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1

Euroization: what factors drive its persistence? Household data evidence for Croatia, Slovenia and Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question asked in this article is why people continue to use foreign currencies even after their economies have stabilized. Survey data for Croatia, Slovenia and Slovakia are employed to provide an answer. The results confirm the role of network effects and of remittances. Furthermore, the extent of currency substitution is found to be positively associated with the level of

Helmut Stix

2010-01-01

2

Roma Pupils' Identification with School in Slovenia and Serbia: Case Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research presented in this paper aims to challenge the belief held by some education professionals that Roma pupils do not value education. The research sample included groups of Roma pupils from two countries (Slovenia and Serbia) and from different socio-economic backgrounds. The results suggest that the majority of the pupils are aware of…

Macura-Milovanovic, Suncica; Munda, Milanka; Pecek, Mojca

2013-01-01

3

77 FR 74555 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products; Estonia, Hungary, Slovakia, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products; Estonia, Hungary, Slovakia, and Slovenia AGENCY...We are also announcing the addition of Estonia, Hungary, Slovakia, and Slovenia to...European CSF region, the addition of Estonia, Slovakia, and Slovenia to the...

2012-12-17

4

Slovakia Document Store  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Slovakia Document Store: clickable map of Slovakia containing over 100 pictures of Slovak country, map of the capital and other large cities, history, political system, political parties. Also includes Information for people traveling to Slovakia, like currency, exchange rates, location of ATM (bankomats), small English-Slovak dictionary for tourists, e-mail and other Internet services, much more.

5

A new earthquake catalogue for seismic hazard assessment of the NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) Jaslovske Bohunice, Slovakia, site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) Safety Guide No. SSG-9, an earthquake catalogue should comprise all information on pre-historical, historical and seismometrically recorded earthquakes in the region which should cover geographic area not smaller than a circle with radius of 300 km around the site. Jaslovske Bohunice is an important economic site. Several nuclear facilities are located in Jaslovske Bohunice - either in operation (NPP V2, national radioactive waste repository) or in decommissioning (NPP A1, NPP V1). Moreover, a new reactor unit is being planned for the site. Jaslovske Bohunice site is not far from the Dobra Voda seismic source zone which has been the most active seismic zone at territory of Slovakia since the beginning of 20th century. Relatively small distances to Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovak capital Bratislava make the site a prominent priority in terms of seismic hazard assessment. We compiled a new earthquake catalogue for the NPP Jaslovske Bohunice region following the recommendations of the IAEA Safety Guide. The region includes parts of the territories of Slovakia, Hungary, Austria, the Czech Republic and Poland, and it partly extends up to Germany, Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia. The catalogue is based on data from six national earthquake catalogues, two regional earthquake catalogues (ACORN, CENEC) and a catalogue from the local NPP network. The primarily compiled catalogue for the time period 350 - 2011 consists of 9 142 events. We then homogenized and declustered the catalogue. Eventually we checked the catalogue for time completeness. For homogenization, we divided the catalogue into preseismometric (350 - 1900) and seismometric (1901-2011) periods. For earthquakes characterized by the epicentral intensity and local magnitude we adopted relations proposed for homogenization of the CENEC catalogue (Grünthal et al. 2009). Instead of assuming the equivalency between local magnitudes reported by the national agencies, we analyzed and estimated relations between them. For declustering we applied two independent methods. In the window method we applied parameters of the time-space windows proposed by Burkhard & Grünthal (2009). In the cluster method (Reasenberg 1985) we applied alternative sets of input parameters. For investigating time completeness we divided the catalogue into four subcatalogues corresponding to different seismogeological domains. The completeness was determined from the plots displaying cumulative number of events (for given subcatalogue and interval of magnitude) as a function of time. The homogenized catalogue consists of 2 652 earthquakes with moment magnitude larger than 1.5. The catalogue was subsequently used as an input source for hazard analysis.

Kysel, Robert; Kristek, Jozef; Moczo, Peter; Csicsay, Kristian; Cipciar, Andrej; Srbecky, Miroslav

2014-05-01

6

SANITATION IN SERBIA  

PubMed Central

We must maintain health programs in Serbia according to Major Stuart, who tells plainly of conditions as his party found them. Serbia, with other Balkan countries, is a menace to the health of the Western world. Typhus and malaria are endemic, while tuberculosis and other communicable diseases enfeeble the people. Imagesp126-ap127-ap128-ap129-ap130-a

Stuart, Edward

1920-01-01

7

Slovakia health system review.  

PubMed

The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services, and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. The Slovak health system is a system in progress. Major health reform in the period 2002 to 2006 introduced a new approach based on managed competition. Although large improvements have been made since the 1990s (for example in life expectancy and infant mortality), health outcomes are generally still substantially worse than the average for the EU15 but close to the other Visegrad Four countries. Per capita health spending (in purchasing power parity [PPP]) was around half the EU15 average. A large share of these resources was absorbed by pharmaceutical spending (28% in 2008, compared to 16% in OECD countries). Some important utilization indicators signal plenty of resources in the system but may also indicate excess bed capacity and overutilization. The number of physicians and nurses per capita has been actively reduced since 2001 but remains above the average of the EU12 (i.e. the 12 countries that joined the EU in 2004 and 2007). An ageing workforce and professional migration may reinforce a shortage of health care workers. People have free choice of general practitioner (GP) and specialist. Their services are provided without cost-sharing from patients, with the notable exception of dental procedures. Inpatient care and specialized ambulatory care are provided in general hospitals and specialized hospitals. Pharmaceutical expenditure per capita accounts for one-third of public expenditure on health care. Long-term care is provided by health care facilities and social care facilities. Slovakia has a progressive system of financing health care. However, the health reforms of 2002 to 2006 led to an increase in the number of households that contributed more from their income and the distributive impacts were not equitable. This was mainly caused by the introduction of a reference pricing scheme for pharmaceuticals. Some key challenges remain: improving the health status of the population and the quality of care while securing the future financial sustainability of the system. PMID:21540135

Szalay, Tomás; Pazitný, Peter; Szalayová, Angelika; Frisová, Simona; Morvay, Karol; Petrovic, Marek; van Ginneken, Ewout

2011-01-01

8

Utilization of biomass in Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, approximately 400?000 ton of biomass annually are utilized for energy. It is a question of fuel wood utilized mainly by inhabitants. Utilization of the rest of forest biomass is small even though an annual utilizable potential is almost 7000 TJ. Increase and higher effectiveness of biomass utilization for energy in Slovakia requires development of preparation technology for fuel

Ján Ilavský; Milan Oravec

2000-01-01

9

A survey of the quality of generic clarithromycin products manufactured in Slovenia and Israel.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the quality of 11 generic clarithromycin products obtained in Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, or Israel and manufactured in Slovenia or Israel. The generic products were examined visually, assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography for clarithromycin content and impurities, tested for dissolution properties, and compared with the innovator product manufactured by Abbott Laboratories. Fifty-five percent of generic products fell short of the specifications for the innovator product. Ten percent of the generic products did not contain the amount of clarithromycin claimed in the label; 18% released less drug than did the branded tablets in the standard dissolution assay. In light of these results, it is not possible to conclude that all generic tablets are of the same quality as the innovator product; clinical trial results achieved with branded clarithromycin should not be extrapolated to generic products. PMID:11183454

Nightingale, C H

2000-01-01

10

BEN Sampling in Serbia  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists Bill Orem (left) and Terry Lerch (right) recording data and collecting samples at a Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) household in Serbia. BEN patients typically come from small villages and are often farmers....

2009-09-10

11

Indicators of Desertification in Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Republic of Serbia, as one of the members of the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro, is situated in Southeast Europe (West Balkan). In this area, during the past decades the recorded climate changes have been reflected in the decrease of rainfall and increase of air temperature. This results in the higher degradation of natural resources, primarily soil and

Kostadinov Stanimir; Spasov Petar

12

Geothermal eel farm in Slovakia  

SciTech Connect

Turcianske Teplice, a small town in west-central Slovakia, has written records of using thermal waters since 1281. In 1992, an eel raising farm was started on the outskirts of the town and since 1994, it has been operated by the firm of Janex Slovensko. The farm, using a specialized water recirculation system, raises a species of migrating eels (Anguilla anguilla). A 220-meter deep well at 42 C provides 48 gpm to the facility for heating through a plate heat exchanger. This is the maximum flow permitted, so as not to influence the springs and wells at the spa about 1 km away. For this reason, the flow is monitored carefully by the state. A second geothermal well at 52 C and 1,500 meters deep is used only as an observation well. Cold water, which is heated by the geothermal water, is pumped from wells near the Turiec River 1.8 km away at 8 to 12 C, depending upon the season, for use in the various holding or raising tanks. The operation of the farm is described.

Lund, J.W. [Oregon Inst. of Tech., Klamath Falls, OR (United States). Geo-Heat Center; Thomka, J.; Sarlinova, K. [Turcianske Teplice (Slovakia)

1998-12-01

13

The Development of Stereophonic Sound in Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of stereophonic sound in Slovakia in the late sixties had a profound impact on the quality of recorded music in all areas of artificial and non-artificial music and it also played an important role in composing music for radio plays. However, the Czechoslovak Radio in Bratislava was at that time the only technically equipped institute in Slovakia where a stereophonic record could be created. Therefore our research studies have particularly been concerned with examining the archives of this institution as well as the valuable information on implementation of the recordings we have collected through interviews with the former staff of the broadcasting organization. Our research focuses for the first time on the period of the beginnings of stereophonic sound in Slovakia, hence the purpose of this article is to summarize the research results.

Brezina, Pavol

2011-11-01

14

Students' Attitudes toward Computer Use in Slovakia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ICT has a very short history in Slovakia. A majority of Slovak schools accessed computers and internet only after 2000. Different financial support and schools' participation in various projects resulted in non-random distribution of computers across Slovakian elementary schools. We examined whether 1) attitudes toward computers could be affected…

Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

2008-01-01

15

Analysis of low flow seasonality in Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the study was to examine seasonality indices for their potential in the pooling of low flows in Slovakia. For this purpose the annual, summer and winter minimum discharges lower than q95 (i.e. the specific discharge that is exceeded on 95% of all days) were collected from 211 small and mid-sized catchments with an area ranging from 4 to 500 km2 from the whole territory of Slovakia. The period of observations was selected longer than 20 years in all stations. The seasonality analysis was based on the Burn methodology and the seasonality indices as the mean day of the occurrence of low flow and the seasonal concentration index were calculated for the annual, summer and winter low flows. As following the pooling groups with similar seasonality regime in Slovakia were determined. The pooling groups were constructed using various hierarchic and non-hierarchic k-means clustering methods. To test the appropriate number of clusters statistical tests were used. The achieved pooling schemes were mapped, and the location of typical low flow regime in certain parts of Slovakia was compared and discussed. Finally, in the derived pooling groups the design low flows were estimated using regional regression methods.

Kohnová, Silvia; Stevková, Andrea; Bohdalová, Mária; Hlavcová, Kamila

2010-05-01

16

An Energy Overview of Slovenia  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Slovenia. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resource s permit.

anon.

2003-10-20

17

Human alveolar echinococcosis in Slovenia.  

PubMed

Between January 2001 and December 2005, 1263 patients suspected of having echinococcosis were screened serologically by indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA). IHA-positive patient sera were then retested by western blot for confirmation and differentiation between Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis infection. Of 43 sera confirmed as Echinococcus-positive, nine appeared to be specific for alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by E. multilocularis. AE-positive serological results corresponded to the clinical and/or imaging findings concerning the patients' liver cysts. The detected incidence of AE was 0.45/10(5) inhabitants, which suggests that clinicians and health authorities in Slovenia should give greater attention to AE in the future. PMID:17371540

Logar, J; Soba, B; Lejko-Zupanc, T; Kotar, T

2007-05-01

18

Northern Slavs from Serbia do not show a founder effect at autosomal and Y-chromosomal STRs and retain their paternal genetic heritage.  

PubMed

Studies on Y-chromosomal markers revealed significant genetic differentiation between Southern and Northern (Western and Eastern) Slavic populations. The northern Serbian region of Vojvodina is inhabited by Southern Slavic Serbian majority and, inter alia, Western Slavic (Slovak) and Eastern Slavic (Ruthenian) minorities. In the study, 15 autosomal STR markers were analysed in unrelated Slovaks, Ruthenians and Serbs from northern Serbia and western Slovakia. Additionally, Slovak males from Serbia were genotyped for 17 Y-chromosomal STR loci. The results were compared to data available for other Slavic populations. Genetic distances for autosomal markers revealed homogeneity between Serbs from northern Serbia and Slovaks from western Slovakia and distinctiveness of Serbian Slovaks and Ruthenians. Y-STR variation showed a clear genetic departure of the Slovaks and Ruthenians inhabiting Vojvodina from their Serbian neighbours and genetic similarity to the Northern Slavic populations of Slovakia and Ukraine. Admixture estimates revealed negligible Serbian paternal ancestry in both Northern Slavic minorities of Vojvodina, providing evidence for their genetic isolation from the Serbian majority population. No reduction of genetic diversity at autosomal and Y-chromosomal markers was found, excluding genetic drift as a reason for differences observed at autosomal STRs. Analysis of molecular variance detected significant population stratification of autosomal and Y-chromosomal microsatellites in the three Slavic populations of northern Serbia, indicating necessity for separate databases used for estimations of frequencies of autosomal and Y-chromosomal STR profiles in forensic casework. Our results demonstrate that regarding Y-STR haplotypes, Serbian Slovaks and Ruthenians fit in the Eastern European metapopulation defined in the Y chromosome haplotype reference database. PMID:24315599

R?ba?a, Krzysztof; Veselinovi?, Igor; Siváková, Daniela; Patskun, Erika; Kravchenko, Sergey; Szczerkowska, Zofia

2014-01-01

19

Problematic microscopic trace (?) fossils, Oligocene, Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meioscopic to microscopic capsules found in reddish, probably marine or brackish shales (Oligocene, Pannonian Basin; South Slovakia) are interpreted as possible trace fossils. They may represent burrows of meioscopic in-fauna. Ferruginous walls of the capsules appeared very probably as late as during diagenesis; however, the (possibly organic) matrix had to exist before the diagenetic processes. Other discussed explanations (inorganic "ironstones"; coprolites) are not plausible.

Mikuláš, R.; Boorová, D.; Holcová, K.

2013-05-01

20

Managing occupational injuries records in Slovenia from 1948 to 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to examine and compare all publicly accessible data on occupational injuries in Slovenia in the period from 1948 to 2008, obtained either from archives or websites. The data obtained from five different sources which have been formally collecting and presenting data on occupational injuries in Slovenia (Labour Inspectorate of the Republic of Slovenia –

Miran Pavli?; Borut Likar; Alenka Pavli?; Mirko Marki?

2011-01-01

21

Local magnitude scale in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper a calibration study of the local magnitude scale in Slovenia is presented. The Seismology and Geology Office of the Slovenian Environment Agency routinely reports the magnitudes MLV of the earthquakes recorded by the Slovenian seismic stations. The magnitudes are computed from the maximum vertical component of the ground velocity with the magnitude equation that was derived some thirty years ago by regression analysis of the magnitudes recorded by a Wood-Anderson seismograph in Trieste and a short period seismograph in Ljubljana. In the study the present single magnitude MLV equation is replaced by a general form of the Richter local magnitude MWA equation. The attenuation function and station-component corrections that compensate the local effects near seismic stations are determined from the synthetic Wood-Anderson seismograms of a large data set by iterative least-square method. The data set used consists of approximately 18 000 earthquakes during a period of 14 yr, each digitally recorded on up to 29 stations. The derived magnitude equation is used to make the final comparison between the new MWA magnitudes and the routinely calculated MLV magnitudes. The results show good overall accordance between both magnitude equations. The main advantage of the introduction of station-component corrections is the reduced uncertainty of the local magnitude that is assigned to a certain earthquake.

Bajc, J.; Zaplotnik, Ž.; Živ?i?, M.; ?arman, M.

2013-04-01

22

Security Research and Safety Aspects in Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2004 the Slovak Republic joined the European Community. This accession called for changes in the new member state's internal and external processes, as well as the acceptance of the European Community regulatory framework and its implementation in Slovakian national legislation. Even though Slovakia had started with step-by-step integration of specific regulations during accession negotiations, final implementation was only concluded upon admission into the European Community. The process spanned the fields of occupational health and safety (Safety) and civil security (Security), notwithstanding that professionals in these areas had already been working in line with the European legislation.

Sinay, Juraj

23

The development of radiotherapy in Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The historical data on the development of radiotherapy in Slovenia are presented from its first use in this county in 1902 until the present. The Institute of Oncology in Ljubljana was established in 1938 with the intention of providing a sound development of radium and roentgen cancer treatment. After World War II, the development of radiotherapy was dynamic, which is

Janez Kuhelj; Božena Ravnihar

1996-01-01

24

Education Reform in Slovenia and Ukraine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed the challenges faced by teacher educators from Slovenia and Ukraine as they implemented the Step by Step (SBS) initiative. Gathered information from Master Teacher Trainers about participation in educating preschool and primary children in a SBS program. Garnered important information concerning progress toward a more democratic approach…

Rutar, Sonja; Kotenko, Kateryna; Lohvynenko, Tetyana; Moyer, Joan

2003-01-01

25

Q fever in Bulgaria and Slovakia.  

PubMed Central

As a result of dramatic political and economic changes in the beginning of the 1990s, Q-fever epidemiology in Bulgaria has changed. The number of goats almost tripled; contact between goat owners (and their families) and goats, as well as goats and other animals, increased; consumption of raw goat milk and its products increased; and goats replaced cattle and sheep as the main source of human Coxiella burnetii infections. Hundreds of overt, serologically confirmed human cases of acute Q fever have occurred. Chronic forms of Q fever manifesting as endocarditis were also observed. In contrast, in Slovakia, Q fever does not pose a serious public health problem, and the chronic form of infection has not been found either in follow-ups of a Q-fever epidemic connected with goats imported from Bulgaria and other previous Q-fever outbreaks or in a serologic survey. Serologic diagnosis as well as control and prevention of Q fever are discussed.

Serbezov, V. S.; Kazar, J.; Novkirishki, V.; Gatcheva, N.; Kovacova, E.; Voynova, V.

1999-01-01

26

Virus meningo-encephalitis in Slovenia  

PubMed Central

An organism was isolated from the blood of a patient clinically diagnosed as suffering from virus meningo-encephalitis; the organism causes illness and death in white mice. The antigen prepared from the brains of mice infected with this organism fixes complement with sera from typical cases of virus meningo-encephalitis. From its biological and serological characteristics, the isolated organism appears to belong to the group of neurotropic viruses and to be the causative agent of virus meningo-encephalitis in Slovenia.

Vesenjak-Zmijanac, J.; Bedjanic, M.; Rus, S.; Kmet, J.

1955-01-01

27

Astronomy Education and Popularization in Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy education at all levels (elementary and secondary schools, universities) in Serbia is reviewed. The attempts to introduce astronomy as an elective course in elementary schools and to reintroduce astronomy as a separate subject in secondary schools are discussed. The role of the Petnica Science Center is briefly described, as well as the participation of the Serbian team in the International Astronomy Olympiads. A special emphasis is put on recent changes introduced in the accredited study programs at all five Serbian state universities. The research projects performed in two main astronomical institutions in Serbia are outlined. The numerous amateur astronomical societies in Serbia are presented and their growing activities summarized.

Atanackovic, O.

2013-05-01

28

FSU/Eastern Europe: Russia spearheads small upturn  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the political and legal scene in Russia, domestic restructuring, exploration, drilling, development by Western companies and by Russian companies, and production. Exploration and development in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Serbia are also discussed.

NONE

1996-08-01

29

Transfusion Medicine in Slovenia ? Current Status and Future Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short history of the blood transfusion activities in Slovenia is given, starting with the hommage to Dr. Janez Plecnik, a contributor to the famous experiment of the ABO blood groups discovery by Landsteiner in 1900. The organized blood transfusion services of Slovenia that celebrate the 60th anniversary in 2006 have been traditionally based on a system of unpaid voluntary

Primož Rožman; Dragoslav Domanovi?

2006-01-01

30

Art Museum Education in Transition: Moderna Galerija in Slovenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay examines the educational practices at the Moderna galerija, a national museum of modern and contemporary art in Ljubljana, Slovenia, in the last twenty years. Its aim is to reflect on the museum education in relation to broader historical context, of the former Yugoslavia (the country Slovenia was a part of until 1991) and discuss how…

Zeleznik, Adela

2012-01-01

31

Astronomy Education in Serbia 2008-2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review is given of triennial activities in astronomy education in Serbia at all levels. Astronomy makes part of the primary and secondary school curricula, but still neither as a separate nor as a compulsory subject. In the past three years the programs at all five state universities in Serbia were accredited. Among the general public, the interest for astronomy is steadily increasing, and four new amateur astronomical societies have been founded. Serbian teams continued to successfully participate in the International Astronomy Olympiads.

Atanackovic, O.

2012-12-01

32

Information system of mineral deposits in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the Geologic Survey of Slovenia the need for complex overview and control of the deposits of available non-metallic mineral raw materials and of their exploitations became urgent. In the framework of the Geologic Information System we established the Database of non-metallic mineral deposits comprising all important data of deposits and concessionars. Relational database is built with program package MS Access, but in year 2008 we plan to transfer it on SQL server. In the evidence there is 272 deposits and 200 concessionars. The mineral resources information system of Slovenia, which was started back in 2002, consists of two integrated parts, mentioned relational database of mineral deposits, which relates information in tabular way so that rules of relational algebra can be applied, and geographic information system (GIS), which relates spatial information of deposits. . The complex relationships between objects and the concepts of normalized data structures, lead to the practical informative and useful data model, transparent to the user and to better decision-making by allowing future scenarios to be developed and inspected. Computerized storage, and display system is as already said, developed and managed under the support of Geological Survey of Slovenia, which conducts research on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources in order to help the Nation make informed decisions using earth-science information. Information about deposit is stored in records in approximately hundred data fields. A numeric record number uniquely identifies each site. The data fields are grouped under principal categories. Each record comprise elementary data of deposit (name, type, location, prospect, rock), administrative data (concessionar, number of decree in official paper, object of decree, number of contract and its duration) and data of mineral resource produced amount and size of exploration area). The data can also be searched, sorted and printed using any of these fields. New records are being added annually, and existing records updated or upgraded. Relational database is connected with scanned exploration/exploitation areas of deposits, defined on the base of digital ortofoto. Register of those areas is indispensable because of spatial planning and spatial municipal and regional strategy development. Database is also part of internet application for quick search and review of data and part of web page of mineral resources of Slovenia. The technology chosen for internet application is ESRI's ArcIMS Internet Map Server. ArcIMS allows users to readily and easily display, analyze, and interpret spatial data from desktop using a Web browser connected to the Internet. We believe that there is an opportunity for cooperation within this activity. We can offer a single location where users can come to browse relatively simply for geoscience-related digital data sets.

Hribernik, K.; Rokavec, D.; Šinigioj, J.; Šolar, S.

2010-03-01

33

Validating MODIS snow data in Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow is an important component of the hydrological balance, and an integral part of the hydrological modelling. In the territory of Slovakia the data of the snow cover have been collected since the middle of the 20th century. There are many various sources how to obtain necessary information about the snow cover. An important source of snow data is the satellite images, mainly to assess the spatial and temporal distribution of the snow in the river basins. We evaluated the snow cover in the upper Hron River Basin in Slovak Republic by the measured data of the decade 2000 - 2010 and the data obtained from the MODIS snow product for the same decade. The measured data were from the six climate stations of Hron River Basin, which was selected as a pilot basin. The data of MODIS snow product were from the official website of National Snow and Ice Data Centre (http://nsidc.org/). These data were obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua and Terra satellites. In this work, we give the details of the study area and describe the MODIS snow product, then we provide analysis where the accuracy of MODIS data were compared with the measured ones from the study area. The result of comparison is that the accuracy of the MODIS data is approximately 40 %. Next, we used the spatial filtering of MODIS images to increase the accuracy of images. We replaced the pixels classified as clouds by values of the neighbouring cell for decreasing these pixels. So, we replaced the pixel classified as cloud by pixel value if the neighbouring pixel is snow or land. After that we compared the MODIS data with the measured data and the accuracy increased by 4 %. Finally, we used the temporal filtering in various time steps for the increasing of the accuracy of MODIS data.

Kotríková, Katarína; Hlav?ová, Kamila; Szolgay, Ján; Kohnová, Silvia

2014-05-01

34

ALIAN INSECT PESTS ON INTRODUCED WOODY PLANTS IN SLOVAKIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance of woody plants to pests and diseases is one of the basic indicators of their successful introduction. In recent years, there are records of occurrence and damaging activity of new insect pests on introduced woody plants. The presence of insect pests in Slovakia has increased mainly due to arrivals from warmer European zones and other countries. The present paper

P. HRUBÍK

35

Human Rights Education, Constitutionalism and Their Interrelations in Slovakia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews national and cultural traditions that inform human rights consciousness in Slovakia and examines the role of constitutionalism in human rights protection and education on human rights. A prospering civil society is possible only in the context of a well-functioning civil state, making education in human rights and…

Kusy, Miroslav

1994-01-01

36

Stigma and Roma Education Policy Reform in Slovakia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses reform of Roma education in Slovakia against the backdrop of continued stigmatization of Roma students. Transnational NGOs and IGOs promote rights-based solutions leading to the fullest possible inclusion of Roma students in mainstream education. The Slovak state promotes educational policies that lead to the fullest…

New, William

2012-01-01

37

Information Science Research Agenda in Slovakia: History and Emerging Vision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents research and education in library and information science in Slovakia as an example of the history, present state, and future of information science research and collaboration in central European countries. Highlights include: the professional experience in the region since 1990, structural changes, examples of these changes, recent…

Steinerova, Jela

2003-01-01

38

Regional flood frequency analysis in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regional flood frequency analysis is mainly used for purposes of improving flood prediction. There are many examples of its application in different countries but it hasn't been used in Slovenia yet. So our main goal was to use different approaches to perform regional flood frequency analysis of maximum annual discharges for hydrological stations in Slovenia. Regional flood frequency analysis usually involves four steps. For each one there are different methods that can be used. At first, accuracy and discordance of data has to be checked. The second and also the most important step is identification of regions and checking their homogeneity. The last two steps are the choice of an appropriate frequency distribution for a region and estimation of the parameters and quantiles of the selected distribution, respectively. Maximum annual discharges for 112 hydrological stations in Slovenia that satisfied required conditions about measurement performance were considered for analysis. Time series were first checked for missing data, outliers, normality and linearity. The discordancy measure was also used. The regionalization was performed using two different approaches. The first method used was subjective partioning where the regions are formed with the goal to get concluded groups in which hydrological stations lay geographically close to each other. The second used method was cluster analysis within which two algorithms were tested (Ward method and K-means). Three data sets with different number of attributes were used for each one. The homogeneity of the regions was tested using the heterogeneity measure H. The result of the subjective partioning were 10 regions, 8 of them were acceptably homogeneous (H < 1), one was possibly heterogeneous (1 ? H < 2) and one was definitely heterogeneous (H ? 2). Among Ward method and K-means we decided to use the results of the latter one based on the data set with 4 attributes (catchment area, longitude, latitude, elevation). After some adjustments we defined 9 acceptably homogeneous regions. The best frequency distribution was estimated according to K-means adjusted regions. Different goodness-of-fit tests were used. For the whole region data the L-moment ratio diagram and the goodness-of-fit measure Z were performed. For the single station data the QQ diagram, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, PPCC (probability plot correlation coefficient) and RMSE (root mean square error) were used. After analysing different results we decided to estimate the final frequency distribution of the regions using L-moment ratio diagram, goodness-of-fit measure Z and the RMSE test. At the end we estimated also the quantiles for chosen frequency distributions using the regional L-moment algorithm based on the index-flood procedure.

Kavcic, Katarina; Brilly, Mitja; Sraj, Mojca

2014-05-01

39

Morphometrical and molecular characterization of Bursaphelenchus species from Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The environmental conditions in Slovenia are relatively favourrable for the colonisation and spread of the pine wood nematode\\u000a Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, a very dangerous pathogenic species which was recently identified in Europe in Portugal. To determine the presence of B. xylophilus in Slovenia and to introduce proper measures against its emergence and spread, a survey of Bursaphelenchus species was conducted in

G. Urek; S. Širca; B. Geric

2007-01-01

40

Identification and inventory of tenorm sources in Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper addresses identification of industries and activities handling NORM and inventory of TENORM in Slovenia. The identification\\u000a is based on survey of historical information available, results published in scientific papers, research reports made by research\\u000a institutions within Slovenia, as well as original research aimed at obtaining more detailed picture of the areas investigated.\\u000a For this purpose, gamma dose-rate measurements

B. Smodis; U. Repinc; L. Benedik

2006-01-01

41

Identification and inventory of TENORM sources in Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper addresses identification of industries and activities handling NORM and inventory of TENORM in Slovenia. The identification\\u000a is based on survey of historical information available, results published in scientific papers, research reports made by research\\u000a institutions within Slovenia, as well as original research aimed at obtaining more detailed picture of the areas investigated.\\u000a For this purpose, gamma dose-rate measurements

B. Smodiš; U. Repinc; L. Benedik

2006-01-01

42

Water information management system and low flow analysis in Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low flow estimation is essential for water management in Slovenia. Therefore Slovenia is subdivided into 572 sub-basins. In the analysis of daily flows two low flow parameters were used: i.e. the streamflow which is exceeded in 95% of days (295), and the 20-year return period of the annual minimum flow (200. Specific flow characteristics (q95 and 20q) were also computed

MITJA BRILLY; MIRA KOBOLD; ANDREJ VIDMAR

43

Changes of heat waves characteristics over the territory of Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study is focused on the analysis of long-term changes and trends of heat waves occurrence in selected meteorological stations in Slovakia. Changes of the temperature regime of the hydro-climatic system may have serious consequences on population health. It is expected that climate change could, in the next decades, also lead to a higher frequency and greater spatial extent of extreme heat waves in Central Europe. Heat waves can cause severe thermal environmental stress, health complications, higher hospital admission rates, and increased mortality. A larger number of consecutive warm days and nights can also lead to increased solar overheating of buildings, inhibited ventilation, etc. Detection of possible ongoing changes of the regime of heat ways is therefore of particular interest. Since heat waves can be quantitatively evaluated through their temperature range (extremity) and also according to their duration, a set of such characteristics using statistical methods were analysed using maximum and average daily air temperature time series from the 1951-2010 period in 8 meteorological stations over the territory of Slovakia. Results indicate an overall consistent (both in time and space) increase of selected heat wave characteristics in Slovakia mostly due to their occurrence in the last two decades (1991 to 2010). This period was characterised by the occurrence of the most extreme heat waves ever recorded in history of meteorological observations in Slovakia (years 1992, 1994, 1998, 2003, 2007, 2010). The absolutely longest and most extreme heat wave occurred in southern Slovakia (station Hurbanovo) in 1992, when one heat wave lasted 47 days, while the cumulative amount of the deviation from 30 °C reached over 106 ° C. Change of the heat waves character in the last two decades was also indicated. Compared with the previous decade (1991-2000), during the decade of 2001-2010, the heat waves had shorter durations, but their total extremity and the quantity increased significantly. Examples of this development in the years 2003, 2007 and 2010 were given.

Kollarikova, Patricia; Szolgay, Jan; Pecho, Jozef

2014-05-01

44

Community social alarm network in Slovenia.  

PubMed

The article deals with a case report on the technology transfer of the Lifeline community social alarm system to Slovenia. The main reason the project was initiated is the ageing of the Slovenian population (11% of the population is 65 or over). With this system we intend to support the public's wish to allow the elderly to remain in their own homes for as long as possible instead of placing them in institutional care. Between 1992 and 1995 the following results were achieved: the acceptability of the system in the social environment was increased; a pilot control centre in Ljubljana was established and has been operational for two-and-a-half years; a national dissemination plan was prepared; the integration of the programme into other information systems has been started. One of the main conclusions is that for the successful transfer of a technology which also affects social values in society, a social innovation must support the process. PMID:8997529

Premik, M; Rudel, D

1996-12-01

45

The Miocene rodents of Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Miocene period a group of shallow lakes was created in depressions at the territory of present-day Serbia. This caused the present wide distribution of lacustrine sediments, which occasionally alternate with the alluvial and marsh sediments. The remains of large mammals are relatively common, while the remains of small mammals used to be known only from two localities - Mala Miliva and Sibnica. The method of sediment sieving, used during the last decade, led to discovery of 6 new localities with remains of fossil vertebrates - Sibnica 1, Vra?evi?i, village Lazarevac, Bele Vode, Brajkovac and Tavnik. Most of the fossil material is represented by osteological and odontological remains of small mammals. The best represented group of small mammals at each of the localities was the rodents. According to the odontological material presence was proven for 35 rodent species from 6 families. MN zonation was determined according to structure of associations. The geological age of fossil-bearing sediments was determined by using the method of correlation with the sites in Europe and Turkey.

Markovic, Z.

2009-04-01

46

Imported parasitic infections in Serbia  

PubMed Central

Background Travel to the tropics is associated with a risk of parasitic infection, which is increasing in parallel with the rise in travel to these areas. We thus examined the prevalence and trend in the occurrence of parasitic infections in Serbian travelers. Methods A retrospective analysis of the medical records of all travelers returning from tropical and subtropical areas, who presented at the Institute for Infectious and Tropical Diseases in Belgrade between January 2001 and January 2008, was performed. Results Of a total of 2440 travelers, 169 (6.9%) were diagnosed with a parasitic infection, including malaria in 79, intestinal parasites in 84 (pathogenic species in 30 and non-pathogenic in 54), filariasis in four, and visceral leishmaniasis and fascioliasis in one patient each. Importantly, of the whole series only 583 (23.9%) were symptomatic, of which 19.4% were found to be infected with a parasite. The single pathogenic parasite occurring in asymptomatic patients was Giardia intestinalis. Conclusions Parasitic infection causing symptomatic disease among travelers returning from tropical areas to Serbia is not infrequent. In view of the expected increase in travel to the tropics, diagnostic protocols for tropical parasitic diseases should take these data into account.

Dakic, Z.; Nikolic, A.; Lavadinovic, L.; Pelemis, M.; Klun, I.; Dulovic, O.; Milosevic, B.; Stevanovic, G.; Ofori-Belic, I.; Poluga, J.; Pavlovic, M.

2011-01-01

47

Amateur Astronomers Association of Serbia - Activities and Importance of Association in Amateur Astronomy in Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the Amateur Astronomers Association of Serbia is presented and its importance for popularization of astronomy as well. The activities of the Association in founding new societies, promotion, assistance in work and cooperation are listed. Particular review is made on visiting territories in Serbia where organized astronomical activities in the form of amateur societies do not exist, as well as on founding new societies.

Aleksic, J.; Radmilovic, D.

2012-12-01

48

Contribution to the lichen biota of Slovenia XII. Some lichens from Logarska dolina  

PubMed Central

A list of 94 species is presented including Bacidia subacerina and Lopadium disciforme as new for Slovenia and Bilimbia accedens, Lecanora leptyrodes, Megalaria grossa, Mycobilimbia epixanthoides, Rinodina efflorescens, and Sclerophora peronella as new for the alpine phytogeographical region of Slovenia.

Bilovitz, Peter Othmar; Arup, Ulf; Mayrhofer, Helmut

2011-01-01

49

Inclusive Education--Empirical Experience from Serbia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This descriptive study finds out the problems most frequently facing the children with special needs in regular schooling. The sample included 500 teachers in elementary schools from Serbia. The results point out the problems in inclusive education. Most educational problems occur in relations and communications with their peers in typical…

Kovacevic, Jasmina; Macesic-Petrovic, Dragana

2012-01-01

50

Roof top extensions for multifamily houses in Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the countries of the European Union with the exception of Malta, approximately 100.1 million multifamily dwelling units are situated. These dwellings count for an average of 47.5% of the total housing stock in European Union countries. At present in Slovakia and also other countries of Central and Eastern Europe, there are vast housing areas which were built after World War II. Slovakia's multifamily housing stock was privatized during the 1990s. Considering that the economy of Slovakia is not capable of replacing the existing housing fund, which is located in the multifamily houses that were built after World War II, it is necessary to place an increased emphasis on the renovation of this housing fund. The expenditures for the refurbishment of multifamily housing stock in recent decades, when compared with the demand, have been at a very low level. The main problems involving the current multifamily housing stock in Slovakia are: the need for modernization, the low level of energy efficiency, and the insufficient level of building maintenance. One of the options for creating sufficient sources for the renovation of apartment buildings is to utilize the roofs of apartment buildings as construction areas for building additional floors (over - roofing). The means acquired from the sale of the new floors after deducting the costs can be used for renovation. It is a matter of a one-time possibility, which is limited by many factors that depend on the localization and constructive technical solutions for apartment buildings. This article is an outcome of the SuReFit "Sustainable Roof Extension Retrofit for High-Rise Social Housing in Europe" international research project.

Szekeres, K.

2010-12-01

51

Should Czech Republic and Slovakia Have Rail Baltica Strategy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Export led economies of Slovakia and Czech Republic have shown impressive performance on activity regarding to Rail Baltica corridor countries (trade vol. incr. by 200-300 % in decade time). However, long-term plans in transportation logistics are tied upon corridors (road and rail) ending to Polish sea port, Gdansk. Road transport is also favoured in large-scale in both countries in export

Olli-Pekka Hilmola

2011-01-01

52

Magnetic mapping of Slovakia for the epoch 1980.5  

Microsoft Academic Search

130 sites were occupied in a magnetic survey of Slovakia. About half of those occupied in previous surveys (1952.5, 1958.5, and 1967.5) were unsuitable because of increased man made noises. New stations were substituted. A combination of classical magnetometers (forH andD) and a proton magnetometer (forF) was used.Z was computed fromH andF. Instruments were calibrated at Hurbanovo magnetic observatory before

J. Podsklan

1984-01-01

53

Climatic reconstruction from larch in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tree-ring stable isotope chronologies are now routinely based upon multiple samples with a high degree of replication. Recent technological advances have enabled climate to be reconstructed with a high degree of statistical veracity. Most of these pioneering studies have focused upon reconstructing the climate of the last 1000 years to enable recent changes to be assessed within the context of naturally changing climatic system. A new ring-width chronology from living trees and archaeological samples was developed for European larch (Larix decidua Mill.) growing at Veža in the southeastern part of the Alps in Slovenia. Carbon, oxygen and non-exchangeable hydrogen isotope chronologies have been developed on these samples. The carbon isotope chronology was corrected for the industrial decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide isotopic values and the response to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. All isotope chronologies were calibrated against climatic data from the nearby Ljubljana meteorological station over the period 1900 to present. The isotope chronologies have a high degree of common forcing demonstrated by a high Expressed Population Signal (EPS>0.85) and correlate well with meteorological data. The predictive skill of reconstructed climatic variables was tested using standard metrics and the calibration dataset split to enable the temporal stability of the climatic response to be investigated.

Robertson, Iain; Levani?, Tom; Hafner, Polona; Gagen, Mary; Bale, Rod; Loader, Neil J.; Hilasvuori, Emmi; Sonninen, Eloni; Jungner, Högne; McCarroll, Danny

2010-05-01

54

Identification and inventory of tenorm sources in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper addresses identification of industries and activities handling NORM and inventory of TENORM in Slovenia. The identification is based on survey of historical information available, results published in scientific papers, research reports made by research institutions within Slovenia, as well as original research aimed at obtaining more detailed picture of the areas investigated. For this purpose, gamma dose-rate measurements were performed on site, sampled TENORM/NORM materials were measured by high-resolution gamma spectrometry for determination of 210Pb, 238U, 232Th, 228Th and 226Ra. Waste water and ground water samples were analysed for 238U, 226Ra and 210Pb using RNAA, LSC and beta proportional counting. The inventory of the investigated sites is presented, giving the information on amounts of the deposited wastes, specific activities of the natural radionuclides and geographical distribution of the inventories in Slovenia.

Smodiš, B.; Repinc, U.; Benedik, L.

2006-01-01

55

Early medieval coinage in the territory of Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver coins minted in the territory of present Slovenia and neighboring countries Italy and Austria between the 12th and 14th century were analyzed by PIXE. Gold and bismuth were found as predominant impurities, which allowed distribution of coins into two groups. Coins with the predominant Bi impurity were minted from silver that was very likely mined in Carinthia and diffusion of this type of silver towards the mints in eastern Slovenia was observed. This finding confirms the historical hypothesis that silver currency in this period was largely produced for the trade with the east.

Šmit, Ž.; Šemrov, A.

2006-11-01

56

Hierarchization and segmentation of informal care markets in Slovenia.  

PubMed

The article is the result of qualitative research of informal care markets in Slovenia in the field of childcare, elder care, and cleaning. The author assesses Slovenia's position in the “global care chain” and finds that “local care chains” prevail in the field of childcare and elder care, while a co-occurrence of female gender, “other” ethnicity, and poverty is typical in the field of household cleaning. The main emphasis of the article is on the analysis of hierarchization of the informal market of care work according to following two criteria: social reputation of individual type of care work and citizenship status of care workers. PMID:22611572

Hrženjak, Majda

2012-01-01

57

Role of small and medium-sized enterprises in economies of Poland and Slovakia - comparative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SME sector is one of the factors that contribute to economic growth in every country on the national and regional level, and it holds true to Poland and Slovakia. Although this sector grew most rapidly during the beginning transition period, it still retains its significant role in the economic growth in both countries - Poland and Slovakia. The aim

Iveta Ubreziová; Krzysztof Wach

2010-01-01

58

Europeanization in the "Other" Europe: Writing the Nation into "Europe" Education in Slovakia and Estonia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How is the tension between renewed nationalist and European narratives of belonging being unfolded in the curricula, discourse, and practice of civic education in Slovakia and Estonia. As two post-socialist territories that were "reborn" as independent nation-states in the 1990s, Slovakia and Estonia were confronted with pressure to "Europeanize".…

Michaels, Deborah L.; Stevick, E. Doyle

2009-01-01

59

Environmental analyse of soil organic carbon stock changes in Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The content and quality of soil organic matter is one of the basic soil parameters on which soil production functioning depends as well as it is active in non production soil functions like an ecological one especially. Morphologic segmentation of Slovakia has significant influence of structure in using agricultural soil in specific areas of our territory. Also social changes of early 90´s of 20´th century made their impact on change of using of agricultural soil (transformation from large farms to smaller ones, decreasing the number of livestock). This research is studying changes of development of soil organic carbon stock (SOC) in agricultural soil of Slovakia as results of climatic as well as social and political changes which influenced agricultury since last 40 years. The main goal of this research is an analysis of soil organic carbon stock since 1970 until now at specific agroclimatic regions of Slovakia and statistic analysis of relation between modelled data of SOC stock and soil quality index value. Changes of SOC stock were evaluated on the basis SOC content modeling using RothC-26.3 model. From modeling of SOC stock results the outcome is that in that time the soil organic carbon stock was growing until middle 90´s years of 20´th century with the highest value in 1994. Since that year until new millennium SOC stock is slightly decreasing. After 2000 has slightly increased SOC stock so far. According to soil management SOC stock development on arable land is similar to overall evolution. In case of grasslands after slight growth of SOC stock since 1990 the stock is in decline. This development is result of transformational changes after 1989 which were specific at decreasing amount of organic carbon input from organic manure at grassland areas especially. At warmer agroclimatic regions where mollic fluvisols and chernozems are present and where are soils with good quality and steady soil organic matter (SOM) the amount of SOC in monitored time is still growing. At colder agroclimatic regions, at flysch region especially where cambisols are present with low of SOM stability since 1994 stability or decreasing of SOC stock is resulting. This is result of climatic impact (lower temperatures, higher humidity) as well as the way of soil management because at colder region the number of glasslands is increased in comparison to arable land. Close relationship between SOC stock and soil production potential index representing the official basis for soil quality evaluation in Slovakia was also determined and a polynomial model was found which describes the relation at the 95% confidence level. From the obtained results it can be concluded, that the amount of crop residues and farmyard manure coming to the soil both in the first and second simulation period (1970 - 1995 and 1996 - 2007) was responsible for general trends in SOC stock dynamics. Achieved results also show different amount and changes of SOC stock in different agroclimatic regions. It was also found that that value of soil production potential index generally used for soil quality assessment in Slovakia corresponds well with simulated values of SOC stocks in top-soils of cropland soils. Key words Soil organic carbon stock, modelling, agricultural soils, agroclimatic regions, Slovakia Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract No. APVV-0333-06.

Koco, Š.; Baran?íková, G.; Skalský, R.; Tarasovi?ová, Z.; Gutteková, M.; Halas, J.; Makovníková, J.; Novákova, M.

2012-04-01

60

Second primary cancers in breast cancer patients in Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from the Cancer Registry of Slovenia were used in a cohort studyto determine whether the incidence of second primary cancers in patients withfirst primary breast cancer differs from the incidence expected in thegeneral population. Special interest was given to long-term survivors. Theexpected numbers of second primary cancers were calculated by multiplying thenumber of appropriate person-years at risk by the

N. Volk; V. Pompe-Kirn

1997-01-01

61

Gifted Children in Slovenia between Theory and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study explored gifted education in Slovenia and found the following positive developments: new school legislation that provides pupils with the possibility of acceleration, pedagogically important international expert scientific conferences on giftedness, introduction of financially supported additional classes for gifted elementary students,…

Ferbezer, Ivan

2003-01-01

62

Transboundary Groundwater Body Karavanke\\/Karawanken Between Austria and Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large part of the border region between Republic of Slovenia and Republic of Austria is represented by high east west extended mountainous ridge of Karavanke\\/Karawanken. It is a range extending along the Slovenian-Austrian border for almost 150 km. Its terrain consists of long and prominent ridges, whose slopes steeply fall to the northern and southern side. Ridges are interrupted by

M. Brencic; W. Poltnig

2009-01-01

63

EU ACCESSION DIRECT PAYMENT ISSUE AND FARM INCOMES IN SLOVENIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article estimation of gross value added (GVA) applying extended economic account for agriculture (EAA) model and partial equilibrium APAS-PAM model has been carried out to emphasize the importance of direct payments for farm incomes in Slovenia after its EU accession. Scenario analysis for hypothetic accession year 2004 with different levels of direct payments' complementing from national budget has

Emil ERJAVEC; Tina VOLK

64

Vulnerability Assessment, Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Measures in Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In relation to the priority tasks of the climate change measures, the Republic of Slovenia estimates that special attention needs to be devoted to the following sectors in general: - sectors that currently indicate a strong vulnerability for the current climate variability (for instance, agriculture), - sectors where the vulnerability for climate change is increased by current trends (for instance,

T. Cegnar

2010-01-01

65

Seroprevalence of Babesia divergens infection among forestry workers in Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and incidence of infection with Babesia divergens during the period of tick activity in immunocompetent participants, and to compare the seroprevalence of infection in forestry workers and indoor workers in Slovenia. The prospective study included 215 immunocompetent participants, 122 randomly selected forestry workers and 93 indoor workers. All the

Tereza Rojko; Darja Duh; Franc Strle; Stanka Lotric-Furlan

2008-01-01

66

Adjusting to the Falling Interest in VET in Slovenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article gives an overview of the development issues of VET in Slovenia with an accent on the transition period. It shows how the dual system was gradually replaced by the school-based one and the difficulties its reintroduction faces. It also shows that despite the modernising of VET influenced by EU accession a shift has been observed in the…

Svetlik, Ivan

2004-01-01

67

UNCERTAINTY EVALUATION OF THE REFERENCE HARDNESS STANDARD OF SLOVENIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A commercial hardness testing machine has been provided to represent a reference hardness standard in Slovenia. Various hardness scales which are important for calibration purposes are realized on this machine. The evaluation of measurement uncertainty is one of the most important tasks for establishing this reference standard. Therefore the influence quantities contributing to the uncertainty are determined and the calibration

Konrad Herrmann

68

Chronic toluene misuse among Roma youth in Eastern Slovakia.  

PubMed

This report presents pilot data on toluene misuse among Roma (Gypsy) youth in eastern Slovakia. Twenty interviews were conducted with field social workers (FSWs) working in seven Roma settlements with a combined population of 17,050 people. An estimated 340 chronic toluene users, mostly males (90%, n = 306), were identified in the researched communities. FSWs reported that children younger than 10 years of age represented about 15% of users (n = 52) and that the majority of users (75%, n = 255) were between 10 and 25 years of age. Consequences of prolonged use on individuals and communities are discussed. The study's limitations are noted. PMID:21609147

Važan, Peter; Khan, Maria R; Poduška, Ond?ej; Stastná, Lenka; Miovský, Michal

2011-01-01

69

State, labour and market in post-revolution Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Workers played a key role in the October 2000 revolution in Serbia that overthrew Milošević and his Socialist Party regime. Since then, the trade union movement has begun to consolidate itself into three separate union federations, each with its own distinct orientation. Serbia's economic problems have persisted, leading to heavy dependence on privatisation, foreign direct investment and loans and grants

Martin Upchurch

2006-01-01

70

Belgrade vs. Serbia: Spatial Re-Configurations of Belonging  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the relationship between the nation, the city, narratives, and belonging in Serbia through an analysis of narratives of a set of 30 interviews with young Belgrade intellectuals aged 23–35. I argue that what appears to be emerging in post-Milosevic Serbia is a new articulation and a new scale of belonging. Most of my informants are mobilising their

Zala Volcic

2005-01-01

71

Groundwater Quality in Mura Valley (Slovenia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater quality is one of the most important parameters in drinking water supply management. For safe drinking water supply, the quality of groundwater in the water wells on the recharge area has to be controlled. Groundwater quality data will be presented for one test area in the SEE project CC-WaterS (Climate Change and Impacts on Water Supply) Mura valley, which lies in the northeastern part of Slovenia. The Mura valley is a part of the Pannonian basin tectonic unit, which is filled with Tertiary and Quaternary gravel and sand sediments. The porous aquifer is 17 m thick in average and recharges from precipitation (70 %) and from surface waters (30 %). The aquifer is the main source of drinking water in the area for almost 53.000 inhabitants. Most of the aquifer lies beneath the agricultural area what represents the risk of groundwater quality. The major groundwater pollutants in the Mura valley are nitrates, atrazine, desethyl-atrazine, trichloroethane and tetrachloroethene. National groundwater quality monitoring is carried out twice a year, so some polluting events could be missed. The nitrate concentrations in the past were up to 140 mg/l. Concentration trends are decreasing and are now below 60 mg/l. Concentrations of atrazine and desethyl-atrazine, are decreasing as well and are below 0,1 ľg/l. Trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene were detected downstream of main city in Mura valley, in the maximum concentrations of 280 ?g/l in June 2005 (trichloroethene) and 880 ?g/l in October 1997 (tetrachloroethene). So, it can be summarized that the trends for most pollutants in the Mura valley are decreasing, what is a good prediction for the future. Input estimation of the total nitrogen (N) (mineral and organic fertilizers) in the Mura valley shows, that the risk of leaching is enlarged in the areas, where the N input is larger than 250 kg/ha, this is at 6,3 % of all agricultural areas. Prediction for the period 2021-2050 indicates that the leaching of N could increase, but no more that 5 %. The high risk of leaching of pesticides can be expected at 60 % of the Mura valley area. According to expert judgment, the climate conditions during 2021-2050 (increase of mean annual T for more than 0,5 °C and increase of precipitation) will lead to a faster degradation of pesticides and therefore smaller chance for pesticide residuum to reach the groundwater. It can be concluded that the climate change will slightly reduce the danger of leaching into the groundwater but the extent of it will nevertheless stay comparable to the present condition.

Zajc Benda, T.; Souvent, P.; Bra?i? Železnik, B.; ?en?ur Curk, B.

2012-04-01

72

The Research of Historical Trusses in Northern Regions of Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The blanket research of historical trusses in the territory of Slovakia has been running at our department since 2008. This research is done as teamwork in cooperation with experts from the field of conservation, and it is mainly focused on typology, construction, and the current technical and constructional state of investigated trusses. The long-time support of the grant scheme from the Ministry of Culture allows to get a fair amount of different data related to individual buildings and structures, which enables to carry out the in-depth research. In terms of their conservation and maintenance with an effort to extend their lifetime (the oldest known historical trusses in Slovakia are those of the 13th century), it is necessary to look into the microclimate impact of the under-roof space on wooden roof structures as well as to monitor the contemporary constructional and technical condition of a roof structure itself. The suitable microclimate in the under-roof space is influenced by a number of marginal conditions, constructional solutions of roof details, proper space ventilation etc

Korenková, Renáta; Krušinský, Peter

2014-06-01

73

Dirofilaria repens microfilariae in Aedes vexans mosquitoes in Slovakia.  

PubMed

In this study, we screened field-caught mosquitoes for presence of Dirofilaria spp. by using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Potential occurrence of Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae was examined in 3,600 mosquitoes of eight species (Aedes vexans, Aedes cinereus, Aedes rossicus, Culex pipiens, Culiseta annulata, Ochlerotatus sticticus, Ochlerotatus cantans and Ochlerotatus caspius) collected from five locations in two districts (Kosice and Trebisov) of Eastern Slovakia, endemic region of canine dirofilariasis. Collection of mosquitoes was performed between May and August 2012 in premises known to be inhabited by Dirofilaria-infected dogs. PCR assays were performed on 72 pools, each pool containing 50 mosquitoes of the same species, collected on the same location. Each pool was examined separately for the presence of D. immitis and D. repens, respectively. A positive finding of D. repens was recorded in one pool of A. vexans mosquitoes collected in Košické Olšany village. Minimum infection rate in A. vexans was 1:1,750, i.e. 0.57 per 1,000 mosquitoes. The identity of D. repens was confirmed by direct sequencing of PCR product which has shown 100% homology with sequence attributed to D. repens (GenBank accession number AJ271614). This study represents the first molecular evidence of D. repens microfilariae in mosquitoes in Slovakia and highlights a need for better surveillance of zoonotic dirofilariasis in central Europe. PMID:23846240

Bocková, Eva; Rudolf, Ivo; Ko?išová, Alica; Betášová, Lenka; Venclíková, Kristýna; Mendel, Jan; Hubálek, Zden?k

2013-10-01

74

Hydrological scenarios of future seasonal runoff distribution in Central Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrological scenarios of future seasonal distributions of runoff in the upper Hron River basin, which was chosen as a representative mountainous region in Central Slovakia, were evaluated. Changes in the future climate were expressed by three different climate change scenarios developed within the framework of the Central and Eastern Europe Climate Change Impact and Vulnerability Assessment Project (CECILIA). The climate change scenarios were constructed using the pattern scaling method from the outputs of transient simulations made by 3 GCMs - ECHAM4/OPYC3, HadCM2 and NCAR DOE-PCM. A conceptual hydrological balance model calibrated with data from the period 1971-2000 was used for modelling changes in runoff with monthly time steps. The runoff change scenarios for the selected basin in the future time horizons of 2025, 2050 and 2100 show changes in the seasonal runoff distribution.

