Sample records for serbia slovakia slovenia

  1. Workers’ Power in Transition Economies: the Cases of Serbia and Slovenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miroslav Stanojevic´

    2003-01-01

    The root of the differences between the successful transition inSlovenia and the abortive transition in Serbia, the impetus for the divorce between Serbia and Slovenia which was the starting point of the disintegration of the former Yugoslav federation, lay in the qualitatively different reactions ofthe Serbian and Slovenian political elites to the workers’ strike movements of the second half of

  2. Roma Pupils' Identification with School in Slovenia and Serbia: Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macura-Milovanovic, Suncica; Munda, Milanka; Pecek, Mojca

    2013-01-01

    The research presented in this paper aims to challenge the belief held by some education professionals that Roma pupils do not value education. The research sample included groups of Roma pupils from two countries (Slovenia and Serbia) and from different socio-economic backgrounds. The results suggest that the majority of the pupils are aware of…

  3. Who Is Responsible for Vulnerable Pupils? The Attitudes of Teacher Candidates in Serbia and Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecek, Mojca; Macura-Milovanovic, Suncica

    2012-01-01

    In the ongoing trend towards inclusive education, initial teacher education programmes must ensure that prospective teachers are prepared to teach all pupils effectively. The study presented in this paper aimed to explore the attitudes of teacher candidates in Serbia and Slovenia towards responsibility for the teaching and learning of vulnerable…

  4. ARE NATIONAL CULTURES STILL IMPORTANT IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS? RUSSIA, SERBIA AND SLOVENIA IN COMPARISON

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marko Pahor; Jasna Vidmar Svetlik

    In this study, we attempt to show managerial cultures in three transition countries, Russia, Serbia and Slovenia. We analyse the values of younger individuals and compare them with the values of older individuals to see if and how the culture of the former reflects globalisation. We use the standard methodology from Hofstede (1981) and Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner (1997) to measure

  5. Slovakia Document Store

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Slovakia Document Store: clickable map of Slovakia containing over 100 pictures of Slovak country, map of the capital and other large cities, history, political system, political parties. Also includes Information for people traveling to Slovakia, like currency, exchange rates, location of ATM (bankomats), small English-Slovak dictionary for tourists, e-mail and other Internet services, much more.

  6. 7 CFR 319.37-5 - Special foreign inspection and certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Ireland, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, the Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Russian Federation, Serbia and Montenegro, South...Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia,...

  7. 7 CFR 319.37-5 - Special foreign inspection and certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Ireland, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, the Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Russian Federation, Serbia and Montenegro, South...Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia,...

  8. 7 CFR 319.37-5 - Special foreign inspection and certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Ireland, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, the Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Russian Federation, Serbia and Montenegro, South...Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia,...

  9. 7 CFR 319.37-5 - Special foreign inspection and certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Ireland, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, the Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Russian Federation, Serbia and Montenegro, South...Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia,...

  10. 7 CFR 319.37-5 - Special foreign inspection and certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Ireland, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, the Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Russian Federation, Serbia and Montenegro, South...Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia,...

  11. Language Policy in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak-Lukanovic, Sonja; Limon, David

    2012-01-01

    The historical background, political changes, migration processes, EU membership and the current socio-linguistic situation have all influenced language policy and language planning in Slovenia. This article presents the most important aspects of language policy in Slovenia with a focus on the concept of linguistic diversity. The ethnic make-up of…

  12. A new earthquake catalogue for seismic hazard assessment of the NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) Jaslovske Bohunice, Slovakia, site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kysel, Robert; Kristek, Jozef; Moczo, Peter; Csicsay, Kristian; Cipciar, Andrej; Srbecky, Miroslav

    2014-05-01

    According to the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) Safety Guide No. SSG-9, an earthquake catalogue should comprise all information on pre-historical, historical and seismometrically recorded earthquakes in the region which should cover geographic area not smaller than a circle with radius of 300 km around the site. Jaslovske Bohunice is an important economic site. Several nuclear facilities are located in Jaslovske Bohunice - either in operation (NPP V2, national radioactive waste repository) or in decommissioning (NPP A1, NPP V1). Moreover, a new reactor unit is being planned for the site. Jaslovske Bohunice site is not far from the Dobra Voda seismic source zone which has been the most active seismic zone at territory of Slovakia since the beginning of 20th century. Relatively small distances to Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovak capital Bratislava make the site a prominent priority in terms of seismic hazard assessment. We compiled a new earthquake catalogue for the NPP Jaslovske Bohunice region following the recommendations of the IAEA Safety Guide. The region includes parts of the territories of Slovakia, Hungary, Austria, the Czech Republic and Poland, and it partly extends up to Germany, Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia. The catalogue is based on data from six national earthquake catalogues, two regional earthquake catalogues (ACORN, CENEC) and a catalogue from the local NPP network. The primarily compiled catalogue for the time period 350 - 2011 consists of 9 142 events. We then homogenized and declustered the catalogue. Eventually we checked the catalogue for time completeness. For homogenization, we divided the catalogue into preseismometric (350 - 1900) and seismometric (1901-2011) periods. For earthquakes characterized by the epicentral intensity and local magnitude we adopted relations proposed for homogenization of the CENEC catalogue (Grünthal et al. 2009). Instead of assuming the equivalency between local magnitudes reported by the national agencies, we analyzed and estimated relations between them. For declustering we applied two independent methods. In the window method we applied parameters of the time-space windows proposed by Burkhard & Grünthal (2009). In the cluster method (Reasenberg 1985) we applied alternative sets of input parameters. For investigating time completeness we divided the catalogue into four subcatalogues corresponding to different seismogeological domains. The completeness was determined from the plots displaying cumulative number of events (for given subcatalogue and interval of magnitude) as a function of time. The homogenized catalogue consists of 2 652 earthquakes with moment magnitude larger than 1.5. The catalogue was subsequently used as an input source for hazard analysis.

  13. Church Orientations in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?aval, Saša

    The high number of churches built during the Romanesque period in Slovenia provides a unique dataset from which to study church orientation using archaeoastronomical methods. An innovative methodology revealed a specific pattern of motivation for church alignment, ultimately revealing a greater depth of thought, process, and intentionality than has previously been recognized relative to this subject.

  14. HADRON STRUCTURE 2004 Smolenice Castle, Slovakia

    E-print Network

    HADRON STRUCTURE 2004 Smolenice Castle, Slovakia HADRON STRUCTURE 2004HADRON STRUCTURE 2004 Smolenice Castle, SlovakiaSmolenice Castle, Slovakia Exotic Hadronic States at HERA MMóónicanica L. VL: c ¡ Summary #12;Exotic Hadronic States at HERA, Mónica L. Våzquez Acosta (NIKHEF) Hadron Structure

  15. Slovakia health system review.

    PubMed

    Szalay, Tomás; Pazitný, Peter; Szalayová, Angelika; Frisová, Simona; Morvay, Karol; Petrovic, Marek; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2011-01-01

    The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services, and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. The Slovak health system is a system in progress. Major health reform in the period 2002 to 2006 introduced a new approach based on managed competition. Although large improvements have been made since the 1990s (for example in life expectancy and infant mortality), health outcomes are generally still substantially worse than the average for the EU15 but close to the other Visegrad Four countries. Per capita health spending (in purchasing power parity [PPP]) was around half the EU15 average. A large share of these resources was absorbed by pharmaceutical spending (28% in 2008, compared to 16% in OECD countries). Some important utilization indicators signal plenty of resources in the system but may also indicate excess bed capacity and overutilization. The number of physicians and nurses per capita has been actively reduced since 2001 but remains above the average of the EU12 (i.e. the 12 countries that joined the EU in 2004 and 2007). An ageing workforce and professional migration may reinforce a shortage of health care workers. People have free choice of general practitioner (GP) and specialist. Their services are provided without cost-sharing from patients, with the notable exception of dental procedures. Inpatient care and specialized ambulatory care are provided in general hospitals and specialized hospitals. Pharmaceutical expenditure per capita accounts for one-third of public expenditure on health care. Long-term care is provided by health care facilities and social care facilities. Slovakia has a progressive system of financing health care. However, the health reforms of 2002 to 2006 led to an increase in the number of households that contributed more from their income and the distributive impacts were not equitable. This was mainly caused by the introduction of a reference pricing scheme for pharmaceuticals. Some key challenges remain: improving the health status of the population and the quality of care while securing the future financial sustainability of the system. PMID:21540135

  16. BEN Sampling in Serbia

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientists Bill Orem (left) and Terry Lerch (right) recording data and collecting samples at a Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) household in Serbia. BEN patients typically come from small villages and are often farmers....

  17. 7 CFR 305.2 - Approved treatments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Bactrocera occipitalisand B. philippinensis VH T106-d-1.PolandHorseradish Baris lepidiiMB T101-1-2.Portugal...Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Russia, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovakia, Slovenia,...

  18. 77 FR 2558 - Identification of Foreign Countries Whose Nationals Are Eligible To Participate in the H-2A and H...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ...Lithuania Macedonia Mexico Moldova Montenegro Nauru The Netherlands Nicaragua New Zealand Norway Papua New Guinea Peru Philippines Poland Romania Samoa Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands South Africa South Korea Spain Switzerland Tonga Turkey Tuvalu...

  19. 78 FR 4154 - Identification of Foreign Countries Whose Nationals Are Eligible To Participate in the H-2A and H...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ...Ethiopia Fiji Grenada Guatemala Haiti Honduras Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Jamaica Japan Kiribati Latvia Lithuania Macedonia Mexico...Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands South Africa South Korea Spain Switzerland Tonga Turkey Tuvalu Ukraine United...

  20. 76 FR 2915 - Identification of Foreign Countries Whose Nationals Are Eligible To Participate in the H-2A and H...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ...El Salvador Estonia Ethiopia Fiji Guatemala Honduras Hungary Ireland Israel Jamaica Japan Kiribati Latvia Lithuania Macedonia Mexico...Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands South Africa South Korea Tonga Turkey Tuvalu Ukraine United Kingdom Uruguay Vanuatu...

  1. URBAN EXTENTS Serbia and Mon

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    URBAN EXTENTS Greece Macedonia Romania Serbia and Mon Turkey GRUMPv1 Copyright 2009. The Trustees, alternate sources are used to estimate the extent of cities. Serbia and Montenegro B l a c k S e a A e g e

  2. Observational projects in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vince, O.; Cvetkovi?, Z.; Pavlovi?, R.; Damljanovi?, G.; Djuraševi?, G.

    2014-03-01

    A new era of astronomical observations in Serbia started in 2010, when a 60 cm telescope was installed on the summit of the mountain Vidojevica. Despite the small number of active observers and all the problems that usually follows the usage of a new instrument, we developed several observational projects, joined several international observational networks and follow-up projects. In this paper, we will shortly introduce all the projects and people involved in them, as well as the instruments that are used for observations.

  3. Earthquakes in Tuhinj Valley (Slovenia) In 1840

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceci?, Ina

    2015-01-01

    A less known damaging earthquake in southern part of Kamnik-Savinja Alps, Slovenia, in 1840 is described. The main shock was on 27 August 1840 with the epicentre in Tuhinj Valley. The maximum intensity was VII EMS-98 in Ljubljana, Slovenia, and in Eisenkappel, Austria. It was felt as far as Venice, Italy, 200 km away. The macroseismic magnitude of the main shock, estimated from the area of intensity VI EMS-98, was 5.0. The effects of the main shock and its aftershocks are described, and an earthquake catalogue for Slovenia in 1840 is provided. Available primary sources (newspaper articles) are presented.

  4. Earthquakes in Tuhinj Valley (Slovenia) In 1840

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceci?, Ina

    2015-04-01

    A less known damaging earthquake in southern part of Kamnik-Savinja Alps, Slovenia, in 1840 is described. The main shock was on 27 August 1840 with the epicentre in Tuhinj Valley. The maximum intensity was VII EMS-98 in Ljubljana, Slovenia, and in Eisenkappel, Austria. It was felt as far as Venice, Italy, 200 km away. The macroseismic magnitude of the main shock, estimated from the area of intensity VI EMS-98, was 5.0. The effects of the main shock and its aftershocks are described, and an earthquake catalogue for Slovenia in 1840 is provided. Available primary sources (newspaper articles) are presented.

  5. Genus Dimerella (Coenogoniaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) in Slovakia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANNA GUTTOVÁ

    2005-01-01

    currence in Slovakia. The paper, based on literature review, revision of collections (BP, BRA, PR, PRC, SAV, W, herb. Vf ezda, herb. Pi{út) and fieldwork, brings together evi- dence of two species, D. pineti and D. lutea. The first voucher specimens and published data for D. pineti date back to the second half of 19th century; 20th century records are

  6. Students' Attitudes toward Computer Use in Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2008-01-01

    ICT has a very short history in Slovakia. A majority of Slovak schools accessed computers and internet only after 2000. Different financial support and schools' participation in various projects resulted in non-random distribution of computers across Slovakian elementary schools. We examined whether 1) attitudes toward computers could be affected…

  7. Forest Health and Environmental Pollution in Slovakia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Július Oszlányi

    1997-01-01

    As a mountainous and forested country (40.6% forest cover) in central Europe, Slovakia has a large variety of vegetation zones, forest types, and a rich diversity of forest tree species. The most important tree species are beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.), oak species (Quercus sp.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), European

  8. Burden of Cancer in Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Vlajinac, Hristina; Šipeti?-Gruji?i?, Sandra; Jankovi?, Slavenka; Marinkovi?, Jelena; Kocev, Nikola; Markovi?-Deni?, Ljiljana; Bjegovi?, Vesna

    2006-01-01

    Aim To provide a comprehensive assessment of burden of selected cancers in Serbia. Method We calculated disability adjusted life years (DALY) – the sum of the years of life lost (YLL) from premature mortality and the years lived with disability (YLD) – for cancers of stomach, colon and rectum, lung, breast, and cervical cancer for central Serbia and Vojvodina, Serbia and Montenegro. The obtained values were compared with the corresponding values for European region as estimated by the World Health Organization. The study was conducted between October 2002 and September 2003. The cancer burden was estimated for the year 2000. Results Observed cancers were responsible for 133?689 DALYs (73?197 for men and 60?482 for women). There were significantly more losses because of premature death than disease disability (95.2% vs 4.8% in men P<0.001, and 93.2% vs 6.8% in females, P<0.001). The cancer burden was dominated by lung cancer in men and breast cancer in women. The cancer burden was very small before the age of 35. Conclusion DALYs per 1000 population were higher in Serbia than in theEuropean region for all observed cancers except for stomach cancer. The participation of a burden caused by disability in the total burden of selected cancers was lower in Serbia than in other European countries, with the greatest differences in colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers. PMID:16489706

  9. Local magnitude scale in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajc, J.; Zaplotnik, Ž.; Živ?i?, M.; ?arman, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Seismology and Geology Office of the Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia is recording and processing data about the earthquakes occurring in Slovenia and the surrounding areas. For the last 30 years the magnitudes MLV of the earthquakes recorded by the Slovenian seismic stations were computed using the maximum ground velocity on the vertical component with the attenuation determined to fit the magnitudes recorded by Wood-Anderson seismograph in Trieste. In the last 15 years the digital seismic network of the Republic of Slovenia has grown from 6 to 28 permanent seismic stations and recorded large set of earthquakes, but attenuation relation for the local magnitude has not been re-evaluated yet. We use a large data set of earthquakes occurring in the area between 44.6° and 47.0° N and 12.0° and 17.0° E in the period from January 1997 to December 2010 to calibrate the local magnitude equations. An iterative least-square method is used to determine distance attenuation coefficients and station corrections for the Wood-Anderson magnitude (MWA). The magnitude equation is obtained from the automatically determined amplitudes from simulated Wood-Anderson seismograms of more than 1800 earthquakes. The magnitude span of the data used is between M = 0.6 and M = 5.2, with all but few tens of events between M = 1 and M = 3 and the hypocentral distance span from 20 km to 280 km, with less than 0.4 % of the distances larger than 210 km. The relation obtained is ( ) j r[km]- M WA = log (A [mm ])+ 1.38log 100 km + 3.0+ Cj , where A is the maximum amplitude on the horizontal component of the synthetic Wood-Anderson seismogram, r is the hypocentral distance and index j refers to the station, so that Cj is the station correction. Station corrections Cj obtained for 30 stations are in the range from -0.26 to 0.30. Currently, the MLV of an event is determined as the mean of the MLV magnitudes at individual stations, using a single magnitude equation with no station correction terms. The same set of recordings is used to determine the coefficients in the relation for MLV . For the calibration of the MLV magnitude equation the data of more than 3100 earthquakes is used. Attenuation in the calibrated MLV equation is somewhat higher than the one used presently by the Seismology and Geology Office. However, the MLV values obtained using the present single equation and the new equation with station corrections do not differ significantly. The main gain of the introduction of the station corrections is the reduction of the MLV uncertainty by about 35 %. By comparing MLV and MWA as obtained in the first part of the study, we show that the linear function MWA = 1.06MLV - 0.075 describes well the relation between the two magnitudes. However, it has limited use, since the magnitude span of the data used is mostly between M = 1 and M = 3, with just a few tens of events with M > 3. Nevertheless, the difference between the two local magnitudes does not exceed 0.3 for most of the events with both magnitudes determined.

  10. Aridity in Vojvodina, Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrnjak, Ivana; Luki?, Tin; Gavrilov, Milivoj B.; Markovi?, Slobodan B.; Unkaševi?, Miroslava; Toši?, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    For investigating aridity in Vojvodina, two parameters were used: the De Martonne aridity index and the Pinna combinative index. These indices were chosen as the most suitable for the analysis of climate in Vojvodina (a region in northern part of Serbia). Also, these indices were calculated from data obtained from 10 meteorological stations for the period from 1949 to 2006. The spatial distribution of the annual and seasonal De Martonne and the Pinna combinative indices as well as the mean monthly values of the De Martonne index and aridity trends of these indices are presented. There were two, four, and five types of climate on a yearly, seasonal, and monthly basis in Vojvodina, according to the De Martonne climate classification which consists of a total of seven types. In addition, semi-humid and humid climate types were represented in the region, on a yearly basis. The winter season was dominated by wetter types of climate, while the summer season was characterized by drier ones. During the spring and autumn seasons, there were types of climate which range between both aforementioned types. Two out of three climate types, which can be identified using the Pinna combinative index, were registered in Vojvodina region. The most dominant climate type was the semidry Mediterranean with formal Mediterranean vegetation, while the humid type was only identified in one small part of southwestern Vojvodina. The calculated values of both aridity indices showed that there were no annual trends. Therefore, it can be considered that there were no recent aridity changes during the observed period. For paleoclimate, the general story is more complex. The lack of aridity trends in the recent period from 1949 to 2006 supports the fact that Vojvodina has very well preserved loess-palaeosol sequences from the Middle and Late Pleistocene, which indicates that crucial point for their preservation was caused by the weak aridity variability in the region.

  11. Price Setting Behaviour: Micro Evidence on Slovakia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabrizio Coricelli; Roman Horváth

    2006-01-01

    The paper provides an empirical analysis of price setting behaviour in Slovakia, using large micro-level dataset covering about 57% of Slovak CPI for the period 1997-2001. The novelty of the paper is the analysis of a country characterized by nearly double-digit inflation and undergoing massive changes in market structure during the process of transition and accession to the EU. Several

  12. The Miocene rodents of Serbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Markovic

    2009-01-01

    During the Miocene period a group of shallow lakes was created in depressions at the territory of present-day Serbia. This caused the present wide distribution of lacustrine sediments, which occasionally alternate with the alluvial and marsh sediments. The remains of large mammals are relatively common, while the remains of small mammals used to be known only from two localities -

  13. Evidence of human neurocysticercosis in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Šoba, Barbara; Beovi?, Bojana; Lužnik, Zala; Skvar?, Miha; Logar, Jernej

    2014-04-01

    To assess the prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in patients with neurological disorders in Slovenia, serum/cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 348 suspected patients were collected between the beginning of January 2001 and the end of December 2012 and analysed serologically for the presence of anti-T. solium IgG antibodies. Of 20 patients whose samples tested positive or equivocal by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), samples of 7 patients were confirmed positive by Western blot (WB). The overall seroprevalence rate of T. solium infection in patients with neurological disorders included in the study was 2.0%. Serological results of positive patients corresponded to clinical and/or imaging findings concerning their brain cysts. Based on their personal data, it was ascertained that neurocysticercosis (NCC) positive patients had immigrated or came to Slovenia from the former Yugoslav republics. Since the disease is believed not to be endemic in Slovenia we assume that all of the NCC-positive patients had acquired the infection before immigration to Slovenia or visiting or being visited by their relatives infected with an adult T. solium parasite. The present results represent the first insight into the prevalence of NCC in patients with neurological disorders in Slovenia. PMID:24476600

  14. Remarkable records of lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from Slovenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HELMUT MAYRHOFER; FRANC BATI?; PETER O. BILOVITZ

    A list of 31 new records of lichenized and lichenicolous fungi for Slovenia and of 65 new records for phytogeographical regions of Slovenia, and of two otherwise interesting taxa is provided based on recent field studies and older herbarium samples. New records for Slovenia are Arthrosporum populorum, Aspicilia caesiocinerea, A. farinosa, Bacidia rosella, Botryolepraria lesdainii, Buellia aethalea, Caloplaca coccinea, C.

  15. 31 CFR 586.204 - Prohibited new investment within Serbia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Prohibited new investment within Serbia. 586.204 Section 586.204 Money...TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...204 Prohibited new investment within Serbia. Except as otherwise provided...

  16. The Organizational Values of "Gimnazija" in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Nicholas Sun-Keung

    2006-01-01

    This article assesses the organizational values of "gimnazija" in Slovenia and examines the factors that contribute to the building of quality management. The theoretical framework is built on Schein's model of levels of culture, Sathe's interpretation of organizational culture and Getzels and Guba's model of organizational behaviour. Based on the…

  17. Education Reform in Slovenia and Ukraine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutar, Sonja; Kotenko, Kateryna; Lohvynenko, Tetyana; Moyer, Joan

    2003-01-01

    Assessed the challenges faced by teacher educators from Slovenia and Ukraine as they implemented the Step by Step (SBS) initiative. Gathered information from Master Teacher Trainers about participation in educating preschool and primary children in a SBS program. Garnered important information concerning progress toward a more democratic approach…

  18. Preliminary seismic hazard maps of Slovenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Lapajne; B. SŠket Motnikar; P. Zupanc?ic?

    1996-01-01

    The preparation of the preliminary seismic hazard maps of the territory of Slovenia has been based on an expansion of the basic approach laid out by Cornell in 1968. Three seismic source models were prepared. Two of them are based mainly on the earthquake catalogue using the Poissonian probability model. A map of seismic energy release and a map of

  19. OPERA INSTITUTI ARCHAEOLOGICI SLOVENIAE LJUBLJANA 2004

    E-print Network

    Cufar, Katarina

    of the wild carp, Cyprinus carpio: from Roman gourmets to the swim- ming flowers. ­ Aquaculture 129, 3­48. BALON, E. K. 1995b, The common carp, Cyprinus carpio: its wild origin, domestication in aquaculture of Slovenia. ­ Arh. vest. 53, 77­89. BARUS, V., M. PEÁZ in K. KOHLMANN 2001, Cyprinus carpio. ­ V/in: P. M

  20. The Cultural Responsiveness of Teacher Candidates Towards Roma Pupils in Serbia and Slovenia--Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecek, Mojca; Macura-Milovanovic, Suncica; Vujisic-Živkovic, Nataša

    2014-01-01

    In many countries, there is a growing need for teacher awareness and sensitivity to cultural differences, what is often called culturally responsive teaching. This is why teacher education institutions are making significant efforts to require student teachers to enrol in courses that focus on understanding, tolerance and acceptance of differences…

  1. When and How Does Europe Matter? Higher Education Policy Change in Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukasovic, Martina

    2014-01-01

    The study underlying this article investigates the factors under which European policy initiatives with respect to higher education (HE), such as the Bologna Process, lead to policy change at the national level. In theoretical terms, it uses institutionalist approaches to the Europeanization of public policy developed in the fields of comparative…

  2. Lower Miocene plant assemblage with coastal-marsh herbaceous monocots from the Vienna Basin (Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kva?ek, Zlatko; Teodoridis, Vasilis; Ková?ová, Marianna; Schlögl, Ján; Sitár, Viliam

    2014-06-01

    A new plant assemblage of Cerová-Lieskové from Lower Miocene (Karpatian) deposits in the Vienna Basin (western Slovakia) is preserved in a relatively deep, upper-slope marine environment. Depositional conditions with high sedimentation rates allowed exceptional preservation of plant remains. The plant assemblage consists of (1) conifers represented by foliage of Pinus hepios and Tetraclinis salicornioides, a seed cone of Pinus cf. ornata, and by pollen of the Cupressaceae, Pinaceae, Pinus sp. and Cathaya sp., and (2) angiosperms represented by Cinnamomum polymorphum, Platanus neptuni, Potamogeton sp. and lauroid foliage, by pollen of Liquidambar sp., Engelhardia sp. and Craigia sp., and in particular by infructescences (so far interpreted as belonging to cereal ears). We validate genus and species assignments of the infructescences: they belong to Palaeotriticum Sitár, including P. mockii Sitár and P. carpaticum Sitár, and probably represent herbaceous monocots that inhabited coastal marshes, similar to the living grass Spartina. Similar infructescences occur in the Lower and Middle Miocene deposits of the Carpathian Foredeep (Slup in Moravia), Tunjice Hills (Žale in Slovenia), and probably also in the Swiss Molasse (Lausanne). This plant assemblage demonstrates that the paleovegetation was represented by evergreen woodland with pines and grasses in undergrowth, similar to vegetation inhabiting coastal brackish marshes today. It also indicates subtropical climatic conditions in the Vienna Basin (central Paratethys), similar to those implied by other coeval plant assemblages from Central Europe

  3. Bryophyte Red List of Serbia and Montenegro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sabovljevic; T. Cvetic; V. Stevanovic

    2004-01-01

    The bryophyte Red List of Serbia and Montenegro comprises 254 species (212 mosses and 42 liverworts). Serbia and Montenegro have 39.50% of threatened bryoflora. One moss species is considered as extinct (Encalypta serbica Katic). In the threatened categories there are 20 critically endangered (CR), 35 endangered (EN) and 100 vulnerable (VU) bryophyte species. Seventy-two species are considered to be of

  4. The analysis of the renewable energy production sector in Serbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mirjana Golusin; Zdravko Tesic; Aleksandar Ostojic

    2010-01-01

    Producing energy from renewable sources in Serbia is in its initial phase, and therefore this paper points towards the basic assumptions, potentials and institutional framework for the development of this activity in Serbia. Until recently, production and consumption of energy in Serbia was a social category, but the shift towards market economy together with the fact that Serbia has adopted

  5. Brief history of medicine in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Slavec, Z Z; Kocijancic, M

    1997-12-01

    Slovenes have lived in the territory of today's Slovenia for more than 14 centuries, whilst the history of its medical culture goes back for 2000 years. The advent of Christianity in Slovenia in the eighth century AD marked an important turning point in the development of its medicine. The 500 years of the Habsburg monarchy was later to have a further impact on the development of new medical ideas. During the Renaissance, the names of the Slovene doctors Mattioli, Paracelsus, Scopoli and Hacquet, who worked among Slovenians, were to become known all over Europe. Others of Slovene origin were Perlach, Santorio, Gerbezius, Carbonarius, Plenciz, and Sagar, whose work influenced European medical culture, especially in German speaking countries. However their Slovene nationality was not acknowledged until the second half of the 19th century. PMID:11619881

  6. Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist

    PubMed Central

    Kostanjšek, Rok; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The research of the spider fauna of Slovenia dates back to the very beginning of binomial nomenclature, and has gone through more and less prolific phases with authors concentrating on taxonomy, faunistics, ecology and zoogeographic reviews. Although the body of published works is remarkable for a small nation, the faunistic data has remained too scattered for a thorough understanding of regional biotic diversity, for comparative and ecological research, and for informed conservation purposes. A national checklist is long overdue. Here, a critical review of all published records in any language is provided. The species list currently comprises 738 species, is published online at http://www.bioportal.si/katalog/araneae.php under the title Araneae Sloveniae, and will be updated in due course. This tool will fill the void in cataloguing regional spider faunas and will facilitate further araneological research in central and southern Europe. PMID:25632258

  7. Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist.

    PubMed

    Kostanjšek, Rok; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2015-01-01

    The research of the spider fauna of Slovenia dates back to the very beginning of binomial nomenclature, and has gone through more and less prolific phases with authors concentrating on taxonomy, faunistics, ecology and zoogeographic reviews. Although the body of published works is remarkable for a small nation, the faunistic data has remained too scattered for a thorough understanding of regional biotic diversity, for comparative and ecological research, and for informed conservation purposes. A national checklist is long overdue. Here, a critical review of all published records in any language is provided. The species list currently comprises 738 species, is published online at http://www.bioportal.si/katalog/araneae.php under the title Araneae Sloveniae, and will be updated in due course. This tool will fill the void in cataloguing regional spider faunas and will facilitate further araneological research in central and southern Europe. PMID:25632258

  8. Astronomy Education and Popularization in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanackovic, O.

    2013-05-01

    Astronomy education at all levels (elementary and secondary schools, universities) in Serbia is reviewed. The attempts to introduce astronomy as an elective course in elementary schools and to reintroduce astronomy as a separate subject in secondary schools are discussed. The role of the Petnica Science Center is briefly described, as well as the participation of the Serbian team in the International Astronomy Olympiads. A special emphasis is put on recent changes introduced in the accredited study programs at all five Serbian state universities. The research projects performed in two main astronomical institutions in Serbia are outlined. The numerous amateur astronomical societies in Serbia are presented and their growing activities summarized.

  9. Implementing electronic medical record in family practice in Slovenia and other former Yugoslav Republics: barriers and requirements.

    PubMed

    Kolsek, Marko

    2009-01-01

    The author describes problems related to the implementation of electronic medical record in family medicine in Slovenia since 1992 when first personal computers have been delivered to family physicians' practices. The situation of health care informatization and implementation of electronic medical record in primary health care in new countries, other former Yugoslav republics, is described. There are rather big differences among countries and even among some regions of one country, but in the last year the situation improved, especially in Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia. The main problem that is still unsolved is software offered by several companies which do not offer many functions, are non-standardized or user friendly enough and is not adapted to doctors' needs. Some important questions on medical records are discussed, e.g. what is in fact a medical record, what is its purpose, who uses it, which record is a good one, what should contain and confidentiality issue. The author describes what makes electronic medical record better than paper-based one (above all it is of better quality, efficiency and care-safe, easier in data retreival and does it offer the possibility of data exchange with other health care professionals) and what are the barriers to its wider implementation. PMID:20069926

  10. Public attitudes towards brown bears ( Ursus arctos) in Slovenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petra Kaczensky; Mateja Blazic; Hartmut Gossow

    2004-01-01

    In northern Slovenia a radical change in brown bear (Ursus arctos) management – from a policy of bear suppression to a policy of bear protection – resulted in a sharp increase in sheep predation by bears. In the bear core area in southern Slovenia, on the other hand, bears have always been present, cause little damage and are an important

  11. Art Museum Education in Transition: Moderna Galerija in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeleznik, Adela

    2012-01-01

    This essay examines the educational practices at the Moderna galerija, a national museum of modern and contemporary art in Ljubljana, Slovenia, in the last twenty years. Its aim is to reflect on the museum education in relation to broader historical context, of the former Yugoslavia (the country Slovenia was a part of until 1991) and discuss how…

  12. Dendrochronology of oak (Quercus spp.) in Slovenia an interim report

    E-print Network

    Cufar, Katarina

    Dendrochronology of oak (Quercus spp.) in Slovenia ­ an interim report K. Cufar1 , M. Zupancic1 , L dendrochronology in Slovenia, a region that was until recently considered sub-optimal for the assembly of an oak and dendrochronology. Currently, several multi- millennial chronologies of different tree species are in existence

  13. Spatiotemporal characteristics of drought in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gocic, Milan; Trajkovic, Slavisa

    2014-03-01

    The evaluation of spatiotemporal characteristics of drought was based on monthly precipitation data from 29 synoptic stations for the period of 1948-2012. The percent of normal precipitation was applied to illustrate the driest years in Serbia (1990, 2000, and 2011). The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and S-mode principal component analysis (PCA) were used to capture the drought patterns. Agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to identify three different drought sub-regions: (1) region R1 includes the north and the northeast part of Serbia; (2) region R2 includes the western part of Central Serbia and southwestern part of Serbia; and (3) region R3 includes central, east, south and southeast part of Serbia. The R2 had the monthly precipitation values above average, while R1 and R3 had the precipitation values under average of Serbia. The year 2000 was the driest and 1955 was the wettest during the observed period. The characteristics of drought were analyzed in terms of the temporal evolution of the SPI-12 values and the frequency of drought for the three identified regions. The percentage of years characterized by drought was 44.62% for R1, 50.77% for R2 and 46.15% for R3. Approximately 70% of the frequency of drought belongs to the near normal drought category.

  14. [Intestinal parasitic infections in Serbia].

    PubMed

    Nikoli?, A; Djurkovi?-Djakovi?, O; Bobi?, B

    1998-01-01

    To determine the public health significance of intestinal parasitism in Serbia today, systematic parasitologic examination of 16 regions (Kragujevac, Luchani, Zhagubica, Bor, Sjenica, Novi Pazar, Valjevo, Aleksandrovac, Pirot, Bosilegrad, Ivanjica, Golubac, Uzhice, Kladovo, Negotin, Beograd) in central Serbia were carried out over the period 1984-1993. The study involved a total of 5981 schoolchildren (2887 F, 3094 M), 7-11 years old representing 10% of the total age-matched population (N = 58,228) of the examined regions, residing in 91 settlements. Field parasitological examinations included the examination of perianal swabs for E. vermicularis and Taenia sp., and examination of a single feces sample by direct saline smear and Lugol stained smear for intestinal protozoa, and the Kato and Lörincz methods for intestinal helminths. Nine species of intestinal parasites were detected, of which five protozoan: Entamoeba histolytica (0.02%), Entamoeba hartmanni (0.02%), Entamoeba coli (1.3%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (0.02%), Giardia lamblia (6.8%), and four helminthic: Hymenolepis nana (0.06%), Enterobius vermicularis (14.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (3.3%), Trichuris trichiura (1.8%). The overall prevalence of intestinal parasite infections amounted to 24.6% (1207/4913), with a highly significant difference (p < 0.001) between particular sites (range 14.4%-43.8%) (Figure 1). Helminthic infections (810) were significantly more frequent (p < 0.001) as compared to both protozoan (296) and combined helminthic-protozoan infections (101). Of these, two species (G. lamblia, E. vermicularis) were found in all examined regions, three (E. coli, A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura) were detected in two or more, while four species (E. histolytica, E. hartmanni, I. bütschlii, H. nana) were each found in a single region (Figure 2). The predominant species (E. coli, G. lamblia, E. vermicularis, A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura) were distributed at considerably different prevalence rates, with a significant difference between the minimal and maximal values (p < 0.01). Of 91 settlements examined, intestinal parasites were found in all but one. However, the prevalence rates in 90 settlements varied significantly (p = 0.0004), from a low of 5.9% to a high of 66.7%. Thus, according to the World Health Organization criteria [19], infections with the four clinically relevant species (G. lamblia, E. vermicularis, A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura) ranged from sporadic to endemic and hyperendemic (Figure 3). The results obtained provide the basic epidemiological data about intestinal parasite infections in Serbia, and indicate their significance in terms of both the number of species and their respective prevalence rates. Given the significant differences obtained in the frequency and distribution of particular parasite infections in different regions, a programme for the control of these infections in Serbia should obviously include a wide variety of measures. PMID:9525075

  15. International Enrollment: Fall 2010 and South Middle North

    E-print Network

    Europe America East America Oceania Stateless Total College 60 173 203 25 43 162 28 1 695 GSAS (2) 20 665,097 1,186 Caribbean, Central, and South America Argentina 35 44 42 32 35 34 Brazil 64 61 71 72 76 62, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine. Caribbean, Central, and South

  16. Information system of mineral deposits in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hribernik, K.; Rokavec, D.; Šinigioj, J.; Šolar, S.

    2010-03-01

    At the Geologic Survey of Slovenia the need for complex overview and control of the deposits of available non-metallic mineral raw materials and of their exploitations became urgent. In the framework of the Geologic Information System we established the Database of non-metallic mineral deposits comprising all important data of deposits and concessionars. Relational database is built with program package MS Access, but in year 2008 we plan to transfer it on SQL server. In the evidence there is 272 deposits and 200 concessionars. The mineral resources information system of Slovenia, which was started back in 2002, consists of two integrated parts, mentioned relational database of mineral deposits, which relates information in tabular way so that rules of relational algebra can be applied, and geographic information system (GIS), which relates spatial information of deposits. . The complex relationships between objects and the concepts of normalized data structures, lead to the practical informative and useful data model, transparent to the user and to better decision-making by allowing future scenarios to be developed and inspected. Computerized storage, and display system is as already said, developed and managed under the support of Geological Survey of Slovenia, which conducts research on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources in order to help the Nation make informed decisions using earth-science information. Information about deposit is stored in records in approximately hundred data fields. A numeric record number uniquely identifies each site. The data fields are grouped under principal categories. Each record comprise elementary data of deposit (name, type, location, prospect, rock), administrative data (concessionar, number of decree in official paper, object of decree, number of contract and its duration) and data of mineral resource produced amount and size of exploration area). The data can also be searched, sorted and printed using any of these fields. New records are being added annually, and existing records updated or upgraded. Relational database is connected with scanned exploration/exploitation areas of deposits, defined on the base of digital ortofoto. Register of those areas is indispensable because of spatial planning and spatial municipal and regional strategy development. Database is also part of internet application for quick search and review of data and part of web page of mineral resources of Slovenia. The technology chosen for internet application is ESRI's ArcIMS Internet Map Server. ArcIMS allows users to readily and easily display, analyze, and interpret spatial data from desktop using a Web browser connected to the Internet. We believe that there is an opportunity for cooperation within this activity. We can offer a single location where users can come to browse relatively simply for geoscience-related digital data sets.

  17. Slovak Centre of Biomass Use for Energy Wood Fired Heating Plant in Slovakia

    E-print Network

    Slovak Centre of Biomass Use for Energy Slovakia 1 Wood Fired Heating Plant in Slovakia Energy energy User behaviour ESCOs Biomass Education Architects and engineers Wind Other Financial institutions;Slovak Centre of Biomass Use for Energy Slovakia 2 Biomass is considered as the most perspective

  18. Slovak Centre of Biomass Use for Energy Wood Fired Heating Plant in Slovakia

    E-print Network

    Slovak Centre of Biomass Use for Energy Slovakia 1 Wood Fired Heating Plant in Slovakia Energy energy User behaviour ESCOs Biomass Education Architects and engineers Wind Other Financial institutions countries it is already implemented for several years. #12;Slovak Centre of Biomass Use for Energy Slovakia

  19. Management of small producers waste in Slovenia

    SciTech Connect

    Fabjan, Marija; Rojc, Joze [Agency for Radwaste Management, Parmova 53, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Radioactive materials are extensively used in Slovenia in various fields and applications in medicine, industry and research. For the managing of radioactive waste raised from these establishments the Agency for radwaste management (ARAO) was authorised as the state public service of managing the radioactive waste in 1999. The public service of the radioactive waste of small producers in Slovenia is performed in line with the Governmental decree on the Mode, Subject and Terms of Performing the Public Service of Radioactive Waste Management (Official Gazette RS No. 32/99). According to the Decree the scope of the public service includes: 'collection of the waste from small producers at the producers' premises and its transportation to the storage facility for treatment, storing and disposal', 'acceptance of radioactive waste in case of emergency situation on the premises, in case of transport accidents or some other accidents', 'acceptance of radioactive waste in cases when the producer is unknown', 'management (collection, transport, pre-treatment, storing, together with QA and radiation protection measures) of radioactive waste', 'treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste for storing and disposal', and 'operating of the Central Interim Storage for LIL waste from small producers'. After taking over the performing of the public service, ARAO first started with the project for refurbishment and modernization of the Central Interim Storage Facility, including improvements of the storage utilization and rearrangement of the stored waste. (authors)

  20. History of Mathematical Logic in Serbia Mirjana Borisavljevi

    E-print Network

    Stojmenovic, Ivan

    History of Mathematical Logic in Serbia Mirjana Borisavljevi Dept. of Mathematics, Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engineering, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia. Silvia Ghilezan Center for Mathematics and Statistics, Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia. Predrag

  1. Creating Youth Friendly Health Services in Serbia and Bosnia

    E-print Network

    Sun, Yu

    Creating Youth Friendly Health Services in Serbia and Bosnia Fran Perkins, Charlotte Lombardo Trained a group of trainers in summer 07 Development of modules and workbook Spring Schools in Serbia & Bosnia in May 08 Finding system to provide ongoing training Jazas in Serbia Government in Bosnia #12

  2. Complex Logistics Strategy for Industrial Companies in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hor?áková, Natália; Hudák, Ján; Vidová, Helena

    2014-12-01

    Presented paper is a part of the dissertation thesis titled as "A proposal to develop Complex Logistics Strategy for industrial companies. The result of the thesis will be a methodology for developing a Complex Logistics Strategy for industrial companies in Slovakia. The main aim of the paper is to present some trends and strategies in Logistics and clarify the need of resolving the issue of Logistics Strategy based on the theoretical knowledge, case studies and analysis of current state of Logistics Strategies in industrial companies in Slovakia and other European countries.

  3. Musculoskeletal trauma services in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Vukasinovi?, Zoran; Spasovski, Dusko; Zivkovi?, Zorica

    2008-10-01

    Serbia, a middle-income country, is located in southeastern Europe, with territory of 88,361 km(2) and 9,400,000 inhabitants. Average month salary is US$542 and the registered unemployment rate is 22%. The country is administratively divided into 30 districts (193 municipalities). The healthcare system is territorially organized. In the state capital there are five clinical hospitals with musculoskeletal traumatology departments, as well as one in each of the four university centers. In addition, there are orthopaedic departments in 40 smaller hospitals throughout the country and in three military hospitals, along with several pediatric surgical departments involved in managing musculoskeletal trauma. There are 524 orthopaedic trauma surgeons (1:18,000 people), with a minor number of additionally trained general and pediatric surgeons who care for musculoskeletal problems. Bonesetters are neither recognized nor included in the healthcare system. Orthopaedic traumatology services are well organized, with variable accessibility depending on the distance between injury site and nearest medical facility. Preventive strategies are well developed and mainly consider agricultural, industrial, and traffic injuries. Distribution of medical institutions is satisfactory. Future activities should include continuing medical education of specialists, exclusion of inappropriate specialists, improvement of preventive strategies and medical transport facilities, as well as standardization of medical equipment, diagnostics, and treatment protocols. PMID:18622666

  4. Imported parasitic infections in Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Daki?, Z.; Nikoli?, A.; Lavadinovi?, L.; Pelemiš, M.; Klun, I.; Dulovi?, O.; Miloševi?, B.; Stevanovi?, G.; Ofori-Beli?, I.; Poluga, J.; Pavlovi?, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Travel to the tropics is associated with a risk of parasitic infection, which is increasing in parallel with the rise in travel to these areas. We thus examined the prevalence and trend in the occurrence of parasitic infections in Serbian travelers. Methods A retrospective analysis of the medical records of all travelers returning from tropical and subtropical areas, who presented at the Institute for Infectious and Tropical Diseases in Belgrade between January 2001 and January 2008, was performed. Results Of a total of 2440 travelers, 169 (6.9%) were diagnosed with a parasitic infection, including malaria in 79, intestinal parasites in 84 (pathogenic species in 30 and non-pathogenic in 54), filariasis in four, and visceral leishmaniasis and fascioliasis in one patient each. Importantly, of the whole series only 583 (23.9%) were symptomatic, of which 19.4% were found to be infected with a parasite. The single pathogenic parasite occurring in asymptomatic patients was Giardia intestinalis. Conclusions Parasitic infection causing symptomatic disease among travelers returning from tropical areas to Serbia is not infrequent. In view of the expected increase in travel to the tropics, diagnostic protocols for tropical parasitic diseases should take these data into account. PMID:24466436

  5. Regional flood frequency analysis in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavcic, Katarina; Brilly, Mitja; Sraj, Mojca

    2014-05-01

    The regional flood frequency analysis is mainly used for purposes of improving flood prediction. There are many examples of its application in different countries but it hasn't been used in Slovenia yet. So our main goal was to use different approaches to perform regional flood frequency analysis of maximum annual discharges for hydrological stations in Slovenia. Regional flood frequency analysis usually involves four steps. For each one there are different methods that can be used. At first, accuracy and discordance of data has to be checked. The second and also the most important step is identification of regions and checking their homogeneity. The last two steps are the choice of an appropriate frequency distribution for a region and estimation of the parameters and quantiles of the selected distribution, respectively. Maximum annual discharges for 112 hydrological stations in Slovenia that satisfied required conditions about measurement performance were considered for analysis. Time series were first checked for missing data, outliers, normality and linearity. The discordancy measure was also used. The regionalization was performed using two different approaches. The first method used was subjective partioning where the regions are formed with the goal to get concluded groups in which hydrological stations lay geographically close to each other. The second used method was cluster analysis within which two algorithms were tested (Ward method and K-means). Three data sets with different number of attributes were used for each one. The homogeneity of the regions was tested using the heterogeneity measure H. The result of the subjective partioning were 10 regions, 8 of them were acceptably homogeneous (H < 1), one was possibly heterogeneous (1 ? H < 2) and one was definitely heterogeneous (H ? 2). Among Ward method and K-means we decided to use the results of the latter one based on the data set with 4 attributes (catchment area, longitude, latitude, elevation). After some adjustments we defined 9 acceptably homogeneous regions. The best frequency distribution was estimated according to K-means adjusted regions. Different goodness-of-fit tests were used. For the whole region data the L-moment ratio diagram and the goodness-of-fit measure Z were performed. For the single station data the QQ diagram, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, PPCC (probability plot correlation coefficient) and RMSE (root mean square error) were used. After analysing different results we decided to estimate the final frequency distribution of the regions using L-moment ratio diagram, goodness-of-fit measure Z and the RMSE test. At the end we estimated also the quantiles for chosen frequency distributions using the regional L-moment algorithm based on the index-flood procedure.

  6. Astronomy Education in Serbia 2005-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanackovic, O.

    2009-09-01

    This paper is a review of triennial activities in astronomy education in Serbia at all levels. Special attention is paid to the reform of university education and the new European Credit Transfer System (ECTS), now implemented at all universities in Serbia. The re-introduction of astronomy as a compulsory course in secondary school curricula is announced. Due attention is given to the activities of numerous amateur astronomical societies in public astronomy education, as well as to the increasing success of Serbian team at the International Astronomy Olympiad over the past three years.

  7. 77 FR 12935 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; New Designated Country (Armenia) and Other Trade Agreements Updates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ...Luxembourg, Macao China, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden...Luxembourg, Macao China, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,...

  8. 76 FR 42595 - Importation of Live Birds and Poultry, Poultry Meat, and Poultry Products From a Region in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ...Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the...Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and...

  9. 76 FR 35275 - Export Control Reform Initiative: Strategic Trade Authorization License Exception

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ...Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea...Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea,...

  10. National Linguistic Minorities: Bilingual Basic Education in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulrih-Atena, Ela

    1976-01-01

    Outlines the history, present status, and future prospects of bilingual education in Slovenia, Yugoslovia. The way in which Italians, Hungarians, and Slovenes experience the right to equal education in a socialist society is described. (Author/DB)

  11. Hotel Spik, Gozd Martuljek, Slovenia 6 to 10 June 2001

    E-print Network

    Cufar, Katarina

    PROGRAMME 30 lectures, 50 posters Topics Dendrochronology and dating of archaeological and historical wood Construction of long reference chronologies Dendrochronology and isotopes Dendroecology and geomorphology, Baatarbileg Nachin, Cressida Whitton Project: Dendrochronological investigations in Slovenia Project leader

  12. Macrodebris and microplastics from beaches in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Laglbauer, Betty J L; Franco-Santos, Rita Melo; Andreu-Cazenave, Miguel; Brunelli, Lisa; Papadatou, Maria; Palatinus, Andreja; Grego, Mateja; Deprez, Tim

    2014-12-15

    The amount of marine debris in the environment is increasing worldwide, which results in an array of negative effects to biota. This study provides the first account of macrodebris on the beach and microplastics in the sediment (shoreline and infralittoral) in relation to tourism activities in Slovenia. The study assessed the quality and quantity of macrodebris and the quality, size and quantity of microplastics at six beaches, contrasting those under the influences of tourism and those that were not. Beach cleanliness was estimated using the Clean Coast Index. Tourism did not seem to have an effect on macrodebris or microplastic quantity at beaches. Over 64% of macrodebris was plastic, and microplastics were ubiquitous, which calls for classification of plastics as hazardous materials. Standard measures for marine debris assessment are needed, especially in the form of an all-encompassing debris index. Recommendations for future assessments are provided for the Adriatic region. PMID:25440193

  13. Stigma and Roma Education Policy Reform in Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New, William

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses reform of Roma education in Slovakia against the backdrop of continued stigmatization of Roma students. Transnational NGOs and IGOs promote rights-based solutions leading to the fullest possible inclusion of Roma students in mainstream education. The Slovak state promotes educational policies that lead to the fullest…

  14. Changes of heat waves characteristics over the territory of Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollarikova, Patricia; Szolgay, Jan; Pecho, Jozef

    2014-05-01

    The study is focused on the analysis of long-term changes and trends of heat waves occurrence in selected meteorological stations in Slovakia. Changes of the temperature regime of the hydro-climatic system may have serious consequences on population health. It is expected that climate change could, in the next decades, also lead to a higher frequency and greater spatial extent of extreme heat waves in Central Europe. Heat waves can cause severe thermal environmental stress, health complications, higher hospital admission rates, and increased mortality. A larger number of consecutive warm days and nights can also lead to increased solar overheating of buildings, inhibited ventilation, etc. Detection of possible ongoing changes of the regime of heat ways is therefore of particular interest. Since heat waves can be quantitatively evaluated through their temperature range (extremity) and also according to their duration, a set of such characteristics using statistical methods were analysed using maximum and average daily air temperature time series from the 1951-2010 period in 8 meteorological stations over the territory of Slovakia. Results indicate an overall consistent (both in time and space) increase of selected heat wave characteristics in Slovakia mostly due to their occurrence in the last two decades (1991 to 2010). This period was characterised by the occurrence of the most extreme heat waves ever recorded in history of meteorological observations in Slovakia (years 1992, 1994, 1998, 2003, 2007, 2010). The absolutely longest and most extreme heat wave occurred in southern Slovakia (station Hurbanovo) in 1992, when one heat wave lasted 47 days, while the cumulative amount of the deviation from 30 °C reached over 106 ° C. Change of the heat waves character in the last two decades was also indicated. Compared with the previous decade (1991-2000), during the decade of 2001-2010, the heat waves had shorter durations, but their total extremity and the quantity increased significantly. Examples of this development in the years 2003, 2007 and 2010 were given.

