dicarboxylic acid groups, and saturated or monounsaturated at the 2-position. Besides these fatty acids, lipids in RJ contain sterols in minor amounts. Lipids in RJ are useful as preventive and supportive medicines with functionalities that include potential inhibitors of cancer growth, immune system modulators, alternative therapies for menopause, skin-aging protectors, neurogenesis inducers, and more. Taken together, the evidence suggests that health-protecting properties of RJ can be, in part, ascribed to actions of lipids in RJ. PMID:23351082

  8. Novel Jumbo Biopsy Forceps for Surveillance of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Comparative Retrospective Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kenneth; Toweill, Daniel; Rulyak, Stephen J.; Lee, Scott D.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Study Aims. Most available jumbo cup forceps require a 3.7?mm biopsy channel, necessitating the use of standard-sized colonoscope. A newer jumbo forceps (Radial Jaw 4 Jumbo Biopsy Forceps [RJ4]) fits within a 3.2?mm biopsy channel, allowing use with a pediatric colonoscope. To assure the RJ4 did not alter biopsy adequacy, we compared the size and quality of specimens to a historical jumbo cup forceps (Radial Jaw 3 Max Capacity Biopsy Forceps, [RJ3 MC]). Patients and Methods. A retrospective comparative study of biopsies taken with either forceps. Biopsies were compared for diameter, depth, crush artifact, and acceptability for diagnosis. Results. 333 specimens were taken with RJ4 and 335 specimens with the RJ3 MC. Mean sample diameter was 4.45?mm and 4.55?mm for the RJ4 and RJ3 MC (P = 0.41). Mean depth of biopsies with the RJ4 was greater (P < 0.01). Conclusions. Biopsies from the RJ4 are similar in size and quality to biopsies from the RJ3 MC. The RJ4 has the advantage of fitting in a smaller biopsy channel. PMID:22007197

  9. Impact of supplementary royal jelly on in vitro maturation of sheep oocytes: genes involved in apoptosis and embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Valiollahpoor Amiri, Mohammad; Deldar, Hamid; Ansari Pirsaraei, Zarbakht

    2016-02-01

    Optimizing culture conditions lead to the improvement of oocyte developmental competence and additives with anti-oxidative activity in culture media improved embryonic development. Royal jelly (RJ) is a product from the cephalic glands of nurse bees that has considerable health effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different concentrations of RJ on the maturation, cleavage, and blastocyst rates and gene expression in the oocyte and cumulus cells during in vitro maturation (IVM) of sheep oocyte. IVM of oocyte was performed in the presence of control (RJ0), 2.5 (RJ2.5), 5 (RJ5), 10 (RJ10), 20 (RJ20), and 40 (RJ40) mg/mL of RJ. Following the maturation period, parthenogenetic activation was carried out in two treatment groups (RJ0 and RJ10) and embryonic development was examined three and eight days thereafter. Moreover, the relative expression of BCL2 and BAX in oocyte as well as BCL2, BAX, HAS2, PTGS2, and STAR in cumulus cells were assessed. The results indicated that the addition of 10 mg/mL of RJ (90 ± 4.51%) to the maturation medium linearly increased the oocyte maturation rate compared to the control group (57 ± 2.42%), then it remained constant to the RJ40 (93 ± 3.10%) group. The higher RJ concentrations were associated with increased (p < 0.01) cleavage (53.3 ± 1.55% to 82.3 ± 2.82%) and blastocyst rate (15.5 ± 1.16% to 33.8 ± 3.09%) from the RJ0 to the RJ10 group. The relative mRNA expression of BCL2 and BAX in the oocyte was higher at RJ10. In cumulus cells, the expression of BCL2 was not affected, but that of BAX decreased, and expression of HAS2, PTGS2, and STAR were increased following the addition of RJ to the maturation media. In conclusion, the addition of 10 mg/mL of RJ to maturation medium improved blastocyst formation and decreased the apoptotic incidence in sheep cumulus cells and the oocyte during the in vitro development. PMID:26636725

  10. Royal jelly protects against ultraviolet B-induced photoaging in human skin fibroblasts via enhancing collagen production.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Min; Hwang, Eunson; Lee, Kwang Gill; Han, Sang-Mi; Cho, Yunhi; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2011-09-01

    Royal jelly (RJ) is a honeybee product containing proteins, carbohydrates, fats, free amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. As its principal unsaturated fatty acid, RJ contains 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA), which may have antitumor and antibacterial activity and a capacity to stimulate collagen production. RJ has attracted interest in various parts of the world for its pharmacological properties. However, the effects of RJ on ultraviolet (UV)-induced photoaging of the skin have not been reported. In this study we measured the 10-HDA content of RJ by high-performance liquid chromatography and tested the effects of RJ on UVB-induced skin photoaging in normal human dermal fibroblasts. The effects of RJ and 10-HDA on UVB-induced photoaging were tested by measuring procollagen type I, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 after UVB irradiation. The RJ contained about 0.211% 10-HDA. The UVB-irradiated human skin fibroblasts treated with RJ and 10-HDA had increased procollagen type I and TGF-β1 productions, but the level of MMP-1 was not changed. Thus RJ may potentially protect the skin from UVB-induced photoaging by enhancing collagen production. PMID:21812645

  11. Constraining depth of anisotropy in the Amazon region (Northern Brasil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Irene; Willy Corrêa Rosa, João; Bokelmann, Götz

    2014-05-01

    Seismic data recorded between November 2009 and September 2013, at the permanent station PTGA of the Brazilian seismic network were used to constrain the depth of anisotropy in the lithosphere beneath the station. 90 receiver functions (RF) have been computed, covering the backazimuthal directions from 0° to 180°. Both radial (R) and transverse (T) components of the RF contain useful information about the subsurface structure. The isotropic part of the seismic velocity profile at depth mainly affects the R-RF component, while anisotropy and dipping structures produce P-to-S conversion recorded on the T-RF component (Levin and Park, 1998; Savage, 1998). The incoming (radially polarized) S waves, when passing through an anisotropic crust, splits and part of it is projected onto the transverse component. The anisotropy symmetry orientations (?) can be estimated by the polarity change of the observed phases. The arrival times of the phases is related to the depth of the conversion. Depth and ? are estimated by isolating phases at certain arrival times. SKS shear-wave splitting results from previous studies in this area (Krüger et al., 2002, Rosa et al., 2014), suggest the presence of anisotropy in the mantle with orientation of the fast splitting axis (about E-W) following major deep tectonic structures. The observed splitting orientation correlates well with the current South America plate motion (i.e. relative to mesosphere), and with observed aeromagnetic trends. This similarity leaves open the possibility of a linkage between the upper mantle fabric imaged by shear wave splitting analysis and the lower crustal structure imaged by aeromagnetometry. In this study we unravel, from RF data, two layers in which anisotropy concentrates, i.e. the lower crust and the upper mantle. Lower crustal and upper mantle anisotropy retrieved by RFs give some new hints in order to interpret the previously observed anisotropic orientations from SKS and the aeromagnetic anomalies.

  12. Situation Reports--Bahamas, Brasil, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General…

  13. The Scientific program with RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil)

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenthaeler, R.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Faria, P. N. de; Mendes, D. R. Jr.; Pires, K. C. C.; Morcelle, V.; Hussein, M. S.; Barioni, A.; Condori, R. Pampa; Morais, M. C.; Alcantara Nunez, J.; Camargo, O. Jr.; Otani, Y.; Leistenschneider, E.; Scarduelli, V.; Benjamim, E. A.; Arazi, A.; Assuncao, M.

    2009-06-03

    The Radioactive Ion Beams Facility (RIBRAS) is in operation since 2004 at the Pelletron Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Sao Paulo and consists of two superconducting solenoids capable of producing low energy secondary beams of light exotic nuclei. Measurements of the elastic scattering, breakup and transfer reactions with radioactive projectiles such as {sup 6}He,{sup 8}Li,{sup 7}Be on several targets have been performed. A review of the research program carried on along the last four years using the RIBRAS facility is presented.

  14. Curriculum Studies in Brasil: A Study of the Teaching Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcondes, Maria Ines; Tura, Maria de Lourdes Rangel; de Macedo, Elizabeth Fernandes

    This study analyzes how undergraduate university teachers are thinking in the classroom about the theoretical and practical contents related to the subject called "Curriculum Studies." The study focuses on the aspects of the theory-practice relationship, the idea of curriculum, and the theoretical references used by the undergraduate teachers. The…

  15. Dangerous Fog Analyses and Forecast in the Maceio Airport, Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorova, N.; Silva, A.; Levit, V.; Santos, E.

    2010-07-01

    A small airplane fatal accident has occurred near Maceio Airport, on the coastal region on 26 July 2007. Low visibility in the intensive fog has provoked this accident. Weather forecast analysis, published in the local and central Brazilian newspapers during 2007, showed fog forecast absence during whole year. A study of the fog formation causes was elaborated using the high and low resolution satellite data, radar data, different products of NCEP reanalysis data and high resolution regional MM5 model simulation. The trade winds with a weak cyclonic curvature at the low levels have generated the humidity convergence at the superficial layers up to 850hPa on the coastal region. An anticyclonic circulation existence at the middle and higher levels and weak ascendant motion (by NCEP data) have support a weak convection development. The low levels clouds development on the continental region and convection development over ocean were confirmed by the radar and satellite data. A thermal inversion near surface level (up to 150m) and descendent movement at the middle and high levels were identified by MM5 model. Fog formation was simulated by PAFOG model. The conventional airport observations have shown the minimal visibility of 200m between 4 and 7a.m. Moreover visibility less than 1000m between 1 and 8a.m. with the minimal visibility of 213m was simulated by PAFOG model.

  16. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  17. In-depth phosphoproteomic analysis of royal jelly derived from western and eastern honeybee species.

    PubMed

    Han, Bin; Fang, Yu; Feng, Mao; Lu, Xiaoshan; Huo, Xinmei; Meng, Lifeng; Wu, Bin; Li, Jianke

    2014-12-01

    The proteins in royal jelly (RJ) play a pivotal role in the nutrition, immune defense, and cast determination of honeybee larvae and have a wide range of pharmacological and health-promoting functions for humans as well. Although the importance of post-translational modifications (PTMs) in protein function is known, investigation of protein phosphorylation of RJ proteins is still very limited. To this end, two complementary phosphopeptide enrichment materials (Ti(4+)-IMAC and TiO2) and high-sensitivity mass spectrometry were applied to establish a detailed phosphoproteome map and to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the phosphoproteomes of RJ produced by Apis mellifera ligustica (Aml) and Apis cerana cerana (Acc). In total, 16 phosphoproteins carrying 67 phosphorylation sites were identified in RJ derived from western bees, and nine proteins phosphorylated on 71 sites were found in RJ produced by eastern honeybees. Of which, eight phosphorylated proteins were common to both RJ samples, and the same motif ([S-x-E]) was extracted, suggesting that the function of major RJ proteins as nutrients and immune agents is evolutionary preserved in both of these honeybee species. All eight overlapping phosphoproteins showed significantly higher abundance in Acc-RJ than in Aml-RJ, and the phosphorylation of Jelleine-II (an antimicrobial peptide, TPFKLSLHL) at S(6) in Acc-RJ had stronger antimicrobial properties than that at T(1) in Aml-RJ even though the overall antimicrobial activity of Jelleine-II was found to decrease after phosphorylation. The differences in phosphosites, peptide abundance, and antimicrobial activity of the phosphorylated RJ proteins indicate that the two major honeybee species employ distinct phosphorylation strategies that align with their different biological characteristics shaped by evolution. The phosphorylation of RJ proteins are potentially driven by the activity of extracellular serine/threonine protein kinase FAM20C-like protein (FAM20C-like) through the [S-x-E] motif, which is supported by evidence that mRNA and protein expression of FAM20C-like protein kinase are both found in the highest level in the hypopharyngeal gland of nurse bees. Our data represent the first comprehensive RJ phosphorylation atlas, recording patterns of phosphorylated RJ protein abundance and antibacterial activity of some RJ proteins in two major managed honeybee species. These data constitute a firm basis for future research to better understand the biological roles of each RJ protein for honeybee biology and human health care. PMID:25265229

  18. Disciplines and Professors of Astronomy in Undergraduate Physics Teachers Formation Courses in Brazilian Universities. (Spanish Title: Disciplinas y Profesores de Astronomia en los Cursos de Licenciatura en Física en Las Universidades Brasileñas.) Disciplinas e Professores de Astronomia Nos Cursos de Licenciatura em Física das Universidades Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberto, Artur Justiniano, Jr.; Reis, Thiago Henrique; dos Reis Germinaro, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    This article is the result of a research on basic training in Astronomy in physics degrees that performed the ENADE 2011 national examination. The objective was to identify whether there are disciplines of Astronomy in these courses, whether are mandatory or optional, its workload and when it is offered. The relationship between astronomers, physics degrees and disciplines of Astronomy was investigated. To perform this research we examined the results of ENADE 2011 and also the census of Brazilian Astronomical Society. As a result it is observed that in only 15% of the courses there is a mandatory subject of Astronomy, and therefore there is a high probability that 85% of physics teachers trained in 2011 have not had any discipline of Astronomy during their graduation. In addition, the data collected in this study shows a low number of members of SAB (Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira) among the surveyed courses. We have verified that the presence of astronomers in a given university does not imply to have a mandatory discipline of Astronomy in physics degrees at the same university. Este artículo es el resultado de una investigación sobre la formación básica en Astronomía en los cursos de Profesorado en Física que hicieron el examen nacional ENADE 2011. El objetivo del trabajo fue identificar se existen disciplinas de Astronomía en estos cursos, si son obligatorias u optativas, cuál es su carga horaria y el semestre en que son ofrecidas. Se investigó también la correlación entre astrónomos, los cursos de licenciatura en Física y las disciplinas de Astronomía. Para realizar esta investigación se utilizaron los datos del ENADE 2011 y también del censo de la Astronomía brasileña. Como resultado, se observó que en solo 15% de los cursos existe una disciplina obligatoria de Astronomía y que existe una grande probabilidad de que 85% de los profesores de Física formados en el año de 2011 no hayan cursado ninguna disciplina de Astronomía durante su formación. Aparte de eso, los datos levantados en este trabajo apuntan para un número bajo de afiliados a la SAB (Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira) en los cursos investigados. Se verificó que tener astrónomos en una institución no implica tener una disciplina obligatoria de Astronomía en el curso de licenciatura en Física. Este artigo é o resultado de uma pesquisa sobre a formação básica em Astronomia nos cursos de Licenciatura em Física que fizeram o exame nacional ENADE 2011. O objetivo do trabalho foi identificar se há disciplinas de Astronomia nesses cursos, se ela é obrigatória ou optativa/eletiva, qual a sua carga horária e o período em que é oferecida. Pesquisou-se também a relação entre astrônomos, cursos de Licenciatura em Física e disciplinas de Astronomia. Para realizar essa pesquisa utilizamos os dados do ENADE 2011 e também do censo da Astronomia brasileira. Como resultado, se observa que em apenas 15% dos cursos existe uma disciplina obrigatória de Astronomia e que há uma grande probabilidade de que 85% dos professores de Física formados em 2011 não cursaram nenhuma disciplina de Astronomia durante a graduação. Além disso, os dados levantados nesse trabalho apontam um baixo número de filiados à SAB nos cursos pesquisados. Identifica-se que ter astrônomos na instituição não implica em disciplina obrigatória de Astronomia no curso de Licenciatura em Física.

  19. Royal jelly proteome comparison between A. mellifera ligustica and A. cerana cerana.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fang; Mao, Feng; Jianke, Li

    2010-05-01

    In this study, we compared royal jelly (RJ) produced by Apis mellifera ligustica and Apis cerana cerana in production, protein profiles, and abundances using proteomic approaches. The RJ proteome was displayed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE), and proteins were identified using MALDI-TOF MS and LC-Chip/ESI-QTOF MS. Differences in the RJ proteome between the two bee species were validated using western-blot analysis. RJ production by A. cerana cerana (3.21 +/- 0.43 g) is significantly lower than that of A. mellifera ligustica (80.5 +/- 7.83 g). The 2DGE based MS approach identified 52 and 60 proteins in the RJ of A. mellifera ligustica and A. cerana cerana, respectively. The majority of the identified proteins were major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs). Peroxiredoxin 2540, glutathione S-transferase S1, and MRJP5 were detected only in the RJ of A. mellifera ligustica, and MRJP1 was the most abundant MRJP. In contrast, MRJP7 was found only in the RJ of A. cerana cerana. But, similar to A. mellifera ligustica, MRJP1 was found most abundantly in this case too. In this study, glucose oxidase was identified for the first time in the A. cerana cerana RJ. Comparing the protein levels of MRJP1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 between the two species, they were significantly higher in the RJ of A. mellifera ligustica than in A. cerana cerana. This observation was supported by Western blot analysis using anti-MRJP1, 2, 3 antibodies. The result suggested that A. mellifera ligustica needs more nutrition to nurse the developing larvae and queens as compared to that of A. cerana cerana. This study improved our understanding of protein composition of RJ from Western and Eastern honeybees. RJ produced by A. mellifera ligustica exceeds the RJ from A. cerana cerana both in terms of production and health purposes. PMID:20307072

  20. Comprehensive identification of novel proteins and N-glycosylation sites in royal jelly

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Royal jelly (RJ) is a proteinaceous secretion produced from the hypopharyngeal and mandibular glands of nurse bees. It plays vital roles in honeybee biology and in the improvement of human health. However, some proteins remain unknown in RJ, and mapping N-glycosylation modification sites on RJ proteins demands further investigation. We used two different liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry techniques, complementary N-glycopeptide enrichment strategies, and bioinformatic approaches to gain a better understanding of novel and glycosylated proteins in RJ. Results A total of 25 N-glycosylated proteins, carrying 53 N-glycosylation sites, were identified in RJ proteins, of which 42 N-linked glycosylation sites were mapped as novel on RJ proteins. Most of the glycosylated proteins were related to metabolic activities and health improvement. The 13 newly identified proteins were also mainly associated with metabolic processes and health improvement activities. Conclusion Our in-depth, large-scale mapping of novel glycosylation sites represents a crucial step toward systematically revealing the functionality of N-glycosylated RJ proteins, and is potentially useful for producing a protein with desirable pharmacokinetic and biological activity using a genetic engineering approach. The newly-identified proteins significantly extend the proteome coverage of RJ. These findings contribute vital and new knowledge to our understanding of the innate biochemical nature of RJ at both the proteome and glycoproteome levels. PMID:24529077

  1. Discipline with Dignity: Oakland Classrooms Try Healing Instead of Punishment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Fania

    2014-01-01

    Nelson Mandela's adage, "I destroy my enemies when I make them my friends" captures the profoundly inclusive nature of restorative justice (RJ). The hallmark of RJ is intentionally bringing together people with seemingly diametrically opposed viewpoints--particularly people who have harmed with people who have been harmed--in a…

  2. The Lyophilization Process Maintains the Chemical and Biological Characteristics of Royal Jelly

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Larissa Ariana Roveroni; Ferreira, Nathália Ursoli; Moreno, Gabriela de Padua; Uahib, Fernanda Grassi Mangolini; Barizon, Edna Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    The alternative use of natural products, like royal jelly (RJ), may be an important tool for the treatment of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. RJ presents a large number of bioactive substances, including antimicrobial compounds. In this study, we carried out the chemical characterization of fresh and lyophilized RJ and investigated their antibacterial effects with the purpose of evaluating if the lyophilization process maintains the chemical and antibacterial properties of RJ. Furthermore, we evaluated the antibacterial efficacy of the main fatty acid found in RJ, the 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10H2DA). Chromatographic profile of the RJ samples showed similar fingerprints and the presence of 10H2DA in both samples. Furthermore, fresh and lyophilized RJ were effective against all bacteria evaluated; that is, the lyophilization process maintains the antibacterial activity of RJ and the chemical field of 10H2DA. The fatty acid 10H2DA exhibited a good antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Therefore, it may be used as an alternative and complementary treatment for infections caused by antibiotic-resistant S. pneumoniae. PMID:26064175

  3. Contextualizing Restorative Justice for Hate Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavrielides, Theo

    2012-01-01

    The application of restorative justice (RJ) with hate crime remains an underdeveloped field of research, policy, and practice. This article aims to advance the understanding of these two areas of inquiry: RJ and hate crime. It is known that while most hate incidents involve minor, punishable offenses, their impact can be long lasting and…

  4. Discipline with Dignity: Oakland Classrooms Try Healing Instead of Punishment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Fania

    2014-01-01

    Nelson Mandela's adage, "I destroy my enemies when I make them my friends" captures the profoundly inclusive nature of restorative justice (RJ). The hallmark of RJ is intentionally bringing together people with seemingly diametrically opposed viewpoints--particularly people who have harmed with people who have been harmed--in a…

  5. The Lyophilization Process Maintains the Chemical and Biological Characteristics of Royal Jelly.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Andresa Piacezzi; Moraes, Larissa Ariana Roveroni; Ferreira, Nathália Ursoli; Moreno, Gabriela de Padua; Uahib, Fernanda Grassi Mangolini; Barizon, Edna Aparecida; Berretta, Andresa Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    The alternative use of natural products, like royal jelly (RJ), may be an important tool for the treatment of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. RJ presents a large number of bioactive substances, including antimicrobial compounds. In this study, we carried out the chemical characterization of fresh and lyophilized RJ and investigated their antibacterial effects with the purpose of evaluating if the lyophilization process maintains the chemical and antibacterial properties of RJ. Furthermore, we evaluated the antibacterial efficacy of the main fatty acid found in RJ, the 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10H2DA). Chromatographic profile of the RJ samples showed similar fingerprints and the presence of 10H2DA in both samples. Furthermore, fresh and lyophilized RJ were effective against all bacteria evaluated; that is, the lyophilization process maintains the antibacterial activity of RJ and the chemical field of 10H2DA. The fatty acid 10H2DA exhibited a good antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Therefore, it may be used as an alternative and complementary treatment for infections caused by antibiotic-resistant S. pneumoniae. PMID:26064175

  6. Energetic particles in the jovian magnetotail.

    PubMed

    McNutt, R L; Haggerty, D K; Hill, M E; Krimigis, S M; Livi, S; Ho, G C; Gurnee, R S; Mauk, B H; Mitchell, D G; Roelof, E C; McComas, D J; Bagenal, F; Elliott, H A; Brown, L E; Kusterer, M; Vandegriff, J; Stern, S A; Weaver, H A; Spencer, J R; Moore, J M

    2007-10-12

    When the solar wind hits Jupiter's magnetic field, it creates a long magnetotail trailing behind the planet that channels material out of the Jupiter system. The New Horizons spacecraft traversed the length of the jovian magnetotail to >2500 jovian radii (RJ; 1 RJ identical with 71,400 kilometers), observing a high-temperature, multispecies population of energetic particles. Velocity dispersions, anisotropies, and compositional variation seen in the deep-tail (greater, similar 500 RJ) with a approximately 3-day periodicity are similar to variations seen closer to Jupiter in Galileo data. The signatures suggest plasma streaming away from the planet and injection sites in the near-tail region (approximately 200 to 400 RJ) that could be related to magnetic reconnection events. The tail structure remains coherent at least until it reaches the magnetosheath at 1655 RJ. PMID:17932283

  7. Royal jelly supplementation in semen extender enhances post-thaw quality and fertility of Nili-Ravi buffalo bull sperm.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Qaisar; Mehmood, Muhammad Usman; Khan, Hamayun; Husna, Asma Ul; Qadeer, Saima; Azam, Asima; Naseer, Zahid; Ahmad, Ejaz; Safdar, Muhammad; Ahmad, Mushtaq

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of royal jelly (RJ) on post-thaw sperm quality, in vitro and in vivo fertility rate of cryopreserved buffalo bull sperm. The semen was collected from three mature regular donor buffalo bulls, ejaculates were pooled and semen evaluated initially. In Experiment 1, the ejaculates were extended in tris-citric acid diluter supplemented with different RJ concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 or 0.4%). The diluted semen was cooled to 4°C, packaged into 0.5mL straws and frozen using standard procedure. The straws were thawed and assessed for sperm progressive motility, viability, plasma membrane, acrosome, and chromatin integrity. The results indicated that sperm progressive motility was significantly greater (P<0.05) in 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% RJ than 0.4% RJ supplemented and control groups. The sperm viability, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity were significantly improved (P<0.05) in 0.1% RJ supplemented group the compared to other treatment groups. In Experiment 2, cryopreserved sperm with 0.1% RJ supplementation and control (without RJ supplementation) were used to observe the in vitro fertilizing potential and in vivo fertility. In vitro fertilization method was applied to assess the cleavage rate; whereas, AI was performed in buffalo during in vivo fertility trial. The buffaloes were inseminated 12h after standing estrus and pregnancy diagnosis was performed through ultrasonography. The results revealed that the cleavage rate was higher (P<0.05) in 0.1% RJ as compared to control group. However, the pregnancy rate was similar (P>0.05) between 0.1% RJ supplemented and control groups. It is concluded that supplementation of RJ in freezing extender can improve the cryosurvival rate and in vitro fertilizing capacity of buffalo bull sperm. PMID:26896924

  8. Identification of the distribution of adenosine phosphates, nucleosides and nucleobases in royal jelly.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liming; Chen, Lanzhen; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Wei, Yue; Wang, Yong; Li, Yi; Zhao, Jing; Xue, Xiaofeng

    2015-04-15

    Nucleotides, nucleosides and nucleobases play a greater role in the physiological activity of organisms which are highly present in royal jelly (RJ). The objective of the present study is to develop a HPLC method to simultaneous determine nucleotides, nucleosides and nucleobases in RJ and access them in fresh and commercial RJ samples. The LOD and LOQ were 12.2-99.6 ?g/L and 40.8-289.4 ?g/L, respectively with nearly 100.9% recoveries. Except uric acid, all other compounds were found in RJ samples. Significant difference in the average content of compounds in fresh (2682.93 mg/kg) and commercial samples (3152.78 mg/kg) were observed. AMP, adenosine and adenine were found predominant in all the samples. Significant higher levels of ATP, ADP and AMP was seen in fresh RJ samples, and IMP, uridine, guanosine, and thymidine was seen in commercial RJ samples. The investigated compounds can be used as indexes for assessment RJ freshness and quality. PMID:25466132

  9. The Effects of Royal Jelly on Fitness Traits and Gene Expression in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Shorter, John R.; Geisz, Matthew; Özsoy, Ergi; Magwire, Michael M.; Carbone, Mary Anna; Mackay, Trudy F. C.

    2015-01-01

    Royal Jelly (RJ) is a product made by honey bee workers and is required for queen differentiation and accompanying changes in queen body size, development time, lifespan and reproductive output relative to workers. Previous studies have reported similar changes in Drosophila melanogaster in response to RJ. Here, we quantified viability, development time, body size, productivity, lifespan and genome wide transcript abundance of D. melanogaster reared on standard culture medium supplemented with increasing concentrations of RJ. We found that lower concentrations of RJ do induce significant differences in body size in both sexes; higher concentrations reduce size, increase mortality, shorten lifespan and reduce productivity. Increased concentrations of RJ also consistently lengthened development time in both sexes. RJ is associated with changes in expression of 1,581 probe sets assessed using Affymetrix Drosophila 2.0 microarrays, which were enriched for genes associated with metabolism and amino acid degradation. The transcriptional changes are consistent with alterations in cellular processes to cope with excess nutrients provided by RJ, including biosynthesis and detoxification, which might contribute to accelerated senescence and reduced lifespan. PMID:26226016

  10. Protective Effect of Royal Jelly on In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) in Male Mice Treated with Oxymetholone

    PubMed Central

    Zahmatkesh, Ensieh; Najafi, Gholamreza; Nejati, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the effects of royal jelly (RJ) on catalase, total antioxidant capacity and embryo development in adult mice treated with oxymetholone (OXM). Materials and Methods In this exprimental study, 32 male and 96 female adult Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice (7-9 weeks of age) with a ratio of 1:3 for fertili- zation purposes were randomly divided into 4 groups as follows: i. Control group (n=8) receiving 0.1 ml/mice saline daily by gavage for 30 day, ii. RJ group (n=8) treated with RJ at a dose of 100 mg/kg daily by gavage for 30 days, iii. OXM group (n=8) receiving OXM at the dose of 5 mg/kg daily by gavage for 30 days and iv. RJ+OXM group (n=8) receiving RJ at the dose of 100 mg/kg daily by gavage concomitant with 100 mg/kg OXM adminis- tration for 30 days. Results Analysis revealed a significant reduction in catalase, total antioxidant, as well as embryo development in OXM group (P<0.05). However, RJ group showed a salient recovery in the all of the above mentioned parameters and embryo toxicity. Conclusion The results of this study indicated a partially protective effect of RJ against OXM-induced embryo toxicity. PMID:26464831

  11. Understanding light harvesting in radial junction amorphous silicon thin film solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Linwei; Misra, Soumyadeep; Wang, Junzhuan; Qian, Shengyi; Foldyna, Martin; Xu, Jun; Shi, Yi; Johnson, Erik; Cabarrocas, Pere Roca I

    2014-01-01

    The radial junction (RJ) architecture has proven beneficial for the design of a new generation of high performance thin film photovoltaics. We herein carry out a comprehensive modeling of the light in-coupling, propagation and absorption profile within RJ thin film cells based on an accurate set of material properties extracted from spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. This has enabled us to understand and evaluate the impact of varying several key parameters on the light harvesting in radially formed thin film solar cells. We found that the resonance mode absorption and antenna-like light in-coupling behavior in the RJ cell cavity can lead to a unique absorption distribution in the absorber that is very different from the situation expected in a planar thin film cell, and that has to be taken into account in the design of high performance RJ thin film solar cells. When compared to the experimental EQE response of real RJ solar cells, this modeling also provides an insightful and powerful tool to resolve the wavelength-dependent contributions arising from individual RJ units and/or from strong light trapping due to the presence of the RJ cell array. PMID:24619197

  12. Understanding Light Harvesting in Radial Junction Amorphous Silicon Thin Film Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Linwei; Misra, Soumyadeep; Wang, Junzhuan; Qian, Shengyi; Foldyna, Martin; Xu, Jun; Shi, Yi; Johnson, Erik; Cabarrocas, Pere Roca i

    2014-01-01

    The radial junction (RJ) architecture has proven beneficial for the design of a new generation of high performance thin film photovoltaics. We herein carry out a comprehensive modeling of the light in-coupling, propagation and absorption profile within RJ thin film cells based on an accurate set of material properties extracted from spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. This has enabled us to understand and evaluate the impact of varying several key parameters on the light harvesting in radially formed thin film solar cells. We found that the resonance mode absorption and antenna-like light in-coupling behavior in the RJ cell cavity can lead to a unique absorption distribution in the absorber that is very different from the situation expected in a planar thin film cell, and that has to be taken into account in the design of high performance RJ thin film solar cells. When compared to the experimental EQE response of real RJ solar cells, this modeling also provides an insightful and powerful tool to resolve the wavelength-dependent contributions arising from individual RJ units and/or from strong light trapping due to the presence of the RJ cell array. PMID:24619197

  13. Geographical influences on content of 10-hydroxy-trans-2-decenoic acid in royal jelly in China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wen-Ting; Hu, Yuan-Qiang; Zheng, Huo-Qing; Cao, Lian-Fei; Hu, Fu-Liang; Hepburn, H Randall

    2013-10-01

    The content of 10-hydroxy-trans-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA), a marker compound in royal jelly (RJ), is the most important criterion in grading RJ for commercial trade and varies with its origin. To identify the effect of geographical origin on 10-HDA content in RJ, 138 samples were collected from 19 provinces of China (divided into three groups) produced by either Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola, 1806 or a hybrid of A. m. ligustica and Apis mellifera carnica Pollman, 1879 and analyzed for moisture, sugar, crude protein, ash, acid, and 10-HDA concentration. The results show that RJ from western China has a significantly higher 10-HDA level (2.01 +/- 0.05%) than those from northeastern (1.87 +/- 0.05%) and eastern (1.75 +/- 0.03%) China. RJ secreted by hybrid bees contained more 10-HDA (1.89 +/- 0.03%) than that secreted by A. m. ligustica (1.78 +/- 0.03%). The 10-HDA content of RJ produced during flowering of rape (Brassica campestris L.), lime (Tilia amurensis Ruprecht), and vitex (Vitex negundo L. variety heterophylla (Franch.) Rehder) was 1.92, 1.80, and 1.68%, respectively. The results would be helpful during the process of price determination of RJ by providing some basis of geographical, bee strain, and botanical information for commercial trade. PMID:24224235

  14. Protective effect of royal jelly in 2,4,6 trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Karaca, Turan; Uz, Yesim Hulya; Demirtas, Selim; Karaboga, Ihsan; Can, Guray

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): In the present study, we evaluated immunological and immunomodulatory properties of royal jelly (RJ) in 2,4,6 trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods: Eighteen adult female Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups of six animals each: a control group that received only saline solution, a TNBS-induced colitis group, and a TNBS-colitis+RJ group that received 250 mg/kg/day of RJ for seven days before the induction of colitis, following by the same treatment for an additional seven days. At the end of the experiment, cardiac blood and colon samples were obtained under deep anaesthesia from the animals in all groups. Serum interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and IL-10 levels were analyzed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Five-micrometre-thick sections were stained with haematoxylin-eosin (H&E) for microscopic evaluations. For immunohistochemical evaluations, the paraffin sections were stained with anti-CD3 (cluster of differentiation), anti-CD5, anti-CD8 and anti-CD45. Results: The results showed that the oral RJ treatment inhibited proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α secretion, while increasing anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 production in the TNBS-induced colitis+RJ group compared with the colitis group not treated with RJ. The colitis was not as severe in the colitis+RJ group, with ulcerative damage, weight loss and inflammatory scores suggesting that impaired CD3-, CD5-, CD8- and CD45-positive T cell immune responses likely mediated the anti-inflammatory effect. Conclusion: The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of RJ protected colon mucosa against TNBS-induced colitis in rats orally treated with RJ. PMID:26019800

  15. Effect of Fresh Royal Jelly Ingestion on Glycemic Response in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Mobasseri, Majid; Ghiyasvand, Shahram; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Noshad, Hamid; Pourmoradian, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes is the fourth major public health problem worldwide. Royal Jelly (RJ) insulin-like activity and blood glucose modulating properties have been reported in animal and healthy volunteers. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effect of a single dose of fresh RJ as a complementary therapy on glycemic response in patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 40 patients with type 2 diabetes were assigned into the RJ (n = 20) and placebo (n = 20) groups and received either 10 g fresh RJ or placebo after overnight fasting. Serum glucose, insulin and C-peptide concentrations were determined at 0, 60, 120 minutes after the intervention. Independent t-tests and repeated measures ANOVA were used to analyze data. Results: The mean serum glucose levels were significantly decreased in RJ and placebo groups; however, mean serum level was different but not statistically. (P = 0.77). One hour after RJ ingestion the mean serum insulin concentrations were increased and after 2 hours it was decreased insignificantly (P = 0.54, P = 0.20). The mean C-peptide concentrations were significantly increased after 1 and 2 hours of RJ ingestion; however, in the placebo group we observed a slight but insignificant reduction at the time of 1 and 2 hours in the mean C-peptide serum levels (P = 0.40). Moreover, there was no significant difference in none of the glycemic control parameters between both studied groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: It seems that RJ does not appear to have significant immediate effects on glycemic factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, further studies with larger sample sizes and different doses of RJ are needed to achieve more precise results. PMID:26473074

  16. In-Depth N-Glycosylation Reveals Species-Specific Modifications and Functions of the Royal Jelly Protein from Western (Apis mellifera) and Eastern Honeybees (Apis cerana).

    PubMed

    Feng, Mao; Fang, Yu; Han, Bin; Xu, Xiang; Fan, Pei; Hao, Yue; Qi, Yuping; Hu, Han; Huo, Xinmei; Meng, Lifeng; Wu, Bin; Li, Jianke

    2015-12-01

    Royal jelly (RJ), secreted by honeybee workers, plays diverse roles as nutrients and defense agents for honeybee biology and human health. Despite being reported to be glycoproteins, the glycosylation characterization and functionality of RJ proteins in different honeybee species are largely unknown. An in-depth N-glycoproteome analysis and functional assay of RJ produced by Apis mellifera lingustica (Aml) and Apis cerana cerana (Acc) were conducted. RJ produced by Aml yielded 80 nonredundant N-glycoproteins carrying 190 glycosites, of which 23 novel proteins harboring 35 glycosites were identified. For Acc, all 43 proteins glycosylated at 138 glycosites were reported for the first time. Proteins with distinct N-glycoproteomic characteristics in terms of glycoprotein species, number of N-glycosylated sites, glycosylation motif, abundance level of glycoproteins, and N-glycosites were observed in this two RJ samples. The fact that the low inhibitory efficiency of N-glycosylated major royal jelly protein 2 (MRJP2) against Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae) and the absence of antibacterial related glycosylated apidaecin, hymenoptaecin, and peritrophic matrix in the Aml RJ compared to Acc reveal the mechanism for why the Aml larvae are susceptible to P. larvae, the causative agent of a fatal brood disease (American foulbrood, AFB). The observed antihypertension activity of N-glycosylated MRJP1 in two RJ samples and a stronger activity found in Acc than in Aml reveal that specific RJ protein and modification are potentially useful for the treatment of hypertensive disease for humans. Our data gain novel understanding that the western and eastern bees have evolved species-specific strategies of glycosylation to fine-tune protein activity for optimizing molecular function as nutrients and immune agents for the good of honeybee and influence on the health promoting activity for human as well. This serves as a valuable resource for the targeted probing of the biological functions of RJ proteins for honeybee and medical communities. PMID:26496797

  17. Royal Jelly Modulates Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Liver and Kidneys of Rats Treated with Cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Karadeniz, Ali; Simsek, Nejdet; Karakus, Emre; Yildirim, Serap; Kara, Adem; Can, Ismail; Kisa, Fikrullah; Emre, Habib; Turkeli, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Cisplatin (CDDP) is one of the most active cytotoxic agents in the treatment of cancer and has adverse side effects such as nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. The present study was designed to determine the effects of royal jelly (RJ) against oxidative stress caused by CDDP injury of the kidneys and liver, by measuring tissue biochemical and antioxidant parameters and investigating apoptosis immunohistochemically. Twenty-four Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups, group C: control group received 0.9% saline; group CDDP: injected i.p. with cisplatin (CDDP, 7?mg?kg?1 body weight i.p., single dose); group RJ: treated for 15 consecutive days by gavage with RJ (300?mg/kg/day); group RJ + CDDP: treated by gavage with RJ 15 days following a single injection of CDDP. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined in liver and kidney homogenates, and the liver and kidney were also histologically examined. RJ elicited a significant protective effect towards liver and kidney by decreasing the level of lipid peroxidation (MDA), elevating the level of GSH, and increasing the activities of GST, GSH-Px, and SOD. In the immunohistochemical examinations were observed significantly enhanced apoptotic cell numbers and degenerative changes by cisplatin, but these histological changes were lower in the liver and kidney tissues of RJ + CDDP group. Besides, treatment with RJ lead to an increase in antiapoptotic activity hepatocytes and tubular epithelium. In conclusion, RJ may be used in combination with cisplatin in chemotherapy to improve cisplatin-induced oxidative stress parameters and apoptotic activity. PMID:21904651

  18. Proteomic Analysis of Apis cerana and Apis mellifera Larvae Fed with Heterospecific Royal Jelly and by CSBV Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiu; Han, Richou

    2014-01-01

    Chinese honeybee Apis cerana (Ac) is one of the major Asian honeybee species for local apiculture. However, Ac is frequently damaged by Chinese sacbrood virus (CSBV), whereas Apis mellifera (Am) is usually resistant to it. Heterospecific royal jelly (RJ) breeding in two honeybee species may result in morphological and genetic modification. Nevertheless, knowledge on the resistant mechanism of Am to this deadly disease is still unknown. In the present study, heterospecific RJ breeding was conducted to determine the effects of food change on the larval mortality after CSBV infection at early larval stage. 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS proteomic technology was employed to unravel the molecular event of the bees under heterospecific RJ breeding and CSBV challenge. The change of Ac larval food from RJC to RJM could enhance the bee resistance to CSBV. The mortality rate of Ac larvae after CSBV infection was much higher when the larvae were fed with RJC compared with the larvae fed with RJM. There were 101 proteins with altered expressions after heterospecific RJ breeding and viral infection. In Ac larvae, 6 differential expression proteins were identified from heterospecific RJ breeding only, 21 differential expression proteins from CSBV challenge only and 7 differential expression proteins from heterospecific RJ breeding plus CSBV challenge. In Am larvae, 17 differential expression proteins were identified from heterospecific RJ breeding only, 26 differential expression proteins from CSBV challenge only and 24 differential expression proteins from heterospecific RJ breeding plus CSBV challenge. The RJM may protect Ac larvae from CSBV infection, probably by activating the genes in energy metabolism pathways, antioxidation and ubiquitin-proteasome system. The present results, for the first time, comprehensively descript the molecular events of the viral infection of Ac and Am after heterospecific RJ breeding and are potentially useful for establishing CSBV resistant populations of Ac for apiculture. PMID:25102167

  19. Talking energy with R. J. Reynolds industries

    SciTech Connect

    Glorioso, J.

    1982-06-01

    Energy management takes a high priority among the various companies making up R.J. Reynolds (RJR) Industries, whose corporate energy program could serve as a model for other large, diversified organizations. Placing energy as a part of corporate business planning helps to integrate it into capital and business development programs. Each company prepares an annual five-year plan for energy strategy. The company provides technical seminars for professional training for both the domestic and international staff. Summaries of energy-management activities at individual companies cover RJR Tobacco International, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., R.J. Reynolds Archers, Sea-Land Services, and Del Monte Corporation. (DCK)

  20. Situation Reports--Brasil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in six foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Brazil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General background…

  1. Diversity of low chill peaches from Asia, Brasil, Europe and the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred fifty-five peach (Prunus persica) cultivars, from Asia, Brazil, Europe, and the USA, were examined using eleven SSRs to study the genetic relationships among low chill as compared to high chill peach germplasm. Data was analyzed by NTSYSpc to form a similarity matrix using Nei and Li’s ...

  2. Consideracoes Historicas sobre o Ensino Profissionalizante no Brasil (Historical Considerations about Professional Education in Brazil).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barros, Marta Silene Ferreira

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes the paths taken in professional education in Brazil from the colonial period until the formation of the republic. Refers to specialists as well as specific laws for each period described in the study. (BT)

  3. The Research Program at RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil)-III

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenthaeler, R.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Faria, P. N. de; Mendes, D. R. Jr; Pires, K. C. C.; Morcelle, V.; Barioni, A.; Morais, M. C.; Pampa Condori, R.; Assuncao, M.; Moro, A. M.; Rodriguez-Gallardo, M.; Arazi, A.

    2010-04-30

    A part of the research program developed in the RIBRAS facility over the last four years is presented. Experiments using radioactive secondary beams of light exotic nuclei such as {sup 6}He, {sup 7}Be, {sup 8}Li on several targets have been performed. Elastic angular distributions have been analysed by the Optical Model and four body Continuous Discretized Coupled Channels Calculations (4b-CDCC) and the total reaction cross sections have been obtained. A comparison between the reaction cross sections of {sup 6}He and other stable projectiles with medium-heavy targets was performed. Measurements of the proton transfer reaction {sup 12}C({sup 8}Li,{sup 9}Be){sup 11}B are also presented.

  4. New observations on seuratoid nematodes parasitic in fishes of the Paraná River, Brasil.

    PubMed

    Moravec, F; Kohn, A; Fernandes, B M

    1997-01-01

    The present paper comprises a systematic survey of nematodes of the superfamily Seuratoidea collected from fishes of the Paraná River, southern Brazil, in 1992-1995. The following species were recorded: Neoparaseuratum travassosi Moravec, Kohn et Fernandes, 1992, Spectatus sp., Seuratoidea gen. sp. larvae, Cucullanus brevispiculus Moravec, Kohn et Fernandes, 1993, C. pinnai pinnai Travassos, Artigas et Pereira, 1928, C. pinnai pterodorasi subsp. n., C. rhamphichthydis sp. n., C. zungaro Vaz et Pereira, 1934, and Dichelyne pimelodi sp. n. C. pinnai pterodorasi (type host Pterodoras granulosus) differs from C. p. pinnai in the shape of the oesophagus and in the position of the nerve ring. C. rhamphichthydis (only females) (type host Rhamphichthys rostratus) is characterized mainly by the postoesophageal position of the excretory pore and deirids, complex structure of the cuticular lining of oesophastome and by markedly narrow body, whereas D. pimelodi (one male) (type host Pimelodus sp.) by the length of spicules (1.46 mm), postoesophageal position of the excretory pore and deirids and by the arrangement of genital papillae. Most species are briefly described (females of C. brevispiculus and Seuratoidea gen. sp. larvae for the first time) and illustrated and some problems concerning their taxonomy, hosts and geographical distribution are discussed. PMID:9332979

  5. Reactions with 8Li at RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil): Astrophysical and nuclear structure applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, D. R., Jr.; Lépine-Szily, A.; Descouvemont, P.

    2012-02-01

    We present the results of the 8Li(p, α) 5He reaction of astrophysical interest, measured at the RIBRAS system. It was realized in inverse kinematics and using a thick CH2 polyethylene target. Using the thick target method the complete excitation function could be measured between Ecm = 0.2-2.5 MeV, which includes the Gamow peak energy region. The contribution of contaminating 12C(8Li,4He) 16N and 12C(7Li, 4He) 15N reactions is still under analysis. However, if the cross section is expected to be somewhat reduced, the subtraction of the contamination will not change the general feature of the excitation function.

  6. Usual Dietary Intakes: Further Information

    Cancer.gov

    Freedman LS, Midthune D, Carroll RJ, Krebs-Smith S, Subar AF, Troiano RP, Dodd K, Schatzkin A, Bingham SA, Ferrari P, Kipnis V. Adjustments to improve the estimation of usual dietary intake distributions in the population.

  7. Head and Neck Cancers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Mendenhall WM, Mancuso AA, Amdur RJ, et al. Squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the neck from an unknown head ... V, et al. Oral health and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and esophagus: results ...

  8. Facts about Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2008;199:237.e1-9. Margulis AV, Mitchell AA, Gilboa SM, Werler MM, Glynn RJ, Hernandez-Diaz S, ... e7. Werler MM, Ahrens KA, Bosco JL, Michell AA, Anderka MT, Gilboa SM, Holmes LB, National Birth ...

  9. Ozone Generators That Are Sold as Air Cleaners

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the International Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate. 4:179-188. Shaughnessy, R.J.; and Oatman, ... the International Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate. 4:95-102. Top of Page Contact Us ...

  10. The Black Underground: Fugitives from Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarles, Benjamin

    1969-01-01

    A brief account of the activities prior to the American Civil War of those who assisted black slaves in their flight from the South to the Northern States and Canada by an underground railroad movement. (RJ)

  11. Let's Make the Next Generation Tobacco-Free: Your Guide to the 50th Anniversary Surgeon General's Report on Smoking and ...

    MedlinePLUS

    ... l Online As a result of tobacco industry marketing and other influences, more than 3,200 children ... adults smoke. 1990 R.J. Reynolds ends a marketing test targeting 26 % African Americans in response to ...

  12. Retinopathy of prematurity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... few decades due to better care in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). However, more babies born ... Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  13. Learn More about Combining Instruments | Dietary Assessment Primer

    Cancer.gov

    Carroll RJ, Midthune D, Subar AF, Shumakovich M, Freedman LS, Thompson FE, Kipnis V. Taking advantage of the strengths of 2 different dietary assessment instruments to improve intake estimates for nutritional epidemiology.

