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1

Who is responsible for vulnerable pupils? The attitudes of teacher candidates in Serbia and Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the ongoing trend towards inclusive education, initial teacher education programmes must ensure that prospective teachers are prepared to teach all pupils effectively. The study presented in this paper aimed to explore the attitudes of teacher candidates in Serbia and Slovenia towards responsibility for the teaching and learning of vulnerable pupils in mainstream elementary schools. Using a quantitative approach, the

Mojca Pe?ek; Sun?ica Macura-Milovanovi?

2012-01-01

2

Slovakia Document Store  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Slovakia Document Store: clickable map of Slovakia containing over 100 pictures of Slovak country, map of the capital and other large cities, history, political system, political parties. Also includes Information for people traveling to Slovakia, like currency, exchange rates, location of ATM (bankomats), small English-Slovak dictionary for tourists, e-mail and other Internet services, much more.

3

Language Policy in Slovenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The historical background, political changes, migration processes, EU membership and the current socio-linguistic situation have all influenced language policy and language planning in Slovenia. This article presents the most important aspects of language policy in Slovenia with a focus on the concept of linguistic diversity. The ethnic make-up of…

Novak-Lukanovic, Sonja; Limon, David

2012-01-01

4

A new earthquake catalogue for seismic hazard assessment of the NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) Jaslovske Bohunice, Slovakia, site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) Safety Guide No. SSG-9, an earthquake catalogue should comprise all information on pre-historical, historical and seismometrically recorded earthquakes in the region which should cover geographic area not smaller than a circle with radius of 300 km around the site. Jaslovske Bohunice is an important economic site. Several nuclear facilities are located in Jaslovske Bohunice - either in operation (NPP V2, national radioactive waste repository) or in decommissioning (NPP A1, NPP V1). Moreover, a new reactor unit is being planned for the site. Jaslovske Bohunice site is not far from the Dobra Voda seismic source zone which has been the most active seismic zone at territory of Slovakia since the beginning of 20th century. Relatively small distances to Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovak capital Bratislava make the site a prominent priority in terms of seismic hazard assessment. We compiled a new earthquake catalogue for the NPP Jaslovske Bohunice region following the recommendations of the IAEA Safety Guide. The region includes parts of the territories of Slovakia, Hungary, Austria, the Czech Republic and Poland, and it partly extends up to Germany, Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia. The catalogue is based on data from six national earthquake catalogues, two regional earthquake catalogues (ACORN, CENEC) and a catalogue from the local NPP network. The primarily compiled catalogue for the time period 350 - 2011 consists of 9 142 events. We then homogenized and declustered the catalogue. Eventually we checked the catalogue for time completeness. For homogenization, we divided the catalogue into preseismometric (350 - 1900) and seismometric (1901-2011) periods. For earthquakes characterized by the epicentral intensity and local magnitude we adopted relations proposed for homogenization of the CENEC catalogue (Grünthal et al. 2009). Instead of assuming the equivalency between local magnitudes reported by the national agencies, we analyzed and estimated relations between them. For declustering we applied two independent methods. In the window method we applied parameters of the time-space windows proposed by Burkhard & Grünthal (2009). In the cluster method (Reasenberg 1985) we applied alternative sets of input parameters. For investigating time completeness we divided the catalogue into four subcatalogues corresponding to different seismogeological domains. The completeness was determined from the plots displaying cumulative number of events (for given subcatalogue and interval of magnitude) as a function of time. The homogenized catalogue consists of 2 652 earthquakes with moment magnitude larger than 1.5. The catalogue was subsequently used as an input source for hazard analysis.

Kysel, Robert; Kristek, Jozef; Moczo, Peter; Csicsay, Kristian; Cipciar, Andrej; Srbecky, Miroslav

2014-05-01

5

Church Orientations in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high number of churches built during the Romanesque period in Slovenia provides a unique dataset from which to study church orientation using archaeoastronomical methods. An innovative methodology revealed a specific pattern of motivation for church alignment, ultimately revealing a greater depth of thought, process, and intentionality than has previously been recognized relative to this subject.

?aval, Saša

6

Women in Physics in Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current situation of women in physics in Slovakia is discussed. Statistics concerning the number of women working at universities and research institutions at different career levels are presented. The current situation among students studying physics in bachelor's, master's, and postgraduate programs is also discussed.

Ožvoldová, Miroslava; Ješková, Zuzana

2009-04-01

7

Policing in multiethnic Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the civil wars in former Yugoslavia very serious ethnic tensions arose in Serbia. In these circumstances a number of non?Serb police officers, and managers, were excluded from the police, because of their national origin. After democratic changes in October 2000, the reform of the police was launched. The police are still not representative of the population of Serbia in

Želimir Kešetovi?

2012-01-01

8

Policing in multiethnic Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the civil wars in former Yugoslavia very serious ethnic tensions arose in Serbia. In these circumstances a number of non?Serb police officers, and managers, were excluded from the police, because of their national origin. After democratic changes in October 2000, the reform of the police was launched. The police are still not representative of the population of Serbia in

Želimir Kešetovi?

2011-01-01

9

Long-Term Runoff Changes In Regions Of Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variability is analysed by the long-term runoff trends of 27 Slovak rivers for the period 1931-2000. Comparison of the monthly runoff series allowed us to draw 4 regions with different runoff trends on the territory of Slovakia (constant trend in Northern and Eastern Slovakia, slow decrease in Central Slovakia, and rapid decrease in Southern Slovakia; Fig. 1). The length

Pavol Miklanek; Pavla Pekarova

2004-01-01

10

BEN Sampling in Serbia  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientist Bill Orem (left) and Adrian Muntean, a colleague from Romania, sampling water from a well in a Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) household in Serbia. The scientists will analyze the water for the presence of coal-derived organic substances dissolved in the water. The USGS works closely...

2009-09-10

11

Geothermal eel farm in Slovakia  

SciTech Connect

Turcianske Teplice, a small town in west-central Slovakia, has written records of using thermal waters since 1281. In 1992, an eel raising farm was started on the outskirts of the town and since 1994, it has been operated by the firm of Janex Slovensko. The farm, using a specialized water recirculation system, raises a species of migrating eels (Anguilla anguilla). A 220-meter deep well at 42 C provides 48 gpm to the facility for heating through a plate heat exchanger. This is the maximum flow permitted, so as not to influence the springs and wells at the spa about 1 km away. For this reason, the flow is monitored carefully by the state. A second geothermal well at 52 C and 1,500 meters deep is used only as an observation well. Cold water, which is heated by the geothermal water, is pumped from wells near the Turiec River 1.8 km away at 8 to 12 C, depending upon the season, for use in the various holding or raising tanks. The operation of the farm is described.

Lund, J.W. [Oregon Inst. of Tech., Klamath Falls, OR (United States). Geo-Heat Center; Thomka, J.; Sarlinova, K. [Turcianske Teplice (Slovakia)

1998-12-01

12

Astronomy In Serbia And Montenegro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of professional and amateur astronomy in Serbia and Montenegro is given. After a brief historical survey of the foundations and development of astronomy education in Serbia and Montenegro, special attention is given to a new curriculum that is being prepared for all educational levels.

Atanackovic-Vukmanovic, O.

2006-08-01

13

Forest Health and Environmental Pollution in Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a mountainous and forested country (40.6% forest cover) in central Europe, Slovakia has a large variety of vegetation zones, forest types, and a rich diversity of forest tree species. The most important tree species are beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.), oak species (Quercus sp.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), European

Július Oszlányi

1997-01-01

14

Earthquakes in Tuhinj Valley (Slovenia) In 1840  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A less known damaging earthquake in southern part of Kamnik-Savinja Alps, Slovenia, in 1840 is described. The main shock was on 27 August 1840 with the epicentre in Tuhinj Valley. The maximum intensity was VII EMS-98 in Ljubljana, Slovenia, and in Eisenkappel, Austria. It was felt as far as Venice, Italy, 200 km away. The macroseismic magnitude of the main shock, estimated from the area of intensity VI EMS-98, was 5.0. The effects of the main shock and its aftershocks are described, and an earthquake catalogue for Slovenia in 1840 is provided. Available primary sources (newspaper articles) are presented.

Ceci?, Ina

2015-01-01

15

Problematic microscopic trace (?) fossils, Oligocene, Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meioscopic to microscopic capsules found in reddish, probably marine or brackish shales (Oligocene, Pannonian Basin; South Slovakia) are interpreted as possible trace fossils. They may represent burrows of meioscopic in-fauna. Ferruginous walls of the capsules appeared very probably as late as during diagenesis; however, the (possibly organic) matrix had to exist before the diagenetic processes. Other discussed explanations (inorganic "ironstones"; coprolites) are not plausible.

Mikuláš, R.; Boorová, D.; Holcová, K.

2013-05-01

16

Comenius University Bratislava, Slovakia Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics  

E-print Network

Comenius University Bratislava, Slovakia Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics Department of Applied Informatics Michal Valko Evolving Neural Networks for Statistical Decision Theory Advisor

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitĂŠ de

17

Cervical cancer screening in Serbia.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is the second most common female malignancy in Serbia, after breast cancer, with 1089 new registered cases and an age-standardized incidence rate of 27.2 per 100,000 women in 2002. It is the fourth leading cause of cancer death with 452 deaths and an age-standardized death rate of 7.2 per 100,000 women. Compared with other European countries, the incidence of cervical cancer in Central Serbia is the highest. Regional differences in incidence are pronounced in Serbia with the lowest age-standardized incidence rate (16.6 per 100,000 women) registered in the Macvanski region and the highest in eastern Serbia and the region of Belgrade where the rates are double at 32.5-38.1 per 100,000 women. Cervical cancer prevention in Serbia has relied on opportunistic screening that is characterized by high coverage in younger and low coverage in middle-aged and older women. Screening of selected groups of women employed in large companies is performed annually by many regional hospitals but this approach has little effect on morbidity and mortality. Recently, the Ministry of Health nominated an Expert Group to develop and implement a national cervical cancer screening program. A number of pilot projects have been undertaken with the results used for development of a national programme for cervical cancer screening. This is expected to be finalized in 2007, and launched over a 3-years period in order to cover all women aged 25-64 in entire Serbia. PMID:17598502

Kesi?, Vesna; Jovi?evi?-Beki?, Ana; Vujnovi?, Melita

2007-04-01

18

Local magnitude scale in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper a calibration study of the local magnitude scale in Slovenia is presented. The Seismology and Geology Office of the Slovenian Environment Agency routinely reports the magnitudes MLV of the earthquakes recorded by the Slovenian seismic stations. The magnitudes are computed from the maximum vertical component of the ground velocity with the magnitude equation that was derived some thirty years ago by regression analysis of the magnitudes recorded by a Wood-Anderson seismograph in Trieste and a short period seismograph in Ljubljana. In the study the present single magnitude MLV equation is replaced by a general form of the Richter local magnitude MWA equation. The attenuation function and station-component corrections that compensate the local effects near seismic stations are determined from the synthetic Wood-Anderson seismograms of a large data set by iterative least-square method. The data set used consists of approximately 18 000 earthquakes during a period of 14 yr, each digitally recorded on up to 29 stations. The derived magnitude equation is used to make the final comparison between the new MWA magnitudes and the routinely calculated MLV magnitudes. The results show good overall accordance between both magnitude equations. The main advantage of the introduction of station-component corrections is the reduced uncertainty of the local magnitude that is assigned to a certain earthquake.

Bajc, J.; Zaplotnik, Ž.; Živ?i?, M.; ?arman, M.

2013-04-01

19

Biological environmental specimen banking in Slovakia.  

PubMed

Biological environmental specimens, including samples of human tissues, were stored for 5-10 years after solubilizing by mineralization in boiling nitric acid. The sampling procedure, transport treatment and storing was standardized. Documentation identifying the sample and its origin were used. Data on toxic metals in dust-fall, in the individual components of the environment as soil, air, ground and surface water, plants, animals, food and human tissues (liver, kidney, lung, brain, heart and plasma) are reported for the 6 most heavily contaminated regions of Slovakia. In some areas xenobiotics in the environment seriously affected the flora and fauna, including man. Banking of specimens has been stressed as the necessity for future analyses. PMID:8272824

Trnovec, T; Majláthová, L; Rosival, L; Rolný, D

1993-11-01

20

Vocational Education and Training Reform in Slovenia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report on vocational education and training (VET) in Slovenia consists of a condensed description of the present situation in VET and analysis of the main challenges facing VET reform in the country. Chapter 1 offers basic data on the country. Chapter 2 describes main features of the VET system, strategic objectives for VET, and legislative…

European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

21

OPERA INSTITUTI ARCHAEOLOGICI SLOVENIAE LJUBLJANA 2004  

E-print Network

of the wild carp, Cyprinus carpio: from Roman gourmets to the swim- ming flowers. ­ Aquaculture 129, 3­48. BALON, E. K. 1995b, The common carp, Cyprinus carpio: its wild origin, domestication in aquaculture of Slovenia. ­ Arh. vest. 53, 77­89. BARUS, V., M. PEÁZ in K. KOHLMANN 2001, Cyprinus carpio. ­ V/in: P. M

Cufar, Katarina

22

Attitudes to Bilingual Education in Slovenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The two different models of bilingual/multilingual education that have been developed in Slovenia since the 1950s in the regions of Prekmurje (minority language Hungarian) and Slovene Istria (Italian) are the result of international agreements, education and language policies, social and demographic factors. The basic aim in both cases is to help…

Novak Lukanovic, Sonja; Limon, David

2014-01-01

23

Education Reform in Slovenia and Ukraine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed the challenges faced by teacher educators from Slovenia and Ukraine as they implemented the Step by Step (SBS) initiative. Gathered information from Master Teacher Trainers about participation in educating preschool and primary children in a SBS program. Garnered important information concerning progress toward a more democratic approach…

Rutar, Sonja; Kotenko, Kateryna; Lohvynenko, Tetyana; Moyer, Joan

2003-01-01

24

The Organizational Values of "Gimnazija" in Slovenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article assesses the organizational values of "gimnazija" in Slovenia and examines the factors that contribute to the building of quality management. The theoretical framework is built on Schein's model of levels of culture, Sathe's interpretation of organizational culture and Getzels and Guba's model of organizational behaviour. Based on the…

Pang, Nicholas Sun-Keung

2006-01-01

25

When and How Does Europe Matter? Higher Education Policy Change in Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study underlying this article investigates the factors under which European policy initiatives with respect to higher education (HE), such as the Bologna Process, lead to policy change at the national level. In theoretical terms, it uses institutionalist approaches to the Europeanization of public policy developed in the fields of comparative…

Vukasovic, Martina

2014-01-01

26

The Cultural Responsiveness of Teacher Candidates Towards Roma Pupils in Serbia and Slovenia--Case Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In many countries, there is a growing need for teacher awareness and sensitivity to cultural differences, what is often called culturally responsive teaching. This is why teacher education institutions are making significant efforts to require student teachers to enrol in courses that focus on understanding, tolerance and acceptance of differences…

Pecek, Mojca; Macura-Milovanovic, Suncica; Vujisic-Živkovic, Nataša

2014-01-01

27

Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist.  

PubMed

The research of the spider fauna of Slovenia dates back to the very beginning of binomial nomenclature, and has gone through more and less prolific phases with authors concentrating on taxonomy, faunistics, ecology and zoogeographic reviews. Although the body of published works is remarkable for a small nation, the faunistic data has remained too scattered for a thorough understanding of regional biotic diversity, for comparative and ecological research, and for informed conservation purposes. A national checklist is long overdue. Here, a critical review of all published records in any language is provided. The species list currently comprises 738 species, is published online at http://www.bioportal.si/katalog/araneae.php under the title Araneae Sloveniae, and will be updated in due course. This tool will fill the void in cataloguing regional spider faunas and will facilitate further araneological research in central and southern Europe. PMID:25632258

Kostanjšek, Rok; Kuntner, Matjaž

2015-01-01

28

Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist  

PubMed Central

Abstract The research of the spider fauna of Slovenia dates back to the very beginning of binomial nomenclature, and has gone through more and less prolific phases with authors concentrating on taxonomy, faunistics, ecology and zoogeographic reviews. Although the body of published works is remarkable for a small nation, the faunistic data has remained too scattered for a thorough understanding of regional biotic diversity, for comparative and ecological research, and for informed conservation purposes. A national checklist is long overdue. Here, a critical review of all published records in any language is provided. The species list currently comprises 738 species, is published online at http://www.bioportal.si/katalog/araneae.php under the title Araneae Sloveniae, and will be updated in due course. This tool will fill the void in cataloguing regional spider faunas and will facilitate further araneological research in central and southern Europe.

Kostanjšek, Rok; Kuntner, Matjaž

2015-01-01

29

The Development of Geology in Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geology in Serbia began to develop in the first half of the 19th century mainly for two reasons: the endeavours of Prince Miloš to expand the national economy (including mining) and the interest shown by European scientists for an unknown country. When in 1880 Jovan Žujovi? became the professor of geology and mineralogy at the High School in Belgrade, as the first Serbian geologist who studied in Belgrade and Paris, the development of geology in Serbia was strongly increased. Zujovic's successors: Sava Uroševi? (mineralogy, petrology), Svetolik Radovanovi? (palaeontology), Petar Pavlovi? (palaeontology), Vladimir Petkovi? (regional geology), Jelenko Mihailovi? (seismology) and others continued geological investigations in Serbia.

Jovic, V.

2008-10-01

30

Vegetation types of dry-mesic oak forests in Slovakia Vegetacn typy subtermofilnch doubrav na Slovensku  

E-print Network

Vegetation types of dry-mesic oak forests in Slovakia Vegetacní typy subtermofilních doubrav na, e-mail: honza.rolecek@centrum.cz Rolecek J. (2005): Vegetation types of dry-mesic oak forests in Slovakia. ­ Preslia, Praha, 77: 241­261. Typology of dry-mesic oak forest vegetation of Slovakia

Role?ek, Jan

31

FSU/Eastern Europe: Russia spearheads small upturn  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the political and legal scene in Russia, domestic restructuring, exploration, drilling, development by Western companies and by Russian companies, and production. Exploration and development in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Serbia are also discussed.

NONE

1996-08-01

32

www.egec.org Nuremberg, 15 October 2013  

E-print Network

Russia Romania Serbia Belarus Bulgaria Macedonia Iceland Albania Portugal Latvia Bosnia-Herz. Installed Slovenia Lithuania Hungary Slovakia Romania Bulgaria Portugal Latvia InstalledCapacity(MWth) WGC 2010 Eur Statistics in the EU are from now on governed by: ¡ Directive 2009/28/EC (Renewable Energy), Annex VII

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

33

Firm Performance and the Political Economy of Corporate Governance: Survey Evidence for Bulgaria, Hungary, Slovakia and Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using survey data for 220 traditional manufacturing firms over 7 years of transition and 4 CEE countries, we find firms that produced for the EU market under planning consistently outperform those that produced for the CMEA market. Within the previously CMEA market, the best firms were selected to outside privatisation and outperformed insider\\/state owned firms. Outside privatisation was resisted in

Patrick Paul Walsh; Ciara Whelan

2000-01-01

34

Firm performance and the political economy of corporate governance: survey evidence for Bulgaria, Hungary, Slovakia and Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using survey data for 220 traditional manufacturing firms over 7 years of transition and 4 Central Eastern Europe (CEE) countries, we find firms that produced for the EU market under planning consistently outperform those that produced for the CMEA market. Within the previously CMEA market, the best firms were selected to outside privatisation and outperformed insider\\/state owned firms. Outside privatisation

Patrick Paul Walsh; Ciara Whelan

2001-01-01

35

Firm Performance and the Political Economy of Corporate Governance: Survey Evidence for Bulgaria, Hungary, Slovakia and Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using survey data for 220 traditional manufacturing firms over 7 years of transition and 4 CEE countries we show that firms which produced for the EU market under planning consistently outperform those that traditionally produced for the CMEA market. A gradualist selection process to outside privatisation of previously CMEA oriented firms induces outside ownership to outperform insider\\/state owned firms. A

Patrick Paul Walsh; Ciara Whelan

1999-01-01

36

Art Museum Education in Transition: Moderna Galerija in Slovenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay examines the educational practices at the Moderna galerija, a national museum of modern and contemporary art in Ljubljana, Slovenia, in the last twenty years. Its aim is to reflect on the museum education in relation to broader historical context, of the former Yugoslavia (the country Slovenia was a part of until 1991) and discuss how…

Zeleznik, Adela

2012-01-01

37

Dendrochronology of oak (Quercus spp.) in Slovenia an interim report  

E-print Network

Dendrochronology of oak (Quercus spp.) in Slovenia ­ an interim report K. Cufar1 , M. Zupancic1 , L dendrochronology in Slovenia, a region that was until recently considered sub-optimal for the assembly of an oak and dendrochronology. Currently, several multi- millennial chronologies of different tree species are in existence

Cufar, Katarina

38

31 CFR 586.204 - Prohibited new investment within Serbia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 586.204 Prohibited new investment within Serbia. Except...

2010-07-01

39

Stigma and Roma Education Policy Reform in Slovakia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses reform of Roma education in Slovakia against the backdrop of continued stigmatization of Roma students. Transnational NGOs and IGOs promote rights-based solutions leading to the fullest possible inclusion of Roma students in mainstream education. The Slovak state promotes educational policies that lead to the fullest…

New, William

2012-01-01

40

Information Science Research Agenda in Slovakia: History and Emerging Vision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents research and education in library and information science in Slovakia as an example of the history, present state, and future of information science research and collaboration in central European countries. Highlights include: the professional experience in the region since 1990, structural changes, examples of these changes, recent…

Steinerova, Jela

2003-01-01

41

Information system of mineral deposits in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the Geologic Survey of Slovenia the need for complex overview and control of the deposits of available non-metallic mineral raw materials and of their exploitations became urgent. In the framework of the Geologic Information System we established the Database of non-metallic mineral deposits comprising all important data of deposits and concessionars. Relational database is built with program package MS Access, but in year 2008 we plan to transfer it on SQL server. In the evidence there is 272 deposits and 200 concessionars. The mineral resources information system of Slovenia, which was started back in 2002, consists of two integrated parts, mentioned relational database of mineral deposits, which relates information in tabular way so that rules of relational algebra can be applied, and geographic information system (GIS), which relates spatial information of deposits. . The complex relationships between objects and the concepts of normalized data structures, lead to the practical informative and useful data model, transparent to the user and to better decision-making by allowing future scenarios to be developed and inspected. Computerized storage, and display system is as already said, developed and managed under the support of Geological Survey of Slovenia, which conducts research on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources in order to help the Nation make informed decisions using earth-science information. Information about deposit is stored in records in approximately hundred data fields. A numeric record number uniquely identifies each site. The data fields are grouped under principal categories. Each record comprise elementary data of deposit (name, type, location, prospect, rock), administrative data (concessionar, number of decree in official paper, object of decree, number of contract and its duration) and data of mineral resource produced amount and size of exploration area). The data can also be searched, sorted and printed using any of these fields. New records are being added annually, and existing records updated or upgraded. Relational database is connected with scanned exploration/exploitation areas of deposits, defined on the base of digital ortofoto. Register of those areas is indispensable because of spatial planning and spatial municipal and regional strategy development. Database is also part of internet application for quick search and review of data and part of web page of mineral resources of Slovenia. The technology chosen for internet application is ESRI's ArcIMS Internet Map Server. ArcIMS allows users to readily and easily display, analyze, and interpret spatial data from desktop using a Web browser connected to the Internet. We believe that there is an opportunity for cooperation within this activity. We can offer a single location where users can come to browse relatively simply for geoscience-related digital data sets.

Hribernik, K.; Rokavec, D.; Šinigioj, J.; Šolar, S.

2010-03-01

42

Management of small producers waste in Slovenia  

SciTech Connect

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Radioactive materials are extensively used in Slovenia in various fields and applications in medicine, industry and research. For the managing of radioactive waste raised from these establishments the Agency for radwaste management (ARAO) was authorised as the state public service of managing the radioactive waste in 1999. The public service of the radioactive waste of small producers in Slovenia is performed in line with the Governmental decree on the Mode, Subject and Terms of Performing the Public Service of Radioactive Waste Management (Official Gazette RS No. 32/99). According to the Decree the scope of the public service includes: 'collection of the waste from small producers at the producers' premises and its transportation to the storage facility for treatment, storing and disposal', 'acceptance of radioactive waste in case of emergency situation on the premises, in case of transport accidents or some other accidents', 'acceptance of radioactive waste in cases when the producer is unknown', 'management (collection, transport, pre-treatment, storing, together with QA and radiation protection measures) of radioactive waste', 'treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste for storing and disposal', and 'operating of the Central Interim Storage for LIL waste from small producers'. After taking over the performing of the public service, ARAO first started with the project for refurbishment and modernization of the Central Interim Storage Facility, including improvements of the storage utilization and rearrangement of the stored waste. (authors)

Fabjan, Marija; Rojc, Joze [Agency for Radwaste Management, Parmova 53, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2007-07-01

43

Regional flood frequency analysis in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regional flood frequency analysis is mainly used for purposes of improving flood prediction. There are many examples of its application in different countries but it hasn't been used in Slovenia yet. So our main goal was to use different approaches to perform regional flood frequency analysis of maximum annual discharges for hydrological stations in Slovenia. Regional flood frequency analysis usually involves four steps. For each one there are different methods that can be used. At first, accuracy and discordance of data has to be checked. The second and also the most important step is identification of regions and checking their homogeneity. The last two steps are the choice of an appropriate frequency distribution for a region and estimation of the parameters and quantiles of the selected distribution, respectively. Maximum annual discharges for 112 hydrological stations in Slovenia that satisfied required conditions about measurement performance were considered for analysis. Time series were first checked for missing data, outliers, normality and linearity. The discordancy measure was also used. The regionalization was performed using two different approaches. The first method used was subjective partioning where the regions are formed with the goal to get concluded groups in which hydrological stations lay geographically close to each other. The second used method was cluster analysis within which two algorithms were tested (Ward method and K-means). Three data sets with different number of attributes were used for each one. The homogeneity of the regions was tested using the heterogeneity measure H. The result of the subjective partioning were 10 regions, 8 of them were acceptably homogeneous (H < 1), one was possibly heterogeneous (1 ? H < 2) and one was definitely heterogeneous (H ? 2). Among Ward method and K-means we decided to use the results of the latter one based on the data set with 4 attributes (catchment area, longitude, latitude, elevation). After some adjustments we defined 9 acceptably homogeneous regions. The best frequency distribution was estimated according to K-means adjusted regions. Different goodness-of-fit tests were used. For the whole region data the L-moment ratio diagram and the goodness-of-fit measure Z were performed. For the single station data the QQ diagram, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, PPCC (probability plot correlation coefficient) and RMSE (root mean square error) were used. After analysing different results we decided to estimate the final frequency distribution of the regions using L-moment ratio diagram, goodness-of-fit measure Z and the RMSE test. At the end we estimated also the quantiles for chosen frequency distributions using the regional L-moment algorithm based on the index-flood procedure.

Kavcic, Katarina; Brilly, Mitja; Sraj, Mojca

2014-05-01

44

Hotel Spik, Gozd Martuljek, Slovenia 6 to 10 June 2001  

E-print Network

PROGRAMME 30 lectures, 50 posters Topics Dendrochronology and dating of archaeological and historical wood Construction of long reference chronologies Dendrochronology and isotopes Dendroecology and geomorphology, Baatarbileg Nachin, Cressida Whitton Project: Dendrochronological investigations in Slovenia Project leader

Cufar, Katarina

45

Macrodebris and microplastics from beaches in Slovenia.  

PubMed

The amount of marine debris in the environment is increasing worldwide, which results in an array of negative effects to biota. This study provides the first account of macrodebris on the beach and microplastics in the sediment (shoreline and infralittoral) in relation to tourism activities in Slovenia. The study assessed the quality and quantity of macrodebris and the quality, size and quantity of microplastics at six beaches, contrasting those under the influences of tourism and those that were not. Beach cleanliness was estimated using the Clean Coast Index. Tourism did not seem to have an effect on macrodebris or microplastic quantity at beaches. Over 64% of macrodebris was plastic, and microplastics were ubiquitous, which calls for classification of plastics as hazardous materials. Standard measures for marine debris assessment are needed, especially in the form of an all-encompassing debris index. Recommendations for future assessments are provided for the Adriatic region. PMID:25440193

Laglbauer, Betty J L; Franco-Santos, Rita Melo; Andreu-Cazenave, Miguel; Brunelli, Lisa; Papadatou, Maria; Palatinus, Andreja; Grego, Mateja; Deprez, Tim

2014-12-15

46

Communities of Anthriscus caucalis and Asperugo procumbens in Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two ruderal seam communities, theLactuco-Anthriscetum caucalidis andAhthrisco-Asperugetum procumbentis, are described in Slovakia. Both communities occur on loess in regions of warm and dry climate. Besides the species of theGalio-Alliarietalia, those of theSisymbrietalia andArtemisietalia design the floristical composition of the communities. Numerical classification and ordination techniques were adopted to\\u000a clarify systematic relations of the communities and show the structure of the

Ladislav Mucina; Mária Zaliberová

1986-01-01

47

Geomyces destructans associated with bat disease WNS detected in Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes macro- and micromorphological features of Geomyces destructans, the fungus which is associated with the white-nose syndrome (WNS) bat disease in North America. This species was isolated\\u000a from hibernating Myotis myotis at two sites in Malé Karpaty Mts (the old mine Pod medve?ou skalou and the ZbojnÍcka Cave) in Western Slovakia. Besides Geomyces destructans, the species Isaria farinosa,

Alexandra Šimonovi?ov; Domenico Pangallo; Katarína Chovanová; Blanka Lehotská

2011-01-01

48

31 CFR 586.306 - Government of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). 586.306 Section 586.306...FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). The term Government of the...

2010-07-01

49

31 CFR 586.304 - Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia & Montenegro); FRY (S&M).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia & Montenegro); FRY (S&M). 586.304 Section...FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia & Montenegro); FRY (S&M). The term...

2010-07-01

50

31 CFR 585.418 - Vessels of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). 585.418 Section 585.418...FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO) AND BOSNIAN SERB-CONTROLLED AREAS...Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). Any vessel in which a...

2010-07-01

51

Role of small and medium-sized enterprises in economies of Poland and Slovakia - comparative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SME sector is one of the factors that contribute to economic growth in every country on the national and regional level, and it holds true to Poland and Slovakia. Although this sector grew most rapidly during the beginning transition period, it still retains its significant role in the economic growth in both countries - Poland and Slovakia. The aim

Iveta Ubreziová; Krzysztof Wach

2010-01-01

52

Modernisation of Vocational Education and Training in Slovenia. National Observatory Country Report, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the beginning of the 1990s, Slovenia has been catching up with other developed market economies. The economic situation has improved; the unemployment rate has declined. Slovenia's criticism of the 1980s educational reform carried out in Yugoslavia (which included Slovenia until 1991) and continued discussion have led to design of a new…

Gerzina, Suzana; Vranjes, Petra; Cek, Mojca

53

Alcohol consumption among adolescents in Kraljevo, Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and predictors of alcohol consumption among adolescents in one town\\u000a in Central Serbia. A questionnaire was used to obtain data from 191 Serbian students aged 18 years regarding personal experience\\u000a with alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking, along with sociodemographics data. Alcohol consumption was reported by 97.4%\\u000a subjects, with 34.9% having

Natasa Djordjevic; Jelena Bogojevic; Marina Kostic

2011-01-01

54

Identification and inventory of tenorm sources in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper addresses identification of industries and activities handling NORM and inventory of TENORM in Slovenia. The identification is based on survey of historical information available, results published in scientific papers, research reports made by research institutions within Slovenia, as well as original research aimed at obtaining more detailed picture of the areas investigated. For this purpose, gamma dose-rate measurements were performed on site, sampled TENORM/NORM materials were measured by high-resolution gamma spectrometry for determination of 210Pb, 238U, 232Th, 228Th and 226Ra. Waste water and ground water samples were analysed for 238U, 226Ra and 210Pb using RNAA, LSC and beta proportional counting. The inventory of the investigated sites is presented, giving the information on amounts of the deposited wastes, specific activities of the natural radionuclides and geographical distribution of the inventories in Slovenia.

Smodiš, B.; Repinc, U.; Benedik, L.

2006-01-01

55

Radio Astronomy in Serbia: A Short Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this lecture, I presented a short review of: 1. the brief history of development of radio astronomy in Serbia, and 2. the present state of research and university teaching in Serbia on this interesting and modern field of astronomy. Since 1970's, the continuum observations at the lowest radio frequencies (e.g. 38 MHz) and the Galactic radio loops have been represented the topics of main research interest for the first radio astronomer in Serbia, prof. dr Jelena Milogradov-Turin. In 1983, she introduced Radio astronomy as two semester course at 4th year of studies at Department of astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade. In this moment we have radio astronomy group with 5 (mainly younger) researchers from Department of Astronomy and Belgrade Astronomical Observatory. The main fields of research interest are, as a part of tradition, the Galactic radio loops and additionally, the hydrodynamic and radio evolution of supernova remnants. Our future projects will be connected with radio evolution of nova remnants and planetary nebulae.

Urosevic, D.

56

The International Year of Astronomy in Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central institution in Serbia involved in the preparations for the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) is the Astronomical Society "Rudjer Boskovic" (ASRB) Belgrade, the oldest astronomical society in Serbia and one of the oldest in the Balkans (founded in 1934). ASRB has published the astronomical magazine VASIONA (Universe) since 1953. This is the oldest magazine in Serbia for the popularisation of astronomy and science in general. The most important activities in the ASRB public outreach programme are based on ongoing programmes and projects at the Public Observatory (founded in 1964) and the Planetarium (founded in 1969). The National Node has been working on a detailed plan to enrich ongoing projects and organise special IYA2009 events (public observations and lectures, 100 hours of astronomy, special TV shows and broadcasting programmes, concerts and exhibitions) all over the country, coordinating more than 20 amateur astronomical societies. It also should be noticed that in 2009, the year of celebrating astronomy, the Astronomical Society "Rudjer Boskovic" celebrates three important anniversaries - 75 years since its foundation, 45 years of the Public Observatory and 40 years of the Planetarium.

Stanic, N.

2008-06-01

57

Stable isotope composition of human fingernails from Slovakia.  

PubMed

Stable isotope composition of human fingernails has proven to be useful for documenting human dietary information and geographical patterns in archeological, forensic, anthropological and biological studies. Therefore, it is of interest to detect all factors influencing the stable isotopic composition in the certain regions in the world. Carbon and nitrogen isotope data of human fingernail keratin from 52 individuals from Slovakia were reported in this study. The online combustion and continuous flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometer Delta V Advantage was used for ?(13)C and ?(15)N analysis of fingernail keratin samples from 24 vegetarian and 28 omnivorous individuals. A group of people with frequent meat consumption showed enrichment in (13)C and (15)N isotopes in fingernails. A similar trend was observed with increasing seafood in an individual's diet. Moreover a significant difference was revealed between smokers and nonsmokers for both ?(13)C and ?(15)N values. These data were compared to previously published ?(13)C and ?(15)N fingernail values from across the globe. This study brings new information on the stable isotope signature of individuals from Slovakia and characterizes the Central European region for the first time. The stable isotope composition of fingernails is influenced by the frequency of meat and seafood consumption as well as smoking. PMID:25086300

Grolmusová, Zuzana; Rap?anová, Anna; Michalko, Juraj; ?ech, Peter; Veis, Pavel

2014-10-15

58

Dirofilaria repens microfilariae in Aedes vexans mosquitoes in Slovakia.  

PubMed

In this study, we screened field-caught mosquitoes for presence of Dirofilaria spp. by using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Potential occurrence of Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae was examined in 3,600 mosquitoes of eight species (Aedes vexans, Aedes cinereus, Aedes rossicus, Culex pipiens, Culiseta annulata, Ochlerotatus sticticus, Ochlerotatus cantans and Ochlerotatus caspius) collected from five locations in two districts (Kosice and Trebisov) of Eastern Slovakia, endemic region of canine dirofilariasis. Collection of mosquitoes was performed between May and August 2012 in premises known to be inhabited by Dirofilaria-infected dogs. PCR assays were performed on 72 pools, each pool containing 50 mosquitoes of the same species, collected on the same location. Each pool was examined separately for the presence of D. immitis and D. repens, respectively. A positive finding of D. repens was recorded in one pool of A. vexans mosquitoes collected in Košické Olšany village. Minimum infection rate in A. vexans was 1:1,750, i.e. 0.57 per 1,000 mosquitoes. The identity of D. repens was confirmed by direct sequencing of PCR product which has shown 100% homology with sequence attributed to D. repens (GenBank accession number AJ271614). This study represents the first molecular evidence of D. repens microfilariae in mosquitoes in Slovakia and highlights a need for better surveillance of zoonotic dirofilariasis in central Europe. PMID:23846240

Bocková, Eva; Rudolf, Ivo; Ko?išová, Alica; Betášová, Lenka; Venclíková, Kristýna; Mendel, Jan; Hubálek, Zden?k

2013-10-01

59

The Interpretation and Implementation of the Bologna Process in Serbia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper neither attacks nor defends the Bologna Declaration; rather, it attempts a critical assessment of its implementation in Serbia. Review of the available data shows that the higher education system in Serbia is inefficient and in profound need of reform. Analysis of some of the reform processes shows that the Bologna Declaration as a…

Despotovic, Miomir

2011-01-01

60

COMPETITIVENESS OF WINE EXPORT FROM THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors of this paper analyze export and competitiveness of wine export from the Republic of Serbia. Main goal of the research reflects in perceiving basic features of export and competitiveness of wine export from the Republic of Serbia on international market. The analysis encloses time period 2004-2007. The amount of wine export is very modest and, in observed period,

Branislav Vlahovic; Anton Puskaric; Branka Maksimovic

2009-01-01

61

Belgrade vs. Serbia: Spatial Re-Configurations of Belonging  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the relationship between the nation, the city, narratives, and belonging in Serbia through an analysis of narratives of a set of 30 interviews with young Belgrade intellectuals aged 23–35. I argue that what appears to be emerging in post-Milosevic Serbia is a new articulation and a new scale of belonging. Most of my informants are mobilising their

Zala Volcic

2005-01-01

62

ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Reform in Serbia  

E-print Network

ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Reform in Serbia by Sandra Jednak Faculty of Organizational Sciences in Serbia have been started, and certain results were achieved. But, the electric power infrastructure decided whether the Serbian Electric Power Industry will be privatised, and if it is privatised which

Feigon, Brooke

63

Reflections on higher education funding in Slovenia and the  

E-print Network

Reflections on higher education funding in Slovenia and the Netherlands A short report for Higher Education Policy Studies (CHEPS) University of Twente P.O. Box 217 7500 AE Enschede162 #12;Table of Contents Table of Contents 2 1 Analysing higher education funding arrangements 3 2

Al Hanbali, Ahmad

64

Students' Readiness for On-Line Distance Education in Slovenia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online distance education is being introduced at the Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Maribor (Slovenia) for an e-business course within which an experience about students' acceptability of online distance education was conducted. In spring 2001, an experiment with online materials (in place of regular lectures) for an e-business…

Sulcic, Viktorija; Lesjak, Dusan

65

Groundwater Quality in Mura Valley (Slovenia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater quality is one of the most important parameters in drinking water supply management. For safe drinking water supply, the quality of groundwater in the water wells on the recharge area has to be controlled. Groundwater quality data will be presented for one test area in the SEE project CC-WaterS (Climate Change and Impacts on Water Supply) Mura valley, which lies in the northeastern part of Slovenia. The Mura valley is a part of the Pannonian basin tectonic unit, which is filled with Tertiary and Quaternary gravel and sand sediments. The porous aquifer is 17 m thick in average and recharges from precipitation (70 %) and from surface waters (30 %). The aquifer is the main source of drinking water in the area for almost 53.000 inhabitants. Most of the aquifer lies beneath the agricultural area what represents the risk of groundwater quality. The major groundwater pollutants in the Mura valley are nitrates, atrazine, desethyl-atrazine, trichloroethane and tetrachloroethene. National groundwater quality monitoring is carried out twice a year, so some polluting events could be missed. The nitrate concentrations in the past were up to 140 mg/l. Concentration trends are decreasing and are now below 60 mg/l. Concentrations of atrazine and desethyl-atrazine, are decreasing as well and are below 0,1 ľg/l. Trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene were detected downstream of main city in Mura valley, in the maximum concentrations of 280 ?g/l in June 2005 (trichloroethene) and 880 ?g/l in October 1997 (tetrachloroethene). So, it can be summarized that the trends for most pollutants in the Mura valley are decreasing, what is a good prediction for the future. Input estimation of the total nitrogen (N) (mineral and organic fertilizers) in the Mura valley shows, that the risk of leaching is enlarged in the areas, where the N input is larger than 250 kg/ha, this is at 6,3 % of all agricultural areas. Prediction for the period 2021-2050 indicates that the leaching of N could increase, but no more that 5 %. The high risk of leaching of pesticides can be expected at 60 % of the Mura valley area. According to expert judgment, the climate conditions during 2021-2050 (increase of mean annual T for more than 0,5 °C and increase of precipitation) will lead to a faster degradation of pesticides and therefore smaller chance for pesticide residuum to reach the groundwater. It can be concluded that the climate change will slightly reduce the danger of leaching into the groundwater but the extent of it will nevertheless stay comparable to the present condition.

Zajc Benda, T.; Souvent, P.; Bra?i? Železnik, B.; ?en?ur Curk, B.

2012-04-01

66

Proceedings of the DIS'2004, Strbske Pleso, Slovakia ELECTROPRODUCTION OF EXCLUSIVE # + # -AT HERMES  

E-print Network

# + # - AT HERMES RICCARDO FABBRI (ON BEHALF OF THE HERMES COLLABORATION) NIKHEF, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam Physics SAS, KoŸsice, Slovakia 1 #12; 2 Riccardo Fabbri (Fig. 1d). In the range of the considered

67

Roman mystery iron blades from Serbia  

SciTech Connect

A First to Forth Century Roman spear blade from Serbia was found to have an unusual microstructure inconsistent with typical Roman Period iron. An analysis of the blade undertaken at Lehigh University in the US and at the Faculty of Technical Sciences in Novi Sad, Serbia established that it was metallic in appearance, magnetic and had an external layer of red rust. But as metallographically polished, it appeared to contain multiple internal phases and internal cracking. Even after aggressive etching, no typical low carbon microstructure was developed. Scanning electron microscopy, classical and energy dispersive X-ray analysis indicated that the specimen was essentially iron, although its microhardness was too high for typical Roman iron. It was then dubbed 'Mystery Iron.' Analysis of all the data led to the proposal that it was essentially a Roman iron 'fossil' in which the iron had been converted to high temperature iron oxide while retaining the form of the blade, conversion probably occurring in a fire. Subsequent X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the blade consisted of FeO and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and the mystery of the iron fossil was at least partially solved. A hypothesis is proposed regarding a potential cause for the fire.

Balos, Sebastian [Faculty of Technical Sciences, Novi Sad, Serbia (Serbia ); Benscoter, Arlan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States); Pense, Alan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States)], E-mail: awp0@lehigh.edu

2009-04-15

68

Space Radar Image of Belgrade, Serbia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This spaceborne radar image of Belgrade, Serbia, illustrates the variety of land use patterns that can be observed with a multiple wavelength radar system. Belgrade, the capital of Serbia and former capital of Yugoslavia, is the bright area in the center of the image. The Danube River flows from the top to the bottom of the image, and the Sava River flows into the Danube from the left. Agricultural fields appear in shades of dark blue, purple and brown in outlying areas. Vegetated areas along the rivers appear in light blue-green, while dense forests in hillier areas in the lower left appear in a darker shade of green. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 2, 1994. The image is centered at 44.5 degrees north latitude and 20.5 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The image shows an area 36 kilometers by 32 kilometers 22 miles by 20 miles). The colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

1994-01-01

69

Vulnerability Assessment, Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Measures in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In relation to the priority tasks of the climate change measures, the Republic of Slovenia estimates that special attention needs to be devoted to the following sectors in general: - sectors that currently indicate a strong vulnerability for the current climate variability (for instance, agriculture), - sectors where the vulnerability for climate change is increased by current trends (for instance, urban development, use of space), - sectors where the adaptation time is the longest and the subsequent development changes are connected with the highest costs (for instance, use of space, infrastructural objects, forestry, urban development, building stock). Considering the views of Slovenia to the climate change problem in Europe and Slovenia, priority measures and emphasis on future adaptation to climate change, the Republic of Slovenia has especially exposed the following action areas: - sustainable and integrated management of water sources for water power production, prevention of floods, provision of water for the enrichment of low flow rates, and preservation of environmental function as well as provision of water for other needs; - sustainable management of forest ecosystems, adjusted to changes, for the provision of their environmental function as well as being a source of biomass, wood for products for the conservation of carbon, and carbon sinks; - spatial planning as one of the important preventive instruments for the adaptation to climate change through the processes of integral planning of spatial and urban development; - sustainable use and preservation of natural wealth and the preservation of biodiversity as well as ecosystem services with measures and policies that enable an enhanced resistance of ecosystems to climate change, and the role of biological diversity in integral adaptation measures; - informing and awareness on the consequences of climate change and adaptation possibilities. For years, the most endangered sectors have been agriculture and forestry; therefore, they are also the only sectors for which a national adaptation strategy was adopted.

Cegnar, T.

2010-09-01

70

Astronomy and public outreach in Serbia (1934-2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The astronomical community in Serbia has grown significantly over the last few decades, despite the departure overseas of much home-grown talent. Serbia celebrates three important anniversaries in 2007 - 150 years since the birth of Milan Nedeljkovic, who introduced the first astronomical subjects to the Faculty of Mathematics in 1884, and founded the Astronomical Observatory in Belgrade in 1887; 120 years of the Belgrade Astronomical Observatory and 75 years since the construction of the complex of buildings and telescopes at the Astronomical Observatory in Belgrade. The Astronomy Department at the Faculty of Mathematics in Belgrade has produced many excellent scientists working today at telescopes (Arecibo, Sidney, VLA, Hawaii etc.) and universities (California, Toronto, Sidney, Illinois, MIT etc.) around the world. Since 2005, students have also been able to study astronomy at the University of Novi Sad, Serbia (Faculty of Physics). Today there are more than 20 amateur astronomical societies in Serbia, two magazines of popular astronomy, one Youth Science Centre (Petnica), two Public Observatories and two Planetariums. If the social and media network formed in October 2007 can deliver even the minimum of the expected results, six million people in Serbia should easily be familiar with IYA2009 goals, related Cornerstone Projects and particular goals in Serbia for 2009.

Stanic, N.

2008-06-01

71

Natural radionuclides in drinking waters in Serbia.  

PubMed

Gross alpha and beta activities, (3)H, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activities were measured in bottled mineral water produced in Serbia in order to assess its radiological quality. In 11 samples of tap water and in 1 sample of spring waters gross alpha and beta activity were determined. The natural activity concentration of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides are within the range recommended by World Health Organization. The tritium concentration in bottled mineral waters ranged from 0.023 ą 0.012 to 0.046 ą 0.006 Bq l(-1). The activity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were below the minimum detectable activity. In order to evaluate the annual effective dose for different classes of age, a conservative dosimetric calculation was carried out. PMID:23041389

Jankovi?, Marija M; Todorovi?, Dragana J; Todorovi?, Nataša A; Nikolov, Jovana

2012-12-01

72

An analysis of heat waves in Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, heat waves at three meteorological stations in Serbia were analyzed based on the daily maximum temperature during the summer (June, July and August). The warmest summers as regards heat wave duration and severity occurred within the periods 1951-1952, 1987-1998 (especially 1994) and 2000-2007. The longest heat waves were recorded in 1952, lasting 16 days in Smederevska Palanka and 21 days in Niš, while in 1994 in Belgrade lasting 18 days. The summer of 1994 in Belgrade and Smederevska Palanka, and 2003 in Niš were characterized with the highest number of consecutive tropical days (21 and 29, respectively). The autoregressive-moving-average models were applied to generate long series of the daily maximum temperature, from which the relative frequencies of heat waves were estimated. The relationships between the longest heat waves, and the circulation conditions were analyzed using the subjective Hess-Brezowsky catalogue of weather types.

Unkaševi?, Miroslava; Toši?, Ivana

2009-01-01

73

Contamination by moulds of grape berries in Slovakia.  

PubMed

This paper describes the first map, albeit partial, of toxigenic fungi re-isolated from grape berries collected in three out of the six most important Slovakia winemaking areas in two different periods of the harvest year 2008. Low temperatures and high relative humidity during July 2008 favoured the development of grape fungal diseases that cause rots such as Plasmopara, Uncinula, Botrytis, Metasphaeria, Elsinoë, and Saccharomycetes. In the analysed samples, the following genera of toxigenic fungi were identified in the range of 1-4%: Aspergillus, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Ulocladium, and Trichoderma Trichothecium, while the genera Aspergillus, Alternaria, Fusarium, and Penicillium were in the range 11-29%. A. niger, A. carbonarius, some strains of A. carbonarius-with 'crystals' and strains of A. uvarum-uniseriate were identified; these species are considered ochratoxigenic (able to produce variable amounts of toxins). In addition, a non-ochratoxigenic strain of A. ibericus and a Fusarium strain able to biosynthesize small amount of fumonisins, beauvericin, and enniatins were identified. P. expansum, able to produce citrinin, represents 29.7%, of the Penicillium genus together with P. verrucosum, P. glabrum, P. citrinum, and P. crustosum. An analysis for the identification and quantification of the main toxins: ochratoxin A, fumonisins, beauvericin, enniatins, and fusaproliferin was performed on grape samples; it was consistent with the results of the mycological analysis. Toxigenic fungi should be checked throughout the years and their occurrence compared with all environmental factors to avoid health risks. PMID:20349371

Mikusová, P; Ritieni, A; Santini, A; Juhasová, G; Srobárová, A

2010-05-01

74

Illegal Drug Use among Female University Students in Slovakia.  

PubMed

Background This study is focused on the issue of illegal drug use among female university students preparing to become teachers. The main aim was to determine the frequency of drug abuse in a group of young women (n=215, mean age 20.44 years). Material and Methods Using survey methods, we determined that 33.48% of female university students in Slovakia use illegal drugs and 66.51% of students have never used illegal drugs. Differences between these groups were determined using statistical analysis, mostly in 4 areas of survey questions. Results We determined that education of parents has a statistically significant influence on use of illegal drugs by their children (?2=10.14; P<0.05). Communication between parents and children and parental attention to children have a significant role in determining risky behavior (illegal drug use, ?2=8.698, P<0.05). Parents of students not using illegal drugs were interested in how their children spend their free time (68.53%). We confirmed the relationship between consumption of alcohol and illegal drug use (?2=16.645; P<0.001) and smoking (?2=6.226; P<0.05). The first contact with drugs occurs most frequently at high school age. The most consumed "soft" drug in our group of female university students is marijuana. Conclusions Our findings are relevant for comparison and generalization regarding causes of the steady increase in number of young people using illegal drugs. PMID:25602526

Matejovi?ová, Barbora; Trandžík, Jozef; Schlarmannová, Janka; Boledovi?ová, Mária; Velemínský, Miloš

2015-01-01

75

Illegal Drug Use among Female University Students in Slovakia  

PubMed Central

Background This study is focused on the issue of illegal drug use among female university students preparing to become teachers. The main aim was to determine the frequency of drug abuse in a group of young women (n=215, mean age 20.44 years). Material/Methods Using survey methods, we determined that 33.48% of female university students in Slovakia use illegal drugs and 66.51% of students have never used illegal drugs. Differences between these groups were determined using statistical analysis, mostly in 4 areas of survey questions. Results We determined that education of parents has a statistically significant influence on use of illegal drugs by their children (?2=10.14; P<0.05). Communication between parents and children and parental attention to children have a significant role in determining risky behavior (illegal drug use, ?2=8.698, P<0.05). Parents of students not using illegal drugs were interested in how their children spend their free time (68.53%). We confirmed the relationship between consumption of alcohol and illegal drug use (?2=16.645; P<0.001) and smoking (?2=6.226; P<0.05). The first contact with drugs occurs most frequently at high school age. The most consumed “soft” drug in our group of female university students is marijuana. Conclusions Our findings are relevant for comparison and generalization regarding causes of the steady increase in number of young people using illegal drugs. PMID:25602526

Matejovi?ová, Barbora; Trandžík, Jozef; Schlarmannová, Janka; Boledovi?ová, Mária; Velemínský, Miloš

2015-01-01

76

Culicoides midges (diptera: ceratopogonidae) as vectors of orbiviruses in Slovakia.  

PubMed

In recent years, rapid spread of Culicoides-borne pathogens such as bluetongue (BT) and Schmallenberg viruses have been reported in Europe. In this study we examined the Culicoides populations in farms with wild and domestic ruminants in Eastern Slovakia with the aim to confirm the presence of biting midges serving as potential vectors of important pathogens. The main vector complexes were the Obsoletus complex (54%; n=4,209) and the Pulicaris complex (23%; n=1,796). To estimate the relative abundance of the cryptic species of the Obsoletus complex (Culicoides obsoletus, Culicoides scoticus and Culicoides montanus), we performed the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on ITS-2 and ITS-1 segments, on 125 midges randomly sampled. The relative abundance of C. obsoletus ranged from 5.26% in the farm with wild ruminants to 85.71% in another farm with cattle and sheep. A total of 112 pools of parous and gravid females belonging to the Obsoletus and Pulicaris complexes were tested for virus detection by the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for BT virus, as well as for the Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (EHDV), with negative results. PMID:25273963

Sarvašová, Adela; Goffredo, Maria; Sopoliga, Igor; Savini, Giovanni; Ko?išová, Alica

2014-01-01

77

Serbia within the European context: An analysis of premature mortality  

PubMed Central

Background Based on the global predictions majority of deaths will be collectively caused by cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and traffic accidents over the coming 25 years. In planning future national health policy actions, inter – regional assessments play an important role. The purpose of the study was to analyze similarities and differences in premature mortality between Serbia, EURO A, EURO B, and EURO C regions in 2000. Methods Mortality and premature mortality patterns were analysed according to cause of death, by gender and seven age intervals. The study results are presented in relative (%) and absolute terms (age-specific and age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population, and age-standardized rates of years of life lost – YLL per 1,000). Direct standardization of rates was undertaken using the standard population of Europe. The inter-regional comparison was based on a calculation of differences in YLL structures and with a ratio of age-standardized YLL rates per 1,000. A multivariate generalized linear model was used to explore mortality of Serbia and Europe sub-regions with ln age-specific death rates. The dissimilarity was achieved with a p ? 0.05. Results According to the mortality pattern, Serbia was similar to EURO B, but with a lower average YLL per death case. YLL patterns indicated similarities between Serbia and EURO A, while SRR YLL had similarities between Serbia and EURO B. Compared to all Europe sub-regions, Serbia had a major excess of premature mortality in neoplasms and diabetes mellitus. Serbia had lost more years of life than EURO A due to cardiovascular, genitourinary diseases, and intentional injuries. Yet, Serbia was not as burdened with communicable diseases and injuries as were EURO B and EURO C. Conclusion With a premature mortality pattern, Serbia is placed in the middle position of the Europe triangle. The main excess of YLL in Serbia was due to cardiovascular, malignant diseases, and diabetes mellitus. The results may be used for assessment of unacceptable social risks resulting from health inequalities. Within intentions to reduce an unfavourable premature mortality gap, it is necessary to reconsider certain local polices and practices as well as financial and human resources incorporated in the prevention of disease and injury burden. PMID:19656367

Santric Milicevic, Milena; Bjegovic, Vesna; Terzic, Zorica; Vukovic, Dejana; Kocev, Nikola; Marinkovic, Jelena; Vasic, Vladimir

2009-01-01

78

Alveolar echinococcosis in a highly endemic area of Northern Slovakia between 2000 and 2013.  

PubMed

Long-term surveillance of Echinococcus multilocularis occurrence in red foxes in Slovakia revealed the existence of highly endemic areas, with an overall prevalence rate of 41.6 % in the northern part of the country. Between 2000 and 2013, 26 human cases of alveolar echinococcosis were detected and only three of them were not in endemic localities in northern Slovakia. Remarkable is the occurrence of the disease in eight people younger than 35 years, including three patients aged eight, 14 and 19 years. Occurrence of E. multilocularis in red foxes throughout the country and high incidence of alveolar echinococcosis in young people indicate high infectious pressure in the environment of northern Slovakia. It can be assumed that the real incidence of alveolar echinococcosis is significantly higher than recorded by official data due to the lack of existing registration and reporting system. For effective management of prevention and control strategies for this disease improvement of the national surveillance system and engagement of specialists outside the medical community are necessary. Our study presents a comprehensive picture of the epidemiological situation of E. multilocularis in northern Slovakia. In addition, we report the first list of confirmed human cases of this serious parasitosis in Slovakia. PMID:25188612

Antolova, D; Miterpakova, M; Rado?ak, J; Huda?kova, D; Szilagyiova, M; Za?ek, M

2014-08-28

79

31 CFR 586.308 - Government of the Republic of Serbia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.308 Government of the Republic of Serbia. The term...