  15. Inclusive Education--Empirical Experience from Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacevic, Jasmina; Macesic-Petrovic, Dragana

    2012-01-01

    This descriptive study finds out the problems most frequently facing the children with special needs in regular schooling. The sample included 500 teachers in elementary schools from Serbia. The results point out the problems in inclusive education. Most educational problems occur in relations and communications with their peers in typical…

  16. Serbia between civil war and democracy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1998-01-01

    Faced with the collapse of their economy and with the attempt by national elites to take what was left of their honor, most Serbs have finally awakened from their long lethargy following the war and nationalistic hysteria in the former Yugoslavia. The government's refusal to recognize election results (that is, the victory of Zajedno—the three?party opposition coalition) in Serbia's largest

  17. Collapsing health care in Serbia and Montenegro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M E Black

    1993-01-01

    Serbia and Montenegro together form the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. As well as the Serb majority this includes the mixed province of Vojvodina, the mainly Albanian population in Kosovo, and the large Muslim minority in Sandzak. Since the start of war in 1991 the attention and sympathies of the world have focused on Bosnia and Croatia. The United Nations imposed

  18. Radon concentrations in a spa in Serbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Manic; S. Petrovic; Manic Vesna; Dragana Popovic; Dragana Todorovic

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the results of indoor radon concentration survey in 201 homes and offices in Niska Banja (the Spa of Nis), a well-known health resort and a spa in the South-East of Serbia. Radon indoor concentrations were determined by active charcoal method, according to standard EPA procedure. The indoor radon concentrations were in the range of up to 200

  19. RESEARCH DATABASES IN SERBIA & INFORMATION DISSEMINATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sam Brooks

    Through a detailed review of STM and busi- ness content available in Serbia, this article depicts the value of particular databases and the impact of a tre- mendous influx of information into the country in re- cent years. The two most comprehensive databases are provided by EBSCO Publishing (EBSCO), the world's largest intermediary between publishers and libraries. EBSCO's company approach

  20. 31 CFR 586.306 - Government of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). 586.306 Section...TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). The term...

  1. 31 CFR 586.308 - Government of the Republic of Serbia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Government of the Republic of Serbia. 586.308 Section 586.308 Money...TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...308 Government of the Republic of Serbia. The term Government of the...

  2. 31 CFR 585.313 - Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro); FRY (S&M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro); FRY (S&M). 585...TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO) AND BOSNIAN SERB-CONTROLLED...313 Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro); FRY (S&M)....

  3. 31 CFR 585.418 - Vessels of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). 585.418 Section...TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO) AND BOSNIAN SERB-CONTROLLED...of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). Any vessel...

  4. 31 CFR 586.304 - Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia & Montenegro); FRY (S&M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia & Montenegro); FRY (S&M). 586...TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...304 Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia & Montenegro); FRY (S&M)....

  5. Climatic reconstruction from larch in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Iain; Levani?, Tom; Hafner, Polona; Gagen, Mary; Bale, Rod; Loader, Neil J.; Hilasvuori, Emmi; Sonninen, Eloni; Jungner, Högne; McCarroll, Danny

    2010-05-01

    Tree-ring stable isotope chronologies are now routinely based upon multiple samples with a high degree of replication. Recent technological advances have enabled climate to be reconstructed with a high degree of statistical veracity. Most of these pioneering studies have focused upon reconstructing the climate of the last 1000 years to enable recent changes to be assessed within the context of naturally changing climatic system. A new ring-width chronology from living trees and archaeological samples was developed for European larch (Larix decidua Mill.) growing at Veža in the southeastern part of the Alps in Slovenia. Carbon, oxygen and non-exchangeable hydrogen isotope chronologies have been developed on these samples. The carbon isotope chronology was corrected for the industrial decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide isotopic values and the response to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. All isotope chronologies were calibrated against climatic data from the nearby Ljubljana meteorological station over the period 1900 to present. The isotope chronologies have a high degree of common forcing demonstrated by a high Expressed Population Signal (EPS>0.85) and correlate well with meteorological data. The predictive skill of reconstructed climatic variables was tested using standard metrics and the calibration dataset split to enable the temporal stability of the climatic response to be investigated.

  6. Roof top extensions for multifamily houses in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szekeres, K.

    2010-12-01

    In the countries of the European Union with the exception of Malta, approximately 100.1 million multifamily dwelling units are situated. These dwellings count for an average of 47.5% of the total housing stock in European Union countries. At present in Slovakia and also other countries of Central and Eastern Europe, there are vast housing areas which were built after World War II. Slovakia's multifamily housing stock was privatized during the 1990s. Considering that the economy of Slovakia is not capable of replacing the existing housing fund, which is located in the multifamily houses that were built after World War II, it is necessary to place an increased emphasis on the renovation of this housing fund. The expenditures for the refurbishment of multifamily housing stock in recent decades, when compared with the demand, have been at a very low level. The main problems involving the current multifamily housing stock in Slovakia are: the need for modernization, the low level of energy efficiency, and the insufficient level of building maintenance. One of the options for creating sufficient sources for the renovation of apartment buildings is to utilize the roofs of apartment buildings as construction areas for building additional floors (over - roofing). The means acquired from the sale of the new floors after deducting the costs can be used for renovation. It is a matter of a one-time possibility, which is limited by many factors that depend on the localization and constructive technical solutions for apartment buildings. This article is an outcome of the SuReFit "Sustainable Roof Extension Retrofit for High-Rise Social Housing in Europe" international research project.

  7. Application of a groundwater contamination index in Finland and Slovakia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Backman; D. Bodiš; P. Lahermo; S. Rapant; T. Tarvainen

    1998-01-01

    A methodology is presented for evaluating and mapping the degree of groundwater contamination by applying the contamination\\u000a index C\\u000a \\u000a d\\u000a . The applicability of the contamination index was tested in two distinctly different geological regions: the area between\\u000a Uusikaupunki and Ylne in southwestern Finland and the Brezno area in central Slovakia. The index takes into account both\\u000a the number of

  8. Modernisation of Vocational Education and Training in Slovenia. National Observatory Country Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerzina, Suzana; Vranjes, Petra; Cek, Mojca

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, Slovenia has been catching up with other developed market economies. The economic situation has improved; the unemployment rate has declined. Slovenia's criticism of the 1980s educational reform carried out in Yugoslavia (which included Slovenia until 1991) and continued discussion have led to design of a new…

  9. 31 CFR 585.509 - Trading in certain pre-sanctions obligations of debtors in the Republics of Slovenia, Croatia...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO) AND BOSNIAN SERB-CONTROLLED...an entity organized or headquartered in Serbia or Montenegro. (c) No transfer...Pre-sanctions Obligor located or headquartered in Serbia or Montenegro, including the...

  10. Hepatozoon canis infection in Slovakia: imported or autochthonous?

    PubMed

    Majláthová, Viktória; Hurníková, Zuzana; Majláth, Igor; Petko, Branislav

    2007-01-01

    Tissue samples from nine red foxes (four samples of striated muscle tissue and five samples of heart tissue) that originated from the Michalovce district (Slovakia), an area with endemic occurrence of canine babesiosis were examined by PCR method using primers amplifying a fragment of the 18S rRNA spanning the V4 region of Babesia and Theileria. An unexpected determination of 450 bp DNA fragment of Hepatozoon canis was found in four samples. Partial sequences of the 18S rRNA gene from the H. canis showed 100% similarity with the sequence from Brasil isolate of H. canis from a pampas fox (Pseudalopex gymnocercus) (AY471615) as well as from a fox in Spain (AY150067) and from a dog in Brazil (AY864677). In the present study, we report the first PCR detection of Hepatozoon canis in a naturally infected red fox from Slovakia, a Rhipicephalus sanguineus-free region. We assume that the infection was spread by infected R. sanguineus that might have been brought to Slovakia by travelers, by golden jackals, or by foxes migrating because of expansion of golden jackals and environmental and climate changes. PMID:17627439

  11. Early medieval coinage in the territory of Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šmit, Ž.; Šemrov, A.

    2006-11-01

    Silver coins minted in the territory of present Slovenia and neighboring countries Italy and Austria between the 12th and 14th century were analyzed by PIXE. Gold and bismuth were found as predominant impurities, which allowed distribution of coins into two groups. Coins with the predominant Bi impurity were minted from silver that was very likely mined in Carinthia and diffusion of this type of silver towards the mints in eastern Slovenia was observed. This finding confirms the historical hypothesis that silver currency in this period was largely produced for the trade with the east.

  12. Hierarchization and segmentation of informal care markets in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Hrženjak, Majda

    2012-01-01

    The article is the result of qualitative research of informal care markets in Slovenia in the field of childcare, elder care, and cleaning. The author assesses Slovenia's position in the “global care chain” and finds that “local care chains” prevail in the field of childcare and elder care, while a co-occurrence of female gender, “other” ethnicity, and poverty is typical in the field of household cleaning. The main emphasis of the article is on the analysis of hierarchization of the informal market of care work according to following two criteria: social reputation of individual type of care work and citizenship status of care workers. PMID:22611572

  13. Europeanization in the "Other" Europe: Writing the Nation into "Europe" Education in Slovakia and Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaels, Deborah L.; Stevick, E. Doyle

    2009-01-01

    How is the tension between renewed nationalist and European narratives of belonging being unfolded in the curricula, discourse, and practice of civic education in Slovakia and Estonia. As two post-socialist territories that were "reborn" as independent nation-states in the 1990s, Slovakia and Estonia were confronted with pressure to "Europeanize".…

  14. The Interpretation and Implementation of the Bologna Process in Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Despotovic, Miomir

    2011-01-01

    This paper neither attacks nor defends the Bologna Declaration; rather, it attempts a critical assessment of its implementation in Serbia. Review of the available data shows that the higher education system in Serbia is inefficient and in profound need of reform. Analysis of some of the reform processes shows that the Bologna Declaration as a…

  15. ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Reform in Serbia

    E-print Network

    Feigon, Brooke

    ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Reform in Serbia by Sandra Jednak Faculty of Organizational Sciences in Serbia have been started, and certain results were achieved. But, the electric power infrastructure decided whether the Serbian Electric Power Industry will be privatised, and if it is privatised which

  16. Reflections on higher education funding in Slovenia and the

    E-print Network

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    for the Slovene Ministry of Education and Sport Paper based on a presentation at the Slovene Ministry of Education should strike the right balance between core, competitive and outcome-based funding Whether one agreesReflections on higher education funding in Slovenia and the Netherlands A short report

  17. Study of Autochthon Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz in Slovenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janko Rode

    2002-01-01

    Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz (Cruciferae) or false flax, an old oil-seed crop, is gaining interest because of its low environmental impact and wide possibilities of use. The tradition of growing false flax is still present in Slovenia. In folk medicine, the oil is considered a good remedy for stomach ulcers, the treatment of burns, wounds, eye inflammations and as a

  18. Weather Observation and Hail Suppression system in Slovenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Lemut

    1989-01-01

    A computer supported system for Weather Observation and Hail Suppression at Lisca (Slovenia, Yugoslavia) is presented. The described system is of an operational type, where the hail prevention is based on launching anti-hail rockets. The system consists of a C-band meteorological radar, computers, a grid of rocket launchers and a communication subsystem between the radar computer center and the launchers,

  19. Technological Innovativeness and Firm Performance in Slovenia and Romania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bostjan Antoncic; Igor Prodan; Robert D. Hisrich; Cezar Scarlat

    2007-01-01

    This study contributes to a better understanding of performance induced by technological innovativeness by developing and testing a model. The model clarifies the nature of the influence of technological innovativeness and its organisational and inter-organisational antecedents (organisational support for innovativeness and technological alliances) on firm growth, profitability and wealth creation. Survey data were collected from firms in two countries: Slovenia

  20. Groundwater Quality in Mura Valley (Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajc Benda, T.; Souvent, P.; Bra?i? Železnik, B.; ?en?ur Curk, B.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater quality is one of the most important parameters in drinking water supply management. For safe drinking water supply, the quality of groundwater in the water wells on the recharge area has to be controlled. Groundwater quality data will be presented for one test area in the SEE project CC-WaterS (Climate Change and Impacts on Water Supply) Mura valley, which lies in the northeastern part of Slovenia. The Mura valley is a part of the Pannonian basin tectonic unit, which is filled with Tertiary and Quaternary gravel and sand sediments. The porous aquifer is 17 m thick in average and recharges from precipitation (70 %) and from surface waters (30 %). The aquifer is the main source of drinking water in the area for almost 53.000 inhabitants. Most of the aquifer lies beneath the agricultural area what represents the risk of groundwater quality. The major groundwater pollutants in the Mura valley are nitrates, atrazine, desethyl-atrazine, trichloroethane and tetrachloroethene. National groundwater quality monitoring is carried out twice a year, so some polluting events could be missed. The nitrate concentrations in the past were up to 140 mg/l. Concentration trends are decreasing and are now below 60 mg/l. Concentrations of atrazine and desethyl-atrazine, are decreasing as well and are below 0,1 ľg/l. Trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene were detected downstream of main city in Mura valley, in the maximum concentrations of 280 ?g/l in June 2005 (trichloroethene) and 880 ?g/l in October 1997 (tetrachloroethene). So, it can be summarized that the trends for most pollutants in the Mura valley are decreasing, what is a good prediction for the future. Input estimation of the total nitrogen (N) (mineral and organic fertilizers) in the Mura valley shows, that the risk of leaching is enlarged in the areas, where the N input is larger than 250 kg/ha, this is at 6,3 % of all agricultural areas. Prediction for the period 2021-2050 indicates that the leaching of N could increase, but no more that 5 %. The high risk of leaching of pesticides can be expected at 60 % of the Mura valley area. According to expert judgment, the climate conditions during 2021-2050 (increase of mean annual T for more than 0,5 °C and increase of precipitation) will lead to a faster degradation of pesticides and therefore smaller chance for pesticide residuum to reach the groundwater. It can be concluded that the climate change will slightly reduce the danger of leaching into the groundwater but the extent of it will nevertheless stay comparable to the present condition.

  1. Chronic toluene misuse among Roma youth in Eastern Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Važan, Peter; Khan, Maria R; Poduška, Ond?ej; Stastná, Lenka; Miovský, Michal

    2011-01-01

    This report presents pilot data on toluene misuse among Roma (Gypsy) youth in eastern Slovakia. Twenty interviews were conducted with field social workers (FSWs) working in seven Roma settlements with a combined population of 17,050 people. An estimated 340 chronic toluene users, mostly males (90%, n = 306), were identified in the researched communities. FSWs reported that children younger than 10 years of age represented about 15% of users (n = 52) and that the majority of users (75%, n = 255) were between 10 and 25 years of age. Consequences of prolonged use on individuals and communities are discussed. The study's limitations are noted. PMID:21609147

  2. Anaplasma infections in ticks and reservoir host from Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Víchová, Bronislava; Majláthová, Viktória; Nováková, Mária; Stanko, Michal; Hviš?ová, Ivana; Pangrácová, Lucia; Chrudimský, Tomáš; ?urlík, Ján; Petko, Branislav

    2014-03-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a worldwide distributed bacterium with a significant medical and veterinary importance. It grows within the phagosome of infected neutrophils and is responsible for human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), tick-borne fever (TBF) of small ruminants and cattle, canine and equine granulocytic anaplasmosis, but infects also a great variety of wildlife species. Wild ungulates and rodents are considered reservoirs of infection in natural foci. The objective of this study was to determine the spectrum of animal species involved in the circulation of A. phagocytophilum in Slovakia and to analyze the variability of obtained nucleotide sequences, in order to determine whether genotypes from Slovakia cluster according to host-species or geographical location. Several animal species and vector ticks were screened for the presence of members of the family Anaplasmataceae using PCR based methods. Additional data on the molecular evidence of Anaplasma ovis and Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis are presented. These pathogens were detected in tested sheep flocks and rodents with the mean infection rates of 8.16% and 10.75%, respectively. A. phagocytophilum was genotyped by 16S rRNA and groEL gene sequencing. Bacterial DNA was confirmed in questing ixodid ticks, in domesticated canine, wild rodents and several species of wild ungulates. In European isolates, 16S rRNA gene does not seem to be an appropriate locus for the analyses of heterogeneity as it is too conservative. Similarly, 16S rRNA isolates from our study did not reveal any polymorphisms. All isolates were identical in overlapped region and showed identity with sequences from ticks, horses or ruminants previously isolated elsewhere in the world. On the other hand, the groESL heat shock operon is widely used for determination of diversity and the analyses have already revealed considerable degree of heterogeneity. Tested ungulates were infected with A. phagocytophilum to a considerable extent. High proportions of red and roe deer tested positive and the rates of infection reached over 60.0%. GroEL sequences from canine, wild ungulates and ticks from Slovakia clustered within a clade together with isolates from horses, humans, wild ungulates and ticks from Slovakia or elsewhere in the world. Sequences from rodents clustered apart from those obtained from wild ungulates, ticks and humans. These results suggest that European rodents do not harbour A. phagocytophilum strains with strong zoonotic potential such as those from United States. PMID:23770268

  3. Collapsing health care in Serbia and Montenegro.

    PubMed

    Black, M E

    1993-10-30

    Serbia and Montenegro together form the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. As well as the Serb majority this includes the mixed province of Vojvodina, the mainly Albanian population in Kosovo, and the large Muslim minority in Sandzak. Since the start of war in 1991 the attention and sympathies of the world have focused on Bosnia and Croatia. The United Nations imposed economic sanctions on the federal republic in 1992, although in theory medical supplies and aid are exempt. The economy has now collapsed under the triple burden of war, loss of trade between the republics, and UN sanctions. A major public health catastrophe is unfolding in the federal republic. PMID:8251816

  4. 15 CFR 742.6 - Regional stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia...the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia...the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia,...

  5. Stable isotope composition of human fingernails from Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Grolmusová, Zuzana; Rap?anová, Anna; Michalko, Juraj; ?ech, Peter; Veis, Pavel

    2014-10-15

    Stable isotope composition of human fingernails has proven to be useful for documenting human dietary information and geographical patterns in archeological, forensic, anthropological and biological studies. Therefore, it is of interest to detect all factors influencing the stable isotopic composition in the certain regions in the world. Carbon and nitrogen isotope data of human fingernail keratin from 52 individuals from Slovakia were reported in this study. The online combustion and continuous flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometer Delta V Advantage was used for ?(13)C and ?(15)N analysis of fingernail keratin samples from 24 vegetarian and 28 omnivorous individuals. A group of people with frequent meat consumption showed enrichment in (13)C and (15)N isotopes in fingernails. A similar trend was observed with increasing seafood in an individual's diet. Moreover a significant difference was revealed between smokers and nonsmokers for both ?(13)C and ?(15)N values. These data were compared to previously published ?(13)C and ?(15)N fingernail values from across the globe. This study brings new information on the stable isotope signature of individuals from Slovakia and characterizes the Central European region for the first time. The stable isotope composition of fingernails is influenced by the frequency of meat and seafood consumption as well as smoking. PMID:25086300

  6. Imported new world cutaneous leishmaniasis in a traveller from Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Ondriska, F; Bukovinova, P; Votypka, J; Nohynkova, E; Boldis, V

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of imported leishmaniasis in a 31-year-old woman from Slovakia, who visited the countries of South America for three months in 2011. On 29 and 31 August 2011, she was probably infected with Leishmania parasites in the jungles of Ecuador. Approximately one week after returning to Slovakia, a small papules appeared on patient's left leg. Another wound was found after two weeks. Both ulcers were enlarging. We proved amastigote forms of Leishmania spp. only in repeated dermal scrapings from the edge of the ulcer by Giemsa staining after negative results from examination of a wound scrape and biopsy specimen. We identified the species Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis as a causative agent by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method and subsequent sequencing of the ITS region. Closure of wounds and scab formation were observed after 20 days of treatment with sodium stibogluconate. In the control microscopic examination after the end of the treatment, parasites were not present, and the PCR confirmed the negative result (Fig. 2, Ref. 31). PMID:25869571

  7. The Research of Historical Trusses in Northern Regions of Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenková, Renáta; Krušinský, Peter

    2014-06-01

    The blanket research of historical trusses in the territory of Slovakia has been running at our department since 2008. This research is done as teamwork in cooperation with experts from the field of conservation, and it is mainly focused on typology, construction, and the current technical and constructional state of investigated trusses. The long-time support of the grant scheme from the Ministry of Culture allows to get a fair amount of different data related to individual buildings and structures, which enables to carry out the in-depth research. In terms of their conservation and maintenance with an effort to extend their lifetime (the oldest known historical trusses in Slovakia are those of the 13th century), it is necessary to look into the microclimate impact of the under-roof space on wooden roof structures as well as to monitor the contemporary constructional and technical condition of a roof structure itself. The suitable microclimate in the under-roof space is influenced by a number of marginal conditions, constructional solutions of roof details, proper space ventilation etc

  8. Roman mystery iron blades from Serbia

    SciTech Connect

    Balos, Sebastian [Faculty of Technical Sciences, Novi Sad, Serbia (Serbia ); Benscoter, Arlan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States); Pense, Alan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States)], E-mail: awp0@lehigh.edu

    2009-04-15

    A First to Forth Century Roman spear blade from Serbia was found to have an unusual microstructure inconsistent with typical Roman Period iron. An analysis of the blade undertaken at Lehigh University in the US and at the Faculty of Technical Sciences in Novi Sad, Serbia established that it was metallic in appearance, magnetic and had an external layer of red rust. But as metallographically polished, it appeared to contain multiple internal phases and internal cracking. Even after aggressive etching, no typical low carbon microstructure was developed. Scanning electron microscopy, classical and energy dispersive X-ray analysis indicated that the specimen was essentially iron, although its microhardness was too high for typical Roman iron. It was then dubbed 'Mystery Iron.' Analysis of all the data led to the proposal that it was essentially a Roman iron 'fossil' in which the iron had been converted to high temperature iron oxide while retaining the form of the blade, conversion probably occurring in a fire. Subsequent X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the blade consisted of FeO and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and the mystery of the iron fossil was at least partially solved. A hypothesis is proposed regarding a potential cause for the fire.

  9. Space Radar Image of Belgrade, Serbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image of Belgrade, Serbia, illustrates the variety of land use patterns that can be observed with a multiple wavelength radar system. Belgrade, the capital of Serbia and former capital of Yugoslavia, is the bright area in the center of the image. The Danube River flows from the top to the bottom of the image, and the Sava River flows into the Danube from the left. Agricultural fields appear in shades of dark blue, purple and brown in outlying areas. Vegetated areas along the rivers appear in light blue-green, while dense forests in hillier areas in the lower left appear in a darker shade of green. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 2, 1994. The image is centered at 44.5 degrees north latitude and 20.5 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The image shows an area 36 kilometers by 32 kilometers 22 miles by 20 miles). The colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  10. 31 CFR 585.414 - Services performed in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) or by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) or by the Government...TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO) AND BOSNIAN SERB-CONTROLLED...in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) or by the...

  11. Modelling of mercury geochemical cycle in Lake Velenje, Slovenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joze Kotnik; Milena Horvat; Vesna Jereb

    2002-01-01

    Lake Velenje is located in one of the most polluted regions of Slovenia, the Šalek Valley. There are two major sources of pollution: the coal-fired thermal power plant in Šoštanj (ŠTPP) and the coal mine in Velenje. The aim of our study was to establish the sources, fate and distribution of Hg in the nearby Lake Velenje. A mass-balance model

  12. Suicide prevention program in the Army of Serbia and Montenegro.

    PubMed

    Dedic, Gordana; Gordana, Dedic J; Panic, Milivoje; Milivoje, Panic

    2007-05-01

    Suicide, as one of the greatest problems of maladjustment to the military environment, has been a subject of investigation in the Army of Serbia and Montenegro (former Yugoslav Army) for more than six decades. The Suicide Prevention Program was implemented in December 2003. The aim of the study was to follow-up the application of the Suicide Prevention Program in the Army of Serbia and Montenegro and its effect on the suicide rate and to compare its incidence in civilians. Results of the program application showed that the number of suicides in the Army of Serbia and Montenegro was constantly reducing over the period 2004 to 2005. For soldiers, it was even four times less than in the civilian male population, particularly in the period of adaptation to the military environment. Since the Suicide Prevention Program in the Army of Serbia and Montenegro proved to be successful in decreasing the suicide number, it should be further improved and routinely applied. PMID:17521110

  13. Preliminary list of horse flies (Diptera, Tabanidae) of Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Kr?mar, Stjepan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Thirty six species of horse flies (Tabanidae) were previously known from Serbia (Europe). The present faunistic study of horse flies (Tabanidae) has resulted in the recording of the 4 new species Atylotus fulvus (Meigen, 1804); Tabanus miki Brauer in Brauer and Bergenstamm, 1880; Tabanus unifasciatus Loew, 1858; and Heptatoma pellucens (Fabricius, 1776), in the fauna of Serbia. The genus Heptatoma Meigen, 1803 is cited for the first time in the fauna of Serbia. 40 species are currently known from Serbia, belonging to nine genera. The fauna can be considered relatively poorly studied. Most of the species belong to the Boreal-Eurasian type of fauna 23, followed by the South European group with 8 species, the Mediterranean group with 6 species, European group with 2 species and Central European group with 1 species. PMID:21998507

  14. New and noteworthy bryophyte records from Montenegro and Serbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PETER ERZBERGER; BEATA PAPP

    2007-01-01

    Erzberger, P. & Papp, B.: New and noteworthy bryophyte records from Montenegro and Serbia. - Willdenowia 37: 339-351. - ISSN 0511-9618; Š 2007 BGBM Berlin-Dahlem. doi:10.3372\\/wi.37.37124 (available via http:\\/\\/dx.doi.org\\/) During investigations into four regions of Montenegro (Rumija Mts, Lovcen Mts, the coastal area around Kotor, Durmitor National Park) and one of Serbia (Stara Planina Mts) carried out in 2003-2005, 28

  15. Spatio-temporal patterns of precipitation in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gocic, Milan; Trajkovic, Slavisa

    2014-08-01

    The monthly precipitation data from 29 synoptic stations for the period 1946-2012 were analyzed using a number of different multivariate statistical analysis methods to investigate the spatial variability and temporal patterns of precipitation across Serbia. R-mode principal component analysis was used to study the spatial variability of the precipitation. Three distinct sub-regions were identified by applying the agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis to the two component scores: C1 includes the north and the northeast part of Serbia, while C2 includes the western part of Central Serbia and southwestern part of Serbia and C3 includes central, east, south and southeast part of Serbia. The analysis of the identified sub-regions indicated that the monthly and seasonal precipitation in sub-region C2 had the values above average, while C1 and C3 had the precipitation values under average. The analysis of the linear trend of the mean annual precipitation showed an increasing trend for the stations located in Serbia and three sub-regions. From the result of this analysis, one can plan land use, water resources and agricultural production in the region.

  16. Regional scaling based estimation of IDF curves in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohnova, Silvia; Zechelova, Karolina; Gaal, Ladislav; Szolgay, Jan; Hlavcova, Kamila

    2013-04-01

    Rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves are of a great practical importance in water resources management e.g. for the design of hydraulic structures and urban drainage systems, and for the estimation of flash flood risk. However the lack of rainfall data with sufficient temporal resolution (usually caused by limited number of rain gauges with continuous recording and short series of measurements) does not generally allow for constructing maps of extreme short-duration rainfall with the desired spatial resolution. In such cases the simple scaling model, which has proved its applicability in various regions of the world, offers a solution to this problem. Using the scaling hypothesis, it is possible to estimate design values of rainfall of selected recurrence intervals and durations shorter than a day by using only the daily data, which are available from a considerably denser network with long series of measurements. In this study the simple scaling theory was applied in the whole territory of Slovakia for the estimation of the intensity-duration-frequency characteristics of short duration rainfall. For the analysis the data series in one minute time step from 21 rainfall gauging stations were used. To estimate T-year rainfall quantiles of sub-daily duration at ungauged sites, two methodologies are combined: the regional index value approach, and the local concept of simple scaling. The former approach is used to estimate the quantiles of 1-day rainfall maxima in the warm season, supposing that the so called index value can be estimated locally and the dimensionless quantiles (the regional growth curve) can be derived by means of regional frequency analysis. The latter approach is employed to estimate the local IDF curves by downscaling the T-year quantiles of 1-day rainfall maxima using the regionally averaged scaling exponent. The derived IDF curves for these stations are finally compared with those defined by Šamaj and Valovi? (1973), which are widely applied in engineering hydrology in Slovakia.

  17. Natural radionuclides in drinking waters in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Jankovi?, Marija M; Todorovi?, Dragana J; Todorovi?, Nataša A; Nikolov, Jovana

    2012-12-01

    Gross alpha and beta activities, (3)H, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activities were measured in bottled mineral water produced in Serbia in order to assess its radiological quality. In 11 samples of tap water and in 1 sample of spring waters gross alpha and beta activity were determined. The natural activity concentration of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides are within the range recommended by World Health Organization. The tritium concentration in bottled mineral waters ranged from 0.023 ą 0.012 to 0.046 ą 0.006 Bq l(-1). The activity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were below the minimum detectable activity. In order to evaluate the annual effective dose for different classes of age, a conservative dosimetric calculation was carried out. PMID:23041389

  18. The Customer Relationship Management in Terms of Business Practice in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urdziková, Jana; Jakábová, Martina; Saniuk, Sebastian

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the article is to present the results of the research on focus on the customer in relation to the use of customer relationship management in selected business subjects in Slovakia. The main goal of the research is the mapping of current state to ensure the principle of customer orientation and utilizing of CRM in organizations and industrial enterprises in Slovakia. This is the mapping of the current situation of that problem in practical conditions and determines potential opportunities for improvement.

  19. Biomass in Serbia - potential of beech forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasanac-Bosanac, Lj.; Cirkovic-Mitrovic, T.; Popovic, V.; Jokanovic, D.

    2012-04-01

    As for the renewable sources for energy production, biomass from forests and wood processing industry comes to the second place. The woody biomass accounts for 1.0 Mtoe, that is equivalent with 1.0 Mtoe of oil. Due to current evaluations, the greatest part of woody biomass would be used for briquettes and pallets production. As the biomass from forests is increasingly becoming the interest of national and international market, a detailed research on overall potential of woody supply from Serbian forests is required. Beech forests account for 29.4 % of forest cover of Serbia. They also have the greatest standing volume (42.4 % of the overall standing volume) and the greatest mean annual increment (32.3 %)(Bankovic,et.al.2009). Herewith, the aim of this poster is to determine the long-term biomass production of these forests.For this purpose a management unit called Lomnicka reka has been chosen. As these beech forests have similar structural development, this location is considered representative for whole Serbia. DBH of all trees were measured with clipper and the accuracy of 0.01 mm, and the heights with a Vertex 3 device (with accuracy of 0.1 m). All measurements were performed on the fields each 500 m2 (square meters). The overall quantity of root biomass was calculated using the allometric equations. The poster shows estimated biomass stocks of beech forests located in Rasina area. Dates are evaluated using non-linear regression (Wutzler,T.et.al.2008). Biomass potential of Serbian beech forests will enable the evaluation of long-term potential of energy generation from woody biomass in agreement with principles of sustainable forest management. The biomass from such beech forests can represent an important substitution for energy production from fossil fuels (e.g. oil) and herewith decrease the CO2 emissions.

  20. Ecological Modelling 170 (2003) 453469 Modeling the brown bear population in Slovenia

    E-print Network

    Dzeroski, Saso

    2003-01-01

    Ecological Modelling 170 (2003) 453­469 Modeling the brown bear population in Slovenia A tool as populations of other large predator species, such as wolf (Canis lupus) and lynx (Lynx lynx). The Slovenian it represents the source for natural re-colonization or reintroduction of the bear into Slovenia's neighboring

  1. The impact of agriculture on ground water quality in Slovenia: standards and strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brane Maticic

    1999-01-01

    Ground water and water from springs are sources used for water supply in Slovenia. The quality of these waters has been monitored since 1987. Among 12 main ground water aquifers in Slovenia the amount of nitrate exceeds the allowable level (50mg\\/l) for drinking water in areas with more intensive agricultural production with higher concentrations of animals (two livestock unit –

  2. Rail-lex Slovenia--A Modern Railway Dictionary (Joint Venture Case Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakopin, Primoz

    Rail-lex Slovenia is a project to develop a dictionary of railway terminology in the Slovenian language, part of a larger undertaking of the International Union of Railways to develop a modern, multilingual communication infrastructure. Participating organizations represent 22 European languages. Two partners in the Rail-lex Slovenia venture are…

  3. Some Evidence on Elasticities of Demand for Services of Public Railway Passenger Transportation in Slovenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JANI BEKŐ

    2004-01-01

    The article presents evidence on elasticities of demand for services of railway passenger transportation in Slovenia. According to the aggregate values of demand elasticities, the railway passenger demand is price and income inelastic. Coefficients of income elasticity of demand below unity show that, for the average consumer, the services of railway passenger transportation in Slovenia can be classified among essential

  4. Contribution to the lichen biota of Slovenia XII. Some lichens from Logarska dolina

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter Othmar; Arup, Ulf; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    A list of 94 species is presented including Bacidia subacerina and Lopadium disciforme as new for Slovenia and Bilimbia accedens, Lecanora leptyrodes, Megalaria grossa, Mycobilimbia epixanthoides, Rinodina efflorescens, and Sclerophora peronella as new for the alpine phytogeographical region of Slovenia. PMID:22319012

  5. Contribution to the lichen biota of Slovenia XII. Some lichens from Logarska dolina.

    PubMed

    Bilovitz, Peter Othmar; Arup, Ulf; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2010-11-01

    A list of 94 species is presented including Bacidia subacerina and Lopadium disciforme as new for Slovenia and Bilimbia accedens, Lecanora leptyrodes, Megalaria grossa, Mycobilimbia epixanthoides, Rinodina efflorescens, and Sclerophora peronella as new for the alpine phytogeographical region of Slovenia. PMID:22319012

  6. Universit degli Studi di BARI CdL nelle Professioni Sanitarie

    E-print Network

    Malerba, Donato

    pubblici 8. Da quali Stati è attualmente composta la Repubblica di Serbia? A) Dalla sola Serbia B) Da Serbia, Kosovo e Macedonia C) Da Serbia e Montenegro D) Da Serbia, Montenegro, Slovenia, Croazia, Bosnia

  7. Late Pleistocene loess-palaeosol sequences in the Vojvodina region, north Serbia

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Late Pleistocene loess-palaeosol sequences in the Vojvodina region, north Serbia SLOBODAN B Chair of Physical Geography, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia 2 Faculty of Earth and Life region, north Serbia. J. Quaternary Sci., Vol. 23 pp. 73­84. ISSN 0267-8179. Received 8 September 2006

  8. Belgrade International Conference on Education 14-16 November 2013, Serbia 1 Zehra Gabillon

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Belgrade International Conference on Education 14-16 November 2013, Serbia 1 Zehra Gabillon 2013, Belgrade : Serbia (2013)" #12;Belgrade International Conference on Education 14-16 November 2013, Serbia 2 Zehra Gabillon A Synopsis of L2 Teacher Belief Research Abstract This state-of- the-art article

  9. Analysis of garnets from the archaeological sites in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šmit, Ž.; Fajfar, H.; Jeršek, M.; Knific, T.; Lux, J.

    2014-06-01

    Garnets (62 individual stones) originating from the Migration Period cemeteries and hilltop settlements in Slovenia were analyzed by the combined PIXE/PIGE method for their chemical composition. Typologically, the analyzed stones may be classified as almandines originating from the sites in India, belonging to types I and II according to Calligaro. A smaller group of pyraldines intermediate between almandines and pyropes was also determined; identified as type III, their source is most likely in Sri Lanka. No garnets from Bohemia (Czech Republic) have been discovered, which may be related to important political changes in the 7th c. AD, induced by Slavic and Avaric migrations.

  10. Atmospheric /sup 222/Rn in tourist caves of Slovenia, Yugoslavia

    SciTech Connect

    Kobal, I.; Smodis, B.; Burger, J.; Skofljanec, M.

    1987-04-01

    Radon-222 concentrations in the air of 12 tourist caves in Slovenia, Yugoslavia were measured. In almost all the caves concentrations are higher than in the outdoor air, with the highest concentration in the Tabor Cave at about 6000 Bq m-3. From the /sup 222/Rn concentrations obtained, the activity of /sup 222/Rn inhaled by a visitor breathing cave air was calculated, and the bronchial dose was estimated. The inhaled activity and the bronchial dose were highest in the Tabor Cave with values of 10 kBq and 540 microSv, respectively.

  11. Illegal Drug Use among Female University Students in Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Matejovi?ová, Barbora; Trandžík, Jozef; Schlarmannová, Janka; Boledovi?ová, Mária; Velemínský, Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Background This study is focused on the issue of illegal drug use among female university students preparing to become teachers. The main aim was to determine the frequency of drug abuse in a group of young women (n=215, mean age 20.44 years). Material/Methods Using survey methods, we determined that 33.48% of female university students in Slovakia use illegal drugs and 66.51% of students have never used illegal drugs. Differences between these groups were determined using statistical analysis, mostly in 4 areas of survey questions. Results We determined that education of parents has a statistically significant influence on use of illegal drugs by their children (?2=10.14; P<0.05). Communication between parents and children and parental attention to children have a significant role in determining risky behavior (illegal drug use, ?2=8.698, P<0.05). Parents of students not using illegal drugs were interested in how their children spend their free time (68.53%). We confirmed the relationship between consumption of alcohol and illegal drug use (?2=16.645; P<0.001) and smoking (?2=6.226; P<0.05). The first contact with drugs occurs most frequently at high school age. The most consumed “soft” drug in our group of female university students is marijuana. Conclusions Our findings are relevant for comparison and generalization regarding causes of the steady increase in number of young people using illegal drugs. PMID:25602526

  12. Attitudes of Roma toward Smoking: Qualitative Study in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Petek, Davorina; Rotar Pavli?, Danica; Švab, Igor; Loli?, Damir

    2006-01-01

    Aim To understand the reasons for widespread smoking behavior among Roma in Slovenia for the purpose of developing successful smoking cessation interventions. Method A qualitative focus group approach using a combination of pre-structured and open-ended questions was applied to collect the data from the representative members of the Roma community in southern Slovenia. The discussions were audiotaped and transcribed, and the collected data analyzed according to qualitative content analysis theory. Results The content analysis revealed that smoking was a strong part of the cultural, ethnic, and individual identity of the Roma. Even children smoked. Doctor’s advice to quit smoking was usually not followed and the attempts to quit were usually unsuccessful. Difficult financial situation was never mentioned as a possible motive to quit. Roma held a tenacious belief that the harmful effects of smoking were in the hands of destiny and did not associate the smoking-related illness with the habit. Conclusions Traditional strategies for smoking cessation are largely ineffective among the Roma because of their different attitudes toward smoking. Therefore, innovative and culturally acceptable methods need to be developed. PMID:16625703

  13. Spatial epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Djokic, Vitomir; Klun, Ivana; Musella, Vincenzo; Rinaldi, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica

    2014-05-01

    A major risk factor for Toxoplasma gondii infection is consumption of undercooked meat. Increasing demand for goat meat is likely to promote the role of this animal for human toxoplasmosis. As there are virtually no data on toxoplasmosis in goats in Serbia, we undertook a cross-sectional serological study, including prediction modelling using geographical information systems (GIS). Sera from 431 goats reared in 143 households/farms throughout Serbia, sampled between January 2010 and September 2011, were examined for T. gondii antibodies by a modified agglutination test. Seroprevalence was 73.3% at the individual level and 84.6% at the farm level. Risk factor analysis showed above two-fold higher risk of infection for goats used for all purposes compared to dairy goats (P = 0.012), almost seven-fold higher risk for goats kept as sole species versus those kept with other animals (P = 0.001) and a two-fold lower risk for goats introduced from outside the farm compared to those raised on the farm (P = 0.027). Moreover, households/farms located in centre-eastern Serbia were found to be less often infected than those in northern Serbia (P = 0.004). The risk factor analysis was fully supported by spatial analysis based on a GIS database containing data on origin, serology, land cover, elevation, meteorology and a spatial prediction map based on kriging analysis, which showed western Serbia as the area most likely for finding goats positive for T. gondii and centre-eastern Serbia as the least likely. In addition, rainfall favoured seropositivity, whereas temperature, humidity and elevation did not. PMID:24893025

  14. Epiphytic lichen mycota of the virgin forest reserve Rajhenavski Rog (Slovenia)

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Bati?, Franc; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    A list of 128 taxa (127 species) of lichens, 6 species of lichenicolous fungi and 2 non-lichenized fungi traditionally included in lichenological literature from the virgin forest Rajhenavski Rog and its surroundings in the southeastern part of Slovenia is presented. The lichen Gyalecta derivata, the lichenicolous fungus Homostegia piggotii, and the non-lichenized fungus Mycomicrothelia pachnea are new to Slovenia. The lichenized fungi Chaenotheca trichialis, C. xyloxena, Lecanactis abietina, Lecanora thysanophora, Pertusaria ophthalmiza, the lichenicolous fungi Monodictys epilepraria, Tremella hypogymniae, Taeniolella friesii, and the non-lichenized fungus Chaenothecopsis pusilla are new to the Dinaric phytogeographical region of Slovenia. PMID:22942459

  15. Air Pollution with Heavy Metals and Radionuclides in Slovakia Studied by the Moss Biomonitoring Technique

    E-print Network

    Florek, M; Mankovska, B; Oprea, K; Pavlov, S S; Steinnes, E; Sykora, I

    2001-01-01

    Applying the moss biomonitoring technique to air pollution studies in Slovakia, heavy metals, rare-earth elements, actinides (U and Th) were determined in 86 moss samples from the European moss survey 2000 by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor (Dubna). Such elements as In, Cu, Cd, Hg and Pb were determined by AAS in the Forest Research Institute, Zvolen (Slovakia). The results of measurement of the natural radionuclides ^{210}Pb, ^{7}Be, ^{137}Cs and ^{40}K in 11 samples of moss are also reported. A comparison with the results from moss surveys 1991 and 1995 revealed previously unknown tendencies of air pollution in the examined areas.

  16. The Geographic Information System (GIS) in Secondary Education in Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komlenovic, Djurdjica; Manic, Emilija; Malinic, Dusica

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the application of new educational technologies in geography classes. The research involved 126 students from vocational secondary schools in Serbia taking geography as a compulsory subject. We developed and applied a questionnaire for this research. The results indicate that out of several ICTs available, the majority of…

  17. The effects of social policy on income inequality in Serbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olgica Ivan?ev; Milena Jovi?i?

    2011-01-01

    This article has two main goals. The first is to assess the effectiveness of social policy in Serbia by identifying its intensity, coverage, adequacy and targeting performance. The second goal is to compare the time and income group impact of different social policy programmes on income inequality, in order to derive policy recommendations. To this end, using statistical data from

  18. Physician-Based Tobacco Smoking Cessation Counseling in Belgrade, Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Ray; Harmon, Tanner; Gagon, Heather

    2009-01-01

    This study examined physician attitudes and practices pertaining to patient counseling about smoking in Belgrade, Serbia. Data were collected using a cross-sectional survey of 86 physicians at multiple health care facilities. Approximately 74% of physicians agreed that they should routinely ask patients about their smoking habits and 79% agreed…

  19. Early Childhood Professionalism in Serbia: Current Issues and Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bankovic, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    This article explores early childhood professionalism in the Republic of Serbia. The concept of professionalism in this context is examined in light of current international debates about professionalism. More specifically, how the use of specific nomenclature, the existence of multi-professional teams of practitioners and state-regulated but…

  20. The burden of disease and injury in Serbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Slavenka Jankovic ´; Hristina Vlajinac; Vesna Bjegovic ´; Jelena Marinkovic ´; S. Sipetic-Grujicic; L. Markovic-Denic; Nikola Kocev; M. Santric-Milicevic; Z. Terzic-Supic; Natas˙a Maksimovic ´; Ulrich Laaser

    2006-01-01

    Background: In the last decade of the 20th century, a considerable effort has been put into the development of summary measures of population health that combine information on mortality and non-fatal health outcomes. We used the DALYs (Disability adjusted life years) method to assess the burden of disease and injury in the population of Serbia. Methods: Our study, largely based

  1. Student Background Factors Influencing Student Achievement in Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teodorovic, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes student-level findings of the first large-scale comprehensive school effectiveness study of the primary education in Serbia. Twenty-five student-level variables were examined in a three-level HLM model using a study sample of almost 5000 students, over 250 classrooms and over 100 schools. Differences between the students were…

  2. Evidence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in game animals from Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Zele, Diana; Avberšek, Jana; Gruntar, Igor; Ocepek, Matjaž; Vengušt, Gorazd

    2012-12-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen responsible for granulocytic anaplasmosis in mammalian hosts including humans. Wild animals may play an important role in the epidemiology of this disease. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of infection with A. phagocytophilum among wildlife in Slovenia. Serum samples (n = 376) from the most important game species [red deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), wild boar (Sus scrofa), chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) and brown bear (Ursus arctos)] were examined by A. phagocytophilum-specific indirect fluorescent-antibody assay (IFA) and wild boar spleen samples (n = 160) were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A. phagocytophilum-specific antibodies were found in 72% of sera and A. phagocytophilum DNA was present in 6.2% of spleens. The data indicate that A. phagocytophilum is present and widespread in Slovenian game animals and that game species are involved in the natural life cycle of A. phagocytophilum. PMID:23160026

  3. Envitonmental monitoring and radiation protection in Škocjan Caves, Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debevec Gerjevič, V.; Jovanovi?, P.

    2012-04-01

    Škocjan Caves were listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1986, due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage. Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Park Škocjan Caves established monitoring that includes caves microclimate parameters: humidity, CO2, wind flow and radon concentration and daughter products. The approach in managing the working place with natural background radiation is complex. Monitoring of Radon has been functioning for more than ten years now. Presentation will show the dynamic observed in the different parts of the caves, related to radon daughter products and other microclimatic data. Relation of background radiation to carrying capacity will be explained. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The equivalent dose for each employed person is also established on regular basis and it is part of medical survey of workers in the caves. A system of education of the staff working in the caves in the field of radiation protection will be presented as well.