  14. Contextualizing restorative justice for hate crime.

    PubMed

    Gavrielides, Theo

    2012-12-01

    The application of restorative justice (RJ) with hate crime remains an underdeveloped field of research, policy, and practice. This article aims to advance the understanding of these two areas of inquiry: RJ and hate crime. It is known that while most hate incidents involve minor, punishable offenses, their impact can be long lasting and detrimental to victims and affected communities. The article investigates how RJ is conceptualized within the hate crime context. The findings are based on a 3-year research program, which combined theoretical analysis, literature review, and U.K.-focused field research that was carried out through a combination of qualitative methods. These included semistructured interviews with an expert sample of practitioners and policy makers as well as focus groups with young victims and offenders of hate incidents. Direct observation was also carried out with two RJ practices. PMID:22645026

  15. Royal Jelly Facilitates Restoration of the Cognitive Ability in Trimethyltin-Intoxicated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Noriko; Ohta, Shozo; Sakamoto, Takashi; Mishima, Satoshi; Furukawa, Shoei

    2011-01-01

    Trimethyltin (TMT) is a toxic organotin compound that induces acute neuronal death selectively in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) followed by cognition impairment; however the TMT-injured hippocampal DG itself is reported to regenerate the neuronal cell layer through rapid enhancement of neurogenesis. Neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/NPCs) are present in the adult hippocampal DG, and generate neurons that can function for the cognition ability. Therefore, we investigated whether royal jelly (RJ) stimulates the regenerating processes of the TMT-injured hippocampal DG, and found that orally administered RJ significantly increased the number of DG granule cells and simultaneously improved the cognitive impairment. Furthermore, we have already shown that RJ facilitates neurogenesis of cultured NS/NPCs. These present results, taken together with previous observations, suggest that the orally administered RJ may be a promising avenue for ameliorating neuronal function by regenerating hippocampal granule cells that function in the cognition process. PMID:19376837

  16. Morton neuroma

    MedlinePLUS

    Lee SM, Scardina RJ. Morton neuroma. In: Frontera WR, Silver JK, Rizzo TD, eds. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 91. McGee DL. ...

  17. Modal Personality in the Bahamas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefley, Harriet P.

    1972-01-01

    Reports investigation of modal personality of a colonial people evolving toward independence--Phase I of a longitudinal study of behavioral adaptation to sociopolitical change. Comparative data from Thailand and the Philippines are also presented. (RJ)

  18. "If You Give Him Seeds, He'll Eat Forever"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Betty

    1972-01-01

    Focuses on an OEO-funded farming project through which northern New Mexico Pueblo American Indians are growing crops indoors in nutritive water and gravel through a cultivation process known as hydroponics. (RJ)

  19. Society's Survival: Equal Educational Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchmiller, Archie

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the property valuation system which is available for taxation by school districts to finance their educational programs. Contends that a shift in classification from property valuation to income may not solve the regional disparities in district wealth. (RJ)

  20. Methadone Maintenance as Law and Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyman, Florence

    1972-01-01

    Argues that substitution of methadone for heroin would not rehabilitate the drug addict, but it may be used as a method of tranquilizing a potentially troublesome ghetto and poor white population. (RJ)

  1. Young Intelligentsia in Revolt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flacks, Richard

    1970-01-01

    Describes the emergence of the New Left movement from a recent and rapidly growing class, the intelligentsia. Discusses reasons for trend toward a possible major transformation of the political landscape by the second half of the seventies. (RJ)

  2. Culture Shock: Remedial Teaching and the Immigrant Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts-Holmes, Joy

    1973-01-01

    Investigates the causes and effects of culture shock of immigrant children in a London primary school at first hand by going over to Jamaica, West Indies, and gaining insights which have important implications in the classroom environment. (RJ)

  3. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... difficulty breathing Pulmonary hypertension Right-sided heart failure (cor pulmonale) Coughing up blood ... Channick RN, Rubin LJ. Pulmonary hypertension. In: Mason RJ, ... Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  4. Schooling and Inequality from Generation to Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Samuel

    1972-01-01

    Shows that substantial inequality of economic opportunity exists in the U.S. and that the educational system is a major vehicle for the transmission of economic status from one generation to the next. (RJ)

  5. How to breathe when you are short of breath

    MedlinePLUS

    Celli BR, ZuWallack RL. Pulmonary rehabilitation. In: Mason RJ, Murray JF, Broaddus VC, et al., eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2010:chap ...

  6. Examining the effectiveness of a restorative justice program for various types of juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Bergseth, Kathleen J; Bouffard, Jeffrey A

    2013-09-01

    Restorative justice (RJ) programs have become widespread in the United States and in other countries. These programs are often seen as a viable alternative to traditional retributive processing, especially for minor, and sometimes more serious, forms of delinquency and adult criminality. The programs hold promise for achieving several goals, including increased community and victim involvement, greater satisfaction with the case outcomes, improved offender compliance, increased perceptions of fairness, and even recidivism reduction. Meta-analyses have demonstrated varying degrees of program success in recidivism reduction, which may in part reflect differential effectiveness of the RJ approach for various kinds of offenders. This study examined whether an RJ program for juvenile offenders had differential impacts on recidivism across various offender characteristics (including age, gender, racial group, offending history, and current offense). Results generally support the effectiveness of the program for many types of offenders. Implications for future research and potential improvements to the RJ model are discussed. PMID:22811474

  7. Some Implications for Afro-American Culture: Rationalism and Western Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Ortiz M.

    1973-01-01

    Will the computer or instruments powered by electrical energy become the most efficient means by which to produce Western music, replacing the live performer? If so, what will be the effects of electronic, mechanical music on society? (Author/RJ)

  8. Bone Drug Holds Promise as Therapy for People with OA

    MedlinePLUS

    ... areas of bone, Michael Zuscik, Ph.D., Randy Rosier, M.D., Ph.D., and their colleagues at ... SV, O'Keefe RJ, Awad H, Puzas JE, Rosier RN, Zuscik MJ. Teriparatide as a chondroregenerative therapy ...

  9. Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 3-4):251-258. [PubMed Abstract] Lee RJ, Smith MR. Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer. In: Chabner ... 1, 2014. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1405095 Ryan CJ, Smith MR, Fizazi K, et al. Abiraterone acetate plus ...

  10. Motives of Negro Americans who Aspire to Traditionally Open and Closed Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littig, Lawrence W.

    1971-01-01

    Portions of this paper were presented at the 16th International Congress of Applied Psychology, Amsterdam, Netherlands, August, 1968, and at the 7th International Congress of Rorschach And Other Projective Techniques, London, England, August, 1968. (RJ)

  11. Serum herpes simplex antibodies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... when it detects harmful substances such as the herpes virus. This test does not detect the virus itself. ... Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2014:chap 308. Whitley RJ. Herpes simplex virus infections. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  12. Dextrocardia

    MedlinePLUS

    Zahka KG. Cardiovascular problems of the neonate. In: Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier; 2010:part ...

  13. Necrotizing enterocolitis

    MedlinePLUS

    Caplan M. Necrotizing enterocolitis of the neonate. In: Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap. ...

  14. Identification of a Novel Hypocholesterolemic Protein, Major Royal Jelly Protein 1, Derived from Royal Jelly

    PubMed Central

    Asai, Saori; Kusada, Mio; Watanabe, Suzuyo; Kawashima, Takuji; Nakamura, Tadashi; Shimada, Masaya; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Nagaoka, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Royal jelly (RJ) intake lowers serum cholesterol levels in animals and humans, but the active component in RJ that lowers serum cholesterol level and its molecular mechanism are unclear. In this study, we set out to identify the bile acid-binding protein contained in RJ, because dietary bile acid-binding proteins including soybean protein and its peptide are effective in ameliorating hypercholesterolemia. Using a cholic acid-conjugated column, we separated some bile acid-binding proteins from RJ and identified the major RJ protein 1 (MRJP1), MRJP2, and MRJP3 as novel bile acid-binding proteins from RJ, based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Purified MRJP1, which is the most abundant protein of the bile acid-binding proteins in RJ, exhibited taurocholate-binding activity in vitro. The micellar solubility of cholesterol was significantly decreased in the presence of MRJP1 compared with casein in vitro. Liver bile acids levels were significantly increased, and cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) mRNA and protein tended to increase by MRJP1 feeding compared with the control. CYP7A1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased by MRJP1 tryptic hydrolysate treatment compared with that of casein tryptic hydrolysate in hepatocytes. MRJP1 hypocholesterolemic effect has been investigated in rats. The cholesterol-lowering action induced by MRJP1 occurs because MRJP1 interacts with bile acids induces a significant increase in fecal bile acids excretion and a tendency to increase in fecal cholesterol excretion and also enhances the hepatic cholesterol catabolism. We have identified, for the first time, a novel hypocholesterolemic protein, MRJP1, in RJ. Interestingly, MRJP1 exhibits greater hypocholesterolemic activity than the medicine ?-sitosterol in rats. PMID:25144734

  15. Optically pumped isotopic ammonia laser system

    DOEpatents

    Buchwald, Melvin I.; Jones, Claude R.; Nelson, Leonard Y.

    1982-01-01

    An optically pumped isotopic ammonia laser system which is capable of producing a plurality of frequencies in the middle infrared spectral region. Two optical pumping mechanisms are disclosed, i.e., pumping on R(J) and lasing on P(J) in response to enhancement of rotational cascade lasing including stimulated Raman effects, and, pumping on R(J) and lasing on P(J+2). The disclosed apparatus for optical pumping include a hole coupled cavity and a grating coupled cavity.

  16. How tilting and cavity-mode-resonant absorption contribute to light harvesting in 3D radial junction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiawen; Qian, Shengyi; Yu, Zhongwei; Misra, Soumyadeep; Yu, Linwei; Xu, Jun; Shi, Yi; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere; Chen, Kunji

    2015-09-21

    Radial junction (RJ) architecture has proven beneficial in boosting light harvesting and fast carrier separation in thin film solar cells. While a comprehensive understanding of the detailed absorption distribution and light incoupling mechanism within such a 3D RJ configuration remains largely unexplored. Taking hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si:H) RJ solar cells as an example, we here address in both experimental and theoretical manners the impacts of tilting and spacing configuration on the light absorption and external quantum efficiency (EQE) responses. A nice agreement between the calculated and experimental EQE responses indicates that the light harvesting realized within RJ thin film solar cells is quite robust against geometric variations and shadowing effects. Following the concepts of optical fiber injection, we have been able to single out the contribution arising solely from a resonant-mode-incoupling into the RJ cavities against a sidewall scattering incidence scenario. These results provide insightful viewpoints as well as practical guides in developing a new generation of high performance RJ thin film solar cells. PMID:26406758

  17. The Effect of Topical Application of Royal Jelly on Chemoradiotherapy-Induced Mucositis in Head and Neck Cancer: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Kogashiwa, Yasunao; Moro, Yorihisa; Kohno, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. One of the common side effects experienced by head and neck cancer patients on chemoradiotherapy is mucositis. Severe mucositis may be controllable by limiting cancer therapy, but it has resulted in decreasing the completion rate of chemoradiotherapy. The efficacy of royal jelly (RJ) as prophylaxis against chemoradiotherapy-induced mucositis was evaluated through clinical scoring of oral and pharyngeal mucositis. Methods. In this randomized, single-blind (physician-blind), clinical trial, 13 patients with head and neck cancer requiring chemoradiation were randomly assigned to two groups. Seven patients assigned to the study group received RJ, and 6 patients were assigned to the control group. RJ group patients took RJ three times per day during treatment. The patients in both groups were evaluated twice a week for the development of mucositis using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Results. A significant reduction in mucositis was seen among RJ-treated patients compared with controls (P < 0.001). Conclusion. This study demonstrated that prophylactic use of RJ was effective in reducing mucositis induced by chemoradiotherapy in head and neck cancer patients. However, further studies are needed because of the small sample size and the absence of double blinding. PMID:25400667

  18. Royal Jelly and Its Dual Role in TNBS Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Manzo, Luis Paulo; de-Faria, Felipe Meira; Dunder, Ricardo José; Rabelo-Socca, Eduardo Augusto; Consonni, Silvio Roberto; de Almeida, Ana Cristina Alves; Souza-Brito, Alba Regina Monteiro; Luiz-Ferreira, Anderson

    2015-01-01

    Royal Jelly (RJ) is widely consumed in diets throughout the world due to its beneficial effects: antioxidant, antitumor and anti-inflammatory. We have investigated the role of RJ in the development of TNBS colitis in mice. Colitis was induced by a rectal instillation of TNBS at 0.1 mL per mouse. Intestine samples of the animals orally treated with RJ (100, 150, and 200 mg/kg) were collected for antioxidant assays (GSH and GSH-Px), proinflammatory protein quantification (COX-2 and NF-κB), and histological analyses. RJ 100 mg/kg maintained GSH levels and increased the activity of GSH-Px, downregulated key inflammatory mediators (COX-2 and NF-κB), and decreased the lesions caused by TNBS as shown by the histological analyses. In conclusion, RJ showed anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in experimental colitis, resulting in the amelioration of the macroscopic and histological analyses. These results corroborate with the RJ supplementation in diets. PMID:25821860

  19. Determination of royal jelly freshness by ELISA with a highly specific anti-apalbumin 1, major royal jelly protein 1 antibody*

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Li-rong; Wang, Yi-ran; Zhai, Liang; Zhou, Wen-xiu; Tan, Liang-liang; Li, Mei-lu; Liu, Dan-dan; Xiao, Fa

    2015-01-01

    Major royal jelly protein 1 (MRJP1), designated apalbumin 1, has been regarded as a freshness marker of royal jelly (RJ). A MRJP1-specific peptide (IKEALPHVPIFD) identified by bioinformatics analysis of homologous members of the major royal protein family was synthesized and used to raise polyclonal anti-MRJP1 antibody (anti-SP-MRJP1 antibody). Western blot analysis showed that anti-SP-MRJP1 antibody only reacted with MRJP1 in RJ. In contrast, the previously reported antibody against recombinant MRJP1 (anti-R-MRJP1 antibody) reacted with other members of MRJP family in RJ. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using anti-SP-MRJP1 antibody demonstrated that MRJP1 content in RJ stored at 40 °C significantly degraded by 37.3%, 55.9%, 58.0%, 60.6%, 65.7%, 72.7%, and 73.1% at 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, and 49 d, respectively, when compared with MRJP1 content in fresh RJ (0 d). Optical density analysis of MRJP bands from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) profiles demonstrated that the degradation of MRJP1, MRJP2, MRJP3, and MRJP5 in RJ was strongly and positively correlated with the period of storage (P<0.0001). Our results indicated anti-SP-MRJP1 antibody was highly specific for MRJP1, and ELISA using the antibody is a sensitive and easy-to-use method to determine the freshness and authenticity of RJ. PMID:25644470

  20. Study on The Effect of Royal Jelly on Reproductive Parameters in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Elham; Nejati, Vahid; Najafi, Gholamreza; Khazaei, Mozafar; Babaei, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus has a variety of structural and functional effects on the male reproductive system. Diabetes results in reduced sperm parameters and libido. The present study aims to investigate the effects of royal jelly (RJ) on reproductive parameters of testosterone and malondialdehyde (MDA) production in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods This experimental study was conducted on adult male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups (n=8 per group): control, RJ, diabetic and diabetic treated with RJ. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg body weight (BW) of streptozotocin (STZ). RJ, at a dose of 100 mg/kg BW was given by gavage. The duration of treatment was six weeks. After the treatment period the rats were sacrificed. The testes were weighed and changes in sperm count, motility, viability, deformity, DNA integrity and chromatin quality were analyzed. Serum testosterone and MDA concentrations of testicular tissue were determined. Data were analyzed by oneway ANOVA with p<0.05 as the significant level. Results STZ-induced diabetes decreased numerous reproductive parameters in rats. Testicular weight, sperm count, motility, viability and serum testosterone levels increased in the diabetic group treated with RJ. There was a significant decrease observed in sperm deformity, DNA integrity, chromatin quality, and tissue MDA levels in diabetic rats treated with RJ compared to the diabetic group (p<0.05). Conclusion RJ improved reproductive parameters such as testicular weight, sperm count, viability, motility, deformity, DNA integrity, chromatin quality, serum testosterone and testicular tissue MDA levels in diabetic rats. PMID:25918599

  1. 75 FR 80849 - Notice of Initial Determination Revising the List of Products Requiring Federal Contractor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... sources, which included the International Labor OrganizaILO, Reporter Brasil, the Citizens' Charcoal... sources, which included the International Labor Organization, Reporter Brasil, the Citizens'...

  2. Interocular symmetry analysis of bilateral eyes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Bao, Fang Jun

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interocular symmetry of several biometric parameters between both eyes. The symmetry between the right and left eye of 397 subjects in 14 biometric parameters, spherical equivalent of refractive error (SE), Jackson crossed cylinder power of refractive error astigmatism with axes at 90° and 180° (RJ0) and at 45° and 135° (RJ45), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), average corneal curvature (CC), Jackson crossed cylinder power of corneal astigmatism (CJ0 and CJ45), corneal asphericity coefficient (Q), intraocular pressure (IOP), central corneal thickness (CCT), axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT) and vitreous chamber depth (VCD), was assessed by comparative data analysis. Aside from RJ0 (p?=?0.00), RJ45 (p?=?0.02) and Q (p?=?0.00), the overall interocular differences of other biometric parameters between fellow eyes were not significant (p?>?0.05). The interocular correlation and Bland-Altman plots showed a good agreement between fellow eyes in 14 biometric parameters. Correlations between interocular differences in SE and that in RJ0 (p?=?0.03), CC (p?=?0.00), AL (p?=?0.00) and VCD (p?=?0.00) were statistically significant. There were similar strong linear relationships between refractive error astigmatism vectors and corneal astigmatism vectors in bilateral eyes. There were negative correlations of RJ45 and CJ45 between bilateral eyes. A potentially clinically important interocular symmetry in SE, BCVA, CC, CJ0, CJ45, IOP, CCT, AL, ACD, LT and VCD is found in this research, while the differences of RJ0, RJ45 and Q between left and right eyes seem a bit large. The negative interocular relationships of RJ45 and CJ45 demonstrate moderate mirror symmetry exists among fellow eyes. High interocular symmetry in bilateral eyes may be helpful in intraocular lens power calculation, intraocular pressure evaluation, post-operative visual acuity and refraction prediction at the time the fellow eye is undergoing refractive surgery. PMID:24734876

  3. The efficacy of topical royal jelly on healing of diabetic foot ulcers: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Siavash, Mansour; Shokri, Saeideh; Haghighi, Sepehr; Shahtalebi, Mohammad Ali; Farajzadehgan, Ziba

    2015-04-01

    Foot ulcers are major sources of morbidity in individuals with diabetes mellitus. As royal jelly (RJ, a worker honey bee product) contains enzymatic, antibacterial and vasodilative properties, it can potentially help in healing of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of topical RJ on healing of DFUs. Diabetic patients with foot ulcers who were referred to us at Khorshid Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, were managed by offloading, infection control, vascular improvement and debridement (if required). Then, all ulcers were randomly selected to receive either 5% sterile topical RJ or placebo on their total surface area. Patients were followed for 3?months or until complete healing. Twenty-five patients (6 females and 19 males) and a total of 64 ulcers were included and randomly allocated to case or control group (32 per group). Four ulcers were excluded and 60 ulcers included in the final analysis. Healing parameters including depth, length and width reduction rate, duration of complete healing and incidence of complete healing did not show any significant difference (P?=?0·69, 0·95, 0·7, 0·74 and 0·6, respectively) between groups. We did not observe any side effect of topical RJ application. This study could not confirm any significant superiority of 5% topical RJ over placebo for the treatment of DFUs. PMID:23566071

  4. Royal Jelly alleviates sperm toxicity and improves in vitro fertilization outcome in Stanozolol-treated mice

    PubMed Central

    Shalizar Jalali, Ali; Najafi, Gholamreza; Hosseinchi, Mohammadreza; Sedighnia, Ashkan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stanozolol (ST) is a synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroid often abused by athletes. An increasing body of evidence points towards the role of ST misuses in the pathogenesis of a wide range of adverse effects including reprotoxicity. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the possible reproprotective effect of royal jelly (RJ) as an efficient antioxidant in ST-treated mice. Materials and Methods: Adult male mice were divided into four groups (n=5). Two groups of mice received ST (4.6 mg/kg/day) via gavage for 35 days. RJ was given orally to one of these groups at the dose level of 100 mg/kg body weight per day synchronously. Untreated control group and RJ-only treated group were also included. Epididymal sperm characteristics and in vitro fertilizing capacity were evaluated after 35 days. Results: ST treatment caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in sperm count and motility and fertilization rate along with poor blastocyst formation and increased sperm DNA damage. Moreover, the incidence of apoptosis and abnormality in spermatozoa was significantly (p<0.05) higher in ST-exposed mice than those of control. The above-mentioned parameters were restored to near normal level by RJ co-administration. Conclusion: Data from the current study suggest that RJ has a potential repro-protective action against ST-induced reproductive toxicity in mice. However, clinical studies are warranted to investigate such an effect in human subjects. PMID:25653671

  5. Immediate Effects of Different Trunk Exercise Programs on Jump Performance.

    PubMed

    Imai, A; Kaneoka, K; Okubo, Y; Shiraki, H

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of trunk stabilization exercise (SE) and conventional trunk exercise (CE) programs on jump performance. 13 adolescent male soccer players performed 2 kinds of jump testing before and immediate after 3 experimental conditions: SE, CE, and non-exercise (NE). The SE program consisted of the elbow-toe, hand-knee, and back bridge, and the CE program consisted of the sit-up, sit-up with trunk rotation and back extension. Testing of a countermovement jump (CMJ) and rebound jump (RJ) were performed to assess jump performance. Jump height of the CMJ and RJ-index, contact time, and jump height of the RJ were analyzed. The RJ index was improved significantly only after SE (p=0.017). However, contact time and jump height did not improve significantly in the SE condition. Moreover, no significant interaction or main effects of time or group were observed in the CMJ. Consequently, this study showed the different immediate effect on the RJ between the SE and CE, and suggested the possibility that the SE used in this study is useful as a warm-up program to improve the explosive movements. PMID:26667924

  6. Protective effects of Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx extract on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Nai-Yu; Chu, Chun-Jun; Xia, Long; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Dao-Feng

    2015-10-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of ethanol extracts of Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx (Maxim.) Hara (RJ) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice and the possible underlying mechanisms of action. The mice were orally administrated with RJ extract (16, 32 or 64 mg(kg(-1)) daily for consecutive7 days before LPS challenge. The ung specimens and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected for histopathological examinations and biochemical analyses. Pretreatment with RJ significantly enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and reduced the wet-to-dry weight (W/D) ratio, the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and protein leakage, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in mice with ALI, in a dose-dependent manner. RJ reduced complement deposition and significantly attenuated LPS-induced ALI by reducing productions of inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1? (IL-1?). The results demonstrated that RJ may attenuate LPS-induced ALI via reducing the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, and reducing complement deposition and radicals. PMID:26481377

  7. Spectroscopic Observation of Velocity Distribution of Sodium Atoms Originated from Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoi, K.; Kagitani, M.; Ueto, H.; Okano, S.

    2004-12-01

    In order to study the ejection processes of sodium atoms from Jovian satellite Io, high dispersion spectroscopic observation was carried out at Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, using a 188-cm telescope and a High Dispersion Echelle Spectrograph (HIDES: R=100,000) in February, 2004. High dispersion spectra of sodium emission were obtained for a region of ±1.5RJ (1RJ : Jovian radius = 71400km) centered on Io. Observation results on February 27, 2004 showed distinctive slow velocity component and fast velocity components. Slow components at 0.27RJ eastward and westward from Io showed different profile at their wings. Fast components between 0.1RJ eastward and 0.2RJ westward of Io showed several peaks in the velocity distribution. Particularly, three fast components with peaks at 15km/sec, 30km/sec, and 40km/sec were observed on the Io disk. Several physical processes have so far been proposed for ejection of sodium atoms from Io. These ejection processes include atmospheric sputtering for producing the banana cloud, pick-up ion neutralization in Io's atmosphere for the jet, pick-up molecular ion destruction in Io plasma torus for the stream, and charge exchange between Io's atmosphere and the torus. Computer simulations taking these four processes to explain the observation results are now in progress. In the presentation, observation and computer simulation results will be given.

  8. Does Supplementation with Royal Jelly Improve Oxidative Stress and Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetic Patients?

    PubMed Central

    SHIDFAR, Farzad; JAZAYERI, Shima; MOUSAVI, Seyedeh Neda; MALEK, Mojtaba; HOSSEINI, Agha fateme; KHOSHPEY, Basmeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Animal studies have shown antioxidant effects of Royal Jelly (RJ) and its effect on insulin resistance as the most common complication of Type 2 diabetes. This study was conducted to determine the effect of RJ intake on serum total antioxidant capacity, Malondialdehyde and insulin resistance in T2DM. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, forty-six type 2 diabetic patients, aged 25–65 years, with BMI of 20–30 kg/m2, and HbA1c of 6–8% were included. The patients were randomly assigned to receive 1000 mg of RJ supplement or placebo, 3 times daily for 8 weeks. HOMA-IR, anthropometric measurements, fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, total antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde level were measured. Results: In comparison with placebo, HOMA-IR decreased (P=0.015) while serum total antioxidant capacity increased significantly in RJ group (P=0.016). No significant difference was detected for serum insulin and MDA in two groups. Conclusions: RJ intake may have favorable effects on serum TAC and HOMA-IR in diabetic patients. PMID:26258092

  9. Biochemical indicators of contaminant exposure in spotted pigfish (Orthopristis ruber) caught at three bays of Rio de Janeiro coast.

    PubMed

    Ventura, E C; Gaelzer, L R; Zanette, J; Marques, M R F; Bainy, A C D

    2002-01-01

    The initial sampling in the Marine Monitoring Program (MOMAM), coordinated by the Ministry of Marine Affairs (IEAPM), was performed along the southeast coast of Brazil. Orthopristis ruber samples were collected at Guanabara, Sepetiba and Ilha Grande Bays. Microsomal CYP1A levels and cytosolic cholinesterase (ChE), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were measured in the liver of these fish according to established procedures. CAT activity and CYP1A content were significantly higher (P < or = 0.05) in fish caught at Guanabara Bay, which might be due to higher levels of peroxisome proliferators and Ah receptor agonists, respectively, at this site compared to the other sites. Also, lower GST activity was observed in fish from this site, which may possibly be related to the presence of oxidative-stress inducing compounds. PMID:12408649

  10. High organochlorine accumulation in blubber of Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis, from Brazilian coast and its use to establish geographical differences among populations.

    PubMed

    Lailson-Brito, J; Dorneles, P R; Azevedo-Silva, C E; Azevedo, A F; Vidal, L G; Zanelatto, R C; Lozinski, C P C; Azeredo, A; Fragoso, A B L; Cunha, H A; Torres, J P M; Malm, O

    2010-05-01

    Blubber samples from 33 Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) from three estuaries (Guanabara, Sepetiba/Ilha Grande and Paranaguá Bays) of Southern and Southeastern Brazil were analyzed for organochlorine compounds (DDTs, PCBs and HCB). The sampled individuals were incidentally captured in gillnet fishery between 1995 and 2005. The concentrations (in ng/g lipids) varied from 652 to 23 555 for SigmaDDT; from 765 to 99 175 for SigmaPCB; and from <4.4 to 156 for HCB. The results have shown that cetaceans from Brazil present organochlorine concentrations that are comparable to those reported for highly industrialized regions of Northern Hemisphere. Using discriminant analysis it was possible to verify that the dolphin populations from the three bays present different organochlorine accumulation patterns. This feature allows the use of this set of pollutants as an auxiliary tool for identification of different populations of the species off Brazilian Coast. PMID:19932538

  11. [Seasonal evaluation of mammal species richness and abundance in the "Mário Viana" municipal reserve, Mato Grosso, Brasil].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ednaldo Cândido; Silva, Elias; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio; Barreto, Francisco Cândido Cardoso

    2006-09-01

    We evaluated seasonal species presence and richness, and abundance of medium and large sized mammalian terrestrial fauna in the "Mário Viana" Municipal Biological Reserve, Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso, Brazil. During 2001, two monthly visits were made to an established transect, 2,820 m in length. Records of 22 mammal species were obtained and individual footprint sequences quantified for seasonal calculation of species richness and relative abundance index (x footprints/km traveled). All 22 species occurred during the rainy season, but only 18 during the dry season. Pseudalopex vetulus (Lund, 1842) (hoary fox), Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758) (tayra), Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771) (cougar) and Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) (capybara) were only registered during the rainy season. The species diversity estimated using the Jackknife procedure in the dry season (19.83, CI = 2.73) was smaller than in the rainy season (25.67, CI = 3.43). Among the 18 species common in the two seasons, only four presented significantly different abundance indexes: Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 (nine-banded armadillo), Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) (six-banded armadillo), Dasyprocta azarae Lichtenstein, 1823 (Azara's Agouti) and Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) (tapir). On the other hand, Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792) (giant armadillo) and Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758) (ocelot) had identical abundance index over the two seasons. Distribution of species abundance in the sampled area followed the expected pattern for communities in equilibrium, especially in the rainy season, suggesting that the environment still maintains good characteristics for mammal conservation. The present study shows that the reserve, although only 470 ha in size, plays an important role for conservation of mastofauna of the area as a refuge in an environment full of anthropic influence (mainly cattle breeding in exotic pasture). PMID:18491629

  12. Dogmatism and the "Knowledge Gap" among Users of the Mass Media of Communication: A Study in Brasilia, Brasil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robert E.; Garda, Eduardo Carlos

    A study was conducted to discover whether (1) use of each of the print and broadcast media could be correlated with subjects' knowledge level, and (2) whether controlling for dogmatism would increase the proportion of media users, with higher levels of knowledge among those less dogmatic, and decrease the proportion among the more dogmatic.…

  13. Dogmatism and the "Knowledge Gap" among Users of the Mass Media of Communication: A Study in Brasilia, Brasil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robert E.; Garda, Eduardo Carlos

    A study was conducted to discover whether (1) use of each of the print and broadcast media could be correlated with subjects' knowledge level, and (2) whether controlling for dogmatism would increase the proportion of media users, with higher levels of knowledge among those less dogmatic, and decrease the proportion among the more dogmatic.…

  14. Queda dos homicídios em São Paulo, Brasil: uma análise descritiva

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Vicentin, Diego; Nery, Marcelo Batista; de Lima, Renato Sérgio; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Cerda, Magdalena; Cardia, Nancy; Adorno, e Sérgio

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo Descrever a evolução da mortalidade por homicídios no Município de São Paulo segundo tipo de arma, sexo, raça ou cor, idade e áreas de exclusão/inclusão social entre 1996 e 2008. Métodos Estudo ecológico de série temporal. Os dados sobre óbitos ocorridos no Município foram coletados da base de dados do Programa de Aprimoramento das Informações sobre Mortalidade, seguindo a Classificação Internacional de Doenças, Décima Revisão (CID-10). Foram calculadas as taxas de mortalidade por homicídio (TMH) para a população total, por sexo, raça ou cor, faixa etária, tipo de arma e área de exclusão/inclusão social. As TMH foram padronizadas por idade pelo método direto. Foram calculados os percentuais de variação no período estudado. Para as áreas de exclusão/inclusão social foram calculados os riscos relativos de morte por homicídio. Resultados As TMH apresentaram queda de 73,7% entre 2001 e 2008. Foi observada redução da TMH em todos os grupos analisados, mais pronunciada em homens (−74,5%), jovens de 15 a 24 anos (−78,0%) e moradores de áreas de exclusão social extrema (−79,3%). A redução ocorreu, sobretudo, nos homicídios cometidos com armas de fogo (−74,1%). O risco relativo de morte por homicídio nas áreas de exclusão extrema (tendo como referência áreas com algum grau de exclusão social) foi de 2,77 em 1996, 3,9 em 2001 e 2,13 em 2008. Nas áreas de alta exclusão social, o risco relativo foi de 2,07 em 1996 e 1,96 em 2008. Conclusões Para compreender a redução dos homicídios no Município, é importante considerar macrodeterminantes que atingem todo o Município e todos os subgrupos populacionais e microdeterminantes que atuam localmente, influenciando de forma diferenciada os homicídios com armas de fogo e os homicídios na população jovem, no sexo masculino e em residentes em áreas de alta exclusão social. PMID:21390415

  15. Rapid assessment of cardiac contractility on a home bathroom scale.

    PubMed

    Etemadi, Mozziyar; Inan, Omer T; Giovangrandi, Laurent; Kovacs, Gregory T A

    2011-11-01

    Analyzing systolic time intervals-specifically the preejection-period (PEP)-is widely accepted as one of the few methods for the noninvasive assessment of cardiac contractility. In this paper, we investigated the ballistocardiogram (BCG) as a way to noninvasively measure myocardial contractility when combined with the ECG. Specifically, we derived a parameter from the BCG and ECG that we hypothesized would be highly correlated to PEP. This is the time delay between the J-wave peak of the BCG and the R-wave of the ECG, which we refer to as the RJ interval. The RJ interval was correlated to PEP (r(2) = 0.86) for 2126 heartbeats across ten subjects, with a y-intercept of 138 ms and slope of 1.05. This suggests that the RJ interval can be reliably used as a noninvasive assessment of cardiac contractility. PMID:21843998

  16. Errors from Rayleigh-Jeans approximation in satellite microwave radiometer calibration systems.

    PubMed

    Weng, Fuzhong; Zou, Xiaolei

    2013-01-20

    The advanced technology microwave sounder (ATMS) onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite is a total power radiometer and scans across the track within a range of ±52.77° from nadir. It has 22 channels and measures the microwave radiation at either quasi-vertical or quasi-horizontal polarization from the Earth's atmosphere. The ATMS sensor data record algorithm employed a commonly used two-point calibration equation that derives the earth-view brightness temperature directly from the counts and temperatures of warm target and cold space, and the earth-scene count. This equation is only valid under Rayleigh-Jeans (RJ) approximation. Impacts of RJ approximation on ATMS calibration biases are evaluated in this study. It is shown that the RJ approximation used in ATMS radiometric calibration results in errors on the order of 1-2 K. The error is also scene count dependent and increases with frequency. PMID:23338200

  17. Resistance to the mainlandization of criminal justice practices: a barrier to the development of restorative justice in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lo, T Wing

    2012-06-01

    This article examines the political and legal barriers to introducing restorative justice (RJ) in Hong Kong. It argues that the processes involved in RJ may be in conflict with the rule of law, which is regarded by the citizens of Hong Kong as sacrosanct in their resistance to the "mainlandization" of criminal justice practices after China resumed sovereignty of Hong Kong. It is argued that, because it could admit such potentially harmful Chinese criminal justice concepts as "rule by the people," "absence of the presumption of innocence," "leniency for self-confession and severity for resistance," and "toeing the party line," RJ would be devoid of any restorative substance and could breach the principles of due process. PMID:21490000

  18. Novel vasotocin-regulated aquaporins expressed in the ventral skin of semiaquatic anuran amphibians: evolution of cutaneous water-absorbing mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Yasunori; Ogushi, Yuji; Shibata, Yuki; Okada, Reiko; Tanaka, Shigeyasu; Suzuki, Masakazu

    2014-06-01

    Until now, it was believed that only one form of arginine vasotocin (AVT)-regulated aquaporin (AQP) existed to control water absorption from the ventral skin of semiaquatic anuran amphibians, eg, AQP-rj3(a) in Rana japonica. In the present study, we have identified a novel form of ventral skin-type AQP, AQP-rj3b, in R. japonica by cDNA cloning. The oocyte swelling assay confirmed that AQP-rj3b can facilitate water permeability. Both AQP-rj3a and AQP-rj3b were expressed abundantly in the ventral hindlimb skin and weakly in the ventral pelvic skin. For the hindlimb skin, water permeability was increased in response to AVT, although the hydroosmotic response was not statistically significant in the pelvic skin. Isoproterenol augmented water permeability of the hindlimb skin, and the response was inhibited by propranolol. These events were well correlated with the intracellular trafficking of the AQPs. Immunohistochemistry showed that both AQP-rj3 proteins were translocated from the cytoplasmic pool to the apical membrane of principal cells in the first-reacting cell layer of the hindlimb skin after stimulation with AVT and/or isoproterenol. The type-b AQP was also found in R. (Lithobates) catesbeiana and R. (Pelophylax) nigromaculata. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicated that the type-a is closely related to ventral skin-type AQPs from aquatic Xenopus, whereas the type-b is closer to the AQPs from terrestrial Bufo and Hyla, suggesting that the AQPs from terrestrial species are not the orthologue of the AQPs from aquatic species. Based on these results, we propose a model for the evolution of cutaneous water-absorbing mechanisms in association with AQPs. PMID:24654785

  19. Temporal and spatial distribution of high energy electrons at Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, I.; Garrett, H. B.; Ratliff, J. M.

    2003-04-01

    Measurements of the high energy, omni-directional electron environment by the Galileo spacecraft Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) were used to study the high energy electron environment in the Jovian magnetosphere, especially in the region between 8 to 18 Rj (1 Rj = 1 Jovian radius = 71,400 km). 10-minute averages of the EPD data collected between Jupiter orbit insertion (JOI) in 1995 and the orbit number 33 (I33) in 2002 form an extensive dataset, which has been extremely useful to observe temporal and spatial variability of the Jovian high energy electron environment. The count rates of the EPD electron channels (0.174, 0.304, 0.527, 1.5, 2.0, and 11 MeV) were grouped into 0.5 Rj or 0.5 L bins and analyzed statistically. The results indicate that: (1) a log-normal Gaussian distribution well describes the statistics of the high energy electron environment (for example, electron differential fluxes) in the Jovian magnetosphere, in the region studied here; (2) the high energy electron environments inferred by the Galileo EPD measurements are in a close agreement with the data obtained using the Divine model, which was developed more than 30 years ago from Pioneer 10, 11 and Voyager 1, 2 data; (3) the data are better organized when plotted against magnetic radial parameter L than Rj; (4) the standard deviations of the 0.174, 0.304, 0.527 MeV channel count rates are larger than those of the 1.5, 2.0, 11 MeV count rates in <12 Rj, and comparable in >12 Rj. These observations are very helpful to understand short- and long-term, and local variability of the Jovian high energy electron environment, and are discussed in detail.

  20. Effect of Royal Jelly on Formalin Induced-Inflammation in Rat Hind Paw

    PubMed Central

    Arzi, Ardeshir; Olapour, Samaneh; Yaghooti, Hamid; Sistani Karampour, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Royal Jelly (RJ), a food item secreted by worker honeybees, is a mixture that contains protein, glucose, lipid, vitamins, and minerals; it is widely used as a commercial medical product. Previous studies have shown that RJ has a number of physiological effects, such as anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antiallergic and antioxidant activities. Objectives: In the present study, the anti-inflammatory properties of RJ were investigated in formalin-induced rat paw edema. Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 male Wistar albino rats were divided into five equal groups (n = 6) as follows: test groups received different doses (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, ip) of RJ and a negative control group received normal saline (5 mL/kg) and a positive control group received aspirin (300 mg/kg, i.p). Edema was induced on the right hind paw of the rat by a subplantar injection of 100 µL of formalin (2.5%) after 30 minutes. Paw edema was measured in the rats received the drugs, saline and aspirin before and after the formalin injection during 5 hours, using a plethysmometer. Results: The results showed that RJ has a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effect and the highest anti-inflammatory effect was observed in the doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg. Conclusions: Royal jelly has potent anti-inflammatory effects compared to aspirin and it could be used in the treatment of inflammation. However, further studies are required to determine the active components in RJ responsible for this effect and its mechanism of action. PMID:25866724

  1. Bypass filtration of cooling tower water: a demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    R.J. Industries, Inc. under the DOE Appropriate Technology Program, designed, installed, and monitored a side stream water filtration system on a typical cooling tower arrangement supplying condenser water to refrigerated chilled water units. All of the components utilized in the filter system were readily available. (The actual filter unit was designed to maintain the clarity and overall quality of swimming pool water). R.J. Industries modified the flow characteristics and adapted the hardware for use with a cooling tower system. The application of existing equipment in a new technology proved to be a practical, cost effective approach for maintaining the quality of cooling tower water.

  2. Protective role of Royal Jelly (honeybee) on genotoxicity and lipid peroxidation, induced by petroleum wastewater, in Allium cepa L. root tips.

    PubMed

    Türkmen, Zafer; Cavu?o?lu, Külti?in; Cavu?o?lu, Kür?at; Yapar, Kür?ad; Yalçin, Emine

    2009-10-01

    In the present study, the protective effect of Royal Jelly (RJ) on genotoxicity and lipid peroxidation, induced by petroleum wastewater, in Allium cepa L. root-tip cells was investigated. For this purpose, we used the malondialdehyde (MDA) level, mitotic index (MI), frequency of micronucleus (MN) and chromosomal aberrations (CAs) as indicators of genotoxicity and lipid peroxidation, and correlated these data with statistical parameters. In additional to the genotoxic analysis, we examined changes in the root anatomy of A. cepa seeds treated with the wastewater. Heavy metal concentrations in the wastewater were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The seeds were divided into six groups as control, wastewater and RJ treatment groups. They were treated with the wastewater alone, RJ alone (25 and 50 microm doses) and RJ + wastewater for 10 consecutive days. As a result, the mean concentrations of heavy metals in the wastewater were observed to be in the order: Pb > Fe > Al > Ni > Cu > Zn > Cr > Cd. The results showed that there was a significant alteration in MI and in the frequency of MN and CAs in the seeds exposed to the wastewater when compared with the controls. The wastewater exposure resulted in a significant increase in CAs and MN formation (P < 0.05). The wastewater also caused a decrease in MI (P < 0.05). Additionally, there was a significant increase in the MDA levels of the roots exposed to the wastewater (P < 0.05). Heavy metals in the petroleum wastewater significantly increased the MDA production, indicating lipid peroxidation. Moreover, light micrographs showed anatomical damages such as an accumulation of chemical compounds in cortex parenchyma, cell death, an unusual form of cell nucleus and unclear vascular tissue. However, the RJ treatment caused amelioration in the indices of lipid peroxidation and MI, and in the frequency of CAs and MN, when compared with the group treated with petroleum wastewater alone (P < 0.05). Also, the RJ application caused the recuperation of anatomical structural damages induced by the petroleum wastewater. Each dose of RJ provided protection against the wastewater toxicity, and the strongest protective effect was observed at dose of 50 microm. In vivo results showed that RJ is a potential protector against toxicity induced by petroleum wastewater, and its protective role is dose-dependent. PMID:19947151

  3. An overview of plasma wave observations obtained during the Galileo A34 pass through the inner region of the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Menietti, J. D.; Roux, A.; Bolton, S. J.; Alexander, C. J.

    2003-04-01

    On November 5, 2002, the Galileo spacecraft, which is in orbit around Jupiter, made a pass in to a radial distance of 1.98 RJ (Jovian radii) from Jupiter, much closer than on any previous orbit. Data were successfully acquired during the entire inbound pass through the hot and cold plasma torii, and through the region inside the cold torus to a radial distance of 2.32 RJ, at which point the data system went into safing due to the intense radiation in the inner region of the magnetosphere. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the results obtained from the plasma wave investigation during this pass, which is designated A34. As on previous passes through the Io plasma torus a narrowband electrostatic emission at the upper hybrid resonance frequency provided a very accurate measurement of the electron density. The peak electron density, 2.6 x 103 cm-3, occurs just before the inner edge of the hot torus, which is at 5.62 RJ. As the spacecraft enters the cold torus the electron density drops to about 6.0 x 102 cm-3 and then gradually increases as the spacecraft approaches Jupiter, reaching a peak of about 2.5 x 103 cm-3 at 4.86 RJ, shortly before the inner edge of the cold torus. At the inner edge of the cold torus, which occurs at 4.76 RJ, the electron density drops dramatically to levels on the order of 1 cm-3. The electron density in this inner region is difficult to interpret because the upper hybrid emission can no longer be clearly identified, and there are numerous narrowband emissions with cutoffs that may or may not be associated with the local electron plasma frequency. As in the hot torus, the low density region inside the cold torus has a persistent level of plasma wave noise below about 103 Hz that is tentatively interpreted as whistler mode noise. The intensity of the whistler mode noise increases noticeably as the spacecraft crosses Thebe's orbit at 3.1 RJ, and increases markedly as the spacecraft crosses Amalthea's orbit at 2.6 RJ. The wideband waveform data show considerable evidence of dust impacts at radial distances inside of about 3 RJ, at rates as high as a few impacts per second.

  4. On the Radii of Brown Dwarfs Measured with AKARI Near-infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorahana, S.; Yamamura, I.; Murakami, H.

    2013-04-01

    We derive the radii of 16 brown dwarfs observed by AKARI using their parallaxes and the ratios of observed to model fluxes. We find that the brown dwarf radius ranges between 0.64-1.13 RJ with an average radius of 0.83 RJ . We find a trend in the relation between radii and T eff; the radius is at a minimum at T eff ~ 1600 K, which corresponds to the spectral types of mid- to late-L. The result is interpreted by a combination of radius-mass and radius-age relations that are theoretically expected for brown dwarfs older than 108 yr.

  5. ASSESSMENT OF TECHNETIUM LEACHABILITY IN CEMENT STABILIZED BASIN 43 GROUNDWATER BRINE

    SciTech Connect

    COOKE GA; DUNCAN JB; LOCKREM LL

    2008-09-30

    This report is an initial report on the laboratory effort executed under RPP-PLAN-33338, Test Plan for the Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement-Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine. This report delineates preliminary data obtained under subcontract 21065, release 30, from the RJ Lee Group, Inc., Center for Laboratory Sciences. The report is predicated on CLS RPT-816, Draft Report: Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine. This document will be revised on receipt of the final RJ Lee Group, Inc., Center for Laboratory Sciences report, which will contain data subjected to quality control and quality assurance criteria.

  6. Language, Vision and the Black Writer: Dealing With Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kgositsile, Keorapetse

    1972-01-01

    Argues that African blacks have not begun the serious task of creating a language that sytematically strives to express black life; that blacks have not begun to think for themselves despite African independence rhetoric, national flags and anthems, and fists raised proclaiming or celebrating power they do not have. (RJ)

  7. On Psychological Liberation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, David

    1972-01-01

    The liberation of oppressed people involves a kind of subjective or psychological liberation as well as an objective (political, economic, and social) one. It is time to define what such subjective liberation involves, how it can be achieved, and its relationship to objective liberation and other objective social conditions. (RJ)

  8. Restorative Justice as Reflective Practice and Applied Pedagogy on College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinker, Jeremy A.; Jonason, Chelsey

    2014-01-01

    Restorative justice (RJ) is both a methodology for dealing with conflict and a process for modeling more positive human relations after social harm. As both method and process, the benefits of developing restorative practices on college campuses go well beyond just the many positive community-oriented outcomes of facilitated conflict resolution…

  9. THE GRK4 SUBFAMILY OF G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTOR KINASES: ALTERNATIVE SPLICING, GENE ORGANIZATION, AND SEQUENCE CONSERVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The GRK4 subfamily of G protein-coupled receptor kinases. Alternative splicing, gene organization, and sequence conservation.

    Premont RT, Macrae AD, Aparicio SA, Kendall HE, Welch JE, Lefkowitz RJ.

    Department of Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke Univer...

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF THE USE OF ORIMULSION: REPORT TO CONGRESS ON PHASE 1 OF THE ORIMULSION TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMERNT PROGRAM: VOLUME 1: PROJECT REPORT/SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    PUB REPORT NRMRL-RTP-193a Miller*, C.A., Dreher, KL, Wentsel*, R., and Nadeau*, R.J. Environmental Impacts of the Use of Orimulsion: Report to Congress on Phase 1 of the Orimulsion Technology Assessmernt Program: Volume 1:. 2001. EPA/600/R-01/056a (NTIS PB2002-109039). 05/15/200...

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF THE USE OF ORIMULSION (R): REPORT TO CONGRESS ON PHASE I OF THE ORIMULSION TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT PROGRAM, VOLUME 2: PROJECT REPORT/SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-RTP-193b Miller*, C.A., Dreher, KL, Wentsel*, R., and Nadeau*, R.J. Environmental Impacts of the Use of Orimulsion (R): Report to Congress on Phase I of the Orimulsion Technology Assessment Program, Volume 2. 2001. EPA/600/R-01/056b (NTIS PB2002-109040). 05/15/2000 The rep...