Hlavcová, K.; Szolgay, J.; Kohnová, S.; Bálint, G.

2008-11-01

75

Magnetic mapping of Slovakia for the epoch 1980.5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

130 sites were occupied in a magnetic survey of Slovakia. About half of those occupied in previous surveys (1952.5, 1958.5, and 1967.5) were unsuitable because of increased man made noises. New stations were substituted. A combination of classical magnetometers (for H and D) and a proton magnetometer (for F) was used. Z was computed from H and F. Instruments were calibrated at Hurbanovo magnetic observatory before the survey and at regular size intervals during it. Reduction to epoch was made on the assumption that the scale variation is everywhere the same and equal to that at Hurbanovo. Preliminary maps are hand drawn, but the data have been transferred to computer tape and computer plotted maps are being prepared.

Podsklan, J.

1984-07-01

76

Detecting changes in maximum annual discharges in Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detecting trend in hydrological long-term time series became a topic of rising scientific significance during last years. A number of floods were observed in recent years, increasing the concern about flood risk worldwide as also in the Slovak Republic. The main objective of the study was to find changes in the trend of the annual maximum discharge series. The analysis was performed on data obtained from 152 gauging stations with minimum lengths of the observations ranging from 40 years to maximum of 130 years from the whole territory of Slovakia. Time series analysis usually operates under the assumption of homogeneity, stationarity and independence; therefore the time series were tested by parametric and non-parametric tests at 5% and 10% levels of significance. The Mann-Kendall trend test, which is commonly used in hydrology to detect significance of linear trends in long term hydrological time series, and its correction for autocorrelated data were adapted in this study. The time series were analysed at different lengths of 40, 50, 60 years and for the whole observation period at significance levels of 5, 10 and 20%. The results were compared and their spatial distribution was analysed. Finally, at the territory of Slovakia, the statistically significant decreasing trend in the annual maximum discharge series during the 40 year long time period was found in the location of Strazov and Great Fatra Mountains, increasing trend in this time period was identified in the Danube and Morava River basins. In the 50 and 60- year long time periods decreasing trend was found in the Upper Hron River basin. For the whole time period, which was different for each gauging station, decreasing trend was detected in the Low Tatra, Low Fatra and Slovak Karst regions, increasing trend was found in stations located at the Danube River.

Kohnova, Silvia; Jeneiova, Katarina; Sabo, Miroslav; Hlav?ová, Kamila; Szolgay, Jan

2014-05-01

77

The Role of Biotic Factors in Gypsy Moth Population Dynamics in Slovakia: Present Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the current knowledge about the bioregulation complex that affects gypsy moth population dynamics in Slovakia. The study involved the presence and efficacy of pathogens, parasitoids, and predators in naturally occurring oak forest stands in southwestern Slovakia from 1990 to 1999. Mortality caused by pathogens was 33.7% in the progression phase, 62.3% in the culmination phase, 33.3% in

M. TURCÁNI; J. NOVOTNÝ; M. ZÚBRIK; M. MCMANUS; D. PILARSKA; J. MADDOX; B. Stiavnica; E. Peabody

78

Preliminary list of horse flies (Diptera, Tabanidae) of Serbia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Thirty six species of horse flies (Tabanidae) were previously known from Serbia (Europe). The present faunistic study of horse flies (Tabanidae) has resulted in the recording of the 4 new species Atylotus fulvus (Meigen, 1804); Tabanus miki Brauer in Brauer and Bergenstamm, 1880; Tabanus unifasciatus Loew, 1858; and Heptatoma pellucens (Fabricius, 1776), in the fauna of Serbia. The genus Heptatoma Meigen, 1803 is cited for the first time in the fauna of Serbia. 40 species are currently known from Serbia, belonging to nine genera. The fauna can be considered relatively poorly studied. Most of the species belong to the Boreal-Eurasian type of fauna 23, followed by the South European group with 8 species, the Mediterranean group with 6 species, European group with 2 species and Central European group with 1 species.

Krcmar, Stjepan

2011-01-01

79

Preliminary list of horse flies (Diptera, Tabanidae) of Serbia.  

PubMed

Thirty six species of horse flies (Tabanidae) were previously known from Serbia (Europe). The present faunistic study of horse flies (Tabanidae) has resulted in the recording of the 4 new species Atylotus fulvus (Meigen, 1804); Tabanus miki Brauer in Brauer and Bergenstamm, 1880; Tabanus unifasciatus Loew, 1858; and Heptatoma pellucens (Fabricius, 1776), in the fauna of Serbia. The genus Heptatoma Meigen, 1803 is cited for the first time in the fauna of Serbia. 40 species are currently known from Serbia, belonging to nine genera. The fauna can be considered relatively poorly studied. Most of the species belong to the Boreal-Eurasian type of fauna 23, followed by the South European group with 8 species, the Mediterranean group with 6 species, European group with 2 species and Central European group with 1 species. PMID:21998507

Kr?mar, Stjepan

2011-01-01

80

The Standardisation of all the Main Raven Progressive Matrices Tests in Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Standard Progressive Matrices (and possibly other RPM tests) were used in the former Yugoslavia (of which Slovenia formed a part) since at least the early 1960s. More recently, i.e. since 1999, the CPM, SPM, SPM Plus, and APM have been standardised in Slovenia. In each case, new item analyses were carried out and the tests shown to work in

Dusica Boben

81

Lifelong Learning and the Professional Development of Geography Teachers: A View from Slovenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lifelong learning and continuing professional development (CPD) are considered important activities for geography teachers. However, research in Slovenia shows that many lose their enthusiasm for these activities when they leave university and enter professional practice. In Slovenia, whilst geography teachers have a sound undergraduate education,…

Kolenc Kolnik, Karmen

2010-01-01

82

Rail-lex Slovenia--A Modern Railway Dictionary (Joint Venture Case Study).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rail-lex Slovenia is a project to develop a dictionary of railway terminology in the Slovenian language, part of a larger undertaking of the International Union of Railways to develop a modern, multilingual communication infrastructure. Participating organizations represent 22 European languages. Two partners in the Rail-lex Slovenia venture are…

Jakopin, Primoz

83

Natural radionuclides in drinking waters in Serbia.  

PubMed

Gross alpha and beta activities, (3)H, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activities were measured in bottled mineral water produced in Serbia in order to assess its radiological quality. In 11 samples of tap water and in 1 sample of spring waters gross alpha and beta activity were determined. The natural activity concentration of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides are within the range recommended by World Health Organization. The tritium concentration in bottled mineral waters ranged from 0.023 ą 0.012 to 0.046 ą 0.006 Bq l(-1). The activity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were below the minimum detectable activity. In order to evaluate the annual effective dose for different classes of age, a conservative dosimetric calculation was carried out. PMID:23041389

Jankovi?, Marija M; Todorovi?, Dragana J; Todorovi?, Nataša A; Nikolov, Jovana

2012-12-01

84

Biomass in Serbia - potential of beech forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As for the renewable sources for energy production, biomass from forests and wood processing industry comes to the second place. The woody biomass accounts for 1.0 Mtoe, that is equivalent with 1.0 Mtoe of oil. Due to current evaluations, the greatest part of woody biomass would be used for briquettes and pallets production. As the biomass from forests is increasingly becoming the interest of national and international market, a detailed research on overall potential of woody supply from Serbian forests is required. Beech forests account for 29.4 % of forest cover of Serbia. They also have the greatest standing volume (42.4 % of the overall standing volume) and the greatest mean annual increment (32.3 %)(Bankovic,et.al.2009). Herewith, the aim of this poster is to determine the long-term biomass production of these forests.For this purpose a management unit called Lomnicka reka has been chosen. As these beech forests have similar structural development, this location is considered representative for whole Serbia. DBH of all trees were measured with clipper and the accuracy of 0.01 mm, and the heights with a Vertex 3 device (with accuracy of 0.1 m). All measurements were performed on the fields each 500 m2 (square meters). The overall quantity of root biomass was calculated using the allometric equations. The poster shows estimated biomass stocks of beech forests located in Rasina area. Dates are evaluated using non-linear regression (Wutzler,T.et.al.2008). Biomass potential of Serbian beech forests will enable the evaluation of long-term potential of energy generation from woody biomass in agreement with principles of sustainable forest management. The biomass from such beech forests can represent an important substitution for energy production from fossil fuels (e.g. oil) and herewith decrease the CO2 emissions.

Brasanac-Bosanac, Lj.; Cirkovic-Mitrovic, T.; Popovic, V.; Jokanovic, D.

2012-04-01

85

Serbia within the European context: An analysis of premature mortality  

PubMed Central

Background Based on the global predictions majority of deaths will be collectively caused by cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and traffic accidents over the coming 25 years. In planning future national health policy actions, inter – regional assessments play an important role. The purpose of the study was to analyze similarities and differences in premature mortality between Serbia, EURO A, EURO B, and EURO C regions in 2000. Methods Mortality and premature mortality patterns were analysed according to cause of death, by gender and seven age intervals. The study results are presented in relative (%) and absolute terms (age-specific and age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population, and age-standardized rates of years of life lost – YLL per 1,000). Direct standardization of rates was undertaken using the standard population of Europe. The inter-regional comparison was based on a calculation of differences in YLL structures and with a ratio of age-standardized YLL rates per 1,000. A multivariate generalized linear model was used to explore mortality of Serbia and Europe sub-regions with ln age-specific death rates. The dissimilarity was achieved with a p ? 0.05. Results According to the mortality pattern, Serbia was similar to EURO B, but with a lower average YLL per death case. YLL patterns indicated similarities between Serbia and EURO A, while SRR YLL had similarities between Serbia and EURO B. Compared to all Europe sub-regions, Serbia had a major excess of premature mortality in neoplasms and diabetes mellitus. Serbia had lost more years of life than EURO A due to cardiovascular, genitourinary diseases, and intentional injuries. Yet, Serbia was not as burdened with communicable diseases and injuries as were EURO B and EURO C. Conclusion With a premature mortality pattern, Serbia is placed in the middle position of the Europe triangle. The main excess of YLL in Serbia was due to cardiovascular, malignant diseases, and diabetes mellitus. The results may be used for assessment of unacceptable social risks resulting from health inequalities. Within intentions to reduce an unfavourable premature mortality gap, it is necessary to reconsider certain local polices and practices as well as financial and human resources incorporated in the prevention of disease and injury burden.

Santric Milicevic, Milena; Bjegovic, Vesna; Terzic, Zorica; Vukovic, Dejana; Kocev, Nikola; Marinkovic, Jelena; Vasic, Vladimir

2009-01-01

86

Serological evidence for human cystic echinococcosis in Slovenia  

PubMed Central

Background Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is caused by the larva of tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. Dogs and other canids are the primary definitive hosts for this parasite. CE may develop after accidental ingestion of tapeworm eggs, excreted with the feces of these animals. In the intestine, the larvae released from the eggs are nested in the liver, lungs or other organs of livestock as intermediate hosts and humans as aberrant hosts. The aim of this study was to examine serologically whether some of the patients in Slovenia, suspected of CE by imaging findings in the liver or lungs had been infected with the larva of Echinococcus granulosus. Methods Between January 1, 2002 and the end of December 2006, 1323 patients suspected of having echinococcosis were screened serologically by indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA). For confirmation and differentiation of Echinococcus spp. infection, the sera of IHA-positive patients were then retested by western blot (WB). Results Out of 127 IHA-positive sera, 34 sera were confirmed by WB and considered specific for CE. Of 34 sera of CE-positive patients sera, 32 corresponded to the characteristic imaging findings of a liver cysts and 2 to those of lung cysts. The mean age of CE-positive patients was 58.3 years. No significant differences were found between the CE-positive patients in regard to their sex. Conclusion In the study, it was found out that CE was mostly spread in the same area of Slovenia as in the past, but its prevalence decreased from 4.8 per 105 inhabitants in the period 1956–1968 to 1.7 per 105 inhabitants in the period 2002–2006. In spite of the decreased prevalence of CE in the last years, it is suggested that clinicians and public health authorities, especially in the eastern parts of Slovenia where the most CE patients come from, should pay greater attention to this disease in the future.

Logar, Jernej; Soba, Barbara; Kotar, Tadeja

2008-01-01

87

Limestone types used from the classic Karst region in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a variety of limestones from the Karst Region that is one of the most interesting areas containing reserves of natural stones in Slovenia. The region is mainly composed of Cretaceous shallow-water limestone, with the most common type currently excavated being the rudist limestone of the Lipica Formation, which dates to the Santonian to Campanian. Limestones of this formation are mainly represented by a light grey, thick-bedded to massive Lipica limestone rich in (largely fragmented) rudists. Rudist shells can be either relatively well preserved (such as in Lipica Fiorito quarried limestone) or almost completely disintegrated and intensively endolitised (Lipica Unito quarried limestone). Beside the Lipica Formation, natural stone types have been excavated from two other formations or members in the Karst region: the Repen Formation (Repen and Kopriva limestones), and the Tomaj Limestone (dark, laminated limestone within the Lipica Formation). As documented, the region has been associated with the quarrying and processing of stone at least for over two thousand years, i.e. since the Roman period. Although a large number of quarries in all mentioned formations are documented in the Karst region, many are inactive nowadays. Some of the quarries are declared as geological monuments of national importance or officially protected as a natural monument. Karst limestones are considered the highest quality calcareous natural stones in Slovenia. They are characterised by high density, low water absorption and low open porosity; consequently they also exhibit high frost and salt resistance as well as high compressive and flexural strength. Besides in the Karst region and other parts of Slovenia, the Karst limestones were used in the construction of several important buildings and monuments in many other European Countries, and worldwide. Nowadays, they are most commonly used in the construction of façade cladding, pavements, window sills, staircases, indoor flooring and wall cladding, but are also widely appreciated by sculptors.

Kramar, Sabina; Mirti?, Breda; Mladenovi?, Ana; Roži?, Boštjan; Bedjani?, Mojca; Kortnik, Jože; Šmuc, Andrej

2014-05-01

88

Analysis of garnets from the archaeological sites in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Garnets (62 individual stones) originating from the Migration Period cemeteries and hilltop settlements in Slovenia were analyzed by the combined PIXE/PIGE method for their chemical composition. Typologically, the analyzed stones may be classified as almandines originating from the sites in India, belonging to types I and II according to Calligaro. A smaller group of pyraldines intermediate between almandines and pyropes was also determined; identified as type III, their source is most likely in Sri Lanka. No garnets from Bohemia (Czech Republic) have been discovered, which may be related to important political changes in the 7th c. AD, induced by Slavic and Avaric migrations.

Šmit, Ž.; Fajfar, H.; Jeršek, M.; Knific, T.; Lux, J.

2014-06-01

89

Molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium isolates from humans in Slovenia.  

PubMed

Twenty-nine faecal specimens from Slovenian patients in which Cryptosporidium oocysts had been identified were studied. A fragment of the Cryptosporidium 18S rRNA gene and a fragment of the Cryptosporidium COWP gene were amplified by PCR and sequenced. Cryptosporidium parvum was identified in 26 of the 29 specimens, Cryptosporidium hominis in two, and Cryptosporidium cervine genotype in one. The fact that C. parvum, which is associated traditionally with animals, was identified in the majority of human faecal specimens suggests that cryptosporidiosis may have primarily a zoonotic origin in Slovenia. PMID:16882299

Soba, B; Petrovec, M; Mioc, V; Logar, J

2006-09-01

90

Contamination by moulds of grape berries in Slovakia.  

PubMed

This paper describes the first map, albeit partial, of toxigenic fungi re-isolated from grape berries collected in three out of the six most important Slovakia winemaking areas in two different periods of the harvest year 2008. Low temperatures and high relative humidity during July 2008 favoured the development of grape fungal diseases that cause rots such as Plasmopara, Uncinula, Botrytis, Metasphaeria, Elsinoë, and Saccharomycetes. In the analysed samples, the following genera of toxigenic fungi were identified in the range of 1-4%: Aspergillus, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Ulocladium, and Trichoderma Trichothecium, while the genera Aspergillus, Alternaria, Fusarium, and Penicillium were in the range 11-29%. A. niger, A. carbonarius, some strains of A. carbonarius-with 'crystals' and strains of A. uvarum-uniseriate were identified; these species are considered ochratoxigenic (able to produce variable amounts of toxins). In addition, a non-ochratoxigenic strain of A. ibericus and a Fusarium strain able to biosynthesize small amount of fumonisins, beauvericin, and enniatins were identified. P. expansum, able to produce citrinin, represents 29.7%, of the Penicillium genus together with P. verrucosum, P. glabrum, P. citrinum, and P. crustosum. An analysis for the identification and quantification of the main toxins: ochratoxin A, fumonisins, beauvericin, enniatins, and fusaproliferin was performed on grape samples; it was consistent with the results of the mycological analysis. Toxigenic fungi should be checked throughout the years and their occurrence compared with all environmental factors to avoid health risks. PMID:20349371

Mikusová, P; Ritieni, A; Santini, A; Juhasová, G; Srobárová, A

2010-05-01

91

Distributions of (137)Cs and (210)Pb in moss collected from Belarus and Slovakia.  

PubMed

In the present work, moss samples collected in Slovakia and Belarus were assayed with respect to gamma-emitting radionuclides. The results for (137)Cs and (210)Pb are discussed. Moss was used for the first time in Belarus, as a biological indicator of radioactive environmental pollution in consequence of the Chernobyl accident in 1986. In Belarus, the maximum activity of (137)Cs was observed in the Gomel region near Mazyr (6830 Bq/kg) and the minimum activity in the Vitebsyevsk Region near Luzhki-Yazno (5 Bq/kg). "Hot spots" were also observed near the towns Borisow and Yuratsishki. The results of measurements of (137)Cs in moss samples collected in 2000, 2006 and 2009 in the same localities of Slovakia are presented and compared with the results of air monitoring of (137)Cs carried out in Slovakia from 1977 until 2010. Measurements of the (210)Pb concentration in moss samples collected over the territory of Slovakia showed, that the median value exceed 2.3 times median value of (210)Pb obtained for Belarus moss. For that reason, the inhalation dose for man from (210)Pb and (137)Cs in Slovakia is more than twice as high as in Belarus, in spite of the initially very high (137)Cs exposure in the latter country. PMID:22326019

Aleksiayenak, Yu V; Frontasyeva, M V; Florek, M; Sykora, I; Holy, K; Masarik, J; Brestakova, L; Jeskovsky, M; Steinnes, E; Faanhof, A; Ramatlhape, K I

2013-03-01

92

Attitudes of Roma toward Smoking: Qualitative Study in Slovenia  

PubMed Central

Aim To understand the reasons for widespread smoking behavior among Roma in Slovenia for the purpose of developing successful smoking cessation interventions. Method A qualitative focus group approach using a combination of pre-structured and open-ended questions was applied to collect the data from the representative members of the Roma community in southern Slovenia. The discussions were audiotaped and transcribed, and the collected data analyzed according to qualitative content analysis theory. Results The content analysis revealed that smoking was a strong part of the cultural, ethnic, and individual identity of the Roma. Even children smoked. Doctor’s advice to quit smoking was usually not followed and the attempts to quit were usually unsuccessful. Difficult financial situation was never mentioned as a possible motive to quit. Roma held a tenacious belief that the harmful effects of smoking were in the hands of destiny and did not associate the smoking-related illness with the habit. Conclusions Traditional strategies for smoking cessation are largely ineffective among the Roma because of their different attitudes toward smoking. Therefore, innovative and culturally acceptable methods need to be developed.

Petek, Davorina; Rotar Pavlic, Danica; Svab, Igor; Lolic, Damir

2006-01-01

93

Renal replacement therapy in Slovenia: annual report 2001.  

PubMed

The total number of end-stage renal failure patients treated by renal replacement therapy increased, from 1435 at 31 December 2000 to 1542 at 31 December 2001 (7.5% increase). At the end of 2001, 771 p.m.p. end-stage renal failure patients were treated by renal replacement therapy in Slovenia, 73% of them with haemodialysis, 7.4% with peritoneal dialysis and 19.7% had a functioning graft. Incident (new) patients in 2001 were 144 p.m.p. The number of haemodialysis patients increased by 7% compared with the year before, the number of patients on peritoneal dialysis decreased by 3.4% and the number of patients with a functioning graft increased by 13.9%. The gross mortality rate of dialysis patients was stable between the years and was 10.4% in 2001. Erythropoietin therapy was prescribed to 87.3% of dialysis patients (88.9% of haemodialysis patients and 71.7% of patients on peritoneal dialysis). The number of dialysis patients positive for hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus is relatively low, 3.2% of all dialysis patients; an increased number of MRSA-positive dialysis patients is observed in 2001 (2.9% of all dialysis patients). The epidemiology of renal replacement therapy in Slovenia is in general comparable with that of the countries of the European Union. PMID:12817072

Buturovi?-Ponikvar, Jadranka

2003-07-01

94

Epiphytic lichen mycota of the virgin forest reserve Rajhenavski Rog (Slovenia)  

PubMed Central

A list of 128 taxa (127 species) of lichens, 6 species of lichenicolous fungi and 2 non-lichenized fungi traditionally included in lichenological literature from the virgin forest Rajhenavski Rog and its surroundings in the southeastern part of Slovenia is presented. The lichen Gyalecta derivata, the lichenicolous fungus Homostegia piggotii, and the non-lichenized fungus Mycomicrothelia pachnea are new to Slovenia. The lichenized fungi Chaenotheca trichialis, C. xyloxena, Lecanactis abietina, Lecanora thysanophora, Pertusaria ophthalmiza, the lichenicolous fungi Monodictys epilepraria, Tremella hypogymniae, Taeniolella friesii, and the non-lichenized fungus Chaenothecopsis pusilla are new to the Dinaric phytogeographical region of Slovenia.

Bilovitz, Peter O.; Batic, Franc; Mayrhofer, Helmut

2012-01-01

95

Radon concentrations in a spa in Serbia.  

PubMed

The paper presents the results of indoor radon concentration survey in 201 homes and offices in Niska Banja (the Spa of Nis), a well-known health resort and a spa in the South-East of Serbia. Radon indoor concentrations were determined by active charcoal method, according to standard EPA procedure. The indoor radon concentrations were in the range of up to 200 Bq/m(3) (47%), from 200-600 Bq/m(3) (26%) and over 600 Bq/m(3) (27%). Three areas of extremely high average radon concentrations were found (1,340-4,340 Bq/m(3)), with a maximum above 13,000 Bq/m(3). The content of natural radionuclides ((226)Ra, (214)Pb, (214)Bi, (235)U, (228)Ac, (212)Pb, (212)Bi, (208)Tl, (40)K) and (137)Cs, as well as the content of total uranium, thorium and potassium in mud used in peloidotherapy in the Health Institute "Niska Banja" was determined, too. The activities of the radionuclides were determined on an HPGe detector, by standard gamma spectroscopy. The results indicated considerably high amounts of total uranium and thorium (0.021 g/kg mud and 0.003 g/kg mud, respectively), due to the karsts origin of the soil. PMID:16483654

Manic, G; Petrovic, S; Vesna, Manic; Popovic, Dragana; Todorovic, Dragana

2006-05-01

96

Bioethics in Serbia: institutions in need of philosophical debate.  

PubMed

This paper is structured in three sections. The first discusses the institutional framework pertaining to bioethics in Serbia. The functioning of this framework is critically assessed and a number of recommendations for its improvement presented. It is also emphasized that philosophers are underrepresented in public debate on bioethics in Serbia. Second, this underrepresentation will be related to two issues that figure prominently in Serbian society but are not accompanied by corresponding bioethical discourses: the first is abortion and the second is the largely unrestricted use of neuropharmacology since the 1990s, both for therapeutic and for cosmetic/recreational purposes. Finally, the perspective of bioethics in Serbia is addressed. It is asserted that this perspective can be based on the enhancement of public philosophical debate on bioethical issues, especially those with notable features in Serbian society (such as abortion and neuropharmacology). Such enhancement would also strengthen the corresponding institutional and legal frameworks PMID:21676331

Raki?, Vojin; Bojani?, Petar

2011-07-01

97

Hydrological analysis of flash flood events in Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper concentrates on an analysis of three major flash floods in Slovakia, which occurred during recent years and caused great damage to property and also loss of lives. The flash floods selected occurred on the 20th of July, 1998, in the Malá Svinka and Dubovický creek basins; the 24th of July, 2001, at Štrbský Creek; and the 19th of June, 2004, at the Turniansky Creek. A description of the basins along with the selected flash floods is set out, and the results of the post-survey reconstruction of the flash flood events are described. To understand rainfall-runoff processes during these extreme flash floods and to test uncertainty of post-survey analyses, runoff responses during selected major events were examined using the KLEM (Kinematic Local Excess Model) spatially-distributed hydrological model. The distributed hydrological model is based on the availability of raster information of the landscape's topography, the soil and vegetation properties, and radar rainfall data. In the model, the SCS-Curve Number procedure is applied on a grid for the spatially-distributed representation of runoff-generating processes. A description of the drainage system response is used for representing the runoff's routing. The simulated values achieved by the KLEM model were compared with the maximum peaks estimated on the basis of post-event surveying and the results achieved are summarized and discussed. The consistency of the estimated and simulated values by the KLEM model was evident both in time and space, and the methodology has shown its applicability for practical purposes.

Horvát, Oliver; Hlavcová, Kamila; Kohnová, Silvia; Borga, Marco; Szolgay, Ján.

2010-05-01

98

Flashiness of mountain streams in Slovakia and Austria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThis article evaluates the spatial and temporal changes in streamflow flashiness in 122 mountain catchments in Slovakia and Austria. The flashiness is quantified by the Richards-Baker flashiness index ( FI), which is the ratio of absolute day-to-day fluctuations of streamflow relative to total flow in a year. The analysis is based on daily streamflow data from the period 1976 to 2005. The results show that the average day-to-day fluctuations of streamflow vary from 6% to 43%, depending on the catchment. The spatial pattern of the FI reflects the variations in the main geological units and generally shows a trend of decreasing flashiness with increasing size of the catchment. Statistically significant temporal trends in flashiness are found in 7 Slovak and 22 Austrian catchments. Most of these trends are related to anthropogenic effects, while, in a few catchments, the change in annual flashiness appears to be caused by changes in precipitation seasonality. A multivariate statistical analysis of FI indicates negative correlations with catchment area, mean catchment elevation, percents of forest cover, agricultural land and Quaternary geology. Positive correlations are found between FI and Tertiary and Calcareous geologies. Extrapolating the regression models beyond the observed range of catchment attributes used in the estimation leads to significant prediction errors. In order to better interpret the FI values, a statistically significant relationship was found between the FI and the frequency of peak flows exceeding the long-term mean as well as between the FI and the 5% quantile of daily streamflow.

Holko, Ladislav; Parajka, Juraj; Kostka, Zdeno; Škoda, Peter; Blöschl, Günter

2011-08-01

99

[Organization and management of nationalized pharmaceutical industry in Slovakia from 1945 to 1948].  

PubMed

The paper discusses a short but important period in the history of pharmaceutical industry with regard to Slovakia. The complicated post-war situation required peremptory interventions from the state, which attempted to secure the operation of strategic firms by means of National Administration Boards and nationalization. The firms which were nationalized by this measure were managed by the Ministry of Industry. They included also the pharmaceutical firms nationalized in Slovakia. The situation which produced contradictory responses in society and political scene culminated in the communist coup detat and nationalization of virtually all industries.Key words: nationalization pharmaceutical industry Ministry of Industry. PMID:23578269

Sen?ek, Richard R

2013-02-01

100

Echinococcosis in serbia: an issue for the 21st century?  

PubMed

Echinococcosis (hydatidosis) is traditionally endemic in Southeast Europe, Serbia included. In Serbia, echinococcosis is mandatory reportable, and this review analyzes the officially reported data as well as the research data published between 1998 and 2010. Official data on human and animal infections were obtained from the Institute of Public Health of Serbia (IPHS, 2010), and from the Ministry of Agriculture, Trade, Forestry and Water Management (MATFWM) and the Statistical Office, respectively. Published data were obtained by searching the Medline, Scopus, and Google databases using "echinococcosis," "hydatidosis," and "Serbia" as key words. In addition, the search included national journals and doctoral theses, as well as conference proceedings. Only Echinococcus granulosus has been reported in Serbia, with a total of 409 cases of human infection officially reported during the observed period as opposed to 820 cases described in clinical studies. No trend in the incidence of infection was shown among adults, but the number of cases in children continuously decreased over the period. Patients were more frequently female and from rural areas. Differences in the geographic distribution of cases were noted, with a lower incidence in the central part of country. Liver disease was by far the most common presentation, but cases of unusual cyst locations have been described. Among domestic animals, sheep were the most highly infected species. A decreasing incidence of echinococcosis in animals has been noted as of the 1970s. Echinococcosis continues to be endemic in Serbia in the 21st century, but despite predictions, neither official data nor those from clinical studies indicate its re-emergence. However, there is gross underreporting. Public health authorities should actively work to increase reporting, as only valid reported data provide an accurate basis for future control plans. PMID:23113724

Bobi?, Branko; Nikoli?, Aleksandra; Radivojevi?, Sofija Kati?; Klun, Ivana; Djurkovi?-Djakovi?, Olgica

2012-11-01

101

Spatial epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Serbia.  

PubMed

A major risk factor for Toxoplasma gondii infection is consumption of undercooked meat. Increasing demand for goat meat is likely to promote the role of this animal for human toxoplasmosis. As there are virtually no data on toxoplasmosis in goats in Serbia, we undertook a cross-sectional serological study, including prediction modelling using geographical information systems (GIS). Sera from 431 goats reared in 143 households/farms throughout Serbia, sampled between January 2010 and September 2011, were examined for T. gondii antibodies by a modified agglutination test. Seroprevalence was 73.3% at the individual level and 84.6% at the farm level. Risk factor analysis showed above two-fold higher risk of infection for goats used for all purposes compared to dairy goats (P = 0.012), almost seven-fold higher risk for goats kept as sole species versus those kept with other animals (P = 0.001) and a two-fold lower risk for goats introduced from outside the farm compared to those raised on the farm (P = 0.027). Moreover, households/farms located in centre-eastern Serbia were found to be less often infected than those in northern Serbia (P = 0.004). The risk factor analysis was fully supported by spatial analysis based on a GIS database containing data on origin, serology, land cover, elevation, meteorology and a spatial prediction map based on kriging analysis, which showed western Serbia as the area most likely for finding goats positive for T. gondii and centre-eastern Serbia as the least likely. In addition, rainfall favoured seropositivity, whereas temperature, humidity and elevation did not. PMID:24893025

Djokic, Vitomir; Klun, Ivana; Musella, Vincenzo; Rinaldi, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica

2014-05-01

102

Seismic Station Functionality Improvements of Seismic Network of Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, the Office of Seismology and Geology is responsible for the fast and reliable information about earthquakes, originating in the area of Slovenia and nearby. The Seismic Network of Slovenia, which covers the entire Slovenian territory, involving an area of 20,256 km2, consists of 26 seismic stations equipped with broadband seismometers (CMG-40T, CMG-3ESPC, CMG-3T and STS2) and Quanterra Q730 data loggers. The seismic data is transmitted in real-time to the Data Center in Ljubljana (DCL). Leased lines, xDSL and satellite communication are used for data transfer from stations to DCL. When an event occurs main earthquake parameters (magnitude and the location of the epicenter) can be evaluated at sufficient accuracy only if data from several seismic stations is available. In case of temporary communication failure loss of important seismic data can occur. The duration of communication failure, which exceeds 2 hours can cause data loss. This is due to low memory storage of Quanterra Q730 acquisition unit. In this paper our solution for extending storage capabilities of particular seismic station to several months is presented (momentarily the storage capabilities of particular seismic station lies between 1 and 2 hours). To extend storage capabilities we used a special Industrial Computer (JetBox 8100), which runs on Linux. To collect seismic data from the Q730 unit the acquisition software SeiComP is used. The combination of Q730 and JetBox 8100 assures that in case of temporary communication failure there will be no data loss. Seismic data is simply retrieved from JetBox 8100 (from ring buffer that is generated by SeiComP acquisition software) after communication is once again established. Moreover, an advanced state of health system was build and installed on JetBox 8100, that makes identifying, predicting and solving of different problems quick and effective. With combining Q730 data logger and JetBox 8100 we did not only significantly improved the local storage capabilities but also made the whole seismic system more flexible and reliable.

Sincic, Peter; Tasic, Izidor; Mali, Marko; Pancur, Luka; Vidrih, Renato

2010-05-01

103

Performance of digital seismic observation systems in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Seismology and Geology Office, which is part of the Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia (ARSO), is responsible for the fast and reliable information about earthquakes, originating in Slovenia and its vicinity. Seismic events are monitored by three different digital seismic systems, where more than 42 seismic instruments are used. The most important is The Seismic Network of Slovenia (SNRS), which cover the entire Slovenian territory, involving an area of 20,256 km2. The network, finished in the year 2006, consist of 26 seismic stations equipped with broadband seismometers (CMG-40T, CMG 3ESPC, CMG 3T, STS2) and Quanterra Q730 data loggers transmitting data in real-time to the Data Processing Center (DPC) in Ljubljana and enables automatic information about earthquakes to the public in a few minutes after they occurred. The Seismology and Geology Office also operates a network of 12 digital strong motion instruments (ETNA, SSA and K2 instruments), which are installed in urban areas, 9 of them are connected to DPC via a dial-up line. Additional four locations have a status of long term temporary seismic station, and are equipped with CMG-40T seismometers and different types of data loggers (data loggers are: nanometrics RD3, HRD24, EarthData PR6). They are placed in areas of higher interest (e.g. Nuclear Power Plant) and are also connected to the DPC via dial-up or leased lines. A few portable stations are also prepared in DPC for short term temporary installations for the aftershock studies. The number of fixed length out-of-operation periods for particular seismic station and the sum of out-of-operation period in each month of operation for every seismic station are calculated. Furthermore, an analysis of causes for the longest out-of-operation periods for particular seismic station was made. The data loss was evaluated from tape drive backup log and was found to be less than 10 % for 200 sps datastreams (HH) yearly. The data loss is accounted due to equipment breakdowns, communication breakdowns and lightning. On behalf of the results several improvements are made every year, which contribute to better and more reliable operation of Slovenian Seismic network.

Sincic, P.; Tasic, I.; Vidrih, R.

2009-04-01

104

Analysis of recombinant Plum pox virus (PPV) isolates from Serbia confirms genetic homogeneity and supports a regional origin for the PPV-Rec subgroup.  

PubMed

The recent observation of the frequent occurrence of natural recombinant Plum pox virus (PPV) isolates has led to the identification of a distinct PPV subgroup, named PPV-Rec. The diversity, origin and geographical spread of the recombinant PPV isolates belonging to this subgroup remain, however, relatively poorly known. In an effort to further our understanding of these isolates, eight PPV isolates from Serbia, the country from which the first such recombinant (PPV-o6) originated, were characterized. Depending on the genomic region targeted by different typing assays, seven of the eight isolates tested presented discrepancies in their typing behavior. Sequence analysis of the (Cter)NIb-(Nter)CP region confirmed the recombinant nature of these seven isolates which all presented an identical recombination breakpoint identical to previously characterized PPV-Rec isolates. Biological indexing and immunoblot analysis provided indications that asymptomatic infection of the GF305 peach indicator and migration of the coat protein as a double-band in immunoblots may represent conserved and discriminating properties of PPV-Rec isolates. The genetic diversity of PPV-Rec isolates from former Yugoslavia (Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina) was estimated to be twice as large as that of the PPV-Rec isolates obtained from all other countries to date (Albania, Bulgaria, Czech republic, Germany, Hungary and Slovakia). These last results are consistent with the hypothesis that former Yugoslavia is the center of dispersion of PPV-Rec. Taken together, the results presented here provide further evidence for the wide distribution and temporal genetic stability of these natural PPV recombinant isolates and provide for the first time a possible scenario for their dispersion throughout central and eastern Europe. PMID:15906106

Glasa, M; Paunovic, S; Jevremovic, D; Myrta, A; Pittnerová, S; Candresse, T

2005-10-01

105

Doing Business in Slovenia: Country Commercial Guide for U.S. Companies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document serves as a guide to doing business in Slovenia. It contains key economic indicators for the country. In addition, it outlines trade regulations, the general tax system, market research, foreign investment, and tips for the business traveler.

2005-01-01

106

Traffic safety analysis of powered two-wheelers (PTWs) in Slovenia.  

PubMed

Due to the 2006 European research report on powered two-wheelers (PTWs) riders' traffic safety, Slovenia represents the highest risk for PTW riders in the European Union. Namely, in Slovenia we have the largest number of PTW riders' deaths per billion travelled kilometers in 2006. Since then the traffic safety situation in the field of PTW riders in Slovenia has been improving and we will discuss that phenomenon in the present paper. The paper identifies and analyzes the causes that led to such a critical situation. Further, the evaluation of activities that were carried out to improve the road safety for powered two-wheeler riders in Slovenia in the last past years are discussed. In conclusion a selection of measures and actions is presented that already has been and also should be carried out in the future. PMID:23036380

Šraml, Matjaž; Tollazzi, Tomaž; Ren?elj, Marko

2012-11-01

107

Characterization of Dobrava Virus: A Hantavirus from Slovenia, Yugoslavia. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Small mammals were collected in natural foci of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Slovenia, Yugoslavia, and a hantavirus was isolated from the lungs of an Apodemus flavicolis captured in Dobrava village. This new isolate, Dobrava virus, was ...

T. Avsic-Zupane S. Y. Xiao R. Stojanovic A. Gligic J. W. LeDuc

1992-01-01

108

Brief Communication Decline in sex ratio at birth after 10-day war in Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We investigated whether the psychological stress related to a short war (26 June-7 July, 1991) in Slovenia induced changes in fertility, sex ratio at birth and semen quality characteristics. METHODS: Sex ratios (i.e. males\\/(males females)) for 4966 births in the general population of Slovenia and separately for 1565 births in the Slovenian capital, Ljubljana, from January-March 1992 were compared

Branko Zorn; Veselin S; Janez Stare; Helena Meden-Vrtovec

2002-01-01

109

Renal replacement therapy in Slovenia: excerpts from 2011 data.  

PubMed

This report provides a summary of the 2011 Slovenian renal replacement therapy (RRT) data. Data were obtained from 24 renal centers: 23 dialysis and one transplant center, referred as of 31 December 2011, with 100% response rate to individual patient questionnaires. Slovenia has a population of approximately 2 million (2?052?496 in 2011). The total number of patients treated by RRT was 2011,that is, 980 per million of population (pmp); 0.4% decrease compared to 2010. 1347 (67.0%) were treated by hemodialysis, 60 (3.0%) by peritoneal dialysis, and 604 (30.0%) had a functioning kidney graft. A total of 236 incident patients, 115 pmp (at day one), started RRT, their median age was 68 years, 64.8% were men, 36.4% were diabetics. Regarding hemodialysis patients, 59.3% were treated with on-line hemodiafiltration, 86% with ultrapure dialysis fluid. Median weekly duration of hemodialysis was 12.5?h, median dry body weight 70?kg, mean blood flow 275?ą?46?mL/min, 7.1% were dialyzed in a single-needle mode. Vascular accesses were native arteriovenous fistula in 79%, polytetrafluoroethylene graft in 6%, and catheter in 15%. The crude death rate was 15.9% in dialysis patients, 1.9% in transplant recipients, and 12.0% in all RRT patients (both dialysis and transplant, incident patients at day 1 included). Slovenia has been a member of Eurotransplant since 2000. Forty-six kidney transplantations were performed in 2011, all from deceased donors. A slight decrease in prevalent number of RRT patients was observed in 2011, for the first time in 40 years. The number and proportion of patients with functioning kidney grafts is increasing, reaching 30% in 2011. PMID:23931871

Buturovi?-Ponikvar, Jadranka; Gubenšek, Jakob; Arnol, Miha; Adamlje, Tone; Blanuša, Danica; Ceglar, Zlata; Steklasa, Sonja Cimerman; ?erne, Senka; ?ufer, Andrej; Drozg, Andrej; Ekart, Robert; Gu?ek, Andrej; Kandus, Aljoša; Kapun, Sonja; Kralj-Lopert, Simona; Klan?i?, Dimitrij; Kunc-Rešek, Natalija; Kralj, Stojan; Malovrh, Marko; Mo?ivnik, Marjan; Novljan, Gregor; Ponikvar, Rafael; Rus, Igor; Saksida, Silvan; Vujkovac, Bojan

2013-08-01

110

Envitonmental monitoring and radiation protection in Škocjan Caves, Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Škocjan Caves were listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1986, due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage. Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Park Škocjan Caves established monitoring that includes caves microclimate parameters: humidity, CO2, wind flow and radon concentration and daughter products. The approach in managing the working place with natural background radiation is complex. Monitoring of Radon has been functioning for more than ten years now. Presentation will show the dynamic observed in the different parts of the caves, related to radon daughter products and other microclimatic data. Relation of background radiation to carrying capacity will be explained. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The equivalent dose for each employed person is also established on regular basis and it is part of medical survey of workers in the caves. A system of education of the staff working in the caves in the field of radiation protection will be presented as well.

Debevec Gerjevič, V.; Jovanovi?, P.

2012-04-01

111

Stochastic Flood Frequency Analysis Using the SCHADEX Method in Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods for derived flood frequency analysis often use a stochastic weather generator to derive a continuous rainfall runoff model in order to simulate long series of artificial flows. Time series of synthetic precipitations generated by a weather generator should have the same statistical properties than an observed time series. This is true if the weather generator is properly set up which is not an easy task. The rainfall-runoff modelling in mountainous regions also requires a time series of temperatures to simulate snow melting processes, which must be generated alongside the precipitations. A French method SCHADEX avoids these problems and is the only one combining the advantages of continuous rainfall-runoff modelling and event-based synthetic precipitations. This work presents results of the application of the SCHADEX probabilistic method for extreme flood estimation. SCHADEX has been developed at Electricité de France (EDF) for dam spillway design. The method uses a continuous rainfall-runoff model for simulation of catchment responses to synthetic precipitation events generated by a stochastic rainfall model. The rainfall model utilizes a Multi-Exponential Weather Pattern (MEWP) distribution to account for both seasonal variation and the type of weather pattern. The application of the SCHADEX method is illustrated with the example of the River Hron at Banská Bystrica (1768 km2). The daily (from 1981 to 2010) and hourly (from 1988 to 2002) datasets were used to estimate 24 and 1 hour floods with various return periods. The uncertainty of the whole methodology has been assessed by using 100 various hydrological models, where parameters of each model were obtained by using different period for model calibration. The hydrological models were then used to simulate synthetic rainfall events generated by the same stochastic rainfall model. As expected the variation of the estimated floods was substantial especially in the high return periods. The difference between minimum and maximum estimated flood spread from 80 m3/s (from 166 to 232 m3/s) for a 10-year flood to as much as 600 m3/s (from 644 to 1391 m3/s) for a 10000-year flood. Despite of this uncertainty the SCHADEX method gives better results than traditionally used flood estimation methods used in Slovakia which was demonstrated by comparing estimated with reconstructed historical floods.

Valent, Peter; Výleta, Roman; Szolgay, Ján; Paquet, Emmanuel

2014-05-01

112

European Gender Lessons: Girls and Boys at Scout Camps in Denmark, Portugal, Russia and Slovakia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article investigates the tensions between and within models of gender equality and gender complementarity by studying children who are in the midst of learning to apply these gender models in practice. Children (aged 11-15 years) were observed and interviewed while they participated in scout camps in Denmark, Portugal, Slovakia and Russia.…

Nielsen, Harriet Bjerrum

2004-01-01

113

Environmental contamination with polychlorinated biphenyls in the area of their former manufacture in Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidently increased environmental pollution as a consequence of the 25-year manufacture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in eastern Slovakia was observed. PCB levels determined in ambient air, soil, surface water, bottom sediment, wildlife (fish and game) samples collected in a potentially contaminated area of about 250km2 (a part of the Michalovce district) were compared with those determined in a control area

Anton Kocan; Jan Petrik; Stanislav Jursa; Jana Chovancova; Beata Drobna

2001-01-01

114

Extreme Several Day Precipitation Totals At The Hurbanovo Observatory (slovakia) During The 20th Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meteorological Observatory at Hurbanovo (Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute) is the only one in the Slovak Republic that has continuous and reliable time series of daily precipitation totals from the end of the 19th century (since 1871). It is located in the Danubian Lowland in the southwestern part of Slovakia, 115 m a.s.l. In a broader sense this observatory is representative for

L. Gaal; M. Lapin

2002-01-01

115

Case–control study of PCBs, other organochlorines and breast cancer in Eastern Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case–control study was designed to investigate association between polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and risk of breast cancer in an area of high environmental exposure in the Michalovce district of eastern Slovakia. Incident breast cancer cases from the Michalovce district diagnosed between May 1997 and May 1999 were recruited through the Oncology Department of the District Hospital. A total of 15

Marian Pavuk; James R Cerhan; Charles F Lynch; Anton Kocan; Jan Petrik; Jana Chovancova

2003-01-01

116

Forty years of atmospheric radiocarbon monitoring around Bohunice nuclear power plant, Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiocarbon variations in the atmospheric CO2 with attenuating amplitudes and decreasing mean values with typical maxima in summer and minima in winter have been observed since 1967 in two localities of Slovakia, in Bratislava and Žlkovce, situated about 60km NE from Bratislava, only 5km from the Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The 14C record in Bratislava has been influenced mainly

P. P. Povinec; M. Chudý; A. Šivo; J. Šimon; K. Holý; M. Richtáriková

2009-01-01

117

Costs, Commitment and Compliance: The Impact of EU Democratic Conditionality on Latvia, Slovakia and Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

'Democratic conditionality' is the core strategy of the EU to induce candidate states to comply with its human rights and democracy standards. How does it work and when is it effective? This article reports findings of a comparative study of 'hard cases': Slovakia under Meciar; Turkey; and Latvia. We argue that EU democratic conditionality is a strategy of 'reinforcement by

Frank Schimmelfennig; Stefan Engert; Heiko Knobel

2003-01-01

118

Final Treatment Center Project for Liquid and Wet Radioactive Waste in Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Final Treatment Center (FTC) for Mochovce nuclear power plant (NPP) is designed for treatment and final conditioning of radioactive liquid and wet waste produced from plant operation. Mochovce NNP uses a Russian VVER-440 type reactor. Treated wastes comprise radioactive concentrates, spent resin and sludge. VUJE Inc. as an experienced company in field of treatment of radioactive waste in Slovakia

K. Kravarik; M. Stubna; A. Pekar; T. Krajc; M. Zatkulak; Z. Holicka; M. Slezak

2006-01-01

119

Surviving Stalin to Be Done in by Disney? Children's Literature in Slovakia (Reading around the World).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the paradoxical situation regarding children's literature in Slovakia since the 1989 revolution. Notes that what had been forbidden suddenly was available. Decries the proliferation of Disney and other second-rate books from the West to the detriment of quality Slovak indigenous literature. (SR)

Bloem, Patricia L.

1994-01-01

120

Alternative Civil Enculturation: Political Disenchantment and Civic Attitudes in Minority Schools in Estonia, Latvia, and Slovakia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article investigates the ways in which minority schools in Latvia, Estonia, and Slovakia resist the dominant narratives of nation and citizenship and provide an alternative model of civil enculturation for students. It provides evidence to support the hypothesis that differences between competing narratives of statehood and nationhood among…

Golubeva, Maria; Austers, Ivars

2011-01-01

121

Recombination in Tula Hantavirus Evolution: Analysis of Genetic Lineages from Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the evolution of Tula hantavirus (TUL), carried by the European common vole (Microtus arvalis and M. rossiaemeridionalis), we have analyzed genetic variants from Slovakia, the country where the virus is endemic. Phylogenetic analysis (PHYLIP) based on either partial (nucleotides (nt) 441 to 898) or complete N-protein-encoding sequences divided Slovakian TUL variants into two main lineages: (i) strains from

CLAUS SIBOLD; HELGA MEISEL; DETLEV H. KRUGER; MILAN LABUDA; JAN LYSY; OTO KOZUCH; MILAN PEJCOCH; ANTTI VAHERI; ALEXANDER PLYUSNIN

1999-01-01

122

Retrospective biomonitoring: a hundred years of environmental pollution at selected areas in Slovakia.  

PubMed

Tetrade analyses of Calluna vulgaris from herbarium specimens showed significant differences in the frequency of aborted pollen tetrads over the last 100 years within various parts of Slovakia. Specifically, we observed changes in the dynamics of pollution peaking in the year 1965 in heavily polluted industrial area of an aluminium factory in Ziar nad Hronom. PMID:15281246

Micieta, K; Murín, G

1999-01-01

123

Risk factors for childhood malnutrition in Roma settlements in Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Children living in Roma settlements in Central and Eastern Europe face extreme levels of social exclusion and poverty, but their health status has not been well studied. The objective of this study was to elucidate risk factors for malnutrition in children in Roma settlements in Serbia. METHODS: Anthropometric and sociodemographic measures were obtained for 1192 Roma children under five

Teresa Janevic; Oliver Petrovic; Ivana Bjelic; Amber Kubera

2010-01-01

124

The ICTY's Impact on Serbia: Judicial Romanticism meets Network Politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been widely argued that international criminal justice is necessary for peace and security and that it promotes reconciliation. There have been few attempts to examine these claims with empirical evidence. This article examines the impact of the International Criminal Tribunal for former Yugoslavia on political thinking and behavior in Serbia. It finds that the ICTY has had thus

Patrice C. McMahon; David P. Forsythe

2008-01-01

125

PRODUCTION OF COUNTRY WIDE DTM FOR SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project of building country wide DTM for Serbia and Montenegro is coming to its final phase. The project is based on scanning and vectorization of contours from existing 1:25000 topographic maps. Supplementing contour data with additional data sets available on map layers, such as hydrography and spot heights, is also planned within the project. Procedures and software tools for data

S. Tomic; M. Vojinovic

126

Student Background Factors Influencing Student Achievement in Serbia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes student-level findings of the first large-scale comprehensive school effectiveness study of the primary education in Serbia. Twenty-five student-level variables were examined in a three-level HLM model using a study sample of almost 5000 students, over 250 classrooms and over 100 schools. Differences between the students were…

Teodorovic, Jelena

2012-01-01

127

Genetic differentiation of European grayling (Thymallus thymallus) populations in Serbia, based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses  

PubMed Central

Background The structure and diversity of grayling (Thymallus thymallus) populations have been well studied in most of its native habitat; however the southernmost populations of the Balkan Peninsula remain largely unexplored. The purpose of this study was to assess the genetic diversity of Serbian grayling populations, detect the impact of stocking and provide guidelines for conservation and management. Methods Eighty grayling individuals were collected from four rivers (Ibar, Lim, Drina and Rzav). The mitochondrial DNA control region (CR; 595 bp of the 3'end and 74 bp of flanking tRNA) and the ATP6 gene (630 bp fragment) were sequenced for 20 individuals (five from each locality). In addition, all individuals were genotyped with 12 microsatellite loci. The diversity and structure of the populations as well as the recent and ancient population declines were studied using specialized software. Results We detected three new haplotypes in the mtDNA CR and four haplotypes in the ATP6 gene of which three had not been described before. Previously, one CR haplotype and two ATP6 gene haplotypes had been identified as allochthonous, originating from Slovenia. Reconstruction of phylogenetic relations placed the remaining two CR haplotypes from the River Danube drainage of Serbia into a new clade, which is related to the previously described sister Slovenian clade. These two clades form a new Balkan clade. Microsatellite marker analysis showed that all four populations are genetically distinct from each other without any sign of intra-population structure, although stocking of the most diverse population (Drina River) was confirmed by mtDNA analysis. Recent and historical population declines of Serbian grayling do not differ from those of other European populations. Conclusions Our study shows that (1) the Ibar, Lim and Drina Rivers grayling populations are genetically distinct from populations outside of Serbia and thus should be managed as native populations in spite of some introgression in the Drina River population and (2) the Rzav River population is not appropriate for further stocking activities since it originates from stocked Slovenian grayling. However, the Rzav River population does not represent an immediate danger to other populations because it is physically isolated from these.

2011-01-01

128

Homogenisation of Mean Air Temperature Data Series from Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Standard Normal Homogeneity Test (SNHT) was applied for the detection of inhomogeneities in the time series of mean monthly moving average air temperature data at 2 m above ground for 29 stations in Serbia for the period 1949-2008. In time series of nine stations missing data have been found, but gaps do not exceed 5% of dataset. These gaps have been filled in with values from the three best correlated neighbouring stations. Twenty-nine series of the moving average multi-annual mean air temperature have been investigated. For inhomogeneity detection of these time series AnClim software package has been used, while further analysis used various statistical methods. Reference series have been chosen from 2 to 10 stations, based on distance, similar latitudes and correlation coefficient higher than 0.7. SNHT has been applied for detecting abrupt homogeneity breaks. The critical value of this test was 95%. Detected break points were compared to metadata records in order to diagnose causes of featured inhomogeneities. That type of information was crucial for applying calculated corrections of investigated series. After the homogenisation process, the adjustment values have been analysed. The highest positive and negative homogeneity adjustments have been detected in East part of Serbia. Differences between homogenised and original raw twenty-nine moving average time series are mostly within range from 0 to 0.5°C. Differences between total linear trends for the homogenised and original 29 series have been calculated. According to low difference data, the results present very similar trends of homogenised and original time series for Serbia. Still, there is a significant change of spatial trend distribution pattern. The pattern for homogenised series is more regular, due to successful application of homogenisation process, making the image of climate variations in Serbia more reliable. Key words: mean air temperature series, homogenisation, SNHT, metadata, Serbia

Savic, Stevan; Petrovic, Predrag; Milovanovic, Bosko

2010-05-01

129

Evaluating the Carrying Capacity in The Škocjan Caves, Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Park Škocjanske jame, Slovenija is a multidesignation site, located in south western part of Slovenia. In 1986 the Škocjanske jame - Škocjan Caves were listed in UNESCO world heritage list, in 1996 the Government of Republic Slovenia established the Regional Park Škocjanske jame, Slovenija. In 1999 the underground course of The Reka River in Škocjan Caves was designated a Ramsar site as first underground wetland of international importance. The park lies within three locations Natura 2000. In 2004 Park Škocjanske jame became a MAB locality as The Karst Biosphere Reserve. The tourist activity was already developed in the early 19th century. Today's research projects are focused on quality of caves microclimate, in order to enable the cave to remain as pristine as possible due to tourism and on the other hand to provide safe environment for people who work in the caves, and on quality of the water that flows from buffer zone to the underground world an then to the sea in Italy. The tourist activity increased during the past years. With the aim of nature conservation and protection the management plan was developed and special programme of monitoring started in order to detect changes in the environment due to the anthropogenic impact. In the park we consider the estimation of the carrying capacity as a key element for preparation of proper management guidelines for the tourism development in site. The caves system is rich in several halls and tunnels and distinguishes the caves for its variety of dimensions. There are several limitations of the visits and number of visitors. They merely depend on spatial characteristic of the caves and its surroundings and on human resources of the experts stuff that is in charge of guiding tourists groups to the caves. There is no simple formula that could be used for evaluation of capacity on general, but detailed studies of several locations and suitable description of parameters could give us an idea of proposing the limiting numbers. Physical and actual capacities will be discussed and a model of preparation of social capacity will be provided.