  4. Genetic differentiation of European grayling (Thymallus thymallus) populations in Serbia, based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The structure and diversity of grayling (Thymallus thymallus) populations have been well studied in most of its native habitat; however the southernmost populations of the Balkan Peninsula remain largely unexplored. The purpose of this study was to assess the genetic diversity of Serbian grayling populations, detect the impact of stocking and provide guidelines for conservation and management. Methods Eighty grayling individuals were collected from four rivers (Ibar, Lim, Drina and Rzav). The mitochondrial DNA control region (CR; 595 bp of the 3'end and 74 bp of flanking tRNA) and the ATP6 gene (630 bp fragment) were sequenced for 20 individuals (five from each locality). In addition, all individuals were genotyped with 12 microsatellite loci. The diversity and structure of the populations as well as the recent and ancient population declines were studied using specialized software. Results We detected three new haplotypes in the mtDNA CR and four haplotypes in the ATP6 gene of which three had not been described before. Previously, one CR haplotype and two ATP6 gene haplotypes had been identified as allochthonous, originating from Slovenia. Reconstruction of phylogenetic relations placed the remaining two CR haplotypes from the River Danube drainage of Serbia into a new clade, which is related to the previously described sister Slovenian clade. These two clades form a new Balkan clade. Microsatellite marker analysis showed that all four populations are genetically distinct from each other without any sign of intra-population structure, although stocking of the most diverse population (Drina River) was confirmed by mtDNA analysis. Recent and historical population declines of Serbian grayling do not differ from those of other European populations. Conclusions Our study shows that (1) the Ibar, Lim and Drina Rivers grayling populations are genetically distinct from populations outside of Serbia and thus should be managed as native populations in spite of some introgression in the Drina River population and (2) the Rzav River population is not appropriate for further stocking activities since it originates from stocked Slovenian grayling. However, the Rzav River population does not represent an immediate danger to other populations because it is physically isolated from these. PMID:21235756

  5. SPREAD OF DODDER (CUSCUTA SPP.) IN THE AGROECOSYSTEMS OF SLOVAKIA: IS IT AN EMERGING PROBLEM?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter TÓTH; A. Hlinku

    Summary During 2000, field surveys of dodder (Cuscuta spp.) occurred at cropland were done in Slovakia. From among 150 localities surveyed, 96 have been found infested by dodder. The existence of four dodder species was revealed: Cuscuta campestris Yuncker, infested vegetable crops (potato, sugar beet, alfalfa and tobacco) and variety of weeds (together 18 species, especially Polygonum spp.), C. epithymum

  6. Spatially distributed assessment of solar resources for energy applications in Slovakia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaroslav HOFIERKA

    2008-01-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of available solar energy depends on several factors. Besides latitude and astronomical factors it is strongly influenced by climate factors (e.g. cloudiness, turbidity) and topography. This paper presents a solar database of Slovakia containing spatially-distributed solar energy resource data necessary for planning, sitting and forecasting of solar device installations. The database consists of several data sets

  7. Are renewables an alternative to nuclear power? An analysis of the Austria\\/Slovakia discussions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ragnar Lofstedt

    2008-01-01

    Politicians and publics throughout Europe have different views on nuclear power and renewable energy sources. Countries such as Austria and Denmark which have no nuclear power are rather hostile towards this energy source, and at the same time view renewable energy sources as one of the solutions in curbing CO2 emissions. Other countries, such as Slovakia, which is less endowed

  8. Evidence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia helvetica infection in free-ranging ungulates in central Slovakia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katarina Stefanidesova; Elena Kocianova; Vojtech Boldis; Zina Kostanova; Pavel Kanka; Danka Nemethova; Eva Spitalska

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of wild animals for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, other ehrlichiae\\/anaplasmae, Rickettsia helvetica and other rickettsiae and whether different genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum in central Slovakia exist. A total of 109 spleen samples from 49 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 30 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), 28 wild boar (Sus scrofa) and two mouflon

  9. Price setting and market structure: an empirical analysis of micro data in Slovakia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabrizio Coricelli; Roman Horváth

    2010-01-01

    Most empirical studies on price setting that use micro data focus on advanced industrial countries. In this paper we analyze the experience of an emerging economy, Slovakia, using a large micro-level dataset that accounts for a substantial part of the consumer price index (about 5 million observations). We find that market structure is an important determinant of pricing behavior. The

  10. Serum PCB concentrations in relation to locally produced food items in eastern Slovakia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean Sonneborn; Hye-Youn Park; Katarina Babinska; Lubica Palkovicova; Tomas Trnovec; Anton Kocan; Danh V Nguyen; Irva Hertz-Picciotto

    2008-01-01

    Ingestion has been a primary route of PCB exposure for people, especially those not working directly in industrial settings. During 2002–2004, women were recruited at delivery from two districts in eastern Slovakia: Michalovce with high PCB contamination from a chemical manufacturing plant, and Svidnik located 70 km to the northwest, having lower environmental levels of PCBs. Concentrations of 15 PCB

  11. Alternative Civil Enculturation: Political Disenchantment and Civic Attitudes in Minority Schools in Estonia, Latvia, and Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golubeva, Maria; Austers, Ivars

    2011-01-01

    The article investigates the ways in which minority schools in Latvia, Estonia, and Slovakia resist the dominant narratives of nation and citizenship and provide an alternative model of civil enculturation for students. It provides evidence to support the hypothesis that differences between competing narratives of statehood and nationhood among…

  12. Stochastic Flood Frequency Analysis Using the SCHADEX Method in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valent, Peter; Výleta, Roman; Szolgay, Ján; Paquet, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    Methods for derived flood frequency analysis often use a stochastic weather generator to derive a continuous rainfall runoff model in order to simulate long series of artificial flows. Time series of synthetic precipitations generated by a weather generator should have the same statistical properties than an observed time series. This is true if the weather generator is properly set up which is not an easy task. The rainfall-runoff modelling in mountainous regions also requires a time series of temperatures to simulate snow melting processes, which must be generated alongside the precipitations. A French method SCHADEX avoids these problems and is the only one combining the advantages of continuous rainfall-runoff modelling and event-based synthetic precipitations. This work presents results of the application of the SCHADEX probabilistic method for extreme flood estimation. SCHADEX has been developed at Electricité de France (EDF) for dam spillway design. The method uses a continuous rainfall-runoff model for simulation of catchment responses to synthetic precipitation events generated by a stochastic rainfall model. The rainfall model utilizes a Multi-Exponential Weather Pattern (MEWP) distribution to account for both seasonal variation and the type of weather pattern. The application of the SCHADEX method is illustrated with the example of the River Hron at Banská Bystrica (1768 km2). The daily (from 1981 to 2010) and hourly (from 1988 to 2002) datasets were used to estimate 24 and 1 hour floods with various return periods. The uncertainty of the whole methodology has been assessed by using 100 various hydrological models, where parameters of each model were obtained by using different period for model calibration. The hydrological models were then used to simulate synthetic rainfall events generated by the same stochastic rainfall model. As expected the variation of the estimated floods was substantial especially in the high return periods. The difference between minimum and maximum estimated flood spread from 80 m3/s (from 166 to 232 m3/s) for a 10-year flood to as much as 600 m3/s (from 644 to 1391 m3/s) for a 10000-year flood. Despite of this uncertainty the SCHADEX method gives better results than traditionally used flood estimation methods used in Slovakia which was demonstrated by comparing estimated with reconstructed historical floods.

  13. National study of illicit drug use in Slovakia based on wastewater analysis.

    PubMed

    Macku?ak, Tomáš; Skubák, Jaroslav; Grabic, Roman; Ryba, Jozef; Birošová, Lucia; Fedorova, Ganna; Spalková, Viera; Bodík, Igor

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze illicit drugs and their metabolites in wastewater from eight selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Slovakia. The effect of two of the biggest music festivals in Slovakia on illicit drugs in wastewater was also investigated. Urinary bio-markers of amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, cannabis and ecstasy use were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We then compared our results with data obtained in other parts of Europe and the world. This study demonstrates that Slovakia has one of highest methamphetamine consumption rates in Europe. Within Slovakia, the highest level of methamphetamine consumption was found in Petržalka, where the mean specific load of this drug in sewage was 169 mg/day/1000 inhabitants; the next highest loads were detected in Pieš?any (128 mg/day/1000 inhabitants) and Bratislava (124 mg/day/1000 inhabitants). Amphetamine, ecstasy and cannabis consumption in our study were comparable to that found in other European cities, whereas cocaine consumption was lower. We also analyzed the pattern of drug consumption over the course of a week. The load of the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine in wastewater increased during the weekend. The use of this drug was most common in the capital of Slovakia. Increased consumption was also found during a folk festival in Pieš?any. The ecstasy load in wastewater from larger cities also significantly increased over the weekend. An increase of drug consumption was also detected during a music festival in Tren?ín, especially for ecstasy. The specific load of ecstasy during this festival increased from 3mg/day/1000 inhabitants to 29 mg/day/1000 inhabitants. The possible influence of music styles on the consumption of certain drugs was also observed. During a folk festival, methamphetamine and cocaine were more commonly used. PMID:25046607

  14. The temperature variability and heat waves in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unkasevic, M.; Tosic, I.

    2010-09-01

    Temperature extremes are an important aspect of any climate change because ecosystems and societal responses are most sensitive to them. During July and August 2007 record values of temperatures were observed in south-eastern Europe. Serbia, Bulgaria and Greece were the European countries most affected by the heat wave. Record values of the maximum temperatures were observed over almost the whole territory of Serbia and in Smederevska Palanka, a temperature of 44.9 °C in July was registered, which was the absolute maximum value ever recorded. The highest increase over the previous absolute maximum temperature, dating back to 1888, of 3.1 °C was registered in Belgrade. In Serbia, the mean summer temperature of 2007 exceeded the 1961 - 1990 mean by 3 °C, corresponding to an excess of up to 4 standard deviations. Also, the mean July temperature in 2007 exceeded the 1961 - 1990 mean by 3.3 °C, corresponding to an excess of up to 3 standard deviations. The Warm Spell Duration Indicator (WSDI), from which the duration and severity of the heat waves are estimated, was applied to the series of the daily maximum temperatures in Smederevska Palanka (SP). An extraordinary heat wave occurred in Serbia from July 14 to July 24 in 2007. An analysis of the daily maximum temperatures and heat waves during the summer of 2007 revealed significant changes in the trends of anomalies and extreme (90 %) quantiles. 1987, 2007 and 1998 were the three years with the longest heat waves from the beginning of measurements, having a duration of 13, 11 and 10 days, respectively. The longest heat wave observed in 1987 did not reach the severity of the heat wave in July 2007. The atmospheric circulation at 500-hPa resulted in the horizontal advection of warm air masses from northern Africa across central and eastern Mediterranean towards the Balkans. The 500-hPa geopotential anomalies (according to the reference period 1961 - 1990) of the summer and July 2007 exceeded 35 and 40 gpm over Serbia, respectively. The warm advection was manifested in temperature anomalies over Serbia, reaching up to 3.5 and 4.0 °C for the summer and July 2007, respectively.

  15. Evaluating the Carrying Capacity in The Škocjan Caves, Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debevec Gerjevic, V.

    2009-04-01

    Park Škocjanske jame, Slovenija is a multidesignation site, located in south western part of Slovenia. In 1986 the Škocjanske jame - Škocjan Caves were listed in UNESCO world heritage list, in 1996 the Government of Republic Slovenia established the Regional Park Škocjanske jame, Slovenija. In 1999 the underground course of The Reka River in Škocjan Caves was designated a Ramsar site as first underground wetland of international importance. The park lies within three locations Natura 2000. In 2004 Park Škocjanske jame became a MAB locality as The Karst Biosphere Reserve. The tourist activity was already developed in the early 19th century. Today's research projects are focused on quality of caves microclimate, in order to enable the cave to remain as pristine as possible due to tourism and on the other hand to provide safe environment for people who work in the caves, and on quality of the water that flows from buffer zone to the underground world an then to the sea in Italy. The tourist activity increased during the past years. With the aim of nature conservation and protection the management plan was developed and special programme of monitoring started in order to detect changes in the environment due to the anthropogenic impact. In the park we consider the estimation of the carrying capacity as a key element for preparation of proper management guidelines for the tourism development in site. The caves system is rich in several halls and tunnels and distinguishes the caves for its variety of dimensions. There are several limitations of the visits and number of visitors. They merely depend on spatial characteristic of the caves and its surroundings and on human resources of the experts stuff that is in charge of guiding tourists groups to the caves. There is no simple formula that could be used for evaluation of capacity on general, but detailed studies of several locations and suitable description of parameters could give us an idea of proposing the limiting numbers. Physical and actual capacities will be discussed and a model of preparation of social capacity will be provided.

  16. Spatial Pattern of Rainfall Trends in Serbia (1961-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukovic, J.; Bajat, B.; Blagojevic, D.; Kilibarda, M.

    2013-12-01

    This paper examines a spatial pattern of annual, seasonal and monthly rainfall trends in Serbia. The study used data from 63 meteorological stations between 1961 and 2009. The rainfall series was analyzed applying nonparametric method of the Mann Kendall test and Sen's method to determine the significance and magnitude of the trends. Interactive WEB maps were produced to obtain detailed insight in the spatial distribution of rainfall trends in Serbia. Seasonal trends at the confidence level of 95%, however, indicate a slight decrease in winter and spring precipitation and an increase in autumn precipitation. Results for monthly rainfall trends also generally showed non- significant trend, except positive for October (9 stations out of 63) and negative for May (6 stations out of 63). Calculated global autocorrelation statistics (Moran's I) indicate, in general, a random spatial pattern of rainfall trends on annual, seasonal and monthly time scales with exceptions for March, June and November.

  17. 78 FR 72979 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ...Republic of Macedonia, Monaco, Norway, Oman, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain...Republic of Macedonia, Monaco, Norway, Oman, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia,...

  18. 15 CFR 742.4 - National security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia for all items in ECCNs...Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South...

  19. 15 CFR 742.4 - National security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia for all items in ECCNs...Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South...

  20. 15 CFR 742.4 - National security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia for all items in ECCNs...Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South...

  1. 15 CFR 742.4 - National security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia for all items in ECCNs...Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South...

  2. 15 CFR 742.4 - National security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia for all items in ECCNs...Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South...

  3. VIRUSES OF SWEET AND SOUR CHERRY IN SERBIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Mandic; S. Matic ´; M. Al Rwahnih; W. Jelkmann; A. Myrta

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY One hundred twenty-five trees (each of a different cultivar) of sour and sweet cherry from two large vari- etal collections in Serbia were visually inspected for virus symptoms and tested for the presence of cherry viruses by ELISA, herbaceous host assays, graft-index- ing on P. serrulata cv. Kwanzan, and RT-PCR. All sam- ples were tested by ELISA for Prunus

  4. Radionuclides and heavy metals in Borovac, Southern Serbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dragana Popovic; Dragana Todorovic; Marina Frontasyeva; Jelena Ajtic; Mirjana Tasic; Slavica Rajsic

    2008-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope  The paper presents the complex approach to the assessment of the state of the environment in Southern Serbia, surroundings\\u000a of Bujanovac, the region which is of great concern as being exposed to contamination by depleted uranium (DU) ammunition during\\u000a the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) attacks in 1999. It includes studies on concentrations of radionuclides and\\u000a heavy

  5. Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the groundwater quality in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Devic, Gordana; Djordjevic, Dragana; Sakan, Sanja

    2014-01-15

    Various chemometric techniques were used to analyze the quality of groundwater data sets. Seventeen water quality parameters: the cations Na, K, Ca, Mg, the anions Cl, SO4, NO3, HCO3 and nine trace elements Pb, As, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cd, Fe, Zn and Cr were measured at 66 different key sampling sites in ten representative areas (low land-Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina and central Serbia) for the summer period of 2009. HCA grouped the sample sites into four clusters based on the similarities of the characteristics of the groundwater quality. DA showed two parameters, HCO3 and Zn, affording more than 90% correct assignments in the spatial analysis of four/three different regions in Serbia. Factor analysis was applied on the log-transformed data sets and allowed the identification of a reduced number of factors with hydrochemical meaning. The results showed severe pollution with Mn, As, NO3, Ni, Pb whereby anthropogenic origin of these contaminants was indicated. The pollution comes from both scattered point sources (industrial and urban effluent) and diffuse source agricultural activity. These samples may not be suitable for human consumption; the water quality belongs to class III/IV (contaminated). The Fe anomalies (7.1mg/L) in the water from the Vetrnica site can be attributed to natural sources, such as the dissolution of rock masses and rock fragments. The serious groundwater contamination with As (25.7-137.8 ?g/L) in the area of Banat (Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina) and a sample No. 9 at the Great Morava River requires urgent attention. PMID:24080418

  6. 75 FR 33376 - Determination Related to Serbia Under Section 7072(c) of the Department of State, Foreign...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ...DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7045] Determination Related to Serbia Under Section 7072(c) of the Department of State, Foreign...2001, I hereby determine and certify that the Government of Serbia is: (1) Cooperating with the International Criminal...

  7. 76 FR 34123 - Determination Related to Serbia Under Section 7072(c) of the Department of State, Foreign...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ...DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7498] Determination Related to Serbia Under Section 7072(c) of the Department of State, Foreign...2001, I hereby determine and certify that the Government of Serbia is: (1) cooperating with the International Criminal...

  8. Chromosome numbers within the Achillea millefolium and the A. distans Groups in the Czech Republic and Slovakia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji?í Danihelka; Olga Rotreklová

    2001-01-01

    TheAchillea millefolium group is represented in the Czech Republic and Slovakia by six species.Achillea setacea andA. asplenifolia are diploid;A. collina andA. pratensis are tetraploid;A. millefolium is hexaploid; andA. pannonica is octoploid. The populations from Slovakia of theA. distans group, distributed mainly in Central and south-eastern Europe, were all hexaploid. The presence of these taxa in the area\\u000a studied was documented

  9. Human giardiasis in Serbia: asymptomatic vs symptomatic infection*

    PubMed Central

    Nikoli?, A.; Klun, I.; Bobi?, B.; Ivovi?, V.; Vujani?, M.; Živkovi?, T.; Djurkovi?-Djakovi?, O.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the public health importance of giardiasis in all of Europe, reliable data on the incidence and prevalence in Western Balkan Countries (Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro and FYR Macedonia) are scarce, and the relative contribution of waterborne and food-borne, or person-to-person and/or animalto- person, transmission of human giardiasis is not yet clear. To provide baseline data for the estimation of the public health risk caused by Giardia, we here review the information available on the epidemiological characteristics of asymptomatic and symptomatic human infection in Serbia. Although asymptomatic cases of Giardia represent a major proportion of the total cases of infection, high rates of Giardia infection were found in both asymptomatic and symptomatic populations. No waterborne outbreaks of giardiasis have been reported, and it thus seems that giardiasis mostly occurs sporadically in our milieu. Under such circumstances, control measures to reduce the high prevalence of giardiasis in Serbia have focused on person-to-person transmission, encouraging proper hygiene, but for more targeted intervention measures, studies to identify other risk factors for asymptomatic and symptomatic infections are needed. PMID:21678797

  10. Health care economics in Serbia: current problems and changes.

    PubMed

    Stosi?, Sanja; Karanovi?, Nevena

    2014-11-01

    One of the fundamental rights of every human being is to enjoy "the highest attainable standard of health". Achieving better health requires no only adequate medical knowledge and technologies, laws and social measures in the field of health care, but also sufficient funding for fulfilling people's right to health. However, economic crisis has left every community with limited possibility of investing in health care and forced them to use the available resources more efficiently. This is the reason why health financing policy represents an important and integral part of the health system concerned with how financial resources are generated, allocated and used. Development of new drugs and medical technologies, population aging, increased incidence of chronic diseases as well as the peoples' rising demands from health care providers lead to a constant increase of health system costs worldwide. In these circumstances, countries in transition, like Serbia, face difficult challenges in financing their health systems. Current economic crisis and budget constraints do not allow the Government to simply allocate more public revenues for health and solve the people's expectations by increasing the spending. Instead, Serbia is forced to start reforms to provide a more efficient health system. The reform processes are positioned within the wider context of European integration and public administration reforms. This paper provides a short description of the health care system in Serbia focusing on the healthcare economics and reforms and their influence on financial sustainability. PMID:25536810

  11. Trends of cold and heat waves in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unkaševi?, Miroslava; Toši?, Ivana

    2014-05-01

    The series of the daily minimum and maximum temperatures at fifteen stations in Serbia were used to calculate the cold and warm spell duration indicators, from which the duration and severity of the cold and heat waves were estimated. The trend analysis for all seasons was presented using the data from 1949 to 2012. The most important result of this study is the significant decreasing trends in the frequency of cold waves and increasing trends of heat waves in Serbia. An analysis of the daily minimum temperatures almost at all meteorological stations revealed that the longest and most severe cold waves were observed in winter of 1956, spring of 1987, summer of 1962 and 1996, and during the autumn 1983 and 1988. The longest and most severe heat waves, based on the analysis of the daily maximum temperatures, were recorded in winter of 2007, spring of 2003, summer of 2012, and after 1989 during the autumn. The longest heat waves observed in 2012 did not reach the severity of the heat waves in 2007 at ten of fifteen stations. The obtained results indicated that the warming in Serbia was more related to increase in frequency of heat waves than to reduction in cold waves.

  12. Systematic survey of natural radioactivity of soil in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Tibor; Szeiler, Gábor; Fábián, Ferenc; Kardos, Richárd; Gregori?, Asta; Vaupoti?, Janja

    2013-08-01

    Soil samples, from 70 points uniformly distributed over entire Slovenia, were analysed for (40)K, (232)Th and (226)Ra using gamma spectrometry, and for (234)U and (238)U using alpha spectrometry. The following ranges and averages of activity concentrations (Bq kg(-1)) were obtained: 98-2600 and 800 ą 520 for (40)K, 9-170 and 77 ą 33 for (232)Th, 12-270 and 63 ą 44 for (226)Ra, 12-84 and 34 ą 19 for (234)U, and 11-90 and 34 ą 19 for (238)U. With respect to lithology, the highest average values for (40)K and (232)Th were found at clastic sediments containing clay and for (226)Ra on carbonate rocks. Based on the measured activity concentrations, terrestrial gamma dose rates were calculated. The total dose rate ranged from 15 to 260 nGy h(-1), with arithmetic mean of 110 ą 49 nGy h(-1), being the highest over carbonates. PMID:23558252

  13. Monitoring of selenium in macrophytes - the case of Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Mechora, Špela; Germ, Mateja; Stibilj, Vekoslava

    2014-09-01

    This paper examines macrophytes from various locations in Slovenian streams for selenium (Se) content in an attempt to discover if Se contamination is present and if Se uptake varies between sampling sites. For this purpose, macrophytes and water from ten locations in the Notranjska and Central regions (Slovenia) with different land use in the catchment were sampled. To assess the environmental conditions of the streams the Riparian, Channel, and Environment (RCE) inventory was applied, which revealed that investigated stretches of streams fall into RCE classes III, IV and V. The concentration of Se in water at all locations was less than 1?gSeL(-1). The Se content in macrophytes differed between sampling sites, with the highest content of Se in samples from Žerovniš?ica stream and the lowest in samples from Lipsenjš?ica stream. The content of Se was the highest in moss samples (3038ngSeg(-1) DM) and in the amphibious species Veronica anagallis-aquatica (1507ngSeg(-1) DM). PMID:24997953

  14. Initial characterization of an unidentified Armillaria isolate from Serbia using LSU-IGS1 and TEF-1-a genes

    E-print Network

    Initial characterization of an unidentified Armillaria isolate from Serbia using LSU-IGS1 and TEF-1 of Belgrade-Faculty of Forestry, 1, Kneza Viseslava street, 11030, Belgrade, Serbia; 2 USDA Forest Service Serbia could represent an evolutionary ancestral state because of its separate, basal position compared

  15. Last date modified 1/16/13 Location and Institution THE BALKANS: SERBIA, BOSNIA, KOSOVO-PEACE AND CONFLICT STUDIES

    E-print Network

    Galles, David

    Last date modified 1/16/13 Location and Institution THE BALKANS: SERBIA, BOSNIA of Yugoslavia and the Wars of the 1990s; Peace and Conflict Studies in Serbia, Bosnia with US passports will not need a visa for Serbia, Bosnia, or Kosovo. A couple

  16. Morphological and molecular analysis of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Slovakia with five new records.

    PubMed

    Sarvašová, Adela; Ko?išová, Alica; Halán, Miloš; Delécolle, Jean-Claude; Mathieu, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The biodiversity of Culicoides from eastern Slovakia was investigated by light trapping. An integrative taxonomy approach combining DNA barcode sequence and morphological analyses was used to accurately identify specimens. Five species were newly recorded from Slovakia: Culicoides picturatus Kremer & Deduit, C. gejgelensis Dzhafarov, C. clastrieri Callot et al., C. griseidorsum Kieffer and C. odiatus Austen. The checklist of the Culicoides species recorded from SK has been updated to 63 species and barcode sequence data is provided for 8 species not previously available on GenBank. Conflict between results from molecular and morphological analyses resulted in the discovery of some potentially new cryptic species and the inability of DNA barcodes to distinguish C. festivipennis Kieffer from C. clastrieri, C. salinarius Kieffer from C. manchuriensis Tokunaga and C. pallidicornis Kieffer from C. subfasciipennis Kieffer. These conflicts suggest further study is required to clarify the status of these species.  PMID:25544100

  17. Composition of Essential Oils of Some Wild Salvia Species Growing in Serbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Claude Chalchat; Silvana D. Petrovic; Zoran A. Maksimovic; Momcilo S. Gorunovic

    2004-01-01

    The oils of two wild Salvia species from Serbia: S. nemorosa from the Deliblato Sands (Vojvodina), and S. glutinosa from the vicinity of the Vlasina Lake (southeastern Serbia) were subjected to analysis. The oil yields from the dried aerial parts from S. nemorosa and S. glutinosa were 0.3 vol% and 0.028 g%, respectively. The compositions of the oils were determined

  18. POSSIBILITY OF EFFICIENT UTILIZATION OF WOOD WASTE AS A RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCE IN SERBIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bojan ?er?an; Tamara Luki?; Milka Bubalo-Živkovi?; Branislav ?ur?ev; Rastislav Stojsavljevi?; Milana Panteli?

    2012-01-01

    Wood biomass in Serbia is traditionally used for energy. However, the manner of its use is outdated, and efficiency is very low. Annually over 3.5 million m3 of wood is cut down for energy needs in Serbia. In order to better exploit all forms of woody biomass, especially the one that is now treated as waste, and in order to

  19. The Influence of Dominant Global Climate Phenomena ENSO, NAO, and AO on Climate in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, G.; Reljin, I.; Reljin, B.

    2010-09-01

    The relationship between El Ni?o and temperatures in Serbia has been proved. Certain correlation among the average monthly temperatures in Serbia and in Ni?o 3,4 region, with three months delay, has been found. The fractal analysis of these temperature series was performed via R/S statistic indicating fractal and multifractal (MF) nature of processes. The calculation of cross-correlation coefficients between NAO index and precipitation, temperature, and pressure data in Serbia has proved considerable NAO influence on Serbia region, especially during winter. The following correlation values were obtained between NAO Index and: pressure 0.60, temperature 0,64, both for Belgrade, while for Niksic negative cross-correlation was obtained for precipitation -0,53. The fractal and multifractal analyses of pressure data series on a number of stations in a wide region from Azores to Iceland and Serbia were done. The obtained results showed that each station in the region has characteristic multifractal spectra of pressure data. The teleconnection with NAO has been also proved by the comparisons of EOF analysis of pressure field in Serbia with the EOF for the north Atlantic domain. The analyses of NAO influence based on daily precipitation data on stations in Serbia and NAO daily index plus AO daily index were prepared, too. These results suggest that AO influence in Serbia is more prominent than the one obtained for NAO.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different types of smoked meat products from Serbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jasna Djinovic; Aleksandar Popovic; Wolfgang Jira

    2008-01-01

    The contents of the16 EU priority PAHs in six different meat products from Serbia (beef ham, pork ham, bacon without skin, bacon with skin, cajna sausage and sremska sausage) were examined during the process of smoking. All these meat products from meat industry Zlatiborac, Ma?kat, Serbia presented in this study, have not previously been analysed concerning to their contents of

  1. Colorado potato beetle [ Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)] resistance to organophosphates and carbamates in Serbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Stankovi?; A. Zabel; M. Kostic; B. Manojlovic; S. Rajkovic

    2004-01-01

    Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), the Colorado potato beetle (potato beetle), is the most destructive potato pest in Serbia. Up to four pesticide treatments are necessary for its control. Insecticide resistance of the potato beetle in Serbia is well-investigated and documented, especially to organophosphates and carbamates. Toxicity of chlorpyriphos (organophosphates) and carbosulfan (carbamates) was investigated by topical application, using adults of the

  2. Maize redness in Serbia caused by stolbur phytoplasma is transmitted by Reptalus panzeri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize redness (MR) causes midrib, leaf and stalk reddening and abnormal ear development in maize in Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria. High populations of the ciixid Reptalus panzeri were found in MR affected maize fields in the southern Banat region of Serbia in 2005 and 2006, and stolbur phytoplasma w...

  3. Empowering Schools to Serve as Safety Nets for Children with Behavior Problems in Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutlesic, Vesna

    2011-01-01

    Children with special needs have been a focus of institutional reforms in Serbia for nearly two decades. Historically, as in other Eastern European countries, children with severe developmental, emotional, and/or behavior disorders in Serbia were often placed in institutions far from their families for much of their lives. Since the fall of…

  4. Geochemical monitoring of thermal waters in Slovenia: relationships to seismic activity.

    PubMed

    Zmazek, B; Italiano, F; Zivci?, M; Vaupotic, J; Kobal, I; Martinelli, G

    2002-12-01

    Thermally anomalous fluids released in seismic areas in Slovenia were the subjects of geochemical monitoring. Thermal waters were surveyed from the seismically active area of Posocje (Bled and Zatolmin; NW Slovenia) and from Rogaska Slatina in eastern Slovenia. Continuous monitoring of geochemical parameters (radon concentration, electrical conductivity, and water temperature) was performed with discrete gas sampling for their (3)He/(4)He ratio. The observed values were correlated with meteorological parameters (rainfall, barometric pressure and air temperature) and with seismic activity. Only a few earthquakes occurred in the vicinity of the measuring sites during the monitoring period. Nevertheless, changes in radon concentration, water temperature, electrical conductivity and helium isotopic ratio were detected at the three thermal springs in the periods preceding the earthquakes. A close correlation was also observed of both water temperature and electrical conductivity with the Earth tide, making the observations in the selected sites a promising tool for addressing the widely debated question of earthquake prediction. PMID:12406638

  5. Morphometry of non-native black bullhead Ameiurus melas from Slovakia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Novomeská; Vladimír Ková?; Stanislav Katina

    2010-01-01

    The study on the external morphology of the non-native black bullhead (Ameiurus melas) was carried out on a population from Slovakia, based on triple regression and geometrical analysis. The breakpoints distribution\\u000a in distance-based morphometric characters indicated that black bullhead reached its definitive phenotype early in ontogeny.\\u000a Ontogenetic changes in external morphology occurred continuously throughout the whole size-range of the sample

  6. Invasive American crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus (Decapoda: Astacidae) in the Morava River (Slovakia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam Petrusek; Tereza Petrusková

    2007-01-01

    The signal crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus (Dana, 1852), was recorded in the Slovak-Austrian stretch of the Morava (March) River in the Záhorie region in August 2006.\\u000a This is the first confirmed record of a non-indigenous crayfish species of American origin in Slovakia. Most likely, signal\\u000a crayfish were intentionally released to the river by Austrian fishermen, or invaded from adjacent water bodies

  7. Genetic Analysis of Gitelman Syndrome Patients from the Czech Republic and Slovakia – Three Novel Mutations Found

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markéta Urbanová; Jana Reiterová; Romana Ryšavá; Jitka Štekrová; Miroslav Merta

    2006-01-01

    Background: To investigate the genetic cause of inherited hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis associated with Gitelman’s syndrome, we searched for mutations in the SLC12A3 gene (thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter) among a set of patients from the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Methods: We collected blood samples of patients from 16 families with characteristic clinical features. DNA was analyzed for mutation detection with SSCP and

  8. Geochemical Atlas of Slovakia and examples of its applications to environmental problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Rapant; D. Bodis; K. Vrana; V. Cve?ková; J. Kordík; K. Krcmová; I. Slaninka

    2009-01-01

    Results of comprehensive geochemical mapping and thematic studies of the Slovak territory (rocks, soils, stream sediments,\\u000a groundwaters, biomass, and radioactivity) in the first half of the 1990s led to several new research programmes in Slovakia,\\u000a within the frame of which new methodologies for geochemical data evaluation and map visualization were elaborated. This study\\u000a describes the application and elaboration of data

  9. Extensive examination of different tick species for infestation with Coxiella burnetii in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Rehácek, J; Urvölgyi, J; Kocianová, E; Sekeyová, Z; Vavreková, M; Kovácová, E

    1991-05-01

    Between 1987-1989 almost 7000 adult Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor reticulatus, Dermacentor marginatus, Haemaphysalis concinna, Haemaphysalis punctata and Haemaphysalis inermis ticks collected in all 38 districts of Slovakia were screened for the presence of Coxiella burnettii. The proportion of ticks containing C. burnetii as indicated by the haemocyte test was less than 3%. Attempts to recover C. burnetii by inoculation of yolk sacs of embryonated hen eggs from pools of 1-6 specimens of haemocyte test positive ticks resulted in the isolation of 10 rickettsial strains. Six strains were recovered from I. ricinus, the remaining ones from single pools of D. reticulatus, D. marginatus. H. concinna and H. inermis ticks. In addition to the previous recovery of C. burnetii from H. punctata ticks, the agent was thus isolated from all important ticks living in Slovakia. The agent was found in tick habitats regardless of the latitude and altitude in the entire country. These results are not consistent with the negligible number of Q fever cases occurring in past years in Slovakia. PMID:1884784

  10. Trends in hydrological drought in eastern Slovakia by analysis of low flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenakova, Martina; Solakova, Tatiana; Purcz, Pavol; Simonova, Dorota; Kuzevicova, Zofia

    2014-05-01

    An important function in both engineering hydrology and integrated catchment area management is performed by statistical analysis. This paper presents the trend analysis of low water flows in selected rivers in Eastern Slovakia. There are many statistical methods for data evaluation. The most of useful, presented in this paper, is the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test. This analysis was carried out for statistical data from 63 river stations lying in the eastern part of Slovakia, namely in Hornád, Poprad, Bodva, Bodrog river basins. The data were obtained from the Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute, Regional Centre Košice. Because the low flow data are not comparable for the individual stations, normally it is only possible to do the statistical analysis for each river station separately. The relative sizes of the low stream flow trends in individual river stations were calculated as directives of the trend lines. Using ArcView GIS 3.2 was created thematic map from geographical map of Eastern Slovakia.

  11. Anthropometry, nutrition status and thymic size of Gypsy newborns from southwestern Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Varga, I; Toth, F; Uhrinova, A; Nescakova, E; Pospisilova, V; Polak, S

    2009-01-01

    Gypsy population represents a specific minority in Slovakia that differs from the majority population by its origin and genetic markers, as well as by generally lower social and economic status and lower hygienic standards of living. The aim of the present work is the analysis of anthropometric dimensions and indexes, as well as of thymus size, in the group of Gypsy and non-Gypsy newborns from the Southern Slovakia. Our group of 212 physiological newborns consisted of 33 Gypsy and 179 non-Gypsy newborns. All newborns were underwent anthropometric examination and their thymus size was assessed by ultrasonography and calculated as so-called Thymic Index". Gypsy newborns show statistically significant lower anthropometric dimensions (birth weight and birth body length, head and chest circumference) when compared to non-Gypsy newborns, however, they do not differ in the values of nutritional status indicators (arm circumference, Quételet index and Rohrer index). They do not differ even in the thymus size that can be regarded as a "barometer" of the nutrition and of some negative stimuli. In spite of generally deficient nutrition and lower health status of the Gypsy minority in Slovakia, we did not find any significant differences in the indicators of nutritional status or in thymus size (Tab. 2, Ref. 34). PMID:19634577

  12. The first clinically manifested case of angiostrongylosis in a dog in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Miterpáková, Martina; Hurníková, Zuzana; Zalewski, Artur P

    2014-10-01

    The first clinical case of canine angiostrongylosis from Slovakia, previously infection-free country, is described. 18-month old male Bernese mountain dog living in south-eastern part of Slovakia showed poor health condition characterized by weight loss, irritating cough, dispnoe, intense salivation, vomiting and bilateral scleral bleeding. Two times even the acute physical collapse occurred. Blood analysis was provided and revealed increase of total protein, eosinophilia, monocytosis, and mild thrombocytopenia. Anaemia characterized by reduced number of erythrocytes and reduced levels of haemoglobin, packed cell volume and iron was also diagnosed. Larvoscopic Baermann technique revealed the presence of Angiostrongylus first stage larvae. Infected dog excreted larvae in high numbers - in 10 g of the faecal material more than 800 larvae were counted. DNA analysis using PCR confirmed the presence of Angiostrongylus vasorum species. The first clinical case of angiostrongylosis has evidenced that the new life-threatening parasitic disease of dogs has spread to the territory of Slovakia. A serious effort is therefore inevitable to increase the professional awareness and knowledge on diagnosis, treatment and prevention. PMID:25236277

  13. Transboundary Groundwater Body Karavanke/Karawanken Between Austria and Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brencic, M.; Poltnig, W.

    2009-04-01

    Large part of the border region between Republic of Slovenia and Republic of Austria is represented by high east west extended mountainous ridge of Karavanke/Karawanken. It is a range extending along the Slovenian-Austrian border for almost 150 km. Its terrain consists of long and prominent ridges, whose slopes steeply fall to the northern and southern side. Ridges are interrupted by long, deep and narrow valleys. The highest peaks reach over 2000 m above sea level. In the entire range prominent ridges with mountain meadows and forests prevail. The area is scarcely populated, the main economic activities are grazing and forestry, in some places tourism is also developing, especially winter sports centres. Karavanke/Karawanken lies on the contact between two continental plates, the large European plate in the north and the smaller Adriatic plate in the south. When the Adriatic plate was thrusted over the European one towards the north, the collision resulted in the folding of sediments previously deposited in the space between the plates. The contact of both plates caused large lateral displacements, causing the rocks of both plates to fold and fault and then extend along the contact. This is the area of Periadriatic lineament, dividing Karavanke/Karawanken range into their north and south part. Periadriatic lineament is large stripe slip tectonic structure along which on the northern side rocks were extruded to the east and on the southern side to the west. Along the lineament metamorphic (e.g. biotitic and feldsparic para-gneis, amfibolites) and magmatic (e.g. diabaz, granite and tonalite) rocks of various ages are present. Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks cover large part of the mountain ridge. The oldest are Silurian and Ordovician limestone on the northern border followed by Devonian ridge limestones. They are covered by molasse sedimentation in Carbon and shallow marine and river predominantly clastic sedimentation in Perm. The most abundant and with numerous varieties are rocks from Triassic age. In general they can be divided into rocks of Northern and Southern Karavanke/Karawanken deposited in different sedimentation basins. In lower part clastic rocks prevail, going into the upper part of Triassic age more and more carbonate rocks are present. In Southern Karavanke/Karawanken sedimentary rocks formed in the deeper part as well as on the carbonate platform are present, however in Northern Karavanke/Karawanken sedimentary rocks of shallower sedimentary environment are predominant. In the upper Triassic part of Northern Karavanke/Karawanken large zinc and lead ore deposits were formed. Among younger rocks only small patches are present. The most abundant are Rosenbacher coal-bearing beads of Jauntal/Juna in Austria of Miocen age where the uplift history of Karavanke/Karawanken is very well reflected. Extensive Quaternary sediments are present as slope sediments and sediments filling deep valleys. At the end of the 20th century decision was made to construct a 7,8 km long road tunnel through Karavanke/Karawanken between Hrušica on the Slovenian side and Rosenbach/Podrožca on the Austrian side. It was established already during the construction that waters flowing from the tunnel represent an important water resource. In Slovenia some of these springs were captured and led into the water supply network, while in Austria they remained well protected water resource for the future. Such important water resources require protection, which in turn demands knowledge about their recharge areas. This fact stimulated authorities of both countries to support the beginning of hydrogeological investigations in the west Karavanke/Karawanken region through the common ''Drava/Drau water-management commission'' and subcommission "Drinking water reserves of Karavanke/Karawanken mountains". During hydrogeological investigations detailed hydrogeological mapping of the whole Karavanke/Karawanken ridge was made. Sampling of important springs and low water discharge measurements followed this stage. Samples were taken for basic ch

  14. Do Admission Criteria for Teacher Education Institutions Matter? A Comparative Study on Beliefs of Student Teachers from Serbia and Slovenia about Inclusive Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecek, Mojca; Macura-Milovanovic, Suncica

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between admissions criteria, the preparation provided by teacher education programmes and student teachers' (STs) beliefs about inclusive education (IE) are rarely made explicit. The paucity of data regarding this relationship leads us to question whether teacher candidates' prior beliefs matter relative to admissions…

  15. BRYOPHYTE FLORA OF THE UVAC RIVER GORGE (SOUTHWEST SERBIA)

    E-print Network

    M. Velji?; P. D. Marin; D. Lakuši?; Biljana Ljubi?

    Abstract – In the examined area, 165 taxa were found and identified: 139 taxa from the class Bryopsida and 26 taxa from the class Marchantiopsida. Nine species are red-listed in Serbia. Material was collected from 62 localities, which were analyzed for similarity of chorological and ecological features using the Jaccard similarity index. Analysis of floristic elements and phytogeographic distribution showed that the greatest number of taxa are temperate elements with Holarctic distribution. Results of ecological analysis showed that in regard to the substratum aspect, terricolous, basophilous, and indifferent species were dominant. In relation to the ecological parameter humidity, most species were mesophilous. The majority of identified bryophytes were sciophilous taxa.

  16. Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe: Tackling Social and Cultural Inequalities. Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnsek, Nada; Batistic, Marcela Zorec

    2008-01-01

    Slovenia has a single structure of preschool education system providing comprehensive education and care (educare) for children aged one to six (more precisely, from the end of maternity leave to the child's entering compulsory school). It is offered mostly by public preschool institutions (vrtci). Preschool education is a part of the whole system…

  17. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Slovenia 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plevnik, Primoz; Podobnik, Ursula

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Slovenia's arts and cultural education. The Ministry of Education and Sport is responsible for laying down the aims for cultural and creative dimensions of education. Concerning the creation of the curriculum related to culture and creativity (both within education) and the arts curriculum, most curricular decisions are made…

  18. High prevalence of enteric viruses in untreated individual drinking water sources and surface water in Slovenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrej Steyer; Karmen Godi? Torkar; Ion Gutiérrez-Aguirre; Mateja Poljšak-Prijatelj

    2011-01-01

    Waterborne infections have been shown to be important in outbreaks of gastroenteritis throughout the world. Although improved sanitary conditions are being progressively applied, fecal contaminations remain an emerging problem also in developed countries. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of fecal contaminated water sources in Slovenia, including surface waters and groundwater sources throughout the country. In

  19. The Influence of Nutrition Education on the Food Consumption and Nutrition Attitude of Schoolchildren in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostanjevec, Stojan; Jerman, Janez; Koch, Verena

    2012-01-01

    In Slovenia, nutrition education is included in the compulsory education curriculum of the nine-year elementary school. The aim of nutrition education is for schoolchildren to acquire knowledge on nutrition to help them form healthy nutritional habits. This research aims at establishing whether the formal nutrition education carried out at schools…

  20. Mothers or Institutions? How Women Work and Care in Slovenia and the Czech Republic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lenka Formánková; Ivana Dobroti?

    2011-01-01

    This article considers women's and men's roles in the labour market and the different ways in which care-work is shared in Slovenia and the Czech Republic. Effective policy measures can prevent parenting of young children becoming one of the greatest risks of falling into poverty. The authors discuss to what extent the prevailing ideals of care influence the policies in

  1. Development of Mobile Communications in Slovenia: Looking to the Future Global Information (Mobile/Internet) Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonic, Tomaz; Mlinar, Tomi

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the planning and provision of mobile communications in Slovenia and suggests areas that will be developed in the future. Topics include the global mobile market; digital mobile networks; evolution from voice to multimedia services; wireless application protocol; the Internet; general packet radio service; and universal mobile…

  2. The New Evangelisation and Adult Religious Education in Slovenia: Challenges and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegu, Tadej

    2015-01-01

    The Catholic Church in Slovenia is facing the challenge of the new evangelisation in the area of religious education which, at present, is mainly confined to the parish catechesis. She recognises the urgent need to pass from the religious education of children to adult catechesis. The latter is already being implemented in various forms by a…

  3. Tree-Ring Investigations in Oak and Ash from Different Sites in Slovenia

    E-print Network

    Cufar, Katarina

    . (sessile oak), and Fraxinus excelsior L. (European ash) from seven typical stands in the Ljubljana Moor) and Q. petraea Liebl. (sessile oak), is among the most investigated tree species in European). Oaks south of the Alps such as in Slovenia have not been yet thoroughly investigated, 1) University

  4. Present and future ecological footprint of Slovenia—The influence of energy demand scenarios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sašo Medved

    2006-01-01

    The international community – including Slovenia, which recently became a EU member state – has expressed its commitment to sustainable development. The methods necessary to measure the degrees of success in achieving this final goal must be developed in parallel. Recently, the ecological footprint method has gained more prominence. In this paper, for the first time, the Slovenian ecological footprint

  5. BRYOPHYTE SPECIES DIVERSITY OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS IN SLOVENIA (INTENSIVE MONITORING PROGRAMME)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lado KUTNAR

    As part of the Intensive Monitoring Programme (IM) of Forest Ecosystems in Slovenia, the bryophyte flora and vegetation have been studied on 11 IM plots and 64 vegetation sub-plots (10×10 m). On the IM plots, high species diversity of bryophytes has been assessed. The total number of bryophytes was 109; among them 82 species belonging to the mosses (Bryophyta) and

  6. Unemployment in Eastern Europe Value of human capital in transition to market: Evidence from Slovenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter F. Orazem; Milan Vodopivec

    The paper summarizes existing hard evidence concerning the changing value of human capital in Slovenia's transition to a market system. It investigates changes in patterns of job mobility (via estimating multinomial logit and hazard models) and changes in the structure of wages (via earnings functions) associated with education, experience, gender, and ethnicity. Data are drawn from unusually rich administrative data

  7. Value of Human Capital in Transition Market: Evidence from Slovenia September 1996

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Orazem; Milan Vodopivec

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes existing hard evidence concerning the changing value of human capital in Slovenia's transition to a market system. It investigates changes in patterns of job mobility (via estimating multinomial logit and hazard models) and changes in the structure of wages (via earnings functions) associated with education, experience, gender, and ethnicity. Data are drawn from unusually rich administrative data

  8. Value of human capital in transition to market: Evidence from Slovenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter F. Orazem; Milan Vodopivec

    1997-01-01

    The paper summarizes existing hard evidence concerning the changing value of human capital in Slovenia's transition to a market system. It investigates changes in patterns of job mobility (via estimating multinomial logit and hazard models) and changes in the structure of wages (via earnings functions) associated with education, experience, gender, and ethnicity. Data are drawn from unusually rich administrative data

  9. Implementing Change in Architectural Design in Elementary School Art Education in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batic, Janja

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a study of the effects of an action research project that aimed to improve the practice of teaching art in elementary schools in Slovenia. The specific focus was on the planning and execution of art tasks relating to architectural design. The planned improvements were based on the process of architectural design from…

  10. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing in Slovenia: availability, ethical dilemmas and legislation

    PubMed Central

    Vrecar, Irena; Peterlin, Borut; Teran, Natasa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Over the last few years, many private companies are advertising direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC GT), mostly with no or only minor clinical utility and validity of tests and without genetic counselling. International professional community does not approve provision of DTC GT and situation in some EU countries has been analysed already. The aim of our study was to analyse current situation in the field of DTC GT in Slovenia and related legal and ethical issues. Materials and methods Information was retrieved through internet search, performed independently by two authors, structured according to individual private company and the types of offered genetic testing. Results Five private companies and three Health Insurance Companies offer DTC GT and it is provided without genetic counselling. Available tests include testing for breast cancer, tests with other health-related information (complex diseases, drug responses) and other tests (nutrigenetic, ancestry, paternity). National legislation is currently being developed and Council of Experts in Medical Genetics has issued an opinion about Genetic Testing and Commercialization of Genetic Tests in Slovenia. Conclusions Despite the fact that Slovenia has signed the Additional protocol to the convention on human rights and biomedicine, concerning genetic testing for health purposes, DTC GT in Slovenia is present and against all international recommendations. There is lack of or no medical supervision, clinical validity and utility of tests and inappropriate genetic testing of minors is available. There is urgent need for regulation of ethical, legal, and social aspects. National legislation on DTC GT is being prepared. PMID:25672471

  11. Demand Functions for Services of Public Railway Passenger Transportation: An Empirical Analysis for Slovenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jani Beko

    2003-01-01

    The paper deals with the estimation of demand functions for services of public railway passenger transportation in the case of Slovenia. Six demand functions were selected and separately interpreted. The aggregate values of demand elasticities reported in this paper suggest that the railway passenger demand is price and income inelastic. Coefficients of income elasticity below unity show that the services

  12. What Motivates Consumers to Buy Organic Food: Comparison of Croatia, Bosnia Herzegovina, and Slovenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marija Cerjak; Željka Mesi?; Marko Kopi?; Damir Kova?i?; Jerko Markovina

    2010-01-01

    Knowing consumers' wishes is an important condition for making an efficient sales concept.The goal of this article is to determine the consumer attitudes about organic food, their buying motives, and satisfaction with the offer of organic food products in the markets of Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Slovenia. Comparing data collected for three countries will give insight into common and specific characteristics

  13. Science Achievement, Gender Differences, and Experimental Work in Classes in Slovenia as Evident in TIMSS Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavesic, Barbara Japelj

    2008-01-01

    Since 1999, Slovenia has been in the process of introducing nine years of compulsory education to replace the previous eight-year system of compulsory education. Under the new system, the school entry age is six years rather than the former seven years. This reform of the system necessitated a number of other changes, such as those relating to the…

  14. Gender-Role Attitudes in University Students in the United States, Slovenia, and Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frieze, Irene Hanson; Ferligoj, Anuska; Kogovsek, Tina; Rener, Tanja; Horvat, Jasna; Sarlija, Natasa

    2003-01-01

    Determinants of gender-role attitudes were examined in samples of university students from Pittsburgh in the United States, Ljubljana in Slovenia, and Osijek in Croatia. Surveys including items from the Attitudes Toward Women Scale and the Neosexism Scale were administered to a total of 1,544 U.S. students, 912 Slovene students, and 996 Croatian…

  15. Archaeology of the Ljubljanica River (Slovenia): early underwater investigations and some current issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrej Gaspari

    2003-01-01

    Abundant archaeological evidence and specific geomorphologic features make the upper course of the Ljubljanica River running through Ljubljana Moor (Slovenia) one of the most interesting rivers in Europe. Roman bronze vessels and iron weapons found by chance in the Ljubljanica at Vrhnika, the ancient Nauportus, led the director of the Provincial Museum in Ljubljana, Karel Dežman, to devise a large

  16. The concept of hydropower certification in Italy and Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolar-Zvanut, Natasa; Goltara, Andrea; Conte, Gulio

    2010-05-01

    River regulation by building a hydropower plants (HPPs) is one of the most stressful factor influencing the aquatic and riparian ecosystem. In many countries a development of HPPs is often opposed by public bodies and NGOs, worried about the risk of adverse effects on the "good status" of water bodies, that, according to the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC, WFD), has to be reached by year 2015. The paper describes a technically and economically feasible certification procedure for existing hydro power generation facilities of higher environmental standard, being explicitly coherent with the requirements of the WFD, to be implemented in "green labelled" electricity products, and being integrated, as much as possible, with existing EU tools, such as Ecolabel, EMAS, EIA and SEA. The methodology was developed for Italy and Slovenia and it will be tested in different types of HPPs in both countries. In order to be certified, a given HPP has to commit to carry out appropriate measures in order to mitigate its impacts on specified environmental objectives, in such a way to fulfil predefined environmental targets and prescriptions. These measures have to be described through a specific management programme, based upon a dedicated environmental study, supported mainly by existing data, but complemented by ad-hoc assessment/monitoring when necessary. The realization of both the environmental study and the management programme must be supported by public consultation; both documents must be approved through an auditing process. For some types of HPPs, operating in totally artificial networks and not entailing direct or indirect impact on water related ecosystems, a simplified procedure is foreseen, where detailed environmental analysis, related management programme and stakeholders involvement are not requested, but just a description of the system and proof of fulfilment of the conditions and of specific prescriptions. HPPs impacting water bodies defined as Artificial or Heavily Modified (following the definitions of the WFD) in most cases have to fulfil more limited environmental targets. The involvement of local stakeholders must be ensured along the whole certification procedure and, when completed, during the lifespan of the label. The methodology includes a predefined framework where pressure factors due to hydropower production are related to potentially impacted environmental quality elements. For each of these cause-effect relationships possible mitigation measures are suggested. In the long run, it is expected that the certification will have a positive impact on hydro power generation in Europe, will help focusing the conception of new HPPs towards more sustainable solutions and making easier authorization procedure.