2010-07-01

80

Rail-lex Slovenia--A Modern Railway Dictionary (Joint Venture Case Study).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rail-lex Slovenia is a project to develop a dictionary of railway terminology in the Slovenian language, part of a larger undertaking of the International Union of Railways to develop a modern, multilingual communication infrastructure. Participating organizations represent 22 European languages. Two partners in the Rail-lex Slovenia venture are…

Jakopin, Primoz

81

First record of Hindeodus– Isarcicella population in Lower Triassic of Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study documents the Permian–Triassic Boundary in the Žiri area of western Slovenia. A paleontological study of the Luka? section, northwest of Žiri, resulted in the recovery of a variety of microfossils. This report documents the conodont fauna recovered from the section. This is the first report of the Hindeodus–Isarcicella population in Slovenia and it provides important new biostratigraphic data

Tea Kolar-Jurkovšek; Bogdan Jurkovšek

2007-01-01

82

Comparative Analysis of the Adult Education Institutional Network in Croatia and Slovenia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Republic of Croatia and Republic of Slovenia both became independent states in 1991 after separating from the former Yugoslavia. Despite their common origin, Croatia and Slovenia have very different cultures and traditions, different systems of education, and very different systems of adult education. Most of the differences between the two…

Lavrnja, Ilija; Klapan, Anita

83

31 CFR 585.313 - Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro); FRY (S&M).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro); FRY (S&M). 585.313 Section...FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO) AND BOSNIAN SERB-CONTROLLED AREAS...Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro); FRY (S&M). The term...

2010-07-01

84

Gastrointestinal microbiota in children with autism in Slovakia.  

PubMed

Development of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), including autism, is based on a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Recent data propose the etiopathogenetic role of intestinal microflora in autism. The aim of this study was to elucidate changes in fecal microbiota in children with autism and determine its role in the development of often present gastrointestinal (GI) disorders and possibly other manifestations of autism in Slovakia. The fecal microflora of 10 children with autism, 9 siblings and 10 healthy children was investigated by real-time PCR. The fecal microbiota of autistic children showed a significant decrease of the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio and elevation of the amount of Lactobacillus spp. Our results also showed a trend in the incidence of elevated Desulfovibrio spp. in children with autism reaffirmed by a very strong association of the amount of Desulfovibrio spp. with the severity of autism in the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI) restricted/repetitive behavior subscale score. The participants in our study demonstrated strong positive correlation of autism severity with the severity of GI dysfunction. Probiotic diet supplementation normalized the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio, Desulfovibrio spp. and the amount of Bifidobacterium spp. in feces of autistic children. We did not find any correlation between plasma levels of oxytocin, testosterone, DHEA-S and fecal microbiota, which would suggest their combined influence on autism development. This pilot study suggests the role of gut microbiota in autism as a part of the "gut-brain" axis and it is a basis for further investigation of the combined effect of microbial, genetic, and hormonal changes for development and clinical manifestation of autism. PMID:25446201

Tomova, Aleksandra; Husarova, Veronika; Lakatosova, Silvia; Bakos, Jan; Vlkova, Barbora; Babinska, Katarina; Ostatnikova, Daniela

2015-01-01

85

Development of the central Carpathian Paleogene basin, west Carpathians, Slovakia  

SciTech Connect

The central Carpathian Paleogene basin, corresponding to one of the regions of Slovakia having a hydrocarbon potential, forms part of the Carpathian system. In the west Carpathians, synorogenic sediments, derived from the rising orogene, comprise an up to 3.5-km-thick sequence of Middle Eocene to Early Oligocene clastics. Flysch-type sediments dominate and are locally cut by canyon-focused submarine fans. The morphology of the floor of the central Carpathian Paleogene basin developed during the Albian and Maastrichtian in response to pre-Senonian nappe emplacement in the inner Carpathians and Late Cretaceous thrusting in the Pieniny Klippen belt. By the end of the Cretaceous, the inner Carpathians formed an emergent orogenic belt, providing a southern source for the sedimentary fill of the central Carpathian Paleogene basin. To the north, this basin was bounded by the Pieniny Klippen belt, forming at that time an irregular chain of islands, upheld by compressionally deformed pre-Tertiary rocks. Uplift of this northern barrier may explain the development of the central Carpathian Paleogene current system. Senonian shortening was subparallel to the present strike of the Pieniny Klippen belt. During the Paleogene and Miocene, shortening changed to a northern or northeastern direction. Differential shortening gave rise to the development of major strike-slip zones and numerous strike-slip faults that accommodated differential motion of thrust slices along the orogenic front. The northern, frontal portions of the basin were shortened by thrusting, whereas its basinal and proximal parts were affected by contemporaneous transtensional strike-slip faulting. Paleogene uplift of the frontal part of the evolving mountain belt is recorded by high-slump activity in areas of flysch deposition. A minimum of 2 km of sediments are missing from the basin due to Miocene erosion. At present, only structural remnants of the ancestral Paleogene basin are preserved.

Nemcok, M. (Dionyz Stur Institute of Geology, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia)); Neese, D.G. (Maxus Energy Corp., Dallas, TX (United States))

1993-09-01

86

Limestone types used from the classic Karst region in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a variety of limestones from the Karst Region that is one of the most interesting areas containing reserves of natural stones in Slovenia. The region is mainly composed of Cretaceous shallow-water limestone, with the most common type currently excavated being the rudist limestone of the Lipica Formation, which dates to the Santonian to Campanian. Limestones of this formation are mainly represented by a light grey, thick-bedded to massive Lipica limestone rich in (largely fragmented) rudists. Rudist shells can be either relatively well preserved (such as in Lipica Fiorito quarried limestone) or almost completely disintegrated and intensively endolitised (Lipica Unito quarried limestone). Beside the Lipica Formation, natural stone types have been excavated from two other formations or members in the Karst region: the Repen Formation (Repen and Kopriva limestones), and the Tomaj Limestone (dark, laminated limestone within the Lipica Formation). As documented, the region has been associated with the quarrying and processing of stone at least for over two thousand years, i.e. since the Roman period. Although a large number of quarries in all mentioned formations are documented in the Karst region, many are inactive nowadays. Some of the quarries are declared as geological monuments of national importance or officially protected as a natural monument. Karst limestones are considered the highest quality calcareous natural stones in Slovenia. They are characterised by high density, low water absorption and low open porosity; consequently they also exhibit high frost and salt resistance as well as high compressive and flexural strength. Besides in the Karst region and other parts of Slovenia, the Karst limestones were used in the construction of several important buildings and monuments in many other European Countries, and worldwide. Nowadays, they are most commonly used in the construction of façade cladding, pavements, window sills, staircases, indoor flooring and wall cladding, but are also widely appreciated by sculptors.

Kramar, Sabina; Mirti?, Breda; Mladenovi?, Ana; Roži?, Boštjan; Bedjani?, Mojca; Kortnik, Jože; Šmuc, Andrej

2014-05-01

87

Air Pollution with Heavy Metals and Radionuclides in Slovakia Studied by the Moss Biomonitoring Technique  

E-print Network

Applying the moss biomonitoring technique to air pollution studies in Slovakia, heavy metals, rare-earth elements, actinides (U and Th) were determined in 86 moss samples from the European moss survey 2000 by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor (Dubna). Such elements as In, Cu, Cd, Hg and Pb were determined by AAS in the Forest Research Institute, Zvolen (Slovakia). The results of measurement of the natural radionuclides ^{210}Pb, ^{7}Be, ^{137}Cs and ^{40}K in 11 samples of moss are also reported. A comparison with the results from moss surveys 1991 and 1995 revealed previously unknown tendencies of air pollution in the examined areas.

Florek, M; Mankovska, B; Oprea, K; Pavlov, S S; Steinnes, E; Sykora, I

2001-01-01

88

Analysis of Miholjday summer for Belgrade and Serbia region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typical weather conditions with dry and warm features occur in autumn months, with temperatures above the normal temperatures for this period of the year for the Belgrade and Serbia region. Temperatures have values like the ones for the end of summer. That period of fair weather is called Miholjday (St Michael) summer (MS). An analysis of temperature has been the most important criterion for defining MS. Synoptic situation and temperature conditions during that period are analyzed and typical and atypical MSs are defined for Belgrade and Serbia region. The frequency of MS in the period 1946-2004 for Belgrade region is also analyzed. The general definition (Glossary of Meteorology) is assumed and we gave the specific definition of MS for Belgrade and Serbia region on the basis of real weather for longer series of observations.

Todorovi, Nedeljko; Vujovi, Dragana

2006-09-01

89

Spatial epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Serbia.  

PubMed

A major risk factor for Toxoplasma gondii infection is consumption of undercooked meat. Increasing demand for goat meat is likely to promote the role of this animal for human toxoplasmosis. As there are virtually no data on toxoplasmosis in goats in Serbia, we undertook a cross-sectional serological study, including prediction modelling using geographical information systems (GIS). Sera from 431 goats reared in 143 households/farms throughout Serbia, sampled between January 2010 and September 2011, were examined for T. gondii antibodies by a modified agglutination test. Seroprevalence was 73.3% at the individual level and 84.6% at the farm level. Risk factor analysis showed above two-fold higher risk of infection for goats used for all purposes compared to dairy goats (P = 0.012), almost seven-fold higher risk for goats kept as sole species versus those kept with other animals (P = 0.001) and a two-fold lower risk for goats introduced from outside the farm compared to those raised on the farm (P = 0.027). Moreover, households/farms located in centre-eastern Serbia were found to be less often infected than those in northern Serbia (P = 0.004). The risk factor analysis was fully supported by spatial analysis based on a GIS database containing data on origin, serology, land cover, elevation, meteorology and a spatial prediction map based on kriging analysis, which showed western Serbia as the area most likely for finding goats positive for T. gondii and centre-eastern Serbia as the least likely. In addition, rainfall favoured seropositivity, whereas temperature, humidity and elevation did not. PMID:24893025

Djokic, Vitomir; Klun, Ivana; Musella, Vincenzo; Rinaldi, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica

2014-05-01

90

Miocene deformation of the central Vienna Basin (Austria-Slovakia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The project KARPATIAN TECTONICS SLOVAKIA aims at the creation of a comprehensive geologic model of the structural evolution of the Vienna Basin area before the onset of major subsidence related to pull-apart deformation, i.e., during the Lower Miocene. Seismic data acquired by OMV from the central Vienna Basin and from the region east fo the Drösing depression, as well as outcrop data provide the basis for structural geologic interpretation of the entire central Vienna Basin. In this study, we focus on the complex structural evolution that can be mapped from these seismic datasets complementing the deformation geometry and history of the region east of the Spannberg ridge. The structural inventory found in the central Vienna Basin consist of (i) ENE and WSW dipping normal faults, (ii) SE- to ESE-dipping thrust faults, (iii) NW - SE-striking sinistral strike-slip faults (Hölzel et al., in press). These structural features can be found above the nappes of the Austroalpine Calcareous Alps, the nappes of the Tirolic and Bajuvaric superunits. In this study, we can complement the structures from East to West as follows: (1) The continution of the Lassee negative flower structure reaches up along the Lab fault system to the Laksary elevation. Here, it widens and branches off into at least two major branches engulfing the Laksary elevation. (2) N - S striking strike-slip faults penetrating the accoustic basement as well as Karpatian strata possibly form a continuing system that branches off of the Zwerndorf transform fault system. (3) In the center of the Gajary depression, normal faults offset the accoustic basement above sediments of the Upper Cretaceous Gosau Group. These features can be dated by Karpatian growth strata. However, the normal faults were not always active at the same time as indicated by the geometry of the sedimentary strata bounded by the normal faults. (4) At the western boundary of the Gajary depression, smaller scale normal faults deform the Aderklaa Conglomerate (Top Karpatian). (5) NW - SE trending grabens in the basement and Karpatian strata occur in the center and SE corner of the Gajary depression. (6) The entire Karpatian sedimentary stack including the Top Karpatian is tilted towards the West forming the central part of the Levare depression to the North of the Gajary depression. Hölzel, M., Decker, K., Zámolyi, A., Strauss, P., Wagreich, M. (in press): Lower Miocene structural evolution of the central Vienna Basin (Austria). Marine and Petroleum Geology

Zámolyi, András.; Lee, Eun Young; Beidinger, Andreas; Hoprich, Maria; Strauss, Philipp; Decker, Kurt

2010-05-01

91

Stochastic Flood Frequency Analysis Using the SCHADEX Method in Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods for derived flood frequency analysis often use a stochastic weather generator to derive a continuous rainfall runoff model in order to simulate long series of artificial flows. Time series of synthetic precipitations generated by a weather generator should have the same statistical properties than an observed time series. This is true if the weather generator is properly set up which is not an easy task. The rainfall-runoff modelling in mountainous regions also requires a time series of temperatures to simulate snow melting processes, which must be generated alongside the precipitations. A French method SCHADEX avoids these problems and is the only one combining the advantages of continuous rainfall-runoff modelling and event-based synthetic precipitations. This work presents results of the application of the SCHADEX probabilistic method for extreme flood estimation. SCHADEX has been developed at Electricité de France (EDF) for dam spillway design. The method uses a continuous rainfall-runoff model for simulation of catchment responses to synthetic precipitation events generated by a stochastic rainfall model. The rainfall model utilizes a Multi-Exponential Weather Pattern (MEWP) distribution to account for both seasonal variation and the type of weather pattern. The application of the SCHADEX method is illustrated with the example of the River Hron at Banská Bystrica (1768 km2). The daily (from 1981 to 2010) and hourly (from 1988 to 2002) datasets were used to estimate 24 and 1 hour floods with various return periods. The uncertainty of the whole methodology has been assessed by using 100 various hydrological models, where parameters of each model were obtained by using different period for model calibration. The hydrological models were then used to simulate synthetic rainfall events generated by the same stochastic rainfall model. As expected the variation of the estimated floods was substantial especially in the high return periods. The difference between minimum and maximum estimated flood spread from 80 m3/s (from 166 to 232 m3/s) for a 10-year flood to as much as 600 m3/s (from 644 to 1391 m3/s) for a 10000-year flood. Despite of this uncertainty the SCHADEX method gives better results than traditionally used flood estimation methods used in Slovakia which was demonstrated by comparing estimated with reconstructed historical floods.

Valent, Peter; Výleta, Roman; Szolgay, Ján; Paquet, Emmanuel

2014-05-01

92

The effects of property transformation on forestry entrepreneurship and innovation in the context of Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study analyses the effects of property transformation on innovation and entrepreneurship in the forestry sector of Slovakia. The analysis follows the theories of property rights, property transaction costs and innovation systems. The study is based on information collected by the Regional Project Centre INNOFORCE of the European Forest Institute in three developed market economies (Austria, Germany, Italy) and

Jaroslav Šálka; Roman Longauer; Milan Lacko

2006-01-01

93

European Gender LessonsGirls and Boys at Scout Camps in Denmark, Portugal, Russia and Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article investigates the tensions between and within models of gender equality and gender complementarity by studying children who are in the midst of learning to apply these gender models in practice. Children (aged 11–15 years) were observed and interviewed while they participated in scout camps in Denmark, Portugal, Slovakia and Russia. Through structural and symbolic gender splits in spaces,

Harriet Bjerrum Nielsen

2004-01-01

94

Genetic variation in agamospermous taxa of Hieracium sect. Alpina (Compositae) in the Tatry Mts. (Slovakia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?The mode of reproduction, pollen production, chromosome numbers, genetic variation (RAPD, allozymes) and overall similarity\\u000a were studied in 6 species of Hieracium sect. Alpina in the Tatry Mts. (the Western Carpathians, Slovakia). All species were confirmed to be agamospermous and, except of H. krivanense and H. slovacum, lacking pollen grains. For the first time, a chromosome number is reported for

H. Štorchová; J. Chrtek Jr.; I. V. Bartish; M. Tetera; J. Kirschner; J. Št?pánek

2002-01-01

95

Costs, Commitment and Compliance: The Impact of EU Democratic Conditionality on Latvia, Slovakia and Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

'Democratic conditionality' is the core strategy of the EU to induce candidate states to comply with its human rights and democracy standards. How does it work and when is it effective? This article reports findings of a comparative study of 'hard cases': Slovakia under Meciar; Turkey; and Latvia. We argue that EU democratic conditionality is a strategy of 'reinforcement by

Frank Schimmelfennig; Stefan Engert; Heiko Knobel

2003-01-01

96

THE DETERMINATION OF PHENOLICS COMPOUNDS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF MINTS AND BALMS CULTIVATED IN SLOVAKIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the content of the main polyphenolic constituens of different mints and balms cultivated in the conditions of South-West Slovakia were examined and compared. All plants were harvested in two harvest times. Free radical scavenging activity of 50 %-hydroalcoholic extracts of leaves of three Mentha L. species (M. × piperita L., M. spicata L., M. longifolia (L.) Huds.

Tomus LV

97

Spatially distributed assessment of solar resources for energy applications in Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial and temporal distribution of available solar energy depends on several factors. Besides latitude and astronomical factors it is strongly influenced by climate factors (e.g. cloudiness, turbidity) and topography. This paper presents a solar database of Slovakia containing spatially-distributed solar energy resource data necessary for planning, sitting and forecasting of solar device installations. The database consists of several data sets

Jaroslav HOFIERKA

2008-01-01

98

National study of illicit drug use in Slovakia based on wastewater analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyze illicit drugs and their metabolites in wastewater from eight selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Slovakia. The effect of two of the biggest music festivals in Slovakia on illicit drugs in wastewater was also investigated. Urinary bio-markers of amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, cannabis and ecstasy use were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We then compared our results with data obtained in other parts of Europe and the world. This study demonstrates that Slovakia has one of highest methamphetamine consumption rates in Europe. Within Slovakia, the highest level of methamphetamine consumption was found in Petržalka, where the mean specific load of this drug in sewage was 169 mg/day/1000 inhabitants; the next highest loads were detected in Pieš?any (128 mg/day/1000 inhabitants) and Bratislava (124 mg/day/1000 inhabitants). Amphetamine, ecstasy and cannabis consumption in our study were comparable to that found in other European cities, whereas cocaine consumption was lower. We also analyzed the pattern of drug consumption over the course of a week. The load of the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine in wastewater increased during the weekend. The use of this drug was most common in the capital of Slovakia. Increased consumption was also found during a folk festival in Pieš?any. The ecstasy load in wastewater from larger cities also significantly increased over the weekend. An increase of drug consumption was also detected during a music festival in Tren?ín, especially for ecstasy. The specific load of ecstasy during this festival increased from 3mg/day/1000 inhabitants to 29 mg/day/1000 inhabitants. The possible influence of music styles on the consumption of certain drugs was also observed. During a folk festival, methamphetamine and cocaine were more commonly used. PMID:25046607

Macku?ak, Tomáš; Skubák, Jaroslav; Grabic, Roman; Ryba, Jozef; Birošová, Lucia; Fedorova, Ganna; Spalková, Viera; Bodík, Igor

2014-10-01

99

Distribution of HIV-1 subtypes circulating in Slovakia (2009-2012).  

PubMed

Slovakia is one of the European countries reporting a low prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection. The HIV-1 subtype B was previously the most prevalent in Slovakia and mostly associated with men having sex with men (MSM) (Habekova et al., 2010). The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of individual HIV-1 subtypes among the virus-positive individuals diagnosed in 2009-2012 in Slovakia and to compare these data with those from 2004-2008. The HIV-1 subtype B exhibited the highest prevalence (86.1%) and was mostly associated with MSM as stated before. HIV-1 non-B subtypes were found in 13.9% of patients, led by CRF01_AE (6.3%) and followed by subtype C (2.8%), F1 (1.4%), CRF03_AB (1.4%), G (0.7%), CRF02_AG (0.7%), and CRF12_BF (0.7%). The incidence of non-B subtypes varied in 2009-2012, showing a maximum in 2012. MSM represented the main risk group for total HIV-1 (68.1%) as well as B subtype (63.9%) infections in Slovakia. In contrast, the heterosexual contact represented the main route of HIV-1 acquisition of the non-B subtype virus infection. Together with the increase in the number of patients infected with the viruses of non-B subtype also other changes were observed: infections with the viruses of non-B subtype became more common among MSM and not so strongly associated with heterosexual contact. All these findings may help to design the right strategy for retaining of HIV epidemic in Slovakia at low level. PMID:25518712

Chabadová, Z; Habeková, M; Truska, P; Drobková, T; Mojzesová, M; Staneková, D

2014-12-01

100

Physician-Based Tobacco Smoking Cessation Counseling in Belgrade, Serbia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined physician attitudes and practices pertaining to patient counseling about smoking in Belgrade, Serbia. Data were collected using a cross-sectional survey of 86 physicians at multiple health care facilities. Approximately 74% of physicians agreed that they should routinely ask patients about their smoking habits and 79% agreed…

Merrill, Ray; Harmon, Tanner; Gagon, Heather

2009-01-01

101

Early Childhood Professionalism in Serbia: Current Issues and Developments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores early childhood professionalism in the Republic of Serbia. The concept of professionalism in this context is examined in light of current international debates about professionalism. More specifically, how the use of specific nomenclature, the existence of multi-professional teams of practitioners and state-regulated but…

Bankovic, Ivana

2014-01-01

102

The Geographic Information System (GIS) in Secondary Education in Serbia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the application of new educational technologies in geography classes. The research involved 126 students from vocational secondary schools in Serbia taking geography as a compulsory subject. We developed and applied a questionnaire for this research. The results indicate that out of several ICTs available, the majority of…

Komlenovic, Djurdjica; Manic, Emilija; Malinic, Dusica

2013-01-01

103

PIXE-PIGE analysis of Carolingian period glass from Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glass artifacts excavated from the Late Roman and Carolingian period site at Bašelj Slovenia were analyzed by the combined PIXE-PIGE method using a proton beam in air. The results show that the majority of objects and glass ingots were made of traditional Roman, natron-type glass. Increased titanium and other impurities were found indicating that the glass had been recycled several times. As the composition of the ingots was similar to the other objects, a possibility exists of a secondary glass workshop in the local vicinity. The typologically and stratigraphically dated objects confirm that the Roman glassmaking continued in the area of Eastern Alps well into the 9th century.

Šmit, Ž.; Jezeršek, D.; Knific, T.; Isteni?, J.

2009-01-01

104

Classical Karst hydrodynamics: a shared aquifer within Italy and Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The classical Karst transboundary aquifer is a limestone plateau of 750 km2 that extends from Brkini hills in Slovenia to Isonzo River in Italy. For 20 years, and especially in the last two years, the Mathematic and Geosciences Department of Trieste University has run a monitoring project in order to better understand the groundwater hydrodynamics and the relation between the fracture and conduit systems. A total of 14 water points, including caves, springs and piezometers are monitored and temperature, water level and EC data are recorded. Two sectors are highlighted: the southeastern sector mainly influenced by the sinking of the Reka River, and a northwestern sector connected to the influent character of the Isonzo River. Water table fluctuations are significant, with risings of > 100 m. During floods most of the circuits are under pressure, and only a comparative analysis of water levels, temperature and EC permits a precise evaluation of the water transit times in fractured and/or karstified volumes.

Zini, L.; Calligaris, C.; Zavagno, E.

2014-09-01

105

BROWN BEARS IN SLOVENIA: IDENTIFYING LOCATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF WILDLIFE BRIDGES ACROSS HIGHWAYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slovenia lies on the north-westernmost edge of continuous Dinaric-Eastern Alps population of the Eurasian brown bear (Ursus arctos). It has a stable population of 320-400 bears, occupying a range of about 5000 km 2 , predominantly in the most forested southern regions along the state border to Croatia. The alpine and pre-alpine regions of western Slovenia represent an essential link

Andrej Kobler; Miha Adamic

106

Genetic differentiation of European grayling (Thymallus thymallus) populations in Serbia, based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses  

PubMed Central

Background The structure and diversity of grayling (Thymallus thymallus) populations have been well studied in most of its native habitat; however the southernmost populations of the Balkan Peninsula remain largely unexplored. The purpose of this study was to assess the genetic diversity of Serbian grayling populations, detect the impact of stocking and provide guidelines for conservation and management. Methods Eighty grayling individuals were collected from four rivers (Ibar, Lim, Drina and Rzav). The mitochondrial DNA control region (CR; 595 bp of the 3'end and 74 bp of flanking tRNA) and the ATP6 gene (630 bp fragment) were sequenced for 20 individuals (five from each locality). In addition, all individuals were genotyped with 12 microsatellite loci. The diversity and structure of the populations as well as the recent and ancient population declines were studied using specialized software. Results We detected three new haplotypes in the mtDNA CR and four haplotypes in the ATP6 gene of which three had not been described before. Previously, one CR haplotype and two ATP6 gene haplotypes had been identified as allochthonous, originating from Slovenia. Reconstruction of phylogenetic relations placed the remaining two CR haplotypes from the River Danube drainage of Serbia into a new clade, which is related to the previously described sister Slovenian clade. These two clades form a new Balkan clade. Microsatellite marker analysis showed that all four populations are genetically distinct from each other without any sign of intra-population structure, although stocking of the most diverse population (Drina River) was confirmed by mtDNA analysis. Recent and historical population declines of Serbian grayling do not differ from those of other European populations. Conclusions Our study shows that (1) the Ibar, Lim and Drina Rivers grayling populations are genetically distinct from populations outside of Serbia and thus should be managed as native populations in spite of some introgression in the Drina River population and (2) the Rzav River population is not appropriate for further stocking activities since it originates from stocked Slovenian grayling. However, the Rzav River population does not represent an immediate danger to other populations because it is physically isolated from these. PMID:21235756

2011-01-01

107

Envitonmental monitoring and radiation protection in Škocjan Caves, Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Škocjan Caves were listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1986, due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage. Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Park Škocjan Caves established monitoring that includes caves microclimate parameters: humidity, CO2, wind flow and radon concentration and daughter products. The approach in managing the working place with natural background radiation is complex. Monitoring of Radon has been functioning for more than ten years now. Presentation will show the dynamic observed in the different parts of the caves, related to radon daughter products and other microclimatic data. Relation of background radiation to carrying capacity will be explained. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The equivalent dose for each employed person is also established on regular basis and it is part of medical survey of workers in the caves. A system of education of the staff working in the caves in the field of radiation protection will be presented as well.

Debevec Gerjevič, V.; Jovanovi?, P.

2012-04-01

108

The temperature variability and heat waves in Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature extremes are an important aspect of any climate change because ecosystems and societal responses are most sensitive to them. During July and August 2007 record values of temperatures were observed in south-eastern Europe. Serbia, Bulgaria and Greece were the European countries most affected by the heat wave. Record values of the maximum temperatures were observed over almost the whole territory of Serbia and in Smederevska Palanka, a temperature of 44.9 °C in July was registered, which was the absolute maximum value ever recorded. The highest increase over the previous absolute maximum temperature, dating back to 1888, of 3.1 °C was registered in Belgrade. In Serbia, the mean summer temperature of 2007 exceeded the 1961 - 1990 mean by 3 °C, corresponding to an excess of up to 4 standard deviations. Also, the mean July temperature in 2007 exceeded the 1961 - 1990 mean by 3.3 °C, corresponding to an excess of up to 3 standard deviations. The Warm Spell Duration Indicator (WSDI), from which the duration and severity of the heat waves are estimated, was applied to the series of the daily maximum temperatures in Smederevska Palanka (SP). An extraordinary heat wave occurred in Serbia from July 14 to July 24 in 2007. An analysis of the daily maximum temperatures and heat waves during the summer of 2007 revealed significant changes in the trends of anomalies and extreme (90 %) quantiles. 1987, 2007 and 1998 were the three years with the longest heat waves from the beginning of measurements, having a duration of 13, 11 and 10 days, respectively. The longest heat wave observed in 1987 did not reach the severity of the heat wave in July 2007. The atmospheric circulation at 500-hPa resulted in the horizontal advection of warm air masses from northern Africa across central and eastern Mediterranean towards the Balkans. The 500-hPa geopotential anomalies (according to the reference period 1961 - 1990) of the summer and July 2007 exceeded 35 and 40 gpm over Serbia, respectively. The warm advection was manifested in temperature anomalies over Serbia, reaching up to 3.5 and 4.0 °C for the summer and July 2007, respectively.

Unkasevic, M.; Tosic, I.

2010-09-01

109

Morphological and molecular analysis of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Slovakia with five new records.  

PubMed

The biodiversity of Culicoides from eastern Slovakia was investigated by light trapping. An integrative taxonomy approach combining DNA barcode sequence and morphological analyses was used to accurately identify specimens. Five species were newly recorded from Slovakia: Culicoides picturatus Kremer & Deduit, C. gejgelensis Dzhafarov, C. clastrieri Callot et al., C. griseidorsum Kieffer and C. odiatus Austen. The checklist of the Culicoides species recorded from SK has been updated to 63 species and barcode sequence data is provided for 8 species not previously available on GenBank. Conflict between results from molecular and morphological analyses resulted in the discovery of some potentially new cryptic species and the inability of DNA barcodes to distinguish C. festivipennis Kieffer from C. clastrieri, C. salinarius Kieffer from C. manchuriensis Tokunaga and C. pallidicornis Kieffer from C. subfasciipennis Kieffer. These conflicts suggest further study is required to clarify the status of these species.  PMID:25544100

Sarvašová, Adela; Ko?išová, Alica; Halán, Miloš; Delécolle, Jean-Claude; Mathieu, Bruno

2014-01-01

110

A contribution to the bryophyte flora of Fruška Gora (Vojvodina, Serbia)  

E-print Network

situated in the province of Vojvodina (Northern Serbia), consists to date of 132 bryophyte taxa (118 moss and 14 liverwort species), which account for about 21 % of the bryophyte flora of Serbia and Montenegro. Two mosses are new to Serbia (Entosthodon obtusus and Rhynchostegiella curviseta) and one new for the state of Serbia and Montenegro (Fissidens rivularis). Most of the species present in the investigated area have mesic characteristics and a temperate distribution type (49 %). Oceanic-suboceanic and subboreal species account for 16 % and 13 % of the flora respectively.

Tijana Cveti?; Marko Sabovljevi?

2004-01-01

111

Rickettsial infection in Ixodes ricinus ticks in urban and natural habitats of Slovakia.  

PubMed

A total of 1810 Ixodes ricinus ticks was collected from the vegetation from 2 different habitat types: urban and natural. Urban habitats were represented by cemeteries and public parks in the following towns: Bratislava, Malacky, and Martin at 150 m and 400 m above sea level. Natural habitats were selected in the mountain forest of the Martinské hole Mts. in Central Slovakia at 3 different altitudinal levels, i.e. 600 m, 800 m and 1000 ma.s.l. All ticks were tested for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsiae. The DNA of Rickettsia spp. was identified in 9% of all tested ticks. Rickettsia-infected ticks were present in both, urban and sylvatic sites at all studied altitudes. Four different species of Rickettsia were present in positive I. ricinus ticks. Rickettsia helvetica was identified in 77 out of 87 Rickettsia-positive I. ricinus ticks, followed by 8 samples that belonged to Rickettsia monacensis and 2 of the positive ticks were infected with different unidentified Rickettsia spp. Due to the association of R. helvetica and R. monacensis with human infections, it is essential to understand which species of Rickettsia circulate in the natural foci of Slovakia. Circulation of pathogenic rickettsiae in urban as well as natural habitats at different altitudinal levels in Slovakia emphasizes that infection risk is very common throughout this Central European country. PMID:24342052

Špitalská, Eva; Boldiš, Vojtech; Derdáková, Markéta; Selyemová, Diana; Rus?áková Tarage?ová, Veronika

2014-03-01

112

Development of Astronomy in Serbia in the 20th Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A short review of the developement of astronomy in Serbia from the foundation of Department of Astronomy and Meteorology in 1884 and of Belgrade Astronomical observatory in 1887 up to now is given. Certainly the central place within the history of Serbian astronomy in 20th century has the Belgrade Astronomical observatory, his history and development, as well as the foundation and development of studies of astronomy at the Belgrade University. The particular merit for the development of astronomy in Serbia has Milan Nedeljkovi?, whose contribution will be discussed. Moreover, the contribution of other astronomers as Djordje Stanojevi?, the first serbian astrophysicist, Milutin Milankovi? , who gave the astronomical solution to the quartenary ice ages problem and others will be considered as well as the development of Serbian Astronomical society and of amateur astronomy.

Dimitrijevi?, Milan S.

113

Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the groundwater quality in Serbia.  

PubMed

Various chemometric techniques were used to analyze the quality of groundwater data sets. Seventeen water quality parameters: the cations Na, K, Ca, Mg, the anions Cl, SO4, NO3, HCO3 and nine trace elements Pb, As, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cd, Fe, Zn and Cr were measured at 66 different key sampling sites in ten representative areas (low land-Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina and central Serbia) for the summer period of 2009. HCA grouped the sample sites into four clusters based on the similarities of the characteristics of the groundwater quality. DA showed two parameters, HCO3 and Zn, affording more than 90% correct assignments in the spatial analysis of four/three different regions in Serbia. Factor analysis was applied on the log-transformed data sets and allowed the identification of a reduced number of factors with hydrochemical meaning. The results showed severe pollution with Mn, As, NO3, Ni, Pb whereby anthropogenic origin of these contaminants was indicated. The pollution comes from both scattered point sources (industrial and urban effluent) and diffuse source agricultural activity. These samples may not be suitable for human consumption; the water quality belongs to class III/IV (contaminated). The Fe anomalies (7.1mg/L) in the water from the Vetrnica site can be attributed to natural sources, such as the dissolution of rock masses and rock fragments. The serious groundwater contamination with As (25.7-137.8 ?g/L) in the area of Banat (Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina) and a sample No. 9 at the Great Morava River requires urgent attention. PMID:24080418

Devic, Gordana; Djordjevic, Dragana; Sakan, Sanja

2014-01-15

114

Health care economics in Serbia: current problems and changes.  

PubMed

One of the fundamental rights of every human being is to enjoy "the highest attainable standard of health". Achieving better health requires no only adequate medical knowledge and technologies, laws and social measures in the field of health care, but also sufficient funding for fulfilling people's right to health. However, economic crisis has left every community with limited possibility of investing in health care and forced them to use the available resources more efficiently. This is the reason why health financing policy represents an important and integral part of the health system concerned with how financial resources are generated, allocated and used. Development of new drugs and medical technologies, population aging, increased incidence of chronic diseases as well as the peoples' rising demands from health care providers lead to a constant increase of health system costs worldwide. In these circumstances, countries in transition, like Serbia, face difficult challenges in financing their health systems. Current economic crisis and budget constraints do not allow the Government to simply allocate more public revenues for health and solve the people's expectations by increasing the spending. Instead, Serbia is forced to start reforms to provide a more efficient health system. The reform processes are positioned within the wider context of European integration and public administration reforms. This paper provides a short description of the health care system in Serbia focusing on the healthcare economics and reforms and their influence on financial sustainability. PMID:25536810

Stosi?, Sanja; Karanovi?, Nevena

2014-11-01

115

Molecular detection of Bartonella species infecting rodents in Slovenia.  

PubMed

Rodents, collected in three zoogeographical regions across Slovenia, were tested for the presence of bartonellae using direct PCR-based amplification of 16S/23S rRNA gene intergenic spacer region (ITS) fragments from splenic DNA extracts. Bartonella DNA was detected in four species of rodents, Apodemus flavicollis, Apodemus sylvaticus, Apodemus agrarius and Clethrionomys glareolus, in all three zoogeographic regions at an overall prevalence of 40.4%. The prevalence of infection varied significantly between rodent species and zoogeographical regions. Comparison of ITS sequences obtained from bartonellae revealed six sequence variants. Four of these matched the ITS sequences of the previously recognized species, Bartonella taylorii, Bartonella grahamii, Bartonella doshiae and Bartonella birtlesii, but one was new. The identity of the bartonellae from which the novel ITS sequences was obtained were further assessed by sequence analysis of cell division protein-encoding gene (ftsZ) fragments. This analysis demonstrated that the strain is most likely a representative of possible new species within the genus. PMID:17374132

Knap, Natasa; Duh, Darja; Birtles, Richard; Trilar, Tomi; Petrovec, Miroslav; Avsic-Zupanc, Tatjana

2007-06-01

116

Radiological of natural and mineral drinking waters in Slovenia.  

PubMed

Various types of water were collected in Slovenia and analysed in order to assess the radiation doses from (238)U, (234)U, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (210)Pb and (210)Po for three different age groups of the population. It was found in all cases that the calculated median committed effective dose from the investigated radionuclides for each population group was well below the recommended value of 100 ľSv y(-1), ranging from 4 to 7 ľSv y(-1) for adults, from 8 to 10 ľSv y(-1) for children and from 6 to 7 ľSv y(-1) for infants. Of the investigated groups of the population children are the most exposed with the highest absolute doses of 19.1 and 18.7 ľSv y(-1) after drinking a certain bottled brand of mineral and natural water, respectively. The contribution of each particular radionuclide to total doses varied among different water types and within each type, as well as between different age groups. PMID:22345214

Benedik, L; Jeran, Z

2012-08-01

117

Intestinal parasites of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Slovenia.  

PubMed

In the present study, 428 foxes were collected and examined for intestinal helminths using the washing-out method. Parasites were found in 93.2% of the examined animals. The most frequently identified nematodes were Uncinaria stenocephala (58.9%), Toxocara canis (38.3%) and Molineus patens (30.6%). Other nematodes found were Pterygodermatites affinis (4.2%), Capillaria sp. (2.8%), Crenosoma vulpis (2.8%), Toxascaris leonina (2.5%), Trichuris vulpis (0.7%) and Physaloptera sp. (0.2%). Mesocestoides sp. (27.6%) and Taenia crassiceps (22.2%) were the most prevalent cestodes, followed by T. polyacantha (6.5%), Hymenolepis nana (2.1%), T. pisiformis (2.1%) and Dipylidium caninum (1.4%). The study also revealed four trematode species: Rossicotrema donicum (1.6%), Heterophyes heterophyes (1.1%), Metagonimus yokogawai (1.1%), Prohemistomum appendiculatum (0.4%) and two protozoan species: oocysts of Sarcocystis (2.8%) and Isospora (0.4%). This is the first extensive study on the intestinal parasites of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Slovenia. The 2.6% prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in the same sample population as investigated herein has been reported previously (Vergles Rataj et al., 2010). PMID:23974942

Vergles Rataj, Aleksandra; Posedi, Janez; Zele, Diana; Vengušt, Gorazd

2013-12-01

118

Monitoring of selenium in macrophytes - the case of Slovenia.  

PubMed

This paper examines macrophytes from various locations in Slovenian streams for selenium (Se) content in an attempt to discover if Se contamination is present and if Se uptake varies between sampling sites. For this purpose, macrophytes and water from ten locations in the Notranjska and Central regions (Slovenia) with different land use in the catchment were sampled. To assess the environmental conditions of the streams the Riparian, Channel, and Environment (RCE) inventory was applied, which revealed that investigated stretches of streams fall into RCE classes III, IV and V. The concentration of Se in water at all locations was less than 1?gSeL(-1). The Se content in macrophytes differed between sampling sites, with the highest content of Se in samples from Žerovniš?ica stream and the lowest in samples from Lipsenjš?ica stream. The content of Se was the highest in moss samples (3038ngSeg(-1) DM) and in the amphibious species Veronica anagallis-aquatica (1507ngSeg(-1) DM). PMID:24997953

Mechora, Špela; Germ, Mateja; Stibilj, Vekoslava

2014-09-01

119

The genetic diversity of native, stocked and hybrid populations of marble trout in the Soca river, Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marble trout (Salmo marmoratus) is an endangered species in Slovenia (and in Italy, Croatia and Albania) because of hybridization resulting from intensive stocking. Eleven populations of trout from the Soca river basin (Slovenia) were analysed using 31 presumptive enzyme loci. Three European control samples representing the main European genotypes of brown trout were also analysed. This analysis confirmed the

P Berrebi; M Povz; D Jesensek; G Cattaneo-Berrebi; A J Crivelli

2000-01-01

120

Variability and probability of annual and extreme precipitation over Serbia and Montenegro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Annual precipitation over Serbia and Montenegro is studied in terms of its variability. The dependence of three selected absolute measures of variability (standard deviation, absolute mean deviation and mean absolute interannual variability) from the mean annual precipitation are examined for the area of interest. Two cases of extreme precipitation in Serbia were analysed using the gamma probability density function and some transformations.

Unkaševi?, M.; Toši?, I.; Vujovi?, D.

2004-10-01

121

Composition of Essential Oils of Some Wild Salvia Species Growing in Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oils of two wild Salvia species from Serbia: S. nemorosa from the Deliblato Sands (Vojvodina), and S. glutinosa from the vicinity of the Vlasina Lake (southeastern Serbia) were subjected to analysis. The oil yields from the dried aerial parts from S. nemorosa and S. glutinosa were 0.3 vol% and 0.028 g%, respectively. The compositions of the oils were determined

Jean-Claude Chalchat; Silvana D. Petrovic; Zoran A. Maksimovic; Momcilo S. Gorunovic

2004-01-01

122

The Influence of Dominant Global Climate Phenomena ENSO, NAO, and AO on Climate in Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between El Ni?o and temperatures in Serbia has been proved. Certain correlation among the average monthly temperatures in Serbia and in Ni?o 3,4 region, with three months delay, has been found. The fractal analysis of these temperature series was performed via R/S statistic indicating fractal and multifractal (MF) nature of processes. The calculation of cross-correlation coefficients between NAO index and precipitation, temperature, and pressure data in Serbia has proved considerable NAO influence on Serbia region, especially during winter. The following correlation values were obtained between NAO Index and: pressure 0.60, temperature 0,64, both for Belgrade, while for Niksic negative cross-correlation was obtained for precipitation -0,53. The fractal and multifractal analyses of pressure data series on a number of stations in a wide region from Azores to Iceland and Serbia were done. The obtained results showed that each station in the region has characteristic multifractal spectra of pressure data. The teleconnection with NAO has been also proved by the comparisons of EOF analysis of pressure field in Serbia with the EOF for the north Atlantic domain. The analyses of NAO influence based on daily precipitation data on stations in Serbia and NAO daily index plus AO daily index were prepared, too. These results suggest that AO influence in Serbia is more prominent than the one obtained for NAO.

Jovanovic, G.; Reljin, I.; Reljin, B.

2010-09-01

123

Maize redness in Serbia caused by stolbur phytoplasma is transmitted by Reptalus panzeri  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize redness (MR) causes midrib, leaf and stalk reddening and abnormal ear development in maize in Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria. High populations of the ciixid Reptalus panzeri were found in MR affected maize fields in the southern Banat region of Serbia in 2005 and 2006, and stolbur phytoplasma w...

124

115Proceedings: Ecology, Survey and Management of Forest Insects GTR-NE-311 Preliminary Results on Predation of Gypsy Moth Egg Masses in Slovakia  

E-print Network

on Predation of Gypsy Moth Egg Masses in Slovakia Marek TurcĂĄni1 , Andrew Liebhold2 , Michael McManus3-1703, e-mail: mlmcmanus@fs.fed.us Abstract Predation of gypsy moth egg masses was studied in Slovakia from of egg mass predation in gypsy moth population dynamics. The relative contribution of invertebrates vs

Liebhold, Andrew

125

Large scale relationships between basin and riparian land cover and ecological status of European rivers: examples with invertebrate indices from France, Estonia, Slovakia and  

E-print Network

rivers: examples with invertebrate indices from France, Estonia, Slovakia and United Kingdom. JEAN invertebrate indices of ecological quality to river basin and riparian land cover in France, Slovakia, Estonia and UK. Invertebrate indices, transformed to Ecological Quality Ratios (EQR), were taken from national

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitĂŠ de

126

HIV and risk behaviour among men who have sex with men in Slovakia (2008-2009).  

PubMed

The HIV infection remains a major public health issue in the world and especially in those countries where there exists unprotected sexual intercourse between people of the same sex. It is namely the category of men having sex with men (MSM) that still represents a group at high risk of being infected with HIV or transmitting the virus. The aim of our study was to present HIV 2nd generation surveillance data on MSM in Slovakia in the period between the years 2008 and 2009. Time-location sampling (TLS) was used to recruit participants and oral fluid samples together with completed anonymous questionnaires were collected simultaneously. The oral fluids were tested with use of the Genscreen HIV ˝ version 2, (Bio-Rad) and Western Blot (Genlabs) diagnostic kits. The data analysis was performed using Stata version 8. Saliva testing revealed HIV prevalence of 6.1% (21/349) among MSM in Slovakia. 75% of HIV-positive cases were undiagnosed. The high-risk behaviour of MSM in respect to the number of their sexual partners as well as drug and condom usage did not correspond with their relatively high knowledge about HIV/AIDS. People's attitude towards MSM was found to be the worst in the religious context. Though our results reflect a relative good knowledge of MSM about HIV/AIDS infection, new HIV-positive cases and high-risk behaviour still appear, suggesting the need for more effective HIV prevention among members of this high-risk group in Slovakia. PMID:25622481

Staneková, Danica; Kramárová, Patrícia; Wimmerová, So?a; Hábeková, Monika; Taká?ová, Mária; Mojzesová, Mária

2014-12-01

127

Applicability of Bromilo?s Time-cost Model for Residential Projects in Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of construction time has been mentioned by most researchers as one of the key factors of a successful project. Time-cost model for rapid estimation of construction time appeared in the world some fifty years ago and the most mentioned is model developed by Bromilow. The purpose of submitted research is to validate Bromilo?s time-cost (BTC) model and identify constants in BTC model in context with residential construction projects in Slovak construction conditions. The data for the study were obtained from 28 residential projects completed within the period 2010-2013 in regions of Slovakia. The data were analyzed using classical correlation and regression analysis

Ma?ková, Daniela; Bašková, Renáta

2014-11-01

128

Screening for Diabetes Among Roma People Living in Serbia  

PubMed Central

Aim To investigate the prevalence of diabetes in the Roma population in Serbia. Methods We screened 11 urban and 8 rural Roma communities from October 2006 to May 2008 for the presence of diabetes. Blood glucose values, name, age, sex, presence of diabetes, family history, and obesity were recorded. Results We analyzed the data from 1465 Roma people, 953 women and 512 men (785 in urban and 680 in rural communities), with mean age of 42.42?ą?15.69 years. Abdominal obesity was present in 600 (41%) participants. Eighty seven participants (5.9%) already had diabetes and there were 76 (5.2%) newly discovered cases of diabetes type 2. Participants with diabetes were significantly older (F?=?28.33; P?Serbia may possibly be higher than in the general population of Serbia and needs further investigation. PMID:20401957

Belji? Živkovi?, Teodora; Marjanovi?, Milica; Prgomelja, Stela; Soldatovi?, Ivan; Koprivica, Branka; Ackovi?, Dragoljub; Živkovi?, Rodoljub

2010-01-01

129

History of remote-sensing methods in meteorology, cloud physics and nowcasting in Slovakia over the period 1965-1990  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief overview of building the radar and satellite meteorology in Slovakia over the period 1965-1990 and application of dispatching locators of PAR, SRE and RSR types for studying the evolution of convective cells is given. Further, the conception and implementation of a meteorological radar network in Slovakia, the algorithms for recognition of clouds and phenomena related to the parameters of radioecho are reviewed. The development of a new laser radar (LIDAR) and the application of a prototype meteorological radar with the TESLA RM-3 controlled polarizer are described.

Podhorský, Dušan; Guba, Peter

2014-03-01

130

Paleodietary reconstruction of a Neolithic population in Slovenia: A stable isotope approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritional habits of Neolithic farmers living during the period 6400 to 5300 years cal BP in the interior of Slovenia were determined using stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen. Human and domesticated and wild animals bone collagen samples found in Ajdovska jama cave, as well as food residuals composed of wheat grains and plants in associated ceramics were isotopically

Nives Ogrinc; Mihael Budja

2005-01-01

131

Archaeology of the Ljubljanica River (Slovenia): early underwater investigations and some current issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundant archaeological evidence and specific geomorphologic features make the upper course of the Ljubljanica River running through Ljubljana Moor (Slovenia) one of the most interesting rivers in Europe. Roman bronze vessels and iron weapons found by chance in the Ljubljanica at Vrhnika, the ancient Nauportus, led the director of the Provincial Museum in Ljubljana, Karel Dežman, to devise a large

Andrej Gaspari

2003-01-01

132

BRYOPHYTE SPECIES DIVERSITY OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS IN SLOVENIA (INTENSIVE MONITORING PROGRAMME)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Intensive Monitoring Programme (IM) of Forest Ecosystems in Slovenia, the bryophyte flora and vegetation have been studied on 11 IM plots and 64 vegetation sub-plots (10×10 m). On the IM plots, high species diversity of bryophytes has been assessed. The total number of bryophytes was 109; among them 82 species belonging to the mosses (Bryophyta) and

Lado KUTNAR

133

The New Evangelisation and Adult Religious Education in Slovenia: Challenges and Possibilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Catholic Church in Slovenia is facing the challenge of the new evangelisation in the area of religious education which, at present, is mainly confined to the parish catechesis. She recognises the urgent need to pass from the religious education of children to adult catechesis. The latter is already being implemented in various forms by a…

Stegu, Tadej

2015-01-01

134

Tick-borne encephalitis associated with consumption of raw goat milk, Slovenia, 2012.  

PubMed

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) developed in 3 persons in Slovenia who drank raw milk; a fourth person, who had been vaccinated against TBE, remained healthy. TBE virus RNA was detected in serum and milk of the source goat. Persons in TBE-endemic areas should be encouraged to drink only boiled/pasteurized milk and to be vaccinated. PMID:23697658

Hudopisk, Neda; Korva, Miša; Janet, Evgen; Simetinger, Marjana; Grgi?-Vitek, Marta; Gubenšek, Jakob; Natek, Vladimir; Kraigher, Alenka; Strle, Franc; Avši?-Županc, Tatjana

2013-05-01

135

Value of human capital in transition to market: Evidence from Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper summarizes existing hard evidence concerning the changing value of human capital in Slovenia's transition to a market system. It investigates changes in patterns of job mobility (via estimating multinomial logit and hazard models) and changes in the structure of wages (via earnings functions) associated with education, experience, gender, and ethnicity. Data are drawn from unusually rich administrative data

Peter F. Orazem; Milan Vodopivec

1997-01-01

136

Unemployment in Eastern Europe Value of human capital in transition to market: Evidence from Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper summarizes existing hard evidence concerning the changing value of human capital in Slovenia's transition to a market system. It investigates changes in patterns of job mobility (via estimating multinomial logit and hazard models) and changes in the structure of wages (via earnings functions) associated with education, experience, gender, and ethnicity. Data are drawn from unusually rich administrative data

Peter F. Orazem; Milan Vodopivec

137

Value of Human Capital in Transition Market: Evidence from Slovenia September 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes existing hard evidence concerning the changing value of human capital in Slovenia's transition to a market system. It investigates changes in patterns of job mobility (via estimating multinomial logit and hazard models) and changes in the structure of wages (via earnings functions) associated with education, experience, gender, and ethnicity. Data are drawn from unusually rich administrative data

Peter Orazem; Milan Vodopivec

1997-01-01

138

Some seismotectonic characteristics of the Ljubljana Basin, Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismicity of the Ljubljana Basin, the most densely populated area of Slovenia, is evaluated as "moderate" with a seismic hazard characterized by design ground acceleration of 0.25 g and expected intensity VIII EMS-98 for a return period of 475 years. So far the seismic hazard has been evaluated solely on the basis of historic seismicity, the largest event being the 1895 Ljubljana M=6.1 earthquake with Imax=VIII-IX EMS-98. Given that the Basin is situated at the tectonically active junction of Alpine, Dinaric and Pannonian tectonic domains and given that it is infilled by up to 280 m of relatively loose Quaternary sediments, efforts are being made in recent years to better constrain seismotectonic characteristics starting with a tectonic model and finishing with site effects. The faults that are currently being evaluated as potential seismogenic sources are: • Sava dextral strike slip fault; a geomorphically and geologically well expressed fault with recent displacement determined by GNSS measurement and representing the NE boundary of the Basin, • Želimlje, Ortnek, Mišjedol and Žužemberk dextral strike slip faults (NW-SE striking) belonging to the Ljubljana - Imotski tectonic zone toward the SE and most probably passing the city of Ljubljana toward the NW, • Borovnica dextral strike slip fault system (also NW-SE striking) as the W boundary of the Ljubljana Moor, • WSW-ENE oriented reverse faults (Vi?, Vodice) as structures in-between regional faults where the Vi? fault may have formed due to formation of the transverse extrusion wedge between Borovnica and Želimlje faults, while formation of the Vodice fault may be explained as a secondary structure in the shear system between the Sava fault to the NE and the NW-SE striking faults to the SE. According to current understanding of the tectonic setting, the structures with the highest seismogenic potential seem to be the NW-SE striking faults, although the earthquake catalogue does not indicate any significant clustering of events along any of these structures. Beside the geological and geomorphologic evidence such interpretation is also supported by preliminary results of high resolution seismic reflection profiling. Moreover, the earthquake intensity map of the 1895 earthquake may be interpreted in a way that it corroborates the idea that the most probable seismic source was one of the NW-SE striking faults. However, structures oblique to them, such as Vi? and Vodice faults also exhibit characteristics of recent (coseismic?) displacements and can't be discarded as potential sources. Paleoseismological study on these faults is ongoing, as well as interpretation of repeated terrestrial (micro-terrestrial networks and leveling) and GNSS geodetic measurements. Up-to-date results are presented.

Bavec, M.; Ambroži?, T.; Atanackov, J.; Ceci?, I.; Celarc, B.; Gosar, A.; Jamšek, P.; Jež, J.; Kogoj, D.; Koler, B.; Kuhar, M.; Milani?, B.; Novak, M.; Pavlov?i? Prešeren, P.; Savšek, S.; Sterle, O.; Stopar, B.; Vrabec, M.; Zajc, M.; Živ?i?, M.

2012-04-01

139

Holocaust Education in the "Black Hole of Europe": Slovakia's Identity Politics and History Textbooks Pre- and Post-1989  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Holocaust education in Slovakia stands at the confluence of diverse discourses of state and supra-national legitimation. Principles of national self-determination, minority rights, and political ideologies inform and lend credence to how Slovaks' national and state identities are narrated in Slovak history textbooks. For small nation-states with…

Michaels, Deborah L.

2013-01-01

140

The 32nd International Acoustical Conference -EAA SYMPOSIUM "ACOUSTICS BANSK STIAVNICA 2002" September 10 -12, 2002 SLOVAKIA  

E-print Network

The 32nd International Acoustical Conference - EAA SYMPOSIUM "ACOUSTICS BANSKÁ STIAVNICA 2002" September 10 - 12, 2002 SLOVAKIA 109 Auditory Localization in Rooms: Acoustic Analysis and Behavior Norbert and a KEMAR acoustic manikin at four different listener positions in the room and multiple source positions

Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.

141

Effect of ploughing and previous crop on winter wheat pests and their natural enemies under integrated farming system in Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of ploughing and previous crop on winter wheat pests and their natural enemies under an integrated farming system was investigated in an experimental area in Slovakia. The experiment consisted of 4 small plots (50m2 each) to which both organic and inorganic fertilisers were applied. Moreover, there was one application of herbicide and a fungicide on each plot. The

J. Gallo; S. Pekár

2001-01-01

142

Distribution pattern of woodlice (Isopoda) and millipedes (Diplopoda) in four primeval forests of the Western Carpathians (Central Slovakia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We collected 1605 isopod individuals (eight species) and 671 diplopod individuals (17 species) in four primeval forests of the Western Carpathians, Central Slovakia, by leaf litter extraction. The forests are of different temperate deciduous forest types varying in tree species, aspect, elevation and soil characteristics. The oak forests, established on southwest oriented slopes at an elevation of 280–600m, were characterized

Werner Topp; Heike Kappes; Jan Kulfan; Peter Zach

2006-01-01

143

Male-Female Differences in Labor Market Outcomes during the Early Transition to Market: The Case of Estonia and Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

March 1999Estonia adopted liberal labor market policies during the transition, and Slovenia took an interventionist approach. Even so, relative wages for women rose in both countries. Women were less mobile across jobs in both countries, so men disproportionately filled new jobs in expanding sectors.Orazem and Vodopivec analyze changes in women's relative wages, using social security data from Slovenia (1987-92) and

Milan Vodopivec; Peter F. Orazem

1999-01-01

144

Industry turns its attention south  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the outlook for the gas and oil industries in the Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Significant foreign investment continues to elude Russia`s oil and gas industry, so the Caspian nations of Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan are picking up the slack, welcoming the flow of foreign capital to their energy projects. Separate evaluations are given for Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Moldova, Tajikstan, Uzbekistan, Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Serbia.