Debevec Gerjevic, V.

2009-04-01

130

Assessment of soil erosion on arable land using 137 Cs measurements: a case study from Jaslovske Bohunice, Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to obtain a representative set of data on long-term erosion rates from a pilot area located close to the Jaslovske Bohunice village, in western Slovakia using the 137Cs-method. The study area chosen was representative of the hilly loess cultivated areas of Slovakia. The sampling strategy was based on a multiple transect approach. Analyses of the

Emil Fulajtar

2003-01-01

131

Analysis of Drug Policy in the Republic of Slovenia and in the EU Context: A Platform for Prevention in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aims: This article presents an overview of the strategies and measures used in the context of school-based prevention in Slovenia, both on a declaratory and on a practical level. Methods: A review of the Resolution on the National Programme on Drugs in the Republic of Slovenia [ReNPPD (2004). Resolucija o nacionalnem programu na podrocju drog…

Kvaternik, Ines; Rihter, Liljana

2012-01-01

132

Monitoring of selenium in macrophytes - The case of Slovenia.  

PubMed

This paper examines macrophytes from various locations in Slovenian streams for selenium (Se) content in an attempt to discover if Se contamination is present and if Se uptake varies between sampling sites. For this purpose, macrophytes and water from ten locations in the Notranjska and Central regions (Slovenia) with different land use in the catchment were sampled. To assess the environmental conditions of the streams the Riparian, Channel, and Environment (RCE) inventory was applied, which revealed that investigated stretches of streams fall into RCE classes III, IV and V. The concentration of Se in water at all locations was less than 1?gSeL(-1). The Se content in macrophytes differed between sampling sites, with the highest content of Se in samples from Žerovniš?ica stream and the lowest in samples from Lipsenjš?ica stream. The content of Se was the highest in moss samples (3038ngSeg(-1) DM) and in the amphibious species Veronica anagallis-aquatica (1507ngSeg(-1) DM). PMID:24997953

Mechora, Spela; Germ, Mateja; Stibilj, Vekoslava

2014-09-01

133

Incidence of primary Sj?gren's syndrome in Slovenia  

PubMed Central

Methods: All patients admitted to our department of rheumatology or referred to our outpatient clinic between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2002 owing to sicca symptoms or because of a suspicion of SS were examined. Our rheumatological department is the only tertiary referral centre for the Ljubljana region, which has a population of 599 895 Caucasian people. All patients were evaluated by the validated European criteria for SS. The exact 95% confidence interval (CI) based on binomial distribution was created for the incidence estimate. Results: 248 patients were examined; 71 of them (28.6%; 65 women, 6 men) were diagnosed as having pSS. Their mean (SD) age was 51.3 (14.5) years (range 19–78). The average annual incidence for pSS in our study population was calculated as 3.9 cases per 100 000 inhabitants (95% CI 1.1 to 10.2). Conclusion: The estimated annual incidence of pSS in Slovenia is 3.9/100 000.

Plesivcnik, N; Rozman, B; Hocevar, A; Grmek, M; Kveder, T; Tomsic, M

2004-01-01

134

Spatial Pattern of Rainfall Trends in Serbia (1961-2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines a spatial pattern of annual, seasonal and monthly rainfall trends in Serbia. The study used data from 63 meteorological stations between 1961 and 2009. The rainfall series was analyzed applying nonparametric method of the Mann Kendall test and Sen's method to determine the significance and magnitude of the trends. Interactive WEB maps were produced to obtain detailed insight in the spatial distribution of rainfall trends in Serbia. Seasonal trends at the confidence level of 95%, however, indicate a slight decrease in winter and spring precipitation and an increase in autumn precipitation. Results for monthly rainfall trends also generally showed non- significant trend, except positive for October (9 stations out of 63) and negative for May (6 stations out of 63). Calculated global autocorrelation statistics (Moran's I) indicate, in general, a random spatial pattern of rainfall trends on annual, seasonal and monthly time scales with exceptions for March, June and November.

Lukovic, J.; Bajat, B.; Blagojevic, D.; Kilibarda, M.

2013-12-01

135

Molecular Epidemiology of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Belgrade, Central Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to gain precise data on the actual epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in Belgrade, central Serbia, we conducted the molecular epidemiological investigation described herein. IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing of 176 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates was performed. These strains were obtained from 48.4% of all patients diagnosed with culture-proven pulmonary TB from April through Sep- tember 1998 and

Dragana Vukovic; Sabine Rusch-Gerdes; Branislava Savic; Stefan Niemann

2003-01-01

136

Human giardiasis in Serbia: asymptomatic vs symptomatic infection*  

PubMed Central

Despite the public health importance of giardiasis in all of Europe, reliable data on the incidence and prevalence in Western Balkan Countries (Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro and FYR Macedonia) are scarce, and the relative contribution of waterborne and food-borne, or person-to-person and/or animalto- person, transmission of human giardiasis is not yet clear. To provide baseline data for the estimation of the public health risk caused by Giardia, we here review the information available on the epidemiological characteristics of asymptomatic and symptomatic human infection in Serbia. Although asymptomatic cases of Giardia represent a major proportion of the total cases of infection, high rates of Giardia infection were found in both asymptomatic and symptomatic populations. No waterborne outbreaks of giardiasis have been reported, and it thus seems that giardiasis mostly occurs sporadically in our milieu. Under such circumstances, control measures to reduce the high prevalence of giardiasis in Serbia have focused on person-to-person transmission, encouraging proper hygiene, but for more targeted intervention measures, studies to identify other risk factors for asymptomatic and symptomatic infections are needed.

Nikolic, A.; Klun, I.; Bobic, B.; Ivovic, V.; Vujanic, M.; Zivkovic, T.; Djurkovic-Djakovic, O.

2011-01-01

137

Human giardiasis in Serbia: asymptomatic vs symptomatic infection.  

PubMed

Despite the public health importance of giardiasis in all of Europe, reliable data on the incidence and prevalence in Western Balkan Countries (Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro and FYR Macedonia) are scarce, and the relative contribution of waterborne and food-borne, or person-to-person and/or animal-to-person, transmission of human giardiasis is not yet clear. To provide baseline data for the estimation of the public health risk caused by Giardia, we here review the information available on the epidemiological characteristics of asymptomatic and symptomatic human infection in Serbia. Although asymptomatic cases of Giardia represent a major proportion of the total cases of infection, high rates of Giardia infection were found in both asymptomatic and symptomatic populations. No waterborne outbreaks of giardiasis have been reported, and it thus seems that giardiasis mostly occurs sporadically in our milieu. Under such circumstances, control measures to reduce the high prevalence of giardiasis in Serbia have focused on person-to-person transmission, encouraging proper hygiene, but for more targeted intervention measures, studies to identify other risk factors for asymptomatic and symptomatic infections are needed. PMID:21678797

Nikoli?, A; Klun, I; Bobi?, B; Ivovi?, V; Vujani?, M; Zivkovi?, T; Djurkovi?-Djakovi?, O

2011-05-01

138

Trends of cold and heat waves in Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The series of the daily minimum and maximum temperatures at fifteen stations in Serbia were used to calculate the cold and warm spell duration indicators, from which the duration and severity of the cold and heat waves were estimated. The trend analysis for all seasons was presented using the data from 1949 to 2012. The most important result of this study is the significant decreasing trends in the frequency of cold waves and increasing trends of heat waves in Serbia. An analysis of the daily minimum temperatures almost at all meteorological stations revealed that the longest and most severe cold waves were observed in winter of 1956, spring of 1987, summer of 1962 and 1996, and during the autumn 1983 and 1988. The longest and most severe heat waves, based on the analysis of the daily maximum temperatures, were recorded in winter of 2007, spring of 2003, summer of 2012, and after 1989 during the autumn. The longest heat waves observed in 2012 did not reach the severity of the heat waves in 2007 at ten of fifteen stations. The obtained results indicated that the warming in Serbia was more related to increase in frequency of heat waves than to reduction in cold waves.

Unkaševi?, Miroslava; Toši?, Ivana

2014-05-01

139

Heavy metals, organics and radioactivity in soil of western Serbia.  

PubMed

Western Serbia is a region well-known for potato production. Concentrations of selected metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and radioactivity were measured in the soil in order to evaluate the quality and characteristics. The examined soils (Luvisol and Pseudogley) showed unsuitable agrochemical characteristics (acid reaction, low content of organic matter and potassium). Some samples contained Ni, Mn and Cr above the maximal permissible concentration (MPC). The average concentration of total PAHs was 1.92 mg/kg, which is larger than the maximal permissible concentration in Serbia but below the threshold values in the European Union for food production. The average radioactivity of (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and the fission product (137)Cs were 60.4+/-26.2, 33.2+/-13.4, 49.1+/-18.5, 379+/-108 and 36.4+/-23.3 Bq/kg. Enhanced radioactivity in the soils was found. The total absorbed dose rate in air above the soil at 1m height calculated for western Serbia was 73.4 nGy/h and the annual effective dose was 90 microSv, which are similar to earlier reports for the study region. PMID:20060645

Dugalic, Goran; Krstic, Dragana; Jelic, Miodrag; Nikezic, Dragoslav; Milenkovic, Biljana; Pucarevic, Mira; Zeremski-Skoric, Tijana

2010-05-15

140

Areal and Temporal Analysis of Precipitation Patterns In Slovakia Using Spectral Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harmonic analysis as an objective method of precipitation seasonality studying is ap- plied to the 1901-2000 monthly precipitation averages at five stations in the low-land part of Slovakia with elevation less than 800 m a.s.l. The significant harmonics of long-term precipitation series have been separately computed for eight 30-year peri- ods, which cover the 20th century and some properties and

M. R. Pishvaei

2002-01-01

141

Case study of a severe windstorm over Slovakia and Hungary on 25 June 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system of thunderstorms approached the Slovakia and Hungary in the late evening hours of 25 June 2008, causing extensive damage and peak wind gusts up to 40m\\/s. This study examines the macro- and mesosynoptic conditions for the windstorm using soundings, analyses, and forecasts of numerical models (ALADIN, ECMWF). A derecho-like character of the event is discussed.Meteosat Second Generation imagery

André Simon; Ján Kanák; Alois Sokol; Mária Putsay; Lucia Uhrínová; Kálmán Csirmaz; ?uboslav Okon; Richard Habrovský

2011-01-01

142

The occurrence of puncture vine ( Tribulus terrestris ) and its metabolic characteristics in Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tribulus terrestris L., commonly known as puncture vine is a plant that grows in temperate climates and is native in the South and East Europe\\u000a (Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary and Slovakia). The medicinal attributes of puncture vine influence the furostanol saponins, which\\u000a have a stimulation effect on natural testosterone levels. In regard to this fact the stimulating effect on the immune,

Ivan Šalamon; Miroslav Habán; Tibor Baranec; Marta Habánová; Milan Knoll

2006-01-01

143

Acidification of lakes in Šumava (Bohemia) and in the High Tatra Mountains (Slovakia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acidification of lakes takes place when pH of rainwater is less than 4.5 and the catchments lie on sensitive geology. Both\\u000a conditions are met for most lakes in Bohemia and Slovakia. Since 1978 we have studied mountain lakes in the Sumava and in\\u000a the High Tatra Mountains.\\u000a \\u000a In Šumava the three lakes under study are of glacial origin. The catchments

Jan Fott; Miroslava Pražáková; Evžen Stuchlík; Zuzana Stuchliková

1994-01-01

144

Geomagnetic ground survey in Slovakia for the 2007.5 epoch  

Microsoft Academic Search

New geomagnetic ground survey was carried out in years 2006-2008. The survey was accomplished under fair geomagnetic-activity conditions during the minimum phase of a solar activity cycle No. 23. The measurements of the geomagnetic field were reduced to the 2007.5 epoch using magnetograms of the Hurbanovo Geomagnetic Obser- vatory. The distribution of the geomagnetic field over the territory of Slovakia

Peter DOLINSK ´; Fridrich VALACH

2009-01-01

145

Small mammals: paratenic hosts for species of Toxocara in eastern Slovakia.  

PubMed

Toxocara spp., an aetiological agent of a serious helminthozoonosis, is a common roundworm of domestic and wild carnivores worldwide. The study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of Toxocara in small mammals from different localities in eastern Slovakia. Anti-Toxocara antibodies were detected in 6.4% out of 2140 examined animals trapped in eastern Slovakia. Due to their high density and observed high seroprevalence of toxocariasis, Apodemus agrarius, A. flavicollis, Myodes glareolus and Mus spicilegus (10.9, 4.2, 3.6 and 11.2%, respectively) represent important sources of the infection. A significant correlation between type of food and Toxocara positivity was detected: granivores (7.2%) and invertebratophages (7.1%) were positive more frequently than herbivores (2.1%). In the years monitored, cyclic changes of seroprevalence were observed. A higher prevalence of antibodies in the spring was followed by a decrease in summer. In autumn, seroprevalence started to rise and stayed at a similar level through the winter. Seroprevalence of the examined animals confirms their contact with Toxocara spp. and demonstrates the presence of the aetiological agent in the monitored locality. Areas with a high prevalence of infected animals present constant infectious pressure on definitive hosts, thus also increasing infection risk for humans and paratenic hosts. The study confirmed the contact of small mammals with Toxocara spp. and demonstrated the presence and circulation of an aetiological agent in the localities monitored in eastern Slovakia. PMID:22284742

Antolová, D; Reiterová, K; Stanko, M; Zalesny, G; Fri?ová, J; Dvorož?áková, E

2013-03-01

146

Rickettsial infection in Ixodes ricinus ticks in urban and natural habitats of Slovakia.  

PubMed

A total of 1810 Ixodes ricinus ticks was collected from the vegetation from 2 different habitat types: urban and natural. Urban habitats were represented by cemeteries and public parks in the following towns: Bratislava, Malacky, and Martin at 150 m and 400 m above sea level. Natural habitats were selected in the mountain forest of the Martinské hole Mts. in Central Slovakia at 3 different altitudinal levels, i.e. 600 m, 800 m and 1000 ma.s.l. All ticks were tested for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsiae. The DNA of Rickettsia spp. was identified in 9% of all tested ticks. Rickettsia-infected ticks were present in both, urban and sylvatic sites at all studied altitudes. Four different species of Rickettsia were present in positive I. ricinus ticks. Rickettsia helvetica was identified in 77 out of 87 Rickettsia-positive I. ricinus ticks, followed by 8 samples that belonged to Rickettsia monacensis and 2 of the positive ticks were infected with different unidentified Rickettsia spp. Due to the association of R. helvetica and R. monacensis with human infections, it is essential to understand which species of Rickettsia circulate in the natural foci of Slovakia. Circulation of pathogenic rickettsiae in urban as well as natural habitats at different altitudinal levels in Slovakia emphasizes that infection risk is very common throughout this Central European country. PMID:24342052

Špitalská, Eva; Boldiš, Vojtech; Derdáková, Markéta; Selyemová, Diana; Rus?áková Tarage?ová, Veronika

2014-03-01

147

Trends in hydrological drought in eastern Slovakia by analysis of low flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important function in both engineering hydrology and integrated catchment area management is performed by statistical analysis. This paper presents the trend analysis of low water flows in selected rivers in Eastern Slovakia. There are many statistical methods for data evaluation. The most of useful, presented in this paper, is the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test. This analysis was carried out for statistical data from 63 river stations lying in the eastern part of Slovakia, namely in Hornád, Poprad, Bodva, Bodrog river basins. The data were obtained from the Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute, Regional Centre Košice. Because the low flow data are not comparable for the individual stations, normally it is only possible to do the statistical analysis for each river station separately. The relative sizes of the low stream flow trends in individual river stations were calculated as directives of the trend lines. Using ArcView GIS 3.2 was created thematic map from geographical map of Eastern Slovakia.

Zelenakova, Martina; Solakova, Tatiana; Purcz, Pavol; Simonova, Dorota; Kuzevicova, Zofia

2014-05-01

148

Public participation in recovery after earthquakes in Friuli (NE Italy) and the Upper So?a Valley (NW Slovenia) in 1976, 1998, and 2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article deals with public participation in recovery after earthquakes in the border region of Friuli (NE Italy) and the Upper So?a Valley (NW Slovenia) in 1976 (magnitude 6.4, 6 May; magnitude 6.1, 15 September), 1998 (magnitude 6.0, 12 April), and 2004 (magnitude 4.9, 7 July). It highlights the differences in the concepts of the post-earthquake recovery, taking into consideration the different political systems between the two countries (capitalist Italy vs. communist Slovenia in 1976) and changes in recovery after the change of political system in Slovenia (communist Slovenia in 1976 vs. capitalist Slovenia in 1998 and 2004).

Pipan, P.; Zorn, M.

2013-05-01

149

ECOTOURISM DEVELOPMENT AS A TOOL FOR REPOSITIONG OF SERBIA AS A TOURIST DESTINATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well-preserved nature is one of the fundamental competitive advantages for positioning of Serbian tourism on the international tourist market. Variety of natural resources is additional reason to consider development of ecotourism in Serbia as important tool for sustainable tourism development in Serbia and for consistent and long-term approach to achieve sustainability. The bases for development of ecotourism as a niche

Jovan Popesku

150

Stepwise mitigation of the Macesnik landslide, N Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper gives an overview of the history of evolution and mitigation of the Macesnik landslide in N Slovenia. It was triggered in 1989 above the Sol?ava village, but it enlarged with time. In 2005, the landslide has been threatening a few residential and farm houses, as well as the panoramic road, and it is only 1000 m away from the Savinja River and the village of Sol?ava. It is 2500 m long and up to more than 100 m wide with an estimated volume in excess of 2 million m3. Its depth is not constant: on average it is 10 to 15 m deep, but in the area of the toe, which is retained by a rock outcrop, it reaches the depth of 30 m. The unstable mass consists of water-saturated highly-weathered carboniferous formations. The presently active landslide lies within the fossil landslide which is up to 350 m wide and 50 m deep with the total volume estimated at 8 to 10 million m3. Since 2000, the landslide has been investigated by 36 boreholes, and 28 of them were equipped with inclinometer casings, which also serve as piezometers. Surface movements have been monitored geodetically in 20 cross sections. This helped to understand the causes and mechanics of the landslide. Therefore, landslide mitigation works were planned rather to reduce the landslide movement so that the resulting damages could be minimized. The construction of mitigation works was made difficult in the 1990s due to intensive landslide movements that could reach up to 50 cm/day with an average of 25 cm/day. Since 2001, surface drainage works in the form of open surface drains have mainly been completed around the circumference of the landslide as the first phase of the mitigation works and they are regularly maintained. As a final mitigation solution, plans have been made to build a combination of subsurface drainage works in the form of deep drains with retaining works in the form of concrete vertical shafts functioning as deep water wells to drain the landslide, and as dowels to stop the landslide movement starting from the slide plane towards its surface. Due to the length of the landslide and its longitudinal geometry it will be divided into several sections, and the mitigation works will be executed consecutively in phases. Such an approach proved effective in the 800 m long uppermost section of the landslide, where 3 parallel deep drain trenches (250 m long, 8 to 12 m deep) were executed in the autumn of 2003. The reduction of the movements in 2004 enabled the construction of two 5 m wide and 22 m deep reinforced concrete shafts, finished in early 2005. In Slovenia, this sort of support construction, known from road construction, was used for the first time for landslide mitigation. The monitoring results show that the landslide displacements have been drastically reduced to less than 1 cm/day. As a part of the stepwise mitigation of the Macesnik landslide, further reinforced concrete shafts are to be constructed in the middle section of the landslide to support the road crossing the landslide. At the landslide toe, a support construction is planned to prevent further landslide advancement, and its type is still to be defined during the procedure of adopting a detailed plan of national importance for the Macesnik landslide.

Mikoš, M.; Fazarinc, R.; Pulko, B.; Petkovšek, A.; Majes, B.

2005-11-01

151

Transboundary Groundwater Body Karavanke/Karawanken Between Austria and Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large part of the border region between Republic of Slovenia and Republic of Austria is represented by high east west extended mountainous ridge of Karavanke/Karawanken. It is a range extending along the Slovenian-Austrian border for almost 150 km. Its terrain consists of long and prominent ridges, whose slopes steeply fall to the northern and southern side. Ridges are interrupted by long, deep and narrow valleys. The highest peaks reach over 2000 m above sea level. In the entire range prominent ridges with mountain meadows and forests prevail. The area is scarcely populated, the main economic activities are grazing and forestry, in some places tourism is also developing, especially winter sports centres. Karavanke/Karawanken lies on the contact between two continental plates, the large European plate in the north and the smaller Adriatic plate in the south. When the Adriatic plate was thrusted over the European one towards the north, the collision resulted in the folding of sediments previously deposited in the space between the plates. The contact of both plates caused large lateral displacements, causing the rocks of both plates to fold and fault and then extend along the contact. This is the area of Periadriatic lineament, dividing Karavanke/Karawanken range into their north and south part. Periadriatic lineament is large stripe slip tectonic structure along which on the northern side rocks were extruded to the east and on the southern side to the west. Along the lineament metamorphic (e.g. biotitic and feldsparic para-gneis, amfibolites) and magmatic (e.g. diabaz, granite and tonalite) rocks of various ages are present. Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks cover large part of the mountain ridge. The oldest are Silurian and Ordovician limestone on the northern border followed by Devonian ridge limestones. They are covered by molasse sedimentation in Carbon and shallow marine and river predominantly clastic sedimentation in Perm. The most abundant and with numerous varieties are rocks from Triassic age. In general they can be divided into rocks of Northern and Southern Karavanke/Karawanken deposited in different sedimentation basins. In lower part clastic rocks prevail, going into the upper part of Triassic age more and more carbonate rocks are present. In Southern Karavanke/Karawanken sedimentary rocks formed in the deeper part as well as on the carbonate platform are present, however in Northern Karavanke/Karawanken sedimentary rocks of shallower sedimentary environment are predominant. In the upper Triassic part of Northern Karavanke/Karawanken large zinc and lead ore deposits were formed. Among younger rocks only small patches are present. The most abundant are Rosenbacher coal-bearing beads of Jauntal/Juna in Austria of Miocen age where the uplift history of Karavanke/Karawanken is very well reflected. Extensive Quaternary sediments are present as slope sediments and sediments filling deep valleys. At the end of the 20th century decision was made to construct a 7,8 km long road tunnel through Karavanke/Karawanken between Hrušica on the Slovenian side and Rosenbach/Podrožca on the Austrian side. It was established already during the construction that waters flowing from the tunnel represent an important water resource. In Slovenia some of these springs were captured and led into the water supply network, while in Austria they remained well protected water resource for the future. Such important water resources require protection, which in turn demands knowledge about their recharge areas. This fact stimulated authorities of both countries to support the beginning of hydrogeological investigations in the west Karavanke/Karawanken region through the common ''Drava/Drau water-management commission'' and subcommission "Drinking water reserves of Karavanke/Karawanken mountains". During hydrogeological investigations detailed hydrogeological mapping of the whole Karavanke/Karawanken ridge was made. Sampling of important springs and low water discharge measurements followed this stage. Samples were taken for basic ch

Brencic, M.; Poltnig, W.

2009-04-01

152

Winners and losers in transition : returns to education, experience, and gender in Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors identify winners and losers in Slovenia's economic transition by tracing changes in returns to education, experience, and gender and changes in wage inequality from 1987 to 1991. They find the following. Relative wages and employment rose for the most educated and fell for the least educated, in all industries. Relative wages and employment rose with years of work

Peter F. Orazem; Milan Vodopivec

1994-01-01

153

Molecular characterization of human pathogen Babesia EU1 in Ixodes ricinus ticks from Slovenia.  

PubMed

New cases of human babesiosis were recently reported in Europe. The etiological agent was identified as Babesia EU1, a zoonotic pathogen with previously unreported molecular characteristics. On the basis of a comparison of the complete babesial 18S rRNA gene, we have generated strong molecular evidence that Ixodes ricinus ticks from Slovenia are infected with EU1. PMID:15986627

Duh, Darja; Petrovec, Miroslav; Avsic-Zupanc, Tatjana

2005-04-01

154

Philosophy of Education in Post-Soviet Societies of Eastern Europe: Poland, Lithuania and Slovenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the role of philosophy of education in three post-Soviet societies of Eastern Europe: Poland, Lithuania and Slovenia. The characteristic themes and approaches of philosophical reflection about education in these societies are explored with reference to three periods: the pre-Soviet, Soviet and post-Soviet periods.

Godon, Rafal; Juceviciene, Palmira; Kodelja, Zdenko

2004-01-01

155

External and Internal Assessment in the Final Examination in Secondary Schools in Slovenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the introduction of the final examination as an external national system of assessment of students in the transition from secondary school to university education. Since 1991 Slovenia has followed foreign models, the British one in particular; however, it has also considered its own traditional system of education. Students…

Krajnc, Marina Tavcar

2006-01-01

156

Balancing equity and efficiency through health care policies in Slovenia during the period 1990-2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Slovenia's 1992 health reform set the following five goals: introduction of social health insurance system and a system of co-payment for a range of health care services; introduction of private practice in health care; devolution of planning and control functions from the State to professional associations and municipalities, and introduction of licensing and recertification for health professionals. Methods: A

T. Albreht; N. S. Klazinga

2010-01-01

157

Development of Mobile Communications in Slovenia: Looking to the Future Global Information (Mobile/Internet) Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the planning and provision of mobile communications in Slovenia and suggests areas that will be developed in the future. Topics include the global mobile market; digital mobile networks; evolution from voice to multimedia services; wireless application protocol; the Internet; general packet radio service; and universal mobile…

Simonic, Tomaz; Mlinar, Tomi

2000-01-01

158

Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe: Tackling Social and Cultural Inequalities. Slovenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Slovenia has a single structure of preschool education system providing comprehensive education and care (educare) for children aged one to six (more precisely, from the end of maternity leave to the child's entering compulsory school). It is offered mostly by public preschool institutions (vrtci). Preschool education is a part of the whole system…

Turnsek, Nada; Batistic, Marcela Zorec

2008-01-01

159

The Development of Higher Education Study Programmes for Early Childhood Teachers in Slovenia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines the development of higher education programs for preschool teachers and the changing nature of preschool teacher education in Slovenia over the course of the early 1990s. Until 1991, the required qualification for preschool teachers was graduation from a secondary school for early years teachers. Since then, the required…

Plestenjak, Majda

160

Science Achievement, Gender Differences, and Experimental Work in Classes in Slovenia as Evident in TIMSS Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1999, Slovenia has been in the process of introducing nine years of compulsory education to replace the previous eight-year system of compulsory education. Under the new system, the school entry age is six years rather than the former seven years. This reform of the system necessitated a number of other changes, such as those relating to the…

Pavesic, Barbara Japelj

2008-01-01

161

The Influence of Nutrition Education on the Food Consumption and Nutrition Attitude of Schoolchildren in Slovenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Slovenia, nutrition education is included in the compulsory education curriculum of the nine-year elementary school. The aim of nutrition education is for schoolchildren to acquire knowledge on nutrition to help them form healthy nutritional habits. This research aims at establishing whether the formal nutrition education carried out at schools…

Kostanjevec, Stojan; Jerman, Janez; Koch, Verena

2012-01-01

162

SE OF ORAL TRADITION IN ARCHAEOLOGY: THE CASE OF AJDOVŠCINA ABOVE RODIK, SLOVENIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the potential of oral tradition (folklore) in the archaeological study of the past. It deals with oral traditions concerning landscape features in the area of the prehistoric and Roman site of Ajdovšcina above Rodik, Slovenia. The palimpsest nature of mod- ern landscapes can be regarded as a syncretic sum of past ways of life, land use, religious

Katja Hrobat

163

Use of Oral Tradition in Archaeology: Uthe Case of Ajdovš?ina Above Rodik, Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the potential of oral tradition (folklore) in the archaeological study of the past. It deals with oral traditions concerning landscape features in the area of the prehistoric and Roman site of Ajdovš?ina above Rodik, Slovenia. The palimpsest nature of modern landscapes can be regarded as a syncretic sum of past ways of life, land use, religious practices,

Katja Hrobat

2007-01-01

164

Negotiating Rural Tourism Development at the Local Level : A case study in Pisece, Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the policy and politics of the development of rural tourism at the local level in Slovenia. Its purpose was to increase our understanding of the socio-political dimensions of the rural tourism development process at the local community level by contributing to the current methods of investigating, describing and understanding of rural tourism.This dissertation argues that sustainable rural

A. Verbole

1999-01-01

165

NÁJOM PO NOHOSPODÁRSKEJ PÔDY NA SLOVENSKU V ZMYSLE NOVEJ PRÁVNEJ ÚPRAVY AGRICULTURAL LAND LEASING IN SLOVAKIA ACCORDING TO NEW LEGAL REGULATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Expectancy that agricultural land in Slovakia will be exploited in particular by its owners has not come true. The reality is based on the fact that the agricultural land is exploited mainly by tentants. This usual trend present in Slovakia is considered to be the \\

Anna Bandlerová

166

Some seismotectonic characteristics of the Ljubljana Basin, Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismicity of the Ljubljana Basin, the most densely populated area of Slovenia, is evaluated as "moderate" with a seismic hazard characterized by design ground acceleration of 0.25 g and expected intensity VIII EMS-98 for a return period of 475 years. So far the seismic hazard has been evaluated solely on the basis of historic seismicity, the largest event being the 1895 Ljubljana M=6.1 earthquake with Imax=VIII-IX EMS-98. Given that the Basin is situated at the tectonically active junction of Alpine, Dinaric and Pannonian tectonic domains and given that it is infilled by up to 280 m of relatively loose Quaternary sediments, efforts are being made in recent years to better constrain seismotectonic characteristics starting with a tectonic model and finishing with site effects. The faults that are currently being evaluated as potential seismogenic sources are: • Sava dextral strike slip fault; a geomorphically and geologically well expressed fault with recent displacement determined by GNSS measurement and representing the NE boundary of the Basin, • Želimlje, Ortnek, Mišjedol and Žužemberk dextral strike slip faults (NW-SE striking) belonging to the Ljubljana - Imotski tectonic zone toward the SE and most probably passing the city of Ljubljana toward the NW, • Borovnica dextral strike slip fault system (also NW-SE striking) as the W boundary of the Ljubljana Moor, • WSW-ENE oriented reverse faults (Vi?, Vodice) as structures in-between regional faults where the Vi? fault may have formed due to formation of the transverse extrusion wedge between Borovnica and Želimlje faults, while formation of the Vodice fault may be explained as a secondary structure in the shear system between the Sava fault to the NE and the NW-SE striking faults to the SE. According to current understanding of the tectonic setting, the structures with the highest seismogenic potential seem to be the NW-SE striking faults, although the earthquake catalogue does not indicate any significant clustering of events along any of these structures. Beside the geological and geomorphologic evidence such interpretation is also supported by preliminary results of high resolution seismic reflection profiling. Moreover, the earthquake intensity map of the 1895 earthquake may be interpreted in a way that it corroborates the idea that the most probable seismic source was one of the NW-SE striking faults. However, structures oblique to them, such as Vi? and Vodice faults also exhibit characteristics of recent (coseismic?) displacements and can't be discarded as potential sources. Paleoseismological study on these faults is ongoing, as well as interpretation of repeated terrestrial (micro-terrestrial networks and leveling) and GNSS geodetic measurements. Up-to-date results are presented.

Bavec, M.; Ambroži?, T.; Atanackov, J.; Ceci?, I.; Celarc, B.; Gosar, A.; Jamšek, P.; Jež, J.; Kogoj, D.; Koler, B.; Kuhar, M.; Milani?, B.; Novak, M.; Pavlov?i? Prešeren, P.; Savšek, S.; Sterle, O.; Stopar, B.; Vrabec, M.; Zajc, M.; Živ?i?, M.

2012-04-01

167

The concept of hydropower certification in Italy and Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River regulation by building a hydropower plants (HPPs) is one of the most stressful factor influencing the aquatic and riparian ecosystem. In many countries a development of HPPs is often opposed by public bodies and NGOs, worried about the risk of adverse effects on the "good status" of water bodies, that, according to the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC, WFD), has to be reached by year 2015. The paper describes a technically and economically feasible certification procedure for existing hydro power generation facilities of higher environmental standard, being explicitly coherent with the requirements of the WFD, to be implemented in "green labelled" electricity products, and being integrated, as much as possible, with existing EU tools, such as Ecolabel, EMAS, EIA and SEA. The methodology was developed for Italy and Slovenia and it will be tested in different types of HPPs in both countries. In order to be certified, a given HPP has to commit to carry out appropriate measures in order to mitigate its impacts on specified environmental objectives, in such a way to fulfil predefined environmental targets and prescriptions. These measures have to be described through a specific management programme, based upon a dedicated environmental study, supported mainly by existing data, but complemented by ad-hoc assessment/monitoring when necessary. The realization of both the environmental study and the management programme must be supported by public consultation; both documents must be approved through an auditing process. For some types of HPPs, operating in totally artificial networks and not entailing direct or indirect impact on water related ecosystems, a simplified procedure is foreseen, where detailed environmental analysis, related management programme and stakeholders involvement are not requested, but just a description of the system and proof of fulfilment of the conditions and of specific prescriptions. HPPs impacting water bodies defined as Artificial or Heavily Modified (following the definitions of the WFD) in most cases have to fulfil more limited environmental targets. The involvement of local stakeholders must be ensured along the whole certification procedure and, when completed, during the lifespan of the label. The methodology includes a predefined framework where pressure factors due to hydropower production are related to potentially impacted environmental quality elements. For each of these cause-effect relationships possible mitigation measures are suggested. In the long run, it is expected that the certification will have a positive impact on hydro power generation in Europe, will help focusing the conception of new HPPs towards more sustainable solutions and making easier authorization procedure.

Smolar-Zvanut, Natasa; Goltara, Andrea; Conte, Gulio

2010-05-01

168

Glioblastoma patients in Slovenia from 1997 to 2008  

PubMed Central

Background Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumour. It has a poor prognosis despite some advances in treatment that have been achieved over the last ten years. In Slovenia, 50 to 60 glioblastoma patients are diagnosed each year. In order to establish whether the current treatment options have any influence on the survival of the Slovenian glioblastoma patients, their data in the period from the beginning of the year 1997 to the end of the year 2008 have been analysed. Patients and methods All patients treated at the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana from 1997 to 2008 were included in the retrospective study. Demographics, treatment details, and survival time after the diagnosis were collected and statistically analysed for the group as a whole and for subgroups. Results From 1997 to 2008, 527 adult patients were diagnosed with glioblastoma and referred to the Institute of Oncology for further treatment. Their median age was 59 years (from 20 to 85) and all but one had the diagnosis confirmed by a pathologist. Gross total resection was reported by surgeons in 261 (49.5%) patients; good functional status (WHO 0 or 1) after surgery was observed in 336 (63.7%) patients, radiotherapy was performed in 422 (80.1%) patients, in 317 (75.1%) of them with radical intent, and 198 (62.5 %) of those received some form of systemic treatment (usually temozolomide). The median survival of all patients amounted to 9.7 months. There was no difference in median survival of all patients or of all treated patients before or after the chemo-radiotherapy era. However, the overall survival of patients treated with radical intent was significantly better (11.4 months; p < 0.05). A better survival was also noticed in radically treated patients who received additional temozolomide therapy (11.4 vs. 13.1 months; p = 0.014). The longer survival was associated with a younger age and a good performance status as well as with a more extensive tumour resection. In patients treated with radical intent, having a good performance status, and receiving radiotherapy and additional temozolomide therapy, the survival was significantly longer, based on multivariate analysis. Conclusions We observed a gradual increase in the survival of glioblastoma patients who were treated with radical intent over the last ten years. Good functional surgery, advances in radiotherapy and addition of temozolomide all contributed to this increase. Though the increased survival seems to be more pronounced in certain subgroups, we have still not been able to exactly define them. Further research, especially in tumour biology and genetics is needed.

Smrdel, Uros; Kovac, Viljem; Popovic, Mara; Zwitter, Matjaz

2014-01-01

169

Areal and Temporal Analysis of Precipitation Patterns In Slovakia Using Spectral Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Harmonic analysis as an objective method of precipitation seasonality studying is ap- plied to the 1901-2000 monthly precipitation averages at five stations in the low-land part of Slovakia with elevation less than 800 m a.s.l. The significant harmonics of long-term precipitation series have been separately computed for eight 30-year peri- ods, which cover the 20th century and some properties and the variations are com- pared to 100-year monthly precipitation averages. The selected results show that the first and the second harmonics pre-dominantly influence on the annual distribution and climatic seasonal regimes of pre-cipitation that contribute to the precipitation am- plitude/pattern with about 20% and 10%, respectively. These indicate annual and half year variations. The rest harmon-ics often have each less than 5% contribution on the Fourier interpolation course. Maximum in yearly precipitation course, which oc- curs approximately at the begin-ning of July, because of phase changing shifts then to the middle of June. Some probable reasons regarding to Fourier components are discussed. In addition, a tem-poral analysis over precipitation time series belonging to the Hurbanovo Observa-tory as the longest observational series on the territory of Slovakia (with 130-year precipitation records) has been individually performed and possible meteorological factors responsible for the observed patterns are suggested. A comparison of annual precipitation course obtained from daily precipitation totals analysis and polynomial trends with Fourier interpolation has been done too. Daily precipitation data in the latest period are compared for some stations in Slovakia as well. Only selected results are pre-sented in the poster.

Pishvaei, M. R.

170

[Dr. Elizabeth Ross: heroine and victim of the World War I in Serbia].  

PubMed

At the beginning of 1915, several months after the World War I started, Serbia was in an extremely difficult situation.The country was war-ravaged, full of sick and wounded soldiers, there was a desperate shortage of doctors, nurses and other medical personnel, and the epidemic of typhus fever exploded and violently attacked the entire country. At that time, however, a number of both foreign allied medical missions and individual volunteers, from various countries, mostly from Great Britain, came to Serbia to help. Among them mostly were women, and they were of enormous support to Serbia in that grave situation. It is estimated that there were more than 600 foreign women volunteers in Serbia at that time and that 22 of them died there. Dr. Elizabeth Ross was one of those brave volunteers who came to Serbia early in 1915. That noble Scottish lady doctor was born in 1878 and finished her medical studies at the University of Glasgow in 1901. After graduation she worked in various places in Great Britain until 1909, when she went to Persia (Iran), where she worked until the beginning of the so called Great War. When she heard of the urgent need in Serbia she left Persia as soon as she could and volunteered to serve in Serbia. She came to Kragujevac at the beginning of January 1915, where she worked at the First Military Reserve Hospital, which at that time was actually a typhus hospital. Working there intensively and devotedly for several weeks under shocking conditions she contracted typhus herself and died there on her 37th birthday on February 14th, 1915. She was buried in Kragujevac, next to two British ladies who also died in Serbia of typhus. Her grave was restored in 1980 when the town of Kragujevac started holding commemorations at the graveside every February 14th at noon to honor her and all other brave and noble women who lost their lives helping Serbia at that unfortunate time. PMID:23092045

Miki?, Želimir; Leši?, Aleksandar

2012-01-01

171

Toxoplasmosis in Serbia: time for an action plan.  

PubMed

Known for a century, Toxoplasma gondii has been studied in Serbia half this time, ever since the introduction of the Sabin-Feldman test at the Institute for Medical Research (IMR) in 1959. However, despite 50 years of continuous efforts, exact data on the frequency of acute clinical disease, acute infections in pregnancy and congenital infection in the offspring are still lacking, due to the vague regulatory provision that toxoplasmosis is subject to reporting "in case of epidemiological indications". It is, however, clear that the major Toxoplasma-induced public health issue in Serbia, like elsewhere in Europe, is congenital toxoplasmosis (CT). Continuous monitoring of particular patient groups showed a dramatic decrease in the prevalence of infection over the past two decades, and a consequently increased proportion of women susceptible to infection in pregnancy, suggesting a potential increase in the incidence of CT. Studies of risk factors for infection transmission have provided data to guide national health education campaigns. It is expected that the recent appointment of the National Reference Laboratory for Toxoplasmosis as the focal point for the collection of data from the primary level, will provide the means for accurate assessment of the measure of the problem, which is a prerequisite of an evidence-based nation-wide prevention program. In the meantime, health education of all pregnant women, focused at risk factors of major local significance, is advocated as a sound and financially sustainable option to reduce congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:21073140

Djurkovi?-Djakovi?, O; Bobi?, B; Klun, I

2010-09-01

172

Bordetella pertussis vaccine strains and circulating isolates in Serbia.  

PubMed

In Serbia, whole cell pertussis vaccine was introduced in 1957. Current composition of the vaccine has been used since 1985 and contains four autochthonous strains of Bordetella pertussis isolated from 1957 to 1984. To monitor changes in bacterial population, 70 isolates collected from 1953 to 2000 were studied together with the vaccine strains. The methods included serotyping of fimbriae (Fim), genotyping of pertactin (prn) and pertussis toxin S1 subunit (ptxA), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. Shift from ptxA2 to ptxA1 has been observed in isolates since the late of 1960s. All isolates from 1980 to 1984 harbored ptxA1. Re-appearance of the ptxA2 allele followed an addition of the two strains harboring ptxA1 in the vaccine in 1985. The allele prn1 was predominant among the Serbian isolates, though prn3 and prn11 have been detected since 1981 and 1984. The allele prn2 was found only in two strains isolated in 2000. Serotype Fim2.3 disappeared before 1980 and serotype Fim2 became predominant since then. The Serbian vaccine strains showed differences in ptxA and prn. The results of this present study indicate that the B. pertussis population in Serbia is different from other vaccinated populations and that this difference may be related to the vaccine used. PMID:19945417

Dakic, Gordana; Kallonen, Teemu; Elomaa, Annika; Pljesa, Tatjana; Vignjevic-Krastavcevic, Mirjana; He, Qiushui

2010-02-01

173

Industry turns its attention south  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the outlook for the gas and oil industries in the Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Significant foreign investment continues to elude Russia`s oil and gas industry, so the Caspian nations of Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan are picking up the slack, welcoming the flow of foreign capital to their energy projects. Separate evaluations are given for Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Moldova, Tajikstan, Uzbekistan, Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Serbia.

Marhefka, D. [Russian Petroleum Investor, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1997-08-01

174

Comparative health risks of domestic waste combustion in urban and rural Slovakia.  

PubMed

This paper addresses the health risk incurred by two alternative waste management schemes: open burning of household waste in barrels practiced in rural Slovakia and controlled municipal waste combustion in the city of Bratislava. Using agricultural land use data and village population data we formulate three prototype villages, each representing about one-third of the rural population. The two configurations of the controlled combustion are an outdated municipal waste incinerator (MWI) and a modern waste-to-energy (WTE) plant equipped with modern air pollution control devices. These configurations actually exist(ed) in Bratislava, Slovakia at the same site, but in different time frames. The CALPUFF model provides direct exposure data and the EMERAM software (developed in this paper) computes indirect exposure. A major source of uncertainty is that of the fraction of waste burned in the open. The analysis presented here assumed 10%. At this level, the cancer risk from open burning ranges from 10 to 80 times the commonly regarded de minimus value of one in a million. This means that underthe U.S. contemporary regulatory culture, some regulatory action to control or enforce the burning ban would be expected. Cancer risks from the incinerator ranged from 7 to 371 in a million while the WTE risks were below 1 in a million. Cancer risks from open burning are higher than those of the WTE plant and at the same time affect a larger portion of concerned population. PMID:17969705

Krajcovicová, Jana; Eschenroeder, Alan Q

2007-10-01

175

Case study of the 9 May 2003 windstorm in southwestern Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

May 9, 2003 thunderstorm in southwest Slovakia is considered one of the most severe convective events to have happened in Slovakia during the past ten years. The majority of the reported damage was caused by very strong outflowing winds and hail. The downburst (macroburst) nature of the event was confirmed by a damage survey carried out in the area hit by the thunderstorm. The supercell nature of the storm was inferred from radar measurements, with the fields of radar reflectivity and radial Doppler velocity showing typical supercell features (e.g. BWER echo). The satellite imagery (from METEOSAT 7) indicated a large-scale dry air intrusion as a possible factor of downdraft enhancement. Aspects of the storm environment were inferred from soundings, numerical analysis of the ALADIN model and Velocity Azimuth Display data from radar. The results enable comparison of the outputs of several instability indices, such as CAPE, DCAPE and Storm to Relative Environmental Helicity (SREH). It was concluded based on structure and development that the storm showed many similarities to the so called High Precipitation (HP) supercell type.

Ka?ák, Ján; Benko, Martin; Simon, André; Sokol, Alois

2007-02-01

176

Effect of ploughing and previous crop on winter wheat pests and their natural enemies under integrated farming system in Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of ploughing and previous crop on winter wheat pests and their natural enemies under an integrated farming system was investigated in an experimental area in Slovakia. The experiment consisted of 4 small plots (50m2 each) to which both organic and inorganic fertilisers were applied. Moreover, there was one application of herbicide and a fungicide on each plot. The

J. Gallo; S. Pekár

2001-01-01

177

Serotypes, virulence genes, and PFGE profiles of Escherichia coli isolated from pigs with postweaning diarrhoea in Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Postweaning diarrhoea (PWD) in pigs is usually the main infectious problem of large-scale farms and is responsible for significant losses worldwide. The disease is caused mainly by enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC). In this study a total of 101 E. coli isolated from pigs with PWD in Slovakia were characterized using phenotypic and genotypic

Hung Vu Khac; Emil Holoda; Emil Pilipcinec; Miguel Blanco; Jesús E Blanco; Azucena Mora; Ghizlane Dahbi; Cecilia López; Enrique A González; Jorge Blanco

2006-01-01

178

Fall of the iron curtain: male life expectancy in Slovakia, in the Czech Republic and in Europe.  

PubMed

Year 1989, the fall of communism, represents a dramatic watershed. Changes and reforms reflected also upon the quality of health care and the health of populations living on eastern side of the divide. Until then, Eastern Europe had free socialized medicine, albeit troubled by lack of up-to-date medications and absence of modern diagnostic equipment. Noting the admirable progress in health in some regions of the former Soviet empire during its transformation provides invaluable sociological lesson. Furthermore, focusing on health trends in two Central European countries, the Czech republic (CZ) and Slovakia (SK), brings about another quality to such evaluation. Dramatic improvement in the life expectancy (LE) is represented mainly in the decrease of cardiovascular mortality, more in the Czech Republic than in Slovakia. Favorable trend of male LE in the Czech Republic exceeded several established West European countries, while in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine the life expectancy actually deteriorated. When life expectancy in Slovakia is compared with the Czech Republic, its poorer outcome results from a higher cardiovascular mortality, as well as from liver, digestive and respiratory disorders. Root causes of this difference are possibly in a marked difference in funding of health care between SK and CZ, higher consumption of alcohol and cigarettes, as well as in a sizeable disadvantaged Roma minority in Slovakia. PMID:20377041

Ginter, Emil; Simko, Vladimir; Wsolova, Ladislava

2009-12-01

179

Antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activity of terrestrial cyanobacterial strains from Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanobacteria are known to be a rich source of biologically active compounds some of which can have pharmaceutical importance.\\u000a In this work we present the screening results of cyanobacterial strains for their antibacterial, antifungal, and cytotoxic\\u000a activity. Cyanobacterial strains were isolated from various soil types in province of Vojvodina and Central Serbia, Republic\\u000a of Serbia. The screening included 9 strains

Zorica Svircev; Dragana Cetojevic-Simin; Jelica Simeunovic; Maja Karaman; Dejan Stojanovic

2008-01-01

180

New chorological data for flora of the Pannonian region of Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The northern part of Serbia, known as Pannonian Serbia, is a lowland region. The autochthonous (indigenous) flora is classified\\u000a as either steppe, forest-steppe, sand dune or salt flat. Most of the area has been developed agriculturally, thereby reducing\\u000a the amount of land containing preserved habitats. The flora of this region was collected over a period of several years, supplying\\u000a new

Dragiša Savi?; Goran Ana?kov; Pal Boža

2008-01-01

181

Community Structure and the Evolution of Interdisciplinarity in Slovenia's Scientific Collaboration Network  

PubMed Central

Interaction among the scientific disciplines is of vital importance in modern science. Focusing on the case of Slovenia, we study the dynamics of interdisciplinary sciences from to . Our approach relies on quantifying the interdisciplinarity of research communities detected in the coauthorship network of Slovenian scientists over time. Examining the evolution of the community structure, we find that the frequency of interdisciplinary research is only proportional with the overall growth of the network. Although marginal improvements in favor of interdisciplinarity are inferable during the 70s and 80s, the overall trends during the past 20 years are constant and indicative of stalemate. We conclude that the flow of knowledge between different fields of research in Slovenia is in need of further stimulation.

Luzar, Borut; Levnajic, Zoran; Povh, Janez; Perc, Matjaz

2014-01-01

182

A dendroecological reconstruction of disturbance in an old-growth Fagus-Abies forest in Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scarcity of large old-growth forests has made it challenging to quantify disturbance regimes in Central Europe. The objective\\u000a of this study was to reconstruct the history of disturbance in an old-growth Fagus-Abies forest reserve in Slovenia using\\u000a a dendroecological approach. We extracted cores from canopy trees blown down during a recent windthrow event and identified\\u000a growth releases in the

Thomas A. Nagel; Tom Levanic; Jurij Diaci

2007-01-01

183

Source rocks and hydrocarbon generation in Slovenia (Mura Depression, Pannonian Basin)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Source rock analysis (organic carbon, Rock-Eval, gas chromatography, vitrinite reflectance) and numeric modelling techniques have been applied to evaluate the hydrocarbon potential and the timing of hydrocarbon generation in northeastern Slovenia (Mura Depression, Pannonian Basin). Source rocks of Mesozoic age were not detected. Most Tertiary samples are gas prone. Oil-prone sediments occur mainly in Egerian\\/Eggenburgian, Karpatian and Sarmatian levels. The

C Hasenhüttl; M Kraljic; R. F Sachsenhofer; B Jelen; R Rieger

2001-01-01

184

Monitoring presence and streaming patterns of Icelandic volcanic ash during its arrival to Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano starting on 14 April 2010 resulted in the spreading of volcanic ash over most parts of Europe. In Slovenia, the presence of volcanic ash was monitored using ground-based in-situ measurements, lidar-based remote sensing and airborne in-situ measurements. Volcanic origin of the detected aerosols was confirmed by subsequent spectral and chemical analysis of the collected samples. The initial arrival of volcanic ash to Slovenia was first detected through the analysis of precipitation, which occurred on 17 April 2010 at 01:00 UTC and confirmed by satellite-based remote sensing. At this time, the presence of low clouds and occasional precipitation prevented ash monitoring using lidar-based remote sensing. The second arrival of volcanic ash on 20 April 2010 was detected by both lidar-based remote sensing and airborne in-situ measurements, revealing two or more elevated atmospheric aerosol layers. The ash was not seen in satellite images due to lower concentrations. The identification of aerosol samples from ground-based and airborne in-situ measurements based on energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed that a fraction of particles were volcanic ash from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. To explain the history of the air masses bringing volcanic ash to Slovenia, we analyzed airflow trajectories using ECMWF and HYSPLIT models.

Gao, F.; Stani?, S.; Bergant, K.; Bolte, T.; Coren, F.; He, T.-Y.; Hrabar, A.; Jerman, J.; Mladenovi?, A.; Turši?, J.; Veberi?, D.; Irši? Žibert, M.

2011-08-01

185

Lead and cadmium in meat and organs of game in Slovenia  

SciTech Connect

Pollution of the environment and contamination of animals including game with Pb and Cd are serious problems in most countries. Our many-years results of Pb and Cd residues in meat and organs of game show us, that the herbaceous game, which feed only with various herbs are more contaminated than other animals - cattle and pigs. They really seem to be a good environmental contamination indicator. The aim of our research was to establish contamination levels of game with Pb and Cd. Two different regions of Slovenia, an industrial region with a lead mine and smeltry in Koroska and an unindustrial one a Ilirska Bistrica were chosen to study contamination of game. Muscle tissues, heart muscles, kidneys and livers of roe-deer, chamois, red-deer and wild boards were analysed. The correlation between the animals` age and cadmium content in kidney was researched and a positive correlation was established. We have found out to which extent the meat and organs of game correspond with our available tolerances for each single residue and whether they are unfit for human consumption. The results of investigations concerning Pb and Cd content in game analysed in Slovenia in the last four years were shown, too. Results were taken from the reports of the Residue monitoring and surveillance which is performed in the Republic Slovenia for more than ten years. 6 refs., 5 tabs.

Doganoc, D.Z.; Gacnik, K.S. [Univ. of Ljubljana (Slovenia)

1995-01-01

186

The isotope altitude effect reflected in groundwater: a case study from Slovenia.  

PubMed

This paper presents the stable isotope data of oxygen (?(18)O) and hydrogen (?(2)H) in groundwater from 83 sampling locations in Slovenia and their interpretation. The isotopic composition of water was monitored over 3 years (2009-2011), and each location was sampled twice. New findings on the isotopic composition of sampled groundwater are presented, and the data are also compared to past studies regarding the isotopic composition of precipitation, surface water, and groundwater in Slovenia. This study comprises: (1) the general characteristics of the isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen in groundwater in Slovenia, (2) the spatial distribution of oxygen isotope composition (?(18)O) and d-excess in groundwater, (3) the groundwater isotope altitude effect, (4) the correlation between groundwater d-excess and the recharge area altitude of the sampling location, (5) the relation between hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in groundwater in comparison to the global precipitation isotope data, (6) the groundwater isotope effect of distance from the sea, and (7) the estimated relation between the mean temperature of recharge area and ?(18)O in groundwater. PMID:24437700

Mezga, Kim; Urbanc, Janko; Cerar, Sonja

2014-01-01

187

The only gay in the village? Everyday life of gays and lesbians in rural slovenia.  