  17. Prevalence of avian influenza viruses, Borrelia garinii, Mycobacterium avium, and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in waterfowl and terrestrial birds in Slovakia, 2006

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulina Gronesova; Martina Ficova; Adriana Mizakova; Peter Kabat; Alfred Trnka; Tatiana Betakova

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of Borrelia, Mycobacteria and avian influenza virus (AIV) infections, together with the distribution of different AIV subtypes, was studied in migratory waterfowl and terrestrial birds trapped in three localities in Slovakia during 2006. Samples obtained from waterfowl captured in the Senianske Ponds area of Eastern Slovakia showed the highest diversity of AIV isolates. A total of 13 different

  18. Large scale relationships between basin and riparian land cover and ecological status of European rivers: examples with invertebrate indices from France, Estonia, Slovakia and

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, UniversitĂŠ de

    rivers: examples with invertebrate indices from France, Estonia, Slovakia and United Kingdom. JEAN invertebrate indices of ecological quality to river basin and riparian land cover in France, Slovakia, Estonia and UK. Invertebrate indices, transformed to Ecological Quality Ratios (EQR), were taken from national

  19. Torrential floods and town and country planning in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risti?, R.; Kostadinov, S.; Abolmasov, B.; Dragi?evi?, S.; Trivan, G.; Radi?, B.; Trifunovi?, M.; Radosavljevi?, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Torrential floods are the most frequent natural catastrophic events in Serbia, causing the loss of human lives and huge material damage, both in urban and rural areas. The analysis of the intra-annual distribution of maximal discharges aided in noticing that torrential floods have a seasonal character. The erosion and torrent control works (ETCWs) in Serbia began at the end of the 19th century. Effective protection from torrential floods encompasses biotechnical works on the slopes in the watershed and technical works on the torrent beds, within a precisely defined administrative and spatial framework in order to achieve maximal safety for people and their property. Cooperation to overcome the conflicts between the sectors of the water resources management, forestry, agriculture, energetics, environmental protection and local economic development groups is indispensable at the following levels: policy, spatial planning, practice, investments and education. The lowest and most effective level is through the Plans for Announcement of Erosive Regions (PAERs) and the Plans for Protection from Torrential Floods (PPTFs), with Hazard Zones (HZs) and Threatened Areas (TAs) mapping on the basis of the hydrologic, hydraulic and spatial analysis of the factors that are important for the formation of torrential floods. Solutions defined through PAERs and PPTFs have to be integrated into Spatial Plans at local and regional levels.

  20. Microinvasive cervical squamous cell carcinoma in Slovenia during the period 2001–2007

    PubMed Central

    Gutnik, Helena; Matisic, Jasenka P.; Zakelj, Maja Primic; Flezar, Margareta Strojan

    2014-01-01

    Background Microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma (MISCC) comprises a significant portion of all cervical cancers in Slovenia. Criteria of carcinomatous invasion are well described in the literature, however histopathological assessment of MISCC is difficult, because morphological characteristics can overlap with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN 3) and other pathological changes. The aim of our study was to evaluate the reliability of the histopathological diagnosis of MISCC in Slovenia during the period from 2001 to 2007. Materials and methods. Data on patients with a histopathological diagnosis of cervical MISCC (FIGO stage IA) in the period of 2001 to 2007 were obtained from the Cancer Registry of Slovenia. Histological slides were obtained from the majority of pathology laboratories in Slovenia. We received 250 cases (69% of all MISCC) for the review; 30 control cases with CIN 3 and invasive squamous cell carcinoma FIGO stage IB were intermixed. The slides were coded and reviewed. Results Among 250 cases originally diagnosed as MISCC, there was an agreement with MISCC diagnosis in 184 (73.6%) cases (of these 179/184 (97.3%) cases were FIGO stage IA1 and 5/184 (2.7%) cases were FIGO stage IA2). Among 179 FIGO stage IA1 cases 117 (65.4%) showed only early stromal invasion. Conclusions The retrospective review of cases diagnosed as MISCC during the period 2001–2007 in Slovenia showed a considerable number of overdiagnosed cases. Amongst cases with MISCC confirmed on review, there was a significant proportion with early stromal invasion (depth of invasion less than 1 mm). PMID:25177242

  1. HIV and risk behaviour among men who have sex with men in Slovakia (2008-2009).

    PubMed

    Staneková, Danica; Kramárová, Patrícia; Wimmerová, So?a; Hábeková, Monika; Taká?ová, Mária; Mojzesová, Mária

    2014-12-01

    The HIV infection remains a major public health issue in the world and especially in those countries where there exists unprotected sexual intercourse between people of the same sex. It is namely the category of men having sex with men (MSM) that still represents a group at high risk of being infected with HIV or transmitting the virus. The aim of our study was to present HIV 2nd generation surveillance data on MSM in Slovakia in the period between the years 2008 and 2009. Time-location sampling (TLS) was used to recruit participants and oral fluid samples together with completed anonymous questionnaires were collected simultaneously. The oral fluids were tested with use of the Genscreen HIV ˝ version 2, (Bio-Rad) and Western Blot (Genlabs) diagnostic kits. The data analysis was performed using Stata version 8. Saliva testing revealed HIV prevalence of 6.1% (21/349) among MSM in Slovakia. 75% of HIV-positive cases were undiagnosed. The high-risk behaviour of MSM in respect to the number of their sexual partners as well as drug and condom usage did not correspond with their relatively high knowledge about HIV/AIDS. People's attitude towards MSM was found to be the worst in the religious context. Though our results reflect a relative good knowledge of MSM about HIV/AIDS infection, new HIV-positive cases and high-risk behaviour still appear, suggesting the need for more effective HIV prevention among members of this high-risk group in Slovakia. PMID:25622481

  2. First records of the tick Ixodes frontalis (Panzer, 1795) (Acari, Ixodidae) in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Bona, Martin; Stanko, Michal

    2013-12-01

    Ixodes frontalis (Panzer, 1975) is a three-host tick usually considered strictly specific to birds. The first evidence of I. frontalis from Slovakia is presented in this paper. One male and 4 nymphs were collected using the flagging method in 2 different geomorphological units, the Slovak Karst and the Zvolen basin, during collections in the autumn of 2011, and next in spring and autumn 2012. The fact that we managed to capture 2 different stages of I. frontalis several times on vegetation supports one of the following hypotheses: (i) The ticks are frequently imported by migratory birds, or (ii) a permanent surviving population currently exists in Central Europe. PMID:24001993

  3. History of remote-sensing methods in meteorology, cloud physics and nowcasting in Slovakia over the period 1965-1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podhorský, Dušan; Guba, Peter

    2014-03-01

    A brief overview of building the radar and satellite meteorology in Slovakia over the period 1965-1990 and application of dispatching locators of PAR, SRE and RSR types for studying the evolution of convective cells is given. Further, the conception and implementation of a meteorological radar network in Slovakia, the algorithms for recognition of clouds and phenomena related to the parameters of radioecho are reviewed. The development of a new laser radar (LIDAR) and the application of a prototype meteorological radar with the TESLA RM-3 controlled polarizer are described.

  4. Transnational advocacy networks: the case of Roma mobilization in Macedonia and Serbia 

    E-print Network

    Grewal, Ramneek

    2012-06-29

    The purpose of this study is to ascertain and explain the effectiveness of Roma political activism in contesting state oppression in Macedonia and Serbia. More specifically, this thesis seeks to investigate the divergent ...

  5. The maximum temperatures and heat waves in Serbia during the summer of 2007

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miroslava Unkaševi?; Ivana Toši?

    2011-01-01

    An extraordinary heat wave occurred in Serbia from July 14 to July 24 in 2007. Record values of the maximum temperatures were\\u000a observed over almost the whole territory of Serbia and in Smederevska Palanka, a temperature of 44.9°C was registered, which\\u000a was the absolute maximum value ever recorded. The highest increase over the previous absolute maximum temperature, dating\\u000a back to

  6. Police violence and sexual risk among female and transvestite sex workers in Serbia: qualitative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim Rhodes; Milena Simi?; Sladjana Baroš; Lucy Platt; Bojan Žiki?

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore female and transvestite sex workers’ perceptions of risk in the sex work environment in Serbia.Design Qualitative interview study.Setting Street based locations for sex work in Belgrade and Pancevo, Serbia.Participants 31 female and transvestite sex workers.Results Violence, including police violence, was reported as a primary concern in relation to risk. Violence was linked to unprotected sex and the

  7. Comparative health risks of domestic waste combustion in urban and rural Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová, Jana; Eschenroeder, Alan Q

    2007-10-01

    This paper addresses the health risk incurred by two alternative waste management schemes: open burning of household waste in barrels practiced in rural Slovakia and controlled municipal waste combustion in the city of Bratislava. Using agricultural land use data and village population data we formulate three prototype villages, each representing about one-third of the rural population. The two configurations of the controlled combustion are an outdated municipal waste incinerator (MWI) and a modern waste-to-energy (WTE) plant equipped with modern air pollution control devices. These configurations actually exist(ed) in Bratislava, Slovakia at the same site, but in different time frames. The CALPUFF model provides direct exposure data and the EMERAM software (developed in this paper) computes indirect exposure. A major source of uncertainty is that of the fraction of waste burned in the open. The analysis presented here assumed 10%. At this level, the cancer risk from open burning ranges from 10 to 80 times the commonly regarded de minimus value of one in a million. This means that underthe U.S. contemporary regulatory culture, some regulatory action to control or enforce the burning ban would be expected. Cancer risks from the incinerator ranged from 7 to 371 in a million while the WTE risks were below 1 in a million. Cancer risks from open burning are higher than those of the WTE plant and at the same time affect a larger portion of concerned population. PMID:17969705

  8. Community Structure and the Evolution of Interdisciplinarity in Slovenia's Scientific Collaboration Network

    PubMed Central

    Lužar, Borut; Levnaji?, Zoran; Povh, Janez; Perc, Matjaž

    2014-01-01

    Interaction among the scientific disciplines is of vital importance in modern science. Focusing on the case of Slovenia, we study the dynamics of interdisciplinary sciences from to . Our approach relies on quantifying the interdisciplinarity of research communities detected in the coauthorship network of Slovenian scientists over time. Examining the evolution of the community structure, we find that the frequency of interdisciplinary research is only proportional with the overall growth of the network. Although marginal improvements in favor of interdisciplinarity are inferable during the 70s and 80s, the overall trends during the past 20 years are constant and indicative of stalemate. We conclude that the flow of knowledge between different fields of research in Slovenia is in need of further stimulation. PMID:24728345

  9. Holocaust Education in the "Black Hole of Europe": Slovakia's Identity Politics and History Textbooks Pre- and Post-1989

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaels, Deborah L.

    2013-01-01

    Holocaust education in Slovakia stands at the confluence of diverse discourses of state and supra-national legitimation. Principles of national self-determination, minority rights, and political ideologies inform and lend credence to how Slovaks' national and state identities are narrated in Slovak history textbooks. For small nation-states with…

  10. The impact of environmental factors on the distribution pattern of aquatic plants along the Danube River corridor (Slovakia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helena O?ahe?ová; Richard Hrivnák

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate pattern of the aquatic macrophyte species distribution along the Danube fluvial corridor in Slovakia, and to identify the impact of environmental abiotic parameters on macrophyte species diversity. Field sampling was performed in the period 1999–2005 from the boat. Aquatic habitats were divided into 365 survey unit (SU). The survey of aquatic macrophytes

  11. The 32nd International Acoustical Conference -EAA SYMPOSIUM "ACOUSTICS BANSK STIAVNICA 2002" September 10 -12, 2002 SLOVAKIA

    E-print Network

    Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.

    The 32nd International Acoustical Conference - EAA SYMPOSIUM "ACOUSTICS BANSKÁ STIAVNICA 2002" September 10 - 12, 2002 SLOVAKIA 109 Auditory Localization in Rooms: Acoustic Analysis and Behavior Norbert and a KEMAR acoustic manikin at four different listener positions in the room and multiple source positions

  12. A 548-YEAR TREE-RING CHRONOLOGY OF OAK (QUERCUS SPP.) FOR SOUTHEAST SLOVENIA AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE AS A DATING TOOL

    E-print Network

    Cufar, Katarina

    excelsior) and silver fir (Abies alba) in Slovenia. A preliminary dendroclimatic analysis shows history in various woodlands, past forest insect infestations, geomorphological processes, as well as past

  13. The Conservation Knowledge and Attitudes of Teenagers in Slovenia toward the Eurasian Otter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torkar, Gregor; Mohar, Petra; Gregorc, Tatjana; Nekrep, Igor; Adamic, Marjana Honigsfeld

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on human-otter interactions in Slovenia. The aim of the study was to obtain data about secondary-school students' knowledge of and attitudes toward the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and its conservation. The survey was carried out in fall 2008 and winter 2008-09 and included 273 teenagers. Their average age was 15.57 (SD = 1.01,…

  14. DIET COMPOSITION OF THE LONG-EARED OWL IN CENTRAL SLOVENIA: SEASONAL VARIATION IN PREY USE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVORIN TOME

    AISTI˝T.--The diet of long-eared owls (Asio otus) was examined in central Slovenia during 1989-91. Mamahals were the most common prey group (97% by number), with the common vole (Microtus arvalis) as the most frequent prey species (46%); its proportion in the diet varied yearly and seasonally (range 11-90%) according to its population density. When this vole's densities were low, owls

  15. Isotopic characteristics of precipitation in Slovenia and Croatia: Comparison of continental and maritime stations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Polona Vreca; Ines Krajcar Broni?; Nada Horvatincic; Jadranka Baresic

    2006-01-01

    The stable isotopic composition of hydrogen and oxygen (delta2H and delta18O) and tritium activity (3H) were monitored in monthly precipitation at two continental stations (Ljubljana, Zagreb) and six stations along the eastern Adriatic coasts of Slovenia and Croatia in the period 2001 2003. Mean air temperatures and amount of precipitation were also recorded. Distinct differences in both meteorological and isotopic

  16. Determination of nitrogen reduction levels necessary to reach groundwater quality targets in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Andelov, Miso; Kunkel, Ralf; Uhan, Jože; Wendland, Frank

    2014-09-01

    Within a collaborative project between Slovenian Environment Agency (ARSO) and Research Center Jülich (FZJ), nitrogen reduction levels necessary to reach groundwater quality targets in Slovenia were assessed. For this purpose the hydrological model GROWA-DENUZ was coupled with agricultural N balances and applied consistently to the whole territory of Slovenia in a spatial resolution of 100×100m. GROWA was used to determine the water balance in Slovenia for the hydrologic period 1971-2000. Simultaneously, the displaceable N load in soil was assessed from agricultural Slovenian N surpluses for 2011 and the atmospheric N deposition. Subsequently, the DENUZ model was used to assess the nitrate degradation in soil and, in combination with the percolation water rates from the GROWA model, to determine nitrate concentration in the leachate. The areas showing predicted nitrate concentrations in the leachate above the EU groundwater quality standard of 50mg NO3(-)/L have been identified as priority areas for implementing nitrogen reduction measures. For these "hot spot" areas DENUZ was used in a backward mode to quantify the maximal permissible nitrogen surplus levels in agriculture to guarantee a nitrate concentration in percolation water below 50mg NO3(-)/L. Model results indicate that additional N reduction measures should be implemented in priority areas rather than area-covering. Research work will directly support the implementation of the European Union Water Framework Directive in Slovenia, e.g., by using the maximal permissible nitrogen surplus levels as a framework for the derivation of regionally adapted and hence effective nitrogen reduction measures. PMID:25193828

  17. Making Slovenian Citizens: The Problem of the Former Yugoslav Citizens and Asylum Seekers Living in Slovenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SVETLOZAR ANDREEV

    2003-01-01

    Despite the relatively rapid progress made by Slovenia in its post-communist transformation (i.e. statehood building, democratisation, economic reform and Euro-Atlantic integration), several important problems remain regarding the citizenship status and equal treatment of some of its societal groups. Particularly pressing has been the issue of the former Yugoslav citizens and asylum seekers who had resided in the country before its

  18. Food safety knowledge and practices among pregnant and non-pregnant women in Slovenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mojca Jevšnik; Silvestra Hoyer; Peter Raspor

    2008-01-01

    Food safety knowledge and practices among pregnant and non-pregnant women in Slovenia were systematically assessed through an inquiry-based investigation. The study was conducted with 291 pregnant women, who attended antenatal classes at the time of the investigation, and 200 non-pregnant women, all of whom participated during consultation hours for parents in ten, randomly selected primary schools in the country. Results

  19. Lead and cadmium in meat and organs of game in Slovenia

    SciTech Connect

    Doganoc, D.Z.; Gacnik, K.S. [Univ. of Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1995-01-01

    Pollution of the environment and contamination of animals including game with Pb and Cd are serious problems in most countries. Our many-years results of Pb and Cd residues in meat and organs of game show us, that the herbaceous game, which feed only with various herbs are more contaminated than other animals - cattle and pigs. They really seem to be a good environmental contamination indicator. The aim of our research was to establish contamination levels of game with Pb and Cd. Two different regions of Slovenia, an industrial region with a lead mine and smeltry in Koroska and an unindustrial one a Ilirska Bistrica were chosen to study contamination of game. Muscle tissues, heart muscles, kidneys and livers of roe-deer, chamois, red-deer and wild boards were analysed. The correlation between the animals` age and cadmium content in kidney was researched and a positive correlation was established. We have found out to which extent the meat and organs of game correspond with our available tolerances for each single residue and whether they are unfit for human consumption. The results of investigations concerning Pb and Cd content in game analysed in Slovenia in the last four years were shown, too. Results were taken from the reports of the Residue monitoring and surveillance which is performed in the Republic Slovenia for more than ten years. 6 refs., 5 tabs.

  20. Estimated collective effective dose to the population from nuclear medicine examinations in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Skrk, Damijan; Zontar, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    Background A national survey of patient exposure from nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures was performed by Slovenian Radiation Protection Administration in order to estimate their contribution to the collective effective dose to the population of Slovenia. Methods A set of 36 examinations with the highest contributions to the collective effective dose was identified. Data about frequencies and average administered activities of radioisotopes used for those examinations were collected from all nuclear medicine departments in Slovenia. A collective effective dose to the population and an effective dose per capita were estimated from the collected data using dose conversion factors. Results The total collective effective dose to the population from nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures in 2011 was estimated to 102 manSv, giving an effective dose per capita of 0.05 mSv. Conclusions The comparison of results of this study with studies performed in other countries indicates that the nuclear medicine providers in Slovenia are well aware of the importance of patient protection measures and of optimisation of procedures. PMID:24133396

  1. The isotope altitude effect reflected in groundwater: a case study from Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Mezga, Kim; Urbanc, Janko; Cerar, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the stable isotope data of oxygen (?(18)O) and hydrogen (?(2)H) in groundwater from 83 sampling locations in Slovenia and their interpretation. The isotopic composition of water was monitored over 3 years (2009-2011), and each location was sampled twice. New findings on the isotopic composition of sampled groundwater are presented, and the data are also compared to past studies regarding the isotopic composition of precipitation, surface water, and groundwater in Slovenia. This study comprises: (1) the general characteristics of the isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen in groundwater in Slovenia, (2) the spatial distribution of oxygen isotope composition (?(18)O) and d-excess in groundwater, (3) the groundwater isotope altitude effect, (4) the correlation between groundwater d-excess and the recharge area altitude of the sampling location, (5) the relation between hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in groundwater in comparison to the global precipitation isotope data, (6) the groundwater isotope effect of distance from the sea, and (7) the estimated relation between the mean temperature of recharge area and ?(18)O in groundwater. PMID:24437700

  2. Estimated collective effective dose to the population from radiological examinations in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Zontar, Dejan; Zdesar, Urban; Kuhelj, Dimitrij; Pekarovic, Dean; Skrk, Damijan

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to systematically evaluate population exposure from diagnostic and interventional radiological procedures in Slovenia. Methods The study was conducted in scope of the “Dose Datamed 2” project. A standard methodology based on 20 selected radiological procedures was adopted. Frequencies of the procedures were determined via questionnaires that were sent to all providers of radiological procedures while data about patient exposure per procedure were collected from existing databases. Collective effective dose to the population and effective dose per capita were estimated from the collected data (DLP for CT, MGD for mammography and DAP for other procedures) using dose conversion factors. Results The total collective effective dose to the population from radiological in 2011 was estimated to 1300 manSv and an effective dose per capita to 0.6 mSv of which approximately 2/3 are due to CT procedures. Conclusions The first systematic study of population exposure to ionising radiation from radiological procedures in Slovenia was performed. The results show that the exposure in Slovenia is under the European average. It confirmed large contributions of computed tomography and interventional procedures, identifying them as the areas that deserve special attention when it comes to justification and optimisation.

  3. Drought analysis in Serbia using the Standardized Precipitation Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosic, I.; Krzic, A.; Djurdjevic, V.; Unkasevic, M.; Rajkovic, B.

    2010-09-01

    Many quantitative measures of drought have been developed. McKee et al. (1993) introduced the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) to quantify precipitation deficits on multiple time scales (1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 months). The different time scales for which the index is computed address the various types of drought: the shorter seasons for agricultural and meteorological drought, the longer seasons for hydrological drought. Computation of the SPI involves fitting a gamma probability density function to a given frequency distribution of precipitation totals. The parameters of the gamma distribution are used to find the cumulative probability of a precipitation event. An equiprobability transformation is then made from the cumulative distribution to the standard normal distribution with a mean of zero and variance of one. This transformed probability is the SPI value, which varies between +2.0 and -2.0. The SPI is a dimensionless index where negative values indicate drought while positive values, wet conditions. The rainfall series for the present (1961-1990) and future (2071-2100) period were simulated using the Eta Belgrade University - Princeton Ocean Model (EBU-POM). The EBU-POM is a two-way coupled regional climate model, with the Eta/NCEP limited area model as its atmospheric part and POM as its ocean part (Djurdjevic and Rajkovic, 2008). Atmospheric model horizontal resolution was 0.25° and ocean model horizontal resolution was 0.2°. Concentrations of the greenhouse gasses were changed following the A2 scenario. First, a gamma probability density function is fitted to the precipitation data during the period 1961-1990 (the calibration period). The SPI time series with the 12-month time scale (SPI12) for Belgrade and Niš were analyzed and compared with observations. August in 2000 was exceptionally dry in the greater Belgrade area and in northern and eastern Serbia (Unkasevic et al, 2004). The monthly totals were between 5 and 10 mm. Since, the maps of the SPI-12 for August during the period 2071-2100 were drawn to determine the spatial changes of droughts. According to the obtained results, moderately dry climate is expected over greater part of the southern Europe, while severely dry climate is expected in southern Greece. From the analysis we can conclude that the EBU-POM model could capture the climatic data and also the drought indices well. Also, this analysis showed how SPI12 can be used to monitor drought conditions in Serbia. Djurdjevic, V., B. Rajkovic (2008) Verification of a coupled atmosphere-ocean model using satellite observations over the Adriatic Sea. Annales Geophysicae, 26, 1935-1954 McKee, T. B., N. J. Doesken, J. Kleist (1993) The relationship of drought frequency and duration to time scales. Preprints, Eighth Conf. on Applied Climatology, Anaheim, CA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 179-184 Unkasevic, M., I. Tosic, D. Vujovic, 2004: Variability and probability of annual and extreme precipitation over Serbia and Montenegro, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 79, 103-109

  4. 31 CFR 586.514 - Divestiture of U.S. person's equity investment in the territory of the Republic of Serbia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...investment in the territory of the Republic of Serbia. 586.514 Section 586.514 Money...TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...investment in the territory of the Republic of Serbia. Notwithstanding the prohibition...

  5. Intra-population chemical polymorphism in Thymus pannonicus All. growing in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Filippo; Caprioli, Giovanni; Papa, Fabrizio; Sagratini, Gianni; Vittori, Sauro; Kolar?ik, Vladislav; Mártonfi, Pavol

    2014-01-01

    Solid-phase microextraction technique coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to investigate the inter- and intra-population chemical polymorphism in volatile constituents of three populations of Thymus pannonicus growing in Slovakia. To have an idea on what really the plant emits under different environmental and physiological conditions, a total of 86 individuals were separately analysed using low extraction temperatures (30°C). Data were analysed using a chemometric approach such as the principal component analysis which revealed a significant intra-population variability with the existence of up to four chemotypes: the most abundant is the p-cymene/?-terpinene chemotype, followed by the geraniol and linalool chemotypes, and, only in one population, by the ?-muurolene/(E)-caryophyllene chemotype. This differentiation of individual plants inside the populations allows better adaptation to ecological conditions of localities and is probably connected with intrinsic genetic diversity of the species. PMID:24934518

  6. Engineering-Geological Maps of Geological Factors of the Environment in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baliak, František; Br?ek, Martin

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, we have witnessed very frequent natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, storms and similar. In most cases, disasters are caused by geological factors, especially geobarriers. Geobarriers threaten the life and works of man or reduce the effectiveness of the construction and operation of technical works, or harm the environment by negative anthropogenic influences. An important task in assessing the technical and environmental aspects of particular engineering activity is to assess the impact of constructions on the production and protection of the environment. The important part of the environment is the geological environment. In this paper, we give an overview of geological factors of the environment and the way how they are illustrated in the engineering-geological maps made in Slovakia.

  7. Relation between primary liver cancer occurrence and freshwater Cyanobacterial blooms in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svir?ev, Z.; Miladinov-Mikov, M.; Simeunovi?, J.; Vidovi?, M.; Stojanovi?, D.

    2009-04-01

    Since 1980 cyanobacterial blooms occurred in a large number of reservoirs, lakes and running water ecosystems (rivers and channels) in Serbia. Among 49 reservoirs examined, 32 were found in blooming condition almost every year during last 2 decades. All natural lakes and 12 river and channel localities in Vojvodina province (agricultural part) proved to be sites with cyanobacterial proliferation. The part of Central Serbia is very problematic for ground water supply. For that reason 21 reservoirs serve as drinking water suppliers. Significant and persistant cyanobacterial blooms have been recognized in 9 of them. Samples for cyanotoxin analyses were taken during and after blooms in Celije Reservoir and in drinking water in Krusevac town 2 days later. Concentratins of Microcystin-LR were 460 ľg•L-1 and for Microcystin-RR 170 ľg•L-1. Drinking water contained 2 and 0.6 ľg•L-1, respectively. Serbia consists of 30 administrative units, in three of which studies for Primary Liver Cancer (PLC) were conducted independently: Vojvodina, where drinking-water is supplied only from deep wells where 7 regions were studied, Kosovo with a few high mountain reservoirs for water supply without cyanobacterial proliferation where 6 regions were studied, and Central Serbia, where 17 regions were studied. Central Serbia showed 7 regions with extremly high PLC incidence and 8 regions with lower PLC incidence. In the two investigated periods, the high PLC mortality of 11.6 in 1980-1995 and extremely high PLC incidence of 26 in 2000 was observed in the regions affected by heavy cyanobacterial blooms. In contrast, the regions not affected by the blooms, PLC mortality and incidence rates were substantially lower: from 1980-1995 mortality rate ammounted to 2.7 in Kosovo, 7.6 in Vojvodina, and 8.5 in the non-affected regions of Central Serbia, and in 2000 incidence rate ammounted to 4.1 (Kosovo), 6.6 (Vojvodina), and 7.5 in the non-affected regions of Central Serbia. The uneven geographic distribution of liver cancer is conspicuous, and „hot spots" could be related to drinking water supply. It is very clear that PLC high risk regions correspond with cyanobacterial blooming and PLC low risks regions correspond with water supplies not affected by cyanobacteria. PLC incidence in all regions not affected by cyanobacteria, i.e. Vojvodina, Kosovo and some regions in Central Serbia are in a similar range, whereas it is significantly higher in the affected regions of Central Serbia.

  8. Roles of Stolbur phytoplasma and Reptalus panzeri (Cixiinae, Auchenorrhyncha) in the epidemiology of Maize redness in Serbia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize redness (MR), a disease causing midrib, leaf and stalk reddening and abnormal ear development in maize, has been reported from Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria for 50 years. Recent epiphytotics reduced yields by 40-90% in southern Banat, Serbia. MR was recently associated with the presence of th...

  9. Roles of Stolbur Phytoplasma and Reptalus Panzeri (Cixiinae, Auchenorrhyncha) in the Epidemiology of Maize Redness in Serbia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize redness (MR), a disease causing midrib, leaf and stalk reddening and abnormal ear development in maize, has been reported from Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria for 50 years. Recent epiphytotics reduced yields by 40-90% in southern Banat, Serbia. MR was recently associated with the presence of th...

  10. Which Are My Future Career Priorities and What Influenced My Choice of Studying Science, Technology, Engineering or Mathematics? Some Insights on Educational Choice--Case of Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerinsek, Gregor; Hribar, Tina; Glodez, Natasa; Dolinsek, Slavko

    2013-01-01

    This paper is addressing the problem of under-representation of young people in general, and females in particular, in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in Slovenia. It has two main objectives: (1) to identify which priorities male and female STEM students in Slovenia seek in their future careers, and (2) to…

  11. Which are my Future Career Priorities and What Influenced my Choice of Studying Science, Technology, Engineering or Mathematics? Some Insights on Educational Choice—Case of Slovenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregor Cerinsek; Tina Hribar; Natasa Glodez; Slavko Dolinsek

    2012-01-01

    This paper is addressing the problem of under-representation of young people in general, and females in particular, in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in Slovenia. It has two main objectives: (1) to identify which priorities male and female STEM students in Slovenia seek in their future careers, and (2) to identify different important factors (i.e. key

  12. MENOPAVZA V SLOVENIJI: ZNA?ILNOSTI ŽENSK IN POJAVNOST PERIMENOPAVZNIH SIMPTOMOV MENOPAUSE IN SLOVENIA: WOMEN'S CHARACTERISTICS AND THE FREQUENCY OF PERIMENOPAUSAL SYMPTOMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bojana Pinter; Helena Meden-Vrtovec; Ivan Verdenik; Alenka Pretnar-Darovec; Martina Ribi?-Pucelj

    Abstract - Abstract - Abstract - Abstract - Background. We designed the study to determine the frequency of perimenopausal symtoms among women in Slovenia and the need for their treatement. Methods. In the research 578 women aged 45-54 years were included during their visit at one of 24 participating out- patient department clinics for women's health in Slovenia. The women

  13. Determination of phytoestrogen composition in soybean cultivars in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Cveji?, Jelena; Malenci?, Dorde; Tepavcevi?, Vesna; Posa, Mihalj; Miladinovi?, Jegor

    2009-08-01

    The growing clinical interest and use of soybean-based food products and extracts to increase dietary phytoestrogen intake have led to medical interest in the precise determination of the phytoestrogen composition of soybean products. We have analyzed the composition of these compounds in 20 domestic and introduced varieties of genetically non-modified soybean genotypes grown under the same agroecological conditions. The isoflavone content of soybeans cultivated in this region of Serbia has not been previously reported. The assays were performed, after extraction with methanol-water (8:2, v/v), by C18 reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection. The total phytoestrogen concentration was found to be between 2.24 and 3.79 mg g(-1) dry bean weight. The total concentration of daidzein and its derivatives ranged from 0.96 to 1.82 mg g(-1), total glyciteines from 0.34-0.53 mg g(-1), and all genistein derivatives from 0.86-1.67 mg g(-1) dry bean weight. Given the high biological potency of phytoestrogens and their metabolic conversion products, our data suggest that phytoestrogen content screening could be a useful tool in the selection of soybean genotypes with improved health promoting characteristics. PMID:19768985

  14. Fractures in late medieval skeletal populations from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Djuri?, Marija P; Roberts, Charlotte A; Rakocevi?, Zoran B; Djoni?, Danijela D; Lesi?, Aleksandar R

    2006-06-01

    Bone fractures were analyzed from skeletal remains of 861 adult individuals from six cemeteries dating to the Late Medieval period in Serbia. Results of the study were compared to other cemetery populations (635 individual skeletons) of the same date and region in an attempt to understand fracture patterns. The association of types of fractures and their prevalence with sex, age at death, cemetery site, and information deriving from historical sources are discussed. Results showed that the long bone fracture frequency was 0.7%, and the majority of the fractures were the result of direct force. This rate is similar to some studies of contemporary British skeletal samples. However, it is much lower than for some other Old World sites. Cranial vault fractures had a rate of 6.7%, and of the facial skeleton, 1.3%; the frontal bone was the most affected of bones of the cranial vault. Injuries were more common on the upper extremities (0.8%) compared to the lower (0.6%). However, the fibula was the most fractured bone (2.8%), followed by the ulna (2.4%). This pattern is similar to three of six Late Medieval urban sites in Britain. These findings suggest that this rural community was exposed to a low risk of trauma, probably related mostly to accidents sustained during farming, and rarely to interpersonal violence. PMID:16365855

  15. Optimization of heavy metals total emission, case study: Bor (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ili?, Ivana; Bogdanovi?, Dejan; Živkovi?, Dragana; Miloševi?, Novica; Todorovi?, Boban

    2011-07-01

    The town of Bor (Serbia) is one of the most polluted towns in southeastern Europe. The copper smelter which is situated in the centre of the town is the main pollutant, mostly because of its old technology, which leads to environmental pollution caused by higher concentrations of SO 2 and PM 10. These facts show that the word is about a very polluted region in Europe which, apart from harming human health in the region itself, poses a particular danger for wider area of southeastern Europe. Optimization of heavy metal's total emission was undertaken because years of long contamination of the soil with heavy metals of anthropogenic origin created a danger that those heavy metals may enter the food chains of animals and people, which can lead to disastrous consequences. This work represents the usage of Geographic Information System (GIS) for establishing a multifactor assessment model to quantitatively divide polluted zones and for selecting control sites in a linear programming model, combined with PROMETHEE/GAIA method, Screen View modeling system, and linear programming model. The results show that emissions at some control sites need to be cut for about 40%. In order to control the background of heavy metal pollution in Bor, the ecological environment must be improved.

  16. Annual and seasonal variability of precipitation in Vojvodina, Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toši?, Ivana; Hrnjak, Ivana; Gavrilov, Milivoj B.; Unkaševi?, Miroslava; Markovi?, Slobodan B.; Luki?, Tin

    2014-07-01

    Annual and seasonal variability of precipitation observed at 92 stations in Vojvodina (Serbia) were analyzed during the period 1946-2006. The rainfall series were examined by means of the empirical orthogonal functions (EOF). The first set of singular vectors explains from 68.8 % (in summer) to 81.8 % (in winter) of the total variance. The temporal variability of the time series associated with the main EOF configurations (the principal components, PCs) was examined using the Mann-Kendall test and the spectral analysis. The time series of PC1 revealed decreasing trend in the winter and spring precipitation and increasing trend in the autumn, summer, and annual precipitation. The relationships between the first PC and circulation patterns, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the East Atlantic (EA) pattern, and East Atlantic/West Russia pattern, were also investigated. The PC1, displaying temporal behavior of the first mode, demonstrated evident correspondence with the NAO index in analysis of the annual, winter, and autumn precipitation. Power spectra of the PC1 show statistically significant oscillations of about 3.3 years for the spring precipitation and about 8 and 15 years for the winter precipitation. Comparisons with spectral analysis of authors for some regions in Europe, most of them in the Mediterranean domain, show that similar periodicities are detected.

  17. Genetic detection of Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus in the edible dormouse (Glis glis) in central Serbia.

    PubMed

    Stanojevic, M; Nikolic, V; Stajkovic, N; Stamenkovic, G; Bozovic, B; Cekanac, R; Marusic, P; Gligic, A

    2015-01-01

    Hantaviruses are endemic in the Balkans, particularly in Serbia, where sporadic cases and/or outbreaks of hantaviral human disease have been reported repeatedly, and evidenced serologically. Here, we present genetic detection of Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) hantaviral sequences in wild rodents trapped in central Serbia. All the animals were pre-screened serologically by indirect immunofluorescence (IF) test and only those with a positive finding of hantaviral antigens were further tested by polymerase chain reaction. Of the total of 104 trapped animals, 20 were found to be IF positive and of those three were positive for hantaviral RNA: one Microtus arvalis for Tula virus, and one each of Apodemus agrarius and Glis glis for DOBV. Phylogenetic analysis of the obtained sequences implies putative DOBV spillover infection of A. agrarius and G. glis from Apodemus flavicollis. However, future investigations should help to identify the most common natural host and geographical distribution of DOBV in its reservoir hosts in Serbia. PMID:24762257

  18. Presence of Leishmania and Brucella Species in the Golden Jackal Canis aureus in Serbia

    PubMed Central

    ?irovi?, Duško; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tomanovi?, Snežana; Sukara, Ratko; Penezi?, Aleksandra; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010–02/2013) from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as the tissue to proceed; all samples were tested for Leishmania species and Brucella species by real-time PCR. Of the 216 samples collected, 15 (6.9%) were positive for Leishmania species, while four (1.9%) were positive for B. canis. The potential epidemiologic role of the golden jackal in carrying and dispersing zoonotic diseases in Serbia should be taken under consideration when applying surveillance monitoring schemes. PMID:24967397

  19. Presence of Leishmania and Brucella species in the golden jackal Canis aureus in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Cirovi?, Duško; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tomanovi?, Snežana; Sukara, Ratko; Penezi?, Aleksandra; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010-02/2013) from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as the tissue to proceed; all samples were tested for Leishmania species and Brucella species by real-time PCR. Of the 216 samples collected, 15 (6.9%) were positive for Leishmania species, while four (1.9%) were positive for B. canis. The potential epidemiologic role of the golden jackal in carrying and dispersing zoonotic diseases in Serbia should be taken under consideration when applying surveillance monitoring schemes. PMID:24967397

  20. Health care managers as a crucial component of health care workforce in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Vasic, Milena; Markovic, Roberta; Korac, Vesna; Krstic, Maja

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to describe and analyse health services management in Serbia, commencing with present status and projecting, as accurately as possible, future changes over the next years, skills and required competencies of the health management workforce. The study was done as a part of Ministry of Health/EU funded Project "Preparation for Health Management Training Programme in Serbia" by a desk review of current and draft legislation, related projects in the health sector and relevant local and international literature; semi-structured interviews with key local and international stakeholders and a structural analysis of the health management sector. The results of the study have shown that there was a big gap in knowledge and skills regarding Health Management in Serbia and a true need for such type of education. PMID:21086769

  1. Systems for the provision of oral health care in the Black Sea countries. Part 11: Serbia.

    PubMed

    Andelski, Hristo; Timotic, Branivoje

    2012-06-01

    This paper gives an overview of the provision of health care in the Republic of Serbia. It then gives details of the system for the provision of oral health care, the education of dentists and dental staff, epidemiological data, and costs. It includes details of the state (public) and private sectors of health and dental care in Serbia. Private health and oral health care is based mainly on a number of practices that provide medical and dental care to the population. The state sector has a wider range of types of provision, including complex health care institutions. The number of employees in the private health and dental sector is much smaller than the number of employees in the public sector. Far fewer patients seek private medical and dental care than visit a doctor and dentist in the state sector, which still provides the bedrock for the health system in Serbia. PMID:22692270

  2. Case study: A severe hailstorm and strong downbursts over northeastern Slovenia on June 16th 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korosec, M.

    2009-09-01

    Introduction A strong isolated storm complex with bow echo feature crossed northeastern Slovenia in the late afternoon hours and caused extensive damage due to severe wind gusts near 30m/s, excessive rainfalls and large hail. Synoptic situation On June 16th 2009, an upper-level ridge persists over southern Europe while a positively tilted short-wave trough, connected to a complex deep trough over northern Europe, crosses central Europe. Accompanied by this trough, a cold front is extending southwestwards towards the Alps. A relatively strong jet steak wraps around the trough axis and creates strong shear environment which overlaps with a narrow band of unstable airmass present ahead of the coming frontal boundary. Behind this trough/front over central Europe, a high pressure area is developing with stable conditions. Over Slovenia, strong surface heating was on going through the day but lack of near-surface convergence zones, limited moisture and strong capping inversion surpressed any storm initiation in the afternoon. Presentation of research This case study will go through a research of damaging bow echo which caused extensive damage due to severe winds, excessive rainfalls and large hail over much of northeastern Slovenia. Numerous trees were down or uprooted and numerous roofs were blown off or were seriously damaged due to severe wind gusts near or exceeding 30m/s. At first stages, when an isolated severe storm entered Slovenia, it had classic high precipitation supercell features while it transformed into a powerful bow echo later on. Very large hail up to 6cm in diameter was first observed in southeast Austria and near the border with Slovenia, while later on the main threat was very strong wind gusts and intense rainfalls. This research paper will show a detailed analysis of the synoptic situation including analysis of satellite, radar and surface observations. Radar imagery clearly showed isolated storm trailing along the near-surface frontal boundary as a bow echo and also satellite imagery showed signs of extremely severe storm as overshooting tops, "cold ring" and "U-shape" features were observed. References - Skywarn Austria forum: (http://www.skywarn.at/forum/) - EARS radar and SFC observations archive (http://www.arso.gov.si) - EARS article: Porocilo o neurjih 16. junija 2009 - OSMER FVG (http://www.meteo.fvg.it) - ESSL/ESWD database (www.essl.org) - ESTOFEX convective maps (www.estofex.org) - EUMETSAT satellite imagery (www.eumetsat.int) - 24ur.com/RTVSLO web portal (www.24ur.com, www.rtvslo.si) - Sobota Info web portal (www.sobotainfo.com) - Pomurje web portal (www.pomurje.si) - Administration of the Republic of Slovenia for Civil Protection and Disaster Relief, www.sos112.si - Worldwide Skew-t diagrams (http://weather.uwyo.edu/upperair/europe.html)

  3. Emergency medicine in Slovenia--emergency center, prehospital emergency medicine and academic emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Grmec, Stefek; Mally, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Public health service is organized in such a manner so as to ensure all the inhabitants of the Republic of Slovenia the emergency medical assistance available at all times, including emergency transport and provision of emergency medicinal products as soon as possible and as close to the date of their manufacture as possible and during transport. Emergency medical assistance means the implementation of necessary measures by doctors and their teams with persons whose life is imminently threatened due to illness or injury and persons, respectively, who could be affected by such a risk in a short period of time according to the symptoms. Emergency calls are received and processed by the emergency medical assistance service which forms an integral part of the public health service network. Emergency patients with life-threatening trauma or disease are treated by prehospital emergency physicians at the scene and during transport. Emergency patients are guaranteed to be reached by an appropriate emergency vehicle and a respective crew within 10 minutes in 80% of the responses and within 15 minutes in 95% of cases. In Slovenia was established 30 years ago the so-called Franco-German system, with a highly developed pre-hospital emergency physician service and interdisciplinary hospital-based emergency medicine on different departments (trauma center, department for internal intensiv medicine, department of ananstesiology, department for neurology and pediatrics department (1). This gap is now closing fast because of the rapid advancement of hospital-based emergency medicine in Slovenia. In-hospital emergency medicine has been reorganized in many hospitals during the last few years. Economic and quality arguments have initiated the development of departments for emergency medicine in Slovenia. In the future, this will lead to new qualification criteria for physicians working in these departments. Four specific recommendations for development and organizations emergency medicine are required: the recognition as a specialty, the specialist training programme, the professional organization of emergency physicians and the presence of academic emergency centres (2). Slovenia is one of the 11 European countries who recognize hospital-based emergency medicine as a specialty (3, 4). This is 5-year specialty training (based on European curriculum) and the curriculum follows a symptom-oriented approach to emergency medicine, and includes a skilled description of the key competencies of the future trained emergency physicians (4). Slovenia has very well organised prehospital on-physician based emergency service and new qualification criteria for those physicians in emergency departments, therefore, need to be developed with primary education trainers for emergency medicine. In the model of integration of prehospital and hospital emergency medicine in academic emergency centers, emergency physicians work equal in ED and in the field on the method of rotation without changes of actual prehospital on-physicians based EMS.The integrative model have one in-door for emergency patients, mobility ofprehospital emergency physicians, a nurse-driven triage system and support of primary care physicians as gatekeepers. PMID:23120863

  4. Reassessing the Aurignacian of Slovenia: techno-economic behaviour and direct dating of osseous projectile points.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Luc; Odar, Boštjan; Higham, Tom; Horvat, Aleksander; Pirkmajer, Darja; Turk, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Palaeolithic of southern Central Europe has a long history of archaeological research. Particularly, the presence of numerous osseous projectile points in many early Upper Palaeolithic (EUP) assemblages in this region has attracted the attention of the international research community. However, the scarcity of properly identified and well-dated Aurignacian contexts represents an obstacle for investigation of the nature and timing of the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition. In this context, the question of whether Neandertals made Aurignacian osseous projectile points, either on their own or as a consequence of cultural interaction with anatomically modern humans (AMH), still remains an open issue. Here we reassess the EUP record of Slovenia by evaluating the Aurignacian character of the assemblages from Poto?ka zijalka, Mokriška jama and Divje babe I in the light of their suggested roots in the local Mousterian. We provide a comprehensive description of the lithic industry from Poto?ka zijalka, which represents one of the rare EUP assemblages of southern Central Europe with a representative number of lithic artefacts to be analysed from the perspective of lithic technology and raw material economy. Our re-analysis of the Slovenian assemblages is backed by a series of 11 new ultrafiltered collagen 14C dates obtained directly on associated osseous projectile points from the studied assemblages. The Aurignacian of Poto?ka zijalka underlines the remarkable consistency of the Early Aurignacian with low typo-technological variability across Europe, resulting from a marked dependence on transported toolkits and raw material conservation. The new radiocarbon determinations for the Aurignacian of Slovenia appear to post-date the 34-32 ka BP (thousands of years before present) threshold for the last Neandertals in the region. Although not falsified, the hypothesis of Aurignacian bone tools in southern Central Europe as a product of late Neandertals is not supported by our re-examination of the EUP record of Slovenia. PMID:25498105

  5. The Significance of Podpe limestone in the Cultural Heritage of Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramar, Sabina; Bedjani?, Mojca; Mirti?, Breda; Mladenovi?, Ana; Roži?, Boštjan; Skaberne, Dragomir; Zupan?i?, Nina

    2013-04-01

    Podpe? limestone is characterized by its dark grey, or nearly black colour, with white fossil shells of the Lithiotis. These beds, which have been dated as Lower Jurassic, occur in southern and south-western Slovenia, and are particularly common in areas southwest of Ljubljana. The main quarry, which is not active, is located next to the village of Podpe? near Ljubljana, and has been declared as a geological natural value of national importance; as such, it is officially protected as a natural monument. In the close vicinity of the village there are some other smaller quarries, but all of them have been abandoned. With its very low porosity (0.9%) and water absorption (0.13 - 0.30 % by mass), but relatively high compressive strength (185 MPa), this limestone is quite durable, although its colouring becomes somewhat bleached when situated outdoors. The use of Podpe? limestone was first documented in the case of the Roman period in Slovenia, when it was used for funerary stelae, votive altars, boundary stones, and other artefacts. At the end of the 5th Century AD, with the fall of the Roman Empire, stone-cutting ceased at Podpe? for the next few centuries. Before 1850 Podpe? limestone had no special value. Only very few portals or pilasters made of this stone are known, and no evidence has been found in churches. However, towards the end of the 19th Century Podpe? limestone became better-known, although before the first half of the 20th Century there were no significant stonecutting workshops in Podpe?. After this, stone was supplied progressively from the main quarry. Large numbers of buildings in Ljubljana and central Slovenia have sills, lintels and jambs made of Podpe? limestone. Production stopped in 1967. The internationally renowned Slovenian architect Jože Ple?nik (1872-1957) used Podpe? limestone in various Slovenian buildings - the central stadium in Ljubljana, the National University Library, many altars and churches (Bogojina, the Ši\\vska and Bežigrad districts of Ljubljana), parts of the Parliament of the Republic of Slovenia (Ljubljana), and Ljubljana's first skyscraper. With the exception of the Antonius Church in Belgrade, which was constructed by Ple?nik, where part of the altar was made of Podpe? limestone, the international use of Podpe? limestone is not known.