Marhefka, D. [Russian Petroleum Investor, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1997-08-01

145

The Impact Of Snow Melt On Surface Runoff Of Sava River In Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow is a type of precipitation in the form of crystalline water ice, consisting of a multitude of snowflakes that fall from clouds. Snow remains on the ground until it melts or sublimates. Spring snow melt is a major source of water supply to areas in temperate zones near mountains that catch and hold winter snow, especially those with a prolonged dry summer. In such places, water equivalent is of great interest to water managers wishing to predict spring runoff and the water supply of cities downstream. In temperate zone like in Slovenia the snow melts in the spring and contributes certain amount of water to surface flow. This amount of water can be great and can cause serious floods in case of fast snow melt. For this reason we tried to determine the influence of snow melt on the largest river basin in Slovenia - Sava River basin, on surface runoff. We would like to find out if snow melt in Slovenian Alps can cause spring floods and how serious it can be. First of all we studied the caracteristics of Sava River basin - geology, hydrology, clima, relief and snow conditions in details for each subbasin. Furtermore we focused on snow and described the snow phenomenom in Slovenia, detailed on Sava River basin. We collected all available data on snow - snow water equivalent and snow depth. Snow water equivalent is a much more useful measurement to hydrologists than snow depth, as the density of cool freshly fallen snow widely varies. New snow commonly has a density of between 5% and 15% of water. But unfortunately there is not a lot of available data of SWE available for Slovenia. Later on we compared the data of snow depth and river runoff for some of the 40 winter seasons. Finally we analyzed the use of satellite images for Slovenia to determine the snow cover for hydrology reason. We concluded that snow melt in Slovenia does not have a greater influence on Sava River flow. The snow cover in Alps can melt fast due to higher temperatures but the water distributes and runs off slowly and does not cause floods. About use of satellite images we concluded that first of all, weather is unfavorable - lots of cloudiness in winter, and furthermore a grater part of land is covered by forest which prevents to see the snow cover on image clearly.

Horvat, A.; Brilly, M.; Vidmar, A.; Kobold, M.

2009-04-01

146

Radioactivity in the indoor building environment in Serbia.  

PubMed

Measurement of activity concentrations of radionuclides in building materials and radon in indoor space is important in the assessment of population exposures, as most individuals spend 80 % of their time indoors. This paper presents the results of activity concentration measurements of: radon emanated from the soil, radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil, indoor radon in the city of Novi Sad (the capital city of Vojvodina) using charcoal canisters and indoor radon in the Vojvodina region using alpha-track detectors and the radioactivity of some building materials. Influences of floor level, space under the rooms, boarding, and the heating system on indoor radon accumulation in the Vojvodina province, situated in the northern part of Serbia, are also presented in this paper. The total effective dose and the activity concentration index are calculated applying the dose criteria recommended by the European Union for building materials. PMID:24030143

Todorovi?, Natasa; Bikit, Istvan; Veskovi?, Miroslav; Krmar, Miodrag; Mr?a, Dusan; Forkapi?, Sofija; Hansman, Jan; Nikolov, Jovana; Bikit, Kristina

2014-01-01

147

Variability of winter and summer precipitation in Serbia and Montenegro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main characteristics of the spatial and temporal variability of winter and summer precipitation observed at 30 stations in Serbia and Montenegro were analyzed for the period 1951-2000. The rainfall series were examined spatially by means of Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) and temporally by means of the Mann-Kendall test and wavelet analysis. One of the main purposes of EOF is to reduce the number of variables to be studied whilst retaining most of the information contained in the original set of variables in order to understand and interpret the structure of the data. The temporal variability of the time series associated with the main EOF configurations (the Principal Components, PCs) are examined. The EOF analysis gave three winter and summer dominant modes of variations, which explained 89.7% and 70.4% of the variance, respectively. The time series (PC1) associated with the first pattern showed a decreasing trend in winter precipitation. The first winter and summer patterns indicated that the large-scale atmospheric circulation could be responsible for the winter and summer precipitation variability. Strong correlation between the winter PC1 and the NAO index indicated that the NAO could be responsible for the winter precipitation variability. The second winter and summer EOF patterns showed an opposite sign of climate variability between areas with Mediterranean and continental climates, which highlighted the influence of relief and the Adriatic Sea on the precipitation regime. Also, the third EOF pattern showed a dipolar structure that suggested an orographic influence. Wavelet analysis showed that a quasi-cycle of 8 and 16 years was found in the winter PC1 and a quasi-triennial oscillation in the summer PC1, while a quasi-cycle of about 7 years was found in the winter PC2. The quasi-periodic oscillations found over Serbia and Montenegro are consistent with the quasi-periodic oscillations reported in other studies on fluctuations of European precipitation.

Tosic, Ivana; Unkasevic, Miroslava

2010-05-01

148

Increasing Incidence of Geomyces destructans Fungus in Bats from the Czech Republic and Slovakia  

PubMed Central

Background White-nose syndrome is a disease of hibernating insectivorous bats associated with the fungus Geomyces destructans. It first appeared in North America in 2006, where over a million bats died since then. In Europe, G. destructans was first identified in France in 2009. Its distribution, infection dynamics, and effects on hibernating bats in Europe are largely unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We screened hibernacula in the Czech Republic and Slovakia for the presence of the fungus during the winter seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. In winter 2009/2010, we found infected bats in 76 out of 98 surveyed sites, in which the majority had been previously negative. A photographic record of over 6000 hibernating bats, taken since 1994, revealed bats with fungal growths since 1995; however, the incidence of such bats increased in Myotis myotis from 2% in 2007 to 14% by 2010. Microscopic, cultivation and molecular genetic evaluations confirmed the identity of the recently sampled fungus as G. destructans, and demonstrated its continuous distribution in the studied area. At the end of the hibernation season we recorded pathologic changes in the skin of the affected bats, from which the fungus was isolated. We registered no mass mortality caused by the fungus, and the recorded population decline in the last two years of the most affected species, M. myotis, is within the population trend prediction interval. Conclusions/Significance G. destructans was found to be widespread in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, with an epizootic incidence in bats during the most recent years. Further development of the situation urgently requires a detailed pan-European monitoring scheme. PMID:21079781

Martínková, Natália; Ba?kor, Peter; Bartoni?ka, Tomáš; Blažková, Pavla; ?ervený, Jaroslav; Falteisek, Lukáš; Gaisler, Ji?í; Hanzal, Vladimír; Horá?ek, Daniel; Hubálek, Zden?k; Jahelková, Helena; Kola?ík, Miroslav; Korytár, L'uboš; Kubátová, Alena; Lehotská, Blanka; Lehotský, Roman; Lu?an, Radek K.; Májek, Ond?ej; Mat?j?, Jan; ?ehák, Zden?k; Šafá?, Ji?í; Tájek, P?emysl; Tkadlec, Emil; Uhrin, Marcel; Wagner, Josef; Weinfurtová, Dita; Zima, Jan; Zukal, Jan; Horá?ek, Ivan

2010-01-01

149

Maternal and cord serum exposure to PCB and DDE methyl sulfone metabolites in eastern Slovakia.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were commercially produced between 1959 and 1984 in eastern Slovakia. Improper handling led to a highly contaminated local environment and high levels of PCBs in humans and wildlife in the Michalovce area. The aim of this study was to analyse serum for methylsulfonyl metabolites of PCB (MeSO(2)-PCBs) and DDE (3-MeSO(2)-DDE) in serum samples from pregnant women and in a selected number of paired cord blood samples to assess maternal sulfone levels and patterns, and transplacental transfer of these metabolites. The donating women were from two districts in eastern Slovakia. A liquid-liquid extraction method together with separation of substance groups and further clean-up on silica gel columns were applied prior to analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. 3-MeSO(2)-DDE was the major methyl sulfone in most of the samples followed by a yet not identified MeSO(2)-hexaCB, 4'-MeSO(2)-CB101, 4'-MeSO(2)-CB87 and 4-MeSO(2)-CB149. The women from the contaminated area had three times higher concentrations of the MeSO(2)-PCBs than women from the reference area. This is the first report on methyl sulfone metabolites of PCB and DDE in human cord serum. It is shown that these metabolites are transported through the placenta. The levels of MeSO(2)-PCBs in the maternal serum were about 1.5 times higher than in the corresponding cord serum on a lipid weight basis. For 3-MeSO(2)-DDE, the levels were about the same in maternal and cord serum. The difference in the maternal:cord ratio, comparing MeSO(2)-PCBs with 3-MeSO(2)-DDE might be due to differences in transport through the placenta caused by their different affinities for lipoproteins and plasma proteins. PMID:17574648

Linderholm, Linda; Park, June-Soo; Kocan, Anton; Trnovec, Tomas; Athanasiadou, Maria; Bergman, Ke; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

2007-09-01

150

Boundary conditions of morphodynamic processes in the Mura River in Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many alpine gravel-bed rivers have been altered in the past due to human interventions. A typical transboundary alpine river in Central Europe flowing over Austria, Slovenia, Croatia and Hungary is the Mura River (length: 465 km, catchment area: 14,304 km2). The main problem of the river before leaving Austria is bed degradation (average 0.5 m from 1970 to 2000) as a combined consequence

Lidija Globevnik; Matjaž Mikoš

2009-01-01

151

Lead and cadmium in meat and organs of game in Slovenia  

SciTech Connect

Pollution of the environment and contamination of animals including game with Pb and Cd are serious problems in most countries. Our many-years results of Pb and Cd residues in meat and organs of game show us, that the herbaceous game, which feed only with various herbs are more contaminated than other animals - cattle and pigs. They really seem to be a good environmental contamination indicator. The aim of our research was to establish contamination levels of game with Pb and Cd. Two different regions of Slovenia, an industrial region with a lead mine and smeltry in Koroska and an unindustrial one a Ilirska Bistrica were chosen to study contamination of game. Muscle tissues, heart muscles, kidneys and livers of roe-deer, chamois, red-deer and wild boards were analysed. The correlation between the animals` age and cadmium content in kidney was researched and a positive correlation was established. We have found out to which extent the meat and organs of game correspond with our available tolerances for each single residue and whether they are unfit for human consumption. The results of investigations concerning Pb and Cd content in game analysed in Slovenia in the last four years were shown, too. Results were taken from the reports of the Residue monitoring and surveillance which is performed in the Republic Slovenia for more than ten years. 6 refs., 5 tabs.

Doganoc, D.Z.; Gacnik, K.S. [Univ. of Ljubljana (Slovenia)

1995-01-01

152

The molecular evidence of Babesia microti infection in small mammals collected in Slovenia.  

PubMed

In Europe, the zoonotic cycle of Babesia microti has not been determined so far. Recently, B. microti was detected in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Slovenia by using molecular methods. In order to investigate the mammalian hosts of B. microti in Slovenia we collected 261 small mammals representing 11 species. They were tested for the presence of babesial parasites with a PCR assay based on the nuclear small subunit rRNA gene (nss-rDNA). The bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) and yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) were infected with B. microti. The prevalence rate was 15.9% for C. glareolus and 11.8% for A. flavicollis. Nucleotide sequences of amplified portions of B. microti nss-rDNA from C. glareolus and A. flavicollis were indistinguishable from each other and identical with those previously described in I. ricinus ticks collected in Slovenia. The results of this study represent molecular evidence of B. microti in small mammals in Europe. PMID:12636348

Duh, D; Petrovec, M; Trilar, T; Avsic-Zupanc, T

2003-02-01

153

Estimated collective effective dose to the population from nuclear medicine examinations in Slovenia  

PubMed Central

Background A national survey of patient exposure from nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures was performed by Slovenian Radiation Protection Administration in order to estimate their contribution to the collective effective dose to the population of Slovenia. Methods A set of 36 examinations with the highest contributions to the collective effective dose was identified. Data about frequencies and average administered activities of radioisotopes used for those examinations were collected from all nuclear medicine departments in Slovenia. A collective effective dose to the population and an effective dose per capita were estimated from the collected data using dose conversion factors. Results The total collective effective dose to the population from nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures in 2011 was estimated to 102 manSv, giving an effective dose per capita of 0.05 mSv. Conclusions The comparison of results of this study with studies performed in other countries indicates that the nuclear medicine providers in Slovenia are well aware of the importance of patient protection measures and of optimisation of procedures. PMID:24133396

Skrk, Damijan; Zontar, Dejan

2013-01-01

154

Four new troglobiotic species of the genus Megalothorax Willem, 1900 (Collembola: Neelipleona) from the Carpathian Mountains (Slovakia, Romania).  

PubMed

Four new species of Megalothorax Willem, 1900 are described and illustrated: M. tatrensis sp. nov., M. carpaticus sp. nov., M. hipmani sp. nov. from caves in Slovakia and M. draco sp. nov. from the Dr?coaia Cave in western Romania. The species represent troglobiotic forms exhibiting different level of troglomorphy involving such features as larger body, elongated foot complex, antennae, mucro and body chaetae. The most pronounced troglomorphy is observed in M. hipmani sp. nov. and M. draco sp. nov. Species descriptions are completed with comparative tables of chaetotaxy of antennae and legs. Diagnostic table for all congeners and dichotomous identification key to the world species are provided. Distribution records of other Megalothorax species in Slovakia are added. PMID:25112769

Papá?, Vladimír; Ková?, Lubomír

2013-01-01

155

The formation, structure, and ageing of As-rich hydrous ferric oxide at the abandoned Sb deposit Pezinok (Slovakia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abandoned Sb deposit Pezinok in Slovakia is a significant source of As and Sb pollution that can be traced in the upper horizons of soils kilometers downstream. The source of the metalloids are two tailing impoundments which hold ?380,000m3 of mining waste. The tailings and the discharged water have circumneutral pH values (7.0ą0.6) because the acidity generated by the

Juraj Majzlan; Bronislava Lalinská; Martin Chovan; L’ubomír Jurkovi?; Stanislava Milovská; Jörg Göttlicher

2007-01-01

156

The vegetation of metalliferous and non-metalliferous grasslands in two former mine regions in Central Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the composition of the vegetation in two former mining regions in Central Slovakia: Banská Štiavnica with\\u000a predominant Pb-Zn contamination and Staré Hory with a very high Cu content in the soil. Old heaps rich in heavy metals are\\u000a covered with specific vegetation. On the Cu-rich spoil heaps, species-poor plant communities with prevailing Agrostis stolonifera, Avenella flexuosa, Acetosella vulgaris,

Viera Banásová; Othmar Horak; Milada ?iamporová; Miriam Nadubinská; Irene Lichtscheidl

2006-01-01

157

Drought analysis in Serbia using the Standardized Precipitation Index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many quantitative measures of drought have been developed. McKee et al. (1993) introduced the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) to quantify precipitation deficits on multiple time scales (1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 months). The different time scales for which the index is computed address the various types of drought: the shorter seasons for agricultural and meteorological drought, the longer seasons for hydrological drought. Computation of the SPI involves fitting a gamma probability density function to a given frequency distribution of precipitation totals. The parameters of the gamma distribution are used to find the cumulative probability of a precipitation event. An equiprobability transformation is then made from the cumulative distribution to the standard normal distribution with a mean of zero and variance of one. This transformed probability is the SPI value, which varies between +2.0 and -2.0. The SPI is a dimensionless index where negative values indicate drought while positive values, wet conditions. The rainfall series for the present (1961-1990) and future (2071-2100) period were simulated using the Eta Belgrade University - Princeton Ocean Model (EBU-POM). The EBU-POM is a two-way coupled regional climate model, with the Eta/NCEP limited area model as its atmospheric part and POM as its ocean part (Djurdjevic and Rajkovic, 2008). Atmospheric model horizontal resolution was 0.25° and ocean model horizontal resolution was 0.2°. Concentrations of the greenhouse gasses were changed following the A2 scenario. First, a gamma probability density function is fitted to the precipitation data during the period 1961-1990 (the calibration period). The SPI time series with the 12-month time scale (SPI12) for Belgrade and Niš were analyzed and compared with observations. August in 2000 was exceptionally dry in the greater Belgrade area and in northern and eastern Serbia (Unkasevic et al, 2004). The monthly totals were between 5 and 10 mm. Since, the maps of the SPI-12 for August during the period 2071-2100 were drawn to determine the spatial changes of droughts. According to the obtained results, moderately dry climate is expected over greater part of the southern Europe, while severely dry climate is expected in southern Greece. From the analysis we can conclude that the EBU-POM model could capture the climatic data and also the drought indices well. Also, this analysis showed how SPI12 can be used to monitor drought conditions in Serbia. Djurdjevic, V., B. Rajkovic (2008) Verification of a coupled atmosphere-ocean model using satellite observations over the Adriatic Sea. Annales Geophysicae, 26, 1935-1954 McKee, T. B., N. J. Doesken, J. Kleist (1993) The relationship of drought frequency and duration to time scales. Preprints, Eighth Conf. on Applied Climatology, Anaheim, CA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 179-184 Unkasevic, M., I. Tosic, D. Vujovic, 2004: Variability and probability of annual and extreme precipitation over Serbia and Montenegro, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 79, 103-109

Tosic, I.; Krzic, A.; Djurdjevic, V.; Unkasevic, M.; Rajkovic, B.

2010-09-01

158

Roles of Stolbur Phytoplasma and Reptalus Panzeri (Cixiinae, Auchenorrhyncha) in the Epidemiology of Maize Redness in Serbia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize redness (MR), a disease causing midrib, leaf and stalk reddening and abnormal ear development in maize, has been reported from Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria for 50 years. Recent epiphytotics reduced yields by 40-90% in southern Banat, Serbia. MR was recently associated with the presence of th...

159

Roles of Stolbur phytoplasma and Reptalus panzeri (Cixiinae, Auchenorrhyncha) in the epidemiology of Maize redness in Serbia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize redness (MR), a disease causing midrib, leaf and stalk reddening and abnormal ear development in maize, has been reported from Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria for 50 years. Recent epiphytotics reduced yields by 40-90% in southern Banat, Serbia. MR was recently associated with the presence of th...

160

Selected characteristics of meteorological elements and their trends since the mid-20th century in Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of some characteristics of air temperature, air humidity, precipitation and snow cover at selected meteorological stations located in different regions of Slovakia was performed for the period 1951 to 2012. Stations represent lowland regions (up to 300 meters), mid-altitude regions (300 to 800 meters) and high altitude mountain regions (above 1000 m). Series of highest annual maximum air temperature show obvious gradual increase from 80s of the 20th century on all selected stations and also the occurrence of new record values in the last years of the analyzed period 1951 -2012. In most stations the absolute maximum air temperature for 1951 - 2012 period was recorded during July 2007, whereas the highest annual maximum temperatures were recorded predominantly during the month of August in Slovakia. Values of annual maximum of mean daily temperature show evident upward trend and at some stations the highest mean daily temperature was recorded just in recent years (e.g. at station Slia? in 2012). Positive trends of the lowest annual minimum temperature at selected stations in the period 1951-2012 are not so significant and it is evident that the lowest annual minimum air temperature didn't drop as low as in the past, respectively they didn't reach record values as in the 50s or 80s of the 20-th century. Changes of minimum and maximum monthly precipitation totals during the year indicate that the number of cases with extremely low monthly total was increasing. Although frequency of occurrence of extremely high monthly precipitation totals was rather chaotic, in some recent years the observed values of monthly precipitation totals represented the absolutely highest monthly values for entire analyzed period 1951-2012. On the other hand, towards the end of this period, cases when minimum monthly precipitation totals were close to zero also became more common. Very significant is the trend in the lowest annual relative humidity in the 1951-2012 period, particularly at city airport stations (stations Bratislava airport and Kosice airport), but also at peak stations Chopok and Lomnický štít. Total snow cover in the valleys and lower altitudes in the late 20th and early 21st century is less stable from the end of 90s. The comparison of annual maximum depth of total snow cover and new snow cover shoved similar and in some years even identical values. It was quite common that a significant snowfall especially at lower altitudes was immediately followed by quick thaw and melting of new snow cover, eliminating further accumulation of snow.

Fasko, Pavel; Švec, Marek; Š?astný, Pavel; Kajaba, Peter

2014-05-01

161

Which are my Future Career Priorities and What Influenced my Choice of Studying Science, Technology, Engineering or Mathematics? Some Insights on Educational Choice—Case of Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is addressing the problem of under-representation of young people in general, and females in particular, in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in Slovenia. It has two main objectives: (1) to identify which priorities male and female STEM students in Slovenia seek in their future careers, and (2) to identify different important factors (i.e. key

Gregor Cerinsek; Tina Hribar; Natasa Glodez; Slavko Dolinsek

2012-01-01

162

Annual and seasonal variability of precipitation in Vojvodina, Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Annual and seasonal variability of precipitation observed at 92 stations in Vojvodina (Serbia) were analyzed during the period 1946-2006. The rainfall series were examined by means of the empirical orthogonal functions (EOF). The first set of singular vectors explains from 68.8 % (in summer) to 81.8 % (in winter) of the total variance. The temporal variability of the time series associated with the main EOF configurations (the principal components, PCs) was examined using the Mann-Kendall test and the spectral analysis. The time series of PC1 revealed decreasing trend in the winter and spring precipitation and increasing trend in the autumn, summer, and annual precipitation. The relationships between the first PC and circulation patterns, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the East Atlantic (EA) pattern, and East Atlantic/West Russia pattern, were also investigated. The PC1, displaying temporal behavior of the first mode, demonstrated evident correspondence with the NAO index in analysis of the annual, winter, and autumn precipitation. Power spectra of the PC1 show statistically significant oscillations of about 3.3 years for the spring precipitation and about 8 and 15 years for the winter precipitation. Comparisons with spectral analysis of authors for some regions in Europe, most of them in the Mediterranean domain, show that similar periodicities are detected.

Toši?, Ivana; Hrnjak, Ivana; Gavrilov, Milivoj B.; Unkaševi?, Miroslava; Markovi?, Slobodan B.; Luki?, Tin

2014-07-01

163

Presence of Leishmania and Brucella species in the golden jackal Canis aureus in Serbia.  

PubMed

The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010-02/2013) from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as the tissue to proceed; all samples were tested for Leishmania species and Brucella species by real-time PCR. Of the 216 samples collected, 15 (6.9%) were positive for Leishmania species, while four (1.9%) were positive for B. canis. The potential epidemiologic role of the golden jackal in carrying and dispersing zoonotic diseases in Serbia should be taken under consideration when applying surveillance monitoring schemes. PMID:24967397

Cirovi?, Duško; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tomanovi?, Snežana; Sukara, Ratko; Penezi?, Aleksandra; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

2014-01-01

164

Genetic detection of Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus in the edible dormouse (Glis glis) in central Serbia.  

PubMed

Hantaviruses are endemic in the Balkans, particularly in Serbia, where sporadic cases and/or outbreaks of hantaviral human disease have been reported repeatedly, and evidenced serologically. Here, we present genetic detection of Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) hantaviral sequences in wild rodents trapped in central Serbia. All the animals were pre-screened serologically by indirect immunofluorescence (IF) test and only those with a positive finding of hantaviral antigens were further tested by polymerase chain reaction. Of the total of 104 trapped animals, 20 were found to be IF positive and of those three were positive for hantaviral RNA: one Microtus arvalis for Tula virus, and one each of Apodemus agrarius and Glis glis for DOBV. Phylogenetic analysis of the obtained sequences implies putative DOBV spillover infection of A. agrarius and G. glis from Apodemus flavicollis. However, future investigations should help to identify the most common natural host and geographical distribution of DOBV in its reservoir hosts in Serbia. PMID:24762257

Stanojevic, M; Nikolic, V; Stajkovic, N; Stamenkovic, G; Bozovic, B; Cekanac, R; Marusic, P; Gligic, A

2015-01-01

165

Conducting an HIA of the effect of accession to the European Union on national agriculture and food policy in Slovenia  

SciTech Connect

A health impact assessment (HIA) to consider the potential effects of European Union accession on agriculture and food policies in Slovenia has been undertaken as a joint project between the Slovenian Ministry of Health and the WHO European Region. The HIA project in Slovenia was conducted as a pilot project to develop the methods of HIA in this policy sector. The implications of the European Union Agricultural Policy to health are discussed. HIA methods have been used to assess some of the potential effects in Slovenia of accession to the European Union. This paper outlines some of the early findings and lessons to be learnt from the Slovenian HIA experience in order that other countries may adopt the approach to improve health considerations in agriculture and other intersectoral policymaking.

Lock, Karen; Gabrijelcic-Blenkus, Mojca; Martuzzi, Marco; Otorepec, Peter; Kuhar, Ales; Robertson, Aileen; Wallace, Paul; Dora, Carlos; Zakotnic, Jozica Maucec

2004-02-01

166

Seroreactivity to Dirofilaria antigens in people from different areas of Serbia  

PubMed Central

Background The Northern part of Serbia is hyperendemic-endemic for canine dirofilarioses. Considering this fact, many human dirofilarial infections could be expected, however only about 30 cases in Serbia have been described until today. Aims of this survey were to assess the people reactivity to the antigens of D. repens and D. immitis and to identify risk factors for the contact exposure. Methods Investigation included sera taken from 297 people (179 women and 118 men) living in different areas of Serbia (Pan?evo, Novi Sad, Zaje?ar, Leskovac, Vranje, Niš, Pirot). Sera were analysed by means of two indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) home-designed that use as antigens adult somatic/metabolic polyproteins of D. repens (DR) and D. immitis (DI), respectively. The results were elaborated using the statistical method of descriptive and quantitative analysis. Results Significant differences by area in the reactivity of human sera to dirofilarial antigens were not observed (p?=?0.056). A high seroreactivity was demonstrated in people from the towns of northern Serbia (Pan?evo?=?27,1%; Novi Sad?=?16,3%), as well as in people from Zaje?ar (eastern Serbia?=?15,8%) and Vranje (southern Serbia?=?15,1%). No differences were evidenced between people reactivity to polyproteins of the two dirofilarial species, nor differences related to the gender of examinees. Factor risks evidenced were: i) place of residence; ii) spending work time outdoors during the mosquito season; iii) spending time outdoors and nearby rivers, lakes, swamps or canals; unespectedly, iv) cat owning. Conclusion The findings emerging from this investigation indicate that clinicians and public health authorities should pay greater attention to this zoonosis. Continuing education and training of physicians will greatly contribute to the knowledge of the actual impact of filarial worms on animal and public health, and allow for the planning of suitable measures to prevent the infections. PMID:24507413

2014-01-01

167

Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol in Wheat in Slovakia during 2010 and 2011  

PubMed Central

In this study, a total of 299 grain samples of wheat were collected from four production regions: the maize, sugar beet, potato and feed sectors of Slovakia. The samples were analyzed for deoxynivalenol (DON) content by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay RidascreenŽ Fast DON. Analysis of variance revealed a significant difference between years in DON contents (p < 0.027). The occurrence of samples with DON was 82.2% in 2010, with maximum DON content of 7.88 mg kg?1, and 70.7% in 2011, with maximum DON content of 2.12 mgˇkg?1. The total mean DON content was 0.62 mgˇkg?1; in the feed region 0.22 mgˇkg?1; 0.63 mgˇkg?1 in the maize region; 0.78 mgˇkg?1 in the sugar beet region; 0.45 mgˇkg?1 the potato region. The limit of 1.25 mgˇkg?1 imposed by the European Union (EU) for DON content was exceeded in 13.7% of the studied samples. The average monthly rainfall for May to June played a critical role in DON content of wheat grains for maize and sugar beet producing regions. The present results indicate that DON content was at a high level in grains from wheat grown during 2010. PMID:23917334

Šliková, Svetlana; Gavurníková, So?a; Šudyová, Valéria; Gregová, Edita

2013-01-01

168

Diverse archaeal community of a bat guano pile in Domica Cave (Slovak Karst, Slovakia).  

PubMed

The molecular diversity of Archaea in a bat guano pile in Cave Domica (Slovakia), temperate cave ecosystem with significant bat colony (about 1600 individuals), was examined. The guano pile was created mainly by an activity of the Mediterranean horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus euryale) and provides a source of organic carbon and other nutrients in the oligotrophic subsurface ecosystem. The upper and the basal parts of guano surface were sampled where the latter one had higher pH and higher admixture of limestone bedrock and increased colonization of invertebrates. The relative proportion of Archaea determined using CARD-FISH in both parts was 3.5-3.9 % (the basal and upper part, respectively). The archaeal community was dominated by non-thermophilic Crenarchaeota (99 % of clones). Phylogenetic analysis of 115 16S rDNA sequences revealed the presence of Crenarchaeota previously isolated from temperate surface soils (group 1.1b, 62 clones), deep subsurface acid waters (group 1.1a, 52 clones) and Euryarchaeota (1 clone). Four of the analyzed sequences were found to have little similarity to those in public databases. The composition of both archaeal communities differed, with respect to higher diversity of Archaea in the upper part of the bat guano pile. High diversity archaeal population is present in the bat guano deposit and consists of both soil- and subsurface-born Crenarchaeota. PMID:19937217

Chronáková, A; Horák, A; Elhottová, D; Krist?fek, V

2009-09-01

169

Short life expectancy and metabolic syndrome in Romanies (gypsies) in Slovakia.  

PubMed

The aim of this review is to explain short life expectancy in Romanies. Romanies represent the second largest minority in Slovakia (about 7%). Most of them exist on the fringes of the majority society. Their general situation worsened after the fall of communism in 1989. In a market oriented society the unemployment of Romanies further increased due to their poor education and lack of skills. Romany general health is substantially worse than that of the majority population: They have high prevalence of communicable diseases due to poor sanitary and living conditions. Furthermore, epidemiological and metabolic studies revealed in Romanies high prevalence of obesity associated with increased cardiovascular risk. There is no explanation for this seemingly paradoxical phenomenon, in a population living in poor economic conditions. It is possible that in the course of the many generation-long migration from India to Europe, pregnant Romanies and their fetuses sufferred excessive nutritional deficiency. This might have induced adaptive metabolic and genetic changes aimed at optimum utilization of scarce food supply. There is a hypothetical possibility that in them "thrifty gene" was formed. Arrival of Romanies to Europe resulted in somewhat better nutrition, along with sharply reduced physical expenditure. The consequence is a metabolic syndrome with type 2 diabetes and increased cardiovascular mortality. Such unique metabolic feature in Romanies will undoubtedly stimulate further research in molecular biology that may ultimately clarify the role of "thrifty genes". PMID:20586225

Simko, Vlado; Ginter, Emil

2010-03-01

170

Rotavirus type profile in nosocomial and community infections in Western Slovakia.  

PubMed

The surveillance study of rotavirus gastroenteritis at the University Teaching Hospital Tren?ín area, Slovakia, during 2006-2011 confirmed that the genotype profile of circulating rotaviruses was not stable. While G1P[8] dominating genotype dropped from 75 to 7.3 % in the period 2009-2011, genotype G2P[4] that was not detected in 2009 raised to 45.1 % in 2011. Vaccination coverage rose from 4.4 to 22.1 % in the period 2008-2011. Among the community and hospital cases, we observed that the average age of patients with nosocomial infections was significantly less (10.6 months) than in the cases of community rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) cases. Compared to the nosocomial infection cases, the duration of the disease and the duration of hospitalization among the community cases were significantly longer by 0.22 and 3.63 days, respectively, during 2006-2011. Though the vaccination coverage was found to correlate with changes in the type of the circulating rotaviruses, the natural circulation in rotavirus genotypes may not be excluded as important factor contributing to the emergence of G2P[4] strain during the survey period. PMID:25338649

Štefkovi?ová, M; Litvová, S; Šimurka, P; Göczeová, J; Gajdošíková, A; Krištúfková, Z

2015-03-01

171

Case study of a severe windstorm over Slovakia and Hungary on 25 June 2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system of thunderstorms approached the Slovakia and Hungary in the late evening hours of 25 June 2008, causing extensive damage and peak wind gusts up to 40 m/s. This study examines the macro- and mesosynoptic conditions for the windstorm using soundings, analyses, and forecasts of numerical models (ALADIN, ECMWF). A derecho-like character of the event is discussed. Meteosat Second Generation imagery and convective indices inferred from satellite and model data are used to assess the humidity distribution and the conditional instability of the thunderstorm environment. An intrusion of the environmental dry air into the convective system and intensification of downdrafts is considered to be one of the reasons for the damaging winds observed at some areas. This is supported by the radar imagery showing a sudden drop of radar reflectivity and creation of line echo wave patterns and bow echoes. A numerical simulation provided by the non-hydrostatic MM5 model indicated the development of meso-? scale vortices embedded in the convective system. The genesis and a possible role of such vortices in creating rear-inflow jets and intensifying the low level winds are investigated with the help of the vorticity equation and several other diagnostic parameters. In addition, the effect of various physical parameterisations on the forecast of the windstorm is evaluated.

Simon, André; Ka?ák, Ján; Sokol, Alois; Putsay, Mária; Uhrínová, Lucia; Csirmaz, Kálmán; Okon, ?uboslav; Habrovský, Richard

2011-06-01

172

Gypsy Phenylketonuria: A point mutation of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in Gypsy families from Slovakia  

SciTech Connect

A direct mutational analysis of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene (PAH) in Gypsy families with phenylketonuria (PKU) has not yet been presented. However, they obviously represent a group at high risk for this inherited disease. The authors analyzed the PAH loci of 65 Gypsies originating from Eastern Slovakia by a combination of PCR amplification, direct sequencing and ASO hybridization. These studies uncovered 10 {open_quotes}classical PKU{close_quotes} patients to be homozygous for a R252W (CGG-TGG) transition, and 29 heterozygous carriers of this mutation. Fifteen control Caucasoid PKU patients from the Czech and Slovak Republics were selected. In this group they detected R252W mutation in two subjects (6.67% of all mutant alleles). Both were compound heterozygous for two different mutations. Previous haplotype studies of Welsh Gypsies with PKU were uninformative in the determination of heterozygosity. ASO hybridization served effectively for the consequent analyses in Gypsy PKU-related families and to identify the carriers among the unrelated subjects. 19 refs., 2 figs.

Kalanin, J. [Institute for Clinical and Experical Medicine, Praha (Czechoslovakia); Takarada, Y. [Toyobo Research Center, Shiga (Japan); Kagawa, S.; Yamashita, K.; Ohtsuka, N.; Matsuoka, A. [Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan)

1994-01-15

173

The nanoparticulate nature of invisible gold in arsenopyrite from Pezinok (Slovakia)  

SciTech Connect

Arsenopyrite is the most common sulfide host of invisible gold. Yet, despite many studies, the position of such gold in the structure of arsenopyrite has not been resolved conclusively. Here we report a multitechnique study of arsenopyrite samples from the Pezinok deposits (Slovakia) with moderate gold concentrations of 7-10 {micro}g/g. Secondary ion mass spectrometry showed that the invisible gold occurs as either (1) almost uniform, low-concentration of 'dispersed' gold, or as (2) hot spots along fractures. X-ray absorption spectra at the Au L{sub III} edge were collected from such hot spots. The spectra document metallic character of gold although no discrete gold particles were seen even after careful re-examining in back-scattered electron images. We conclude that such occurrences are most readily explained by the presence of gold nanoparticles. We suggest that the dispersed gold is the chemically-bound gold previously detected in these deposits by 197Au Moessbauer spectroscopy. The concentration of the dispersed gold is too low for X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

Majzlan, Juraj; Chovan, Martin; Andráš , Peter; Newville, Matthew; Wiedenbeck, Michael (Institute of Geosciences, Germany)

2010-04-09

174

Association of Borrelia garinii and B. valaisiana with Songbirds in Slovakia  

PubMed Central

In Europe, 6 of the 11 genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato are prevalent in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks. In most parts of Central Europe, B. afzelii, B. garinii, and B. valaisiana are the most frequent species, whereas B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. bissettii, and B. lusitaniae are rare. Previously, it has been shown that B. afzelii is associated with European rodents. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify reservoir hosts of B. garinii and B. valaisiana in Slovakia. Songbirds were captured in a woodland near Bratislava and investigated for engorged ticks. Questing I. ricinus ticks were collected in the same region. Both tick pools were analyzed for spirochete infections by PCR, followed by DNA-DNA hybridization and, for a subsample, by nucleotide sequencing. Three of the 17 captured songbird species were infested with spirochete-infected ticks. Spirochetes in ticks that had fed on birds were genotyped as B. garinii and B. valaisiana, whereas questing ticks were infected with B. afzelii, B. garinii, and B. valaisiana. Furthermore, identical ospA alleles of B. garinii were found in ticks that had fed on the birds and in questing ticks. The data show that songbirds are reservoir hosts of B. garinii and B. valaisiana but not of B. afzelii. This and previous studies confirm that B. burgdorferi sensu lato is host associated and that this bacterial species complex contains different ecotypes. PMID:12732554

Hanincová, Klára; Taragelová, Veronika; Koci, Juraj; Schäfer, Stefanie M.; Hails, Rosie; Ullmann, Amy J.; Piesman, Joseph; Labuda, Milan; Kurtenbach, Klaus

2003-01-01

175

Landscape change analysis and assessment (case studies in Slovakia and Bulgaria)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landscape change assessment was conducted in selected areas of Slovakia and Bulgaria in 1990-2000 using CORINE land cover (CLC) data layer analysis. Assessment of causes that led to these changes was undertaken, with an emphasis on those that determined the extensification of agriculture. The LC data were obtained under the CLC90 and I&CLC2000 projects, jointly managed by the European Environment Agency in Copenhagen, Denmark and the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission in Ispra, Italy. The CLC1990-2000-changes data layer was generated by overlaying the CLC90 and CLC2000 data layers for change in areas of a minimum 5 ha. The analysed causes of changes (driving forces) were then classified. Land cover (LC) changes characterizing urbanization processes occurred only in the Trnava and Tatras areas. Intensification of agriculture was also higher in these two areas. LC changes characterizing the extensification of agriculture were dominant in Plovdiv and Trnava. Deforestation and forestation were identified in all areas (Trnava, Tatras, Plovdiv, and Burgas). The basic reasons of these changes were related to the transformation of national economies from being centrally planned to market controlled, following the fall of socialism and before the countries joined the European Union.

Feranec, Jan; Kopecka, Monika; Vatseva, Rumiana; Stoimenov, Anton; Otahel, Jan; Betak, Juraj; Husar, Karol

2009-03-01

176

Adults with self-reported learning disabilities in Slovenia: findings from the international adult literacy survey on the incidence and correlates of learning disabilities in Slovenia.  

PubMed

This study of adults with self-reported learning disabilities (SRLD) in Slovenia is part of a larger secondary analysis of the data from the International Literacy Survey project (IALS). The purpose of the study was to examine the characteristics of 79 (2.68%) individuals who reported experiencing learning disabilities and compare them to the general population on a variety of indicators of educational background, employment status, and reading and writing activities at work and at home. The proficiency scores of the SRLD individuals were lower in all three literacy domains (prose, document and quantitative literacy). In prose literacy 77.9% of SRLD adults performed at Level 1 and only 7.8% reached the level necessary for a modern technological society. Experiencing learning disabilities was not related to gender or age, however, results showed significant differences between the levels achieved by older and younger people with SRLD. In SRLD groups aged 40 years and above, no one achieved more than the second level of literacy in any domain. Learning disabilities were reported more frequently in rural areas. SRLD groups achieve significantly lower educational attainment, and lower employment status, with a preference for manual labour or craft. These findings are of critical importance. SRLD people report that poorer literacy skills are an obstacle to their progression in employment. In the Slovene sample, the SRLD group stands out for low scores in quantitative literacy. Results show that they are less active, pick up information only auditorily or in short written form. They need more frequent help from relatives in literacy activities. Interpretation of the IALS data on SRLD presents many problems. These include amongst others, problems in terminology, different background factors, and the validity of self-report measures. However, the study also raises many interesting challenges for future research and policy. Increasing the availability of support, assistance and counselling for adolescents and adults with learning disabilities remains a very important goal for dyslexia and LD policies in Slovenia. PMID:14672511

Magajna, Lidija; Kavkler, Marija; Ortar-Krizaj, Martina

2003-11-01

177

Reassessing the Aurignacian of Slovenia: Techno-economic behaviour and direct dating of osseous projectile points.  

PubMed

The Palaeolithic of southern Central Europe has a long history of archaeological research. Particularly, the presence of numerous osseous projectile points in many early Upper Palaeolithic (EUP) assemblages in this region has attracted the attention of the international research community. However, the scarcity of properly identified and well-dated Aurignacian contexts represents an obstacle for investigation of the nature and timing of the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition. In this context, the question of whether Neandertals made Aurignacian osseous projectile points, either on their own or as a consequence of cultural interaction with anatomically modern humans (AMH), still remains an open issue. Here we reassess the EUP record of Slovenia by evaluating the Aurignacian character of the assemblages from Poto?ka zijalka, Mokriška jama and Divje babe I in the light of their suggested roots in the local Mousterian. We provide a comprehensive description of the lithic industry from Poto?ka zijalka, which represents one of the rare EUP assemblages of southern Central Europe with a representative number of lithic artefacts to be analysed from the perspective of lithic technology and raw material economy. Our re-analysis of the Slovenian assemblages is backed by a series of 11 new ultrafiltered collagen 14C dates obtained directly on associated osseous projectile points from the studied assemblages. The Aurignacian of Poto?ka zijalka underlines the remarkable consistency of the Early Aurignacian with low typo-technological variability across Europe, resulting from a marked dependence on transported toolkits and raw material conservation. The new radiocarbon determinations for the Aurignacian of Slovenia appear to post-date the 34-32 ka BP (thousands of years before present) threshold for the last Neandertals in the region. Although not falsified, the hypothesis of Aurignacian bone tools in southern Central Europe as a product of late Neandertals is not supported by our re-examination of the EUP record of Slovenia. PMID:25498105

Moreau, Luc; Odar, Boštjan; Higham, Tom; Horvat, Aleksander; Pirkmajer, Darja; Turk, Peter

2015-01-01

178

Health impact assessment of agriculture and food policies: lessons learnt from the Republic of Slovenia.  

PubMed Central

The most important public health priority in agricultural policy-making is currently food safety, despite the relatively higher importance of food security, nutrition, and other agricultural-related health issues in terms of global burden of disease. There is limited experience worldwide of using health impact assessment (HIA) during the development of agriculture and food policies, which perhaps reflects the complex nature of this policy sector. This paper presents methods of HIA used in the Republic of Slovenia, which is conducting a HIA of proposed agricultural and food policies due to its accession to the European Union. It is the first time that any government has attempted to assess the health effects of agricultural policy at a national level. The HIA has basically followed a six-stage process: policy analysis; rapid appraisal workshops with stakeholders from a range of backgrounds; review of research evidence relevant to the agricultural policy; analysis of Slovenian data for key health-related indicators; a report on the findings to a key cross-government group; and evaluation. The experience in Slovenia shows that the HIA process has been a useful mechanism for raising broader public health issues on the agricultural policy agenda, and it has already had positive results for policy formation. HIA is one useful approach to more integrated policy-making across sectors, but clearly it is not the only mechanism to achieve this. A comparison of the approach used in Slovenia with HIA methods in other countries and policy contexts shows that there are still many limitations with HIA application at a government level. Lessons can be learnt from these case studies for future development and application of HIA that is more relevant to policy-makers, and assists them in making more healthy policy choices. PMID:12894321

Lock, Karen; Gabrijelcic-Blenkus, Mojca; Martuzzi, Marco; Otorepec, Peter; Wallace, Paul; Dora, Carlos; Robertson, Aileen; Zakotnic, Jozica Maucec

2003-01-01

179

The Significance of Podpe limestone in the Cultural Heritage of Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Podpe? limestone is characterized by its dark grey, or nearly black colour, with white fossil shells of the Lithiotis. These beds, which have been dated as Lower Jurassic, occur in southern and south-western Slovenia, and are particularly common in areas southwest of Ljubljana. The main quarry, which is not active, is located next to the village of Podpe? near Ljubljana, and has been declared as a geological natural value of national importance; as such, it is officially protected as a natural monument. In the close vicinity of the village there are some other smaller quarries, but all of them have been abandoned. With its very low porosity (0.9%) and water absorption (0.13 - 0.30 % by mass), but relatively high compressive strength (185 MPa), this limestone is quite durable, although its colouring becomes somewhat bleached when situated outdoors. The use of Podpe? limestone was first documented in the case of the Roman period in Slovenia, when it was used for funerary stelae, votive altars, boundary stones, and other artefacts. At the end of the 5th Century AD, with the fall of the Roman Empire, stone-cutting ceased at Podpe? for the next few centuries. Before 1850 Podpe? limestone had no special value. Only very few portals or pilasters made of this stone are known, and no evidence has been found in churches. However, towards the end of the 19th Century Podpe? limestone became better-known, although before the first half of the 20th Century there were no significant stonecutting workshops in Podpe?. After this, stone was supplied progressively from the main quarry. Large numbers of buildings in Ljubljana and central Slovenia have sills, lintels and jambs made of Podpe? limestone. Production stopped in 1967. The internationally renowned Slovenian architect Jože Ple?nik (1872-1957) used Podpe? limestone in various Slovenian buildings - the central stadium in Ljubljana, the National University Library, many altars and churches (Bogojina, the Ši\\vska and Bežigrad districts of Ljubljana), parts of the Parliament of the Republic of Slovenia (Ljubljana), and Ljubljana's first skyscraper. With the exception of the Antonius Church in Belgrade, which was constructed by Ple?nik, where part of the altar was made of Podpe? limestone, the international use of Podpe? limestone is not known.

Kramar, Sabina; Bedjani?, Mojca; Mirti?, Breda; Mladenovi?, Ana; Roži?, Boštjan; Skaberne, Dragomir; Zupan?i?, Nina

2013-04-01

180

Protection of agriculture against drought in Slovenia based on vulnerability and risk assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Past and recent extreme events, like earthquakes, extreme droughts, heat waves, flash floods and volcanic eruptions continuously remind us that natural hazards are an integral component of the global environment. Despite rapid improvement of detection techniques many of these events evade long-term or even mid-term prediction and can thus have disastrous impacts on affected communities and environment. Effective mitigation and preparedness strategies will be possible to develop only after gaining the understanding on how and where such hazards may occur, what causes them, what circumstances increase their severity, and what their impacts may be and their study has the recent years emerged as under the common title of natural hazard management. The first step in natural risk management is risk identification, which includes hazard analysis and monitoring, vulnerability analysis and determination of the risk level. The presented research focuses on drought, which is at the present already the most widespread as well as still unpredictable natural hazard. Its primary aim was to assess the frequency and the consequences of droughts in Slovenia based on drought events in the past, to develop methodology for drought vulnerability and risk assessment that can be applied in Slovenia and wider in South-Eastern Europe, to prepare maps of drought risk and crop vulnerability and to guidelines to reduce the vulnerability of the crops. Using the amounts of plant available water in the soil, slope inclination, solar radiation, land use and irrigation infrastructure data sets as inputs, we obtained vulnerability maps for Slovenia using GIS-based multi-criteria decision analysis with a weighted linear combination of the input parameters. The weight configuration was optimized by comparing the modelled crop damage to the assessed actual damage, which was available for the extensive drought case in 2006. Drought risk was obtained quantitatively as a function of hazard and vulnerability and presented in the same way as the vulnerability, as a GIS-based map. Risk maps show geographic regions in Slovenia where droughts pose a major threat to the agriculture and together with the vulnerability maps provide the basis for drought management, in particular for the appropriate mitigation and response actions in specific regions. The developed methodology is expected to be applied to the entire region of South-Eastern Europe within the initiative of the Drought Management Centre for Southeastern Europe.

Dovžak, M.; Stani?, S.; Bergant, K.; Gregori?, G.

2012-04-01

181

Seasonal Analysis of Combined Climate Indices in Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Joint distributions of two weather variables, such as temperature and precipitation, better reflect the weather conditions than temperature or precipitation statistics taken separately (Beniston 2010). Hence, the seasonal analysis of combined climate indices in Serbia is presented using Warm/Dry (WD), Warm/Wet (WW), Cold/Dry (CD) and Cold/Wet (CW) days. The present study is based on the collection of the daily mean temperatures and precipitation at seven stations from the observational network of the Serbian Meteorological Service during the period 1961 - 2010. Day is conceived as warm (cold) if the daily mean temperature is greater (less) than the 75th (25th) percentile. Day is considered as dry (wet) if the daily precipitation sums are below the 25th percentile (higher than the 75th percentile). Temperature percentiles were calculated for each day in a year, while precipitation percentiles were calculated for each season. It is obtained that the number of WW days is small for all seasons. An increasing tendency of WD and decreasing tendencies of CD and CW are observed. Correlation between the combined climatic indices and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are examined. It was found that the connection existed between the NAO index and CW and WD during the winter, CD during the autumn and WD during the summer. Our results are in accordance with previous results of Beniston (2009), who revealed a systematic change at nine European cities in the course of the 20th century with significant declines in the frequency of occurrence of the "cold" modes and a sharp rise in that of the "warm" modes. Beniston, M., 2009: Trends in joint quantiles of temperature and precipitation in Europe since 1901 and projected for 2100. Geophysical Research Letters, 36, L07707 Beniston, M., 2010: Impacts of climatic change on water and associated economic activities in the Swiss Alps. Journal of Hydrology, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2010.06.046

Arsenovic, Pavle; Tosic, Ivana; Unkasevic, Miroslava

2014-05-01

182

Late Pleistocene voles (Arvicolinae, Rodentia) from the Baranica Cave (Serbia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Baranica is a cave system situated in the south-eastern part of Serbia, four kilometers south to Knjaževac, on the right bank of the Trgovi\\vski Timok. The investigations in Baranica were conducted from 1994 to 1997 by the Faculty of Philosophy from Belgrade and the National Museum of Knjaževac. Four geological layers of Quaternary age were recovered. The abundance of remains of both large and small mammals was noticed in the early phase of the research. In this paper, the remains of eight vole species are described: Arvicola terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758), Chionomys nivalis (Martins, 1842), Microtus (Microtus) arvalis (Pallas, 1778) and Microtus (Microtus) agrestis (Linnaeus, 1761), Microtus (Stenocranius) gregalis (Pallas, 1779), Microtus (Terricola) subterraneus (de Sélys-Longchamps, 1836), Clethrionomys glareolus (Schreber, 1780) and Lagurus lagurus (Pallas, 1773). Among them, steppe and open area inhabitants prevail. Based on the evolutionary level and dimensions of the Arvicola terrestris molars, as well as the overall characteristics of the fauna, it was concluded that the deposits were formed in the last glacial period of the Late Pleistocene. These conclusions are rather consistent with the absolute dating of large mammal bones (23.520 ą 110 B.P. for Layer 2 and 35.780 ą 320 B.P. for Layer 4).

Bogi?evi?, Katarina; Nenadi?, Draženko; Mihailovi?, Dušan

2012-02-01

183

Monitoring West Nile virus (WNV) infection in wild birds in Serbia during 2012: first isolation and characterisation of WNV strains from Serbia.  

PubMed

West Nile virus (WNV), a neurovirulent mosquito-transmissible zoonotic virus, has caused recent outbreaks in Europe, including Serbia from August until October 2012. Although humans can be infected, birds are the main natural WNV reservoir. To assess WNV circulation in northern Serbia, 133 wild birds were investigated. These comprised resident and migratory birds, collected between January and September 2012 in the Vojvodina province. The birds belonged to 45 species within 27 families. Blood sera (n=92) and pooled tissues from respective birds (n=81) were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), plaque reduction neutralisation test (PRNT) and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). WNV antibodies were detected in seven (8%) sera: four from Mute Swans (Cygnus olor), two from White-tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicillas), and one from a Common Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus). Five sera neutralised WNV but not Usutu virus. For the first time in Serbia, WNV RNA was detected by RT-qPCR in pooled tissue samples of eight respective birds. WNV RNA was also derived from an additional bird, after a serum sample resulted infective in cell culture. The total nine WNV RNA positive birds included three Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis), two White-tailed Eagles, one Legged Gull (Larus michahelis), one Hooded Crow (Corvus cornix), one Bearded Parrot-bill (Panarus biramicus), and one Common Pheasant. Phylogenetic analysis of partial E region sequences showed the presence of, at least, two lineage 2 Serbian clusters closely related to those responsible for recent human and animal outbreaks in Greece, Hungary and Italy. Full genomic sequence from a goshawk isolate corroborated this data. These results confirm WNV circulation in Serbia and highlight the risk of infection for humans and horses, pointing to the need for implementing WNV surveillance programmes. PMID:24176657

Petrovi?, T; Blazquez, A B; Lupulovi?, D; Lazi?, G; Escribano-Romero, E; Fabijan, D; Kapetanov, M; Lazi?, S; Saiz, Jc

2013-01-01

184

Operational programs for national radioactive waste and spent fuel management programme in Slovenia  

SciTech Connect

The first separate National Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel Management Programme (National Programme) was prepared in Slovenia in 2005 as a supplementary part of the National Environmental Action Programme and was adopted in February 2006 by the Slovenian Parliament. The new National Programme includes all topics being relevant for the management of the radioactive waste and spent fuel which are produced in Slovenia, from the legislation and identification of different waste streams, to the management of radioactive waste and spent fuel, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and management of (TE)NORM in the near future from 2006 up to the 2015. The National Programme identified the existing and possible future problems and proposed the technical solutions and action plans for two distinctive periods: 2006-2009 and 2010- 2015. According to the requirement of Act on Protection against Ionising Radiation and Nuclear Safety the national Agency for Radwaste Management (ARAO) prepared the operational programmes for the four year period with technical details on implementation of the National programme. ARAO gained the detailed plans of different involved holders and proposed 9 operational programmes with aims, measures, individual organizations in charge, expenses and resources for each of the programmes. The Operational programmes were already reviewed by the Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning and are under acceptance. The orientation of the radioactive waste management according to the National Programme and operational activities within additional limitations based on the strategical decisions of Slovenian Government is presented in the paper. (authors)

Zeleznik, Nadja; Kralj, Metka; Mele, Irena [Agency for Radwaste Management, Parmova 53, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2007-07-01

185

Teaching for Humanity in a Neoliberal World: Visions of Education in Serbia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Serbia, teachers and policy makers express different and sometimes competing visions of education. Teachers express their desire to "awaken" students by using progressive pedagogies, while European Union and World Bank reformers appropriate progressive education in the service of neoliberal goals. The research findings presented here indicate…

Dull, Laura J.

2012-01-01

186

THE ROLE OF REGULATORY IMPACT ANALYSIS IN IMPROVING THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR PRIVATE BUSINESS IN SERBIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Comprehensive, market-oriented legal reforms are essential to Serbia's economic recovery. Although the pace of future Serbian economic growth depends primarily on private sector performance, the current legal environment is hostile to the investment and growth of private firms. One of the most important capacities of a market regulator is the ability to assess the market impacts of a regulation

Scott H. Jacobs

2001-01-01

187

Prospects for Inclusive Education in European Countries Emerging from Economic and Other Trauma: Serbia and Albania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines recent historical, social and economic factors in Albania and Serbia, identifying similarities and differences that have a bearing on the provision of education. The focus is on the education of children with difficulties in learning and/or disabilities (the term "special needs" is used for brevity). The paper provides a…

Radoman, Vesna; Nano, Virxhil; Closs, Alison

2006-01-01

188

LATE HOLOCENE CLIMATIC CHANGE IN THE BALKANS: SPELEOTHEM ISOTOPIC DATA FROM SERBIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed profile of the stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen was obtained from a speleothem (stalagmite) from the Ceremosjna Cave in eastern Serbia. The stalagmite is a low magnesian calcite that did not show any evidence of diagenetic alteration. It was precipitated under isotopic equilibrium conditions from dripping water. The age and rate of dep- osition was derived from

Aleksander Kacanski; Israel Carmi; Aldo Shemesh; Joel Kronfeld; Ruth Yam; Akiva Flexer

189

Exploitation of geothermal energy as a priority of sustainable energetic development in Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The actual global economic crisis, including all other well-known problems of sustainable development, reflects the direction of development of all countries in the world. Serbia, as a European country in its early stage of development, is trying to synchronize its progress with experience of other countries from the field of sustainable development and in accordance with rules in the field

Mirjana Golusin; Olja Munitlak Ivanovic; Ivan Bagaric; Sanja Vranjes

2010-01-01

190

Women's Expectations of Healthcare Professionals in Case of Intimate Partner Violence in Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women who have experienced intimate partner violence use health care services more often than non-abused women, but it is unclear what they expect from physicians in relation to their intimate partner violence experience. In this study the authors explored whether women in Serbia expect physicians to help them after having experienced intimate partner violence, what kind of help the women

Bosiljka Djikanovic; Sylvie Lo Fo Wong; Snezana Stevanovic; Halime Celik

2011-01-01

191

Developmental dental defects in children exposed to PCBs in eastern Slovakia.  