PubMed

The article deals with the comparison of the characteristics, experiences, and perceptions of everyday life of gays and lesbians living in rural and urban areas of Slovenia. We focus on the following thematic aspects: (1) coming out; (2) intimate partnerships; (3) the access and the use of gay infrastructure; and (4) violence against gays and lesbians. The article also addresses and discusses the urban/rural divide as a Western construct that might not be completely applicable to other social and cultural contexts. Taking Slovenia as an example, this article questions the self-evidence of rural/urban divide as an analytical concept. On the basis of our research, we conclude that this concept requires continuous revisions and reinterpretations in a concrete social and cultural context(s). The characteristics of gay and lesbian everyday life either in rural or in urban context in Slovenia lead to the conclusion that even within a specific social and cultural context, the concept of urban/rural divide should be used carefully, taking into account complexities of everyday lives and various factors that influence them. PMID:24359463

Kuhar, Roman; Svab, Alenka

2014-08-01

188

Radioactivity in the indoor building environment in Serbia.  

PubMed

Measurement of activity concentrations of radionuclides in building materials and radon in indoor space is important in the assessment of population exposures, as most individuals spend 80 % of their time indoors. This paper presents the results of activity concentration measurements of: radon emanated from the soil, radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil, indoor radon in the city of Novi Sad (the capital city of Vojvodina) using charcoal canisters and indoor radon in the Vojvodina region using alpha-track detectors and the radioactivity of some building materials. Influences of floor level, space under the rooms, boarding, and the heating system on indoor radon accumulation in the Vojvodina province, situated in the northern part of Serbia, are also presented in this paper. The total effective dose and the activity concentration index are calculated applying the dose criteria recommended by the European Union for building materials. PMID:24030143

Todorovi?, Natasa; Bikit, Istvan; Veskovi?, Miroslav; Krmar, Miodrag; Mr?a, Dusan; Forkapi?, Sofija; Hansman, Jan; Nikolov, Jovana; Bikit, Kristina

2014-01-01

189

Genetic characterization of a border disease virus isolate originating from Slovakia.  

PubMed

In this study, a major part of genome of the pestivirus isolate 297 from Slovakia, comprising the 7195 nt-long 5?-UTR-NS3 region was sequenced and analyzed. Conserved cleavage sites between individual viral proteins of this region were determined and the number of amino acids of respective proteins was estimated as follows: 168 for Npro, 100 for C, 227 for Erns, 195 for E1, 373 for E2, 70 for p7, 453 for NS2, and 683 for NS3. Based on sequence and phylogenetic analysis of 5?-UTR, Npro, and E2 the isolate 297 was characterized as a border disease virus of genotype 3. It was found to be distinct from other BDV-3 strains analyzed so far, consequently forming a distinct branch within the phylogenetic clade. All these data expand a relatively limited knowledge of genetic properties of individual BDV genotypes and strains circulating in the Central Europe. PMID:23530820

Lešková, V; Jacková, A; Vlasáková, M; Vil?ek, S

2013-01-01

190

Drug scene in the Czech Republic and Slovakia during the period of transformation.  

PubMed

The article describes the development of drug-related problems in the context of the rapid sociopolitical and economic changes in the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic. The period of the last decade is marked by an increase in drug use in both countries; 17% of adults in the Czech Republic and 12% of the Slovaks report lifetime drug use. The respective figures are even higher for the population of adolescents. According to the data from the ESPAD survey carried out in 1999, 35% of young Czechs and 19% of young Slovaks used marijuana. Metamphetamine is the most misused substance among problem drug users in the Czech Republic, and heroin dominates in Slovakia. The response of the society to social and health problems caused by drugs is discussed in the following areas: institutional differentiation, political coordination and legislative development. The need for further social research is stressed. PMID:12457055

Csémy, Ladislav; Kubicka, Ludek; Nociar, Alojz

2002-11-01

191

Engineering-Geological Maps of Geological Factors of the Environment in Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, we have witnessed very frequent natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, storms and similar. In most cases, disasters are caused by geological factors, especially geobarriers. Geobarriers threaten the life and works of man or reduce the effectiveness of the construction and operation of technical works, or harm the environment by negative anthropogenic influences. An important task in assessing the technical and environmental aspects of particular engineering activity is to assess the impact of constructions on the production and protection of the environment. The important part of the environment is the geological environment. In this paper, we give an overview of geological factors of the environment and the way how they are illustrated in the engineering-geological maps made in Slovakia.

Baliak, František; Br?ek, Martin

2013-03-01

192

Markov Chain analysis of turbiditic facies and flow dynamics (Magura Zone, Outer Western Carpathians, NW Slovakia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods based on the Markov Chains can be easily applied in the evaluation of order in sedimentary sequences. In this contribution Markov Chain analysis was applied to analysis of turbiditic formation of the Outer Western Carpathians in NW Slovakia, although it also has broader utilization in the interpretation of sedimentary sequences from other depositional environments. Non-random facies transitions were determined in the investigated strata and compared to the standard deep-water facies models to provide statistical evidence for the sedimentological interpretation of depositional processes. As a result, six genetic facies types, interpreted in terms of depositional processes, were identified. They comprise deposits of density flows, turbidity flows, suspension fallout as well as units which resulted from syn- or post-depositional deformation.

Sta?ová, Sidónia; Soták, Ján; Hudec, Norbert

2009-08-01

193

Increasing Incidence of Geomyces destructans Fungus in Bats from the Czech Republic and Slovakia  

PubMed Central

Background White-nose syndrome is a disease of hibernating insectivorous bats associated with the fungus Geomyces destructans. It first appeared in North America in 2006, where over a million bats died since then. In Europe, G. destructans was first identified in France in 2009. Its distribution, infection dynamics, and effects on hibernating bats in Europe are largely unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We screened hibernacula in the Czech Republic and Slovakia for the presence of the fungus during the winter seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. In winter 2009/2010, we found infected bats in 76 out of 98 surveyed sites, in which the majority had been previously negative. A photographic record of over 6000 hibernating bats, taken since 1994, revealed bats with fungal growths since 1995; however, the incidence of such bats increased in Myotis myotis from 2% in 2007 to 14% by 2010. Microscopic, cultivation and molecular genetic evaluations confirmed the identity of the recently sampled fungus as G. destructans, and demonstrated its continuous distribution in the studied area. At the end of the hibernation season we recorded pathologic changes in the skin of the affected bats, from which the fungus was isolated. We registered no mass mortality caused by the fungus, and the recorded population decline in the last two years of the most affected species, M. myotis, is within the population trend prediction interval. Conclusions/Significance G. destructans was found to be widespread in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, with an epizootic incidence in bats during the most recent years. Further development of the situation urgently requires a detailed pan-European monitoring scheme.

Martinkova, Natalia; Backor, Peter; Bartonicka, Tomas; Blazkova, Pavla; Cerveny, Jaroslav; Falteisek, Lukas; Gaisler, Jiri; Hanzal, Vladimir; Horacek, Daniel; Hubalek, Zdenek; Jahelkova, Helena; Kolarik, Miroslav; Korytar, L'ubos; Kubatova, Alena; Lehotska, Blanka; Lehotsky, Roman; Lucan, Radek K.; Majek, Ondrej; Mateju, Jan; Rehak, Zdenek; Safar, Jiri; Tajek, Premysl; Tkadlec, Emil; Uhrin, Marcel; Wagner, Josef; Weinfurtova, Dita; Zima, Jan; Zukal, Jan; Horacek, Ivan

2010-01-01

194

Extreme Several Day Precipitation Totals At The Hurbanovo Observatory (slovakia) During The 20th Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteorological Observatory at Hurbanovo (Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute) is the only one in the Slovak Republic that has continuous and reliable time series of daily precipitation totals from the end of the 19th century (since 1871). It is located in the Danubian Lowland in the southwestern part of Slovakia, 115 m a.s.l. In a broader sense this observatory is representative for the climatic conditions of the whole region of the Carpathian (Panonian) Hollow, which contains the lowlands of Central Europe. This study is devoted to the analysis of the possible changes in the time series of extreme precipitation totals in connection with global warming. The analysis of the long-term precipitation series and trends in the series of extreme precipitation events at Hurbanovo is important, since the region belongs to the most developed agricultural areas in Central Europe, exhibits a rather high density of rural population and has con- siderable ground water resources. Expected climate change can cause serious negative impacts in the lowlands due to expected increase of the number and volume of heavy precipitation events. The extreme precipitation totals for various duration (from one to five days) for the period 1901-2000 have been analysed (in monthly, seasonal and annual periods). It was attempted to identify significant trends in the time series for such extreme precipitation totals. Depth-Duration-Frequency relationships of various time intervals (1901-1950, 1926-1975, 1951-2000, 1901-2000) have been derived and compared. Finally the correlation of extreme one to five day precipitation totals with monthly precipitation totals have been elaborated. The results will be used as input to construction of baseline scenarios for analysis of climate change impact in the 21st century in Slovakia.

Gaal, L.; Lapin, M.

195

Drought analysis in Serbia using the Standardized Precipitation Index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many quantitative measures of drought have been developed. McKee et al. (1993) introduced the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) to quantify precipitation deficits on multiple time scales (1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 months). The different time scales for which the index is computed address the various types of drought: the shorter seasons for agricultural and meteorological drought, the longer seasons for hydrological drought. Computation of the SPI involves fitting a gamma probability density function to a given frequency distribution of precipitation totals. The parameters of the gamma distribution are used to find the cumulative probability of a precipitation event. An equiprobability transformation is then made from the cumulative distribution to the standard normal distribution with a mean of zero and variance of one. This transformed probability is the SPI value, which varies between +2.0 and -2.0. The SPI is a dimensionless index where negative values indicate drought while positive values, wet conditions. The rainfall series for the present (1961-1990) and future (2071-2100) period were simulated using the Eta Belgrade University - Princeton Ocean Model (EBU-POM). The EBU-POM is a two-way coupled regional climate model, with the Eta/NCEP limited area model as its atmospheric part and POM as its ocean part (Djurdjevic and Rajkovic, 2008). Atmospheric model horizontal resolution was 0.25° and ocean model horizontal resolution was 0.2°. Concentrations of the greenhouse gasses were changed following the A2 scenario. First, a gamma probability density function is fitted to the precipitation data during the period 1961-1990 (the calibration period). The SPI time series with the 12-month time scale (SPI12) for Belgrade and Niš were analyzed and compared with observations. August in 2000 was exceptionally dry in the greater Belgrade area and in northern and eastern Serbia (Unkasevic et al, 2004). The monthly totals were between 5 and 10 mm. Since, the maps of the SPI-12 for August during the period 2071-2100 were drawn to determine the spatial changes of droughts. According to the obtained results, moderately dry climate is expected over greater part of the southern Europe, while severely dry climate is expected in southern Greece. From the analysis we can conclude that the EBU-POM model could capture the climatic data and also the drought indices well. Also, this analysis showed how SPI12 can be used to monitor drought conditions in Serbia. Djurdjevic, V., B. Rajkovic (2008) Verification of a coupled atmosphere-ocean model using satellite observations over the Adriatic Sea. Annales Geophysicae, 26, 1935-1954 McKee, T. B., N. J. Doesken, J. Kleist (1993) The relationship of drought frequency and duration to time scales. Preprints, Eighth Conf. on Applied Climatology, Anaheim, CA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 179-184 Unkasevic, M., I. Tosic, D. Vujovic, 2004: Variability and probability of annual and extreme precipitation over Serbia and Montenegro, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 79, 103-109

Tosic, I.; Krzic, A.; Djurdjevic, V.; Unkasevic, M.; Rajkovic, B.

2010-09-01

196

Case study: A severe hailstorm and strong downbursts over northeastern Slovenia on June 16th 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction A strong isolated storm complex with bow echo feature crossed northeastern Slovenia in the late afternoon hours and caused extensive damage due to severe wind gusts near 30m/s, excessive rainfalls and large hail. Synoptic situation On June 16th 2009, an upper-level ridge persists over southern Europe while a positively tilted short-wave trough, connected to a complex deep trough over northern Europe, crosses central Europe. Accompanied by this trough, a cold front is extending southwestwards towards the Alps. A relatively strong jet steak wraps around the trough axis and creates strong shear environment which overlaps with a narrow band of unstable airmass present ahead of the coming frontal boundary. Behind this trough/front over central Europe, a high pressure area is developing with stable conditions. Over Slovenia, strong surface heating was on going through the day but lack of near-surface convergence zones, limited moisture and strong capping inversion surpressed any storm initiation in the afternoon. Presentation of research This case study will go through a research of damaging bow echo which caused extensive damage due to severe winds, excessive rainfalls and large hail over much of northeastern Slovenia. Numerous trees were down or uprooted and numerous roofs were blown off or were seriously damaged due to severe wind gusts near or exceeding 30m/s. At first stages, when an isolated severe storm entered Slovenia, it had classic high precipitation supercell features while it transformed into a powerful bow echo later on. Very large hail up to 6cm in diameter was first observed in southeast Austria and near the border with Slovenia, while later on the main threat was very strong wind gusts and intense rainfalls. This research paper will show a detailed analysis of the synoptic situation including analysis of satellite, radar and surface observations. Radar imagery clearly showed isolated storm trailing along the near-surface frontal boundary as a bow echo and also satellite imagery showed signs of extremely severe storm as overshooting tops, "cold ring" and "U-shape" features were observed. References - Skywarn Austria forum: (http://www.skywarn.at/forum/) - EARS radar and SFC observations archive (http://www.arso.gov.si) - EARS article: Porocilo o neurjih 16. junija 2009 - OSMER FVG (http://www.meteo.fvg.it) - ESSL/ESWD database (www.essl.org) - ESTOFEX convective maps (www.estofex.org) - EUMETSAT satellite imagery (www.eumetsat.int) - 24ur.com/RTVSLO web portal (www.24ur.com, www.rtvslo.si) - Sobota Info web portal (www.sobotainfo.com) - Pomurje web portal (www.pomurje.si) - Administration of the Republic of Slovenia for Civil Protection and Disaster Relief, www.sos112.si - Worldwide Skew-t diagrams (http://weather.uwyo.edu/upperair/europe.html)

Korosec, M.

2009-09-01

197

The helminth parasites of two sympatric species of the genus Apodemus (Rodentia, Muridae) from south-eastern Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The helminths of two sympatric species of rodents, the striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius and the yellow-necked mouse, Apodemus flavicollis from Slovakia were studied to determine whether there are similarities in the composition of the helminth fauna of two closely\\u000a related host species living in the same area. A total of twelve species of helminths were identified in these rodent

Jarmila Ondríková; Dana Miklisová; Alexis Ribas; Michal Stanko

2010-01-01

198

Monitoring of post-failure landslide deformation by the PS-InSAR technique at Lubietova in Central Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interferometric synthetic aperture radar data from ERS and ENVISAT sensors were utilized in the analysis of the post-failure\\u000a deformations in the area of Lubietova town in Central Slovakia. The catastrophic landslide of 1977 together with surrounding\\u000a landslides in the Lubietova area were analysed with the help of persistent scatterers (PS) technique in order to evaluate\\u000a recent and past deformations of

Vladimir Greif; Jan Vlcko

199

High burden of tick-borne encephalitis in Slovenia--challenge for vaccination policy.  

PubMed

Slovenia is one of the countries with the highest reported incidence rates of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). Vaccination uptake is low, estimated to be 12.4%. TBE surveillance data for the last 20 years were analysed. Though nearly all of Slovenia is endemic for TBE with national yearly incidence rates up to 26.7/100,000, we showed that two regions (Gorenjska and Koroška) were much more affected than other seven regions, with annual incidence rates up to 57.2/100,000 and 76.9/100,000 population, respectively. In the last decade, there was a shift in the age distribution of reported TBE cases to the older age groups, which resulted in the highest age-specific incidence rates nationally in 55-64 age group (up to 33.4/100,000 in 2006). To reduce this high burden of TBE, ideally the whole population of Slovenia should be offered free of charge vaccination against TBE. Alternatively, in view of limited resources available, sensible approach would be increasing vaccination coverage of the general population using social marketing and increasing TBE awareness, and in addition, offering free of charge vaccination to the most affected groups. The following priority target groups should be considered to be prospectively covered with free of charge vaccination: (1) 45-69 years old individuals in the two most affected regions (Gorenjska, Koroška), (2) the remaining age groups in the two most affected regions, (3) 45-69 years old individuals in the region with the next highest TBE incidence rates (Ljubljana), and (4) individuals 45-69 years old in all remaining Slovenian regions. PMID:21620916

Grgi?-Vitek, Marta; Klavs, Irena

2011-07-18

200

Epidemiological study of a cohort of adult patients with Erythema migrans registered in Slovenia in 1993.  

PubMed

Epidemiological characteristics of 892 adult patients with typical Erythema migrans (Em), registered at Lyme borreliosis Outpatients' Clinic, Department of Infectious Diseases, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Slovenia, in 1993, are presented. Data were gathered prospectively by means of a questionnaire. All the patients were seen by at least one of the four authors of this report. There were 57% females and 43% males aged from 15 to 91 years (median value 44 years, mean 44.4 +/- 14.3 years). The highest number of patients was found in age groups from 30 to 59 years. 73% of the patients quoted a tick bite at the site of later Em and 6% an insect bite; 21% didn't remember any bite. 212 out of 638 patients with a tick bite were able to assess the maximal possible duration of tick attachment: two-thirds quoted 24 hours or less. Interval from a tick bite to the appearance of skin changes was one day to six months (median value 15 days, mean 20.3 +/- 20.6 days) and from the beginning of Em to registration one day to 10 months (median value eight days, mean 17.1 +/- 24.2 days). More than half of the patients were registered in June, July and August. The majority of patients with Em resided in the region of Ljubljana. They were bitten by ticks predominantly near their homes but some of them also quite far away. Slovenia is an endemic region for Lyme borreliosis. The number of cases presented in our report is most likely only a fraction of the real number of patients with Em in the region of Ljubljana and is even further underestimated for other parts of Slovenia. PMID:8905313

Strle, F; Maraspin, V; Furlan-Lotric, S; Cimperman, J

1996-10-01

201

Health impact assessment of agriculture and food policies: lessons learnt from the Republic of Slovenia.  

PubMed Central

The most important public health priority in agricultural policy-making is currently food safety, despite the relatively higher importance of food security, nutrition, and other agricultural-related health issues in terms of global burden of disease. There is limited experience worldwide of using health impact assessment (HIA) during the development of agriculture and food policies, which perhaps reflects the complex nature of this policy sector. This paper presents methods of HIA used in the Republic of Slovenia, which is conducting a HIA of proposed agricultural and food policies due to its accession to the European Union. It is the first time that any government has attempted to assess the health effects of agricultural policy at a national level. The HIA has basically followed a six-stage process: policy analysis; rapid appraisal workshops with stakeholders from a range of backgrounds; review of research evidence relevant to the agricultural policy; analysis of Slovenian data for key health-related indicators; a report on the findings to a key cross-government group; and evaluation. The experience in Slovenia shows that the HIA process has been a useful mechanism for raising broader public health issues on the agricultural policy agenda, and it has already had positive results for policy formation. HIA is one useful approach to more integrated policy-making across sectors, but clearly it is not the only mechanism to achieve this. A comparison of the approach used in Slovenia with HIA methods in other countries and policy contexts shows that there are still many limitations with HIA application at a government level. Lessons can be learnt from these case studies for future development and application of HIA that is more relevant to policy-makers, and assists them in making more healthy policy choices.

Lock, Karen; Gabrijelcic-Blenkus, Mojca; Martuzzi, Marco; Otorepec, Peter; Wallace, Paul; Dora, Carlos; Robertson, Aileen; Zakotnic, Jozica Maucec

2003-01-01

202

Distribution of lead, cadmium, and zinc in tissues of hens and chickens from Slovenia  

SciTech Connect

Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are environmental contaminants which are present in almost all living organisms and are non-essential for plants, animals and human beings. Zinc (Zn) is an essential element which occurs together with Cd and is linked with it. Little information exists about the contamination of tissues of hens and chickens with these elements. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of lead, cadmium, and zinc in different tissues of poultry and eggs in Slovenia. 10 refs., 7 tabs.

Doganoc, D.Z. [Univ. of Ljubljana (Slovenia)] [Univ. of Ljubljana (Slovenia)

1996-12-01

203

Polymerase chain reaction confirmation of Babesia canis canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in dogs suspected of babesiosis in Slovakia.  

PubMed

Canine babesiosis was considered an imported tick transmitted disease until the first case of autochthonous canine babesiosis in Slovakia was described in 2002. Since then, the number of cases kept increasing every year. The causative agent of babesiosis in dogs is not yet characterized; therefore, the aim of our study was to determine the agent and the rate of infection in the vector tick D. reticulatus in Slovakia. Babesia canis canis was detected in 80 out of 87 blood samples from dogs with clinical manifestations of babesiosis. Six dogs suspected of babesiosis tested positive for presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and one mixed infection of B. c. canis and A. phagocytophilum was detected. B. c. canis was detected in 35.6% questing adults of D. reticulatus. The obtained sequences from blood samples showed 99.7% and from D. reticulatus, 99.4% similarity with the B. c. canis (AY072926) from dogs infected in Croatia. In our study, we characterized the agent of canine babesiosis from blood samples of naturally infected dogs and D. reticulatus, the vector tick. Further, the presence of A. phagocytophilum, bacterium responsible for the canine granulocytic anaplasmosis, was recorded in dogs for the first time in Slovakia. PMID:21736486

Majláthová, Viktória; Majláth, Igor; Víchová, Bronislava; Gul'ová, Ivana; Derdáková, Markéta; Sesztáková, Edina; Pet'ko, Branislav

2011-11-01

204

Tritium concentration analysis in atmospheric precipitation in Serbia.  

PubMed

Tritium activity concentration were monitored in monthly precipitation at five locations in Serbia (Meteorological Station of Belgrade at Zeleno Brdo, Vin?a Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Smederevska Palanka, Kraljevo and Niš) over 2005, using electrolytic enrichment and liquid scintillation counting. The obtained concentrations ranged from 3.36 to 127.02 TU. The activity values obtained in samples collected at Zeleno Brdo were lower or close to the minimum detectable activity (MDA), which has a value of 3.36 TU. Significantly higher tritium levels were obtained in samples collected in Vin?a Institute of Nuclear Sciences compared with samples from the other investigated locations. Amount of precipitation were also recorded. A good linear correlation (r = 0.75) for Zeleno Brdo and VINS between their tritium activity was obtained. It was found that the value of the symmetrical index n (which indicates the magnitude of tritium content changes with time (months) through its second derivative) is the highest for Vin?a Institute of Nuclear Sciences compared to other locations, which is in accordance with the fact that the highest concentrations of tritium were obtained in the samples from the cited place. PMID:22416861

Jankovi?, Marija M; Jankovi?, Bojan Ž; Todorovi?, Dragana J; Ignjatovi?, Ljubiša M

2012-01-01

205

Determination of phytoestrogen composition in soybean cultivars in Serbia.  

PubMed

The growing clinical interest and use of soybean-based food products and extracts to increase dietary phytoestrogen intake have led to medical interest in the precise determination of the phytoestrogen composition of soybean products. We have analyzed the composition of these compounds in 20 domestic and introduced varieties of genetically non-modified soybean genotypes grown under the same agroecological conditions. The isoflavone content of soybeans cultivated in this region of Serbia has not been previously reported. The assays were performed, after extraction with methanol-water (8:2, v/v), by C18 reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection. The total phytoestrogen concentration was found to be between 2.24 and 3.79 mg g(-1) dry bean weight. The total concentration of daidzein and its derivatives ranged from 0.96 to 1.82 mg g(-1), total glyciteines from 0.34-0.53 mg g(-1), and all genistein derivatives from 0.86-1.67 mg g(-1) dry bean weight. Given the high biological potency of phytoestrogens and their metabolic conversion products, our data suggest that phytoestrogen content screening could be a useful tool in the selection of soybean genotypes with improved health promoting characteristics. PMID:19768985

Cveji?, Jelena; Malenci?, Dorde; Tepavcevi?, Vesna; Posa, Mihalj; Miladinovi?, Jegor

2009-08-01

206

Annual and seasonal variability of precipitation in Vojvodina, Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Annual and seasonal variability of precipitation observed at 92 stations in Vojvodina (Serbia) were analyzed during the period 1946-2006. The rainfall series were examined by means of the empirical orthogonal functions (EOF). The first set of singular vectors explains from 68.8 % (in summer) to 81.8 % (in winter) of the total variance. The temporal variability of the time series associated with the main EOF configurations (the principal components, PCs) was examined using the Mann-Kendall test and the spectral analysis. The time series of PC1 revealed decreasing trend in the winter and spring precipitation and increasing trend in the autumn, summer, and annual precipitation. The relationships between the first PC and circulation patterns, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the East Atlantic (EA) pattern, and East Atlantic/West Russia pattern, were also investigated. The PC1, displaying temporal behavior of the first mode, demonstrated evident correspondence with the NAO index in analysis of the annual, winter, and autumn precipitation. Power spectra of the PC1 show statistically significant oscillations of about 3.3 years for the spring precipitation and about 8 and 15 years for the winter precipitation. Comparisons with spectral analysis of authors for some regions in Europe, most of them in the Mediterranean domain, show that similar periodicities are detected.

Toši?, Ivana; Hrnjak, Ivana; Gavrilov, Milivoj B.; Unkaševi?, Miroslava; Markovi?, Slobodan B.; Luki?, Tin

2013-09-01

207

Presence of Leishmania and Brucella Species in the Golden Jackal Canis aureus in Serbia  

PubMed Central

The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010–02/2013) from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as the tissue to proceed; all samples were tested for Leishmania species and Brucella species by real-time PCR. Of the 216 samples collected, 15 (6.9%) were positive for Leishmania species, while four (1.9%) were positive for B. canis. The potential epidemiologic role of the golden jackal in carrying and dispersing zoonotic diseases in Serbia should be taken under consideration when applying surveillance monitoring schemes.

Cirovic, Dusko; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tomanovic, Snezana; Sukara, Ratko; Penezic, Aleksandra; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

2014-01-01

208

Presence of Leishmania and Brucella Species in the Golden Jackal Canis aureus in Serbia.  

PubMed

The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010-02/2013) from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as the tissue to proceed; all samples were tested for Leishmania species and Brucella species by real-time PCR. Of the 216 samples collected, 15 (6.9%) were positive for Leishmania species, while four (1.9%) were positive for B. canis. The potential epidemiologic role of the golden jackal in carrying and dispersing zoonotic diseases in Serbia should be taken under consideration when applying surveillance monitoring schemes. PMID:24967397

Cirovi?, Duško; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tomanovi?, Snežana; Sukara, Ratko; Penezi?, Aleksandra; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

2014-01-01

209

Estimation of flash floods in small ungauged basins in Slovakia: case studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper application of a methodology for analysis of flash flood events in several ungauged small basins in Slovakia was evaluated. The methodology proposed within the framework of the FP6 HYDRATE project (www.hydrate.tesaf.unipd.it) is based on the post-event surveying and hydrological modelling, using a spatially distributed hydrological model with a high spatial resolution of rainfall data and physiographical basin properties. Six large flash floods which occurred in Slovakia during the last 10 years were selected, with the emphasis on their extremity and different physical and geographical basins properties. The estimation of the maximum flood peaks and flood wave volumes was provided on the base of the post-event analysis after the flood events. The areas of channel's cross-profiles were measured for maximal water level, longitudinal slope of water level was approximated to the bottom slope and roughness was estimated according to the river banks and channel bottoms. Flow velocities were estimated using Chézy equation and Manning roughness coefficient. The reconstructed flood waves were compared with the simulated discharges using the distributed event-based rainfall-runoff model KLEM. The distributed hydrological model KLEM is based on the availability of raster information of the landscape's topography, soil and vegetation properties, and radar rainfall data. The SCS-Curve Number procedure is applied on a grid for the spatially-distributed representation of runoff-generating processes, a description of the drainage system response is used for representing the runoff's routing. Digital elevation models as well as soil, geology, land use and rainfall data for the basins were prepared in the grid form (resolution of 20 m). Radar rainfall data or maps of isohyets in 15-minutes time step or were used as input precipitation in the model. Comparison of the results achieved by the KLEM model and the post-event analysis for floods showed the consistency of simulated and estimated discharges both in time and space, and the methodology has proven its applicability for practical purposes.

Hlavcova, Kamila; Horvat, Oliver; Kohnova, Silvia; Szolgay, Jan; Roncak, Peter

2013-04-01

210

Selected characteristics of meteorological elements and their trends since the mid-20th century in Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of some characteristics of air temperature, air humidity, precipitation and snow cover at selected meteorological stations located in different regions of Slovakia was performed for the period 1951 to 2012. Stations represent lowland regions (up to 300 meters), mid-altitude regions (300 to 800 meters) and high altitude mountain regions (above 1000 m). Series of highest annual maximum air temperature show obvious gradual increase from 80s of the 20th century on all selected stations and also the occurrence of new record values in the last years of the analyzed period 1951 -2012. In most stations the absolute maximum air temperature for 1951 - 2012 period was recorded during July 2007, whereas the highest annual maximum temperatures were recorded predominantly during the month of August in Slovakia. Values of annual maximum of mean daily temperature show evident upward trend and at some stations the highest mean daily temperature was recorded just in recent years (e.g. at station Slia? in 2012). Positive trends of the lowest annual minimum temperature at selected stations in the period 1951-2012 are not so significant and it is evident that the lowest annual minimum air temperature didn't drop as low as in the past, respectively they didn't reach record values as in the 50s or 80s of the 20-th century. Changes of minimum and maximum monthly precipitation totals during the year indicate that the number of cases with extremely low monthly total was increasing. Although frequency of occurrence of extremely high monthly precipitation totals was rather chaotic, in some recent years the observed values of monthly precipitation totals represented the absolutely highest monthly values for entire analyzed period 1951-2012. On the other hand, towards the end of this period, cases when minimum monthly precipitation totals were close to zero also became more common. Very significant is the trend in the lowest annual relative humidity in the 1951-2012 period, particularly at city airport stations (stations Bratislava airport and Kosice airport), but also at peak stations Chopok and Lomnický štít. Total snow cover in the valleys and lower altitudes in the late 20th and early 21st century is less stable from the end of 90s. The comparison of annual maximum depth of total snow cover and new snow cover shoved similar and in some years even identical values. It was quite common that a significant snowfall especially at lower altitudes was immediately followed by quick thaw and melting of new snow cover, eliminating further accumulation of snow.

Fasko, Pavel; Švec, Marek; Š?astný, Pavel; Kajaba, Peter

2014-05-01

211

Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Their Hydroxylated Metabolites (OH-PCBs) in Pregnant Women from Eastern Slovakia  

PubMed Central

Objective Our aim in the present study was to characterize and quantify the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and specific polychlorobiphenylol (OH-PCB) metabolites in maternal sera from women delivering in eastern Slovakia. Design During 2002–2004, blood samples were collected from women delivering in two Slovak locations: Michalovce district, where PCBs were formerly manufactured, and Svidnik and Stropkov districts, about 70 km north. Participants A total of 762 and 341 pregnant women were sampled from Michalovce and Svidnik/Stropkov, respectively, and OH-PCBs were measured in 131 and 31. Evaluation/Measurements We analyzed PCBs using gas chromatography (GC)/electron capture detection. OH-PCBs and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were determined as methyl derivatives using GC-electron capture negative ionization/mass spectrometry. We characterized distributions in the full cohort using inverse sampling weights. Results The concentrations of both PCBs and OH-PCB metabolites of Michalovce mothers were about two times higher than those of the Svidnik/Stropkov mothers (p < 0.001). The median weighted maternal serum levels of the sum of PCBs (?PCBs) were 5.73 ng/g wet weight (Michalovce) and 2.82 ng/g wet weight (Svidnik/Stropkov). The median sum of OH-PCBs (?OH-PCBs) was 0.55 ng/g wet weight in Michalovce mothers and 0.32 ng/g wet weight in Svidnik/Stropkov mothers. 4-OH-2,2? ,3,4? ,5,5? ,6-Heptachlorobiphenyl (4-OH-CB187) was a primary metabolite, followed by 4-OH-2,2? ,3,4? ,5,5? -hexachlorobiphenyl (4-OH-CB146). Only four PCB congeners—CBs 153, 138, 180, and 170—had higher concentrations than 4-OH-CB187 and 4-OH-CB146 (p < 0.001). The median ratio of the ?OH-PCBs to the ?PCBs was 0.10. Conclusions Mothers residing in eastern Slovakia are still highly exposed to PCBs, and their body burdens of these pollutants and OH-PCB metabolites may pose a risk for adverse effects on health for themselves and their children.

Park, June-Soo; Linderholm, Linda; Charles, M. Judith; Athanasiadou, Maria; Petrik, Jan; Kocan, Anton; Drobna, Beata; Trnovec, Tomas; Bergman, Ake; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

2007-01-01

212

Simulation of hydrological response to the future climate in mountainous basins in Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential impact of climate changes on river runoff and water balance in mountainous basins in Slovakia was evaluated using a conceptual spatially-lumped water balance model and a regional climate model (RCM). Selected mountainous basins are significantly affected by local climate conditions and the need for high resolution climate studies is particularly important here. Within the framework of the Sixth Framework Programme CECILIA (Central and Eastern Europe Climate Change Impact and Vulnerability Assessment) the ALADIN-Climate regional model with a very high resolution was developed and applied to test the sensitivity of the basins to climate changes. Climate characteristics as precipitation totals, air temperature and relative air humidity were simulated by the ALADIN-Climate model in daily time step with the grid spacing of 10 km. These grid climate outputs were spatially averaged over the selected basins and recalculated to monthly time step. The hydrological scenarios of the changes in the seasonal runoff distribution were constructed using the following methodology: a) calibration of the conceptual hydrological balance model on data from the reference period and simulation of the reference mean monthly runoff series, b) simulation of the monthly runoff series using the calibrated hydrological balance model and changed input climate data according to the RCM outputs for the future time horizons, c) comparison of the differences between the seasonal runoff distribution in the reference period and future time horizons. The conceptual water balance model was calibrated in monthly time step with data from 1971-2000 period and validated with data from 1961-1970 period. Based on outputs of the ALADINE-Climate model the possible changes in the mean monthly runoff for the time horizons of 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 were estimated. Simulated results of the long-term mean monthly runoff indicate future changes in the seasonal runoff distribution in the mountainous basins in Slovakia. It could generally be concluded for both of the investigated time horizons, that during the winter and early spring periods, an increase in the long-term mean monthly runoff could be assumed. The period of an increase in runoff could occur from November/December to February/March. This increase could be caused by the increase in air temperature and a shift of the snow melting period from the spring months to the winter period. The period of the decrease in runoff could occur from May to October/November. The increase in winter runoff and the decrease in summer runoff are expected to be more extreme for the later time horizon.

Výleta, Roman; Macurová, Zuzana; Hlav?ová, Kamila; Úrek, Peter Ĺ.; Kohnová, Silvia

2010-05-01

213

Transposing the E. E. U. Blood Directive into national law. Perspective of Slovenia.  

PubMed

Transposing the Directive (2002/98/CE) into the national legislation of EU Member States represents the basis for an equal minimal safe blood transfusion and a demanding job for each of these countries. In order to do this Slovenia will need to somewhat change and supplement the legislation adopted in 2000. In Slovenia, the introduction of the quality assurance system brought on the need for changes in the field of transfusion medicine some years ago. The Directive (2002/98/CE) above all signifies obligatory supplements in the field of organization of the transfusion services and especially organization on a national level. In the field of blood donations the development of the profession itself dictates changes. If and when the Directive (2002/98/CE) refers to clinical work, it will be easier to assert the demands for a more rational use of blood, its traceability and follow-ups of adverse events of a blood transfusion. An obligation to take into account the demands and standards of the Directive (2002/98/CE) will accelerate the fulfillment of numerous tasks which we have set for ourselves in the past in order to increase the safety of blood transfusion. PMID:15814288

Potocnik, Marjeta

2005-02-01

214

Operational programs for national radioactive waste and spent fuel management programme in Slovenia  

SciTech Connect

The first separate National Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel Management Programme (National Programme) was prepared in Slovenia in 2005 as a supplementary part of the National Environmental Action Programme and was adopted in February 2006 by the Slovenian Parliament. The new National Programme includes all topics being relevant for the management of the radioactive waste and spent fuel which are produced in Slovenia, from the legislation and identification of different waste streams, to the management of radioactive waste and spent fuel, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and management of (TE)NORM in the near future from 2006 up to the 2015. The National Programme identified the existing and possible future problems and proposed the technical solutions and action plans for two distinctive periods: 2006-2009 and 2010- 2015. According to the requirement of Act on Protection against Ionising Radiation and Nuclear Safety the national Agency for Radwaste Management (ARAO) prepared the operational programmes for the four year period with technical details on implementation of the National programme. ARAO gained the detailed plans of different involved holders and proposed 9 operational programmes with aims, measures, individual organizations in charge, expenses and resources for each of the programmes. The Operational programmes were already reviewed by the Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning and are under acceptance. The orientation of the radioactive waste management according to the National Programme and operational activities within additional limitations based on the strategical decisions of Slovenian Government is presented in the paper. (authors)

Zeleznik, Nadja; Kralj, Metka; Mele, Irena [Agency for Radwaste Management, Parmova 53, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2007-07-01

215

Overview of the geothermal field of Slovenia in the area between the Alps, the Dinarides and the Pannonian basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An updated review of the available geothermal data for Slovenia is presented. In order to evaluate the main tectono-thermal characteristics, an overview of three most relevant geophysical parameters, namely heat flow density, the distribution of shallow seismicity, and the depth of the Mohorovi?i? boundary, over a much larger, so-called Circum-Adriatic region, extending from the Tyrrhenian Sea to the Pannonian basin, is first given. The pattern and values of these parameters in the Adriatic Sea and just outside this area differ significantly from those of the outlying environment, and thus correspond roughly to the area known as the Adriatic microplate. Slovenia is situated at the northern rim of this geophysically diversified region. In the western part of the country, where the Dinarides and Southern Alps are situated, a good correlation has been found between the deeply lying Mohorovi?i? discontinuity, the low heat flow density, low temperatures at depth and a large negative Bouguer anomaly, whereas in the eastern part of Slovenia (the Pannonian basin) the rising mantle-crust boundary is associated with the high heat flow density, high temperatures at depth and a positive Bouguer anomaly. At the transition zone between the Southern Alps and the Dinarides, along the area of changing crustal thickness, a shallow seismicity belt is indicated. The only DSS profile in Slovenia, crossing the country in a SW-NE direction from Pula (Croatia) to Maribor, reflects the tectonic relations and seismicity between the Dinarides and the Pannonian basin.

Ravnik, , D.; Rajver, D.; Poljak, M.; Živ?i?, M.

1995-11-01

216

Habitat suitability modelling for red deer ( Cervus elaphus L.) in South-central Slovenia with classification trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study and assess the potential habitats of a population of red deer in South-central Slovenia. Using existing data on the deer population spatial distribution and size, as well as data on the landscape and ecological properties (GIS) of the area inhabited by this population, we develop a habitat suitability model by automated data analysis using machine learning of classification

Marko Debeljak; Sašo Džeroski; Klemen Jerina; Andrej Kobler; Miha Adami?

2001-01-01

217

Gypsy Phenylketonuria: A point mutation of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in Gypsy families from Slovakia  

SciTech Connect

A direct mutational analysis of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene (PAH) in Gypsy families with phenylketonuria (PKU) has not yet been presented. However, they obviously represent a group at high risk for this inherited disease. The authors analyzed the PAH loci of 65 Gypsies originating from Eastern Slovakia by a combination of PCR amplification, direct sequencing and ASO hybridization. These studies uncovered 10 {open_quotes}classical PKU{close_quotes} patients to be homozygous for a R252W (CGG-TGG) transition, and 29 heterozygous carriers of this mutation. Fifteen control Caucasoid PKU patients from the Czech and Slovak Republics were selected. In this group they detected R252W mutation in two subjects (6.67% of all mutant alleles). Both were compound heterozygous for two different mutations. Previous haplotype studies of Welsh Gypsies with PKU were uninformative in the determination of heterozygosity. ASO hybridization served effectively for the consequent analyses in Gypsy PKU-related families and to identify the carriers among the unrelated subjects. 19 refs., 2 figs.

Kalanin, J. [Institute for Clinical and Experical Medicine, Praha (Czechoslovakia); Takarada, Y. [Toyobo Research Center, Shiga (Japan); Kagawa, S.; Yamashita, K.; Ohtsuka, N.; Matsuoka, A. [Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan)

1994-01-15

218

Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol in Wheat in Slovakia during 2010 and 2011  

PubMed Central

In this study, a total of 299 grain samples of wheat were collected from four production regions: the maize, sugar beet, potato and feed sectors of Slovakia. The samples were analyzed for deoxynivalenol (DON) content by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay RidascreenŽ Fast DON. Analysis of variance revealed a significant difference between years in DON contents (p < 0.027). The occurrence of samples with DON was 82.2% in 2010, with maximum DON content of 7.88 mg kg?1, and 70.7% in 2011, with maximum DON content of 2.12 mgˇkg?1. The total mean DON content was 0.62 mgˇkg?1; in the feed region 0.22 mgˇkg?1; 0.63 mgˇkg?1 in the maize region; 0.78 mgˇkg?1 in the sugar beet region; 0.45 mgˇkg?1 the potato region. The limit of 1.25 mgˇkg?1 imposed by the European Union (EU) for DON content was exceeded in 13.7% of the studied samples. The average monthly rainfall for May to June played a critical role in DON content of wheat grains for maize and sugar beet producing regions. The present results indicate that DON content was at a high level in grains from wheat grown during 2010.

Slikova, Svetlana; Gavurnikova, Sona; Sudyova, Valeria; Gregova, Edita

2013-01-01

219

Short life expectancy and metabolic syndrome in Romanies (gypsies) in Slovakia.  

PubMed

The aim of this review is to explain short life expectancy in Romanies. Romanies represent the second largest minority in Slovakia (about 7%). Most of them exist on the fringes of the majority society. Their general situation worsened after the fall of communism in 1989. In a market oriented society the unemployment of Romanies further increased due to their poor education and lack of skills. Romany general health is substantially worse than that of the majority population: They have high prevalence of communicable diseases due to poor sanitary and living conditions. Furthermore, epidemiological and metabolic studies revealed in Romanies high prevalence of obesity associated with increased cardiovascular risk. There is no explanation for this seemingly paradoxical phenomenon, in a population living in poor economic conditions. It is possible that in the course of the many generation-long migration from India to Europe, pregnant Romanies and their fetuses sufferred excessive nutritional deficiency. This might have induced adaptive metabolic and genetic changes aimed at optimum utilization of scarce food supply. There is a hypothetical possibility that in them "thrifty gene" was formed. Arrival of Romanies to Europe resulted in somewhat better nutrition, along with sharply reduced physical expenditure. The consequence is a metabolic syndrome with type 2 diabetes and increased cardiovascular mortality. Such unique metabolic feature in Romanies will undoubtedly stimulate further research in molecular biology that may ultimately clarify the role of "thrifty genes". PMID:20586225

Simko, Vlado; Ginter, Emil

2010-03-01

220

Occurrence of deoxynivalenol in wheat in Slovakia during 2010 and 2011.  

PubMed

In this study, a total of 299 grain samples of wheat were collected from four production regions: the maize, sugar beet, potato and feed sectors of Slovakia. The samples were analyzed for deoxynivalenol (DON) content by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay RidascreenŽ Fast DON. Analysis of variance revealed a significant difference between years in DON contents (p < 0.027). The occurrence of samples with DON was 82.2% in 2010, with maximum DON content of 7.88 mg kg?š, and 70.7% in 2011, with maximum DON content of 2.12 mgˇkg?š. The total mean DON content was 0.62 mgˇkg?š; in the feed region 0.22 mgˇkg?š; 0.63 mgˇkg?š in the maize region; 0.78 mgˇkg?š in the sugar beet region; 0.45 mgˇkg?š the potato region. The limit of 1.25 mgˇkg?š imposed by the European Union (EU) for DON content was exceeded in 13.7% of the studied samples. The average monthly rainfall for May to June played a critical role in DON content of wheat grains for maize and sugar beet producing regions. The present results indicate that DON content was at a high level in grains from wheat grown during 2010. PMID:23917334

Sliková, Svetlana; Gavurníková, So?a; Sudyová, Valéria; Gregová, Edita

2013-08-01

221

The nanoparticulate nature of invisible gold in arsenopyrite from Pezinok (Slovakia)  

SciTech Connect

Arsenopyrite is the most common sulfide host of invisible gold. Yet, despite many studies, the position of such gold in the structure of arsenopyrite has not been resolved conclusively. Here we report a multitechnique study of arsenopyrite samples from the Pezinok deposits (Slovakia) with moderate gold concentrations of 7-10 {micro}g/g. Secondary ion mass spectrometry showed that the invisible gold occurs as either (1) almost uniform, low-concentration of 'dispersed' gold, or as (2) hot spots along fractures. X-ray absorption spectra at the Au L{sub III} edge were collected from such hot spots. The spectra document metallic character of gold although no discrete gold particles were seen even after careful re-examining in back-scattered electron images. We conclude that such occurrences are most readily explained by the presence of gold nanoparticles. We suggest that the dispersed gold is the chemically-bound gold previously detected in these deposits by 197Au Moessbauer spectroscopy. The concentration of the dispersed gold is too low for X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

Majzlan, Juraj; Chovan, Martin; Andráš , Peter; Newville, Matthew; Wiedenbeck, Michael (Institute of Geosciences, Germany)

2010-04-09

222

Late Pleistocene voles (Arvicolinae, Rodentia) from the Baranica Cave (Serbia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Baranica is a cave system situated in the south-eastern part of Serbia, four kilometers south to Knjaževac, on the right bank of the Trgovi\\vski Timok. The investigations in Baranica were conducted from 1994 to 1997 by the Faculty of Philosophy from Belgrade and the National Museum of Knjaževac. Four geological layers of Quaternary age were recovered. The abundance of remains of both large and small mammals was noticed in the early phase of the research. In this paper, the remains of eight vole species are described: Arvicola terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758), Chionomys nivalis (Martins, 1842), Microtus (Microtus) arvalis (Pallas, 1778) and Microtus (Microtus) agrestis (Linnaeus, 1761), Microtus (Stenocranius) gregalis (Pallas, 1779), Microtus (Terricola) subterraneus (de Sélys-Longchamps, 1836), Clethrionomys glareolus (Schreber, 1780) and Lagurus lagurus (Pallas, 1773). Among them, steppe and open area inhabitants prevail. Based on the evolutionary level and dimensions of the Arvicola terrestris molars, as well as the overall characteristics of the fauna, it was concluded that the deposits were formed in the last glacial period of the Late Pleistocene. These conclusions are rather consistent with the absolute dating of large mammal bones (23.520 ą 110 B.P. for Layer 2 and 35.780 ą 320 B.P. for Layer 4).

Bogi?evi?, Katarina; Nenadi?, Draženko; Mihailovi?, Dušan

2012-02-01

223

Molecular Epidemiology of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Belgrade, Central Serbia  

PubMed Central

In order to gain precise data on the actual epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in Belgrade, central Serbia, we conducted the molecular epidemiological investigation described herein. IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing of 176 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates was performed. These strains were obtained from 48.4% of all patients diagnosed with culture-proven pulmonary TB from April through September 1998 and from May through October 1999. Clusters containing strains with identical RFLP IS6110 patterns were assumed to have arisen from recent transmission. Of the 176 cases, 55 (31.2%) were grouped into 23 clusters ranging in size from two to six patients. Nearly 80% of clustered patients were directly interviewed, and transmission between family-unrelated contacts was found to be predominant in the study population. Classical contact investigation identified only 2 (3.6%) of the 55 clustered patients. The clustering of TB patients was not associated with any demographic or clinical characteristic other than infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) M. tuberculosis strains. Nearly 70% of MDR strains were clustered, which indicates active transmission of MDR TB in Belgrade. However, this was not observed by conventional epidemiologic surveillance. In conclusion, the first molecular epidemiologic analysis of TB in the region revealed frequent recent transmission of TB and pointed out significant shortcomings of the current concept for conventional contact tracing. The results presented also demonstrate that transmission of MDR TB in Belgrade is not optimally controlled, and they provide support for the development of improved control strategies, including application of molecular methods.

Vukovic, Dragana; Rusch-Gerdes, Sabine; Savic, Branislava; Niemann, Stefan

2003-01-01

224

‘New face of Serbia’ at the Eurovision Song Contest: international media spectacle and national identity1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to examine the construction\\/recycling of national identities primarily through the participation of Serbia (and Montenegro) at the Eurovision Song Contests 2004–2008. First, the performances of this country's representatives at the Eurovision Song Contest will be examined, emphasising the aspects that contribute to the popularity of the songs chosen to represent the nation and the

Marijana Mitrovi?

2010-01-01

225

Torrent floodplain mapping and torrent flood control in Serbia in the conditions of economic crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serbia is a country that is endangered by flooding of the largest European river, the Danube and its largest tributaries, as well as by countless torrents. During the 19th and 20th centuries, an imposing scope of protection structures was constructed. The existence of the protection system created the conviction that flood protection was achieved and that it should only be

Z. Gavrilovic; M. Stefanovic

2009-01-01

226

LATE HOLOCENE CLIMATIC CHANGE IN THE BALKANS: SPELEOTHEM ISOTOPIC DATA FROM SERBIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed profile of the stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen was obtained from a speleothem (stalagmite) from the Ceremosjna Cave in eastern Serbia. The stalagmite is a low magnesian calcite that did not show any evidence of diagenetic alteration. It was precipitated under isotopic equilibrium conditions from dripping water. The age and rate of dep- osition was derived from

Aleksander Kacanski; Israel Carmi; Aldo Shemesh; Joel Kronfeld; Ruth Yam; Akiva Flexer

227

The Public Healthcare System in the Transition Countries the Case Study of Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The public healthcare system of Serbia, from the beginning of the past century, when more or less the unperceivable demolition of socialism, was faced with great problems. During the time, they became almost unsolvable due to servitude to old ideas and approaches to goals, organization and managing the state and public sector, political work and everday public and business managing.

Sofija Adzic; Jasminka Adzic

2009-01-01

228

The impact of educational reform and categorization of scientific journals and scientists on physics in Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The trend of the increasing participation and importance of female physicists in Serbia continues. Many women have taken leading position in research and faculty governance and are contributing significantly to educational reform and the improvement of physics education in the primary and secondary schools.

Boži?, Mirjana; Davidovi?, Milena; Kapor, Agneš; Kneževi?, Dragica; Pavkov-Hrvojevi?, Milica; Pua?, Nevena; Savi?, Ilija; Stojanovi?, Maja; Markovi?-Topalovi?, Tatjana

2013-03-01

229

Seasonal analysis of cold and heat waves in Serbia during the period 1949-2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change has become one of the subjects most analysed by researchers, mainly because of the numerous extreme events that have hit the globe. A series of daily minimum and maximum temperatures at 15 stations in Serbia were used to calculate temperature indices, from which the duration and severity of cold and heat waves were estimated. Seasonal analysis was based on data from 1949 to 2012. The year 2012 saw severe cooling in Serbia, the longest heat waves during the summer and the worst drought since observations began — three major climate anomalies all in 1 year. An analysis of the daily minimum temperatures at almost all meteorological stations during the winter season revealed that the longest cold waves were observed in 1956. The longest heat waves were observed during the summer of 2012 in Serbia at ten out of 15 stations, but they did not reach the severity of those in July 2007. In addition, the main characteristics of the circulation conditions which caused the longest cold and heat waves in Serbia were analysed.

Unkaševi?, Miroslava; Toši?, Ivana

2014-04-01

230

Intelligence agencies and democratisation: Continuity and change in Serbia after Miloševi?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the reform of the Serbian intelligence agencies since the fall of Slobodan Miloševi? and argues that they are important actors in democratisation, with a powerful capacity to influence and frustrate the reform process. However, the Serbian experience demonstrates that the role of intelligence agencies in democratisation is complex. In Serbia, governance of the intelligence sector has been

Timothy Edmunds

2008-01-01

231

Serbia and Vietnam: A Preliminary Comparison of U.S. Decisions to Use Force.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NATO's March 24, 1999 attack on Serbia and the events leading up to it prompted many observers to postulate that the disastrous American intervention in the Vietnam War is an analogy. Indeed, one of the principal architects of that disaster, Robert S. McN...

J. Record

1999-01-01

232

Knowledge, Acknowledgement and Denial in Serbia's Responses to the Srebrenica Massacre  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers some post-Milosevic Serbian responses to the Srebrenica massacre. The focus is on responses which contain strategies of denial or which broadly attempt to explain or justify the massacre without engaging critically with the atrocity itself. These responses are by no means uniform, nor are they the only ones which are available in Serbia. They provide the focus

Jelena Obradovic-Wochnik

2009-01-01

233

Impact of the 20th Century War on Democratic Serbia Today.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Serbia's 21st century security environment is based on the unsolved problems that arose before and after two Balkan wars, World War I, World War II, the Cold War, and the civil war in the former Yugoslavia. These problems are a result of the disagreement ...

Z. Nenadovic

2012-01-01

234

Analysis of Effects of Foreign Bank Entry on Credit Interest Rate Behavior in Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following foreign bank entry, credit interest rates have been extremely high in Serbia compared with a reference group of countries: Croatia, Bulgaria and Romania. This is connected with monetary authorities poor predictions regarding the behavior of those banks in setting interest rates, creating an illusion that competition, per se, would rapidly result in decreasing interest rates; as well as undertaking

?or?e ?uki?

2007-01-01

235

Protection and Assistance to Victims of Human Trafficking in Serbia: Recent Developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews recent developments in the system of protection, assistance and support of victims of human trafficking in Serbia. The establishment of the Agency for Co-ordination of Protection of Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings in 2003, the issuing of the Instruction on Conditions for Obtaining Temporary Residence Permit for Foreign Citizens — Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings

Biljana Simeunovic-Patic; Sanja Copic

2010-01-01

236

Teaching for Humanity in a Neoliberal World: Visions of Education in Serbia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Serbia, teachers and policy makers express different and sometimes competing visions of education. Teachers express their desire to "awaken" students by using progressive pedagogies, while European Union and World Bank reformers appropriate progressive education in the service of neoliberal goals. The research findings presented here indicate…

Dull, Laura J.