  12. The Life of White Ethnics: Toward More Effective Working-Class Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Irving M.; Herman, Judith

    1972-01-01

    Contends that if issues are articulated, work is done, are communities developed with sensitivity--without hardening of organizational forms or premature alliances between fearful groups--then the ethnic factor in working-class life can be an important tool for creating both individual fulfillment and social unity. (RJ)

  13. Aspirin

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Guidelines . Circulation . 2011 ; 123 : 2022 – 2060 . FREE Full Text 4. ↵ Antithrombotic Trialists' (ATT) Collaboration , Baigent C , Blackwell ... BMJ . 2002 ; 324 : 71 – 86 . Abstract / FREE Full Text 6. ↵ Furie KL , Kasner SE , Adams RJ , Albers ...

  14. TISSUE REMODELING IN THE HUMAN LUNG IN RELATION TO PARTICLE CONCENTRATION AND METAL CONTENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    TISSUE REMODELING IN THE HUMAN LUNG IN RELATION TO PARTICLE CONCENTRATION AND METAL CONTENT. J Gallagher1, J Inmon1, S Schlaegle2, A Levine2, T Rogers3, J Scott1, F Green4, M Schenker5, K Pinkerton5 1NHEERL, US-EPA, RTP, NC, USA; 2RJ Lee Group Inc, Monroeville, Pa, USA; ...

  15. Teaching Perspectives and Usage of Journal Writing by Clinical Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alschuler, Mari L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between teaching perspectives (TPs), faculty usage and perceptions of reflective journaling (RJ), and demographic characteristics among clinical faculty in nursing, social work, and counseling. A combination of causal-comparative and correlational designs was utilized, with stratified…

  16. Tuskegee-in-Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Edward H.

    1972-01-01

    Examines the converging forces in U.S. and Britain responsible for the belief that the educational experience of Hampton and Tuskegee had a particular lesson for Black Africa. Studies the transference of the Tuskegee model to Liberia in the late 1920's and 1930's, and the role of the Phelps-Stokes Foundation of New York. (RJ)

  17. EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICALLY BASED DOSE-RESPONSE MODELING FOR DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY: A WORKSHOP REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of biologically based dose-response modeling for developmental toxicity: a workshop report.

    Lau C, Andersen ME, Crawford-Brown DJ, Kavlock RJ, Kimmel CA, Knudsen TB, Muneoka K, Rogers JM, Setzer RW, Smith G, Tyl R.

    Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL...

  18. Thinking about Thinking: A Constructivist Approach to Critical Thinking in the College Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Thomas J.; And Others

    This project sought to focus on elements of critical thinking and reflective judgement specific to the college classroom experience using the Reflective Judgment (RJ) Model developed by P. M. King and K. M. Strohm-Kitchener. The project included an exploration of college instructors' assumptions and beliefs about college students, and an…

  19. ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTING CHEMICALS: PREPUBERTAL EXPOSURES AND EFFECTS ON SEXUAL MATURATION AND THYROID ACTIVITY IN THE FEMALE RAT. A FOCUS ON THE EDSTAC RECOMMENDATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals: prepubertal exposures and effects on sexual maturation and thyroid activity in the female rat. A focus on the EDSTAC recommendations.

    Goldman JM, Laws SC, Balchak SK, Cooper RL, Kavlock RJ.

    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National H...

  20. Test instrumentation evaluates electrostatic hazards in fluid system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, L. H.; Henry, R.; Krebs, D.

    1967-01-01

    RJ-1 fuel surface potential is measured with a probe to determine the degree of hazard originating from static electricity buildup in the hydraulic fluid. The probe is mounted in contact with the fluid surface and connected to an electrostatic voltmeter.

  1. Underage Drinking

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 5):e73–e79. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Drinking in America: Myths, Realities, and Prevention ... of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 2005. Bonnie RJ and O’Connell ME, ...

  2. Illinois Probes the State Aid Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutor, David

    1972-01-01

    Describes Illinois's three-part program to give $30 million in direc t aid to parents of non-public school students. Contends that all major st ate programs to give financial aid to non-public schools throughout the nat ion may hang in the balance, pending the outcome in the courts of the Illi nois program. (RJ)

  3. Valence Specific Laterality Effects in Prosody: Expectancy Account and the Effects of Morphed Prosody and Stimulus Lead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodway, Paul; Schepman, Astrid

    2007-01-01

    The majority of studies have demonstrated a right hemisphere (RH) advantage for the perception of emotions. Other studies have found that the involvement of each hemisphere is valence specific, with the RH better at perceiving negative emotions and the LH better at perceiving positive emotions [Reuter-Lorenz, P., & Davidson, R.J. (1981)…

  4. IMPACT OF BODY WEIGHT CHANGE ON THE EDSTAC TIER 1 MALE AND FEMALE PUBERTAL PROTOCOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    IMPACT OF BODY WEIGHT CHANGE ON THE EDSTAC TIER I MALE AND FEMALE PUBERTAL PROTOCOLS. R.L. Cooper, T.E. Stoker, K. McElroy, J. Ferrell, K. Leffler, K. Bremser and S.C. Laws. Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, RTP, NC. Sponsor: R.J. Kavl...

  5. Fair Play: Teaching the Logical Fallacies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Susan

    This paper describes a freshman composition course which looks at racism and sexism in science, and within which the instructor uses a 1989 "Atlantic Monthly" piece by R.J. Herrnstein, co-author with Charles Murray of "The Bell Curve." In his article, Herrnstein argues that the intelligence of the nation is declining because educated young women…

  6. CYTOKINE PROFILING FOR CHEMICAL RESPIRATORY SENSITIZERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CYTOKINE PROFILING FOR CHEMICAL RESPIRATORY SENSITIZERS. LM Plitnick1, SE Loveless2, GS Ladics2, MP Holsapple3, MJ Selgrade4, DM Sailstad4 & RJ Smialowicz4. 1UNC, Chapel Hill, NC; 2DuPont Co., Haskell Laboratory, Newark, DE; 3Dow Chemical, Midland, MI & 4USEPA, NHEERL, RTP, NC.

  7. Demodernizing Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Peter L.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Youth culture and counterculture in contemporary Western societies are complex phenomena that may be viewed from a variety of social science perspectives. The authors analyze these cultures as embodiments of demodernizing consciousness with which they hold they have considerable firsthand experience. (RJ)

  8. Special Education in the Republic of Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhee, Tae Yung; An, Tae Yun

    Information on education in Korea indicates that programs and services for the handicapped have not been extensive, serving only 3,271 children in 1968 of the 5,478,167 who were enrolled in schools. Recent developments which are expected to extend special education are discussed, including long-term goals and teacher training programs. (RJ)

  9. Reporter Lead-In

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Race Relations Reporter, 1973

    1973-01-01

    News briefs relating to misinformation on racial conflict in Boston; a drive for impeachment of an Indianapolis judge who ordered the implementation of a new desegregation for the city; slavery in Florida; protection for Arizona Indians from the floods; the coming into the limelight of Miles College, Birmingham, Ala.; and other. (RJ)

  10. Respiratory acidosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... such as bicarbonate, that help restore the body's acid-base balance. Acute respiratory acidosis is a condition in ... Effros RM, Swenson ER. Acid-base balance. In: Mason RJ, Broaddus CV, ... Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  11. Motivation and Outcomes for University Students in a Restorative Justice Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher Dahl, Meghan; Meagher, Peter; Vander Velde, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    A restorative justice program (RJP) was developed at a large university in the housing student conduct office. Students accused of misconduct who participated in a restorative justice (RJ) conference completed surveys regarding their motivations and perceived outcomes. Results showed that students who were motivated to make reparations to others…

  12. Creatinine blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... LA, Fan L, Levey AS. Assessment of renal function. In: Johnson RJ, Feehally J, Floege J. Comprehensive Clinical Nephrology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 3. Landry DW, Bazari H. Approach to the patient with renal disease. In: ...

  13. Creatinine urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... LA, Fan L, Levey AS. Assessment of renal function. In: Johnson RJ, Feehally J, Floege J. Comprehensive Clinical Nephrology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 3. Landry DW, Bazari H. Approach to the patient with renal disease. In: ...

  14. Glomerular filtration rate

    MedlinePLUS

    ... LA, Fan L, Levey AS. Assessment of renal function. In: Johnson RJ, Feehally J, Floege J. Comprehensive Clinical Nephrology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 3. Landry DW, Bazari H. Approach to the patient with renal disease. In: ...

  15. Urea nitrogen urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... LA, Fan L, Levey AS. Assessment of renal function. In: Jonson RJ, Feehally J, Floege J. Comprehensive Clinical Nephrology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 3. Landry DW, Bazari H. Approach to the patient with renal disease. In: ...

  16. Creatinine clearance test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... LA, Fan L, Levey AS. Assessment of renal function. In: Johnson RJ, Feehally J, Floege J. Comprehensive Clinical Nephrology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 3. Landry DW, Bazari H. Approach to the patient with renal disease. In: ...

  17. 75 FR 22710 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model BAe 146-100A and -200A Series...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... occurrence reports. The lift spoilers on the BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ aeroplanes have been designed to deploy... consequent injury to aeroplane occupants. * * * * * The proposed AD would require actions that are...

  18. Day Care for Children: The European Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Marsden G.; Wagner, Mary

    1973-01-01

    The need for day-care centers for young children is an idea which is now questioned less and less. The largeness of the numbers of these centers over Europe facilitates formation of a certain number of principles. Day care programs were studied by the authors in Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, and Czechoslovakia. (Authors/RJ)

  19. USE OF THE RIBONUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAY FOR IDENTIFYING CHEMICALS WHICH ELLICIT HYPERSENSITIVITY RESPONSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of the Ribonuclease Protection Assay (RPA) for Identifying Chemicals that Elicit Hypersensitivity Responses. L.M. Plitnick, 1, D.M. Sailstad, 2, and R.J. Smialowicz, 2 1UNC, Curriculum in Toxicology, Chapel Hill, NC and 2USEPA, NHEERL, RTP, NC.

    The incidence of aller...

  20. A Handbook for Teachers of Italian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mollica, Anthony, Ed.

    This handbook for teachers of Italian consists of a collection of 16 essays by noted professionals in the field of Italian instruction: (1) "Fundamentals of Language Learning and Language Instruction," by A. Papalia; (2) "Linguistic Methodology and the Teacher of Italian," by R.J. Di Pietro; (3) "Preparation for Language Teaching," by F.J. Bosco;…

  1. Statistical analysis of earthquakes after the 1999 MW 7.7 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake based on a modified Reasenberg-Jones model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuh-Ing; Huang, Chi-Shen; Liu, Jann-Yenq

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the temporal-spatial hazard of the earthquakes after the 1999 September 21 MW = 7.7 Chi-Chi shock in a continental region of Taiwan. The Reasenberg-Jones (RJ) model (Reasenberg and Jones, 1989, 1994) that combines the frequency-magnitude distribution (Gutenberg and Richter, 1944) and time-decaying occurrence rate (Utsu et al., 1995) is conventionally employed for assessing the earthquake hazard after a large shock. However, it is found that the b values in the frequency-magnitude distribution of the earthquakes in the study region dramatically decreased from background values after the Chi-Chi shock, and then gradually increased up. The observation of a time-dependent frequency-magnitude distribution motivated us to propose a modified RJ model (MRJ) to assess the earthquake hazard. To see how the models perform on assessing short-term earthquake hazard, the RJ and MRJ models were separately used to sequentially forecast earthquakes in the study region. To depict the potential rupture area for future earthquakes, we further constructed relative hazard (RH) maps based on the two models. The Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves (Swets, 1988) finally demonstrated that the RH map based on the MRJ model was, in general, superior to the one based on the original RJ model for exploring the spatial hazard of earthquakes in a short time after the Chi-Chi shock.

  2. Birth Control Experience Among Pregnant Adolescents: The Process of Unplanned Parenthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furstenberg, Frank F.

    1971-01-01

    Questions the common assumption that premarital pregnancy is specially motivated. Contends that it is usually the unanticipated outcome of sexual activity. Results of research on sample of 337 unmarried black teenagers indicates that experience with birth control was strongly related to the way sex was viewed by their mothers. (RJ)

  3. DCCPS: Health Behavior Constructs: Theory, Measurement, & Research

    Cancer.gov

    Cameron, L.D., Booth R.J., Schlatter, M., Ziginskas D., Harman, J.E., Benson, S.R.C. (2005). Cognitive and affective determinants of decision to attend a group psychosocial support program for women with breast cancer. Psychosomatic Medicine, 67, 584-589.

  4. Deletion of IKZF1 and Prognosis in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Cancer.gov

    Mullighan CG, Su X, Zhang J, Radtke I, Phillips LA, Miller CB, Ma J, Liu W, Cheng C, Schulman BA, Harvey RC, Chen IM, Clifford RJ, Carroll WL, Reaman G, Bowman WP, Devidas M, Gerhard DS, Yang W, Relling MV, Shurtleff SA, Campana D, Borowitz MJ, Pui CH, Smith M, Hunger SP, Willman CL, Downing JR; Children's Oncology Group.

  5. REVISING EPA'S GUIDELINES FOR THE DERIVATIONS OF AQUATIC LIFE AMBIENT WATER QUALITY CRITERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Henry, T.R., H.E. Bell, C.G. Delos, R.J. Erickson, K.M. Kubena and F.L. Mayer. In press. Revising EPA's Guidelines for the Derivation of Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November 2004, Portland, OR. ...

  6. Book review: old fields: dynamics and restoration of abandoned farmland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2007 volume, “Old Fields: Dynamics and Restoration of Abandoned Farmland”, edited by VA Cramer and RJ Hobbs and published by the Society for Ecological Restoration International (Island Press), is a valuable attempt to synthesize a dozen case studies on agricultural abandonment from all of the ...

  7. Collegiate Impasse-- or We Want Heaven Now!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Lewis B.

    1970-01-01

    Contends it is time to declare to students that there are some matters over which they can exert no direct control; however, that they should be allowed to determine their own private lives, and they should be heard on issues provided their discourse is rational and their protest legal. (RJ)

  8. Retention as a School Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, William A.

    1970-01-01

    Argues that because of the need for the experiences of a child to be positive and successful, a process of uninterrupted promotion into each succeeding grade merits consideration; that each such retention be considered as an individual case, the school system instigating new programs for such retained students. (RJ)

  9. Diverse plasma populations and structures in Jupiter's magnetotail.

    PubMed

    McComas, D J; Allegrini, F; Bagenal, F; Crary, F; Ebert, R W; Elliott, H; Stern, A; Valek, P

    2007-10-12

    Jupiter's magnetotail is the largest cohesive structure in the solar system and marks the loss of vast numbers of heavy ions from the Jupiter system. The New Horizons spacecraft traversed the magnetotail to distances exceeding 2500 jovian radii (R(J)) and revealed a remarkable diversity of plasma populations and structures throughout its length. Ions evolve from a hot plasma disk distribution at approximately 100 R(J) to slower, persistent flows down the tail that become increasingly variable in flux and mean energy. The plasma is highly structured-exhibiting sharp breaks, smooth variations, and apparent plasmoids-and contains ions from both Io and Jupiter's ionosphere with intense bursts of H(+) and H(+)(3). Quasi-periodic changes were seen in flux at approximately 450 and approximately 1500 R(J) with a 10-hour period. Other variations in flow speed at approximately 600 to 1000 R(J) with a 3- to 4-day period may be attributable to plasmoids moving down the tail. PMID:17932282

  10. A Matter of Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierpont, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    In 2001, in partnership with the Waterloo, Iowa school system, the R.J. McElroy Trust, Janice Freeburg-Cannon, Tri-County Head Start, Allen Health System, the University of Northern Iowa and the Regents' Center for Early Developmental Education created a special model for early childhood education that would eventually become The Freeburg School.…

  11. Creating a Community in the Mountains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Betty

    1972-01-01

    Describes a relatively isolated rural workshop program, the Appalachian Film Workshop, Inc., a division of the APPALSHOP, Whitesburg, Ky. The Workshop, started in 1969 with OEO funding and under the direction of the American Film Institute, trains local young people in the art of movie making and producing films on Appalachia. (RJ)

  12. Crime, Youth, and the Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Llad; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Concentrating on eighteen-to-nineteen-year-old white and nonwhite males, this study utilizes a model permitting alternative partitioning of the population, classified by labor-market status, which links individual subsets to property crime. Concludes that economic opportunity is a key factor in generating youthful crime. (RJ)

  13. ORGANIZATION, EXPRESSION AND EVOLUTION OF A DISEASE RESISTANCE GENE CLUSTER IN SOYBEAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PCR amplification was previously used to identify a cluster of resistance gene analogs (RGAs) on soybean linkage group J. Resistance to powdery mildew (Rmd-c), Phytophthora stem and root rot (Rps2) and an ineffective nodulation gene (Rj2) map within this cluster. BAC fingerprinting and RGA-specifi...

  14. Restorative Justice as Reflective Practice and Applied Pedagogy on College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinker, Jeremy A.; Jonason, Chelsey

    2014-01-01

    Restorative justice (RJ) is both a methodology for dealing with conflict and a process for modeling more positive human relations after social harm. As both method and process, the benefits of developing restorative practices on college campuses go well beyond just the many positive community-oriented outcomes of facilitated conflict resolution…

  15. PHARMACOLOGIC PROBING OF AMPHOTERICIN B-INDUCED RENAL DYSFUNCTION IN THE NEONATAL RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pharmacologic Probing of Amphotericin B-Induced Renal Dysfunction in the Neonatal Rat. Gray, J.A., and Kavlock, R.J. (1988). Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 93, 360-368. Acetazolamide, furosemide, chlorothiazide, and amiloride pharmacologic agents that act primarily in the proximal tub...

  16. CYTOKINE PROFILING FOR CHEMICAL SENSITIZERS: APPLICATION OF THE RIBONUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAY AND EFFECT OF DOSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cytokine Profiling for Chemical Sensitizers: Application of the Ribonuclease Protection Assay and Effect of Dose. L.M. Plitnick1, S.E. Loveless3, G.S. Ladics3, M.P. Holsapple4, M.J. Selgrade2, D.M. Sailstad2 and R.J. Smialowicz2. 1UNC, Curriculum in Toxicology, Chapel Hill, NC a...

  17. Center of Excellence in HIV/AIDS & Cancer Virology

    Cancer.gov

    Large intestine-targeted, nanoparticle-releasing oral vaccine to control genitorectal viral infection Zhu Q, Talton J, Zhang G, Cunningham T, Wang Z, Waters RC, Kirk J, Eppler B, Klinman DM, Sui Y, Gagnon S, Belyakov IM, Mumper RJ, and Berzofsky JA Most n

  18. JB6 Mouse Model

    Cancer.gov

    Keene AM, Allaway RJ, Sadrieh N, Tyner KM.  Gold nanoparticle trafficking of typically excluded compounds across the cell membrane in JB6 Cl 41-5a cells causes assay interference.  Nanotoxicology, 2010.  Abstract    Son YO, Hitron JA, Cheng S, Budhraja A,

  19. JB6 Mouse Model

    Cancer.gov

    JB6 References 2001 Berdyshev EV, Schmid PC, Krebsbach RJ, Hillard CJ, Huang C, Chen N, Dong Z, Schmid HH. Cannabinoid-receptor-independent cell signaling by N-acylethanolamines. Biochem J 360: 67-75, 2001.  Abstract  Full Text    Chung JY, Park JO, Phyu

  20. National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sex in the (Non) City @TheNC @StayTeen @Bedsider Mar 30 Congrats @sustain_natural @missmeiks . Their 10%4Women ... for all women #heroes https://t.co/F3epRjSZ4d Mar 30 We surveyed Latino parents: most say they ...

  1. EFFECT OF AN ACUTE EXPOSURE TO MOLINATE ON OVULATION IN THE LONG-EVANS HOODED RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECT OF AN ACUTE EXPOSURE TO MOLINATE ON OVULATION IN THE LONG-EVANS HOODED RAT. T E Stoker, D L Guidici, S C Jeffay, W K McElroy, S D Perreault and R L Cooper. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RTP, NC. Sponsor: RJ Kavlock.
    Molinate, a thiocarbamate ...

  2. CYTOKINE MRNA PROFILES FOR ISOCYANATES WITH KNOWN AND UNKNOWN POTENTIAL TO INDUCE RESPIRATORY SENSITIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cytokine mRNA Profiles for Isocyanates with Known and Unknown Potential to Induce Respiratory Sensitization. Plitnick, L.M., Loveless, S.E., Ladics, G.S., Holsapple, M.P., Smialowicz, R.J., Woolhiser, M.R., Anderson, P.K., Smith, C., Sailstad, D.M. and Selgrade, M.J.K (2002) Tox...

  3. Curriculum, Pedagogy, and the Cambridge Primary Review: A Response to R. J. Campbell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to R.J. Campbell's critique of the "Cambridge Primary Review," which was published in the autumn of 2009. The author argues that Campbell's description of the "Review's" central proposals on curriculum and pedagogy as "backward-looking and inadequately theorised" is so misjudged as to call for a…

  4. A Matter of Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierpont, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    In 2001, in partnership with the Waterloo, Iowa school system, the R.J. McElroy Trust, Janice Freeburg-Cannon, Tri-County Head Start, Allen Health System, the University of Northern Iowa and the Regents' Center for Early Developmental Education created a special model for early childhood education that would eventually become The Freeburg School.…

  5. Teaching Perspectives and Usage of Journal Writing by Clinical Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alschuler, Mari L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between teaching perspectives (TPs), faculty usage and perceptions of reflective journaling (RJ), and demographic characteristics among clinical faculty in nursing, social work, and counseling. A combination of causal-comparative and correlational designs was utilized, with stratified…

  6. IS THE DOSE-RESPONSE LINEAR OR NONLINEAR FOR GENOTOXIC EFFECTS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    IS THE DOSE-RESPONSE LINEAR OR NONLINEAR FOR GENOTOXIC EFFECTS?
    Preston, RJ. Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, NHEERL, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711

    For considerations of cancer risk assessment from exposure to environmenta...

  7. Rejection Thresholds in Chocolate Milk: Evidence for Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Harwood, Meriel L; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2012-10-01

    Bitterness is generally considered a negative attribute in food, yet many individuals enjoy some bitterness in products like coffee or chocolate. In chocolate, bitterness arises from naturally occurring alkaloids and phenolics found in cacao. Fermentation and roasting help develop typical chocolate flavor and reduce the intense bitterness of raw cacao by modifying these bitter compounds. As it becomes increasingly common to fortify chocolate with `raw' cacao to increase the amount of healthful phytonutrients, it is important to identify the point at which the concentration of bitter compounds becomes objectionable, even to those who enjoy some bitterness. Classical threshold methods focus on the presence or absence of a sensation rather than acceptability or hedonics. A new alternative, the rejection threshold, was recently described in the literature. Here, we sought to quantify and compare differences in Rejection Thresholds (RjT) and Detection Thresholds (DT) in chocolate milk spiked with a food safe bitterant (sucrose octaacetate). In experiment 1, a series of paired preference tests was used to estimate the RjT for bitterness in chocolate milk. In a new group of participants (experiment 2), we determined the RjT and DT using the forced choice ascending method of limits. In both studies, participants were segmented on the basis of self-declared preference for milk or dark solid chocolate. Based on sigmoid fits of the indifference-preference function, the RjT was ~2.3 times higher for those preferring dark chocolate than the RjT for those preferring milk chocolate in both experiments. In contrast, the DT for both groups was functionally identical, suggesting that differential effects of bitterness on liking of chocolate products are not based on the ability to detect bitterness in these products. PMID:22754143

  8. Comparative protective effects of royal jelly and cod liver oil against neurotoxic impact of tartrazine on male rat pups brain.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Amany Abdel-Rahman; Galal, Azza A A; Elewa, Yaser H A

    2015-09-01

    This study is aimed to evaluate the possible neurotoxic effect of tartrazine (T), an extensively used synthetic azo dye, as well as to determine the potential modulatory role of cod liver oil (CLO) or royal jelly (RJ) against such effects. For this purpose, thirty-six male rat pups were allocated into six groups. The 1st group received distilled water (control group), the 2nd group was given 300 mg RJ/kg bw (RJ group), the 3rd group was given 0.4 ml CLO/kg bw (CLO group), the 4th was given 500 mg T/kg bw (T group). The 5th group was given T concurrently with RJ (TRJ group) and the 6th group was given T concurrently with CLO (TCLO group), at the same doses as the former groups. All treatments were given orally for 30 consecutive days. The concentrations of different brain neurotransmitters, gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) as well as the antioxidant and oxidative stress biomarkers were measured in the brain homogenates. An immunohistochemical staining of the cerebral cortex was applied with the anti-ssDNA antibody (an apoptotic cell marker) to reveal the changes in brain structure. The T group revealed a significant decrease in the concentration of the brain neurotransmitters, a sharp shortage in the level of antioxidant biomarkers (super oxide dismutase, catalase and the reduced glutathione), a marked increase in malondialdehyde levels, and numerous apoptotic cells in the brain cortex compared with the other groups. Interestingly, all the previously mentioned parameters were almost retrieved in both the TRJ and TCLO groups compared to the T group. These results conclusively demonstrate that RJ and CLO administration provides sufficient protection against the ruinous effects of T on rat pups brain tissue function and structure. PMID:26190785

  9. Rejection Thresholds in Chocolate Milk: Evidence for Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Harwood, Meriel L.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Bitterness is generally considered a negative attribute in food, yet many individuals enjoy some bitterness in products like coffee or chocolate. In chocolate, bitterness arises from naturally occurring alkaloids and phenolics found in cacao. Fermentation and roasting help develop typical chocolate flavor and reduce the intense bitterness of raw cacao by modifying these bitter compounds. As it becomes increasingly common to fortify chocolate with `raw' cacao to increase the amount of healthful phytonutrients, it is important to identify the point at which the concentration of bitter compounds becomes objectionable, even to those who enjoy some bitterness. Classical threshold methods focus on the presence or absence of a sensation rather than acceptability or hedonics. A new alternative, the rejection threshold, was recently described in the literature. Here, we sought to quantify and compare differences in Rejection Thresholds (RjT) and Detection Thresholds (DT) in chocolate milk spiked with a food safe bitterant (sucrose octaacetate). In experiment 1, a series of paired preference tests was used to estimate the RjT for bitterness in chocolate milk. In a new group of participants (experiment 2), we determined the RjT and DT using the forced choice ascending method of limits. In both studies, participants were segmented on the basis of self-declared preference for milk or dark solid chocolate. Based on sigmoid fits of the indifference-preference function, the RjT was ~2.3 times higher for those preferring dark chocolate than the RjT for those preferring milk chocolate in both experiments. In contrast, the DT for both groups was functionally identical, suggesting that differential effects of bitterness on liking of chocolate products are not based on the ability to detect bitterness in these products. PMID:22754143

  10. Annealed Importance Sampling Reversible Jump MCMC algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Karagiannis, Georgios; Andrieu, Christophe

    2013-03-20

    It will soon be 20 years since reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (RJ-MCMC) algorithms have been proposed. They have significantly extended the scope of Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation methods, offering the promise to be able to routinely tackle transdimensional sampling problems, as encountered in Bayesian model selection problems for example, in a principled and flexible fashion. Their practical efficient implementation, however, still remains a challenge. A particular difficulty encountered in practice is in the choice of the dimension matching variables (both their nature and their distribution) and the reversible transformations which allow one to define the one-to-one mappings underpinning the design of these algorithms. Indeed, even seemingly sensible choices can lead to algorithms with very poor performance. The focus of this paper is the development and performance evaluation of a method, annealed importance sampling RJ-MCMC (aisRJ), which addresses this problem by mitigating the sensitivity of RJ-MCMC algorithms to the aforementioned poor design. As we shall see the algorithm can be understood as being an “exact approximation” of an idealized MCMC algorithm that would sample from the model probabilities directly in a model selection set-up. Such an idealized algorithm may have good theoretical convergence properties, but typically cannot be implemented, and our algorithms can approximate the performance of such idealized algorithms to an arbitrary degree while not introducing any bias for any degree of approximation. Our approach combines the dimension matching ideas of RJ-MCMC with annealed importance sampling and its Markov chain Monte Carlo implementation. We illustrate the performance of the algorithm with numerical simulations which indicate that, although the approach may at first appear computationally involved, it is in fact competitive.

  11. Reversion of a transcriptionally defective MHC class II-negative human B-cell mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Ombra, M N; Perfetto, C; Autiero, M; Anzisi, A M; Pasquinelli, R; Maffei, A; Del Pozzo, G; Guardiola, J

    1993-01-01

    RJ2.2.5, a mutant derived from the human B-lymphoma cell, Raji, is unable to express the MHC class II genes because of a recessive transcriptional defect attributed to the lack of an activator function. We report the isolation of a RJ2.2.5 revertant, namely AR, in which the expression of the mRNAs encoded by these genes is restored. Comparison of the binding of nuclear extracts or of partially purified nuclear preparations from the wild-type, the mutant and the revertant cells to a conserved MHC class II promoter element, the X-box, showed no alteration in the mobility of the complexes thus formed. However, in extracts from RJ2.2.5, and other MHC class II negative cell lines, such as HeLa, the amount of complex observed was significantly higher than in wild-type Raji cells. Furthermore, the binding activity exhibited by the AR revertant was lower than that of the RJ2.2.5 and higher than that of Raji. The use of specific monoclonal antibodies indicated that in all cases c-Jun and c-Fos or antigenically related proteins were required for binding. An inverse correlation between the level of DNA-protein complex formed and the level of MHC class II gene mRNA expressed in the three cell lines was apparent, suggesting that overexpression of a DNA binding factor forming complexes with class II promoter elements may cause repression of MHC class II transcription. A model which reconciles the previously ascertained recessivity of the phenotype of the mutation carried by RJ2.2.5 with the findings reported here is discussed. Images PMID:8441650

  12. Epigenetic Modification of Gene Expression in Honey Bees by Heterospecific Gland Secretions

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zachary Y.; Wang, Zi Long; Yan, Wei Yu; Zeng, Zhi Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Background In the honey bee (Apis mellifera), queen and workers have different behavior and reproductive capacity despite possessing the same genome. The primary substance that leads to this differentiation is royal jelly (RJ), which contains a range of proteins, amino acids, vitamins and nucleic acids. MicroRNA (miRNA) has been found to play an important role in regulating the expression of protein-coding genes and cell biology. In this study, we characterized the miRNAs in RJ from two honey bee sister species and determined their possible effect on transcriptome in one species. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced the miRNAs in RJ either from A. mellifera (RJM) or A. cerana (RJC). We then determined the global transcriptomes of adult A. mellifera developed from larvae fed either with RJM (mRJM) or RJC (mRJC). Finally we analyzed the target genes of those miRNA that are species specific or differentially expressed in the two honey bee species. We show that there were differences in miRNA between RJM and RJC, and that transcriptomes of adult A. mellifera were affected by the two types of RJ. A high proportion (23.3%) of the affected genes were target genes of differential miRNAs. Conclusion We show for the first time that there are differences in miRNAs in RJ between A. mellifera and A. cerana. Further, the differences in transcriptomes of bees reared from these two RJs might be related to miRNA differences of the two species. This study provides the first evidence that heterospecific royal jelly can modify gene expression in honey bees through an epigenetic mechanism. PMID:22928024

  13. Sky Observation with the Use of the Software Stellarium for Teaching Astronomy in Classes of Youth and Adult Education. (Spanish Title: Observación del Cielo con la Utilización del Software Stellarium en Las Clases de Educación de Jóvenes y Adultos.) Observação do Céu Aliada À Utilização do Software Stellarium no Ensino de Astronomia em Turmas de Educação de Jovens e Adultos (EJA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira Bernardes, Adriana

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a project developed through a partnership between the Astronomy Club of Itaocara Marcos Pontes (CAIMP) and Jaime de Souza Queiroz College, both located in the town of Itaocara, in the Northwest Fluminense, to disseminate Astronomy in adult education (Education for Youth and Adult). Given the interdisciplinary nature of Astronomy, we have developed this work to motivate the learning of this science by students in adult education, who attend the subjects Chemistry, Physics and Biology. Initially, we conducted a research in the school to assess the prior knowledge of Astronomy class of adult education, noting that there is little knowledge of basic concepts of the discipline. With these data, we were able to elaborate several activities that would enable a greater involvement of students with this science, performing in the school a work of improvement of scientific literacy, whose activities will be presented in this article. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar los resultados de un proyecto realizado por el Club de Astronomía de Itaocara "Marcos Pontes" (CAIMP), conjuntamente con el Colegio Estatal" Jaime de Souza Queiroz", ambos de la ciudad de Itaocara (Noroeste Fluminense - RJ, Brasil), para la difusión de la Astronomía entre los estudiantes, tanto adultos como adolescentes. Teniendo en cuenta la naturaleza interdisciplinaria de la Astronomía, se determinó motivar el estudio de esta ciencia en los estudiantes adultos de nivel secundario matriculados en las asignaturas de Química, Física y Biología. Como primer paso, se investigó el grado de conocimiento sobre astronomía del estudiante. Este estudio inicial mostró niveles de conocimiento muy bajos de los conceptos básicos de esta ciencia, muchos de los cuales deberían haber sido asimilados dentro del plan curricular del curso de Física. Este estudio previo permitió determinar las actividades adecuadas para promover un mayor envolvimiento de los estudiantes en las ciencias, o sea, elaborar y desarrollar un plan de alfabetización científica. Se describe en detalle este plan, las actividades realizadas y los resultados obtenidos hasta el presente. O objetivo do presente artigo é apresentar um projeto desenvolvido através de parceria entre o Clube de Astronomia de Itaocara Marcos Pontes (CAIMP) e o Colégio Estadual Jaime Queiroz de Souza, ambos localizados na cidade de Itaocara, no Noroeste Fluminense, no sentido de divulgar junto às turmas de EJA (Ensino de Jovens e Adultos) a disciplina Astronomia. Conhecendo o caráter interdisciplinar da Astronomia, desenvolvemos este trabalho para motivar o aprendizado de Ciências junto a alunos de EJA do Ensino Médio que cursam as disciplinas Química, Física e Biologia. Inicialmente, realizamos na escola pesquisa sobre o conhecimento prévio de Astronomia da turma de EJA, observando que é escasso o conhecimento de conceitos básicos do tema, muitos dos quais deveriam ser assimilados através do conteúdo da disciplina Física. Com esses dados, foi possível elaborar várias atividades que possibilitassem um maior envolvimento dos estudantes com a Ciência, realizando dentro da escola um trabalho de alfabetização científica, cujas atividades serão apresentadas neste artigo.

  14. Soil carbon stocks in response to management changes due to vinasse application in sugarcane production in southeast of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes Zani, Caio; Simoes Barneze, Arlete; Clemente Cerri, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Brazilian commodities, such as ethanol, are looking for sustainable production to suit the international market demands. Thus, studies about variations in soil carbon (C) stocks on the ethanol production are essential. Researches in relation of land use change are already been developed; however information about management changes on the sugarcane production is needed. According to Six et al. (2004) changing the management to conservationist practices can provide an organic matter accumulation to the soil and in a long-term, can increase the soil C stocks. The vinasse is a waste product of the sugarcane industry fuel which contains potassium and considerable quantities of other mineral nutrients. It is estimated that for each litre of ethanol produced is generated approximately 13 L of vinasse. Nowadays, almost all vinasse is applied to the soil as fertigation (Soares et al., 2009). The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in soil C stocks after the management change with or without vinasse application into sugarcane production in southeast Brazil. The soil sampling was carried out in a fuel industry located in São Paulo state, on July 2013. This area was always used a conventional management at least 34 years with application of mineral fertilizer. However, in the mid of 1990, one part of this area started to use vinasse as source of potassium in sugarcane production. In view of this, we conducted the experiment in these two areas of conventional management: i) without vinasse and ii) with vinasse application. Soil samples were collected in the nine trenches in each site: three trenches at 1 m soil depth and six mini-trenches up to 0.3 m. Samples were used to calculate the bulk density using the undisturbed method with a steel cylinder. Total C was measured by dry combustion on Carbon Analyzer - LECO® CN 2000®. The results showed that C content was a decrease with an increase soil depth. Soil C stocks for areas without vinasse application and vinasse application at 1 m depth were 117.23 Mg ha-1 and 126.92 Mg ha-1, and at 0.3 m depth we found 50.34 Mg ha-1 and 55.54 Mg ha-1, respectively. It represented an increase 8.3% and 10.3% in soil C stocks in areas with vinasse application at 1 m and 0.3 m soil depth. This information may be used as a basis for public policies decision which dealing of the land use and global warming. The scientific information obtained in this research will be included in carbon footprint calculation of ethanol production and its use as biofuel. References Ellert B.H., Bettany J.R. 1995. Calculation of organic matter and nutrients stored in soils under contrasting management regimes. Can. J. Soil Sci. 75:529-538. Six J., Ogle S.M., Breidt F.J., Conant R.T., Mosier A.R., Paustian K. 2004. The potential to mitigate global warming with no-tillage management is only realized when practiced in the long term. Glob. Chang. Biol. 10:155-160. Soares L.H.B., Alves B.J.R., Urquiaga S., Boddey R.M. 2009. Mitigação das emissões de gases efeito estufa pelo uso de etanol da cana-de-açúcar produzido no Brasil. Embrapa Agrobiologia, Seropédica, RJ. 14p. (Circular Técnica, 27).

  15. Impact of vinasse application in the C and N in the soils cultivaded with sugarcane in South Brasil, using Isotopic Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossete, A. M.; Medeiros, G. G.; Adorno, F. C.; Possignolo, N. V.; Moreira, M. Z.; Camargo, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    The main anthropogenic sources in the environment are fertilizers, pesticides, biomass burning, vehicle emissions, and disposal of urban and industrial waste. Vinasse is characterized as a residual of sugarcane distillery effluent with high concentrations of potassium and organic matter. The environmental impact caused by its use in the vinasse is modification chemical and physical properties in the soil and water. For this, the isotopic technique can be a powerful tool to understand the biogeochemical cycling of light elements (C and N). Some environmental studies have been conducted involving isotopic characterization of Carbon and Nitrogen in soil. Several soils cultivated with sugarcane of different regions of São Paulo state, Brazil, were analyzed to perform the isotopic characterization. The study area was selected where soil management is by mechanical harvesting of sugarcane and vinasse application. The area was divided into three parts: control (without cultivation); after mechanical harvesting of sugarcane; after mechanical harvesting of sugarcane and vinasse application. Three days after the harvest of sugarcane the vinasse was applied and sampling of soil surface was carried out in two periods of 7 and 30 days after application of vinasse. The isotopic determination in the sample soil and concentration of C and N was by IRMS, Thermo Delta Plus, allowing simultaneous determination of 13C/12C isotope ratios (δ13C) and 15N/14N (δ15N). The results of the C and N concentration in the vinasse applied were average values 2.52% and 0.02% and isotopic values of 13C and 15N were -14.1‰ and 5.2‰. The results for the C concentration of the three areas in two periods showed values around 0.86 to 1.01%. The 13C isotopic values were -16.8 to -15.0‰, demonstrating the predominant cultivation in the region in relation to δ13C values of C4 plant (sugarcane). The results of N analysis were 0.08 to 0.10% and 15N isotope analysis, showing values ranging from 7.9 to 8.5‰. No significant variation in concentration of N and C in three study areas was observed. Considering 13C and 15N isotopic characterization independent of management, there was noted no isotopic fractionation by microbial activity. The results evidenced that the addition of vinasse in the soil did not increase the concentration of C and N does not represent a source of C and N. Furthermore, the isotopic technique can be applied in studies involving biogeochemical cycling, aiming to identify progress or setbacks in the quality of soil and possible impact in ecosystem.

  16. Resistant hypertension: risk factors, subclinical atherosclerosis, and comorbidities among adults-the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Lotufo, Paulo A; Pereira, Alexandre C; Vasconcellos, Paulo S; Santos, Itamar S; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2015-01-01

    The frequency of resistant hypertension-defined as blood pressure (BP) ?140/90 mm Hg with proven use of three antihypertensive medications, or as the use of four antihypertensive drug classes regardless of BP-is unknown in low-middle-income countries. Using data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health, a cohort of 15,105 civil servants aged 35 to 74 years, the authors identified 4116 patients taking treatment for hypertension, 11% of who had resistant hypertension. These participants were more likely to be older, black, less educated, poorer, and obese. The adjusted prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) were diabetes, 1.44 (1.20-1.72); glomerular filtration rate (<60 mL/min/1.72 m(2) ), 1.95 (1.60-2.38); albumin-to-creatinine ratio (>300 mg/g), 2.43 (1.70-3.50); carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity, 1.07 m/s (1.03-1.11 m/s); common carotid intima-media thickness, 2.57 mm (1.64-4.00 mm); left ventricular hypertrophy, 2.08 (1.21-3.57); and atrial fibrillation, 3.55 (2.02-6.25). Thus, the prevalence of resistant hypertension in Brazil is high and associated with subclinical markers of end-organ cardiovascular damage. PMID:25338543

  17. Taxonomic Treatment of Solanum Section Petota (Wild Potatoes) in Catálogo de Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, y sur del Brasil)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum section Petota (Solanaceae), which includes the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its wild relatives, contains over 150 wild species distributed from the southwestern U.S.A. (38°N) to central Argentina and adjacent Chile (41°S). This catalog includes all species from the Southern Con...

  18. A Ideia de Universidade no Brasil: Influencia do Movimento de Cordoba (The Idea of the University in Brazil: Influences of the Cordoba Movement).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzilli, Sueli

    2000-01-01

    Examines influences of the Cordoba Movement in formulation of ideas concerning the inseparability among teaching, research, and extension--a new paradigm for the Brazilian university. Finds the formulation of this inseparability had its origins in the Brazilian student movement of the 1960s which included theses of the Cordoba Manifesto. (BT)

  19. O Direito Costumeiro na Legislacao e na Jurisprudencia do Brasil: A Desescravizacao (Common Law in Legislation and Jurisprudence in Brazil: Abolition of Slavery).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebara, Ademir

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates that in Brazil, common law was an important component for development of the political project, elaborated with the objective of organizing and disciplining the formation of a market of free workers. Considers that the history of work relations originated in the Portuguese discovery of Brazil in the 16th century. (BT)

  20. A Educacao dos Portadores de Necessidades Especiais no Brasil no Periodo de 1910 a 1949 (Education of Those with Special Needs in Brazil from 1920 to 1949).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques, Carlos Alberto; Santiago, Mylene Cristina; de Moura, Simone Moreira

    2000-01-01

    Examines education given to those with special needs in Brazil from 1910-1949. Shows the dichotomy of meanings in which the education of special needs persons during that period, besides being marked by concepts related to the exclusion paradigm, already indicated signs of respect for diversity and civil rights. (BT)

  1. Inconsistency of Association between Coffee Consumption and Cognitive Function in Adults and Elderly in a Cross-Sectional Study (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Larissa Fortunato; Giatti, Luana; dos Reis, Rodrigo C. Padilha; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B.; Ikram, Mohammad Arfan; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages worldwide and the effect on cognition appears to be task specific and vary by age. Method: In cohort of 14,563 public service workers (35–74 years old) we assessed coffee consumption habits and examined cognitive function using standardized neuropsychological test battery. By linear regression and generalize linear regression with logarithmic link and gamma distribution we investigated the relation of coffee consumption (never/almost never, ?1 cup/day, 2–3 cups/day, ?3 cups/day) in the last 12 months to performance on specific domains of cognition for adults and elderly separately. Results: Among elderly, after adjustments, coffee consumption was associated only with an increase in the mean words remembered on learning, recall, and word recognition tests when comparing the 2–3 cups/day to never/almost never category (arithmetic mean ratio (AMR): 1.03; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.00 to 1.07), and to an increase in the mean words pronounced in semantic verbal fluency test when comparing the ?3 cups/day to never/almost never category (difference of the mean: 1.23; 95% CI: 0.16 to 2.29). However, coffee consumption was not associated with any cognitive function tests in adults and also was not associated with the phonemic verbal fluency test and trail-making test B in elderly. Conclusions: Results suggest that coffee consumption might be slightly beneficial to memory in elderly but lacks a dose response relationship. Longitudinal analyses are needed to investigate possible, even if subtle, positive effects of coffee drinking on specific cognitive domains in elderly. PMID:26610556

  2. Inconsistent Correlation Between Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness and Peripheral Arterial Tonometry: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Lemos, Sara P; Passos, Valéria Maria A; Brant, Luisa C C; Bensenor, Isabela J M; Ribeiro, Antônio Luiz P; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2015-08-01

    To estimate the association between 2 markers for atherosclerosis, measurements of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and of peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT), and to evaluate the role of traditional cardiovascular risk factors in this association.We applied the 2 diagnostic tests to 588 participants from the ELSA-Brazil longitudinal study cohort. The PAT measurements, obtained with the EndoPAT2000, were the reactive hyperemia index (RHI), the Framingham RHI (F-RHI), and the mean basal pulse amplitude (BPA). We used the mean of the mean scores of carotid IMT of the distal layers of the left and right common carotids obtained by ultrasonography after 3 cardiac cycles. We used linear regression and the Spearman correlation coefficient to test the relationship between the 2 markers, and multiple linear regressions to exam the relationship between the RHI/F-RHI scores and the mean BPA and IMT scores after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors.In the multivariate analysis, RHI (but not F-RHI) was positively correlated with the mean of the means of the IMT values after adjusting for sex and risk factors connected with both measures (??=?0.05, P?=?0.02). Mean BPA did not remain significantly associated with IMT after adjusting for common risk factors.We found that the higher the IMT (or the worse the IMT), the higher the RHI (or the better the endothelial function). F-RHI was not associated with IMT. These 2 results are against the direction that one would expect and may imply that digital endothelial function (RHI and F-RHI) and IMT correspond to distinct and independent stages of the complex atherosclerosis process and represent different pathways in the disease's progression. Therefore, IMT and PAT measures may be considered complementary and not interchangeable. PMID:26287431

  3. Physical demands during the hauling of fishing nets for artisan fishing using rafts in beach of Ponta Negra, Natal--Brasil.

    PubMed

    Jaeschke, Anelena; Saldanha, Maria Christine Werba

    2012-01-01

    The current article aims to analyse the activity and the repercussions in the health of the artisan fishermen who use rafts in the urban Beach of Ponta Negra in Natal - RN, with emphasis on the physical demands at the step of hauling the nets from the ocean. It has been taken as a reference the methodology of Work Ergonomic Analysis-WEA. 21 fishermen participated in the study (50% of the population). It was used applying observational techniques and methodologies (open and sistematic observations and simulations) interactional ( social and economic questionnaire, conversational actions, verbalizations, self confrontations and collective analysis) and health assessment (static postural assessment, movement flexibility of flexo extension of the shoulder and the ischiotibial muscle, lumbar region and hang grip. Applying the diagram of painful areas and the Nordic Questionnaire of mucleskeletal symptoms). The results were submeted to restitutions and validations with the raftmen. The hauling of the nets represents a high muscleskeletal risk, joining physical effort, adopting forced postures with the rotation of the spine and movement repetition, mainly flexo extension of vertebral spine, aggravated by the demand of strength fo the stabilizing muscles of the human body to keep the poise. The impacts of the activity of the fisherman of Ponta Negra, related to postures and strength demand were observed in the postural assessment and are related to the activity. PMID:22316760

  4. Cidadania Negada: A Educacao como Instrumento de Combate a Pobreza no Brasil (Denial of Citizenship: Education as a Way to Fight Poverty in Brazil).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germano, Jose Willington

    1995-01-01

    Compares two compensatory social/educational programs developed by the Brazilian government in the last 15 years. States that although one was formulated during the military regime and one during the present government, they both combat poverty and encourage privatization. Concludes that this promotes a process that sees education as social…

  5. Clinical and Pharmaceutical Solutions through Analysis (CPSA BRASIL 2015): on the way to innovation - pharmaceutical/analytical technology, regulation and knowledge management.