  6. Geotechnical Investigations on Sediments from Alluvial Fans in the Upper Sava River Valley, NW Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkovšek, A.; Ma?ek, M.; Mikoš, M.

    2009-04-01

    In order to estimate whether any alluvial (torrential) fan should be rather classified as a debris cone (mainly formed by debris flows; at least occasionally threatened by debris flows) we performed a combined field and laboratory investigation on selected alluvial fans in the Upper Sava River valley between Rate?e (border to Italy) and Jesenice in NW Slovenia. This work was done as a part of three year targeted research project "Debris flow risk assessment in Slovenia". This region was chosen due to its high potential for debris flow generation. In the distal or/and in the proximal part of each of the selected alluvial fans (Trebiža, Suhelj, Presušnik, Koroška Bela, Javorniški Rovt), one or two sedimentological trenches reaching over 5 m in depth were excavated. For each trench we assured qualitative geological (sedimentological) inventory and description of lithological structure, and in some trenches we tried to assess age of the sediments. From selected layers in different depths in the majority of trenches sediment samples have been taken for further geotechnical laboratory investigations. The main aim of the study was to assess transport properties of sediment material to flow in the form of a debris flow. We compared elaborated values of the main geotechnical parameters (grain size distribution, USCS classification, natural water content, Atterberg limits, plasticity index, density, dry density, shear strength as a function of sample water content) of these sediment samples with known corresponding values for samples taken in the past from other active landslides (Macesnik, Slano Blato) and debris flows (Stože, Strug) in Slovenia. The comparison of the samples' shear strengths as a function of sample water content has shown that samples from selected alluvial fans don't contain enough fines and are less sensitive to water content as the samples taken from the Stože debris flow, that was in November 2000 with the magnitude of over 1 million m3 the largest debris-flow event in Slovenia in the last century.

  7. The paleolimnological analysis of sediments from high mountain lake Nižné Terianske pleso in the High Tatras (Slovakia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Šporka; E. Štefková; P. Bitušík; A. R. Thompson; A. Agustí-Panareda; P. G. Appleby; J. A. Grytnes; C. Kamenik; I. Krno; A. Lami; N. Rose; N. E. Shilland

    2002-01-01

    Sedimentological climate proxies and a 200-year long climate record, reconstructed using a data-set of European-wide meteorological data, have been compared at the high mountain lake Nižné Terianske pleso in the High Tatras, Slovakia. Diatoms, chrysophyte stomatocysts, chironomids, plant pigments and spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs) were analysed as well as sediment lithostratigraphic parameters. Using a radiometric approach the sediment core was

  8. Arsenic mobility from anthropogenic impoundment sediments – Consequences of contamination to biota, water and sediments, Poša, Eastern Slovakia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edgar Hiller; L’ubomír Jurkovi?; Jozef Kordík; Igor Slaninka; Michal Jankulár; Juraj Majzlan; Jörg Göttlicher; Ralph Steininger

    2009-01-01

    An impoundment located near the village of Poša, Slovakia, is a significant source of contamination with As originating from the deposited coal fly-ashe. Waters penetrating the impoundment are enriched in As and other potentially toxic elements. As a consequence of the contamination, the Kyjov Brook and the Ondava River have been extensively polluted. The mobility and solid-state partitioning of As

  9. The role of consumer ethnocentrism in a buy national campaign in a transitioning country : Some evidence from Slovakia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kojo Saffu; John H. Walker; Marica Mazurek

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The goal of this paper is to examine the link between consumer ethnocentrism (CE) and the attitudes of two consumer groups to a buy local campaign in a transitioning economy, Slovakia. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Using a structured questionnaire, data were collected from 211 non-students at shopping malls in Banská Bystrica (non-student group) and from 209 students at the University

  10. Late Pleistocene voles (Arvicolinae, Rodentia) from the Baranica Cave (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogi?evi?, Katarina; Nenadi?, Draženko; Mihailovi?, Dušan

    2012-02-01

    Baranica is a cave system situated in the south-eastern part of Serbia, four kilometers south to Knjaževac, on the right bank of the Trgovi\\vski Timok. The investigations in Baranica were conducted from 1994 to 1997 by the Faculty of Philosophy from Belgrade and the National Museum of Knjaževac. Four geological layers of Quaternary age were recovered. The abundance of remains of both large and small mammals was noticed in the early phase of the research. In this paper, the remains of eight vole species are described: Arvicola terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758), Chionomys nivalis (Martins, 1842), Microtus (Microtus) arvalis (Pallas, 1778) and Microtus (Microtus) agrestis (Linnaeus, 1761), Microtus (Stenocranius) gregalis (Pallas, 1779), Microtus (Terricola) subterraneus (de Sélys-Longchamps, 1836), Clethrionomys glareolus (Schreber, 1780) and Lagurus lagurus (Pallas, 1773). Among them, steppe and open area inhabitants prevail. Based on the evolutionary level and dimensions of the Arvicola terrestris molars, as well as the overall characteristics of the fauna, it was concluded that the deposits were formed in the last glacial period of the Late Pleistocene. These conclusions are rather consistent with the absolute dating of large mammal bones (23.520 ą 110 B.P. for Layer 2 and 35.780 ą 320 B.P. for Layer 4).

  11. Seasonal Analysis of Combined Climate Indices in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenovic, Pavle; Tosic, Ivana; Unkasevic, Miroslava

    2014-05-01

    Joint distributions of two weather variables, such as temperature and precipitation, better reflect the weather conditions than temperature or precipitation statistics taken separately (Beniston 2010). Hence, the seasonal analysis of combined climate indices in Serbia is presented using Warm/Dry (WD), Warm/Wet (WW), Cold/Dry (CD) and Cold/Wet (CW) days. The present study is based on the collection of the daily mean temperatures and precipitation at seven stations from the observational network of the Serbian Meteorological Service during the period 1961 - 2010. Day is conceived as warm (cold) if the daily mean temperature is greater (less) than the 75th (25th) percentile. Day is considered as dry (wet) if the daily precipitation sums are below the 25th percentile (higher than the 75th percentile). Temperature percentiles were calculated for each day in a year, while precipitation percentiles were calculated for each season. It is obtained that the number of WW days is small for all seasons. An increasing tendency of WD and decreasing tendencies of CD and CW are observed. Correlation between the combined climatic indices and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are examined. It was found that the connection existed between the NAO index and CW and WD during the winter, CD during the autumn and WD during the summer. Our results are in accordance with previous results of Beniston (2009), who revealed a systematic change at nine European cities in the course of the 20th century with significant declines in the frequency of occurrence of the "cold" modes and a sharp rise in that of the "warm" modes. Beniston, M., 2009: Trends in joint quantiles of temperature and precipitation in Europe since 1901 and projected for 2100. Geophysical Research Letters, 36, L07707 Beniston, M., 2010: Impacts of climatic change on water and associated economic activities in the Swiss Alps. Journal of Hydrology, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2010.06.046

  12. Monitoring West Nile virus (WNV) infection in wild birds in Serbia during 2012: first isolation and characterisation of WNV strains from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Petrovi?, T; Blazquez, A B; Lupulovi?, D; Lazi?, G; Escribano-Romero, E; Fabijan, D; Kapetanov, M; Lazi?, S; Saiz, Jc

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), a neurovirulent mosquito-transmissible zoonotic virus, has caused recent outbreaks in Europe, including Serbia from August until October 2012. Although humans can be infected, birds are the main natural WNV reservoir. To assess WNV circulation in northern Serbia, 133 wild birds were investigated. These comprised resident and migratory birds, collected between January and September 2012 in the Vojvodina province. The birds belonged to 45 species within 27 families. Blood sera (n=92) and pooled tissues from respective birds (n=81) were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), plaque reduction neutralisation test (PRNT) and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). WNV antibodies were detected in seven (8%) sera: four from Mute Swans (Cygnus olor), two from White-tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicillas), and one from a Common Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus). Five sera neutralised WNV but not Usutu virus. For the first time in Serbia, WNV RNA was detected by RT-qPCR in pooled tissue samples of eight respective birds. WNV RNA was also derived from an additional bird, after a serum sample resulted infective in cell culture. The total nine WNV RNA positive birds included three Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis), two White-tailed Eagles, one Legged Gull (Larus michahelis), one Hooded Crow (Corvus cornix), one Bearded Parrot-bill (Panarus biramicus), and one Common Pheasant. Phylogenetic analysis of partial E region sequences showed the presence of, at least, two lineage 2 Serbian clusters closely related to those responsible for recent human and animal outbreaks in Greece, Hungary and Italy. Full genomic sequence from a goshawk isolate corroborated this data. These results confirm WNV circulation in Serbia and highlight the risk of infection for humans and horses, pointing to the need for implementing WNV surveillance programmes. PMID:24176657

  13. Selected sociodemographic factors and related differences in patterns of alcohol use among university students in Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol use and misuse and their relation to sociodemograhic factors are well studied among university students in Western European countries and the USA, but less is known about students in Eastern Europe. The historical past as communistic countries might have affected the social life among these populations, which is again one of the main factors determining the alcohol consumption among university students. The aim of our study was to assess the association of selected sociodemographic factors with different patterns of alcohol use among university students in Slovakia. Methods A sample of 813 young adults (mean age 21.1 years, 63.8% females; response rate of 71%) from four universities in Kosice answered questions about their sociodemographic background and about alcohol use. To obtain a detailed picture of different aspects, alcohol use was measured by four variables: frequency of alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking, frequency of drunkenness and problem drinking. Four separate logistic regression models were used to assess the association between sociodemographic and alcohol-related variables. To assess the potentially different effects in both genders, all two-way interactions with gender were tested. Results While 41% of the students drank alcohol once a week or more often, 77% reported heavy episodic drinking and 49% had been drunk more than once in the last month. Problem drinking existed in 23.3% of the sample. Gender was consistently associated with all four alcohol-related variables, with males being at higher risk. A higher study year was associated only with lower levels of heavy episodic drinking, but displayed no association with the other studied variables. Living with parents during the semester was consistently associated with less frequent heavy episodic drinking, drunkenness episodes, and problem drinking while having an intimate relationship was associated with less problem drinking only. Conclusions Our findings for the university students from Slovakia are in line with previous studies in Western Europe. Additionally, it appears that frequent alcohol use, excessive alcohol use (heavy episodic drinking and drunkenness) and problem drinking among university students represent a continuum and are influenced by the same sociodemographic factors. PMID:22067135

  14. Long-term variability and changes in thunderstorm induced extreme precipitation in Slovakia over 1951-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecho, J.; Faško, P.; Bližák, V.; Kajaba, P.; Košálová, J.; Bochní?ek, O.; Lešková, L.

    2012-04-01

    It is well known that extreme precipitation associated with intensive rains, in summer induced mostly by local thunderstorm activity, could cause very significant problems in economical and social spheres of the countries. Heavy precipitation and consecutive flash-floods are the most serious weather-related hazards over the territory of Slovakia. The extreme precipitation analyses play a strategic role in many climatological and hydrological evaluations designed for the wide range of technical and engineering applications as well as climate change impact assessments. A thunderstorm, as a violent local storm produced by a cumulonimbus cloud and accompanied by thunder and lightning, represents extreme convective activity in the atmosphere depending upon the release of latent heat, by the condensation of water vapor, for most of its energy. Under the natural conditions of Slovakia the incidence of thunderstorms has been traditionally concentrated in the summer or warm half-year (Apr.-Sept.), but increasing air temperature resulting in higher water vapor content and more intense short-term precipitation is associated with more frequent thunderstorm occurrence in early spring as well as autumn. It is the main reason why the studies of thunderstorm phenomena have increased in Slovakia in recent years. It was found that thunderstorm occurrence, in terms of incidence of storm days, has profoundly changed particularly in spring season (~ 30 % in April and May). The present contribution is devoted to verifying the hypothesis that recently the precipitation has been more intense and significant shifts in seasonal incidence have occurred in particular regions in Slovakia. On the basis of the 60-year (1951-2010) meteorological observation series obtained from more than 20 synoptic stations, the analysis of trends and long-term variability of the days with thunderstorms and the accompanying precipitation for seasons was undertaken. Contribution also attempts to explain the main causes of the thunderstorm as well as extreme precipitation variability. Furthermore, differentiation of daily sums of precipitation for the days with thunderstorms, their long-term variability and probability of occurrence is also presented. Key words: thunderstorm occurrence, trend analysis, extreme precipitation, day with thunderstorm, climate change, climate variability, Slovakia

  15. Influence of climatic factors on dynamics of questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Knap, Natasa; Durmisi, Emina; Saksida, Ana; Korva, Misa; Petrovec, Miroslav; Avsic-Zupanc, Tatjana

    2009-10-14

    Ixodes ricinus is a vector of pathogens that cause many diseases in Europe and Slovenia: tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), anaplasmosis, borreliosis, babesiosis and others. The risk for contracting these diseases depends strongly on the density of the infected questing ticks and many studies have investigated tick population dynamics and the parameters affecting them. They have shown a clear influence of climatic and landscape arrangements in the microhabitat on tick abundance and dynamics and therefore on transmission of pathogens important in human and veterinary medicine. In our study we assessed the influence of climatic factors on questing activity of ticks over a three-year period at 7 locations in Slovenia. Locations were selected in endemic foci of TBE with different intensity, which were identified according to the presence of human disease. Sites differ according to various abiotic and biotic factors, such as climate, amount of rain, height above sea level, vegetation and wildlife. All three stages of ticks were collected monthly over a three-year period (2005-2007). Temperature, humidity and precipitation data were collected for these years. The purpose of our study was to relate observed differences in I. ricinus ticks questing activity to local climate. We found a correlation between the decrease of questing ticks in the summer and the combination of air temperatures and humidity in the form of saturation deficit. PMID:19560275

  16. Protection and Assistance to Victims of Human Trafficking in Serbia: Recent Developments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biljana Simeunovic-Patic; Sanja Copic

    2010-01-01

    The paper reviews recent developments in the system of protection, assistance and support of victims of human trafficking in Serbia. The establishment of the Agency for Co-ordination of Protection of Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings in 2003, the issuing of the Instruction on Conditions for Obtaining Temporary Residence Permit for Foreign Citizens — Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings

  17. Religion, Politics and Gender in the Context of Nation-State Formation: the case of Serbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rada Drezgi?

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that nationalism has connected religion with secular politics in Serbia but that their rapprochement has been a gradual process. In order to demonstrate the transition from a limited influence of religion on politics to a much tighter relationship between the two, this article discusses the abortion legislation reform and the introduction of religious education in public schools,

  18. Two new species of Euscorpius (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae) from Bulgaria, Serbia, and Greece.

    PubMed

    Fet, Victor; Graham, Matthew R; Webber, Michael M; Blagoev, Gergin

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of Euscorpius Thorell, 1876 (subgenus Euscorpius s.str.) (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae) are described based on morphology and the COI DNA barcoding marker: E. deltshevi sp. n. from northern Bulgaria and neighbouring Serbia (formerly reported as E. carpathicus) and E. solegladi sp. n. from southwestern Bulgaria and neighbouring Greece (formerly reported as E. hadzii). PMID:25544622

  19. Neural network modeling of dissolved oxygen in the Gruža reservoir, Serbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vesna Rankovi?; Jasna Radulovi?; Ivana Radojevi?; Aleksandar Ostoji?; Ljiljana ?omi?

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a feedforward neural network (FNN) model to predict the dissolved oxygen in the Gruža Reservoir, Serbia. The neural network model was developed using experimental data which are collected during a three years. The input variables of the neural network are: water pH, water temperature, chloride, total phosphate, nitrites, nitrates, ammonia, iron, manganese

  20. General Mental Ability in South Asians: Data from Three Roma (Gypsy) Communities in Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, J. Philippe; Cvorovic, Jelena; Bons, Trudy Ann

    2007-01-01

    To examine whether the Roma (Gypsy) population of Serbia, like other South Asian population groups, average lower than Europeans on "g", the general factor of intelligence, we tested 323 16- to 66-year-olds (111 males; 212 females) in three different communities over a two-year-period on the Raven's Colored and/or Standard Progressive Matrices and…

  1. ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTION AND COMPETITIVENESS ON SMALL BEEKEEPING FARMS IN SELECTED DISTRICTS OF SERBIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Slaoana Marinkovic; Nebojsa Nedic

    2010-01-01

    The study researched the costs and returns on typical small beekeeping farms from five districts in Serbia. On the basis of the field research, data on the number of beehives, type of product, volume of production per beehive and values per measurement unit were collected. In order to demonstrate the competitiveness of various agricultural products, analysis of the available data

  2. Pedogeochemical mapping and background limit of trace elements in soils of Branicevo Province (Serbia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vesna Mrvi?; Ljiljana Kosti?-Kravljanac; Dragan ?akmak; Biljana Sikiri?; Branka Brebanovi?; Veljko Perovi?; Mile Nikoloski

    2011-01-01

    Main soil properties, contents, distribution and background limits of hot acid extractable forms of trace elements: Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Hg, Pb, Zn have been analysed in Branicevo Province in Eastern Serbia. Contents of selected trace elements are relatively low and exploratory data analyses (EDA graphs) show that elements have asymmetrical distribution and great dispersion. This primarily applies to Cu,

  3. Teaching for Humanity in a Neoliberal World: Visions of Education in Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dull, Laura J.

    2012-01-01

    In Serbia, teachers and policy makers express different and sometimes competing visions of education. Teachers express their desire to "awaken" students by using progressive pedagogies, while European Union and World Bank reformers appropriate progressive education in the service of neoliberal goals. The research findings presented here indicate…

  4. Evaluation of the impact of internal partitions on energy conservation for residential buildings in Serbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milorad Boji?; Milan Despotovi?; Jovan Maleševi?; Dušan Sokovi?

    2007-01-01

    In Serbia, around 50% of energy is used in built environment and most of it for 6-month heating in residential buildings. Because of actual international efforts to protect environment, energy conservation in heating in residential buildings is an issue of permanent research interest. In this paper, we tried to determine how type of partitions inside a residential building influences energy

  5. Structure of Vocational Interests in Serbia: Evaluation of the Spherical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedrih, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    To explore the structure of vocational interests in Serbia, 1063 participants of various age, education and gender completed the Serbian version of the Personal Globe Inventory [PGI, Tracey, T. (2002). "Personal Globe Inventory: Measurement of the spherical model of interests and competence beliefs." "Journal of Vocational Behavior," 6, 113-172].…

  6. Phytochemical analysis and genetic characterization of six Hypericum species from Serbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrija Smelcerovic; Vijeshwar Verma; Michael Spiteller; Syed Mudasir Ahmad; Satish Chander Puri; Ghulam Nabi Qazi

    2006-01-01

    The secondary metabolite contents and genetic profiles of six Hypericum species (H. barbatum Jacq., H. hirsutum L., H. linarioides Bosse, H. maculatum Crantz, H. rumeliacum Boiss. and H. tetrapterum Fries), collected from different locations in Serbia, have been analyzed. Methanol extracts of the aerial parts of the plants were obtained by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) at 40°C and 100bar, and

  7. Photovoltaic electricity production of a grid-connected urban house in Serbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milorad Boji?; Mirko Blagojevi?

    2006-01-01

    A technically attractive solution for sustainable present and future is to integrate photovoltaic (PV) panels into building fabric of urban houses as an alternative to grid electricity, however, in Serbia this technology is rarely applied. To contribute to sustainability and create success conditions for renewable energy sources (RES) applications due its wish to join EU, Serbian government currently integrated RES

  8. Parasitoid complex of Phyllonorycter robiniella (Clemens, 1859) (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) in Serbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksandar Stojanovi?; ?edomir Markovi?

    2005-01-01

    In a study of the parasitoid complex of the locust leaf miner Phyllonorycter robiniella (Clemens, 1859), 23 species of its parasitoids were recorded at 18 localities in Serbia. The parasitoid species included 2 species of the family Braconidae, 1 of the family Eupelmidae, and 20 of the family Eulophidae. The recorded species of parasitoids are polyphagous; in addition to Ph.

  9. An ethnobotanical study on the usage of wild medicinal herbs from Kopaonik Mountain (Central Serbia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Snežana Jari?; Zorica Popovi?; Marina Ma?ukanovi?-Joci?; Lola Djurdjevi?; Miroslava Mijatovi?; Branko Karadži?; Miroslava Mitrovi?; Pavle Pavlovi?

    2007-01-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was carried out on the territory of the highest mountain in Central Serbia, Kopaonik, which is characterized by great plant diversity. In total, 83 wild species from 41 families and 96 preparations for use in human therapy were recorded. Among those wild plants which are most commonly used for medicinal purposes, Hypericum perforatum L., Urtica dioica L.,

  10. Spatial and temporal variability of winter and summer precipitation over Serbia and Montenegro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Toši?

    2004-01-01

    Summary The main characteristics of the spatial and temporal variability of winter and summer precipitation observed at 30 stations in Serbia and Montenegro were analysed for the period 1951–2000. The rainfall series were examined spatially by means of Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) and temporally by means of the Mann-Kendall test and spectral analysis. The Alexandersson test was used to detect

  11. Phylogeographic study of brown trout from Serbia, based on mitochondrial DNA control region analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saša Mari?; Simona Sušnik; Predrag Simonovi?; Aleš Snoj

    2006-01-01

    In order to illuminate the phylogeography of brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations in the Balkan state of Serbia, the 561 bp 5'-end of mtDNA control region of 101 individuals originating from upland tributaries of the Danubian, Aegean and Adriatic drainages were sequenced and compared to corresponding brown trout sequences obtained in previous studies. Among 15 haplotypes found, 14 were considered

  12. Toxic and essential elements in soft wheat grain cultivated in Serbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biljana Škrbi?; Svetlana ?upi?

    2005-01-01

    A survey was carried out with the aim of assessing the level of some toxic (Cd, Pb, Hg and As) and essential (Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn) elements in wheat grown in Serbia. A total of 433 samples of soft winter wheat grain from all the Serbian wheat-growing regions were pooled into 52 representative samples for 2002 harvest. After wet

  13. Radon survey in the high natural radiation region of Niška Banja, Serbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. S. Žunic; I. V. Yarmoshenko; A. Birovljev; F. Bochicchio; M. Quarto; B. Obryk; M. Paszkowski; I. ?elikovi?; A. Demajo; P. Uji?; M. Budzanowski; P. Olko; J. P. McLaughlin; M. P. R. Waligorski

    2007-01-01

    A radon survey has been carried out around the town of Niška Banja (Serbia) in a region partly located over travertine formations, showing an enhanced level of natural radioactivity. Outdoor and indoor radon concentrations were measured seasonally over the whole year, using CR-39 diffusion type radon detectors. Outdoor measurements were performed at 56 points distributed over both travertine and alluvium

  14. The streets of Beograd. Urban space and protest identities in Serbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stef Jansen

    2001-01-01

    Based on ethnographic fieldwork in Serbia, this text explores spatial dimensions of the 1996–1997 protests against the Milosevic regime. It considers the significance of spatial practices of resistance embedded in the urban space of the capital city Beograd, and analyses the relationship between the formation of identities and symbolic practices of protest, by exploring the role of spatial metaphors such

  15. The impact on civilians of the bombing of Kosovo and Serbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrich Gottstein

    2000-01-01

    Before the 1999 bombing, Kosovo was among the poorest regions in Europe, with low scores on indices of health care. After the war, housing for much of the population is below even basically acceptable standards and health care is disrupted, with serious risk of epidemic diseases. Societal disintegration has led to high levels of stress. In Serbia, also a poor

  16. Seasonal analysis of cold and heat waves in Serbia during the period 1949-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unkaševi?, Miroslava; Toši?, Ivana

    2014-04-01

    Climate change has become one of the subjects most analysed by researchers, mainly because of the numerous extreme events that have hit the globe. A series of daily minimum and maximum temperatures at 15 stations in Serbia were used to calculate temperature indices, from which the duration and severity of cold and heat waves were estimated. Seasonal analysis was based on data from 1949 to 2012. The year 2012 saw severe cooling in Serbia, the longest heat waves during the summer and the worst drought since observations began — three major climate anomalies all in 1 year. An analysis of the daily minimum temperatures at almost all meteorological stations during the winter season revealed that the longest cold waves were observed in 1956. The longest heat waves were observed during the summer of 2012 in Serbia at ten out of 15 stations, but they did not reach the severity of those in July 2007. In addition, the main characteristics of the circulation conditions which caused the longest cold and heat waves in Serbia were analysed.

  17. Prospects for Inclusive Education in European Countries Emerging from Economic and Other Trauma: Serbia and Albania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radoman, Vesna; Nano, Virxhil; Closs, Alison

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines recent historical, social and economic factors in Albania and Serbia, identifying similarities and differences that have a bearing on the provision of education. The focus is on the education of children with difficulties in learning and/or disabilities (the term "special needs" is used for brevity). The paper provides a…

  18. The Serbian Opposition and Civil Society: Roots of the Delayed Transition in Serbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florian Bieber

    2003-01-01

    The article discusses the reasons for the ten-year delay in the democratic transition in Serbia, focusing in particular on opposition parties and civil society. It argues that the policy of opposition parties was partly responsible for the failure of an earlier fall of the Miloševic regime. While civil society has been similarly weak and divided, the article details how a

  19. Barriers to cervical cancer screening: A qualitative study with women in Serbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milica Markovic; Vesna Kesic; Lidija Topic; Bojana Matejic

    2005-01-01

    Serbia employs opportunistic approaches to cervical cancer screening, leading to inequitable health care access. To better understand the health care needs of women, we investigated their knowledge of and perceived barriers to cervical cancer screening. Data reported in the paper arise from nine focus group discussions with 62 women from diverse socio-economic backgrounds. They were recruited in two cities with

  20. Essential oil composition of Hypericum L. species from Southeastern Serbia and their chemotaxonomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrija Smelcerovic; Michael Spiteller; Axel Patrick Ligon; Zaklina Smelcerovic; Nils Raabe

    2007-01-01

    The essential oils of the aerial parts of nine species of Hypericum (Hypericum barbatum, Hypericum hirsutum, Hypericum linarioides, Hypericum maculatum, Hypericum olympicum, Hypericum perforatum, Hypericum richeri, Hypericum rumeliacum and Hypericum tetrapterum), collected from different locations in Southeast Serbia, were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC and GC–MS. The essential oils investigated were characterized by a high content of

  1. Torrent floodplain mapping and torrent flood control in Serbia in the conditions of economic crisis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Gavrilovic; M. Stefanovic

    2009-01-01

    Serbia is a country that is endangered by flooding of the largest European river, the Danube and its largest tributaries, as well as by countless torrents. During the 19th and 20th centuries, an imposing scope of protection structures was constructed. The existence of the protection system created the conviction that flood protection was achieved and that it should only be

  2. Strategic human resource management in European transition economies: building a conceptual model on the case of Slovenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nada Zupan; Robert Kaše

    2005-01-01

    The general SHRM models explain the link between HR and company performance; however, due to several specific internal and external factors, they have to be modified in order to be applied to companies in European transition economies (ETEs). By analysing the current state of HRM and the HR context in Slovenia, we develop a conceptual SHRM model for ETEs. The

  3. DO TURLOUGHS OCCUR IN SLOVENIA? ALI SO V SLOVENIJI OB?ASNA KRAŠKA JEZERA TIPA ťTURLOUGHŤ?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nick. E. SCOTT

    UDC 551.432.5 (497.4) Micheline Shehy Skeffington & Nick. E. Scott: Do turloughs occur in Slovenia? Turloughs are karst basins that fill seasonally with mostly groundwater and drain, usually in summer, to reveal a sedge or grassland community. They are often described as being virtually unique to Ireland. The much larger seasonal poljes of the Slovenian karst are considered different to

  4. Monitoring presence and advance of the alien invasive western corn rootworm beetle in eastern Slovenia with highly sensitive Metcalf traps.

    PubMed

    Hummel, H E; Urek, G; Modic, S; Hein, D F

    2005-01-01

    The American Chrysomelid beetle Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (D.v.v.), also called the western corn rootworm, spread from the location of its original introduction into Europe, Belgrade airport (BACA 1993), in all directions. Within a decade it occupied almost all countries of South-eastern and Central Europe. However, it reached Slovenia as late as 2003: Only 19 specimen were found in maize fields of the eastern and also western provinces. Already in the summer of 2004, their number had risen to 386 which were mainly found in the eastern provinces near the borders to Croatia, Austria and Hungary. For their monitoring, a simple trap is being described which can be acquired in high numbers at a very low price and can guaranty a most sensitive detection of beetles. The Metcalf cup trap which in Slovenia so far has been unknown performed the task of monitoring quite well at five locations. It will also facilitate the future search for new and increasing infestations. Comparing 2004 with the year 2003, D.v.v. expanded its range in eastern Slovenia by about 15 km. These new infestations will include territories in which fields of the regionally Important oil seed pumpkin Cucurbita pepo are located. With important traffic connections between South-eastern and Central Europe, Slovenia will occupy a bridgehead function in the preventive protection of maize from D.v.v. spreading into more northerly European regions including western Austria and southern Germany. PMID:16628904

  5. The Effects of Nutrition Education on 6th Graders Knowledge of Nutrition in Nine-Year Primary Schools in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostanjevec, Stojan; Jerman, Janez; Koch, Verena

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating nutrition topics in the primary school curricula should support the acquisition of nutrition knowledge in different ways and indirectly the development of healthy eating habits in children and teenagers. In Slovenia, nutrition education is part of all primary school education levels and may take the form of compulsory and/or elective…

  6. Analysis of Vocational and Residential Preferences of Rural Population: Application of an Experimental Technique to Rural Slovenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto M. Zanni; Sophia Davidova; Alastair Bailey

    2006-01-01

    This study represents the first application of Choice Experiments to the analysis of the monetary and non-pecuniary determinants of vocational choice and spatial labor supply. It identifies the determinants of individual?s choice of jobs and place of residence, and provides a better understanding of the process of rural labor adjustments in a country in transition, Slovenia. The results indicate that

  7. First Report of New Delhi Metallo-?-Lactamase-1-Producing Strains in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Kulkova, Nada; Babalova, Marta; Sokolova, Jaroslava; Krcmery, Vladimir

    2015-02-01

    Occurrence of carbapenemase-producing organisms, including New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) is increasingly reported worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of carbapenemase producers among multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria isolated from blood cultures. All carbapenem-resistant strains collected from December 2011 to December 2012 were analyzed. Presence of carbapenemases was assessed with combined disc test and Carba NP test followed by polymerase chain reaction for carbapenemase genes. Altogether, 30 strains were detected, of which 7 were positive for VIM (23.3%), 6 for NDM-1 (20%), 5 for IMP (16.7%), and KPC was present in one isolate (3.3%). Four Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were found to produce more than one carbapenemase. We also present the case report of a patient with Acinetobacter baumannii ventilator-associated pneumonia, followed by sepsis due to Enterococcus faecalis and pan-resistant NDM-1-producing P. aeruginosa. Despite the inappropriate therapy, the patient was successfully treated. This is the first report of NDM-1-producing strains in Slovakia and it contributes to a number of studies mapping the distribution of carbapenemase producers in Europe. PMID:25343711

  8. Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol in Wheat in Slovakia during 2010 and 2011

    PubMed Central

    Šliková, Svetlana; Gavurníková, So?a; Šudyová, Valéria; Gregová, Edita

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a total of 299 grain samples of wheat were collected from four production regions: the maize, sugar beet, potato and feed sectors of Slovakia. The samples were analyzed for deoxynivalenol (DON) content by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay RidascreenŽ Fast DON. Analysis of variance revealed a significant difference between years in DON contents (p < 0.027). The occurrence of samples with DON was 82.2% in 2010, with maximum DON content of 7.88 mg kg?1, and 70.7% in 2011, with maximum DON content of 2.12 mgˇkg?1. The total mean DON content was 0.62 mgˇkg?1; in the feed region 0.22 mgˇkg?1; 0.63 mgˇkg?1 in the maize region; 0.78 mgˇkg?1 in the sugar beet region; 0.45 mgˇkg?1 the potato region. The limit of 1.25 mgˇkg?1 imposed by the European Union (EU) for DON content was exceeded in 13.7% of the studied samples. The average monthly rainfall for May to June played a critical role in DON content of wheat grains for maize and sugar beet producing regions. The present results indicate that DON content was at a high level in grains from wheat grown during 2010. PMID:23917334

  9. Short life expectancy and metabolic syndrome in Romanies (gypsies) in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Simko, Vlado; Ginter, Emil

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this review is to explain short life expectancy in Romanies. Romanies represent the second largest minority in Slovakia (about 7%). Most of them exist on the fringes of the majority society. Their general situation worsened after the fall of communism in 1989. In a market oriented society the unemployment of Romanies further increased due to their poor education and lack of skills. Romany general health is substantially worse than that of the majority population: They have high prevalence of communicable diseases due to poor sanitary and living conditions. Furthermore, epidemiological and metabolic studies revealed in Romanies high prevalence of obesity associated with increased cardiovascular risk. There is no explanation for this seemingly paradoxical phenomenon, in a population living in poor economic conditions. It is possible that in the course of the many generation-long migration from India to Europe, pregnant Romanies and their fetuses sufferred excessive nutritional deficiency. This might have induced adaptive metabolic and genetic changes aimed at optimum utilization of scarce food supply. There is a hypothetical possibility that in them "thrifty gene" was formed. Arrival of Romanies to Europe resulted in somewhat better nutrition, along with sharply reduced physical expenditure. The consequence is a metabolic syndrome with type 2 diabetes and increased cardiovascular mortality. Such unique metabolic feature in Romanies will undoubtedly stimulate further research in molecular biology that may ultimately clarify the role of "thrifty genes". PMID:20586225

  10. Toxoplasma gondii in protected wildlife in the Tatra National Park (TANAP), Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Tur?eková, ?udmila; Hurníková, Zuzana; Spišák, František; Miterpáková, Martina; Chovancová, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligatory intracellular protozoan parasite that infects a broad spectrum of warm-blooded vertebrate species. As a part of the food chain, farm animals play a significant role in transmission of T. gondii to humans, while rats and mice serve as a main source of infection for free-living animals. The spread of toxoplasmosis in the human population is due to the interchange of the domestic and sylvatic cycles. During 2009-2011, a survey on toxoplasmosis distribution was conducted in wildlife of the Tatra National Park (TANAP) in Slovakia. A total of 60 animals were examined. The presence of T. gondii was detected by means of molecular methods based on TGR1E gene analyses. The highest prevalence was recorded in birds (40.0%), followed by carnivores (30.8%) and rodents (18.2%). RFLP analyses of SAG2 locus confirmed in birds the genotype II and III, belonging to the avirulent strain; rodents exclusively had genotype I, characterised as a virulent train, and in carnivores all three genotypes were detected. These results present the first survey on the parasite's occurrence in several species of free-living animals in the TANAP area. An epidemiological study confirmed the prevalence of 30.0%, implicitly referring to the level of environmental contamination with T. gondii oocysts. PMID:24959767

  11. Landslide and flood hazard assessment in urban areas of Levoča region (Eastern Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magulova, Barbora; Caporali, Enrica; Bednarik, Martin

    2010-05-01

    The case study presents the use of statistical methods and analysis tools, for hazard assessment of "urbanization units", implemented in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) environment. As a case study, the Levo?a region (Slovakia) is selected. The region, with a total area of about 351 km2, is widely affected by landslides and floods. The problem, for small urbanization areas, is nowadays particularly significant from the socio-economic point of view. It is considered, presently, also an increasing problem, mainly because of climate change and more frequent extreme rainfall events. The geo-hazards are evaluated using a multivariate analysis. The landslide hazard assessment is based on the comparison and subsequent statistical elaboration of territorial dependence among different input factors influencing the instability of the slopes. Particularly, five factors influencing slope stability are evaluated, i.e. lithology, slope aspect, slope angle, hypsographic level and present land use. As a result a new landslide susceptibility map is compiled and different zones of stable, dormant and non-stable areas are defined. For flood hazard map a detailed digital elevation model is created. A compose index of flood hazard is derived from topography, land cover and pedology related data. To estimate flood discharge, time series of stream flow and precipitation measurements are used. The assessment results are prognostic maps of landslide hazard and flood hazard, which presents the optimal base for urbanization planning.

  12. The nanoparticulate nature of invisible gold in arsenopyrite from Pezinok (Slovakia)

    SciTech Connect

    Majzlan, Juraj; Chovan, Martin; Andráš , Peter; Newville, Matthew; Wiedenbeck, Michael (Institute of Geosciences, Germany)

    2010-04-09

    Arsenopyrite is the most common sulfide host of invisible gold. Yet, despite many studies, the position of such gold in the structure of arsenopyrite has not been resolved conclusively. Here we report a multitechnique study of arsenopyrite samples from the Pezinok deposits (Slovakia) with moderate gold concentrations of 7-10 {micro}g/g. Secondary ion mass spectrometry showed that the invisible gold occurs as either (1) almost uniform, low-concentration of 'dispersed' gold, or as (2) hot spots along fractures. X-ray absorption spectra at the Au L{sub III} edge were collected from such hot spots. The spectra document metallic character of gold although no discrete gold particles were seen even after careful re-examining in back-scattered electron images. We conclude that such occurrences are most readily explained by the presence of gold nanoparticles. We suggest that the dispersed gold is the chemically-bound gold previously detected in these deposits by 197Au Moessbauer spectroscopy. The concentration of the dispersed gold is too low for X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

  13. Occurrence of deoxynivalenol in wheat in Slovakia during 2010 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Sliková, Svetlana; Gavurníková, So?a; Sudyová, Valéria; Gregová, Edita

    2013-08-01

    In this study, a total of 299 grain samples of wheat were collected from four production regions: the maize, sugar beet, potato and feed sectors of Slovakia. The samples were analyzed for deoxynivalenol (DON) content by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay RidascreenŽ Fast DON. Analysis of variance revealed a significant difference between years in DON contents (p < 0.027). The occurrence of samples with DON was 82.2% in 2010, with maximum DON content of 7.88 mg kg?š, and 70.7% in 2011, with maximum DON content of 2.12 mgˇkg?š. The total mean DON content was 0.62 mgˇkg?š; in the feed region 0.22 mgˇkg?š; 0.63 mgˇkg?š in the maize region; 0.78 mgˇkg?š in the sugar beet region; 0.45 mgˇkg?š the potato region. The limit of 1.25 mgˇkg?š imposed by the European Union (EU) for DON content was exceeded in 13.7% of the studied samples. The average monthly rainfall for May to June played a critical role in DON content of wheat grains for maize and sugar beet producing regions. The present results indicate that DON content was at a high level in grains from wheat grown during 2010. PMID:23917334

  14. Anthelmintic resistance in sheep gastrointestinal nematodes in Slovakia detected by in-vitro methods.

    PubMed

    Dolinská, Michaela; Ivani Inová, Oksana; Königová, Al Beta; Várady, Marián

    2014-10-01

    BackgroundThe intensive use of anthelmintics for the control of helminthic infections has resulted in the development of anthelmintic resistance, which has become a major practical problem in many countries. A variety of tests are available to monitor anthelmintic resistance but most of them are expensive, laborious and time consuming and therefore unpractical for large field surveys. The main aim of this survey was thus to detect the occurrence of benzimidazole (BZ) and macrocyclic lactone resistance on sheep farms in Slovakia by using novel and modified in vitro methods that are inexpensive, easy to use and quick and therefore practical for large surveys.ResultsBZ-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes were found on all 27 farms. Two farms (7.4%) had high levels of resistance (>40% of hatching), and 22 farms had low levels (<20% of hatching) of resistant nematodes. IVM-resistant populations were found on 14 of 49 sheep farms. The prevalence of BZ and IVM resistance has slightly increased on Slovak sheep farms during the last two decades.ConclusionsBoth the BZ and IVM surveys indicated that resistance against anthelmintics was present on Slovak sheep farms. Resistance against the BZ class of anthelmintics had been stable for two decades, but a slight increase on IVM resistance was confirmed. Farmers must thus observe the preventive measures to avoid a faster onset of IVM resistance, otherwise the presence of resistant parasites and ineffective treatment may harm the economy of their farms. PMID:25270360

  15. Best Practice for Rainfall Measurement, Torrential Flood Monitoring and Real Time Alerting System in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanovic, Milutin; Milojevic, Mileta; Zlatanovic, Nikola

    2014-05-01

    Serbia occupies 88.000 km2 and its confined zone menaced with torrent flood occupies 50.000km2. Floods on large rivers and torrents are the most frequent natural disasters in Serbia. This is the result of a geographic position and relief of Serbia. Therefore, defense from these natural disasters has been institutionalized since the 19th century. Through its specialized bodies and public companies, the State organized defense from floods on large rivers and protection of international and other main roads. The Top?iderska River is one of a number of rivers in Serbia that is a threat to both urban and rural environments. In this text, general characteristics of this river will be illustrated, as well as the historical natural hazards that have occurred in the part of Belgrade near Top?iderska River. Belgrade is the capital of Serbia, its political, administrative and financial center, which means that there are significant financial capacities and human resources for investments in all sectors, and specially in the water resources sector. Along the Top?iderska catchment there are many industrial, traffic and residential structures that are in danger of floods and flood protection is more difficult with rapid high flows. The goal is to use monitoring on the Top?iderska River basin to set up a modern system for monitoring in real time and forecast of torrential floods. This paper represents a system of remote detection and monitoring of torrential floods and rain measurements in real time on Topciderka river and ready for a quick response.

  16. Astronomy development in Serbia in view of the IAU Strategic Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanackovi?, Olga

    2015-03-01

    An overview of astronomy development in Serbia in view of the goals envisaged by the IAU Strategic Plan is given. Due attention is paid to the recent reform of education at all levels. In the primary schools several extra topics in astronomy are introduced in the physics course. Attempts are made to reintroduce astronomy as a separate subject in the secondary schools. Special emphasis is put to the role and activities of the Petnica Science Center the biggest center for informal education in SE Europe, and to a successful participation of the Serbian team in International astronomy olympiads. Astronomy topics are taught at all five state universities in Serbia. At the University of Belgrade and Novi Sad students can enroll in astronomy from the first study year. The students have the training at the Ondrejov Observatory (Czech Republic) and at the astronomical station on the mountain Vidojevica in southern Serbia. Astronomy research in Serbia is performed at the Astronomical Observatory, Belgrade and the Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade. There are about 70 researchers in astronomy in Serbia (and about as many abroad) who participate in eight projects financed by the Ministry of Education and Science and in several international cooperations and projects: SREAC, VAMDC, Belissima (recruitment of experienced expatriate researchers), Astromundus (a 2-year joint master program with other four European universities), LSST. One of the goals in near future is twinning between universities in the SEE region and worldwide. The ever-increasing activities of 20 amateur astronomical societies are also given.

  17. Mortality of Roma Population in Serbia, 2002-2005

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanovi?, Dragan; Niki?, Dragana; Petrovi?, Branislav; Koci?, Biljana; Jovanovi?, Jovica; Nikoli?, Maja; Miloševi?, Zoran

    2007-01-01

    Aim To describe and compare mortality and population changes in the Roma and non-Roma population in Serbia in 2002 and 2005. Methods The number of cases of death were obtained from the 2002 and 2005 Mortality Database and population data from the Population Census 2002. Standardized sex specific rates of non-traumatic and traumatic mortality in 2002 and 2005 were calculated in relation to the European standard population. We presented population pyramid and aging index for both populations in 2002 and compared sex specific standardized traumatic and non-traumatic mortality rates and the average age of death for 2002 and 2005. The causes of death were coded according to the 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) groups, and the proportional mortalities in the year 2002 and 2005 were compared between the Roma and non-Roma population using ?2 test. Results Standardized mortality rates were higher in the Roma than in the general population. Non-traumatic mortality rate in Roma men in 2002 was 18.2 per 1000 and in slightly decreased to 18.0 per 1000 in 2005; it was significantly higher than in non-Roma men in both years (11.9 per 1000 in 2002 and 12.5 per 1000 in 2005; P<0.001). Standardized non-traumatic mortality rate in Roma women decreased significantly from 16.78 per 1000 in 2002 to 14.89 per 1000 in 2005 (P=0.014), but it was still significantly higher than in non-Roma women (8.46 per 1000 in 2002 and 8.84 per 1000 in 2005; P<0.001). Morbidity structure indicated that the most common causes of death in the Roma population were cardiovascular diseases, neoplasms, and respiratory system diseases. In relation to the general population respiratory system diseases were denoted as main causes of deaths in significantly higher percent (6% vs 3% in 2002 and 7% vs 4% in 2005; P<0.001) and cardiovascular diseases in significantly lower percent (44%:55% in 2002 and 46%:57%; P<0.001). Conclusions Our data show that mortality rates in the Roma population are significantly higher than in the general population, and morbidity structure of the most common causes of death significantly different from that of general population. PMID:17948958

  18. Magmatism and metallogeny of the Ridanj-Krepoljin belt (eastern Serbia) and their correlation with northern and eastern analogues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Karamata; V. Kneževi?; Z. Pécskay; M. Djordjevic

    1997-01-01

    In the southwestern Carpathians of SW Romania and E Serbia calc-alkaline Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene subduction related magmatic\\u000a rocks occur in two main zones. The Ridanj-Krepoljin belt (E Serbia) represents the southern part of the western zone. In this\\u000a belt Early Maastrichtian dacites and subordinate andesites occur, but there are indications of an unexposed granodioritic\\u000a (?) magmatism about 60 Ma old. Pb-Zn-Ag

  19. Roles of stolbur phytoplasma and Reptalus panzeri (Cixiinae, Auchenorrhyncha) in the epidemiology of Maize redness in Serbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Jovi?; T. Cvrkovic ´; M. Mitrovi?; S. Krnjajic ´; Margaret G. Redinbaugh; R. C. Pratt; R. E. Gingery; S. A. Hogenhout; I. Toševski

    2007-01-01

    Maize redness (MR), a disease causing midrib, leaf and stalk reddening and abnormal ear development in maize, has been reported\\u000a from Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria for 50 years. Recent epiphytotics reduced yields by 40%–90% in southern Banat, Serbia. MR\\u000a was recently associated with the presence of the stolbur phytoplasma, although the epidemiology of the disease remained unknown.\\u000a Diseased fields in southern

  20. Leaving home in Slovenia: a quantitative exploration of residential independence among young adults.

    PubMed

    Kuhar, Metka; Reiter, Herwig

    2014-12-01

    The present paper analyzes and contextualizes the phenomenon of prolonged co-residence of parents and young adult children in Slovenia. It analyzes the process of moving out or staying at home on the basis of a subsample of young people between 19 and 29 who are no longer at school included in the representative Slovenian field survey Youth 2010. Young people still living in the household of their parents or (legal) guardians are compared with those who have already left. The analysis considers factors associated with the status transitions from youth to adulthood; the demographic, social and economic background; and the perception of the parent-child relationship quality and parenting style by the children. Our findings point to the importance of possibilities for independent housing and the economic capacity of young people and their family. The most important factor behind moving out seems to be a stable partnership. PMID:24950914

  1. Alcohol consumption among junior high school students in the community of Litija, Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Kolsek, M

    1994-01-01

    Alcohol drinking causes numerous problems to individuals, families and to society. Most people begin to drink alcohol in childhood. This study shows drinking habits of junior high school students at schools in the community of Litija, Slovenia. The data were collected with anonymous questionnaires that were completed by 941 students aged 12-15 years. There were 6.5% students who never drank alcohol (such a low percent of teetotallers among children aged 12-15 years has not yet been published); 18% drank alcohol several times a week. The frequency was higher if students lived in the country, if their parents as well as peers were frequent drinkers and if their parents produced alcohol at home themselves. There were no significant differences between girls and boys in frequency of drinking, nor differences with age. The author suggests some possible measures to be taken with individuals, families and society in order to diminish the prevalence of alcohol use among schoolchildren. PMID:8189727

  2. Monitoring Diabrotica v. virgifera (Col.: Chrysomelidae) in southeastern Slovenia: increasing population trend and host spectrum expansion.