2012-01-01

237

General Mental Ability in South Asians: Data from Three Roma (Gypsy) Communities in Serbia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine whether the Roma (Gypsy) population of Serbia, like other South Asian population groups, average lower than Europeans on "g", the general factor of intelligence, we tested 323 16- to 66-year-olds (111 males; 212 females) in three different communities over a two-year-period on the Raven's Colored and/or Standard Progressive Matrices and…

Rushton, J. Philippe; Cvorovic, Jelena; Bons, Trudy Ann

2007-01-01

238

Assessing and Mapping Drought Vulnerability in Agricultural Systems - A case Study for Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought is a recurrent meteorological phenomenon. During recent years there is a rising concern about the increasing frequency of droughts and the ecological, economic and social aspects of their impact, especially because of the possible correlations between droughts and climate change. In the past decade there were four severe agricultural droughts on the territory of Slovenia, which resulted in the damage of most of non-irrigated crops and considerable economic loss. To minimize the impact of such phenomena it is necessary to conduct a drought vulnerability assessment, which could help developing mitigation and adaptation strategies. Development of drought adaptation strategies is one of the core tasks of the Drought Management Centre for South-eastern Europe (DMCSEE). As a part of DMCSEE activities, we started with the pilot project for drought vulnerability assessment for Gori\\vska region in the western part of Slovenia in 2008 with the objective to identify principal impacts of drought and to develop a methodology for drought vulnerability assessment in agriculture. In 2009, we extended the vulnerability assessment area from our pilot region to the entire area of Slovenia. The significance of drought impact on agriculture was evaluated on a five-grade scale based on a number of criteria, which were used according to the availability of the data. We have used the available digital data for soil water-holding capacity, slope, solar radiation, land use and irrigation infrastructure. Vulnerability distributions were arranged according to administrative units - Graphical Units of Agricultural Land (GERK). In the present study, the evaluation grades were assigned subjectively, however, we are introducing objective tools and models to improve the evaluation. In the case of the assessment of the vulnerability of land use for certain types of crops in a specific GERK, we are using an irrigation scheduling model IRRFIB, which estimates water consumption by crops during their growing and ripening season. Geographical mapping was performed using Geographic Information System (GIS) software, which provides graphical presentation of the exposure of particular geographic areas to drought with spatial resolution of 100m in both longitude and latitude. The reliability of our vulnerability assessment model was checked through comparisons of its predictions to the data on agricultural damage in 2006, which were in good agreement.

Slejko, M.; Gregori?, G.; Bergant, K.; Stani?, S.

2010-09-01

239

Best Practice for Rainfall Measurement, Torrential Flood Monitoring and Real Time Alerting System in Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Serbia occupies 88.000 km2 and its confined zone menaced with torrent flood occupies 50.000km2. Floods on large rivers and torrents are the most frequent natural disasters in Serbia. This is the result of a geographic position and relief of Serbia. Therefore, defense from these natural disasters has been institutionalized since the 19th century. Through its specialized bodies and public companies, the State organized defense from floods on large rivers and protection of international and other main roads. The Top?iderska River is one of a number of rivers in Serbia that is a threat to both urban and rural environments. In this text, general characteristics of this river will be illustrated, as well as the historical natural hazards that have occurred in the part of Belgrade near Top?iderska River. Belgrade is the capital of Serbia, its political, administrative and financial center, which means that there are significant financial capacities and human resources for investments in all sectors, and specially in the water resources sector. Along the Top?iderska catchment there are many industrial, traffic and residential structures that are in danger of floods and flood protection is more difficult with rapid high flows. The goal is to use monitoring on the Top?iderska River basin to set up a modern system for monitoring in real time and forecast of torrential floods. This paper represents a system of remote detection and monitoring of torrential floods and rain measurements in real time on Topciderka river and ready for a quick response.

Stefanovic, Milutin; Milojevic, Mileta; Zlatanovic, Nikola

2014-05-01

240

Re-establishment of the fish parasite fauna in the Tisa River system (Slovakia) after a catastrophic pollution event.  

PubMed

An extensive survey of helminth parasites in 1,316 freshwater fish representing 31 species from two aquatic ecosystems in southeastern Slovakia characterized by different level of environmental pollution was carried out. The helminth species diversity was compared between the Tisa River, heavily polluted with cyanides and heavy metals after a series of ecological disasters in 2000, and the less anthropogenically influenced Latorica River. A parasitological survey found 31 gastrointestinal helminths: Trematoda (11 species), Cestoda (14), Acanthocephala (3) and Nematoda (3). As many as 70 host-parasite combinations have been found. Twenty of them (28.6%) represent new host-parasite finding records for the territory of Slovakia. The component communities were species-poor in both rivers, with high dominance of one to three helminth species. Even though the fish communities were qualitatively similar (ICS = 81%) and the number of fish examined was approximately the same (676 and 640) in both localities, the helminth species richness and diversity of host-parasite combinations were two times lower in the more polluted Tisa River. The helminth communities were also much less abundant in the Tisa River. Based on the Czekanowski-Sřrensen similarity index (ICS = 48.8%) and the Percentage similarity index (PI = 19.5%), the helminth communities were qualitatively and quantitatively different in the two rivers. The remarkable lack of species diversity in the Tisa River can be explained by the negative impact of residual contamination of the Tisa river bottom on certain freshwater invertebrates (bivalves and prosobranch mollusks, copepods and amphipods) which serve as obligatory intermediate hosts for the helminths. Four species, the aspidogastrean Aspidogaster limacoides Diesing, 1835, the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus tereticollis (Rudolphi, 1809) tapeworms Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 and Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935 are recorded in Slovakia for the first time. PMID:19214574

Oros, Mikulás; Hanzelová, Vladimíra

2009-06-01

241

7 CFR 319.37-5 - Special foreign inspection and certification requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...South Africa, Spain (including Canary Islands), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, and Venezuela. (b)(1) Any of the following restricted articles (except seeds) at...

2011-01-01

242

7 CFR 319.37-5 - Special foreign inspection and certification requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...South Africa, Spain (including Canary Islands), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, and Venezuela. (b)(1) Any of the following restricted articles (except seeds) at...

2013-01-01

243

7 CFR 319.37-6 - Specific treatment and other requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Slovakia, Slovenia, Republic of South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, Syria, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan Brachycerus spp. and Dyspessa ulula (Bkh.). Castanea seeds All except...

2013-01-01

244

7 CFR 319.37-5 - Special foreign inspection and certification requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...South Africa, Spain (including Canary Islands), Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, and Venezuela. (b)(1) Any of the following restricted articles (except seeds) at...

2012-01-01

245

7 CFR 319.37-6 - Specific treatment and other requirements.  

...Slovakia, Slovenia, Republic of South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, Syria, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan Brachycerus spp. and Dyspessa ulula (Bkh.). Castanea seeds All except...

2014-01-01

246

7 CFR 319.37-6 - Specific treatment and other requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Slovakia, Slovenia, Republic of South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, Syria, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan Brachycerus spp. and Dyspessa ulula (Bkh.). Castanea seeds All except...

2011-01-01

247

7 CFR 319.37-6 - Specific treatment and other requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Slovakia, Slovenia, Republic of South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, Syria, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan Brachycerus spp. and Dyspessa ulula (Bkh.). Castanea seeds All except...

2012-01-01

248

15 CFR 740.7 - Computers (APP).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Surinam, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Togo, Tonga, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey,...

2009-01-01

249

Host specificity of microsporidia pathogenic to the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.): field studies in Slovakia.  

PubMed

Several species of microsporidia are important chronic pathogens of Lymantria dispar in Europe but have never been recovered from North American gypsy moth populations. The major issue for their introduction into North American L. dispar populations is concern about their safety to native non-target insects. In this study, we evaluated the susceptibility of sympatric non-target Lepidoptera to two species of microsporidia, Nosema lymantriae and Vairimorpha disparis, isolated from European populations of L. dispar and applied in field plots in Slovakia. Application of ultra low volume sprays of the microsporidia maximized coverage of infective spores in a complex natural environment and, thus, exposure of non-target species to the pathogens. Of 653 non-target larvae collected from plots treated with V. disparis in 2002, 18 individual larvae representing nine species in four families were infected. These plots were monitored for two subsequent seasons and V. disparis was not recovered from non-target species. Of 2571 non-target larvae collected in N. lymantriae-treated sites, one larva was found to be infected. Both species of microsporidia, particularly N. lymantriae, appear to have a very narrow host range in the field, even when an inundative technique is used for their introduction. V. disparis infections in L. dispar exceeded 40% of recovered larvae in the treated study sites; infection rates were lower in sites sprayed with N. lymantriae. Several naturally-occurring pathogens were recorded from the non-target species. The most common pathogen, isolated from 21 species in eight families, was a microsporidium in the genus Cystosporogenes. PMID:20435042

Solter, Leellen F; Pilarska, Daniela K; McManus, Michael L; Zúbrik, Milan; Patocka, Jan; Huang, Wei-Fone; Novotný, Julius

2010-09-01

250

Analysis of Rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency Relationships in Slovakia (Estimation of Extreme Rainfall Return Periods)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-term rainfall intensity maxima might gain a rising tendency in the future in consequence of the global warming. The monitoring and statistical as well as spatial analyses of above-mentioned precipitation characteristics are highly important because of observed negative impacts linked with their occurrence. Probabilistic modeling and statistical analysis of relationships between rainfall intensity and its duration as well as frequency (generally express by Intensity-Duration-Frequency curves) represents on of the most commonly used tools in the flood risk management, water resources engineering as well as for flood protection projects. A set of IDF-curves defines a relation between the mean intensity of precipitation, the duration of the aggregation time of the rainfall and return period of the event. There are some statistical techniques how to establish the IDF-curves for annual maximum precipitation totals with selected duration. For many years the Gumbel as well as Pearson III-type distribution have been utilized as the most suitable theoretical distribution in the order to model the extreme rainfall events. Recently, some new theoretical and empirical studies support the fact that particularly Gumbel distribution may significantly underestimate the highest rainfall values. New theoretical findings suggest to replace the Gumbel distribution by other type of Extreme Value distribution (most commonly by General Extreme Value "GEV" distribution). For the establishment of the IDF-curves we have utilized some theoretical basis of Koursoyiannis et al (1998) study. The main purpose of the presented paper is to produce IDF-curves for extreme rainfall values obtained from several meteorological stations in Slovakia within the 1961-1990 period (e.g. Hurbanovo, Štrbské Pleso, Oravská Lesná, etc.). In the contribution we tested the appropriateness of Gumbel and GEV distribution utilization for the purpose of IDF-curves assessment. Our additional goal is to analyze also the long-term changes of extreme rainfall values within the annual regime.

Pecho, J.; Faško, P.; Lapin, M.; Gaál, L.

2009-04-01

251

The effect of in-stream structures on flood wave attenuation in Western Carpathians of Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-stream structures were built as a part of the erosion and sediment flux control on mountainous streams in Slovakia. These structures, steps, drop structures, and check dams, affect the flow regime and flood wave attenuation. Flood magnitude for ten and hundred-year flood events decreased by 0.21-29% depending on the flow and type of structures used. The largest decrease in flood duration was 39%. Relative change in flow depth and velocity, representing local stream conditions, ranged from 16 to 52%, and 12 to 106% respectively. These changes were modeled with 1D model, HEC-RAS, version 4.0, using unsteady flow simulations. Observed water surface was used for the calibration. Roughness was calculated using Chow and Cowan equations which were based on field observations. The flood events were modeled on Breznicky Creek, Sutovsky Creek, and Ilanovsky Creek in Kremnica Mountains, Little Fatra and Low Tatras as part of the Western Carpathian Mountains. Two scenarios were analyzed for ten and hundred-year flood events: 1) streams in their natural state, and 2) streams which have been altered by different in-stream structures. The results of this study are consistent with practice of torrent control for steps, small in-stream structures, and results from stream study in Czech Republic. The steps, used for local erosion control and habitat improvement, did not change the flood wave attenuation significantly. For drop structures and check dams, actual available water storage created by structures influenced the overall flood wave attenuation change. Quantification of flood magnitude and time duration under different flow regimes with different types of in-stream structures provides necessary information for flood risk management.

Majerova, M.

2010-12-01

252

Prevalence of DFNB1 mutations among cochlear implant users in Slovakia and its clinical implications.  

PubMed

Hereditary etiology plays an important role in bilateral profound deafness as a main indication for cochlear implantation. Mutations in DFNB1 locus account for most of the inherited deafness cases in Caucasians. To provide actual data on mutation prevalence among implanted deaf subpopulation, we performed DNA analysis of GJB2 and GJB6 genes in 131 unrelated Slovak cochlear implant users. Eight previously described causal mutations and one probably pathogenic missense variant (c.127G>A) were detected in the GJB2 gene in 58 (44.28%) subjects. The most common mutation found was c.35delG with frequency 83.02% of all disease alleles, followed by c.71G>A, c.1-3201G>A, c.313_326del14, c.109G>A, 167delT, c.269T>C, and c.333_334delAA. GJB6 deletion delD13S1830 was identified in only one subject, in double heterozygosity with a GJB6 mutation. Thus, the deafness cause could be clearly attributable to DFNB1 mutations in 36.64% of the patients examined. In summary, the mutation profile found in our cohort was similar to the mutation spectrum reported for Central European deaf populations. The mutation prevalence in cochlear implant users was, however, almost by 25% higher than previously established for non-implanted hearing-impaired population in Slovakia. Finally, we also demonstrate a certain variability in deafness onset in patients with causal genotype and coincidence with other risk factors for deafness. Our results underline the importance of genetic tests in all cochlear implant candidates. PMID:23700267

Varga, L; Mašindová, I; Hu?ková, M; Kabátová, Z; Gašperíková, D; Klimeš, I; Profant, M

2014-06-01

253

Mortality of Roma Population in Serbia, 2002-2005  

PubMed Central

Aim To describe and compare mortality and population changes in the Roma and non-Roma population in Serbia in 2002 and 2005. Methods The number of cases of death were obtained from the 2002 and 2005 Mortality Database and population data from the Population Census 2002. Standardized sex specific rates of non-traumatic and traumatic mortality in 2002 and 2005 were calculated in relation to the European standard population. We presented population pyramid and aging index for both populations in 2002 and compared sex specific standardized traumatic and non-traumatic mortality rates and the average age of death for 2002 and 2005. The causes of death were coded according to the 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) groups, and the proportional mortalities in the year 2002 and 2005 were compared between the Roma and non-Roma population using ?2 test. Results Standardized mortality rates were higher in the Roma than in the general population. Non-traumatic mortality rate in Roma men in 2002 was 18.2 per 1000 and in slightly decreased to 18.0 per 1000 in 2005; it was significantly higher than in non-Roma men in both years (11.9 per 1000 in 2002 and 12.5 per 1000 in 2005; P<0.001). Standardized non-traumatic mortality rate in Roma women decreased significantly from 16.78 per 1000 in 2002 to 14.89 per 1000 in 2005 (P=0.014), but it was still significantly higher than in non-Roma women (8.46 per 1000 in 2002 and 8.84 per 1000 in 2005; P<0.001). Morbidity structure indicated that the most common causes of death in the Roma population were cardiovascular diseases, neoplasms, and respiratory system diseases. In relation to the general population respiratory system diseases were denoted as main causes of deaths in significantly higher percent (6% vs 3% in 2002 and 7% vs 4% in 2005; P<0.001) and cardiovascular diseases in significantly lower percent (44%:55% in 2002 and 46%:57%; P<0.001). Conclusions Our data show that mortality rates in the Roma population are significantly higher than in the general population, and morbidity structure of the most common causes of death significantly different from that of general population.

Bogdanovic, Dragan; Nikic, Dragana; Petrovic, Branislav; Kocic, Biljana; Jovanovic, Jovica; Nikolic, Maja; Milosevic, Zoran

2007-01-01

254

Groundwater and highways interaction: past and present experiences of highway construction in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the planning, designing, construction, operation and maintenance of highways, groundwater can be of important environmental and constructional constraint that can significantly influence the safety operation of traffic and of big influence on the operational costs of highways. To classify and conceptualize the relation between groundwater and highways, three important groups of problems can be determined: groundwater protection from highway influences, protection of highway from groundwater and economic use of groundwater for highway operation. In the present study, groundwater management strategies are represented during all life cycles of highways. Greater emphasis is given to groundwater protection and field hydrogeological investigations for proper groundwater management related to the highway. The approach adopted in Slovenia and the role of hydrogeology is given as an illustration.

Brencic, Mihael

2006-03-01

255

Diversity of Clostridium difficile in pigs and other animals in Slovenia.  

PubMed

A study of Clostridium difficile diversity in pigs, calves and horses in Slovenia was conducted. A total of 547 samples were collected and C. difficile was isolated from 247/485 (50.9%) piglet samples, from 4/42 (9.5%) calf samples, and 1/20 (5%) horse samples. The isolates were characterized by toxinotyping, PCR-ribotyping, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using restriction endonuclease SmaI. Piglet isolates belonged to two toxinotypes (V and 0), four PCR-ribotypes (066, 029, SI 011, SI 010), and six pulsotypes. Bovine isolates were grouped into two toxinotypes (XIa and 0), three PCR-ribotypes (077, 002, 033), and three pulsotypes. The only equine isolate was indistinguishable from one calf isolate (XIa/033) in toxinotype, PCR-ribotype, and pulsotype. None of detected genotypes was present in all three animal hosts. PMID:19632350

Avbersek, Jana; Janezic, Sandra; Pate, Mateja; Rupnik, Maja; Zidaric, Valerija; Logar, Katarina; Vengust, Modest; Zemljic, Mateja; Pirs, Tina; Ocepek, Matjaz

2009-12-01

256

Seroprevalence of Toxocara antibodies among patients suspected of ocular toxocariasis in Slovenia  

PubMed Central

Ocular toxocariasis named also ocular larva migrans is caused by larvae of the roundworm Toxocara spp. The purpose of this study was to find out the seroprevalence of Toxocara antibodies in patients suspected of ocular toxocariasis. Between January 2001 and December 2003, sera from 239 ocular patients, aged 3 to 80 years, were examined by ELISA and confirmed by Western blot test. Out of the 239 patients, 172 (72%) were seronegative and 67 (28%) were Toxocara seropositive; 95% CI (22-34%). The median age of Toxocara seropositive patients was 37.6 years. There was no significant difference in the number of Toxocara positive sera between the younger age group (?14 years) and the older age group (>14 years), p>0.05. A high rate of Toxocara seropositivity in ocular patients should alert the ophthalmologists in Slovenia to include toxocariasis in the differential diagnosis of eye diseases more frequently.

Soba, Barbara; Kraut, Aleksandra; Stirn-Kranjc, Branka

2004-01-01

257

Phylogeographic Characterization of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus from Patients, Rodents and Ticks in Slovenia  

PubMed Central

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is the most important arboviral agent causing infections of the central nervous system in central Europe. Previous studies have shown that TBEV exhibits pronounced genetic variability, which is often correlated to the geographical origin of TBEV. Genetic variability of TBEV has previously been studied predominantly in rodents and ticks, while information about the variability in patients is scarce. In order to understand the molecular relationships of TBEV between natural hosts, vectors and humans, as well as correlation between phylogenetic and geographical clustering, sequences of TBEV E and NS5 protein genes, were obtained by direct sequencing of RT-PCR products from TBE-confirmed patients as well as from rodents and ticks collected from TBE-endemic regions in Slovenia. A total of 27 partial E protein gene sequences representing 15 human, 4 rodent and 8 tick samples and 30 partial NS5 protein gene sequences representing 17 human, 5 rodent and 8 tick samples were obtained. The complete genome sequence of TBEV strain Ljubljana I was simultaneously obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of the E and NS5 protein gene sequences revealed a high degree of TBEV variability in patients, ticks and rodents. Furthermore, an evident correlation between geographical and phylogenetic clustering was shown that was independent of the TBEV host. Moreover, we show the presence of a possible recombination event in the TBEV genome obtained from a patient sample, which was supported with multiple recombination event detection methods. This is the first study that simultaneously analyzed the genetic relationships of directly sequenced TBEV samples from patients, ticks and rodents and provides the largest set of patient-derived TBEV sequences up to date. In addition, we have confirmed the geographical clustering of TBEV sequences in Slovenia and have provided evidence of a possible recombination event in the TBEV genome, obtained from a patient.

Fajs, Luka; Durmisi, Emina; Knap, Natasa; Strle, Franc; Avsic-Zupanc, Tatjana

2012-01-01

258

The occurrence of distal Icelandic and Italian tephra in the Lateglacial of Lake Bled, Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of sites preserving tephra layers from multiple volcanic centres is key to constructing a single European tephrostratigraphic framework for the Late Quaternary. Until now, the tephrostratigraphy of Europe has been divided into two halves: sites in the North Atlantic and northern Europe regions link the Icelandic, Eifel, and the Massif Central volcanic histories; whilst sites in southern Europe record the sequence of tephra layers produced by circum-Mediterranean volcanic provinces. The missing link, able to tie together these two halves, is found in the tephrostratigraphic record of Lake Bled, Slovenia. Lake Bled, in the Julian Alps, Slovenia, holds a high resolution multi-proxy palaeoenvironmental archive for the Lateglacial of south-central Europe. Cryptotephra investigations have revealed three tephra layers: two closely spaced within Younger Dryas stadial sediments and one shortly after the start of the Břlling-Allerřd interstadial warming. Two of the tephra layers (Bld_T120 and Bld_T240) are of Campanian origin and are correlated to deposits of the Pomici Principali (PP) and Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (NYT) eruptions, respectively. The third layer (Bld_T122) correlates to the Icelandic Vedde Ash (VA), extending the known fallout of this widespread marker layer farther to the southeast. The Lake Bled record also allows the stratigraphic relationship and relative ages of the VA and the PP eruption to be discerned for the first time. Whilst existing numerical age estimates for these two deposits are indistinguishable within errors, their close occurrence in the same lacustrine sediment sequence shows that the VA was erupted shortly prior to the PP eruption. The tephrostratigraphy of Lake Bled developed here helps us to tie together regional volcanic stratigraphies into a broader, continental-scale lattice of sites, with the potential to allow the transfer of dates between remote sequences and the construction of relative chronologies, beneficial in particular for environmental and archaeological research.

Lane, Christine S.; Andri?, Maja; Cullen, Victoria L.; Blockley, Simon P. E.

2011-05-01

259

Genetic classification of Cryptosporidium isolates from humans and calves in Slovenia.  

PubMed

To assess the importance of cattle as a source of human cryptosporidial infections in Slovenia, Cryptosporidium isolates from calves and humans with cryptosporidiosis were characterized genetically by direct DNA sequencing, targeting a variable region of the 60 subtypes', were identified, of which 7 were novel. In humans, C. hominis Ia (subtype IaA17R3) and Ib (IbA10G2) and Cryptosporidium parvum IIa (IIaA9G1R1, IIaA11G2R1, IIaA13R1, IIaA14G1R1, IIaA15G1R1, IIaA15G2R1, IIaA16G1R1, IIaA17G1R1 and IIaA19G1R1), IIc (IIcA5G3), and IIl (IIlA16R2) were recorded; this is the first record of the latter subtype in humans. In cattle, C. parvum IIa (IIaA13R1, IIaA15G2R1, IIaA16R1 and IIaA16G1R1) and IIl (IIlA16R2 and IIlA18R2) were recorded. Of the 15 subtypes identified, subtypes of C. parvum IIa were the most frequently encountered (>90%) in both humans and calves. The present findings suggest that zoonotic transmission plays an important role in sporadic human cryptosporidiosis in Slovenia. PMID:18664309

Soba, B; Logar, J

2008-09-01

260

New distribution data and population structure of the European mudminnow Umbra krameri in Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.  

PubMed

Seventy-six individuals of the European mudminnow Umbra krameri from two recent populations from Serbia (Bakreni Batar and Lugomir) and one from Bosnia and Herzegovina (Gromiželj) were analysed for habitat preferences and population structure. The population from Lugomir is a newly recorded population in Serbia. Besides this new record, it is noteworthy that all three studied locations are outside the currently known species distribution range limits. PMID:23991880

Sekuli?, N; Mari?, S; Galambos, L; Radoševi?, D; Krpo-?etkovi?, J

2013-09-01

261

The outpatient utilization of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in South Ba?ka District, Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate the utilization of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in South Ba?ka District (SBD), Serbia. Setting State-owned and private pharmacies in SBD, a northern district of Serbia, with 605,720 inhabitants (according to the 2008\\u000a census). Method Data on the number of packages, size of packages, and retail price of NSAIDs (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) group\\u000a M01A) from 1 January

Jelena ?alasan; Vesna Mijatovi?; Olga Horvat; Jan Varga; Ana Sabo; Nebojša Stilinovi?

2011-01-01

262

Physician and nurse supply in Serbia using time-series data  

PubMed Central

Background Unemployment among health professionals in Serbia has risen in the recent past and continues to increase. This highlights the need to understand how to change policies to meet real and projected needs. This study identified variables that were significantly related to physician and nurse employment rates in the public healthcare sector in Serbia from 1961 to 2008 and used these to develop parameters to model physician and nurse supply in the public healthcare sector through to 2015. Methods The relationships among six variables used for planning physician and nurse employment in public healthcare sector in Serbia were identified for two periods: 1961 to 1982 and 1983 to 2008. Those variables included: the annual total national population; gross domestic product adjusted to 1994 prices; inpatient care discharges; outpatient care visits; students enrolled in the first year of medical studies at public universities; and the annual number of graduated physicians. Based on historic trends, physician supply and nurse supply in the public healthcare sector by 2015 (with corresponding 95% confidence level) have been modeled using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) / Transfer function (TF) models. Results The ARIMA/TF modeling yielded stable and significant forecasts of physician supply (stationary R2 squared = 0.71) and nurse supply (stationary R2 squared = 0.92) in the public healthcare sector in Serbia through to 2015. The most significant predictors for physician employment were the population and GDP. The supply of nursing staff was, in turn, related to the number of physicians. Physician and nurse rates per 100,000 population increased by 13%. The model predicts a seven-year mismatch between the supply of graduates and vacancies in the public healthcare sector is forecasted at 8,698 physicians - a net surplus. Conclusion The ARIMA model can be used to project trends, especially those that identify significant mismatches between forecasted supply of physicians and vacancies and can be used to guide decision-making for enrollment planning for the medical schools in Serbia. Serbia needs an inter-sectoral strategy for HRH development that is more coherent with healthcare objectives and more accountable in terms of professional mobility.

2013-01-01

263

High Frequency of Alkaptonuria in Slovakia: Evidence for the Appearance of Multiple Mutations in HGO Involving Different Mutational Hot Spots  

PubMed Central

Alkaptonuria (AKU) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of homogentisate 1,2 dioxygenase (HGO) activity. AKU shows a very low prevalence (1:100,000–250,000) in most ethnic groups. One notable exception is in Slovakia, where the incidence of AKU rises to 1:19,000. This high incidence is difficult to explain by a classical founder effect, because as many as 10 different AKU mutations have been identified in this relatively small country. We have determined the allelic associations of 11 HGO intragenic polymorphisms for 44 AKU chromosomes from 20 Slovak pedigrees. These data were compared to the HGO haplotype data available in our laboratory for >80 AKU chromosomes from different European and non-European countries. The results show that common European AKU chromosomes have had only a marginal contribution to the Slovak AKU gene pool. Six of the ten Slovak AKU mutations, including the prevalent G152fs, G161R, G270R, and P370fs mutations, most likely originated in Slovakia. Data available for 17 Slovak AKU pedigrees indicate that most of the AKU chromosomes have their origins in a single very small region in the Carpathian mountains, in the northwestern part of the country. Since all six Slovak AKU mutations are associated with HGO mutational hot spots, we suggest that an increased mutation rate at the HGO gene is responsible for the clustering of AKU mutations in such a small geographical region.

Zatkova, Andrea; de Bernabe, Daniel Beltran Valero; Polakova, Helena; Zvarik, Marek; Ferakova, Eva; Bosak, Vladimir; Ferak, Vladimir; Kadasi, L'udovit; de Cordoba , Santiago Rodriguez

2000-01-01

264

Microfacies and diagenesis of lower and middle cretaceous carbonate rocks of NW-Yugoslavia (Slovenia, Trnovo area)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A profile of about 1400 m thickness near the village of Trnovo in the Trnovo forest in SW-Slovenia was studied for the microfacies\\u000a and diagenetic development of the carbonate rocks. Because of the detailed biostratigraphic subdivision being just in improvement,\\u000a the interval from the problematic Jurassic\\/Cretaceous to the Tertiary boundary (Berriasian-Cenomanian, fault, Senonian) was\\u000a subdivided into ten zones and several

Roman Koch; Bojan Ogorelec; Sascha Orehek

1989-01-01

265

Multidisciplinary work on barium contamination of the karstic upper Kupa River drainage basin (Croatia and Slovenia); calling for watershed management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work was designed as an extension of a previous study of a barium anomaly observed in stream sediments of the\\u000a Kupa River. In its upper part the Kupa River drains a region underlain by a trans-boundary aquifer. The river is a significant\\u000a water resource in a region of tourism, sport, and fishing in both Croatia and Slovenia. The

S. Fran?iškovi?-Bilinski; H. Bilinski; R. Grbac; J. Žuni?; M. Ne?emer; D. Hanžel

2007-01-01

266

Regional analysis of Intensity-Duration-Frequency Relationships in Slovakia using Scaling Model Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-term rainfall intensity maxima might gain a rising tendency in the future as a consequence of the global warming. The monitoring and statistical as well as spatial analyses of above-mentioned precipitation characteristics are highly important, because of observed negative impacts linked with their occurrence. Probabilistic modeling and statistical analysis of relationships between rainfall intensity and its duration as well as frequency (generally express by Intensity-Duration-Frequency curves) represents on of the most commonly used tools in the flood risk management, water resources engineering as well as for flood protection projects. A set of IDF-curves defines a relation between the mean intensity of precipitation, the duration of the aggregation time of the rainfall and return period of the event. There are some statistical techniques how to establish the IDF-curves for annual maximum precipitation totals with selected duration. At-site frequency analysis of rainfall data evaluated separately for particular meteorological station is frequently used method of Intensity-Duration-Frequency relationships estimation. For many years the Gumbel as well as Pearson III-type distribution have been utilized as the most suitable theoretical distribution in the order to model the extreme rainfall events. These relationships are not accurate and reliable since they depend on many assumptions such as distribution selection for each duration. Some distributions require a large number of parameters, and are not time-independent. New theoretical findings suggest to replace the Gumbel distribution by other type of Extreme Value distribution (most commonly by General Extreme Value "GEV" distribution). Apart from testing the appropriate theoretical distribution we also focused in the contribution on application of some scaling properties to establish scaling behaviour of statistical moments over different durations. The IDF-curves are developed for gauged sites based mainly on scaling of two theoretical distributions: Generalized extreme value (GEV) and Gumbel probability distributions. Statistical analysis was applied on annual maximum rainfall time series for meteorological stations located in different regions of Slovakia, for rainfall event durations of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min and 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h (meteorological stations: Hurbanovo, Oravská Lesná, etc.). The results suggest that obtained estimates derived from the scaling procedure are comparable to estimates obtained from traditional techniques.

Pecho, J.; Faško, P.; Gaál, L.; Lapin, M.; Šâstný, P.

2009-09-01

267

Civilizing the State Bureaucracy: The Unfulfilled Promise of Public Administration Reform in Poland, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic (1990-2000)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an analysis of the politics of public administration reform in Poland, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic that examines why, despite the ambition and scope of such reform, its results have been disappointing and sometimes even counterproductive. It examines the genesis, implementation, and political consequences of policies to reform state administration. The first section lays out the theory

Conor ODwyer

2002-01-01

268

Heat waves frequency analysis and spatial-temporal variability of daily maximum temperature in southern Slovakia within the 1951, respectively 1961-2008 periods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat waves temporal and spatial analysis at selected meteorological stations in southern part of Slovakia within the 1951, respectively 1961-2008 periods is a goal of the presented contribution. It is expected that climate change in terms of global warming would amplify temporal frequency and spatial extension of extreme heat wave incidence in region of central Europe in the next few

J. Pecho; P. Fasko; K. Mikulová; P. Sâstný

2009-01-01

269

Heat wave phenomenon in southern Slovakia: long-term changes and variability of daily maximum air temperature in Hurbanovo within the 1901-2009 period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of long-term changes and temporal variability of heat waves incidence in the region of southern Slovakia within the 1901-2009 periods is a goal of the presented contribution. It is expected that climate change in terms of global warming would amplify temporal frequency and spatial extension of extreme heat wave incidence in region of central Europe in the next few

J. Pecho; D. Výberci; M. Jarosová

2010-01-01

270

Effects of indoor air pollution on respiratory symptoms of non-smoking women in Ni?, Serbia  

PubMed Central

Rationale The aim of this study was to determine the effects of indoor air pollution exposure on respiratory symptoms and illnesses in non-smoking women in Niš, Serbia. Materials and methods The study was carried out in 1,082 never-smoking females, aged 20-40 years, who were not occupationally exposed to indoor air pollution. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was assessed using the American Thoracic Society questionnaires. Multivariate methods were used in the analysis. Results A strong association was found between respiratory symptoms and indoor air pollution. The associations between home dampness and sinusitis and bronchitis were also found to be statistically significant. Conclusions Indoor air pollution exposure is an important risk factor for respiratory symptoms and illnesses in non-smoking women in Niš, Serbia.

2011-01-01

271

Radon in thermal waters in south-east part of Serbia.  

PubMed

There are several occurrences of thermal waters in the south-eastern part of Serbia, which are originating from igneous and metamorphic rocks. These waters are mainly used in balneology, but some of them are used for drinking purposes and in water supply to heat buildings, for greenhouses and to irrigate land. In this region, there is the well-known Niška banja spa, which has elevated levels of radon. Water samples were examined from other spas in the south-eastern part of Serbia in order to determine radon activity concentration. A detailed discussion of a possible correlation between determined radon activity concentration and the geology of this area is also given. PMID:24707000

Nikolov, Jovana; Todorovi?, Nataša; Bikit, Ištvan; Panti?, Tanja Petrovi?; Forkapi?, Sofija; Mr?a, Dušan; Bikit, Kristina

2014-07-01

272

Measuring the efficiency of a healthcare waste management system in Serbia with data envelopment analysis.  

PubMed

In 2007, the Serbian Ministry of Health initiated specific activities towards establishing a workable model based on the existing administrative framework, which corresponds to the needs of healthcare waste management throughout Serbia. The objective of this research was to identify the reforms carried out and their outcomes by estimating the efficiencies of a sample of 35 healthcare facilities engaged in the process of collection and treatment of healthcare waste, using data envelopment analysis. Twenty-one (60%) of the 35 healthcare facilities analysed were found to be technically inefficient, with an average level of inefficiency of 13%. This fact indicates deficiencies in the process of collection and treatment of healthcare waste and the information obtained and presented in this paper could be used for further improvement and development of healthcare waste management in Serbia. PMID:22081381

Ratkovic, Branislava; Andrejic, Milan; Vidovic, Milorad

2012-06-01

273

Non-dioxin-like PCBs in ten different fish species from the Danube river in Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work has been developed to examine the level of non-dioxin-like (ndl) PCBs (28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180) in (a) ten\\u000a different freshwater fish species from the Danube river, (b) two sampling points: up and downstream of the industrial zone\\u000a of the city of Pancevo (ecological hot spot in Serbia) and (c) two time points i.e., in 2001

Saša Jankovi?; Marijana ?ur?i?; Tatjana Radi?evi?; Sr?an Stefanovi?; Mirjana Lenhardt; Ksenija Durgo; Biljana Antonijevi?

274

Non-dioxin-like PCBs in crops and related products: Levels and intakes in Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of six non-dioxin-like indicator PCBs in 36 composite samples of agricultural crops, related by-products and foodstuffs were pooled from a total of 938 individual samples collected in Serbia in 2002 and 2004. After extraction and cleanup, PCBs were determined by capillary GC using ECD. The highest total PCB levels were found in dried sugar beet pulp (2.89?ng?g whole weight

Biljana Škrbi?; Nataša ?uriši?-Mladenovi?

2007-01-01

275

Measuring the catastrophic and impoverishing effect of household health care spending in Serbia.  

PubMed

Out-of-pocket patient payments can impose a catastrophic burden on households. This problem may not only affect poor but also wealthy households who need to use health care frequently. The available literature offers no consensus on how to measure poverty and how to measure the effects of out-of-pocket payments on household budgets. The objective of this paper is to contribute to current research in this area by comparing results across different approaches. In particular, the paper examines the catastrophic and impoverishing effects of health care spending in Serbia applying different types of thresholds used in previous research. The application of various approaches allows us to analyze the robustness and convergent validity of the results. We also include the subjective poverty approach in our examination. We use household data from the Serbian Living Standard Measurement Study (LSMS). The Serbian LSMS data were collected in 2007 and consists of 17,375 participants living in 5557 households (sample representative for Serbia). Our results indicate that irrespective of the approach applied, out-of-pocket patient payments have a catastrophic effect on poor households in Serbia. Moreover, households that are above the absolute, relative and subjective poverty lines respectively, after the subtraction of out-of-pocket payments fall below these poverty lines. The probability of catastrophic out-of-pocket patient payments is higher in rural areas, in larger households, and among chronically sick household members (namely, people with diabetes and mental diseases, as well as cardiology diseases in some instances). Perceived health status also appears to be a significant indicator. Policy in Serbia should aim to protect vulnerable groups, especially chronically sick patients and people from rural areas. PMID:23267776

Arsenijevic, Jelena; Pavlova, Milena; Groot, Wim

2013-02-01

276

General mental ability in South Asians: Data from three Roma (Gypsy) communities in Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine whether the Roma (Gypsy) population of Serbia, like other South Asian population groups, average lower than Europeans on g, the general factor of intelligence, we tested 323 16- to 66-year-olds (111 males; 212 females) in three different communities over a two-year-period on the Raven's Colored and\\/or Standard Progressive Matrices and four measures of executive function. Out of the

J. Philippe Rushton; Jelena ?vorovi?; Trudy Ann Bons

2007-01-01

277

Distribution of HBV genotypes, subgenotypes and HBsAg subtypes among chronically infected patients in Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been classified into eight genotypes (some of them further divided into two or more subgenotypes)\\u000a and nine HBsAg subtypes, distinctly distributed geographically. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the distribution\\u000a of HBV genotypes, subgenotypes and HBsAg subtypes among HBV chronically infected patients in Serbia, since there were no previously\\u000a published data

I. Lazarevic; M. Cupic; D. Delic; N. S. Svirtlih; J. Simonovic; T. Jovanovic

2007-01-01

278

Levels of Organochlorine Pesticides in Crops and Related Products From Vojvodina, Serbia: Estimated Dietary Intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of 16 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were investigated in 39 composite samples of agricultural crops, related by-products,\\u000a and foodstuffs collected in Vojvodina, Serbia, in 2002 through 2004. After extraction and cleanup, OCPs were determined by\\u000a capillary gas chromatography using electron-capture detection. The highest mean level of 0.971 ng\\/g whole weight (ww) was\\u000a found for ?-HCH in wheat flour samples. OCPs

B. Škrbi?; Z. Predojevi?

2008-01-01

279

Tendencies for the amounts of chemical material used for cloud seeding in Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weather modification activities are performed predominantly by cloud seeding. Some operational projects have been performed for more than half a century and cover planetary scales. These activities lead to a large amount of deposited chemical materials (seeding agents) at the ground level during precipitation. These deposits depend on the amount of the seeding agent. In the future, increased amounts of seeding agent deposits could be a serious problem due to various negative effects on the human environment. Therefore, the main intent of this paper is to determine trends for the seeding agent amount over certain areas of Serbia. Four areas covered by the Hail Suppression Project in Serbia are considered: the target area in central Serbia and areas in western and central Serbia, which are well-known hailfall regions. The annual seeding agent amounts show a slow decreasing trend because fewer seedings were performed during the last decade of the last century, which was due to economic reasons. In contrast, the annual seeding agent amounts of the other analysed areas indicate an increasing trend induced by the transfer of rockets to these hailfall regions. The main difference among small areas is the mean agent amount and its maximum time position as a consequence of the high spatial and time variability of the hail. However, a sharp decreasing trend that is influenced by the implementation of new methodologies, seeding agents and delivery tools may also be a factor in the implementation of cloud seeding projects. The given method is not only strictly applicable locally and may be applied to any other cloud seeding scenario and seeding area. Dominantly increasing trends in the agent amount indicate that the importance of weather modifications in the future will be greater than ever and will have both positive and negative effects.

?uri?, Mladjen; Janc, Dejan

2014-02-01

280

Pancreatic cancer mortality in Serbia from 1991-2010 - a joinpoint analysis  

PubMed Central

Aim To analyze the trends of pancreatic cancer mortality in Serbia. Methods The study covered the population of Serbia in the period 1991 to 2010. Mortality trends were assessed by the joinpoint regression analysis by age and sex. Results Age-standardized mortality rates ranged from 5.93 to 8.57 per 100?000 in men and from 3.51 to 5.79 per 100?000 in women. Pancreatic cancer mortality in all age groups was higher among men than among women. It was continuously increasing since 1991 by 1.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1 to 2.0) yearly in men and by 2.2% (95% CI 1.7 to 2.7) yearly in women. Changes in mortality were not significant in younger age groups for both sexes. In older men (?55 years), mortality was increasing, although in age groups 70-74 and 80-84 the increase was not significant. In 65-69 years old men, the increase in mortality was significant only in the period 2004 to 2010. In ?50 years old women, mortality significantly increased from 1991 onward. In 75-79 years old women, a non-significant decrease in the period 1991 to 2000 was followed by a significant increase from 2000 to 2010. Conclusion Serbia is one of the countries with the highest pancreatic cancer mortality in the world, with increasing mortality trend in both sexes and in most age groups.

Ilic, Milena; Vlajinac, Hristina; Marinkovic, Jelena; Kocev, Nikola

2013-01-01

281

Police violence and sexual risk among female and transvestite sex workers in Serbia: qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore female and transvestite sex workers’ perceptions of risk in the sex work environment in Serbia. Design Qualitative interview study. Setting Street based locations for sex work in Belgrade and Pancevo, Serbia. Participants 31 female and transvestite sex workers. Results Violence, including police violence, was reported as a primary concern in relation to risk. Violence was linked to unprotected sex and the reduced capacity for avoiding sexual risk. Participants reported that coerced sex was routinely provided to the police in exchange for freedom from detainment, arrest, or fine, and was enforced by the perceived threat of violence, sometimes realised. Accounts contained multiple instances of physical and sexual assault, presented as abuses of police authority, and described policing as a form of moral punishment. This was largely through non-physical means but was also enforced through physical violence, especially towards transvestite and Roma sex workers, whose experience of police violence was reported as relentless and brutal and connected with broader social forces of discrimination in this setting, especially towards Roma. Conclusion Preventing violence towards sex workers, which can link with vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections, is a priority in Serbia. This requires monitoring perpetrators of violence, providing legal support to sex workers, and creating safer environments for sex work.

2008-01-01

282

Evaluation of the Ecochemical Status of the Danube in Serbia in Terms of Water Quality Parameters  

PubMed Central

The Danube is an international river passing partly through Serbia. The protection of the environment and sustainable use of water resources is a primary task that implies constant monitoring of the quality status and evaluation of ecochemical status of the water in the Danube basin. The investigation includes calculation of all-inclusive water quality by the Serbian water quality index (SWQI) method and an evaluation of eco-chemical status of the Danube water in terms of water quality parameters from the entry to the exit point along its course through Serbia in the year of 2009. The results show that the overall quality of the Danube water on the territory of Serbia corresponds to the descriptive indicator of “very good” water. According to the Council Directive75/440/EEC, the evaluation of the ecostatus, with slight deviation of individual parameters at Pan?evo, corresponds to A1 category of the surface water quality intended for the abstraction of drinking water supplies in member states.

Takic, Ljiljana; Mladenovic-Ranisavljevic, Ivana; Vukovic, Milovan; Mladenovic, Ilija

2012-01-01

283

Economic analysis of social services for the elderly in Serbia: Two sides of the same coin.  

PubMed

According to demographic trends, the ratio of senior citizens in the overall population of the Republic of Serbia is rising. This generates the need to create socially acceptable and economically sustainable models for the protection of the elderly. The goal of this paper is to stress the necessity of analyzing and evaluating the efficiency of social protection services aimed at senior citizens. The first part of the paper underlines the need for economic analysis of these services; while the second part features the analysis of the two most frequently provided services for the elderly in Serbia: admission to social protection institutions and home care for senior citizens. Based on the research results, the paper also provides a comparative overview of the efficiency of the services mentioned. This overview clearly confirms that both services prove to be economically justifiable from a social perspective; nevertheless, it also indicates that the cost of home care per user is considerably lower than the cost of putting a senior citizen into a nursing home. After presenting and discussing the results of the studies, the paper also offers recommendations aimed at enhancing the development and sustainability of the social protection system for the elderly in Serbia. PMID:24681299

Mihic, Marko M; Todorovic, Marija Lj; Obradovic, Vladimir Lj

2014-08-01

284

Study of pulmonary functions of the tourist guides in two show caves in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage, the Škocjan Caves were entered on UNESCO's list of natural and cultural world heritage sites in 1986. Caves have always been special places for people all over the world. There has been a lot of research done in the field of speleology and also in medicine in relation to speleotherapy. There is still one field left partial unexplored and its main issue covers the interaction between special ecosystems as caves and human activities and living. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The issue of epidemiologic research encompass several factors that are not necessarily related to the radon. Park Škocjan Caves established research monitoring projects such as caves microclimate parameters, quality of the water, every day's data from our meteorological station useful tool in public awareness related to pollution and climate change. Last year a special study was started in order to evaluate pulmonary functions of persons who work in the caves and those who work mostly in offices. Two groups of tourist guides from Škocjan Caves and Postojna Cave were included in the study. The promising results will highlight the need of medical survey of people working in the caves and help managers of the caves to adopt reactive management process. In order to facilitate decision process related to protection of people and caves environment, special recommendation in form of index of environment's use will be proposed after the study.

Debevec Gerjevic, V.; Jovanovi?, P.

2009-04-01

285

Ixodes ricinus abundance and its infection with the tick-borne pathogens in urban and suburban areas of Eastern Slovakia  

PubMed Central

Background Raising abundance of ticks and tick-borne diseases in Europe is the result of multiple factors including climate changes and human activities. Herein, we investigated the presence and seasonal activity of Ixodes ricinus ticks from 10 urban and suburban sites in two different geographical areas of southeastern and northeastern Slovakia during 2008–2010. Our aim was to study the abundance of ticks in correlation with the environmental factors and their infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Neoehrlichia mikurensis. Methods Questing I. ricinus ticks were collected from ten urban and suburban sites in Eastern Slovakia. A total of 670 ticks were further analysed for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l., A. phagocytophilum and N. mikurensis by molecular methods. Tick site and environmental relations were analysed using General Linear Models (LM). The differences between the number of Lyme borreliosis cases between the Košice and Bardejov regions during a ten-year period were tested by Wilcoxon matched pairs test. Results In total, 2921 (1913 nymphs, 1008 adults) I. ricinus ticks were collected from 10 study sites during the main questing season. Tick activity and relative abundance differed between locations and months. Temperature and humidity were the main factors affecting the tick abundance and questing activity. Out of 670 examined ticks, 10.15% were infected with spirochetes from B. burgdorferi s.l. complex (represented by B. afzelii, B. garinii, B.valaisiana and B. burgdorferi s.s.), 2.69% with the A. phagocytophilum and 2.39% with N. mikurensis. The number of Lyme borreliosis cases per 100,000 inhabitants in the Bardejov region was significantly higher than in the Košice region. Conclusions Our data indicate that the risk of infection with tick-borne pathogens in Eastern Slovakia is common since 15.2% of ticks were infected at least with one of the tested microorganisms. Even though the abundance of ticks was affected by the microclimatic conditions and the prevalence of pathogens differed between the habitats, the infection risk for humans is also affected by human activities leading to an increased contact with infected ticks.

2013-01-01

286

Seismic microzonation of Breginjski kot (NW Slovenia) based on detailed engineering geological mapping.  

PubMed

Breginjski kot is among the most endangered seismic zones in Slovenia with the seismic hazard assessed to intensity IX MSK and the design ground acceleration of 0.250 g, both for 500-year return period. The most destructive was the 1976 Friuli Mw = 6.4 earthquake which had maximum intensity VIII-IX. Since the previous microzonation of the area was based solely on the basic geological map and did not include supplementary field research, we have performed a new soil classification of the area. First, a detailed engineering geological mapping in scale 1 : 5.000 was conducted. Mapped units were described in detail and some of them interpreted anew. Stiff sites are composed of hard to medium-hard rocks which were subjected to erosion mainly evoked by glacial and postglacial age. At that time a prominent topography was formed and different types of sediments were deposited in valleys by mass flows. A distinction between sediments and weathered rocks, their exact position, and thickness are of significant importance for microzonation. On the basis of geological mapping, a soil classification was carried out according to the Medvedev method (intensity increments) and the Eurocode 8 standard (soil factors) and two microzonation maps were prepared. The bulk of the studied area is covered by soft sediments and nine out of ten settlements are situated on them. The microzonation clearly points out the dependence of damage distribution in the case of 1976 Friuli earthquake to local site effects. PMID:24453884

Kokošin, Jure; Gosar, Andrej

2013-01-01

287

Heat transfer in shallow subsurface under different climate conditions in Europe (Czechia, Slovenia, Portugal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-term records of soil and air temperatures collected at several geothermal observatories in Prague, Bedrichov, Svojsice (Czechia), Malence (Slovenia) and Evora (Portugal) were used to analyze the surface air temperature (SAT) vs soil temperature coupling at several depth levels. The work assesses (a) the influence of solar radiation, vegetation or snow cover, as well as the precipitation and albedo of the surface on mean annual air - surface temperature offset and (b) the heat transfer within the shallow subsurface. As thermal diffusivity (TD) plays a fundamental role in heat transfer in soil, two different methods based on attenuation and phase shift of annual temperature wave and on modeling of thermal response by error function solution of heat conduction equation were used to estimate TD in particular soil levels. It was found that low-frequency changes of the surface temperature such as the annual wave and/or multi-year and secular variations propagate downwards mainly by the heat conduction contrary to high-frequency (diurnal wave) where the convective heat transport during wet periods plays an important role. Significant seasonal changes of thermal diffusivity of upper soil layer caused by rotating of long wet and dry periods in Evora produce negative offset values between ground and soil mean annual temperature.

Dedecek, Petr; Cermak, Vladimir; Safanda, Jan; Correia, Antonio; Rajver, Dusan

2014-05-01

288

Reconstructing dry and wet summers in SE Slovenia from oak tree-ring series.  

PubMed

We present a reconstruction of the June weather conditions in SE Slovenia from 1497 to 2003 based on the De Martonne aridity index (AI). The AI were derived from oak (Quercus spp.) tree-ring series of living trees and historic wood, which exhibited a clear response to June precipitation (positive) and temperature (negative). In the reconstructed AI time series we classified negative and positive deviations from the mean as strong (+/-1.28 SD) or extreme (+/-1.645 SD), and thus identified 50 years with a likely dry and hot June, as well as 40 years with a likely wet and cool June. Historical sources and chronicles were used to validate the AI reconstruction in the pre-instrumental period before 1896. The years 1501, 1540, 1546, 1616, 1718, 1788, 1822, 1834, 1839 and 1841, with extreme or strong negative AI deviations, are mentioned in Slovenian chronicles because of crop failures, droughts or extremely hot summers. The years 1691, 1705, 1798, 1799 and 1847, with extreme or strong positive AI deviations, are mentioned as years with a cool and rainy summer. We discuss the relevance of June weather conditions for the growth of plants in the region between the Alps, the Mediterranean and the continental Pannonian lowland, and the possible changes due to the current climate change scenario. PMID:18458962

Cufar, Katarina; De Luis, Martin; Eckstein, Dieter; Kajfez-Bogataj, Lucka

2008-09-01

289

Using volunteered geographical information to map the November 2012 floods in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volunteered geographical information represents a promising field in the monitoring and mapping of natural disasters. The contributors of volunteered geographical information have the advantage that they are at the location of the natural disaster at exactly the time when the disaster happened. Therefore, they can provide the most complete account of the extent of the damage. This is not always possible when applying photogrammetric or remote-sensing methods, as prior to the data acquisition an order to carry out the measurements has to be made. On 5 and 6 November 2012 almost half of Slovenia was badly affected by floods. The gathering of volunteered geographical information in the form of images and videos of these floods is presented. Two strategies were used: (1) a public call for volunteered contributions and (2) a web search for useful images and their authors. The authorship of these images was verified with every contributor. In total, 15 contributors provided 102 terrestrial and aerial images and one aerial video, with 45% classified as potentially useful. For actual flood mapping 22 images and 12 sequences from video were used. With the help of the volunteered images 12% of the most severely affected river sections were mapped. Altogether, 1195.3 ha of flooded areas outside of the usual river beds along a total river length of 48 km were mapped. The results are compared with those from satellite mapping of the same floods, which successfully covered 18% of the most affected river sections.

Triglav-?ekada, M.; Radovan, D.

2013-11-01

290

Small mammals as biomonitors of metal pollution: a case study in Slovenia.  

PubMed

The transfer of lead, cadmium, zinc, mercury, copper and molybdenum from soil to the tissues of small mammals inhabiting differently polluted areas in Slovenia was investigated. Metals were determined in soil samples and in the livers of 139 individuals of five small mammal species, collected in 2012 in the vicinity of a former lead smelter, the largest Slovenian thermal power plant, along a main road and in a control area. The area in the vicinity of former lead smelter differs considerably from other study areas. The soil from that area is heavily polluted with Pb and Cd. The mean metal concentrations in the liver, irrespective of species, varied in the following ranges-Pb: 0.40-7.40 mg/kg fw and Cd: 0.27-135 mg/kg fw and reached effect concentrations at which toxic effects can be expected in a significant proportion of the livers of the small mammal specimens (Pb 40 %, Cd 67 %). These findings indicate that the majority of small mammals trapped in the area of the former lead smelter are at risk of toxic effects due to the very high bioaccumulation of Pb and Cd in the organism. On the contrary, Pd and Cd concentrations in the livers of small mammals sampled in the vicinity of the thermal power plant and along the main road were comparable with reference values and considerably lower than effect concentrations. Additionally, the study suggests that Apodemus flavicollis and Myodes glareolus are very suitable biomonitors of metal pollution. PMID:24619365

Al Sayegh Petkovšek, Samar; Kopušar, Nataša; Kryštufek, Boris

2014-07-01

291

Prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the general population of Slovenia: serious gaps in control  

PubMed Central

Methods: Data were collected over 1999–2001 from a probability sample of the general population by face to face interviews and anonymous self administered questionnaires. Respondents were invited to provide a first void urine (FVU) specimen for polymerase chain reaction testing for C trachomatis infection. We compared the results to the equivalent British survey. Results: 1447 individuals contributed FVU specimens (82.6% of survey respondents, 55.3% of those eligible). C trachomatis infection was diagnosed in 3.0% of men and 1.6% of women. Prevalence was highest in men and women aged 18–24 years (4.1% for both). Individuals reporting first heterosexual intercourse before the age of 16, unprotected sexual intercourse with at least one heterosexual partner during the preceding year, concurrent heterosexual relationships during the preceding year, and five or more lifetime heterosexual partners had a higher prevalence. The association was statistically significant only for five or more lifetime partners (adjusted OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.3 to 6.9; p = 0.01). Conclusions: A relatively high prevalence of genital C trachomatis infection among 18–24 year old Slovenians, in the presence of relatively low risk sexual behaviour and low reported incidence rates of chlamydia infection, suggest serious gaps in the diagnosis and treatment of the condition. The results provide support for the introduction of chlamydia screening in Slovenia.