PubMed

The effects of long-term exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on developmental dental defects of deciduous and permanent teeth in children in eastern Slovakia, where PCBs from a chemical plant manufacturing Delors contaminated the surrounding district were evaluated. Four hundred and thirtytwo children, lifelong residents, aged 8-9 years were examined. Children's caries susceptibility and gingival health was assessed by standard dental indices, and developmental enamel defects by the FDI index. Data from the PCBRISK project data set and questionnaires completed by the parents provided information on exposure and various confounding factors. The proportion of teeth with different types and extensions of developmental enamel defects correlated with serum PCB concentration. The proportion of deciduous teeth affected with enamel defects was significantly higher in higher exposed children (chi(2)=8.35; p=0.03) according to their serum PCB concentration (group 0: <200; group 1: 200-600; group 2: >600 ng PCBs g(-1) serum lipids). The proportion of permanent teeth affected with any enamel defect was significantly higher in higher exposed children (chi2=7.237; p=0.027). Furthermore, the extent of the enamel defects was also greater (chi2=10.714; p=0.005). In multivariate linear regression analysis PCB exposure was significantly related to developmental enamel defects of permanent teeth only. No associations between PCB exposure and caries susceptibility, gingival health or number of teeth were observed. This study demonstrated a dose-response relationship between PCB exposure and developmental enamel defects of permanent teeth in children, the evidence for deciduous teeth was not conclusive. PMID:17250867

Jan, Janja; Sovcikova, Eva; Kocan, Anton; Wsolova, Ladislava; Trnovec, Tomas

2007-04-01

192

ASSESSMENT OF THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT AND IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH IN ROMA VILLAGES IN SLOVAKIA AND ROMANIA  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Objectives The objective of this paper is to provide information on indoor air quality and on the quality of the broader indoor environment of the houses in Roma villages in Slovakia and Romania and to discuss possible implications for health. Methods Indoor air was sampled in 11 houses in a Romanian Roma village and in 19 houses in a Slovakian Roma village. Levels of Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), total particulate matter (PM), temperature and humidity were measured. A questionnaire and a checklist were used to obtain additional information on the indoor environment and behavioural factors. We have sampled the same houses in winter and in summer. Results Levels of CO and CO2 were higher in winter in both countries as compared to summer. The limit value of 10 mg/m3 CO was exceeded in a few cases in both countries. In general, levels of CO, CO2 and PM were higher in Romania. Further environmental and behavioural hazards such as indoor smoking, pets inside or lack of ventilation were found. The reported self-perceived quality of the indoor environment was poor in many aspects. Conclusions Our findings of CO, CO2 and PM levels suggest that indoor air pollution in Roma settlements has the potential to be a health threat. The fact that the inhabitants spend a relatively long time inside the houses and that a number of additional environmental and behavioural hazards were identified by our study emphasizes the importance of the indoor air quality for health and thus priority attention should be paid to these issues by health authorities and researchers. Further research is essential and study designs must consider cultural background and specific characteristics of the community, especially in order to obtain valid data on health outcomes. PMID:23285520

Majdan, Marek; Coman, Alexandru; Gallová, Eva; ?uricová, Janka; Kállayová, Daniela; Kvaková, Mária; Bošák, ?uboš

2013-01-01

193

A Note on the Chemical Composition of Nuffieldite Solid-Solution From Sulphide Mineralizations in the Western Carpathians, Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemistry of the rare sulphosalt nuffieldite from three localities in Slovakia is examined. Nuffieldite is a part of a complex association of Bi sulphosalts accompanying tetrahedrite mineralization in some sulphide deposits in the Western Carpathians. Cu + Pb = (Bi, Sb) + vac. substitution in nuffieldite and the general formula Cu1+xPb2Bi2(PbxSbyBi1-x-y)S7 where 0 < x < 0.34; and 0.32 < y < 0.45 are confirmed. Decreasing Sb content with increasing copper content indicates a predominant substitution of Bi by Sb in nuffieldite.

Pr?ek, Jaroslav; Makovicy, Emil; Chovan, Martin; Smirnov, Alexander

2006-01-01

194

Establishment of control site baseline data for erosion studies using radionuclides: a case study in East Slovenia.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to establish a reference site and its soil characteristics for use of fallout radionuclides in erosion studies in Slovenia. Prior to this study, no reference site and baseline data existed for Slovenia for this purpose. In the agricultural area of Goricko in East Slovenia, an undisturbed forest situated in Salamenci (46 degrees 44'N, 16 degrees 7'E), was selected to establish the inventory value of fallout 137Cs and to establish a baseline level of multi-elemental fingerprint (major, minor, trace elements including heavy metals) and naturally occurring radionuclides in soils. A total of 20 soil profiles were collected at four 10 cm depth increments for evaluation of baseline level of 137Cs inventory. An exponential distribution for 137Cs was found and the baseline level inventory was established at 7300 +/- 2500 Bq m-2 with a coefficient of variation of 34%. Of this mean present-day inventory, approximately 45% is due to the Chernobyl contribution. The physical degradation of soils through erosion is linked with biochemical degradation. This study introduces an approach to establishment of the naturally occurring radionuclide and elemental fingerprints baseline levels at a reference site which can provide comparative data to those from neighbouring agricultural fields for assessment of soil redistribution magnitude using fallout radionuclides. In addition, this information will be used to determine the impact of soil erosion processes and agricultural practices on soil quality and redistribution within agricultural landscapes in Slovenia. PMID:20687248

Mabit, Lionel; Martin, Paul; Jankong, Patcharin; Toloza, Arsenio; Padilla-Alvarez, Roman; Zupanc, Vesna

2010-10-01

195

Establishment of control site baseline data for erosion studies using radionuclides: a case study in East Slovenia.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to establish a reference site and its soil characteristics for use of fallout radionuclides in erosion studies in Slovenia. Prior to this study, no reference site and baseline data existed for Slovenia for this purpose. In the agricultural area of Gori?ko in East Slovenia, an undisturbed forest situated in Šalamenci (46°44'N, 16°7'E), was selected to establish the inventory value of fallout (137)Cs and to establish a baseline level of multi-elemental fingerprint (major, minor, trace elements including heavy metals) and naturally occurring radionuclides in soils. A total of 20 soil profiles were collected at four 10 cm depth increments for evaluation of baseline level of (137)Cs inventory. An exponential distribution for (137)Cs was found and the baseline level inventory was established at 7300 ą 2500 Bq m(-2) with a coefficient of variation of 34%. Of this mean present-day inventory, approximately 45% is due to the Chernobyl contribution. The physical degradation of soils through erosion is linked with biochemical degradation. This study introduces an approach to establishment of the naturally occurring radionuclide and elemental fingerprints baseline levels at a reference site which can provide comparative data to those from neighbouring agricultural fields for assessment of soil redistribution magnitude using fallout radionuclides. In addition, this information will be used to determine the impact of soil erosion processes and agricultural practices on soil quality and redistribution within agricultural landscapes in Slovenia. PMID:20965104

Mabit, Lionel; Martin, Paul; Jankong, Patcharin; Toloza, Arsenio; Padilla-Alvarez, Roman; Zupanc, Vesna

2010-06-01

196

Best Practice for Rainfall Measurement, Torrential Flood Monitoring and Real Time Alerting System in Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Serbia occupies 88.000 km2 and its confined zone menaced with torrent flood occupies 50.000km2. Floods on large rivers and torrents are the most frequent natural disasters in Serbia. This is the result of a geographic position and relief of Serbia. Therefore, defense from these natural disasters has been institutionalized since the 19th century. Through its specialized bodies and public companies, the State organized defense from floods on large rivers and protection of international and other main roads. The Top?iderska River is one of a number of rivers in Serbia that is a threat to both urban and rural environments. In this text, general characteristics of this river will be illustrated, as well as the historical natural hazards that have occurred in the part of Belgrade near Top?iderska River. Belgrade is the capital of Serbia, its political, administrative and financial center, which means that there are significant financial capacities and human resources for investments in all sectors, and specially in the water resources sector. Along the Top?iderska catchment there are many industrial, traffic and residential structures that are in danger of floods and flood protection is more difficult with rapid high flows. The goal is to use monitoring on the Top?iderska River basin to set up a modern system for monitoring in real time and forecast of torrential floods. This paper represents a system of remote detection and monitoring of torrential floods and rain measurements in real time on Topciderka river and ready for a quick response.

Stefanovic, Milutin; Milojevic, Mileta; Zlatanovic, Nikola

2014-05-01

197

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 743 - Wassenaar Arrangement Participating States  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia Slovakia Slovenia South Africa South Korea Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom United States [63 FR 55020, Oct....

2013-01-01

198

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 743 - Wassenaar Arrangement Participating States  

... Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia Slovakia Slovenia South Africa South Korea Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom United States [63 FR 55020, Oct....

2014-01-01

199

9 CFR 94.18 - Restrictions on importation of meat and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform...  

...Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, the Republic of Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Oman, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. (2)...

2014-01-01

200

9 CFR 94.18 - Restrictions on importation of meat and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, the Republic of Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Oman, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. (2)...

2011-01-01

201

9 CFR 94.18 - Restrictions on importation of meat and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, the Republic of Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Oman, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. (2)...

2012-01-01

202

9 CFR 94.18 - Restrictions on importation of meat and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, the Republic of Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Oman, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. (2)...

2013-01-01

203

22 CFR 120.31 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization.  

...Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Turkey, United Kingdom, and the United States. [77 FR 22670, Apr. 17,...

2014-04-01

204

DISTRIBUTION OF OROBAMCHE ALBA STEPHAN EX WILLD - POTENTIAL HOST OF PHYTOPHAGOUS ANIMALS AND PATHOGENS ATTACKING THE PEST OROBANCHE RAMOSA L. IN SLOVAKIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary During 2002 and 2003, the survey of distribution of wild broomrapes (Orobanche sp.), as potential hosts of phytophagous animals and pathogens, was done in Slovakia. 50 localities were checked and broomrapes occurred on 30 of them. One of the most abundant broomrape species was Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd., which infested plants from the genus Thymus L. and was

Peter TÓTH; A. Hlinku

205

A review of the ectoparasitic mites (Acari: Dermanyssoidea) associated with birds and their nests in Slovakia, with notes on identification of some species.  

PubMed

We review the parasitic mites of the superfamily Dermanyssoidea found in the nests of Slovakian domestic and wild birds (and a few mammals), compiled from new data and literature sources. Three mite genera are included, namely Dermanyssus Dugčs (Dermanyssidae), Ornithonyssus Sambon and Pellonyssus Clark & Yunker (Macronyssidae), in which we recognised nine reliably documented species. Pellonyssus is represented by one species, Dermanyssus by five species, and Ornithonyssus by three species. We compiled information on the ecological requirements and host preferences of these mite species, including data on geographic distribution, altitudinal distribution, and occurrence in different habitats and nest types. An identification key to the species occurring in Slovakia is provided, together with taxonomic remarks on the identification and external morphology of some selected species. Parasitic mites have been reported from 119 taxa of Slovakian vertebrates (including man), of which 108 belong to 17 orders of birds. Dermanyssus americanus Ewing and Ornithonyssus bursa (Berlese) are reported from Slovakia for the first time. Examination of older voucher material collected in Slovakia revealed many misidentified specimens: the name Dermanyssus hirundinis (Hermann) has been widely used for misidentified specimens of Dermanyssus carpathicus Zeman; D. americanus was confused with D. hirundinis; while O. bursa has been confused with Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini & Fanzago). Slovakia is the second country in Europe with known occurrence of the genus Pellonyssus.  PMID:25544512

Mašán, Peter; Fen?a, Peter; Krištofík, Ján; Halliday, Bruce

2014-01-01

206

Preliminary study of thoron and radon levels in various indoor environments in Slovenia.  

PubMed

Using the Raduet discriminative radon-thoron solid-state nuclear track detectors, a limited number of measurements were recently carried out about 1 m away from any wall and 1.5 m above the floor in different environments in Slovenia. The following thoron and radon ranges were obtained, respectively (Bq m(-3)): 33-700 and 25-4900 in 2 dwellings, 11-215 and 22-422 in 5 kindergartens, 21-368 and 40-4609 in 35 elementary schools, 47-1361 and 92-3280 in 4 hospitals, 4-37 and 10-153 in 9 spas and 800-880 and 4060-6870 in 1 karst cave (2 places). In case of thoron and radon concentrations lognormal distribution was confirmed, while the statistical relationship between them was weak. PMID:20846971

Vaupotic, J; Kávási, N

2010-10-01

207

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Slovenia, 1990–2003 (results of treatment with conventional two-dimensional radiotherapy)  

PubMed Central

Aim To review the treatment results and identify prognostic factors for disease control and survival in a cohort of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients from a non-endemic population in Slovenia, diagnosed between 1990 and 2003. Background In Caucasians, nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor. Its diagnosis and treatment are complex and have been dramatically impacted by recent technological advances. Materials and methods In the Cancer Registry of Slovenia database, a total of 126 patients with NPC were identified, 93 of whom were available for analysis. All patients were treated with conventional two-dimensional radiotherapy (RT) and 29.3% underwent chemotherapy (ChT). Results The median follow-up time for those alive at the last follow-up examination was 74.5 months. Disease recurred locally in 17 patients, regionally in 4 patients and at distant sites in 18 patients, resulting in 5-year locoregional control (LRC), distant failure-free survival (DFFS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of 73.7%, 78.6% and 59.3%, respectively. Disease-specific survival at 5 years was 59% and overall survival (OS) was 49.7%. In a multivariate analysis, LRC was favorably affected (P < 0.05) by an undifferentiated histology (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.86), DFFS through the absence of neck metastases (HR = 0.28), DFS by younger age (HR = 0.46), and more intensive RT (expressed as the isoeffective dose, EQD2,T; HR = 2.08). The independent prognosticator for OS was age (?55 years vs. >55 years, HR = 0.39); in the ?55 years subgroup, an improved OS was connected to a more intensive RT regimen of EQD2,T ? 66 Gy (HR = 4.17). Conclusions Our results confirm an independent and favorable effect from an undifferentiated histology, the absence of neck metastases, a younger patient age at diagnosis, and more intensive RT regimens for disease control and survival. PMID:24377003

?arman, Janka; Strojan, Primož

2012-01-01

208

Acid soils of western Serbia and their further acidification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acid soils cause many unfavorable soil characteristics from the plant nutrition point of view. Because of increased soil acidity the violation of buffering soil properties due to leaching of Ca and Mg ions is taking place that also can cause soil physical degradation via peptization of colloids. Together with increasing of soil acidity the content of mobile Al increases that can be toxic for plants. Easily available nutritive elements transforms into hardly avaialble froms. The process of deactivation is especially expressed for phosphorous that under such conditions forms non-soluble compounds with sesqui-oxides. From the other hand the higher solubility of some microelements (Zn and B) can cause their accelerated leaching from root zone and therefore, result in their deficiency for plant nutrition. Dangerous and toxic matters transforms into easly-available forms for plants, especially, Cd and Ni under the lower soil pH. The studied soil occupies 36675 hectare in the municipality of Krupan in Serbia, and are characterized with very unfavorable chemical properties: 26% of the territory belongs to the cathegory of very acidic, and 44 % belongs to the cathegory of acidic. The results showed that the soil of the territory of Krupan is limited for agricultural land use due to their high acidity. Beside the statement of negative soil properties determined by acidity, there is a necessity for determination of soil sensitivity for acidification processes toward soil protection from ecological aspect and its prevention from further acidification. Based on such data and categorization of soils it is possible to undertake proper measures for soil protection and melioration of the most endangered soil cover, where the economic aspect of these measures is very important. One of the methods of soil classification based on sensitivity for acidification classification the determination of soil categories is based on the values of soil CEC and pH in water. By combination of these two parameters the 16 categories for main three chemical processes are emerged: sensitivity for base losses, sensitivity for acidification process and sensitivity for Al-solubility. Based on the combination of these three sensitivity categories the total soil sensitivity for acidification was determined: - Upon soil sensitivity for base losses, the 5% belongs to the category that is highly subjected to losses, and 73% belongs to medium-sensitive category in the studied area. - Upon sensitivity on acidification, 88% of soils in Krupan region are weakly sensitive, while the rest 12% is sensitive, where only 0.5%is highly subject to acidification. - Upon sensitivity on solubility of Al, the 28% belongs to the category of highly risky, while 36% of the territory is not endangered. The very high sensitivity on acidification processes is detected on 5% of the total territory, while 74% belongs to medium sensitive category. Considering that in Krupan region about 50% of the territory is subject to acidification processes there is a necessity of melioration measures toward prevention of this process. Special attention should be given to the soils that are highly sensitive to overall acidification. Within those soils there should not be constructed industrial objects because of enhanced emissions of industrial gases rich in nitrogen and sulphur, as well as some other toxic microelements toward protection of the environment. Key Words: Soil acidity, mobile Al, CEC, acidificaiton

Mrvic, Vesna

2010-05-01

209

Therapeutic Fascism: re-educating communists in Nazi-occupied Serbia, 1942-44.  

PubMed

This article probes the relationship between psychoanalysis and right-wing authoritarianism, and analyses a unique psychotherapeutic institution established by Serbia's World War II collaborationist regime. The extraordinary Institute for compulsory re-education of high-school and university students affiliated with the Communist resistance movement emerged in the context of a brutal civil war and violent retaliations against Communist activists, but its openly psychoanalytic orientation was even more astonishing. In order to stem the rapid spread of Communism, the collaborationist state, led by its most extreme fascistic elements, officially embraced psychotherapy, the 'talking cure' and Freudianism, and conjured up its own theory of mental pathology and trauma - one that directly contradicted the Nazi concepts of society and the individual. In the course of the experiment, Serbia's collaborationists moved away from the hitherto prevailing organicist, biomedical model of mental illness, and critiqued traditional psychiatry's therapeutic pessimism. PMID:24594820

Antic, Ana

2014-03-01

210

Radon in thermal waters in south-east part of Serbia.  

PubMed

There are several occurrences of thermal waters in the south-eastern part of Serbia, which are originating from igneous and metamorphic rocks. These waters are mainly used in balneology, but some of them are used for drinking purposes and in water supply to heat buildings, for greenhouses and to irrigate land. In this region, there is the well-known Niška banja spa, which has elevated levels of radon. Water samples were examined from other spas in the south-eastern part of Serbia in order to determine radon activity concentration. A detailed discussion of a possible correlation between determined radon activity concentration and the geology of this area is also given. PMID:24707000

Nikolov, Jovana; Todorovi?, Nataša; Bikit, Ištvan; Panti?, Tanja Petrovi?; Forkapi?, Sofija; Mr?a, Dušan; Bikit, Kristina

2014-07-01

211

Pathogenicity and mycotoxin production by Fusarium proliferatum isolated from onion and garlic in Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium proliferatum can occur on a wide range of economically important vegetable plants but its role in disease is not always well established.\\u000a In 2000 and 2001, from forty-one field samples of wilting onion and garlic plants in Serbia, F. proliferatum as the predominant fungal species was isolated from root and bulbs. Seventy isolates were firstly characterized for their\\u000a sexual

S. Stankovic; J. Levic; T. Petrovic; A. Logrieco; A. Moretti

2007-01-01

212

Success Factors for e-Learning in a Developing Country: A Case Study of Serbia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, DeLone and McLean's updated information system model was used to evaluate the success of an e-Learning system and its courses in a transitional country like Serbia. In order to adapt this model to an e-Learning system, suitable success metrics were chosen for each of the evaluation stages. Furthermore, the success metrics for…

Raspopovic, Miroslava; Jankulovic, Aleksandar; Runic, Jovana; Lucic, Vanja

2014-01-01

213

Essential Oil Composition of Some Populations of Mentha arvensis L. in Serbia and Montenegro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of six population of Mentha arvensis L. in Serbia and Montenegro were studied. Two populations of subsp. agrestis(Sole) Briq., were found to produce oil rich in pulegone (49%-28%). Three of the studied populations proposed as subsp. austriaca,were unusual in that a major compound was menthofuran (11.5%-299%) which is diagnostic of M. aquaticaand its hybrids, whereas the third

Neda Mimica-Dukic; Olga Gasic; Radisa Jancic; Geoffrey Kite

1998-01-01

214

The fight for cosmography in Serbia during last decades of the XIX century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Milan Nedeljkovi? (1857-1950), the founder and the first director of Belgrade Observatory,published his annual reports of its activities in the period 1898-1925. These reports are very important presenting precious material on Observatory's history, on the pioneering observational activity and professional cultivation of astronomy and meteorology in Serbia. They also contain his reflections on various events, along with some memoirist elements.

Trajkovska, Veselka; Cirkovi?, Milan M.; Ninkovi?, Slobodan

2002-04-01

215

Factors associated with intimate partner violence against women in Serbia: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThis study aimed to identify factors associated with intimate partner violence against women living in Belgrade, Serbia.MethodA cross-sectional, population based household survey was conducted in Belgrade as part of the WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence, using a standard questionnaire. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 1456 women aged 15–49 years. Data used in this study were from

Bosiljka Djikanovic; Henrica A F M Jansen; Stanislava Otasevic

2010-01-01

216

Evaluation of the Ecochemical Status of the Danube in Serbia in Terms of Water Quality Parameters  

PubMed Central

The Danube is an international river passing partly through Serbia. The protection of the environment and sustainable use of water resources is a primary task that implies constant monitoring of the quality status and evaluation of ecochemical status of the water in the Danube basin. The investigation includes calculation of all-inclusive water quality by the Serbian water quality index (SWQI) method and an evaluation of eco-chemical status of the Danube water in terms of water quality parameters from the entry to the exit point along its course through Serbia in the year of 2009. The results show that the overall quality of the Danube water on the territory of Serbia corresponds to the descriptive indicator of “very good” water. According to the Council Directive75/440/EEC, the evaluation of the ecostatus, with slight deviation of individual parameters at Pan?evo, corresponds to A1 category of the surface water quality intended for the abstraction of drinking water supplies in member states. PMID:22645471

Taki?, Ljiljana; Mladenovi?-Ranisavljevi?, Ivana; Vukovi?, Milovan; Mladenovi?, Ilija

2012-01-01

217

First evidence of Brucella ovis infection in rams in the Pirot Municipality, Serbia.  

PubMed

This paper describes a research on Brucella ovis infection in rams in the Pirot Municipality of South Serbia. A positive result with indirect immunoenzyme test (i-ELISA) was confirmed in 67 (29.8%) and suspicious in 31 (13.8%) out of 225 tested rams. Complement fixation test (CFT) was used as a confirmation test on 67 ELISA positive sera and gave positive reaction in 41 (61.2%) ram serum samples. Rams originated from 113 flocks with 4751 sheep, from 28 villages in the Pirot Municipality of southern Serbia. Clinical examination was performed on epididymis and testes of 12 rams from 7 seropositive flocks by inspection and palpation. The examination showed scrotum asymmetry and unilateral increase of the epididymistail in 5 (41.7%) out of 12 seropositive rams. Pathomorphological examination of testes and epididymis confirmed pathological changes in 7 (58.3%) of the 12 examined rams. Onesided epididymitis with pronounced hypertrophy of the epididymitis was also confirmed. Twelve rams were tested for the presence of bacteria, i.e. 21 epididymis, testes and lymph nodes samples. We isolated 20 Brucella strains from 11 (91.7%) of the 12 examined animals. All isolates were identified with bacteriological and molecular techniques as B. ovis. This is the first evidence of ovine epididymitis (B. ovis) in Republic of Serbia. PMID:25546063

Petrovi?, Miloš; Špi?i?, Silvio; Potkonjak, Aleksandar; Lako, Branislav; Kostov, Miloš; Cvetni?, Željko

2014-12-29

218

Benefits of environmental conditions for growing coriander in Banat Region, Serbia.  

PubMed

As one of the oldest multi-purpose plants (spice, aromatic, honey and medicinal), coriander is widespread across Europe. Although in Serbia there are favorable conditions for its growth and development, it is grown on relatively small areas. During both investigated years it took more than 1200 degrees C for transfer from vegetative to generative phase of development and over 2000 degrees C for it to be ready for harvesting. Coriander is a photophilic plant, which requires around 1000 hours of light from sowing to ripening.. As for humidity, coriander grows well, if there are more than 200 mm of rainfall during growing season. In 2009 and 2010, the experiment carried out at the experimental field in Ostoji?evo (Banat, Vojvodina province, Serbia) monitored the effect of parameters mentioned above on development of coriander plants, seed yield and essential oil content. The average yields of 1866 kg ha(-1) (2009) and 2470 kg ha(-1) (2010), and relatively high content of essential oil (1.06% in both years) indicate a great potential of this plant species in Serbia, which is, however, greatly dependent on environmental conditions during year. PMID:22164784

Acimovic, Milica; Oljaca, Snezana; Jacimovic, Goran; Drazic, Slobodan; Tasic, Slavoljub

2011-10-01

219

Police violence and sexual risk among female and transvestite sex workers in Serbia: qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore female and transvestite sex workers’ perceptions of risk in the sex work environment in Serbia. Design Qualitative interview study. Setting Street based locations for sex work in Belgrade and Pancevo, Serbia. Participants 31 female and transvestite sex workers. Results Violence, including police violence, was reported as a primary concern in relation to risk. Violence was linked to unprotected sex and the reduced capacity for avoiding sexual risk. Participants reported that coerced sex was routinely provided to the police in exchange for freedom from detainment, arrest, or fine, and was enforced by the perceived threat of violence, sometimes realised. Accounts contained multiple instances of physical and sexual assault, presented as abuses of police authority, and described policing as a form of moral punishment. This was largely through non-physical means but was also enforced through physical violence, especially towards transvestite and Roma sex workers, whose experience of police violence was reported as relentless and brutal and connected with broader social forces of discrimination in this setting, especially towards Roma. Conclusion Preventing violence towards sex workers, which can link with vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections, is a priority in Serbia. This requires monitoring perpetrators of violence, providing legal support to sex workers, and creating safer environments for sex work. PMID:18667468

2008-01-01

220

Cartographic evidence of the disastrous ice flood of 1809 and its aftermath (Danube River, Slovakia).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 18th and early 19th century river maps are important data sources for studying past landscapes. This is not only as a result of improved surveying techniques, but also because they depict landscape during probably the most important climatic and land-use changes since the Middle Ages. In this phase of the increased river activity during the last onset of the so-called Little Ice Age period, several major flood events occured. Local manuscript maps, which often depict the channel in major detail, help us to obtain a better understanding of their geomorphic and other impacts. The catastrophic ice flood, which occured on the Middle Danube river at the end of January 1809 was undoubtedly the most disastrous event of its kind in Slovakia, although it also hit a number of settlements in Lower Austria and Hungary. Several people drowned and the flood also resulted in great damage to settlements and livestock. Devastating effects of this flood particularly as to the towns of Bratislava and Komárno/Komárom were comparable with effects of disastrous floods of February 1830 in Vienna (Austria), March 1838 in Buda/Pest (Hungary) or 1845 flood in Prague (Czech Republic), respectively. In case of the present Slovakian capital Bratislava, on January 29, 1809, two ice barriers suddenly rose the water up to 10 m above the zero level and the river quickly overflowed its banks inundating the low-lying parts of the town. The flood blacked out communications with neighbouring regions. Record-breaking height of water led to breaches of the important right-bank embankment (constructed in 1770s). Through several openings water flooded the right bank, almost completely destroying the adjacent village of Petržalka/Engerau. The damage to Vienna highway levee was so massive that it only could be repaired 16 years later, in 1825-6 (although this was also due to Napoleonic wars). The flood also reactivated the Chorvátske rameno anabranch, 33 years after its abandonment. A number of local manuscript maps depict the river before and after this event. Combined with written literary reports, the maps allow us to describe the course, the devastating effects and the aftermath consequences of the 1809 flood precisely, particularly as to the territory of the city of Bratislava itself. Moreover, many of these maps comprise a wealth of information about flood in their detailed explanatory legends and remarks. The most important maps and plans are those currently deposited in the National Archives of Hungary (= maps from the collection of former Governing Council, the central supervisory authority of the Habsburgs for the Hungarian Kingdom), in the Municipial Archives of Bratislava and the Slovak National Archives, respectively. Effects of the 1809 ice flood, as evidenced by historical maps and plans, can be generally summarised as follows: a) direct destruction (by ice floes) or collapse of houses, bridges, buildings, boat mills, groynes and bank revetments b) heavy lateral erosion of the river channel during this single event (then referred to as „damage to banks") c) breaches of protective dikes d) formation of new water bodies - temporary lakes - created by spilled water on the landside of levees e) reactivation of upstream entrances of some side channels f) pronounced changes of flooplain configuration g) damage to floodplain forest. This research was supported by the Slovak Scientific Grant agency VEGA (Project N. 1/0362/09).

Pišút, P.

2009-04-01

221

Dolomite Versus Calcite Weathering in Hydrogeochemically Diverse Watersheds Established on Bedded Carbonates (Sava and So?a Rivers, Slovenia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative contributions of dolomite to calcite weathering related to riverine fluxes are investigated on a highly resolved\\u000a spatial scale in the diverse watersheds of Slovenia, which previous work has shown have some of the highest carbonate-weathering\\u000a intensities in the world and suggests that dolomite weathering is favored over limestone weathering in mixed carbonate watersheds.\\u000a The forested Sava and So?a

Kathryn SzramekLynn; Lynn M. Walter; Tjaša Kandu?; Nives Ogrinc

222

Macroinvertebrate communities of karst springs of two river catchments in the Southern Limestone Alps (the Julian Alps, NW Slovenia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The macroinvertebrate communities of 16 karst springs in the Southern Limestone Alps (Slovenia, SE Europe), were studied from\\u000a May to September 1999, together with the major chemical parameters of the water and selected physical characteristics of the\\u000a springs. The springs are located in an area of 800 km2, between 410 and 955 m a.s.l., and drain into two rivers whose catchments are separated

Nataša Mori; Anton Brancelj

2006-01-01

223

A case-study of complex gas–water–rock–pollutants interactions in shallow groundwater: Šalek Valley (Slovenia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex geochemical interactions in the groundwater of the industrial area of Šalek Valley (Slovenia) between natural\\u000a and anthropogenic fluids were studied by means of major (Ca, Mg, Na, K, HCO3\\u000a ?, Cl? and SO4\\u000a 2?) and trace elements’ (As , Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Hg, Se and V) abundances, geochemical classification and statistical analysis\\u000a of data. Cation abundances indicate

Salvatore Giammanco; Barbara Justin; Natalija Speh; Marta Veder

2009-01-01

224

Model of the porphyry copper and polymetallic vein family of deposits - Applications in Slovakia, Hungary, and Romania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A tectonic model useful in estimating the occurrence of undiscovered porphyry copper and polymetallic vein systems has been developed. This model is based on the manner in which magmatic and hydrothermal fluids flow and are trapped in fault systems as far-field stress is released in tectonic strain features above subducting plates (e.g. strike-slip fault systems). The structural traps include preferred locations for stock emplacement and tensional-shear fault meshes within the step-overs that localize porphyry- and vein-style deposits. The application of the model is illustrated for the porphyry copper and polymetallic vein deposits in the Central Slovakian Volcanic Field, Slovakia; the Ma??tra Mountains, Hungary; and the Apuseni Mountains, Romania.

Drew, L.J.

2003-01-01

225

Epidemiology of cancers in serbia and possible connection with cyanobacterial blooms.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria produce toxic metabolites known as cyanotoxins. These bioactive compounds can cause acute poisoning, and some of them may promote cancer through chronic exposure. Direct ingestion of and contact with contaminated water is one of the many exposure routes to cyanotoxins. The aim of this article was to review the incidence of 13 cancers during a 10-year period in Serbia and to assess whether there is a correlation between the cancer incidences and cyanobacterial bloom occurrence in reservoirs for drinking water supply. The types of cancers were chosen and subjected to epidemiological analyses utilizing previously published data. Based on the epidemiological and statistical analysis, the group of districts in which the incidences of cancers are significant, and may be considered as critical, include Nišavski, Topli?ki, and Šumadijski district. A significantly higher incidence of ten cancers was observed in the three critical districts as compared to the remaining 14 districts in Central Serbia. These elevated incidences of cancer include: brain cancer, heart, mediastinum and pleura cancer, ovary cancer, testicular cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, retroperitoneum and peritoneum cancer, leukemia, malignant melanoma of skin, and primary liver cancer. In addition, the mean incidence of five chosen cancers was the highest in the three critical regions, then in the rest of Central Serbia, while the lowest values were recorded in Vojvodina. Persistent and recurrent cyanobacterial blooms occur during summer months in reservoirs supplying water to waterworks in the three critical districts. People in Central Serbia mainly use surface water as water supply (but not all the water bodies are blooming) while in Vojvodina region (control region in this study) only groundwater is used. Among the 14 "noncritical" districts, reservoirs used for drinking water supply have been affected by recurrent cyanobacterial blooms in two districts (Rasinski and Zaje?arski), but the waterworks in these districts have been performing ozonation for more than 30 years. We propose that the established statistical differences of cancer incidences in Serbia could be related to drinking water quality, which is affected by cyanobacterial blooms in drinking water reservoirs in certain districts. However, more detailed research is needed regarding cyanobacterial secondary metabolites as risk factors in tumor promotion and cancerogenesis in general. PMID:25436472

Svir?ev, Zorica; Drobac, Damjana; Tokodi, Nada; Lužanin, Zorana; Munjas, Ana Marija; Nikolin, Branislava; Vuleta, Dušan; Meriluoto, Jussi

2014-10-01

226

Study of pulmonary functions of the tourist guides in two show caves in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage, the Škocjan Caves were entered on UNESCO's list of natural and cultural world heritage sites in 1986. Caves have always been special places for people all over the world. There has been a lot of research done in the field of speleology and also in medicine in relation to speleotherapy. There is still one field left partial unexplored and its main issue covers the interaction between special ecosystems as caves and human activities and living. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The issue of epidemiologic research encompass several factors that are not necessarily related to the radon. Park Škocjan Caves established research monitoring projects such as caves microclimate parameters, quality of the water, every day's data from our meteorological station useful tool in public awareness related to pollution and climate change. Last year a special study was started in order to evaluate pulmonary functions of persons who work in the caves and those who work mostly in offices. Two groups of tourist guides from Škocjan Caves and Postojna Cave were included in the study. The promising results will highlight the need of medical survey of people working in the caves and help managers of the caves to adopt reactive management process. In order to facilitate decision process related to protection of people and caves environment, special recommendation in form of index of environment's use will be proposed after the study.

Debevec Gerjevic, V.; Jovanovi?, P.

2009-04-01

227

Small mammals as biomonitors of metal pollution: a case study in Slovenia.  

PubMed

The transfer of lead, cadmium, zinc, mercury, copper and molybdenum from soil to the tissues of small mammals inhabiting differently polluted areas in Slovenia was investigated. Metals were determined in soil samples and in the livers of 139 individuals of five small mammal species, collected in 2012 in the vicinity of a former lead smelter, the largest Slovenian thermal power plant, along a main road and in a control area. The area in the vicinity of former lead smelter differs considerably from other study areas. The soil from that area is heavily polluted with Pb and Cd. The mean metal concentrations in the liver, irrespective of species, varied in the following ranges-Pb: 0.40-7.40 mg/kg fw and Cd: 0.27-135 mg/kg fw and reached effect concentrations at which toxic effects can be expected in a significant proportion of the livers of the small mammal specimens (Pb 40 %, Cd 67 %). These findings indicate that the majority of small mammals trapped in the area of the former lead smelter are at risk of toxic effects due to the very high bioaccumulation of Pb and Cd in the organism. On the contrary, Pd and Cd concentrations in the livers of small mammals sampled in the vicinity of the thermal power plant and along the main road were comparable with reference values and considerably lower than effect concentrations. Additionally, the study suggests that Apodemus flavicollis and Myodes glareolus are very suitable biomonitors of metal pollution. PMID:24619365

Al Sayegh Petkovšek, Samar; Kopušar, Nataša; Kryštufek, Boris

2014-07-01

228

Heat transfer in shallow subsurface under different climate conditions in Europe (Czechia, Slovenia, Portugal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-term records of soil and air temperatures collected at several geothermal observatories in Prague, Bedrichov, Svojsice (Czechia), Malence (Slovenia) and Evora (Portugal) were used to analyze the surface air temperature (SAT) vs soil temperature coupling at several depth levels. The work assesses (a) the influence of solar radiation, vegetation or snow cover, as well as the precipitation and albedo of the surface on mean annual air - surface temperature offset and (b) the heat transfer within the shallow subsurface. As thermal diffusivity (TD) plays a fundamental role in heat transfer in soil, two different methods based on attenuation and phase shift of annual temperature wave and on modeling of thermal response by error function solution of heat conduction equation were used to estimate TD in particular soil levels. It was found that low-frequency changes of the surface temperature such as the annual wave and/or multi-year and secular variations propagate downwards mainly by the heat conduction contrary to high-frequency (diurnal wave) where the convective heat transport during wet periods plays an important role. Significant seasonal changes of thermal diffusivity of upper soil layer caused by rotating of long wet and dry periods in Evora produce negative offset values between ground and soil mean annual temperature.

Dedecek, Petr; Cermak, Vladimir; Safanda, Jan; Correia, Antonio; Rajver, Dusan

2014-05-01

229

Gap Dynamics and Structure of Two Old-Growth Beech Forest Remnants in Slovenia  

PubMed Central

Context Due to a long history of intensive forest exploitation, few European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) old-growth forests have been preserved in Europe. Material and Methods We studied two beech forest reserves in southern Slovenia. We examined the structural characteristics of the two forest reserves based on data from sample plots and complete inventory obtained from four previous forest management plans. To gain a better understanding of disturbance dynamics, we used aerial imagery to study the characteristics of canopy gaps over an 11-year period in the Kopa forest reserve and a 20-year period in the Gorjanci forest reserve. Results The results suggest that these forests are structurally heterogeneous over small spatial scales. Gap size analysis showed that gaps smaller than 500 m2 are the dominant driving force of stand development. The percentage of forest area in canopy gaps ranged from 3.2 to 4.5% in the Kopa forest reserve and from 9.1 to 10.6% in the Gorjanci forest reserve. These forests exhibit relatively high annual rates of coverage by newly established (0.15 and 0.25%) and closed (0.08 and 0.16%) canopy gaps. New gap formation is dependant on senescent trees located throughout the reserve. Conclusion We conclude that these stands are not even-sized, but rather unevenly structured. This is due to the fact that the disturbance regime is characterized by low intensity, small-scale disturbances. PMID:23308115

Rugani, Tihomir; Diaci, Jurij; Hladnik, David

2013-01-01

230

Diversity of ankA and msp4 genes of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Slovenia.  

PubMed

Granulocytic anaplasmosis is a tick transmitted emerging disease in Europe and worldwide. The agent, Anaplasma phagocytophilum is transmitted by ticks of the genus Ixodes and causes infections in humans and domestic animals. The analysis of different target genes showed that in nature several genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum were present. The purpose of our study was to genetically characterize A. phagocytophilum strains from eight humans, 16 dogs, 12 wild boars, one bear and 18 tick pools from Slovenia. Therefore, the ankA and msp4 genes of A. phagocytophilum were chosen. The same genetic ankA and msp4 variant of A. phagocytophilum was detected in humans, wild boar and a part of the pooled ticks indicating that it circulates in a zoonotic cycle between wild boar and ticks. In dogs, three ankA variants of A. phagocytophilum were detected. One of them was identical to the one that was found in humans. In contrast, all dogs harboured the same msp4 variant as humans and wild boar. In ticks, numerous ankA and msp4 variants were present. PMID:25511457

Strašek Smrdel, Katja; von Loewenich, Friederike D; Petrovec, Miroslav; Avši? Županc, Tatjana

2015-03-01

231

Seismic Microzonation of Breginjski Kot (NW Slovenia) Based on Detailed Engineering Geological Mapping  

PubMed Central

Breginjski kot is among the most endangered seismic zones in Slovenia with the seismic hazard assessed to intensity IX MSK and the design ground acceleration of 0.250?g, both for 500-year return period. The most destructive was the 1976 Friuli Mw = 6.4 earthquake which had maximum intensity VIII-IX. Since the previous microzonation of the area was based solely on the basic geological map and did not include supplementary field research, we have performed a new soil classification of the area. First, a detailed engineering geological mapping in scale 1?:?5.000 was conducted. Mapped units were described in detail and some of them interpreted anew. Stiff sites are composed of hard to medium-hard rocks which were subjected to erosion mainly evoked by glacial and postglacial age. At that time a prominent topography was formed and different types of sediments were deposited in valleys by mass flows. A distinction between sediments and weathered rocks, their exact position, and thickness are of significant importance for microzonation. On the basis of geological mapping, a soil classification was carried out according to the Medvedev method (intensity increments) and the Eurocode 8 standard (soil factors) and two microzonation maps were prepared. The bulk of the studied area is covered by soft sediments and nine out of ten settlements are situated on them. The microzonation clearly points out the dependence of damage distribution in the case of 1976 Friuli earthquake to local site effects. PMID:24453884

2013-01-01

232

Carbonate Chemistry and Isotope Characteristics of Groundwater of Ljubljansko Polje and Ljubljansko Barje Aquifers in Slovenia  

PubMed Central

Ljubljansko polje and Ljubljansko Barje aquifers are the main groundwater resources for the needs of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia. Carbonate chemistry and isotope analysis of the groundwater were performed to acquire new hydrogeological data, which should serve as a base for improvement of hydrogeological conceptual models of both aquifers. A total of 138 groundwater samples were collected at 69 sampling locations from both aquifers. Major carbonate ions and the stable isotope of oxygen were used to identify differences in the recharging areas of aquifers. Four groups of groundwater were identified: (1) Ljubljansko polje aquifer, with higher Ca2+values, as limestone predominates in its recharge area, (2) northern part of Ljubljansko Barje aquifer, with prevailing dolomite in its recharge area, (3) central part of Ljubljansko Barje aquifer, which lies below surface cover of impermeable clay and is poor in carbonate, and (4) Brest and Iški vršaj aquifer in the southern part of Ljubljansko Barje with higher Mg2+ in groundwater and dolomite prevailing in its recharge area. The radioactive isotope tritium was also used to estimate the age of groundwater. Sampled groundwater is recent with tritium activity between 4 and 8 TU and residence time of up to 10 years. PMID:24453928

2013-01-01

233

Phylogeographic Diversity of Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Hantaviruses in Slovenia  

PubMed Central

Slovenia is a very diverse country from a natural geography point of view, with many different habitats within a relatively small area, in addition to major geological and climatic differences. It is therefore not surprising that several small mammal species have been confirmed to harbour hantaviruses: A. flavicollis (Dobrava virus), A. agrarius (Dobrava virus–Kurkino), M. glareolus (Puumala virus), S. areanus (Seewis virus), M. agrestis, M. arvalis and M. subterraneus (Tula virus). Three of the viruses, namely the Dobrava, Dobrava–Kurkino and Puumala viruses, cause disease in humans, with significant differences in the severity of symptoms. Due to changes in haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome cases (HFRS) epidemiology, a detailed study on phylogenetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of pathogenic and non-pathogenic hantaviruses circulating in ecologically diverse endemic regions was performed. The study presents one of the largest collections of hantavirus L, M and S sequences obtained from hosts and patients within a single country. Several genetic lineages were determined for each hantavirus species, with higher diversity among non-pathogenic compared to pathogenic viruses. For pathogenic hantaviruses, a significant geographic clustering of human- and rodent-derived sequences was confirmed. Several geographic and ecological factors were recognized as influencing and limiting the formation of endemic areas. PMID:24335778

Korva, Miša; Knap, Nataša; Resman Rus, Katarina; Fajs, Luka; Grubelnik, Gašper; Bremec, Matejka; Knapi?, Tea; Trilar, Tomi; Avši? Županc, Tatjana

2013-01-01

234

Effect of depositional regimes on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Lake Bled (NW Slovenia) sediments.  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were measured in sediment cores from two contrasting depositional regimes in urban Lake Bled (NW Slovenia). The concentration of PAH in surface sediments, mostly derived from combustion, was higher in Zaka Bay where bottom waters are permanently oxic, than in the western basin where bottom waters oscillate between suboxic and anoxic (1930 vs. 1150ngPAHg(-1) dry weight (dw), respectively). This pattern is the reverse of what might be expected if PAH were to preferentially degrade under oxic conditions. Two PAH from non-combustion sources, perylene and retene, are also present in the sediments. Post-depositional diagenetic formation of perylene appeared to occur only in anoxic sediments. Differences in the source of sedimentary organic matter (autochthonous vs. allochthonous) is probably not a major factor in perylene formation, since the two locations have markedly different sources of organic matter but quite similar concentrations of perylene in deeper sediments, ranging from 250 to 350ngg(-1)dw. Thus, redox conditions may play a role in perylene generation. On the other hand, redox conditions in general can not be the only or even the major factor affecting the fate of sedimentary PAH since uniform compositions and depth distributions for pyrolytic PAH were observed in both cores, in spite of the two locations differ in redox, mixing and biota conditions. Thus, degradative loss of PAH is unlikely in Lake Bled sediments. PMID:19539349

Muri, Gregor; Wakeham, Stuart G

2009-09-01

235

Mineral and chemical composition of the Jezersko meteorite—A new chondrite from Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jezersko meteorite is a newly confirmed stony meteorite found in 1992 in the Karavanke mountains, Slovenia. The meteorite is moderately weathered (W2), indicating short terrestrial residence time. Chondrules in partially recrystallized matrix are clearly discernible but often fragmented and have mean diameter of 0.73 mm. The meteorite consists of homogeneous olivine (Fa19.4) and low-Ca pyroxenes (Fs16.7Wo1.2), of which 34% are monoclinic, and minor plagioclase (Ab83An11Or6) and Ca-pyroxene (Fs6Wo45.8). Troilite, kamacite, zoned taenite, tetrataenite, chromite, and metallic copper comprise about 16.5 vol% of the meteorite. Phosphates are represented by merrillite and minor chlorapatite. Undulatory extinction in some olivine grains and other shock indicators suggests weak shock metamorphism between stages S2 and S3. The bulk chemical composition generally corresponds to the mean H chondrite composition. Low siderophile element contents indicate the oxidized character of the Jezersko parent body. The temperatures recorded by two-pyroxene, olivine-chromite, and olivine-orthopyroxene geothermometers are 854 °C, 737-787 °C, and 750 °C, respectively. Mg concentration profiles across orthopyroxenes and clinopyroxenes indicate relatively fast cooling at temperatures above 700 °C. A low cooling rate of 10 °C Myr-1 was obtained from metallographic data. Considering physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties, meteorite Jezersko was classified as an H4 S2(3) ordinary chondrite.

Miler, Miloš; Ambroži?, Bojan; Mirti?, Breda; Gosar, Mateja; Ĺ turm, Sašo.; Dolenec, Matej; Jeršek, Miha

2014-10-01

236

The invasion history, distribution and colour pattern forms of the harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pall.) (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) in Slovakia, Central Europe  

PubMed Central

Abstract The harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) has invaded and established in Slovakia. Following unintentional introduction in 2008, the spread of the alien coccinellid was very fast. By the end of 2009, it was recorded across the whole country, and by the end of 2012 it was widely distributed and common in various habitats, particularly gardens, orchards and urban areas, where it was most frequent on trees. The rate of eastward spread was approximately 200 km year-1, similar to the overall rate of spread in Europe. Between 2008 and 2012, the coccinellid was recorded in a total of 153 localities, in altitudes ranging from 98 to 1,250 m. Most records of this species were made in lowlands, hilly areas and valleys separating mountain ridges. However, it was only rarely documented in areas above 700 m a.s.l. The non-melanic colour form (f. succinea) was dominant along a longitudinal transect including eight urban areas across Slovakia, with the frequency of melanic forms (f. spectabilis and f. conspicua together) between 6.3 and 19.2% and a median equal to 10.5%. The invasion history and distribution of H. axyridis in Slovakia are discussed with regard to the time sequence of records, rate of spread, altitudinal distribution, anthropogenic dispersal, effective recording, proportion of melanic forms and other relevant aspects associated with the spread of this successful invader. PMID:24899863

Panigaj, ?ubomír; Zach, Peter; Hon?k, Alois; Nedv?d, Old?ich; Kulfan, Ján; Martinková, Zdenka; Selyemová, Diana; Viglášová, Sandra; Roy, Helen E.

2014-01-01

237

The invasion history, distribution and colour pattern forms of the harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pall.) (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) in Slovakia, Central Europe.  

PubMed

The harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) has invaded and established in Slovakia. Following unintentional introduction in 2008, the spread of the alien coccinellid was very fast. By the end of 2009, it was recorded across the whole country, and by the end of 2012 it was widely distributed and common in various habitats, particularly gardens, orchards and urban areas, where it was most frequent on trees. The rate of eastward spread was approximately 200 km year(-1), similar to the overall rate of spread in Europe. Between 2008 and 2012, the coccinellid was recorded in a total of 153 localities, in altitudes ranging from 98 to 1,250 m. Most records of this species were made in lowlands, hilly areas and valleys separating mountain ridges. However, it was only rarely documented in areas above 700 m a.s.l. The non-melanic colour form (f. succinea) was dominant along a longitudinal transect including eight urban areas across Slovakia, with the frequency of melanic forms (f. spectabilis and f. conspicua together) between 6.3 and 19.2% and a median equal to 10.5%. The invasion history and distribution of H. axyridis in Slovakia are discussed with regard to the time sequence of records, rate of spread, altitudinal distribution, anthropogenic dispersal, effective recording, proportion of melanic forms and other relevant aspects associated with the spread of this successful invader. PMID:24899863

Panigaj, Lubomír; Zach, Peter; Hon?k, Alois; Nedv?d, Old?ich; Kulfan, Ján; Martinková, Zdenka; Selyemová, Diana; Viglášová, Sandra; Roy, Helen E

2014-01-01

238

Monitoring of aphid flight activities in seed potato crops in Serbia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Aphid flight activities in seed potato fields have been studied by the yellow water traps. It is a good method for monitoring aphids as vectors of viruses, but this study also showed it is a suitable method for insect-diversity research. During the four-year studies, over 11.500 specimens were collected and a total of 107 different taxa of aphids were identified. The most abundant species were polyphagous species, such as: Acyrthosiphon pisum (Haris), Aphis fabae Scopoli, Aphis gossypii Gloverand Brachycaudus helichrysi (Kaltenbach). The results of the studies show that diversity of aphids in different regions of Serbia is similar regardless of the altitude and the diversity of terrain. At most sites it ranged from 2 to 3. The highest value was recorded in Bege?, locality in northern part of Serbia, in year 2008, and it was 2.92. The maximum values of the Shannon-Weaver diversity index at all sites were recorded in the first weeks of the monitoring of aphid flight activities. Morisita-Horn similarity index shows no significant differences between sites regardless of altitudes. The sites are grouped by year, not by similarity of relief. In spite of these results, the Chi-square analysis showed highly significant difference in vector frequencies among seasons and sites with more pronounced differences for PVY. As a consequence of differences in vector frequencies, the vector pressure index in some regions was different also. The number of vectors and vector pressure index vary depending on the altitude of localities. At localities at altitudes under 1000 m, they were high. The highest index was at Kotraža, locality in central part of Serbia, in 2007, when PVY index exceeded the value of 180, while for PLRV it was 60. At high altitudes on mountain Golija, above 1100 m, the number of aphids was low, as well as the vector pressure index which indicates that these regions are suitable for producing virus-free seed potato. PMID:24039529

Vu?eti?, Andja; Vukov, Tanja; Jovi?i?, Ivana; Petrovi?-Obradovi?, Olivera

2013-01-01

239

Soil fertility status and spatial distribution of selected trace elements in south-western Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil fertility status and spatial distribution of selected trace elements in south-western Serbia V. Mrvic, Lj. Kostic-Kravljanac, D. ?akmak, R. Pivi?, E. Saljnikov, M. Nikoloski, V. Perovi? Institute of Soil Science, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia (vesnavmrvic@yahoo.com) Main characteristic of surface soil layer (pH in KCl, humus, available P and K), and content of trace elements (Ni, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, As, Hg) were analysed on area of southwestern Serbia, covering total 959 000 ha (one sample represents 1000 ha) . About 30 % of samples have very acid reaction. Main portion of soil samples (86%) is poorly suplied with available phosphorus (<8 mg/100g), and these are located under forests, meadows, pastures and orchards. Supplies of available potasium and humus are well. On the other hand, in small number of soil samples (4%), mostly on fertile alluvial soils, there are high P and K concentration, which are consequence of inadequate usage of mineral fertilizers. Content of trace elements in 70 % of soil samples is bellow maximum allowed concentration (MAC). The most frequente potential pollutants are Cr and Ni, which is assosiated with mafic and ultramafic rocks, which are common in this region (mountains naerby river Ibar - Troglav, Stolovi, ?emerno, Željin, Golija, Kopaonik; near Sjenica- peridotites of mn. Ozren). There are dominace of Eutric Leptosols soil type, with Ni content above 100 mg/kg, and in some samples above 1000 mg/kg. In smaller number of samples arsenic and lead exceed MAC, while other elements exceed MAD very rarelly. There are elevated Pb content in Kopaonik mountain area, and elevated As content besides this region, are in mine zone of Golija and Cemerno. These are mountain soils formed on acid igneous and metamorphic rocks, which are enriched with ores of Pb, Zn and other elements. Eventually negative influences of these elements on plants and other components of ecosystem may be esstimated only after detalied investigation.

Mrvic, Vesna; Kostic-Kravljanac, Ljiljana; Cakmak, Dragan; Pivic, Radmila; Saljnikov, Elmira; Nikoloski, Mile; Perovic, Veljko

2010-05-01

240

Malignant Lymphatic and Hematopoietic Neoplasms Mortality in Serbia, 1991–2010: A Joinpoint Regression Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Limited data on mortality from malignant lymphatic and hematopoietic neoplasms have been published for Serbia. Methods The study covered population of Serbia during the 1991–2010 period. Mortality trends were assessed using the joinpoint regression analysis. Results Trend for overall death rates from malignant lymphoid and haematopoietic neoplasms significantly decreased: by ?2.16% per year from 1991 through 1998, and then significantly increased by +2.20% per year for the 1998–2010 period. The growth during the entire period was on average +0.8% per year (95% CI 0.3 to 1.3). Mortality was higher among males than among females in all age groups. According to the comparability test, mortality trends from malignant lymphoid and haematopoietic neoplasms in men and women were parallel (final selected model failed to reject parallelism, P?=?0.232). Among younger Serbian population (0–44 years old) in both sexes: trends significantly declined in males for the entire period, while in females 15–44 years of age mortality rates significantly declined only from 2003 onwards. Mortality trend significantly increased in elderly in both genders (by +1.7% in males and +1.5% in females in the 60–69 age group, and +3.8% in males and +3.6% in females in the 70+ age group). According to the comparability test, mortality trend for Hodgkin's lymphoma differed significantly from mortality trends for all other types of malignant lymphoid and haematopoietic neoplasms (P<0.05). Conclusion Unfavourable mortality trend in Serbia requires targeted intervention for risk factors control, early diagnosis and modern therapy. PMID:25333862

Ilic, Milena; Ilic, Irena

2014-01-01

241

Monitoring of aphid flight activities in seed potato crops in Serbia.  

PubMed

Aphid flight activities in seed potato fields have been studied by the yellow water traps. It is a good method for monitoring aphids as vectors of viruses, but this study also showed it is a suitable method for insect-diversity research. During the four-year studies, over 11.500 specimens were collected and a total of 107 different taxa of aphids were identified. The most abundant species were polyphagous species, such as: Acyrthosiphon pisum (Haris), Aphis fabae Scopoli, Aphis gossypii Gloverand Brachycaudus helichrysi (Kaltenbach). The results of the studies show that diversity of aphids in different regions of Serbia is similar regardless of the altitude and the diversity of terrain. At most sites it ranged from 2 to 3. The highest value was recorded in Bege?, locality in northern part of Serbia, in year 2008, and it was 2.92. The maximum values of the Shannon-Weaver diversity index at all sites were recorded in the first weeks of the monitoring of aphid flight activities. Morisita-Horn similarity index shows no significant differences between sites regardless of altitudes. The sites are grouped by year, not by similarity of relief. In spite of these results, the Chi-square analysis showed highly significant difference in vector frequencies among seasons and sites with more pronounced differences for PVY. As a consequence of differences in vector frequencies, the vector pressure index in some regions was different also. The number of vectors and vector pressure index vary depending on the altitude of localities. At localities at altitudes under 1000 m, they were high. The highest index was at Kotraža, locality in central part of Serbia, in 2007, when PVY index exceeded the value of 180, while for PLRV it was 60. At high altitudes on mountain Golija, above 1100 m, the number of aphids was low, as well as the vector pressure index which indicates that these regions are suitable for producing virus-free seed potato. PMID:24039529

Vu?eti?, Andja; Vukov, Tanja; Jovi?i?, Ivana; Petrovi?-Obradovi?, Olivera

2013-01-01

242

Environmental waters and blaNDM-1 in Belgrade, Serbia: Endemicity questioned.  