    PubMed

    Ulrichs, C; Dinnesen, S; Nedelev, T; Hummel, H E; Modic, S; Urek, G

    2008-01-01

    Ever since the western corn rootworm (WCR) (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera), an alien invasive species from North America, has been introduced into Europe on at least 3 separate occasions, it spread within 15 years over the entire area of south-eastern and central Europe (except Denmark). Until quite recently, Zea mays L. was the only known host plant whereas in North America WCR also attacks members of the plant family Cucurbitaceae. In August of 2006, we were able to validate these findings also in the Old World by observing WCR visiting blossoms of oil pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.). Beside this first report of WCR on this regionally and economically important crop, a population increase in Gaberje near Lendava, Eastern Slovenia, was observed. Some future consequences of multiple hosts for integrated pest management (IPM) of WCR are being discussed. PMID:19226789

  3. Physician and nurse supply in Serbia using time-series data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Unemployment among health professionals in Serbia has risen in the recent past and continues to increase. This highlights the need to understand how to change policies to meet real and projected needs. This study identified variables that were significantly related to physician and nurse employment rates in the public healthcare sector in Serbia from 1961 to 2008 and used these to develop parameters to model physician and nurse supply in the public healthcare sector through to 2015. Methods The relationships among six variables used for planning physician and nurse employment in public healthcare sector in Serbia were identified for two periods: 1961 to 1982 and 1983 to 2008. Those variables included: the annual total national population; gross domestic product adjusted to 1994 prices; inpatient care discharges; outpatient care visits; students enrolled in the first year of medical studies at public universities; and the annual number of graduated physicians. Based on historic trends, physician supply and nurse supply in the public healthcare sector by 2015 (with corresponding 95% confidence level) have been modeled using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) / Transfer function (TF) models. Results The ARIMA/TF modeling yielded stable and significant forecasts of physician supply (stationary R2 squared = 0.71) and nurse supply (stationary R2 squared = 0.92) in the public healthcare sector in Serbia through to 2015. The most significant predictors for physician employment were the population and GDP. The supply of nursing staff was, in turn, related to the number of physicians. Physician and nurse rates per 100,000 population increased by 13%. The model predicts a seven-year mismatch between the supply of graduates and vacancies in the public healthcare sector is forecasted at 8,698 physicians - a net surplus. Conclusion The ARIMA model can be used to project trends, especially those that identify significant mismatches between forecasted supply of physicians and vacancies and can be used to guide decision-making for enrollment planning for the medical schools in Serbia. Serbia needs an inter-sectoral strategy for HRH development that is more coherent with healthcare objectives and more accountable in terms of professional mobility. PMID:23773678

  4. Analysis of Rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency Relationships in Slovakia (Estimation of Extreme Rainfall Return Periods)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecho, J.; Faško, P.; Lapin, M.; Gaál, L.

    2009-04-01

    Short-term rainfall intensity maxima might gain a rising tendency in the future in consequence of the global warming. The monitoring and statistical as well as spatial analyses of above-mentioned precipitation characteristics are highly important because of observed negative impacts linked with their occurrence. Probabilistic modeling and statistical analysis of relationships between rainfall intensity and its duration as well as frequency (generally express by Intensity-Duration-Frequency curves) represents on of the most commonly used tools in the flood risk management, water resources engineering as well as for flood protection projects. A set of IDF-curves defines a relation between the mean intensity of precipitation, the duration of the aggregation time of the rainfall and return period of the event. There are some statistical techniques how to establish the IDF-curves for annual maximum precipitation totals with selected duration. For many years the Gumbel as well as Pearson III-type distribution have been utilized as the most suitable theoretical distribution in the order to model the extreme rainfall events. Recently, some new theoretical and empirical studies support the fact that particularly Gumbel distribution may significantly underestimate the highest rainfall values. New theoretical findings suggest to replace the Gumbel distribution by other type of Extreme Value distribution (most commonly by General Extreme Value "GEV" distribution). For the establishment of the IDF-curves we have utilized some theoretical basis of Koursoyiannis et al (1998) study. The main purpose of the presented paper is to produce IDF-curves for extreme rainfall values obtained from several meteorological stations in Slovakia within the 1961-1990 period (e.g. Hurbanovo, Štrbské Pleso, Oravská Lesná, etc.). In the contribution we tested the appropriateness of Gumbel and GEV distribution utilization for the purpose of IDF-curves assessment. Our additional goal is to analyze also the long-term changes of extreme rainfall values within the annual regime.

  5. Prevalence of DFNB1 mutations among cochlear implant users in Slovakia and its clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Varga, L; Mašindová, I; Hu?ková, M; Kabátová, Z; Gašperíková, D; Klimeš, I; Profant, M

    2014-06-01

    Hereditary etiology plays an important role in bilateral profound deafness as a main indication for cochlear implantation. Mutations in DFNB1 locus account for most of the inherited deafness cases in Caucasians. To provide actual data on mutation prevalence among implanted deaf subpopulation, we performed DNA analysis of GJB2 and GJB6 genes in 131 unrelated Slovak cochlear implant users. Eight previously described causal mutations and one probably pathogenic missense variant (c.127G>A) were detected in the GJB2 gene in 58 (44.28%) subjects. The most common mutation found was c.35delG with frequency 83.02% of all disease alleles, followed by c.71G>A, c.1-3201G>A, c.313_326del14, c.109G>A, 167delT, c.269T>C, and c.333_334delAA. GJB6 deletion delD13S1830 was identified in only one subject, in double heterozygosity with a GJB6 mutation. Thus, the deafness cause could be clearly attributable to DFNB1 mutations in 36.64% of the patients examined. In summary, the mutation profile found in our cohort was similar to the mutation spectrum reported for Central European deaf populations. The mutation prevalence in cochlear implant users was, however, almost by 25% higher than previously established for non-implanted hearing-impaired population in Slovakia. Finally, we also demonstrate a certain variability in deafness onset in patients with causal genotype and coincidence with other risk factors for deafness. Our results underline the importance of genetic tests in all cochlear implant candidates. PMID:23700267

  6. Environmental and health risk assessment in abandoned mining area, Zlata Idka, Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapant, S.; Dietzová, Z.; Cicmanová, S.

    2006-11-01

    The Zlata Idka village is a typical mountainous settlement. As a consequence of more than 500 years of mining activity, its environment has been extensively affected by pollution from potentially toxic elements. This paper presents the results of an environmental-geochemical and health research in the Zlata Idka village, Slovakia. Geochemical analysis indicates that arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) are enriched in soils, groundwater, surface water and stream sediments. The average As and Sb contents are 892 mg/kg and 818 mg/kg in soils, 195 mg/kg and 249 mg/kg in stream sediments, 0.028 mg/l and 0.021 mg/l in groundwater and 0.024 mg/l and 0.034 mg/l in surface water. Arsenic and Sb concentrations exceed upper permissible limits in locally grown vegetables. Within the epidemiological research the As and Sb contents in human tissues and fluids have been observed (blood, urine, nails and hair) in approximately one third of the village’s population (120 respondents). The average As and Sb concentrations were 16.3 ?g/l and 3.8 ?g/l in blood, 15.8 ?g/l and 18.8 ?g/l in urine, 3,179 ?g/kg and 1,140 ?g/kg in nails and 379 ?g/kg and 357 ?g/kg in hair. These concentrations are comparatively much higher than the average population. Health risk calculations for the ingestion of soil, water, and vegetables indicates a very high carcinogenic risk (>1/1,000) for as content in soil and water. The hazard quotient [HQ=average daily dose (ADD)/reference dose (RfD)] calculation method indicates a HQ>1 for groundwater As and Sb concentrations.

  7. Acid soils of western Serbia and their further acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrvic, Vesna

    2010-05-01

    Acid soils cause many unfavorable soil characteristics from the plant nutrition point of view. Because of increased soil acidity the violation of buffering soil properties due to leaching of Ca and Mg ions is taking place that also can cause soil physical degradation via peptization of colloids. Together with increasing of soil acidity the content of mobile Al increases that can be toxic for plants. Easily available nutritive elements transforms into hardly avaialble froms. The process of deactivation is especially expressed for phosphorous that under such conditions forms non-soluble compounds with sesqui-oxides. From the other hand the higher solubility of some microelements (Zn and B) can cause their accelerated leaching from root zone and therefore, result in their deficiency for plant nutrition. Dangerous and toxic matters transforms into easly-available forms for plants, especially, Cd and Ni under the lower soil pH. The studied soil occupies 36675 hectare in the municipality of Krupan in Serbia, and are characterized with very unfavorable chemical properties: 26% of the territory belongs to the cathegory of very acidic, and 44 % belongs to the cathegory of acidic. The results showed that the soil of the territory of Krupan is limited for agricultural land use due to their high acidity. Beside the statement of negative soil properties determined by acidity, there is a necessity for determination of soil sensitivity for acidification processes toward soil protection from ecological aspect and its prevention from further acidification. Based on such data and categorization of soils it is possible to undertake proper measures for soil protection and melioration of the most endangered soil cover, where the economic aspect of these measures is very important. One of the methods of soil classification based on sensitivity for acidification classification the determination of soil categories is based on the values of soil CEC and pH in water. By combination of these two parameters the 16 categories for main three chemical processes are emerged: sensitivity for base losses, sensitivity for acidification process and sensitivity for Al-solubility. Based on the combination of these three sensitivity categories the total soil sensitivity for acidification was determined: - Upon soil sensitivity for base losses, the 5% belongs to the category that is highly subjected to losses, and 73% belongs to medium-sensitive category in the studied area. - Upon sensitivity on acidification, 88% of soils in Krupan region are weakly sensitive, while the rest 12% is sensitive, where only 0.5%is highly subject to acidification. - Upon sensitivity on solubility of Al, the 28% belongs to the category of highly risky, while 36% of the territory is not endangered. The very high sensitivity on acidification processes is detected on 5% of the total territory, while 74% belongs to medium sensitive category. Considering that in Krupan region about 50% of the territory is subject to acidification processes there is a necessity of melioration measures toward prevention of this process. Special attention should be given to the soils that are highly sensitive to overall acidification. Within those soils there should not be constructed industrial objects because of enhanced emissions of industrial gases rich in nitrogen and sulphur, as well as some other toxic microelements toward protection of the environment. Key Words: Soil acidity, mobile Al, CEC, acidificaiton

  8. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 743 - Wassenaar Arrangement Participating States

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  1. 9 CFR 92.1 - Definitions.

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  5. Religion, politics and gender in the context of nation-state formation: the case of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Drezgi?, Rada

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that nationalism has connected religion with secular politics in Serbia but that their rapprochement has been a gradual process. In order to demonstrate the transition from a limited influence of religion on politics to a much tighter relationship between the two, this article discusses the abortion legislation reform and the introduction of religious education in public schools, respectively. It argues that, while illustrative of different types of connection between religion and politics, these two issues had similar implications for gender equality-they produced discourses that recreated and justified patriarchal social norms. After religion gained access to public institutions, its (patriarchal) discourses on gender were considerably empowered. The article points to some tangible evidence of a re-traditionalisation and re-patriarchalisation of gender roles within the domestic realm in Serbia. PMID:20857571

  6. Radon in thermal waters in south-east part of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Nikolov, Jovana; Todorovi?, Nataša; Bikit, Ištvan; Panti?, Tanja Petrovi?; Forkapi?, Sofija; Mr?a, Dušan; Bikit, Kristina

    2014-07-01

    There are several occurrences of thermal waters in the south-eastern part of Serbia, which are originating from igneous and metamorphic rocks. These waters are mainly used in balneology, but some of them are used for drinking purposes and in water supply to heat buildings, for greenhouses and to irrigate land. In this region, there is the well-known Niška banja spa, which has elevated levels of radon. Water samples were examined from other spas in the south-eastern part of Serbia in order to determine radon activity concentration. A detailed discussion of a possible correlation between determined radon activity concentration and the geology of this area is also given. PMID:24707000

  7. U and Th in some brown coals of Serbia and Montenegro and their environmental impact

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dragana Životi?; Ivan Gržeti?; Hans Lorenz; Vladimir Simi?

    2008-01-01

    Goal, Scope and Background  The objective of this paper is to determine and compare the concentrations of U and Th in soft to hard brown (lignite to sub-bituminous)\\u000a coals of Serbia and Montenegro. It also presents comparison of the obtained data on U and Th concentrations with the published\\u000a data on coals located in some other countries of the world. Almost

  8. Essential Oil Composition of Some Populations of Mentha arvensis L. in Serbia and Montenegro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neda Mimica-Dukic; Olga Gasic; Radisa Jancic; Geoffrey Kite

    1998-01-01

    The essential oil of six population of Mentha arvensis L. in Serbia and Montenegro were studied. Two populations of subsp. agrestis(Sole) Briq., were found to produce oil rich in pulegone (49%-28%). Three of the studied populations proposed as subsp. austriaca,were unusual in that a major compound was menthofuran (11.5%-299%) which is diagnostic of M. aquaticaand its hybrids, whereas the third

  9. Composition of the Essential Oils of Seven Teucrium Species from Serbia and Montenegro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nada N. Kovacevic; Branislava S. Lakusic; Mihailo S. Ristic

    2001-01-01

    The essential oils of seven Teucrium species (T. arduini L., T. botrys L., T. chamaedrys L., T. flavum L., T. montanum L., T. polium L., T. scordium L.) growing wild in Serbia and Montenegro were studied by GC and GC\\/MS. More than 60 compounds were identified. The main constituents of T. arduini and T. chamaedrys oils were ?-caryophyllene (24.5%; 26.9%)

  10. Geochemical characterization and origin of Southeastern and Eastern European loesses (Serbia, Romania, Ukraine)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Björn Buggle; Bruno Glaser; Ludwig Zöller; Ulrich Hambach; Slobodan Markovic; Irina Glaser; Natalia Gerasimenko

    2008-01-01

    The loess\\/paleosol sections of Batajnica\\/Stari Slankamen (Serbia), Mircea Voda (Romania) and Stary Kaydaky (Ukraine) were geochemically characterized based on discriminant analysis of major and trace elements, the ratios of Al\\/Ti, Fe\\/Ti and Al\\/Fe, the A-CN-K ternary plot and element enrichment\\/depletion relative to the average composition of the upper continental crust. The origin of the loess material in the southern Pannonian

  11. Structural investigation of Zn 2+ sorption on clinoptilolite tuff from the Vranjska Banja deposit in Serbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Š. Cerjan Stefanovi?; N. Zabukovec Logar; K. Margeta; N. Novak Tušar; I. Ar?on; K. Maver; J. Kova?; V. Kau?i?

    2007-01-01

    Three Zn2+-modified clinoptilolite samples from the deposit of Vranjska Banja (Serbia) were structurally studied using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Local environment of Zn ions was investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The pre-treatment of clinoptilolite tuff by using NaCl or CaCl2 solutions resulted in a higher

  12. Tendencies for the amounts of chemical material used for cloud seeding in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?uri?, Mladjen; Janc, Dejan

    2014-02-01

    Weather modification activities are performed predominantly by cloud seeding. Some operational projects have been performed for more than half a century and cover planetary scales. These activities lead to a large amount of deposited chemical materials (seeding agents) at the ground level during precipitation. These deposits depend on the amount of the seeding agent. In the future, increased amounts of seeding agent deposits could be a serious problem due to various negative effects on the human environment. Therefore, the main intent of this paper is to determine trends for the seeding agent amount over certain areas of Serbia. Four areas covered by the Hail Suppression Project in Serbia are considered: the target area in central Serbia and areas in western and central Serbia, which are well-known hailfall regions. The annual seeding agent amounts show a slow decreasing trend because fewer seedings were performed during the last decade of the last century, which was due to economic reasons. In contrast, the annual seeding agent amounts of the other analysed areas indicate an increasing trend induced by the transfer of rockets to these hailfall regions. The main difference among small areas is the mean agent amount and its maximum time position as a consequence of the high spatial and time variability of the hail. However, a sharp decreasing trend that is influenced by the implementation of new methodologies, seeding agents and delivery tools may also be a factor in the implementation of cloud seeding projects. The given method is not only strictly applicable locally and may be applied to any other cloud seeding scenario and seeding area. Dominantly increasing trends in the agent amount indicate that the importance of weather modifications in the future will be greater than ever and will have both positive and negative effects.

  13. Essential Oil of the Herb of Stachys recta L., Lamiaceae from Serbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Claude Chalchat; S. D. Petrovic; Z. A. Maksimovic; M. S. Gorunovic

    2000-01-01

    The aerial parts of wild Stachys recta L., Lamiaceae, collected in the vicinity of Nis (Southern Serbia) during the full blooming stage, contained only 0.014% of essential oil. Using GC and GC\\/MS, 32 components were identified, predominantly alcohols and adequate oxides. The major constituent was 1-octen-3-ol (19.7%). The other important components were caryophyllene oxide, humulene oxide and nerolidol, but present

  14. Weather sensitive method for short term load forecasting in Electric Power Utility of Serbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ruzic; A. Vuckovic; N. Nikolic

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a regression-based adaptive weather sensitive short-term load-forecasting algorithm, which has been developed and implemented in Electric Power Utility of Serbia. The proposed methodology consists of two main steps. The total daily energy is independently forecasted in the first step while hourly loads are predicted in the second step. All model parameters are automatically calculated and updated using

  15. Origin and geodynamic significance of Tertiary postcollisional basaltic magmatism in Serbia (central Balkan Peninsula)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V Cvetkovi?; D. Prelevic; H. Downes; M. Jovanovic; O. Vaselli; Z. Pecskay

    2004-01-01

    Tertiary basaltic magmatism in Serbia occurred through three episodes: (i) Paleocene\\/Eocene, when mostly east Serbian mafic alkaline rocks (ESPEMAR) formed, (ii) Oligocene\\/Miocene, dominated by high-K calc–alkaline basalts, shoshonites (HKCA–SHO) and ultrapotassic (UP) rocks, and (iii) Pliocene episode when rocks similar to (ii) originated. In this study, the geodynamics inferred from petrogenesis of the (i) and (ii) episodes are discussed.The ESPEMAR

  16. Distribution of primordial radionuclides in surface soils from Serbia and Montenegro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Dragovi?; Lj. Jankovi?; A. Onjia; G. Ba?i?

    2006-01-01

    The specific activities of primordial radionuclides in soil samples from 21 different locations in Serbia and Montenegro were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. The results obtained were compared with those from other studies conducted worldwide. Concentrations of radionuclides in soils analyzed in this study ranged from 1.28 to 4.80ppm for uranium, from 5.26 to 19.0ppm for thorium, and from 0.97% to

  17. Radiocesium accumulation in mosses from highlands of Serbia and Montenegro: chemical and physiological aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Dragovi?; O. Nedi?; S. Stankovi?; G. Ba?i?

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was (i) to determine the activity levels of 137Cs in mosses from highland ecosystems of Serbia and Montenegro, (ii) to find out if radiocesium is associated with essential biomacromolecules, and (iii) to investigate 137Cs distribution among intracellular compartments. It was found that biomolecules of mosses do not bind significant amounts of radiocesium (2.3–3.3% of the

  18. Pathogenicity and mycotoxin production by Fusarium proliferatum isolated from onion and garlic in Serbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Stankovic; J. Levic; T. Petrovic; A. Logrieco; A. Moretti

    2007-01-01

    Fusarium proliferatum can occur on a wide range of economically important vegetable plants but its role in disease is not always well established.\\u000a In 2000 and 2001, from forty-one field samples of wilting onion and garlic plants in Serbia, F. proliferatum as the predominant fungal species was isolated from root and bulbs. Seventy isolates were firstly characterized for their\\u000a sexual

  19. Benefits of environmental conditions for growing coriander in Banat Region, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Acimovic, Milica; Oljaca, Snezana; Jacimovic, Goran; Drazic, Slobodan; Tasic, Slavoljub

    2011-10-01

    As one of the oldest multi-purpose plants (spice, aromatic, honey and medicinal), coriander is widespread across Europe. Although in Serbia there are favorable conditions for its growth and development, it is grown on relatively small areas. During both investigated years it took more than 1200 degrees C for transfer from vegetative to generative phase of development and over 2000 degrees C for it to be ready for harvesting. Coriander is a photophilic plant, which requires around 1000 hours of light from sowing to ripening.. As for humidity, coriander grows well, if there are more than 200 mm of rainfall during growing season. In 2009 and 2010, the experiment carried out at the experimental field in Ostoji?evo (Banat, Vojvodina province, Serbia) monitored the effect of parameters mentioned above on development of coriander plants, seed yield and essential oil content. The average yields of 1866 kg ha(-1) (2009) and 2470 kg ha(-1) (2010), and relatively high content of essential oil (1.06% in both years) indicate a great potential of this plant species in Serbia, which is, however, greatly dependent on environmental conditions during year. PMID:22164784

  20. Economic analysis of social services for the elderly in Serbia: two sides of the same coin.

    PubMed

    Mihic, Marko M; Todorovic, Marija Lj; Obradovic, Vladimir Lj

    2014-08-01

    According to demographic trends, the ratio of senior citizens in the overall population of the Republic of Serbia is rising. This generates the need to create socially acceptable and economically sustainable models for the protection of the elderly. The goal of this paper is to stress the necessity of analyzing and evaluating the efficiency of social protection services aimed at senior citizens. The first part of the paper underlines the need for economic analysis of these services; while the second part features the analysis of the two most frequently provided services for the elderly in Serbia: admission to social protection institutions and home care for senior citizens. Based on the research results, the paper also provides a comparative overview of the efficiency of the services mentioned. This overview clearly confirms that both services prove to be economically justifiable from a social perspective; nevertheless, it also indicates that the cost of home care per user is considerably lower than the cost of putting a senior citizen into a nursing home. After presenting and discussing the results of the studies, the paper also offers recommendations aimed at enhancing the development and sustainability of the social protection system for the elderly in Serbia. PMID:24681299

  1. The framework of family therapy in clinical practice and research in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Pantovic, Maja; Dunjic-Kostic, Bojana; Ivkovic, Maja; Damjanovic, Aleksandar; Jovanovic, Aleksandar A

    2012-04-01

    In the last two decades, Serbia has had to deal with multiple social and economic problems reflecting on society's demographics and seemed to weaken its core cell - the family. The paper describes the framework of family therapy in clinical practice and research, within the recent transition of the Serbian family. Family therapy treatment in Serbia uses the systemic family therapy (SFT) approach, applied according to the standards of the European Association for Psychotherapy. A large number of professionals who practise in Serbia hold European qualifications, setting high standards in education, clinical practice, and research. Although SFT is also available in the private sector, the majority of patients are still treated in state institutions. Family therapy is often used for adults and adolescents with psychosis and addictions in psychiatric hospital settings. However, in counselling centres it is used for marital and relationship problems. Interestingly, family therapy has recently started to emerge as a more frequent tool in consultation-liaison, particularly psycho-oncology but also in correctional institutions. The clinical practice and research interests are interlinked with changes in social settings. PMID:22515455

  2. Characterization of velogenic Newcastle disease viruses isolated from dead wild birds in Serbia during 2007.

    PubMed

    Vidanovi?, Dejan; Sekler, Milanko; Asanin, Ruzica; Mili?, Nenad; Nisavi?, Jakov; Petrovi?, Tamas; Savi?, Vladimir

    2011-04-01

    Avian paramyxoviruses type 1 or Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) are frequently recovered from wild birds and such isolates are most frequently of low virulence. Velogenic NDV are usually recovered from poultry and only occasionally from wild birds. Five NDV isolates were obtained from carcasses of four wild bird species during 2007 in Serbia: Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), feral Rock Pigeon (Columba livia), and Eurasian Collared Dove (Streptopelia decaocto). All the isolates have a typical fusion protein cleavage site motif of velogenic viruses ((112)R-R-Q-K-R-F(117)). The highest homology (99%) for the nucleotide sequences spanning the M and F gene of the studied isolates was with the genotype VII NDV isolate Muscovy duck/China(Fujian)/FP1/02. Phylogenetic analysis based on a partial F gene sequence showed that the isolates from wild birds cluster together with concurrent isolates from poultry in Serbia within the subgenotype VIId, which is the predominant pathogen involved currently in Newcastle disease outbreaks in poultry worldwide. It is unlikely that the wild birds played an important role in primary introduction or consequent spread of the velogenic NDV to domestic poultry in Serbia, and they probably contracted the virus from locally infected poultry. PMID:21441197

  3. Spatial analysis of the temperature trends in Serbia during the period 1961-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajat, Branislav; Blagojevi?, Dragan; Kilibarda, Milan; Lukovi?, Jelena; Toši?, Ivana

    2014-08-01

    The spatial analysis of annual and seasonal temperature trends in Serbia during the period 1961-2010 was carried out using mean monthly data from 64 meteorological stations. Change year detection was achieved using cumulative sum charts. The magnitude of trends was derived from the slopes of linear trends using the least square method. The same formalism of least square method was used to assess the statistical significance of the determined trends. Maps of temperature trends were generated by applying a spatial regression method to visualize the detected tendencies. The obtained results indicate a negative temperature trend for the period before the change year except for winter and a more pronounced positive trend after the change year. Besides being more pronounced, the vast majority of trends after the change year were also clearly statistically significant. Our estimate of the average temperature trend over Serbia is in agreement with those obtained at the global and European scale. Calculated global autocorrelation statistics (Moran's I) indicate an apparent random spatial pattern of temperature trends across the Serbia for both periods before and after the change year.

  4. First evidence of Brucella ovis infection in rams in the Pirot Municipality, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Petrovi?, Miloš; Špi?i?, Silvio; Potkonjak, Aleksandar; Lako, Branislav; Kostov, Miloš; Cvetni?, Željko

    2014-12-29

    This paper describes a research on Brucella ovis infection in rams in the Pirot Municipality of South Serbia. A positive result with indirect immunoenzyme test (i-ELISA) was confirmed in 67 (29.8%) and suspicious in 31 (13.8%) out of 225 tested rams. Complement fixation test (CFT) was used as a confirmation test on 67 ELISA positive sera and gave positive reaction in 41 (61.2%) ram serum samples. Rams originated from 113 flocks with 4751 sheep, from 28 villages in the Pirot Municipality of southern Serbia. Clinical examination was performed on epididymis and testes of 12 rams from 7 seropositive flocks by inspection and palpation. The examination showed scrotum asymmetry and unilateral increase of the epididymistail in 5 (41.7%) out of 12 seropositive rams. Pathomorphological examination of testes and epididymis confirmed pathological changes in 7 (58.3%) of the 12 examined rams. Onesided epididymitis with pronounced hypertrophy of the epididymitis was also confirmed. Twelve rams were tested for the presence of bacteria, i.e. 21 epididymis, testes and lymph nodes samples. We isolated 20 Brucella strains from 11 (91.7%) of the 12 examined animals. All isolates were identified with bacteriological and molecular techniques as B. ovis. This is the first evidence of ovine epididymitis (B. ovis) in Republic of Serbia. PMID:25546063

  5. BREEDING DENSITY AND ALTITUDINAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE URAL, TAWNY, AND BOREAL OWLS IN NORTH DINARIC ALPS (CENTRAL SLOVENIA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AL VREZEC

    Ural (Strix uralensis), Tawny (Strix aluco), and Boreal owl (Aegolius funereus) density and altitudinal distribution were determined using playback to census owls on Mt. Krim (North Dinaric Alps, central Slovenia). Survey points were selected proportionally by altitude according to the relief of the area (320-1060 masl). Density of Ural Owls was estimated to be 2.2 territories\\/10 km2; high relative to

  6. Floristic records from the Karavanke\\/Karawanken and Kamniške Alpe\\/Steiner Alpen (Slovenia and Austria)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    New floristic records from the eastern Karavanke\\/Karawanken and Kamniške Alpe\\/Steiner Alpen (Slovenia and Austria) are reported. Allium kermesinum is new for Austria; Arabis soyeri subsp. subcoriacea, Carex rupestris and Draba dubia are new for the Kamniške Alpe\\/Steiner Alpen; for Androsace hausmannii, Arabis stellulata, Carex ornithopodoides, Pedicularis rosea, Salix serpillifolia and Veronica fruticulosa new localities are presented. Furthermore, taxonomic problems in

  7. International Survey in Eight Countries about Teachers and Teaching Profession: Belgium, Cyprus, Italy, Libya, Poland, Slovakia, Turkey, United States of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chistolini, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    An international team of experts from Belgium, Italy, Poland, Slovakia, Turkey and the USA employed a questionnaire to identify the deontology of teachers from infant to secondary school in eight countries. The survey was implemented between 2004 and 2007. The socio-cultural concept of "Verstehen" (understanding) as described in the work…

  8. Heat wave phenomenon in southern Slovakia: long-term changes and variability of daily maximum air temperature in Hurbanovo within the 1901-2009 period

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Pecho; D. Výberci; M. Jarosová

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of long-term changes and temporal variability of heat waves incidence in the region of southern Slovakia within the 1901-2009 periods is a goal of the presented contribution. It is expected that climate change in terms of global warming would amplify temporal frequency and spatial extension of extreme heat wave incidence in region of central Europe in the next few

  9. Heat waves frequency analysis and spatial-temporal variability of daily maximum temperature in southern Slovakia within the 1951, respectively 1961-2008 periods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Pecho; P. Fasko; K. Mikulová; P. Sâstný

    2009-01-01

    Heat waves temporal and spatial analysis at selected meteorological stations in southern part of Slovakia within the 1951, respectively 1961-2008 periods is a goal of the presented contribution. It is expected that climate change in terms of global warming would amplify temporal frequency and spatial extension of extreme heat wave incidence in region of central Europe in the next few

  10. Regional analysis of Intensity-Duration-Frequency Relationships in Slovakia using Scaling Model Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecho, J.; Faško, P.; Gaál, L.; Lapin, M.; Šâstný, P.

    2009-09-01

    Short-term rainfall intensity maxima might gain a rising tendency in the future as a consequence of the global warming. The monitoring and statistical as well as spatial analyses of above-mentioned precipitation characteristics are highly important, because of observed negative impacts linked with their occurrence. Probabilistic modeling and statistical analysis of relationships between rainfall intensity and its duration as well as frequency (generally express by Intensity-Duration-Frequency curves) represents on of the most commonly used tools in the flood risk management, water resources engineering as well as for flood protection projects. A set of IDF-curves defines a relation between the mean intensity of precipitation, the duration of the aggregation time of the rainfall and return period of the event. There are some statistical techniques how to establish the IDF-curves for annual maximum precipitation totals with selected duration. At-site frequency analysis of rainfall data evaluated separately for particular meteorological station is frequently used method of Intensity-Duration-Frequency relationships estimation. For many years the Gumbel as well as Pearson III-type distribution have been utilized as the most suitable theoretical distribution in the order to model the extreme rainfall events. These relationships are not accurate and reliable since they depend on many assumptions such as distribution selection for each duration. Some distributions require a large number of parameters, and are not time-independent. New theoretical findings suggest to replace the Gumbel distribution by other type of Extreme Value distribution (most commonly by General Extreme Value "GEV" distribution). Apart from testing the appropriate theoretical distribution we also focused in the contribution on application of some scaling properties to establish scaling behaviour of statistical moments over different durations. The IDF-curves are developed for gauged sites based mainly on scaling of two theoretical distributions: Generalized extreme value (GEV) and Gumbel probability distributions. Statistical analysis was applied on annual maximum rainfall time series for meteorological stations located in different regions of Slovakia, for rainfall event durations of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min and 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h (meteorological stations: Hurbanovo, Oravská Lesná, etc.). The results suggest that obtained estimates derived from the scaling procedure are comparable to estimates obtained from traditional techniques.

  11. Epidemiology of cancers in serbia and possible connection with cyanobacterial blooms.

    PubMed

    Svir?ev, Zorica; Drobac, Damjana; Tokodi, Nada; Lužanin, Zorana; Munjas, Ana Marija; Nikolin, Branislava; Vuleta, Dušan; Meriluoto, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria produce toxic metabolites known as cyanotoxins. These bioactive compounds can cause acute poisoning, and some of them may promote cancer through chronic exposure. Direct ingestion of and contact with contaminated water is one of the many exposure routes to cyanotoxins. The aim of this article was to review the incidence of 13 cancers during a 10-year period in Serbia and to assess whether there is a correlation between the cancer incidences and cyanobacterial bloom occurrence in reservoirs for drinking water supply. The types of cancers were chosen and subjected to epidemiological analyses utilizing previously published data. Based on the epidemiological and statistical analysis, the group of districts in which the incidences of cancers are significant, and may be considered as critical, include Nišavski, Topli?ki, and Šumadijski district. A significantly higher incidence of ten cancers was observed in the three critical districts as compared to the remaining 14 districts in Central Serbia. These elevated incidences of cancer include: brain cancer, heart, mediastinum and pleura cancer, ovary cancer, testicular cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, retroperitoneum and peritoneum cancer, leukemia, malignant melanoma of skin, and primary liver cancer. In addition, the mean incidence of five chosen cancers was the highest in the three critical regions, then in the rest of Central Serbia, while the lowest values were recorded in Vojvodina. Persistent and recurrent cyanobacterial blooms occur during summer months in reservoirs supplying water to waterworks in the three critical districts. People in Central Serbia mainly use surface water as water supply (but not all the water bodies are blooming) while in Vojvodina region (control region in this study) only groundwater is used. Among the 14 "noncritical" districts, reservoirs used for drinking water supply have been affected by recurrent cyanobacterial blooms in two districts (Rasinski and Zaje?arski), but the waterworks in these districts have been performing ozonation for more than 30 years. We propose that the established statistical differences of cancer incidences in Serbia could be related to drinking water quality, which is affected by cyanobacterial blooms in drinking water reservoirs in certain districts. However, more detailed research is needed regarding cyanobacterial secondary metabolites as risk factors in tumor promotion and cancerogenesis in general. PMID:25436472

  12. Recent Improvement Of The Institutional Radioactive Waste Management System In Slovenia

    SciTech Connect

    Sueiae, S.; Fabjan, M. [ARAO - Agency for Radwaste Management, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Hrastar, U.; Mali, T. [Hermes SoftLab, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Steinkuhler, C. [DDR Consult, Longueville (Belgium); Lenie, K. [Leniko, Antwerp (Belgium)

    2008-07-01

    The task of managing institutional radioactive waste was assigned to the Slovenian National Agency for Radwaste Management by the Governmental Decree of May 1999. This task ranges from the collection of waste at users' premises to the storage in the Central Storage Facility in (CSF) and afterwards to the planned Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW) repository. By this Decree ARAO also became the operator of the CSF. The CSF has been in operation since 1986. Recent improvements of the institutional radioactive waste management system in Slovenia are presented in this paper. ARAO has been working on the reestablishment of institutional radioactive waste management since 1999. The Agency has managed to prepare the most important documents and carry out the basic activities required by the legislation to assure a safe and environmentally acceptable management of the institutional radioactive waste. With the aim to achieve a better organized operational system, ARAO took the advantage of the European Union Transition Facility (EU TF) financing support and applied for the project named 'Improvement of the management of institutional radioactive waste in Slovenia via the design and implementation of an Information Business System'. Through a public invitation for tenders one of the Slovenian largest software company gained the contract. Two international radwaste experts from Belgium were part of their project team. The optimization of the operational system has been carried out in 2007. The project was executed in ten months and it was divided into two phases. The first phase of the project was related with the detection of weaknesses and implementation of the necessary improvements in the current ARAO operational system. With the evaluation of the existing system, possible improvements were identified. In the second phase of the project the software system Information Business System (IBS) was developed and implemented by the group of IT experts. As a software development life-cycle methodology the Waterfall methodology was used. The reason for choosing this methodology lied in its simple approach: analyze the problem, design the solution, implement the code, test the code, integrate and deploy. ARAO's institutional radioactive waste management process was improved in the way that it is more efficient, better organized, allowing traceability and availability of all documents and operational procedures within the field of institutional radioactive waste. The tailored made IBS system links all activities of the institutional radioactive waste management process: collection, transportation, takeover, acceptance, storing, treatment, radiation protection, etc. into one management system. All existing and newly designed evidences, operational procedures and other documents can be searched and viewed via secured Internet access from different locations. (authors)

  13. Study of pulmonary functions of the tourist guides in two show caves in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debevec Gerjevic, V.; Jovanovi?, P.

    2009-04-01

    Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage, the Škocjan Caves were entered on UNESCO's list of natural and cultural world heritage sites in 1986. Caves have always been special places for people all over the world. There has been a lot of research done in the field of speleology and also in medicine in relation to speleotherapy. There is still one field left partial unexplored and its main issue covers the interaction between special ecosystems as caves and human activities and living. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The issue of epidemiologic research encompass several factors that are not necessarily related to the radon. Park Škocjan Caves established research monitoring projects such as caves microclimate parameters, quality of the water, every day's data from our meteorological station useful tool in public awareness related to pollution and climate change. Last year a special study was started in order to evaluate pulmonary functions of persons who work in the caves and those who work mostly in offices. Two groups of tourist guides from Škocjan Caves and Postojna Cave were included in the study. The promising results will highlight the need of medical survey of people working in the caves and help managers of the caves to adopt reactive management process. In order to facilitate decision process related to protection of people and caves environment, special recommendation in form of index of environment's use will be proposed after the study.

  14. 78 FR 9851 - Importation of Plants for Planting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ...Moldova, Morocco, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Northern Ireland, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, the Philippines, Poland, Portugal (including Madeira), Romania, Russian Federation, Serbia and Montenegro, Sierra Leone, Slovakia,...

  15. Diversity of ankA and msp4 genes of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Strašek Smrdel, Katja; von Loewenich, Friederike D; Petrovec, Miroslav; Avši? Županc, Tatjana

    2015-03-01

    Granulocytic anaplasmosis is a tick transmitted emerging disease in Europe and worldwide. The agent, Anaplasma phagocytophilum is transmitted by ticks of the genus Ixodes and causes infections in humans and domestic animals. The analysis of different target genes showed that in nature several genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum were present. The purpose of our study was to genetically characterize A. phagocytophilum strains from eight humans, 16 dogs, 12 wild boars, one bear and 18 tick pools from Slovenia. Therefore, the ankA and msp4 genes of A. phagocytophilum were chosen. The same genetic ankA and msp4 variant of A. phagocytophilum was detected in humans, wild boar and a part of the pooled ticks indicating that it circulates in a zoonotic cycle between wild boar and ticks. In dogs, three ankA variants of A. phagocytophilum were detected. One of them was identical to the one that was found in humans. In contrast, all dogs harboured the same msp4 variant as humans and wild boar. In ticks, numerous ankA and msp4 variants were present. PMID:25511457

  16. Seismic Microzonation of Breginjski Kot (NW Slovenia) Based on Detailed Engineering Geological Mapping

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Breginjski kot is among the most endangered seismic zones in Slovenia with the seismic hazard assessed to intensity IX MSK and the design ground acceleration of 0.250?g, both for 500-year return period. The most destructive was the 1976 Friuli Mw = 6.4 earthquake which had maximum intensity VIII-IX. Since the previous microzonation of the area was based solely on the basic geological map and did not include supplementary field research, we have performed a new soil classification of the area. First, a detailed engineering geological mapping in scale 1?:?5.000 was conducted. Mapped units were described in detail and some of them interpreted anew. Stiff sites are composed of hard to medium-hard rocks which were subjected to erosion mainly evoked by glacial and postglacial age. At that time a prominent topography was formed and different types of sediments were deposited in valleys by mass flows. A distinction between sediments and weathered rocks, their exact position, and thickness are of significant importance for microzonation. On the basis of geological mapping, a soil classification was carried out according to the Medvedev method (intensity increments) and the Eurocode 8 standard (soil factors) and two microzonation maps were prepared. The bulk of the studied area is covered by soft sediments and nine out of ten settlements are situated on them. The microzonation clearly points out the dependence of damage distribution in the case of 1976 Friuli earthquake to local site effects. PMID:24453884

  17. Heat transfer in shallow subsurface under different climate conditions in Europe (Czechia, Slovenia, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedecek, Petr; Cermak, Vladimir; Safanda, Jan; Correia, Antonio; Rajver, Dusan

    2014-05-01

    The long-term records of soil and air temperatures collected at several geothermal observatories in Prague, Bedrichov, Svojsice (Czechia), Malence (Slovenia) and Evora (Portugal) were used to analyze the surface air temperature (SAT) vs soil temperature coupling at several depth levels. The work assesses (a) the influence of solar radiation, vegetation or snow cover, as well as the precipitation and albedo of the surface on mean annual air - surface temperature offset and (b) the heat transfer within the shallow subsurface. As thermal diffusivity (TD) plays a fundamental role in heat transfer in soil, two different methods based on attenuation and phase shift of annual temperature wave and on modeling of thermal response by error function solution of heat conduction equation were used to estimate TD in particular soil levels. It was found that low-frequency changes of the surface temperature such as the annual wave and/or multi-year and secular variations propagate downwards mainly by the heat conduction contrary to high-frequency (diurnal wave) where the convective heat transport during wet periods plays an important role. Significant seasonal changes of thermal diffusivity of upper soil layer caused by rotating of long wet and dry periods in Evora produce negative offset values between ground and soil mean annual temperature.

  18. Diversity of microbial communities colonizing the walls of a Karstic cave in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Pasi?, Lejla; Kovce, Barbara; Sket, Boris; Herzog-Velikonja, Blagajana

    2010-01-01

    Karstic cave systems in Slovenia receive substantial amounts of organic input from adjacent forest and freshwater systems. These caves host microbial communities that consist of distinct small colonies differing in colour and shape. Visible to the naked eye, the colonies cover cave walls and are strewn with light-reflecting water droplets. In this study, the diversity of prokaryotes constituting these unusual microbial communities in Pajsarjeva jama cave was examined. A molecular survey based on small subunit rRNA diversity showed a high diversity within the Bacteria, while members of Archaea were not recovered. A total of eight bacterial phyla were detected. The application of various species richness estimators confirmed the diverse nature of the microbial community sample. Members of Gammaproteobacteria were most abundant in the clone libraries constructed and were followed in abundance by members of Actinobacteria and Nitrospira. In addition, members of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria as well as Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Planctomycetes, Chloroflexi and Gemmatimonadetes were identified in clone libraries. The high number of clones most closely related to environmental 16S rRNA gene clones showed the broad spectrum of unknown and yet to be cultivated microorganisms inhabiting these cave systems. PMID:19817862

  19. The prevalence and pattern of pharmaceutical and excipient exposure in a neonatal unit in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Fister, Petja; Urh, Spela; Karner, Aleksandra; Krzan, Mojca; Paro-Panjan, Darja

    2014-11-11

    Abstract Objective: Because of the restraints on conducting studies on pharmaceutical use in sick newborns, many drugs are used off-label in this population. Moreover, industrially manufactured pharmaceuticals may contain different excipients, which may be either untested or not licensed for use in neonates. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of pharmaceutical and excipient exposure in newborns hospitalized at the Department of Neonatology, Ljubljana, Slovenia. Methods: A longitudinal prospective cross-sectional study was performed during a one-month period and included all hospitalized neonates. Route of administration, site of action, type of manufacture, licensing status, type and concentrations of excipients for all pharmaceuticals given to the neonates were determined. Results: Twenty seven different pharmaceutical preparations were prescribed to a total of 48 hospitalized newborns. In most cases, newborns were prescribed various pharmaceuticals that were not approved for use in this population. Newborns were exposed to 60 different excipients in industrially manufactured pharmaceutical preparations. More than half of the received pharmaceuticals contained potentially harmful and harmful excipients. Conclusions: Two-thirds of pharmaceutical preparations for neonates were used off-label. Newborns receive more auxiliary substances, which may be unsuitable for this age group and may even be toxic to them, via industrially manufactured pharmaceuticals. PMID:25316561

  20. Seismic microzonation of Breginjski kot (NW Slovenia) based on detailed engineering geological mapping.

    PubMed

    Kokošin, Jure; Gosar, Andrej

    2013-01-01

    Breginjski kot is among the most endangered seismic zones in Slovenia with the seismic hazard assessed to intensity IX MSK and the design ground acceleration of 0.250 g, both for 500-year return period. The most destructive was the 1976 Friuli Mw = 6.4 earthquake which had maximum intensity VIII-IX. Since the previous microzonation of the area was based solely on the basic geological map and did not include supplementary field research, we have performed a new soil classification of the area. First, a detailed engineering geological mapping in scale 1 : 5.000 was conducted. Mapped units were described in detail and some of them interpreted anew. Stiff sites are composed of hard to medium-hard rocks which were subjected to erosion mainly evoked by glacial and postglacial age. At that time a prominent topography was formed and different types of sediments were deposited in valleys by mass flows. A distinction between sediments and weathered rocks, their exact position, and thickness are of significant importance for microzonation. On the basis of geological mapping, a soil classification was carried out according to the Medvedev method (intensity increments) and the Eurocode 8 standard (soil factors) and two microzonation maps were prepared. The bulk of the studied area is covered by soft sediments and nine out of ten settlements are situated on them. The microzonation clearly points out the dependence of damage distribution in the case of 1976 Friuli earthquake to local site effects. PMID:24453884

  1. Gap Dynamics and Structure of Two Old-Growth Beech Forest Remnants in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Rugani, Tihomir; Diaci, Jurij; Hladnik, David

    2013-01-01

    Context Due to a long history of intensive forest exploitation, few European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) old-growth forests have been preserved in Europe. Material and Methods We studied two beech forest reserves in southern Slovenia. We examined the structural characteristics of the two forest reserves based on data from sample plots and complete inventory obtained from four previous forest management plans. To gain a better understanding of disturbance dynamics, we used aerial imagery to study the characteristics of canopy gaps over an 11-year period in the Kopa forest reserve and a 20-year period in the Gorjanci forest reserve. Results The results suggest that these forests are structurally heterogeneous over small spatial scales. Gap size analysis showed that gaps smaller than 500 m2 are the dominant driving force of stand development. The percentage of forest area in canopy gaps ranged from 3.2 to 4.5% in the Kopa forest reserve and from 9.1 to 10.6% in the Gorjanci forest reserve. These forests exhibit relatively high annual rates of coverage by newly established (0.15 and 0.25%) and closed (0.08 and 0.16%) canopy gaps. New gap formation is dependant on senescent trees located throughout the reserve. Conclusion We conclude that these stands are not even-sized, but rather unevenly structured. This is due to the fact that the disturbance regime is characterized by low intensity, small-scale disturbances. PMID:23308115

  2. Small mammals as biomonitors of metal pollution: a case study in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Al Sayegh Petkovšek, Samar; Kopušar, Nataša; Kryštufek, Boris

    2014-07-01

    The transfer of lead, cadmium, zinc, mercury, copper and molybdenum from soil to the tissues of small mammals inhabiting differently polluted areas in Slovenia was investigated. Metals were determined in soil samples and in the livers of 139 individuals of five small mammal species, collected in 2012 in the vicinity of a former lead smelter, the largest Slovenian thermal power plant, along a main road and in a control area. The area in the vicinity of former lead smelter differs considerably from other study areas. The soil from that area is heavily polluted with Pb and Cd. The mean metal concentrations in the liver, irrespective of species, varied in the following ranges-Pb: 0.40-7.40 mg/kg fw and Cd: 0.27-135 mg/kg fw and reached effect concentrations at which toxic effects can be expected in a significant proportion of the livers of the small mammal specimens (Pb 40 %, Cd 67 %). These findings indicate that the majority of small mammals trapped in the area of the former lead smelter are at risk of toxic effects due to the very high bioaccumulation of Pb and Cd in the organism. On the contrary, Pd and Cd concentrations in the livers of small mammals sampled in the vicinity of the thermal power plant and along the main road were comparable with reference values and considerably lower than effect concentrations. Additionally, the study suggests that Apodemus flavicollis and Myodes glareolus are very suitable biomonitors of metal pollution. PMID:24619365

  3. Amniotic membrane properties and current practice of amniotic membrane use in ophthalmology in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Cirman, Tina; Beltram, Matej; Schollmayer, Petra; Rožman, Primož; Kreft, Mateja Erdani

    2014-06-01

    Amniotic membrane (AM) is the innermost, multilayered part of the placenta. When harvested, processed and stored properly, its properties, stemming from AM biological composition, make it a useful tissue for ophthalmic surgery. AM was shown to have several beneficial effects: it promotes epithelization, has antimicrobial effects, decreases inflammation, fibrosis and neovascularization. Many case reports and case series as well as practical experience (e.g. reconstruction of conjunctival and corneal defects, treatment of corneal ulcers) demonstrated the beneficial effect of AM for different ophthalmological indications. The combination of the above mentioned beneficial effects and reasonable mechanical properties are also the reason why AM is used as a substrate for ex vivo expansion of epithelial progenitor cells. Recently, amnion-derived cells, which also have stem cell characteristics, have been proposed as potential contributors to cell-based treatment of ocular surface disease. However, the use of AM remains one of the least standardized methods in ophthalmic surgery. In this review, the various properties of AM and its current clinical use in ophthalmology in Slovenia are discussed. PMID:24352631

  4. Mineral and chemical composition of the Jezersko meteorite—A new chondrite from Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miler, Miloš; Ambroži?, Bojan; Mirti?, Breda; Gosar, Mateja; Ĺ turm, Sašo.; Dolenec, Matej; Jeršek, Miha

    2014-10-01

    The Jezersko meteorite is a newly confirmed stony meteorite found in 1992 in the Karavanke mountains, Slovenia. The meteorite is moderately weathered (W2), indicating short terrestrial residence time. Chondrules in partially recrystallized matrix are clearly discernible but often fragmented and have mean diameter of 0.73 mm. The meteorite consists of homogeneous olivine (Fa19.4) and low-Ca pyroxenes (Fs16.7Wo1.2), of which 34% are monoclinic, and minor plagioclase (Ab83An11Or6) and Ca-pyroxene (Fs6Wo45.8). Troilite, kamacite, zoned taenite, tetrataenite, chromite, and metallic copper comprise about 16.5 vol% of the meteorite. Phosphates are represented by merrillite and minor chlorapatite. Undulatory extinction in some olivine grains and other shock indicators suggests weak shock metamorphism between stages S2 and S3. The bulk chemical composition generally corresponds to the mean H chondrite composition. Low siderophile element contents indicate the oxidized character of the Jezersko parent body. The temperatures recorded by two-pyroxene, olivine-chromite, and olivine-orthopyroxene geothermometers are 854 °C, 737-787 °C, and 750 °C, respectively. Mg concentration profiles across orthopyroxenes and clinopyroxenes indicate relatively fast cooling at temperatures above 700 °C. A low cooling rate of 10 °C Myr-1 was obtained from metallographic data. Considering physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties, meteorite Jezersko was classified as an H4 S2(3) ordinary chondrite.