Klavs, I; Rodrigues, L; Wellings, K; Kese, D; Hayes, R

2004-01-01

292

Effect of depositional regimes on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Lake Bled (NW Slovenia) sediments.  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were measured in sediment cores from two contrasting depositional regimes in urban Lake Bled (NW Slovenia). The concentration of PAH in surface sediments, mostly derived from combustion, was higher in Zaka Bay where bottom waters are permanently oxic, than in the western basin where bottom waters oscillate between suboxic and anoxic (1930 vs. 1150ngPAHg(-1) dry weight (dw), respectively). This pattern is the reverse of what might be expected if PAH were to preferentially degrade under oxic conditions. Two PAH from non-combustion sources, perylene and retene, are also present in the sediments. Post-depositional diagenetic formation of perylene appeared to occur only in anoxic sediments. Differences in the source of sedimentary organic matter (autochthonous vs. allochthonous) is probably not a major factor in perylene formation, since the two locations have markedly different sources of organic matter but quite similar concentrations of perylene in deeper sediments, ranging from 250 to 350ngg(-1)dw. Thus, redox conditions may play a role in perylene generation. On the other hand, redox conditions in general can not be the only or even the major factor affecting the fate of sedimentary PAH since uniform compositions and depth distributions for pyrolytic PAH were observed in both cores, in spite of the two locations differ in redox, mixing and biota conditions. Thus, degradative loss of PAH is unlikely in Lake Bled sediments. PMID:19539349

Muri, Gregor; Wakeham, Stuart G

2009-09-01

293

Gap Dynamics and Structure of Two Old-Growth Beech Forest Remnants in Slovenia  

PubMed Central

Context Due to a long history of intensive forest exploitation, few European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) old-growth forests have been preserved in Europe. Material and Methods We studied two beech forest reserves in southern Slovenia. We examined the structural characteristics of the two forest reserves based on data from sample plots and complete inventory obtained from four previous forest management plans. To gain a better understanding of disturbance dynamics, we used aerial imagery to study the characteristics of canopy gaps over an 11-year period in the Kopa forest reserve and a 20-year period in the Gorjanci forest reserve. Results The results suggest that these forests are structurally heterogeneous over small spatial scales. Gap size analysis showed that gaps smaller than 500 m2 are the dominant driving force of stand development. The percentage of forest area in canopy gaps ranged from 3.2 to 4.5% in the Kopa forest reserve and from 9.1 to 10.6% in the Gorjanci forest reserve. These forests exhibit relatively high annual rates of coverage by newly established (0.15 and 0.25%) and closed (0.08 and 0.16%) canopy gaps. New gap formation is dependant on senescent trees located throughout the reserve. Conclusion We conclude that these stands are not even-sized, but rather unevenly structured. This is due to the fact that the disturbance regime is characterized by low intensity, small-scale disturbances.

Rugani, Tihomir; Diaci, Jurij; Hladnik, David

2013-01-01

294

Final Treatment Center Project for Liquid and Wet Radioactive Waste in Slovakia  

SciTech Connect

The Final Treatment Center (FTC) for Mochovce nuclear power plant (NPP) is designed for treatment and final conditioning of radioactive liquid and wet waste produced from plant operation. Mochovce NNP uses a Russian VVER-440 type reactor. Treated wastes comprise radioactive concentrates, spent resin and sludge. VUJE Inc. as an experienced company in field of treatment of radioactive waste in Slovakia has been chosen as main contractor for technological part of FTC. This paper describes the capacity, flow chart, overall waste flow and parameters of the main components in the FTC. The initial project was submitted for approval to the Slovak Electric plc. in 2003. The design and manufacture of main components were performed in 2004 and 2005. FTC construction work started early in 2004. Initial non-radioactive testing of the system is planned for summer 2006 and then radioactive tests are to be followed. A one-year trial operation of facility is planned for completion in 2007. SE - VYZ will be operates the FTC during trial operation and after its completion. SE - VYZ is subsidiary company of Slovak Electric plc. and it is responsible for treatment with radioactive waste and spent fuel in the Slovak republic. SE - VYZ has, besides of other significant experience with operation of Jaslovske Bohunice Treatment Centre. The overall capacity of the FTC is 870 m{sup 3}/year of concentrates and 40 m{sup 3}/year of spent resin and sludge. Bituminization and cementation were provided as main technologies for treatment of these wastes. Treatment of concentrate is performed by bituminization. Concentrate and bitumen are metered into a thin film evaporator with rotating wiping blades. Surplus water is evaporated and concentrate salts are embedded in bitumen. Bitumen product is discharged into 200 l steel drums. Spent resin and sludge are decanted, dried and mixed with bitumen. These mixtures are also discharged into 200 l steel drums. Drums are moved along bituminization line on a roller conveyor. After the drums cool, they are capped and removed from the conveyor and placed in a storage hall. Drums with bitumen product are loaded into Fiber Reinforced Concrete containers (FRC) and grouted with cement. Cement grout is prepared from mixture of cement, additive and radioactive concentrates. By formulating the cement grout with evaporator concentrates the maximum radioactivity is fixed in cement matrix and volume of final waste product is minimized. A batch mixer with rotating blades is used produce the cement grout. FRCs loaded with bitumen drums are placed on roller conveyor and moved along the cementation line. Grouted FRCs are stored in the expedition hall for 28 days of curing and then transported to final disposal. After placed in operation the FTC provides treatment for all liquid and wet LLW produced from the operation of the Mochovce NPP. The final product of the FTC is a FRC loaded with 7 drums of waste fixed in bitumen and the space between the drums is grouted with cement. This container meets all limits for final disposal in the National Radioactive Waste Repository at Mochovce. (authors)

Kravarik, K.; Stubna, M.; Pekar, A.; Krajc, T.; Zatkulak, M.; Holicka, Z. [VUJE, Inc., Okruzna 5, 918 64 Trnava (Slovakia); Slezak, M. [SE - VYZ, 919 31 Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia)

2006-07-01

295

Cartographic evidence of the disastrous ice flood of 1809 and its aftermath (Danube River, Slovakia).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 18th and early 19th century river maps are important data sources for studying past landscapes. This is not only as a result of improved surveying techniques, but also because they depict landscape during probably the most important climatic and land-use changes since the Middle Ages. In this phase of the increased river activity during the last onset of the so-called Little Ice Age period, several major flood events occured. Local manuscript maps, which often depict the channel in major detail, help us to obtain a better understanding of their geomorphic and other impacts. The catastrophic ice flood, which occured on the Middle Danube river at the end of January 1809 was undoubtedly the most disastrous event of its kind in Slovakia, although it also hit a number of settlements in Lower Austria and Hungary. Several people drowned and the flood also resulted in great damage to settlements and livestock. Devastating effects of this flood particularly as to the towns of Bratislava and Komárno/Komárom were comparable with effects of disastrous floods of February 1830 in Vienna (Austria), March 1838 in Buda/Pest (Hungary) or 1845 flood in Prague (Czech Republic), respectively. In case of the present Slovakian capital Bratislava, on January 29, 1809, two ice barriers suddenly rose the water up to 10 m above the zero level and the river quickly overflowed its banks inundating the low-lying parts of the town. The flood blacked out communications with neighbouring regions. Record-breaking height of water led to breaches of the important right-bank embankment (constructed in 1770s). Through several openings water flooded the right bank, almost completely destroying the adjacent village of Petržalka/Engerau. The damage to Vienna highway levee was so massive that it only could be repaired 16 years later, in 1825-6 (although this was also due to Napoleonic wars). The flood also reactivated the Chorvátske rameno anabranch, 33 years after its abandonment. A number of local manuscript maps depict the river before and after this event. Combined with written literary reports, the maps allow us to describe the course, the devastating effects and the aftermath consequences of the 1809 flood precisely, particularly as to the territory of the city of Bratislava itself. Moreover, many of these maps comprise a wealth of information about flood in their detailed explanatory legends and remarks. The most important maps and plans are those currently deposited in the National Archives of Hungary (= maps from the collection of former Governing Council, the central supervisory authority of the Habsburgs for the Hungarian Kingdom), in the Municipial Archives of Bratislava and the Slovak National Archives, respectively. Effects of the 1809 ice flood, as evidenced by historical maps and plans, can be generally summarised as follows: a) direct destruction (by ice floes) or collapse of houses, bridges, buildings, boat mills, groynes and bank revetments b) heavy lateral erosion of the river channel during this single event (then referred to as „damage to banks") c) breaches of protective dikes d) formation of new water bodies - temporary lakes - created by spilled water on the landside of levees e) reactivation of upstream entrances of some side channels f) pronounced changes of flooplain configuration g) damage to floodplain forest. This research was supported by the Slovak Scientific Grant agency VEGA (Project N. 1/0362/09).

Pišút, P.

2009-04-01

296

Significantly higher occurrence of Cryptosporidium infection in Roma children compared with non-Roma children in Slovakia.  

PubMed

Cryptosporidiosis is considered to be a widespread world zoonosis. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium species was investigated in Roma children in a district of Eastern Slovakia and, at the same time, also in children of non-Roma parents. In total, 103 children (54 boys and 49 girls) between 0 and 14 years of age were involved in this study. Fifty-three were Roma children and 50 children represented a non-Roma control group. Fecal samples were examined: immunologically [enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test to prove antigen in the feces] and by molecular analysis [nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR)]. After the sequencing of the PCR, the products were identified as species of Cryptosporidium muris. Based on the results, the relative risk (RR) of the Cryptosporidium infection occurrence was calculated and we came to the conclusion that the risk of Cryptosporidium infection was almost 12 times higher in the Roma children compared to the non-Roma children. PMID:24619113

Hasajová, A; Valen?áková, A; Mal?eková, B; Danišová, O; Halán, M; Goldová, M; Sak, B; Kv?to?ová, D; Kvá?, M; Halánová, M

2014-08-01

297

Model of the porphyry copper and polymetallic vein family of deposits - Applications in Slovakia, Hungary, and Romania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A tectonic model useful in estimating the occurrence of undiscovered porphyry copper and polymetallic vein systems has been developed. This model is based on the manner in which magmatic and hydrothermal fluids flow and are trapped in fault systems as far-field stress is released in tectonic strain features above subducting plates (e.g. strike-slip fault systems). The structural traps include preferred locations for stock emplacement and tensional-shear fault meshes within the step-overs that localize porphyry- and vein-style deposits. The application of the model is illustrated for the porphyry copper and polymetallic vein deposits in the Central Slovakian Volcanic Field, Slovakia; the Ma??tra Mountains, Hungary; and the Apuseni Mountains, Romania.

Drew, L. J.

2003-01-01

298

PCDD, PCDF, PCB and PBDE concentrations in breast milk of mothers residing in selected areas of Slovakia.  

PubMed

The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) in 33 breast milk samples collected in 2006-2007 from primipara mothers close to four industrial areas of Slovak Republic were determined. The total PCDDs/PCDFs and dl-PCBs expressed as TEQ based on WHO TEFs 1998 in breast milk samples varied from 5.0 to 51.8 pg g(-1) fat (median: 13.1 pg g(-1) fat; mean: 18.0 pg g(-1) fat). The measurements of seven PBDE congeners (IUPAC No. 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, and 183) were performed for the first time in human milk from Slovakia. PBDE levels ranged between 0.22 and 1.62 ng g(-1) fat, with median and mean value of 0.43 ng g(-1) fat and 0.57 ng g(-1) fat respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed between studied areas in total PBDE concentrations. Furthermore, this study presents first results concerning the daily intake (DI) of PCDDs/PCDFs and dioxin-like compounds for the most vulnerable breast-fed infant population in Slovakia. The total PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB DI for an infant during the first 2 months of life was estimated in a range from 14.4 to 230 pg TEQ kg(-1)b.w., with a median value of 58.9 pg TEQ kg(-1)b.w.. The DI values substantially exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) 1-4 pg TEQ kg(-1)b.w. recommended by WHO. The dietary infant intake concerning PBDEs was estimated to be between 0.69 and 7.1 ng kg(-1)b.w.d(-1), with median value of 1.7 ng kg(-1)b.w.d(-1). PMID:21474162

Chovancová, Jana; ?onka, Kamil; Ko?an, Anton; Sejáková, Zuzana Stachová

2011-05-01

299

22 CFR 228.03 - Identification of principal geographic code numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Serbia*, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan*, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uzbekistan, and Vatican City. * Has the status of a...

2010-04-01

300

22 CFR 228.03 - Identification of principal geographic code numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Serbia*, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan*, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uzbekistan, and Vatican City. * Has the status of a...

2011-04-01

301

Determining the Sava fault cumulative displacement and its seismogenic potential for the Ljubljana Basin, Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The right lateral transpressive, 200 km long, Sava fault in northern Slovenia is at the eastern part of the Periadriatic fault system. The fault strikes NW-SE to E-W and dips steeply towards the north. Upper Oligocene volcano-clastic rocks are apparently displaced by 25-70 km along strike (Placer, 1996) suggesting a long-term slip-rate between 1 and 5 mm/yr over the last 20 Ma (Jamšek Rupnik et al., 2012). On the other hand, GPS measurements yield a slip-rate of about 1 mm/yr (Vrabec et al., 2006). Moreover, no large earthquakes (M>5) have been reported on this major fault over the last 1000 yrs. To constrain the seismic hazard in this densely populated region of Europe, we studied the western part of the Sava fault between Jesenice and Kamnik to identify geomorphic indicators of its Quaternary activity, to determine the organization and hierarchy of the overall fault network, and to quantitatively constrain the displacement on this portion of the fault. From Jesenice to Preddvor, the NW-striking fault trace is almost rectilinear. Southeastward, the fault splays into multiple E-W striking branches. The fault also appears divided into several disconnected segments that are both right-stepping and left-stepping along the mean strike of the fault zone. These geometrical arrangements suggest that the fault segments west of Preddvor have a vertical component of slip in addition to their dominant right lateral one, while the vertical component appears to be the dominant one southeast. The segments are 3.5 to 15.5 km long and according to scaling laws, they could produce earthquakes with magnitude 5.6 to 6.5. Dextral bending for 1.3 to 5.4 km of all major rivers crossing the fault are evidences of the fault activity over several thousands of years. Changes in river regime with incision north of the fault and active aggradation with inset terrace formation south of it also suggest ongoing vertical displacement which is yet to be quantified. Three sites near Trži?, Preddvor and Kamnik, where the fault trace is particularly sharp, have been investigated in detail. Fluvial terraces appear displaced and on the eastern portion of the fault, near Cerklje several parallel faults segments with a clear reverse component are observed. The southernmost segment offsets vertically the Kokra alluvial fan with a maximum displacement of 5 m. In the future we will date those alluvial surfaces and perform paleoseismological studies. References Jamšek Rupnik, P., Benedetti, L., Bavec, M. and Vrabec, M. 2012. Geomorphic indicators of Quaternary activity of the Sava fault between Golnik and Preddvor. RMZ - Material and Geoenvironment, Vol. 59, No. 2/3, pp. 299-314. Placer, L. 1996. Displacement along the Sava fault. Geologija, Vol. 39, pp. 283-287. Vrabec, M., Pavlov?i? Prešeren, P. and Stopar, B. 2006. GPS study (1996-2002) of active deformation along the Periadriatic fault system in northeastern Slovenia: tectonic model. Geologica Carpathica, Vol. 57, No. 1, pp. 57-65.

Jamšek Rupnik, Petra; Benedetti, Lucilla; Moulin, Adrien; Bavec, Miloš; Vrabec, Marko

2013-04-01

302

Social, political, and economic factors responsible for the reemergence of trichinellosis in Serbia: a case study.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, eastern Europe has experienced a resurgence of trichinellosis. A recent outbreak in Serbia, Yugoslavia, from December 2001 to January 2002, involving 309 people, revealed many of the causes for this reemergence. Epidemiological investigations indicate that the immediate cause of the recent outbreak was the consumption of smoked sausages produced by a small slaughterhouse or meat processor. However, failure of in-house meat inspection procedures and quality assurance as well as oversight by official veterinary control were also responsible. Further analysis of this breakdown in the food safety net revealed additional general factors that have yielded a seriously deficient veterinary control system, and these are factors that are relevant to the problems experienced throughout eastern Europe and other regions. The recent civil war that led to the breakup of the former Federation of Yugoslavia resulted in severe economic and demographic changes, including high inflation and external economic sanctions. This led to (1) the loss of large numbers of experienced veterinary control officers and their replacement with inexperienced personnel, (2) a change in the swine industry with reduction in the number of large establishments with in-house inspection and replacement with more than 1,000 small abattoirs, too small to afford full-time in-house inspection, and (3) an increase in smallholder pig farming with reduced government oversight to ensure high standards in pig-rearing practices (infection risk management). The consequences of these events have been a 300% increase in Serbian pig infection and a concomittant large increase in human outbreaks. Before 1990, swine trichinellosis in Serbia was confined to 4 small districts, but today about one third of the Republic is considered endemic for trichinellosis. The reemergence of trichinellosis in Serbia illustrates the ability of this zoonosis to "leak" through a poorly maintained food safety barrier and the vulnerability of effective veterinary control to national and international events. PMID:12760633

Djordjevic, M; Bacic, M; Petricevic, M; Cuperlovic, K; Malakauskas, A; Kapel, C M O; Murrell, K D

2003-04-01

303

An approach to assess trends of pharmacist workforce production and density rate in Serbia.  

PubMed

The policy dialog on human resource in health care is one of the central issues of the ongoing health care system reform in the Republic of Serbia. Pharmacists are the third largest health care professional group, after nurses and doctors. This study's objective was to analyze population coverage with pharmacists employed in the public sector of health care system of Serbia during 1961 - 2007, and to project their density by 2017. In this respect, additionally, time-series of annual number of enrolled and graduate pharmacy students were modelled. Time trends of routinely collected national statistical data, concerning the pharmacists, were analyzed by join point regression program, according to grid-search method. During the observed period of time, in Serbia, pharmacist workforce production and deployment trends were generally positive, but with different annual dynamic. Key findings were the slow rise of pharmacist workforce density rates per 100,000 population; the insufficient balance between pharmacists workforce supply side (annual number of enrolled and graduated students) and the public health care sector's ability to absorb annual number of pharmacy graduates. For ten years ahead, density rates of publicly active pharmacist workforce would probably increase for 46%, if no policy interventions were planned to adverse trends of pharmacist workforce production and deployment in public health care sector. The study results may be useful for variety of stakeholders to better understand how and why the supply and deployment of pharmacists were changing; and that the coordination among policy interventions is a crucial successes factor for a health workforce development plan implementation. The repercussions of any changes made to the pharmacy workforce, need to be considered carefully in advance. PMID:21086767

Milicevic, Milena Santric; Matejic, Bojana; Terzic-Supic, Zorica; Dedovic, Neveka; Novak, Sonja

2010-01-01

304

Clinical characteristics and functional outcome of patients with West Nile neuroinvasive disease in Serbia.  

PubMed

Neurologic manifestations are prominent characteristic of West Nile virus (WNV) infection. The aim of this article was to describe neurological manifestations in patients with WNV neuroinvasive disease and their functional outcome at discharge in the first human outbreak of WNV infection in Serbia. The study enrolled patients treated in the Clinic for Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Clinical Center Serbia in Belgrade, with serological evidence of acute WNV infection who presented with meningitis, encephalitis and/or acute flaccid paralyses (AFP). Functional outcome at discharge was assessed using modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and Barthel index. Fifty-two patients were analysed. Forty-four (84.6 %) patients had encephalitis, eight (15.4 %) had meningitis, and 13 (25 %) had AFP. Among patients with AFP, 12 resembled poliomyelitis and one had clinical and electrodiagnostic findings consistent with polyradiculoneuritis. Among patients with encephalitis, 17 (32.7 %) had clinical signs of rhombencephalitis, and eight (15.4 %) presented with cerebellitis. Respiratory failure with subsequent mechanical ventilation developed in 13 patients with WNE (29.5 %). Nine (17.3 %) patients died, five (9.6 %) were functionally dependent (mRS 3-5), and 38 (73.1 %) were functionally independent at discharge (mRS 0-2). In univariate analysis, the presence of AFP, respiratory failure and consciousness impairment were found to be predictors of fatal outcome in patients with WNV neuroinvasive disease (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.018, respectively). The outbreak of human WNV infection in Serbia caused a notable case fatality ratio, especially in patients with AFP, respiratory failure and consciousness impairment. Rhombencephalitis and cerebellitis could be underestimated presentations of WNV neuroinvasive disease. PMID:24687895

Popovic, Natasa; Milosevic, Branko; Urosevic, Aleksandar; Poluga, Jasmina; Popovic, Nada; Stevanovic, Goran; Milosevic, Ivana; Korac, Milos; Mitrovic, Nikola; Lavadinovic, Lidija; Nikolic, Jelena; Dulovic, Olga

2014-06-01

305

Soil fertility status and spatial distribution of selected trace elements in south-western Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil fertility status and spatial distribution of selected trace elements in south-western Serbia V. Mrvic, Lj. Kostic-Kravljanac, D. ?akmak, R. Pivi?, E. Saljnikov, M. Nikoloski, V. Perovi? Institute of Soil Science, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia (vesnavmrvic@yahoo.com) Main characteristic of surface soil layer (pH in KCl, humus, available P and K), and content of trace elements (Ni, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, As, Hg) were analysed on area of southwestern Serbia, covering total 959 000 ha (one sample represents 1000 ha) . About 30 % of samples have very acid reaction. Main portion of soil samples (86%) is poorly suplied with available phosphorus (<8 mg/100g), and these are located under forests, meadows, pastures and orchards. Supplies of available potasium and humus are well. On the other hand, in small number of soil samples (4%), mostly on fertile alluvial soils, there are high P and K concentration, which are consequence of inadequate usage of mineral fertilizers. Content of trace elements in 70 % of soil samples is bellow maximum allowed concentration (MAC). The most frequente potential pollutants are Cr and Ni, which is assosiated with mafic and ultramafic rocks, which are common in this region (mountains naerby river Ibar - Troglav, Stolovi, ?emerno, Željin, Golija, Kopaonik; near Sjenica- peridotites of mn. Ozren). There are dominace of Eutric Leptosols soil type, with Ni content above 100 mg/kg, and in some samples above 1000 mg/kg. In smaller number of samples arsenic and lead exceed MAC, while other elements exceed MAD very rarelly. There are elevated Pb content in Kopaonik mountain area, and elevated As content besides this region, are in mine zone of Golija and Cemerno. These are mountain soils formed on acid igneous and metamorphic rocks, which are enriched with ores of Pb, Zn and other elements. Eventually negative influences of these elements on plants and other components of ecosystem may be esstimated only after detalied investigation.

Mrvic, Vesna; Kostic-Kravljanac, Ljiljana; Cakmak, Dragan; Pivic, Radmila; Saljnikov, Elmira; Nikoloski, Mile; Perovic, Veljko

2010-05-01

306

Water, Biodiversity and Climate Change Studies in International Schools Network of the Park Škocjan Caves, Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As UNESCO World Heritage Site, Ramsar Site and Biosphere Reserve the Park Škocjan Caves strongly believes in development of quality educational programme in order to fulfill the guidelines of international conventions and also provide for awareness and development in the future. Ten years ago we started with water analysis projects and performed several projects related to natural, cultural and social aspect of water protection. We developed a special model of training the teachers and educating the children. Together we have accomplished two international projects, two national project and several research projects dealing with The Reka river and karst phenomena. In 2003 we officially established the schools network, where we join in research education programmes five elementary schools form Slovenia and two from Italy. They are all located beside the surface and underground flow of the Reka River. Fifteen teachers and more than hundred children are involved in educational programme every year. Our work in the schools network enables us to bring science to society in a comprehensive way including the scientists and their work in preparation and implementation of projects. With teachers help we promote science studies but also encourage children to do social projects in order to keep intergeneration connections and gain knowledge of past experience and life from our grandparents. The paper will present the role of protected area in public awareness and education with special emphasis on natural phenomena of water in the Karst region as a toll for joint work in the field for scientists and school children. Chemical and biological analysis of the Reka River and other water bodies will be presented and accompanied with the biodiversity survey and climate change research projects. New approach of performing the research studies and presentation of results for schoolchildren will be explained.

Debevec Gerjevic, Vanja

2010-05-01

307

Isotopic characteristics of precipitation in Slovenia and Croatia: Comparison of continental and maritime stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThe stable isotopic composition of hydrogen and oxygen ( ?2H and ?18O) and tritium activity ( 3H) were monitored in monthly precipitation at two continental stations (Ljubljana, Zagreb) and six stations along the eastern Adriatic coasts of Slovenia and Croatia in the period 2001-2003. Mean air temperatures and amount of precipitation were also recorded. Distinct differences in both meteorological and isotopic data between the continental and maritime stations were observed. Seasonal variations in ?18O are smaller at the maritime stations than at the continental ones due to smaller seasonal temperature variations. A good correlation between ?18O and ?2H was obtained for each station, and the local meteoric water lines are close to the Global Meteoric Water Line, with a decreasing trend of slope for the south-Adriatic stations. Good correlations between ?18O in monthly precipitation and mean monthly air temperature were observed at all stations. The slope of ?18O vs. T varied between 0.37‰ °C -1 and 0.15‰ °C -1. Mean 3H activity and seasonal variation of 3H activity are smaller at maritime stations than at continental ones. Additionally, 3H activity decreases in the NW-SE direction of the Adriatic coast. The study of spatial variations over this relatively small area rich in geographical and climatic diversities showed the complexity of the isotopic composition of precipitation and the isotopic data obtained for eight stations, most of them in the karstic area along the Adriatic coast, and gave valuable information for regional hydrological investigations and modelling of isotope variability over the Mediterranean basin.

Vre?a, Polona; Broni?, Ines Krajcar; Horvatin?i?, Nada; Bareši?, Jadranka

2006-11-01

308

Genetic polymorphism of 17 Y chromosomal STRs in the Rusyn population sample from Vojvodina Province, Serbia.  

PubMed

Seventeen short tandem repeats on the Y chromosome were analyzed in the sample of 200 males of Rusyn origin from the Vojvodina Province, Serbia. We observed 180 different haplotypes; 163 of which were unique and 17 occurred between two and four times. The haplotype diversity was 0.9988, and the discrimination capacity was 0.9. Data are available in the Y chromosome haplotype reference database under accession number YA003631. The obtained results were compared to haplotypes from geographically and linguistically close populations. PMID:23729201

Veselinovic, Igor; Petric, Galina; Vapa, Dusan

2014-03-01

309

Torrent floodplain mapping and torrent flood control in Serbia in the conditions of economic crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Serbia is a country that is endangered by flooding of the largest European river, the Danube and its largest tributaries, as well as by countless torrents. During the 19th and 20th centuries, an imposing scope of protection structures was constructed. The existence of the protection system created the conviction that flood protection was achieved and that it should only be complemented on a great number of unregulated torrents. Such an opinion and practice are possible only in the countries with powerful economies. However, for almost two decades, Serbia has been going through the conditions of economic crisis. The floods which occurred in Serbia during that period pointed to the problem of maintenance of the existing protection system and to the impossibility of building the new projects. Floodplain mapping, although prescribed by the Law, was postponed because of the high price of the classical geodetic surveying. The postponing of this activity, in the conditions of a stable and good economic situation, was explained by the achieved flood protection on large rivers and by low probability that the system could fail. On the other hand, small torrents were partly regulated in the zones of roads and towns, so in this case also it was thought that the protection was accomplished. It was overlooked that the majority of torrents in Serbia was not regulated by any protection system. Urbanisation was progressing unrestrainedly. The State could not afford the construction of the necessary protection system, so numerous settlements remained at risk, without any protection. Floods did not forgive and forget any mistakes and the awareness of the necessity of collecting the data on floodplains and protection against floods became an indispensable task, but in the conditions of economic crisis, difficult to realise. For this reason, a rational method of floodplain mapping was searched, as well as the method of reducing the damage caused by floods, but not requiring high investments. This paper will present the realised results of low-budget mapping of flood zones of torrents and other waterways and the realised preventive techniques of torrential flood control, which were successfully implemented during the great flood of the Danube in 2006. On that occasion, numerous torrential floods endangered the defence system of the river Danube. Key words: Floodplain, flood, torrent, flood defence.

Gavrilovic, Z.; Stefanovic, M.

2009-04-01

310

Epidemiology, Characteristics and Distinctiveness of Headaches in Children from Vojvodina, Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1988 to 2004, an investigation was carried out on a population of 30,636 children (50.38% boys and 49.62% girls) in 9 towns of Vojvodina, province in northern Serbia. Idiopathic recurrent headache was found in 27.46% of children aged 3–17 years (26.8% of males and 28.4% of females). Migraine headache was found in 8.63% of children aged 3–17 years (8.0%

2008-01-01

311

Master’s programmes in public health sciences in Serbia: Future perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  This manuscript deals with public health training, research and practice in order to identify the future perspectives and\\u000a requirements of master’s programmes in public health sciences in Serbia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A wide array of documents and websites was analysed. The methods used for data collection were: (1) review of the existing\\u000a written reports, the relevant legislation and other documents, and (2) Internet

Vesna Bjegovi?; Dejana Vukovi?; Janko Jankovi?; Jelena Marinkovi?; Snežana Simi?; Slavenka Jankovi?; Giuseppe La Torre; Wilhelm Kirch; Ulrich Laaser

2010-01-01

312

Late cretaceous radiolarians and age of flyschoid sediments in the Struganik section (Western Serbia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The succession of radiolarian assemblages in the Struganik section of western Serbia is described for the first time. The following radiolarian beds are defined in carbonate flyschoid sequences represented by thin-platy limestones with calcarenite and bentonite clay intercalations (from the base upward): Theocampe urna-Dictyomitra koslovae (presumably lower Santonian); Afens perapediensis-Clathropyrgus titthium (presumably uppermost lower Santonian-basal upper Santonian); Alievium gallowayi-Crucella espartoensis (upper Santonian). The examined assemblages are characterized by high taxonomic diversity. The upper Santonian Alievium gallowayi-Crucella espartoensis Assemblage exhibits significant similarity with the coeval radiolarian assemblage of the Crimean Mountains (Ukraine). Archaeocenosphaera (?) karamatai sp. nov. is described.

Bragina, L. G.; Bragin, N. Yu.; Djeri?, N.; Gaji?, V.

2014-03-01

313

The invasion history, distribution and colour pattern forms of the harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pall.) (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) in Slovakia, Central Europe  

PubMed Central

Abstract The harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) has invaded and established in Slovakia. Following unintentional introduction in 2008, the spread of the alien coccinellid was very fast. By the end of 2009, it was recorded across the whole country, and by the end of 2012 it was widely distributed and common in various habitats, particularly gardens, orchards and urban areas, where it was most frequent on trees. The rate of eastward spread was approximately 200 km year-1, similar to the overall rate of spread in Europe. Between 2008 and 2012, the coccinellid was recorded in a total of 153 localities, in altitudes ranging from 98 to 1,250 m. Most records of this species were made in lowlands, hilly areas and valleys separating mountain ridges. However, it was only rarely documented in areas above 700 m a.s.l. The non-melanic colour form (f. succinea) was dominant along a longitudinal transect including eight urban areas across Slovakia, with the frequency of melanic forms (f. spectabilis and f. conspicua together) between 6.3 and 19.2% and a median equal to 10.5%. The invasion history and distribution of H. axyridis in Slovakia are discussed with regard to the time sequence of records, rate of spread, altitudinal distribution, anthropogenic dispersal, effective recording, proportion of melanic forms and other relevant aspects associated with the spread of this successful invader.

Panigaj, Lubomir; Zach, Peter; Honek, Alois; Nedved, Oldrich; Kulfan, Jan; Martinkova, Zdenka; Selyemova, Diana; Viglasova, Sandra; Roy, Helen E.

2014-01-01

314

High concordance of intraocular antibody synthesis against the rubella virus and Fuchs heterochromic uveitis syndrome in Slovenia  

PubMed Central

Purpose To prospectively study the relationship between Fuchs heterochromic uveitis syndrome (FHUS) and intraocular production of specific antibodies against the rubella virus (RV) in Slovenia. Methods Using the Goldmann-Witmer coefficient technique, intraocular synthesis of specific antibodies against RV, herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Toxoplasma gondii–specific immunoglobulin G antibodies was performed in 12 consecutive patients with clinically diagnosed FHUS and 12 patients with idiopathic recurrent unilateral anterior uveitis (AU) without clinical features of FHUS. Results Specific intraocular antibody synthesis against RV with a positive Goldmann-Witmer coefficient was proven in 11 of 12 (92%) FHUS patients, and in none of the non-FHUS AU patients (Fisher’s exact test <0.0001). In one patient with FHUS, specific antibodies against RV and varicella-zoster virus were concurrently detected. Specific antibodies against cytomegalovirus were detected in one patient with unilateral recurrent AU. Conclusions Intraocular production of specific immunoglobulin G against RV was proven in the majority of tested cohort of FHUS patients from Slovenia as compared to the group of patients with idiopathic AU, which suggests that RV is involved in the pathogenesis of FHUS in this geographic area.

Petrovec, Miroslav; Zigon, Nina; Hawlina, Marko; Kraut, Aleksandra; de Groot-Mijnes, Jolanda D.F.; Valentincic, Natasa Vidovic

2012-01-01

315

Distribution of chemical elements in attic dust and soil as reflection of lithology and anthropogenic influence in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to establish contents and distribution of chemical elements in attic dust in Slovenia, and to define them according to geology and anthiopogenic influence. Attic dust and topsoil (0-5 cm) samples were collected in the rural area in settlements without known industry and in six largest towns in Slovenia. Analysis of 42 chemical elements was performed. For estimation of the association between elements and sampling materials the R mode factor analysis was applied. Al, Ba, Co, Ci, Fe, La, Mn, Na, Nb, Ni, Sc, Th, Ti, Y, V and Zr in attic dust reflect the natural distribution. The highest elemental contents in attic dust occur in the areas of igneous and metmoiphic rocks and of flysch formation. High contents of the elemental association Co, Ci, Fe, Mn, and Ni reflect also centuries of ferrous metallurgy. Distribution of As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mo, Sb, Sn, Sr, Pb and Zn represents the anthropogenically introduced chemical elements. Their averages in attic dust are higher compared to topsoil. High contents of these elements are a result of historical Pb-Zn mining and smelting.

Sajn, R.

2003-05-01

316

Levels of ˛š?Po and ˛š?Pb in fish and molluscs in Slovenia and the related dose assessment to the population.  

PubMed

˛š?Po and ˛š?Pb activity concentrations in fish from the Slovenian part of Adriatic Sea, in the vicinity of a former uranium mine at Žirovski vrh and from the Slovenian market were determined. In addition, ˛š?Po and ˛š?Pb activity concentrations in squid from the Slovenian market and in mussels from the Slovenian part of the Adriatic Sea were also determined. Fish, squid and mussel consumption in Slovenia was assessed from the data available from Eurostat and Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) and the data used for the corresponding dose calculation. Fish species with the highest activity concentrations were grilled to assess possible loss of ˛š?Po during the food preparation process. Samples were freeze dried and radiochemical separation of ˛š?Po and ˛š?Pb was performed. Measurements of ˛š?Po were performed by alpha spectrometry and ˛š?Pb by a low background gas-flow proportional counter. ˛š?Po activity concentrations in fish, squid and mussels were from 0.039 to 35.0 Bqkg?š fresh weight and ˛š?Pb activity concentrations were from 0.08 to 3.03 Bqkg?š fresh weight. Grilling of fish resulted in no significant loss of ˛š?Po at 90°C. The assessed combined annual effective ingestion dose due to ˛š?Po and ˛š?Pb for fish, squid and mussels consumed in Slovenia is 47.6 ?Sv year?š. PMID:21094513

Strok, Marko; Smodiš, Borut

2011-02-01

317

A review of the potential and actual sources of pollution to groundwater in selected karst areas in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slovenian karst areas extend over 43% of the country; limestones and dolomites of the Mesozoic era prevail. In Slovenia karst groundwater contributes up to 50% of the total drinking water supply. The quality of water is very high, despite the fact that it is extremely vulnerable to pollution. The present article is a study and a review of the potential and actual sources of pollution to the groundwater in the selected karst aquifers (the Kras, Velika planina and Snežnik plateaus), which differ in their natural characteristics. Unlike the other selected plateaus, the Kras plateau is inhabited. There are several settlements in the area and the industrial, agricultural and traffic activities carried out that represent a serious threat to the quality of karst groundwater. The Velika planina and Snežnik plateaus do not have permanent residents, however there are some serious hazards to the quality of the karst springs arising from sports, tourist, construction and farming activities, as well as from the traffic related to them. Despite relatively favourable conditions for protection, many important karst aquifers and springs are improperly protected in Slovenia. The reason is the lack of knowledge about sustainable water management in karst regions and the confusion in drinking water protection policy.

Kova?i?, G.; Ravbar, N.

2005-02-01

318

Simulating rainfall-runoff dynamics of selected flash flood events in Slovakia using the KLEM hydrological model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The HYDRATE project (Hydrometeorological Data Resources and Technologies for Effective Flash Flood Forecasting) objective is to improve the scientific basis of flash flood forecasting by extending the understanding of past flash flood events and developing a coherent set of technologies and tools for effective early warning systems. To understand rainfall-runoff processes during selected extreme flash floods occurred in the past in Slovakia, runoff responses during selected major events were examined by using the spatially distributed hydrologic model KLEM (Kinematic Local Excess Model (Borga et al., 2007)). The distributed hydrological model is based on availability of raster information of the landscape topography, the soil and vegetation properties and radar rainfall data. In the model, the SCS-Curve Number procedure is applied on a grid way for the spatially distributed representation of runoff generating processes. For representing runoff routing a description of the drainage system response is used. In Slovakia, 3 extreme events selected from the HYDRATE flash-flood database were simulated by the model. Three selected major flash floods occurred 20th of July 1998 in the Malá Svinka and Dubovický creeks, 24th of July 2001 in the Štrbský Creek (both with more than 1000-years return period) and 19th of June 2004 in the Turniansky Creek (with 100-years return period). Rainfall-runoff characteristics of the floods in the Malá Svinka, Dubovický and Štrbský creek basins were similar and the floods had a similar progress. A value of runoff coefficient varied from 0.39 to 0.56. Opposite to them, the highest runoff coefficient in the Turniansky Creek Basin only reached a value equal to 0.26. The simulated values by the KLEM model were comparable with maximum peaks estimated on the base of post event surveying. The consistency of the estimated and simulated values by the KLEM model was evident both in time and space and the methodology has shown its applicability for practical purposes. It was concluded that for short duration of the storm events temporal variability seems to be less important than the spatial variability.

Horvat, O.; Hlavcova, K.; Kohnova, S.; Szolgay, J.; Remiasova, R.

2009-04-01

319

Development of the distributed hydrological model FRIER for modelling and forecasting runoff in mountainous basins in Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatially distributed rainfall-runoff model FRIER (Horvát, 2006) developed at the Slovak University of Technology is based on the structure of the physically-based WetSpa model which was originally developed by Wang et al. (1997) and adapted for flood prediction by De Smedt et al. (2000) and Liu et al. (2003). Several of model's components were changed in order to make it more appropriate for modelling and forecasting runoff from rainfall and snowmelt in selected basins of the High Core Mountains of Slovakia. The applicability of the conceptualization of runoff generation in this model has proved under various physiographic conditions in Slovakia, e.g. in the Hron, Hornad and Torysa River basins and within the framework of the Tisza River Project. The FREIR rainfall-runoff model divides basins into uniform spatial units on a grid scale, in which the hydrological balance and the runoff simulation are calculated up to the basin's outlet. Several methods, classifications and determinations of many hydrologic processes and parameters are included in the model. The individual components of the hydrological balance are liquid and solid precipitation, interception, soil moisture, infiltration, actual evapotranspiration, surface runoff, interflow in the root zone, percolation into the groundwater, groundwater runoff and production of a groundwater recharge in the saturated zone. Transformation of the surface runoff in the catchment is simulated by approximating a diffusive wave model using geometric and hydraulic characteristics of hillslopes and of the stream network. Routing parameters are generated from input layers of a digital elevation model and a type of land use. The model is executed as an ArcView GIS extension, and the whole preparation of the spatial distributed data is linked to the GIS interface. The hydrological and climatic data are daily or hourly precipitation totals and mean daily or hourly values of air temperature. Besides of the large number of physically-based parameters derived from the physiographic properties of the catchment, the model requires 12 calibrated "global" parameters which are not spatially distributed and which are constant for all cells of the basin.

Horvat, O.; Hlavcova, K.; Szolgay, J.; Kohnova, S.; Danko, M.

2009-04-01

320

Preliminary Results of Modeling Along Celebration 2000 Profiles Crossing The Western Carpathians In Eastern Slovakia and Northern Hungary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Project CELEBRATION 2000 Part Western Carpathians - Slovakia is financially sup- ported by Ministry of Environment of Slovak Republic and realized by Geological Survey of Slovak Republic Bratislava in cooperation with Geophysical Institute of Slovak Acad. of Science Bratislava, Geocomplex Inc. Bratislava and Eötvös Lorand Geophysical Institute Budapest, under co-ordination and support of Geoph. Institute of Polish Acad, of Science and University of El Paso. The Western Carpathians Mts. Belt is characterised by dominantly North vergent multi-nappe structure with gen- erally W-E zoning. They are classified according to the age of development of the Alpine nappe structure as the Outer Western Carpathians with Neo-Alpine nappes and the Inner Western Carpathians with Paleo-Alpine - Pre-Paleogene nappe structure. The Klippen belt marks the boundary between the two. Preliminary investigation of the Western Carpathians in Eastern Slovakia and Northern Hungary focused on two refraction profiles. The seismic sections show good quality data with clear first arrivals up to distances of 200-250 km. The tomographic inversion method of C. Zelt (1998) was used to determine the seismic P-wave velocity distribution in the crust using first arrivals only. For the 2D modeling first arrivals along CEL 04 and CEL 06 profiles were used. The 2D initial velocity model was calculated from the available basement depth and velocity data. The net of interlocking profiles provided substantial 3D cov- erage over a 100 km by 150 km area of interest. The total number of ray paths was 2600, for tomographic modeling 1800 picks of P-wave first arrivals were utilized. The starting velocity model was established along equidistant nodes in three dimensions, with a cell size of 0.5 km. The size of the model was 441 by 321 by 101 nodes, con- sisting of more than 14 million cells. The iterations were carried out in three steps with 10 by 10 by 5 km, 5 by 5 by 2 km and 2 by 2 by 1 km grids. The forward modeling and the inversion was executed on a SUN Enterprise Server 10 000 in Hungary. The 2D velocity models presented show anomalies that delineate contacts of tectonic units. In particular, the Outer Western Carpathians (Flysch Belt), the Eastern Slovakian Basin and Zemplinicum Unit can be detected. The 3D velocity models highlighted velocity anomalies correlating with significant geological features, like the volcanic caldera of 1 Badenian age in the Matra Mountains or a deep-seated structure within the basement in the Zemplinicum. In either case, an interesting and previously unknown structure is revealed. 2

Vozar, J.; Bielik, M.; Hegedus, E.; Celebration Working Group

321

Crafting Democracy through Constitutional Change: Comparing the Recent Cases of Romania and Serbia in the Context of EU Incentives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current trends in the enlargement process of the European Union offer a virtual laboratory through which to gain insight into the mechanics of constitutional change. In particular, the Central and Eastern European countries, including Romania and Serbia, serve as great lenses through which to view the processes involved in consolidating democracy through constitutional dynamics. Even though EU accession may offer

Caitlin L. Wood

2009-01-01

322

Combining GIS and Analytic hierarchy process for evaluating land suitability for irrigation: A case study from Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serbia is amongst the European countries with the lowest percent of irrigated land. New state strategies for agricultural development assume significant increase of the irrigated land. To begin the process, it would be very useful for the decision makers and planers to know where the most suitable land for irrigation is located and to have that information visualized. Use of

Zorica Srdjevic; B. Srdjevic; B. Blagojevic; R. Bajcetic

2010-01-01

323

The diffusion of computer-based information technology into health institutions of Republic of Serbia (FR Yugoslavia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic purpose of this study was to analyze the diffusion of computer-based information technology into the health care institutions of the Republic of Serbia in the year 1994, and to compare the results with a similar investigation in 1992 in order to determine the state and progress of its development. The instrument of investigation was a questionnaire with 24

Snežana Simi?; Jelena Marinkovi?; Vesna Bjegovi?; Dejana Stanisavljevi?

1996-01-01

324

Educating Educators in a Volatile Climate--The Challenge of Modernising Higher Business Schools in Serbia and Montenegro  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is set in the rapidly changing higher educational environment that has ensued in Serbia and Montenegro in the post Milosevic era. Its primary focus is a "Training Trainers" initiative, mounted by the GTZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit/Society for Technical Co-operation), designed to upgrade the teaching capacity of…

Hollinshead, Graham

2006-01-01

325

Influence of Coal Ash and Slag Dumping on Dump Waste Waters of the Kostolac Power Plants (Serbia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The content of selected trace and major elements in the river water used for transport, as well as in the subcategories of the waste waters (overflow and drainage) were analyzed in order to establish the influence of transport and dumping of coal ash and slag from the “Kostolac A” and “Kostolac B” power plants located 100 km from Belgrade (Serbia).

Aleksandar Popovic; Jasna Djinovic

2006-01-01

326

High infection rate of zoonotic Eucoleus aerophilus infection in foxes from Serbia  

PubMed Central

The respiratory capillariid nematode Eucoleus aerophilus (Creplin, 1839) infects wild and domestic carnivores and, occasionally, humans. Thus far, a dozen of human infections have been published in the literature but it cannot be ruled out that lung capillariosis is underdiagnosed in human medicine. Also, the apparent spreading of E. aerophilus in different geographic areas spurs new studies on the epidemiology of this nematode. After the recognition of the first human case of E. aerophilus infection in Serbia, there is a significant merit in enhancing knowledge on the distribution of the nematode. In the present work the infection rate of pulmonary capillariosis was investigated in 70 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from the northern part of Serbia by autopsy. The estimated infection rate with Eucoleus aerophilus was 84%. In contrast, by copromicroscopic examination only 38% of foxes were positive. In addition, 10 foxes were investigated for the closely related species in nasal cavity, Eucoleus boehmi, and nine were positive. Our study demonstrates one of the highest infection rates of pulmonary capillariosis in foxes over the world.

Lalosevic, Vesna; Lalosevic, Dusan; Capo, Ivan; Simin, Verica; Galfi, Annamaria; Traversa, Donato

2013-01-01

327

Undercooked meat consumption remains the major risk factor for Toxoplasma infection in Serbia.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii infection prevalence and infection risk factors were analyzed in a series of 765 women of generative age from throughout Serbia tested at the Institute for Medical Research Toxoplasmosis Laboratory between 2001 and 2005. The infection risk factors were additionally analyzed in a group of 53 women with acute infection (cases) compared to a group of seronegative women matched for age and education level (controls). The overall prevalence of infection was 33%. Infection risk factors in the whole series were undercooked meat consumption (RR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.16-2.7, P = 0.008) and exposure to soil (RR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.17-2.29, P = 0.004), particularly in less educated women. Moreover, undercooked meat consumption was the single predictor of infection in women with acute infection, with an 11-fold increased risk of infection in women who acknowledged consumption of undercooked meat (RR = 11.21, 95% CI = 3.10-40.53, P = 0.000). These data prompted us to analyze the significance of consumption of particular meat types as sources of infection. Of all the meat types mostly consumed in Serbia, only consumption of beef (RR = 1.006, 95% CI = 1.001-1.011, P = 0.027) was shown to influence Toxoplasma infection rates. PMID:18689232

Bobi?, B; Nikoli?, A; Klun, I; Vujani?, M; Djurkovi?-Djakovi?, O

2007-12-01

328

Freshwater environmental quality parameters of man-made lakes of Serbia.  

PubMed

In this study, 28 lakes were selected from the freshwater resources of the network of man-made lakes throughout the Vojvodina Province and the central part of Serbia. Samples were analyzed for the physicochemicals indicators of the water and nutrients. Most of the values of the chemicals indicators and nutrients of the samples from the Vojvodina Province exceeded the Water Act and Regulations on the Monitoring of Water Quality introduced by the Government of the Republic of Serbia (MWQ) and/or the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standards. These samples may not be suitable for human consumption. The sample from Lake Me?uvršje, where the NH4 (+) concentration was 0.28 mg/L, and the sample from Ovcar Banja, where the total phosphorus (TP) content was 0.15 mg/L with a high total nitrogen (TN) content of 1.21 mg/L, are particularly noteworthy. These high concentrations exceeded the proposed guidelines for safe drinking water; therefore, water from these lakes should be used with care as harmful health effects may occur. The majority of the Serbian lakes are characterized by phosphorus-limited photosynthesis. PMID:24740390

Devic, Gordana; Dor?evic, Dragana; Sakan, Sanja

2014-08-01

329

Ethnobotanical study on traditional use of medicinal plants in South-Western Serbia, Zlatibor district.  

PubMed

Ethnopharmacological relevance: This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on medicinal plant uses in the Zlatibor district, South-Western Serbia. Materials and methods: A survey was performed using questionnaires with 220 informants (mean age 47, 79% female, 21% male). In addition, the use value and the relative importance of species were determined and the informant consensus factor was calculated for the medicinal plants included in the study. Intended plants usage was compared with previous ethnobotanical literature, with reference to the neighboring areas of Zlatibor district. Results: The informants provided data for 69 medicinal plants belonging to 36 families. Rosaceae, Lamiaceae and Asteraceae were the predominant locally used families. The species with the highest use value were Mentha piperita, Matricaria chamomilla, Hypericum perforatum and Achillea millefolium. The most frequently reported medicinal uses were ones for treating gastrointestinal ailments, respiratory problems and skin diseases. Usually, the administration was primarily oral followed by topical applications. All different plant parts were utilized, however leaves were the most exploited parts of the plants. Conclusions: Folk medicine in South-Western Serbia, Zlatibor district is intended mainly as a mode of primary health care in healing of minor illnesses. The results indicate a slight reduction in the ethnobotanical and medical knowledge in this area, when compared with neighboring regions. PMID:23422337

Savikin, Katarina; Zduni?, Gordana; Menkovi?, Nebojša; Zivkovi?, Jelena; Cuji?, Nada; Tereš?enko, Milena; Bigovi?, Dubravka

2013-04-19

330

Analysis of pathogen co-occurrence in host-seeking adult hard ticks from Serbia.  

PubMed

Past studies in Serbia have reported concurrent infections of Ixodes ricinus ticks with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Francisella tularensis. As a step forward, this investigation included a broader range of microorganisms and five most common and abundant tick species in Serbia. Five tick species were identified (Dermacentor marginatus, D. reticulatus, Haemaphysalis punctata, H. concinna and I. ricinus) and analyzed for the presence of seven pathogens. Anaplasma ovis, A. phagocytophilum, Babesia canis, B. burgdorferi s.l., Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia helvetica and R. monacensis were detected. Sequencing of samples positive for F. tularensis revealed the presence of Francisella-like endosymbionts. No Bartonella spp. DNA was amplified. Concurrent infections were present in three tick species (D. reticulatus, H. concinna and I. ricinus). The rate of co-infections was highest in I. ricinus (20/27), while this tick species harbored the broadest range of co-infection combinations, with dual, triple and a quadruple infection(s) being detected. PMID:22773070

Tomanovi?, Snežana; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Radulovi?, Zeljko; Milutinovi?, Marija; Caki?, Sanja; Mihaljica, Darko; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

2013-03-01

331

Human leukocyte antigen-b27 and disease susceptibility in vojvodina, serbia.  

PubMed

There are numerous studies showing the role of human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) related with susceptibility or resistance to certain diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the association of HLA-B27 with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), polyarthralgia, lumboishialgia, acute anterior uveitis (AAU), psoriatic arthritis (PA), synovitis coxae and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in patients from Vojvodina, Serbia. An HLA I class typing was performed by the serological immunomagnetic two-color fluorescence method using peripheral blood T lymphocytes in 97 patients and 224 healthy controls from the population of Vojvodina, Serbia. We calculated HLA-B27 frequencies, relative risk (RR), ethiologic fraction (EF), e.g., population attributive risk, when RR was greater than 1, while, preventive fraction (PF) was calculated when RR was lower than 1. This study revealed the strongest association of AS with HLAB27 antigen: RR = 25.0, while the EF was greater than 0.15, respectively. The ?(2) test showed the significant difference (p <0.05) in HLA-B27 in patients with AS in comparison to controls (?(2) = 52.5). It was concluded that there is a positive association of HLA-B27 with AS and that HLA-B27 can serve as a marker for predisposition to diseases. PMID:24052732

Vojvodi?, S; Ademovi?-Sazdani?, D; Busar?evi?

2012-12-01

332

Evidence for genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii in selected intermediate hosts in Serbia.  

PubMed

To contribute to the insight into the worldwide population structure of Toxoplasma gondii, we genetically characterized a total of eight strains isolated from intermediate hosts including humans, sheep and pigeons in Serbia. Although parasite DNA was detected in 28.2% (60/213) of the human samples from 162 patients serologically suspected of active toxoplasmosis, as well as in 5/7 seropositive pigeons and in 2/12 seropositive sheep examined, multilocus PCR-RFLP genotyping, using SAG1, 5'SAG2, 3'SAG2, GRA6, 5'GRA7 and 3'GRA7 as markers, was successful in only four human isolates (of which one was isolated from both the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and blood samples of a single patient), one sheep and three pigeons. Of the eight isolates, five were type II (62.5%), one was type III, one was atypical, and one had a type I allele at GRA6 as the single locus genotyped. Although type II, as elsewhere in Europe, predominated, these results may suggest a higher genetic diversity of T. gondii in Serbia, reflecting local environmental contamination and also the geographical position of the country in South-East Europe. PMID:24698636

Markovi?, Marija; Ivovi?, Vladimir; Stajner, Tijana; Djoki?, Vitomir; Klun, Ivana; Bobi?, Branko; Nikoli?, Aleksandra; Djurkovi?-Djakovi?, Olgica

2014-05-01

333

Variability Analysis for Effectiveness and Improvement in Classrooms and Schools in Upper Secondary Education in Slovenia: Assessment of/for Learning Analytic Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From 1995, data on students' achievement in schools (i.e., teacher's grades) and all data on achievement in the 5-subject group certificate--the "Matura" exam--have been systematically gathered for the entire yearly cohort of students in upper secondary education in Slovenia. This paper describes an on-line data selection system and data analysis…

Zupanc, Darko; Urank, Matjaz; Bren, Matevz

2009-01-01

334

Characterisation of heavy metal-bearing phases in stream sediments of the Meza River Valley, Slovenia, by means of SEM\\/EDS analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stream sediment reflects the rock structure of the catchment area, its geochemical characteristics and possible recent contamination upstream of the sampling point and thus, it is most frequently used in geochemical researches of heavy metal pollution. Stream sediment samples were collected along the Meza River and its tributaries and the Drava River, located in the NNE part of Slovenia. Previous

M. Miler; M. Gosar

2010-01-01

335

Drafting New Curricula in South-East Europe. Final Report of the Regional Seminar (Bohinj, Slovenia, April 26-28, 2002).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the regional seminar on curriculum renewal, held in Bohinj, Slovenia in April 2002 was to contribute to human resource development and capacity-building in the field of curriculum development. It is currently widely recognized that curriculum renewal is an important component in the reform and in improving the quality of education. The…

Rozemeijer, Saskia, Ed.