PubMed

New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) will soon become the most commonly isolated and distributed metallo-beta-lactamase worldwide due to its rapid international dissemination and its ability to be expressed by numerous Gram-negative pathogens. NDM-positive bacteria pose a significant public health threat in the Indian subcontinent and the Balkans, which have been designated as endemic regions. Our study was focused on urban rivers, a lake and springheads as a potential source of NDM-1-producing strains in Serbia, but also as a source of other metallo-beta-lactamases and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria. A total of 69 beta-lactam resistant isolates, belonging to 12 bacterial genera, were collected from 8 out of 10 different locations in Belgrade, of which the most were from a popular recreational site, Ada Ciganlija Lake. Phenotypic tests revealed 7 (10.14%) ESBL-producing isolates and 39 (56.52%) isolates resistant to imipenem, of which 32 were positive for metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) production. PCR and sequencing revealed the presence of genetic determinants for SHV (3 isolates), DHA-1 (1 isolate) and CMY-2 (1 isolate) beta-lactamases. However, we did not detect any NDM-1-producing strains (previously described cases of NDM-1 from Serbia were limited to Belgrade), so we propose that Serbian NDM-1 is in fact a transplant and a nosocomial, rather than an environmental, issue and that Serbia is not an endemic region for NDM-1. PMID:25569574

Novovic, K; Filipic, B; Veljovic, K; Begovic, J; Mirkovic, N; Jovcic, B

2015-04-01

243

Late cretaceous radiolarians and age of flyschoid sediments in the Struganik section (Western Serbia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The succession of radiolarian assemblages in the Struganik section of western Serbia is described for the first time. The following radiolarian beds are defined in carbonate flyschoid sequences represented by thin-platy limestones with calcarenite and bentonite clay intercalations (from the base upward): Theocampe urna-Dictyomitra koslovae (presumably lower Santonian); Afens perapediensis-Clathropyrgus titthium (presumably uppermost lower Santonian-basal upper Santonian); Alievium gallowayi-Crucella espartoensis (upper Santonian). The examined assemblages are characterized by high taxonomic diversity. The upper Santonian Alievium gallowayi-Crucella espartoensis Assemblage exhibits significant similarity with the coeval radiolarian assemblage of the Crimean Mountains (Ukraine). Archaeocenosphaera (?) karamatai sp. nov. is described.

Bragina, L. G.; Bragin, N. Yu.; Djeri?, N.; Gaji?, V.

2014-03-01

244

Access to primary healthcare services for the Roma population in Serbia: a secondary data analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Serbia has proclaimed access to healthcare as a human right. In a context wherein the Roma population are disadvantaged, the aim of this study was to assess whether the Roma population are able to effectively access primary care services, and if not, what barriers prevent them from doing so. The history of the Roma in Serbia is described in detail so as to provide a context for their current vulnerable position. Methods Disaggregated data were analyzed from three population groups in Serbia; the general population, the Roma population, and the poorest quintile of the general population not including the Roma. The effective coverage framework, which incorporates availability, affordability, accessibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of health services, was used to structure the secondary data analysis. Acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children less than five years of age was used as an example as this is the leading cause of death in children under 5 years old in Serbia. Results Roma children were significantly more likely to experience an ARI than either the general population or the poorest quintile of the general population, not including the Roma. All three population groups were equally likely to not receive the correct treatment regime of antibiotics. An analysis of the factors that affect quality of access to health services reveal that personal documentation is a statistically significant problem; availability of health services is not an issue that disproportionately affects the Roma; however the geographical accessibility and affordability are substantive issues that disproportionately affect the Roma population. Affordability of services affected the Roma and the poorest quintile and affordability of medications significantly affected all three population groups. With regards to acceptability, mothers from all three population groups are equally likely to recognize the importance of seeking treatment. Conclusions The Roma should be assisted in applying for personal documentation, the geographical accessibility of clinics needs to be addressed, and the costs of healthcare visits and medications should be reviewed. Areas for improvement specific to ARI are the costs of antibiotics and the diagnostic accuracy of providers. A range of policy recommendations are outlined. PMID:21851632

2011-01-01

245

Prevalence of antibodies against Leptospira sp. in snakes, lizards and turtles in Slovenia  

PubMed Central

Background Leptospiral infections in poikilothermic (cold blooded) animals have received very little attention and the literature concerning natural infections of these animals is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of leptospiral antibodies in reptiles, imported into Slovenia and intended to be pets in close contact with humans. A total of 297 reptiles (22 snakes, 210 lizards and 65 turtles) were tested for specific antibodies against serovars of Leptospira interrogans sensu stricto using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Live cultures of different serovars were used as antigens. MAT was performed according to standard procedures and the degree of reaction was interpreted by estimating the percentage of agglutinated leptospires. Samples showing titres of???50 against one or more serovars were considered as positive. Results Antibodies against seven pathogenic serovars of L. interrogans sensu stricto were detected in 46 of 297 reptiles. Among 22 snakes, specific antibodies against pathogenic serovars of three Leptospira species (L. interrogans, L. kirschneri and L. borgpetersenii) at titre levels from 1:50 to 1:400 were detected in 6 snakes. In 31 of 210 lizards, specific antibodies were found in titres from 1:50 to 1:1000 and, finally, among 65 turtles (terrapins and tortoises), 9 had specific antibodies at titre levels between 1:50 and 1:1600. Animals imported from non-EU countries showed significantly higher prevalence (25.0%; 95 confidence interval: 16.7–33.3%) than animals from EU member states (10.4%; confidence interval: 6.1–14.7%). Conclusions Reptiles may be considered as potential reservoirs of L. interrogans sensu stricto. Origin of the animals is a risk factor for presence of leptospiral antibodies, especially in lizards. Special attention should be focused on animals from non-EU member states. PMID:24020619

2013-01-01

246

Pilot study of seasonal occurrence and distribution of antibiotics and drug resistant bacteria in wastewater treatment plants in Slovakia.  

PubMed

This work presents environmental and quality-control data from the analyses of 33 antibiotics in influent and effluent water from two waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) in the capital and the biggest city of Slovakia. Seeing that consumption of antibiotics depends on epidemiological season, samples were collected during February and August. Among assessed antibiotics ciprofloxacin and clarithromycin were detected in highest concentrations in influent water. Seasonal changes were observed only in plant A when antibiotic concentrations decreased. On the other hand an increase in some cases was observed in plant B. Insufficient degradation of some macrolides, sulfonamides and trimethoprim was detected according to their higher concentrations in effluent water. Contact of antibiotics in subinhibitory concentrations and sludge bacteria in WWTPs represent the base for the development of significant levels of microbial resistance. Simultaneously, antibiotic resistance of fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci from sewage sludge was evaluated. Majority of coliform bacteria were found to be resistant to ampicillin and gentamicin. A significant seasonal difference was determined only in case of high-level resistance. In summer samples, an increase in the strains resistant to concentrations higher than the resistance breakpoints established by EUCAST and NCCLS was observed. No antibiotic resistance in streptococci was observed. However, as a part of sewage sludge is mixed with compost and utilized in agriculture, better processing of sludge should be considered. PMID:24867706

Birošová, Lucia; Mackulak, Tomáš; Bodík, Igor; Ryba, Jozef; Škubák, Jaroslav; Grabic, Roman

2014-08-15

247

Elemental and mineral inventory of tailing impoundments near Pezinok, Slovakia and possible courses of action for their remediation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An effective remediation strategy for a polluted site should take the absolute amount of the pollutant(s) into account. Here, we present an elemental budget for As, Sb and Fe in two tailing impoundments of the former Sb-Au deposit near Pezinok, Slovakia. The two impoundments contain 5,740×103 kg As, 6,360×103 kg Sb and 50,105×103 kg Fe. An estimated total Au content in the impoundments is 132 kg. The most abundant minerals in the tailings are quartz, illite, and chlorite. The content of carbonates in the tailings is 3.5-10.5 wt% calcite equivalent and we estimate that the carbonates are sufficiently abundant to buffer the pH at circumneutral values, up to the point when all pyrite decomposes. The possible courses of action are i) do nothing, ii) build an active barrier to capture the released As and Sb, iii) isolate the impoundments from rain and ground water and iv) use the impoundments as a source of Sb and redeposit the waste in a safer form. The simplest approach is to do nothing, which seems to be the most likely course of events, given the current economic, political and societal state of the Slovak Republic. Although this action costs nothing in the short term, it may cause significant damage to the environment, especially to the alluvial sediments and associated water resources in the long term.

Majzlan, Juraj; Brecht, Björn; Lalinská, Bronislava; Chovan, Martin; Moravanský, Daniel; Uhlík, Peter

2010-01-01

248

Publication of PWV and ZTD time series and models of PWV and nPWV over Slovakia and vicinity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 50 permanent GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) stations are processed continually within the Central European Permanent Network at the Slovak University of Technology, Department of Theoretical Geodesy. Zenith Total Delay (ZTD), one of the processing outputs, reflects delay of the GNSS signal caused by troposphere. Precipitable Water Vapour (PWV) is calculated if ground meteorological observations are available. Model of PWV over Slovakia and vicinity is produced using digital terrain model data for height correction in grid points. Real variation of PWV over the area shows model of normalized PWV (nPWV) created from PWV values reduced by theoretical PWV value corresponding to altitude and latitude of the station. Mathematical background for computing PWV and nPWV models will be presented. All computations on the way from discrete ZTD values to PWV time series and models are realized using Perl scripts. Time series of ZTD and PWV since 1996 and models of PWV and nPWV are published on the server freely available in the internet using Web Map Service, PHP, JavaScript and other web technologies. All the data are available in one hour interval. Data are continually updated and can be downloaded for scientific applications.

Igondova, Miroslava; Hefty, Jan; Cibulka, Dusan

2010-05-01

249

High infection rate of zoonotic Eucoleus aerophilus infection in foxes from Serbia  

PubMed Central

The respiratory capillariid nematode Eucoleus aerophilus (Creplin, 1839) infects wild and domestic carnivores and, occasionally, humans. Thus far, a dozen of human infections have been published in the literature but it cannot be ruled out that lung capillariosis is underdiagnosed in human medicine. Also, the apparent spreading of E. aerophilus in different geographic areas spurs new studies on the epidemiology of this nematode. After the recognition of the first human case of E. aerophilus infection in Serbia, there is a significant merit in enhancing knowledge on the distribution of the nematode. In the present work the infection rate of pulmonary capillariosis was investigated in 70 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from the northern part of Serbia by autopsy. The estimated infection rate with Eucoleus aerophilus was 84%. In contrast, by copromicroscopic examination only 38% of foxes were positive. In addition, 10 foxes were investigated for the closely related species in nasal cavity, Eucoleus boehmi, and nine were positive. Our study demonstrates one of the highest infection rates of pulmonary capillariosis in foxes over the world. PMID:23340229

Laloševi?, Vesna; Laloševi?, Dušan; ?apo, Ivan; Simin, Verica; Galfi, Annamaria; Traversa, Donato

2013-01-01

250

Analysis of pathogen co-occurrence in host-seeking adult hard ticks from Serbia.  

PubMed

Past studies in Serbia have reported concurrent infections of Ixodes ricinus ticks with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Francisella tularensis. As a step forward, this investigation included a broader range of microorganisms and five most common and abundant tick species in Serbia. Five tick species were identified (Dermacentor marginatus, D. reticulatus, Haemaphysalis punctata, H. concinna and I. ricinus) and analyzed for the presence of seven pathogens. Anaplasma ovis, A. phagocytophilum, Babesia canis, B. burgdorferi s.l., Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia helvetica and R. monacensis were detected. Sequencing of samples positive for F. tularensis revealed the presence of Francisella-like endosymbionts. No Bartonella spp. DNA was amplified. Concurrent infections were present in three tick species (D. reticulatus, H. concinna and I. ricinus). The rate of co-infections was highest in I. ricinus (20/27), while this tick species harbored the broadest range of co-infection combinations, with dual, triple and a quadruple infection(s) being detected. PMID:22773070

Tomanovi?, Snežana; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Radulovi?, Zeljko; Milutinovi?, Marija; Caki?, Sanja; Mihaljica, Darko; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

2013-03-01

251

The use of NEOPLANTA model for evaluating the UV index in the Vojvodina region (Serbia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increase in ultraviolet (UV) radiation in the last several decades caused intensive activities in its monitoring and forecast all over the world. Due to lack of ground measurements of UV index (UVI) in the Vojvodina region (Serbia), the numerical methods are an alternative to estimate its value. The values of the UVI in one hour time resolutions are calculated using the NEOPLANTA model. Model outputs have been compared with measurements recorded, during the spring and summer period of 2006, with the Yankee UVB-1 biometer located at the campus of the University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad (Serbia). Obtained results show a good agreement with the UVI values for low cloudiness, while the largest uncertainties are associated with the higher amounts of ones. The strong correlation (0.815) and small absolute value of the difference of standard deviations in the simulations and the observations (0.102) for data with cloudiness ? 6 and UVI ? 3 indicates good model performances. Based on the overall results it can be concluded, in an acceptable level of accuracy, that the outputs of the NEOPLANTA model are an acceptable data source in the monitoring program of the UV radiation in the Vojvodina region in places having no actual measurements.

Malinovic-Milicevic, Slavica; Mihailovic, Dragutin T.

2011-08-01

252

Challenges in sexual and reproductive health of Roma people who live in settlements in Serbia.  

PubMed

Objective To investigate the differences in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) between Roma women of reproductive age who live in settlements and the general population of women of the same age in Serbia who do not live in settlements. Methods The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 4 (MICS4) was administered to Roma and Serbian women and the results were compared between the two groups. In order to get a qualitative perspective, a specifically designed, short open-ended questionnaire about Roma women was given to Roma Health Mediators (RHMs). Results Roma women have a higher total fertility rate and adolescent birth rate, and early marriage is much more common among them. Differences are less clear regarding antenatal care and assistance during delivery from skilled personnel. Roma women more frequently rely on traditional contraception, and are less likely to use modern contraceptives than the general female population. Problems in the socio-economic sphere, poor school enrolment and maintenance of traditional patterns in Roma people living in settlements contribute to the disparities observed. Conclusion Although data on the SRH of the general population of women in Serbia are far from being satisfactory, those for women who live in Roma settlements are much worse. Political actions aimed at the empowerment of Roma women in the spheres of education, employment and health promotion have been implemented with the hope that they might improve the SRH of this vulnerable population group. PMID:25317892

Sedlecky, Katarina; Raševi?, Mirjana

2014-10-15

253

Natural and anthropogenic radioactivity in the environment of mountain region of Serbia.  

PubMed

The activity concentrations of (40)K, (238)U, (232)Th and (137)Cs have been measured using a gamma spectrometric method in different samples from the environment of two mountains in Serbia (altitude 1000-1100 m), during the period 2002-2007. The mountains Maljen and Tara (popular tourist destinations) are near Belgrade. On mountain Maljen, samples were taken at 4 different altitudes (200 m, 650 m, 1000 m and 1100 m), and on mountain Tara at altitudes of 1000 m and 1100 m. On mountain Maljen it was found that the level of (137)Cs activity increased with altitude in samples of soil, grass, hay and cow, sheep and goat milk. On the contrary, (40)K activity decreased with altitude in samples of soil, grass and hay. The highest activity concentrations of (137)Cs were found in bioindicators: sheep meat, venison, wild boar meat, moss and mushrooms. These results indicate that (137)Cs is present in mountain region of Serbia even 20 years after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl. Deposition of (137)Cs was almost two times higher on the Maljen mountain compared to Tara mountain. An average annual dose arising from (137)Cs was 7.4 microSv due to ingestion of cow milk and 6.3 microSv due to ingestion of mushrooms at the Maljen mountain. PMID:19212597

Mitrovi?, B; Vitorovi?, G; Vitorovi?, D; Panteli?, G; Adamovi?, I

2009-02-01

254

Economic Sanctions, Military Activity, and Road Traffic Crashes in Vojvodina, Serbia  

PubMed Central

Objectives Political violence has not been examined as a risk factor for traumatic injuries from road traffic crashes. We identify trends in road traffic crashes related to war-related military activity and international economic sanctions in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Serbia. Methods Overall road traffic crashes and crashes leading to hospitalization and fatality in Vojvodina, Serbia were examined from 1996 through 2001. Rates were calculated per 100,000 population and per 10,000 registered vehicles. Three time periods were examined: years with international sanctions and military activity; years with international sanctions but no military activity; and, years with neither sanctions nor military activity. Results Compared to the period with neither sanctions nor military activity, severe injury crashes were 1.23 times more frequent (95% CI = 1.19 – 1.27) during the period with sanctions and military activity and 1.21 times more frequent (95% CI= 1.16 – 1.27) during the period with sanctions but no military activity. Conclusions Our data suggest that vehicle travel became safer following the end of military action and economic sanctions. Road traffic safety needs to be a priority both during periods of political unrest and its recovery phase. PMID:19074242

Đuri?, Predrag; Peek-Asa, Corinne

2008-01-01

255

Educating Educators in a Volatile Climate--The Challenge of Modernising Higher Business Schools in Serbia and Montenegro  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is set in the rapidly changing higher educational environment that has ensued in Serbia and Montenegro in the post Milosevic era. Its primary focus is a "Training Trainers" initiative, mounted by the GTZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit/Society for Technical Co-operation), designed to upgrade the teaching capacity of…

Hollinshead, Graham

2006-01-01

256

Detection of elements and radioactivity in pellets from long-eared owls (Asio otus) inhabiting the city of Belgrade (Serbia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we analysed pellets from long-eared owls (Asio otus) collected from four localities in Belgrade (Serbia). The pellets contained the remains of prey, namely voles (Arvicola terrestris) and field mice (Apodemus agrarius). The concentrations of 14 elements (Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Zn, Sr, Ba, Mn, Ti, Cu, Si, B) were evaluated in whole pellets and in

Miroslav A. Demajo; Jelena Cveti?anin; Milovan Stoiljkovi?; Djordje Trpkov; Velibor Andri?; Antonije Onjia; Olivera Neškovi?

2011-01-01

257

Concentration and characteristics of depleted uranium in water, air and biological samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Balkan conflicts, in 1995 and 1999, depleted uranium (DU) rounds were employed and were left in the battlefield. Health concern is related to the risk arising from contamination of the environment with DU penetrators and dust. In order to evaluate the impact of DU on the environment and population in Serbia and Montenegro, radiological surveys of DU in

Guogang Jia; Maria Belli; Umberto Sansone; Silvia Rosamilia; Stefania Gaudino

2005-01-01

258

Genetic model of uranium mineralization in the Permo-Triassic sedimentary rocks of the Stara Planina eastern Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

One deposit and four occurrences of uranium minerals in the Permo-Triassic sedimentary rocks of the Stara Planina in eastern Serbia were ascertained using data from years of multidisciplinary geological research. The minerals are the fissure-filling type, and were assigned to the exogenic mineralization group, being mostly epigene in nature. Relevant geological information was used to derive a genetic model of

Jovan Kovacevic; Zoran Nikic; Petar Papic

2009-01-01

259

Triassic and Jurassic radiolarians from sedimentary blocks of ophiolite mélange in the Avala Gora area (Belgrade surroundings, Serbia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blocks of cherty rocks and Aptychus Limestone embedded into ophiolite mélange south of Avala Gora (Serbia) contain radiolarians of different ages. We distinguished here Late Jurassic (middle Oxfordianearly Tithonian), Middle-Late Jurassic (Bathonian-early Tithonian), and Middle Triassic (early Ladinian) radiolarian assemblages. The respective stratigraphic data suggest that the ophiolite mélange was formed after the early Tithonian.

Bragin, N. Yu.; Bragina, L. G.; Djeri?, N.; Tolji?, M.

2011-12-01

260

Assessing pollution in the Danube River near Novi Sad (Serbia) using several biomarkers in sterlet ( Acipenser ruthenus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of wild fish to pollutants was studied in sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.) collected in 2001 and 2002 at two sampling sites in the Danube River near Novi Sad (Serbia): in the vicinity of the oil refinery and at the Danube–Begec, remote from the oil refinery and considered a reference site. The following biomarkers were measured in sterlet collected

Bojana Stanic; Nebojsa Andric; Sonja Zoric; Gordana Grubor-Lajsic; Radmila Kovacevic

2006-01-01

261

Stolbur Phytoplasma Transmission to Maize by Reptalus panzeri and the Disease Cycle of Maize Redness in Serbia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize redness (MR), induced by stolbur phytoplasma (Candidatus Phytoplasma solani, subgroup 16SrXII-A), is characterized by midrib, leaf and stalk reddening and abnormal ear development. MR has been reported from Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria for 50 years, and recent epiphytotics reduced yields by 4...

262

A review of the potential and actual sources of pollution to groundwater in selected karst areas in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slovenian karst areas extend over 43% of the country; limestones and dolomites of the Mesozoic era prevail. In Slovenia karst groundwater contributes up to 50% of the total drinking water supply. The quality of water is very high, despite the fact that it is extremely vulnerable to pollution. The present article is a study and a review of the potential and actual sources of pollution to the groundwater in the selected karst aquifers (the Kras, Velika planina and Snežnik plateaus), which differ in their natural characteristics. Unlike the other selected plateaus, the Kras plateau is inhabited. There are several settlements in the area and the industrial, agricultural and traffic activities carried out that represent a serious threat to the quality of karst groundwater. The Velika planina and Snežnik plateaus do not have permanent residents, however there are some serious hazards to the quality of the karst springs arising from sports, tourist, construction and farming activities, as well as from the traffic related to them. Despite relatively favourable conditions for protection, many important karst aquifers and springs are improperly protected in Slovenia. The reason is the lack of knowledge about sustainable water management in karst regions and the confusion in drinking water protection policy.

Kova?i?, G.; Ravbar, N.

2005-02-01

263

Impact of Air Pollution on Genetic Material of Shallot ( Allium cepa L. var. ascalonicum ) Exposed at Differently Polluted Sites in Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Test shallot plants Allium cepa L. var. ascalonicum were exposed to field conditions at six research plots in the most polluted areas in Slovenia in the vegetation seasons in 1999 and 2000. The intention of this research was to evaluate the influence of air pollution on mitotic activity and frequency of chromosomal aberrations in meristematic tissues of root tips of

Erika Glasen?nik; Cvetka Ribari?-Lasnik; Karin Savinek; Meta Zaluberšek; Maria Mueller; Franc Bati?

2004-01-01

264

Drafting New Curricula in South-East Europe. Final Report of the Regional Seminar (Bohinj, Slovenia, April 26-28, 2002).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the regional seminar on curriculum renewal, held in Bohinj, Slovenia in April 2002 was to contribute to human resource development and capacity-building in the field of curriculum development. It is currently widely recognized that curriculum renewal is an important component in the reform and in improving the quality of education. The…

Rozemeijer, Saskia, Ed.

265

Draft Genome Sequence of the Mercury-Resistant Bacterium Acinetobacter idrijaensis Strain MII, Isolated from a Mine-Impacted Area, Idrija, Slovenia  

PubMed Central

We report here the first draft assembly for the genome of Acinetobacter idrijaensis strain MII, isolated from the Idrija mercury mine area (Slovenia). This strain shows a strikingly high tolerance to mercury, and the genome sequence shows genes involved in the mechanisms for heavy metal tolerance pathways and multidrug efflux pumps. PMID:25395645

Caballero Pérez, Juan; Cruz Medina, Julio Alfonso; Molina Vera, Carlos; Salas Rosas, Luz María; Limpens Gutiérrez, Citlalli; García Salinas, Isaac; Hernández Ramírez, Miriam Rebeca; Soto Alonso, Gerardo; Cruz Hernández, Andrés; Saldańa Gutiérrez, Carlos; Romero Gómez, Sergio; Pastrana Martínez, Xóchitl; Álvarez Hidalgo, Erika; Gosar, Mateja; Dizdarevi?, Tatjana

2014-01-01

266

OSNOVNI VZROKI SMRTI S KAZALNIKI UMRLJIVOSTI V SLOVENIJI V LETU 2001 THE UDERLYING CAUSES OF DEATH WITH MORTALITY INDICES IN SLOVENIA IN 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract - Abstract - Abstract - Abstract - Background. Mortality rates are one of the basic measures for population health estimation. The mortality data in Slovenia are collected according to well-defined me- thodology. Thus our results can be easily compared with the results of other countries. The purpose of this article is to dis- play the most important causes of

Vesna Zadnik

267

GLASOVNE MOTNJE MED PEDAGOŠKIMI DELAVCI V SLOVENIJI: PREVALENCA IN NEKATERI DEJAVNIKI TVEGANJA VOICE DISORDERS AMONG TEACHERS IN SLOVENIA: PREVALENCE AND SOME RISK FACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Teachers as voice professionals with heavy vocal load represent a population at high risk of vocal problems. Until now there has not been any study evaluating prevalence and risk factors for voice disorders among teachers in Slovenia. Methods. Questionnaires about voice disorders and vocal ha- bits were sent to randomly chosen 10% of elementary, middle schools and kindergarten in

Irena Ho?evar-Boltežar

268

The response of Corylus avellana L. phenology to rising temperature in north-eastern Slovenia.  

PubMed

Knowledge of plant-weather relationships can improve crop management, resulting in higher quality and more stable crop yields. The annual timing of spring phenophases in mid-latitudes is largely a response to temperature, and reflects the thermal conditions of previous months. The effect of air temperature on the variability of hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) phenophases (leafing, flowering) was investigated. Meteorological and phenological data for five cultivars were analysed over the periods 1969-1979 (P1) and 1994-2007 (P2) in Maribor, Slovenia. Phenological data series were correlated strongly to the temperature of the preceding months (R(2): 0.64-0.98) and better correlated to daily maximum and mean temperatures than to daily minimum temperatures. About 75% of phenophases displayed a tendency towards earlier appearance and a shorter flowering duration during P2, which could be explained by the significant temperature changes (+0.3°C/decade) from December to April between 1969 and 2007. An increase in air temperature of 1°C caused an acceleration in leafing by 2.5-3.9 days, with flowering showing higher sensitivity since a 1°C increase promoted male flowering by 7.0-8.8 days and female flowering by 6.3-8.9 days. The average rate of phenological change per degree of warming (days earlier per +1°C) did not differ significantly between P1 and P2. An estimation of chilling accumulation under field conditions during 1993-2009, between 1 November and 28 February, showed that all four of these months contributed approximately similar amounts of accumulated chilling units. The growing degree days (GDD) to flowering were calculated by an estimated base temperature of 2°C and 1 January as a starting date, given the most accurate calculations. In general, thermal requirements were greater in P2 than in P1, although this difference was not significant. Longer-time series data extended to other agricultural and wild plants would be helpful in tracking possible future changes in phenological responses to local climate. PMID:21786017

Crepinšek, Zalika; Stampar, Franci; Kajfež-Bogataj, Lu?ka; Solar, Anita

2012-07-01

269

Site effects and soil-structure resonance study in the Kobarid basin (NW Slovenia) using microtremors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The town of Kobarid is located in one of three areas with the highest seismic hazard in Slovenia. It was hit by several 1976-1977 Friuli sequence earthquakes and recently by the 1998 and 2004 Krn Mountains earthquakes which caused damage of intensity up to VII EMS-98 scale. The town is located in a small basin filled with heterogeneous glaciofluvial Quaternary sediments in which site effects due to soft sediments are expected. The existing microzonation which is based on surface geological data only is inadequate, and no borehole or geophysical data are available in the basin that would allow a modelling approach of site effects assessment. The microtremor horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) method was therefore applied in order to assess the fundamental frequency of the sediments. Investigations were performed on a 100×100 m dense grid and 106 free-field measurements acquired. Clear HVSR peaks were obtained in the majority of the surveyed area. The eastern part of the basin is characterized by two well separated peaks which indicate distinct shallow and deep impedance contrasts. The iso-frequency map of sediments shows a distribution in a broad range of 1.8-22.2 Hz. The observed frequencies can be related to the total thickness of Quaternary sediments (sand, gravel) in the western part of the basin only. They are deposited over bedrock built of Cretaceous flysch. In the eastern part the obtained fundamental frequencies are influenced by the presence of a shallow conglomerate layer inside sandy gravel or lacustrine chalk. The extent of these layers was not known before. Microtremor measurements were also performed inside 19 characteristic buildings of various heights (from two to four stories), and longitudinal and transverse fundamental frequencies determined from amplitude spectra. A potential of soil-structure resonance was assessed by comparing building frequencies with the free-field sediments frequencies derived from the iso-frequency map. For two surveyed buildings a high danger of soil-structure resonance was assessed and for three buildings the danger was of medium level. The building resonant frequency of two- and three-story houses, which prevail in the area, spans the range 4-11 Hz, with an average value of 7.7 Hz. The danger of soil-structure resonance should be therefore sought in this frequency range. Since the majority of Kobarid area is characterized by lower (W part) or higher (E part) frequencies, the danger exist mainly in a relatively narrow transition zone.

Gosar, A.

2010-04-01

270

The response of Corylus avellana L. phenology to rising temperature in north-eastern Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of plant-weather relationships can improve crop management, resulting in higher quality and more stable crop yields. The annual timing of spring phenophases in mid-latitudes is largely a response to temperature, and reflects the thermal conditions of previous months. The effect of air temperature on the variability of hazelnut ( Corylus avellana L.) phenophases (leafing, flowering) was investigated. Meteorological and phenological data for five cultivars were analysed over the periods 1969-1979 (P1) and 1994-2007 (P2) in Maribor, Slovenia. Phenological data series were correlated strongly to the temperature of the preceding months ( R 2: 0.64-0.98) and better correlated to daily maximum and mean temperatures than to daily minimum temperatures. About 75% of phenophases displayed a tendency towards earlier appearance and a shorter flowering duration during P2, which could be explained by the significant temperature changes (+0.3°C/decade) from December to April between 1969 and 2007. An increase in air temperature of 1°C caused an acceleration in leafing by 2.5-3.9 days, with flowering showing higher sensitivity since a 1°C increase promoted male flowering by 7.0-8.8 days and female flowering by 6.3-8.9 days. The average rate of phenological change per degree of warming (days earlier per +1°C) did not differ significantly between P1 and P2. An estimation of chilling accumulation under field conditions during 1993-2009, between 1 November and 28 February, showed that all four of these months contributed approximately similar amounts of accumulated chilling units. The growing degree days (GDD) to flowering were calculated by an estimated base temperature of 2°C and 1 January as a starting date, given the most accurate calculations. In general, thermal requirements were greater in P2 than in P1, although this difference was not significant. Longer-time series data extended to other agricultural and wild plants would be helpful in tracking possible future changes in phenological responses to local climate.

?repinšek, Zalika; Štampar, Franci; Kajfež-Bogataj, Lu?ka; Solar, Anita

2012-07-01

271

Molecular detection of co-infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and/or Babesia canis canis in Dirofilaria-positive dogs from Slovakia.  

PubMed

Recently, several arthropod-borne infections have been introduced into previously non-endemic regions in Europe as the result of various global changes. At the same time, endemic regions are expanding and the risk of co-infections is rising, due to climate change that allows vectors to move and spread infectious diseases into new areas. The aim of the current study was to confirm simultaneous infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and/or Babesia canis canis in Dirofilaria-infected dogs from Slovakia, central Europe. Genomic DNA was isolated from 366 blood samples of microfilaraemic dogs without clinical signs of infection. Samples were further screened for the presence of canine tick-borne pathogens using PCR and sequencing. This survey revealed co-infection with four arthropod-borne pathogens, in particular, Dirofilaria repens, Dirofilaria immitis, A. phagocytophilum, and B. canis canis. While D. repens, responsible for canine subcutaneous dirofilariosis, is scattered through the whole territory of the country, D. immitis occurs only in endemic areas of southeastern and southwestern Slovakia in mixed infection with D. repens. Co-infection with A. phagocytophilum was reported in 3.27% of the dogs positive for D. repens; mixed infection with D. repens and B. canis canis was detected in 3.55% of the tested blood samples. Eastern Slovak Lowland represents a natural focus of B. canis canis and is a highly endemic area for canine dirofilariosis. The presence of triple infection with D. repens, A. phagocytophilum, and B. canis canis was detected in one dog originating from the eastern lowland region of Slovakia. This study highlights the importance of co-infected, clinically healthy dogs in the spreading of several different arthropod-borne pathogens and the necessity for detailed epidemiological surveys, especially in newly infested areas. PMID:24630708

Víchová, Bronislava; Miterpáková, Martina; Iglódyová, Adriana

2014-06-16

272

Assessment of clinical biochemical parameters in Roma minority residing in eastern Slovakia compared with the majority population.  

PubMed

Roma constitute the largest ethnic minority in Europe and the second largest minority in Slovakia. Their health problems originate mainly from their low socioeconomic status, certain cultural aspects and their health-threatening lifestyle as well as the psycho-social burden arising from poverty and frequent migration. Evaluation of glucose, albumin, triacylglycerol (TAG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations did not reveal any clue about the presumed deteriorated health of the Roma population. Higher proportions of subjects with elevated serum total cholesterol were found in Roma women as compared to both control groups of women (p = 0.027, p = 0.006) and in Roma men as compared to the male control group living in standard conditions. Only the low level of HDL-cholesterol gives a glimpse of their deteriorated health. Significantly lower levels of serum HDL-C were reported in Roma men and women compared to the respondents in both control groups with a p value of p < 0.001. Comparing the ratio of LDL-C/HDL-C yielded significant differences between the number of physiological values in Roma men and men from the control group 1 (p = 0.022) in favour of the control group. When comparing the number of people with physiological values of cholesterols and with worsening TAG parameters at the same time, the increased risk of Roma men compared with men from the control group 1 became evident, with a level of significance of p = 0.023. Evaluation of urine samples pointed to significantly higher concentrations of urinary protein in Roma women compared with women in the control group 1 (p = 0.012). PMID:24847608

Hubková, Beáta; Maslanková, Jana; Stupák, Marek; Guzy, Juraj; Kovácová, Anna; Pella, Daniel; Jarcuska, Peter; Mareková, Mária

2014-03-01

273

Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and tick-transmitted bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum infections in one selected goat farm in Slovakia.  

PubMed

Parasitic diseases of livestock together with poor welfare conditions can negatively affect the health status and production of small ruminants. Protozoan parasites and tick-borne infectious agents are common threat of livestock including small ruminants mostly during the pasture season. Therefore the priority of the study was to analyse the circulation and presence of two protozoan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum as well as tick-transmitted bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum in one selected goat farm in Eastern Slovakia. Throughout a three-year study period we have repeatedly screened the sera and blood of goats and dogs from monitored farm. In total, 343 blood serum samples from 116 goats were examined by ELISA. The mean seropositivity for T. gondii was 56.9% (66/116, CI (95%) = 48-66.0) and 15.5% (18/116, CI (95%) = 9.3-22.7) for N. caninum. The permanent occurrence of anti-Toxoplasma and anti-Neospora antibodies was detected in repeatedly examined goats during the whole monitored period. The presence of both parasites in the flock was analysed by PCR. DNA of T. gondii was confirmed in 12 out of 25 Toxoplasma-seropositive goats and N. caninum in 14 samples out of 18 Neospora-seropositive animals; four goats were co-infected with both pathogens. The risk of endogenous transmission of both parasites was pursued by examination of 41 kid's sera, where seropositivity for toxoplasmosis was 31.7% and for neosporosis 14.6%. In dogs 61.1% seropositivity for T. gondii and 38.9% for N. caninum was found, however, their faeces were negative for coccidian oocysts. Eight out of 108 tested animals were infected with A. phagocytophilum, the causative agent of tick-borne fever. Seven of them were simultaneously infected with T. gondii and A. phagocytophilum, out of which four goats were concurrently infected with all three pathogens. PMID:24338316

?obádiová, Andrea; Reiterová, Katarina; Derdáková, Markéta; Špilovská, Silvia; Tur?eková, Ludmila; Hviš?ová, Ivana; Hisira, Vladimir

2013-12-01

274

Long-term trend and multi-annual variability of water temperature in the pristine Bela River basin (Slovakia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryBiological processes in surface waters appreciably depend on temperature of water. This paper summarizes our investigations of water temperature in the Bela River. The Bela River is a mountainous stream not influenced by direct human activities, draining the headwaters of the Vah River basin in the Tatra National Park (TANAP), Slovakia. Our primary aim was to identify the long-term trends and multi-annual variability of the annual water temperature at the Podbanske gauging station, using temperature readings taken at 7.00 am for the period of 50 years (1959-2008). Long-term mean of the annual water temperature of the Bela River at the Podbanske gauging station (922 m a.s.l.) was 4.2 °C, the air temperature at Podbanske meteorological station (972 m a.s.l.) was 5.0 °C. Both, air and water temperature, show an increasing trend. While the air temperature within 50-years increased significantly by 1.5 °C, in the case of water temperature this increase was merely by 0.12 °C. On November 19, 2004, a wind-throw brushed the investigated area with an aftermath of 15.4% destroyed forest in the Bela basin, mainly along the area adjacent to the river. Therefore, in the second part of the study, the impact of the riparian vegetation growing along the river banks was evaluated for two distinctive periods, i.e. the period prior and after the wind-throw. We statistically analysed the changes in water temperature on 6-year time series of daily water temperature (November 2001 through November 2007). The results presented herein may be useful for defining boundary values for surface water temperature, as required by the EC Water Framework Directive.

Pekárová, Pavla; Miklánek, Pavol; Halmová, Dana; Onderka, Milan; Pekár, Ján; Ku?árová, Katarína; Liová, So?a; Škoda, Peter

2011-04-01

275

State of Water Molecules and Silanol Groups in Opal Minerals: a Near Infrared Spectroscopic Study of Opals from Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently near infrared spectroscopy in combination with double derivative technique has been effectively used by Christy [1] to differentiate between free silanol groups and hydrogen bonded silanol groups on silica gel. The method has given some insight into the type of functionalities and their location in silica gel samples. The inportant information in this respect comes from the overtones of the OH groups of water molecules hydrogen bonded to free silanol groups, and hydrogen bonded silanol groups absorbing in the region 5500- 5100 Cm-1 region. The approach was adapted to study the state of water and silanol functionalities and their locations in opals from Slovakia. Twenty opal samples classified into CT and A classes and one quartz sample were used in this work. The samples were crushed using a hydrolic press and powderised. Each sample was then subjected to evacuation process to remove surface adsorbed water at 200°C and the near infrared spectrum of the sample was measured using a Perkin Elmer NTS near infrared spectrometer equipped with a transflectance accessory. The detailed analysis of the sample was carried out using the second derivative profile of the spectrum. The samples were also heated to 750°C to study the state of water molecules in Opal minerals. The results indicate that the opal samples contain 1) surface adsorbed water 2) free and hydrogen bonded silanol groups on the surface 3) Trapped water in the bulk 4) free and hydrogen bonded silanol groups in the cavity surfaces in the bulk. A part of the water molecules found in the bulk of opal minerals are free molecules and the rest are found in hydrogen bonded state to free and hydrogen bonded silanol groups. [1] A. A. Christy, New insights into the surface functionalities and adsorption evolution of water molecules on silica gel surface: A study by second derivative Near Infrared Spectroscopy, Vib. Spectrosc. 54 (2010) 42-49.

Bobon, Miroslav; Christy, Alfred A.; Kluvanec, Daniel; Illasova, L'udmila

2011-06-01

276

Occupational dermatoses caused by contact with metalworking fluids in the region of central slovakia from 2000 to 2012.  

PubMed

Metalworking fluids (MWFs) are a common cause of allergic and irritant contact dermatitis. MWFs being currently used are mostly water based, containing biocides, emulsifiers, and other additives. We performed a retrospective analysis of the etiology of the occupational dermatoses caused by metalworking fluids in three regions of Central Slovakia (population of approximately 2 million) between 2000 and 2012. The primary aim was the analysis of metalworking fluid-induced dermatoses, which involved determining the particular disease type (allergic or irritant), its regional distribution, and the specific chemical causing the disease. The secondary aim of the study was to assess the level of knowledge and competence among dermatologists in performing patch testing for allergens contained in metalworking fluids using a study-specific questionnaire. Of the total number of 422 dermatoses during the analyzed period, 64 (41 in men and 23 in women) were caused by metalworking fluids. The implicated fluids were all aqueous, synthetic MWFs. 39 patients developed an allergic and 25 an irritant-induced contact dermatitis. 51 patients were tested using a special TrolabŽ metalworking battery (Almirall Hermal GmbH, Reinbek, Germany). The test identified a positive reaction to one of the following chemicals: methylchoroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI), formaldehyde, 1,2-benzisothiazoline-3-one, abietic acid, chloroxylenol, triclosan, amerchol L101, dichlorophene, propylenglycol, metylene (bis-methyl oxazolidine), monoethanolamine, and diethanolamine. The questionnaire showed that a large majority of Slovak dermatologists have no experiences with testing of MWFs. Metalworking fluids were found to be the most frequent cause of occupational contact dermatitis. They also are the second largest group of all occupational dermotoses. Their incidence corresponded with the presence of machine industry in the region. Several unresolved problems include detection of specific allergens and standardization of patch test performance among individual dermatologists. Low levels of experience in testing of MWFs revealed need to educate both dermatologists and residents. PMID:25230059

Urban?ek, Slavomir; Kuklová-Bieliková, Marianna; Fetisovová, Želmira; Klimentová, Gabriela; Vil?ek, Rober

2014-01-01

277

Pesticides residues and metals in plant products from agricultural area of Belgrade, Serbia.  

PubMed

The objective of study was to assess the levels of selected metals and pesticides in plant products from agricultural area of Belgrade, Serbia in order to indicate their possible sources and risks of contamination and to evaluate their sanitary probity and safety. The concentrations of cadmium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc were below limits established by national and international regulations (maximum found concentrations were 0.028, 1.91, 11.16, 1.77, 0.605, 0.073 and 1.76 mg kg(-1) respectively). Only residue of one of examined pesticides was found in amount below MRL (bifenthrin 2.46 ?g kg(-1)) in only one of analysed samples, while others were below detection limits. Obtained results indicate that crops from examined agricultural areas are unpolluted by contaminants used for plant protection and nutrition, indicating good agricultural practice regarding pesticides and fertilizer usage as well as moderate industrial production within examined areas. PMID:22139297

Ethor?evi?, Tijana; Ethurovi?, Rada

2012-03-01

278

Spatial and temporal variability of winter and summer precipitation over Serbia and Montenegro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main characteristics of the spatial and temporal variability of winter and summer precipitation observed at 30 stations in Serbia and Montenegro were analysed for the period 1951-2000. The rainfall series were examined spatially by means of Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) and temporally by means of the Mann-Kendall test and spectral analysis. The Alexandersson test was used to detect the inhomogeneity of the data set. The EOF analysis gave three winter and summer dominant modes of variations, which explained 89.7% and 70.4% of the variance, respectively. The time series associated with the first pattern showed a decreasing trend in winter precipitation. The spectral analysis showed a 16-year oscillation for the dominant winter pattern, around a 3-year oscillation for the dominant summer pattern, and a quasi-cycle of 2.5 years for the winter third pattern.

Toši?, I.

279

Assessment of terrestrial gamma exposure to the population of Belgrade (Serbia).  

PubMed

The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in 178 samples from 52 locations of the territory of Belgrade, the capital of Serbia, were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Based on the results obtained, the values of absorbed gamma dose rate at 1 m above the ground, radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, annual effective dose, annual gonadal dose and excess lifetime cancer risk were calculated. The results of the present study were compared with values reported worldwide and also with internationally recommended values. The total absorbed dose rate varied between 24.7 and 89.6 nGy h(-1) with a mean of 60.5 nGy h(-1), which is close to the world average value. Since all estimated radiological impact assessment factors were lower than the recommended values there seems to be no radiological health hazard for the population living in the investigated area. PMID:20400775

Jankovic Mandic, Lj; Dragovic, S

2010-08-01

280

Analysis of precipitation and drought data in Serbia over the period 1980-2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precipitation and Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) trends were analyzed by using linear regression, Mann-Kendall and Spearman's Rho tests at the 5% significance level. For this purpose, meteorological data from 12 synoptic stations in Serbia over the period 1980-2010 were used. Two main drought periods were detected (1987-1994 and 2000-2003), while the extremely dry year was recorded in 2000 at all stations. The monthly analysis of precipitation series suggests that all stations had a decreasing trend in February and September, while both increasing and decreasing trends were found in other months. On the seasonal scale, there were the increasing trends in autumn and winter precipitation series, while on the annual scale the most of the stations had no significant trends. Besides, the decreasing trend was found at the Belgrade and Kragujevac stations, while the other stations had the increasing trend for the SPI-12 series.

Gocic, Milan; Trajkovic, Slavisa

2013-06-01

281

Neospora caninum antibodies in dairy cows and domestic dogs from Vojvodina, Serbia  

PubMed Central

Neospora caninum, the causative agent of neosporosis, is a protozoan parasite responsible for high rate of abortion in cattle worldwide. In dogs, consequences of infection vary from severe neuromuscular disorders to asymptomatic infection and shedding of environmentally resistant oocysts. In this study, we determined the occurrence of N. caninum antibodies in dairy cattle and dogs in Vojvodina (Northern Province of Serbia) and possible risk factors. N. caninum antibodies were found in 15.4% (55/356, CI 95%:12.0–19.6) of cows and 17.2% (17/99, CI 95%: 10.8–26.2) of dogs. Cows from smallholdings showed significantly greater odds (OR = 5.28, CI 95%: 2.0–13.6, p = 0.0006) of being seropositive in comparison to the farm cows. Epidemiological importance of results is discussed. PMID:24152767

Kuruca, Ljiljana; Spasojevi?-Kosi?, Ljubica; Simin, Stanislav; Savovi?, Milan; Lauš, Saša; Laloševi?, Vesna

2013-01-01

282

Radiation doses in adult computed tomography practice in Serbia: initial results.  

PubMed

This work presents initial data on radiation doses in adult computed tomography (CT) in Serbia. Data were collected in terms of CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) values for head, chest and abdomen examination. The range of CTDIvol values was found to be 53-98, 11-34 and 8.5-227 mGy whereas for DLP was 803-1066, 350-845 and 1066-3078 mGy cm(-1) for head, chest and abdomen examination, respectively. Except for abdomen on one CT unit, all estimated values were in line with the reported data. This work also presents simple method on how to reduce radiation doses when scanning head. Using axial (step-and-shot) instead of helical mode and decreasing tube current-time product leads to significant dose reduction. CTDIvol was decreased by 20 % whereas DLP was reduced for a factor 2. PMID:25063787

Arandjic, Danijela; Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera; Hadnadjev, Darka; Stojanovic, Sanja; Bozovic, Predrag; Ceklic, Sandra; Lazarevic, Djordje

2014-11-01

283

Consequences of an unusual flood event: case study of a drainage canal breach on a fluvial plain in NE Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On November 4-6 2012 heavy precipitation resulted in floods in the middle and lower course of Drava River in NE Slovenia causing damage to many properties in the flooded area. The meteorological situation that led to consequent floods was characterized by high precipitation, fast snowmelt, SW wind and relatively high air temperature. The weather event was part of a cyclone which was spreading over the area of North, West and Central Europe in the direction of Central Europe and carried with it the passing of a cold front through Slovenia on November 4 and 5. The flood wave travelled on the Drava River from Austria to Slovenia past the 11 hydroelectric power plants after eventually moving over the Slovenian-Croatian border. The river discharge increased in the early morning of November 5 reaching 3165 m3/s. This work focuses on a single event in the Ptujsko polje where among other damage caused by the flooding, the river broke through the drainage canal of the Formin hydroelectric power plant and changed its course. The Ptujsko polje contains two fluvial terraces. In the area of Formin HPP, the lower terrace is 1.5 km wide and the surface as well as the groundwater gradient shift from west to east with the groundwater flowing parallel to the river. These characteristics contributed to the flooding and consequential breach in the embankment of the drainage canal. Several aspects of the recent floods are discussed including a critical reflection of data accessibility, possible causes and mechanisms behind it as well as the possibility of its forecasting. Synthesis of accessible data from open domain sources is performed with emphasis on geological conditions. Discharge and precipitation data from the data base of Slovenian Environment Agency are collected, reviewed and analyzed. The flood event itself is analyzed and described in detail. It is determined that the flood wave was different from the ones regulated by natural processes which points to an anthropogenic influence. In the paper we are focusing not only on the characteristics of a single event but try to interpret it in the context of a broader time scale using sources of similar past events of high precipitation and discharge, recorded flood events in the past and general flood characteristics of a river environment.

Vidmar, Ines; Ambroži?, Bojan; Debeljak, Barbara; Dolžan, Erazem; Gregorin, Špela; Grom, Nina; Herman, Polona; Keršmanc, Teja; Mencin, Eva; Mernik, Natalija; Švara, Astrid; Trobec, Ana; Turnšek, Anita; Vodeb, Petra; Torkar, Anja; Bren?i?, Mihael

2013-04-01

284

Norway spruce needles as bioindicator of air pollution in the area of influence of the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant, Slovenia.  

PubMed

This paper reports the results of total sulphur content, photosynthetic pigments, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) analysed in current-year needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in the area influenced by sulphur emissions from the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant (STPP), Slovenia, in the period 1991-2004. Ten differently polluted sampling sites in the emission area of STPP were selected. After desulphurization of emission gases from STPP total sulphur content in needles decreased and vitality parameters of needles increased. Moreover, a strong correlation between the average annual emissions of SO(2) from STPP and average annual sulphur content (increase) or average annual chlorophyll content (decrease) in current-year needles was found. The results showed that spruce needles may be an useful bioindicator for detecting changes in the emission rates of SO(2). PMID:17664035

Al Sayegh Petkovsek, Samar; Batic, Franc; Ribaric Lasnik, Cvetka

2008-01-01

285

An outbreak of Microsporum canis in two elementary schools in a rural area around the capital city of Slovenia, 2012.  

PubMed

An outbreak of Microsporum canis infection affected 12 persons in two elementary schools over a period of 48 days in 2012 in Slovenia. Epidemiological, microbiological, and animal investigations were conducted. We defined cases as pupils or employees with skin lesions and confirmed or probable M. canis infection, attending one of the implicated elementary schools. Two clusters of six primary and six secondary cases were included in an unmatched case-control study. Contact with an adopted stray kitten at a birthday party was identified as the most probable source of infection. Secondary cases were more likely to have participated in gymnastic classes with a primary case than controls and were also more likely to have touched an infected child. Prompt communication and implementation of adequate control measures after the primary cases occurred would have prevented the secondary cases in another school. PMID:24512846

Subelj, M; Marinko, J Sveti?i?; U?akar, V

2014-12-01

286

Source parameters scaling of the 2004 Kobarid (Western Slovenia) seismic sequence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Source parameters of the mainshock (ML = 5.3) and of 165 aftershocks (0.8 < ML < 3.5) of the 2004 Kobarid (Western Slovenia) seismic sequence are investigated in order to determine the corresponding source scaling relations. Data recorded from July to December 2004 by the Friuli and Veneto seismic network (FV), managed by the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS) and installed in Northeastern Italy, are employed to obtain the SH-wave amplitude Fourier spectra of the selected earthquakes. For source spectra computation, we consider only records with significant values of the signal-to-noise ratio and, to account for local amplifications, we compute standard H/V spectral ratios (HVSR) for all the stations of the network. After correction for attenuation effects, source spectra obtained at stations with negligible site effects show a good fit with a ?-square model. We adopt different approaches to compute the source parameters and final results are chosen based on the obtained misfits between observed and theoretical source spectra. For 21 earthquakes of the sequence the obtained results are confirmed by the Empirical Green Function (EGF) technique, applied by estimating the spectral ratios of couples of events with hypocentral distance differences smaller than 500 m and magnitude differences greater than 1. The mainshock of the sequence is characterized by a seismic moment of 3.5 × 1016 Nm and a corner frequency of 0.8 Hz, corresponding, in the Brune's model (1970), to a fault radius of 1465 m and a stress drop of 4.9 MPa. Aftershocks have seismic moments in the range [3.3 × 1011, 1.8 × 1014] Nm, corner frequencies between 1.9 and 12.4 Hz (Brune radii between 95 and 638 m) and stress drops in the range [0.03, 1.55] MPa. The observed scaling of seismic moment (M0) with the local magnitude (ML) is consistent with the trend: Log M0 = 1.06ML + 10.56. The Brune radius (rB) increases with the seismic moment according to: Log rB = 0.22 Log M0 - 0.40. Moreover, in spite of the high dispersion that characterizes the estimates of the Brune stress drop (??B), we observe also an increase of ??B with M0. The mainshock is characterized by 2.4 × 1012 J radiated energy (ES) and 1.9 MPa apparent stress (?a). Aftershocks have energies between 2.0 × 105 and 7.4 × 108 J and apparent stress values increasing with the seismic moment in the range [0.01, 0.48] MPa. Radiated energies increase with seismic moments according to the empirical relationship: Log ES = 1.53 Log M0 - 12.47. The scaling of both ??B and ?a with M0 in the range of magnitude between 0.8 and 5.3, evidences the non-self-similarity characteristics of the 2004 Kobarid seismic sequence. Similar results have been obtained by previous studies concerning the source parameter scaling of the background seismicity and of other seismic sequences of the area.

Franceschina, Gianlorenzo; Gentili, Stefania; Bressan, Gianni

2013-09-01

287

Nutrition and environment in medieval Serbia: charred cereal, weed and fruit remains from the fortress of Ras  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the results of archaeobotanical examination of remains from the medieval complex of Ras in Serbia. The\\u000a samples were collected from the fortress situated on the hilltop (Gradina) and from a settlement below (Podgradje) during\\u000a the archaeological excavations of 1972–1984. They were taken primarily from the buildings containing charred cereals dating\\u000a to the 12th and 13th centuries. The

Ksenija Borojevi?

2005-01-01

288

Volatiles of the Grape Hybrid Cultivar Othello (Vitis vinifera x (Vitis labrusca x Vitis riparia)) Cultivated in Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

GC and GC\\/MS analyses of the diethyl ether washings of fresh grapes of Vitis vinifera x (Vitis labrusca x Vitis riparia) interspecific hybrid Othello from Serbia enabled the Identification of 39 constituents that accounted for 96.5% of the total GC peak areas. Five major contributors were the following: heptacosane (15.0%), hentriacontane (15.0%), ethyl oleate (12.4%), nonacosane (11.0%) and pentacosane (8.3%).

N. Radulovi?; P. Blagojevi?; R. Pali?

2010-01-01

289

Genetic analysis of dobrava-belgrade virus from Western serbia - a newly detected focus in the balkan peninsula.  

PubMed

Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) is a hantavirus species that causes the most severe form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Europe. DOBV has been detected in three Apodemus rodents: A. flavicollis, A. agrarius and A. ponticus. These emerging viruses appear throughout the Balkan Peninsula including Serbia as its central part. In this study, we examined the seroprevalence, molecular epidemiology and phylogenetics of DOBV from A. flavicollis captured at six Serbian localities. Furthermore, we applied microsatellite typing of host animal genome to analyse the role of host kinship in DOBV animal transmission. The overall IgG seropositivity rate over 3 years (2008-2010) was 11.9% (22/185). All seropositive samples were subjected to RT-PCR and DNA sequencing for S and L genome segments (pos. 291-1079 nt and 2999-3316 nt, respectively). DOBV was genetically detected in three samples from mountain Tara in western Serbia, a newly detected DOBV focus in the Balkans. No sequence data from human cases from Serbia are available for the studied period. However, collected DOBV isolates in this work phylogenetically clustered together with isolates from Serbian human cases dating from 2002, with 1.9% nucleotide divergence. We determined the level of kinship between seropositive and seronegative animal groups and found no significant difference, suggesting that horizontal virus transmission in the studied population was the same within and among the hatches. Our findings are the first genetic detection of DOBV in rodents in Serbia. We confirm wide and continuous hantavirus presence in the examined parts of the Balkans, underlying the necessity of continual monitoring of hantavirus circulation in A. flavicollis. PMID:24867363

Stamenkovi?, G; Nikoli?, V; Blagojevi?, J; Bugarski-Stanojevi?, V; Adna?evi?, T; Stanojevi?, M; Vujoševi?, M

2015-03-01

290

Detection of Dioxin-like Contaminants in Soil from the Area of Oil Refineries in Vojvodina Region of Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study level of soil contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)\\u000a in two oil refineries in Vojvodina region of Serbia was assessed using combined bio\\/chemical approach. Toxicity of the samples,\\u000a determined by microEROD analysis, could not be exclusively attributed to the content of measured PCBs and PAHs, but also to\\u000a the presence of unknown dioxin-like

Sonja Kaisarevic; Nebojsa Andric; Stanka Bobic; Jelena Trickovic; Ivana Teodorovic; Mirjana Vojinovic-Miloradov; Radmila Z. Kovacevic

2007-01-01

291

Interval linear programming model for long-term planning of vehicle recycling in the Republic of Serbia under uncertainty.  

PubMed

An interval linear programming approach is used to formulate and comprehensively test a model for optimal long-term planning of vehicle recycling in the Republic of Serbia. The proposed model is applied to a numerical case study: a 4-year planning horizon (2013-2016) is considered, three legislative cases and three scrap metal price trends are analysed, availability of final destinations for sorted waste flows is explored. Potential and applicability of the developed model are fully illustrated. Detailed insights on profitability and eco-efficiency of the projected contemporary equipped vehicle recycling factory are presented. The influences of the ordinance on the management of end-of-life vehicles in the Republic of Serbia on the vehicle hulks procuring, sorting generated material fractions, sorted waste allocation and sorted metals allocation decisions are thoroughly examined. The validity of the waste management strategy for the period 2010-2019 is tested. The formulated model can create optimal plans for procuring vehicle hulks, sorting generated material fractions, allocating sorted waste flows and allocating sorted metals. Obtained results are valuable for supporting the construction and/or modernisation process of a vehicle recycling system in the Republic of Serbia. PMID:25649401

Simic, Vladimir; Dimitrijevic, Branka

2015-02-01

292

The Clinic of Neurosurgery at the Clinical Center of Serbia in Belgrade--building on the past.  