  5. Carbonate Chemistry and Isotope Characteristics of Groundwater of Ljubljansko Polje and Ljubljansko Barje Aquifers in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Ljubljansko polje and Ljubljansko Barje aquifers are the main groundwater resources for the needs of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia. Carbonate chemistry and isotope analysis of the groundwater were performed to acquire new hydrogeological data, which should serve as a base for improvement of hydrogeological conceptual models of both aquifers. A total of 138 groundwater samples were collected at 69 sampling locations from both aquifers. Major carbonate ions and the stable isotope of oxygen were used to identify differences in the recharging areas of aquifers. Four groups of groundwater were identified: (1) Ljubljansko polje aquifer, with higher Ca2+values, as limestone predominates in its recharge area, (2) northern part of Ljubljansko Barje aquifer, with prevailing dolomite in its recharge area, (3) central part of Ljubljansko Barje aquifer, which lies below surface cover of impermeable clay and is poor in carbonate, and (4) Brest and Iški vršaj aquifer in the southern part of Ljubljansko Barje with higher Mg2+ in groundwater and dolomite prevailing in its recharge area. The radioactive isotope tritium was also used to estimate the age of groundwater. Sampled groundwater is recent with tritium activity between 4 and 8 TU and residence time of up to 10 years. PMID:24453928

  6. DNA Identification of Skeletal Remains from World War II Mass Graves Uncovered in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Marjanovi?, Damir; Durmi?-Paši?, Adaleta; Bakal, Narcisa; Haveri?, Sanin; Kalamuji?, Belma; Kova?evi?, Lejla; Rami?, Jasmin; Pojski?, Naris; Škaro, Vedrana; Proji?, Petar; Bajrovi?, Kasim; Hadžiselimovi?, Rifat; Drobni?, Katja; Huffine, Ed; Davoren, Jon; Primorac, Dragan

    2007-01-01

    Aim To present the joint effort of three institutions in the identification of human remains from the World War II found in two mass graves in the area of Škofja Loka, Slovenia. Methods The remains of 27 individuals were found in two small and closely located mass graves. The DNA was isolated from bone and teeth samples using either standard phenol/chloroform alcohol extraction or optimized Qiagen DNA extraction procedure. Some recovered samples required the employment of additional DNA purification methods, such as N-buthanol treatment. QuantifilerTM Human DNA Quantification Kit was used for DNA quantification. PowerPlex 16 kit was used to simultaneously amplify 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci. Matching probabilities were estimated using the DNA View program. Results Out of all processed samples, 15 remains were fully profiled at all 15 STR loci. The other 12 profiles were partial. The least successful profile included 13 loci. Also, 69 referent samples (buccal swabs) from potential living relatives were collected and profiled. Comparison of victims' profile against referent samples database resulted in 4 strong matches. In addition, 5 other profiles were matched to certain referent samples with lower probability. Conclusion Our results show that more than 6 decades after the end of the World War II, DNA analysis may significantly contribute to the identification of the remains from that period. Additional analysis of Y-STRs and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers will be performed in the second phase of the identification project. PMID:17696306

  7. Phylogeographic Diversity of Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Hantaviruses in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Korva, Miša; Knap, Nataša; Resman Rus, Katarina; Fajs, Luka; Grubelnik, Gašper; Bremec, Matejka; Knapi?, Tea; Trilar, Tomi; Avši? Županc, Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Slovenia is a very diverse country from a natural geography point of view, with many different habitats within a relatively small area, in addition to major geological and climatic differences. It is therefore not surprising that several small mammal species have been confirmed to harbour hantaviruses: A. flavicollis (Dobrava virus), A. agrarius (Dobrava virus–Kurkino), M. glareolus (Puumala virus), S. areanus (Seewis virus), M. agrestis, M. arvalis and M. subterraneus (Tula virus). Three of the viruses, namely the Dobrava, Dobrava–Kurkino and Puumala viruses, cause disease in humans, with significant differences in the severity of symptoms. Due to changes in haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome cases (HFRS) epidemiology, a detailed study on phylogenetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of pathogenic and non-pathogenic hantaviruses circulating in ecologically diverse endemic regions was performed. The study presents one of the largest collections of hantavirus L, M and S sequences obtained from hosts and patients within a single country. Several genetic lineages were determined for each hantavirus species, with higher diversity among non-pathogenic compared to pathogenic viruses. For pathogenic hantaviruses, a significant geographic clustering of human- and rodent-derived sequences was confirmed. Several geographic and ecological factors were recognized as influencing and limiting the formation of endemic areas. PMID:24335778

  8. Model of the porphyry copper and polymetallic vein family of deposits - Applications in Slovakia, Hungary, and Romania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    A tectonic model useful in estimating the occurrence of undiscovered porphyry copper and polymetallic vein systems has been developed. This model is based on the manner in which magmatic and hydrothermal fluids flow and are trapped in fault systems as far-field stress is released in tectonic strain features above subducting plates (e.g. strike-slip fault systems). The structural traps include preferred locations for stock emplacement and tensional-shear fault meshes within the step-overs that localize porphyry- and vein-style deposits. The application of the model is illustrated for the porphyry copper and polymetallic vein deposits in the Central Slovakian Volcanic Field, Slovakia; the Ma??tra Mountains, Hungary; and the Apuseni Mountains, Romania.

  9. Limited genetic diversity of Aerococcus viridans strains isolated from clinical and subclinical cases of bovine mastitis in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Spaková, T; Elecko, J; Vasil, M; Legáth, J; Pristas, P; Javorský, P

    2012-01-01

    The Aerococcus viridans isolates from bovine mastitis in Slovakia were isolated and characterized by classical microbiological and biochemical, and molecular techniques including IGS-PCR and rep-PCR, ARDRA and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. The substantial variability of antibiotic resistance patterns was observed. The majority of strains were resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics, the resistance to tetracycline was observed in 3 tested strains, resistance to lincomycin was found in 4 strains and practically all tested strains were sensitive to neomycin and ciprofloxacin. While variable at a phenotypic level, no significant genetic variability among A. viridans isolates was detected by molecular DNA based methods. The data obtained suggest that a few A. viridans strains spread among cow's population in Slovak farms. PMID:22844712

  10. Malignant Lymphatic and Hematopoietic Neoplasms Mortality in Serbia, 1991–2010: A Joinpoint Regression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ilic, Milena; Ilic, Irena

    2014-01-01

    Background Limited data on mortality from malignant lymphatic and hematopoietic neoplasms have been published for Serbia. Methods The study covered population of Serbia during the 1991–2010 period. Mortality trends were assessed using the joinpoint regression analysis. Results Trend for overall death rates from malignant lymphoid and haematopoietic neoplasms significantly decreased: by ?2.16% per year from 1991 through 1998, and then significantly increased by +2.20% per year for the 1998–2010 period. The growth during the entire period was on average +0.8% per year (95% CI 0.3 to 1.3). Mortality was higher among males than among females in all age groups. According to the comparability test, mortality trends from malignant lymphoid and haematopoietic neoplasms in men and women were parallel (final selected model failed to reject parallelism, P?=?0.232). Among younger Serbian population (0–44 years old) in both sexes: trends significantly declined in males for the entire period, while in females 15–44 years of age mortality rates significantly declined only from 2003 onwards. Mortality trend significantly increased in elderly in both genders (by +1.7% in males and +1.5% in females in the 60–69 age group, and +3.8% in males and +3.6% in females in the 70+ age group). According to the comparability test, mortality trend for Hodgkin's lymphoma differed significantly from mortality trends for all other types of malignant lymphoid and haematopoietic neoplasms (P<0.05). Conclusion Unfavourable mortality trend in Serbia requires targeted intervention for risk factors control, early diagnosis and modern therapy. PMID:25333862

  11. Soil fertility status and spatial distribution of selected trace elements in south-western Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrvic, Vesna; Kostic-Kravljanac, Ljiljana; Cakmak, Dragan; Pivic, Radmila; Saljnikov, Elmira; Nikoloski, Mile; Perovic, Veljko

    2010-05-01

    Soil fertility status and spatial distribution of selected trace elements in south-western Serbia V. Mrvic, Lj. Kostic-Kravljanac, D. ?akmak, R. Pivi?, E. Saljnikov, M. Nikoloski, V. Perovi? Institute of Soil Science, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia (vesnavmrvic@yahoo.com) Main characteristic of surface soil layer (pH in KCl, humus, available P and K), and content of trace elements (Ni, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, As, Hg) were analysed on area of southwestern Serbia, covering total 959 000 ha (one sample represents 1000 ha) . About 30 % of samples have very acid reaction. Main portion of soil samples (86%) is poorly suplied with available phosphorus (<8 mg/100g), and these are located under forests, meadows, pastures and orchards. Supplies of available potasium and humus are well. On the other hand, in small number of soil samples (4%), mostly on fertile alluvial soils, there are high P and K concentration, which are consequence of inadequate usage of mineral fertilizers. Content of trace elements in 70 % of soil samples is bellow maximum allowed concentration (MAC). The most frequente potential pollutants are Cr and Ni, which is assosiated with mafic and ultramafic rocks, which are common in this region (mountains naerby river Ibar - Troglav, Stolovi, ?emerno, Željin, Golija, Kopaonik; near Sjenica- peridotites of mn. Ozren). There are dominace of Eutric Leptosols soil type, with Ni content above 100 mg/kg, and in some samples above 1000 mg/kg. In smaller number of samples arsenic and lead exceed MAC, while other elements exceed MAD very rarelly. There are elevated Pb content in Kopaonik mountain area, and elevated As content besides this region, are in mine zone of Golija and Cemerno. These are mountain soils formed on acid igneous and metamorphic rocks, which are enriched with ores of Pb, Zn and other elements. Eventually negative influences of these elements on plants and other components of ecosystem may be esstimated only after detalied investigation.

  12. Environmental waters and blaNDM-1 in Belgrade, Serbia: Endemicity questioned.

    PubMed

    Novovic, K; Filipic, B; Veljovic, K; Begovic, J; Mirkovic, N; Jovcic, B

    2015-04-01

    New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) will soon become the most commonly isolated and distributed metallo-beta-lactamase worldwide due to its rapid international dissemination and its ability to be expressed by numerous Gram-negative pathogens. NDM-positive bacteria pose a significant public health threat in the Indian subcontinent and the Balkans, which have been designated as endemic regions. Our study was focused on urban rivers, a lake and springheads as a potential source of NDM-1-producing strains in Serbia, but also as a source of other metallo-beta-lactamases and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria. A total of 69 beta-lactam resistant isolates, belonging to 12 bacterial genera, were collected from 8 out of 10 different locations in Belgrade, of which the most were from a popular recreational site, Ada Ciganlija Lake. Phenotypic tests revealed 7 (10.14%) ESBL-producing isolates and 39 (56.52%) isolates resistant to imipenem, of which 32 were positive for metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) production. PCR and sequencing revealed the presence of genetic determinants for SHV (3 isolates), DHA-1 (1 isolate) and CMY-2 (1 isolate) beta-lactamases. However, we did not detect any NDM-1-producing strains (previously described cases of NDM-1 from Serbia were limited to Belgrade), so we propose that Serbian NDM-1 is in fact a transplant and a nosocomial, rather than an environmental, issue and that Serbia is not an endemic region for NDM-1. PMID:25569574

  13. An approach to assess trends of pharmacist workforce production and density rate in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Milicevic, Milena Santric; Matejic, Bojana; Terzic-Supic, Zorica; Dedovic, Neveka; Novak, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    The policy dialog on human resource in health care is one of the central issues of the ongoing health care system reform in the Republic of Serbia. Pharmacists are the third largest health care professional group, after nurses and doctors. This study's objective was to analyze population coverage with pharmacists employed in the public sector of health care system of Serbia during 1961 - 2007, and to project their density by 2017. In this respect, additionally, time-series of annual number of enrolled and graduate pharmacy students were modelled. Time trends of routinely collected national statistical data, concerning the pharmacists, were analyzed by join point regression program, according to grid-search method. During the observed period of time, in Serbia, pharmacist workforce production and deployment trends were generally positive, but with different annual dynamic. Key findings were the slow rise of pharmacist workforce density rates per 100,000 population; the insufficient balance between pharmacists workforce supply side (annual number of enrolled and graduated students) and the public health care sector's ability to absorb annual number of pharmacy graduates. For ten years ahead, density rates of publicly active pharmacist workforce would probably increase for 46%, if no policy interventions were planned to adverse trends of pharmacist workforce production and deployment in public health care sector. The study results may be useful for variety of stakeholders to better understand how and why the supply and deployment of pharmacists were changing; and that the coordination among policy interventions is a crucial successes factor for a health workforce development plan implementation. The repercussions of any changes made to the pharmacy workforce, need to be considered carefully in advance. PMID:21086767

  14. Development a Comprehensive Food Safety System in Serbia- A Narrative Review Article

    PubMed Central

    RADOVI?, Vesela; KEKOVI?, Zoran; AGI?, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Food safety issues are not a new issue in science, but due to the dynamic changes in the modern world it is as equally important as decades ago. The aim of the study was to address the efforts in the development of a comprehensive food safety system in Serbia, and make specific recommendations regarding the improvement of epidemiological investigation capacity as a useful tool which contributes to improving the public health by joint efforts of epidemiologists and law enforcement. Methods We used the methodology appropriate for social sciences. Results The findings show the current state-of-affairs in the area of food safety and health care system and present some most important weaknesses which have to be overcome. Policy makers need timely and reliable information so that they can make informed decisions to improve the population health in an ongoing process of seeking full membership in the European Union. Conclusion Serbia has to apply significant changes in practice because the current state-of-affairs in the area of food safety and health care system is not so favourable due to numerous both objective and subjective factors. Hence, the policy-makers must work on the development of epidemiological investigation capacities as a firm basis for greater efficiency and effectiveness. Epidemiologists would not stay alone in their work. Law enforcement as well as many other stakeholders should recognize their new role in the process of the development of epidemiological investigation capacity as a tool for the development of a comprehensive food safety system in Serbia.

  15. Skeletal Manifestations of Hydatid Disease in Serbia: Demographic Distribution, Site Involvement, Radiological Findings, and Complications

    PubMed Central

    Bracanovic, Djurdja; Sopta, Jelena; Djonic, Danijela; Lujic, Nenad

    2013-01-01

    Although Serbia is recognized as an endemic country for echinococcosis, no information about precise incidence in humans has been available. The aim of this study was to investigate the skeletal manifestations of hydatid disease in Serbia. This retrospective study was conducted by reviewing the medical database of Institute for Pathology (Faculty of Medicine in Belgrade), a reference institution for bone pathology in Serbia. We reported a total of 41 patients with bone cystic echinococcosis (CE) during the study period. The mean age of 41 patients was 40.9ą18.8 years. In 39% of patients, the fracture line was the only visible radiological sign, followed by cyst and tumefaction. The spine was the most commonly involved skeletal site (55.8%), followed by the femur (18.6%), pelvis (13.9%), humerus (7.0%), rib (2.3%), and tibia (2.3%). Pain was the symptom in 41.5% of patients, while some patients demonstrated complications such as paraplegia (22.0%), pathologic fracture (48.8%), and scoliosis (9.8%). The pathological fracture most frequently affected the spine (75.0%) followed by the femur (20.0%) and tibia (5.0%). However, 19.5% of patients didn't develop any complication or symptom. In this study, we showed that bone CE is not uncommon in Serbian population. As reported in the literature, therapy of bone CE is controversial and its results are poor. In order to improve the therapy outcome, early diagnosis, before symptoms and complications occur, can be contributive. PMID:24039289

  16. Phytochemical analysis of nine Hypericum L. species from Serbia and the F.Y.R. Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Smelcerovic, A; Spiteller, M

    2006-03-01

    The methanol extracts of the aerial parts of nine Hypericum species (H. barbatum, H. hirsutum, H. linarioides, H. maculatum, H. olympicum, H. perforatum, H. richeri, H. rumeliacum and H. tetrapterum), collected on different locations in Serbia and the F.Y.R. Macedonia, were obtained by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and analyzed for the content of four constituents (hyperoside, quercitrin, hyperforin and hypericin) by LC-MS/ MS. All studied extracts contained the characteristic four constituents, but their contents varied between different species and locations. The content of hypericin in H. barbatum was significantly higher (3.9 times) than that in H. perforatum. PMID:16599273

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF Botrytis cinerea ISOLATES FROM SMALL FRUITS AND GRAPEVINE IN SERBIA

    E-print Network

    Brankica Tanovi?; G. Delibaši?; Jasminka Milivojevi?; M. Nikoli?

    Abstract — Twenty-six single-spore isolates of Botrytis cinerea from blackberry, raspberry, strawberry, and grapevine were investigated using transposable elements, morphological characterization, and sensitivity to fungicides. Both transposable elements, Flipper and Boty, were detected among isolates from all the hosts. Six vacuma (without transposable elements) and seven transposa (containing both elements) isolates were found to be present in sympatry in Serbia. Isolates containing only the Boty element were detected. Eight morphological types of colonies on PDA and MA media were observed, confirming the great phenotypic variability of B. cinerea. Sensitivity to fungicides was various, depending on both the fungicide and the isolate.

  18. Late cretaceous radiolarians and age of flyschoid sediments in the Struganik section (Western Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragina, L. G.; Bragin, N. Yu.; Djeri?, N.; Gaji?, V.

    2014-03-01

    The succession of radiolarian assemblages in the Struganik section of western Serbia is described for the first time. The following radiolarian beds are defined in carbonate flyschoid sequences represented by thin-platy limestones with calcarenite and bentonite clay intercalations (from the base upward): Theocampe urna-Dictyomitra koslovae (presumably lower Santonian); Afens perapediensis-Clathropyrgus titthium (presumably uppermost lower Santonian-basal upper Santonian); Alievium gallowayi-Crucella espartoensis (upper Santonian). The examined assemblages are characterized by high taxonomic diversity. The upper Santonian Alievium gallowayi-Crucella espartoensis Assemblage exhibits significant similarity with the coeval radiolarian assemblage of the Crimean Mountains (Ukraine). Archaeocenosphaera (?) karamatai sp. nov. is described.

  19. Access to primary healthcare services for the Roma population in Serbia: a secondary data analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Serbia has proclaimed access to healthcare as a human right. In a context wherein the Roma population are disadvantaged, the aim of this study was to assess whether the Roma population are able to effectively access primary care services, and if not, what barriers prevent them from doing so. The history of the Roma in Serbia is described in detail so as to provide a context for their current vulnerable position. Methods Disaggregated data were analyzed from three population groups in Serbia; the general population, the Roma population, and the poorest quintile of the general population not including the Roma. The effective coverage framework, which incorporates availability, affordability, accessibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of health services, was used to structure the secondary data analysis. Acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children less than five years of age was used as an example as this is the leading cause of death in children under 5 years old in Serbia. Results Roma children were significantly more likely to experience an ARI than either the general population or the poorest quintile of the general population, not including the Roma. All three population groups were equally likely to not receive the correct treatment regime of antibiotics. An analysis of the factors that affect quality of access to health services reveal that personal documentation is a statistically significant problem; availability of health services is not an issue that disproportionately affects the Roma; however the geographical accessibility and affordability are substantive issues that disproportionately affect the Roma population. Affordability of services affected the Roma and the poorest quintile and affordability of medications significantly affected all three population groups. With regards to acceptability, mothers from all three population groups are equally likely to recognize the importance of seeking treatment. Conclusions The Roma should be assisted in applying for personal documentation, the geographical accessibility of clinics needs to be addressed, and the costs of healthcare visits and medications should be reviewed. Areas for improvement specific to ARI are the costs of antibiotics and the diagnostic accuracy of providers. A range of policy recommendations are outlined. PMID:21851632

  20. Determining the Sava fault cumulative displacement and its seismogenic potential for the Ljubljana Basin, Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamšek Rupnik, Petra; Benedetti, Lucilla; Moulin, Adrien; Bavec, Miloš; Vrabec, Marko

    2013-04-01

    The right lateral transpressive, 200 km long, Sava fault in northern Slovenia is at the eastern part of the Periadriatic fault system. The fault strikes NW-SE to E-W and dips steeply towards the north. Upper Oligocene volcano-clastic rocks are apparently displaced by 25-70 km along strike (Placer, 1996) suggesting a long-term slip-rate between 1 and 5 mm/yr over the last 20 Ma (Jamšek Rupnik et al., 2012). On the other hand, GPS measurements yield a slip-rate of about 1 mm/yr (Vrabec et al., 2006). Moreover, no large earthquakes (M>5) have been reported on this major fault over the last 1000 yrs. To constrain the seismic hazard in this densely populated region of Europe, we studied the western part of the Sava fault between Jesenice and Kamnik to identify geomorphic indicators of its Quaternary activity, to determine the organization and hierarchy of the overall fault network, and to quantitatively constrain the displacement on this portion of the fault. From Jesenice to Preddvor, the NW-striking fault trace is almost rectilinear. Southeastward, the fault splays into multiple E-W striking branches. The fault also appears divided into several disconnected segments that are both right-stepping and left-stepping along the mean strike of the fault zone. These geometrical arrangements suggest that the fault segments west of Preddvor have a vertical component of slip in addition to their dominant right lateral one, while the vertical component appears to be the dominant one southeast. The segments are 3.5 to 15.5 km long and according to scaling laws, they could produce earthquakes with magnitude 5.6 to 6.5. Dextral bending for 1.3 to 5.4 km of all major rivers crossing the fault are evidences of the fault activity over several thousands of years. Changes in river regime with incision north of the fault and active aggradation with inset terrace formation south of it also suggest ongoing vertical displacement which is yet to be quantified. Three sites near Trži?, Preddvor and Kamnik, where the fault trace is particularly sharp, have been investigated in detail. Fluvial terraces appear displaced and on the eastern portion of the fault, near Cerklje several parallel faults segments with a clear reverse component are observed. The southernmost segment offsets vertically the Kokra alluvial fan with a maximum displacement of 5 m. In the future we will date those alluvial surfaces and perform paleoseismological studies. References Jamšek Rupnik, P., Benedetti, L., Bavec, M. and Vrabec, M. 2012. Geomorphic indicators of Quaternary activity of the Sava fault between Golnik and Preddvor. RMZ - Material and Geoenvironment, Vol. 59, No. 2/3, pp. 299-314. Placer, L. 1996. Displacement along the Sava fault. Geologija, Vol. 39, pp. 283-287. Vrabec, M., Pavlov?i? Prešeren, P. and Stopar, B. 2006. GPS study (1996-2002) of active deformation along the Periadriatic fault system in northeastern Slovenia: tectonic model. Geologica Carpathica, Vol. 57, No. 1, pp. 57-65.

  1. Uncertainty in the application of gis for predictive health risk assessment for a radioactive waste repository in slovenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Branko Kontic; Marc Gerbec; David Briggs

    \\u000a \\u000a 1. Introduction\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a At the NATO Advanced Research Workshop “GIS for Emergency Preparedness and Health Risk Reduction” held in Budapest from 22\\u000a to 25 April 2001 (from which the papers in this book are derived), Slovenian participants contributed two presentations: “Implementation\\u000a of the Seveso II Directive in Slovenia” by Gerbec (2001) and “GIS and siting of hazardous facilities - approach and

  2. Detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carrying the mecC gene in human samples in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Dermota, U; Zdovc, I; Strumbelj, I; Grmek-Kosnik, I; Ribic, H; Rupnik, M; Golob, M; Zajc, U; Bes, M; Laurent, F; Mueller-Premru, M

    2015-04-01

    SUMMARY Following the recognition of a mecC MRSA isolate from a patient hospitalized in the northeastern region of Slovenia, a national collection of 395 community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) isolates from 2006 to 2013 was screened. An additional six mecC MRSA strains were found and characterized as spa types t843, t9397 and t10009, and multilocus sequence type ST130. The low oxacillin minimum inhibitory concentrations and absence of the mecA gene make recognition of these MRSA strains problematical for diagnostic laboratories. In such strains the presence of mecC should be determined. PMID:25036113

  3. Prevalence of antibodies against Leptospira sp. in snakes, lizards and turtles in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Leptospiral infections in poikilothermic (cold blooded) animals have received very little attention and the literature concerning natural infections of these animals is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of leptospiral antibodies in reptiles, imported into Slovenia and intended to be pets in close contact with humans. A total of 297 reptiles (22 snakes, 210 lizards and 65 turtles) were tested for specific antibodies against serovars of Leptospira interrogans sensu stricto using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Live cultures of different serovars were used as antigens. MAT was performed according to standard procedures and the degree of reaction was interpreted by estimating the percentage of agglutinated leptospires. Samples showing titres of???50 against one or more serovars were considered as positive. Results Antibodies against seven pathogenic serovars of L. interrogans sensu stricto were detected in 46 of 297 reptiles. Among 22 snakes, specific antibodies against pathogenic serovars of three Leptospira species (L. interrogans, L. kirschneri and L. borgpetersenii) at titre levels from 1:50 to 1:400 were detected in 6 snakes. In 31 of 210 lizards, specific antibodies were found in titres from 1:50 to 1:1000 and, finally, among 65 turtles (terrapins and tortoises), 9 had specific antibodies at titre levels between 1:50 and 1:1600. Animals imported from non-EU countries showed significantly higher prevalence (25.0%; 95 confidence interval: 16.7–33.3%) than animals from EU member states (10.4%; confidence interval: 6.1–14.7%). Conclusions Reptiles may be considered as potential reservoirs of L. interrogans sensu stricto. Origin of the animals is a risk factor for presence of leptospiral antibodies, especially in lizards. Special attention should be focused on animals from non-EU member states. PMID:24020619

  4. Water, Biodiversity and Climate Change Studies in International Schools Network of the Park Škocjan Caves, Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debevec Gerjevic, Vanja

    2010-05-01

    As UNESCO World Heritage Site, Ramsar Site and Biosphere Reserve the Park Škocjan Caves strongly believes in development of quality educational programme in order to fulfill the guidelines of international conventions and also provide for awareness and development in the future. Ten years ago we started with water analysis projects and performed several projects related to natural, cultural and social aspect of water protection. We developed a special model of training the teachers and educating the children. Together we have accomplished two international projects, two national project and several research projects dealing with The Reka river and karst phenomena. In 2003 we officially established the schools network, where we join in research education programmes five elementary schools form Slovenia and two from Italy. They are all located beside the surface and underground flow of the Reka River. Fifteen teachers and more than hundred children are involved in educational programme every year. Our work in the schools network enables us to bring science to society in a comprehensive way including the scientists and their work in preparation and implementation of projects. With teachers help we promote science studies but also encourage children to do social projects in order to keep intergeneration connections and gain knowledge of past experience and life from our grandparents. The paper will present the role of protected area in public awareness and education with special emphasis on natural phenomena of water in the Karst region as a toll for joint work in the field for scientists and school children. Chemical and biological analysis of the Reka River and other water bodies will be presented and accompanied with the biodiversity survey and climate change research projects. New approach of performing the research studies and presentation of results for schoolchildren will be explained.

  5. Tick-borne encephalitis in Slovenia: data from a questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Blasko-Markic, Mateja; Socan, Maja

    2012-06-01

    There has been a marked increase in the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in the last two decades, with new foci of the disease evolving. TBE is endemic in Slovenia, and the incidence rate is one of the highest in the European Union. A survey of notified TBE cases started in 1999, aiming to collect additional epidemiological data that are not available through the usual notification system. From 1999 to 2009, a short, anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was sent to 2779 notified TBE cases. The response rate was 69.5%. The willingness to respond was higher in those over 60 years of age, but did not differ by gender. In all, 1564 (82.3%) of the responders had a tick bite on one or multiple sites on the body. Age and gender influenced the location of the tick bite: males patients most often had the tick located on the torso, and females had them on the legs. Ticks located on the head and neck were significantly higher in preschool children compared to school children and adults. The estimated duration of tick attachment was less than 6 h in 23.5% of TBE cases. Long attachments (more than 24 h) were reported by only 10% of the patients. The tick bite occurred while the TBE patients were engaged in leisure time activities (sports or camping, 32.8%), mushroom or berry picking (30.2%), or farming (23.3%). Almost two-thirds of TBE patients reported that they had practiced at least one of the recommended preventive measures, most frequently self-inspection, and least often repellent use. The patients were asked to disclose the most probable geographical location of the TBE viral (TBEV) infection. Maps were created on a county level and showed that the risk of TBE is widespread, with few counties unaffected. The counties located in the northern and the central areas had the highest risk of TBEV infection. PMID:22448719

  6. Mathematics Achievement Scale Score

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jianyu

    528 Ireland 527 Serbia 516 Australia 516 Hungary 515 Slovenia 513 Czech Republic 511 Austria 508 Italy Northern Ireland 517 Ireland 516 Croatia 516 Australia 516 Serbia 516 Lithuania 515 Belgium (Flemish) 509

  7. 7 CFR 35.11 - Minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Northern Ireland, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Scotland, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Wales), or Greenland shall meet...

  8. 22 CFR 228.03 - Identification of principal geographic code numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro*, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, People's Republic of China, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Serbia*, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia,...

  9. 7 CFR 35.11 - Minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Northern Ireland, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Scotland, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Wales), or Greenland shall meet...

  10. 7 CFR 35.11 - Minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Northern Ireland, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Scotland, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Wales), or Greenland shall meet...

  11. 22 CFR 228.03 - Identification of principal geographic code numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro*, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, People's Republic of China, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Serbia*, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia,...

  12. [Epidemiologic characteristics of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Serbia 1979-1992].

    PubMed

    Zivaljevi?, V; Adanja, B; Obradovi?, M; Lukac, V

    1995-01-01

    Data on the incidence and deaths of hemorrhagic fever with kidney syndrome (HFKS) in Serbia 1979-1992 were analyzed. Mostly sporadic cases of illness were registered, but for two years it was epidemy in 1986., with 34 and in 1989., with 42 ill. The morbidity rate was between 0.01 and 0.72 /10000 (on average 0.16 /0000). Most often men (72.7%) between 20-39 years old, industrial workers (33.3%) got affected, whose place of living was in the rural environment. The lethality rate was high--7.6%, in epidemies 11.8%, and during sporadic occurrence 1.8%. The ill were registered during the whole year, but the characteristic season of illness was May--September with 76.3% of the total number of the ill. The topographic distribution of the ill showed that the greatest number of the ill with HFKS (45.8%) occurred in three counties in Serbia--in Ivanjica, Cacak and Lucani. PMID:7571526

  13. [Radiation burden of patients in conventional diagnostic radiology: analysis of radiologic practice in Serbia].

    PubMed

    Ciraj-Bjelac, O F; Kovacevi?, M S; Kosuti?, D D; Stankovi?, S S

    2007-01-01

    X-rays are by far most significant contributor to total population dose from man-made sources of radiation. Diagnostic reference levels provide frameworks to reduce variability. The aim of this study is to establish, for the first time, a baseline for national diagnostic reference levels in Serbia for the most common X-ray examination types. Dose estimates are based on measurements of kerma-area product and Entrance surface air kerma for at least ten patients for each examination type, in each of 16 randomly selected hospitals in Serbia. Mean, median and third quartile values of patient doses are reported. Results have shown wide variation of mean hospital doses. Entrance surface doses were compared with previously published diagnostic reference levels. Doses for all studied examination types except chest radiography were within European DRL. The reasons for dose variation are discussed. The findings emphasize the importance of regular patient dose measurement to ensure that patient doses are kept as low as reasonable achievable. PMID:17988039

  14. Evidence for genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii in selected intermediate hosts in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Markovi?, Marija; Ivovi?, Vladimir; Stajner, Tijana; Djoki?, Vitomir; Klun, Ivana; Bobi?, Branko; Nikoli?, Aleksandra; Djurkovi?-Djakovi?, Olgica

    2014-05-01

    To contribute to the insight into the worldwide population structure of Toxoplasma gondii, we genetically characterized a total of eight strains isolated from intermediate hosts including humans, sheep and pigeons in Serbia. Although parasite DNA was detected in 28.2% (60/213) of the human samples from 162 patients serologically suspected of active toxoplasmosis, as well as in 5/7 seropositive pigeons and in 2/12 seropositive sheep examined, multilocus PCR-RFLP genotyping, using SAG1, 5'SAG2, 3'SAG2, GRA6, 5'GRA7 and 3'GRA7 as markers, was successful in only four human isolates (of which one was isolated from both the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and blood samples of a single patient), one sheep and three pigeons. Of the eight isolates, five were type II (62.5%), one was type III, one was atypical, and one had a type I allele at GRA6 as the single locus genotyped. Although type II, as elsewhere in Europe, predominated, these results may suggest a higher genetic diversity of T. gondii in Serbia, reflecting local environmental contamination and also the geographical position of the country in South-East Europe. PMID:24698636

  15. Non-dioxin-like PCBs in crops and related products: Levels and intakes in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Skrbic, Biljana; Durisic-Mladenovic, Natasa

    2007-06-01

    Levels of six non-dioxin-like indicator PCBs in 36 composite samples of agricultural crops, related by-products and foodstuffs were pooled from a total of 938 individual samples collected in Serbia in 2002 and 2004. After extraction and cleanup, PCBs were determined by capillary GC using ECD. The highest total PCB levels were found in dried sugar beet pulp (2.89 ng g(-1) whole weight (ww)) and crude sunflower oil (1.83 ng g(-1) lipid), while the lowest levels were found in molasses (0.05 ng g(-1) ww). The calculated daily intake of PCBs for the crop products included in this study were compared with the maximum permissible risk (MPR) level established by the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment. Cereal products (flour, bread, pastry, pasta, cookies) were made a relatively large contribution (23% of MPR), while sugar (2% of MPR) and oil (4% of MPR) made a low and fairly uniform contribution to intake. The levels and intake of PCBs in Serbia were compared with data from other recent international surveys. PMID:17487606

  16. Challenges in sexual and reproductive health of Roma people who live in settlements in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Sedlecky, Katarina; Raševi?, Mirjana

    2015-04-01

    Objective To investigate the differences in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) between Roma women of reproductive age who live in settlements and the general population of women of the same age in Serbia who do not live in settlements. Methods The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 4 (MICS4) was administered to Roma and Serbian women and the results were compared between the two groups. In order to get a qualitative perspective, a specifically designed, short open-ended questionnaire about Roma women was given to Roma Health Mediators (RHMs). Results Roma women have a higher total fertility rate and adolescent birth rate, and early marriage is much more common among them. Differences are less clear regarding antenatal care and assistance during delivery from skilled personnel. Roma women more frequently rely on traditional contraception, and are less likely to use modern contraceptives than the general female population. Problems in the socio-economic sphere, poor school enrolment and maintenance of traditional patterns in Roma people living in settlements contribute to the disparities observed. Conclusion Although data on the SRH of the general population of women in Serbia are far from being satisfactory, those for women who live in Roma settlements are much worse. Political actions aimed at the empowerment of Roma women in the spheres of education, employment and health promotion have been implemented with the hope that they might improve the SRH of this vulnerable population group. PMID:25317892

  17. The paleolimnological analysis of sediments from high mountain lake NiÓ Ó Ó Ó Óné Terianske pleso in the High Tatras (Slovakia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Šporka; E. Štefková; P. Bitušík; A. R. Thompson; A. Agustí-Panareda; P. G. Appleby; J. A. Grytnes; C. Kamenik; I. Krno; A. Lami; N. Rose; N. E. Shilland

    2002-01-01

    Sedimentological climate proxies and a 200-year long climate record, reconstructed using a data-set of European- wide meteorological data, have been compared at the high mountain lake NiÓné Terianske pleso in the High Tatras, Slovakia. Diatoms, chrysophyte stomatocysts, chironomids, plant pigments and spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs) were analysed as well as sediment lithostratigraphic parameters. Using a radiometric approach the sedi- ment

  18. Educating Educators in a Volatile Climate--The Challenge of Modernising Higher Business Schools in Serbia and Montenegro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollinshead, Graham

    2006-01-01

    This study is set in the rapidly changing higher educational environment that has ensued in Serbia and Montenegro in the post Milosevic era. Its primary focus is a "Training Trainers" initiative, mounted by the GTZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit/Society for Technical Co-operation), designed to upgrade the teaching capacity of…

  19. Detection of elements and radioactivity in pellets from long-eared owls (Asio otus) inhabiting the city of Belgrade (Serbia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miroslav A. Demajo; Jelena Cveti?anin; Milovan Stoiljkovi?; Djordje Trpkov; Velibor Andri?; Antonije Onjia; Olivera Neškovi?

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we analysed pellets from long-eared owls (Asio otus) collected from four localities in Belgrade (Serbia). The pellets contained the remains of prey, namely voles (Arvicola terrestris) and field mice (Apodemus agrarius). The concentrations of 14 elements (Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Zn, Sr, Ba, Mn, Ti, Cu, Si, B) were evaluated in whole pellets and in

  20. Influence of Coal Ash and Slag Dumping on Dump Waste Waters of the Kostolac Power Plants (Serbia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksandar Popovic; Jasna Djinovic

    2006-01-01

    The content of selected trace and major elements in the river water used for transport, as well as in the subcategories of the waste waters (overflow and drainage) were analyzed in order to establish the influence of transport and dumping of coal ash and slag from the “Kostolac A” and “Kostolac B” power plants located 100 km from Belgrade (Serbia).

  1. Triassic and Jurassic radiolarians from sedimentary blocks of ophiolite mélange in the Avala Gora area (Belgrade surroundings, Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragin, N. Yu.; Bragina, L. G.; Djeri?, N.; Tolji?, M.

    2011-12-01

    Blocks of cherty rocks and Aptychus Limestone embedded into ophiolite mélange south of Avala Gora (Serbia) contain radiolarians of different ages. We distinguished here Late Jurassic (middle Oxfordianearly Tithonian), Middle-Late Jurassic (Bathonian-early Tithonian), and Middle Triassic (early Ladinian) radiolarian assemblages. The respective stratigraphic data suggest that the ophiolite mélange was formed after the early Tithonian.

  2. Stolbur Phytoplasma Transmission to Maize by Reptalus panzeri and the Disease Cycle of Maize Redness in Serbia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize redness (MR), induced by stolbur phytoplasma (Candidatus Phytoplasma solani, subgroup 16SrXII-A), is characterized by midrib, leaf and stalk reddening and abnormal ear development. MR has been reported from Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria for 50 years, and recent epiphytotics reduced yields by 4...

  3. Concentration and characteristics of depleted uranium in water, air and biological samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guogang Jia; Maria Belli; Umberto Sansone; Silvia Rosamilia; Stefania Gaudino

    2005-01-01

    During the Balkan conflicts, in 1995 and 1999, depleted uranium (DU) rounds were employed and were left in the battlefield. Health concern is related to the risk arising from contamination of the environment with DU penetrators and dust. In order to evaluate the impact of DU on the environment and population in Serbia and Montenegro, radiological surveys of DU in

  4. Higher Education in Serbia: From Socialism to the Free Market Economy and Implications for the Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smirnov, Lidija

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the relationships between higher education and the labour market in Serbia. In order to understand this relationship better, this paper will first provide a brief history of the country and the history of its higher education structures. The paper will then discuss higher education from post Second World War until the fall of…

  5. Cross-sectional survey on Toxoplasma gondii infection in cattle, sheep and pigs in Serbia: Seroprevalence and risk factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivana Klun; Olgica Djurkovi?-Djakovi?; Sofija Kati?-Radivojevi?; Aleksandra Nikoli?

    2006-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a globally distributed zoonosis with a clinical impact in the unborn fetus and in the immunosuppressed individual. In Serbia, studies of risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans have shown that the relatively high prevalence is associated mainly with consumption of undercooked meat and\\/or meat products. However, data on T. gondii infection in domestic animals mostly used

  6. Parasitism of the horse chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimic (Lep., Gracillariidae), in Serbia and Macedonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Heitland; I. Tosevski

    2002-01-01

    A study concerning the parasitism of Cameraria ohridella, a pest of Aesculus hippocastanum invading Europe, has been carried out in Serbia and Macedonia in 1998 and 1999. From C. ohridella 14 species of parasitoids were reared, which are polyphagous and occur in the whole of Europe. Twelve of the species found belong to the Chalcidoidean family Eulophidae. The rates of

  7. Assessing pollution in the Danube River near Novi Sad (Serbia) using several biomarkers in sterlet ( Acipenser ruthenus L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bojana Stanic; Nebojsa Andric; Sonja Zoric; Gordana Grubor-Lajsic; Radmila Kovacevic

    2006-01-01

    The response of wild fish to pollutants was studied in sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.) collected in 2001 and 2002 at two sampling sites in the Danube River near Novi Sad (Serbia): in the vicinity of the oil refinery and at the Danube–Begec, remote from the oil refinery and considered a reference site. The following biomarkers were measured in sterlet collected

  8. An application of DEA for comparative analysis and ranking of regions in Serbia with regards to social-economic development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milan Martic; Gordana Savic

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we use data envelopment analysis (DEA) to estimate how well regions in Serbia utilize their resources. Based on data for four inputs and four outputs we applied an output-oriented CCR DEA model and it appears that 17 out of 30 regions are efficient. For each inefficient unit, DEA identifies the sources and level of inefficiency for each

  9. The invasion history, distribution and colour pattern forms of the harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pall.) (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) in Slovakia, Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Panigaj, Lubomír; Zach, Peter; Hon?k, Alois; Nedv?d, Old?ich; Kulfan, Ján; Martinková, Zdenka; Selyemová, Diana; Viglášová, Sandra; Roy, Helen E

    2014-01-01

    The harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) has invaded and established in Slovakia. Following unintentional introduction in 2008, the spread of the alien coccinellid was very fast. By the end of 2009, it was recorded across the whole country, and by the end of 2012 it was widely distributed and common in various habitats, particularly gardens, orchards and urban areas, where it was most frequent on trees. The rate of eastward spread was approximately 200 km year(-1), similar to the overall rate of spread in Europe. Between 2008 and 2012, the coccinellid was recorded in a total of 153 localities, in altitudes ranging from 98 to 1,250 m. Most records of this species were made in lowlands, hilly areas and valleys separating mountain ridges. However, it was only rarely documented in areas above 700 m a.s.l. The non-melanic colour form (f. succinea) was dominant along a longitudinal transect including eight urban areas across Slovakia, with the frequency of melanic forms (f. spectabilis and f. conspicua together) between 6.3 and 19.2% and a median equal to 10.5%. The invasion history and distribution of H. axyridis in Slovakia are discussed with regard to the time sequence of records, rate of spread, altitudinal distribution, anthropogenic dispersal, effective recording, proportion of melanic forms and other relevant aspects associated with the spread of this successful invader. PMID:24899863

  10. The invasion history, distribution and colour pattern forms of the harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pall.) (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) in Slovakia, Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Panigaj, ?ubomír; Zach, Peter; Hon?k, Alois; Nedv?d, Old?ich; Kulfan, Ján; Martinková, Zdenka; Selyemová, Diana; Viglášová, Sandra; Roy, Helen E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) has invaded and established in Slovakia. Following unintentional introduction in 2008, the spread of the alien coccinellid was very fast. By the end of 2009, it was recorded across the whole country, and by the end of 2012 it was widely distributed and common in various habitats, particularly gardens, orchards and urban areas, where it was most frequent on trees. The rate of eastward spread was approximately 200 km year-1, similar to the overall rate of spread in Europe. Between 2008 and 2012, the coccinellid was recorded in a total of 153 localities, in altitudes ranging from 98 to 1,250 m. Most records of this species were made in lowlands, hilly areas and valleys separating mountain ridges. However, it was only rarely documented in areas above 700 m a.s.l. The non-melanic colour form (f. succinea) was dominant along a longitudinal transect including eight urban areas across Slovakia, with the frequency of melanic forms (f. spectabilis and f. conspicua together) between 6.3 and 19.2% and a median equal to 10.5%. The invasion history and distribution of H. axyridis in Slovakia are discussed with regard to the time sequence of records, rate of spread, altitudinal distribution, anthropogenic dispersal, effective recording, proportion of melanic forms and other relevant aspects associated with the spread of this successful invader. PMID:24899863

  11. Levels of ˛š?Po and ˛š?Pb in fish and molluscs in Slovenia and the related dose assessment to the population.

    PubMed

    Strok, Marko; Smodiš, Borut

    2011-02-01

    ˛š?Po and ˛š?Pb activity concentrations in fish from the Slovenian part of Adriatic Sea, in the vicinity of a former uranium mine at Žirovski vrh and from the Slovenian market were determined. In addition, ˛š?Po and ˛š?Pb activity concentrations in squid from the Slovenian market and in mussels from the Slovenian part of the Adriatic Sea were also determined. Fish, squid and mussel consumption in Slovenia was assessed from the data available from Eurostat and Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) and the data used for the corresponding dose calculation. Fish species with the highest activity concentrations were grilled to assess possible loss of ˛š?Po during the food preparation process. Samples were freeze dried and radiochemical separation of ˛š?Po and ˛š?Pb was performed. Measurements of ˛š?Po were performed by alpha spectrometry and ˛š?Pb by a low background gas-flow proportional counter. ˛š?Po activity concentrations in fish, squid and mussels were from 0.039 to 35.0 Bqkg?š fresh weight and ˛š?Pb activity concentrations were from 0.08 to 3.03 Bqkg?š fresh weight. Grilling of fish resulted in no significant loss of ˛š?Po at 90°C. The assessed combined annual effective ingestion dose due to ˛š?Po and ˛š?Pb for fish, squid and mussels consumed in Slovenia is 47.6 ?Sv year?š. PMID:21094513

  12. P15. Crizotinib in metastatic ALK-positive lung cancer—results from clinical practice in Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Berzinec, Peter; Kasan, Peter; Plank, Lukas; Andrasina, Igor; Godal, Robert; Mazal, Juraj; Cipkova, Andrea; Denkova, Lucia; Chowaniecova, Gabriela; Kuliskova, Iveta

    2014-01-01

    Background Crizotinib was approved and authorized for use in the European Union in October 2012. Since then crizotinib has been available in Slovakia for treatment of advanced metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after failure of standard chemotherapy only, based on the wording of the therapeutic indications by the European Medicines Agency. Purpose of this study was to assess results achieved with crizotinib in the treatment of advanced, metastatic NSCLC in clinical practice in Slovakia. Methods In this multicentre retrospective study, approved by the Ethical Committee of the Specialised Hospital of St Zoerardus Zobor, the data of 29 ALK-positive patients were reviewed. FISH with break-apart probes was used for the confirmation of ALK rearrangement in all cases. MedCalc version 14.8.1 was used for the statistical analyses. Results Between October 2012 and August 2014, 19 out of 29 ALK-positive patients were treated with crizotinib. Ten patients did not receive crizotinib: five due to on-going first-line chemotherapy, five due to other reasons. Characteristics of the treated patients: M/W: 5/14, age (years) median 57, range 23-77, PS (ECOG/WHO): 0/1/2/3: 1/9/4/5, Histology: 18 patients adenocarcinoma, 1 NSCLC, NOS. Treatment results: RR was evaluable in 17 patients: PR + CR: 12 (11+1), 71% (95% CI: 44-90), PD: 3, 18% (95% CI: 4-44), SD: 2, 12% (95% CI: 1-38), DCR: 14, 82% (95% CI: 56-96), PFS (in 19 patients) Kaplan-Meier estimate: 10 months (95% CI: 6 -15), PS (in 19 patients): significant improvement within 2 months (mean dif. –0.89, P=0.007), toxicities grade 3/4 occurred in 10 of 19 patients (53%), hematologic: 0, non-hematologic: hepatotoxicity 3/1, pneumonitis: 1/0, diarrhoea 1/0, nausea: 3/0, vomiting: 1/1, vision disorder: 1/0, peripheral oedema: 1/0. Crizotinib was permanently discontinued due to toxicity in only two patients. There was no statistically significant difference in the RR, grade 3/4 toxicities rate, and PFS between this study and the crizotinib arm in the PROFILE 1007 (Shaw AT et al., NEJM 2013). Conclusions Treatment results seen in this retrospective study are encouraging and consistent with those seen in the key phase III trial with crizotinib.