336

Faecal immunochemical test-based colorectal cancer screening programme SVIT in Slovenia: pilot phase.  

PubMed

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer in Slovenia. The 5-year survival of patients depends on the clinical stage at presentation. More than 70% of patients with CRC are diagnosed as being in stage III or IV, with a 5-year survival rate of 52.7%. To improve the detection rate of CRC and to detect CRC in its early and more curable stage, a national screening programme is needed. In the year 2008, we started a pilot phase of the National CRC screening programme. We invited 9091 Slovene residents aged 64-68 years from Ljubljana, Kranj, and Celje regions, of whom 3807 responded to our invitation (41.9%). Two kits of the faecal immune test were sent to 3117 participants who met the inclusion criteria, and 2829 (90.7%) tests were returned. The compliance rate in our pilot programme was 32.9%. Among the patients who responded positively, 7.5% were positive. Until February 2009, 193 colonoscopies had been performed at DC Bled, DC Lipa and AM DC Rogaška. Intubation to the caecum was carried out in 99.4% of colonoscopies. Histology specimens were taken from 135 patients (70%). The adenoma detection rate was 53.8% (59.8% for men and 47.9% for women; P<0.05). We detected 1-17 adenomas per patient (2.4 on average). Advanced adenomas were detected in 60 patients (31%; 35.1% of men and 27.1% of women; P<0.05). Invasive carcinoma was detected in 15 patients (7.7%; 12.4% of men and 3.1% of women; P<0.05). Ten of them (73.3%) were in clinical stage I or II. In the pilot phase of the CRC screening programme the majority of CRCs were detected at early clinical stages. Invasive cancers were detected in 7.7% of patients. In almost all patients adenomas were resected at screening colonoscopy, thus reducing the possibility of later development of CRC in those patients. PMID:24030444

Tepeš, Bojan; Stabuc, Borut; Stefanovi?, Milan; Bra?ko, Matej; Frkovi? Grazio, Snežana; Novak Mlakar, Dominika; Mau?ec Zakotnik, Jožica

2014-07-01

337

Longidorus carniolensis sp. n. (Nematoda, Longidoridae) from vineyard soil in Slovenia  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new needle nematode, Longidorus carniolensis sp. n., recovered from the soil around the roots of grapevine Vitis vinifera L. from Slovenia, is described and illustrated. Longidorus carniolensisis an amphimictic species, characterised by females with a moderately long (L=5.6–8.2 mm) and plump (a=51–72.4, ave. 66.3) body, assuming a spiral to C-shape when heat relaxed. Head region continuous, anteriorly almost flat, lip region 23–25 ľm wide; guiding ring situated posteriorly (42–47 ?m, 43–50 ?m in males), odontostyle long (ave. 146.6 (136–157) ?m); pharyngeal glands with normal location, their nuclei of approximately equal size; tail bluntly conoidal to almost hemispherical. Males abundant, spicules slender and long (122–145 ?m), ventromedian supplements 13–17, irregularly spaced, preceded by an adanal pair. Four juvenile stages present, the first stage juvenile with bluntly conoidal tail. Codes for identifying the new species when using the key by Chen et al. (1997) are: A 56, B 4, C 4, D 1, E 4, F 35, G 1, H 1, I 2. The new species is morphologically the most similar to Longidorus poessneckensis Altherr, 1974, Longidorus macrosoma Hooper, 1961, Longidorus caespiticola Hooper, 1961, Longidorus helveticus Lamberti et al., 2001, Longidorus macroteromucronatus Altherr, 1974, Longidorus pius Barsi & Lamberti, 2001, Longidorus raskii Lamberti & Agostinelli, 1993, Longidorus kheirii Pedram et al. 2008, Longidorus silvae Roca, 1993, Longidorus iuglandis Roca et al., 1985, Longidorus vinearum Bravo & Roca, 1995 and Longidorus major Roca & d’Erico, 1987, but differs from these species either by the body and odontostyle length, position of guide ring, head region and tail shape or the shape of the first stage juvenile tail. Sequence data from the D2-D3 region of the 28S rDNA distinguishes this new species from other speciesof the genus Longidorus with known sequences. Relationships of Longidorus carniolensis sp. n. with other Longidorus species based on analysis of this DNA fragment and morphology are discussed.

Sirca, Sasa; Urek, Gregor; Lazarova, Stela; Elshishka, Milka; Peneva, Vlada

2011-01-01

338

Drainage efficiency of large dowels as a stabilising measure, case study of Slano Blato landslide (Slovenia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Slano Blato landslide, with a volume of more than 1 million m3, is one of the largest landslides in Slovenia. The sliding mass consists mainly of clay and clayey gravel of highly weathered and deteriorated flysch type clastic soft rocks, while a minor part represents grains of limestones. Large movements were firstly scientifically reported in 1789 by B. Hacquet followed by the catastrophic events in 1888 and 1902. The landslide was stabilised through extensive remediation measures approximately 100 years ago. The landslide was reactivated again in November 2000, after an intense rainfall event. The upper part of the landslide was stabilized by a curved row of large hollow dowels (6 to 8 m in diameter and ~20 m deep), which were designed to fulfil both retaining and the drainage requirements. Draining the sliding material will have two effects, i) decreasing the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of the slope and ii) increasing the effective stress and shear strength of the sliding material. The drainage efficiency of the installed dowels is examined analytically and numerically. The analytical calculation is performed under simplified assumptions according to the classical theory of Dupuit and Thiem. Comparison between these results and limited insitu measurements implies that the amount of water discharge into the dowels and the groundwater drawdown can be fairly well determined using a simplified 3D analytical model. The numerical calculations were conducted using the finite element program PLAXIS under different steady state and transient scenarios. Results are compared with a case of 'no drainage' to capture the extent of drainage upslope and downslope. These simulations show that the installation of the dowels leads to successful drainage of the slope at least to a radius of 40 m. The pattern of potential lines of the flow net in the slope, derived from the 3D analytical models, shows that the row of dowels can be replaced by a 2D plane flow trench drain with equivalent hydraulic properties. This observation is valid due to the small spacing between the dowels and is supported by the agreement between the results of 2D plane flow analyses and the insitu measurements of the discharge into the dowels and water table drawdown. However, it should be noted that analytical and numerical results include significant simplifications in the soil models and boundary conditions. For example, assuming uniform hydraulic properties for the materials might have important effects, especially in the case of the Slano Blato landslide, as flysch bedrock exhibits significant heterogeneous hydro-mechanical features. Accordingly, models need to be calibrated further based on a denser network of insitu measurements.

Askarinejad, Amin; Molinari, Orlando; Macek, Matej; Petkovsek, Ana; Springman, Sarah

2013-04-01

339

Groundwater hydrogeochemistry of mayor ions in the Radovna River valley (NW Slovenia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical analysis of major elements was used to investigate the characteristics of various springs and surface water in the Radovna River valley. The valley is situated in the north-western part of Slovenia. It is 17-kilometre long Alpine river flowing between karstic plateaus of Pokljuka and Mežakla confluenting with Sava Dolinka River. Wider area of the valley is built up by Triassic limestone and dolomite. Quaternary alluvial and glacial sediments occur in the bottom of the valley and on the slopes of the plateaus. Water was sampled monthly from May 2005 till March 2007 at 10 locations along the valley. Locations are divided into: 5 springs, 3 surface water locations, 1 small lake and 1 artesian borehole. On site conductivity, pH and water temperature was measured and samples for chemical analyses were collected. Groundwater, spring water and surface water are related to carbonate rocks; therefore the pH of the samples is in range between 7.1 and 8.4. In most cases pH of river water is higher than that of groundwater and spring water. Conductivity of the water varied in the interval between 188 ?S/cm and 374 ?S/cm. Results of chemical analyses show that concentration of Ca2+ exceeds that of Mg2+ in all of the samples and Ca/Mg ratio varies between 2.6 and 16.8. The concentration of Na+ is lower than Mg2+, but always higher than that of K+. Predominant anion is the HCO3- and varies between 100 mg/l and 211 mg/l. Concentration of anions Cl-, NO3- and SO42- are low and range from 0.1 mg/l to 7.47 mg/l and between 0.62 mg/l and 12 mg/l for Cl- and SO42-, respectively. NO3- is in almost all of the samples below 1 mg/l. Water data shows that waters are alkaline and the dominant facies is Ca-Mg-HCO3-. Ion concentrations fluctuate seasonally and are related to changes in discharge. In winter and early spring, when the discharge is low, the ion concentrations are higher and in late spring and summer during snowmelt, when the discharge is higher, the ion concentration are lower. Generally, ion concentrations in the water are also increasing downstream from the main spring. Chemical analyses of the water samples reflect typical karst spring dynamics and dynamics of groundwater fluctuations in the alluvium. Along the course of the river, water flow is increasing due to great amount of groundwater drainage in to the stream, therefore the chemical concentrations are increasing downstream.

Torkar, Anja; Bren?i?, Mihael; Vre?a, Polona

2013-04-01

340

The response of Corylus avellana L. phenology to rising temperature in north-eastern Slovenia.  

PubMed

Knowledge of plant-weather relationships can improve crop management, resulting in higher quality and more stable crop yields. The annual timing of spring phenophases in mid-latitudes is largely a response to temperature, and reflects the thermal conditions of previous months. The effect of air temperature on the variability of hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) phenophases (leafing, flowering) was investigated. Meteorological and phenological data for five cultivars were analysed over the periods 1969-1979 (P1) and 1994-2007 (P2) in Maribor, Slovenia. Phenological data series were correlated strongly to the temperature of the preceding months (R(2): 0.64-0.98) and better correlated to daily maximum and mean temperatures than to daily minimum temperatures. About 75% of phenophases displayed a tendency towards earlier appearance and a shorter flowering duration during P2, which could be explained by the significant temperature changes (+0.3°C/decade) from December to April between 1969 and 2007. An increase in air temperature of 1°C caused an acceleration in leafing by 2.5-3.9 days, with flowering showing higher sensitivity since a 1°C increase promoted male flowering by 7.0-8.8 days and female flowering by 6.3-8.9 days. The average rate of phenological change per degree of warming (days earlier per +1°C) did not differ significantly between P1 and P2. An estimation of chilling accumulation under field conditions during 1993-2009, between 1 November and 28 February, showed that all four of these months contributed approximately similar amounts of accumulated chilling units. The growing degree days (GDD) to flowering were calculated by an estimated base temperature of 2°C and 1 January as a starting date, given the most accurate calculations. In general, thermal requirements were greater in P2 than in P1, although this difference was not significant. Longer-time series data extended to other agricultural and wild plants would be helpful in tracking possible future changes in phenological responses to local climate. PMID:21786017

Crepinšek, Zalika; Stampar, Franci; Kajfež-Bogataj, Lu?ka; Solar, Anita

2012-07-01

341

Availability of mental health service providers and suicide rates in Slovenia: a nationwide ecological study  

PubMed Central

Aim To investigate the influence of socioeconomic factors, mental health service availability, and prevalence of mental disorders on regional differences in the suicide rate in Slovenia. Methods The effects of different socioeconomic factors, mental health service availability, and mental disorders factors on suicide rates from 2000-2009 were analyzed using a general linear mixed model (GLMM). Pearson correlations were used to explore the direction and magnitude of associations. Results Among socioeconomic factors, unemployment rate ranked as the most powerful predictor of suicide and an increase of one unit in the unemployment rate increased regional suicide rate by 2.21 (??=?2.21, 95% confidence intervals [CI]?=?1.87-2.54, P?

Korosec Jagodic, Helena; Rokavec, Tatjana; Agius, Mark; Pregelj, Peter

2013-01-01

342

Hydrogeological Conditions of Coastal Carbonate Aquifer in Lucija - Portorož (Gulf of Trieste, N Adriatic Sea, Slovenia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 1994 801 m deep borehole Lu 1/94 very close to the sea in Lucija near Portorož (Piranski zaliv - Gulf of Trieste) was drilled through the 257 m deep sequence of flysh rocks after which it enters the limestone of Palaeogene and Cretaceous age. The aquifer where borehole is constructed is classified as high yield and highly permeable confined carbonate aquifer with fissured porosity. During drilling and final pumping test after the borehole completion groundwater samples were taken. The results of these analyses were compared with groundwater samples from the wider Portorož environs. It was established that groundwater in the well Lu-1/94 is result of seawater freshwater mixing and due to the presence of high organic content in the aquifer subject to highly redox conditions. Groundwater from the carbonate aquifer is highly over saturated with respect to calcite, dolomite, iron sulphides and carbonate, with the presence of H2S and NH4+. In the carbonate aquifer seawater is represented with 33% and in the flysh part with 6%. In the shallower part Ca2+ - Na+ - Cl- - SO42- - HCO3- hydrogeochemical facies is present followed by Na+ - Ca2+ - Cl-- SO42- - HCO3- facies in the other part of the borehole. In the carbonate part of the borehole Na+ - Ca2+ - Cl- - SO42- facies is present. Based on the comparison with other boreholes similar stratification is interpreted in the whole coastal aquifer around Portorož. Seawater is not distinctly separated from the freshwater flowing on it as it can be deduced from the hydrodynamical theory. Transition from freshwater to seawater is gradual and hydrogeochemicaly stratified. Hydrogeochemical stratification is very much related with the geological structure where big differences in physical and chemical properties among flysh and limestone rocks are present. Delta-18O values show that fresh groundwater is recharged from the hinterland and this can be supported also with structural interpretations. Based on these results we can conclude that in the area of southwestern Slovenia deep and extensive groundwater flow in the direction from the northeast to the southeast exist and discharges as submarine seepage into the eastern part of Gulf of Trieste. Above this regional groundwater flow many local perched aquifers exists with different hydrogeochemistry that is mainly controlled with simple Ca2+ Mg2+ CO2 H2O open system.

Brencic, M.

2009-04-01

343

Hereditary Angioedema Nationwide Study in Slovenia Reveals Four Novel Mutations in SERPING1 Gene  

PubMed Central

Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by swelling of the face, lips, tongue, larynx, genitalia, or extremities, with abdominal pain caused by intra-abdominal edema. HAE is caused by mutations affecting the C1 inhibitor gene, SERPING1, resulting in low levels of C1 inhibitor (Type I HAE) or normal levels of ineffective C1 inhibitor (Type II HAE). A nationwide survey identified nine unrelated families with HAE in Slovenia, among whom 17 individuals from eight families were recruited for genetic analyses. A diagnosis of HAE was established in the presence of clinical and laboratory criteria (low C1 inhibitor antigenic levels and/or function), followed up by a positive family history. Genetic studies were carried out using PCR and sequencing to detect SERPING1 mutations in promoter, noncoding exon 1, the 7 coding exons, and exon-intron boundaries. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was performed in order to search for large deletions/duplications in SERPING1 gene. A mutation responsible for HAE was identified in patients from seven families with the disease. In HAE type I families, one previously reported substitution (Gln67Stop, c.265C>T) and four novel mutations were identified. The new mutations included two missense substitutions, Ser128Phe (c.449C>T), and Glu429Lys (c.1351G>A), together with two frameshift mutations, indel (c.49delGinsTT) and deletion (c.593_594delCT). Both families with HAE type II harbored the two well-known substitutions affecting the arginyl residue at the reactive center in exon 8, Arg444Cys (c.1396C>T) and Arg444His (c.1397G>A), respectively. In one patient only the homozygous variant g.566T>C (c.-21T>C) was identified. Our study identified four novel mutations in the Slovenian HAE population, highlighting the heterogeneity of mutations in the SERPING1 gene causing C1 inhibitor deficiency and HAE. In a single patient with HAE a homozygous variant g.566T>C (c.-21T>C) might be responsible for the disease.

Rijavec, Matija; Korosec, Peter; Silar, Mira; Zidarn, Mihaela; Miljkovic, Jovan; Kosnik, Mitja

2013-01-01

344

Stability of kaolin sand from the Vyšný Petrovec deposit (south Slovakia) in an acid environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comprehensive characterization of kaolin sand from the Vyšný Petrovec (VP) deposit in Slovakia by a variety of experimental methods was performed. The quantitative XRD analysis (RockJock software) revealed that the acid-untreated sample contained mainly kaolinite (~60 wt. %), a considerable amount of dioctahedral micas (~32 wt. %) and quartz (~ 7 wt. %). The Hinckley index (HI) and Aparicio-Galán-Ferrel index (AGFI) calculated from the 02l and 11l reflections showed medium-defect kaolinite to be present in the VP kaolin. The influence of the mineral composition of VP kaolin on its stability in 6 mol ˇ dm-3 HCl at 95 °C was investigated. The solid reaction products were examined by chemical analysis; XRD and infrared spectroscopy in both middle (MIR) and near (NIR) regions. Considerably higher dissolution rate of Fe compared to Al indicated that Fe was bounded in a readily soluble phase rather than in kaolinite. While the MIR spectra confirmed the gradual release of the central atoms from the clay minerals layers and creation of amorphous silica upon acid treatment, the NIR spectra revealed the formation of Si-OH groups in the solid reaction product. Relatively high dissolution rate of VP kaolin resulted from the presence of small-grains of mediumdefect kaolinite and clay admixtures in VP kaolin sand.

Martin, Pentrák; Jana, Madejová; Slávka, Andrejkovi?ová; Peter, Uhlík; Peter, Komadel

2012-12-01

345

Association between arsenic exposure from a coal-burning power plant and urinary arsenic concentrations in Prievidza District, Slovakia.  

PubMed Central

To assess the arsenic exposure of a population living in the vicinity of a coal-burning power plant with high arsenic emission in the Prievidza District, Slovakia, 548 spot urine samples were speciated for inorganic As (Asinorg), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and their sum (Assum). The urine samples were collected from the population of a case-control study on nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). A total of 411 samples with complete As speciations and sufficient urine quality and without fish consumption were used for statistical analysis. Although current environmental As exposure and urinary As concentrations were low (median As in soil within 5 km distance to the power plant, 41 micro g/g; median urinary Assum, 5.8 microg/L), there was a significant but weak association between As in soil and urinary Assum(r = 0.21, p < 0.01). We performed a multivariate regression analysis to calculate adjusted regression coefficients for environmental As exposure and other determinants of urinary As. Persons living in the vicinity of the plant had 27% higher Assum values (p < 0.01), based on elevated concentrations of the methylated species. A 32% increase of MMA occurred among subjects who consumed homegrown food (p < 0.001). NMSC cases had significantly higher levels of Assum, DMA, and Asinorg. The methylation index Asinorg/(MMA + DMA) was about 20% lower among cases (p < 0.05) and in men (p < 0.05) compared with controls and females, respectively.

Ranft, Ulrich; Miskovic, Peter; Pesch, Beate; Jakubis, Pavel; Fabianova, Elenora; Keegan, Tom; Hergemoller, Andre; Jakubis, Marian; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

2003-01-01

346

[i]Toxoplasma gondii[/i] in protected wildlife in the Tatra National Park (TANAP), Slovakia.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii is an obligatory intracellular protozoan parasite that infects a broad spectrum of warm-blooded vertebrate species. As a part of the food chain, farm animals play a significant role in transmission of T. gondii to humans, while rats and mice serve as a main source of infection for free-living animals. The spread of toxoplasmosis in the human population is due to the interchange of the domestic and sylvatic cycles. During 2009-2011, a survey on toxoplasmosis distribution was conducted in wildlife of the Tatra National Park (TANAP) in Slovakia. A total of 60 animals were examined. The presence of T. gondii was detected by means of molecular methods based on TGR1E gene analyses. The highest prevalence was recorded in birds (40.0%), followed by carnivores (30.8%) and rodents (18.2%). RFLP analyses of SAG2 locus confirmed in birds the genotype II and III, belonging to the avirulent strain; rodents exclusively had genotype I, characterised as a virulent train, and in carnivores all three genotypes were detected. These results present the first survey on the parasite's occurrence in several species of free-living animals in the TANAP area. An epidemiological study confirmed the prevalence of 30.0%, implicitly referring to the level of environmental contamination with T. gondii oocysts. PMID:24959767

Tur?eková, Ludmila; Hurníková, Zuzana; Spišák, František; Miterpáková, Martina; Chovancová, Barbara

2014-06-10

347

Pilot study of seasonal occurrence and distribution of antibiotics and drug resistant bacteria in wastewater treatment plants in Slovakia.  

PubMed

This work presents environmental and quality-control data from the analyses of 33 antibiotics in influent and effluent water from two waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) in the capital and the biggest city of Slovakia. Seeing that consumption of antibiotics depends on epidemiological season, samples were collected during February and August. Among assessed antibiotics ciprofloxacin and clarithromycin were detected in highest concentrations in influent water. Seasonal changes were observed only in plant A when antibiotic concentrations decreased. On the other hand an increase in some cases was observed in plant B. Insufficient degradation of some macrolides, sulfonamides and trimethoprim was detected according to their higher concentrations in effluent water. Contact of antibiotics in subinhibitory concentrations and sludge bacteria in WWTPs represent the base for the development of significant levels of microbial resistance. Simultaneously, antibiotic resistance of fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci from sewage sludge was evaluated. Majority of coliform bacteria were found to be resistant to ampicillin and gentamicin. A significant seasonal difference was determined only in case of high-level resistance. In summer samples, an increase in the strains resistant to concentrations higher than the resistance breakpoints established by EUCAST and NCCLS was observed. No antibiotic resistance in streptococci was observed. However, as a part of sewage sludge is mixed with compost and utilized in agriculture, better processing of sludge should be considered. PMID:24867706

Birošová, Lucia; Macku?ak, Tomáš; Bodík, Igor; Ryba, Jozef; Skubák, Jaroslav; Grabic, Roman

2014-08-15

348

Consequences of an unusual flood event: case study of a drainage canal breach on a fluvial plain in NE Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On November 4-6 2012 heavy precipitation resulted in floods in the middle and lower course of Drava River in NE Slovenia causing damage to many properties in the flooded area. The meteorological situation that led to consequent floods was characterized by high precipitation, fast snowmelt, SW wind and relatively high air temperature. The weather event was part of a cyclone which was spreading over the area of North, West and Central Europe in the direction of Central Europe and carried with it the passing of a cold front through Slovenia on November 4 and 5. The flood wave travelled on the Drava River from Austria to Slovenia past the 11 hydroelectric power plants after eventually moving over the Slovenian-Croatian border. The river discharge increased in the early morning of November 5 reaching 3165 m3/s. This work focuses on a single event in the Ptujsko polje where among other damage caused by the flooding, the river broke through the drainage canal of the Formin hydroelectric power plant and changed its course. The Ptujsko polje contains two fluvial terraces. In the area of Formin HPP, the lower terrace is 1.5 km wide and the surface as well as the groundwater gradient shift from west to east with the groundwater flowing parallel to the river. These characteristics contributed to the flooding and consequential breach in the embankment of the drainage canal. Several aspects of the recent floods are discussed including a critical reflection of data accessibility, possible causes and mechanisms behind it as well as the possibility of its forecasting. Synthesis of accessible data from open domain sources is performed with emphasis on geological conditions. Discharge and precipitation data from the data base of Slovenian Environment Agency are collected, reviewed and analyzed. The flood event itself is analyzed and described in detail. It is determined that the flood wave was different from the ones regulated by natural processes which points to an anthropogenic influence. In the paper we are focusing not only on the characteristics of a single event but try to interpret it in the context of a broader time scale using sources of similar past events of high precipitation and discharge, recorded flood events in the past and general flood characteristics of a river environment.

Vidmar, Ines; Ambroži?, Bojan; Debeljak, Barbara; Dolžan, Erazem; Gregorin, Špela; Grom, Nina; Herman, Polona; Keršmanc, Teja; Mencin, Eva; Mernik, Natalija; Švara, Astrid; Trobec, Ana; Turnšek, Anita; Vodeb, Petra; Torkar, Anja; Bren?i?, Mihael

2013-04-01

349

Fractionation of natural radionuclides in soils from the vicinity of a former uranium mine Zirovski vrh, Slovenia.  

PubMed

As a result of former uranium mining and milling activities at Zirovski vrh, Slovenia, 0.6 million tons of uranium mill tailings (UMT) were deposited onto a nearby waste pile Borst. Resulting enhanced levels of natural radionuclides in UMT could pose threat for the surrounding environment. Therefore, sequential extraction protocol was performed to assess mobility and bioavailability of (238)U, (234)U, (230)Th and (226)Ra in soils from the waste pile and its surrounding. The radionuclides associated with exchangeable, organic, carbonate, Fe/Mn oxides and residual fraction, respectively, were determined. Results showed that the highest activity concentrations for the studied radionuclides were on the bottom of the waste pile. In non-contaminated locations, about 80% of all radionuclides were in the residual fraction. Considering activity concentrations in the UMT, (238)U and (234)U are the most mobile. Mobility of (226)Ra is suppressed by high sulphate concentrations and is similar to mobility of (230)Th. PMID:19762128

Strok, Marko; Smodis, Borut

2010-01-01

350

Neospora caninum antibodies in dairy cows and domestic dogs from Vojvodina, Serbia  

PubMed Central

Neospora caninum, the causative agent of neosporosis, is a protozoan parasite responsible for high rate of abortion in cattle worldwide. In dogs, consequences of infection vary from severe neuromuscular disorders to asymptomatic infection and shedding of environmentally resistant oocysts. In this study, we determined the occurrence of N. caninum antibodies in dairy cattle and dogs in Vojvodina (Northern Province of Serbia) and possible risk factors. N. caninum antibodies were found in 15.4% (55/356, CI 95%:12.0–19.6) of cows and 17.2% (17/99, CI 95%: 10.8–26.2) of dogs. Cows from smallholdings showed significantly greater odds (OR = 5.28, CI 95%: 2.0–13.6, p = 0.0006) of being seropositive in comparison to the farm cows. Epidemiological importance of results is discussed.

Kuruca, Ljiljana; Spasojevic-Kosic, Ljubica; Simin, Stanislav; Savovic, Milan; Laus, Sasa; Lalosevic, Vesna

2013-01-01

351

Realization of ETRF2000 as a New Terrestrial Reference Frame in Republic of Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) is a joint service of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) and the International Astronomical Union (IAU), which provides the scientific community with the means for computing the transformation from the International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) to the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS). It further maintains the realizations of these systems by appropriate coordinate sets called "frames". The densification of terrestrial frame usually serves as official frame for positioning and navigation tasks within the territory of particular country. One of these densifications was recently performed in order to establish new reference frame for Republic of Serbia. The paper describes related activities resulting in ETRF2000 as a new Serbian terrestrial reference frame.

Blagojevic, D.; Vasilic, V.

2012-12-01

352

Assessment of terrestrial gamma exposure to the population of Belgrade (Serbia).  

PubMed

The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in 178 samples from 52 locations of the territory of Belgrade, the capital of Serbia, were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Based on the results obtained, the values of absorbed gamma dose rate at 1 m above the ground, radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, annual effective dose, annual gonadal dose and excess lifetime cancer risk were calculated. The results of the present study were compared with values reported worldwide and also with internationally recommended values. The total absorbed dose rate varied between 24.7 and 89.6 nGy h(-1) with a mean of 60.5 nGy h(-1), which is close to the world average value. Since all estimated radiological impact assessment factors were lower than the recommended values there seems to be no radiological health hazard for the population living in the investigated area. PMID:20400775

Jankovic Mandic, Lj; Dragovic, S

2010-08-01

353

Daily and seasonal radon variability in the underground low-background laboratory in Belgrade, Serbia.  

PubMed

Radon time-series analysis, based on the short-term indoor radon measurements performed worldwide, shows two main periodicity: daily and seasonal. The information obtained from time series of the measured radon values is the results of the complex radon dynamics that arises from the influence of the large number of different parameters (the state of the indoor atmosphere (temperature, pressure and relative humidity, aerosol concentration), the exchange rate between indoor and outdoor air and so on). In this paper we considered daily radon variability in the underground low-background laboratory in Belgrade, Serbia. The results are originated from the radon time-series analysis based on the 3 y of the continuous short-term indoor radon measurements. At the same time, we obtained the time series of the temperature, pressure and relative humidity in the laboratory. We also tried to find the correlation between different time series. PMID:24707001

Udovi?i?, V; Filipovi?, J; Dragi?, A; Banjanac, R; Jokovi?, D; Maleti?, D; Grabež, B; Veselinovi?, N

2014-07-01

354

Source parameters scaling of the 2004 Kobarid (Western Slovenia) seismic sequence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Source parameters of the mainshock (ML = 5.3) and of 165 aftershocks (0.8 < ML < 3.5) of the 2004 Kobarid (Western Slovenia) seismic sequence are investigated in order to determine the corresponding source scaling relations. Data recorded from July to December 2004 by the Friuli and Veneto seismic network (FV), managed by the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS) and installed in Northeastern Italy, are employed to obtain the SH-wave amplitude Fourier spectra of the selected earthquakes. For source spectra computation, we consider only records with significant values of the signal-to-noise ratio and, to account for local amplifications, we compute standard H/V spectral ratios (HVSR) for all the stations of the network. After correction for attenuation effects, source spectra obtained at stations with negligible site effects show a good fit with a ?-square model. We adopt different approaches to compute the source parameters and final results are chosen based on the obtained misfits between observed and theoretical source spectra. For 21 earthquakes of the sequence the obtained results are confirmed by the Empirical Green Function (EGF) technique, applied by estimating the spectral ratios of couples of events with hypocentral distance differences smaller than 500 m and magnitude differences greater than 1. The mainshock of the sequence is characterized by a seismic moment of 3.5 × 1016 Nm and a corner frequency of 0.8 Hz, corresponding, in the Brune's model (1970), to a fault radius of 1465 m and a stress drop of 4.9 MPa. Aftershocks have seismic moments in the range [3.3 × 1011, 1.8 × 1014] Nm, corner frequencies between 1.9 and 12.4 Hz (Brune radii between 95 and 638 m) and stress drops in the range [0.03, 1.55] MPa. The observed scaling of seismic moment (M0) with the local magnitude (ML) is consistent with the trend: Log M0 = 1.06ML + 10.56. The Brune radius (rB) increases with the seismic moment according to: Log rB = 0.22 Log M0 - 0.40. Moreover, in spite of the high dispersion that characterizes the estimates of the Brune stress drop (??B), we observe also an increase of ??B with M0. The mainshock is characterized by 2.4 × 1012 J radiated energy (ES) and 1.9 MPa apparent stress (?a). Aftershocks have energies between 2.0 × 105 and 7.4 × 108 J and apparent stress values increasing with the seismic moment in the range [0.01, 0.48] MPa. Radiated energies increase with seismic moments according to the empirical relationship: Log ES = 1.53 Log M0 - 12.47. The scaling of both ??B and ?a with M0 in the range of magnitude between 0.8 and 5.3, evidences the non-self-similarity characteristics of the 2004 Kobarid seismic sequence. Similar results have been obtained by previous studies concerning the source parameter scaling of the background seismicity and of other seismic sequences of the area.

Franceschina, Gianlorenzo; Gentili, Stefania; Bressan, Gianni

2013-09-01

355

Hepatitis C virus genotypes in Serbia and Montenegro: The prevalence and clinical significance  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in Serbia and Montenegro and their influence on some clinical characteristics in patients with chronic HCV infection. METHODS: A total of 164 patients was investigated. Complete history, route of infection, assessment of alcohol consumption, an abdominal ultrasound, standard biochemical tests and liver biopsy were done. Gene sequencing of 5’ NTR type-specific PCR or commercial kits was performed for HCV genotyping and subtyping. The SPSS for Windows (version 10.0) was used for univariate regression analysis with further multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The genotypes 1, 2, 3, 4, 1b3a and 1b4 were present in 57.9%, 3.7%, 23.2%, 6.7%, 6.7% and 1.8% of the patients, respectively. The genotype 1 (mainly the subtype 1b) was found to be independent of age in subjects older than 40 years, high viral load, more severe necro-inflammatory activity, advanced stage of fibrosis, and absence of intravenous drug abuse. The genotype 3a was associated with intravenous drug abuse and the age below 40. Multivariate analysis demonstrated age over 40 and intravenous drug abuse as the positive predictive factors for the genotypes 1b and 3a, respectively. CONCLUSION: In Serbia and Montenegro, the genotypes 1b and 3a predominate in patients with chronic HCV infection. The subtype 1b is characteristic of older patients, while the genotype 3a is common in drug abusers. Association of the subtype 1b with advanced liver disease, higher viral load and histological activity suggests earlier infection with this genotype and eventually its increased pathogenicity.

Svirtlih, Neda; Delic, Dragan; Simonovic, Jasmina; Jevtovic, Djordje; Dokic, Ljubisa; Gvozdenovic, Eleonora; Boricic, Ivan; Terzic, Dragica; Pavic, Sladjana; Neskovic, Gorana; Zerjav, Sonja; Urban, Vladimir

2007-01-01

356

Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors in male breast cancer in serbia.  

PubMed

Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the demographic and clinical characteristics of male breast cancer patients in Serbia, and furthermore to determine overall survival and predictive factors for prognosis. Materials and Methods: In the period of 1996-2006 histopathological diagnosis of breast cancer was made in 84 males at the Institute for Oncology and Radiology of Serbia. For statistical analyses the Kaplan-Meier method, long-rank test and Cox proportional hazards regression model were used. Results: The mean age at diagnosis with breast cancer was 64.3ą10.5 years with a range from 35-84 years. Nearly 80% of the tumors showed ductal histology. About 44% had early tumor stages (I and II) whereas 46.4% and 9.5% of the male exhibitied stages III and IV, respectively. Only 7.1% of male patients were grade one. One-fifth of all patients had tumors measuring ?2 cm, and 14.3% larger than 5 cm. Lymph node metastasis was recorded in 40.4% patients and 47% relapse. Estrogen and progesterone receptor expression was positive in 66.7% and 58.3%, respectively. Among 14.3% of individuals tumor was HER2 positive. About two-thirds of all male patients had radical mastectomy (66.7%). Adjuvant hormonal (tamoxifene), systematic chemotherapy (CMF or FAC) and adjuvant radiotherapy were given to 59.5%, 35.7% and 29.8% patients respectively. Overall survival rates at five and ten years for male breast cancer were 55.0% and 43.9%, respectively. According to the multivariate Cox regression predictive model, a lower initial disease stage, a lower tumor grade, application of adjuvant hormone therapy and no relapse occurrence were significant independent predictors for good overall survival. Conclusions: Results of the treatment would be better if disease is discovered earlier and therefore health education and screening are an imperative in solving this problem. PMID:24815476

Sipetic-Grujicic, Sandra Branko; Murtezani, Zafir Hajdar; Neskovic-Konstatinovic, Zora Borivoje; Marinkovic, Jelena Milutin; Kovcin, Vladimir Nikola; Andric, Zoran Gojko; Kostic, Sanja Vladeta; Ratkov, Isidora Stojan; Maksimovic, Jadranka Milutin

2014-01-01

357

Molecular detection of co-infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and/or Babesia canis canis in Dirofilaria-positive dogs from Slovakia.  

PubMed

Recently, several arthropod-borne infections have been introduced into previously non-endemic regions in Europe as the result of various global changes. At the same time, endemic regions are expanding and the risk of co-infections is rising, due to climate change that allows vectors to move and spread infectious diseases into new areas. The aim of the current study was to confirm simultaneous infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and/or Babesia canis canis in Dirofilaria-infected dogs from Slovakia, central Europe. Genomic DNA was isolated from 366 blood samples of microfilaraemic dogs without clinical signs of infection. Samples were further screened for the presence of canine tick-borne pathogens using PCR and sequencing. This survey revealed co-infection with four arthropod-borne pathogens, in particular, Dirofilaria repens, Dirofilaria immitis, A. phagocytophilum, and B. canis canis. While D. repens, responsible for canine subcutaneous dirofilariosis, is scattered through the whole territory of the country, D. immitis occurs only in endemic areas of southeastern and southwestern Slovakia in mixed infection with D. repens. Co-infection with A. phagocytophilum was reported in 3.27% of the dogs positive for D. repens; mixed infection with D. repens and B. canis canis was detected in 3.55% of the tested blood samples. Eastern Slovak Lowland represents a natural focus of B. canis canis and is a highly endemic area for canine dirofilariosis. The presence of triple infection with D. repens, A. phagocytophilum, and B. canis canis was detected in one dog originating from the eastern lowland region of Slovakia. This study highlights the importance of co-infected, clinically healthy dogs in the spreading of several different arthropod-borne pathogens and the necessity for detailed epidemiological surveys, especially in newly infested areas. PMID:24630708

Víchová, Bronislava; Miterpáková, Martina; Iglódyová, Adriana

2014-06-16

358

Revisiting regional flood frequency analysis in Slovakia: the region-of-influence method vs. traditional regional approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last 10-15 years, the Slovak hydrologists and water resources managers have been devoting considerable efforts to develop statistical tools for modelling probabilities of flood occurrence in a regional context. Initially, these models followed concepts to regional flood frequency analysis that were based on fixed regions, later the Hosking and Wallis's (HW; 1997) theory was adopted and modified. Nevertheless, it turned out to be that delineating homogeneous regions using these approaches is not a straightforward task, mostly due to the complex orography of the country. In this poster we aim at revisiting flood frequency analyses so far accomplished for Slovakia by adopting one of the pooling approaches, i.e. the region-of-influence (ROI) approach (Burn, 1990). In the ROI approach, unique pooling groups of similar sites are defined for each site under study. The similarity of sites is defined through Euclidean distance in the space of site attributes that had also proved applicability in former cluster analyses: catchment area, afforested area, hydrogeological catchment index and the mean annual precipitation. The homogeneity of the proposed pooling groups is evaluated by the built-in homogeneity test by Lu and Stedinger (1992). Two alternatives of the ROI approach are examined: in the first one the target size of the pooling groups is adjusted to the target return period T of the estimated flood quantiles, while in the other one, the target size is fixed, regardless of the target T. The statistical models of the ROI approach are inter-compared by the conventional regionalization approach based on the HW methodology where the parameters of flood frequency distributions were derived by means of L-moment statistics and a regional formula for the estimation of the index flood was derived by multiple regression methods using physiographic and climatic catchment characteristics. The inter-comparison of different frequency models is evaluated by means of the root mean square error of data from Monte Carlo simulations. The analysis is based on the annual peak discharges from 168 small and mid-sized catchments from Slovakia. The study is supported by the Grant Agency of AS CR under project B300420801; the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract No. APVV-0443-07 and the Slovak VEGA Grant Agency under the project No. 1/0103/10. Burn, D.H., 1990: Evaluation of regional flood frequency analysis with a region of influence approach. Water Resources Research, 26(10), 2257-2265. Hosking, J.R.M., Wallis, J.R., 1997: Regional frequency analysis: an approach based on L-moments. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Lu, L.-H., Stedinger, J.R., 1992: Sampling variance of normalized GEV/PWM quantile estimators and a regional homogeneity test. Journal of Hydrology, 138(1-2), 223-245.

Gaál, Ladislav; Kohnová, Silvia; Szolgay, Ján.

2010-05-01

359

State of Water Molecules and Silanol Groups in Opal Minerals: a Near Infrared Spectroscopic Study of Opals from Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently near infrared spectroscopy in combination with double derivative technique has been effectively used by Christy [1] to differentiate between free silanol groups and hydrogen bonded silanol groups on silica gel. The method has given some insight into the type of functionalities and their location in silica gel samples. The inportant information in this respect comes from the overtones of the OH groups of water molecules hydrogen bonded to free silanol groups, and hydrogen bonded silanol groups absorbing in the region 5500- 5100 Cm-1 region. The approach was adapted to study the state of water and silanol functionalities and their locations in opals from Slovakia. Twenty opal samples classified into CT and A classes and one quartz sample were used in this work. The samples were crushed using a hydrolic press and powderised. Each sample was then subjected to evacuation process to remove surface adsorbed water at 200°C and the near infrared spectrum of the sample was measured using a Perkin Elmer NTS near infrared spectrometer equipped with a transflectance accessory. The detailed analysis of the sample was carried out using the second derivative profile of the spectrum. The samples were also heated to 750°C to study the state of water molecules in Opal minerals. The results indicate that the opal samples contain 1) surface adsorbed water 2) free and hydrogen bonded silanol groups on the surface 3) Trapped water in the bulk 4) free and hydrogen bonded silanol groups in the cavity surfaces in the bulk. A part of the water molecules found in the bulk of opal minerals are free molecules and the rest are found in hydrogen bonded state to free and hydrogen bonded silanol groups. [1] A. A. Christy, New insights into the surface functionalities and adsorption evolution of water molecules on silica gel surface: A study by second derivative Near Infrared Spectroscopy, Vib. Spectrosc. 54 (2010) 42-49.

Bobon, Miroslav; Christy, Alfred A.; Kluvanec, Daniel; Illasova, L'udmila

2011-06-01

360

Re-Os and U-Th-Pb dating of the Rochovce granite and its mineralization (Western Carpathians, Slovakia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subsurface Rochovce granite intrusion was emplaced into the contact zone between two principal tectonic units (the Veporic Unit and the Gemeric Unit) of the Central Western Carpathians (CWC), Slovakia. The Cretaceous age of this granite and its Mo-W mineralization is shown using two independent methods: U-Pb on zircon and Re-Os on molybdenite. The studied zircons have a typical homogeneous character with oscillatory zoning and scarce restite cores. SHRIMP U-Pb data provide an age of 81.5 ą 0.7 Ma, whereas restite cores suggest a latest Neoproterozoic-Ediacaran age (~565 Ma) source. Zircon ?Hf(81) values -5.2 to + 0.2 suggest a lower crustal source, whereas one from the Neoproterozoic core ?Hf(565)= + 7.4 call for the mantle influenced old precursor. Two molybdenite- bearing samples of very different character affirm a genetic relation between W-Mo mineralization and the Rochovce granite. One sample, a quartz-molybdenite vein from the exocontact (altered quartz-sericite schist of the Ochtiná Formation), provides a Re-Os age of 81.4 ą 0.3 Ma. The second molybdenite occurs as 1-2 mm disseminations in finegrained granite, and provides an age of 81.6 ą 0.3 Ma. Both Re-Os ages are identical within their 2-sigma analytical uncertainty and suggest rapid exhumation as a consequence of post-collisional, orogen-parallel extension and unroofing. The Rochovce granite represents the northernmost occurrence of Cretaceous calc-alkaline magmatism with Mo-W mineralization associated with the Alpine-Balkan-Carpathian-Dinaride metallogenic belt.

Kohút, Milan; Stein, Holly; Uher, Pavel; Aimmerman, Aaron; Hraško, L'ubomír

2013-02-01

361

Exposure to Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls (OH-PCBs) in the Prenatal Period and Subsequent Neurodevelopment in Eastern Slovakia  

PubMed Central

Background Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs), unlike PCBs, are in general readily excreted yet are still detected in humans and animals. Active transport of OH-PCBs across the placenta and hydroxylation of PCBs by the fetus suggest the potential for greater impact on the fetus compared with the parent PCB compounds, but little is known about their health effects, particularly in humans. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between prenatal OH-PCB exposure and neurodevelopment in children at 16 months of age in eastern Slovakia. Methods A birth cohort (n = 1,134) was enrolled during 2002–2004. We analyzed six OH-PCB metabolites (4-OH-CB-107, 3-OH-CB-153, 4-OH-CB-146, 3?-OH-CB-138, 4-OH-CB-187, and 4?-OH-CB-172) in a subset of the cohort. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development were administered to the children at the 16-month follow-up visit. We developed multiple linear regression models predicting standardized scores for the Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) from maternal (n = 147) and cord (n = 80) serum OH-PCB concentrations, adjusting for sex of child, district, HOME (Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment) score, and maternal score on Raven’s Progressive Matrices. Results Cord 4-OH-CB-107 was significantly associated with lower MDI (? = ?2.27; p = 0.01) and PDI (? = ?4.50; p = 0.004). Also, maternal 4-OH-CB-107 was significantly associated with lower MDI (? = ?1.76; p = 0.03) but not PDI. No other OH-PCB metabolites were associated with decreased PDI or MDI. Conclusions Our findings showed a significant association of 4-OH-CB-107 with decreased MDI, which can possibly be mediated by endocrine disruption, altered neurotransmitter functions, or reduced thyroid hormone concentrations in brain.

Park, Hye-Youn; Park, June-Soo; Sovcikova, Eva; Kocan, Anton; Linderholm, Linda; Bergman, Ake; Trnovec, Tomas; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

2009-01-01

362

Prevalence of zoonotic Campylobacter spp. in rectal swabs from dogs in Slovakia: special reference to C. jejuni and C. coli.  

PubMed

This work focused on the isolation of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in samples obtained from dog droppings. There were 135 samples collected and examined from both clinically healthy and diseased dogs from households, clinics, rehabilitation centres and dog shelters in eastern Slovakia. The isolation of the Campylobacter spp. was achieved by the use of combined selective cultivation methods, followed by confirmation and species identification of the isolates using the PCR method.The overall prevalence of Campylobacter in dogs was 30.4%. Statistically significant differences were recorded (P < 0.05) within the age groups of all dogs examined: 40.6% of the older dogs (> or = 1 year) tested positive, compared to 19.7% of the younger ones (< 1 year). There was no significant difference in relation to dog gender. The most frequently isolated species was Campylobacter (C.) jejuni, present in 51.2% of all positive samples. Campylobacter coli was present in 9.8% of the samples. The remaining positive samples (39%) were confirmed as C upsaliensis, based on phenotypic traits. The highest prevalence of Campylobacter was found in samples from shelters (50%) and the lowest in those from households (11.5%), with samples from rehabilitation centres (42.3%) and clinics (18.8%) coming in second and third place.The high prevalence of Campylobacter confirms the hypothesis that dogs, mainly the ones kept in groups, are a source of Campylobacter spp. Further investigation is required to determine to what extent infected dogs may be a potential source of infection in humans. PMID:24693660

Badlík, Marián; Holoda, Emil; Pistl, Juraj; Koscová, Jana; Sihelská, Zuzana

2014-01-01

363

Detection of Dioxin-like Contaminants in Soil from the Area of Oil Refineries in Vojvodina Region of Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study level of soil contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)\\u000a in two oil refineries in Vojvodina region of Serbia was assessed using combined bio\\/chemical approach. Toxicity of the samples,\\u000a determined by microEROD analysis, could not be exclusively attributed to the content of measured PCBs and PAHs, but also to\\u000a the presence of unknown dioxin-like

Sonja Kaisarevic; Nebojsa Andric; Stanka Bobic; Jelena Trickovic; Ivana Teodorovic; Mirjana Vojinovic-Miloradov; Radmila Z. Kovacevic

2007-01-01

364

Refining the timing of eclogite metamorphism: a geochemical, petrological, Sm-Nd and UPb case study from the Pohorje Mountains, Slovenia (Eastern Alps)  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-pressure metamorphism in the Pohorje Mountains of Slovenia (Austroalpine unit, Eastern Alps) affected N-MORB type metabasic\\u000a and metapelitic lithologies. Thermodynamic calculations and equilibrium phase diagrams of kyanite–phengite-bearing eclogites\\u000a reveal PT conditions of >2.1 GPa at T<750°C, but within the stability field of quartz. Metapelitic eclogite country rocks contain the assemblage garnet + phengite\\u000a + kyanite + quartz, for which calculated peak

Christine Miller; Roland Mundil; Martin Thöni; Jürgen Konzett

2005-01-01

365

Source parameters and stress release of seismic sequences occurred in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region (Northeastern Italy) and in Western Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The source parameters of the major events of a swarm and of two seismic sequences, occurred in the Friuli area (Northeastern Italy) and in Western Slovenia, were estimated. The Claut swarm (C96) occurred since the end of January to June 1996, with a MD 4.3 major shock and it appears composed of three sub-sequences. The two sequences are the Kobarid

Gianni Bressan; Stefano Kravanja; Gianlorenzo Franceschina

2007-01-01

366

Improving the economic and environmental performances of the beet sugar industry in Slovenia: increasing fuel efficiency and using by-products for ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the possibilities of attaining zero-waste emissions in the case of sugar production. The case-studied sugar plant located in Slovenia reflected a typical plant, using traditional sugar production from beet. An investigation of the possible use of waste and by-products from sugar processing was carried out, in order to approach zero-waste from beet sugar processing.The sugar production process

D. Krajnc; M. Mele; P. Glavi?

2007-01-01

367

Genetic analysis of wild-type Dobrava hantavirus in Slovenia: co-existence of two distinct genetic lineages within the same natural focus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic analysis was performed of wild-type (wt) Dobrava hantavirus (DOB) strains from Slovenia, the country where the virus was first discovered and where it was found to cause haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), with a fatality rate of 12%. Two hundred and sixty mice of the genus Apodemus, trapped in five natural foci of DOB-associated HFRS during 1990-1996, were

Tatjana Avsic-Zupanc; Kirill Nemirov; Miro Petrovec; Tomi Trilar; Mario Poljak; Antti Vaheri; Alexander Plyusnin

368

Identification and functional characterisation of novel glucokinase mutations causing maturity-onset diabetes of the young in Slovakia.  

PubMed

Heterozygous glucokinase (GCK) mutations cause a subtype of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (GCK-MODY). Over 600 GCK mutations have been reported of which ?65% are missense. In many cases co-segregation has not been established and despite the importance of functional studies in ascribing pathogenicity for missense variants these have only been performed for <10% of mutations. The aim of this study was to determine the minimum prevalence of GCK-MODY amongst diabetic subjects in Slovakia by sequencing GCK in 100 Slovakian probands with a phenotype consistent with GCK-MODY and to explore the pathogenicity of identified variants through family and functional studies. Twenty-two mutations were identified in 36 families (17 missense) of which 7 (I110N, V200A, N204D, G258R, F419S, c.580-2A>C, c.1113-1114delGC) were novel. Parental DNA was available for 22 probands (covering 14/22 mutations) and co-segregation established in all cases. Bioinformatic analysis predicted all missense mutations to be damaging. Nine (I110N, V200A, N204D, G223S, G258R, F419S, V244G, L315H, I436N) mutations were functionally evaluated. Basic kinetic analysis explained pathogenicity for 7 mutants which showed reduced glucokinase activity with relative activity indices (RAI) between 0.6 to <0.001 compared to wild-type GCK (1.0). For the remaining 2 mutants additional molecular mechanisms were investigated. Differences in glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) -mediated-inhibition of GCK were observed for both L315H & I436N when compared to wild type (IC(50) 14.6ą0.1 mM & 20.3ą1.6 mM vs.13.3ą0.1 mM respectively [p<0.03]). Protein instability as assessed by thermal lability studies demonstrated that both L315H and I436N show marked thermal instability compared to wild-type GCK (RAI at 55°C 8.8ą0.8% & 3.1ą0.4% vs. 42.5ą3.9% respectively [p<0.001]). The minimum prevalence of GCK-MODY amongst Slovakian patients with diabetes was 0.03%. In conclusion, we have identified 22 GCK mutations in 36 Slovakian probands and demonstrate that combining family, bioinformatic and functional studies can aid the interpretation of variants identified by molecular diagnostic screening. PMID:22493702

Valentínová, Lucia; Beer, Nicola L; Staník, Juraj; Tribble, Nicholas D; van de Bunt, Martijn; Hu?ková, Miroslava; Barrett, Amy; Klimeš, Iwar; Gašperíková, Daniela; Gloyn, Anna L

2012-01-01

369

Improved survival after introduction of chemotherapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma in Slovenia: Population-based survey of 444 patients  

PubMed Central

Background Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare tumour with increasing frequency throughout the world. Due to long latency after exposure to asbestos, restrictions in the production and use of asbestos have not yet alleviated the burden of mesothelioma. During the last decade, several trials confirmed the benefit of systemic treatment with drugs such as doublets with cisplatina and gemcitabine or pemetrexed for carefully selected patients in good performance status. The purpose of this survey was to assess the impact of systemic treatment for the whole national population of patients with mesothelioma. Patients and methods. A retrospective study included all patients in Slovenia with histologically confirmed diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma in the period from 1974 till 2008. Data from the Cancer Registry of Slovenia were supplemented by review of clinical records of the Institute of Oncology in Ljubljana where virtually all non-surgical treatment for mesothelioma was performed. We analysed the incidence, treatment, and survival of patients treated in the era of infrequent chemotherapy (1974–2003, the first period) and after it (2004–2008, the second period). Results The survey included 444 patients, of whom 325 and 119 were diagnosed in the first and second period, respectively. Joinpoint regression analysis showed that after 1995 the trend in crude incidence rates increased more rapidly; the annual change was 0.03 per 100,000 per year before 1995 and 0.06 per 100,000 per year after. There was clear male predominance (70%) throughout the period covered by the survey. The proportion of patients above 65 years of age increased from 41.8% to 54.6% for the first and second period, respectively (p = 0.02). With a total of 52 (11.7%) operated patients, surgical treatment was rare and used only for selected patients with early disease and without comorbidity, leading to their relatively long median survival of 13.6 months. Chemotherapy was applied to 56 (17.2%) and to 96 (80.7%) patients during the first and second period, respectively. While a variety of older drugs were used in the first period, the most common regimen in the second period (applied to 91 patients) was doublet of low-dose gemcitabine in prolonged infusion and cisplatin. For the whole population of patients regardless the mode of treatment, median survival was 7.4 and 12.6 months (p-value = 0.037) for the first and second period, respectively. Conclusions Increasing incidence, male predominance and increased proportion of older patients confirm that the burden of mesothelioma persists in spite of a 15-years old ban in the production of asbestos. Modern chemotherapy, and in particular treatment with low-dose gemcitabine in prolonged infusion and cisplatin significantly prolonged median survival of patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma in Slovenia.