PubMed

Neurosurgery as an independent discipline in Serbia has a distinguished history, beginning in 1938 when Dr. Milivoje Kostic, Professor and Chairman of Surgery, opened the Department of Neurosurgery within the Clinic of Surgery in Belgrade. Since then, thanks to the founding fathers' efforts and their successors' work, the Clinic for Neurosurgery in Belgrade has become a highly specialized health, scientific, and educational institution that is part of the University of Belgrade and is a referral center for all neurosurgical clinics in Serbia. Currently, the Clinic for Neurosurgery, with 160 patient beds, is one of the largest European institutions of its kind. Neurosurgery at the Clinical Center of Serbia (CCS) involves a wide range of patients and resources, with an average daily inpatient census of 15 to 20 patients. Each year, there are more than 3000 admissions at the neurosurgical service. Approximately 3500 operations per year are performed in the main campus neurosurgical operating rooms of CCS, while approximately 15,000 patients alone are evaluated in emergency room or inpatient consultations. Despite economic restraints, the department continues to grow in strength, and we remain optimistic of exciting times ahead for neurosurgery at the CCS. PMID:23994133

Savic, Dragan; De Angelis, Michelangelo; Grujicic, Danica

2014-01-01

293

The Formation, Structure, and Ageing of As-Rich Hydrous Ferric Oxide at the Abandoned Sb Deposit Pezinok (Slovakia)  

SciTech Connect

The abandoned Sb deposit Pezinok in Slovakia is a significant source of As and Sb pollution that can be traced in the upper horizons of soils kilometers downstream. The source of the metalloids are two tailing impoundments which hold {approx}380,000 m{sup 3} of mining waste. The tailings and the discharged water have circumneutral pH values (7.0 {+-} 0.6) because the acidity generated by the decomposition of the primary sulfides (pyrite, FeS{sub 2}; arsenopyrite, FeAsS; berthierite, FeSb{sub 2}S{sub 4}) is rapidly neutralized by the abundant carbonates. The weathering rims on the primary sulfides are iron oxides which act as very efficient scavengers of As and Sb (with up to 19.2 wt% As and 23.7 wt% Sb). In-situ {mu}-XANES experiments indicate that As in the weathering rims is fully oxidized (As{sup 5+}). The pore solutions in the impoundment body contain up to 81 ppm As and 2.5 ppm Sb. Once these solutions are discharged from the impoundments, they precipitate or deposit masses of As-rich hydrous ferric oxide (As-HFO) with up to 28.3 wt% As{sub 2}O{sub 5} and 2.7 wt% Sb. All As-HFO samples are amorphous to X-rays. They contain Fe and As in their highest oxidation state and in octahedral and tetrahedral coordination, respectively, as suggested by XANES and EXAFS studies on Fe K and As K edges. The iron octahedra in the As-HFO share edges to form short single chains and the chains polymerize by sharing edges or corners with the adjacent units. The arsenate ions attach to the chains in a bidentate-binuclear and monodentate fashion. In addition, hydrogen-bonded complexes may exist to satisfy the bonding requirements of all oxygen atoms in the first coordination sphere of As{sup 5+}. Structural changes in the As-HFO samples were traced by chemical analyses and Fe EXAFS spectroscopy during an ageing experiment. As the samples age, As becomes more easily leachable. EXAFS spectra show a discernible trend of increasing number of Fe-Fe pairs at a distance of 3.3-3.5 {angstrom}, that is, increasing polymerization of the iron octahedra to form larger units with fewer adsorption sites. Therefore, although ferrihydrite is an excellent material for capturing arsenic, its use as a medium for a long-term storage of As has to be considered with a great caution because it will tend to release arsenic as it ages.

Majzlan,J.; Lalinska, B.; Chovan, M.; Jurkovic, L.; Milovska, S.; Gottlicher, J.

2007-01-01

294

Identification and functional characterisation of novel glucokinase mutations causing maturity-onset diabetes of the young in Slovakia.  

PubMed

Heterozygous glucokinase (GCK) mutations cause a subtype of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (GCK-MODY). Over 600 GCK mutations have been reported of which ?65% are missense. In many cases co-segregation has not been established and despite the importance of functional studies in ascribing pathogenicity for missense variants these have only been performed for <10% of mutations. The aim of this study was to determine the minimum prevalence of GCK-MODY amongst diabetic subjects in Slovakia by sequencing GCK in 100 Slovakian probands with a phenotype consistent with GCK-MODY and to explore the pathogenicity of identified variants through family and functional studies. Twenty-two mutations were identified in 36 families (17 missense) of which 7 (I110N, V200A, N204D, G258R, F419S, c.580-2A>C, c.1113-1114delGC) were novel. Parental DNA was available for 22 probands (covering 14/22 mutations) and co-segregation established in all cases. Bioinformatic analysis predicted all missense mutations to be damaging. Nine (I110N, V200A, N204D, G223S, G258R, F419S, V244G, L315H, I436N) mutations were functionally evaluated. Basic kinetic analysis explained pathogenicity for 7 mutants which showed reduced glucokinase activity with relative activity indices (RAI) between 0.6 to <0.001 compared to wild-type GCK (1.0). For the remaining 2 mutants additional molecular mechanisms were investigated. Differences in glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) -mediated-inhibition of GCK were observed for both L315H & I436N when compared to wild type (IC(50) 14.6ą0.1 mM & 20.3ą1.6 mM vs.13.3ą0.1 mM respectively [p<0.03]). Protein instability as assessed by thermal lability studies demonstrated that both L315H and I436N show marked thermal instability compared to wild-type GCK (RAI at 55°C 8.8ą0.8% & 3.1ą0.4% vs. 42.5ą3.9% respectively [p<0.001]). The minimum prevalence of GCK-MODY amongst Slovakian patients with diabetes was 0.03%. In conclusion, we have identified 22 GCK mutations in 36 Slovakian probands and demonstrate that combining family, bioinformatic and functional studies can aid the interpretation of variants identified by molecular diagnostic screening. PMID:22493702

Valentínová, Lucia; Beer, Nicola L; Staník, Juraj; Tribble, Nicholas D; van de Bunt, Martijn; Hu?ková, Miroslava; Barrett, Amy; Klimeš, Iwar; Gašperíková, Daniela; Gloyn, Anna L

2012-01-01

295

Identification and Functional Characterisation of Novel Glucokinase Mutations Causing Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young in Slovakia  

PubMed Central

Heterozygous glucokinase (GCK) mutations cause a subtype of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (GCK-MODY). Over 600 GCK mutations have been reported of which ?65% are missense. In many cases co-segregation has not been established and despite the importance of functional studies in ascribing pathogenicity for missense variants these have only been performed for <10% of mutations. The aim of this study was to determine the minimum prevalence of GCK-MODY amongst diabetic subjects in Slovakia by sequencing GCK in 100 Slovakian probands with a phenotype consistent with GCK-MODY and to explore the pathogenicity of identified variants through family and functional studies. Twenty-two mutations were identified in 36 families (17 missense) of which 7 (I110N, V200A, N204D, G258R, F419S, c.580-2A>C, c.1113–1114delGC) were novel. Parental DNA was available for 22 probands (covering 14/22 mutations) and co-segregation established in all cases. Bioinformatic analysis predicted all missense mutations to be damaging. Nine (I110N, V200A, N204D, G223S, G258R, F419S, V244G, L315H, I436N) mutations were functionally evaluated. Basic kinetic analysis explained pathogenicity for 7 mutants which showed reduced glucokinase activity with relative activity indices (RAI) between 0.6 to <0.001 compared to wild-type GCK (1.0). For the remaining 2 mutants additional molecular mechanisms were investigated. Differences in glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) –mediated-inhibition of GCK were observed for both L315H & I436N when compared to wild type (IC50 14.6ą0.1 mM & 20.3ą1.6 mM vs.13.3ą0.1 mM respectively [p<0.03]). Protein instability as assessed by thermal lability studies demonstrated that both L315H and I436N show marked thermal instability compared to wild-type GCK (RAI at 55°C 8.8ą0.8% & 3.1ą0.4% vs. 42.5ą3.9% respectively [p<0.001]). The minimum prevalence of GCK-MODY amongst Slovakian patients with diabetes was 0.03%. In conclusion, we have identified 22 GCK mutations in 36 Slovakian probands and demonstrate that combining family, bioinformatic and functional studies can aid the interpretation of variants identified by molecular diagnostic screening. PMID:22493702

Valentínová, Lucia; Beer, Nicola L.; Staník, Juraj; Tribble, Nicholas D.; van de Bunt, Martijn; Hu?ková, Miroslava; Barrett, Amy; Klimeš, Iwar; Gašperíková, Daniela; Gloyn, Anna L.

2012-01-01

296

State of water molecules and silanol groups in opal minerals: a near infrared spectroscopic study of opals from Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, near infrared spectroscopy in combination with double derivative technique has been effectively used by Christy (Vib Spectrosc 54:42-49, 2010) to study and differentiate between free and hydrogen bonded silanol groups on silica gel surface. The method has given some insight into the type of functionalities, their location in silica gel samples, and the way the water molecules bind onto the silanol groups. The important information in this respect comes from the overtones of the OH groups of water molecules hydrogen-bonded to free silanol groups, and hydrogen-bonded silanol groups absorbing in the region 5,500-5,100 cm-1. Chemically, opal minerals are hydrated silica and the same approach was adapted to study the state of water molecules, silanol functionalities, and their locations in opal samples from Slovakia. Twenty opal samples classified into CT and A classes and one quartz sample were used in this work. The samples were crushed using a hydraulic press and powderized. Each sample was then subjected to evacuation process to remove surface-adsorbed water at 200°C, and the near infrared spectrum of each sample was measured using a Perkin Elmer NTS FT-NIR spectrometer equipped with a transflectance accessory and a DTGS detector. The samples were also heated to 750°C to remove the hydrogen-bonded silanol groups on the surface to reveal their locality. Second derivative profiles of the near infrared reflectance spectra were obtained using the instrument's software and used in the detailed analysis of the samples. The analysis of the near infrared spectra and their second derivative profiles had the aim in finding relationships between the surface chemical structure and the classification of opal samples. The dry opal samples were also tested for their surface adsorption effectivity toward water molecules. The results indicate that the opal samples contain (1) surface-adsorbed water, (2) free and hydrogen-bonded silanol groups on the surface, (3) trapped water molecules in the bulk, and (4) free and hydrogen-bonded silanol groups in the cavity surfaces in the bulk. A part of the water molecules in the bulk of opal minerals are found as free molecules and the rest are found in hydrogen-bonded state to either free or vicinal or geminal silanol groups.

Bobo?, Miroslav; Christy, Alfred A.; Kluvanec, Daniel; Illášová, L'udmila

2011-12-01

297

293USDA Forest Service Gen.Tech.Rep. PSW-GTR-166. 1998. Slovakia is a mountainous and forested country (40.6 percent forest cover) in central Europe and has a large  

E-print Network

293USDA Forest Service Gen.Tech.Rep. PSW-GTR-166. 1998. Abstract Slovakia is a mountainous and forested country (40.6 percent forest cover) in central Europe and has a large variety of vegetation zones, forest types, and a rich diversity of forest tree species. The most important tree species are beech

Standiford, Richard B.

298

Spatial distribution of selected heavy metals and soil fertility status in south-eastern Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental pollution by heavy metals is one of the most powerful factors destroying biosphere components that directly affecting agricultural production quality and therefore health of human and animals. Regional soil contamination by heavy metals occurs mainly in industrial areas and in big cities. However, pollutants can be air-and/or water-transferred to big distances and may accumulated far from industrial zone what makes difficult to distinguish original background concentrations of heavy metals in soil. Our study covers south-eastern part of Serbia and is a part of a big project studying soil fertility and heavy metal contamination all around Serbia. Diverse natural characteristics and heterogeneity of soil cover, as well as, human activity greatly influenced soil fertility parameters, while, diverse geological substrate and human activity determined the level of potential geochemical pollution. There are number of industrial factories functioning from the last century on the studied area. Also, close to studied area, there was a mining in the middle of the last century. About 600 soil samples from surface 0-30 cm were investigated for main soil fertility characteristics (pH, humus, available K and P) and concentrations of selected heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb). Soils graded as very acidic cover 46% of the area, which are mainly mountains with acidic parent materials. Content of humus in 41% of soil samples were below 3%. The most of the soils (71%) are weakly supplied available phosphorus. While available potassium in more than 70% is presented in the concentrations enough for good soil quality. So, about 75% of studied area is characterized with unfavorable soil fertility properties (extremly low soil pH, very low content of available P, about half of the area maintained low soil humus) that is located under forests, meadows and pastures. Content of heavy metals on studied area in 80% of sampled soils was below maximum allowed concentrations (Sluzbeni glasnik RS, 1994). However, 19 % of samples showed contamination or potential contamination with one or other toxic elements, where As was the most often pollutant. Contaminated sites is the results of both, geochemical composition of the area and anthropogenic pollution. Our study gives a clear picture of the status of soil fertility and the level of soil pollution with selected heavy metals. The rezults of this study build the foundation for further detailed investigations of effects of higher concentrations of pollutants on plants and other components of biosphere, which in turn would help in finding measures for amelioratin and/or prevention of eventual negative consequences.

Saljnikov, E.; Mrvic, V.; Cakmak, D.; Nikoloski, M.; Perovic, V.; Kostic, L.; Brebanovic, B.

2009-04-01

299

Identifying gaps between current and expected ICT competencies of nurses in Serbia.  

PubMed

Introducing of ICT in the health care system in Serbia started 19 years ago and systematic training of nurses and technicians has not been realized yet. The primary objective of this paper is to determine the gap between the sets of ICT competencies of nurses and technicians acquiring education and experience and the necessary skill set required for their daily work. The qualitative research included questioning of the focus group of experts and 400 nurses and technicians employed in secondary and tertiary health institutions in Serbia. Based on the analysis of existing literature we choose the Informatics competencies for nurses at four levels of practice (Staggers, Gassert, Curran, 2001), and for the purposes of this study, we used a list of competencies of the first, and partially of the second and third level. At the start, the group of 12 experts had the task to eliminate some of listed competencies to express the subjective expectations of the ICT competencies of nurses. After that nurses and medical technicians were expected to grade, by Likert scale, their level of knowledge and skills for each of the 39 competencies, respectively. The answers were analyzed using measure of central tendency and distribution of results was done by median. Comparison of perceived competence of the nurses and the desired/expected level by managers shows that there is difference in 25 of the 39 offered statements. Managers expect that nurses are great users of administrative applications for staff scheduling and for maintaining employee records, while nurses declared that these programs they use relatively poorly or not at all. The larger gap is also observed when it comes to computer skill for documenting patient care--experts expect that nurses do it well, and nurses, again, estimate that their documentation skills are relatively poor. The same situation is with use of ICT for patient education. It can be concluded that further training is required in the field of ICT, either through additional training in the workplace, either through formal education. Due to the fact that ICT competencies are becoming part of the basic, functional sets, it should be considered the correction of curricula of secondary schools for nurses. PMID:25160171

Paunic, Sanja; Stojkovic, Ivana

2014-01-01

300

Geological and geochemical characteristics of sedimentary rocks in Kremna, basin (Serbia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studying lacustrine sediments is important because of their potential economic value since they often bear coal, oil shales and non-metallic mineral raw materials. Besides this, lacustrine sediments offer valuable information on the climate conditions which existed during the sedimentation. In Serbia there are 14 lacustrine basins spanning in age from Oligocene to Lower Pliocene. The aim of this study was to examine Lower Miocene Kremna basin, located in southwest Serbia. Kremna basin is a small basin, covering 15km2, but sedimentologically very interesting. For the purpose of this study, 43 sediment samples were taken from a borehole at different depths, from surface to 343 m depth of the basin. The borehole ended in weathered serpentinite. Mineralogical composition of sediments was determined using thin-sections and X-ray diffraction analysis, contents of macro-and microelements and rare-earth elements were determined by ICP-ES and ICP-MS techniques. Also, elemental analysis was applied to determine the contents of carbon, sulphur and nitrogen and n-alkanes, isoprenoide aliphatic alkanes and bitumen were also determined using GC-MS technique. Mineralogical analyses proved presents of several lithological types in Kremna basin: clastic sediments, tuffs, tuffaceous sediments, marlstones, dolomites, magnezites, and coal of non-economic value. Occurrence of sirlezite and sepiolite was also determined. Furthermore, according to all obtained results two faciae were determined: alluvial-marginal lacustrine and intrabasinal. Alluvial-marginal facies originated from predominantly ultramafic rocks which underlie the basin. Magnezites and Mg-marls and Mg-dolomites are dominant sediments in this facies. These sediments formed under arid, slightly saline conditions. Intrabasinal facies is represented mostly with marls, Mg-marls and dolomitic limestones. These sediments were deposited under a more humid climate with increase in paleoproductivity. The uppermost sediments of Kremna basin are represented with marly dolomite. Due to the swallowing of the basin sediments became relatively rich in predominantly land plant material. Tuffs and tuffaceous sediments were determined in both faciae.

Perunovi?, Tamara; Jovan?i?evi?, Branimir; Br?eski, Ilija; Šajnovi?, Aleksandra; Stojanovi?, Ksenija; Simi?, Vlada; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica

2014-05-01

301

Regional air pollution caused by a simultaneous destruction of major industrial sources in a war zone. The case of April Serbia in 1999  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During NATO's 78-day Kosovo war, 24 March-10 June 1999, almost daily attacks on major industrial sources have caused numerous industrial accidents in Serbia. These accidents resulted in releases of many hazardous chemical substances including the persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Detection of some important POPs in fine aerosol form took place at Xanthi in Greece and reported to the scientific world. The paper focuses on two pollution episodes: (a) 6-8 April; and (b) 18-20 April. Using the Eta model trajectory analysis, the regional pollutant transport from industrial sites in Northern Serbia (Novi Sad) and in the Belgrade vicinity (Pan?evo), respectively, almost simultaneously bombed at midnight between 17 and 18 April, corroborated measurements at Xanthi. At the same time the pollutant puff was picked up at about 3000 m and transported to Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Moldavia and the Black Sea. The low-level trajectories from Pan?evo below 1000 m show pollutant transport towards Belgrade area in the first 12 h. The POP washout in central and southern Serbia in the second episode was deemed to have constituted the principal removal mechanism. Maximum POP wet deposition was found in central Serbia and along the 850 hPa trajectory towards south-eastern Serbia and the Bulgarian border.

Vukmirovi?, Zorka B.; Unkaševi?, Miroslava; Lazi?, Lazar; Toši?, Ivana

302

Molecular analyses of Erwinia amylovora strains isolated in Russia, Poland, Slovenia and Austria describing further spread of fire blight in Europe.  

PubMed

Fire blight, a bacteriosis of apple and pear, was assayed with molecular tools to associate its origin in Russia, Slovenia and south-eastern Austria with neighboring countries. The identification of all investigated strains was confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy except one. Independent isolation was verified by the level of amylovoran synthesis and by the number of short sequence DNA repeats in plasmid pEA29. DNA of gently lysed E. amylovora strains from Russia, Slovenia, Austria, Hungary, Italy, Spain, Croatia, Poland, Central Europe and Iran was treated with restriction enzymes XbaI and SpeI to create typical banding patterns for PFGE analysis. The pattern Pt2 indicated that most Russian E. amylovora strains were related to strains from Turkey and Iran. Strains from Slovenia exhibited patterns Pt3 and Pt2, both present in the neighboring countries. Strains were also probed for the recently described plasmid pEI70 detected in Pt1 strains from Poland and in Pt3 strains from other countries. The distribution of pattern Pt3 suggests distribution of fire blight from Belgium and the Netherlands to Central Spain and Northern Italy and then north to Carinthia. The PFGE patterns indicate that trade of plants may have introduced fire blight into southern parts of Europe proceeded by sequential spread. PMID:23570971

Jock, Susanne; Wensing, Annette; Pulawska, Joanna; Drenova, Nataliya; Dreo, Tanja; Geider, Klaus

2013-08-25

303

Trichinella infections in different host species of an endemic district of Serbia.  

PubMed

Trichinella infections are endemic in the Balkan region of Europe. Though trichinellosis and agents thereof are serious problems for human health and animal husbandry, only a limited number of Trichinella isolates from Serbia have been identified at the species level so far. The aim of the present study was the surveillance and monitoring of Trichinella in domestic pigs and wild animals from the endemic district of Branicevo. Investigations performed during the 2009-2010 period revealed Trichinella infections in 344 out of 282,960 (0.12%) domestic pigs. Among wildlife, Trichinella infections were detected in 11 out of 94 (11.7%) wild boars (Sus scrofa), 7 out of 57 (12.3%) red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 7 out of 13 (53.8%) golden jackals (Canis aureus), and in all three examined wolves (Canis lupus). Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi were the only two species identified. T. britovi was identified in 31% of isolates from wildlife of the Branicevo district and T. spiralis was found in 53% of wild animals; mixed infections were observed in 16% of the animals examined. Findings form the basis of an information campaign for veterinary services, pig owners and the hunter's associations about the risk of the transmission of these zoonotic agents. The application of control programs as established at the Veterinary Specialist Institute of Pozarevac resulted in a decline in Trichinella infections among domestic pigs and the absence of human trichinellosis in the last three years in the Branicevo district. PMID:23453823

Zivojinovic, M; Sofronic-Milosavljevic, Lj; Cvetkovic, J; Pozio, E; Interisano, M; Plavsic, B; Radojicic, S; Kulisic, Z

2013-05-20

304

Women's expectations of healthcare professionals in case of intimate partner violence in Serbia.  

PubMed

Women who have experienced intimate partner violence use health care services more often than non-abused women, but it is unclear what they expect from physicians in relation to their intimate partner violence experience. In this study the authors explored whether women in Serbia expect physicians to help them after having experienced intimate partner violence, what kind of help the women expected, and if none, why none is expected. The authors of this study conducted structured interviews with 120 women who visited six primary healthcare centres. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, while qualitative data were analyzed applying content analyses. The majority of women (81.7%) expected healthcare professionals to help them in the event of intimate partner violence, mainly through giving advice, information, contacting other institutions, services, and providing understanding and support. Fewer women expected help in the form of documenting violence and contacting police. Only a minority (8.3%) did not expect help, noting that intimate partner violence is beyond the scope of healthcare professionals' interest or competencies, and/or that violence was a private problem, while 10% were unsure about the role of physicians in the case of intimate partner violence. The majority of women in this study expected help with intimate partner violence. Physicians should be aware of these expectations and how to provide support to women experiencing intimate partner violence. PMID:22082248

Djikanovic, Bosiljka; Lo Fo Wong, Sylvie; Stevanovic, Snezana; Celik, Halime; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine

2011-11-01

305

Environmental radioactivity in southern Serbia at locations where depleted uranium was used.  

PubMed

In the 1999 bombing of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, NATO forces used ammunition containing depleted uranium. The cleaning of depleted uranium that followed was performed in southern Serbia by the Vin?a Institute of Nuclear Sciences between 2002 and 2007 at the locations of Plja?kovica, Borovac, Bratoselce, and Reljan. This paper presents detailed results of radioactivity monitoring four years after cleaning (2011), which included the determination of gamma emitters in soil, water, and plant samples, as well as gross alpha and beta activities in water samples. The gamma spectrometry results showed the presence of natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, 235U, 238U, and the produced radionuclide 137Cs (from the Chernobyl accident). In order to evaluate the radiological hazard from soil, the radium equivalent activity, the gamma dose rate, the external hazard index, and the annual effective dose were calculated. Considering that a significant number of people inhabit the studied locations, the periodical monitoring of radionuclide content is vital. PMID:24778342

Sarap, Nataša B; Jankovi?, Marija M; Todorovi?, Dragana J; Nikoli?, Jelena D; Kova?evi?, Milojko S

2014-06-01

306

First findings and prevalence of adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) in wild carnivores from Serbia.  

PubMed

Heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) is a parasitic roundworm that causes a zoonotic disease known as dirofilariosis. Little is known about the role of wild carnivores serving as reservoirs in nature. Therefore, we examined 738 hearts and lungs of free ranging wild carnivores from Serbia to determine the presence of adult heartworms. During the period 2009-2013, the prevalence in golden jackals (Canis aureus) was 7.32%, in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) 1.55%, in wolves (Canis lupus) 1.43%, and in wild cats (Felis silvestris) 7.69%. No adult heartworm specimens were found in beech martens (Martes foina), stone martens (Martes martes), European polecats (Mustela putorius), badgers (Meles meles) or otter (Lutra lutra). The highest recorded prevalence was in 2013 (7.30%) and the lowest in 2012 (1.6%). In jackals, the prevalence was higher in males (10%) than in females (4.06%), while in foxes the prevalence was 1.75% in males and 1.26% in females. The most infected host was a wolf in which 37 adult specimens were found. Because of the potentially significant role in the life cycle of D. immitis, populations of wild carnivores in Europe should be further examined and tested for heartworm infections. PMID:24951168

Penezi?, Aleksandra; Selakovi?, Sanja; Pavlovi?, Ivan; ?irovi?, Duško

2014-09-01

307

Pharmacotherapy and over-the-counter drug use among elderly in Belgrade, Serbia.  

PubMed

From November 2012 to January 2013, 480 seniors were recruited at the Pubic Health Center in Belgrade, Serbia. The patients' records were validated by four independent investigators. Data on over-the-counter (OTC) drug use were collected through a questionnaire. Polypharmacy, an intake of ?5 prescribed medications, reported in 10.4% of seniors, was associated with cardiovascular (odds ratio [OR] = 3.07; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12-8.39) and endocrine diseases (OR = 2.25; 95% CI = 1.05-4.84) as well as with the number of treated chronic conditions (OR = 2.45; 95% CI = 1.75-3.44). The most frequently used OTC drugs were analgesics (metamizole, diclofenac and acetaminophen) and vitamins (vitamin C and vitamin B complex). The number of treated chronic conditions was associated with use of OTC drugs (OR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.01-1.36). Multiple chronic conditions correlated with multiple OTC drug use (? = 0.125, p = 0.019). Our analysis indicated that the prevalence of polypharmacy and OTC drug use in the elderly are comparable to those in industrialized countries. PMID:24011608

Gazibara, Tatjana; Nurkovic, Selmina; Kisic-Tepavcevic, Darija; Kurtagic, Ilma; Kovacevic, Nikolina; Gazibara, Teodora; Pekmezovic, Tatjana

2013-01-01

308

Reconstruction of the erythemal UV radiation data in Novi Sad (Serbia) using the NEOPLANTA parametric model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on the development and application of a technique for filling the daily erythemal UV dose data gaps and the reconstruction of the past daily erythemal UV doses in Novi Sad, Serbia. The technique implies developing the empirical equation for estimation of daily erythemal UV doses by means of relative daily sunshine duration under all sky conditions. A good agreement was found between modeled and measured values of erythemal UV doses. This technique was used for filling the short gaps in the erythemal UV dose measurement series (2003-2009) as well as for the reconstruction of the past time-series values (1981-2002). Statistically significant positive erythemal UV dose trend of 6.9 J m-2 per year was found during the period 1981-2009. In relation to the reference period 1981-1989, an increase in the erythemal UV dose of 6.92 % is visible in the period 1990-1999 and the increase of 9.67 % can be seen in the period 2000-2009. The strongest increase in erythemal UV doses has been found for winter and spring seasons.

Malinovic-Milicevic, S.; Mihailovic, D. T.; Radovanovic, M. M.

2014-07-01

309

Determinants of Fruit, Vegetable, and Dairy Consumption in a Sample of Schoolchildren, Northern Serbia, 2012  

PubMed Central

Introduction Insufficient intake of fresh fruits, vegetables, and dairy products among children is a serious nutrition-related concern. The aim of our study was to determine behavioral and environmental factors that influence fruit, vegetable, and dairy consumption among Serbian schoolchildren. Methods We used 24-hour recall to measure fruit, vegetable, and dairy intake of schoolchildren (N = 212) aged 8 to 11 years from 2 elementary schools in a local community in Serbia. We evaluated potential determinants of intake by using a 48-item questionnaire that asked about children’s behaviors, perceptions of others’ expectations and behaviors, reinforcement of children’s behaviors, and availability of fruits, vegetables, and dairy at home and school. Children completed written questionnaires during 1 school class under teacher supervision. Binary logistic regression was used to analyze determinants of fruit, vegetable, and dairy intake. Results Negative predictors of fruit intake were expectations from teacher and parents (P <.001) to eat fruit and availability of fruit in school. Vegetable intake was positively related to paternal modeling behavior (P <.001) and availability of vegetables at home (P = .04). Dairy intake was positively influenced by parental reinforcement (P = .03). Conclusion Various personal and environmental factors are associated with children’s intake of fruits, vegetables, and dairy. Interventions to promote fruit, vegetable, and dairy consumption in Serbian schoolchildren should focus on modeling and reinforcement by parents and teachers and increasing availability at school and at home. PMID:24176082

Novakovi?, Budimka

2013-01-01

310

Heavy metal and bacterial pollution of the Sava River in Serbia.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to establish microbial and heavy metal pollution of the Sava River at three locations close to industry and urban areas (Šabac, Obrenovac, Beograd) in Serbia. Heavy metal analysis included Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd in the river water and sediment samples. Using the microbiological analysis we tried to establish the effectiveness of total coliforms, faecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in detecting pollution of surface waters. We found that E. coli levels steadily increased downstream from Šabac (location 1; 2100 MPN per 100 mL) to Belgrade (location 3; 10000 MPN per 100 mL). To prevent bacterial contamination, it is necessary to reduce the discharge of wastewater with faecal matters near highly populated towns. Heavy metal levels in sediments correlated with those in the river water. Fluctuations attributed mainly to anthropogenic sources were not high. These results point to acceptable anthropogenic contribution to heavy metal content in the Sava River and to low environmental risk. PMID:21421528

Vukovi?, Zivorad; Markovi?, Ljiljana; Radenkovi?, Mirjana; Vukovi?, Dubravka; Stankovi?, Srboljub

2011-03-01

311

Groundwater management by riverbank filtration and an infiltration channel: the case of Obrenovac, Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Vi? Bare groundwater source is used to supply water to the population and industry of Obrenovac, one of the municipalities of Belgrade (the capital of Serbia). It is a typical riverbank filtration site; exploitation is performed through 30 drilled wells and two radial wells located in the meander of the Sava River. The established hydraulic connection between the river and tapped aquifer is so great that the river regime has a dominant influence on the aquifer. As a consequence of this, water-delivery reduction occurs in the dry months (summer-autumn), when the population needs water the most. Based on the data associated with the river’s gauges, precipitation, quantity of pumped water and groundwater-level fluctuation, a simulation of the groundwater regime for non-steady-state flow conditions has been undertaken through a numerical model. To overcome problems of water shortage during the dry season, the possibility of artificial recharge using an infiltration channel, made up of two connected parts, was analyzed. During the dry months, 80 % of the wells receive water partly from the infiltration channel. In this way, possibilities for extracting additional water are created. The application of this concept is discussed.

Polom?i?, Dušan; Hajdin, Bojan; Stevanovi?, Zoran; Baji?, Dragoljub; Hajdin, Katarina

2013-11-01

312

Radiation exposure to nuclear medicine staff involved in PET/CT practice in Serbia.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work is to evaluate the radiation exposure to nuclear medicine (NM) staff in the two positron emission tomography-computed tomography centres in Serbia and to investigate the possibilities for dose reduction. Dose levels in terms of Hp(10) for whole body and Hp(0.07) for hands of NM staff were assessed using thermoluminescence and electronic personal dosemeters. The assessed doses per procedure in terms of Hp(10) were 4.2-7 and 5-6 ?Sv, in two centres, respectively, whereas the extremity doses in terms of Hp(0.07) in one of the centres was 34-126 ?Sv procedure(-1). The whole-body doses per unit activity were 17-19 and 21-26 ?Sv GBq(-1) in two centres, respectively, and the normalised finger dose in one centre was 170-680 ?Sv GBq(-1). The maximal estimated annual whole-body doses in two centres were 3.4 and 2.0 mSv, while the corresponding extremity dose in the later one was 45 mSv. Improvements as introduction of automatic dispensing system and injection and optimisation of working practice resulted in dose reduction ranging from 12 up to 67 %. PMID:24464817

Antic, V; Ciraj-Bjelac, O; Stankovic, J; Arandjic, D; Todorovic, N; Lucic, S

2014-12-01

313

Follow-up study of prevalence and control of ascariasis in swine populations in Serbia.  

PubMed

The cause of the most significant helminth diseases in swine - Ascaris suum, can also causes infections in humans. The use of swine manure in agriculture renders the eggs of this ascaridida an accessible source of infection, thus posing a significant risk factor for human health. With the objective of proving the prevalence of infection with A. suum nematodes in the territory of Serbia, investigations were carried out in the period between 2007-2011 in the territories of five districts: North Ba?ka, South Banat, Brani?evo, Zlatibor and Nišava. The investigations covered coprological examinations of 1031 feces samples of swine originating from farms owned by individual breeders. The samples were examined using the standard flotation method with a saturated water solution of NaCl. The established prevalence of ascariasis infection amounted to 47.62% (1031/491). The biggest prevalence of infection was determined in the territory of the Brani?evo District, 65.78% (301/198), and the smallest in the territory of the Nišava District, 32.24% (183/59). In spite of its prevalence and vast economic importance, there is still insufficient information about the key aspects of the biology and epidemiology of A. suum. Viewed from the aspect of epizootiology, it is very important to know the prevalence of swine infections with Ascaris because of the possible infection of humans by its migrating larvae. PMID:23990423

Ili?, Tamara; Becskei, Zsolt; Tasi?, Aleksandar; Dimitrijevi?, Sanda

2013-09-01

314

Soil impact on the radial growth of Taxodium ( Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.) in Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents results of analyzed radial development, quantity of radial growth and soil factors in two plantations in Serbia. One of them is located close to Backa Palanka area, and the other is in Belgrade , area of a big war island. Both of them were established at the same type of soil. The research was conducted on 27 years old trees. For both of these locations there were a number of dates which were measured, such as physical-chemical characteristics of the soil and current radial growth that was measured among 20 % widest trees - those parameters were the most important. By comparison between values and form of a current radial growth it was concluded that Taxodium trees in a plantation near Backa Palanka have a culmination of a current radial growth a bit earlier and with some bigger values than those that originate from Belgrade - big war island. There was compared radial development and it was concluded that the trees from Backa Palanka reach bigger radial values than those from Belgrade - big war island at the same age as well. There were some differences between these locations based on physical-chemical analyze conducted on a soil, so the differences in a radial development, form and values of a current radial growth can be explained with a soil influence, and it will be proofed over the following period in this scientific research.

Jokanovic, D.; Popovic, V.; Vilotic, D.; Mitrovic, S.; Brasanac-Bosanac, Lj.

2012-04-01

315

Perfluorinated compounds in sediment samples from the wastewater canal of Pan?evo (Serbia) industrial area.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) were analyzed in sediment samples from the wastewater canal draining the industrial complex of Pan?evo, Serbia (oil refinery, petrochemical plant, and fertilizer factory). The canal is directly connected to Europe's second largest river, the Danube, which drains its water into the Black Sea. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) up to 5.7ngg(-1) dry weight (dw) and total Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) up to 6.3ngg(-1) dw were detected. Compared to other reports, high levels of PFOS were found, even though PFCs are not used in the industrial production associated with this canal. The PFOS concentration in water was recalculated using the adsorption coefficient, KOC from literature. Using the average output of wastewater from the canal, a mass load of 1.38kg PFOS per year discharged in the Danube River has been calculated, which undoubtedly points to the contribution to global persistent organic pollution of surface waters originating from this industrial place. PMID:23415492

Beškoski, Vladimir P; Takemine, Shusuke; Nakano, Takeshi; Slavkovi? Beškoski, Latinka; Gojgi?-Cvijovi?, Gordana; Ili?, Mila; Mileti?, Srdjan; Vrvi?, Miroslav M

2013-06-01

316

In situ U-Pb zircon geochronology of Neogene garnet-bearing lavas from Slovakia (Carpatho-Pannonian region, Central Europe)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zircons armored in garnet from four Neogene lavas of Slovakia (three andesites and one dacite) were dated in situ, using excimer laser ablation ICP-MS. For the andesites, the 66 analytical points yield a lower intercept age of 13.3 ą 0.1 Ma (MSWD = 1.2), which is older than the age of 12.4 ą 0.2 Ma recorded for the dacite. U-Pb ages obtained in this study are significantly younger than the Lower Badenian ages (K-Ar and fission-track dating coupled with biostratigraphic correlations) classically assumed for the garnet-bearing lavas of the Western Carpathians, with a minimum discrepancy of 3 Ma. Accessorily, a composite zircon with an inherited core reveals that some Pan-African crustal component is present at depth.

Bouloton, J.; Paquette, J. L.

2014-01-01

317

Cytogeography of Pilosella officinarum (Compositae): Altitudinal and Longitudinal Differences in Ploidy Level Distribution in the Czech Republic and Slovakia and the General Pattern in Europe  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Pilosella officinarum (syn. Hieracium pilosella) is a highly structured species with respect to the ploidy level, with obvious cytogeographic trends. Previous non-collated data indicated a possible differentiation in the frequency of particular ploidy levels in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Therefore, detailed sampling and ploidy level analyses were assessed to reveal a boundary of common occurrence of tetraploids on one hand and higher ploids on the other. For a better understanding of cytogeographic differentiation of P. officinarum in central Europe, a search was made for a general cytogeographic pattern in Europe based on published data. Methods DNA-ploidy level and/or chromosome number were identified for 1059 plants using flow cytometry and/or chromosome counting on root meristem preparations. Samples were collected from 336 localities in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and north-eastern Hungary. In addition, ploidy levels were determined for plants from 18 localities in Bulgaria, Georgia, Ireland, Italy, Romania and Ukraine. Key Results Four ploidy levels were found in the studied area with a contrasting pattern of distribution. The most widespread cytotype in the western part of the Czech Republic is tetraploid (4x) reproducing sexually, while the apomictic pentaploids and mostly apomictic hexaploids (5x and 6x, respectively) clearly prevail in Slovakia and the eastern part of the Czech Republic. The boundary between common occurrence of tetraploids and higher ploids is very obvious and represents the geomorphologic boundary between the Bohemian Massif and the Western Carpathians with the adjacent part of Pannonia. Mixed populations consisting of two different ploidy levels were recorded in nearly 11% of localities. A statistically significant difference in a vertical distribution of penta- and hexaploids was observed in the Western Carpathians and the adjacent Pannonian Plain. Hexaploid populations tend to occur at lower elevations (usually below 500 m), while the pentaploid level is more or less evenly distributed up to 1000 m a.s.l. For the first time the heptaploid level (7x) was found on one site in Slovakia. In Europe, the sexual tetraploid level has clearly a sub-Atlantic character of distribution. The plants of higher ploidy level (penta- and hexa-) with mostly apomictic reproduction prevail in the northern part of Scandinavia and the British Isles, the Alps and the Western Carpathians with the adjacent part of Pannonia. A detailed overview of published data shows that extremely rare records on existence of diploid populations in the south-west Alps are with high probability erroneous and most probably refer to the closely related diploid species P. peleteriana. Conclusions The recent distribution of P. officinarum in Europe is complex and probably reflects the climatic changes during the Pleistocene and consequent postglacial migrations. Probably both penta- and hexaploids arose independently in central Europe (Alps and Carpathian Mountains) and in northern Europe (Scandinavia, Great Britain, Ireland), where the apomictic plants colonized deglaciated areas. We suggest that P. officinarum is in fact an amphidiploid species with a basic tetraploid level, which probably originated from hybridizations of diploid taxa from the section Pilosellina. PMID:17998212

Mráz, Patrik; Šingliarová, Barbora; Urfus, Tomáš; Krahulec, František

2008-01-01

318

A complexity analysis of 222Rn concentration variation: A case study for Domica cave, Slovakia for the period June 2010-June 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we have analyzed 222Rn concentration variation in Domica cave (Slovakia) for the period June 2010-June 2011. In that sense we have applied a complexity analysis on 222Rn concentration time series. We have considered possible existence of a periodical component in the variation of 222Rn concentration and some environmental parameters, as well as possible correlation between them. In addition we have offered novel complexity measures based on the Kolmogorov complexity (KC), i.e. the Kolmogorov complexity spectrum, its highest value (KCM) and the integral Kolmogorov complexity (KCI). These measures have been applied on 222Rn concentration time series: (i) to establish the dependence of 222Rn concentration on cave environmental parameters (wind speed inside the cave, external wind speed, air temperature, atmospheric pressure and CO2 concentration) and (ii) to see whether influence of some parameters make the distribution of measured quantity less or more stochastic.

Mihailovi?, D. T.; Krmar, M.; Mimi?, G.; Nikoli?-?ori?, E.; Smetanová, I.; Holý, K.; Zelinka, J.; Omelka, J.

2015-01-01

319

Founder mutations in NDRG1 and HK1 genes are common causes of inherited neuropathies among Roma/Gypsies in Slovakia.  

PubMed

Autosomal recessive forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) account for less than 10 % of all CMT cases, but are more frequent in the populations with a high rate of consanguinity. Roma (Gypsies) are a transnational minority with an estimated population of 10 to 14 million, in which a high degree of consanguineous marriages is a generally known fact. Similar to the other genetically isolated founder populations, the Roma harbour a number of unique or rare autosomal recessive disorders, caused by "private" founder mutations. There are three subtypes of autosomal recessive CMT with mutations private to the Roma population: CMT4C, CMT4D and CMT4G. We report on the molecular examination of four families of Roma origin in Slovakia with early-onset demyelinating neuropathy and autosomal recessive inheritance. We detected mutation p.R148X (g.631C>T) in the NDRG1 (NM_006096.3) gene in two families and mutation g.9712G>C in the HK1 (NM_033498) gene in the other two families. These mutations cause CMT4D and CMT4G, respectively. The success of molecular genetic analysis in all families confirms that autosomal recessive forms of CMT caused by mutations on the NDRG1 and HK1 genes are common causes of inherited neuropathies among Slovak Roma. Providing genetic analysis of these genes for patients with Roma origin as a common part of diagnostic procedure would contribute to a better rate of diagnosed cases of demyelinating neuropathy in Slovakia and in other countries with a Roma minority. PMID:23996628

Gabrikova, Dana; Mistrik, Martin; Bernasovska, Jarmila; Bozikova, Alexandra; Behulova, Regina; Tothova, Iveta; Macekova, Sona

2013-11-01

320

Palaeoenvironment and fluvial history of river Danube between the Neolithic settlement sites of Vinca and Starcevo, Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Neolithic site of Vinca - Belo brdo (ca. 5600 - 4200 BC) is located on the right bank of the Danube River, some 14 km downstream of the city of Belgrade in Serbia. The significance of the Vinca settlement is in its long occupational history, which produced more than 9 meters of settlement layers that provided archaeologists with an understanding of the chronological sequencing and development from the Middle to Late Neolithic in central Serbia. Vinca - Belo brdo was designated as the locus typicus for the Vinca Culture and is considered by many archaeologists as one of the most important sites of the European Neolithic. On the opposite, left side of the river Danube, the early Neolithic site of Starcevo is situated. It spans through the early Neolithic period dated to the seventh and the sixth millennium BC and it is the locus typicus for the Starcevo culture that on the territory of modern-day Serbia precedes the Vinca culture. The vicinity of the Danube influenced the development of these settlements and the relationship between them. Serving as a landmark, border, source of food, but also endangering the sites by a shifting stream course, the Danube is essential. Therefore it is important to define the position of the river during the occupational span of the Neolithic settlements and later. In our study, the early to mid-Holocene environmental changes of the fluvial landscape between the two Neolithic settlement sites are explored. We present preliminary results of recent geomorphological, sedimentological and archaeological investigations, as well as OSL dating, which were combined with relevant information from historical maps and satellite imagery in order to reconstruct the fluvial palaeolandscape.

Penezic, Kristina; Kadereit, Annette; Thiemeyer, Heinrich

2013-04-01

321

Mathematics and Astronomy in the Educational System of Serbia in the Second Half of the 19th Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the second half of the 19th century solid fundaments of the educational system were formed in Serbia, in order to follow the contemporaneous development in Europe. Mathematics and astronomy found an important place in this educational system thanks to, above all, distinguished intellectuals who were pioneers in the improvement of education and science in these fields, such as Dimitrije Neši?, Dimitrije Dani?, Bogdan Gavrilovi? and Mihailo Petrovi? in mathematics and Milan Nedeljkovi?, Milan Andonovi?, Jovan Dragaševi? and Djordje Stanojevi? in astronomy.

Trajkovska, V.

2009-09-01

322

A geochemical and stable isotope investigation of groundwater/surface-water interactions in the Velenje Basin, Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geochemical and isotopic composition of surface waters and groundwater in the Velenje Basin, Slovenia, was investigated seasonally to determine the relationship between major aquifers and surface waters, water-rock reactions, relative ages of groundwater, and biogeochemical processes. Groundwater in the Triassic aquifer is dominated by HCO3 -, Ca2+, Mg2+ and ?13CDIC indicating degradation of soil organic matter and dissolution of carbonate minerals, similar to surface waters. In addition, groundwater in the Triassic aquifer has ?18O and ?D values that plot near surface waters on the local and global meteoric water lines, and detectable tritium, likely reflecting recent (<50 years) recharge. In contrast, groundwater in the Pliocene aquifers is enriched in Mg2+, Na+, Ca2+, K+, and Si, and has high alkalinity and ?13CDIC values, with low SO4 2- and NO3 - concentrations. These waters have likely been influenced by sulfate reduction and microbial methanogenesis associated with coal seams and dissolution of feldspars and Mg-rich clay minerals. Pliocene aquifer waters are also depleted in 18O and 2H, and have 3H concentrations near the detection limit, suggesting these waters are older, had a different recharge source, and have not mixed extensively with groundwater in the Triassic aquifer.

Kandu?, Tjaša; Grassa, Fausto; McIntosh, Jennifer; Stibilj, Vekoslava; Ulrich-Supovec, Marija; Supovec, Ivan; Jamnikar, Sergej

2014-06-01

323

Family History as a Predictor for Disease Risk in Healthy Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study in Slovenia  

PubMed Central

Background Family history can be used as a genetic risk predictor for common non-communicable diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of healthy individuals at risk of developing these diseases, based on their self-reported family history. Methods and Findings This was a cross-sectional observational study. Data were collected in the three largest occupational practices in primary health care centres in Slovenia, a Central European country. The study population consisted of consecutive individuals who came to occupational practices for their regular preventive check-up from November 2010 to June 2012. We included 1,696 individuals. Data were collected by a self-developed questionnaire. The main outcome was the number of participants at a moderate or high risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. The final sample consisted of 1,340 respondents. Moderate or high risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases was present in 280 (20.9%) participants, for the development of diabetes in 154 (11.5%) participants and for cancer in 163 (12.1%) participants. Conclusions In this study, we found a significant proportion of healthy individuals with an increased genetic risk for common non-communicable diseases; consequently further genetic and clinical evaluation and preventive measures should be offered. PMID:24223224

Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Peterlin, Borut

2013-01-01

324

Mineralogical and microstructural studies of mortars from the bath complex of the Roman villa rustica near Mosnje (Slovenia)  

SciTech Connect

This study deals with the characterization of mortars collected from bath complex of the Roman villa rustica from an archeological site near Mosnje (Slovenia). The mortar layers of the mosaics, wall paintings and mortar floors were investigated. A special aggregate consisting of brick fragments was present in the mortars studied. The mineralogical and petrographic compositions of the mortars were determined by means of optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy. Analysis of aggregate-binder interfaces using SEM-EDS revealed various types of reactivity rims. In order to assess the hydraulic characteristics of the mortars, the acid-soluble fractions were determined by ICP-OES. Furthermore, the results of Hg-porosimetry and gas sorption isotherms showed that mortars with a higher content of brick fragments particles exhibited a higher porosity and a greater BET surface area but a lower average pore diameter compared to mortars lacking this special aggregate. - Highlights: {yields} Mineral and microstructural characterizations of brick-lime mortars. {yields} Hydraulic character of mortars in Roman baths complex. {yields} Reaction rims were observed around brick fragments and dolomitic grains. {yields} Higher content of brick particles yielded a higher BET surface area. {yields} Addition of brick particles increased porosity and diminished pore size diameter.

Kramar, Sabina, E-mail: sabina.kramar@rescen.si [Institute for the Protection of the Cultural Heritage of Slovenia, Conservation Centre, Restoration Centre, Poljanska 40, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Zalar, Vesna [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Department of Geology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Urosevic, Maja [University of Granada, Faculty of Science, Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, Avda. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Koerner, Wilfried [University of Vienna, Department of Environmental Geosciences, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Mauko, Alenka [Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Dimiceva 12, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mirtic, Breda [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Department of Geology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lux, Judita [Institute for the Protection of the Cultural Heritage of Slovenia, Conservation Centre, Preventive Archaeology Department, Tomsiceva 7, 4000 Kranj (Slovenia); Mladenovic, Ana [Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Dimiceva 12, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2011-11-15

325

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and black carbon in sediments of a remote alpine lake (Lake Planina, northwest Slovenia).  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and black carbon (BC) were measured in alpine Lake Planina (Slovenia) sediment. Lake Planina is a remote mountain lake with almost no direct anthropogenic influence. Long-distance atmospheric deposition is a major pathway for the loading of contaminants to the sediment. The PAH were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, whereas the BC was determined by thermal oxidation method. A flux of PAH to surface sediments of approximately 1,100 microg m(-2) year(-1) was obtained and was higher than that in other alpine lakes of the central European Alps. However, surface sediment PAH concentration, normalized to organic carbon content (OC), amounted to 5 microg PAH(pyr)/g OC and showed that Lake Planina is relatively equally exposed to atmospheric pollution compared with other lakes in the region. The BC:OC ratios ranged from 3 to 8% (w/w). In addition, a huge forest fire occurred in 1948 in the lake's surrounding area, which is recorded in the sediment. Both PAH and BC distributions were affected by the fire in 1948 in the lake's watershed, because their concentration increased remarkably. The concentration of retene, a molecular marker of coniferous wood combustion, increased to 1,000 ng/g dry weight sediment at the sediment interval corresponding to approximately the year 1950. PMID:12729210

Muri, Gregor; Wakeham, Stuart G; Faganeli, Jadran

2003-05-01

326

Source identification and sedimentary record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Lake Bled (NW Slovenia) using stable carbon isotopes.  

PubMed

A combination of molecular and stable isotope analyses was used to trace and identify the sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in sediments of Lake Bled (NW Slovenia). Sediment samples were taken from two locations with contrasting depositional regimes: Zaka Bay, with permanently oxic bottom and station D, where anoxic conditions prevail throughout the year. The concentrations of PAH in surface sediments at the two locations were comparable and higher than in previous studies, reaching 4230 and 4380 ng g(-1), respectively. It was found that retene (Re) and perylene (Per) are both mainly of natural origin in Zaka Bay while, at station D, the value of ?(13)C determined at a depth of 12-14 cm in the 1950s indicated that Re was of pyrolytic origin. The distribution of ?(13)C values of other individual PAH showed that PAH input to lake sediments was of pyrolytic origin, likely dominated by coal and later in 1950s also by wood burning. PAH from vehicular emissions could also contribute to the overall isotope signatures at the depth of 12-14 cm at station D and Zaka Bay corresponding to the period 1953-1961. PMID:23286333

Petriši?, Marinka Gams; Muri, Gregor; Ogrinc, Nives

2013-02-01

327

Smectite clays of Serbia and their application in adsorption of organic dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colorants and dyes are currently available in over a 100.000 different species and several biggest industries are using them daily in their manufacture processes (textile, cosmetics, food industry, etc.). Since colorants are easily dissoluble in water they pass through filter membranes without further decomposing and in that manner they end up in the environment. The main goal of this work is to apply certain methods in determining the suitability of individual clay in adsorbing and removing colorants from polluted waters. For this study we have chosen four different raw clays from three regions in Serbia: Svrljig (B), Bogovina (Bo) and Slatina-Ub (C and V) and as colorant - methylene blue dye (MB (MERCK, for analytical purposes)). Experiments where carried out to determine the sample structure (XRD and IR), grain size (granulometry), cationic exchange capacity (CEC via spectrophotometry using MB) and adsorption capabilities (spectrophotometry and fluorimetry using MB). XRD and IR data are showing that the samples are smectite clays where samples B i Bo are mainly montmorillonite while C and V are montmorillonite-illite clays. Granulometric distribution results indicate that samples B i Bo have smaller grain size, less that 1? (over 60%) whereas the samples C and V are more coarse grained (40% over 20?). This grain distribution is affecting their specific surface area in the manner that those coarse grained samples have smaller specific surface area. Cationic exchange capacity determined with methylene blue indicate that montmorillonite samples have larger CEC (B = 37 meq/100g, Bo = 50 meq/100g) and montmorillonite-illite samples smaller CEC (V = 5 meq/100g, V = 3 meq/100g). Fluorimetry measurement results gave us a clear distinction between those with higher and smaller adsorption capability. Montmorillonite samples (B and Bo) with higher CEC values and smaller grain size are adsorbing large amounts of methylene blue witch is visible by absence of fluorimetric band corresponding to methylene blue. Montmorillonite-illite samples with smaller CEC values and coarser grain size are adsorbing very small amounts of methylene blue from the suspension which is visible by appearance of the methylene blue band. Untreated, raw smectite clays of Serbia are efficient adsorbent material for removal of dyes from polluted waters. Samples from two regions especially, Bogovina and Svrljig, are showing favorable adsorption results and they are representing good raw materials for purification of waste-waters containing dyes. References: - Jovi?-Jovi?i?, N., Milutinovi?-Nikoli?, A., Gržeti?, I., Jovanovi?, D.; Organobentonite as efficient textile dye sorbent; Chem. Eng. Technol. 2008, 31, No. 4, 567-574 - Žuni?, M.J., Milutinovi?-Nikoli?, A.D., Jovi?-Jovi?i?, N.P., Bankovi?, P.T., Mojovi?, Z.D., Manojlovi?, D.D., Jovanovi?, D.M.; Modified bentonite as adsorbent and catalyst for purification of wastewaters containing dyes; Hem. ind. 2010, 64 ,No. 3, 193-199

Miloševi?, Maja; Logar, Mihovil

2014-05-01

328

Radionuclides in some edible and medicinal macrofungal species from Tara Mountain, Serbia.  

PubMed

Edible and medicinal macrofungi used in human diet represent not only important sources of nutritive elements but toxic substances as well (heavy metals and radionuclides). Radioactivity levels of four radionuclides ((40)K, (137)Cs, (226)Ra, (228)Ra) were determined in the basidiomata (fruiting bodies of a Basidiomycetes) of six lignicolous (Fomitopsis pinicola, Ganoderma applanatum, Hericium clathroides, Megacollybia platyphylla, Pluteus cervinus, Trametes gibbosa) and three mycorrhizal (Boletus luridus, Boletus sp. 1, Boletus sp. 2) species as well as their soil (wood) substrates by gamma spectrometry (high-resolution high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector). The aim was to investigate their ability for radionuclide absorption according to transfer factors (from soil and wood), to predict potential bioindicator species as well as species with potential risk for human use. Samples were taken during years 2011 and 2012, at two sites in forest ecosystem of Tara Mountain (Serbia). Observed concentration ranges per dry weight were as follows: 29-3,020 Bq/kg ((40)K), 21.9-735 Bq/kg ((137)Cs), 3-39 Bq/kg ((226)Ra), and 2.0-18 Bq/kg ((228)Ra). Obtained results indicate that the type of basidiome (fleshy/tough), most likely due to a different metabolic rate, has a very important role in radionuclide accumulation. The highest activity concentrations of all analyzed radionuclides were found in species with fleshy basidiomata--P. cervinus, H. clathroides, M. platyphylla, and Boletus species. A species-specific influence on radionuclide uptake was more prominent comparing to habitat differences and the role of fungal trophic mode. No significant variations were observed regarding radionuclide activity among the same fungal species from different sampling sites. PMID:24801292

Raki?, Milana; Karaman, Maja; Forkapi?, Sofija; Hansman, Jan; Kebert, Marko; Bikit, Kristina; Mrdja, Dušan

2014-10-01

329

Canine Dirofilaria Infections in Two Uninvestigated Areas of Serbia: Epidemiological and Genetic Aspects  

PubMed Central

Abstract In 2009 canine filarial infections were investigated in two northern areas of Serbia (Pan?evo and Veliko Gradište), applying morphometry, biochemical staining, and immunological kit to detect Dirofilaria immitis antigens, and two home-made ELISAs to detect antibodies to D. repens and D. immitis somatic/metabolic polyproteins. Moreover, molecular tools were applied to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of the isolates. The microfilariae detected in 21/122 dogs (17.2%) were identified as D. repens (n=21) and D. immitis (n=2). D. immitis antigens were found in another 13 animals with occult infection. All of the 15 heartworm-positive dogs also had antibodies to this parasite, which were detected in another 13 subjects, indicating an overall D. immitis seroprevalence rate of 22.9%. Serology for D. repens revealed evidence of antibodies in 42.6% of the dogs, but was negative for 4 microfilaremic dogs. As for the two different areas, the prevalence of microfilariae and/or D. immitis antigens, mainly due to D. repens microfilaremic animals, was not significantly higher in Veliko Gradište (33.3%) than in Pan?evo (22%). However, serology showed a different epidemiological picture. Heartworm infection occurred more often in both areas, and antibodies to dirofilarial nematodes were detected in 72.9% of dogs living in Pan?evo, a rate higher than in those living in Veliko Gradište (57.1%). No risk factors for infection were found, confirming the uselessness of prophylactic drugs against D. repens, and suggesting the presence in these areas of sunrise- or sunset-biting mosquitoes as important vectors. The results indicate the need for both appropriate entomological studies and further research on the intra-species variability shown by D. repens. PMID:23127188

Tasi?, Aleksandar; Tasi?-Otaševi?, Suzana; Gabrielli, Simona; Miladinovi?-Tasi?, Nataša; Ignjatovi?, Aleksandra; ?or?evi?, Jovana; Dimitrijevi?, Sanda

2012-01-01

330

Triassic metasediments in the internal Dinarides (Kopaonik area, southern Serbia): stratigraphy, paleogeographic and tectonic significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strongly deformed and metamorphosed sediments in the Studenica Valley and Kopaonik area in southern Serbia expose the easternmost occurrences of Triassic sediments in the Dinarides. In these areas, Upper Paleozoic terrigenous sediments are overlain by Lower Triassic siliciclastics and limestones and by Anisian shallow-water carbonates. A pronounced facies change to hemipelagic and distal turbiditic, cherty metalimestones (Kopaonik Formation) testifies a Late Anisian drowning of the former shallow-water carbonate shelf. Sedimentation of the Kopaonik Formation was contemporaneous with shallow-water carbonate production on nearby carbonate platforms that were the source areas of diluted turbidity currents reaching the depositional area of this formation. The Kopaonik Formation was dated by conodont faunas as Late Anisian to Norian and possibly extends into the Early Jurassic. It is therefore considered an equivalent of the grey Hallstatt facies of the Eastern Alps, the Western Carpathians, and the Albanides-Hellenides. The coeval carbonate platforms were generally situated in more proximal areas of the Adriatic margin, whereas the distal margin was dominated by hemipelagic/pelagic and distal turbiditic sedimentation, facing the evolving Neotethys Ocean to the east. A similar arrangement of Triassic facies belts can be recognized all along the evolving Meliata-Maliac-Vardar branch of Neotethys, which is in line with a ‘one-ocean-hypothesis’ for the Dinarides: all the ophiolites presently located southwest of the Drina-Ivanjica and Kopaonik thrust sheets are derived from an area to the east, and the Drina-Ivanjica and Kopaonik units emerge in tectonic windows from below this ophiolite nappe. On the base of the Triassic facies distribution we see neither argument for an independent Dinaridic Ocean nor evidence for isolated terranes or blocks.