    PubMed

    Needham, Shane; Yates, Nathan; Barrientos, Rafael; Steel, Martin; Lee, Mike

    2015-12-01

    Clinical and Pharmaceutical Solutions through Analysis, São Paulo, Brazil, 3-5 August 2015 The 2nd Annual Symposium on Clinical and Pharmaceutical Solutions through Analysis was held on 3-5 August 2015 at Club Transatlântico, São Paulo, Brazil. This annual meeting began in 2014 and was the first industry-led event in Brazil to focus on the specific needs of industry researchers while bringing together technology and regulators. The goal of CPSA is to provide an in-depth review of innovative technology and industry practices through open discussion of industry-related issues and needs. Education and specialized training are the foundation of all CPSA events. As the industry has evolved so has CPSA. The CPSA annual meeting thrived with high quality scientific content, open interaction from industry opinion leaders and a collegial environment. PMID:26617112

  6. Cidadania Negada: A Educacao como Instrumento de Combate a Pobreza no Brasil (Denial of Citizenship: Education as a Way to Fight Poverty in Brazil).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germano, Jose Willington

    1995-01-01

    Compares two compensatory social/educational programs developed by the Brazilian government in the last 15 years. States that although one was formulated during the military regime and one during the present government, they both combat poverty and encourage privatization. Concludes that this promotes a process that sees education as social…

  7. Estimation of atmospheric turbidity and surface radiative parameters using broadband clear sky solar irradiance models in Rio de Janeiro-Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, José L.; Karam, Hugo A.; Marques Filho, Edson P.; Pereira Filho, Augusto J.

    2016-02-01

    The main goal of this paper is to estimate a set of optimal seasonal, daily, and hourly values of atmospheric turbidity and surface radiative parameters Ångström's turbidity coefficient ( β), Ångström's wavelength exponent ( α), aerosol single scattering albedo ( ω o ), forward scatterance ( F c ) and average surface albedo ( ρ g ), using the Brute Force multidimensional minimization method to minimize the difference between measured and simulated solar irradiance components, expressed as cost functions. In order to simulate the components of short-wave solar irradiance (direct, diffuse and global) for clear sky conditions, incidents on a horizontal surface in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro (MARJ), Brazil (22° 51' 27″ S, 43° 13' 58″ W), we use two parameterized broadband solar irradiance models, called CPCR2 and Iqbal C, based on synoptic information. The meteorological variables such as precipitable water ( u w ) and ozone concentration ( u o ) required by the broadband solar models were obtained from moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on Terra and Aqua NASA platforms. For the implementation and validation processes, we use global and diffuse solar irradiance data measured by the radiometric platform of LabMiM, located in the north area of the MARJ. The data were measured between the years 2010 and 2012 at 1-min intervals. The performance of solar irradiance models using optimal parameters was evaluated with several quantitative statistical indicators and a subset of measured solar irradiance data. Some daily results for Ångström's wavelength exponent α were compared with Ångström's parameter (440-870 nm) values obtained by aerosol robotic network (AERONET) for 11 days, showing an acceptable level of agreement. Results for Ångström's turbidity coefficient β, associated with the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere, show a seasonal pattern according with increased precipitation during summer months (December-February) in the MARJ.

  8. Estimation of atmospheric turbidity and surface radiative parameters using broadband clear sky solar irradiance models in Rio de Janeiro-Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, José L.; Karam, Hugo A.; Marques Filho, Edson P.; Pereira Filho, Augusto J.

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to estimate a set of optimal seasonal, daily, and hourly values of atmospheric turbidity and surface radiative parameters Ångström's turbidity coefficient (?), Ångström's wavelength exponent (?), aerosol single scattering albedo (? o ), forward scatterance (F c ) and average surface albedo (? g ), using the Brute Force multidimensional minimization method to minimize the difference between measured and simulated solar irradiance components, expressed as cost functions. In order to simulate the components of short-wave solar irradiance (direct, diffuse and global) for clear sky conditions, incidents on a horizontal surface in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro (MARJ), Brazil (22° 51' 27? S, 43° 13' 58? W), we use two parameterized broadband solar irradiance models, called CPCR2 and Iqbal C, based on synoptic information. The meteorological variables such as precipitable water (u w ) and ozone concentration (u o ) required by the broadband solar models were obtained from moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on Terra and Aqua NASA platforms. For the implementation and validation processes, we use global and diffuse solar irradiance data measured by the radiometric platform of LabMiM, located in the north area of the MARJ. The data were measured between the years 2010 and 2012 at 1-min intervals. The performance of solar irradiance models using optimal parameters was evaluated with several quantitative statistical indicators and a subset of measured solar irradiance data. Some daily results for Ångström's wavelength exponent ? were compared with Ångström's parameter (440-870 nm) values obtained by aerosol robotic network (AERONET) for 11 days, showing an acceptable level of agreement. Results for Ångström's turbidity coefficient ?, associated with the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere, show a seasonal pattern according with increased precipitation during summer months (December-February) in the MARJ.

  9. [Quality of life of primary care patients in Rio de Janeiro and SãoPaulo, Brasil: associations with stressful life events and mental health].

    PubMed

    Portugal, Flávia Batista; Campos, Mônica Rodrigues; Gonçalves, Daniel Almeida; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Fortes, Sandra Lúcia Correia Lima

    2016-02-01

    Quality of life (QoL) is a subjective construct, which can be negatively associated with factors such as mental disorders and stressful life events (SLEs). This article seeks to identify the association between socioeconomic and demographic variables, common mental disorders, symptoms suggestive of depression and anxiety, SLEs with QoL in patients attended in Primary Care (PC). It is a transversal study, conducted with 1,466 patients attended in PC centers in the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro in 2009 and 2010. Bivariate analysis was performed using the T-test and four multiple linear regressions for each QoL domain. The scores for the physical, psychological, social relations and environment domains were, respectively, 64.7; 64.2; 68.5 and 49.1. By means of multivariate analysis, associations of the physical domain were found with health problems and discrimination; of the psychological domain with discrimination; of social relations with financial/structural problems; of external causes and health problems; and of the environment with financial/structural problems, external causes and discrimination. Mental health variables, health problems and financial/structural problems were the factors negatively associated with QoL. PMID:26910157

  10. Simulated Extreme Prepitation Indices over Northeast Brasil in Current Climate and Future Scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wender Santiago Marinho, Marcos; Araújo Costa, Alexandre; Cassain Sales, Domingo; Oliveira Guimarães, Sullyandro; Mariano da Silva, Emerson; das Chagas Vasconcelos Júnior, Francisco

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we analyzed extreme precipitation indices, for present and future modeled climates over Northeast of Brazil (NEB), from CORDEX simulations over the domain of Tropical Americas. The period for the model validation was from 1989-2007, using data from the European Center (ECWMF) Reanalysis, ERA-INTERIM, as input to drive the regional model (RAMS 6.0). Reanalysis data were assimilated via both lateral boundaries and the entire domain (a much weaker "central nudging"). Six indices of extreme precipitation were calculated over NEB: the average number of days above 10, 20 and 30 mm in one year (R10, R20, R30), the number of consecutive dry days (CDD), the number of consecutive wet days (CWD) and the maximum rainfall in five consecutive days (RX5). Those indices were compared against two independent databases: MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications) and TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission). After validation, climate simulations were performed for the present climate (1985-2005) and short-term (2015-2035), mid-term (2045-2065) and long-term (2079 to 2099) future climates for two scenarios: RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, nesting RAMS into HadGEM2-ES global model (a participant of CMIP5). Along with the indices, we also calculated Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) to study the behavior of daily precipitation in the present and by the end of the 21st century (2079 to 2099) to assess possible changes under RCPs 4.5 and 8.5. The regional model is capable of representing relatively well the extreme precipitation indices for current climate, but there is some difficulties in performing a proper validation since the observed databases disagree significantly. Future projections show significant changes in most extreme indices. Rnn generally tend to increase, especially under RCP8.5. More significant changes are projected for the long-term period, under RCP8.5, which shows a pronounced R30 enhancement over northern states. CDD tends to decrease over most of NEB in the short but this trend is reverted toward the end of the century in both scenarios with a significant increase in the duration of the dry season over Northwestern and Eastern NEB (exceeding 50 days over certain areas), whereas projected CWD changes are smaller. Rx5 shows a general increasing trend especially in the long term period,under RCP8.5.

  11. Dating human occupation at Toca do Serrote das Moendas, São Raimundo Nonato, Piauí-Brasil by electron spin resonance and optically stimulated luminescence.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Angela; Skinner, Anne R; Guidon, Niede; Ignacio, Elaine; Felice, Gisele Daltrini; Buco, Cristiane de A; Tatumi, Sonia; Yee, Márcio; Figueiredo, Ana Maria Graciano; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2014-12-01

    Excavation of Toca do Serrote das Moendas, in Piauí state, Brazil revealed a great quantity of fossil wild fauna associated with human remains. In particular, fossils of a cervid (Blastocerus dichotomus) were found, an animal frequently pictured in ancient rock wall paintings. In a well-defined stratum, two loose teeth of this species were found in close proximity to human bones. The teeth were independently dated by electron spin resonance (ESR) in two laboratories. The ages obtained for the teeth were 29 ± 3 ka (thousands of years) and 24 ± 1 ka. The concretion layer capping this stratum was dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of the quartz grains to 21 ± 3 ka. As these values were derived independently in three different laboratories, using different methods and equipment, these results are compelling evidence of early habitation in this area. PMID:25456825

  12. Landslide Susceptibility Analysis by the comparison and integration of Random Forest and Logistic Regression methods; application to the disaster of Nova Friburgo - Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (January 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Carlo; Barra, Anna; Evans, Stephen G.; Scarascia Mugnozza, Gabriele; Delaney, Keith

    2014-05-01

    The study of landslide susceptibility by multivariate statistical methods is based on finding a quantitative relationship between controlling factors and landslide occurrence. Such studies have become popular in the last few decades thanks to the development of geographic information systems (GIS) software and the related improved data management. In this work we applied a statistical approach to an area of high landslide susceptibility mainly due to its tropical climate and geological-geomorphological setting. The study area is located in the south-east region of Brazil that has frequently been affected by flood and landslide hazard, especially because of heavy rainfall events during the summer season. In this work we studied a disastrous event that occurred on January 11th and 12th of 2011, which involved Região Serrana (the mountainous region of Rio de Janeiro State) and caused more than 5000 landslides and at least 904 deaths. In order to produce susceptibility maps, we focused our attention on an area of 93,6 km2 that includes Nova Friburgo city. We utilized two different multivariate statistic methods: Logistic Regression (LR), already widely used in applied geosciences, and Random Forest (RF), which has only recently been applied to landslide susceptibility analysis. With reference to each mapping unit, the first method (LR) results in a probability of landslide occurrence, while the second one (RF) gives a prediction in terms of % of area susceptible to slope failure. With this aim in mind, a landslide inventory map (related to the studied event) has been drawn up through analyses of high-resolution GeoEye satellite images, in a GIS environment. Data layers of 11 causative factors have been created and processed in order to be used as continuous numerical or discrete categorical variables in statistical analysis. In particular, the logistic regression method has frequent difficulties in managing numerical continuous and discrete categorical variables together; therefore in our work we tried different methods to process categorical variables , until we obtained a statistically significant model. The outcomes of the two statistical methods (RF and LR) have been tested with a spatial validation and gave us two susceptibility maps. The significance of the models is quantified in terms of Area Under ROC Curve (AUC resulted in 0.81 for RF model and in 0.72 for LR model). In the first instance, a graphical comparison of the two methods shows a good correspondence between them. Further, we integrated results in a unique susceptibility map which maintains both information of probability of occurrence and % of area of landslide detachment, resulting from LR and RF respectively. In fact, in view of a landslide susceptibility classification of the study area, the former is less accurate but gives easily classifiable results, while the latter is more accurate but the results can be only subjectively classified. The obtained "integrated" susceptibility map preserves information about the probability that a given % of area could fail for each mapping unit.

  13. Jupiter revisited: first results from the university of chicago charged particle experiment on pioneer 11.

    PubMed

    Simpson, J A; Hamilton, D C; Lentz, G A; McKibben, R B; Perkins, M; Pyle, K R; Tuzzolino, A J; O'gallagher, J J

    1975-05-01

    During the December 1974 Pioneer 11 Jupiter encounter our experiment provided measurements of Jovian energetic protons and electrons both in the magnetic equatorial zone and at previously unexplored high magnetic latitudes. Many of the observations and conclusions from the Pioneer 10 encounter in 1973 were confirmed, with several important exceptions and new findings. We report evidence from Pioneer 11 for protons ( approximately 1 million electron volts) of Jovian origin in interplanetary space. In the outer magnetosphere particle intensities at high magnetic latitudes were comparable to those observed in the equatorial zone, and 10-hour variations in particle intensities and spectra were observed at both high and low magnetic latitudes. Therefore, confinement of particles in the outer magnetosphere to a thin equatorial magnetodisc is adequate neither as a description of the particle distribution nor as a complete explanation of the 10-hour variations. Pioneer 11 data support a model in which the intensity varies with a 10-hour period in phase throughout the sunward side of the magnetosphere and is relatively independent of position within the magnetosphere. Transient, highly anisotropic bursts of protons with energies of approximately 1 million electron volts observed near the orbit of Ganymede suggest local acceleration in some regions of the magnetosphere. In the inner core where particles are stably trapped, a maximum in the high-energy nucleonic flux was again found, corresponding to the Pioneer 10 maximum at approximately 3.4 Jupiter radii (R(J)), which is apparently a persistent feature of, the inner radiation zone. In addition, Pioneer 11 data indicate two more local maxima in the nucleonic flux inside 3.4 R(J), one of which may be associated with absorption by Amalthea, and a maximum intensity at 1.9 R(J) more than 20 times that at 3.4 R(J), The flux of relativistic electrons reached a maximum on the magnetic equator at 1.8 R(J), only slightly less its closest approach at 3.1 R(J). PMID:17734360

  14. Quantum state transfer and controlled-phase gate on one-dimensional superconducting resonators assisted by a quantum bus

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Ming; Tao, Ming-Jie; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2016-01-01

    We propose a quantum processor for the scalable quantum computation on microwave photons in distant one-dimensional superconducting resonators. It is composed of a common resonator R acting as a quantum bus and some distant resonators rj coupled to the bus in different positions assisted by superconducting quantum interferometer devices (SQUID), different from previous processors. R is coupled to one transmon qutrit, and the coupling strengths between rj and R can be fully tuned by the external flux through the SQUID. To show the processor can be used to achieve universal quantum computation effectively, we present a scheme to complete the high-fidelity quantum state transfer between two distant microwave-photon resonators and another one for the high-fidelity controlled-phase gate on them. By using the technique for catching and releasing the microwave photons from resonators, our processor may play an important role in quantum communication as well. PMID:26907366

  15. Tuning properties and dynamic range of type 1 vomeronasal receptors

    PubMed Central

    Haga-Yamanaka, Sachiko; Ma, Limei; Yu, C. Ron

    2015-01-01

    The mouse vomeronasal organ (VNO) expresses chemosensory receptors that detect intra-species as well as inter-species cues. The vomeronasal neurons are thought to be highly selective in their responses. The tuning properties of individual receptors remain difficult to characterize due to the lack of a robust heterologous expression system. Here, we take a transgenic approach to ectopically express two type 1 vomeronasal receptors in the mouse VNO and characterize their responses to steroid compounds. We find that V1rj2 and V1rj3 are sensitive to two sulfated estrogens (SEs) and can be activated by a broad variety of sulfated and glucuronidated steroids at high concentrations. Individual neurons exhibit narrow range of concentration-dependent activation. Collectively, a neuronal population expressing the same receptor covers a wide dynamic range in their responses to SEs. These properties recapitulate the response profiles of endogenous neurons to SEs. PMID:26236183

  16. Symmetry and charge factor in Eu3+ ion doped compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couto dos Santos, Marcos A.

    2012-08-01

    Symmetry and electrostatic equilibrium in lanthanide compounds are discussed with the aim of improving the role of obtaining the charge factors, gj, of the nearest neighbours (NN) of the lanthanide site, j running over the NN, now using the gj vs Rj (the NN position) linear behaviour. The simple overlap model (SOM) and the method of equivalent nearest neighbours (MENN), are used in order to calculate the crystal field parameters and the 7F1 level splitting in complexes, crystals and glass. An inferior limit of the gj position is predicted for crystals and complexes, which is around the limit of 5s and 5p filled shells and may indicate different contraction/extension of the 4f wave functions. Further, it is discussed the possibility that, perhaps, the B4q and B6q parameters are not dependent on Rj in the same way as the B2q parameter is.

  17. Evaluation of cetacean exposure to organotin compounds in Brazilian waters through hepatic total tin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Dorneles, Paulo R; Lailson-Brito, José; Fernandez, Marcos A S; Vidal, Lara G; Barbosa, Lupércio A; Azevedo, Alexandre F; Fragoso, Ana B L; Torres, João P M; Malm, Olaf

    2008-12-01

    In Brazil, there is no restriction to the use of organotins (OTs). Previous investigations have shown that hepatic SigmaSn in cetaceans is predominantly organic. Hepatic SigmaSn concentrations were determined by GFAAS in 67 cetaceans (13 species) that stranded on Rio de Janeiro (RJ) and Espirito Santo (ES) states. Concentrations (in ng/g wet wt.) of marine tucuxis (n=20) from the highly contaminated Guanabara Bay (in RJ) varied from 1703 to 9638. Concentrations of three marine tucuxi foetuses and one newborn calf (all from Guanabara Bay) varied between 431 and 2107. Contrastingly, the maximum level among 19 oceanic dolphins was 346, and 15 out of these 19 specimens presented concentrations below detection limit. The levels of Sn in six marine tucuxis from a less contaminated area (ES) varied from below detection limit to 744. Comparing to the literature, coastal cetaceans from Brazil appear to be highly exposed to OTs. PMID:18440109

  18. Characterizing the Energetic Heavy Ion Environment Inside 4 Jovian Radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, C. M.; Stone, E. C.

    2004-05-01

    On 21 September 2003 Galileo impacted Jupiter to end its 8-year tour of the Jovian magentosphere. During this last phase data was collected in the very inner part of the magnetosphere at distances < 4 Rj. The region from 2 to 4 Rj was previously explored by Galileo during its 34th orbit around Jupiter. We present the combined data from these two passes obtained by the Heavy Ion Counter (HIC) for heavy ions at energies above 2 MeV/nucleon. In particular we discuss the significant ion absorption near the moons Thebe and Amalthea, the anisotropic pitch angle distribution and the dramatic increase in heavy ion intensity with decreasing radius seen in this region

  19. Quantum state transfer and controlled-phase gate on one-dimensional superconducting resonators assisted by a quantum bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Ming; Tao, Ming-Jie; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2016-02-01

    We propose a quantum processor for the scalable quantum computation on microwave photons in distant one-dimensional superconducting resonators. It is composed of a common resonator R acting as a quantum bus and some distant resonators rj coupled to the bus in different positions assisted by superconducting quantum interferometer devices (SQUID), different from previous processors. R is coupled to one transmon qutrit, and the coupling strengths between rj and R can be fully tuned by the external flux through the SQUID. To show the processor can be used to achieve universal quantum computation effectively, we present a scheme to complete the high-fidelity quantum state transfer between two distant microwave-photon resonators and another one for the high-fidelity controlled-phase gate on them. By using the technique for catching and releasing the microwave photons from resonators, our processor may play an important role in quantum communication as well.

  20. NO2 photolysis frequencies in street canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koepke, P.; Garhammer, M.; Hess, M.; Roeth, E.-P.

    2010-08-01

    Photolysis frequencies for NO2 are modeled for the conditions in urban streets, which are taken into account as canyons with variable height and width. The effect of a street canyon is presented with absolute values and as a ratio RJ of the photolysis frequency within the street compared to that with free horizon. This allows further use of the existing photolysis parameterizations. Values are presented for variable solar elevation and azimuth angles, varying atmospheric conditions and different street properties. The NO2 photolysis frequency in a street depends strongly on the relative width of the street and its orientation towards the sun. Averaged over atmospheric conditions and street orientation, the NO2 photolysis frequency is reduced in comparison with the values for free horizon: to less than 20% for narrow skyscraper streets, to about 40% for typical urban streets, and only to about 80% for garden streets. A parameterization with the global solar irradiance is given for the averaged RJ values.

  1. An ear-worn continuous ballistocardiogram (BCG) sensor for cardiovascular monitoring.

    PubMed

    He, David Da; Winokur, Eric S; Sodini, Charles G

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, ballistocardiogram (BCG) has been measured using large and stationary devices. In this work, we demonstrate a portable and continuous BCG monitor that is wearable at the ear. The device has the form factor of a hearing aid and is wirelessly connected to a PC for data recording and analysis. With the ear as an anchoring point, the device uses a MEMS tri-axial accelerometer to measure BCG at the head. Morphological differences exist between head BCG and traditional BCG, but the principal peaks (J waves) and their vectors are preserved. The frequency of J waves corresponds to heart rate, and when used in conjunction with an electrocardiogram's (ECG) R wave, the timing of J waves yields the RJ interval. Results from our clinical study show linear correlation between the RJ interval and the heart's pre-ejection period during hemodynamic maneuvers, thus revealing important information about cardiac contractility and its regulation. PMID:23367058

  2. An Ear-worn Continuous Ballistocardiogram (BCG) Sensor for Cardiovascular Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    He, David Da; Winokur, Eric S.; Sodini, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, ballistocardiogram (BCG) has been measured using large and stationary devices. In this work, we demonstrate a portable and continuous BCG monitor that is wearable at the ear. The device has the form factor of a hearing aid and is wirelessly connected to a PC for data recording and analysis. With the ear as an anchoring point, the device uses a MEMS tri-axial accelerometer to measure BCG at the head. Morphological differences exist between head BCG and traditional BCG, but the principal peaks (J waves) and their vectors are preserved. The frequency of J waves corresponds to heart rate, and when used in conjunction with an electrocardiogram's (ECG) R wave, the timing of J waves yields the RJ interval. Results from our clinical study show linear correlation between the RJ interval and the heart's pre-ejection period during hemodynamic maneuvers, thus revealing important information about cardiac contractility and its regulation. PMID:23367058

  3. Non-invasive estimation of cardiovascular parameters using ballistocardiography.

    PubMed

    van Rooij, B J M; Tavakolian, K; Arzanpour, S; Blaber, A P; Leguy, C A D

    2015-08-01

    Ballistocardiography is a non-invasive technique to estimate heart function and relative changes in cardiac output. The goal of this study was to establish the relationship between ballistocardiogram (BCG) parameters and changes in cardiovascular parameters. A group of 20 subjects performed three different exercises on a force plate. In this study, we have characterized the significant differences induced by static and dynamic squats, and controlled respiration exercises on BCG parameters such as IJ-amplitude and RJ-time. The dynamic squat exercise induced the largest changes in IJ-amplitude (107-123% higher) and the RJ-time (21-23% lower). Furthermore, the IJ-amplitude of the BCG signal was found to be positively related to the cardiac output. PMID:26736493

  4. Factorization of Operators Evolved with the Similarity Renormalization Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, E. R.; Bogner, S. K.; Furnstahl, R. J.; Perry, R. J.

    2010-02-01

    The Similarity Renormalization Group (SRG) flow equations are a series of unitary transformations which can be used to to achieve different patterns of decoupling in a Hamiltonian. An SRG transformation applied to internucleon interactions leads to greatly improved convergence properties.footnotetextS.K. Bogner, R.J. Furnstahl, and R.J. Perry, Phys. Rev. C 75 (2007) 061001. A principal advantage of SRG transformations is that all operators can be consistently transformed, so that all observables are invariant. Calculations of the two-body momentum-distribution reveal an apparent factorization of the unitary transformation, (U(k,q) K(k)Q(q)) for (kλ) and (qλ). The emergence of a nonrelativistic operator product expansion and factorization will be discussed. )

  5. Operator Evolution Using SRG Flow Equations for Few-Body Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, E. R.; Bogner, S. K.; Furnstahl, R. J.; Jurgenson, E. D.; Perry, R. J.

    2009-10-01

    The Similarity Renormalization Group (SRG) flow equations are a series of unitary transformations which can be used to to achieve different patterns of decoupling in a Hamiltonian. An SRG transformation applied to internucleon interactions leads to greatly improved convergence properties while preserving observables. Not only does it provide a way to consistently evolve many-body potentials, but also other operators.footnotetextS.K. Bogner, R.J. Furnstahl, and R.J. Perry, Phys. Rev. C 75 (2007) 061001. Here, a method to implement SRG evolved few-body operators is applied to both model and realistic calculations. Properties of the corresponding observables are explored for both long- and short- range operators. Methods to improve their convergence in a truncated model space are also considered.

  6. Towards royal jelly proteome.

    PubMed

    Scarselli, Roberta; Donadio, Elena; Giuffrida, Maria Gabriella; Fortunato, Donatella; Conti, Amedeo; Balestreri, Ettore; Felicioli, Romano; Pinzauti, Mauro; Sabatini, Anna Gloria; Felicioli, Antonio

    2005-02-01

    The recent availability of the honey-bee Apis mellifera genome and trascriptome of both the female castes, has stimulated new efforts in investigating the protein composition of royal jelly (RJ), its role in caste differentiation and its quality and typicality by a proteomic approach. This study is aimed both to separate and identify proteins of royal jelly and to detect some of them in honey-bee pollen-bread by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and by de novo sequencing. All the identified proteins belonged to the Apis mellifera genome. Apalbumin 1 was also confirmed to be present in honey-bee pollen-bread where the presence of apalbumin 2 was also found. In addition several fragments of apalbumin 1 and apalbumin 3 were also found in RJ. These could be the result of protease activity other than that of serine-protease. This study is a contribution to the description of royal jelly proteome. PMID:15693061

  7. Oral Administration of Royal Jelly Restores Tear Secretion Capacity in Rat Blink-Suppressed Dry Eye Model by Modulating Lacrimal Gland Function

    PubMed Central

    Imada, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Shigeru; Kitamura, Naoki; Shibuya, Izumi; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Tears are secreted from the lacrimal gland (LG), a dysfunction in which induces dry eye, resulting in ocular discomfort and visual impairment. Honey bee products are used as a nutritional source in daily life and medicine; however, little is known about their effects on dry eye. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of honey bee products on tear secretion capacity in dry eye. We selected raw honey, propolis, royal jelly (RJ), pollen, or larva from commercially available honey bee products. Tear secretion capacity was evaluated following the oral administration of each honey bee product in a rat blink-suppressed dry eye model. Changes in tear secretion, LG ATP content, and LG mitochondrial levels were measured. RJ restored the tear secretion capacity and decrease in LG ATP content and mitochondrial levels to the largest extent. Royal jelly can be used as a preventative intervention for dry eye by managing tear secretion capacity in the LG. PMID:25243778

  8. NO2 photolysis frequencies in street canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koepke, P.; Garhammer, M.; Hess, M.; Roeth, E.-P.

    2010-05-01

    Photolysis frequencies for NO2 are modeled for the conditions in urban streets, which are taken into account as canyons with variable height and width. The effect of a street canyon is presented with absolute values and as a ratio RJ of the photolysis frequency within the street against those with free horizon, which allows further use of the existing photolysis parameterizations. Values are presented for variable solar elevation and azimuth angles, varying atmospheric conditions and different street properties. The NO2 photolysis frequency in the street, averaged over atmospheric conditions and street orientation, is reduced to less than 20% for narrow streets, to about 40% for typical urban streets, and only to about 80% for garden streets, each with about ±5% uncertainty. A parameterization of RJ with the global solar irradiance is given for values that are averaged over the meteorological conditions and the street orientation.

  9. Quantum state transfer and controlled-phase gate on one-dimensional superconducting resonators assisted by a quantum bus.

    PubMed

    Hua, Ming; Tao, Ming-Jie; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2016-01-01

    We propose a quantum processor for the scalable quantum computation on microwave photons in distant one-dimensional superconducting resonators. It is composed of a common resonator R acting as a quantum bus and some distant resonators rj coupled to the bus in different positions assisted by superconducting quantum interferometer devices (SQUID), different from previous processors. R is coupled to one transmon qutrit, and the coupling strengths between rj and R can be fully tuned by the external flux through the SQUID. To show the processor can be used to achieve universal quantum computation effectively, we present a scheme to complete the high-fidelity quantum state transfer between two distant microwave-photon resonators and another one for the high-fidelity controlled-phase gate on them. By using the technique for catching and releasing the microwave photons from resonators, our processor may play an important role in quantum communication as well. PMID:26907366

  10. Les auditeurs polonais des cours de minéralogie de René Just Haüy au Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarkowski, Rados?aw; Daszkiewicz, Piotr

    2006-09-01

    The paper analyses a list of thirty-four Poles, listeners to the mineralogy lectures given by R.-J. Haüy at MNHN in Paris. These students played an important role in the history of Polish Earth Sciences (S. Staszic and F. Drzewi?ski), but also in other scientific fields (J. Markowski, I. Ab?amowicz, F. Drzewi?ski, M.A. Paw?owicz, J.K. Skrodzki, E.K. Nowicki), and even in political and cultural life of Poland (A. Downarowicz, J. Weyssenhoff, S. Plater, J. Bieli?ski, F. Potocki). This paper presents later relations between R.-J. Haüy and his Polish students. A possibility of the Poles' attendance to mineralogy lectures given at other Parisian scientific institutions, like the 'École des mines' and the 'College de France', is also discussed. To cite this article: R. Tarkowski, P. Daszkiewicz, C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  11. The Creation of Industry Front Groups: The Tobacco Industry and “Get Government Off Our Back”

    PubMed Central

    Apollonio, Dorie E.; Bero, Lisa A.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated how industries use front groups to combat public health measures by analyzing tobacco industry documents, contemporaneous media reports, journal articles, and press releases regarding “Get Government Off Our Back,” a coalition created by the tobacco industry. RJ Reynolds created Get Government Off Our Back in 1994 to fight federal regulation of tobacco. By keeping its involvement secret, RJ Reynolds was able to draw public and legislative support and to avoid the tobacco industry reputation for misrepresenting evidence. The tobacco industry is not unique in its creation of such groups. Research on organizational background and funding could identify other industry front groups. Those who seek to establish measures to protect public health should be prepared to counter the argument that government should not regulate private behavior. PMID:17267719

  12. Trophic relationships and habitat preferences of delphinids from the southeastern Brazilian coast determined by carbon and nitrogen stable isotope composition.

    PubMed

    Bisi, Tatiana Lemos; Dorneles, Paulo Renato; Lailson-Brito, José; Lepoint, Gilles; Azevedo, Alexandre de Freitas; Flach, Leonardo; Malm, Olaf; Das, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the foraging habitats of delphinids in southeastern Brazil, we analyzed stable carbon (?(13)C) and nitrogen (?(15)N) isotopes in muscle samples of the following 10 delphinid species: Sotalia guianensis, Stenella frontalis, Tursiops truncatus, Steno bredanensis, Pseudorca crassidens, Delphinus sp., Lagenodelphis hosei, Stenella attenuata, Stenella longirostris and Grampus griseus. We also compared the ?(13)C and ?(15)N values among four populations of S. guianensis. Variation in carbon isotope results from coast to ocean indicated that there was a significant decrease in ?(13)C values from estuarine dolphins to oceanic species. S. guianensis from Guanabara Bay had the highest mean ?(13)C value, while oceanic species showed significantly lower ?(13)C values. The highest ?(15)N values were observed for P. crassidens and T. truncatus, suggesting that these species occupy the highest trophic position among the delphinids studied here. The oceanic species S. attenuata, G. griseus and L. hosei had the lowest ?(15)N values. Stable isotope analysis showed that the three populations of S. guianensis in coastal bays had different ?(13)C values, but similar ?(15)N results. Guiana dolphins from Sepetiba and Ilha Grande bays had different foraging habitat, with specimens from Ilha Grande showing more negative ?(13)C values. This study provides further information on the feeding ecology of delphinids occurring in southeastern Brazil, with evidence of distinctive foraging habitats and the occupation of different ecological niches by these species in the study area. PMID:24358155

  13. Trophic Relationships and Habitat Preferences of Delphinids from the Southeastern Brazilian Coast Determined by Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Composition

    PubMed Central

    Bisi, Tatiana Lemos; Dorneles, Paulo Renato; Lailson-Brito, José; Lepoint, Gilles; Azevedo, Alexandre de Freitas; Flach, Leonardo; Malm, Olaf; Das, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the foraging habitats of delphinids in southeastern Brazil, we analyzed stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes in muscle samples of the following 10 delphinid species: Sotalia guianensis, Stenella frontalis, Tursiops truncatus, Steno bredanensis, Pseudorca crassidens, Delphinus sp., Lagenodelphis hosei, Stenella attenuata, Stenella longirostris and Grampus griseus. We also compared the δ13C and δ15N values among four populations of S. guianensis. Variation in carbon isotope results from coast to ocean indicated that there was a significant decrease in δ13C values from estuarine dolphins to oceanic species. S. guianensis from Guanabara Bay had the highest mean δ13C value, while oceanic species showed significantly lower δ13C values. The highest δ15N values were observed for P. crassidens and T. truncatus, suggesting that these species occupy the highest trophic position among the delphinids studied here. The oceanic species S. attenuata, G. griseus and L. hosei had the lowest δ15N values. Stable isotope analysis showed that the three populations of S. guianensis in coastal bays had different δ13C values, but similar δ15N results. Guiana dolphins from Sepetiba and Ilha Grande bays had different foraging habitat, with specimens from Ilha Grande showing more negative δ13C values. This study provides further information on the feeding ecology of delphinids occurring in southeastern Brazil, with evidence of distinctive foraging habitats and the occupation of different ecological niches by these species in the study area. PMID:24358155

  14. Dr. von Braun Briefing Walt Disney

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Dr. von Braun began his association with Walt Disney in the 1950s when the rocket scientist appeared in three Disney television productions related to the exploration of space. Years later, Dr. von Braun invited Disney and his associates to tour the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. This photograph is dated April 13, 1965. From left are R.J. Schwinghamer from the MSFC, Disney, B.J. Bernight, and Dr. von Braun.

  15. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY EVALUATION OF WATER FROM ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTION SCENARIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    NAROTSKY1, M.G., D.S. BEST1, E.H. ROGERS1, A. McDONALD1, Y.M. SEY1, E.S. HUNTER III 1, L.K. TEUSCHLER2, R.J. MILTNER3, T.F. SPETH3, G. RICE2, K.M. SCHENCK3, S.D. RICHARDSON4, M.C. MARR5, and J.E. SIMMONS1. 1US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Health and Environment...

  16. Constraints on past orbital states of Io derived from its interaction with the small inner satellites of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussmann, H.; Spohn, T.

    2004-05-01

    The inner Galilean Satellites Io, Europa, and Ganymede are locked in the three-body Laplace resonance. Different conceivable scenarios have been suggested for the formation of the resonance. One possibility involves expansion of Io's orbit due to tidal torques exerted by Jupiter. The rate of expansion depends on the Jovian dissipation factor QJ. In this scenario Io has been closer to Jupiter in the past. However, the initial distance of Io to Jupiter is unknown. Because of their small mass and small eccentricities, tidal evolution of the inner four satellites of Jupiter, Metis, Adrastea, Amalthea, and Thebe can be neglected. Thus we expect the small satellites to be at present close to the distance to Jupiter where they were formed. With Io being closer to the small satellites in the past, perturbations were stronger than at present. As a first step we calculate the orbital evolution of the inner satellites, with Io as an external perturber using a Lie-series method for the numerical integration. The model resembles the elliptical restricted three-body problem, with the inner satellites being test particles. To investigate the phase space and possible mean motion resonances we calculated the orbits over 105 years using different values of Io's semi-major axis and eccentricity. For Io's present eccentricity, we get chaotic behaviour of Thebe, the outermost of the small satellites, with Io being as close as 3.42 RJ. Tidal evolution of Io from 3.42RJ to its current 5.91RJ will require a Jovian dissipation factor of QJ= 3.0 X 105, if dissipation in Io is neglected. Due to the resonances (especially 3:2 and 2:1, at 4.1 and 4.9 RJ, respectively) Thebe's eccentricities are enhanced but do not ecceed a value of 0.04.

  17. Evaluation of Structure Recognition Using Labelled Facade Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripperda, Nora; Brenner, Claus

    In 3d city modelling the request for details is permanently growing. Because of that automatic facade reconstruction methods are needed. Structure information plays an important role in facade reconstruction since facade elements like windows are arranged in structural patterns. In this paper we present a facade grammar which models these structures. This grammar is used in an rjMCMC based facade reconstruction method. We evaluate the reconstruction method using the eTRIMS [1] image database.

  18. [Lonomia erucism in Teresópolis, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil: report of a probable case and review].

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Maria Sueli; Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Gomes, Andréia Patrícia; Franco-Barbosa, Adbell; Verzola, Ana Candida Arruda; Oliveira, Fabiana Ribeiro Queiroz de; Squeff, Fabiano Alves; Motta-Leal-Filho, Joaquim Maurício da; Tavares, Renato Henriques; Amorim, Daniela Silva de; De-Maria-Moreira, Nelson Luís; Santos, Sávio Silva

    2004-01-01

    This is a case report of a 44-year-old male living in Teresópolis, RJ, Brazil, probably poisoned by contact with a Lonomia caterpillar, who presented hemolytic anemia, decreased platelet count and acute renal insufficiency. Lonomia erucism diagnosis was established by anamnesis and clinical and laboratory manifestations. Therapeutic measures consisting of hemotransfusion and hemodialysis were successful. Physiopathologic and clinical features of erucism by Lonomia are discussed. PMID:15361962

  19. Eckart temperature and dissipative effects in Friedmann universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, J. A. S.; Waga, I.

    1990-03-01

    In this paper the relationship between the different temperatures present in a radiative plasma is examined. In particular, the physical and operational meaning of Eckart's temperature is discussed. Following an alternative way the radiative bulk viscosity coefficient is reobtained and a more precise formulation for a maximum entropy production in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) background is also suggested. Present address: Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Instituto de Física, 21941 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

  20. The Graduate Record Examination as an indicator of learning of the curriculum taught to physics majors in US institutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halley, J. W.; Adjoudani, Azin; Heller, Patricia; Terwilliger, James S.

    1991-05-01

    A study is described to evaluate the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) as an indicator of learning by undergraduate physics majors. Measures were obtained of the overlap of the Graduate Record Examination in physics with the curriculum as it is taught to physics majors in US colleges and universities. The output of the project, for a given subfield f and set j of institutions, was two numbers Rj, f1 and Rj, f2. These two numbers estimated the extent to which (1) for Rj, f1, the curriculum prepares students at institutions j to take that part of the GRE which covers subfield f and (2) for Rj, f2, the GRE covers the materials in subfield f taught in the curriculum of institutions j. The subfields f were mechanics, electricity and magnetism, statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, modern physics, and ``other'' (including experimental, mathematical, and solid-state physics). The institutions j were grouped into four categories: ``top graduate'' (those with the 20 best-ranked graduate programs); ``top undergraduate'' (those participating in the Oberlin Conference on College Science); ``random graduate'' (other institutions with graduate programs); and ``random undergraduate'' (other institutions without graduate programs). Generally the results show that the GRE does not cover the entire curriculum (low values of R2) for any institutional type. With regard to the coverage of the GRE by the curriculum (R1 values), there are significant differences between institutions of different types. Institutions with graduate programs have curricula that cover the modern physics and statistical mechanics aspects of the GRE significantly better than institutions without graduate programs.

  1. Vatnajökull Jökulhlaup

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Photograph of the large jökulhlaup that spread out across Skeiðarársandur (glacial outwash plain) from the terminus of Skeiðarárjökull, an outlet glacier of Vatnajökull. The Skeiðarárhlaup was from the accumulation of glacial meltwater in the Grímsvötn caldera from the Gjálp eruption in late Septemb...

  2. Book reviews.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    Therapeutics in Geriatric Neuropsychiatry Edited by RJ Ancill, SG Holliday and AH Mithani. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons. 1997. Pp 160. Paperback £14.95 (ISBN 0471979473) Troublesome disguises: undiagnosed psychiatric syndromes Edited by Dinesh Bhugra and Alistair Munro. Oxford: Blackwell Science, 1997, Pp 368. Hardback £39.50 (ISBN 0-86542-674-9-0) Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in Primary Care Richard France and Meredith Robson. London: Jessica Kingsley. 1997. Pp 328. Paperback £14.95 (ISBN 01-853024104). PMID:24946253

  3. Protective effect of royal jelly on the sperm parameters and testosterone level and lipid peroxidation in adult mice treated with oxymetholone

    PubMed Central

    Zahmatkesh, Ensieh; Najafi, Gholamreza; Nejati, Vahid; Heidari, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Objectives : The aim of the present study was to evaluate protective effect of royal jelly on sperm parameters, testosterone level, and malondialdehyde (MDA) production in mice. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two adult male NMRI mice weighing 30±2 g were used. All the animals were divided into 4 groups. Control group: received saline 0.1 ml/mouse/day orally for 30 days. Royal jelly group (RJ): received royal jelly at dose of 100 mg/kg daily for 30 days orally. Oxymetholone group: the received Oxymetholone (OX) at dose of 5 mg/kg daily for 30 days orally. Royal jelly+Oxymetholone group: received royal jelly at dose of 100 mg/kg/day orally concomitant with OX administration. Sperm count, sperm motility, viability, maturity, and DNA integrity were analyzed. Furthermore, serum testosterone and MDA concentrations were determined. Results: In Oxymetholone group, sperm count, motility as well as testosterone concentration reduced significantly (p<0.05), while significant (p<0.05) increases in immature sperm, sperm with DNA damaged, and MDA concentration were announced in Oxymetholone group in comparison with control group and Royal jelly+Oxymetholone group. RJ caused partially amelioration in all of the above- mentioned parameters in Royal Jelly+Oxymetholone group. Conclusion: In conclusion, RJ may be used in combination with OX to improve OX-induced oxidative stress and male infertility. PMID:25050300

  4. Full potential of radial junction Si thin film solar cells with advanced junction materials and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Shengyi; Misra, Soumyadeep; Lu, Jiawen; Yu, Zhongwei; Yu, Linwei; Xu, Jun; Wang, Junzhuan; Xu, Ling; Shi, Yi; Chen, Kunji; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere

    2015-07-01

    Combining advanced materials and junction design in nanowire-based thin film solar cells requires a different thinking of the optimization strategy, which is critical to fulfill the potential of nano-structured photovoltaics. Based on a comprehensive knowledge of the junction materials involved in the multilayer stack, we demonstrate here, in both experimental and theoretical manners, the potential of hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si:H) thin film solar cells in a radial junction (RJ) configuration. Resting upon a solid experimental basis, we also assess a more advanced tandem RJ structure with radially stacking a-Si:H/nanocrystalline Si (nc-Si:H) PIN junctions, and show that a balanced photo-current generation with a short circuit current density of Jsc = 14.2 mA/cm2 can be achieved in a tandem RJ cell, while reducing the expensive nc-Si:H absorber thickness from 1-3 ? m (in planar tandem cells) to only 120 nm. These results provide a clearly charted route towards a high performance Si thin film photovoltaics.

  5. High accumulation of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in marine tucuxi dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) from the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Dorneles, Paulo R; Lailson-Brito, José; Azevedo, Alexandre F; Meyer, Johan; Vidal, Lara G; Fragoso, Ana B; Torres, João P; Malm, Olaf; Blust, Ronny; Das, Krishna

    2008-07-15

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) were measured in liver samples from 29 marine tucuxi dolphins from Rio de Janeiro state (RJ), Brazil. PFC measurement combined liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, using a CapLC system connected to a Quadrupole-LIT mass spectrometer. PFOS was the only PFC detected and it was so in all samples. PFOS concentrations (ng x g(-1) dw) of dolphins (n=23) from the highly contaminated Guanabara Bay (in RJ) varied between 43 and 2431 as well as between 76 and 427 from areas of RJ other than the quoted bay (n=6). Concentrations of three fetuses and one neonate varied between 664 and 1590. Fetus/mother ratios were calculated in two situations (2.75 and 2.62). It seems that mother-to-calf transference plays important role for relationships between PFOS and age. When a one-year-old male calf presenting 2431 ng x g(-1) dw was excluded from the test, significant correlations were observed between PFOS concentrations and both age and total length. Despite the placental transference, PFOS concentrations were not significantly lower in females than in males. PFOS levels in marine tucuxi dolphins from Guanabara Bay are among the highest detected to date in cetaceans, and this may represent a threat to the small population concerned. PMID:18754395

  6. Anticipating Juno Observations of the Magnetosphere of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunnell, E.; Fowler, C. M.; Bagenal, F.; Bonfond, B.

    2012-12-01

    The Juno spacecraft will arrive at Jupiter in 2016 and will go into polar orbit. Juno will make the first exploration of the polar regions of Jupiter's vast magnetosphere, combining in situ particles and fields measurements with remote sensing of auroral emissions in the UV, IR and radio. The primary science period comprises ~30 orbits with 11-day periods with a~1.06Rj perijove, allowing Juno to duck under the hazardous synchrotron radiation belts. Apojove is at ~38Rj. The oblateness of the planet causes the orbit to precess with the major axis moving progressively south at about 1 degree per orbit, eventually bringing the spacecraft into the radiation belts. This orbit allows unprecedented views of the aurora and exploration of the auroral acceleration regions. We present an overview of anticipated Juno observations based on models of the Jovian magnetosphere. On approach to Jupiter and over a capture orbit that extends to ~180Rj on the dawn flank, Juno will traverse the magnetosheath, magnetopause and boundary layer regions of the magnetosphere. Due to the high plasma pressures in the magnetospheric plasmasheet the magnetosphere of Jupiter is known to vary substantially with the changes in the solar wind dynamic pressure. We use Ulysses solar wind data obtained around 5 AU to predict the conditions that Juno will observe over the several months it will spend in these boundary regions.

  7. Study of local time dependence of the attenuation band associated to the Jovian hectometric emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudjada, M. Y.; Galopeau, P. H. M.

    2011-10-01

    We study the phenomenological spectral features of the Jovian hectometric (HOM) emission recorded during the Jupiter flyby by the RPWS experiment onboard the Cassini spacecraft. The capability of this experiment allowed a frequency coverage from a few hertz to 16 MHz with a large dynamic range of about 80 dB. HOM emission was regularly observed several weeks before and after the closest approach of the planet. We analyze the Jovian radio dynamic spectra recorded from the end of November 2000 to the second week of January 2001. During this period, the spacecraft approached Jupiter from a distance of more than 500 RJ to 137 RJ (closest approach on December 30, 2010) and back to about 250 RJ. We attempt in this study to investigate the local time (LT) dependence of the attenuation band due to refraction effects caused by the presence of the Io plasma torus. We analyze the spectral features of the attenuation band taking into consideration three local time intervals [10.0 LT, 13.2 LT], [13.6 LT, 16.5 LT], and [16.7 LT, 20 LT]. A statistical study leads us to characterize the spectral features of the attenuation band principally on the day-side and the late afternoon sector of the planet. This will allow us to discuss the LT variation of the electronic density of the Io plasma torus versus the central meridian longitude (CML) and the Jovian magnetic latitude.

  8. Local time dependence of Io plasma torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudjada, M. Y.; Galopeau, P. H. M.

    2012-04-01

    We study the frequency and time variations of the Jovian decametric (DAM) and hectometric (HOM) emissions recorded by the RPWS experiment onboard Cassini spacecraft during its Jupiter flyby. It is shown that the HOM radiations are principally subject to refraction effects caused by the Io plasma torus. We analyze the Jovian radio dynamic spectra recorded from the end of November 2000 to the second week of January 2001. During this period, the spacecraft approached Jupiter from a distance of more than 500 RJ to 137 RJ (closest approach on December 30, 2010) and back to about 250 RJ. We attempt in this study to investigate the local time (LT) dependence of the attenuation band due to refraction effects caused by the presence of the Io plasma torus. We analyze the spectral features of the attenuation band taking into consideration three local time intervals [10.0 LT, 13.2 LT], [13.6 LT, 16.5 LT], and [16.7 LT, 20 LT]. A statistical study leads us to characterize the spectral features of the attenuation band principally on the dayside and the late afternoon sector of the planet. This will allow us to discuss the LT variation of the electronic density of the Io plasma torus versus the central meridian longitude (CML) and the Jovian magnetic latitude.