Kovac, Viljem; Zwitter, Matjaz; Zagar, Tina

2012-01-01

370

A Late-Quaternary stalagmite record from Vernjikica Cave, Carpatho-Balkans, Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many speleothem records of Holocene (MIS 1) and Eemian (MIS 5e) climate evolution have been investigated, but there is very little work being done in the Balkan region, despite the fact that the area is very rich in limestone caves with speleothems. Here we present a first proxy record from a stalagmite collected in Vernjikica Cave, Serbia (Carpatho-Balkan, ~400m asl). The studied stalagmite, Vernjikica-4.2, extends conically from the base to the top and presents one distinct growth hiatus that separates the upper 12 cm spanning the period from 63 ka to 107 ka (BP), and the lower 32 cm, spanning from 107 ka to 113 ka. The stable oxygen and carbon isotope ratios (?18O and ?13C) display opposing gradual trends with ?18O decreasing from averagely -8.5 % (PDB) to about -9.4 % and with ?13C increasing from -8.8 % to about -6.0 %. The long-term record of ?18O and ?13C shows frequent simultaneous and distinct high-amplitude shifts towards more positive values that coincide with pronounced accumulations of denser and darker laminae. In regard to present isotopic compositions in rainfall in the study area, the Vernjikica-4.2 proxy record shows a change from more humid to drier environmental conditions. The distinct increases in stable isotopic ratios reflect short warm and dry intervals during which calcite precipitation is affected by non-equilibrium conditions. The data mirrors both global climatic signals as seen in ?18O variations from the NGRIP ice-core record, and regional climatic signals as seen in ?18O from speleothems from Soreq Cave and Peqiin Cave (Israel) as well as in aeolian dust records from the Vojvodina in North Serbia. Altogether, the proxy record reflects alternating precipitation regimes and/or processes, likely connected to long-term shifts in the relative position of the Polar Front and to short-term shifts of the subtropical high-pressure ridge and their seasonal duration. Once the temporal resolution of the Vernjikica-4.2 record is improved, the precise timing and duration of described events in the proxy record, including the observed shorter-termed increases in ?18O as well as ?13C, will be fully explored. Eventually, the proxy record will be complemented with additional stalagmites from Vernjikica Cave extending the record from 38 ka to 121 ka.

John, I.; Burns, S. J.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, L.; McCoy, W. D.; Markovic, S. B.; Endlicher, W.

2011-12-01

371

Geological and geochemical characteristics of sedimentary rocks in Kremna, basin (Serbia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studying lacustrine sediments is important because of their potential economic value since they often bear coal, oil shales and non-metallic mineral raw materials. Besides this, lacustrine sediments offer valuable information on the climate conditions which existed during the sedimentation. In Serbia there are 14 lacustrine basins spanning in age from Oligocene to Lower Pliocene. The aim of this study was to examine Lower Miocene Kremna basin, located in southwest Serbia. Kremna basin is a small basin, covering 15km2, but sedimentologically very interesting. For the purpose of this study, 43 sediment samples were taken from a borehole at different depths, from surface to 343 m depth of the basin. The borehole ended in weathered serpentinite. Mineralogical composition of sediments was determined using thin-sections and X-ray diffraction analysis, contents of macro-and microelements and rare-earth elements were determined by ICP-ES and ICP-MS techniques. Also, elemental analysis was applied to determine the contents of carbon, sulphur and nitrogen and n-alkanes, isoprenoide aliphatic alkanes and bitumen were also determined using GC-MS technique. Mineralogical analyses proved presents of several lithological types in Kremna basin: clastic sediments, tuffs, tuffaceous sediments, marlstones, dolomites, magnezites, and coal of non-economic value. Occurrence of sirlezite and sepiolite was also determined. Furthermore, according to all obtained results two faciae were determined: alluvial-marginal lacustrine and intrabasinal. Alluvial-marginal facies originated from predominantly ultramafic rocks which underlie the basin. Magnezites and Mg-marls and Mg-dolomites are dominant sediments in this facies. These sediments formed under arid, slightly saline conditions. Intrabasinal facies is represented mostly with marls, Mg-marls and dolomitic limestones. These sediments were deposited under a more humid climate with increase in paleoproductivity. The uppermost sediments of Kremna basin are represented with marly dolomite. Due to the swallowing of the basin sediments became relatively rich in predominantly land plant material. Tuffs and tuffaceous sediments were determined in both faciae.

Perunovi?, Tamara; Jovan?i?evi?, Branimir; Br?eski, Ilija; Šajnovi?, Aleksandra; Stojanovi?, Ksenija; Simi?, Vlada; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica

2014-05-01

372

Removal of aqueous manganese using the natural zeolitic tuff from the Vranjska Banja deposit in Serbia.  

PubMed

The natural zeolite tuff from the Vranjska Banja deposit (Serbia) has been studied as sorbent for Mn(II) ions from aqueous solutions. The zeolite sample containing mainly clinoptilolite (more than 70%) removes Mn(II) ions by ion-exchange process, which was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXS). XPS showed that there is no surface accumulation of Mn but an almost uniform distribution inside the sorbent; EDXS confirmed that Mn(II) replaced the clinoptilolite Na counter ions. The sorption isotherms were studied at 298 K by batch experiments showing that the Mn(II) removal is best described by the Langmuir-Freundlich or Sips model. The kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model, the activation energy being 128 kJ mol(-1). The intra-particle diffusion is not the rate-controlling step in the sorption of Mn(II) on clinoptilolite. Thermodynamic data suggest spontaneity of the endothermic ion-exchange process in the 298-338 K range. PMID:19720456

Rajic, Nevenka; Stojakovic, Djordje; Jevtic, Sanja; Zabukovec Logar, Natasa; Kovac, Janez; Kaucic, Venceslav

2009-12-30

373

A conceptual model of mildly alkaline water discharging from the Zlatibor ultramafic massif, western Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultramafic rocks are generally taken to be `waterless' or bearing little water. The mountain Zlatibor, western Serbia, largely built of Upper Jurassic ultramafics, is without perennial springs. However, in Gruda, an area on the NE side of Zlatibor, there are two perennial ascending springs with uniform discharge: Bijela ?esma and Hajdu?ko Vrelo. The water from both springs is naturally mildly alkaline (pH ˜8.4), of Mg-HCO3 type, and temperature ˜11 °C. The springs have been investigated with respect to derivation, dynamics and chemistry with a view to commercial use of the water. The results indicate zones of rocks fractured during tectonic events and/or under lithostatic pressure. Deep ultramafic rocks, equivalent to abyssal peridotites (the least depleted rocks of the upper mantle, rich in magnesium), include fractured aquifers characterized by heterogeneity and anisotropy. Groundwater arriving at the land surface derives from atmospheric precipitation, and its quality is converted through the process of serpentine acid hydrolysis into mildly alkaline Mg-HCO3 water. Both quantity and quality of water from these springs are stable and are unaffected by atmospheric precipitation or other external influences. A conceptual model of the structure, hydrogeological character of the aquifer, and the mechanism of groundwater derivation is developed for both springs.

Niki?, Zoran; Sre?kovi?-Bato?anin, Danica; Burazer, Milenko; Risti?, Ratko; Papi?, Petar; Nikoli?, Vesna

2013-08-01

374

Distribution of natural radionuclides in surface soils in the vicinity of abandoned uranium mines in Serbia.  

PubMed

The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in soils from the area affected by uranium mining at Stara Planina Mountain in Serbia were studied and compared with the results obtained from an area with no mining activities (background area). In the affected area, the activity concentrations ranged from 1.75 to 19.2 mg kg(-1) for uranium and from 1.57 to 26.9 mg kg(-1) for thorium which is several-fold higher than those in the background area. The Th/U, K/U, and K/Th activity ratios were also determined and compared with data from similar studies worldwide. External gamma dose rate in the air due to uranium, thorium, and potassium at 1 m above ground level in the area affected by uranium mining was found to be 91.3 nGy h(-1), i.e., about two-fold higher than that in background area. The results of this preliminary study indicate the importance of radiological evaluation of the area and implementation of remedial measures in order to prevent further dispersion of radionuclides in the environment. PMID:22527467

Mom?ilovi?, Milan; Kova?evi?, Jovan; Tani?, Milan; Dor?evi?, Milan; Ba?i?, Goran; Dragovi?, Snežana

2013-02-01

375

Edaphic factors affecting the vertical distribution of radionuclides in the different soil types of Belgrade, Serbia.  

PubMed

The specific activities of natural radionuclides ((40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th) and Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs were measured in soil profiles representing typical soil types of Belgrade (Serbia): chernozems, fluvisols, humic gleysols, eutric cambisols, vertisols and gleyic fluvisols. The influence of soil properties and content of stable elements on radionuclide distribution down the soil profiles (at 5 cm intervals up to 50 cm depth) was analysed. Correlation analysis identified associations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (137)Cs with fine-grained soil fractions. Significant positive correlations were found between (137)Cs specific activity and both organic matter content and cation exchange capacity. Saturated hydraulic conductivity and specific electrical conductivity were also positively correlated with the specific activity of (137)Cs. The strong positive correlations between (226)Ra and (232)Th specific activities and Fe and Mn indicate an association with oxides of these elements in soil. The correlations observed between (40)K and Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn and also between (137)Cs and Cd, Cr, Pb and Zn could be attributed to their common affinity for clay minerals. These results provide insight into the main factors that affect radionuclide migration in the soil, which contributes to knowledge about radionuclide behaviour in the environment and factors governing their mobility within terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:22072061

Dragovi?, Snežana; Gaji?, Boško; Dragovi?, Ranko; Jankovi?-Mandi?, Ljiljana; Slavkovi?-Beškoski, Latinka; Mihailovi?, Nevena; Mom?ilovi?, Milan; ?uji?, Mirjana

2012-01-01

376

Toxicity of metalaxyl, azoxystrobin, dimethomorph, cymoxanil, zoxamide and mancozeb to Phytophthora infestans isolates from Serbia.  

PubMed

A study of the in vitro sensitivity of 12 isolates of Phytophthora infestans to metalaxyl, azoxystrobin, dimethomorph, cymoxanil, zoxamide and mancozeb, was conducted. The isolates derived from infected potato leaves collected at eight different localities in Serbia during 2005-2007. The widest range of EC(50) values for mycelial growth of the isolates was recorded for metalaxyl. They varied from 0.3 to 3.9 ?g mL(-1) and were higher than those expected in a susceptible population of P. infestans. The EC(50) values of the isolates were 0.16-0.30 ?g mL(-1) for dimethomorph, 0.27-0.57 ?g mL(-1) for cymoxanil, 0.0026-0.0049 ?g mL(-1) for zoxamide and 2.9-5.0 ?g mL(-1) for mancozeb. The results indicated that according to effective concentration (EC(50)) the 12 isolates of P. infestans were sensitive to azoxystrobin (0.019-0.074 ?g mL(-1)), and intermediate resistant to metalaxyl, dimethomorph and cymoxanil. According to resistance factor, all P. infestans isolates were sensitive to dimethomorph, cymoxanil, mancozeb and zoxamide, 58.3% of isolates were sensitive to azoxystrobin and 50% to metalaxyl. Gout's scale indicated that 41.7% isolates were moderately sensitive to azoxystrobin and 50% to metalaxyl. PMID:22424065

Rekanovi?, Emil; Poto?nik, Ivana; Milijaševi?-Mar?i?, Svetlana; Stepanovi?, Miloš; Todorovi?, Biljana; Mihajlovi?, Milica

2012-01-01

377

Determinants of Fruit, Vegetable, and Dairy Consumption in a Sample of Schoolchildren, Northern Serbia, 2012  

PubMed Central

Introduction Insufficient intake of fresh fruits, vegetables, and dairy products among children is a serious nutrition-related concern. The aim of our study was to determine behavioral and environmental factors that influence fruit, vegetable, and dairy consumption among Serbian schoolchildren. Methods We used 24-hour recall to measure fruit, vegetable, and dairy intake of schoolchildren (N = 212) aged 8 to 11 years from 2 elementary schools in a local community in Serbia. We evaluated potential determinants of intake by using a 48-item questionnaire that asked about children’s behaviors, perceptions of others’ expectations and behaviors, reinforcement of children’s behaviors, and availability of fruits, vegetables, and dairy at home and school. Children completed written questionnaires during 1 school class under teacher supervision. Binary logistic regression was used to analyze determinants of fruit, vegetable, and dairy intake. Results Negative predictors of fruit intake were expectations from teacher and parents (P <.001) to eat fruit and availability of fruit in school. Vegetable intake was positively related to paternal modeling behavior (P <.001) and availability of vegetables at home (P = .04). Dairy intake was positively influenced by parental reinforcement (P = .03). Conclusion Various personal and environmental factors are associated with children’s intake of fruits, vegetables, and dairy. Interventions to promote fruit, vegetable, and dairy consumption in Serbian schoolchildren should focus on modeling and reinforcement by parents and teachers and increasing availability at school and at home.

Novakovic, Budimka

2013-01-01

378

A need for holistic approach to the occupational health developing (in Serbia).  

PubMed

Countries in transition, such as Serbia, have been going through obligatory system reforms, including the reform of the healthcare system. As a rule, occupational health becomes marginalized by the authorities who decide on medical care. In spite of the fact that this branch of medicine cares for working population that mostly carries the burden of transition, when material situation equals the existential minimum, its potentials are not recognized. On the other hand, the World Health Organization makes a remark that such population's health is undermined now more than ever, and adopts a binding global plan for member countries and their experts in occupational health to take urgent measures for overall working people's health according to their needs. It seems that former work method of biomedicine specialists could not realize such ambition. This paper discusses the possibilities of occupational health future orientation toward holistic medicine, for the sake of workers' well-being and better quality of their lives, then creation of more humane society and vocational affirmation. Health promotion at workplace and salutogenic concept may have crucial roles. This concept is a huge challenge for academic public and vocational practitioners in poor countries in transition that are already burdened with the current economic and financial crisis. Each in their own way, helped by self-education and education, without big material investments, together they may take their countries to the road of health, the road still rarely taken, yet more secure. PMID:21833693

Arandjelovic, Mirjana

2011-09-01

379

High prevalence of intestinal zoonotic parasites in dogs from Belgrade, Serbia--short communication.  

PubMed

To identify areas of risk for canine-related zoonoses in Serbia, the aim of this study was to provide baseline knowledge about intestinal parasites in 151 dogs (65 household pets, 75 stray and 11 military working dogs) from Belgrade. The following parasites, with their respective prevalences, were detected: Giardia duodenalis (14.6%), Ancylostomatidae (24.5%), Toxocara canis (30.5%), Trichuris vulpis (47.0%) and Taenia-type helminths (6.6%). Of all examined dogs, 75.5% (114/151) were found to harbour at least one parasite species. Of these, mixed infections with up to four species per dog occurred in 44.7% (51/114). Infections with all detected species were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in military working (100%) and stray dogs (93.3%) versus household pets (50.8%). Among all parasites, agents with zoonotic potential including Giardia, Ancylostomatidae and Toxocara were detected in 58.3% (88/151) of all examined dogs with a significant difference (p < 0.05) among the subgroups (100%, 62.7% and 46.2% for military working dogs, stray dogs and household pets, respectively). The high prevalence of zoonotic parasites registered in the dog population from a highly urban area in south-eastern Europe indicates a potential risk to human health. Thus, veterinarians should play an important role in helping to prevent or minimise zoonotic transmission. PMID:18828485

Nikoli?, Aleksandra; Dimitrijevi?, Sanda; Kati?-Radivojevi?, Sofija; Klun, Ivana; Bobr?, Branko; Djurkovi?-Djakovi?, Olgica

2008-09-01

380

Chemical composition of two different extracts of berries harvested in Serbia.  

PubMed

Total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanin content (TAC), free and total ellagic acid content, sugars, minerals, and radical-scavenging activity were determined in nine berries harvested in Serbia. More than 30 phenolic compounds were identified; among them, 11 polyphenols and cis,trans-abscisic acid were quantified using UHPLC coupled with an LTQ-Orbitrap XL mass analyzer. For the first time chrysin, naringenin, pinocembrin, and galangin were quantified in some of the investigated berry species. The extraction efficiency of the two extraction systems, methanol and acetone, was investigated. It was found that acetone is a better extracting solvent for TPC, whereas more TAC was extracted by methanol. TPC in acetone extracts ranged from 177.51 to 459.71 mg gallic acid equiv/100 g frozen weight. TAC ranged from 5.39 to 96.94 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside/100 g frozen weight in methanol extracts. The amounts of both free and total ellagic acid were found to be higher in the acetone extract in comparison to the methanol extract. PMID:23600608

Pavlovi?, Aleksandra V; Dabi?, Dragana ?; Momirovi?, Nebojša M; Doj?inovi?, Biljana P; Milojkovi?-Opsenica, Dušanka M; Teši?, Zivoslav Lj; Nati?, Maja M

2013-05-01

381

Environmental radioactivity in southern Serbia at locations where depleted uranium was used.  

PubMed

Abstract In the 1999 bombing of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, NATO forces used ammunition containing depleted uranium. The cleaning of depleted uranium that followed was performed in southern Serbia by the Vin?a Institute of Nuclear Sciences between 2002 and 2007 at the locations of Plja?kovica, Borovac, Bratoselce, and Reljan. This paper presents detailed results of radioactivity monitoring four years after cleaning (2011), which included the determination of gamma emitters in soil, water, and plant samples, as well as gross alpha and beta activities in water samples. The gamma spectrometry results showed the presence of natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, 235U, 238U, and the produced radionuclide 137Cs (from the Chernobyl accident). In order to evaluate the radiological hazard from soil, the radium equivalent activity, the gamma dose rate, the external hazard index, and the annual effective dose were calculated. Considering that a significant number of people inhabit the studied locations, the periodical monitoring of radionuclide content is vital. PMID:24778342

Sarap, Nataša B; Jankovi?, Marija M; Todorovi?, Dragana J; Nikoli?, Jelena D; Kova?evi?, Milojko S

2014-06-01

382

Auditory risk behaviours and hearing problems among college students in Serbia.  

PubMed

Aim To investigate an association of auditory lifestyle and risk behaviours with hearing loss and to identify the leading hearing problems among college students in Serbia exposed to loud music. Methods The participants of the study comprised 780 college students of the High Medical School of Professional Studies of Belgrade (653 females and 127 males), the majority of whom were between 19 to 24 years of age. A cross sectional study was conducted in order to investigate the association between exposure to noise in one's leisure time and subsequent hearing problems using a self-reporting questionnaire. Results A total of 640 (82.1%) of students had a habit of listening to loud music, 421 (65.8%) experienced tinnitus and 79 (10.1%) had a subjective feeling of hearing loss. The most significant association between self-reported hearing loss was living in noisy environments (p=0.000), and the appearance of difficulties (vertigo, anxiety) (p=0.000), as well as usage of personal music devices (p=0.087). Conclusion While students who were exposed to loud sound levels may still not have shown serious hearing problems or hearing loss, a great number did experience tinnitus or some other difficulties after listening to music at loud volumes. Key words: young people, loud music, life style, hearing loss. PMID:25082254

Budim?i?, Milenko; Seke, Kristina; Krsmanovi?, Slavica; Zivi?, Ljubica

2014-08-01

383

Report: Treatment of medical waste in Nisava and Toplica districts, Serbia.  

PubMed

If there are no clearly defined management procedures, medical waste may represent a source of serious health hazards. Medical waste management was evaluated at the three hospitals in the Nisava and Toplica district, in Serbia. All the stages of existing waste management (segregation, collection, storage, transportation and disposal of waste) were examined by interviewing the personnel involved in the management of waste. The generated waste was a mixture of hazardous and non-hazardous waste. The study found that waste management performance in this district was poor and that there were problems in every stage of management. The results indicate that the waste generation rate was 1.92 kg bed(-1) day(-1) and consisted of 98.7% general waste and 1.3% sharps. Inappropriate segregation practices were the biggest problem and led to increased quantities of general waste. There were no specific regulations for the segregation of the medical waste. None of the surveyed hospitals have a system to refine wastewater and there were no training courses about hospital waste management. PMID:18649581

Stankovi?, Aleksandra; Niki?, Dragana; Nikoli?, Maja

2008-06-01

384

Changes in chromosomal polymorphism and global warming: The case of Drosophila subobscura from Apatin (Serbia)  

PubMed Central

In this study, chromosomal inversion polymorphism data for a natural population of Drosophila subobscura from a swampy region near the town of Apatin (Serbia) were compared with data for the same population collected approximately 15 years earlier. The pattern of chromosomal inversion polymorphism changed over time. There were significant increases in the frequency of characteristic southern latitude (“warm” adapted) chromosomal arrangements and significant decreases in the frequency of characteristic northern latitude (“cold” adapted) chromosomal arrangements in the O and U chromosomes. The chromosomal arrangements O3+4 and O3+4+22 (derived from the O3+4 arrangement) showed significant increases in 2008 and 2009 with regard to the 1994 sample. There was also a significant increase (?50%) in the U1+2 arrangement, while U1+8+2 (a typical southern arrangement) was detected for the first time. Since the Apatin swampy population of D. subobscura has existed for a long time in a stable habitat with high humidity that has not been changed by man our results indicate that natural selection has produced chromosomal changes in response to the increase in temperature that has occurred in the Balkan Peninsula of central southeastern European.

Zivanovic, Goran; Mestres, Francesc

2011-01-01

385

A re-examination of the human fossil specimen from Ba?ki Petrovac (Serbia).  

PubMed

A fragmented human calotte was discovered during the early 1950s near Ba?ki Petrovac (Serbia), in association with Palaeolithic stone tools. After its initial publication, the fossil specimen remained largely unknown outside of the Serbian academe and no detailed comparative study has ever been carried out. Since the whereabouts of the fossil itself are currently unknown, and given its potential significance for the Pleistocene human evolution, we re-examine the data published by Živanovi? (1966, 1975). Using the original measurements, mostly taken on the frontal bone, and a wide comparative sample of 68 fossil specimens, the fossil was compared and analyzed by statistical multivariate methods. We also conducted a visual examination of the morphology based on the available photographic material. Our analysis reveals phenetic similarity with Middle Pleistocene archaic Homo from Africa and anatomically modern Homo sapiens. However, the absence of primitive cranial traits in Ba?ki Petrovac indicates a clear modern Homo sapiens designation. Although lost at the moment, there is a chance for the re-discovery of the fossil in the years to come. This would give us an opportunity to acquire absolute dates and to study the specimen in a more detailed manner. PMID:24951407

Radovi?, Predrag; Lindal, Joshua Allan; Roksandic, Mirjana

2014-08-01

386

Genotoxicity screening of the river Rasina in Serbia using the Allium anaphase-telophase test.  

PubMed

Evaluation of the presence of genotoxic substances is especially important in rivers that serve as a source of drinking water. Nine water samples collected along the river Rasina in Serbia were analyzed for potential toxic and genotoxic effects using the Allium anaphase-telophase test. Inhibition of root growth relative to the negative control (synthetic water) was observed in all samples. Analysis of the genotoxic potential, through scoring anaphase and telophase aberrations, showed that in seven of the nine samples the level of aberrations was significantly increased relative to the negative control but was lower than that obtained for the positive control (methyl methanesulfonate). Changes in the relation between spindle and chromosome types of aberrations were found in some samples, indicating differences in the potential genotoxic substances present at the analyzed sites. The data, which were obtained from samples collected at the highest level of river water, warn that during periods of low flow the values could reach genotoxic activity. The Allium anaphase-telophase test can be recommended as an monitoring system, that can serve as the first alert for the presence of genotoxic environmental pollutants. PMID:18080777

Vujosevi?, Mladen; Andelkovi?, Snezana; Savi?, Gojko; Blagojevi?, Jelena

2008-12-01

387

Perfluorinated compounds in sediment samples from the wastewater canal of Pan?evo (Serbia) industrial area.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) were analyzed in sediment samples from the wastewater canal draining the industrial complex of Pan?evo, Serbia (oil refinery, petrochemical plant, and fertilizer factory). The canal is directly connected to Europe's second largest river, the Danube, which drains its water into the Black Sea. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) up to 5.7ngg(-1) dry weight (dw) and total Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) up to 6.3ngg(-1) dw were detected. Compared to other reports, high levels of PFOS were found, even though PFCs are not used in the industrial production associated with this canal. The PFOS concentration in water was recalculated using the adsorption coefficient, KOC from literature. Using the average output of wastewater from the canal, a mass load of 1.38kg PFOS per year discharged in the Danube River has been calculated, which undoubtedly points to the contribution to global persistent organic pollution of surface waters originating from this industrial place. PMID:23415492

Beškoski, Vladimir P; Takemine, Shusuke; Nakano, Takeshi; Slavkovi? Beškoski, Latinka; Gojgi?-Cvijovi?, Gordana; Ili?, Mila; Mileti?, Srdjan; Vrvi?, Miroslav M

2013-06-01

388

Family History as a Predictor for Disease Risk in Healthy Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study in Slovenia  

PubMed Central

Background Family history can be used as a genetic risk predictor for common non-communicable diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of healthy individuals at risk of developing these diseases, based on their self-reported family history. Methods and Findings This was a cross-sectional observational study. Data were collected in the three largest occupational practices in primary health care centres in Slovenia, a Central European country. The study population consisted of consecutive individuals who came to occupational practices for their regular preventive check-up from November 2010 to June 2012. We included 1,696 individuals. Data were collected by a self-developed questionnaire. The main outcome was the number of participants at a moderate or high risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. The final sample consisted of 1,340 respondents. Moderate or high risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases was present in 280 (20.9%) participants, for the development of diabetes in 154 (11.5%) participants and for cancer in 163 (12.1%) participants. Conclusions In this study, we found a significant proportion of healthy individuals with an increased genetic risk for common non-communicable diseases; consequently further genetic and clinical evaluation and preventive measures should be offered.

Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Peterlin, Borut

2013-01-01

389

Isolation and characterisation of Mycobacterium avium and Rhodococcus equi from granulomatous lesions of swine lymph nodes in Slovenia.  

PubMed

Granulomatous lesions in bovine and especially swine lymph nodes are still frequently observed during routine veterinary meat inspections even though Mycobacterium bovis infections are no longer detected in domestic animals in Slovenia. Different lymph nodes of pigs (n = 260) were investigated using classical bacteriological and molecular methods. Mycobacterium avium alone was isolated in 47.3% of pigs and in mixed infection with Rhodococcus equi in 3.9% of pigs. R. equi alone was isolated in 27.3% and in mixed infection with mycobacteria other than M. avium in 1.5% of pigs. A total of 133 M. avium isolates were typed using the IS1245, IS901 and FR300 PCR. Almost two thirds (60.9%) of isolates belonged to M. avium hominissuis (IS901-, IS1245+ genotype), 33.8% of isolates belonged to M. avium avium (IS901+, IS1245+ genotype) and 5.3% of isolates remained non-typed. Fifty out of 85 R. equi isolates were tested for the virulence-associated antigens (VapA and VapB). Nearly two thirds (60.0%) were positive for VapB while all the other isolates were VapA- and VapB-negative. PMID:15168745

Pate, Mateja; Zdovc, Irena; Pirs, Tina; Krt, B; Ocepek, M

2004-01-01

390

A geochemical and stable isotope investigation of groundwater/surface-water interactions in the Velenje Basin, Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geochemical and isotopic composition of surface waters and groundwater in the Velenje Basin, Slovenia, was investigated seasonally to determine the relationship between major aquifers and surface waters, water-rock reactions, relative ages of groundwater, and biogeochemical processes. Groundwater in the Triassic aquifer is dominated by HCO3 -, Ca2+, Mg2+ and ?13CDIC indicating degradation of soil organic matter and dissolution of carbonate minerals, similar to surface waters. In addition, groundwater in the Triassic aquifer has ?18O and ?D values that plot near surface waters on the local and global meteoric water lines, and detectable tritium, likely reflecting recent (<50 years) recharge. In contrast, groundwater in the Pliocene aquifers is enriched in Mg2+, Na+, Ca2+, K+, and Si, and has high alkalinity and ?13CDIC values, with low SO4 2- and NO3 - concentrations. These waters have likely been influenced by sulfate reduction and microbial methanogenesis associated with coal seams and dissolution of feldspars and Mg-rich clay minerals. Pliocene aquifer waters are also depleted in 18O and 2H, and have 3H concentrations near the detection limit, suggesting these waters are older, had a different recharge source, and have not mixed extensively with groundwater in the Triassic aquifer.

Kandu?, Tjaša; Grassa, Fausto; McIntosh, Jennifer; Stibilj, Vekoslava; Ulrich-Supovec, Marija; Supovec, Ivan; Jamnikar, Sergej

2014-06-01

391

Heat waves frequency analysis and spatial-temporal variability of daily maximum temperature in southern Slovakia within the 1951, respectively 1961-2008 periods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat waves temporal and spatial analysis at selected meteorological stations in southern part of Slovakia within the 1951, respectively 1961-2008 periods is a goal of the presented contribution. It is expected that climate change in terms of global warming would amplify temporal frequency and spatial extension of extreme heat wave incidence in region of central Europe in the next few decades. The frequency of occurrence and amplitude of heat waves may be impacted by changes in the temperature regime. Heat waves can cause severe thermal environmental stress leading to higher hospital admission rates, health complications, and increased mortality. These effects arise because of one or more meteorology-related factors such as higher effective temperatures, sunshine, more consecutive hot days and nights, stagnation, increased humidity, increased pollutant emissions, and accelerated photochemical smog and particulate formation. Heat waves bring about higher temperatures, increased solar heating of buildings, inhibited ventilation, and a larger number of consecutive warm days and nights. All of these effects increase the thermal loads on buildings, reduce their ability to cool down, and increase indoor temperatures. The paper deals with analysis of temporal and spatial variability of heat waves occurrence at meteorological station Hurbanovo (time series of daily maximum air temperature available from at least 1901) and some other climatological stations in lowlands of southern Slovakia (Žiharec, Bratislava-airport, Jaslovské Bohunice, KráÄžová pri Senci, etc.). We can characterize the heat waves by its magnitude and duration, hence both of these characteristics need to be investigated together using sophisticated statistical methods developed particularly for the analysis of extreme hydrological events. These methods are quite similar to the intensity-duration-frequency approach often used in the analysis of extreme precipitation events. The HDF-curves (heatwave-duration-frequency curves) defining relation between duration and return period of heat wave is usually modelled utilizing the general extreme value distribution (GEV).

Pecho, J.; Faško, P.; Mikulová, K.; Šâstný, P.

2009-09-01

392

Preface: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Magnetic Fluids (ICMF 11) (Košice, Slovakia, 23 27 July 2007)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 11th International Conference on Magnetic Fluids (ICMF 11) was held in Košice, Slovakia between 23-27 July 2007. Attendance at the conference was high and its motivation was in line with the ten previous ICMF conferences organized in Udine, Orlando, Bangor, Sendai-Tokyo, Riga, Paris, Bhavnagar, Timisoara, Bremen and Guarujá. The conference in Slovakia reflected the scientific community's enthusiasm and worldwide support, with 256 participants, from 30 countries attending.The main objective of ICMF 11 was to promote progress and knowledge in the field of magnetic fluids regarding their chemistry, physical and magnetic properties, heat and mass transfer, surface phenomena, as well as their technological and biomedical applications. As research on magnetic fluids is essentially interdisciplinary, experts from related areas were invited to present their contributions with a view to increasing knowledge in the field and highlighting new trends. Submitted communications were refereed by members of the Scientific Organizing Committee and abstracts were assembled in a book of abstracts. Participants presented 180 posters in two poster sessions and 56 oral presentations. All presentations contributed to a greater understanding of the area, and helped to bridge the gap between physics, chemistry, technology, biology and medical sciences. Contributions to this conference are presented in 115 scientific papers, with some published in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter and the rest in Magnetohydrodynamics. The organization of the conference was made possible by generous support from the Institute of Experimental Physics and Institute of Geotechnics of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, the University of Pavol Jozef Šafárik and the Slovak Physical Society. Financial support from Ferrotec, Cryosoft Ltd, Mikrochem, Liquids Research Ltd, Askony and US Steel Košice, is also gratefully acknowledged.

Kop?anský, Peter; Timko, Milan; Ková?, Josef; Václavíková, Miroslava; Odenbach, Stefan

2008-05-01

393

[St. Sava--the founder of hospital health service, social security (benefit) and medical education program in Serbia].  

PubMed

The first written serbian medical records could be found in the Middle Ages (XIIIth century) when the serbian state was very well organized. St. Save was the son of Grand-Prince Stefan Nemanja (1171-1196), founder of the Serbian independent state and of a powerful dynasty that ruled Serbia for two centuries. At that time the first hospital service was established, and the social program which regulated the relationship between marriage and family, and the kind of therapy, was under the church and state control. PMID:17972830

Pavlovi?, B; Dragovi?, S

1994-01-01

394

Smectite clays of Serbia and their application in adsorption of organic dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colorants and dyes are currently available in over a 100.000 different species and several biggest industries are using them daily in their manufacture processes (textile, cosmetics, food industry, etc.). Since colorants are easily dissoluble in water they pass through filter membranes without further decomposing and in that manner they end up in the environment. The main goal of this work is to apply certain methods in determining the suitability of individual clay in adsorbing and removing colorants from polluted waters. For this study we have chosen four different raw clays from three regions in Serbia: Svrljig (B), Bogovina (Bo) and Slatina-Ub (C and V) and as colorant - methylene blue dye (MB (MERCK, for analytical purposes)). Experiments where carried out to determine the sample structure (XRD and IR), grain size (granulometry), cationic exchange capacity (CEC via spectrophotometry using MB) and adsorption capabilities (spectrophotometry and fluorimetry using MB). XRD and IR data are showing that the samples are smectite clays where samples B i Bo are mainly montmorillonite while C and V are montmorillonite-illite clays. Granulometric distribution results indicate that samples B i Bo have smaller grain size, less that 1? (over 60%) whereas the samples C and V are more coarse grained (40% over 20?). This grain distribution is affecting their specific surface area in the manner that those coarse grained samples have smaller specific surface area. Cationic exchange capacity determined with methylene blue indicate that montmorillonite samples have larger CEC (B = 37 meq/100g, Bo = 50 meq/100g) and montmorillonite-illite samples smaller CEC (V = 5 meq/100g, V = 3 meq/100g). Fluorimetry measurement results gave us a clear distinction between those with higher and smaller adsorption capability. Montmorillonite samples (B and Bo) with higher CEC values and smaller grain size are adsorbing large amounts of methylene blue witch is visible by absence of fluorimetric band corresponding to methylene blue. Montmorillonite-illite samples with smaller CEC values and coarser grain size are adsorbing very small amounts of methylene blue from the suspension which is visible by appearance of the methylene blue band. Untreated, raw smectite clays of Serbia are efficient adsorbent material for removal of dyes from polluted waters. Samples from two regions especially, Bogovina and Svrljig, are showing favorable adsorption results and they are representing good raw materials for purification of waste-waters containing dyes. References: - Jovi?-Jovi?i?, N., Milutinovi?-Nikoli?, A., Gržeti?, I., Jovanovi?, D.; Organobentonite as efficient textile dye sorbent; Chem. Eng. Technol. 2008, 31, No. 4, 567-574 - Žuni?, M.J., Milutinovi?-Nikoli?, A.D., Jovi?-Jovi?i?, N.P., Bankovi?, P.T., Mojovi?, Z.D., Manojlovi?, D.D., Jovanovi?, D.M.; Modified bentonite as adsorbent and catalyst for purification of wastewaters containing dyes; Hem. ind. 2010, 64 ,No. 3, 193-199

Miloševi?, Maja; Logar, Mihovil

2014-05-01

395

Composition of n-alkanes in natural populations of Pinus nigra from Serbia - chemotaxonomic implications.  

PubMed

This is the first report on the composition and variability of the needle-wax n-alkanes in natural populations of Pinus nigra in Serbia. Samples of 195 trees from seven populations belonging to several infraspecific taxa (ssp. nigra, var. gocensis, ssp. pallasiana, and var. banatica) were analyzed. In general, the size of the n-alkanes ranged from C(16) to C(33) , with the exception of ssp. nigra, for which it ranged from C(18) to C(33) . The most abundant were C(23) -, C(25) -, C(27) -, and C(29) -alkanes. The needle waxes of Populations?I-III and V were characterized by a higher content of C(23) -, C(25) -, and C(27) -alkanes and a lower content of C(24) -, C(26) -, C(28) -, and C(30) -alkanes, compared to the other populations, and the trees of these populations could be assigned to ssp. nigra. The samples of Population?VI were characterized by higher amounts of C(22) -, C(24) -, C(30) -, and C(32) -alkanes and lower amounts of C(25) - and C(27) -alkanes, and the trees could be considered as ssp. pallasiana. The samples of Population?VII, consisting of trees belonging to var. banatica, were richer in C(29) -, C(31) -, and C(33) -alkanes. The wax compositions of Populations?IV and V, both composed of trees previously determined as P. nigra var. gocensis, showed a tendency of splitting. Indeed, the alkane composition of Population?IV was closer to that of ssp. pallasiana pines, while that of Population?V was more similar to that of ssp. nigra pines. From the results presented here, it is obvious that in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula, significant diversification and differentiation of the populations of black pine exists, and these populations could be defined as different intraspecific taxa. Our results also indicate the validity of n-alkanes as chemotaxonomic characters within this aggregate. PMID:23255446

Bojovi?, Srdjan; Sarac, Zorica; Nikoli?, Biljana; Teševi?, Vele; Todosijevi?, Marina; Velji?, Milan; Marin, Petar D

2012-12-01

396

The prevalence of COPD co-morbidities in Serbia: results of a national survey.  

PubMed

Background:Research studies have found different prevalence rates for co-morbidities in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Aims:The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of co-morbidities as well as functional limitations in subjects with COPD.Methods:The study was based on a nationally representative sample of the population of Serbia. Information on the health of the population was obtained from interviews and anthropometric measurements. In this study we analysed a total of 10,013 respondents aged 40 years or older. There were 653 subjects with COPD and 9,360 respondents without COPD.Results:Out of the 10,013 respondents, 5,377 were aged 40-59 years and 4,636 were 60 years or older. The prevalence of COPD was 5.0% in respondents aged 40-59 years and 8.3% in those aged 60 years or older; the total prevalence was 6.5%. The most prevalent co-morbidities among respondents with COPD were hypertension (54.5%) and dyslipidaemia (26.5%). The prevalence of all analysed co-morbidities was higher in respondents with COPD and the difference was highly statistically significant, except for stroke and malignancies, for which the difference was significant. Analysis showed that respondents with COPD had a higher prevalence of all analysed clinical factors (dizziness, obesity, anaemia and frailty) and functional impairments (mobility and hearing and visual impairment) compared with respondents without COPD. For those aged 40-59 years the difference was highest for mobility difficulty (four times higher prevalence in COPD patients) and anaemia (three times higher in COPD patients).Conclusion:Our analysis showed that the most prevalent co-morbidities in COPD were hypertension, dyslipidaemia, chronic renal disease and anxiety/depression. The finding suggests that health professionals should actively assess co-morbidities in patients with COPD. PMID:24921714

Nagorni-Obradovic, Ljudmila M; Vukovic, Dejana S

2014-01-01

397

Toxoplasma gondii infection in slaughter pigs in Serbia: seroprevalence and demonstration of parasites in blood  

PubMed Central

A seroepizootiological study of Toxoplasma gondii infection involving a total of 488 slaughter pigs (468 market-weight pigs and 20 sows) in the Belgrade area, also included examination of the presence of T. gondii in the blood. Blood sampled at the slaughter line was examined for specific antibodies by modified direct agglutination, and blood clots of those seropositive at titres of 1:50-1:12800 were bioassayed in mice. The overall seroprevalence was 9.2%, significantly higher (p = 0.0063) in sows (30.0%) than in market-weight pigs (8.3%). Amongst the 22 bioassays performed, a total of 16 (72.7%) were positive, by observation of T. gondii cysts (12), seropositivity (7, including 3 in which cysts were not detected), and/or detection of T. gondii DNA by real-time PCR (12, including one otherwise negative). The positive bioassays originated from the blood of 12 market-weight pigs and 4 sows. Despite a general increase in the rate of demonstration of T. gondii with the increase in the specific antibody level, the association was not significant (p = 0.101). The risk of infection was 41-fold increased in sows vs market-weight pigs, and 15-fold in pigs from smallholders' finishing type farms vs those from large farrow-to-finish farms. The presence of viable T. gondii in a proportion of the samples indicates that some of the pigs had an active parasitaemia at the time of slaughter, which, along with the seroprevalence established, points to a potential source of human infection in Serbia. This is the first report on parasitaemia in naturally infected swine.

2011-01-01

398

Toxoplasma gondii infection in slaughter pigs in Serbia: seroprevalence and demonstration of parasites in blood.  

PubMed

A seroepizootiological study of Toxoplasma gondii infection involving a total of 488 slaughter pigs (468 market-weight pigs and 20 sows) in the Belgrade area, also included examination of the presence of T. gondii in the blood. Blood sampled at the slaughter line was examined for specific antibodies by modified direct agglutination, and blood clots of those seropositive at titres of 1:50-1:12800 were bioassayed in mice. The overall seroprevalence was 9.2%, significantly higher (p = 0.0063) in sows (30.0%) than in market-weight pigs (8.3%). Amongst the 22 bioassays performed, a total of 16 (72.7%) were positive, by observation of T. gondii cysts (12), seropositivity (7, including 3 in which cysts were not detected), and/or detection of T. gondii DNA by real-time PCR (12, including one otherwise negative). The positive bioassays originated from the blood of 12 market-weight pigs and 4 sows. Despite a general increase in the rate of demonstration of T. gondii with the increase in the specific antibody level, the association was not significant (p = 0.101). The risk of infection was 41-fold increased in sows vs market-weight pigs, and 15-fold in pigs from smallholders' finishing type farms vs those from large farrow-to-finish farms. The presence of viable T. gondii in a proportion of the samples indicates that some of the pigs had an active parasitaemia at the time of slaughter, which, along with the seroprevalence established, points to a potential source of human infection in Serbia. This is the first report on parasitaemia in naturally infected swine. PMID:21314900

Klun, Ivana; Vujani?, Marija; Yera, Hélčne; Nikoli?, Aleksandra; Ivovi?, Vladimir; Bobi?, Branko; Bradonji?, Siniša; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Djurkovi?-Djakovi?, Olgica

2011-01-01

399

Bioaccumulation of metals in sediments, fish and plant from Tisza river (Serbia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the aquatic environments metals originate from various natural and anthropogenic sources. The purpose of the study was to assess the bioaccumulation level of metals in sediments fish and common reed at four different localities of the Tisza River stretch in Serbia. For purpose of this study concentrations of Al, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr and Zn were determined in sediment, common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. 1841) and four ecologically different fish species (piscivorous northern pike (Esox lucius L.), benthivorous sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.) silver bream (Brama brama L.), omnivorous common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)). Analysis of metals was carried out for liver, gills, brain, testicles and ovaries in fish and in the rhizome, stem and leaves of the common reed and sediment fraction <0,0063mm. The concentrations of metals have been assessed using the Inductively Coupled Plasma - optical emission spectrometry. Obtained results revealed that Al and Fe had the highest concentrations in sediment, fish and common reed samples. The research proved a strong positive correlation between the concentrations of all metals in the sediment, fish and common reed. The highest concentration of heavy metals was recorded in omnivorous common carp Cyprinus carpio, and organs that the most intensively accumulated the greatest number of them were liver and gills. Accumulated metals in the common reed were not distributed evenly, but there are target organs for bioaccumulation. Concentrations in below-ground organs were usually higher than above-ground organs, and the general decreasing trend of element content was rhizome>leaves>stems. Obtained results indicate that the location does not have impact to the level of bioaccumulation. On the basis of this research the under-ground organ (rhizome) of common reed, liver and gills and omnivorous fish species could be recommended as environmental indicators for the presence of metals during environmental monitoring.

Štrbac, Snežana; Gajica, Gordana; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica; Šajnovi?, Aleksandra; Vasi?, Nebojša; Jovan?i?evi?, Branimir; Simonovi?, Predrag

2014-05-01

400

Ten Years Survey of Primary HIV-1 Resistance in Serbia: The Occurrence of Multiclass Resistance.  

PubMed

Abstract In Serbia, the first cases of HIV infection were reported in 1985, whereas antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has been in use since 1987. With this study we aimed to assess the occurrence and pattern of HIV resistance mutations among newly diagnosed patients in the period 2002-2011. The study prospectively included 181 adult patients. Genotypic HIV-1 drug resistance testing was performed and drug resistance was scored according to the 2009 WHO list for surveillance of drug resistance mutations (SDRMs). A bioinformatic approach was used to estimate the duration of infection by calculating the percentage of ambiguous basecalls per sequence, with a cutoff of 0.47% as the delimiter for recent infection. The overall prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) found in the study was 8.8% (16/181, 95% CI=5.5-13.8). Thirty-one percent of resistant samples contained multiple SDRMs. In particular, 5/16 patients with resistance carried viral strains with SDRMs to multiple ARV classes, hence one-third of resistant strains were multiclass resistant, including non-B strains. A total of 51.9% of samples (94/181) were classified as recent infection, with a significant increase in the second part of the study period. However, the prevalence of TDR in recent infection was 6.4% (6/94, 95% CI=2.9-13.2), not statistically different from that found in nonrecent infection. We showed a changing pattern of TDR mutations over the study period, with a substantial occurrence of multiclass resistance, across different HIV subtypes. Our results highlight the need for continued surveillance of primary resistance. PMID:24635515

Stanojevic, Maja; Siljic, Marina; Salemovic, Dubravka; Pesic-Pavlovic, Ivana; Zerjav, Sonja; Nikolic, Valentina; Ranin, Jovan; Jevtovic, Djordje

2014-07-01

401

Comparative analysis of essential oils of six Anthemis taxa from Serbia and Montenegro.  

PubMed

The essential-oil composition of six Anthemis taxa from several populations in Serbia and Montenegro, Anthemis triumfetti (L.) DC., A. tinctoria L., A. austriaca Jacq., A. ruthenica Bieb., A. cotula L., and A. cretica ssp. carpatica (Willd.) Grierson were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The main constituents have been identified as follows: camphor (13.8-15.4%), alpha-pinene (5.2-9.3%), beta-pinene (4.9-7.8%), and (E)-caryophyllene (7.3-9.8%) in three populations, and cis-chrysanthenol (27.0%) and 1,8-cineole (8.4%) in one population of A. triumfetti; 1,8-cineole (9.0-25.8%) in the oils of five populations, and borneol (16.0%) and spatulenol (16.0%) in the oil of one population of A. tinctoria; cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (17.5-22.0%), beta-pinene (8.6-13.2%), and 1,8-cineole (7.2-10.4%) in the oils of A. austriaca; germacrene D (8.3-11.3%) and terpinen-4-ol (6.3-7.3%) in A. ruthenica oils; beta-cedrene (10.3-19.0%), (E)-beta-farnesene (7.8-13.5%), and germacrene D (5.2-9.1%) in the oils of A. cotula; cis-thujone (39.0%), trans-thujone (13.5%), and yomogi alcohol (7.1%) in the oil of A. cretica ssp. carpatica. The essential oil of A. austriaca was studied for the first time. A cluster analysis based on the relative percentages of all components of the essential oils was used to determine the distances between taxa and populations. PMID:20491079

Pavlovi?, Milica; Lakusi?, Dmitar; Kovacevi?, Nada; Tzakou, Olga; Couladis, Maria

2010-05-01

402

Exhumation history of Cer and Bukulja mountains (Western and Central Serbia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of this study is reconstruction of the low-temperature thermal histories of Cer and Bukulja mountains that are part of the northeastern margin of the Dinarides in western and central Serbia. This region represents the boundary zone between the European derived tectonic units and the lower Adriatic plate, and has experienced complex evolution after the final collision of the two plates in the early Cenozoic. This includes top-to-east extension, accompanied by significant exhumation along low-angle detachments. Cer and Bukulja are inselbergs of meta-sedimentary rocks and represent source areas for adjacent Miocene basins such as Valjevo and Morava basins. Metamorphic rocks of Cer and Bukulja are also intruded by granitic bodies that share similar characteristics. They are both S-type granites dated at 19-16 Ma (Cvetkovic et al., 2007; Koroneos et al. in press). The main task in this phase of the research is to reconstruct exhumation histories of the source areas. In order to achieve that zircon and apatite fission-track and U-Th/He analyses are performed on metamorphic rocks and granites from both regions. The results of measurements will be compiled into a synthetic time-temperature diagram illustrating the Cenozoic thermal history of the region. At that time we will be able to correlate the data of this research with synchronous tectonic events in the region such as synrift phase of sedimentation of the Pannonian Basin, described previously by various authors (Blanchet et al., 1970; Neubauer et al., 2003). By expanding the research area to the sedimentary basins adjacent to the inselbergs it will become possible to determine where were the main sources of sediments that filled in the basins. This presentation was supported by the EUROCORES programme TOPO-EUROPE of the European Science Foundation

Stojadinovic, Uros; Andriessen, Paul; Matenco, Liviu; Foeken, Jurgen; Toljic, Marinko

2010-05-01

403

Variability of the needle essential oils of Pinus peuce from different populations in Montenegro and Serbia.  

PubMed

The essential-oil composition of Pinus peuce Griseb. is reported at the population level. Macedonian pine is endemic high-mountain Balkan pine relict of an anthropogenically reduced area, with large morphological diversity and insufficiently clear taxonomic position. In the pine-needle terpene profile of two populations from Montenegro and one from Serbia, 78 compounds were detected, 56 of which are identified (Table 3). The dominant constituents were alpha-pinene (36.5%) and germacrene D (11.4%). The following 20 additional components were found to be present in medium-to-high amounts (0.5-10%): camphene (8.5%), bornyl acetate (6.8%), beta-pinene (6.8%), beta-caryophyllene (5.2%), beta-phellandrene (4.7%), terpinen-4-ol acetate (1.6%), (E)-hex-2-enal (1.5%), alpha-muurolene (1.2%), beta-gurjunene (1.1%), beta-myrcene (1.0%), alpha-terpinyl acetate (0.9%), alpha-phellandrene (0.8%), delta-cadinene (0.8%), alpha-humulene (0.8%), sabinene (0.7%), aromadendrene (0.6%), alpha-thujene (0.6%), gamma-muurolene (0.6%), gamma-cadinene (0.6%), alpha-terpinolene (0.5%), and one unknown component (0.5%). The similarity of the populations and the within-population variability were visualized by principle-component analysis (PCA) and genetic analysis of selected terpenes in 90 tree samples. Our study suggests a closer connection between populations II and III compared to population I. Based on the profile of the main terpene components, the studied populations are more similar to populations from Kosovo and Greece than to the population from Mt. Mokra (Montenegro) and the population in France. PMID:18649304

Nikoli?, Biljana; Risti?, Mihailo; Bojovi?, Srdjan; Marin, Petar D

2008-07-01

404

Molecular genetic identification of skeletal remains from the Second World War Konfin I mass grave in Slovenia  

PubMed Central

This paper describes molecular genetic identification of one third of the skeletal remains of 88 victims of postwar (June 1945) killings found in the Konfin I mass grave in Slovenia. Living relatives were traced for 36 victims. We analyzed 84 right femurs and compared their genetic profiles to the genetic material of living relatives. We cleaned the bones, removed surface contamination, and ground the bones into powder. Prior to DNA isolation using Biorobot EZ1 (Qiagen), the powder was decalcified. The nuclear DNA of the samples was quantified using the real-time polymerase chain reaction method. We extracted 0.8 to 100 ng DNA/g of bone powder from 82 bones. Autosomal genetic profiles and Y-chromosome haplotypes were obtained from 98% of the bones, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes from 95% of the bones for the HVI region and from 98% of the bones for the HVII region. Genetic profiles of the nuclear and mtDNA were determined for reference persons. For traceability in the event of contamination, we created an elimination database including genetic profiles of the nuclear and mtDNA of all persons that had been in contact with the skeletal remains. When comparing genetic profiles, we matched 28 of the 84 bones analyzed with living relatives (brothers, sisters, sons, daughters, nephews, or cousins). The statistical analyses showed a high confidence of correct identification for all 28 victims in the Konfin I mass grave (posterior probability ranged from 99.9% to more than 99.999999%).

Gornjak Pogorelc, Barbara; Balazic, Joze

2010-01-01

405

Analysis of human induced changes in a karst landscape - the filling of dolines in the Kras plateau, Slovenia.  

PubMed

A comprehensive analysis of the increased pressure on karst landscapes due to expansive economic and urban development is presented with the aim of evaluating changes in land use and their deleterious effects on karst relief forms. The study focuses on two areas surrounding the relatively quickly growing settlements of Hrpelje-Kozina and Diva?a on the Kras plateau (Slovenia) that have been subjected to intensive urban and business development and traffic since the motorway was brought to their vicinity fifteen years ago. National legislation loopholes and technological improvement were the cause of the commonly unsupervised human encroachment which caused the widespread degradation of the landscape. By comparing different topographical and ortophotographical materials from the past four decades and by detailed field inspection of land use and environmental changes, as well as the morphometrical characterization of dolines, the following results have been found: due to the population growth in the past four decades (39% and 50%, respectively), an increase of settlement area by 18 and 11 percentage points took place. Consequently, between 25 and 27% of dolines have disappeared or have been extensively modified (filled up and leveled). According to the local spatial plans, an additional 18% to 28% dolines are endangered. Broad human induced changes in the karst landscape have resulted in a noticeable increase in landscape deterioration, which is consistent with similar phenomena observed in other regions. Due to the extreme susceptibility of the karst to human activities that may lead to the degradation of its exceptional esthetic and environmental value, the alteration of karst processes such as corrosion, endangering of unique habitats and the quality of non-renewable natural resources, it is necessary to promptly define measures for its protection at the national level. PMID:23376526

Kova?i?, Gregor; Ravbar, Nataša

2013-03-01

406

Risk assessment of buckwheat flour contaminated by thorn-apple (Datura stramonium L.) alkaloids: a case study from Slovenia.  

PubMed

In Slovenia, a mass poisoning incident involving 73 consumers with symptoms such as dry mouth, hot red skin, blurred vision, tachycardia, urinary retention, ataxia, speech disturbance, disorientation and visual hallucinations occurred in 2003. In all cases, consumers had eaten buckwheat flour food products within the last few hours. Investigations by responsible authorities identified the contamination of a range of buckwheat food products with thorn-apple (Datura stramonium L.) seeds containing toxic alkaloids, atropine and scopolamine. To ensure the safe consumption of buckwheat food products, we carried out risk characterisation and proposed provisional maximum residue levels (MRLs) of atropine and scopolamine mixture in buckwheat flour. In the absence of critical "no observed adverse effect levels" for atropine and scopolamin