Schefer, Senecio; Egli, Daniel; Missoni, Sigrid; Bernoulli, Daniel; Fügenschuh, Bernhard; Gawlick, Hans-Jürgen; Jovanovi?, Divna; Krystyn, Leopold; Lein, Richard; Schmid, Stefan M.; Sudar, Milan N.

2010-04-01

331

Bioaccumulation of metals in sediments, fish and plant from Tisza river (Serbia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the aquatic environments metals originate from various natural and anthropogenic sources. The purpose of the study was to assess the bioaccumulation level of metals in sediments fish and common reed at four different localities of the Tisza River stretch in Serbia. For purpose of this study concentrations of Al, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr and Zn were determined in sediment, common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. 1841) and four ecologically different fish species (piscivorous northern pike (Esox lucius L.), benthivorous sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.) silver bream (Brama brama L.), omnivorous common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)). Analysis of metals was carried out for liver, gills, brain, testicles and ovaries in fish and in the rhizome, stem and leaves of the common reed and sediment fraction <0,0063mm. The concentrations of metals have been assessed using the Inductively Coupled Plasma - optical emission spectrometry. Obtained results revealed that Al and Fe had the highest concentrations in sediment, fish and common reed samples. The research proved a strong positive correlation between the concentrations of all metals in the sediment, fish and common reed. The highest concentration of heavy metals was recorded in omnivorous common carp Cyprinus carpio, and organs that the most intensively accumulated the greatest number of them were liver and gills. Accumulated metals in the common reed were not distributed evenly, but there are target organs for bioaccumulation. Concentrations in below-ground organs were usually higher than above-ground organs, and the general decreasing trend of element content was rhizome>leaves>stems. Obtained results indicate that the location does not have impact to the level of bioaccumulation. On the basis of this research the under-ground organ (rhizome) of common reed, liver and gills and omnivorous fish species could be recommended as environmental indicators for the presence of metals during environmental monitoring.

Štrbac, Snežana; Gajica, Gordana; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica; Šajnovi?, Aleksandra; Vasi?, Nebojša; Jovan?i?evi?, Branimir; Simonovi?, Predrag

2014-05-01

332

Toxoplasma gondii infection in slaughter pigs in Serbia: seroprevalence and demonstration of parasites in blood  

PubMed Central

A seroepizootiological study of Toxoplasma gondii infection involving a total of 488 slaughter pigs (468 market-weight pigs and 20 sows) in the Belgrade area, also included examination of the presence of T. gondii in the blood. Blood sampled at the slaughter line was examined for specific antibodies by modified direct agglutination, and blood clots of those seropositive at titres of 1:50-1:12800 were bioassayed in mice. The overall seroprevalence was 9.2%, significantly higher (p = 0.0063) in sows (30.0%) than in market-weight pigs (8.3%). Amongst the 22 bioassays performed, a total of 16 (72.7%) were positive, by observation of T. gondii cysts (12), seropositivity (7, including 3 in which cysts were not detected), and/or detection of T. gondii DNA by real-time PCR (12, including one otherwise negative). The positive bioassays originated from the blood of 12 market-weight pigs and 4 sows. Despite a general increase in the rate of demonstration of T. gondii with the increase in the specific antibody level, the association was not significant (p = 0.101). The risk of infection was 41-fold increased in sows vs market-weight pigs, and 15-fold in pigs from smallholders' finishing type farms vs those from large farrow-to-finish farms. The presence of viable T. gondii in a proportion of the samples indicates that some of the pigs had an active parasitaemia at the time of slaughter, which, along with the seroprevalence established, points to a potential source of human infection in Serbia. This is the first report on parasitaemia in naturally infected swine. PMID:21314900

2011-01-01

333

Non-dioxin-like PCBs in ten different fish species from the Danube river in Serbia.  

PubMed

This work has been developed to examine the level of non-dioxin-like (ndl) PCBs (28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180) in (a) ten different freshwater fish species from the Danube river, (b) two sampling points: up and downstream of the industrial zone of the city of Pancevo (ecological hot spot in Serbia) and (c) two time points i.e., in 2001 and 2006. Obtained results would serve to analyse spatial, temporal and congener profile characteristics of ndl PCBs cumulated in fish tissues due to environmental pollution. Sixty-four samples of the following species were collected: wels (Silirus glanus), pike (Esox lucius), bream (Abramis brama), crucian carp (Carassius carassius), pike pearch (Stizostedion lucioperca), barbel (Barbus barbus), tench (Tinca tinca), sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis). Gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector was used for analysis of ndl PCBs. Total ndl PCBs content in upstream samples ranged from 2.7 to 98.1 ng/g and from 4.9 to 68.3 ng/g in 2001 and 2006, respectively. During the 5 years, ndl PCBs content increased significantly in downstream samples i.e., ndl PCBs varied from 13.7 to 46.1 ng/g and from 14.4 to 107.2 ng/g in 2001 and 2006, respectively. PCBs 138 and 180 were predominant congeners in 2001, while in 2006 the most abundant PCB congeners were 138 and 153. In 2006, the presence of PCB 28 and PCB 52 has indicated a recent contamination event. Data on continual monitoring of PCBs in all relevant environmental compartments together with appropriate biomonitoring data are expected to give comprehensive insight into the fate and behaviour profile of these contaminants. PMID:21161586

Jankovi?, Saša; Cur?i?, Marijana; Radi?evi?, Tatjana; Stefanovi?, Sr?an; Lenhardt, Mirjana; Durgo, Ksenija; Antonijevi?, Biljana

2011-10-01

334

Geochemical and mineralogical characterization of a neutral, low-sulfide/high-carbonate tailings impoundment, Markušovce, eastern Slovakia.  

PubMed

Tailings deposits generated from mining activities represent a potential risk for the aquatic environment through the release of potentially toxic metals and metalloids occurring in a variety of minerals present in the tailings. Physicochemical and mineralogical characteristics of tailings such as total concentrations of chemical elements, pH, ratio of acid-producing to acid-neutralizing minerals, and primary and secondary mineral phases are very important factors that control the actual release of potentially toxic metals and metalloids from the tailings to the environment. The aims of this study are the determination of geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of tailings deposited in voluminous impoundment situated near the village of Markušovce (eastern Slovakia) and identification of the processes controlling the mobility of selected toxic metals (Cu, Hg) and metalloids (As, Sb). The studied tailings have unique features in comparison with the other tailings investigated previously because of the specific mineral assemblage primarily consisting of barite, siderite, quartz, and minor sulfides. To meet the aims, samples of the tailings were collected from 3 boreholes and 15 excavated pits and subjected to bulk geochemical analyses (i.e., determination of chemical composition, pH, Eh, acid generation, and neutralization potentials) combined with detailed mineralogical characterization using optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), and micro-X-ray diffraction (?-XRD). Additionally, the geochemical and mineralogical factors controlling the transfer of potentially toxic elements from tailings to waters were also determined using short-term batch test (European norm EN 12457), sampling of drainage waters and speciation-equilibrium calculations performed with PHREEQC. The tailings mineral assemblage consists of siderite, barite, quartz, and dolomite. Sulfide minerals constitute only a minor proportion of the tailings mineral assemblage and their occurrence follows the order: chalcopyrite?>?pyrite?>?tetrahedrite>arsenopyrite. The mineralogical composition of the tailings corresponds well to the primary mineralization mined. The neutralization capacity of the tailings is high, as confirmed by the values of neutralization potential to acid generation potential ratio, ranging from 6.7 to 63.9, and neutral to slightly alkaline pH of the tailings (paste pH 7.16-8.12) and the waters (pH 7.00-8.52). This is explained by abundant occurrence of carbonate minerals in the tailings, which readily neutralize the acidity generated by sulfide oxidation. The total solid-phase concentrations of metal(loid)s decrease as Cu>Sb>Hg>As and reflect the proportions of sulfides present in the tailings. Sulfide oxidation generally extends to a depth of 2 m. ?-XRD and EMPA were used to study secondary products developed on the surface of sulfide minerals and within the tailings. The main secondary minerals identified are goethite and X-ray amorphous Fe oxyhydroxides and their occurrence decreases with increasing tailings depth. Secondary Fe phases are found as mineral coatings or individual grains and retain relatively high amounts of metal(loid)s (up to 57.6 wt% Cu, 1.60 wt% Hg, 23.8 wt% As, and 2.37 wt% Sb). Based on batch leaching tests and lysimeter results, the mobility of potentially toxic elements in the tailings is low. The limited mobility of metals and metalloids is due to their retention by Fe oxyhydroxides and low solubilities of metal(loid)-bearing sulfides. The observations are consistent with PHREEQC calculations, which predict the precipitation of Fe oxyhydroxides as the main solubility-controlling mineral phases for As, Cu, Hg, and Sb. Waters discharging from tailings impoundment are characterized by a neutral to slightly alkaline pH (7.52-7.96) and low concentrations of dissolved metal(loid)s (<5-7.0 ?g/L Cu, <0.1-0.3 ?g/L Hg, 5.0-16 ?g/L As, and 5.0-43 ?g/L Sb). Primary factors influencing aqueous chemistry at the site are mutual processes of sulfid

Hiller, Edgar; Petrák, Marián; Tóth, Roman; Lalinská-Voleková, Bronislava; Jurkovi?, L'ubomír; Ku?erová, Gabriela; Radková, Anežka; Sottník, Peter; Vozár, Jaroslav

2013-11-01

335

Analysis of solid waste from ships and modeling of its generation on the river Danube in Serbia.  

PubMed

This study focuses on the issues related to the waste management in river ports in general and, particularly, in ports on the river Danube's flow through Serbia. The ports of Apatin, Bezdan, Backa Palanka, Novi Sad, Belgrade, Smederevo, Veliko Gradiste, Prahovo and Kladovo were analyzed. The input data (number of watercrafts, passengers and crew members) were obtained from harbor authorities for the period 2005-2009. The quantities of solid waste generated on both cruise and cargo ships are considered in this article. As there is no strategy for waste treatment in the ports in Serbia, these data are extremely valuable for further design of equipment for waste treatment and collection. Trends in data were analyzed and regression models were used to predict the waste quantities in each port in next 3 years. The obtained trends could be utilized as the basis for the calculation of the equipment capacities for waste selection, collection, storage and treatment. The results presented in this study establish the need for an organized management system for this type of waste, as well as suggest where the terminals for collection, storage and treatment of solid waste from ships should be located. PMID:23460543

Ulnikovi?, Vladanka Presburger; Vuki?, Marija; Milutinovi?-Nikoli?, Aleksandra

2013-06-01

336

NEST OCCUPATION AND PREY GRABBING BY SAKER FALCON (FALCO CHERRUG) ON POWER LINES IN the province of VOJVODINA (SERBIA)  

E-print Network

Abstract — Research on nest occupation and prey grabbing by saker falcon (Falco cherrug) on power lines in Vojvodina (Serbia) was done in the period from 1986 to 2004. During three specially analyzed periods, saker falcon took the nests of raven (Corvus corax) in 91 % of a total of 22 cases of nest occupation, and those of hooded crow (Corvus corone cornix) in only 9%. Saker falcon regularly grabs prey from different birds that occasionally or constantly spend time around power lines [Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), hobby (Falco subbuteo), hooded crow (Corvus corone cornix), jackdaw (Corvus monedula), marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus), hen harrier (Circus cyaneus), buzzard (Buteo buteo), and raven (Corvus corax)]. One year a studied pair of saker falcons on a power line in Donji Srem, Serbia grabbed prey from five different species of birds. Out of a total of 40 cases of prey grabbing in the period from January to December, as much 70 % of the grabbed prey was taken from kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). During the winter and early spring, prey was grabbed predominantly by males; after May, prey was sometimes grabbed by females as well. Most of the grabbed prey was common vole (Microtus arvalis).

S. Puzovi?

337

A new species of Aculops (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) from Serbia on Dipsacus laciniatus L. (Dipsacaceae), a weed target of classical biological control in the United States of America  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The new eriophyid mite species Aculops dipsaci n. sp. (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) collected from Dipsacus laciniatus L. (Dipsacaceae) in northern Serbia is described and illustrated. Differential diagnosis is provided in comparison with Aculops salixis Xue, Song and Hong. This is the first e...

338

An Ecophysiological Study of Plants Growing on the Fly Ash Deposits from the “Nikola Tesla–A” Thermal Power Station in Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This ecophysiological research on the ash deposits from the “Nikola Tesla–A” thermal power station in Serbia covered 10 plant species ( Tamarix gallica, Populus alba, Spiraea van-hauttei, Ambrosia artemisifolia, Amorpha fruticosa, Eupatorium cannabinum, Crepis setosa, Epilobium collinum, Verbascum phlomoides, and Cirsium arvense). This paper presents the results of a water regime analysis, photosynthetic efficiency and trace elements (B, Cu, Mn,

Pavle Pavlovi?; Miroslava Mitrovi?; Lola Djurdjevi?

2004-01-01

339

Mathematics Curriculum Changes in Republic of Serbia for Grades 5-8 After the Break-Up of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in the mathematics curriculum for grades 5-8 in the Republic of Serbia after the break-up of SFRY. In particular, the research sought to identify the changes in the mathematics curriculum in terms of curriculum content and learning objectives, textbooks, and high school entrance examination…

Vlajic, Jovana

2011-01-01

340

National Seminar on Education for Democratic Citizenship (Belgrade, Serbia, December 12-15, 2001). Education for Democratic Citizenship, 2001-2004.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main goal of Education for Democratic Citizenship is the building of a modern and democratic society, meaning a high level of political, ethical, social, and cultural conscience within its membership. Within the scope of the initiated reforms of the education system in Serbia, Education for Democratic Citizenship is primarily focused on a…

Vojinovic, Suzana

341

Molecular genetic identification of skeletal remains from the Second World War Konfin I mass grave in Slovenia.  

PubMed

This paper describes molecular genetic identification of one third of the skeletal remains of 88 victims of postwar (June 1945) killings found in the Konfin I mass grave in Slovenia. Living relatives were traced for 36 victims. We analyzed 84 right femurs and compared their genetic profiles to the genetic material of living relatives. We cleaned the bones, removed surface contamination, and ground the bones into powder. Prior to DNA isolation using Biorobot EZ1 (Qiagen), the powder was decalcified. The nuclear DNA of the samples was quantified using the real-time polymerase chain reaction method. We extracted 0.8 to 100 ng DNA/g of bone powder from 82 bones. Autosomal genetic profiles and Y-chromosome haplotypes were obtained from 98% of the bones, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes from 95% of the bones for the HVI region and from 98% of the bones for the HVII region. Genetic profiles of the nuclear and mtDNA were determined for reference persons. For traceability in the event of contamination, we created an elimination database including genetic profiles of the nuclear and mtDNA of all persons that had been in contact with the skeletal remains. When comparing genetic profiles, we matched 28 of the 84 bones analyzed with living relatives (brothers, sisters, sons, daughters, nephews, or cousins). The statistical analyses showed a high confidence of correct identification for all 28 victims in the Konfin I mass grave (posterior probability ranged from 99.9% to more than 99.999999%). PMID:20217112

Zupanic Pajnic, Irena; Gornjak Pogorelc, Barbara; Balazic, Joze

2010-07-01

342

Molecular genetic identification of skeletal remains from the Second World War Konfin I mass grave in Slovenia  

PubMed Central

This paper describes molecular genetic identification of one third of the skeletal remains of 88 victims of postwar (June 1945) killings found in the Konfin I mass grave in Slovenia. Living relatives were traced for 36 victims. We analyzed 84 right femurs and compared their genetic profiles to the genetic material of living relatives. We cleaned the bones, removed surface contamination, and ground the bones into powder. Prior to DNA isolation using Biorobot EZ1 (Qiagen), the powder was decalcified. The nuclear DNA of the samples was quantified using the real-time polymerase chain reaction method. We extracted 0.8 to 100 ng DNA/g of bone powder from 82 bones. Autosomal genetic profiles and Y-chromosome haplotypes were obtained from 98% of the bones, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes from 95% of the bones for the HVI region and from 98% of the bones for the HVII region. Genetic profiles of the nuclear and mtDNA were determined for reference persons. For traceability in the event of contamination, we created an elimination database including genetic profiles of the nuclear and mtDNA of all persons that had been in contact with the skeletal remains. When comparing genetic profiles, we matched 28 of the 84 bones analyzed with living relatives (brothers, sisters, sons, daughters, nephews, or cousins). The statistical analyses showed a high confidence of correct identification for all 28 victims in the Konfin I mass grave (posterior probability ranged from 99.9% to more than 99.999999%). PMID:20217112

Gornjak Pogorelc, Barbara; Balažic, Jože

2010-01-01

343

Statistical analyses of soil properties on a quaternary terrace sequence in the upper sava river valley, Slovenia, Yugoslavia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Alpine glaciations, climatic changes and tectonic movements have created a Quaternary sequence of gravely carbonate sediments in the upper Sava River Valley, Slovenia, Yugoslavia. The names for terraces, assigned in this model, Gu??nz, Mindel, Riss and Wu??rm in order of decreasing age, are used as morphostratigraphic terms. Soil chronosequence on the terraces was examined to evaluate which soil properties are time dependent and can be used to help constrain the ages of glaciofluvial sedimentation. Soil thickness, thickness of Bt horizons, amount and continuity of clay coatings and amount of Fe and Me concretions increase with soil age. The main source of variability consists of solutions of carbonate, leaching of basic cations and acidification of soils, which are time dependent and increase with the age of soils. The second source of variability is the content of organic matter, which is less time dependent, but varies more within soil profiles. Textural changes are significant, presented by solution of carbonate pebbles and sand, and formation is silt loam matrix, which with age becomes finer, with clay loam or clayey texture. The oldest, Gu??nz, terrace shows slight deviation from general progressive trends of changes of soil properties with time. The hypothesis of single versus multiple depositional periods of deposition was tested with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) on a staggered, nested hierarchical sampling design on a terrace of largest extent and greatest gravel volume, the Wu??rm terrace. The variability of soil properties is generally higher within subareas than between areas of the terrace, except for the soil thickness. Observed differences in soil thickness between the areas of the terrace could be due to multiple periods of gravel deposition, or to the initial differences of texture of the deposits. ?? 1991.

Vidic, N.; Pavich, M.; Lobnik, F.

1991-01-01

344

Analysis of human induced changes in a karst landscape - the filling of dolines in the Kras plateau, Slovenia.  

PubMed

A comprehensive analysis of the increased pressure on karst landscapes due to expansive economic and urban development is presented with the aim of evaluating changes in land use and their deleterious effects on karst relief forms. The study focuses on two areas surrounding the relatively quickly growing settlements of Hrpelje-Kozina and Diva?a on the Kras plateau (Slovenia) that have been subjected to intensive urban and business development and traffic since the motorway was brought to their vicinity fifteen years ago. National legislation loopholes and technological improvement were the cause of the commonly unsupervised human encroachment which caused the widespread degradation of the landscape. By comparing different topographical and ortophotographical materials from the past four decades and by detailed field inspection of land use and environmental changes, as well as the morphometrical characterization of dolines, the following results have been found: due to the population growth in the past four decades (39% and 50%, respectively), an increase of settlement area by 18 and 11 percentage points took place. Consequently, between 25 and 27% of dolines have disappeared or have been extensively modified (filled up and leveled). According to the local spatial plans, an additional 18% to 28% dolines are endangered. Broad human induced changes in the karst landscape have resulted in a noticeable increase in landscape deterioration, which is consistent with similar phenomena observed in other regions. Due to the extreme susceptibility of the karst to human activities that may lead to the degradation of its exceptional esthetic and environmental value, the alteration of karst processes such as corrosion, endangering of unique habitats and the quality of non-renewable natural resources, it is necessary to promptly define measures for its protection at the national level. PMID:23376526

Kova?i?, Gregor; Ravbar, Nataša

2013-03-01

345

15 CFR 740.16 - Additional permissive reexports (APR).  

...Supplement No. 1 to part 740), other than North Korea and the commodity being reexported is controlled for...Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and...

2014-01-01

346

15 CFR 740.16 - Additional permissive reexports (APR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...supplement No. 1 to part 740), other than North Korea and the commodity being reexported is controlled for...Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and...

2011-01-01

347

15 CFR 740.16 - Additional permissive reexports (APR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Supplement No. 1 to part 740), other than North Korea and the commodity being reexported is controlled for...Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and...

2012-01-01

348

15 CFR 743.3 - Thermal imaging camera reporting.  

...Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, or the United Kingdom must be reported to BIS. (c) Party...

2014-01-01

349

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 743 - Wassenaar Arrangement Participating States  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Luxembourg Malta Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia Slovakia Slovenia South Africa South Korea Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom United States [63 FR 55020, Oct....

2011-01-01

350

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 743 - Wassenaar Arrangement Participating States  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Luxembourg Malta Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia Slovakia Slovenia South Africa South Korea Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom United States [63 FR 55020, Oct....

2012-01-01

351

15 CFR 740.20 - License Exception Strategic Trade Authorization (STA).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, or the United...Albania, Hong Kong, India, Israel, Malta, Singapore, South Africa, or Taiwan. (d) Conditions —(1)...

2012-01-01

352

15 CFR 743.3 - Thermal imaging camera reporting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, or the United Kingdom must be reported to BIS. (c) Party...

2012-01-01

353

15 CFR 740.16 - Additional permissive reexports (APR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Supplement No. 1 to part 740), other than North Korea and the commodity being reexported is controlled for...Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and...

2013-01-01

354

15 CFR 740.20 - License Exception Strategic Trade Authorization (STA).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, or the United...Albania, Hong Kong, India, Israel, Malta, Singapore, South Africa, or Taiwan. (d) Conditions —(1)...

2013-01-01

355

78 FR 43219 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Live Attenuated Dengue Tetravalent Vaccine Containing a...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Portugal, Romania, Sweden, Slovenia, Slovakia, Turkey, Cyprus, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Luxembourg, and Monaco), filed April 25, 2003, Japanese Patent Application Number 2004-50077, filed...

2013-07-19

356

9 CFR 94.24 - Restrictions on the importation of pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined European...  

...Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Monaco, Norway, Oman, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the...

2014-01-01

357

9 CFR 95.4 - Restrictions on the importation of processed animal protein, offal, tankage, fat, glands, certain...  

...Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Monaco, Norway, Oman, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the...

2014-01-01

358

Rt. Hon Helen Clark 20 November 2002  

E-print Network

to talk about how the government sees New Zealand's relationship with Europe and to offer a perspective, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia will be on track to join the EU in 2004. Bulgaria and Romania were given

Hickman, Mark

359

EIGHTH SESSION OF THE CONFERENCE OF STATES PARTIES TO THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION  

E-print Network

, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia, the Associated Countries Bulgaria, Romania and Turkey together Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction adopted by the EU Heads of State and Government at the Thessaloniki

Sussex, University of

360

STAFF/STUDENTNUMBERS Course Students  

E-print Network

.K. Hungary Poland Ukraine Bulgaria Tajikistan Denmark Slovenia Slovakia Switzerland Iran Turkey Syria Saudi students. 2. Figures given in square brackets represent the number of students sent by their governments. 3

361

15 CFR 740.16 - Additional permissive reexports (APR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and the United Kingdom if: (i) Such cameras are fully packaged for use as consumer ready civil products; or,...

2010-01-01

362

15 CFR 743.3 - Thermal imaging camera reporting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, or the United Kingdom must be reported to BIS. (c) Party responsible for reporting. The exporter as defined...

2013-01-01

363

How to protect loess-palaeosol sequences? - Proposal of Loess Geopark in Vojvodina Province (North Serbia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Loess-palaeosol sequences preserve the most important continental record of climatic and environmental changes during the Quaternary. As loess deposits in the Vojvodina region (North Serbia) could be regarded as one of the most important European terrestrial records of climatic and environmental changes during the last million years that makes them valuable scientific resource. Unfortunately, these sites, due to their economic (e.g. agriculture and brickyards) and functional (e.g. remote sections as waste disposals) values, are constantly endangered by numerous causes and could be degraded or exploited permanently. This study will give proposal of establishing loess geopark as protected area that would include the most significant loess sections in the investigated area. The study is based on analytical, theoretical and practical suggestions and rules according to the general Guidelines and Criteria for National Geoparks seeking UNESCO's assistance to join the Global Geoparks Network. Loess and loess like sediments cover more than 60 % of the area and are preserved in six separate loess plateaus: Ba?ka, Srem, Tamiš, Banat, south-east Banat, and Titel Loess Plateau, which make it a surface large enough to serve local economic and cultural development. As the dissemination of loess in Vojvodina has a dispersed character, the potential Geopark should also have a certain number of separate locations. A fragmented approach should require less effort during the geoconservation practice, with separate processes, but identical aim. Therefore, one the initial steps of protection and recognition of (loess) geosites should be first achieved by national or provincial legislation and/or by management policies before inscription on the World Heritage List of recognition as a Global Geopark because these organisations by themselves do not provide any protection. As unique protected area of this kind in Europe and wider, role model for this loess geopark could be China, the region with one of the most important Quaternary continental records in the world, where key loess sections are profoundly protected and promoted via Geoparks (e.g. Luochuan, Huoshi Chai, Kungdongshan, Jingtai, Yellow River).

Vasiljevi?, Dj. A.; Markovi?, S. B.; Hose, T. A.; Luki?, T.; Basarin, B.; Vuji?i?, M. D.

2012-04-01

364

Analysis of the repeated absolute gravity measurements in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary from the period 1991-2010 considering instrumental and hydrological effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since August 2001, the absolute gravimeter FG5#215 has been used for the modernization of the national gravity networks of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary. Altogether 43 absolute stations were measured, some of them repeatedly. Absolute gravity at 29 stations had already been determined in 1990s by other absolute gravimeters (FG5 or JILAg). Differences of repeated measurements at most of the stations show an unexpected decrease of gravity (up to 22 ?Gal) over the whole region. An uncertainty assessment of absolute measurements with a special emphasis put on hydrological effects shows a statistical significance of the detected gravity variations at many stations. In this manuscript, three possible reasons of such findings are discussed: (1) a regional geodynamic activity, (2) systematic instrumental errors (offsets), (3) hydrological effects. The analysis and statistics of the gravity differences in context of international comparisons of absolute gravimeters show offsets up to 9?Gal related to data of the JILAg-6 and FG5#107 gravimeters. Data collected in this study demonstrate that considering instrumental and hydrological effects on gravity are crucial for a correct interpretation of repeated absolute gravity measurements.

Pálinkáš, Vojtech; Lederer, Martin; Kostelecký, Jakub; Šimek, Jaroslav; Mojzeš, Marcel; Ferianc, Dušan; Csapó, Géza

2013-01-01

365

Two-stage breakdown of monazite by post-magmatic and metamorphic fluids: An example from the Veporic orthogneiss, Western Carpathians, Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The initial to advanced stage of monazite breakdown was identified in a granitic orthogneiss from the pre-Alpine basement in the Ve?ký Zelený Potok Valley (the Veporic Unit, Western Carpathians, central Slovakia). Monazite-(Ce) formed during Variscan metamorphism of the original Cambrian to Ordovician granitic rock. Two younger, Permian post-magmatic hydrothermal, and Cretaceous metamorphic-hydrothermal events caused a breakdown of the monazite to secondary egg-shaped coronal structures (100 to 500 ?m in diameter) with concentric newly-formed mineral phases. Two principal breakdown stages and newly formed mineral assemblages are recognizable: (1) partial to complete replacement of primary monazite with an internal apatite + ThSiO4 (huttonite or thorite) zone and an external allanite-(Ce) to clinozoisite zone; (2) hydroxylbastnäsite-(Ce) partly replacing apatite + ThSiO4 and allanite to clinozoisite aggregates. The monazite breakdown was initiated by fluid sources differing in composition. Stage (1) originated due to post-magmatic hydrothermal fluids, whereas stage (2) indicates an input of younger, CO2-bearing metamorphic-hydrothermal fluids.

Ondrejka, Martin; Uher, Pavel; Putiš, Marián; Broska, Igor; Ba?ík, Peter; Kone?ný, Patrik; Schmiedt, Ivan

2012-06-01

366

Combined Natural Gas and Solar Technologies for Heating and Cooling in the City of NIS in Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of conventional systems for heat and electricity production in Niš and Serbia means a constant waste of energy, and money. This problem is present in both industrial and public sector. Using conventional systems, means not only low-energy efficient systems, and technologies, but also using very "dirty" technologies, which cause heavy environment pollution. The lack of electricity in our country, and region is also present. The gas pipeline in Niš was finished not long ago, and second gas pipeline is about to be made in the next couple of years. This opens a door for implementing new technologies and the use of new methods for production of heat and electricity, while preserving our environment. This paper reports discussion of this technology with management of public institutions, which use both heat and electricity.

Stefanovi?, Velimir P.; Boji?, Milorad Lj.

2010-06-01

367

Nonterrorist suicides using hand grenades on the territory of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Serbia, from 1990 to 2009.  

PubMed

Suicides using hand grenades are very rare. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the cases of nonterrorist suicides using hand grenades according to the number of cases per year, sex, age categories, season of the year, day of the week, ethanol blood level, type of hand grenade, pattern of injuries, risk factors, and suicide place over a 20-year period, from 1990 to 2009 in Vojvodina, Serbia. The total number of the cases in this period was 81, with the highest number of cases in 1997 and 2002. Twelwe victims were part of six double suicides, where one grenade was used to commit suicide to both victims. The results highlighted male predominance of the victims, sober state, the use of military hand grenades (M75 and M52 type), posttraumatic stress disorder due to participation in military clashes as the main risk factor, and countryside as the place of suicide. PMID:22395922

Petkovi?, Stojan; Maletin, Miljen; Draškovi?, Dragan

2013-01-01

368

Secondary metabolites from the aerial parts of Centaurea pannonica (Heuff.) Simonk. from Serbia and their chemotaxonomic importance.  

PubMed

The non polar extract of Centaurea pannonica (Heuff.) Simonk., growing wild in Serbia, was studied and twenty-five compounds including 14 sesquiterpene lactones, 7 flavonoids, 3 lignans and 1 phenylpropanoid glycoside were isolated. All compounds were isolated for the first time from this species. Among them, one germacranolide 2?-hydroxy, 8-dehydroxy 15-O-methacrylate salonitenolide (1) and two guaianolides 2?,8?-dihydroxy-dehydrocostus lactone (2) and pannonin (3) are new natural compounds. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, HREIMS and 1D & 2D NMR). The chemical profile of C. pannonica, which belongs to the "Centaurea jacea" group, was compared to previously studied taxa of the same group and used to assess the phylogenetic relationships in the group. PMID:23827325

Miloševi? Ifantis, Tanja; Soluji?, Slavica; Pavlovi?-Muratspahi?, Dragana; Skaltsa, Helen

2013-10-01

369

Chemical composition and some trace element contents in coals and coal ash from Tamnava-Zapadno Polje Coal Field, Serbia  

SciTech Connect

The chemical compositions and trace element contents (Zn, Cu, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cd, As, B, Hg, Sr, Se, Be, Ba, Mn, Th, V, U) in coal and coal ash samples from Tamnava-Zapadno Polje coal field in Serbia were studied. The coal from this field belongs to lignite. This high volatility coal has high moisture and low S contents, moderate ash yield, and high calorific value. The coal ash is abundant in alumosilicates. Many trace elements such as Ni > Cd > Cr > B > As > Cu > Co > Pb > V > Zn > Mn in the coal and Ni > Cr > As > B > Cu > Co = Pb > V > Zn > Mn in the coal ash are enriched in comparison with Clarke concentrations.

Vukasinovic-Pesic, V.; Rajakovic, L.J. [University of Montenegro, Podgorica (Montenegro)

2009-07-01

370

The effects of a new traffic safety law in the Republic of Serbia on driving under the influence of alcohol.  

PubMed

The aim of the study presented here has been to see what the effects of the new traffic safety law are, 2 years into its initial implementation, on driving under the influence of alcohol. Until the end of 2009, the legal limit for blood concentration for drivers in Serbia was 0.5g/l; however, the new traffic safety law stipulates the new limit to be 0.3g/l. A retrospective autopsy study was performed over a 6-year period (from 2006 to 2011) whose sample covered cases of fatally injured drivers who had died at the scene of the incident, before being admitted to hospital. A total of 161 fatally injured drivers were examined for their blood alcohol concentration. The average age for these drivers was 40.2ą15.4 years, with a significant male predominance of 152 men to 9 women (?(2)=152.000, p<0.001). This study has shown no decrease in the ratio of drivers under the influence of alcohol vs. all drivers (Pearson ?(2)=4.415, df=5, p=0.491), nor in the number of drivers under the influence of alcohol (Pearson ?(2)=6.629, df=5, p=0.250), nor a decrease in the mean blood alcohol concentration in drivers (1.72ą0.87 vs. 1.68ą0.95g/l, t=0.177, df=80, p=0.860). The conclusion of this study is that the new law has had a limited effect on driving under the influence of alcohol, which still remains one of the major human factors, responsible for road-traffic crashes in Serbia. PMID:23434844

Zivkovi?, Vladimir; Nikoli?, Slobodan; Luki?, Vera; Zivadinovi?, Nenad; Babi?, Dragan

2013-04-01

371

Multidisciplinary work on barium contamination of the karstic upper Kupa River drainage basin (Croatia and Slovenia); calling for watershed management.  

PubMed

The present work was designed as an extension of a previous study of a barium anomaly observed in stream sediments of the Kupa River. In its upper part the Kupa River drains a region underlain by a trans-boundary aquifer. The river is a significant water resource in a region of tourism, sport, and fishing in both Croatia and Slovenia. The contamination source is situated in Homer (Lokve), Croatia, where barite was mined until 10 years ago. The barium processing waste material (<3-mm fraction) was carelessly deposited in gardens, forests, and into a sinkhole, which has an underground link with the Kupica River, a tributary of the Kupa River. Barium waste and stream sediments were analyzed using comparative techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Mössbauer spectroscopy, and grain size analysis. XRD of the waste material identified the major minerals quartz, barite, and dolomite and the Fe-containing minor minerals muscovite and goethite. Barite was identified as a minor or trace mineral in the Kupica River sediments. XRF analysis of the waste material has shown Ba and Fe to be the predominant elements, Ca and K to be minor elements, and Mn, Zn, Sr, Pb, Co, Cu, As, Zr, Rb, Y, and Mo to be trace elements. Mössbauer spectroscopy performed at room temperature (RT) was used to study iron minerals, particularly to obtain information on the valence status of Fe ions. Grain size analysis of the waste material (<63-microm fraction) has shown that it contains 23.5% clay-size material in comparison with 7-8% clay-size material in stream sediments. It is our aim to combine geochemical and medical methods to investigate the possible impact of waste disposal on human health in Lokve. At this stage of the work, concentrations of Ba and other toxic elements in the water compartment of the Kupica River (a source of drinking water) have not been monitored by Croatian Waters (name of the Croatian water authorities). The necessity of such measurements in future studies has been highlighted. A preliminary study of diseases diagnosed in Lokve shows that about 18% of the total inhabitants have serious medical problems. Diseases of the circulatory system, endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases, neoplasms, and respiratory diseases predominate. This paper calls for further multidisciplinary research on the health effects of barium and trace elements, as well as for bioremediation of contaminated gardens and for watershed management of vulnerable karstic aquifers. PMID:17203367

Franciskovi?-Bilinski, S; Bilinski, H; Grbac, R; Zuni?, J; Necemer, M; Hanzel, D

2007-02-01

372

Copper-Gold Exploration and Discovery in the Timok Magmatic Complex, Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Timok Magmatic Complex (TMC) comprises the Serbian sector of the Carpathian-Balkan Arc of Late Cretaceous calc-alkaline magmatism that extends for about 1500 km from Romania (Banat), through eastern Serbia (TMC) and into central Bulgaria (Srednogorie). The TMC is lens-shaped, about 85 km long and up to 25 km wide. The complex consists primarily of Turonian to Campanian andesites and trachyandesites (lavas, shallow intrusives and epiclastics), basaltic andesites, volcaniclastics and sediments. There are at least two phases of volcanism, and the volcanic processes were subaerial to submarine eruptive, hypabyssal intrusion, and very rarely explosive. Coupled porphyry and high sulphidation epithermal systems are associated with the first phase of andesite volcanism in the Bor district. The tectonic setting has been described as a back-arc basin, or pull-apart basin, developed on continental crust during subduction related to the convergence of the African plate toward Eurasia, and closure of the Neotethys ocean. The metallogenic endowment of the TMC is a significant contributor to that of the entire Tethyan Metallogenic Province. The world-class Bor and Majdenpek porphyry systems contribute to an estimated historical production of approximately 6 million tonnes of copper and 9.65 million ounces gold. The combined resources and reserves in the TMC are reported by the state-owned RTB Bor mining company to be a cumulative 2.5 billion tonnes, with total copper and gold metal content of 10.5 million tonnes and 11.7 million ounces respectively. Reservoir concluded an agreement in 2010 with Freeport McMoran Exploration Corp. (Freeport) to explore three exploration permits in the TMC for porphyry copper mineralisation. Conceptual studies together with CSAMT geophysics suggested the extension of structures under the Miocene sedimentary cover about 5-7 km south from the Bor porphyry district. The ?ukaru Peki discovery was identified from high-grade drill intercepts including: 291.3m @ 7.17% CuEq (5.13% Cu, 3.4g/t Au) and 160m @ 10.16% CuEq (6.92% Cu and 5g/t Au). Continued drilling at ?ukaru Peki area has returned mineralogy and alteration typical of both epithermal high sulphidation systems and porphyry style mineralization. High sulphidation copper-gold "massive sulphide" mineralization consists of covellite with bornite, enargite and chalcocite in zones, blebs, veins, hydrothermal breccias and replacements hosted by strongly altered (advance argillic and argillic) andesite. Porphyry style chalcopyrite-pyrite veins or blebs with rare molybdenite have been intersected in the deeper intervals, often with a later overprint of covellite with argillic alteration. New geological models prepared by Company geologists from the drilling announced to date will be discussed in the presentation.

Banjesevi?, Miodrag; Ingram, Simon; Large, Duncan

2014-05-01

373

Petrological, geochemical and isotopic characteristics of lignite and calcified lignite from mining area Pesje, Velenje Basin, Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lignite (organic rich) and calcified lignite (inorganic rich) samples from excavation field -50c mining area Pesje, Velenje Basin, Slovenia were investigated. During geological and structural mapping lignite and calcified lignite samples were systematically taken for determination of their petrological, geochemical and isotopic characteristics. Lignite is composed of fine detritical gelified matrix. At least five different types of calcified lignite were recognized forming laminations, calcifications after wood, petrified wood and complete replacements of lignite with carbonate. All measured parameters so far indicate geochemical processes during sedimentation of the Velenej Basin. After macroscopic description samples were split to organic and inorganic component (Ward, 1984) and powdered in an agate mortar for geochemical and isotopic analyses. Major and trace elements (As, B, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Sb, Se, Th, U, Zn) in these samples were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using k-0 standardization method (Ja?imovi? et al, 2002). The isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen was determined using a Europa 20-20 continuous flow IRMS ANCA-SL preparation module. A 1 mg amount of a sample was weighed in a tin capsule for carbon and 10 mg for nitrogen analysis. Samples for carbon analyses were pretreated with 1 M HCl to remove carbonates. Carbonate samples from carbonate-rich strata and calcified xylite were first roasted at 450 deg C (Krantz et al., 1987). Three miligrams of carbonate sample was transformed into CO2 by reaction with anhydrous H3PO4 at 55 deg C under vacuum (McCrea, 1950) and measured with GV 2003 isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Measured isotopic composition of oxygen as VPDB values was recalculated to the VSMOW reference standard to enable the comparison with data from other coal basins. SEM/EDXS of carbonate rich sediments was performed with JEOL JSM 5800 electron microanalyzer scanning electron microscope energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy at the Department of Ceramics at the Jožef Stefan Institute. Geochemical characteristics of major and trace elements indicate that the values of major and trace elements are comparable to world average coal (Zhang et al., 2004). Isotopic composition of carbon and isotopic composition of nitrogen of investigated samples indicate values from to -29.4o to -23.7o and 1.8o to 5.9o respectively. Lower value of isotopic composition of carbon indicates higher gelification (values up to -29.4) and higher value of isotopic composition of nitrogen (values up to 5.9) indicate higher mineralization. The results of SEM/EDXS microscopy revealed that in calcified lignite chemical composition of calcite prevails. Traces of diagenetic pyrite were also found, indicating localized anoxic conditions during sedimentation. Values of isotopic composition of CCaCO3 range from -2 to +13 and indicate temperature of precipitation from 17.3 to 35 deg C, which is similar to results obtained in previous studies (Kandu? et al., 2012). References Krantz, D.E., Williams, D.F., Jones, D.S., 1987: Ecological and paleoenvironmental information using stable isotope profiles from living and fossil mollusks. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 58, 249-266. Kandu? T., Marki? M., Zavšek S., McIntosh J. 2012: carbon cycling in the Pliocene Velenje Coal Basin, Slovenia, inferred from stable carbon isotopes. International Journal of Coal Geology 89, 70-83. Ja?imovi?, R., Lazaru, A., Mihajlovi?, D., Ili?, R., Stafilov, T., 2002: Determination of major and trace elements in some minerals by k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis. Journal of Radioanalytical Nuclear Chemistry, 253, 427-434. McCrea, JM., 1950. On the isotopic chemistry of carbonates and a paleotemperature scale. Journal of Chemical Physics 18, 849. Ward C.R. (Ed.), 1984: Coal Geology and Coal Technology. Black-well, Oxford, 345 pp. Zhang J.Y., Zheng C.G., Ren D.Y., Chou C.L., Zheng R.S., Wang Z.P., Zhao F. H., Ge Y.T. 2004: Distribution of potentially hazardous trace elements in co

Vrabec, Mirijam; Marki?, Miloš; Vrabec, Marko; Ja?imovi?, Radojko; Kandu?, Tjaša

2014-05-01

374

Organic-geochemical Differentiation of Petroleum-type Pollutants and Study of Their Fate in Danube Alluvial Sediments and Corresponding Water (Pan?evo Oil Refinery, Serbia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is given in this paper of the up-to-date results observed in differentiation and transformation studies on petroleum-type\\u000a pollutants in underground and surface waters. Water and particulate matter derived from the locality of Pan?evo Petroleum\\u000a Refinery, Serbia (River Danube alluvial formations). It was shown that distributions of n-alkanes, steranes and triterpanes, and ?13CPDB values of n-alkanes may successfully be

Branimir Jovan?i?evi?; Miroslav Vrvi?; Jan Schwarzbauer; Hermann Wehner; Georg Scheeder; Dragomir Vitorovi?

2007-01-01

375

Effects of 1-D versus 3-D velocity models on moment tensor inversion in the Dobrá Voda area in the Little Carpathians region, Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Retrieving the parameters of a seismic source from seismograms involves deconvolving the response of the medium from seismic records. Thus, in general, source parameters are determined from both seismograms and the Green functions describing the properties of the medium in which the earthquake focus is buried. The quality of each of these two datasets is equally significant for the successful determination of source characteristics. As a rule, both sets are subject to contamination by effects that decrease the resolution of the source parameters. Seismic records are generally contaminated by noise that appears as a spurious signal unrelated to the source. Since an improper model of the medium is quite often employed, due to poor knowledge of the seismic velocity of the area under study, and since the hypocentre may be mislocated, the Green functions are not without fault. Thus, structures not modelled by Green functions are assigned to the source, distorting the source mechanism. To demonstrate these effects, we performed a synthetic case study by simulating seismic observations in the Dobrá Voda area of the Little Carpathians region of Slovakia. Simplified 1-D and 3-D laterally inhomogeneous structural models were constructed, and synthetic data were calculated using the 3-D model. Both models were employed during a moment tensor inversion. The synthetic data were contaminated by random noise up to 10 and 20 % of the maximum signal amplitude. We compared the influence of these two effects on retrieving moment tensors, and determined that a poor structural model can be compensated for by high-quality data; and that, in a similar manner, a lack of data can be compensated for by a detailed model of the medium. For examples, five local events from the Dobrá Voda area were processed.

Jechumtálová, Zuzana; Bulant, Petr

2014-07-01

376

Perch and Its Parasites as Heavy Metal Biomonitors in a Freshwater Environment: The Case Study of the Ružín Water Reservoir, Slovakia  

PubMed Central

Heavy metal concentrations were determined in 43 perches (Perca fluviatilis) and in two of its most common parasites, the acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus lucii and the cestode Proteocephalus percae, collected in the period 2009–2010 from Ružín, a seriously polluted water reservoir in Slovakia. Samples of muscle, liver, kidney, brain, male and female reproductive organs and adipose tissue of fish and both parasites were analyzed for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn, by ICP-MS. Mean concentrations of individual heavy metals in all fish samples decreased in the order zinc > copper > manganese > mercury > arsenic > chromium > cadmium > nickel > lead. Zinc was found to be the dominant element and its antagonistic interaction with copper was confirmed. The kidney was a key target organ receiving the highest mean concentrations of all analyzed metals, but some metals showed specific affinity for particular tissues. In terms of human health, concentration of Hg in fish muscle, which exceeded more than two-times its maximum level admitted in foodstuffs in European countries, is of great importance and should be taken into account. Bioaccumulation factors (C[parasite]/C[fish tissue]) calculated for all elements indicated much higher detection skills of A. lucii and P. percae parasites than fish organs and hence, present results allow proposing both parasite models as useful tools to monitor aquatic environmental quality. Acanthocephalans, however, seem to be superior for heavy metal monitoring, also demonstrated under experimental conditions. Present results also indicate the decreasing heavy metal burden of the reservoir and its gradual recovery in the course of time. PMID:22736993

Brázová, Tímea; Torres, Jordi; Eira, Catarina; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Miklisová, Dana; Šalamún, Peter

2012-01-01

377

Analysis of glass from the post-Roman settlement Tonovcov grad (Slovenia) by PIXE-PIGE and LA-ICP-MS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combined PIXE-PIGE method was used for the analysis of 43 glass fragments from the archaeological site Tonovcov grad in western Slovenia, with 10 of these additionally being analysed by LA-ICP-MS. The glass objects were attributed to the Late Antique production of the 4th-7th c. AD, with two examples of early Roman glass and three glass beads, one of them presumably of oriental origin. The analysis showed typical natron-type glass, produced in the Levantine region around the river Belus, and a few examples of HIMT glass, which could be recognized also in several other recycled objects. Only one glass bead, found in Early Medieval context, was made of the ash of halophytic plants.

Šmit, Ž.; Milavec, T.; Fajfar, H.; Rehren, Th.; Lankton, J. W.; Gratuze, B.

2013-09-01

378

An Open Source approach to automated hydrological analysis of ungauged drainage basins in Serbia using R and SAGA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drainage basins are for the most part ungauged or poorly gauged not only in Serbia but in most parts of the world, usually due to insufficient funds, but also the decommission of river gauges in upland catchments to focus on downstream areas which are more populated. Very often, design discharges are needed for these streams or rivers where no streamflow data is available, for various applications. Examples include river training works for flood protection measures or erosion control, design of culverts, water supply facilities, small hydropower plants etc. The estimation of discharges in ungauged basins is most often performed using rainfall-runoff models, whose parameters heavily rely on geomorphometric attributes of the basin (e.g. catchment area, elevation, slopes of channels and hillslopes etc.). The calculation of these, as well as other paramaters, is most often done in GIS (Geographic Information System) software environments. This study deals with the application of freely available and open source software and datasets for automating rainfall-runoff analysis of ungauged basins using methodologies currently in use hydrological practice. The R programming language was used for scripting and automating the hydrological calculations, coupled with SAGA GIS (System for Automated Geoscientivic Analysis) for geocomputing functions and terrain analysis. Datasets used in the analyses include the freely available SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) terrain data, CORINE (Coordination of Information on the Environment) Land Cover data, as well as soil maps and rainfall data. The choice of free and open source software and datasets makes the project ideal for academic and research purposes and cross-platform projects. The geomorphometric module was tested on more than 100 catchments throughout Serbia and compared to manually calculated values (using topographic maps). The discharge estimation module was tested on 21 catchments where data were available and compared to results obtained by frequency analysis of annual maximum discharge. The geomorphometric module of the calculation system showed excellent results, saving a great deal of time that would otherwise have been spent on manual processing of geospatial data. This type of automated analysis presented in this study will enable a much quicker hydrologic analysis on multiple watersheds, providing the platform for further research into spatial variability of runoff.

Zlatanovic, Nikola; Milovanovic, Irina; Cotric, Jelena

2014-05-01

379

The Geochemistry of a Newly Discovered Permo-Triassic Section in Serbia: A Tale of Catastrophic Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present geochemical data from a newly discovered (2011) Permo-Triassic (PT) section exposed along a road cut in the Jadar Block tectonostratigraphic unit in Serbia approximately 100 km SW of Belgrade. This Serbian PT section is lithologically different than other Serbian PT sections which are typically composed of dolomite micro-breccia. Importantly, this new PT section appears to be continuous across the PT Boundary and is lithologically similar to the Bellerophone-Tesero Oolite PT sections in the eastern Alps. During the Permian-Triassic period this Serbia PT section was situated in the paleo-Tethys along the passive margin of Laurasia. The upper Permian at this location is characterized by interbedding calcisiltite and dark gray shale similar to the Bellerophone formation. The PT boundary (PTB) is composed of a 30cm lensitic oolitic limestone similar to the Tesero horizon, and the lower Triassic is calcareous shale interbedded with calcisiltite similar to the Werfen formation. In the lower Triassic, the first stromatolite occurs approximately 5m above the PTB. Oolite suggests that this region experienced a regression event coincident with the PT extinction. Geochemically the oolitic limestone is characterized by a positive Eu anomaly which may be associated with volcanism. Interestingly, the oolitic limestone has a similar geochemical signature to erosional layers at Rizvanuša PT section in Croatia and Spiti Valley in the Himalayas that are also suggestive of a regression event. In this study, we present stable isotope (C,N, S), mineralogy, major and trace element geochemistry of this new Serbian PT section. Geochemical proxies and mineralogy of the section suggest changes in provenance and environmental conditions occurring in the upper Permian prior to the deposition of the oolitic limestone. This data suggest catastrophic environmental conditions persisted prior to the eruption of the Siberian Traps, and that volcanism was not the only contributor to the largest mass extinction in Earth's history. In the lower Triassic, geochemical proxies provide evidence of prolonged anoxia, and storm deposits similar to those found in the Guryul Ravine section of Kashmir. The origin of the storm deposits may be link to the eruption of the Siberian Traps.

Williams, J. C.; Stebbins, A.; Sudar, M.; Jovanovic, D.; Brookfield, M. E.; Algeo, T. J.; Hannigan, R.; Berman, M.

2013-12-01

380

Find an Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle MD/DO  

MedlinePLUS

... Panama Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Republic of Korea Romania Russia Russian Federation S Sao Paulo, SP Saudi ... Scotland Serbia Singapore Slovenia South Africa South Australia South Korea Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan Thailand Trinidad and Tobago ...

381

22 CFR 228.03 - Identification of principal geographic code numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...restricted countries: Cuba, Iraq, Iran, Laos, Libya, North Korea, and Syria. (c) Code 935—Any area or country including...Arabia, Serbia*, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan*,...

2011-04-01

382

Chemistry and origin of mantle sulfides in spinel peridotite xenoliths from alkaline basaltic lavas, Nógraád-Go¨mo¨r Volcanic Field, northern Hungary and southern Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neogene to Quaternary alkaline basalts from the Nógrád-Go¨mo¨r Volcanic Field (NGVF) in the Carpathian-Pannonian Region of northern Hungary and southern Slovakia contain a large number and great variety of sulfide-bearing mantle xenoliths. A previous detailed textural and chemical study of spinel peridotite (Cr-diopside) xenoliths from the NGVF identified multiple mantle processes (i.e., partial melting (s), metasomatism, and entrainment of the peridotite xenoliths into the host lavas ), which might be genetically associated with sulfides and which could account for their variability in texture and chemistry. Eleven spinel peridotite nodules (three protogranular to porphyroclastic, three equigranular, four secondary recrystallized, and one strongly metasomatized xenolith) were selected to characterize the sulfide assemblages. Two types of primary sulfide grains and two types of secondary sulfide grains were identified based on occurrence and distribution. Type-i primary sulfide assemblages are interstitial to mantle silicates, whereas Type-e primary sulfide assemblages are enclosed in mantle silicates. Secondary sulfides are connected either to healed fractures in mantle silicates (Type-f) or to borders of mantle silicates (Type-b). Type-i and Type-e primary sulfide assemblages consist mostly of the phases pentlandite (Pn), chalcopyrite (Cp), monosulfide solid solution (MSS), and violarite (Vi). Type-f and Type-b secondary sulfide grains are indistinguishable mineralogically and chemically from the Type-i and Type-e sulfide assemblages, but can be distinguished based on texture and occurrence. MSS sulfide blebs in the metasomatized xenolith developed their compositions and textures as a result of mantle metasomatism. Sulfides in the protogranular/porphyroclastic, equigranular, and recrystallized xenoliths represent immiscible melts trapped during partial melting event (s) in the mantle. In the less deformed (protogranular/porphyroclastic) xenoliths the Cp + Pn assemblage (either Type-e or Type-i) crystallized from a Cu-Ni-bearing sulfide liquid which was in equilibrium with MSS at high temperature. In addition, an MSS + Cp + Pn assemblage (either Type-e or Type-i) was produced as a result of exsolution of Cp and Pn from the high-temperature MSS during cooling. In the more deformed equigranular and recrystallized xenoliths Pn + MSS or Pn ą Cp ą Po are present. The abundance of sulfide assemblages in individual samples can be correlated to the texture of the xenoliths. The protogranular/porphyroclastic and metasomatized xenoliths show sulfide concentrations up to 0.5 vol%, whereas the other xenoliths have less than 0.02 vol% sulfides. This correlation between sulfide abundance and textural type of host xenolith indicates that the heterogeneous distribution of sulfides within the upper mantle is related, at least in part, to deformation and recrystallization processes.

S´, Cs.; Bodnar, R. J.

1995-10-01

383

Short-term association between air pollution and emergency room admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Nis, Serbia.  