  9. Radio images of Jupiter's synchrotron radiation at 6, 20, and 90 cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Pater, Imke

    1991-01-01

    VLA observations of Jupiter's nonthermal radiation at wavelengths of 6, 20, and 90 cm are presented and compared. The spatial resolution in all images is 0.25 R(J) (R/J/ = Jovian radius). The brightness distribution of Jupiter is very similar at each of the three wavelengths, although the radiation peaks at 6 cm are at a slightly larger distance from Jupiter than those at the longer wavelengths. This is due to the higher rate of synchrotron radiation losses at the shorter wavelengths. Radial profiles through the images clearly show the presence of a 'shoulder' or flattening in the intensity at about 2.5 R(J) due to absorption effects by the satellite Amalthea. In addition, the so-called 'hot region' in Jupiter's radiation belts is clearly present at all three wavelengths: images of the planet at a cml (central meridian longitude) of about 30-40 deg show the radiation peak to the right of Jupiter to be much brighter than the peak at the left, while images at a cml of about 210-220 deg show the opposite. The difference in brightness between the two radiation peaks is similar at all three wavelengths.

  10. Short and longer term repeatability of ballistocardiography in a sitting position with EMFi sensor.

    PubMed

    Alametsä, Jarmo; Palomäki, Ari; Viik, Jari

    2011-08-01

    Short and long-term alterations of ballistocardiographic parameters (BCG) were studied in a sitting position using Electromechanical Film (EMFi) sensors. Several physiological parameters were recorded from 48 men of middle age in consecutive recordings and after a 2-week interval. The duration and amplitudes of the signal components were studied. The repeatability index R, the Pearson correlation, and Bland-Altman (BA) repeatability methods were used to determine how repeatable the studied signals are. In consecutive and during 2 week recordings, the Pearson correlation rates for BCG systolic component values (from 0.88/0.83 (T(RJ)) to 0.97/0.78 (A(IJ)), PWV values for the left 0.97/0.67 and right ankle 0.98/0.76) were detected indicating excellent repeatability during consecutive recordings. Respectively BA T(RJ) was -0.002 ± 0.028/-0.004 ± 0.030. Corresponding R values were T(RJ) 0.90/0.82 and right ankle PWV 0.98/0.81. Quite modest blood pressure R values were obtained between 2 week recordings (systolic 0.63, diastolic 0.75, and heart rate 0.59). BCG and PWV measured with EMFi sensors are highly repeatable in consecutive recordings. In longer time interval recordings, BCG is influenced by hemodynamic instability, but in spite of this the reproducibility of the main parameters of the BCG and PWV were better than measured heart rate and blood pressure values. PMID:21336678

  11. Plasma lipid levels in active and sedentary premenopausal females.

    PubMed

    Perry, A C; Shaw, M H; Hsia, L; Nash, M S; Kaplan, T; Signorile, J F; Appleyate, B

    1992-04-01

    Cross-sectional data on 19 long-distance runners (LD), 17 aerobic dancers (AD), 19 recreational joggers (RJ), and 15 inactive controls (IC) were examined for cardiovascular endurance and determination of plasma lipoproteins. Subjects included premenopausal eumenorrheic females who were non-smokers and presently not using oral contraceptives. Results indicated that all groups were similar in age, height and weight. Only the AD group had a significantly lower percent body fat (p less than .001) than the other groups. The LD, AD and RJ groups had a significantly higher VO2max than the IC group (p less than .05), and the LD and AD groups had a significantly higher VO2max than the RJ group (p less than .05). Analysis of a one-day food log indicated that the only difference in diet among the groups was a significantly lower intake of total and monounsaturated fat in the AD group (p less than .05) and a significantly lower intake of carbohydrates in the IC group than the AD group (p less than .05). Analysis of plasma lipids revealed no significant differences in any lipid variables among the groups. These findings indicate that healthy premenopausal eumenorrheic females with similar physical characteristics also have similar plasma lipid profiles regardless of their physical activity level. PMID:1601555

  12. The origin of Jupiter's outer radiation belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodfield, Emma; Horne, Richard; Glauert, Sarah; Menietti, John; Shprits, Yuri

    2014-05-01

    The intense inner radiation belt at Jupiter (>50 MeV at 1.5 RJ) is the result of adiabatic transport of electrons from further away from the planet; however, a seed population of high energy electrons is still required at between 6 and 10 RJ with energies that exceed 1 MeV. Here we test the hypothesis that the seed population outside the orbit of the moon Io could be formed from a very soft energy spectrum due to particle injection processes, and acceleration via whistler mode chorus waves. Using particle data as an initial condition at an energy of 20 keV, we use the BAS radiation belt model to calculate the change in the electron energy spectrum between 6.5 and 15 RJ due to whistler mode chorus waves. Simulations show that the resulting energy spectrum lies very close to the empirical Galileo Interim Radiation Electron model (GIRE) spectrum at Jupiter after less than one day at 100 keV and less than 10 days at 1 MeV, suggesting that the seed population could indeed be formed by wave-particle interactions. The results are insensitive to the softness of the initial energy spectrum but do critically depend on the value of the flux at the minimum energy boundary. Simulations for wave acceleration and radial diffusion together show that the resulting spectrum remains close to the GIRE spectrum but the radial profile of phase space density is smoothed.

  13. The Galileo Heavy Ion Environment as Modeled by the HIC Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, H. B.; Evans, R. W.; Kokorowski, M.; Jun, I.; Cohen, C. M.; Stone, E. C.

    2009-12-01

    The Galileo Heavy Ion Counter (HIC) monitored the high energy (~6 to >200 MeV/nuc), heavy ion (6C--28Ni) fluxes at Jupiter and returned data for all but 2 of the 35 orbits of the Jupiter system from 1995 to 2003. The HIC experiment, based on a re-engineered Voyager Cosmic Ray System instrument, was added to gain a better understanding of the heavy ion radiation environment at Jupiter than that given by the Pioneer and Voyager flybys. HIC, as did these spacecraft, found Oxygen and Sulfur to be the primary constituents in the heavy ion environment at Jupiter. In addition, Carbon was also observed. Whereas the Carbon is believed to be of solar origin, the Oxygen is assumed to be of mixed solar origin and sputtering off the icy moons of Jupiter while the Sulfur is believed to be primarily Io-genic. In earlier presentations, a “HIC Model” was generated from the instrument data to provide estimates of the SEU environment for Jupiter. This presentation, based on an update to the HIC real time event data, provides estimates of the Carbon, Oxygen, and Sulfur fluxes, F, in terms of a power law fit of the form: F(E,Rj) = Fo (E-a) (1+E/Eo)-b where E is the energy and Rj is the radial distance from Jupiter. The spectra were determined at discrete radial distances between 5 and 25 Rj. The resulting fits provide simple but useful estimates of these important background particle species.

  14. Major royal jelly proteins as markers of authenticity and quality of honey / Glavni proteini matične mliječi kao markeri izvornosti i kakvoće meda.

    PubMed

    Bilikova, Katarina; Kristof Krakova, Tatiana; Yamaguchi, Kikuji; Yamaguchi, Yoshihisa

    2015-12-01

    Until now, the properties of honey have been defined based exclusively on the content of plant components in the nectar of given plant. We showed that apalbumin1, the major royal jelly (RJ) protein, is an authentic and regular component of honey. Apalbumin1 and other RJ proteins and peptides are responsible for the immunostimulatory properties and antibiotic activity of honey. For the quantification of apalbumin1, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using polyclonal anti-apalbumin1 antibody. The method is suitable for honey authenticity determination; moreover it is useful for detection of the honey, honeybee pollen and RJ in products of medicine, pharmacy, cosmetics, and food industry, where presences of these honeybee products are declared. Results from the analysis for presence and amount of apalbumin1 in honeys will be used for high-throughput screening of honey samples over the world. On the basis of our experiments which show that royal jelly proteins are regular and physiologically active components of honey we propose to change the definition of honey (according to the EU Honey Directive 2001/110/EC) as follows: Honey is a natural sweet substance produced by honey bees from nectar of plants or from secretions of plants, or excretions of plant sucking insects, which honey bees collect, transform by combining with major royal jelly proteins and other specific substances of their own, deposit, dehydrate, store and leave in the honey comb to ripen and mature. PMID:26751857

  15. Observations of the plasma torus of Jupiter with a Fabry-Perot/charge-coupled device /CCD/ imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roesler, F. L.; Scherb, F.; Oliversen, R.; Jaehnig, K.; Williams, T.; York, D. G.; Jenkins, E. B.

    1981-01-01

    A description is presented of the use of a CCD imaging spectrometer which has been employed at a 2.1 m telescope to obtain monochromatic images in the red and near infrared. The system studied was Jupiter's plasma torus which circles the planet with radial extent about 5 RJ and 7 RJ (RJ is the radius of Jupiter). In ground based measurements the torus has been observed in the forbidden emission lines of S(plus) at 6716 A and 6731 A and S(plus plus) at 9531 A. Attention is given to aspects of instrumentation, observations, and performance. It is felt that the particular significance of the obtained results from the instrumental point of view is the demonstration that the CCD is an excellent detector for monochromatic imaging in the near infrared out to at least 10830 A and that pixel binning before readout can produce significantly improved S/N ratios for the study of faint, diffuse sources in cases where readout noise is dominant.

  16. A potential source for cellulolytic enzyme discovery and environmental aspects revealed through metagenomics of Brazilian mangroves

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The mangroves are among the most productive and biologically important environments. The possible presence of cellulolytic enzymes and microorganisms useful for biomass degradation as well as taxonomic and functional aspects of two Brazilian mangroves were evaluated using cultivation and metagenomic approaches. From a total of 296 microorganisms with visual differences in colony morphology and growth (including bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungus), 179 (60.5%) and 117 (39.5%) were isolated from the Rio de Janeiro (RJ) and Bahia (BA) samples, respectively. RJ metagenome showed the higher number of microbial isolates, which is consistent with its most conserved state and higher diversity. The metagenomic sequencing data showed similar predominant bacterial phyla in the BA and RJ mangroves with an abundance of Proteobacteria (57.8% and 44.6%), Firmicutes (11% and 12.3%) and Actinobacteria (8.4% and 7.5%). A higher number of enzymes involved in the degradation of polycyclic aromatic compounds were found in the BA mangrove. Specific sequences involved in the cellulolytic degradation, belonging to cellulases, hemicellulases, carbohydrate binding domains, dockerins and cohesins were identified, and it was possible to isolate cultivable fungi and bacteria related to biomass decomposition and with potential applications for the production of biofuels. These results showed that the mangroves possess all fundamental molecular tools required for building the cellulosome, which is required for the efficient degradation of cellulose material and sugar release. PMID:24160319

  17. Radio images of Jupiter's synchrotron radiation at 6, 20, and 90 cm

    SciTech Connect

    De pater, I. )

    1991-08-01

    VLA observations of Jupiter's nonthermal radiation at wavelengths of 6, 20, and 90 cm are presented and compared. The spatial resolution in all images is 0.25 R(J) (R/J/ = Jovian radius). The brightness distribution of Jupiter is very similar at each of the three wavelengths, although the radiation peaks at 6 cm are at a slightly larger distance from Jupiter than those at the longer wavelengths. This is due to the higher rate of synchrotron radiation losses at the shorter wavelengths. Radial profiles through the images clearly show the presence of a 'shoulder' or flattening in the intensity at about 2.5 R(J) due to absorption effects by the satellite Amalthea. In addition, the so-called 'hot region' in Jupiter's radiation belts is clearly present at all three wavelengths: images of the planet at a cml (central meridian longitude) of about 30-40 deg show the radiation peak to the right of Jupiter to be much brighter than the peak at the left, while images at a cml of about 210-220 deg show the opposite. The difference in brightness between the two radiation peaks is similar at all three wavelengths. 21 refs.

  18. Rapid detection of immunity against bacteria in Asian honeybee and Western honeybee with quantification of royalisin in the hemolymphe by fast ELISA.

    PubMed

    Shen, Li-Rong; Dilireba, Shatar; Zhou, Wen-Xiu; Wang, Yi-Ran; Li, Mei-Lu; Zhai, Liang

    2014-09-24

    Royalisin from royal jelly (RJ) is a valuable peptide both for the prevention of honeybee diseases and for RJ preservation. ELISA for fast determination of royalisin content in hemolymphe (RCH) of honeybees with polyclonal antibody against recombinant royalisin from Asian honeybee was established. Assay on RCHs of health samples from Asian honeybee and Western honeybee showed the former (7.06 μg/mL) was significantly higher than that of the latter (5.64 μg/mL, p < 0.01). Moreover, relative to the non infection, the RCHs of Asian honeybees at 24 and 48 h post infection of Eschericha coli were higher than those of Western honeybees by 32.90% and 29.66%, respectively. Evidence revealed that Asian honeybee possesses higher innate immunity and immune response against bacteria in relation to the Western honeybee. The method will be a potential tool for detection of resistant levels to pathogens in honeybees and for quantification of royalisin in RJ products. PMID:25183454

  19. A probabilistic solution to the MEG inverse problem via MCMC methods: the reversible jump and parallel tempering algorithms.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, C; Ohmi, M; Suzuki, R; Kado, H

    2001-05-01

    We investigated the usefulness of probabilistic Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods for solving the magnetoencephalography (MEG) inverse problem, by using an algorithm composed of the combination of two MCMC samplers: Reversible Jump (RJ) and Parallel Tempering (PT). The MEG inverse problem was formulated in a probabilistic Bayesian approach, and we describe how the RJ and PT algorithms are fitted to our application. This approach offers better resolution of the MEG inverse problem even when the number of source dipoles is unknown (RJ), and significant reduction of the probability of erroneous convergence to local modes (PT). First estimates of the accuracy and resolution of our composite algorithm are given from results of simulation studies obtained with an unknown number of sources, and with white and neuromagnetic noise. In contrast to other approaches, MCMC methods do not just give an estimation of a "single best" solution, but they provide confidence interval for the source localization, probability distribution for the number of fitted dipoles, and estimation of other almost equally likely solutions. PMID:11341527

  20. Differential gene expression in femoral bone from red junglefowl and domestic chicken, differing for bone phenotypic traits

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Carl-Johan; Lindberg, Johan; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn; Savolainen, Peter; Jensen, Per; Lundeberg, Joakim; Andersson, Leif; Kindmark, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is frequently observed among aging hens from egg-producing strains (layers) of domestic chicken. White Leghorn (WL) has been intensively selected for egg production and it manifests striking phenotypic differences for a number of traits including several bone phenotypes in comparison with the wild ancestor of chicken, the red junglefowl (RJ). Previously, we have identified four Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) affecting bone mineral density and bone strength in an intercross between RJ and WL. With the aim of further elucidating the genetic basis of bone traits in chicken, we have now utilized cDNA-microarray technology in order to compare global RNA-expression in femoral bone from adult RJ and WL (five of each sex and population). Results When contrasting microarray data for all WL-individuals to that of all RJ-individuals we observed differential expression (False discovery rate adjusted p-values < 0.015) for 604 microarray probes. In corresponding male and female contrasts, differential expression was observed for 410 and 270 probes, respectively. Altogether, the three contrasts between WL and RJ revealed differential expression of 779 unique transcripts, 57 of which are located to previously identified QTL-regions for bone traits. Some differentially expressed genes have previously been attributed roles in bone metabolism and these were: WNT inhibitory factor 1 (WIF1), WD repeat-containing protein 5 (WDR5) and Syndecan 3 (SDC3). Among differentially expressed transcripts, those encoding structural ribosomal proteins were highly enriched and all 15 had lower expression in WL. Conclusion We report the identification of 779 differentially expressed transcripts, several residing within QTL-regions for bone traits. Among differentially expressed transcripts, those encoding structural ribosomal proteins were highly enriched and all had lower expression levels in WL. In addition, transcripts encoding four translation initiation and translation elongation factor proteins also had lower expression levels in WL, possibly indicating perturbation of protein biosynthesis pathways between the two populations. Information derived from this study could be relevant to the bone research field and may also aid in further inference of genetic changes accompanying animal domestication. PMID:17605776

  1. Prospección de hongos Entomophthorales para el control natural de insectos en Bahía, Brasil [Prospecting Entomophthoralean fungi for the natural control of insects in Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on Entomophthorales fungi in southern Bahia State, Brazil, included enzootic and epizootic studies on the dynamics of entomophthoromycosis and their interrelations with insect populations of various insect orders, geographical distributions and incidence on crops, natural grasses and other ...

  2. Planificacion linguistica y constitucion de un bloque regional: El caso del Mercosur (Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uraguay) y de Chile (Language Planning and the Constitution of a Regional Bloc: The Case of Mercosur (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay) and Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chareille, Samantha

    2003-01-01

    The common market of the South is a new linguistic and cultural area. The resurgence of innermost identities within member states proves that Mercosur identity can neither be universal nor specific. The outcome of this quest for identity will depend on the ability to carefully handle an area of cultural diversity and a place of common allegiance…

  3. Planificacion linguistica y constitucion de un bloque regional: El caso del Mercosur (Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uraguay) y de Chile (Language Planning and the Constitution of a Regional Bloc: The Case of Mercosur (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay) and Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chareille, Samantha

    2003-01-01

    The common market of the South is a new linguistic and cultural area. The resurgence of innermost identities within member states proves that Mercosur identity can neither be universal nor specific. The outcome of this quest for identity will depend on the ability to carefully handle an area of cultural diversity and a place of common allegiance…

  4. Policies for English Language Teacher Education in Brazil Today: Preliminary Remarks (Políticas para la formación de profesores de inglés en el Brasil de hoy: primeras aproximaciones)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gimenez, Telma; Ferreira, Aparecida de Jesus; Alves Basso, Rosângela Aparecida; Carvalho Cruvinel, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade Brazil has begun to tackle the educational challenges of a developing country with a young population. The scale of such a demand is a result of the social and cultural inequalities that have historically been existent. Recent official policies and programs have addressed this gap by promoting greater opportunities for teacher…

  5. A chemical status predictor. A methodology based on World-Wide sediment samples.

    PubMed

    Gredilla, A; Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, S; de Diego, A; Arana, G; Stoichev, T; Amigo, J M; Wasserman, J C; Botello, A V; Sarkar, S K; Schäfer, J; Moreno, C; de la Guardia, M; Madariaga, J M

    2015-09-15

    As a consequence of the limited resources of underdeveloped countries and the limited interest of the developed ones, the assessment of the chemical quality of entire water bodies around the world is a utopia in the near future. The methodology described here may serve as a first approach for the fast identification of water bodies that do not meet the good chemical status demanded by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). It also allows estimating the natural background (or reference values of concentration) of the areas under study using a simple criterion. The starting point is the calculation the World-Wide Natural Background Levels (WWNBLs) and World-Wide Threshold Values (WWTVs), two indexes that depend on the concentration of seven elements present in sediments. These elements, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, have been selected taking into account the recommendations of the UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) and USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency), that describe them as elements of concern with respect to environmental toxicity. The methodology has been exemplified in a case study that includes 134 sediment samples collected in 11 transitional water bodies from 7 different countries and 4 different continents. Six of the water bodies considered met the good chemical status demanded by the WFD. The rest of them exceeded the reference WWTVs, at least for one of the elements. The estuaries of the Nerbioi-Ibaizabal (Basque Country) and Cavado (Portugal), the sea inlet of Río San Pedro (Spain), the Sepetiba Bay (Brazil) and the Yucateco lagoon (Mexico) belong to that group. PMID:26143082

  6. Trace Metals and Lead Isotopes in modern Sediments Near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, E. A.; Lazzari, L.; Wagener, A. L.; Carreira, R.; Godoy, J. M.; Noble, A.; Carrasco, G. G.; Moos, S. B.

    2014-12-01

    This work focuses on the export of trace metals and combustion residues from land to ocean and on the Southeast continental margin of Brazil and its historical variability using stable lead isotopes. Two sediment cores were collected, one in highly impacted Guanabara Bay and the other on the Southeast continental shelf. Continental shelf samples were analyzed for trace element concentrations [Mn (117±50 ppm), Ni (6.5±2.3 ppm), Zn (5.0±1.5), (233±46 ppm), ], Pb (5.4±2.4 ppm), as well as Cu, Ag, Cd, Sr, Ba, Tl, U and Pb isotope ratios & Pb-210. Most of the elements show higher concentrations on the upper part of the core compared to the bottom. Downcore changes of the concentrations of these elements were similar. The sediments of adjacent rivers and bays around the upper section of the southeast continental shelf of Brazil are considered highly enriched with Pb, Zn, Cu and Cr such as Guanabara Bay, Sepetiba Bay and Paraíba do Sul River compared with the natural concentrations and other regions in the world. A [Pb] maximum is seen between samples from 24 to 43 cm (~8 ppm). Utilization of tetraethyl lead (TEL) gasoline in Brazil was phased out beginning in 1983 and was largely completed by 1988. Continental shelf Pb-206/Pb-207 varies between 1.174 near the core top to 1.190 at 100 cm, with a sharp difference between samples at 6 and 8 cm. Higher core top Pb, Zn, and Ni corroborate the recent anthropogenic influence on the southeast continental shelf of Brazil. For Guanabara Bay sediment samples [Pb] varies between 90 ppm near the top to 1 ppm at the bottom. Pb-206/Pb-207 varies between 1.161 near the core top to 1.165 near the bottom. Using triple isotope plots we can discern different sources of lead to the region and how these vary with time.

  7. Metal bioaccumulation in consumed marine bivalves in Southeast Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Lino, A S; Galvão, P M A; Longo, R T L; Azevedo-Silva, C E; Dorneles, P R; Torres, J P M; Malm, O

    2016-03-01

    This work aimed to investigate metal bioaccumulation by mussels (Perna perna) and Lion's Scallop (Nodipecten nodosus) farmed in tropical bays, in order to estimate spatial and temporal variation in the exposure to these elements, as well as human health risk. The concentration of each measured element was considered for this evaluation, using maximum residue level (MRL) in foods established by the Brazilian (ANVISA), American (USFDA) and European Communities (EC) legislations. Values for estimated daily ingestion (EDI) were determined for metals intake through mussel and scallop consumption. These estimates were compared with the reference value of (PTDI) proposed by World Health Organization (WHO). Trace elements concentration was measured on ninety mussels P. perna (tissue) and ninety Lion's Scallop N. nodosus (muscle and gonad) reared in four different tropical areas of the Southeast Brazilian coast, between 2009 and 2010. Zinc (Zn), Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Chrome (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) concentrations were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after acid mineralization. Cd and Mn were more efficiently bioaccumulated by scallops than mussels and the opposite was found for Fe, Cu and Ni. Guanabara Bay and Sepetiba Bay were considered the most impacted between ecosystems studied. Higher Cd values in Arraial do Cabo in the other sites studied were associated with upwelling that occurs in the region. Consumption of both species cannot be considered safe, because the Cu and Cr concentrations, in accordance with the limits established by the Brazilian Agency (ANVISA). On the other hand, any EDI value exceeded the corresponding value of the PTDI, proposed by World Health Organization (WHO). PMID:26854245

  8. 77 FR 74628 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer S.A. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not... Lima, 2170--Putim--12227-901 S o Jose dos Campos--SP-- BRASIL; telephone +55 12 3927-5852 or +55 12.... Brigadeiro Faria Lima, 2170--Putim--12227-901 S o Jose dos Campos--SP--BRASIL; telephone +55 12 3927-5852...

  9. 76 FR 36923 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... notice (FR Doc. 2011-15233) published on pages 35893 and 35894 of the issue for Monday June 20, 2011. Under the Federal Reserve Bank of New York heading, the entry for Banco do Brasil S.A., Brasilia, Brazil... Liberty Street, New York, New York 10045-0001: 1. Banco do Brasil S.A., Brasilia, Brazil, and Caixa...

  10. 78 FR 66258 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation...--BRASIL; telephone +55 12 3927-5852 or +55 12 3309-0732; fax +55 12 3927-7546; email distrib@embraer.com... Campos--SP--BRASIL; telephone +55 12 3927-5852 or +55 12 3309-0732; fax +55 12 3927-7546; email...

  11. 76 FR 5298 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Support, Av. Brig. Farina Lima, 2170, Sao Jose dos Campos-- SP, CEP: 12227-901--PO Box: 36/2, BRASIL.... Farina Lima, 2170, Sao Jose dos Campos-SP, CEP: 12227-901--PO Box: 36/2, BRASIL; telephone: ++55 12...

  12. Accelerometer body sensor network improves systolic time interval assessment with wearable ballistocardiography.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Andrew D; Inan, Omer T

    2015-08-01

    Systolic time intervals (STI) are non-invasive measures of cardiac function. Due to the fact that STI can be measured noninvasively outside the clinic, STI are a promising method for long-term monitoring of patients with cardiovascular disease. In particular, the pre-ejection period (PEP) has been measured successfully from body vibrations of the beating heart, a technique called ballistocardiography (BCG), using a weighing scale. Similar measurements can be made with on-body accelerometers, however these wearable BCG signals are typically more challenging to interpret than whole-body BCG. In this paper, we conducted a small pilot study with four subjects to investigate whether a body sensor network of four accelerometers positioned on the wrist, arm, sternum, and head could improve beat-by-beat PEP prediction beyond that of each sensor alone. Linear models were fitted from the R-J and R-I intervals of the four BCG signals to PEP measured with impedance cardiography from 5-minute recordings after isometric lower-body exercise. Specifically, we found that (i) the RMS error of PEP estimation from the wearable BCG sensors can be reduced by using double integration, (ii) the standard deviation of PEP estimates from R-I intervals was smaller than from R-J intervals, and (iii) linear models combining both R-J and R-I measurements from all sensors resulted in the best average correlation (r(2) = 0.96 ± 0.01) and lowest average root mean square error (2.5 ± 0.8 ms) from 5×2-fold cross validation. PMID:26736637

  13. The origin of Jupiter's outer radiation belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodfield, E. E.; Horne, R. B.; Glauert, S. A.; Menietti, J. D.; Shprits, Y. Y.

    2014-05-01

    The intense inner radiation belt at Jupiter (>50 MeV at 1.5 RJ) is generally accepted to be created by radial diffusion of electrons from further away from the planet. However, this requires a source with energies that exceed 1 MeV outside the orbit of the moon Io at 5.9 RJ, which has never been explained satisfactorily. Here we test the hypothesis that this source population could be formed from a very soft energy spectrum, by particle injection processes and resonant electron acceleration via whistler mode chorus waves. We use the British Antarctic Survey Radiation Belt Model to calculate the change in the electron flux between 6.5 and 15 RJ; these are the first simulations at Jupiter combining wave particle interactions and radial diffusion. The resulting electron flux at 100 keV and 1 MeV lies very close to the Galileo Interim Radiation Electron model spectrum after 1 and 10 days, respectively. The primary driver for the increase in the flux is cyclotron resonant acceleration by chorus waves. A peak in phase space density forms such that inside L≈9 radial diffusion transports electrons toward Jupiter, but outside L≈9 radial diffusion acts away from the planet. The results are insensitive to the softness of the initial energy spectrum but do depend on the value of the flux at the minimum energy boundary. We conclude by suggesting that the source population for the inner radiation belt at Jupiter could indeed be formed by wave-particle interactions.

  14. The Origin of Jupiter's Outer Radiation Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, R. B.; Woodfield, E. E.; Glauert, S.; Menietti, J. D.; Shprits, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The intense inner radiation belt at Jupiter (>50 MeV at 1.5 RJ) is generally accepted to be created by radial diffusion of electrons from further away from the planet. However, this requires a source with energies that exceed 1 MeV outside the orbit of the moon Io at 5.9 RJ, which has never been explained satisfactorily. Here we test the hypothesis that this source population could be formed from a very soft energy spectrum, by particle injection processes and resonant electron acceleration via whistler mode chorus waves. Using the first simulations at Jupiter combining wave particle interactions and radial diffusion, we calculate the change in the electron flux between 6.5 and 15 RJ with the BAS Radiation Belt Model starting from a very soft spectrum. The resulting electron flux at 100 keV and 1 MeV lies very close to the Galileo Interim Radiation Electron model spectrum after 1 and 10 days respectively. The primary driver for the increase in the flux is cyclotron resonant acceleration by chorus waves. A peak in phase space density forms such that inside L≈9 radial diffusion transports electrons towards Jupiter, but outside L≈9 radial diffusion acts away from the planet. The results are insensitive to the softness of the initial energy spectrum but do depend on the value of the flux at the minimum energy boundary. We conclude by suggesting that the source population for the inner radiation belt at Jupiter could indeed be formed by wave-particle interactions.

  15. Simple Analytic Collisional Rates for non-LTE Vibrational Populations in Astrophysical Environments: the Cases of Circumstellar SiO Masers and Shocked H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieniek, Ronald

    2008-05-01

    Rates for collisionally induced transitions between molecular vibrational levels are important in modeling a variety of non-LTE processes in astrophysical environments. Two examples are SiO masering in circumstellar envelopes in certain late-type stars [1] and the vibrational populations of molecular hydrogen in shocked interstellar medium [cf 2]. A simple exponential-potential model of molecular collisions leads to a two-parameter analytic expression for state-to-state and thermally averaged rates for collisionally induced vibrational-translational (VT) transitions in diatomic molecules [3,4]. The thermally averaged rates predicted by this formula have been shown to be in excellent numerical agreement with absolute experimental and quantum mechanical rates over large temperature ranges and initial vibrational excitation levels in a variety of species, e.g., OH, O2, N2 [3] and even for the rate of H2(v=1)+H2, which changes by five orders of magnitude in the temperature range 50-2000 K [4]. Analogous analytic rates will be reported for vibrational transitions in SiO due to collisions with H2 and compared to the numerical fit of quantum-mechanical rates calculated by Bieniek and Green [5]. [1] Palov, A.P., Gray, M.D., Field, D., & Balint-Kurti, G.G. 2006, ApJ, 639, 204. [2] Flower, D. 2007, Molecular Collisions in the Interstellar Medium (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press) [3] Bieniek, R.J. & Lipson, S.J. 1996, Chem. Phys. Lett. 263, 276. [4] Bieniek, R.J. 2006, Proc. NASA LAW (Lab. Astrophys. Workshop) 2006, 299; http://www.physics.unlv.edu/labastro/nasalaw2006proceedings.pdf. [5] Bieniek, R.J., & Green, S. 1983, ApJ, 265, L29 and 1983, ApJ, 270, L101.

  16. Origin and effect of Alpha 2.2 Acetobacteraceae in honey bee larvae and description of Parasaccharibacter apium gen. nov., sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Corby-Harris, Vanessa; Snyder, Lucy A; Schwan, Melissa R; Maes, Patrick; McFrederick, Quinn S; Anderson, Kirk E

    2014-12-01

    The honey bee hive environment contains a rich microbial community that differs according to niche. Acetobacteraceae Alpha 2.2 (Alpha 2.2) bacteria are present in the food stores, the forager crop, and larvae but at negligible levels in the nurse and forager midgut and hindgut. We first sought to determine the source of Alpha 2.2 in young larvae by assaying the diversity of microbes in nurse crops, hypopharyngeal glands (HGs), and royal jelly (RJ). Amplicon-based pyrosequencing showed that Alpha 2.2 bacteria occupy each of these environments along with a variety of other bacteria, including Lactobacillus kunkeei. RJ and the crop contained fewer bacteria than the HGs, suggesting that these tissues are rather selective environments. Phylogenetic analyses showed that honey bee-derived Alpha 2.2 bacteria are specific to bees that "nurse" the hive's developing brood with HG secretions and are distinct from the Saccharibacter-type bacteria found in bees that provision their young differently, such as with a pollen ball coated in crop-derived contents. Acetobacteraceae can form symbiotic relationships with insects, so we next tested whether Alpha 2.2 increased larval fitness. We cultured 44 Alpha 2.2 strains from young larvae that grouped into nine distinct clades. Three isolates from these nine clades flourished in royal jelly, and one isolate increased larval survival in vitro. We conclude that Alpha 2.2 bacteria are not gut bacteria but are prolific in the crop-HG-RJ-larva niche, passed to the developing brood through nurse worker feeding behavior. We propose the name Parasaccharibacter apium for this bacterial symbiont of bees in the genus Apis. PMID:25239902

  17. ABCG2: the molecular mechanisms of urate secretion and gout.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Owen M

    2015-09-15

    The human propensity for high levels of serum uric acid (SUA) is a trait that has defied explanation. Is it beneficial? Is it pathogenic? Its role in the human diseases like gout and kidney stones was discovered over a century ago [Richette P, Bardin T. Lancet 375: 318-328, 2010; Rivard C, Thomas J, Lanaspa MA, Johnson RJ. Rheumatology (Oxford) 52: 421-426, 2013], but today emerging new genetic and epidemiological techniques have revived an age-old debate over whether high uric acid levels (hyperuricemia) independently increase risk for diseases like hypertension and chronic kidney disease [Feig DI. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 14: 346-352, 2012; Feig DI, Madero M, Jalal DI, Sanchez-Lozada LG, Johnson RJ. J Pediatr 162: 896-902, 2013; Feig DI, Soletsky B, Johnson RJ. JAMA 300: 924-932, 2008; Wang J, Qin T, Chen J, Li Y, Wang L, Huang H, Li J. PLoS One 9: e114259, 2014; Zhu P, Liu Y, Han L, Xu G, Ran JM. PLoS One 9: e100801, 2014]. Part of the mystery of the role uric acid plays in human health stems from our lack of understanding of how humans regulate uric acid homeostasis, an understanding that could shed light on the historic role of uric acid in human adaptation and its present role in human pathogenesis. This review will highlight the recent work to identify the first important human uric acid secretory transporter, ABCG2, and the identification of a common causal ABCG2 variant, Q141K, for hyperuricemia and gout. PMID:26136557

  18. A model of force balance in Jupiter's magnetodisc including hot plasma pressure anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, J. D.; Achilleos, N.; Cowley, S. W. H.

    2015-12-01

    We present an iterative vector potential model of force balance in Jupiter's magnetodisc that includes the effects of hot plasma pressure anisotropy. The fiducial model produces results that are consistent with Galileo magnetic field and plasma data over the whole radial range of the model. The hot plasma pressure gradient and centrifugal forces dominate in the regions inward of ˜20 RJ and outward of ˜50 RJ, respectively, while for realistic values of the pressure anisotropy, the anisotropy current is either the dominant component or at least comparable with the hot plasma pressure gradient current in the region in between. With the inclusion of hot plasma pressure anisotropy, the ˜1.2 and ˜2.7° shifts in the latitudes of the main oval and Ganymede footprint, respectively, associated with variations over the observed range of the hot plasma parameter Kh, which is the product of hot pressure and unit flux tube volume, are comparable to the shifts observed in auroral images. However, the middle magnetosphere is susceptible to the firehose instability, with peak equatorial values of βh∥e-βh⊥e≃1 - 2, for Kh=2.0 - 2.5 × 107 Pa m T-1. For larger values of Kh,βh∥e-βh⊥e exceeds 2 near ˜25 RJ and the model does not converge. This suggests that small-scale plasmoid release or "drizzle" of iogenic plasma may often occur in the middle magnetosphere, thus forming a significant mode of plasma mass loss, alongside plasmoids, at Jupiter.

  19. Origin and Effect of Alpha 2.2 Acetobacteraceae in Honey Bee Larvae and Description of Parasaccharibacter apium gen. nov., sp. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Lucy A.; Schwan, Melissa R.; Maes, Patrick; McFrederick, Quinn S.; Anderson, Kirk E.

    2014-01-01

    The honey bee hive environment contains a rich microbial community that differs according to niche. Acetobacteraceae Alpha 2.2 (Alpha 2.2) bacteria are present in the food stores, the forager crop, and larvae but at negligible levels in the nurse and forager midgut and hindgut. We first sought to determine the source of Alpha 2.2 in young larvae by assaying the diversity of microbes in nurse crops, hypopharyngeal glands (HGs), and royal jelly (RJ). Amplicon-based pyrosequencing showed that Alpha 2.2 bacteria occupy each of these environments along with a variety of other bacteria, including Lactobacillus kunkeei. RJ and the crop contained fewer bacteria than the HGs, suggesting that these tissues are rather selective environments. Phylogenetic analyses showed that honey bee-derived Alpha 2.2 bacteria are specific to bees that “nurse” the hive's developing brood with HG secretions and are distinct from the Saccharibacter-type bacteria found in bees that provision their young differently, such as with a pollen ball coated in crop-derived contents. Acetobacteraceae can form symbiotic relationships with insects, so we next tested whether Alpha 2.2 increased larval fitness. We cultured 44 Alpha 2.2 strains from young larvae that grouped into nine distinct clades. Three isolates from these nine clades flourished in royal jelly, and one isolate increased larval survival in vitro. We conclude that Alpha 2.2 bacteria are not gut bacteria but are prolific in the crop-HG-RJ-larva niche, passed to the developing brood through nurse worker feeding behavior. We propose the name Parasaccharibacter apium for this bacterial symbiont of bees in the genus Apis. PMID:25239902

  20. Galileo NIMS Near-Infrared Observations of Jupiter's Ring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMuldroch, Stuart; Pilorz, Stuart H.; Danielson, G. Edward; the NIMS Science Team

    2000-07-01

    We present the first observations of the jovian ring system viewed at near-infrared wavelengths in forward-scattered light. The eclipse of the Sun by Jupiter during the "C3" orbit of the Galileo spacecraft afforded favorable conditions for the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) to observe the ring system between 0.7 and 5.2 ?m at a spectral resolution of ?0.04 ?m. NIMS images show the nearly edge-on main ring from just inside the ansa at 1.80 RJ down to 1.05 RJ (where 1 RJ=71398 km), at a spatial resolution of 450 km along the ring and 1130 km out of the ring plane. At these spatial resolutions, no fine structure is apparent in the ring. The large wavelength coverage of the NIMS observations permits an analysis of the scattering properties of the ring system even though the ring subtends only a small range of scattering angles. Our retrieved particle size distribution shows a decrease in the number of particles at larger radii although there is a reversal of this trend between 0.6 and 18 ?m. This distribution can be modeled as the combination of a power law with index p=3.9±0.2 and a log-normal distribution of mean radius 4.5 ?m. Analysis shows that Voyager data lacked the required wavelength coverage and viewing geometry to determine the particle distribution uniquely. We conclude that the NIMS data set is a better determinant of the particle size distribution, especially for particles larger than a micrometer. We suggest that the power law distribution is the result of collisional processes that form grains less than 1 micrometer, in agreement with previous theory. We suggest that the log-normal distribution is characteristic of another, yet undetermined, process that dominates grain formation and evolution for particles several micrometers in size.

  1. Depth-to-Diameter Ratio and Slopes in Small Lunar Highland Craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahanti, P.; Robinson, M. S.; Stelling, R.

    2012-12-01

    Geomorphology of small lunar highland craters is quantified with digital elevation models (DEM) that cover 540 craters. From these new data we measured apparent depth (Ra), apparent diameter (Da) and wall slopes. While photogrammetric studies exist from Apollo era data [2,3], the lower end of the crater size spectrum is not well represented and the statistics for craters with diameters 150 meters or less is sparse. The slope of log-scale depth-vs.-diameter fit was ~0.9 (Figure 1). Previous studies [3] with both mare and highland craters (Da >330m) had slopes of ~1, so this result was somewhat expected, although the highland data density was poor in this size regime in the earlier works. However, it was found that a straight line represented the depth-vs.-diameter data better than a power law relation (goodness-of-fit 0.97 compared to 0.6) which is interesting since larger craters are found to change shape allometrically [4]. The median value of the depth-to-diameter ratio was ~0.13 which is also unexpected for small craters (usually ~0.2). Wall slopes were relatively shallow (median ~ 8°) with ~95% of the data at slopes less than 18°. Slopes decreased with crater size (Figure 2), with a sharp drop at diameters more than 35m after which the rate of change was small. Decrease in slope with size was observed earlier with Apollo data [2], but for larger craters (Da >1Km). References: [1] Robinson, M.S. et al (2010),Space Sci. Rev.,150,81-124;[2] Pike, R.J.(1977) Proceedings of the Symposium on Planetary Cratering Mechanics, Arizona, Pergamon Press.,489-509;[3] Pike, R.J.(1977) Lunar Science Conference,3, 3427-3436;[4] Pike, R.J(1967) J. Geophys. Res. 72, 8, 2099-2106

  2. Evaluation of Particle Pinch and Diffusion Coefficients in the Edge Pedestal of DIII-D H-mode Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, W. M.; Groebner, R. J.

    2009-11-01

    Momentum balance requires that the radial particle flux satisfy a pinch-diffusion relationship. The pinch can be evaluated in terms of measurable quantities (rotation velocities, Er, etc.) by the use of momentum and particle balance [1,2], the radial particle flux can be determined by momentum balance, and then the diffusion coefficient can be evaluated from the pinch diffusion relation using the measured density gradient. Applications to several DIII-D H-mode plasmas are presented. 6pt [1] W.M. Stacey, Contr. Plasma Phys. 48, 94 (2008). [2] W.M. Stacey and R.J. Groebner, Phys. Plasmas 15, 012503 (2008).

  3. On the existence of a solution to a quasilinear elliptic system of the Lane, Emden and Fowler type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covei, Drago?-P?tru

    2012-11-01

    In this article, we give an algorithm to obtain the existence of a solution for a quasilinear elliptic system. Our result is new and is based on a recent work of [R.J. Biezuner, J. Brown, G. Ercole and E.M. Martins, Computing the first eigenpair of the p-Laplacian via inverse iteration of sublinear supersolutions, J. Sci. Computation, 2011]. Such problems appear in boundary layer phenomena for viscous fluids, the equilibrium configuration of mass in a spherical cloud of gas, thermal explosion as well as in others applications.

  4. Spin-Orbit Branching Ratio in the Predissociation of DCl^*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strizhev, Alex; Li, Xiaonong; Liyanage, Rohana; Gordon, Robert J.

    1996-05-01

    The fine structure branching ratio of chlorine atoms produced in the predissociation of DCl was measured for excitation energies between 83000 and 84000 cm-1. The g^3? _0^- state of DCl showed the same anomalous rotational state dependence that was found for HCl. footnote R. Liyanage, Y. Yang, S. Hashimoto, R.J. Gordon, and R.W. Field, J. Chem. Phys. 103, 6811 (1995). Predissociation was also observed for the E^1?_0^+ state of DCl, in contrast with HCl where no Cl signal was found for this state. A deperturbation analysis for both HCl and DCl was performed. Supported by the National Science Foundation

  5. Absolute photometry of small main-belt asteroids in 2007-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiorny, V.; Galád, A.; Pravec, P.; Kušnirák, P.; Hornoch, K.; Gajdoš, Š.; Kornoš, L.; Világi, J.; Husárik, M.; Ka?uchová, Z.; Krišandová, Z.; Higgins, D.; Pray, D. P.; Durkee, R.; Dyvig, R.; Reddy, V.; Oey, J.; Marchis, F.; Stephens, R. D.

    2011-10-01

    We present the results of absolute photometry - the absolute brightness HV, the effective diameter, (B)VR color indices, composite light curves, period of rotation and amplitude of variations - of several small asteroids in the inner main-belt: 1344 Caubeta, 1401 Lavonne, 2947 Kippenhahn, 3913 Chemin, 3956 Caspar, 4375 Kiyomori, 4555 1987 QL, 5484 Inoda, 5985 1942 RJ, 6949 Zissell and main-belt asteroid 6867 Kuwano. The photometric observations of these objects were made in the period 2007-2009 as part of a project of photometric studies of small main-belt asteroids that involves a collaboration of a number of asteroid photometrists around the world.

  6. NREM Sleep Parasomnia Associated with Chiari I Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Daftary, Ameet S.; Walker, James M.; Farney, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Parasomnias are common sleep disorders in children, and most cases resolve naturally by adolescence.1 They represent arousal disorders beginning in NREM sleep and are generally non-concerning in children. The diagnosis can usually be made by clinical assessment, and testing with polysomnography is not routinely indicated.2 However, in certain cases with atypical features, polysomnography and more extensive neurologic evaluation are medically indicated. Citation: Daftary AS; Walker JM; Farney RJ. NREM Sleep Parasomnia associated with Chiari I malformation. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(5):526-529. PMID:22003350

  7. Galileo dust data from the jovian system: 2000 to 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, H.; Bindschadler, D.; Dermott, S. F.; Graps, A. L.; Grün, E.; Gustafson, B. A.; Hamilton, D. P.; Hanner, M. S.; Horányi, M.; Kissel, J.; Linkert, D.; Linkert, G.; Mann, I.; McDonnell, J. A. M.; Moissl, R.; Morfill, G. E.; Polanskey, C.; Roy, M.; Schwehm, G.; Srama, R.

    2010-06-01

    The Galileo spacecraft was the first man-made satellite of Jupiter, orbiting the planet between December 1995 and September 2003. The spacecraft was equipped with a highly sensitive dust detector that monitored the jovian dust environment between approximately 2 and 370 RJ (jovian radius RJ=71 492 km). The Galileo dust detector was a twin of the one flying on board the Ulysses spacecraft. This is the tenth in a series of papers dedicated to presenting Galileo and Ulysses dust data. Here we present data from the Galileo dust instrument for the period January 2000 to September 2003 until Galileo was destroyed in a planned impact with Jupiter. The previous Galileo dust data set contains data of 2883 particles detected during Galileo's interplanetary cruise and 12 978 particles detected in the jovian system between 1996 and 1999. In this paper we report on the data of additional 5389 particles measured between 2000 and the end of the mission in 2003. The majority of the 21 250 particles for which the full set of measured impact parameters (impact time, impact direction, charge rise times, charge amplitudes, etc.) was transmitted to Earth were tiny grains (about 10 nm in radius), most of them originating from Jupiter's innermost Galilean moon Io. They were detected throughout the jovian system and the impact rates frequently exceeded 10 min -1. Surprisingly large impact rates up to 100 min -1 occurred in August/September 2000 when Galileo was far away (≈280RJ) from Jupiter, implying dust ejection rates in excess of 100 kg s -1. This peak in dust emission appears to coincide with strong changes in the release of neutral gas from the Io torus. Strong variability in the Io dust flux was measured on timescales of days to weeks, indicating large variations in the dust release from Io or the Io torus or both on such short timescales. Galileo has detected a large number of bigger micron-sized particles mostly in the region between the Galilean moons. A surprisingly large number of such bigger grains was measured in March 2003 within a four-day interval when Galileo was outside Jupiter's magnetosphere at approximately 350 RJ jovicentric distance. Two passages of Jupiter's gossamer rings in 2002 and 2003 provided the first actual comparison of in-situ dust data from a planetary ring with the results inferred from inverting optical images. Strong electronics degradation of the dust instrument due to the harsh radiation environment of Jupiter led to increased calibration uncertainties of the dust data.

  8. Inference of the angular velocity of plasma in the Jovian magnetosphere from the sweepback of magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khurana, Krishan K.; Kivelson, Margaret G.

    1993-01-01

    The averaged angular velocity of plasma from magnetic observations is evaluated using plasma outflow rate as a parameter. New techniques are developed to calculate the normal and azimuthal components of the magnetic field in and near to the plasma sheet in a plasma sheet coordinate system. The revised field components differ substantially from the quantities used in previous analyses. With the revised field values, it appears that during the Voyager 2 flyby for an outflow rate of 2.5 x 10 exp 29 amu/s, the observed magnetic torque may be sufficient to keep the plasma in corotation to radial distances of 50 Rj in the postmidnight quadrant.

  9. Mineralogy and Morphology of Amphiboles Observed in Soils and Rocks in El Dorado Hills, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meeker, G.P.; Lowers, H.A.; Swayze, G.A.; Van Gosen, B. S.; Sutley, S.J.; Brownfield, I.K.

    2006-01-01

    From the Executive Summary: At the request of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has conducted an independent study of amphiboles in rocks and soils in the El Dorado Hills, California, area. The purpose of this study is to investigate specific issues regarding the presence of 'naturally occurring asbestos' raised by an USEPA activity-based sampling study and subsequent criticisms of that study outlined in a review prepared by The R.J. Lee Group (RJLG).

  10. Technology transfer in Europe: a case study of invertebrate neuroscience research.

    PubMed

    Edwards, H A; Bell, E R

    1994-08-01

    Originally identified and defined as a concept in industrial and business communities, technology transfer is now being recognized as an important factor within the scientific research community. A recent study undertaken within the field of UK invertebrate neuroscience research generates several interesting conclusions. In this article, Huw A. Edwards and Elizabeth R.J. Bell discuss the study and its conclusions of a need for increased post-doctoral research mobility, the formation of consortia of research laboratories to apply for funding on an international scale, and the increased interest of the pharmaceutical industry in molecular and cellular techniques developed from fundamental invertebrate research. PMID:7526501

  11. First record of Botryosphaeria ribis associated with leaf spots on Magnolia aff. candollei in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Macedo, Davi Mesquita; Barreto, Robert Weingart

    2008-04-01

    A leaf spot disease was observed attacking some Magnolia aff. candollei plants grown in a private garden in the city of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Such leaf spots coalesced and led to extensive blight of foliage. A fungus was clearly associated to the disease symptoms and was identified as Botryosphaeria ribis. Its anamorph, Fusicoccum ribis, was also present, although less abundant than the teleomorph. This is first report of this fungus on this host in Brazil and the first record of any fungal disease on a member of the genus Magnolia in Brazil. PMID:24031224

  12. First record of Botryosphaeria ribis associated with leaf spots on Magnolia aff. candollei in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Macedo, Davi Mesquita; Barreto, Robert Weingart

    2008-01-01

    A leaf spot disease was observed attacking some Magnolia aff. candollei plants grown in a private garden in the city of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Such leaf spots coalesced and led to extensive blight of foliage. A fungus was clearly associated to the disease symptoms and was identified as Botryosphaeria ribis. Its anamorph, Fusicoccum ribis, was also present, although less abundant than the teleomorph. This is first report of this fungus on this host in Brazil and the first record of any fungal disease on a member of the genus Magnolia in Brazil. PMID:24031224

  13. Magnetosphere-ionosphere mapping at Jupiter: Quantifying the effects of using different internal field models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Marissa F.; Bunce, Emma J.; Kivelson, Margaret G.; Khurana, Krishan K.; Walker, Raymond J.; Radioti, Aikaterini; Bonfond, Bertrand; Grodent, Denis

    2015-04-01

    The lack of global field models accurate beyond the inner magnetosphere (<30 RJ) makes it difficult to relate Jupiter's polar auroral features to magnetospheric source regions. We recently developed a model that maps Jupiter's equatorial magnetosphere to the ionosphere using a flux equivalence calculation that requires equal flux at the equatorial and ionospheric ends of flux tubes. This approach is more accurate than tracing field lines in a global field model but only if it is based on an accurate model of Jupiter's internal field. At present there are three widely used internal field models—Voyager Io Pioneer 4 (VIP4), the Grodent Anomaly Model (GAM), and VIP Anomaly Longitude (VIPAL). The purpose of this study is to quantify how the choice of an internal field model affects the mapping of various auroral features using the flux equivalence calculation. We find that different internal field models can shift the ionospheric mapping of points in the equatorial plane by several degrees and shift the magnetospheric mapping to the equator by ~30 RJ radially and by less than 1 h in local time. These shifts are consistent with differences in how well each model maps the Ganymede footprint, underscoring the need for more accurate Jovian internal field models. We discuss differences in the mapping of specific auroral features and the size and location of the open/closed field line boundary. Understanding these differences is important for the continued analysis of Hubble Space Telescope images and in planning for Juno's arrival at Jupiter in 2016.

  14. Renal blood flow transit time in the study of renal transplants

    SciTech Connect

    Sfakianakis, G.; Ihmeidan, I.; Kyriakides, G.; Martinez, B.; Hourani, M.; Miller, J.; Serafini, A.

    1985-05-01

    Radio-hippurate scintigraphy has been used to study renal transplant function because of its unique advantages over other noninvasive methods. Despite a great sensitivity in diagnosing the existence of a functional problem the test lacks in specificity. In an effort to differentiate between acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and graft rejection (RJ) the authors preceded hippurate scintigraphy by measurements of renal flow transit time (TT). After an intravenous injection of 8 mCi of Tc-99m-sulfur-colloid flow curves from the kidney and the abdominal aorta in 1 sec intervals for 1 min were obtained. Renal transit time was mathematically calculated and corrected for bolus and circulatory differences by dividing it with the corresponding Aortic TT (corrected Renal TT(cRTT). Radiohippuran (O-I-131-Hippurate), 150 ..mu..Ci was injected subsequently and of the different computer generated parameters the 30 min net cortical residual (% of the peak) activity (Hippuran Residual Activity, HRA) was found more sensitive and reproducible for comparisons. Results of documented cases showed a statistically significant difference. Uncomplicated cases (usually on antirejection therapy) showed a tendency to increasing the cRTTs with time (not significantly) but their HRAs were significantly lower than in ATN and RJ (p< 0.001).

  15. Integrable Chiral Potts Model Alive and Well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perk, Jacques H. H.; Au-Yang, Helen

    2006-03-01

    About two decades have passed since the introduction of the integrable chiral Potts model, parametrized by a high-genus curve [1,2]. In spite of this mathematical complication, several exact results have been obtained since, culminating in Baxter's proof [3,4] of the conjecture for the order parameters. Here we shall discuss several other results. First we shall show how the model fits in the phase diagram of a more general nonintegrable chiral Potts model and what we have learned about critical exponents and scaling behavior. Next, we shall mention some mathematical implications. Finally, we shall discuss our preliminary work on the pair correlation functions. *H. Au-Yang, B.M. McCoy, J.H.H. Perk, S. Tang and M.-L.Yan, Phys. Lett. 123, 219--223 (1987). *R.J. Baxter, J.H.H. Perk and H. Au-Yang, Phys. Lett. 128, 138--142 (1988). *R.J. Baxter, J. Stat. Phys. 120, 1--36, (2005). *C. Day, Physics Today, 58 # 11, 19--21 (November 2005). *H. Au-Yang and J.H.H. Perk, to be published.

  16. Comparison of bee products based on assays of antioxidant capacities

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Yoshimi; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Mishima, Satoshi; Hara, Hideaki

    2009-01-01

    Background Bee products (including propolis, royal jelly, and bee pollen) are popular, traditional health foods. We compared antioxidant effects among water and ethanol extracts of Brazilian green propolis (WEP or EEP), its main constituents, water-soluble royal jelly (RJ), and an ethanol extract of bee pollen. Methods The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-, superoxide anion (O2·-)-, and hydroxyl radical (HO·)- scavenging capacities of bee products were measured using antioxidant capacity assays that employed the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive probe 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, acetyl ester (CM-H2DCFDA) or aminophenyl fluorescein (APF). Results The rank order of antioxidant potencies was as follows: WEP > EEP > pollen, but neither RJ nor 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) had any effects. Concerning the main constituents of WEP, the rank order of antioxidant effects was: caffeic acid > artepillin C > drupanin, but neither baccharin nor coumaric acid had any effects. The scavenging effects of caffeic acid were as powerful as those of trolox, but stronger than those of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or vitamin C. Conclusion On the basis of the present assays, propolis is the most powerful antioxidant of all the bee product examined, and its effect may be partly due to the various caffeic acids it contains. Pollen, too, exhibited strong antioxidant effects. PMID:19243635

  17. Effect of Royal Jelly on new bone formation in rapid maxillary expansion in rats

    PubMed Central

    Özan, Fatih; Çörekçi, Bayram; Halicioğlu, Koray; Irgin, Celal; Yilmaz, Fahri; Hezenci, Yasin

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of long and short term systemic usage of royal jelly on bone formation in the expanded maxillary suture in a rat model. Material and Methods Twenty eight Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups: Control (C); Only Expansion (OE), Royal Jelly (RJ) group, Royal Jelly was given to rats by oral gavage only during the expansion and retention period; Royal Jelly plus Nursery (RJN) group, Royal Jelly was given to rats by oral gavage during their nursery phase of 40 days and during the retention period. After the 5 day expansion period was completed, the rats underwent 12 days of mechanical retention. All rats were sacrificed in same time. Histological examination was performed to determine the number of osteoclasts, number of osteoblasts, number of capillaries, inflammatory cell infiltration, and new bone formation. Results New bone formation, number of osteoclasts, number of osteoblasts, and the number of capillaries in the expanded maxillary sutures were higher in the RJ and RJN groups than in the other groups. Statistical analysis also demonstrated that new bone formation and the number of osteoblasts was also highest in the RJN group. Conclusions The systemic administration of Royal Jelly in conjunction with rapid maxillary expansion may increase the quality of regenerated bone. Key words:Bone formation, rapid maxillary expansion, Royal jelly. PMID:26449428

  18. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic Acid, a Major Fatty Acid from Royal Jelly, Inhibits VEGF-induced Angiogenesis in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Izuta, Hiroshi; Chikaraishi, Yuichi; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Mishima, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is reported to be a potent pro-angiogenic factor that plays a pivotal role in both physiological and pathological angiogenesis. Royal jelly (RJ) is a honeybee product containing various proteins, sugars, lipids, vitamins and free amino acids. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10HDA), a major fatty acid component of RJ, is known to have various pharmacological effects; its antitumor activity being especially noteworthy. However, the mechanism underlying this effect is unclear. We examined the effect of 10HDA on VEGF-induced proliferation, migration and tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our findings showed that, 10HDA at 20 µM or more significantly inhibited such proliferation, migration and tube formation. Similarly, 10 µM GM6001, a matrix metalloprotease inhibitor, prevented VEGF-induced migration and tube formation. These findings indicate that 10HDA exerts an inhibitory effect on VEGF-induced angiogenesis, partly by inhibiting both cell proliferation and migration. Further experiments will be needed to clarify the detailed mechanism. PMID:18955252

  19. Chemical data as markers of the geographical origins of sugarcane spirits.

    PubMed

    Serafim, F A T; Pereira-Filho, Edenir R; Franco, D W

    2016-04-01

    In an attempt to classify sugarcane spirits according to their geographic region of origin, chemical data for 24 analytes were evaluated in 50 cachaças produced using a similar procedure in selected regions of Brazil: São Paulo - SP (15), Minas Gerais - MG (11), Rio de Janeiro - RJ (11), Paraiba -PB (9), and Ceará - CE (4). Multivariate analysis was applied to the analytical results, and the predictive abilities of different classification methods were evaluated. Principal component analysis identified five groups, and chemical similarities were observed between MG and SP samples and between RJ and PB samples. CE samples presented a distinct chemical profile. Among the samples, partial linear square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) classified 50.2% of the samples correctly, K-nearest neighbor (KNN) 86%, and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) 56.2%. Therefore, in this proof of concept demonstration, the proposed approach based on chemical data satisfactorily predicted the cachaças' geographic origins. PMID:26593483

  20. Operator Evolution via the Similarity Renormalization Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, E. R.; Bogner, S. K.; Furnstahl, R. J.; Perry, R. J.

    2007-10-01

    The Similarity Renormalization Group (SRG) uses unitary transformations to suppress off-diagonal matrix elements, forcing the Hamiltonian towards a band-diagonal form. An SRG transformation applied to nucleon-nucleon interactions leads to greatly improved convergence properties while preserving observables, and provides a method to consistently evolve many-body potentials and other operators.ootnotetextS.K. Bogner, R.J. Furnstahl, and R.J. Perry, Phys. Rev. C 75 (2007) 061001. Here the nature of operator evolution is explored, taking as an example the operator for the bare momentum distribution. The equivalence of a direct evolution via SRG equations and a construction from evolved eigenstates is shown. The flow of the operator and its matrix elements in the deuteron is exhibited and analyzed on the basis of the SRG flow equations for the operator. ConjecturesootnotetextS.K. Bogner et al., Phys. Lett. B 649 (2007) 488. on the factorization of the unitary operator U(k,q) into Kλ(k)Q(q) for k<λ and q λ are explored pictorially and analytically.

  1. Decoupling via the Similarity Renormalization Group for Nucleon-Nucleon Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurgenson, E. D.; Furnstahl, R. J.; Bogner, S. K.

    2007-10-01

    The Similarity Renormalization Group (SRG) provides a compelling new method for decoupling low-energy nuclear physics from high-energy details. While observables are unchanged by the SRG's unitary transformations, the dependence of matrix elements on high-momentum contributions is modified by the running transformation. The SRG has the effect of partially diagonalizing the potential to a width of order the evolution parameter lambda. Because of this diagonalization, one expects a simple decoupling of the low-energy observables for these high-energy degrees of freedom. In a previous work,ootnotetextS.K. Bogner, R.J. Furnstahl, R.J. Perry and A. Schwenk, Phys. Lett. B 649 (2007) 488. evidence for decoupling in phase shifts and the deuteron was shown for the Argonne V18 potential. Here we extend the demonstration of decoupling to other NN potentials and up to A=6 nuclei to verify its universal nature and to show quantitatively that the residual coupling is perturbative above the energy corresponding to the SRG evolution parameter.

  2. ‘Acceptable rebellion’: marketing hipster aesthetics to sell Camel cigarettes in the US

    PubMed Central

    Hendlin, Yogi; Anderson, Stacey J; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present work was to understand why and how RJ Reynolds and other tobacco companies have marketed tobacco products to young adult social trendsetting consumers (termed ‘hipsters’) to recruit trendsetters and average consumers to smoke. Methods Analysis of tobacco industry documents and industry marketing materials. Results Since 1995, RJ Reynolds developed its marketing campaigns to better suit the lifestyle, image identity and attitudes of hip trendsetters (so-called ‘hipsters’), and Camel’s brand identity actively shifted to more closely convey the hipster persona. Camel emphasised in-venue events such as promotional music tours to link the brand and smoking to activities and symbols appealing to hipsters and their emulating masses. Conclusions To reach this targeted and socially valuable trend-setting population, public health advocates must tap into hipster psychology and expose to the targeted community the tobacco company’s efforts to infiltrate the hipster community to turn hipsters into tobacco-using role models. PMID:20501494

  3. Domain pattern formation in epitaxial rhombohedral ferroelectric films. II. Interfacial defects and energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, A. E.; Lefevre, M. J.; Speck, J. S.; Pompe, W.; Streiffer, S. K.; Foster, C. M.

    1998-03-01

    The coherency defect technique is developed for the domain pattern energetics in rhombohedral (001) epitaxial ferroelectric films. The coherency defects that are necessary to maintain the epitaxy during the ferroelectric phase transition are considered to be the only sources of elastic strains and stresses (and, correspondingly energy) in the film/substrate system. The coherency defects include: (i) a uniform distribution of edge dislocations which are responsible for the in-plane tension or compression and have Burgers vectors parallel to the interface; and two kinds of mesoscale defects: (ii) Somigliana screw dislocations which are responsible for in-plane shear; and (iii) wedge disclinations which are responsible for the out of plane rotations in neighboring domains. Using this approach, analytical expressions were found for the elastic energy in the film/substrate system for both the {101}-ri/rj and the {100}-ri/rj domain patterns. These two configurations differ by the orientation of domain walls, coherency defect content, and also the morphology of the free surface (flat versus puckered surfaces). Calculations are performed for screened mesoscale coherency defect configurations that represent a single embedded domain pattern and multidomain patterns. The following mesoscale defect configurations are used for these calculations: Somigliana dislocation dipoles, wedge disclination dipoles, Somigliana dislocation quadrupoles, and disclination quadrupoles. It is predicted that there is no critical thickness for domain pattern formation in rhombohedral ferroelectric epitaxial films. Agreement is shown between experimentally observed domain widths and theoretically predicted values.

  4. Malaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, an Atlantic Forest area: an assessment using the health surveillance service

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, Renata Bortolasse; Peiter, Paulo Cesar; de Albuquerque, Hermano; Coura, José Rodrigues; Moza, Patrícia Ganzenmüller; Costa, Anielle de Pina; Brasil, Patricia; Suárez-Mutis, Martha Cecília

    2014-01-01

    The lethality of malaria in the extra-Amazonian region is more than 70 times higher than in Amazonia itself. Recently, several studies have shown that autochthonous malaria is not a rare event in the Brazilian southeastern states in the Atlantic Forest biome. Information about autochthonous malaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ) is scarce. This study aims to assess malaria cases reported to the Health Surveillance System of the State of Rio de Janeiro between 2000-2010. An average of 90 cases per year had parasitological malaria confirmation by thick smear. The number of malaria notifications due to Plasmodium falciparum increased over time. Imported cases reported during the period studied were spread among 51% of the municipalities (counties) of the state. Only 35 cases (4.3%) were autochthonous, which represents an average of 3.8 new cases per year. Eleven municipalities reported autochthonous cases; within these, six could be characterised as areas of residual or new foci of malaria from the Atlantic Forest system. The other 28 municipalities could become receptive for transmission reintroduction. Cases occurred during all periods of the year, but 62.9% of cases were in the first semester of each year. Assessing vulnerability and receptivity conditions and vector ecology is imperative to establish the real risk of malaria reintroduction in RJ. PMID:25185004

  5. R gene-controlled host specificity in the legume–rhizobia symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shengming; Tang, Fang; Gao, Muqiang; Krishnan, Hari B.; Zhu, Hongyan

    2010-01-01

    Leguminous plants can enter into root nodule symbioses with nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria known as rhizobia. An intriguing but still poorly understood property of the symbiosis is its host specificity, which is controlled at multiple levels involving both rhizobial and host genes. It is widely believed that the host specificity is determined by specific recognition of bacterially derived Nod factors by the cognate host receptor(s). Here we describe the positional cloning of two soybean genes Rj2 and Rfg1 that restrict nodulation with specific strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Sinorhizobium fredii, respectively. We show that Rj2 and Rfg1 are allelic genes encoding a member of the Toll-interleukin receptor/nucleotide-binding site/leucine-rich repeat (TIR-NBS-LRR) class of plant resistance (R) proteins. The involvement of host R genes in the control of genotype-specific infection and nodulation reveals a common recognition mechanism underlying symbiotic and pathogenic host–bacteria interactions and suggests the existence of their cognate avirulence genes derived from rhizobia. This study suggests that establishment of a root nodule symbiosis requires the evasion of plant immune responses triggered by rhizobial effectors. PMID:20937853

  6. Particle pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: increase and decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 in human lung cells.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cotto, Rosa I; Ortiz-Martínez, Mario G; Rivera-Ramírez, Evasomary; Mateus, Vinicius L; Amaral, Beatriz S; Jiménez-Vélez, Braulio D; Gioda, Adriana

    2014-11-01

    Particle pollution from urban and industrialized regions in Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil was analyzed for toxic and pro-inflammatory (cytokines: IL-6, IL-8, IL-10) responses in human bronchial epithelial cells. Trace elements contribution was studied. Airborne particulate matter was collected at: three industrial sites Ind-1 (PM10) and Ind-2a and 2b (PM2.5); Centro urban area (PM10) and two rural sites (PM2.5, PM10). PM10 acetone extracts were toxic and did not elicit cytokine release; aqueous extracts were less toxic and stimulated the release of IL-6 and IL-8. PM2.5 aqueous extracts from Ind-2 decreased the release of IL-6 and IL-8. Zinc concentration was higher at the industrial and rural reference sites (Ref-1-2) although metals were not associated to cytokines changes. These results demonstrate that PM from RJ can either increase or decrease cytokine secretion in vitro while being site specific and time dependent. PMID:25106047

  7. The effectiveness of reintegrative shaming and restorative justice conferences: focusing on juvenile offenders' perceptions in Australian reintegrative shaming experiments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Joo; Gerber, Jurg

    2012-10-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of diversionary restorative justice (RJ) conferences through the eyes of juvenile offenders. In Australia, Reintegrative Shaming Experiments (RISE) are based on Braithwaite's theory of reintegrative shaming. Previous studies, although showing that RISE reported high levels of victim satisfaction and positive changes in the attitudes of offenders, also demonstrated that it has different outcomes for juvenile offenders depending on the type of offense with which they were charged. However, the effectiveness of RISE in terms of the offenders' perceptions has not been addressed, and the impact of the offenders' perceptions about RISE still remains under investigation. Using Australian data from RISE between 1995 and 1999, this article examines juvenile offenders' perceptions on preventing reoffending, repaying the victim and society, and the degree of repentance. The data were taken from interviews with juvenile offenders to measure their perceptions after the court or RISE processing. A comparison of standard court processing effects and RISE on juvenile offending, including property crime, shoplifting, and violent offenses, was undertaken. The results from this study were somewhat inconsistent with previous research. In this study, there was no significant relationship between RJ conference and the offenders' own perceptions on the prevention of future offending. However, it was found that there were treatment effects on repaying the victim, repaying society, and the degree of feeling repentance, and that younger offenders wanted to repay the victim/society and feel repentance. PMID:21824891

  8. Microwave Spectroscopy and Internal Dynamics of the Ne-NO2 Van Der Waals Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Brian J.; Economides, George; Dyer, Lee

    2012-06-01

    The rotational spectrum of the open-shell complex Ne-NO2 in the 6 - 18 GHz region is reported. Both fine and hyperfine structure are observed. However, the spectrum does not fit a semi-rigid model as well as the related species Ar-NO2, Kr-NO2 and Xe-NO2. This is almost certainly a result of the "floppy" nature of this species. In order to model the dynamics of the complex and to reproduce the observed spectrum, we have obtained an accurate intermolecular potential surface using the RCCSD(T) method and aug-cc-pV(D/T)Z basis sets (extrapolated to the complete basis set limit). Full quantum dynamics calculations were then performed on this surface to give the rotational energy levels and the effective fine and hyperfine structure constants. R.J. Low, M.D. Brooks, C.J. Whitham and B.J. Howard J. Chem. Phys., 105, 6756 (1996) S. Blanco, C.J. Whitham, H. Qian and B.J. Howard, PCCP., 3, 3895 (2001). C.J. Whitham, R.J. Low and B.J. Howard, Chem. Phys. Lett., 286, 408 (1998).

  9. Plasma properties in the deep jovian magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaou, G.; McComas, D. J.; Bagenal, F.; Elliott, H. A.; Wilson, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    New Horizons observed consistently and continuously the jovian magnetotail at distances up to ~2500 Jupiter Radii (Rj) during its Jupiter flyby in 2007. The Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) plasma instrument on New Horizons made in situ observations of plasma ions in the energy per charge range of ~21 eV to 7.8 keV. We analyze the SWAP plasma observations and derive the bulk properties of the plasma ions in the deep jovian magnetotail for 64 intervals from ~500 to 1700 Rj, just before the spacecraft start crossing the jovian magnetopause. There is no clear evolution of the plasma parameters over this distance range and we show that the plasma is very diverse over this entire range. There are significant changes in the plasma parameters and the flow direction over times as short as a few hours, showing evidence that boundaries between different plasma structures pass over the spacecraft rapidly. We discuss in detail a few subintervals where two species are observed within the instrument's energy per charge range and a set of subintervals where the plasma flow rotates ~20° over just six hours. We finally discuss the mass flux during the subintervals we study and the scenario of expanding plasmoids that propagate tailward and expand and interact to fill the magnetotail. This scenario is supported by the observed plasma diversity and flow characteristics.

  10. Magnetic and electromagnetic properties of composites of iron oxide and Co-B alloy prepared by chemical reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, XueAi; Han, XiJiang; Du, YunChen; Xu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic and electromagnetic properties were investigated on the composites of iron oxide and Co-B alloy, which were prepared by a modified chemical reduction method. The composites are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The complex electromagnetic parameters (permittivity ?r= ?r'+j ?r? and permeability ?r= ?r'+j ?r?) of paraffin mixed composite samples (paraffin:composites=1:1 in mass ratio) were measured in the frequency range 2-18 GHz by vector network analyzer. The measured real part ( ?r') and imaginary part ( ?r?) of the relative permittivity show two resonant peaks in the range of 2-18 GHz. The imaginary parts of relative permeability ( ?r?) of all samples exhibited one broad resonant peak over the 2-8 GHz range. The ?r? of samples with higher molar ratio of Co to Fe (C and D) shows negative values within 13-18 GHz, which exhibit resonant and antiresonant permeabilities simultaneously. Calculation results indicated that the reflection loss values of the composites and paraffin wax mixtures are less than -10 dB with frequency width of about 6 GHz at the matching thickness.

  11. MHD Spectroscopic Study of the Stabilizing Effect of Plasma Flow on the Resistive Wall Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimerdes, H.; Garofalo, A. M.; Navratil, G. A.; Chu, M. S.; Jackson, G. L.; Jensen, T. H.; La Haye, R. J.; Scoville, J. T.; Strait, E. J.; Edgell, D. H.; Jayakumar, R. J.; Okabayashi, M.

    2003-10-01

    MHD Spectroscopic Study of the Stabilizing Effect of Plasma Flow on the Resistive Wall Mode,* H. Reimerdes, A.M. Garofalo, G.A. Navratil, Columbia U, M.S. Chu, G.L. Jackson, T.H. Jensen, R.J. La Haye, J.T. Scoville, E.J. Strait, GA, D.H. Edgell, FAR-TECH, Inc., R.J. Jayakumar, LLNL, M. Okabayashi, PPPL - Resistive wall mode (RWM) stabilization by plasma rotation has been under study for the last decade. Dissipation caused by an interaction between the quasi-static magnetic perturbation and a near-sonic plasma flow alters the RWM stability [Bondeson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2709 (1994)]. To probe the RWM stability in DIII-D, we extend the technique of MHD spectroscopy, which was previously applied at frequencies above 10 kHz [Fasoli, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 645 (1995)], to frequencies of a few Hz. Internal coils generate a rotating magnetic field, whose spatial structure largely overlaps with the RWM structure. The plasma response, measured as the perturbed field at the wall, is rigid and peaks when the external field rotates at a fraction of the inverse wall time in the direction of the plasma rotation, which is in good agreement with a single mode model [Garofalo, et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 4573 (2002)]. This measurement is used to determine the contribution of the proposed dissipation mechanisms to the stabilization of the RWM.

  12. Transcriptome Sequencing Analysis Reveals the Regulation of the Hypopharyngeal Glands in the Honey Bee, Apis mellifera carnica Pollmann

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Ling; Shen, Jie; Shen, Fang; Chen, Guohong

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptome sequencing has become the main methodology for analyzing the relationship between genes and characteristics of interests, particularly those associated with diseases and economic traits. Because of its role of functional food for humans, commercial royal jelly (RJ) and its production are major research focuses in the field of apiculture. Multiple lines of evidence have demonstrated that many factors affect RJ output by activating or inhibiting various target genes and signaling pathways. Available coding sequences from the Honey Bee Genome Sequencing Consortium have permitted a pathway-based approach for investigating the development of the hypopharyngeal glands (HGs). In the present study, 3573941, 3562730, 3551541, 3524453, and 3615558 clean reads were obtained from the HGs of five full-sister honey bee samples using Solexa RNA sequencing technology. These reads were then assembled into 18378, 17785, 17065, 17105, and 17995 unigenes, respectively, and aligned to the DFCI Honey Bee Gene Index database. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) data were also correlated with detailed morphological data for HGs acini. PMID:24339892

  13. Description of leprosy classification at baseline among patients enrolled at the uniform multidrug therapy clinical trial for leprosy patients in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moura, Rodrigo Scaliante; Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Cardoso, Ludimila Paula Vaz; de Andrade Pontes, Maria Araci; Cruz, Rossilene; de Sá Gonçalves, Heitor; Fernandes Penna, Maria Lúcia; de Araújo Stefani, Mariane Martins; Bührer-Sékula, Samira

    2015-06-01

    The uniform multidrug therapy clinical trial, Brazil (U-MDT/CT-BR), database was used to describe and report the performance of available tools to classify 830 leprosy patients as paucibacillary (PB) and multibacillary (MB) at baseline. In a modified Ridley and Jopling (R&J) classification, considering clinical features, histopathological results of skin biopsies and the slit-skin smear bacterial load results were used as the gold standard method for classification. Anti-phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I) serology by ML Flow test, the slit skin smear bacterial load, and the number of skin lesions were evaluated. Considering the R&J classification system as gold standard, ML Flow tests correctly allocated 70% patients in the PB group and 87% in the MB group. The classification based on counting the number of skin lesions correctly allocated 46% PB patients and 99% MB leprosy cases. Slit skin smears properly classified 91% and 97% of PB and MB patients, respectively. Based on U-MDT/CT-BR results, classification of leprosy patients for treatment purposes is unnecessary because it does not impact clinical and laboratories outcomes. In this context, the identification of new biomarkers to detect patients at a higher risk to develop leprosy reactions or relapse remains an important research challenge. PMID:25940192

  14. Characteristics of heat transfer to nickel plated chamber walls of high pressure rocket combustors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumakawa, Akinaga; Sasaki, Masaki; Sato, Kazuo; Ono, Fumiei; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Yatsuyanagi, Nobuyuki

    1991-10-01

    The chamber walls of two water cooled calorimetric combustors of different chamber lengths were electroplated with nickel of different thickness to investigate decreasing the temperature of the substrate copper wall and prolonging thrust chamber life. Combustion tests were conducted using Liquid OXygen (LOX) /gaseous hydrogen, LOX/gaseous methane, and LOX/Ram Jet 1J (RJ-1J) propellants. The maximum chamber pressure was 12 M Pa and the maximum heat flux reached 120 M W/sq m. For both the LOX/hydrogen and LOX/methane propellants, heat flux values measured at the throat section of the nickel plated chambers were 20 to 30 percent less than those measured for the bare copper chamber walls. This infers that subcritical microcracks observed within the nickel layer functioned to relax the layer's thermal stress and to cause a higher thermal resistance than expected. On the other hand, the test results of the LOX/RJ-1J propellant showed that the wall material and/or temperature, the presence of hydrogen, and the injection pattern of propellants all affected the characteristics of carbon deposition on the chamber wall. The heat flux values were lowered by 50 percent compared to those without carbon deposition. Both nickel layers survived approximately 30 firing tests having a total duration of 600 sec. The durability and reliability of the nickel plating were verified, there by showing that a thin layer of nickel plating is useful for decreasing the heat load of high pressure thrust chambers.

  15. The dependence of stress in IBAD films on the ion-irradiation energy and flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitz, K. O.; Arndt, J.; Bøttiger, J.; Chevallier, J.

    1997-05-01

    Systematic experimental studies of the stress build-up during e-gun deposition of Ni with simultaneous bombardment by energetic Ar + ions (IBAD) have been carried out. The ion energy E was varied from 60 to 800 eV, and the ratio of the arrival rates of Ni atoms and Ar + ions, {R}/{J}, was varied from 0.5 to 6.4. The Ni-deposition rate was in the range from 0.5 to 2.0 Å/s, with all the depositions carried out near room temperature in a chamber with the base pressure of 5 × 10 -6 Pa. The film stress was measured by use of profilometry and the application of Stoney's equation. The experimental results were compared with predictions of a simple model proposed by Davis. This model assumes that the compressive stress build-up, due to knock-on implantation of film atoms being proportional to E {1}/{2}, is balanced by relaxation by collision-cascade-excited atom migration proportional to E {5}/{3}. To obtain agreement between model and experiment in the investigated ranges of E and {R}/{J}, an additional model parameter had to be added which takes into account that without irradiation, tensile stresses arise.

  16. The effects of idebenone on mitochondrial bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Giorgio, Valentina; Petronilli, Valeria; Ghelli, Anna; Carelli, Valerio; Rugolo, Michela; Lenaz, Giorgio; Bernardi, Paolo

    2012-02-01

    We have studied the effects of idebenone on mitochondrial function in cybrids derived from one normal donor (HQB17) and one patient harboring the G3460A/MT-ND1 mutation of Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (RJ206); and in XTC.UC1 cells bearing a premature stop codon at amino acid 101 of MT-ND1 that hampers complex I assembly. Addition of idebenone to HQB17 cells caused mitochondrial depolarization and NADH depletion, which were inhibited by cyclosporin (Cs) A and decylubiquinone, suggesting an involvement of the permeability transition pore (PTP). On the other hand, addition of dithiothreitol together with idebenone did not cause PTP opening and allowed maintenance of the mitochondrial membrane potential even in the presence of rotenone. Addition of dithiothreitol plus idebenone, or of idebenol, to HQB17, RJ206 and XTC.UC1 cells sustained membrane potential in intact cells and ATP synthesis in permeabilized cells even in the presence of rotenone and malonate, and restored a good level of coupled respiration in complex I-deficient XTC.UC1 cells. These findings demonstrate that idebenol can feed electrons at complex III. If the quinone is maintained in the reduced state, a task that in some cell types appears to be performed by dicoumarol-sensitive NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 [Haefeli et al. (2011) PLoS One 6, e17963], electron transfer to complex III may allow reoxidation of NADH in complex I deficiencies. PMID:22086148

  17. The RESTORE program of restorative justice for sex crimes: vision, process, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Koss, Mary P

    2014-06-01

    The article reports empirical evaluation of RESTORE, a restorative justice (RJ) conferencing program adapted to prosecutor-referred adult misdemeanor and felony sexual assaults. RESTORE conferences included voluntary enrollment, preparation, and a face-to-face meeting where primary and secondary victims voice impacts, and responsible persons acknowledge their acts and together develop a re-dress plan that is supervised for 1 year. Process data included referral and consent rates, participant characteristics, observational ratings of conferences compared with program design, services delivered, and safety monitoring. Outcome evaluation used 22 cases to assess (a) pre-post reasons for choosing RESTORE, (b) preparation and conference experiences, (c) overall program and justice satisfaction, and (d) completion rates. This is the first peer-reviewed quantitative evaluation of RJ conferencing for adult sexual assault. Although the data have limitations, the results support cautious optimism regarding feasibility, safety, and satisfactory outcomes. They help envision how conferencing could expand and individualize justice options for sexual assault. PMID:24368680

  18. Dpf Analyses Yield Fully Analytic Potentials for the B ^1?u ``BARRIER'' States of {Rb}_2 and {Li}_2 and AN Improved Ground-State Well Depth for {Rb}_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaughter, Kai; Dattani, Nikesh S.; Amiot, Claude S.; Ross, Amanda J.; Le Roy, Robert J.

    2015-06-01

    Determining full model potential energy functions for molecular states that have a `natural' rotationless barrier which protrudes above the potential asymptote, such as the B ^1?_u states of alkali dimers, is a challenging problem. The present work extends our previous Direct-Potential-Fit (DPF) analysis of data for the B ^1?_u state of Li_2 by introducing a more sophisticated model for the long-range tail of the fully analytic `Double Exponential Long-Range' (DELR) potential function form^a that takes account of the interstate coupling that occurs near the asymptotes of nS+nP alkali dimers. This type of analysis is then applied to data for the B ^1?_u state of Rb_2, and a concurrent extension of the DPF analysis of Seto and Le Roy yields an improved fully analytic potential energy function for its ground X ^1?_g^+ state. The effect of taking account of the long-range inter-state coupling on the shapes of the outer walls of the B ^1?_u state potential functions for these two species will also be examined. Y. Huang and R.J. Le Roy, J. Chem. Phys., 119, 7398 (2003) M. Aubert-Frécon and G. Hadinger and S. Magnier and S. Rousseau, J. Mol. Spectosc., 288, 182 (1998). J.Y. Seto and R.J. Le Roy, J. Chem. Phys., 113, 3067 (2000).

  19. A convected kappa distribution model for hot ions in the Jovian magnetodisc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, M.; Mauk, B. H.; Keath, E. P.; Krimigis, S. M.

    1992-01-01

    Hot ion angular anisotropies measured by the Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) instrument during the Voyager 2 encounter with the Jovian dayside outer magnetosphere (60-30 RJ) have been fitted to a 2 species convected kappa distribution function using a nonlinear least squares technique. The resulting parameters are well constrained by the data. The heavy ion species was assumed to be either sulfur or oxygen of unknown charge. The light species was assumed to be protons. The bulk flow speeds deduced from the model were found, contrary to some theories, to increase with increasing radial distance from Jupiter within the radial region addressed, remaining a substantial fraction (0.6) of the rigid corotation speed. Agreement with the averaged Voyager Plasma Science results was obtained near 30 RJ. The core Maxwellian temperature of the heavy ion distribution functions (30-100 keV) increased with increasing radial distance, following the trend anticipated from the corotation pickup of heavy ions. The proton temperature (20 keV) remained nearly constant.

  20. Modelling the spectroscopic behaviour of hot molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennyson, Jonathan

    2010-05-01

    At elevated temperatures the molecules absorb and emit light in a very complicated fashion which is hard to characterise on the basis of laboraroty measurement. Computed line lists of molecule transitions therefore provide a vital input for models of hot atmospheres. I will describe the calculation and use of such line lists including the BT2 water line list [1], which contains some 500 million distinct rotation-vibration transitions. This linelist proved crucial in the detection of water in extrasolar planet HD189733b and has been used extensively in atmospheric modelling. Illustrations will be given at the meeting. A new linelist for the ammonia molecule has just been completed [2] which shows that standard compilations for this molecule need to be improved. Progress on a more extensive linelist for hot ammonia and linelists for other molecules will be discussed at the meeting. [1] R.J. Barber, J. Tennyson, G.J. Harris and R.N. Tolchenov, Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 368, 1087-1094 (2006) [2] S.N. Yurchenko, R.J. Barber, A. Yachmenev, W. Theil, P. Jensen and J. Tennyson, J. Phys. Chem. A, 113, 11845-11855 (2009).

  1. Particle Pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Increase and Decrease of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 in Human Lung Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Cotto, Rosa I.; Ortiz-Martínez, Mario G.; Rivera-Ramírez, Evasomary; Mateus, Vinicius L.; Amaral, Beatriz S.; Jiménez-Vélez, Braulio D.; Gioda, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Particle pollution from urban and industrialized regions in Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil was analyzed for toxic and pro-inflammatory (cytokines: IL-6, IL-8, IL-10) responses in human bronchial epithelial cells. Trace elements contribution was studied. Airborne particulate matter was collected at: three industrial sites Ind-1 (PM10) and Ind-2a and 2b (PM2.5); Centro urban area (PM10) and two rural sites (PM2.5, PM10). PM10 acetone extracts were toxic and did not elicit cytokine release; aqueous extracts were less toxic and stimulated the release of IL-6 and IL-8. PM2.5 aqueous extracts from Ind-2 decreased the release of IL-6 and IL-8. Zinc concentration was higher at the industrial and rural reference sites (Ref-1-2) although metals were not associated to cytokines changes. These results demonstrate that PM from RJ can either increase or decrease cytokine secretion in vitro while being site specific and time dependent. PMID:25106047

  2. [Impact of a music therapy program on the stress level of health professionals].

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Taets GG; Borba-Pinheiro CJ; de Figueiredo NM; Dantas EH

    2013-05-01

    The study aimed to assess the effects of a music therapy program on the level of stress for female professionals working in a private hospital in Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil. Thirty four female volunteers with 33.3 ± 8.5 years of age from different levels of professional participated in the study. We used the Lipp's inventory of symptoms of stress for adults (ISSL) to evaluate the level of stress of participants before and after music therapy. The program consisted of twelve sessions using the techniques of music therapy Improvisation and Musical Re-creation held once a week with 50 minutes / session in a period of three months. The Wilcoxon test for repeated measures was used for statistical analysis. The study showed a statistically significant decrease (? = - 60%, p <0.001) in the level of stress professionals studied after the music therapy program. In conclusion, the present study that the music therapy program was effective in decrease the level of stress of women health professionals working in a private hospital in Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil.

  3. AMP N1-oxide, a unique compound of royal jelly, induces neurite outgrowth from PC12 cells via signaling by protein kinase A independent of that by mitogen-activated protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Noriko; Nomoto, Hiroshi; Fukumitsu, Hidefumi; Mishima, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    Earlier we identified adenosine monophosphate (AMP) N1-oxide as a unique compound of royal jelly (RJ) that induces neurite outgrowth (neuritegenesis) from cultured rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells via the adenosine A2A receptor. Now, we found that AMP N1-oxide stimulated the phosphorylation of not only mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) but also that of cAMP/calcium-response element-binding protein (CREB) in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of MAPK activation by a MEK inhibitor, PD98059, did not influence the AMP N1-oxide-induced neuritegenesis, whereas that of protein kinase A (PKA) by a selective inhibitor, KT5720, significantly reduced neurite outgrowth. AMP N1-oxide also had the activity of suppressing the growth of PC12 cells, which correlated well with the neurite outgrowth-promoting activity. KT5720 restored the growth of AMP N1-oxide-treated PC12 cells. It is well known that nerve growth factor suppresses proliferation of PC12 cells before causing stimulation of neuronal differentiation. Thus, AMP N1-oxide elicited neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells, as evidenced by generation of neurites, and inhibited cell growth through adenosine A2A receptor-mediated PKA signaling, which may be responsible for characteristic actions of RJ. PMID:18955270

  4. On the Size Distribution of Close-in Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudi, B. Scott

    2005-07-01

    The precisions of extrasolar planet radius measurements are reaching the point at which meaningful and discriminatory comparisons with theoretical predictions can be made. However, care must be taken to account for selection effects in the transit surveys that detect the transiting planets for which radius measurements are possible. Here I identify one such selection effect, such that the number of planets with radius Rp detected in a signal-to-noise ratio limited transit survey is proportional to R?p, with ?~4-6. In the presence of a dispersion ? in the intrinsic distribution of planet radii, this selection effect translates to bias b in the radii of observed planets. Detected planets are, on average, larger by a fractional amount b~?(?/)2 relative to the mean radius of the underlying distribution. I argue that the intrinsic dispersion in planetary radii is likely to be in the range ?=(0.05-0.12)RJ, where the lower bound is that expected theoretically solely from the variance in stellar insolation, and the upper bound is the 95% c.l. upper limit from the scatter in observed radii. Assuming an arbitrary but plausible value of ?/~10%, and thus b~6%, I infer a mean intrinsic radius of close-in massive extrasolar planets of =(1.01+/-0.03)RJ. This value reinforces the case for HD 209458b having an anomalously large radius, and may be inconsistent with coreless models of irradiated giant planets.

  5. Organization, expression and evolution of a disease resistance gene cluster in soybean.

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Michelle A; Marek, Laura Fredrick; Shoemaker, Randy C

    2002-01-01

    PCR amplification was previously used to identify a cluster of resistance gene analogues (RGAs) on soybean linkage group J. Resistance to powdery mildew (Rmd-c), Phytophthora stem and root rot (Rps2), and an ineffective nodulation gene (Rj2) map within this cluster. BAC fingerprinting and RGA-specific primers were used to develop a contig of BAC clones spanning this region in cultivar "Williams 82" [rps2, Rmd (adult onset), rj2]. Two cDNAs with homology to the TIR/NBD/LRR family of R-genes have also been mapped to opposite ends of a BAC in the contig Gm_Isb001_091F11 (BAC 91F11). Sequence analyses of BAC 91F11 identified 16 different resistance-like gene (RLG) sequences with homology to the TIR/NBD/LRR family of disease resistance genes. Four of these RLGs represent two potentially novel classes of disease resistance genes: TIR/NBD domains fused inframe to a putative defense-related protein (NtPRp27-like) and TIR domains fused inframe to soybean calmodulin Ca(2+)-binding domains. RT-PCR analyses using gene-specific primers allowed us to monitor the expression of individual genes in different tissues and developmental stages. Three genes appeared to be constitutively expressed, while three were differentially expressed. Analyses of the R-genes within this BAC suggest that R-gene evolution in soybean is a complex and dynamic process. PMID:12524363

  6. 76 FR 72855 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or..., 2170-Putim- 12227-901 S o Jose dos Campos-SP-BRASIL; telephone +55 12 3927- 5852 or +55 12...

  7. 75 FR 9811 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic... Campos-SP-BRASIL; telephone: +55 12 3927- 5852 or +55 12 3309-0732; fax: +55 12 3927-7546;...

  8. 75 FR 8557 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135ER...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic... Campos--SP--BRASIL; telephone: +55 12 3927-5852 or +55 12 3309-0732; fax: +55 12 3927-7546;...

  9. Apparent discrepancy in contamination history of a sub-tropical estuary evaluated through 210Pb profile and chronostratigraphical markers.

    PubMed

    Marques, Aguinaldo N; Monna, Fabrice; da Silva Filho, Emmanoel V; Fernex, François E; Fernando Lamego Simões Filho, F

    2006-05-01

    Zn and Cd concentrations, stable lead isotopes and 210Pb-derived chronology were determined in a sediment core sampled at Sepetiba Bay (South-eastern Brazil). During the last decades, the bay's watershed has been modified by the increase of industrial activities and human interventions. In particular, Zn and Cd ore treatment plants were built near the coast in 1960 and 1970, respectively, and water has been diverted from the adjacent Paraíba do Sul River watershed since 1950. The core collected at shallow depth near the industrial area exhibits four successive events: (i) at 50 cm depth, a change in the 206Pb/207Pb ratio from about 1.162 to more than 1.18 might be the result of the São Francisco Channel opening and water diversion from Paraíba do Sul river; (ii) at 40 cm depth, Zn concentration starts to increase (up to 0.8 mg g(-1)) (iii) above 30 cm depth, relatively high Cd concentrations (up to 1.6 microg g(-1)) are observed and (iv) at 16 cm depth, change in unsupported 210Pb slope is probably related to a waste dam built to prevent strong metal contamination in the bay. Sediment accumulation rates evaluated by Zn and Cd profiles used as time-markers are higher than those calculated from 210Pb-based chronology models. Using the constant initial concentration (CIC) model both events are supposed to date back to about 1884 and 1902, respectively, while using the constant rate of supply (CRS) model it shifts to about 1925 and 1935. Such discrepancies are probably assigned to the fact that these models do not take into account site-specific local sedimentation dynamics. In the study area, particles deposition seems to be controlled by enrichment with unsupported 210Pb transported by runoff from a mangrove flat bank. Chronology derived from a model that assumes an exponential increase of the initial 210Pb activity fits well with the estimated rates obtained from historical events. PMID:16309713

  10. Cadmium Diagenesis in Polluted Sediments of a Tropical Estuary of SE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patchineelam, S. R.; Metzger, E.; Jézéquel, D.; Sarazin, G.; Smoak, J. M.

    2006-12-01

    Sepetiba bay is a shallow semi enclosed water body located about 70km on the west side of the city of Rio de Janeiro with an area of 450km² separated from the Atlantic Ocean by a sand spit. Fishing, shrimp and tourism are important economic activities. During 35 years a Zinc/Cadmium smelter has polluted the bay. The objective of this investigation is to demonstrate how diagenetic processes are responsible for the cadmium remobilization out or fixation into the sediment column.. Two contrasting sites were selected to compare the diagenetic process. P1 located near to the smelter and P2 is about 20km away from the smelter next to a domestic effluents discharge into the bay. Peeper samplers with 25 cells with a resolution of 2,5cm were introduced into the sediment at both sites. After a period of 3 weeks equilibrium, the pore waters were separated from each cell and analyzed within 24 hours for alkalinity, H2S, NH3 and soluble phosphate by conventional methods An ICP-AES spectrometer was used to analyze Na, Mg, Li, Ba, Sr, Si, Fe and Mn. The total and labile Cd in pore waters were determined by differential-pulse stripping voltammetry. The solute profiles have revealed that the sediments at both sites were anoxic. The slopes of the ferrous and sulfide profile constituents permitted characterization the area at P1 as ferrous dominant with oxic conditions in the overlying water and P2 as a sulfidic rich environment with suboxic conditions in the water column. At P1 total dissolved Cd in the overlying water was about 450pM and labile fraction varied from 85 to 177pM. Just below the sediment water interface 695pM of total dissolved Cd was observed. Probably diagenetic processes are responsible for release of cadmium at the sediment interface. Below this maxima Cd concentrations decreased to 30pM. At P2 a concentration o of 150pM of total dissolved Cd was detected in the overlying water and samples in the pore waters at the sediment interface had an average concentration of 20pM. The downward diffusion of dissolved Cd in the pore water probably facilitated the formation of Cd sulfide or adsorption on particulate matter.