PubMed

The present study assesses the short-term association between black smoke (BS) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) levels in urban air and the daily number of emergency room admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Nis, Serbia. Generalised linear models extending Poisson regression were fitted controlling for time trend, seasonal variations, days of the week, temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, precipitation, rainfall, snowfall, overcast, and wind velocity. The emergency room admissions for all ages for COPD were significantly associated with previous-day level of BS and lag 0-2 (1,60% and 2,26% increase per 10 microg/m3, respectively). After controlling for SO2, single lagged (lag 1 and lag 2) as well as mean lagged values of BS (up to lag 0-3) were significantly associated with COPD emergencies. No effect was found for SO2, even after controlling for black smoke. The present findings support the conclusion that current levels of ambient BS may have an effect on the respiratory health of susceptible persons. PMID:19418713

Milutinovi?, Suzana; Niki?, Dragana; Stosi?, Ljiljana; Stankovi?, Aleksandra; Bogdanovi?, Dragan

2009-03-01

384

The influence of the East Atlantic Oscillation to climate indices based on the daily minimum temperatures in Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the influence of the East Atlantic Oscillation (EAO) on the climate indices based on the daily minimum temperature at eight stations in Serbia was examined. The following climate indices were analyzed: frost days (FD), cold nights (TN10p), warm nights (TN90p), minimum value of daily minimum temperature (TNn), tropical nights (TR), and cold spell duration indice (CSDI). Analysis of correlation between the East Atlantic Index (EAI) and the geopotential at 500 hPa, as well as between the EAI and climate indices was realized for all seasons and months during the period 1950-2009. Two characteristic situations for the extreme positive and negative values of the EAI were analyzed. Seasonal and monthly trend analyses of climate indices were performed. Decreases of FD and TN10p and increases of TN90p and TR were observed. It was found that the negative correlation prevailed between the EAI and TN10p/FD, and positive one between the EAI and TN90p/TR for all seasons and months. The highest correlation was observed between the EAI and TN90p in February.

Kneževi?, S.; Toši?, I.; Unkaševi?, M.; Pejanovi?, G.

2014-05-01

385

The accumulation and distribution of metals in water, sediment, aquatic macrophytes and fishes of the Gruža Reservoir, Serbia.  

PubMed

The concentrations of iron, lead, cadmium, copper, manganese, mercury and arsenic were measured in water, sediment, five macrophytes (Typha angustifolia, Iris pseudacorus, Polygonum amphybium, Myriophyllum spicatum and Lemna gibba) and five fish species (Sander lucioperca, Abramis brama, Carassius gibelio, Silurus glanis and Arystichtys nobilis) in the Gruža Reservoir, used for water supply and recreational fishing. The concentrations of all examined elements were higher in sediment than in water. The values of the ratio between element concentrations in the sediment and those in the water were the highest for Fe and As. Among the five plant species, the highest concentrations of Pb and Mn were observed in T. angustifolia, while the highest concentrations of Fe, Cu and Hg were in L. gibba. I. pseudacorus and P. amphybium had the highest concentrations of Cd and As, respectively. Among the fish species, C. gibelio showed the highest tendency of element accumulation (Fe, Cd, Cu), followed by S. lucioperca (Pb, Hg), A. brama (Mn) and A. nobilis (As). The average concentrations of elements in fish muscle, except for As in A. nobilis (2.635 ą 0.241 mg kg(-1) ww), were below the limits that are considered safe for human consumption in accordance with the European Commission Regulation and Official Gazette of Serbia. PMID:23412697

Miloškovi?, Aleksandra; Brankovi?, Snežana; Simi?, Vladica; Kova?evi?, Simona; ?irkovi?, Miroslav; Manojlovi?, Dragan

2013-05-01

386

Diurnal variations of radon and thoron activity concentrations and effective doses in dwellings in Niška Banja, Serbia.  

PubMed

In Niška Banja, a spa town in a radon-prone area in southern Serbia, radon ((222)Rn) and thoron ((220)Rn) activity concentrations were measured continuously for one day in indoor air of 10 dwellings with a SARAD RTM 2010-2 Radon/Thoron Monitor, and equilibrium factor between radon and its decay products and the fraction of unattached radon decay products with a SARAD EQF 3020-2 Equilibrium Factor Monitor. Radon concentration in winter time ranged from 26 to 73 100 Bq m(-3) and that of thoron, from 10 to 8650 Bq m(-3). In the same period, equilibrium factor and the unattached fraction varied in the range of 0.08 to 0.90 and 0.01 to 0.27, respectively. One-day effective doses were calculated and were in winter conditions from 4 to 2599 ?Sv d(-1) for radon and from 0.2 to 73 ?Sv d(-1) for thoron. PMID:23801789

Vaupoti?, J; Streil, T; Tokonami, S; Žunic, Z S

2013-12-01

387

The relationship between whole effluent toxicity (WET) and chemical-based effluent quality assessment in Vojvodina (Serbia).  

PubMed

The relationship between whole effluent toxicity (WET) and chemical-based effluent quality assessment across a range of effluent types was examined for the first time in Serbia. WET was determined by Daphnia magna acute tests, while chemical-based toxicity was taken as theoretical for concentrations of priority chemicals and effluent quality assessment based on the valid Serbian regulations. A poor correlation was found between WET and chemical-based effluent quality assessment: positive toxicity tests were found, in general, in cases where samples satisfied the requirements of mandatory effluent monitoring. Statistically insignificant correlation between the predicted and observed toxicity indicated that the presence of priority substances accounted to the overall toxicity only to a certain degree, most probably due to a rather short list of priority pollutants regularly analysed in effluents. Current monitoring requirements neglect hazards that derive from potentially present toxicants and unpredictable toxicity of complex mixtures, which led to poor correlation between the WET and chemical-based results in this study. PMID:18972215

Teodorovi?, Ivana; Beceli?, Milena; Planojevi?, Ivana; Ivancev-Tumbas, Ivana; Dalmacija, Bozo

2009-11-01

388

GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process for Regional Landfill Site Selection in Transitional Countries: A Case Study From Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Serbian National Waste Management Strategy for the Period 2010-2019, harmonized with the European Union Directives, mandates new and very strict requirements for landfill sites. To enable analysis of a number of required qualitative and quantitative factors for landfill site selection, the traditional method of site selection must be replaced with a new approach. The combination of GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was selected to solve this complex problem. The Srem region in northern Serbia, being one of the most environmentally sensitive areas, was chosen as a case study. Seventeen factors selected as criteria/sub-criteria were recognized as most important, divided into geo-natural, environmental, social and techno-economic factors, and were evaluated by experts from different fields using an AHP extension in Arc GIS. Weighted spatial layers were combined into a landfill suitability map which was then overlapped with four restriction maps, resulting in a final suitability map. According to the results, 82.65% of the territory of Srem is unsuitable for regional landfill siting. The most suitable areas cover 9.14%, suitable areas 5.24%, while areas with low and very low suitability cover 2.21 and 0.76% of the territory, respectively. Based on these findings, five sites close to two large urban agglomerations were suggested as possible locations for a regional landfill site in Srem. However, the final decision will require further field investigation, a public acceptance survey, and consideration of ownership status and price of the land.

Zelenovi? Vasiljevi?, Tamara; Srdjevi?, Zorica; Baj?eti?, Ratko; Vojinovi? Miloradov, Mirjana

2012-02-01

389

Eating habits and body-weights of students of the university of belgrade, serbia: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this survey was to quantify the prevalence of overweight and obesity among a sample of students in Belgrade University, Serbia and to describe their main eating habits. A total of 1,624 questionnaire responses were analyzed (response rate 97.3%). The students were recruited during mandatory annual check-ups in April-June 2009. All subjects completed the questionnaire; height (in cm) and weight (in km) were measured by two physicians. Results were assessed statistically. Almost every fourth male student was overweight. Strikingly, 15% of female students were underweight. Highly-significant difference was found between average body mass index (BMI) of male and female students (F=317.8, p=0.001). Students' BMI did not correlate with average family income or with the frequency of taking breakfast (p=-0.064, p=0.152 for males and p=0.034, p=0.282 for females respectively). There is a growing demand for global health strategies which would encourage healthy body-image and figure; thus, these initiatives should mobilize the society on a national and international level. PMID:24288946

Gazibara, Tatjana; Kisic Tepavcevic, Darija B; Popovic, Aleksandra; Pekmezovic, Tatjana

2013-09-01

390

Diversity of nematodes in the yellow-necked field mouse Apodemus flavicollis from the Peripannonic region of Serbia.  

PubMed

Up to six nematode species were identified from 86 specimens of the yellow-necked field mouse Apodemus flavicollis from three mountainous localities known as Avala, Cer and Liškovac in Serbia. The highest prevalence of infection of 97% was recorded from Mt. Avala. Only one nematode species, Syphacia frederici, occurred in all three localities. There was complete overlap in nematode species from Mts. Avala and Liškovac, whereas the taxonomic distinctness of Mt. Cer was seen in the presence of the insect-transmitted species Rictularia proni. Locality was a statistically significant factor in all the best-fitted generalized linear models of variation in abundances. The highest level of both species richness and parasite alpha diversity (Shannon's H= 1.47) was found in the easternmost Mt. Liškovac, whereas the diversity indices were lowest for the westernmost Mt. Cer (Shannon's H= 0.48). In view of this geographical difference, the beta diversity indices were calculated along a west to east longitudinal gradient. PMID:25272984

Cabrilo, B; Jovanovi?, V M; Bjeli?-?abrilo, O; Budinski, I; Blagojevi?, J; Vujoševi?, M

2014-10-01

391

Exploring the Park-People Relation: Collection of Vaccinium Myrtillus L. by Local People From Kopaonik National Park in Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exploitation of certain resources within a protected area on a sustainable basis could contribute to higher living standards of rural people, particularly those in poor countries, and decrease conflicts between these populations and park authorities. This article presents data from a case study of Kopaonik National Park (NP), Serbia, which is a park with natural resources, most notably bilberries, which have always been relied on by local people. Vaccinium myrtillus traditionally has been collected for decades in Kopaonik NP and used by local people. However, little is known about the socioeconomic and ecological relations that affect the collection and use of this species. The aim of the present study was to understand how local people collect bilberries in Kopaonik NP and what their attitudes toward the park are. Household questionnaire data were used to examine how local people collect bilberries and how to improve the relations between local people and NP authorities. The survey questionnaire included 52 households from 7 local communities, and we applied a purposive sampling strategy. In addition, expert interviews were conducted, and from these data we obtained a broader understanding of the relation between local people and NP authorities. The results indicate that in Kopaonik NP, there is a conflict between pickers and NP authorities. Sustainable management should be directed toward the protection of bilberries. Education of local people is a key element in the sustainable collection and protection of natural resources.

Tomi?evi?, Jelena; Bjedov, Ivana; Obratov-Petkovi?, Dragica; Milovanovi?, Marina

2011-10-01

392

Exploring the park-people relation: collection of Vaccinium myrtillus L. by local people from Kopaonik National Park in Serbia.  

PubMed

Exploitation of certain resources within a protected area on a sustainable basis could contribute to higher living standards of rural people, particularly those in poor countries, and decrease conflicts between these populations and park authorities. This article presents data from a case study of Kopaonik National Park (NP), Serbia, which is a park with natural resources, most notably bilberries, which have always been relied on by local people. Vaccinium myrtillus traditionally has been collected for decades in Kopaonik NP and used by local people. However, little is known about the socioeconomic and ecological relations that affect the collection and use of this species. The aim of the present study was to understand how local people collect bilberries in Kopaonik NP and what their attitudes toward the park are. Household questionnaire data were used to examine how local people collect bilberries and how to improve the relations between local people and NP authorities. The survey questionnaire included 52 households from 7 local communities, and we applied a purposive sampling strategy. In addition, expert interviews were conducted, and from these data we obtained a broader understanding of the relation between local people and NP authorities. The results indicate that in Kopaonik NP, there is a conflict between pickers and NP authorities. Sustainable management should be directed toward the protection of bilberries. Education of local people is a key element in the sustainable collection and protection of natural resources. PMID:21800263

Tomi?evi?, Jelena; Bjedov, Ivana; Obratov-Petkovi?, Dragica; Milovanovi?, Marina

2011-10-01

393

Geographical distribution of the annual mean radon concentrations in primary schools of Southern Serbia - application of geostatistical methods.  

PubMed

Between 2008 and 2011 a survey of radon ((222)Rn) was performed in schools of several districts of Southern Serbia. Some results have been published previously (Žuni? et al., 2010; Carpentieri et al., 2011; Žuni? et al., 2013). This article concentrates on the geographical distribution of the measured Rn concentrations. Applying geostatistical methods we generate "school radon maps" of expected concentrations and of estimated probabilities that a concentration threshold is exceeded. The resulting maps show a clearly structured spatial pattern which appears related to the geological background. In particular in areas with vulcanite and granitoid rocks, elevated radon (Rn) concentrations can be expected. The "school radon map" can therefore be considered as proxy to a map of the geogenic radon potential, and allows identification of radon-prone areas, i.e. areas in which higher Rn radon concentrations can be expected for natural reasons. It must be stressed that the "radon hazard", or potential risk, estimated this way, has to be distinguished from the actual radon risk, which is a function of exposure. This in turn may require (depending on the target variable which is supposed to measure risk) considering demographic and sociological reality, i.e. population density, distribution of building styles and living habits. PMID:24231373

Bossew, P; Žuni?, Z S; Stojanovska, Z; Tollefsen, T; Carpentieri, C; Veselinovi?, N; Komatina, S; Vaupoti?, J; Simovi?, R D; Antignani, S; Bochicchio, F

2014-01-01

394

Heavy metal and trace element bioaccumulation in target tissues of four edible fish species from the Danube River (Serbia).  

PubMed

Pikeperch (Sander lucioperca), European catfish (Silurus glanis), burbot (Lota lota), and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were collected from the Danube River (Belgrade section, Serbia), and samples of liver, muscle, and gills were analyzed for Al, As, B, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) to highlight the importance of species and tissue selection in monitoring research, contaminant studies, and human health research. The Kruskal-Wallis test revealed significant differences between fish species in regard to metal levels in liver, muscle, and gills. The principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the studied fish species could be grouped on the basis of the level of analyzed elements in liver and gills. The Mann-Whitney test showed two subsets (one comprising two piscivorous species, pikeperch and catfish, and the other, two polyphagous species, burbot and carp) in regard to Cr and Hg levels in liver (higher levels in piscivorous species), as well as B, Fe, and Hg in gills (B and Fe with higher levels in polyphagous and Hg in piscivorous species), and As in muscle (higher levels in polyphagous species). Carp had distinctly higher levels of Cd, Cu, and Zn in liver in comparison to other three species. None of the elements exceeded the maximum acceptable concentrations (MAC). However, since Hg levels are close to the prescribed MAC levels, the consumption of these fishes can be potentially hazardous for humans. PMID:24054751

Suboti?, Sr?an; Spasi?, Sla?ana; Višnji?-Jefti?, Zeljka; Hegediš, Aleksandar; Krpo-?etkovi?, Jasmina; Mi?kovi?, Branislav; Skori?, Stefan; Lenhardt, Mirjana

2013-12-01

395

Spatial modeling of ecological areas by fitting the limiting factors for As in the vicinity of mine, Serbia.  

PubMed

Elevated arsenic (As) concentrations in soil are often found in the vicinity of certain mineral deposits that have been, or are currently, under exploitation, regardless of the target resource. Detailed study of such areas for safe agriculture requires considerable financial costs and long periods of time. Application of an appropriate spatial model that describes the behavior of arsenic in soil and plants can significantly ease the whole investigation process. This paper presents a model of ecological security of an area that, in the past, was an antimony mine and has a naturally high content of arsenic. For simulation and modeling the geographic information science (GIS) technology with the inserted predictors influencing the accessibility of As and its content in plants was used. The results obtained were the following: (1) a categorization of contaminated soils according to soil properties was developed; (2) the proposed methodology allows focusing on particular suspect area saving an energy and human resource input; and (3) new safe areas for growing crops in contaminated area were modeled. The application of the proposed model of As solubility to various crops grown around a former antimony mine near the village of Lisa, southwest Serbia showed that significant expansion of the areas suitable for growing potato, raspberry, and pasture was possible. PMID:24281676

Cakmak, Dragan; Perovic, Veljko; Saljnikov, Elmira; Jaramaz, Darko; Sikiric, Biljana

2014-03-01

396

Prevalence and concordance of high cardiovascular disease scores in HIV/AIDS patients from Croatia and Serbia with four international algorithms  

PubMed Central

Introduction We evaluated cardiovascular risks in HIV-infected patients from Croatia and Serbia and the eligibility for statin therapy as recommended by the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines, European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) Guidelines and European Society of Cardiology and the European Atherosclerosis Society (ESC/EAS) guidelines for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention [1–3]. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional analysis of consecutive patients between 40 and 79 years old who had received antiretroviral therapy for at least 12 months was performed. Results Of 254 (132 from Croatia and 122 from Serbia) persons included in the study, 76% were male; median age was 49 years. Up to 51.6% of persons had a high CVD risk. The prevalence of current smoking was 42.9%, hypertension 31.5% and hypercholesterolaemia (>6.2 mmol/L) 35.4%. Statins would be recommended to 21.3% (95% CI, 16.3% to 27.4%) of persons by the EACS, 25.6% (95% CI, 20.2% to 31.9%) by ESC/EAS and 37.9% (95% CI, 31.6 to 44.6%) by the ACC/AHA guidelines. A high 5-year data collection on adverse effects of anti-HIV drugs study risk score (>5%) had a moderate agreement with the high (?20%) 10-year CVD Framingham risk score (kappa=0.47) and high (?5%) 10-year European systematic coronary risk evaluation score algorithm (kappa=0.47), and substantial agreement with the elevated (?7.5%) 10-year Pooled Cohort Atherosclerotic CVD risk equation score (kappa=0.63). Conclusion We found a high prevalence of CVD risks in patients from Croatia and Serbia. The ACC/AHA guideline would recommend statins more often than ESC/EAS and EACS guidelines. PMID:25394056

Begovac, Josip; Dragovic, Gordana; Viskovic, Klaudija; Kusic, Jovana; Perovic Mihanovic, Marta; Lukas, Davorka; Jevtovic, Djordje

2014-01-01

397

Habitat modeling for brown trout population in alpine region of Slovenia with focus on determination of preference functions, fuzzy rules and fuzzy sets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water withdrawals and consequently reduction of discharges in river streams for different water uses (hydro power, irrigation, etc.) usually impoverish habitat suitability for naturally present river fish fauna. In Slovenia reduction of suitable habitats resulting from water abstractions frequently impacts local brown trout (Salmo truta) populations. This is the reason for establishment of habitat modeling which can qualitatively and quantitatively support decision making for determination of the environmental flow and other mitigation measures. Paper introduces applied methodology for habitat modeling where input data preparation and elaboration with required accuracy has to be considered. For model development four (4) representative and heterogeneous sampling sites were chosen. Two (2) sampling sections were located within the sections with small hydropower plants and were considered as sections affected by water abstractions. The other two (2) sampling sections were chosen where there are no existing water abstractions. Precise bathymetric mapping for chosen river sections has been performed. Topographic data and series of discharge and water level measurements enabled establishment of calibrated hydraulic models, which provide data on water velocities and depths for analyzed discharges. Brief field measurements were also performed to gather required data on dominant and subdominant substrate size and cover type. Since the accuracy of fish distribution on small scale is very important for habitat modeling, a fish sampling method had to be selected and modified for existing river microhabitats. The brown trout specimen's locations were collected with two (2) different sampling methods. A method of riverbank observation which is suitable for adult fish in pools and a method of electro fishing for locating small fish and fish in riffles or hiding in cover. Ecological and habitat requirements for fish species vary regarding different fish populations as well as eco and hydro morphological types of streams. Therefore, if habitat modeling for brown trout in Slovenia should be applied, it is necessary to determine preference requirements for the locally present brown trout populations. For efficient determination of applied preference functions and linked fuzzy sets/rules, beside expert determination, calibration according to field sampling must also be performed. After this final step a model is prepared for the analysis to support decision making in the field of environmental flow and other mitigation measures determination.

Santl, Saso; Carf, Masa; Preseren, Tanja; Jenic, Aljaz

2013-04-01

398

Update on rickettsioses in Slovakia.  

PubMed

The reported incidence of vector-borne diseases including various cases of Rickettsioses in humans is increasing due to a combination of climatic and social factors, escalating the opportunities for contact between people and ticks, fleas or lice. Many of the emerging infectious diseases currently challenging human health in Europe are transmitted by ticks which normally feed on domestic or wild animals. Each Rickettsia spp. has one or several tick vectors, and their geographical distribution varies according to geographical conditions; e.g.; altitude or temperature, which is gradually changing due to a global warming. Evidence of Rickettsia spp. particularly of a newly discovered species is a strong indication that a great number of diseases may be caused by so far undetected or unrecognized organisms. Their diagnosis relies mostly on rare "spot like" cooperation of clinicians with scientists, the members of the working groups that are devoted to the scientific studies of the corresponding research areas. The clinical picture of the disease caused by rickettsiae varies significantly from flu like symptoms to severe fatal outcomes, reflecting the various factors, e.g. a variability of virulence of rickettsial species due to cell invasion, dissemination of rickettsiae, genomics, immune response of an infected organism, or a tricky impact of a treatment. Several major reviews on rickettsioses have been previously published, e.g. in 1997 (Raoult and Roux, 1997a), in 2005 (Parola et al., 2005), and in 2011 (Botelho-Nevers and Raoult, 2011). In this work we intend to present a short historical overview and to describe new trends in research studies of rickettsiology. The main focus will be on rickettsioses affecting Europe?s population. PMID:23600876

Sekeyová, Z; Socolovschi, C; Spitalská, E; Kocianová, E; Boldiš, V; Diaz, M Quevedo; Berthová, L; Bohácsová, M; Valáriková, J; Fournier, P Edouard; Raoult, D

2013-01-01

399

Intestinal helminths infection of rats (Ratus norvegicus) in the Belgrade area (Serbia): the effect of sex, age and habitat*  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal helminths of Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) from the Belgrade area were studied as a part of a wider ecological research of rats in Serbia (data on the distribution, population ecology, economic and epizoothiological-epidemiological importance, and density control). Rats were captured from May 2005 to July 2009 at both urban and suburban-rural sites. Of a total of 302 trapped rats 48% were males and 52% females, with 36.5% and 38.8% of juvenile-subadult individuals, per sex respectively. Intestinal helminth infection was noted in 68.5% of rats, with a higher prevalence in male hosts and in adult individuals. Higher numbers of infected juveniles-subadults were noted in suburban-rural habitats, while an opposite tendency was noted in adult rats. Seven helminth species were recovered, of which five were nematode (Heterakis spumosa, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Capillaria sp., Trichuris muris and Syphacia muris) and two cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta and Rodentolepis fraterna). The most prevalent parasites were Heterakis spumosa (36.7%) and Hymenolepis diminuta (30.5%). Sex and habitat-related differences were noted in the prevalence of infection with Capillaria sp. and Trichuris muris, while there were no age-related differences in the prevalence of infection with any individual helminth species. Significantly higher prevalence of infection was noted in summer as compared to spring or winter, with a tendency to be higher in autumn as compared to spring. The only significant difference in the prevalence of infection between habitat-related was noted during spring. H. spumosa was most prevalent in summer, while H. diminuta and N. brasiliensis in autumn. The mean intensity of infection with H. spumosa, R. fraterna, S. muris and T. muris was higher in autumn than in the other seasons, while N. brasiliensis and Capillaria sp. occured in winter. No more than four helminth species were found in one host. PMID:21678796

Kataranovski, M.; Mirkov, I.; Belij, S.; Popov, A.; Petrovi?, Z.; Ga?i?, Z.; Kataranovski, D.

2011-01-01

400

Relation between edaphic factors and vegetation development on copper mine wastes: a case study from Bor (Serbia, SE Europe).  

PubMed

The relationship between edaphic characteristics and vegetation growing on mine wastes in the Bor region (East Serbia, SE Europe) was studied using multivariate statistical analysis. The influence of edaphic factors on the composition of plant life-forms was also investigated, since it could reflect strategies for the avoidance of or tolerance to disturbances of ecosystems. The goal was to provide potential models for the restoration and management of this and similar mine waste areas. The results of this study imply that soil textures, nitrogen contents, reclamation technology and the presence of hydrothermally altered andesite as the type of bedrock significantly influenced plant colonization and vegetation composition of the Bor mine wastes. These edaphic factors explained 30.3 % of the total variation in the vegetation data set. It was also revealed that the pattern of plant life-forms found on the considered site groups corresponded to the soil texture. Based on their relative abundance on the investigated sites and relationships with soil properties it is concluded that therophytes and geophytes are unsuccessful primary colonizers of the Bor mine wastes. Hemicryptophytes of psammophytic character were the most successful primary colonizers and therefore potential candidates for anthropogenically-assisted natural recovery. This study suggested that an assessment of edaphic factors should be widely used in the characterization of mine wastes prior to reclamation. Estimation of their role in the development of existing mine vegetation should predate reclamation procedures. Thus, approaches based on adequate plant life-forms should have a more prominent role in future mine reclamation schemes. PMID:24488039

Ran?elovi?, Dragana; Cvetkovi?, Vladica; Mihailovi?, Nevena; Jovanovi?, Slobodan

2014-04-01

401

Severe combined immunodeficiency in Serbia and Montenegro between years 1986 and 2010: a single-center experience.  

PubMed

Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), including the 'variant' Omenn syndrome (OS), represent a heterogeneous group of monogenic disorders characterized by defect in differentiation of T- and/or B lymphocytes and susceptibility to infections since birth. In the period of 25 years, between January 1986 and December 2010, a total of 21 patients (15 SCID, 6 OS) were diagnosed in Mother & Child Health Institute of Serbia, a tertiary-care teaching University hospital and a national referral center for patients affected with primary immunodeficiency (PID). The diagnoses were based on anamnestic data, clinical findings, and immunological and genetic analysis. The median age at the onset of the first infection was the 2nd month of life. Seven (33 %) patients had positive family history for SCID. Out of five male infants with T-B+NK- SCID phenotype, mutation analysis revealed interleukin-2 (common) gamma-chain receptor (IL2RG) mutations in 3 with positive X-linked family history, and Janus-kinase (JAK)-3 gene defects in the other two. Six patients had T-B-NK+ SCID phenotype and further 6 features of OS, 11 of which had recombinase-activating gene (RAG1or RAG2) and 1 Artemis gene mutations. One child with T+B+NK+ SCID phenotype as well had proven RAG mutation. One child each with T-B+NK+ SCID phenotype, CD8 lymphopenia and unknown phenotype remained without known underlying genetic defect. Of the eight patients who underwent hematopoetic stem cell transplant (HSCT) 5 survived, the other 13 died between 2 days and 12 months after diagnosis was made. Early diagnosis of SCID, before onset of severe infections, offers possibility for HSCT and cure. Education of primary-care pediatricians, in particular including awareness of the risk of using live vaccines and non-irradiated blood products, should improve prognosis of SCID in our setting. PMID:24481607

Pasic, Srdjan; Vujic, Dragana; Veljkovi?, Dobrila; Slavkovic, Bojana; Mostarica-Stojkovic, Marija; Minic, Predrag; Minic, Aleksandra; Ristic, Goran; Giliani, Silvia; Villa, Anna; Sobacchi, Cristina; Lili?, Desa; Abinun, Mario

2014-04-01

402

Assessment of heavy metal and pesticide levels in soil and plant products from agricultural area of Belgrade, Serbia.  

PubMed

This study was aimed to assess the levels of selected heavy metals and pesticides in soil and plant products from an agricultural area of Belgrade, Serbia and to indicate possible sources and risks of contamination. Soil, vegetable, and fruit samples from the most important agricultural city areas were collected from July to November of 2006. Metal contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, whereas pesticide residues were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after extraction performed using solid-phase microextraction technique. Soil characterization based on the determination of selected physical and chemical properties revealed heterogeneous soils belonging to different soil groups. The concentrations of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in soil samples do not exceed the limits established by national and international regulations. Residues of the herbicide atrazine were detected in three soil samples, with levels lower than the relevant limit. The presence of other herbicides, namely prometryn, chloridazon, acetochlor, flurochloridone, and napropamide, was registered in some soil samples as well. Among the insecticides investigated in the soil, fenitrothion and chlorpyrifos were the only ones detected. In most of the investigated vegetable samples from the Obrenovac area, Pb and Cd contents are higher in comparison with the maximum levels, indicating the emission of coal combustion products from local thermal power plants as a possible source of contamination. Residue levels of some herbicides and insecticides (metribuzin, trifluralin, pendimethalin, bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin) determined in tomato, pepper, potato, and onion samples from Slanci, Ovca, and Obrenovac areas are even several times higher than the maximum residue levels. Inappropriate use of these plant protection products is considered to be the most probable reason of contamination. Because increased levels of heavy metals and pesticide residues found in plant products could pose a risk to consumers' health, their continual monitoring before product distribution to city markets is indispensable. PMID:19603130

Markovi?, Mirjana; Cupa?, Svjetlana; Durovi?, Rada; Milinovi?, Jelena; Kljaji?, Petar

2010-02-01

403

GIS and the analytic hierarchy process for regional landfill site selection in transitional countries: a case study from Serbia.  

PubMed

The Serbian National Waste Management Strategy for the Period 2010-2019, harmonized with the European Union Directives, mandates new and very strict requirements for landfill sites. To enable analysis of a number of required qualitative and quantitative factors for landfill site selection, the traditional method of site selection must be replaced with a new approach. The combination of GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was selected to solve this complex problem. The Srem region in northern Serbia, being one of the most environmentally sensitive areas, was chosen as a case study. Seventeen factors selected as criteria/sub-criteria were recognized as most important, divided into geo-natural, environmental, social and techno-economic factors, and were evaluated by experts from different fields using an AHP extension in Arc GIS. Weighted spatial layers were combined into a landfill suitability map which was then overlapped with four restriction maps, resulting in a final suitability map. According to the results, 82.65% of the territory of Srem is unsuitable for regional landfill siting. The most suitable areas cover 9.14%, suitable areas 5.24%, while areas with low and very low suitability cover 2.21 and 0.76% of the territory, respectively. Based on these findings, five sites close to two large urban agglomerations were suggested as possible locations for a regional landfill site in Srem. However, the final decision will require further field investigation, a public acceptance survey, and consideration of ownership status and price of the land. PMID:22134738

Zelenovi? Vasiljevi?, Tamara; Srdjevi?, Zorica; Baj?eti?, Ratko; Vojinovi? Miloradov, Mirjana

2012-02-01

404

Lazulite and Ba, Sr, Ca, K-rich phosphates-sulphates in quartz veins from metaquartzites of Tribe? Mountains, Western Carpathians, Slovakia: Compositional variations and evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phosphate-sulphate mineralization occurs in quartz veins in Lower Triassic metaquartzites of the Tribe? Mts., Central Western Carpathians, Slovakia. The mineralization comprises of lazulite, Ba, Sr, Ca, K-rich phosphates-sulphates and barite in an association with muscovite, hematite, locally rutile, zircon, chlorite and tourmaline. The most widespread lazulite forms up to 10 cm large pale to deep blue aggregates in massive quartz. Electron-microprobe analyses show a relatively uniform composition with Mg/(Mg + Fe) =0.85 to 0.93. The Mössbauer spectroscopy reveals 11-30% Fe 3+/Fe total. Possible primary goedkenite-bearthite binary s.s. shows the highest known Sr contents worldwide: Sr/(Sr + Ca) = 0.67-0.71; Mg, Ba and REE contents are negligible. The lazulite is replaced by a secondary association of Ba, Sr, Ca, K-rich phosphates-sulphates: gorceixite, rarely goyazite, crandallite, svanbergite, jarosite and a rare phase, close to (Ba,K,Sr)(Fe 3+,Al) 3[(OH,H 2O) 6(PO 4)(SO 4)] composition (Ba,Fe,S,P-phase). Gorceixite exhibits more restricted compositional variations between gorceixite-goyazite and gorceixite-crandallite s.s.: Ba/(Ba + Sr) = 0.73-0.99, Ba/(Ba + Ca) = 0.78-0.99 and (P - 1)/[(P - 1) + S] = 0.84-0.99. On the contrary, the secondary Sr, Ca-dominant phosphates-sulphates of the crandallite and beudantite groups show wide compositional variations and complex quarternary solid-solution series between goyazite-crandallite and svanbergite-woodhouseite with Sr/(Sr + Ca) = 0.16 to 0.99 and (P - 1)/[(P - 1) + S] = 0.07 to 0.97. The K, Ba-dominant phosphates-sulphates of the alunite and beudantite groups occur along jarosite-Ba,Fe,S,P-phase s.s. line with Ba/(Ba + K) = 0.07 to 0.56, Fe/(Fe + Al) = 0.55 to 0.99, P/(P + S) = 0.14 to 0.57 and elevated Sr and Ca (up to 0.24 and 0.12 apfu, respectively). The compositions indicate a close relationship and mutual substitutions between the crandallite, beudantite and alunite groups. Unlike to analogous phosphate-bearing assemblages in the Alps, investigated phosphate-sulphate association doesn't contains REE, Y and Sc minerals but it is rich in Ba-phases (barite, gorceixite). The peak metamorphic conditions of the host rocks estimated using the Kübler index of phyllosilicates point to anchizone/epizone boundary, i.e. ca. 270-350 °C. Fluid inclusions study constrained the minimum formation temperatures of the lazulite to 144-257 °C and of the superimposed sulphate-phosphate mineralization to 175-289 °C. Lazulite crystallized from brines of the system H 2O-Na-Mg-Cl-CO 2 with a salinity of 17.2 to 19.8 wt.% NaCl eq. We propose, that the studied mineralization originated from fluids enriched in elements from breakdown of feldspars, biotite, apatite and other phosphates in underlying Hercynian granites. The fluids passed upwards into the metaquartzites and precipitated discrete minerals, due to absence of any suitable sink for the elements among rock-forming minerals.

Uher, Pavel; Mikuš, Tomáš; Milovský, Rastislav; Biro?, Adrian; Spišiak, Ján; Lipka, Jozef; Jahn, Ján

2009-10-01

405

Assessment of metal pollution sources by SEM/EDS analysis of solid particles in snow: a case study of Žerjav, Slovenia.  

PubMed

Solid particles in snow deposits, sampled in mining and Pb-processing area of Žerjav, Slovenia, have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). Identified particles were classified as geogenic-anthropogenic, anthropogenic, and secondary weathering products. Geogenic-anthropogenic particles were represented by scarce Zn- and Pb-bearing ore minerals, originating from mine waste deposit. The most important anthropogenic metal-bearing particles in snow were Pb-, Sb- and Sn-bearing oxides and sulphides. The morphology of these particles showed that they formed at temperatures above their melting points. They were most abundant in snow sampled closest to the Pb-processing plant and least abundant in snow taken farthest from the plant, thus indicating that Pb processing was their predominant source between the last snowfall and the time of sampling. SEM/EDS analysis showed that Sb and Sn contents in these anthropogenic phases were higher and more variable than in natural Pb-bearing ore minerals. The most important secondary weathering products were Pb- and Zn-containing Fe-oxy-hydroxides whose elemental composition and morphology indicated that they mostly resulted from oxidation of metal-bearing sulphides emitted from the Pb-processing plant. This study demonstrated the importance of single particle analysis using SEM/EDS for differentiation between various sources of metals in the environment. PMID:23981242

Miler, Miloš; Gosar, Mateja

2013-12-01

406

Behavior of zinc, nickel, copper and cadmium during the electrokinetic remediation of sediment from the Great Backa Canal (Serbia).  

PubMed

This paper describes a bench-scale study dealing with the removal of heavy metals by electrokinetic (EK) remediation from sediment of the Great Backa Canal (Vojvodina, Republic of Serbia), with an emphasis on the dependence of removal efficacies on the physicochemical states of the heavy metals and sediment chemistry. Sediment samples were spiked with the following heavy metals (mg kg(-1)): Zn 4400, Ni 900, Cu 1140 and Cd 57. In addition to determining the pseudo-total metal content in the contaminated sediment before and after EK treatment, BCR sequential extraction was also performed to examine the distribution of the contaminants in the sediment. Conventional EK remediation (EXP I) was ineffective in removing the heavy metals investigated, so two enhanced processes were developed. In both these processes, the mass of treated sediment was reduced to avoid the presence of inactive electric field areas in the sediment and increase current density. The first enhanced experiment (EXP II) used acetic acid (HAc) solution (pH 2.9) as an anolyte. Combined with the smaller sediment mass, this resulted in an increase in overall removal efficacies (9% for Zn, 15% for Ni, 10% for Cu and 15% for Cd). The second enhanced experiment (EXP III), as well as using HAc solution as an anolyte, made use of a cation exchange membrane in the cathodic chamber to minimize pH changes in the region adjacent to the cathode, which negatively influenced the removal of some heavy metals. However, no improvement in removal efficacy was achieved in EXP III. Since the redox potential of the sediment drops during the EK process, metals removal is limited by the formation of their sulfides. In conclusion, the removal of heavy metals by EK remediation is governed by a complex interplay of the complexation, precipitation and reduction processes, and the difficulties encountered in their optimization can explain the unsatisfactory effectiveness achieved by the described remediation procedure. Improved understanding of the behavior of metal ions during EK treatment can be useful in predicting and enhancing the efficacy of the process. PMID:20574868

Rajic, Ljiljana M; Dalmacija, Bozo D; Trickovic, Jelena S; Dalmacija, Milena B; Krcmar, Dejan M

2010-01-01

407

Statistical downscaling of general-circulation-model- simulated average monthly air temperature to the beginning of flowering of the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenological observations are a valuable source of information for investigating the relationship between climate variation and plant development. Potential climate change in the future will shift the occurrence of phenological phases. Information about future climate conditions is needed in order to estimate this shift. General circulation models (GCM) provide the best information about future climate change. They are able to simulate reliably the most important mean features on a large scale, but they fail on a regional scale because of their low spatial resolution. A common approach to bridging the scale gap is statistical downscaling, which was used to relate the beginning of flowering of Taraxacum officinale in Slovenia with the monthly mean near-surface air temperature for January, February and March in Central Europe. Statistical models were developed and tested with NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis predictor data and EARS predictand data for the period 1960-1999. Prior to developing statistical models, empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was employed on the predictor data. Multiple linear regression was used to relate the beginning of flowering with expansion coefficients of the first three EOF for the Janauary, Febrauary and March air temperatures, and a strong correlation was found between them. Developed statistical models were employed on the results of two GCM (HadCM3 and ECHAM4/OPYC3) to estimate the potential shifts in the beginning of flowering for the periods 1990-2019 and 2020-2049 in comparison with the period 1960-1989. The HadCM3 model predicts, on average, 4 days earlier occurrence and ECHAM4/OPYC3 5 days earlier occurrence of flowering in the period 1990-2019. The analogous results for the period 2020-2049 are a 10- and 11-day earlier occurrence.

Bergant, Klemen; Kajfež-Bogataj, Lu?ka; ?repinšek, Zalika

2002-02-01

408

Rare-element granitic pegmatite of Miocene age emplaced in UHP rocks from Visole, Pohorje Mountains (Eastern Alps, Slovenia): accessory minerals, monazite and uraninite chemical dating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The granitic pegmatite dike intruded the Cretaceous UHP rocks at Visole, near Slovenska Bistrica, in the Pohorje Mountains (Slovenia). The rock consists mainly of K-feldspar, albite and quartz, subordinate muscovite and biotite, while the accessory minerals include spessartine-almandine, zircon, ferrocolumbite, fluorapatite, monazite- (Ce), uraninite, and magnetite. Compositions of garnet (Sps48-49Alm45-46Grs + And3-4 Prp1.5-2), metamict zircon with 3.5 to 7.8 wt. % HfO2 [atom. 100Hf/(Hf + Zr) = 3.3-7.7] and ferrocolumbite [atom. Mn/(Mn + Fe) = 0.27-0.43, Ta/(Ta + Nb) = 0.03-0.46] indicate a relatively low to medium degree of magmatic fractionation, characteristic of the muscovite - rare-element class or beryl-columbite subtype of the rare-element class pegmatites. Monazite-(Ce) reveals elevated Th and U contents (?11 wt. % ThO2, ?5 wt. % UO2). The monazite-garnet geothermometer shows a possible precipitation temperature of ~495 ą 30 °C at P~4 to 5 kbar. Chemical U-Th-Pb dating of the monazite yielded a Miocene age (17.2 ą 1.8 Ma), whereas uraninite gave a younger (~14 Ma) age. These ages are comtemporaneous with the main crystallization and emplacement of the Pohorje pluton and adjacent volcanic rocks (20 to 15 Ma), providing the first documented evidence of Neogene granitic pegmatites in the Eastern Alps. Consequently, the Visole pegmatite belongs to the youngest rare-element granitic pegmatite populations in Europe, together with the Paleogene pegmatite occurrences along the Periadriatic (Insubric) Fault System in the Alps and in the Rhodope Massif, as well as the Late Miocene to Pliocene pegmatites in the Tuscany magmatic province (mainly on the Island of Elba).

Uher, Pavel; Janák, Marian; Kone?ný, Patrik; Vrabec, Mirijam

2014-04-01

409

ICOM2012: 3rd International Conference on the Physics of Optical Materials and Devices (Belgrade, Serbia, 2-6 September 2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3rd International Conference on the Physics of Optical Materials and Devices (ICOM2012) was held in Belgrade (Serbia) from 2 to 6 September 2012 (figure 1). The conference was organized by the Vin?a Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade (Serbia) and the Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matičre Condensée de Paris (France), and supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia and Optical Society of America. ICOM2012 was a follow-up to the two previous, successful ICOM conferences held in Herceg Novi in 2006 and 2009. The conference aimed at providing a forum for scientists in optical materials to debate on: • Luminescent materials and nanomaterials • Hybrid optical materials (organic/inorganic) • Characterization techniques of optical materials • Luminescence mechanisms and energy transfers • Theory and modeling of optical processes • Ultrafast-laser processing of materials • Optical sensors • Medical imaging • Advanced optical materials in photovoltaics and biophotonics • Photothermal and photoacoustic spectroscopy and phenomena The conference stressed the value of a fundamental scientific understanding of optical materials. A particular accent was put on wide band-gap materials in crystalline, glass and nanocrystalline forms. The applications mainly involved lasers, scintillators and phosphors. Rare earth and transition metal ions introduced as dopants in various hosts were considered, and their impact on the optical properties were detailed in several presentations. This volume contains selected contributions of speakers and participants of the ICOM2012 conference. The conference provided a unique opportunity for about 200 scientists from 32 countries to discuss recent progress in the field of optical materials. During the three and half days, 21 invited talks and 52 contributed lectures were given, with a special event in memory of our dear colleague Professor Dr Tsoltan Basiev (Russia). In addition, 183 posters were presented and the two Young Scientist Awards were announced at the closing ceremony. Acknowledgments We thank all the authors for their valuable research contribution presented in this volume. We express our acknowledgements to all reviewers with a special thanks to Dr G Watt, then Publisher of the journal, for accepting the publication of these papers in a special issue of Physica Scripta . We wish to express our gratitude to the members of the ICOM scientific advisory committee and organizing committee for their excellent work and commitment for the success of ICOM2012.

Drami?anin, Miroslav D.; Anti?, Željka; Viana, Bruno

2013-11-01

410

Evaluation of High School Programme for Gifted Pupils in Physics and Sciences in Serbia - Experience in Regional Cooperation -- SEENET-MTP Network  

E-print Network

The "High school class for students with special abilities in physics" was founded in Nis, Serbia (http://tesla.pmf.ni.ac.rs/f_odeljenje/) in 2003. The basic aim of this project has been introducing a broadened curriculum of physics, mathematics, computer science, as well as chemistry and biology. Now, eight years after establishing of this specialized class, we present analyses of the pupils' skills in solving rather problem oriented test, as PISA test, and compare their results with the results of pupils who study under standard curricula. Also, an external evaluation conducted more recently, shows that Special physics class students performed higher on science knowledge test in comparison with students from control groups (grammar school and special math class students). Establishing of the Special physics class as an interesting educational experiment and its development has been connected, in a sense, with activities of the Southeastern European Network in Mathematical and Theoretical Physics. We present...

Djordjevic, Goran S; Stankovic, Jelena

2011-01-01

411

New Radiometric Ages for the BH-1 Hominin from Balanica (Serbia): Implications for Understanding the Role of the Balkans in Middle Pleistocene Human Evolution  

PubMed Central

Newly obtained ages, based on electron spin resonance combined with uranium series isotopic analysis, and infrared/post-infrared luminescence dating, provide a minimum age that lies between 397 and 525 ka for the hominin mandible BH-1 from Mala Balanica cave, Serbia. This confirms it as the easternmost hominin specimen in Europe dated to the Middle Pleistocene. Inferences drawn from the morphology of the mandible BH-1 place it outside currently observed variation of European Homo heidelbergensis. The lack of derived Neandertal traits in BH-1 and its contemporary specimens in Southeast Europe, such as Kocaba?, Vasogliano and Ceprano, coupled with Middle Pleistocene synapomorphies, suggests different evolutionary forces acting in the east of the continent where isolation did not play such an important role during glaciations. PMID:23405085

Rink, William J.; Mercier, Norbert; Mihailovi?, Dušan; Morley, Mike W.; Thompson, Jeroen W.; Roksandic, Mirjana

2013-01-01

412

Chemokine receptor V ?32 deletion in multiple sclerosis patients in Csongrád County in Hungary and the North-Bácska region in Serbia.  

PubMed

The roles of chemokine receptor V (CCR5) and its polymorphism, rs333 in multiple sclerosis (MS) are controversial. We investigated the receptor and its deletion in a large MS (428) and a numerous control (831) population in Csongrád County (Hungary) and North-Bácska (Serbia). Taqman probes firstly were used for the allele discrimination. There was no significant difference in genotype (OR=1.092, 95% CI=0.807-1.478, p=0.568 for wt/wt (wt=wild type allele) vs wt/?32, ?32/?32 (?32=?32 base pair deletion allele)) or allele frequency (OR=0.914, 95% CI=0.692-1.207, p=0.525). Neither the deletion nor the wt allele affected the Expanded Disability Status Scale score or the age at onset. Our results indicate no association between the CCR5 ?32 allele and MS. PMID:25500253

Török, Nóra; Molnár, Kinga; Füvesi, Judit; Karácsony, Mária; Zsiros, Viktória; Fejes-Szabó, Annamária; Fiatal, Szilvia; Ádány, Róza; Somogyvári, Ferenc; Stojiljkovi?, Olivera; Vécsei, László; Bencsik, Krisztina

2015-01-01

413

Genetic variability, differentiation, and founder effect in golden jackals (Canis aureus) from Serbia as revealed by mitochondrial DNA and nuclear microsatellite loci.  

PubMed

We analyzed 121 golden jackals (Canis aureus) from six sample sites in Serbia with regard to genetic variability and differentiation as revealed by mitochondrial control region sequences and eight nuclear microsatellite loci. There was no variation at all in the mtDNA sequences, and nuclear variability was very low (average observed and expected heterozygosity of 0.29 and 0.34, respectively). This is in line with the considerable recent range expansion of this species in the Balkans and indicates a strong founder effect in the recently established Serbian population. We did not find evidence of differentiation between the northeastern jackals and those from the plain of Srem or those in between. F-statistics and Bayesian Structure analyses, however, were indicative of a low degree of overall differentiation in the Serbian population. A vagrant Austrian jackal that was also analyzed was genetically indistinguishable from its Serbian conspecifics. PMID:19169806

Zachos, Frank E; Cirovic, Dusko; Kirschning, Julia; Otto, Marthe; Hartl, Günther B; Petersen, Britt; Honnen, Ann-Christin

2009-04-01

414

Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose in Diabetes: From Evidence to Clinical Reality in Central and Eastern Europe—Recommendations from the International Central-Eastern European Expert Group  

PubMed Central

Abstract Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is universally considered to be an integral part of type 1 diabetes management and crucial for optimizing the safety and efficacy of complex insulin regimens. This extends to type 2 diabetes patients on intensive insulin therapy, and there is also a growing body of evidence suggesting that structured SMBG is beneficial for all type 2 diabetes patients, regardless of therapy. However, access to SMBG can be limited in many countries in Central and Eastern Europe. A consensus group of diabetes experts from 10 countries in this region (with overlapping historical, political, and social environments)—Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Ukraine—was formed to discuss the role of SMBG across the spectrum of patients with diabetes. The group considered SMBG to be an essential tool that should be accessible to all patients with diabetes, including those with non–insulin-treated type 2 diabetes. The current article summarizes the evidence put forward by the consensus group and provides their recommendations for the appropriate use of SMBG as part of individualized patient management. The ultimate goal of these evidence-based recommendations is to help patients and providers in Central and Eastern Europe to make optimal use of SMBG in order to maximize the efficacy and safety of glucose-lowering therapies, to prevent complications, and to empower the patient to play a more active role in the management of their diabetes. PMID:24716890

Barkai, László; Bolgarska, Svetlana; Bronisz, Agata; Broz, Jan; Cypryk, Katarzyna; Honka, Marek; Janez, Andrej; Krnic, Mladen; Lalic, Nebojsa; Martinka, Emil; Rahelic, Dario; Roman, Gabriela; Tankova, Tsvetalina; Várkonyi, Tamás; Wolnik, Bogumi?; Zherdova, Nadia

2014-01-01

415

Community response to noise: research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States.  

PubMed

The systems of public complaints on environmental noise were reviewed in seven countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), South-East Europe (SEE), and Newly Independent States (NIS). Public complaints remain an important issue due to differences in public sensitivity to noise and due to several cases where a measurement of noise intensity does not give a satisfying solution to the problem. The unresolved problem remaining in the residential neighborhoods is the noise from pubs and restaurants that are open until late in the night. In our review, we compiled information on the institutions responsible for the implementation of environmental noise legislation and organizations that are responsible for dealing with public complaints. Information on activities for increasing public awareness on hazards rising from environmental noise and the role of civil initiative was explored. In seven countries, and among them, Slovenia, Lithuania, Latvia, Slovakia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Serbia, and Poland, the responsibilities and duties are shared among different institutions at national and regional levels, depending on the noise source. The problem of gathering information on complaints and using it for improving the wellbeing and health of citizens remains often difficult and unsolved. PMID:23412576

Jeram, Sonja; Lekaviciute, Jurgita; Krukle, Zanda; Argalasova-Sobotova, Lubica; Ristovska, Gordana; Paunovic, Katarina; Pawlaczyk-Luszczynska, Malgorzata

2013-01-01

416

Injecting drug users, sex workers and men who have sex with men: a national cross-sectional study to develop a framework and prevalence estimates for national HIV/AIDS programmes in the Republic of Serbia  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to develop a framework and best estimates of prevalence for the most at risk populations (MARPs) for HIV/AIDS to include sex workers (SW), men who have sex with men (MSM) and injecting drug users (IDUs) in order to evaluate national HIV/AIDS programmatic targets across the Republic of Serbia. Design A national, cross-sectional study and direct enumeration, multiplier and benchmark methods with integrated bio-behavioural surveys, capture/recapture and methods with Wald and Clopper-Pearson CIs were used. Setting This study was carried out in the three largest cities and main regions of Serbia, the capital city, Belgrade, (population 1?639?121 persons), the Vojvodina region with main city Novi Sad (population 335?701) and the rest of Serbia with main city Nis (population 257?867). Participants A total of 1301 respondents from the defined MARPs completed the survey in the 2009/2010 period across the three cities. Primary outcome measures Estimates of the hidden numbers at risk of HIV/AIDS. Results It was estimated that there were 1775–6027 SW between 18 and 49?years in Serbia in 2009. For MSM, national estimates for 2009 ranged from 20?789 to 90?104 individuals aged between 20 and 49?years. For IDU, a possible range of 12?682–48?083 individuals aged between 15 and 59?years in 2009 was estimated. Conclusions For service planning across Central and Eastern Europe, it is important to highlight how credible estimates can be achieved and compared with numbers within HIV/AIDS-prevention programmes. Within needle exchange programmes, only 5.4–20.5% of the estimated population was observed and this proportion was lower within methadone treatment data. Results have implications for future IDU treatment and HIV incidence and spread across all populations at risk. PMID:23645910

Comiskey, Catherine; Dempsey, Orla; Simic, Danijela; Baroš, Sladjana

2013-01-01

417

A brittle tectonic history of the Internal Dinarides: an inference based on the paleostress study in the Valjevo area (western Serbia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Internal Dinarides is part of a complex suture zone situated in the central Balkan Peninsula, which present-day tectonic pattern is a result of Late Cretaceous subduction followed by Cenozoic post-collisional and neotectonic phases. Since the Late Miocene, the most important factor controlling regional tectonic processes in this area has been the counterclockwise rotation and northward motion of the Adria plate in respect to the Dinaric orogen. In Serbia, this tectonic process is manifested through constant moderate seismic activity, where stronger earthquakes are recorded mostly along well-known fault systems active in the neotectonic period. However, brittle fault kinematics in this part of the Internal Dinarides is poorly documented. In this research we performed a calculation of the tectonic stress tensors in order to determine brittle tectonic regimes acting in western Serbia (Valjevo mountains range), as well as their relative chronology. Fault-slip data have been collected in geological units of different age and lithology: Permian, Triassic and Cretaceous limestones and Jurassic peridotites and serpentinites. Slip was determined using linear indicators like "carrot shaped" markings, gouging grain grooves and calcite and magnesite fibres. Relative brittle history was determined using criteria of cross-cutting relationships, fracture mineralization and structural features of the brittle overprint of rocks. We distinguished four brittle deformation phases. Phase D1 is characterized by N-S compression, which is indicated by thrust faulting of NE- and NW-trending faults. Phases D2 and D3, are both extensional. However, since we had clear indicators that phase D3 overprints all the previous deformation phases, we suppose that the two extensional phases occurred separately, rather than acting as a single radial extension phase. Deformation phase D2 is characterized by N-S to NE-SW extension, while D3 phase is represented by NW-SE (orogen parallel) extension. Strike-slip deformation phase D4, was indicated by sinistral faulting along N- to NE-trending faults, and dextral faulting along generally E-trending faults. This deformation phase is characterized by N-S compression and E-W extension.

Mladenovi?, Ana; Trivi?, Branislav; Cvetkovi?, Vladica; Pavlovi?, Radmila

2014-05-01

418

Genetic variation of the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), among populations from Serbia and neighbouring countries, as inferred from COI sequence variability.  

PubMed

The greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood, 1856 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is an invasive and highly polyphagous phloem-feeding pest of vegetables and ornamentals. Trialeurodes vaporariorum causes serious damage due to direct feeding and transmits several important plant viruses. Excessive use of insecticides has resulted in significantly reduced levels of susceptibility of various T. vaporariorum populations. To determine the genetic variability within and among populations of T. vaporariorum from Serbia and to explore their genetic relatedness with other T. vaporariorum populations, we analysed the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequences of 16 populations from Serbia and six neighbouring countries: Montenegro (three populations), Macedonia (one population) and Croatia (two populations), for a total of 198 analysed specimens. A low overall level of sequence divergence and only five variable nucleotides and six haplotypes were found. The most frequent haplotype, H1, was identified in all Serbian populations and in all specimens from distant localities in Croatia and Macedonia. The COI sequence data that was retrieved from GenBank and the data from our study indicated that H1 is the most globally widespread T. vaporariorum haplotype. A lack of spatial genetic structure among the studied T. vaporariorum populations, as well as two demographic tests that we performed (Tajima's D value and Fu's Fs statistics), indicate a recent colonisation event and population growth. Phylogenetic analyses of the COI haplotypes in this study and other T. vaporariorum haplotypes that were retrieved from GenBank were performed using Bayesian inference and median-joining (MJ) network analysis. Two major haplogroups with only a single unique nucleotide difference were found: haplogroup 1 (containing the five Serbian haplotypes and those previously identified in India, China, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Morocco, Reunion and the USA) and haplogroup 3 (containing the single Serbian haplotype H3 and haplotypes from Costa Rica, the USA and Spanish Canary Islands). Collectively, our data indicate a rather limited value of COI as a genetic marker for discrimination between different T. vaporariorum populations in the investigated area. Possible explanations for the observed lack of COI sequence variability, such as specific genetics of biological invasion and/or the influence of bacterial symbionts that manipulate insect reproduction, are discussed. PMID:24661625

Prijovi?, M; Skaljac, M; Drobnjakovi?, T; Zani?, K; Peri?, P; Mar?i?, D; Puizina, J

2014-06-01

419

Dialect Leveling in Haloze, Slovenia  

E-print Network

. The modern sociolinguistic state of the dialect is discussed based on extensive interviews as well as several questionnaires conducted in the region within the last two years. All of this material indicates that the local dialect is not dying. Large...

Lundberg, Grant H.

2013-01-01

420

Woman in Physics in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slovenian female physicists are organized in an informal network that incorporates more than 100 women working in research, academia, government, and industry. In the past three years we have accomplished several actions in order to motivate young girls and students to pursue physics. Our main achievement was publishing the monograph Physics—My Education in September 2007. The book includes 79 autobiographic contributions of female physicists presenting their life and work in different areas: science (institutes and universities), teaching, industry, and government. We have also organized an exhibition about Slovene women in physics, presenting the very first female physicists and all the next generations. A very popular item among women and men was also a T-shirt with our logo. By selling the books and T-shirts we have collected money for scholarships for female students of physics. The first four scholarships were awarded on March 8, 2008, in the spirit of the International Women's Day.

Zeleznik, Nadja; Conradi, Marjetka; Remskar, Maja

2009-04-01