  11. Training Effects on Immune Function in Judoists

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Namju; Kim, Jongkyu; Hyung, Gu Am; Park, Jeong Hun; Kim, Sung Jin; Kim, Han Byeol; Jung, Han Sang

    2015-01-01

    Background: It has been reported that high intensity long term training in elite athletes may increase risk of immune function. Objectives: This study is to examine training effects on immunoglobulin and changes of physiological stress and physical fitness level induced by increased cold stress during 12-week winter off-season training in elite Judoists. Patients and Methods: Twenty-nine male participants (20 ± 1 years) were assigned to only Judo training (CG, n = 9), resistance training combined with Judo training (RJ, n = 10), and interval training combined with Judo training (IJ, n = 10). Blood samples collected at rest, immediately after all-out exercise, and 30-minute recovery period were analyzed for testing IgA, IgG, and IgM, albumin and catecholamine levels. Results: VO2max and anaerobic mean power in IJ (P < 0.05) and anaerobic power in RJ (P < 0.05) were significantly increased after 12-week training compared to CG. There was no significant interaction effect (group × period) in albumin after 12-week training; however, there was a significant interaction effect (group × period) in epinephrine after 12-week training (F (4, 52) = 3.216, P = 0.002) and immediately after all-out exercise and at 30-minute recovery (F (2, 26) = 14.564, P = 0.008). There was significantly higher changes in epinephrine of RJ compared to IJ at 30-minute recovery (P = 0.045). There was a significant interaction effect (group × period) in norepinephrine after 12-week training (F (4, 52) = 8.141, P < 0.0001), at rest and immediately after all-out exercise (F (2, 26) = 9.570, P = 0.001), and immediately after all-out exercise and at 30-minute recovery (F (2, 26) = 8.862, P = 0.001). Conclusions: Winter off-season training of IJ increased physical fitness level as well as physical stress induced by overtraining. Along with increased physical stress, all groups showed reduced trend of IgA; however, there was no group difference based on different training methods. PMID:26448852

  12. A symmetry model for genetic coding via a wallpaper group composed of the traditional four bases and an imaginary base E: Towards category theory-like systematization of molecular/genetic biology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previously, we suggested prototypal models that describe some clinical states based on group postulates. Here, we demonstrate a group/category theory-like model for molecular/genetic biology as an alternative application of our previous model. Specifically, we focus on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) base sequences. Results We construct a wallpaper pattern based on a five-letter cruciform motif with letters C, A, T, G, and E. Whereas the first four letters represent the standard DNA bases, the fifth is introduced for ease in formulating group operations that reproduce insertions and deletions of DNA base sequences. A basic group Z5 = {r, u, d, l, n} of operations is defined for the wallpaper pattern, with which a sequence of points can be generated corresponding to changes of a base in a DNA sequence by following the orbit of a point of the pattern under operations in group Z5. Other manipulations of DNA sequence can be treated using a vector-like notation ‘Dj’ corresponding to a DNA sequence but based on the five-letter base set; also, ‘Dj’s are expressed graphically. Insertions and deletions of a series of letters ‘E’ are admitted to assist in describing DNA recombination. Likewise, a vector-like notation Rj can be constructed for sequences of ribonucleic acid (RNA). The wallpaper group B = {Z5×∞, ●} (an ∞-fold Cartesian product of Z5) acts on Dj (or Rj) yielding changes to Dj (or Rj) denoted by ‘Dj◦B(j→k) = Dk’ (or ‘Rj◦B(j→k) = Rk’). Based on the operations of this group, two types of groups—a modulo 5 linear group and a rotational group over the Gaussian plane, acting on the five bases—are linked as parts of the wallpaper group for broader applications. As a result, changes, insertions/deletions and DNA (RNA) recombination (partial/total conversion) are described. As an exploratory study, a notation for the canonical “central dogma” via a category theory-like way is presented for future developments. Conclusions Despite the large incompleteness of our methodology, there is fertile ground to consider a symmetry model for genetic coding based on our specific wallpaper group. A more integrated formulation containing “central dogma” for future molecular/genetic biology remains to be explored. PMID:24885369

  13. Galileo in-situ dust measurements in Jupiter’s gossamer rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Harald; Hamilton, Douglas P.; Moissl, Richard; Grün, Eberhard

    2009-09-01

    Galileo was the first artificial satellite to orbit Jupiter. During its late orbital mission the spacecraft made two passages through the giant planet's gossamer ring system. The impact-ionization dust detector on board successfully recorded dust impacts during both ring passages and provided the first in-situ measurements from a dusty planetary ring. During the first passage—on 5 November 2002 while Galileo was approaching Jupiter—dust measurements were collected until a spacecraft anomaly at 2.33 RJ (Jupiter radii) just 16 min after a close flyby of Amalthea put the spacecraft into a safing mode. The second ring passage on 21 September 2003 provided ring dust measurements down to about 2.5 RJ and the Galileo spacecraft was destroyed shortly thereafter in a planned impact with Jupiter. In all, a few thousand dust impacts were counted with the instrument accumulators during both ring passages, but only a total of 110 complete data sets of dust impacts were transmitted to Earth. Detected particle sizes range from about 0.2 to 5 ?m, extending the known size distribution by an order of magnitude towards smaller particles than previously derived from optical imaging [Showalter, M.R., de Pater, I., Verbanac, G., Hamilton, D.P., Burns, J.A., 2008. Icarus 195, 361-377; de Pater, I., Showalter, M.R., Macintosh, B., 2008. Icarus 195, 348-360]. The grain size distribution increases towards smaller particles and shows an excess of these tiny motes in the Amalthea gossamer ring compared to the Thebe ring. The size distribution for the Amalthea ring derived from our in-situ measurements for the small grains agrees very well with the one obtained from images for large grains. Our analysis shows that particles contributing most to the optical cross-section are about 5 ?m in radius, in agreement with imaging results. The measurements indicate a large drop in particle flux immediately interior to Thebe's orbit and some detected particles seem to be on highly-tilted orbits with inclinations up to 20°. Finally, the faint Thebe ring extension was detected out to at least 5 RJ, indicating that grains attain higher eccentricities than previously thought. The drop interior to Thebe, the excess of submicron grains at Amalthea, and the faint ring extension indicate that grain dynamics is strongly influenced by electromagnetic forces. These findings can all be explained by a shadow resonance as detailed by Hamilton and Krüger [Hamilton, D.P., Krüger, H., 2008. Nature 453, 72-75].

  14. Galileo in-situ dust measurements and the sculpting of Jupiter's gossamer rings by its shadow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Harald; Hamilton, Douglas P.; Moissl, Richard; Grün, Eberhard

    2008-09-01

    Galileo was the first articfiial satellite to orbit Jupiter. During its late orbital mission the spacecraft made two passages through the giant planet's gossamer ring system. The highly sensitive impact-ionization dust detector on board successfully recorded dust impacts during both ring passages and provided the first in-situ measurements from a dusty planetary ring. During the first passage { on 5 November 2002 while Galileo was approaching Jupiter - dust measurements were collected until a spacecraft anomaly at 2:33RJ (Jupiter radii) just 16 min after a close flyby of Amalthea put the spacecraft into a safing mode. The second ring passage on 21 September 2003 provided ring dust measurements down to about 2:5RJ and the Galileo spacecraft was destroyed shortly thereafter in a planned impact with Jupiter. In all, a few thousand dust impacts were counted with the instrument accumulators during both ring passages, but only a total of 110 complete data sets of dust impacts were transmitted to Earth (Krüger et al, Icarus, submitted). Detected particle sizes range from about 0.2 to 5 ?m, extending the known size distribution by an order of magnitude towards smaller particles than previously derived from optical imaging (Showalter et al., Icarus 2008). The grain size distribution increases towards smaller particles and shows an excess of these tiny motes in the Amalthea gossamer ring compared to the Thebe ring. The size distribution for the Amalthea ring derived from our in-situ measurements for the small grains agrees very well with the one obtained from images for large grains. Our analysis shows that particles contributing most to the optical cross-section are approximately 5 ?m in radius, in agreement with imaging results. The measurements indicate a large drop in particle ux immediately interior to Thebe's orbit and some detected particles seem to be on highly-tilted orbits with inclinations up to 20°. Finally, the faint Thebe ring extension was detected out to at least 5RJ, indicating that grains attain higher eccentricities than previously thought. The drop interior to Thebe, the excess of submicron grains at Amalthea, and the faint ring extension indicate that grain dynamics is strongly in uenced by electromagnetic forces. Recent modelling (Hamilton & Krüger, Nature, 2008) shows that time variable electromagnetic effects (shadow resonance) can account for all of these surprising results. In particular, when the ring particles travel through Jupiter's shadow, dust grain electric charges vary systematically, driving grains out into the Thebe Extension and matching the Galileo in-situ dust measurements.

  15. Mapping beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) forest structure with airborne hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Moses Azong; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Sobhan, Istiak

    2009-06-01

    Estimating forest structural attributes using multispectral remote sensing is challenging because of the saturation of multispectral indices at high canopy cover. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of hyperspectral data in estimating and mapping forest structural parameters including mean diameter-at-breast height (DBH), mean tree height and tree density of a closed canopy beech forest ( Fagus sylvatica L.). Airborne HyMap images and data on forest structural attributes were collected from the Majella National Park, Italy in July 2004. The predictive performances of vegetation indices (VI) derived from all possible two-band combinations (VI ( i, j) = ( Ri - Rj)/( Ri + Rj), where Ri and Rj = reflectance in any two bands) were evaluated using calibration ( n = 33) and test ( n = 20) data sets. The potential of partial least squares (PLS) regression, a multivariate technique involving several bands was also assessed. New VIs based on the contrast between reflectance in the red-edge shoulder (756-820 nm) and the water absorption feature centred at 1200 nm (1172-1320 nm) were found to show higher correlations with the forest structural parameters than standard VIs derived from NIR and visible reflectance (i.e. the normalised difference vegetation index, NDVI). PLS regression showed a slight improvement in estimating the beech forest structural attributes (prediction errors of 27.6%, 32.6% and 46.4% for mean DBH, height and tree density, respectively) compared to VIs using linear regression models (prediction errors of 27.8%, 35.8% and 48.3% for mean DBH, height and tree density, respectively). Mean DBH was the best predicted variable among the stand parameters (calibration R2 = 0.62 for an exponential model fit and standard error of prediction = 5.12 cm, i.e. 25% of the mean). The predicted map of mean DBH revealed high heterogeneity in the beech forest structure in the study area. The spatial variability of mean DBH occurs at less than 450 m. The DBH map could be useful to forest management in many ways, e.g. thinning of coppice to promote diameter growth, to assess the effects of management on forest structure or to detect changes in the forest structure caused by anthropogenic and natural factors.

  16. Predictions of thermal and gravitational signals of Jupiter's deep zonal winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junjun; Schneider, Tapio; Kaspi, Yohai

    2013-05-01

    NASA's Juno spacecraft will make microwave and gravity measurements of Jupiter. These can reveal information about the composition of Jupiter's atmosphere and about the temperature and density structure below the visible clouds, which is in balance with the structure of the zonal winds. Here we show that there exist strong physical constraints on the structure of the off-equatorial deep zonal winds, and that these imply dynamical constraints on the thermal and gravitational signals Juno will measure. The constraints derive from the facts that Jupiter is rapidly rotating, has nearly inviscid flow, and has strong intrinsic heat fluxes emanating from the deep interior. Because of the strong intrinsic heat fluxes, Jupiter's interior is convecting, but the rapid rotation and weak viscosity constrain the convective motions away from the equator to occur primarily along cylinders parallel to the planet's spin axis. As a consequence, convection is expected to approximately homogenize entropy along the spin axis, thereby adjusting the interior to a convectively and inertially nearly neutral state. In this state, entropy gradients perpendicular to the spin axis are constant but generally not zero on cylinders concentric with the spin axis. Additionally, thermal wind balance relates entropy gradients perpendicular to the spin axis to the zonal wind shear between the observed cloud-level winds and winds in the deep interior (pressures of order 106 bar), which must be much weaker because otherwise the Ohmic energy dissipation produced by the interaction of the zonal winds with the planetary magnetic field would exceed the planetary luminosity. Combining these physical constraints with thermal and electrical properties of the atmosphere, we obtain that zonal winds away from the equator likely extend deeply into Jupiter (to a depth between about 0.84RJ and 0.94RJ with Jupiter radius RJ) but have strengths similar to cloud level winds only within the outer few percent of Jupiter's radius. Meridional equator-to-pole temperature contrasts in thermal wind balance with the zonal winds increase with depth and reach ˜1-2 K at 50 bar; they would reach O(10 K) if the winds were shallowly confined, as has been proposed previously. Such temperature contrasts will be detectable by Juno's microwave instrument and are expected to be much larger than those associated with variations in water vapor abundance. The associated gravitational signals of the zonal winds will also be detectable by Juno, but they will be more difficult to distinguish from those implied by other flow models with deep zonal flows. The combination of Juno's gravity and microwave instruments should be able to distinguish deep flows (detectable gravitational signals) from shallow flows (detectable thermal signals), providing strong constraints on the penetration depth of substantial zonal winds.

  17. Quantum Monte Carlo Simulation of Vibrational Frequency Shifts of CO in Solid para-HYDROGEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lecheng; Le Roy, Robert; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2014-06-01

    Stimulated by Fajardo's remarkable study of the rovibrational spectra of CO isotopologues trapped in solid para-hydrogen, we have performed quantum Monte Carlo simulations to predict his observed vibrational frequency shifts and inertial rotational constants using 2-body potentials based on the best available models for the pH_2-pH_2 and CO-pH_2, potential energy functions. We started by fitting an analytic `Morse/Long-Range' (MLR) function to the 1D ``adiabaic hindered rotor" version of Hinde's 5D pH_2-pH_2 potential developed by Faruk et al. We then modified it to take account of many-body effects by scaling it until it yielded the correct equilibrium lattice parameters for the fcc and hcp structures of pure solid para-hydrogen. A CO molecule was then placed at different interstitial or substitution sites in large equilibrated fcc or hcp para-hydrogen lattices, and the structural and dynamical behaviors of the micro-solvation environment around CO were simulated with a PIMC algorithm using a 2D effective pH_2-CO potential based on the 5D H_2--CO potential energy surface recently reported by Li et al., with a lattice sum of values of the 2D CO vibrational difference potential being use to predict the vibrational frequency shift. The effective rotational constants Beff for CO in different solid para-hydrogen structures were also calculated and compared with the experimental observations and with predicted Beff values for CO in large-sized para-hydrogen--CO clusters. M. E. Fajardo, J. Phys. Chem. A 117, 13504 (2013). R. Hinde, J. Chem. Phys., 128, 154308 (2008). H. Li, X-L. Zhang, R.J. Le Roy, and P.-N. Roy, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 164315 (2013). R.J. Le Roy, C.C. Haugen, J. Tao and Hui Li, Mol. Phys., 109, 435 (2011) N. Faruk, R.J. Le Roy, and P.-N. Roy, J. Chem. Phys. (submitted December 2013). Y. Mizumoto and Y. Ohtsuki, Chem. Phys. Lett. 501, 304 (2011).

  18. Sustained Accretion on Gas Giants Surrounded by Low-Turbulence Circumplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelo, Gennaro; Marzari, Francesco

    2015-11-01

    Gas giants more massive than Saturn acquire most of their envelope while surrounded by a circumplanetary disk (CPD), which extends over a fraction of the planet’s Hill radius. Akin to circumstellar disks, CPDs may be subject to MRI-driven turbulence and contain low-turbulence regions, i.e., dead zones. It was suggested that CPDs may inhibit sustained gas accretion, thus limiting planet growth, because gas transport through a CPD may be severely reduced by a dead zone, a consequence at odds with the presence of Jupiter-mass (and larger) planets. We studied how an extended dead zone influences gas accretion on a Jupiter-mass planet, using global 3D hydrodynamics calculations with mesh refinements. The accretion flow from the circumstellar disk to the CPD is resolved locally at the length scale Rj, Jupiter's radius. The gas kinematic viscosity is assumed to be constant and the dead zone around the planet is modeled as a region of much lower viscosity, extending from ~Rj out to ~60Rj and off the mid-plane for a few CPD scale heights. We obtain accretion rates only marginally smaller than those reported by, e.g., D'Angelo et al. (2003), Bate et al. (2003), Bodenheimer et al. (2013), who applied the same constant kinematic viscosity everywhere, including in the CPD. As found by several previous studies (e.g., D’Angelo et al. 2003; Bate et al. 2003; Tanigawa et al. 2012; Ayliffe and Bate 2012; Gressel et al. 2013; Szulágyi et al. 2014), the accretion flow does not proceed through the CPD mid-plane but rather at and above the CPD surface, hence involving MRI-active regions (Turner et al. 2014). We conclude that the presence of a dead zone in a CPD does not inhibit gas accretion on a giant planet. Sustained accretion in the presence of a CPD is consistent not only with the formation of Jupiter but also with observed extrasolar planets more massive than Jupiter. We place these results in the context of the growth and migration of a pair of giant planets locked in the 2:1 mean motion resonance

  19. New description of Io's cold plasma torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbert, Floyd; Schneider, Nicholas M.; Dessler, A. J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite more than 25 years of study of the Io plasma torus, its generation, dynamics, and even its spatial structure are still poorly understood, especially in the case of the inner, cold region of the torus. To remedy this lack, we analyzed ground-based coronagraphic images of the torus in S+ 6371 Å emission. We derived cold torus properties by modeling and removing these images' inherent line-of-sight integration and atmospheric blurring, using new deconvolution techniques, obtaining high-spatial-resolution estimates of the three-dimensional (3-D) S+ distributions. From these 3-D distributions, we discovered that the cold torus is washer-shaped, with a roughly constant vertical thickness ?0.25 Jovian radius (RJ), and a radial width that varies from 0.6 to 0.9 RJ. The cold torus is separated by a 0.1-0.2 RJ-wide low-density region, or "gap," from the "ribbon" region which lies just outside it. The small, approximately constant washer height implies an ion parallel temperature (T?) of ˜3 eV, compared with a ribbon T? that varies from about 20 to 50 eV as a function of Jovian magnetic longitude (?III). The washer has a distinct inner edge, not seen before, whose jovicentric distance varies with ?III so as to create the variable cold torus width. Thus this inner edge is concentric with neither Jupiter nor the rest of the torus. We also confirm the existence of a tilt between the midplanes of the ribbon and cold torus, with an orientation that cannot be produced by the magnetic mirror force acting on ion temperature anisotropy. The structure and composition of the gap and cold torus are best explained by a model in which a small amount of warm S+ plasma diffuses inwards while radiatively cooling. While still warm, its distribution over a large scale height keeps its density small, forming the gap. After sufficient cooling, it collapses to the centrifugal equator, where its higher density and continued inward diffusion make it more visible as the cold torus washer. However, its low electron temperature (probably ? T?) must be kept from further decline by a hitherto-unsuspected energy source that powers the observed visible wavelength radiation from the cold torus and fluctuates on timescales less than the plasma diffusion time. The formation of the abrupt cold torus inner edge might indicate the loss there of either this energy source or the plasma itself.

  20. Formacion de Formadores en Planeamiento y Administracion de la Education: Informe Final. Reunion Tecnica de la Red REPLAD, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brasil, 9-13 de noviembre de 1987. (Educational Development of Professionals in Educational Planning and Administration: Final Report. Proceedings of the Meeting of the Major Project for Education (Sao Paulo, Brazil, November 9-13, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    This final report provides a synthesis of conference presentations by representatives from institutions in 17 Latin American and the Caribbean nations. The material includes descriptions about institutions of higher education planning and developing of their respective schools of education, ministries of education, and national and regional…

  1. Formacion de Formadores en Planeamiento y Administracion de la Education: Informe Final. Reunion Tecnica de la Red REPLAD, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brasil, 9-13 de noviembre de 1987. (Educational Development of Professionals in Educational Planning and Administration: Final Report. Proceedings of the Meeting of the Major Project for Education (Sao Paulo, Brazil, November 9-13, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    This final report provides a synthesis of conference presentations by representatives from institutions in 17 Latin American and the Caribbean nations. The material includes descriptions about institutions of higher education planning and developing of their respective schools of education, ministries of education, and national and regional…

  2. Measurement of Emittance of Beam in the Debuncher During Stacking

    SciTech Connect

    Halling, Mike

    1991-12-11

    The emittance of antiprotons in the debuncher was measured using two methods during normal stacking conditions. With 2.3 seconds of cooling the vertical emittance was found to be 3.6 {pi} mm-mr using scraper D:TJ308, and 2.9 {pi} mm-mr using the profile on SEM806. With 6.9 seconds of cooling time time the measured horizontal emittance was 2.1 {pi} mm-mr using D:RJ306 v.s. 1.9 {pi} mm-mr using SEM806; but with 2.3 seconds of cooling the measured emittance in the debuncher was larger than in the DTOA line, 4.5 {pi} mm-mr v.s. 2.8 {pi} mm-mr. This suggests that some beam is being scraped on a horizontal aperture restriction someplace in the extraction process.

  3. A few remarks on ordinary differential equations

    SciTech Connect

    Desjardins, B.

    1996-12-31

    We present in this note existence and uniqueness results for solutions of ordinary differential equations and linear transport equations with discontinuous coefficients in a bounded open subset {Omega} of R{sup N} or in the whole space R{sup N} (N {ge} 1). R.J. Di Perna and P.L. Lions studied the case of vector fields b with coefficients in Sobolev spaces and bounded divergence. We want to show that similar results hold for more general b: we assume in the bounded autonomous case that b belongs to W{sup 1,1}({Omega}), b.n = 0 on {partial_derivative}{Omega}, and that there exists T{sub o} > O such that exp(T{sub o}{vert_bar}div b{vert_bar}) {element_of} L{sup 1}({Omega}). Furthermore, we establish results on transport equations with initial values in L{sup p} spaces (p > 1). 9 refs.

  4. [Susceptibility of Biomphalaria tenagophila and Biomphalaria glabrata from a same region to 2 Schistosoma mansoni strains].

    PubMed

    da Silva, R E; de Melo, A L; Pereira, L H

    1994-01-01

    B. tenagophila snails from Ouro Branco, MG, showed positivity for S. mansoni, with infection rates of 5%, 10%, (SJ strain), and 1% (LE strain) using a pool of miracidia. The mollusks were found to be susceptive from the 3rd generation reared in laboratory onwards. The B. tenagophila (OB, MG) when individually exposed to 10 miracidia, showed infection rate of 2% for LE strain. B. glabrata snails from Gagé, MG, showed a positivity rate of 58% for S. mansoni (LE strain), under experimental conditions. The B. tenagophila from Cabo Frio, RJ and B. glabrata from Belo Horizonte, MG used as a control for SJ strain showed infection rates of 47%-85% and 36% respectivily. For the LE strain, B. glabrata (BH, MG) used as control showed infection rate of 40%-75%. PMID:7569607

  5. Dioctophyme renale (Nematoda, Dioctophymatidae) infection in the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Carlos Torres; Verocai, Guilherme Gomes; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo Roland

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report the first case of parasitism by the giant kidney worm, Dioctophyme renale (Goeze, 1782), in the crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766), in Brazil. A debilitated adult male fox was taken to the Screening Center for Wild Animals in Rio de Janero (CETAS/RJ) and eventually died of an unknown cause. During necropsy, a brownish-red nematode, 28.9 cm long, was found in the peritoneal cavity. The worm was identified as a male D. renale. This study reports the first case of dioctophymatosis in the crab-eating fox, enlarging the range of wild definitive host species infected by the giant kidney worm in the Neotropical region. PMID:19204359

  6. pt5m - a 0.5 m robotic telescope on La Palma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, L. K.; Butterley, T.; Dhillon, V. S.; Littlefair, S. P.; Wilson, R. W.

    2015-12-01

    pt5m is a 0.5 m robotic telescope located on the roof of the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) building, at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, La Palma. Using a five-position filter wheel and CCD detector, and bespoke control software, pt5m provides a high-quality robotic observing facility. The telescope first began robotic observing in 2012, and is now contributing to transient follow-up and time-resolved astronomical studies. In this paper, we present the scientific motivation behind pt5m, as well as the specifications and unique features of the facility. We also present an example of the science we have performed with pt5m, where we measure the radius of the transiting exoplanet WASP-33b. We find a planetary radius of 1.603 ± 0.014RJ.

  7. Spitz nevi in the classic histopathological pattern - lamb in wolf`s clothing*

    PubMed Central

    Verardino, Gustavo Costa; Rochael, Mayra Carrijo

    2015-01-01

    Spitz nevus is a benign melanocytic lesion and also one of the main differential diagnosis of melanoma. A descriptive and retrospective study of surgical specimens from patients with a diagnosis of Spitz nevus was conducted at two institutions in Niterói - RJ. 32 cases were analyzed. The most frequent histological subtype was compound (60 %), with a predominance of epithelioid cells (17 cases - 53%). Pagetoid spread was observed in 21 cases (68%). Maturation of melanocytes was present in 13 cases (81%). Kamino bodies were found in eight cases (25%). Atypical melanocytes were present in 18 cases (56%). Mitoses were present in 11 cases (34%). Detailed knowledge of the classical form of Spitz nevi is essential for the differential diagnosis with melanoma. However, no single criterium is definitive in the differential diagnosis between Spitz nevus and melanoma. PMID:25672303

  8. Geomicrobiology of cores from Suruí Mangrove--Guanabara Bay--Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Luiz Francisco; Mendonça Filho, João Graciano; Netto, Annibal Duarte Pereira; Sabadini-Santos, Elisamara; de Figueiredo, Alberto Garcia; Crapez, Mirian Araújo Carlos

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this work was to quantify the biopolymers associated to esterase enzymes and identify bacterial respiratory activity in four cores collected in Suruí Mangrove, Guanabara Bay - RJ. Biopolymer concentration was 1000 times lower than previously reported in the literature, indicating the need for creating and establishing eutrophication indicative rates and records compatible with tropical coastal systems. The biochemical representative relationships in the cores were equivalent to those from studies on coastal marine environments made in the Northern Hemisphere. The esterase enzymes in the sediment proved efficient in the mineralization of biopolymers, even with preferentially anaerobic metabolic physiology. Despite the lack of incipient geomicrobiological studies, the results highlighted the possible application of microbiology to a better understanding of geological processes. PMID:20663527

  9. Frontispiece: Crystallisation from a Water-in-Oil Emulsion as a Route to Enantiomer Separation: The Case of dl-Threonine.

    PubMed

    Gilks, Sara E; Davey, Roger J

    2016-01-01

    Enantiomeric Separation Threonine crystallises from racemic solutions as a conglomerate of chirally pure D (2S,3R) and L (2R,3S) crystals. Molecular graphics show the two enantiomers in space-filled form together with the molecular H-bonded chain as it exists in the crystal structure. Drops of supersaturated racemic solution are emulsified in an oil, and seed crystals of the desired form added (R and blue in the graphic). These seeds, which are located in the oil phase, grow by acting as a sink to remove R from the drops by diffusion. The drops consequently (S and yellow) become smaller and enriched in the opposite enantiomer. The end result is an effective separation of the two enantiomers. More details of this work are discussed in the Communication by S.?E. Gilks and R.?J. Davey on page?74?ff. PMID:26767589

  10. Advanced high pressure engine study for mixed-mode vehicle applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luscher, W. P.; Mellish, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    High pressure liquid rocket engine design, performance, weight, envelope, and operational characteristics were evaluated for a variety of candidate engines for use in mixed-mode, single-stage-to-orbit applications. Propellant property and performance data were obtained for candidate Mode 1 fuels which included: RP-1, RJ-5, hydrazine, monomethyl-hydrazine, and methane. The common oxidizer was liquid oxygen. Oxygen, the candidate Mode 1 fuels, and hydrogen were evaluated as thrust chamber coolants. Oxygen, methane, and hydrogen were found to be the most viable cooling candidates. Water, lithium, and sodium-potassium were also evaluated as auxiliary coolant systems. Water proved to be the best of these, but the system was heavier than those systems which cooled with the engine propellants. Engine weight and envelope parametric data were established for candidate Mode 1, Mode 2, and dual-fuel engines. Delivered engine performance data were also calculated for all candidate Mode 1 and dual-fuel engines.

  11. Linear aerospike engine study. [for reusable launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diem, H. G.; Kirby, F. M.

    1977-01-01

    Parametric data on split-combustor linear engine propulsion systems are presented for use in mixed-mode single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle studies. Preliminary design data for two selected engine systems are included. The split combustor was investigated for mixed-mode operations with oxygen/hydrogen propellants used in the inner combustor in Mode 2, and in conjunction with either oxygen/RP-1, oxygen/RJ-5, O2/CH4, or O2/H2 propellants in the outer combustor for Mode 1. Both gas generator and staged combustion power cycles were analyzed for providing power to the turbopumps of the inner and outer combustors. Numerous cooling circuits and cooling fluids (propellants) were analyzed and hydrogen was selected as the preferred coolant for both combustors and the linear aerospike nozzle. The maximum operating chamber pressure was determined to be limited by the availability of hydrogen coolant pressure drop in the coolant circuit.

  12. “Our Reach Is Wide by Any Corporate Standard”: How the Tobacco Industry Helped Defeat the Clinton Health Plan and Why It Matters Now

    PubMed Central

    Tesler, Laura E.

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary health care reformers, like those who promoted the failed Clinton era plan, face opposition from multiple corporate interests. However, scant literature has examined how relationships between corporations and other stakeholders, such as think tanks and advocacy groups, shape health care reform debate. We show how the 2 biggest US tobacco companies, Philip Morris and RJ Reynolds, and their trade association coordinated in mobilizing ideologically diverse constituencies to help defeat the Clinton plan. Unwittingly perhaps, some reform supporters advanced the tobacco industry's public relations blitz, contributing to perceptions of public opposition to the plan. As the current reform debate unfolds, this case highlights the importance of funding transparency for interpreting the activities of think tanks, advocacy groups, and “grassroots” movements. PMID:20466958

  13. Long distance optical printed circuit board for 10Gbps optical interconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shiqiong; Pang, Fufei; Li, Kang; Wu, Jinhua; Immonen, Marika; Zhang, Xiaobei; Wang, Tingyun

    2012-11-01

    A long-distance Optical Printed Circuit Boards (OPCB) was fabricated to realize high-speed optical interconnects. The OPCB was made up of polymer optical waveguides fabricated by using ultraviolet (UV) photolithography technique. The length of OPCB is 30cm. The minimal transmission loss of the optical waveguide is approximate 5.36dB at 850 nm wavelength. Two MT-RJ optical connecters were assembled on the OPCB to realize optical coupling between optical fibers and waveguides. The dependence of coupling loss on misalignment was obtained with different offset value theoretically and experimentally. The minimal total insertion loss is only 8.06dB. With 10 gigabits-per-second (Gbps) optical transceivers as the input/output module, we tested the performance of the OPCB. The date rate of 10Gbps can be transmitted successfully.

  14. New Galileo and VLA Observations of Jupiter's Radiation Belts near the vicinty of Amalthea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolton, S. J.; Thorne, R. M.; Levin, S.; Michael, K.

    2002-12-01

    In November, 2002, the Galileo spacecraft is scheduled to flyby Amalthea, one of Jupiter's inner most moons (~2.4 RJ). We present VLA observations of Jupiter's synchrotron emission obtained simultaneously with Galileo's flyby of Amalthea. If available, in-situ measurements from Galileo's Energetic Particle Detector and Plasma Wave Subsystem will be compared with the synchrotron emission maps at 6 and 20 cm wavelengths. The total measurement set will provide constraints on the high energy electron distribution functions near Amalthea and the types of waves affecting the particle population in the vicinity of Amalthea. These observations represent the first opportunity for direct comparison of Jupiter's radiation belts by both in-situ and remote observations near Amalthea.

  15. The development of an aluminum toroidal shell-type impact limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Mello, R.M.; Wilson, W.K.; Nair, B.R.

    1989-01-01

    The impact limiters on a Type B transportation cask are designed to absorb the impact energy for the 9-meter (30 foot) drop accident conditions without bottoming out in order to limit deceleration loadings on the cask. Toroidal shell-type impact limiters made from stainless steel have been investigated in the past for transportation cask service in Japan (Y. Sugita and S. Mochizuki) and by the General Electric Company (R.J. Pomares, et al.). These designs were relatively heavy and quite rigid causing high deceleration loads on the cask. This paper presents the results of an investigation to determine the feasibility of an aluminum Alloy 6061-T6 toroidal shell impact limiter for a Legal Weight Truck (LWT) cask being developed by the Westinghouse Corporation for the United States Department of Energy. The incentives for the study were the potential advantages such as a compact configuration, lightweight, durability, and essentially maintenance-free operation. 4 refs., 10 figs.

  16. New measurement technique that uses three near infrared diode lasers for nondestructive evaluation of sugar content in fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimomura, Yoshiaki; Takami, Toshitaka; Ichimaru, Yoshiki; Matsuo, Kenichi; Hyodo, Ryuji

    2005-03-01

    For non-destructive evaluation of sugar content in fruits, it has been proposed new measurement technique that uses three near infrared diode lasers. The reflectance Ri at the wavelength λi is defined by the ratio of two diffuse light powers reaching the two receiving fibers that were positioned at the different distance from a light emitting fiber. The value γ = ln (Ri/Rk)/ln (Rj/Rk) reaches the value that doesn't approximately depend on optical path length. As a simulation result of γ to a modeled apple, it was found that there are some combinations of three near-infrared wavelengths in which the correlation of γ and the sugar content of fruits raise. We actually evaluated the sugar content of apples by the use of three diode lasers 911nm, 936nm and 1055nm. As a result, it was confirmed that the measurement technique proposed here was usefulness.

  17. Critical properties of the two-dimensional Ising model on a square lattice with competing interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtazaev, A. K.; Ramazanov, M. K.; Badiev, M. K.

    2015-11-01

    The critical properties of two-dimensional (2D) square lattice Ising model with next-nearest-neighbor interactions are investigated by the replica Monte Carlo method. Estimations are made for the magnitude relations of the next-nearest-neighbor and nearest-neighbor exchange interactions r=J2/J1 in the value ranges r ?[0.0,0.4] and r ?[0.7,1.0] with ?r=0.1. The static critical exponents of the heat capacity, the susceptibility, the ordering parameter, and the correlation length, as well as the Fisher exponent, are calculated by means of the finite-size scaling theory. The universality class of the critical behavior of this model is revealed to remain within the limits of values r ? [0.0,0.4]. It is found that the change in the next-nearest-neighbor interaction value in the range r ?[0.7,1.0] leads to nonuniversal critical behavior.

  18. Qatar-1b: a hot Jupiter orbiting a metal-rich K dwarf star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsubai, K. A.; Parley, N. R.; Bramich, D. M.; West, R. G.; Sorensen, P. M.; Collier Cameron, A.; Latham, D. W.; Horne, K.; Anderson, D. R.; Bakos, G. Á.; Brown, D. J. A.; Buchhave, L. A.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Everett, M. E.; F?rész, G.; Hartman, J. D.; Hellier, C.; Miller, G. M.; Pollacco, D.; Quinn, S. N.; Smith, J. C.; Stefanik, R. P.; Szentgyorgyi, A.

    2011-10-01

    We report the discovery and initial characterization of Qatar-1b, a hot Jupiter-orbiting metal-rich K dwarf star, the first planet discovered by the Qatar Exoplanet Survey. We describe the strategy used to select candidate transiting planets from photometry generated by the Qatar Exoplanet Survey camera array. We examine the rate of astrophysical and other false positives found during the spectroscopic reconnaissance of the initial batch of candidates. A simultaneous fit to the follow-up radial velocities and photometry of Qatar-1b yields a planetary mass of 1.09 ± 0.08 MJ and a radius of 1.16 ± 0.05 RJ. The orbital period and separation are 1.420 033 ± 0.000 016 d and 0.023 43 ± 0.000 26 au for an orbit assumed to be circular. The stellar density, effective temperature and rotation rate indicate an age greater than 4 Gyr for the system.

  19. A New Fully Integrated Amplifier and Charge-to-Time Converter Module for Ion Beam Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Knies, D.L.; Grabowski, K.S.; Kennedy, C.A.; Cetina, C.; Hubler, G.K.; Baum, R.A.; Tumey, S.J.; Mignerey, A.C.

    2003-08-26

    A wide-range self-contained amplifier and charge-to-time converter module for energy detectors was designed, prototyped and built. The charge-to-time conversion is accomplished using a LeCroy MQT300L integrated circuit and a switch is provided to convert either positive or negative charge inputs. This new module replaces the charge preamplifier, shaping amplifier, fast amplifier, CFD, and level discriminator normally found in a traditional NIM-based system and can be placed close to the detector. It is powered from a small, dedicated AC-DC power supply. The module is self-triggering and provides an ECL timing signal from an onboard constant fraction discriminator. The outputs are routed to a standard RJ45 connector and conditioned for long cabling. Details of module linearity and timing resolution will be discussed.

  20. HRV analysis and blood pressure monitoring on weighing scale using BCG.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jae Hyuk; Park, Kwang Suk

    2012-01-01

    Using the Ballistocardiogram(BCG) measured on weighing scale, heart rate variability(HRV) and blood pressure were estimated. BCG was measured while subjects were on weighing scale in resting state and under the Valsalva maneuver and static exercise condition to induce the change in cardiac autonomic rhythm. Time domain, frequency domain and nonlinear HRV parameters were estimated from the measured BCG and compared with the ones calculated from ECG measured simultaneously. For blood pressure(BP) estimation, ECG was measured additionally on the feet using dry electrodes simultaneously installed on weighing scale and R-J intervals were extracted as a BP correlated parameter at every beat cycle. HRV estimation results shows the correlation higher than 0.97, and the estimated BP was similar to the measured BP with a reliable correlations. PMID:23366753

  1. On time interval measurements using BCG.

    PubMed

    Casanella, R; Gomez-Clapers, J; Pallas-Areny, R

    2012-01-01

    Time intervals measured between the electrocardiogram (ECG), the photoplethysmogram (PPG) or the impedance plethysmogram (IPG), have long been used to noninvasively assess cardiovascular function. Recently, the ballistocardiogram (BCG) has been proposed as an alternative physiological signal to be used in time interval measurements for the same purpose. In this work, we study the behavior of the RJ interval, defined as the time between the R wave of the electrocardiogram (ECG) and the J wave of the BCG, under fast pressure changes induced by paced respiration and tracked by a beat-to-beat blood pressure (SBP and DBP) waveform monitor. The aim of this work is to gain a deeper understanding of these newly proposed time intervals and to further assess their usefulness to determine cardiovascular performance. PMID:23367059

  2. Cardiovascular changes in parabolic flights assessed by ballistocardiography.

    PubMed

    Delière, Q; Migeotte, P-F; Neyt, X; Funtova, I; Baevsky, R M; Tank, J; Pattyn, N

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the cardiovascular changes observed in microgravity as compared to ground based measurements. The ballistocardiogram (BCG), the electrocardiogram (ECG) and the transthoracic impedance cardiogram (ICG) were recorded on five healthy subjects during the 57th-European Space Agency (ESA) parabolic flight campaign. BCG is analyzed though its most characteristic wave, the IJ wave complex that can be identified along the longitudinal component of BCG and which has been demonstrated to be linked to cardiac ejection. The timings between the contraction of the heart and the ejection of blood in the aorta are analyzed via the time delay between the R-wave of the ECG and the I and J-waves of BCG (RI and RJ intervals respectively). Our results show that the IJ complex presents a larger amplitude in weightlessness and suggest that stroke volume (SV) increases in microgravity. We assume that ballistocardiography is an efficient method to assess the ventricular performance. PMID:24110559

  3. Applications of SRG Factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, E. R.; Bogner, S. K.; Furnstahl, R. J.; Hebeler, K.; Hergert, H.; Perry, R. J.

    2012-10-01

    Recent calculations of nuclear structure make use of the similarity renormalization group to soften the nuclear potential through a series of unitary transformations, which suppress short range correlations.footnotetextE.D. Jurgenson, P. Navr'atil, and R.J. Furnstahl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 082501 (2009).(,)footnotetextE. R. Anderson, S. K. Bogner, R. J. Furnstahl, and R. J. Perry, Phys. Rev. C 82, 054001 (2010) Not only does this lead to a decoupling of scales in the potential, but also simplifications for other operators. One consequence, in particular, is that operator expectation values of high-energy probes in low-energy nuclear states exhibit factorization. As a result, phenomena previously attributed to strong short-range correlations induced by the nucleon-nucleon interaction, such as nuclear scaling and the EMC effect, can now be understood more clearly as a result of low-momentum nuclear structure. Recent results are reported.

  4. Tobacco Industry Consumer Research on Smokeless Tobacco Users and Product Development

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, Adrienne B.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2006, RJ Reynolds (RJR) and Philip Morris have both introduced new smokeless “snus” tobacco products. We analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents describing the history of RJR and Philip Morris's consumer research, smokeless product development, and marketing strategies. We found that RJR had invested in smokeless research, development, and marketing since 1968. RJR first targeted low-income males through sampling and sponsorship at fishing, rodeo, and baseball events, and through advertising portraying the user as “hard working.” In the early 1990s, Philip Morris and RJR hoped to attract more urban, female smokeless users. The current “snus” campaigns appear to appeal to these targeted consumers and smokers in smoke-free environments. These efforts may expand the tobacco market and undermine smoking cessation. PMID:19910355

  5. Multi-Matrices Factorization with Application to Missing Sensor Data Imputation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiao-Yu; Li, Wubin; Chen, Kang; Xiang, Xian-Hong; Pan, Rong; Li, Lei; Cai, Wen-Xue

    2013-01-01

    We formulate a multi-matrices factorization model (MMF) for the missing sensor data estimation problem. The estimation problem is adequately transformed into a matrix completion one. With MMF, an n-by-t real matrix, R, is adopted to represent the data collected by mobile sensors from n areas at the time, T1, T2, … , Tt, where the entry, Ri,j, is the aggregate value of the data collected in the ith area at Tj. We propose to approximate R by seeking a family of d-by-n probabilistic spatial feature matrices, U(1), U(2), … , U(t), and a probabilistic temporal feature matrix, V ? ?d×t, where Rj?U(j)TTj. We also present a solution algorithm to the proposed model. We evaluate MMF with synthetic data and a real-world sensor dataset extensively. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach outperforms the state-of-the-art comparison algorithms. PMID:24201318

  6. Static diode pumped alkali lasers: Model calculations of the effects of heating, ionization, high electronic excitation and chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barmashenko, B. D.; Rosenwaks, S.; Heaven, M. C.

    2013-04-01

    The effects of heating, ionization, high electronic excitation and chemical reactions on the operation of diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs) with a static, non-flowing gain medium are calculated using a semi-analytical model. Unlike other models, assuming a three-level scheme of the laser and neglecting influence of the temperature on the lasing power, it takes into account the temperature rise and losses of neutral alkali atoms due to ionization and chemical reactions, resulting in decrease of the pump absorption and slope efficiency. Good agreement with measurements in a static DPAL [B.V. Zhdanov, J. Sell, R.J. Knize, Electron. Lett. 44 (2008) 582] is obtained. It is found that the ionization processes have a small effect on the laser operation, whereas the chemical reactions of alkali atoms with hydrocarbons strongly affect the lasing power.

  7. Scientists in the classroom: A model industry-school partnership

    SciTech Connect

    McKarns, S.C.; Spach, J.; Crouch, N.

    1994-12-31

    Scientists at R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company (RJR) established a partnership with the Western Triad Region of the North Carolina Science and Mathematics Alliance to successfully sponsor a unique hands-on industry-school education program for more than 300 grade school students. The goal of this initiative was to promote and improve science and technology education in the Western Triad Region of North Carolina by incorporating relevant examples of applied science and technology into the fifth grade classroom. Fifth-grade students and teachers worked directly with RJR scientists to design and implement classroom science and technology projects. The students summarized their efforts into formal scientific poster presentations, and presented them at an evening science symposium held at RJR`s state-of-the-art research facility, the Bowman Gray Technical Center.

  8. The Jovian sodium nebula: Two years of ground-based observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, B.; Mendillo, M.; Baumgardner, J.

    1994-04-01

    The 1000-RJ-wide neutral sodium nebula of Jupiter has now been observed on four separate occasions from late 1989 to early 1992. The observations have consisted of both low-dispersion spectroscopy and direct imaging. These observations have allowed us to establish some of the general features of the nebula, such as the largely equatorial confinement of emission, the r-1 intensity behavior in the equatorial plane, and flaring of the emission with respect to the equator. Some additional evidence exists for more subtle morphology, such as a possible variable east-west intensity asymmetry. In this paper, we present a summary of observational evidence of variability in overall intensity, as well as in some of the morphological features of the nebula, over timescales of days, months, and years.

  9. A New Fully Integrated Amplifier and Charge-to-Time Converter Module for Ion Beam Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knies, D. L.; Grabowski, K. S.; Kennedy, C. A.; Cetina, C.; Hubler, G. K.; Baum, R. A.; Tumey, S. J.; Mignerey, A. C.

    2003-08-01

    A wide-range self-contained amplifier and charge-to-time converter module for energy detectors was designed, prototyped and built. The charge-to-time conversion is accomplished using a LeCroy MQT300L integrated circuit and a switch is provided to convert either positive or negative charge inputs. This new module replaces the charge preamplifier, shaping amplifier, fast amplifier, CFD, and level discriminator normally found in a traditional NIM-based system and can be placed close to the detector. It is powered from a small, dedicated AC-DC power supply. The module is self-triggering and provides an ECL timing signal from an onboard constant fraction discriminator. The outputs are routed to a standard RJ45 connector and conditioned for long cabling. Details of module linearity and timing resolution will be discussed.

  10. Optimality-based modeling of nitrogen allocation and photoacclimation in photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Robert A.

    2006-03-01

    The ability to predict phytoplankton growth rates under light and nutrient limitation is fundamental to modeling the ocean carbon cycle. Equally fundamental is the ability to predict chlorophyll:carbon ratios, since satellite-based chlorophyll estimates are one of the few data sets to which model output can be compared globally. Because the Geider et al. [Geider, R.J., MacIntyre, H.L., Kana, T.M., 1998. A dynamic regulatory model of phytoplanktonic acclimation to light, nutrients, and temperature. Limnology and Oceanography 43, 679-694] model addresses both desiderata, it has become the model of choice for representing photosynthesis in a wide range of ecosystem models. The Geider et al. [Geider, R.J., MacIntyre, H.L., Kana, T.M., 1998. A dynamic regulatory model of phytoplanktonic acclimation to light, nutrients, and temperature. Limnology and Oceanography 43, 679-694] model follows previous models in positing that maximum photosynthetic rate can be reached only when nitrogen cell quota (nitrogen:carbon ratio) reaches a fixed maximum value qN,maxC. Empirically, this assumption is contradicted by the extremely thorough data set of Laws and Bannister [Laws, E.A., Bannister, T.T., 1980. Nutrient- and light-limited growth of Thalassiosira fluviatilis in continuous culture, with implications for phytoplankton growth in the ocean. Limnology and Oceanography 25, 457-473] and by other studies: maximum growth rate does not seem to require maximum nitrogen cell quota. To the extent that existing models do not reflect this key characteristic, they may fail to yield reliable predictions of chlorophyll:carbon ratios as functions of nitrogen:carbon ratios. They also may fail to reflect differences in growth rates of competing phytoplankton species, an essential feature of state-of-the-art ecosystem models used in biogeochemistry simulations. In the present paper I replace the nitrogen limitation function of previous models by one that does not require maximum nitrogen cell quota to produce maximum photosynthetic rate. This new nitrogen-limitation function permits derivation of a steady-state optimality-based relationship between chlorophyll:carbon ratios and nitrogen:carbon ratios; the predictions of this new model are shown to be at least as good as predictions based on the "chlorophyll a synthesis regulation term" of Geider et al. [Geider, R.J., MacIntyre, H.L., Kana, T.M., 1996. A dynamic model of photoadaptation in phytoplankton. Limnology and Oceanography 41, 1-15; Geider, R.J., MacIntyre, H.L., Kana, T.M., 1998. A dynamic regulatory model of phytoplanktonic acclimation to light, nutrients, and temperature. Limnology and Oceanography 43, 679-694]. The Laws and Bannister [Laws, E.A., Bannister, T.T., 1980. Nutrient- and light-limited growth of T. fluviatilis in continuous culture, with implications for phytoplankton growth in the ocean. Limnology and Oceanography 25, 457-473] data suggest that the relationship between chlorophyll:carbon ratio and nitrogen cell quota is independent of nitrogen source (nitrate vs. ammonium) for nitrogen-limited cells. Finally, a full set of parameters for the Laws and Bannister [Laws, E.A., Bannister, T.T., 1980. Nutrient- and light-limited growth of T. fluviatilis in continuous culture, with implications for phytoplankton growth in the ocean. Limnology and Oceanography 25, 457-473] data set is estimated and used to predict chlorophyll:carbon and nitrogen:carbon ratios as functions of growth rate. This improved conceptualization of nitrogen:carbon and chlorophyll:carbon relationships in photosynthesis should provide a robust theoretical underpinning for a new generation of models of multiple-nutrient limitation.

  11. Moessbauer spectroscopy studies of iron-catalysts used in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) processes. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.; Rao, K.R.P.M.

    1994-12-31

    Moessbauer spectroscopy investigations were carried out on 7 iron-based catalysts during the period under review. A set of four samples subjected to activation in syn gas and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were sent by R.J. Gormley, to understand the behavior of the low alpha catalyst used in these runs. Another three used catalyst samples extracted from the LaPorte Run II were sent By Dr. Bharat Bhatt to understand the phase distribution and any correlation with the run results. The high alpha UCI catalyst used in the LaPorte Run I was studied to compare with the UCI low alpha catalyst used in LaPorte Run II. All together 10 Moessbauer measurements both at room and low temperatures were carried out to identify the iron phases present in these catalyst samples. Results to date are presented and some plausible trends are outlined.

  12. The orbital evolution of real asteroids near the 4:1 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahlgren, Mats; Hahn, Gerhard; Lagerkvist, C.-I.; Lundstroem, M.

    1992-01-01

    Numerical integrations of the orbits of ten asteroids with osculating elements near the 4:1 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter have been performed over 200,000 years into the future. A variety of orbital evolutions was found, depending on the start values of the semi-major axis. The orbit of asteroid 1983 RJ4, which lies almost exactly at the resonance center, experiences large variations in eccentricity, evolving into an Earth-crosser on a time-scale of a few 10(exp 4) years. This makes this region a potential source for Apollo objects and meteoritic material, although the width of the resonance region in semi-major axis seems to be very narrow.

  13. XO-5b: A Transiting Jupiter-sized Planet with a 4 day Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Christopher J.; McCullough, P. R.; Valenti, Jeff A.; Long, Doug; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.; Machalek, P.; Janes, Kenneth A.; Taylor, B.; Fleenor, Michael L.; Foote, C. N.; Gary, Bruce L.; García-Melendo, Enrique; Gregorio, J.; Vanmunster, T.

    2008-10-01

    The star XO-5 (GSC 02959-00729, V=12.1, G8 V) hosts a Jupiter-sized, Rp=1.15+/-0.12 RJ, transiting extrasolar planet, XO-5b, with an orbital period of 4.2 days. The planet's mass, Mp=1.15+/-0.08 MJ, and surface gravity, gp=22+/-5 m s-2, are large for its orbital period compared to most other transiting planets. However, the deviation from the Mp-P relationship for XO-5b is not as large as for GJ 436b, HAT-P-2b, and XO-3b. By coincidence, XO-5 overlies the extreme H I plume that emanates from the interacting galaxy pair NGC 2444/NGC 2445 (Arp 143).

  14. Chameleonic contribution to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich radial profile of the Coma cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Anne-Christine; Schelpe, Camilla A. O.; Shaw, Douglas J.

    2011-02-15

    We constrain the chameleonic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (CSZ) effect in the Coma cluster from measurements of the Coma radial profile presented in the WMAP 7-year results. The CSZ effect arises from the interaction of a scalar (or pseudoscalar) particle with the cosmic microwave background in the magnetic field of galaxy clusters. We combine this radial profile data with SZ measurements towards the center of the Coma cluster in different frequency bands, to find {Delta}T{sub SZ,RJ}(0)=-410{+-}50 {mu}K and {Delta}T{sub CSZ}{sup 204} {sup GHz}(0) > or approx. -50 {mu}K (at 95% confidence) for the thermal SZ and CSZ effects in the cluster, respectively. This leads to an estimated bound on the photon to scalar (or pseudoscalar) coupling strength of g{sub eff} < or approx. (8.3-37.6)x10{sup -10} GeV{sup -1}.

  15. A photographic search for satellites of Neptune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, D. W.; Jackson, C.; Zytkow, A. N.; Irwin, M.; Webster, R.; Tremaine, S.

    1994-02-01

    We have searched for satellites of Neptune to a limiting magnitude of BJ approximately = 20.5 in a 3 x 3 deg square region centered on the planet. This region is large enough to contain all potential satellites orbiting within the Jacobi limit rJ = (MP/3 solar mass)1/3a, where MP and solar mass are the planetary and solar masses and a is the planet's semimajor axis; for Neptune rJ/a = 1.48 deg. The search used sky-limited IIIaJ plates taken at the UK Schmidt Telescope, digitized using the APM facility in Cambridge and analyzed independently in Cambridge and Toronto. Nereid was recovered easily but no new satellites were found.

  16. Radiation-hardened-by-design clocking circuits in 0.13-μm CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Y.; Huang, D.; Chen, J.; Gong, D.; Liu, T.; Ye, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a single-event-hardened phase-locked loop for frequency generation applications and a digital delay-locked loop for DDR2 memory interface applications. The PLL covers a 12.5 MHz to 500 MHz frequency range with an RMS Jitter (RJ) of 4.70-pS. The DLL operates at 267 MHz and has a phase resolution of 60-pS. Designed in 0.13-μm CMOS technology, the PLL and the DLL are hardened against SEE for charge injection of 250 fC. The PLL and the DLL consume 17 mW and 22 mW of power under a 1.5 V power supply, respectively.

  17. [Analysis of cracking gas compressor fouling by pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yunfeng; Fang, Fei; Wei, Tao; Liu, Shuqing; Jiang, Guangshen; Cai, Jun

    2013-06-01

    The fouling from the different sections of the cracked gas compressor in Daqing Petrochemical Corporation was analyzed by pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py/GC-MS). All the samples were cracked in RJ-1 tube furnace cracker at the cracking temperature of 500 degrees C, and separated with a 60 m DB-1 capillary column. An electron impact ionization (EI) source was used with the ionizing voltage of 70 eV. The results showed the formation of fouling was closely related with cyclopentadiene which accounted for about 50% of the cracking products. Other components detected were 1-butylene, propylene, methane and n-butane. This Py/GC-MS method can be used as an effective approach to analyze the causes of fouling in the petrochemical plants. PMID:24063202

  18. Optical transmission photometry of the highly inflated exoplanet WASP-17b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bento, J.; Wheatley, P. J.; Copperwheat, C. M.; Fortney, J. J.; Dhillon, V. S.; Hickman, R.; Littlefair, S. P.; Marsh, T. R.; Parsons, S. G.; Southworth, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present ground-based high-precision observations of the transit of WASP-17b using the multiband photometer ULTRACAM on ESO's New Technology Telescope (NTT) in the context of performing transmission spectrophotometry of this highly inflated exoplanet. Our choice of filters (SDSS u', g' and r' bands) is designed to probe for the presence of opacity sources in the upper atmosphere. We find evidence for a wavelength dependence in the planet radius in the form of enhanced absorption in the SDSS r' band, consistent with a previously detected broad sodium feature. We present a new independent measurement of the planetary radius at Rpl = 1.97 ± 0.06RJ, which confirms this planet as the most inflated exoplanet known to date. Our measurements are most consistent with an atmospheric profile devoid of enhanced TiO opacity, previously predicted to be present for this planet.

  19. HAT-P-50b, HAT-P-51b, HAT-P-52b, and HAT-P-53b: Three Transiting Hot Jupiters and a Transiting Hot Saturn From the HATNet Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, J. D.; Bhatti, W.; Bakos, G. Á.; Bieryla, A.; Kovács, G.; Latham, D. W.; Csubry, Z.; de Val-Borro, M.; Penev, K.; Buchhave, L. A.; Torres, G.; Howard, A. W.; Marcy, G. W.; Johnson, J. A.; Isaacson, H.; Sato, B.; Boisse, I.; Falco, E.; Everett, M. E.; Szklenar, T.; Fulton, B. J.; Shporer, A.; Kovács, T.; Hansen, T.; Béky, B.; Noyes, R. W.; Lázár, J.; Papp, I.; Sári, P.

    2015-12-01

    We report the discovery and characterization of four transiting exoplanets by the HATNet survey. The planet HAT-P-50b has a mass of 1.35 {M}{{J}} and radius of 1.29 {R}{{J}}, and orbits a bright (V=11.8 mag) M=1.27 {M}⊙ , R=1.70 {R}⊙ star every P=3.1220 days. The planet HAT-P-51b has a mass of 0.31 {M}{{J}} and radius of 1.29 {R}{{J}}, and orbits a V=13.4 mag, M=0.98 {M}⊙ , R=1.04 {R}⊙ star with a period of P=4.2180 days. The planet HAT-P-52b has a mass of 0.82 {M}{{J}} and radius of 1.01 {R}{{J}}, and orbits a V=14.1 mag, M=0.89 {M}⊙ , R=0.89 {R}⊙ star with a period of P=2.7536 days. The planet HAT-P-53b has a mass of 1.48 {M}{{J}} and radius of 1.32 {R}{{J}}, and orbits a V=13.7 mag, M=1.09 {M}⊙ , R=1.21 {R}⊙ star with a period of P=1.9616 days. All four planets are consistent with having circular orbits and have masses and radii measured to better than 10% precision. The low stellar jitter and favorable {R}p/{R}\\star ratio for HAT-P-51 make it a promising target for measuring the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect for a Saturn-mass planet. Based on observations obtained with the Hungarian-made Automated Telescope Network. Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated by the University of California and the California Institute of Technology. Keck time has been granted by NOAO (A245Hr) and NASA (N154Hr, N130Hr). Based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. Based on observations obtained with the Tillinghast Reflector 1.5 m telescope and the 1.2 m telescope, both operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in AZ. Based on radial velocities obtained with the Sophie spectrograph mounted on the 1.93 m telescope at Observatoire de Haute-Provence. Based on observations obtained with facilities of the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope.

  20. Bridging single and multireference coupled cluster theories with universal state selective formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaskaran-Nair, Kiran; Kowalski, Karol

    2013-05-28

    The universal state selective (USS) multireference approach is used to construct new energy functionals which offers a unique possibility of bridging single and multireference coupled cluster theories (SR/MRCC). These functionals, which can be used to develop iterative and non-iterative approaches, utilize a special form of the trial wavefunctions, which assure additive separability (or size-consistency) of the USS energies in the non-interacting subsystem limit. When the USS formalism is combined with approximate SRCC theories, the resulting formalism can be viewed as a size-consistent version of the method of moments of coupled cluster equations (MMCC) employing a MRCC trial wavefunction. Special cases of the USS formulations, which utilize single reference state specific CC (V.V. Ivanov, D.I. Lyakh, L. Adamowicz, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11, 2355 (2009)) and tailored CC (T. Kinoshita, O. Hino, R.J. Bartlett, J. Chem. Phys. 123, 074106 (2005)) expansions are also discussed.

  1. The white marble used in Brasília, a World Heritage and the capital of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heloisa Barros de Oliveira Frascá, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Created as the Brazilian capital, in the central western part of Brazil, Brasilia is a definitive example of 20th century modernist urbanism. It was built in only four years, from 1956 to 1960, following the project of urban planner Lucio Costa and architect Oscar Niemeyer that intended that every element - from the layout of the residential and administrative districts (often compared to the shape of a bird in flight) to the symmetry of the buildings themselves - should be in harmony with the city's overall design. This description is from the World Heritage Centre, of Unesco, that nominated Brasilia as a Cultural Heritage Property in 1987. Most of the remarkable buildings designed Oscar Niemeyer, cited by Unesco, are around the Plaza of Three Powers, as the Planalto ("Plateau") Palace, the National Congress, the Supreme Court, the Cathedral, the National Theatre among others. Aside from the worldwide recognition of the architectonic value of these buildings, it is barely mentioned the expressive use of white marble as cladding. Very few are found in the literature about specification criteria, provenance, fixation method and conservation. According to Oscar Niemeyer Foundation, at this moment they know that the stone come from a supplier in the State of Rio de Janeiro. A preliminary research indicated that the marble used in most of Brasilia buildings are from the municipality of Italva, in the northwest of the State of Rio de Janeiro (DRM-RJ, 2012). In a study carried out by DRM-RJ, in 2003, it is mentioned two white marble commercialized as dimension stone in Italva: "Sparkling Marble" (SM) and "Italva White Marble" (IWM), respectively dolomite-calcite marble and dolomite marble. Their main characteristics are: bulk specific gravity: 2,792 kg/m3 (SM) and 2,852kg/m3 (IWM); water absorption: 0.08 % (SM) and 0.10 % (IWM); uniaxial compression strength: 84.3 MPa (SM) and 88.2 MPa (IWM); modulus of rupture: 9.92 MPa (SM) and 8.75 MPa (IWM); coefficient of linear dilatation: 6.0 10-3mm/m.oC (SM) and 5.2 10-3mm/m.oC (IWM). This data indicate that in spite the marble specification had not followed any technical or scientific criteria, or at least they are not easily available, they show good engineering properties and most of the slabs are still in the buildings. The preservation of this cultural world heritage is an urgent demand, as pointed by Unesco, and one of the main challenges is the stone conservation planning, to which is already necessary serious multidisciplinary technical and scientific studies. References DRM-RJ - DEPARTMENT OF MINERAL RESOURCES OF THE STATE OF RIO DE JANEIRO. (2003) Rio de Janeiro State dimension stones catalogue. DRM: Rio de Janeiro, 12 cards. DRM-RJ (2012) Mineral panorama of the State of Rio de Janeiro. DRM: Rio de Janeiro, 258p. (in Portuguese). UNESCO. World Heritage List. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/445. (05/January/2015). FRASCÁ, M.H.B.O.; NAVARRO, F.C.; QUITETE, E.B. (2014) Staining tests for granitic stone conservation. In: Lollino, G. et al. (org.). Engineering Geology for Society and Territory - Preservation of cultural heritage. London: Springer International Publishing Switzerland, v. 8.

  2. 14th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies Task Force. Report on antiphospholipid syndrome laboratory diagnostics and trends.

    PubMed

    Bertolaccini, Maria Laura; Amengual, Olga; Andreoli, Laura; Atsumi, Tatsuya; Chighizola, Cecilia B; Forastiero, Ricardo; de Groot, Philip; Lakos, Gabriella; Lambert, Marc; Meroni, Pierluigi; Ortel, Thomas L; Petri, Michelle; Rahman, Anisur; Roubey, Robert; Sciascia, Savino; Snyder, Melissa; Tebo, Anne E; Tincani, Angela; Willis, Rohan

    2014-09-01

    Current classification criteria for definite Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) require the use of three laboratory assays to detect antiphospholipid antibodies (aCL, anti-β2GPI and LA) in the presence of at least one of the two major clinical manifestations (i.e. thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity) of the syndrome. However, several other autoantibodies shown to be directed to other proteins or their complex with phospholipids have been proposed to be relevant to APS but their clinical utility and their diagnostic value remains elusive. This report summarizes the findings, conclusions and recommendations of the "APS Task Force 3-Laboratory Diagnostics and Trends" meeting that took place during the 14th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies (APLA 2013, September 18-21, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil). PMID:24824074

  3. High temperature antenna pointing mechanism for BepiColombo mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mürer, Johan A.; Harper, Richard; Anderson, Mike

    2005-07-01

    This paper describes the two axis Antenna Pointing Mechanism (APM) with dual frequency (X-Ka bands) Rotary Joint (RJ) developed by Kongsberg Defence and Aerospace and BAE Systems, in the frame of the ESA BepiColombo mission to the planet Mercury. The extreme environmental conditions induced by Mercury's proximity to the Sun (up to 14.500 W/m2 direct solar fluxes, up to 5000 W/m2 infrared flux and up to 1200 W/m2 albedo shine form the planet surface), have dictated the need for a specific high temperature development of the pointing mechanism and of its integrated RF Rotary Joint. Global thermal analysis of the antenna predicts qualification temperature for the elevation stage APM between 250°C and 295°C. In addition, the mechanism shall survive extreme cold temperatures during the interplanetary cruise phase. Beside the harsh environment, the stringent pointing accuracy required by the antenna high frequency operations, and the extreme dimensional stability demanded by a radio science experiment (which is using the antenna for range and range rate measurements), have introduced additional, specific challenges to the mechanism design. Innovative solutions have been deemed necessary at system architecture level, in the design of the mechanisms critical areas and in the selection of high temperature compatible materials and processes. The very high working temperature of the mechanism ruled out use of aluminium alloys, which is replaced by Titanium alloy and stainless steels. Special heat treatments of the steel are applied for minimum loss of hardness. The structures are optimised for minimum mass. To handle thermal stresses and distortion, a very compact design of the APM was performed integrating the bearings, position sensor and drive chain within minimum structural length. The Rotary Joint is a unique design tailored to the APM using a common main bearing support. Special manufacturing processes have been tested and applied for manufacture of the very compact RJ being the first of its kind (dual X-Ka band) in European space development. The twin channels are arranged concentrically, permitting continuous 360° rotation. Maximum use of waveguide has been made to minimise the loss in the Ka-band frequency channel and this leads to an unconventional design of the X-band channel. A specific effort and extensive test program at ESTL in the UK have been put in place to identify suitable high temperature solutions for the RJ and APM bearings lubrication. The high temperature demands the use of a dry lubrication system. High working loads due to thermal stresses puts extra challenge to the life duration of the dry film lubrication. Lead lubrication was initially the preferred concept, but has later in the program been substituted by MoS2 film. A design life of 20,000 cycles at 250°C and elevated load has been demonstrated for the bearings with MoS2. Special attention has been paid to the materials in the stepper motor using high temperature solder material and MoS2 dry lubrication in the bearings and gear train. The APM is designed for use of a high accuracy inductive based position sensor with remote signal and amplifier electronics. Electrical signal transfer is via a high temperature Twist Capsule. The activity has included the design, manufacturing and testing in a respresentative environment of a breadboard model of the APM and of its integrated radio frequency RJ. The breadboard does not include a position sensor or the Twist Capsule. The breadboard tests will include functional performance tests in air, vibration tests and thermal vacuum. The thermal vacuum test will include RF testing at high temperature combined with APM pointing performance.

  4. Analysis of echo signal from single ultrasound contrast microbubble using a reversible jump MCMC algorithm.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan; Hopgood, James R; Sboros, Vassilis

    2007-01-01

    The understanding and exploitation of non-linear microbubble signals is an active research area that aims to advance contrast ultrasound into a high sensitivity and specificity diagnostic imaging modality. In order to discriminate the difference between echoes from tissue and contrast microbubbles, it is of particular interest to estimate the reflected signal pulse location in the time domain and its spectral content in the frequency domain. Therefore, a reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (rjMCMC) algorithm, a robust statistical signal processing technique, is introduced in this paper for the analysis of echo signals from Ultrasound Contrast Agents (UCAs). This algorithm provides many advantages over conventional Fourier transform based techniques. Furthermore, our results also show that the frequency components and pulse location can be accurately estimated simultaneously, which assists in characterising the signal content and the design of transmit pulsing regimes in future work. PMID:18002195

  5. Budget projections 1988, 1989, and 1990 for research in high energy nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    Research programs in experimental high energy physics are carried out at Harvard under the general supervision of a departmental faculty committee on high energy physics. Professor R.F. Schwitters is currently chairman of this committee. The committee members are: G.W. Brandenburg, S. Geer, R.J. Glauber, K. Kinoshita, R. Nickerson, F.M. Pipkin, J. Rohlf, C. Rubbia, R.F. Schwitters, M. Shapiro, K. Strauch, R. Vanelli, and R. Wilson. Of these individuals, Professors R.J. Glauber, F.M. Pipkin, C. Rubbia, R.F. Schwitters, K. Strauch, and R. Wilson are the principal investigators with whom a number of junior faculty members and post-doctoral research fellows are associated. Dr. Brandenburg (Associate Director, High Energy Physics Laboratory) administers the High Energy Physics Laboratory and is in charge of the Computer Facility. Professor Rubbia is currently on leave of absence and will leave Harvard on December 31, 1988 to become the Director General of CERN. A reduced UA1 effort will remain at Harvard after Professor Rubbia`s departure. Harvard is planning to make one or two senior faculty appointments in experimental high energy physics sometime in 1988-89. The principal goals of the work described here are to carry out forefront programs in high energy physics research and to provide first rate educational opportunities for students. The experimental program supported through HEPL is carried out at the major accelerator centers in the world and addresses some of the most important questions in high energy physics. Harvard`s educational efforts are concentrated in graduate education, where they are currently supporting 15 research students. In addition, undergraduate students work in projects at HEPL during the academic year and over summers. Many of these students have gone on to graduate school studying physics at Harvard and elsewhere.

  6. Budget projections 1989, 1990, and 1991 for research in high energy nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    Research programs in experimental high energy physics are carried out at Harvard under the general supervision of a departmental faculty committee on high energy physics. The committee members are: G.W. Brandenburg, S. Geer, R.J. Glauber, K. Kinoshita, R. Nickerson, F.M. Pipkin, R.F. Schwitters, M. Shapiro, K. Strauch, R. Vanelli, and R. Wilson. Of these individuals, Professors R.J. Glauber, F.M. Pipkin, R.F. Schwitters, K. Strauch, and R. Wilson are the principal investigators with whom a number of junior faculty members and post-doctoral research fellows are associated. Dr. Brandenburg is the Director of the High Energy Physics Laboratory and administers the DOE high energy physics contract. Professor Schwitters is currently on leave of absence as Director of the Superconducting Super Collider project. In the fall of 1990 Professor G. Feldman, who is currently at SLAC, will join the Harvard faculty and become a principal investigator. Harvard is planning to make one or two additional senior faculty appointments in experimental high energy physics over the next two years. The principal goals of the work described here are to carry out forefront programs in high energy physics research and to provide first rate educational opportunities for students. The experimental program supported through HEPL is carried out at the major accelerator centers in the world. Harvard`s educational efforts are concentrated in graduate education, where they are currently supporting 15 research students. These budget projections cover all of the Harvard based high energy physics experimental activities. The {open_quotes}umbrella{close_quotes} nature of this contract greatly simplifies support of essential central technical and computer services and helps the group to take advantage of new physics opportunities and to respond to unexpected needs. The funding for the operation of the HEPL facility is shared equally by the experimental groups.

  7. The diamond anvil cell as a deformation apparatus for investigating the rheology of the deep Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillet, P.; Merkel, S.; Merkel, S.; Wenk, H.; Shen, G.; Shu, J.; Hemley, R.; Mao, H.

    2001-12-01

    Considerable progress has been made in establishing deformation mechanisms for minerals and rocks from the Earth's crust and and upper mantle. However, much less is know about the deeper Earth's minerals because the pressures are beyond the conditions reached by ordinary deformation apparatus such as the Griggs, Heard or Paterson apparatus. Diamond anvil cells allow investigations of the whole pressure and temperature range of the lower mantle. In pilot experiments on hcp-Fe at 54 and 220 GPa development of a strong textures was observed and slip systems of the hexagonal closed packed iron could be identified (Wenk et al., 2000). The technique has now been further refined in order to study in situ the shear strength and deformation mechanisms at high pressure in great details. In this study, we apply this technique to pure periclase (MgO) to pressures of 47 GPa. The uniaxial stress component in the pollycrystalline MgO sample is found to increase rapidly to 8.5 GPa at a pressure of 10 GPa in all experiments. According to our measurements, the preferred orientation is due to deformation by slip. A quantitative comparison between the experimental textures and results from polycrystalline plasticity suggest that the {110}<110> is the only significantly active slip system under very high confining pressure. These data demonstrate the feasability of determining deformation mechanisms and shear strength under pressures relevant for the Earth's lower mantle. This approach can now be extended to study variations of the properties with both pressure and temperature and can also be used to study other deep Earth's materials such as magnesiowustite and perovskite. Wenk, H.R., S. Matthies, R.J. Hemley, H.K. Mao, and J. Shu, Nature, 405, 1044-1047, 2000. Merkel, S., H.R. Wenk, J. Shu, G. Shen, Ph. Gillet, H.K. Mao, and R.J. Hemley, J. Geophys. Res. submitted

  8. KELT-4Ab: An Inflated Hot Jupiter Transiting the Bright (V ∼ 10) Component of a Hierarchical Triple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastman, Jason D.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Siverd, Robert J.; Antognini, Joseph M. O.; Penny, Matthew T.; Gonzales, Erica J.; Crepp, Justin R.; Howard, Andrew W.; Avril, Ryan L.; Bieryla, Allyson; Collins, Karen; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Ge, Jian; Gregorio, Joao; Ma, Bo; Mellon, Samuel N.; Oberst, Thomas E.; Wang, Ji; Gaudi, B. Scott; Pepper, Joshua; Stassun, Keivan G.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Latham, David W.; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael L.; Cargile, Phillip A.; Colón, Knicole D.; Dhital, Saurav; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Johnson, John Asher; Kielkopf, John F.; Manner, Mark; Mao, Qingqing; McLeod, Kim K.; Penev, Kaloyan; Stefanik, Robert P.; Street, Rachel; Zambelli, Roberto; DePoy, D. L.; Gould, Andrew; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Pogge, Richard W.; Trueblood, Mark; Trueblood, Patricia

    2016-02-01

    We report the discovery of KELT-4Ab, an inflated, transiting Hot Jupiter orbiting the brightest component of a hierarchical triple stellar system. The host star is an F star with {T}{{eff}} = 6206+/- 75 K, {log}g = 4.108+/- 0.014, [{{Fe}}/{{H}}] = -{0.116}-0.069+0.065, {M}* = {1.201}-0.061+0.067 {M}ȯ , and {R}* = {1.603}-0.038+0.039 {R}ȯ . The best-fit linear ephemeris is {{BJD}}{TDB} \\=\\2456193.29157+/- 0.00021 \\quad +\\quad E(2.9895936+/- 0.0000048). With a magnitude of V ∼ 10, a planetary radius of {1.699}-0.045+0.046 {R}{{J}}, and a mass of {0.902}-0.059+0.060 {M}{{J}}, it is the brightest host among the population of inflated Hot Jupiters (RP > 1.5RJ), making it a valuable discovery for probing the nature of inflated planets. In addition, its existence within a hierarchical triple and its proximity to Earth (210 pc) provide a unique opportunity for dynamical studies with continued monitoring with high resolution imaging and precision radial velocities. The projected separation between KELT-4A and KELT-4BC is 328 ± 16 AU and the projected separation between KELT-4B and KELT-4C is 10.30 ± 0.74 AU. Assuming face-on, circular orbits, their respective periods would be 3780 ± 290 and 29.4 ± 3.6 years and the astrometric motions relative to the epoch in this work of both the binary stars around each other and of the binary around the primary star would be detectable now and may provide meaningful constraints on the dynamics of the system.

  9. Global gamesmanship.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Ian C; van Putten, Alexander B; McGrath, Rita Gunther

    2003-05-01

    Competition among multinationals these days is likely to be a three-dimensional game of global chess: The moves an organization makes in one market are designed to achieve goals in another in ways that aren't immediately apparent to its rivals. The authors--all management professors-call this approach "competing under strategic interdependence," or CSI. And where this interdependence exists, the complexity of the situation can quickly overwhelm ordinary analysis. Indeed, most business strategists are terrible at anticipating the consequences of interdependent choices, and they're even worse at using interdependency to their advantage. In this article, the authors offer a process for mapping the competitive landscape and anticipating how your company's moves in one market can influence its competitive interactions in others. They outline the six types of CSI campaigns--onslaughts, contests, guerrilla campaigns, feints, gambits, and harvesting--available to any multiproduct or multimarket corporation that wants to compete skillfully. They cite real-world examples such as the U.S. pricing battle Philip Morris waged with R.J. Reynolds--not to gain market share in the domestic cigarette market but to divert R.J. Reynolds's resources and attention from the opportunities Philip Morris was pursuing in Eastern Europe. And, using data they collected from their studies of consumer-products companies Procter & Gamble and Unilever, the authors describe how to create CSI tables and bubble charts that present a graphical look at the competitive landscape and that may uncover previously hidden opportunities. The CSI mapping process isn't just for global corporations, the authors explain. Smaller organizations that compete with a portfolio of products in just one national or regional market may find it just as useful for planning their next business moves. PMID:12747163

  10. Modeling aggregation of dust monomers in low gravity environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyon, Julien; Rioux, Claude

    The modeling of aggregation phenomena in microgravity is of paramount relevance to the understanding of the formation of planets. Relevant experiments have been carried out at a ground based laboratory and on aircraft providing low gravity during parabolic flight.1 Other possible environments are rockets, shuttles and the international space station. Numerical simulation of aggregation can provide us a tool to understand the formal and the-oretical background of the phenomena. The comparison between low gravity experiment and modeling prediction may confirm a theory. Also, experiments that are hard to perform can be simulated on computers allowing a vast choice of physical properties. Simulations to date have been constrained to ensembles of 100 to 1000 monomers.2 We have been able to extend such numbers to 10 000 monomers and the final goal is about 100 000 monomers, where gravitational effects become relevant yielding spheroidal systems of particles (planetesimals and planetoids). Simulations made are assumed to be diffusion processes where colliding particles will stick together with a certain probability. Future work shall include other interactions like electrostatic or magnetic forces. Recent results are to be shown at the meeting. I acknowledge the support from the ELIPS program (jointly between Canadian and European space agencies). The guidance of Prof. Slobodrian is warmly thanked. References. 1. R.J. Slobodrian, C. Rioux and J.-C. Leclerc, Microgravity Research and Aplications in Phys-ical Sciences and Biotechnology, Proceedings of the First International Symposium, Sorrento, Italy (2000) ESA SP-454, p.779-786. and Refs. therein. 2. P. Deladurantaye, C Rioux and R.J Slobodrian, Chaos, Solitons Fractals , (1997), pp. 1693-1708. Carl Robert and Eric Litvak, Software " Fractal", private communication.

  11. Radiation characteristics of quasi-periodic radio bursts in the Jovian high-latitude region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Tomoki; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Misawa, Hiroaki; Morioka, Akira; Nozawa, Hiromasa

    2008-12-01

    Ulysses had a "distant encounter" with Jupiter in February 2004. The spacecraft passed from north to south, and it observed Jovian radio waves from high to low latitudes (from +80° to +10°) for few months during its encounter. In this study, we present a statistical investigation of the occurrence characteristics of Jovian quasi-periodic bursts, using spectral data from the unified radio and plasma wave experiment (URAP) onboard Ulysses. The latitudinal distribution of quasi-periodic bursts is derived for the first time. The analysis suggested that the bursts can be roughly categorized into two types: one having periods shorter than 30 min and one with periods longer than 30 min, which is consistent with the results of the previous analysis of data from Ulysses' first Jovian flyby [MacDowall, R.J., Kaiser, M.L., Desch, M.D., Farrell, W.M., Hess, R.A., Stone, R.G., 1993. Quasi-periodic Jovian radio bursts: observations from the Ulysses radio and plasma wave. Experiment. Planet. Space Sci. 41, 1059-1072]. It is also suggested that the groups of quasi-periodic bursts showed a dependence on the Jovian longitude of the sub-solar point, which means that these burst groups are triggered during a particular rotational phase of the planet. Maps of the occurrence probability of these quasi-periodic bursts also showed a unique CML/MLAT dependence. We performed a 3D ray tracing analysis of the quasi-periodic burst emission to learn more about the source distribution. The results suggest that the longitudinal distribution of the occurrence probability depends on the rotational phase. The source region of quasi-periodic bursts seems to be located at an altitude between 0.4 and 1.4 Rj above the polar cap region ( L>30).

  12. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the venom from the Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus junceus.

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, B I; Coronas, F I V; Restano-Cassulini, R; Rodríguez, R R; Possani, L D

    2011-07-01

    This communication describes the first general biochemical, molecular and functional characterization of the venom from the Cuban blue scorpion Rhopalurus junceus, which is often used as a natural product for anti-cancer therapy in Cuba. The soluble venom of this arachnid is not toxic to mice, injected intraperitoneally at doses up to 200 μg/20 g body weight, but it is deadly to insects at doses of 10 μg per animal. The venom causes typical alpha and beta-effects on Na+ channels, when assayed using patch-clamp techniques in neuroblastoma cells in vitro. It also affects K+ currents conducted by ERG (ether-a-go-go related gene) channels. The soluble venom was shown to display phospholipase, hyaluronidase and anti-microbial activities. High performance liquid chromatography of the soluble venom can separate at least 50 components, among which are peptides lethal to crickets. Four such peptides were isolated to homogeneity and their molecular masses and N-terminal amino acid sequence were determined. The major component (RjAa12f) was fully sequenced by Edman degradation. It contains 64 amino acid residues and four disulfide bridges, similar to other known scorpion toxins. A cDNA library prepared from the venomous glands of one scorpion allowed cloning 18 genes that code for peptides of the venom, including RjA12f and eleven other closely related genes. Sequence analyses and phylogenetic reconstruction of the amino acid sequences deduced from the cloned genes showed that this scorpion contains sodium channel like toxin sequences clearly segregated into two monophyletic clusters. Considering the complex set of effects on Na+ currents verified here, this venom certainly warrant further investigation. PMID:21605585

  13. Changes in jump, sprint, and coordinative performances after a senior soccer match.

    PubMed

    Cortis, Cristina; Tessitore, Antonio; Lupo, Corrado; Perroni, Fabrizio; Pesce, Caterina; Capranica, Laura

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to verify the short-term after effects of a soccer match on senior players' all-out and interlimb coordination performances. Right before (prematch) and after (postmatch) a match, 10 senior (52.3 ± 10.2 years) male soccer players were administered jump (countermovement jump [CMJ]; repeated jump [RJ]), sprint (10 m and 10 m while dribbling the ball [10 mDB]), in-phase (IP) and antiphase (AP) interlimb coordination (synchronized hand and foot flexions and extensions at 80, 120, 180 bpm). Heart rate (HR) responses and subjective rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and rating of muscle pain (RMP) were used to evaluate the intensity of the friendly match. During the match, HR >85% of individual HRmax occurred for 50% of playing time. Subjective ratings at the end of the match were 12.9 ± 2.2 pt and 2.7 ± 2.2 pt for RPE and RMP, respectively. Postmatch CMJ, 10 m, 10 mDB, AP, IP 80 bpm, and IP 120 bpm performances did not show any difference with respect to prematch values, whereas improvements (p < 0.05) in RJ (prematch: 17.4 ± 3.9 cm; postmatch: 19.3 ± 4.8 cm) and IP 180 bpm (prematch: 30.4 ± 15.1 second; postmatch: 50.3 ± 18.9 second) emerged. These findings indicate that senior soccer players are able to cope with the high demands of match play and suggest that an acute bout of intense exercise has an arousing effect that counteracts fatigue effects and facilitates the performance of old trained individuals on complex motor behaviors relying on central executive control. In considering that players consider soccer as highly motivating, with advancing years this sport could help players in preserving high mental and physical functions and maintaining active engagement in life through social interactions. PMID:23439333

  14. Hot Plasma Environment Model (HPEM): A empirical model for describing time-dependent processes of the jovian energetic electron environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussos, E.; Krupp, N.; Fraenz, M.; Kollmann, P.; Truscott, P.; Futaana, Y.

    2015-10-01

    HPEM is a model designed in order to provide time-series of energetic electron differential or integral energy-flux spectra for Jupiter's magnetosphere which can be used as input for internal charging studies of the JUICE spacecraft. The model describes the electron distribution function between 150 keV keV up to ~50 MeV. It is designed to be applicable between the orbit of Europa (9.5 Rj) up to 30 Rj, which is near Callisto's orbit, and in a latitude range of 40 degrees from the planetary equatorial plane, but it can be extended to larger distances and latitudes. The model is constructed with a goal to describe the time variability that a spacecraft can encounter in Jupiter's energetic electron environment. This variability can have two components: the first comes from the motion of the spacecraft within a spatially-varying jovian magnetosphere. For this purpose an average radiation belt model for the differential electron energy-flux spectra was constructed based on Galileo EPD/LEMMS observations, dependent on L, magnetospheric local time and equatorial pitch angle. The second component includes an empirical description of magnetospheric transients that result from dynamics in the magnetosphere. For this purpose, the probability for a given spectrum to deviate from the average one (at a given location) has been modeled with log-normal distributions and such probabilities are obtained with a Monte-Carlo approach. Temporal changes in the electron spectra are constrained by the L- or time gradients observed with Galileo's EPD/LEMMS detector so as to prevent extreme and unrealistic changes between sequential spectra of the model's output. The model is able to reproduce both the statistical scatter of energetic electron fluxes observed with Galileo/EPD, as well as the lifetimes/time scales and the occurence probability of extreme flux enhancements (temporal radiation belts) that Galileo encountered. An application to the JUICE mission is also shown.

  15. Diamond anvil cell investigation of lattice strains and preferred orientation in iron at high pressure and temperature.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkel, S.; Merkel, S.; Wenk, H.; Shen, G.; Shu, J.; Gillet, P.; Hemley, R.; Mao, D.

    2001-12-01

    High pressure and high temperature investigations on bcc and hcp iron have been performed using radial x-ray diffraction in the diamond anvil cell. The technique used in previous experiments (Mao et al. Nature, 1998, Wenk et al. Nature, 2000) have been further refined in order to use monochromatic x-ray beam and angular dispersive detectors. This allows us to investigate in great detail the variations in d-spacing and intensity of diffraction as a function of sample orientation and relate them to elasticity, strength, preferred orientation and texture in the sample. In this study, we investigate the lattice strains and the development of preferred orientation during compression in polycrystalline bcc-Fe and hcp-Fe between 0 and 35 GPa. The bcc phase if found to develop a mixed <100> and <111> fibers texture with compression. At the phase transition, the preferred orientation in hcp-Fe is inherited from the texture in bcc-Fe. With increasing pressure, we observe the development of the texture with dominating (0001) fiber component that was observed in previous experiments (Wenk et al. Nature, 2000). Double-sided laser heating of the sample at the highest pressure is then conducted in order to study the effect of temperature on preferred orientation. Analysis of the variation of the d-spacings with sample orientation can also be used to study the uniaxial stress component and elastic behavior under pressure and we apply it to our sample. This study proves the feasability of experimental investigation on elastic behavior, shear strength and deformation mechanisms under pressures and temperatures of the deep Earth. Mao, H.K., J. Shu, G. Shen, R.J. Hemley, B. Li, and A.K. Singh, Nature, 396, 741-743, 1998 Wenk, H.R., S. Matthies, R.J. Hemley, H.K. Mao, and J. Shu, Nature, 405, 1044-1047, 2000

  16. The Hot Interstellar Medium in Normal Elliptical Galaxies. III. The Thermal Structure of the Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, Steven; Statler, Thomas S.

    2008-11-01

    This is the third paper in a series analyzing X-ray emission from the hot interstellar medium in a sample of 54 normal elliptical galaxies observed by Chandra. We focus on a subset of 36 galaxies with sufficient signal to compute radial temperature profiles. We distinguish four qualitatively different types of profile: positive gradient (outwardly rising), negative gradients (falling), quasi-isothermal (flat), and hybrid (falling at small radii and rising at larger radii). We measure the mean logarithmic temperature gradients in two radial regions: from 0 to 2 J-band effective radii RJ (excluding the central point source), and from 2 to 4 RJ. We find the outer gradient to be uncorrelated with intrinsic host galaxy properties, but strongly influenced by the environment: galaxies in low-density environments tend to show negative outer gradients, while those in high-density environments show positive outer gradients, suggesting the influence of circumgalactic hot gas. The inner temperature gradient, however, is largely unaffected by the environment, but strongly correlated with intrinsic host galaxy characteristics: negative inner gradients are more common for smaller, optically faint, low radio luminosity galaxies, whereas positive gradients are found in bright galaxies with stronger radio sources. There is no evidence for bimodality in the distribution of inner or outer gradients. We propose three scenarios to explain the inner temperature gradients: (1) weak AGNs heat the ISM locally, while higher luminosity AGNs heat the system globally through jets inflating cavities at larger radii; (2) the onset of negative inner gradients indicates a declining importance of AGN heating relative to other sources, such as compressional heating or supernovae; or (3) the variety of temperature profiles are snapshots of different stages of a time-dependent flow, cyclically reversing the temperature gradient over time.

  17. Kepler Planet Detection Mission: Introduction and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borucki, William J.; Koch, D.; Basri, G.; Batalha, N. M.; Brown, T.; Caldwell, D. A.; Caldwell, J.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Cochran, W.; DeVore, E.; Dunham, E.; Dupree, A.; Gautier, T.; Geary, J.; Gilliland, R.; Gould, A.; Howell, S.; Jenkins, J.; Kjeldsen, H.; Kondo, Y.; Latham, D.; Lissauer, J.; Marcy, G.; Meibom, S.; Monet, D.; Morrison, D.; Sasselov, D.; Tarter, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is designed to determine the frequency of Earth-size and terrestrial size planets in and near the HZ of solar-like stars. It was competitively selected as Discovery Mission #10 and launched on March 6, 2009. Since completion of commissioning, it has continuously observed over 145,000 main sequence stars. The photometric precision reaches 20 ppm for 12th magnitude stars on the least noisy detectors in 6.5 hours. During the first month of operation, the photometer detected transit-like signatures from over 100 stars. Careful examination of these events shows many of them to be false-positives such as background eclipsing binaries. However ground-based follow up observations confirm the discovery of exoplanets with sizes ranging from 0.6 Rj to1.5Rj and orbital periods ranging from 3 to 9 days. Observations at Keck, Hobby-Eberly, Harlan-Smith, WIYN, MMT, Tillighast, Shane, and Nordic Optic telescopes are vetting many of the candidates and measuring their masses. Discovery of the HAT-P7b occultation will be used to derive atmospheric properties and demonstrates the precision necessary to detect Earth-size planets. Asteroseismic analyses of several stars show the presence of p-mode oscillations that can be used to determine stellar size and age. This effort is being organized by the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium at Aarhus University in Denmark. Stellar parallaxes are determined from the centroid motion of the stellar images and will be combined with photometric measurements to get the sizes of stars too dim for asteroseismic measurement. Four open clusters are being observed to determine rotation rates with stellar age and spectral type. Many types of stellar variability are observed with unprecedented precision and over long continuous time periods. Examples of many of these discoveries are presented. Funding by the Exoplanet Exploration Program of the NASA Astrophysics Division is gratefully acknowledged.

  18. Spinning out a star.

    PubMed

    Lord, Michael D; Mandel, Stanley W; Wager, Jeffrey D

    2002-06-01

    Spinouts rarely take off; most, in fact, fall into one or more of four traps that doom them from the start. Some companies spin out ventures that are too close to the core of their businesses, in effect selling off their crown jewels. Sometimes, a parent company uses the spinout primarily to pawn off debt or expenses or to quickly raise external capital for itself. Other times, a company may try to spin out an area of its business that lacks one or more of the critical legs of a successful company--a coherent business model, say, or a solid financial base. And in many cases, parent companies can't bring themselves to sever their ownership ties and give up control of their spinouts. R.J. Reynolds, the tobacco giant, managed to avoid these traps when it successfully spun out a most unlikely venture, the pharmaceutical company Targacept. As the story illustrates, the problem with spinouts is similar to the problem of rich children. Their parents have the wherewithal to spoil them or shelter them or cling to them, but what they need is tough love and discipline--much the same discipline that characterizes successful start-ups. R.J. Reynolds recognized that it didn't know that much about the pharmaceutical business and couldn't merely try to spin out a small clone of itself. It had to treat the venture as if it were essentially starting from scratch, with a passionate entrepreneurial leader, a solid business plan, help from outside partners in the industry, and ultimately substantial venture backing. That these lessons are less obvious to executives contemplating spinning out ventures closer to their core businesses may be why so many spinouts fail. PMID:12048993

  19. Estimation of sleep onset latency based on the blood pressure regulatory reflex mechanism.

    PubMed

    Jung, Da Woon; Hwang, Su Hwan; Chung, Gih Sung; Lee, Yu-Jin; Jeong, Do-Un; Park, Kwang Suk

    2013-05-01

    Sleep onset latency (SOL) is an objective indicator of sleepiness and is being used clinically as a diagnostic tool for sleep deprivation. This study proposes a new and less intrusive approach to estimate SOL based on the blood pressure (BP) regulatory reflex mechanism.We hypothesized that the arterial baroreflex, one kind of reflex mechanism for BP regulation, maintains the toning-down effect sleep has on BP. The arterial baroreflex is strongly activated after the time of sleep onset in order to maintain the lowered BP by leading to an increase in heart beat interval (HBI). This observation suggests that the arterial baroreflex has a marked influence on the HBI control with the onset of sleep. As a result, a positive correlation is expected between fluctuations of BP and those of subsequent HBI after sleep onset. To investigate our hypothesis, we determined the relationship between BP and HBI using the R-J and R-R intervals measured from an electrocardiogram and a ballistocardiogram.We estimated SOL using the correlation coefficients corresponding to the relationship between fluctuations of the R-J interval and those of the subsequent R-R interval. The SOLs of ten healthy subjects [age (mean ± SD): 28.72 ± 3.21 years] were estimated using our proposed method and compared with the polysomnography data. The mean absolute error was 0.25 ± 0.35 min, corresponding to a half epoch (15 s) on average. We expect our method will be applicable as a nonintrusive and automatic SOL estimation system that does not require the use of electroencephalogram sensors. PMID:24592456

  20. Detection of explosive substances by tomographic inspection using neutron and gamma-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahmand, M.; Boston, A. J.; Grint, A. N.; Nolan, P. J.; Joyce, M. J.; Mackin, R. O.; D'Mellow, B.; Aspinall, M.; Peyton, A. J.; van Silfhout, R.

    2007-08-01

    In recent years the detection and identification of hazardous materials has become increasingly important. This work discusses research and development of a technique which is capable of detecting and imaging hidden explosives. It is proposed to utilise neutron interrogation of the substances under investigation facilitating the detection of emitted gamma radiation and scattered neutrons. Pulsed fast neutron techniques are attractive because they can be used to determine the concentrations of the light elements (hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen) which can be the primary components of explosive materials. Using segmented High Purity Ge (HPGe) detectors and digital pulse processing [R.J. Cooper, G. Turk, A.J. Boston, H.C. Boston, J.R. Cresswell, A.R. Mather, P.J. Nolan, C.J. Hall, I. Lazarus, J. Simpson, A. Berry, T. Beveridge, J. Gillam, R.A. Lewis, in: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Position Sensitive Detectors, Nuclear Instruments and Methods A, in press; I. Lazarus, D.E. Appelbe, A. J. Boston, P.J. Coleman-Smith, J.R. Cresswell, M. Descovich, S.A.A. Gros, M. Lauer, J. Norman, C.J. Pearson, V.F.E. Pucknell, J.A. Sampson, G. Turk, J.J. Valiente-Dobón, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., 51 (2004) 1353; R.J. Cooper, A.J. Boston, H.C. Boston, J.R. Cresswell, A.N. Grint, A.R. Mather, P.J. Nolan, D.P. Scraggs, G. Turk, C.J. Hall, I. Lazarus, A. Berry, T. Beveridge, J. Gillam, R.A. Lewis, in: Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Radiation Measurements and Application, 2006. [1-3