  13. IEEE Symposium on Computer Based Medical Systems (CBMS'2002), Maribor (Slovenia). Symbolic Exposition of Medical Data-Sets: A Data Mining

    E-print Network

    Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    In 15th IEEE Symposium on Computer Based Medical Systems (CBMS'2002), Maribor (Slovenia). Symbolic Exposition of Medical Data-Sets: A Data Mining Workbench to Inductively Derive Data-Defining Symbolic Rules, Malaysia Abstract The application of data mining techniques upon medical data is certainly beneficial

  14. Impact of Air Pollution on Genetic Material of Shallot ( Allium cepa L. var. ascalonicum ) Exposed at Differently Polluted Sites in Slovenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erika Glasen?nik; Cvetka Ribari?-Lasnik; Karin Savinek; Meta Zaluberšek; Maria Mueller; Franc Bati?

    2004-01-01

    Test shallot plants Allium cepa L. var. ascalonicum were exposed to field conditions at six research plots in the most polluted areas in Slovenia in the vegetation seasons in 1999 and 2000. The intention of this research was to evaluate the influence of air pollution on mitotic activity and frequency of chromosomal aberrations in meristematic tissues of root tips of

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of the Mercury-Resistant Bacterium Acinetobacter idrijaensis Strain MII, Isolated from a Mine-Impacted Area, Idrija, Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Campos-Guillén, Juan; Caballero Pérez, Juan; Cruz Medina, Julio Alfonso; Molina Vera, Carlos; Salas Rosas, Luz María; Limpens Gutiérrez, Citlalli; García Salinas, Isaac; Hernández Ramírez, Miriam Rebeca; Soto Alonso, Gerardo; Cruz Hernández, Andrés; Saldańa Gutiérrez, Carlos; Romero Gómez, Sergio; Pastrana Martínez, Xóchitl; Alvarez Hidalgo, Erika; Gosar, Mateja; Dizdarevi?, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    We report here the first draft assembly for the genome of Acinetobacter idrijaensis strain MII, isolated from the Idrija mercury mine area (Slovenia). This strain shows a strikingly high tolerance to mercury, and the genome sequence shows genes involved in the mechanisms for heavy metal tolerance pathways and multidrug efflux pumps. PMID:25395645

  16. Drafting New Curricula in South-East Europe. Final Report of the Regional Seminar (Bohinj, Slovenia, April 26-28, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozemeijer, Saskia, Ed.

    The aim of the regional seminar on curriculum renewal, held in Bohinj, Slovenia in April 2002 was to contribute to human resource development and capacity-building in the field of curriculum development. It is currently widely recognized that curriculum renewal is an important component in the reform and in improving the quality of education. The…

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of the Mercury-Resistant Bacterium Acinetobacter idrijaensis Strain MII, Isolated from a Mine-Impacted Area, Idrija, Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Caballero Pérez, Juan; Cruz Medina, Julio Alfonso; Molina Vera, Carlos; Salas Rosas, Luz María; Limpens Gutiérrez, Citlalli; García Salinas, Isaac; Hernández Ramírez, Miriam Rebeca; Soto Alonso, Gerardo; Cruz Hernández, Andrés; Saldańa Gutiérrez, Carlos; Romero Gómez, Sergio; Pastrana Martínez, Xóchitl; Álvarez Hidalgo, Erika; Gosar, Mateja; Dizdarevi?, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    We report here the first draft assembly for the genome of Acinetobacter idrijaensis strain MII, isolated from the Idrija mercury mine area (Slovenia). This strain shows a strikingly high tolerance to mercury, and the genome sequence shows genes involved in the mechanisms for heavy metal tolerance pathways and multidrug efflux pumps. PMID:25395645

  18. PCB accumulation and tissue distribution in cave salamander ( Proteus anguinus anguinus, Amphibia, Urodela) in the polluted karstic hinterland of the Krupa River, Slovenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marko Pezdirc; Ester Heath; Lilijana Bizjak Mali; Boris Bulog

    2011-01-01

    For over two decades, a manufacturer of electrical capacitors disposed of its waste within the karstic hinterland of the Krupa River (Slovenia) resulting in the surroundings becomming heavily polluted with PCB. Albeit the extent of the contamination has been known since 1983 and the Krupa River has become one of the most PCB polluted river in Europe, the effects on

  19. Groundwater hydrogeochemistry of mayor ions in the Radovna River valley (NW Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torkar, Anja; Bren?i?, Mihael; Vre?a, Polona

    2013-04-01

    Chemical analysis of major elements was used to investigate the characteristics of various springs and surface water in the Radovna River valley. The valley is situated in the north-western part of Slovenia. It is 17-kilometre long Alpine river flowing between karstic plateaus of Pokljuka and Mežakla confluenting with Sava Dolinka River. Wider area of the valley is built up by Triassic limestone and dolomite. Quaternary alluvial and glacial sediments occur in the bottom of the valley and on the slopes of the plateaus. Water was sampled monthly from May 2005 till March 2007 at 10 locations along the valley. Locations are divided into: 5 springs, 3 surface water locations, 1 small lake and 1 artesian borehole. On site conductivity, pH and water temperature was measured and samples for chemical analyses were collected. Groundwater, spring water and surface water are related to carbonate rocks; therefore the pH of the samples is in range between 7.1 and 8.4. In most cases pH of river water is higher than that of groundwater and spring water. Conductivity of the water varied in the interval between 188 ?S/cm and 374 ?S/cm. Results of chemical analyses show that concentration of Ca2+ exceeds that of Mg2+ in all of the samples and Ca/Mg ratio varies between 2.6 and 16.8. The concentration of Na+ is lower than Mg2+, but always higher than that of K+. Predominant anion is the HCO3- and varies between 100 mg/l and 211 mg/l. Concentration of anions Cl-, NO3- and SO42- are low and range from 0.1 mg/l to 7.47 mg/l and between 0.62 mg/l and 12 mg/l for Cl- and SO42-, respectively. NO3- is in almost all of the samples below 1 mg/l. Water data shows that waters are alkaline and the dominant facies is Ca-Mg-HCO3-. Ion concentrations fluctuate seasonally and are related to changes in discharge. In winter and early spring, when the discharge is low, the ion concentrations are higher and in late spring and summer during snowmelt, when the discharge is higher, the ion concentration are lower. Generally, ion concentrations in the water are also increasing downstream from the main spring. Chemical analyses of the water samples reflect typical karst spring dynamics and dynamics of groundwater fluctuations in the alluvium. Along the course of the river, water flow is increasing due to great amount of groundwater drainage in to the stream, therefore the chemical concentrations are increasing downstream.

  20. Non-verbal communication of the residents living in homes for the older people in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Zaletel, Marija; Kovacev, Asja Nina; Sustersic, Olga; Kragelj, Lijana Zaletel

    2010-09-01

    Aging of the population is a growing problem in all developed societies. The older people need more health and social services, and their life quality in there is getting more and more important. The study aimed at determining the characteristics of non-verbal communication of the older people living in old people's homes (OPH). The sample consisted of 267 residents of the OPH, aged 65-96 years, and 267 caregivers from randomly selected twenty-seven OPH. Three types of non-verbal communication were observed and analysed using univariate and multivariate statistical methods. In face expressions and head movements about 75% older people looked at the eyes of their caregivers, and about 60% were looking around, while laughing or pressing the lips together was rarely noticed. The differences between genders were not statistically significant while statistically significant differences among different age groups was observed in dropping the eyes (p = 0.004) and smiling (0.008). In hand gestures and trunk movements, majority of older people most often moved forwards and clenched fingers, while most rarely they stroked and caressed their caregivers. The differences between genders were statistically significant in leaning on the table (p = 0.001), and changing the position on the chair (0.013). Statistically significant differences among age groups were registered in leaning forwards (p = 0.006) and pointing to the others (p = 0.036). In different modes of speaking and paralinguistic signs almost 75% older people spoke normally, about 70% kept silent, while they rarely quarrelled. The differences between genders were not statistically significant while statistically significant differences among age groups was observed in persuasive speaking (p = 0.007). The present study showed that older people in OPH in Slovenia communicated significantly less frequently with hand gestures and trunk movements than with face expressions and head movements or different modes of speaking and paralinguistic signs. The caregivers should be aware of this and pay a lot of attention to these two groups of non-verbal expressions. Their importance should be constantly emphasized during the educational process of all kinds of health-care professionals as well. PMID:20977069

  1. Availability of mental health service providers and suicide rates in Slovenia: a nationwide ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Korošec Jagodi?, Helena; Rokavec, Tatjana; Agius, Mark; Pregelj, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate the influence of socioeconomic factors, mental health service availability, and prevalence of mental disorders on regional differences in the suicide rate in Slovenia. Methods The effects of different socioeconomic factors, mental health service availability, and mental disorders factors on suicide rates from 2000-2009 were analyzed using a general linear mixed model (GLMM). Pearson correlations were used to explore the direction and magnitude of associations. Results Among socioeconomic factors, unemployment rate ranked as the most powerful predictor of suicide and an increase of one unit in the unemployment rate increased regional suicide rate by 2.21 (??=?2.21, 95% confidence intervals [CI]?=?1.87-2.54, P?

  2. The response of Corylus avellana L. phenology to rising temperature in north-eastern Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?repinšek, Zalika; Štampar, Franci; Kajfež-Bogataj, Lu?ka; Solar, Anita

    2012-07-01

    Knowledge of plant-weather relationships can improve crop management, resulting in higher quality and more stable crop yields. The annual timing of spring phenophases in mid-latitudes is largely a response to temperature, and reflects the thermal conditions of previous months. The effect of air temperature on the variability of hazelnut ( Corylus avellana L.) phenophases (leafing, flowering) was investigated. Meteorological and phenological data for five cultivars were analysed over the periods 1969-1979 (P1) and 1994-2007 (P2) in Maribor, Slovenia. Phenological data series were correlated strongly to the temperature of the preceding months ( R 2: 0.64-0.98) and better correlated to daily maximum and mean temperatures than to daily minimum temperatures. About 75% of phenophases displayed a tendency towards earlier appearance and a shorter flowering duration during P2, which could be explained by the significant temperature changes (+0.3°C/decade) from December to April between 1969 and 2007. An increase in air temperature of 1°C caused an acceleration in leafing by 2.5-3.9 days, with flowering showing higher sensitivity since a 1°C increase promoted male flowering by 7.0-8.8 days and female flowering by 6.3-8.9 days. The average rate of phenological change per degree of warming (days earlier per +1°C) did not differ significantly between P1 and P2. An estimation of chilling accumulation under field conditions during 1993-2009, between 1 November and 28 February, showed that all four of these months contributed approximately similar amounts of accumulated chilling units. The growing degree days (GDD) to flowering were calculated by an estimated base temperature of 2°C and 1 January as a starting date, given the most accurate calculations. In general, thermal requirements were greater in P2 than in P1, although this difference was not significant. Longer-time series data extended to other agricultural and wild plants would be helpful in tracking possible future changes in phenological responses to local climate.

  3. Pilot study of seasonal occurrence and distribution of antibiotics and drug resistant bacteria in wastewater treatment plants in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Birošová, Lucia; Mackulak, Tomáš; Bodík, Igor; Ryba, Jozef; Škubák, Jaroslav; Grabic, Roman

    2014-08-15

    This work presents environmental and quality-control data from the analyses of 33 antibiotics in influent and effluent water from two waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) in the capital and the biggest city of Slovakia. Seeing that consumption of antibiotics depends on epidemiological season, samples were collected during February and August. Among assessed antibiotics ciprofloxacin and clarithromycin were detected in highest concentrations in influent water. Seasonal changes were observed only in plant A when antibiotic concentrations decreased. On the other hand an increase in some cases was observed in plant B. Insufficient degradation of some macrolides, sulfonamides and trimethoprim was detected according to their higher concentrations in effluent water. Contact of antibiotics in subinhibitory concentrations and sludge bacteria in WWTPs represent the base for the development of significant levels of microbial resistance. Simultaneously, antibiotic resistance of fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci from sewage sludge was evaluated. Majority of coliform bacteria were found to be resistant to ampicillin and gentamicin. A significant seasonal difference was determined only in case of high-level resistance. In summer samples, an increase in the strains resistant to concentrations higher than the resistance breakpoints established by EUCAST and NCCLS was observed. No antibiotic resistance in streptococci was observed. However, as a part of sewage sludge is mixed with compost and utilized in agriculture, better processing of sludge should be considered. PMID:24867706

  4. Publication of PWV and ZTD time series and models of PWV and nPWV over Slovakia and vicinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igondova, Miroslava; Hefty, Jan; Cibulka, Dusan

    2010-05-01

    More than 50 permanent GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) stations are processed continually within the Central European Permanent Network at the Slovak University of Technology, Department of Theoretical Geodesy. Zenith Total Delay (ZTD), one of the processing outputs, reflects delay of the GNSS signal caused by troposphere. Precipitable Water Vapour (PWV) is calculated if ground meteorological observations are available. Model of PWV over Slovakia and vicinity is produced using digital terrain model data for height correction in grid points. Real variation of PWV over the area shows model of normalized PWV (nPWV) created from PWV values reduced by theoretical PWV value corresponding to altitude and latitude of the station. Mathematical background for computing PWV and nPWV models will be presented. All computations on the way from discrete ZTD values to PWV time series and models are realized using Perl scripts. Time series of ZTD and PWV since 1996 and models of PWV and nPWV are published on the server freely available in the internet using Web Map Service, PHP, JavaScript and other web technologies. All the data are available in one hour interval. Data are continually updated and can be downloaded for scientific applications.

  5. Comparison of the performance of hydrological flow routing methods used for flow forecasting on the Morava River in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spál, Peter; Daná?ová, Michaela; Úrek, Peter Ĺ.; Szolgay, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Beside numerical hydraulic models, as a rational alternative to hydraulic routing, models belonging to the class of non-storage routing methods and conceptual hydrological models are still in operational use in Slovakia. In this contribution the forecasting performance of several hydrologic routing models was compared. First two alternatives to standard non-storage routing on the Morava River were tested. In these both governing relationships (the relationship between the travel time of flood peaks and discharge and the relationship between upstream and downstream peak discharges) were modelled by empirical engineering estimates, multiple linear regression and artificial neural networks. The relationships between flood peak travel times and discharge were also used as indicators for the change of the travel time parameter of the Kalinin Miljukov flood routing model with discharge. In this model the model travel-time parameter vs. discharge relationship was also assessed by optimisation of the model performance with the help of a genetic algorithm. The performance of the models was compared against existing approaches used in practice near simulated environment. The results showed that the inclusion of empirical information on the variability of the travel-time with discharge into all models enabled the prediction of flood propagation with satisfactory accuracy.

  6. To what extent does socioeconomic status explain differences in health between Roma and non-Roma adolescents in Slovakia?

    PubMed

    Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Orosova, Olga; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2009-04-01

    The Roma make up one of the largest ethnic groups in Europe. The few studies that are available report health among the Roma as considerably worse than that of the majority population, and virtually nothing is known about the health status of Roma adolescents. The purpose of this study was to compare the self-reported health outcomes of Roma adolescents living in Roma settlements with adolescents from the majority population and to assess the impact of socioeconomic status on the results obtained. We conducted a survey among Roma adolescents (N=330, mean age=14.5) and non-Roma adolescents (N=722, mean age=14.9) living in eastern Slovakia. We gathered data on sociodemographic position, self-rated health (using the SF-36), the occurrence of accidents and injuries during the past year, healthcare utilization during the past year, health complaints, mental health and social desirability. Roma adolescents reported poorer self-rated health, more accidents and injuries during the past year and more frequent use of healthcare during the past year, though fewer health complaints. Furthermore, they reported more prosocial behaviour than non-Roma. No differences appeared in total difficulties. Socioeconomic status decreased the association of ethnicity with health outcomes. Adjustment for social desirability had a significant effect on the differences for all outcomes, except for accidents and injuries during the past year. PMID:19217197

  7. Sinergasilus polycolpus, a new copepod species in the ichthyoparasitofauna of Serbia and Montenegro.

    PubMed

    Cakic, P; Lenhardt, M; Kolarevic, J

    2004-03-10

    The parasitic copepod Sinergasilus polycolpus was identified on the gills of bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis from 2 localities (Kladovo and Slankamen) in the Serbian part of the River Danube. This parasite is species-specific for 2 Chinese carp, the bighead carp and the silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix. It was accidentally introduced into Serbia and Montenegro together with fry of these herbivorous carp intended for aquaculture and control of phytoplankton blooms. There is no record in the available literature of this parasite for European freshwaters. Our identification of S. polycolpus signals the possible spread of the infectious disease sinergasilosis in natural freshwaters and in fishponds, similar to bothriocephalosis, caused by Bothriocephalus opsariichthydis, which was introduced with the fry of various herbivorous species from the Amour River basin (USSR) into almost all countries throughout the world. PMID:15109152

  8. Radiation doses in adult computed tomography practice in Serbia: initial results.

    PubMed

    Arandjic, Danijela; Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera; Hadnadjev, Darka; Stojanovic, Sanja; Bozovic, Predrag; Ceklic, Sandra; Lazarevic, Djordje

    2014-11-01

    This work presents initial data on radiation doses in adult computed tomography (CT) in Serbia. Data were collected in terms of CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) values for head, chest and abdomen examination. The range of CTDIvol values was found to be 53-98, 11-34 and 8.5-227 mGy whereas for DLP was 803-1066, 350-845 and 1066-3078 mGy cm(-1) for head, chest and abdomen examination, respectively. Except for abdomen on one CT unit, all estimated values were in line with the reported data. This work also presents simple method on how to reduce radiation doses when scanning head. Using axial (step-and-shot) instead of helical mode and decreasing tube current-time product leads to significant dose reduction. CTDIvol was decreased by 20 % whereas DLP was reduced for a factor 2. PMID:25063787

  9. Analysis of precipitation and drought data in Serbia over the period 1980-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gocic, Milan; Trajkovic, Slavisa

    2013-06-01

    Precipitation and Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) trends were analyzed by using linear regression, Mann-Kendall and Spearman's Rho tests at the 5% significance level. For this purpose, meteorological data from 12 synoptic stations in Serbia over the period 1980-2010 were used. Two main drought periods were detected (1987-1994 and 2000-2003), while the extremely dry year was recorded in 2000 at all stations. The monthly analysis of precipitation series suggests that all stations had a decreasing trend in February and September, while both increasing and decreasing trends were found in other months. On the seasonal scale, there were the increasing trends in autumn and winter precipitation series, while on the annual scale the most of the stations had no significant trends. Besides, the decreasing trend was found at the Belgrade and Kragujevac stations, while the other stations had the increasing trend for the SPI-12 series.

  10. Mapping average annual precipitation in Serbia (1961-1990) by using regression kriging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajat, Branislav; Pejovi?, Milutin; Lukovi?, Jelena; Manojlovi?, Predrag; Duci?, Vladan; Mustafi?, Sanja

    2013-04-01

    The appearence of geostatistics and geographical information systems has made it possible to analyze complex spatial patterns of meteorological elements over large areas in the applied climatology. The objective of this study is to use geostatistics to characterize the spatial structure and map the spatial variation of average values of precipitation for a 30-year period in Serbia. New, recently introduced, geostatistical algorithms facilitate utilization of auxiliary variables especially remote sensing data or freely available global datasets. The data from Advanced Spaceborn Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer global digital elevation model are incorporated as ancillary variables into spatial prediction of average annual precipitation using geostatistical method known as regression kriging. The R 2 value of 0.842 proves high performance result of the prediction of the proposed method.

  11. Consequences of an unusual flood event: case study of a drainage canal breach on a fluvial plain in NE Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmar, Ines; Ambroži?, Bojan; Debeljak, Barbara; Dolžan, Erazem; Gregorin, Špela; Grom, Nina; Herman, Polona; Keršmanc, Teja; Mencin, Eva; Mernik, Natalija; Švara, Astrid; Trobec, Ana; Turnšek, Anita; Vodeb, Petra; Torkar, Anja; Bren?i?, Mihael

    2013-04-01

    On November 4-6 2012 heavy precipitation resulted in floods in the middle and lower course of Drava River in NE Slovenia causing damage to many properties in the flooded area. The meteorological situation that led to consequent floods was characterized by high precipitation, fast snowmelt, SW wind and relatively high air temperature. The weather event was part of a cyclone which was spreading over the area of North, West and Central Europe in the direction of Central Europe and carried with it the passing of a cold front through Slovenia on November 4 and 5. The flood wave travelled on the Drava River from Austria to Slovenia past the 11 hydroelectric power plants after eventually moving over the Slovenian-Croatian border. The river discharge increased in the early morning of November 5 reaching 3165 m3/s. This work focuses on a single event in the Ptujsko polje where among other damage caused by the flooding, the river broke through the drainage canal of the Formin hydroelectric power plant and changed its course. The Ptujsko polje contains two fluvial terraces. In the area of Formin HPP, the lower terrace is 1.5 km wide and the surface as well as the groundwater gradient shift from west to east with the groundwater flowing parallel to the river. These characteristics contributed to the flooding and consequential breach in the embankment of the drainage canal. Several aspects of the recent floods are discussed including a critical reflection of data accessibility, possible causes and mechanisms behind it as well as the possibility of its forecasting. Synthesis of accessible data from open domain sources is performed with emphasis on geological conditions. Discharge and precipitation data from the data base of Slovenian Environment Agency are collected, reviewed and analyzed. The flood event itself is analyzed and described in detail. It is determined that the flood wave was different from the ones regulated by natural processes which points to an anthropogenic influence. In the paper we are focusing not only on the characteristics of a single event but try to interpret it in the context of a broader time scale using sources of similar past events of high precipitation and discharge, recorded flood events in the past and general flood characteristics of a river environment.

  12. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of full-genome HBV subgenotype D3 sequences from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Stanojevi?, Boban; Osiowy, Carla; Schaefer, Stephan; Bojovi?, Ksenija; Blagojevi?, Jelena; Neši?, Milica; Yamashita, Shunichi; Stamenkovi?, Gorana

    2011-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is classified into 8 genotypes with distinct geographical distribution. Genotype D (HBV/D) has the widest distribution area and is comprised of 7 subgenotypes. Subgenotypes D1, D2 and D3 appear worldwide, while D4-D7 have a more restricted distribution. Within the Mediterranean area, HBV/D and subgenotype D3 are the most prevalent. The purpose of this study was to characterize the full genome of Serbian HBV/D3 isolates by comparison and phylogenetic analysis with HBV/D3 sequences (66 samples) found in GeneBank/DDBJ databases from different parts of the world. Isolates were obtained from three patients diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B (HBsAg+). All three isolates have two very rare nucleotide substitutions, A929T and T150A, which indicate the same ancestor. Phylogenetic analysis of HBV/D3 genome sequences throughout the world follows an ethno-geographical origin of isolates with rare exceptions, which could be explained by human travelling and migration. The geographically close but ethnically different Serbian and Italian isolates clustered in the same subnode, and on a common branch with strains from Northern Canada. To test the apparently close HBV phylogenetic relationship between completely separated patients from Serbia and Northern Canada we analyzed in depth a 440 bp region of the HBsAg from Canadian (n=73) and Serbian (n=70) isolates. The constructed parsimony tree revealed that strains from Serbia and Northern Canada fell along the same branch which indicates independent evolution within regions of each country. Considering that HBsAg sequence has limited variability for phylogenetic analyses, our hypothesis needs further confirmation with more HBV complete genome sequences. PMID:21601012

  13. Alternaria toxins in wheat from the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Serbia: a preliminary survey.

    PubMed

    Jani? Hajnal, Elizabet; Or?i?, Dejan; Torbica, Aleksandra; Kos, Jovana; Mastilovi?, Jasna; Škrinjar, Marija

    2015-03-01

    Although Fusarium species remain a main source of mycotoxin contamination of wheat, in recent years, due to the evident climatic changes, other mycotoxigenic fungi have been recognised as important wheat contaminants. Alternaria species, especially A. alternata, have been found as contaminants of wheat as well as wheat-based products. Under favourable conditions A. alternata very often produce alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), tenuazonic acid (TeA) and others Alternaria toxins. The aim of the present study was to examine the presence of three Alternaria toxins (AOH, AME and TeA) in wheat samples harvested during three years (2011-13). To this end, 92 samples were collected during wheat harvesting from different growing regions of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, which represents the most important wheat-growing area in Serbia. The presence of Alternaria toxins was analysed by HPLC with electrospray ionisation triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Among all the analysed wheat samples, 63 (68.5%) were contaminated with TeA, 11 (12.0%) with AOH and 6 (6.5%) with AME. Furthermore, the maximum and mean toxin concentrations were 2676 and 92.4 ľg kg(-1), 48.9 and 18.6 ľg kg(-1), and 70.2 and 39.0 ľg kg(-1) for TeA, AOH and AME, respectively. Co-occurrence of three Alternaria toxins in wheat samples was detected in six samples; a combination of two toxins was found in two samples; and 64 samples contained one toxin. The results showed that among 92 analysed wheat samples, only 20 (21.7%) samples were without Alternaria toxins. The presence of Alternaria toxins was also investigated in terms of weather conditions recorded during the period of investigation, as well as with the sampling region. This study represents the first preliminary report of the natural occurrence of Alternaria toxins in wheat (Triticum aestivum) from Serbia. PMID:25585540

  14. West Nile virus serosurveillance in pigs, wild boars, and roe deer in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Escribano-Romero, Estela; Lupulovi?, Diana; Merino-Ramos, Teresa; Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Lazi?, Gospava; Lazi?, Sava; Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Petrovi?, Tamaš

    2015-04-17

    West Nile virus (WNV) is maintained in nature in an enzootic transmission cycle between birds and mosquitoes, but it also infects many other vertebrates, including humans and horses, in which it can induce severe neurological diseases; however, data about virus circulation in other mammals is scarce. WNV has a history of recent outbreaks in Europe, including Serbia, where it was identified for the first time in 2010 in mosquitoes and in 2012 in birds and humans, being responsible for over 300 confirmed human cases and 35 deaths there along 2013. To assess WNV circulation among mammals in the country, 688 samples obtained from 279 farm pigs, 318 wild boars, and 91 roe deer were investigated for the presence of antibodies to WNV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and viral neutralization test (VNT), and the specificity of their reactivity was assayed against Usutu virus (USUV). ELISA-reactive sera were identified in 43 (15.4%) pigs, 56 (17.6%) wild boars, and 17 (18.7%) roe deer. Of these, 6 (14%), 33 (59%), and 4 (23.5%) respectively, neutralized WNV. One out of the 45 ELISA negative sera tested, from a roe deer, neutralized WNV. Cross-reactivity neutralization test indicated that all deer and pigs neutralizing sera were WNV specific, while in 5 (15.2%) of the wild boar samples the specificity could not be established. Four wild boar sera showed USUV specificity. All these data confirm the circulation of both flaviviruses in Serbia, and highlight the need for the implementation of global coordinated surveillance programs in the region. PMID:25724332

  15. Use of enzymatic tools for biomonitoring inorganic pollution in aquatic sediments: a case study (Bor, Serbia)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sediment bacterial communities are key players in biogeochemical cycling of elements in the aquatic environment. Copper mining, smelting, and processing operations located in Bor area (Serbia) are major environmental hot spots in the lower Danube Basin and Western Balkans. In the present study, we evaluate the influence of trace element (TE) concentration in sediments and physico-chemical properties of water on sediment microbial communities in water streams adjacent to the Copper Smelter Complex Bor (RTB Bor, Serbia). The degree to which metabolic activities of bacterial biota inhabiting differently polluted sites is inhibited by inorganic pollution were compared using selected enzymatic bioindicators. Results Cu, Zn, Pb, and As concentrations systematically exceeded the target values for metal loadings in aquatic sediments. Water electrical conductivity (WEC) followed the same pattern of spatial variation, irrespective of season. Interestingly, the most intense enzymatic activity occurred at the reference site although this site showed the greatest TE levels in aquatic sediments. Catalase activity (CA), potential dehydrogenase activity (PDA), actual dehydrogenase activity (ADA), urease activity (UA), and phosphatase activity (PA) in aquatic sediments displayed heterogeneous patterns of spatio-temporal variation. Inorganic pollution greatly affected CA, ADA, and PDA, but much less so UA and PA. Canonical correlation analysis showed that pH and WEC were the strongest determinants of enzymatic activity in bacterial biota, with the latter variable being reversely correlated with the enzymatic indicator of sediment quality (EISQ). The median values of EISQ increased with distance from the major sources of pollution. In addition, it was found that sites with different degrees of inorganic pollution can be appropriately classified by applying cluster analysis to EISQ, TE levels in sediments, and physico-chemical properties of water. Conclusions Because EISQ can precisely identify changes in overall enzymatic activity of sediment bacterial communities, this enzymatic bioindicator has a great potential for biomonitoring the current status of inorganic pollution in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:23536970

  16. Modelling mass movement susceptibility for Alpine infrastructure in the Karavank Mountains (Austria/Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, C.; Kern, K.; Lieb, G. K.

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study is the generation of indicative susceptibility maps on a regional scale that can be used as a decision support tool for land use management (i.e. risk potential on alpine infrastructure). The study in particular focuses on geomorphological processes (rockfall and debris flows in unconsolidated rock) that reshape the land surface by erosion, transport and deposition. When interacting with human activity (e.g. road, alpine trails) such naturally occurring processes can quickly become natural hazards. The study area is located in the Karavank Mountains, a border region between Austria and Slovenia, and covers approx. 200 sq km with maximum altitudes above 2.000 m a.s.l. (Hochstuhl: 2.237 m a.s.l.). The Karavanks form an east-west striking mountain chain (approx. 120 km total length) of the southeastern Alps that consists mainly of thick Triassic carbonate sequences and, with less extent, Paleozoic carbonate rocks crystalline rocks. The mountain chain is separated into the Northern Karavanks and the Southern Karavanks by a structural boundary (Periadriatic Line). In addition, the area is known for extreme weather events due to Adriatic cyclones with daily accumulated precipitation of more than 200 mm that regularly trigger hazardous and torrential processes like rockfall events and debris flows. To assess the triggering factors and trajectories, two different disposition and process models (one for rockfall and one for debris flow, respectively) were developed. The information about potential source areas was obtained by combining various types of information (e.g. DTM derivatives, geotechnical units, vegetation). Threshold slope values for potential rockfall source areas were attributed to different lithological units according to field observations. The defined threshold slope angles cover values from 42° in Triassic carbonates up to 46° in massive crystalline rocks. For debris flows areas with a slope inclination < 20° as well as areas with dense vegetation were excluded as potential source areas. In the next step, the rockfall runout zones were estimated empirically using the cone method. This model is based on the idea that an individual falling rock can reach any place in the area situated inside a cone of given aperture. In contrast, for modelling debris flows, a multiple flow directions method was used to calculate potential pathways and velocities. The method is implemented as a random walk in conjunction with a Monte Carlo approach (using 1000 iterations). Both models were calibrated with field observation data (e.g. GPS measurements) and in addition, model results were validated with high resolution aerial photographs. By overlaying the modelling results with road and trail network information, susceptibility maps were created. These maps clearly show that large parts of the existing Alpine infrastructure are potentially affected by the modelled processes. Therefore, the resulting susceptibility maps provide as a useful tool to indicate areas prone to rockfall and debris flow as well as for the maintenance of the road and trail networks.

  17. First- and fifth-year medical students' intention for emigration and practice abroad: a case study of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Santric-Milicevic, Milena M; Terzic-Supic, Zorica J; Matejic, Bojana R; Vasic, Vladimir; Ricketts, Thomas C

    2014-11-01

    Health worker migration is causing profound health, safety, social, economic and political challenges to countries without special policies for health professionals' mobility. This study describes the prevalence of migration intentions among medical undergraduates, identifies underlying factors related to migration intention and describes subsequent actions in Serbia. Data were captured by survey of 938 medical students from Belgrade University (94% response rate), representing two thirds of matching students in Serbia stated their intentions, reasons and obstacles regarding work abroad. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics and a sequential multivariate logistic regression. Based on descriptive and inferential statistics we were able to predict the profile of first and fifth year medical students who intend or have plans to work abroad. This study contributes to our understanding of the causes and correlates of intent to migrate and could serve to raise awareness and point to the valuable policy options to manage migration. PMID:25458972

  18. West Nile virus surveillance in mosquitoes, April to October 2013, Vojvodina province, Serbia: implications for the 2014 season.

    PubMed

    Kemenesi, G; Krtini?, B; Milankov, V; Kutas, A; Dallos, B; Oldal, M; Somogyi, N; Nemeth, V; Banyai, K; Jakab, F

    2014-01-01

    After the West Nile virus (WNV) outbreak in 2012, we collected mosquito samples from Vojvodina province, Serbia, in 2013. We found high WNV infection rate in two species, Culex pipiens and Anopheles maculipennis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Serbian WNV strains from 2013 were most closely related to Italian and Greek strains isolated in 2012 and 2010, respectively. Public health authorities should be aware of a potentially increased risk of WNV activity during the 2014 season. PMID:24786260

  19. Nymphoides peltata (Gmel.) Kuntze, Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Ceratophyllum demersum L. biomass dynamics in Lake Provala (the Vojvodina Province, Serbia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ljiljana Nikoli?; Katarina ?obanovi?; Dejana Lazi?

    2007-01-01

    Sixty-five plant species have been found in Lake Provala (the Vojvodina Province, Serbia) and its riparian zone. Among them,\\u000a three hydrophytes were dominant: Nymphoides peltata, Myriophyllum spicatum and Ceratophyllum demersum. As interactions between different ecological factors, especially light, temperature and nutrient level, are of prime importance\\u000a for productivity of macrophytes, we analyzed the main physical and chemical indicators of water

  20. Genetic analysis of dobrava-belgrade virus from Western serbia - a newly detected focus in the balkan peninsula.

    PubMed

    Stamenkovi?, G; Nikoli?, V; Blagojevi?, J; Bugarski-Stanojevi?, V; Adna?evi?, T; Stanojevi?, M; Vujoševi?, M

    2015-03-01

    Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) is a hantavirus species that causes the most severe form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Europe. DOBV has been detected in three Apodemus rodents: A. flavicollis, A. agrarius and A. ponticus. These emerging viruses appear throughout the Balkan Peninsula including Serbia as its central part. In this study, we examined the seroprevalence, molecular epidemiology and phylogenetics of DOBV from A. flavicollis captured at six Serbian localities. Furthermore, we applied microsatellite typing of host animal genome to analyse the role of host kinship in DOBV animal transmission. The overall IgG seropositivity rate over 3 years (2008-2010) was 11.9% (22/185). All seropositive samples were subjected to RT-PCR and DNA sequencing for S and L genome segments (pos. 291-1079 nt and 2999-3316 nt, respectively). DOBV was genetically detected in three samples from mountain Tara in western Serbia, a newly detected DOBV focus in the Balkans. No sequence data from human cases from Serbia are available for the studied period. However, collected DOBV isolates in this work phylogenetically clustered together with isolates from Serbian human cases dating from 2002, with 1.9% nucleotide divergence. We determined the level of kinship between seropositive and seronegative animal groups and found no significant difference, suggesting that horizontal virus transmission in the studied population was the same within and among the hatches. Our findings are the first genetic detection of DOBV in rodents in Serbia. We confirm wide and continuous hantavirus presence in the examined parts of the Balkans, underlying the necessity of continual monitoring of hantavirus circulation in A. flavicollis. PMID:24867363

  1. Origin and significance of high nickel and chromium concentrations in Pliocene lignite of the Kosovo Basin, Serbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leslie Ruppert; Robert Finkelman; Emilija Boti; Milan Milosavljevic; Susan Tewalt; Nancy Simon; Frank Dulong

    1996-01-01

    Trace element data from 59 Pliocene lignite cores from the lignite field in the Kosovo Basin, southern Serbia, show localized enrichment of Ni and Cr (33–304 ppm and 8–176 ppm, respectively, whole-coal basis). Concentrations of both elements decrease from the western and southern boundaries of the lignite field. Low-temperature ash and polished coal pellets of selected bench and whole-coal samples

  2. Do All Roads Lead to Brussels? Analysis of the Different Trajectories of Croatia, Serbia-Montenegro and Bosnia-Herzegovina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurizio Massari

    2005-01-01

    The article examines the main factors that have affected the prospects of Euro-Atlantic integration for Croatia, Serbia-Montenegro, and Bosnia-Herzegovina (BiH). For each of the three countries, the internal and external factors affecting progress are examined separately in both the domestic and international spheres, allowing for a comparative assessment of the role of the international community and for analysis of different

  3. An introduction to the Middle and Upper Pleistocene loess–paleosol sequence at Ruma brickyard, Vojvodina, Serbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. Markovi?; E. Oches; P. Sumegi; M. Jovanovic; T. Gaudenyi

    2006-01-01

    Six Loess units and five paleosols are preserved in the 20m thick exposure of Middle and Late Pleistocene sediments at Ruma brickyard, Vojvodina, Serbia. Amino acid geochronology provides stratigraphic correlations between Loess–Paleosol units SL L1-S1, SL L2-S2, SL L3-S3 and SL L4 at Ruma with loess of Glacial cycles B, C and D, and E, respectively, at other central and

  4. Molecular detection of co-infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and/or Babesia canis canis in Dirofilaria-positive dogs from Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Víchová, Bronislava; Miterpáková, Martina; Iglódyová, Adriana

    2014-06-16

    Recently, several arthropod-borne infections have been introduced into previously non-endemic regions in Europe as the result of various global changes. At the same time, endemic regions are expanding and the risk of co-infections is rising, due to climate change that allows vectors to move and spread infectious diseases into new areas. The aim of the current study was to confirm simultaneous infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and/or Babesia canis canis in Dirofilaria-infected dogs from Slovakia, central Europe. Genomic DNA was isolated from 366 blood samples of microfilaraemic dogs without clinical signs of infection. Samples were further screened for the presence of canine tick-borne pathogens using PCR and sequencing. This survey revealed co-infection with four arthropod-borne pathogens, in particular, Dirofilaria repens, Dirofilaria immitis, A. phagocytophilum, and B. canis canis. While D. repens, responsible for canine subcutaneous dirofilariosis, is scattered through the whole territory of the country, D. immitis occurs only in endemic areas of southeastern and southwestern Slovakia in mixed infection with D. repens. Co-infection with A. phagocytophilum was reported in 3.27% of the dogs positive for D. repens; mixed infection with D. repens and B. canis canis was detected in 3.55% of the tested blood samples. Eastern Slovak Lowland represents a natural focus of B. canis canis and is a highly endemic area for canine dirofilariosis. The presence of triple infection with D. repens, A. phagocytophilum, and B. canis canis was detected in one dog originating from the eastern lowland region of Slovakia. This study highlights the importance of co-infected, clinically healthy dogs in the spreading of several different arthropod-borne pathogens and the necessity for detailed epidemiological surveys, especially in newly infested areas. PMID:24630708

  5. Interval linear programming model for long-term planning of vehicle recycling in the Republic of Serbia under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Simic, Vladimir; Dimitrijevic, Branka

    2015-02-01

    An interval linear programming approach is used to formulate and comprehensively test a model for optimal long-term planning of vehicle recycling in the Republic of Serbia. The proposed model is applied to a numerical case study: a 4-year planning horizon (2013-2016) is considered, three legislative cases and three scrap metal price trends are analysed, availability of final destinations for sorted waste flows is explored. Potential and applicability of the developed model are fully illustrated. Detailed insights on profitability and eco-efficiency of the projected contemporary equipped vehicle recycling factory are presented. The influences of the ordinance on the management of end-of-life vehicles in the Republic of Serbia on the vehicle hulks procuring, sorting generated material fractions, sorted waste allocation and sorted metals allocation decisions are thoroughly examined. The validity of the waste management strategy for the period 2010-2019 is tested. The formulated model can create optimal plans for procuring vehicle hulks, sorting generated material fractions, allocating sorted waste flows and allocating sorted metals. Obtained results are valuable for supporting the construction and/or modernisation process of a vehicle recycling system in the Republic of Serbia. PMID:25649401

  6. The Clinic of Neurosurgery at the Clinical Center of Serbia in Belgrade--building on the past.

    PubMed

    Savic, Dragan; De Angelis, Michelangelo; Grujicic, Danica

    2014-01-01

    Neurosurgery as an independent discipline in Serbia has a distinguished history, beginning in 1938 when Dr. Milivoje Kostic, Professor and Chairman of Surgery, opened the Department of Neurosurgery within the Clinic of Surgery in Belgrade. Since then, thanks to the founding fathers' efforts and their successors' work, the Clinic for Neurosurgery in Belgrade has become a highly specialized health, scientific, and educational institution that is part of the University of Belgrade and is a referral center for all neurosurgical clinics in Serbia. Currently, the Clinic for Neurosurgery, with 160 patient beds, is one of the largest European institutions of its kind. Neurosurgery at the Clinical Center of Serbia (CCS) involves a wide range of patients and resources, with an average daily inpatient census of 15 to 20 patients. Each year, there are more than 3000 admissions at the neurosurgical service. Approximately 3500 operations per year are performed in the main campus neurosurgical operating rooms of CCS, while approximately 15,000 patients alone are evaluated in emergency room or inpatient consultations. Despite economic restraints, the department continues to grow in strength, and we remain optimistic of exciting times ahead for neurosurgery at the CCS. PMID:23994133

  7. Exposure to Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls (OH-PCBs) in the Prenatal Period and Subsequent Neurodevelopment in Eastern Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye-Youn; Park, June-Soo; Sovcikova, Eva; Kocan, Anton; Linderholm, Linda; Bergman, Ake; Trnovec, Tomas; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2009-01-01

    Background Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs), unlike PCBs, are in general readily excreted yet are still detected in humans and animals. Active transport of OH-PCBs across the placenta and hydroxylation of PCBs by the fetus suggest the potential for greater impact on the fetus compared with the parent PCB compounds, but little is known about their health effects, particularly in humans. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between prenatal OH-PCB exposure and neurodevelopment in children at 16 months of age in eastern Slovakia. Methods A birth cohort (n = 1,134) was enrolled during 2002–2004. We analyzed six OH-PCB metabolites (4-OH-CB-107, 3-OH-CB-153, 4-OH-CB-146, 3?-OH-CB-138, 4-OH-CB-187, and 4?-OH-CB-172) in a subset of the cohort. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development were administered to the children at the 16-month follow-up visit. We developed multiple linear regression models predicting standardized scores for the Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) from maternal (n = 147) and cord (n = 80) serum OH-PCB concentrations, adjusting for sex of child, district, HOME (Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment) score, and maternal score on Raven’s Progressive Matrices. Results Cord 4-OH-CB-107 was significantly associated with lower MDI (? = ?2.27; p = 0.01) and PDI (? = ?4.50; p = 0.004). Also, maternal 4-OH-CB-107 was significantly associated with lower MDI (? = ?1.76; p = 0.03) but not PDI. No other OH-PCB metabolites were associated with decreased PDI or MDI. Conclusions Our findings showed a significant association of 4-OH-CB-107 with decreased MDI, which can possibly be mediated by endocrine disruption, altered neurotransmitter functions, or reduced thyroid hormone concentrations in brain. PMID:20019912

  8. Occupational dermatoses caused by contact with metalworking fluids in the region of central slovakia from 2000 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Urban?ek, Slavomir; Kuklová-Bieliková, Marianna; Fetisovová, Želmira; Klimentová, Gabriela; Vil?ek, Rober

    2014-01-01

    Metalworking fluids (MWFs) are a common cause of allergic and irritant contact dermatitis. MWFs being currently used are mostly water based, containing biocides, emulsifiers, and other additives. We performed a retrospective analysis of the etiology of the occupational dermatoses caused by metalworking fluids in three regions of Central Slovakia (population of approximately 2 million) between 2000 and 2012. The primary aim was the analysis of metalworking fluid-induced dermatoses, which involved determining the particular disease type (allergic or irritant), its regional distribution, and the specific chemical causing the disease. The secondary aim of the study was to assess the level of knowledge and competence among dermatologists in performing patch testing for allergens contained in metalworking fluids using a study-specific questionnaire. Of the total number of 422 dermatoses during the analyzed period, 64 (41 in men and 23 in women) were caused by metalworking fluids. The implicated fluids were all aqueous, synthetic MWFs. 39 patients developed an allergic and 25 an irritant-induced contact dermatitis. 51 patients were tested using a special TrolabŽ metalworking battery (Almirall Hermal GmbH, Reinbek, Germany). The test identified a positive reaction to one of the following chemicals: methylchoroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI), formaldehyde, 1,2-benzisothiazoline-3-one, abietic acid, chloroxylenol, triclosan, amerchol L101, dichlorophene, propylenglycol, metylene (bis-methyl oxazolidine), monoethanolamine, and diethanolamine. The questionnaire showed that a large majority of Slovak dermatologists have no experiences with testing of MWFs. Metalworking fluids were found to be the most frequent cause of occupational contact dermatitis. They also are the second largest group of all occupational dermotoses. Their incidence corresponded with the presence of machine industry in the region. Several unresolved problems include detection of specific allergens and standardization of patch test performance among individual dermatologists. Low levels of experience in testing of MWFs revealed need to educate both dermatologists and residents. PMID:25230059

  9. Regional and local phenomena influencing the thermal state in the Flysch belt of the northeastern part of Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majcin, Dušan; Bil?ík, Dušan; Kutas, Roman; Hlav?ová, Petra; Bezák, Vladimír; Kuchari?, ?udovít

    2014-12-01

    The locality of the northeastern most part of Slovakian Flysch belt belongs to interesting areas in terms of the interpretation of geothermal conditions in mutual relation with the lithosphere structure and their tectonic development. The evaluation of the geothermal energy sources parameters of this locality is likewise worthwhile. The region under study has the centre in position of the borehole Zboj ZB-1 and spreads out Slovakia also in Poland and Ukraine. Our contribution provides the analyses of existing geothermal data enhanced by the construction of temperature field models corresponding to the global and local aspects that influence the temperature and heat flow density distributions. The analyses are related to the structures and effects of separate phenomena along as well as across the Carpathian arc. The model calculations were carried out both by analytical and numerical methods of solving the heat transfer equations including their steady state forms and transient cases too. Besides the regional trend of thermal activity decrease in direction from East-Slovakian Basin to the outer Carpathian units the combined local influences are applied: subsurface thermophysical parameters of rock complexes distributions, non-stationary sources from supposed subvolcanic bodies in close surroundings of borehole Zboj ZB-1, and the effects of the hydrological factors. Considering the observed higher thermal activity in arched zone along the Carpathian structures we discussed the thermal effects of rock complexes supposed as a source of regional Carpathian Conductivity Anomaly and the transfer of heat from East-Slovakian Basin to Outer Carpathian Flysch units. The analysis and the modelling results suggest that the mentioned activity is caused by the influences of source type phenomena mainly related to deep fault systems at the margin of the European Platform. That means the anomalies in heat flow density distribution can reach the value 70 mW/m2 and more in the zone above the thermally active deep-fault system with the presence of volcanism and hydrothermal activities.

  10. Assessment of clinical biochemical parameters in Roma minority residing in eastern Slovakia compared with the majority population.

    PubMed

    Hubková, Beáta; Maslanková, Jana; Stupák, Marek; Guzy, Juraj; Kovácová, Anna; Pella, Daniel; Jarcuska, Peter; Mareková, Mária

    2014-03-01

    Roma constitute the largest ethnic minority in Europe and the second largest minority in Slovakia. Their health problems originate mainly from their low socioeconomic status, certain cultural aspects and their health-threatening lifestyle as well as the psycho-social burden arising from poverty and frequent migration. Evaluation of glucose, albumin, triacylglycerol (TAG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations did not reveal any clue about the presumed deteriorated health of the Roma population. Higher proportions of subjects with elevated serum total cholesterol were found in Roma women as compared to both control groups of women (p = 0.027, p = 0.006) and in Roma men as compared to the male control group living in standard conditions. Only the low level of HDL-cholesterol gives a glimpse of their deteriorated health. Significantly lower levels of serum HDL-C were reported in Roma men and women compared to the respondents in both control groups with a p value of p < 0.001. Comparing the ratio of LDL-C/HDL-C yielded significant differences between the number of physiological values in Roma men and men from the control group 1 (p = 0.022) in favour of the control group. When comparing the number of people with physiological values of cholesterols and with worsening TAG parameters at the same time, the increased risk of Roma men compared with men from the control group 1 became evident, with a level of significance of p = 0.023. Evaluation of urine samples pointed to significantly higher concentrations of urinary protein in Roma women compared with women in the control group 1 (p = 0.012). PMID:24847608

  11. Long-term trend and multi-annual variability of water temperature in the pristine Bela River basin (Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekárová, Pavla; Miklánek, Pavol; Halmová, Dana; Onderka, Milan; Pekár, Ján; Ku?árová, Katarína; Liová, So?a; Škoda, Peter

    2011-04-01

    SummaryBiological processes in surface waters appreciably depend on temperature of water. This paper summarizes our investigations of water temperature in the Bela River. The Bela River is a mountainous stream not influenced by direct human activities, draining the headwaters of the Vah River basin in the Tatra National Park (TANAP), Slovakia. Our primary aim was to identify the long-term trends and multi-annual variability of the annual water temperature at the Podbanske gauging station, using temperature readings taken at 7.00 am for the period of 50 years (1959-2008). Long-term mean of the annual water temperature of the Bela River at the Podbanske gauging station (922 m a.s.l.) was 4.2 °C, the air temperature at Podbanske meteorological station (972 m a.s.l.) was 5.0 °C. Both, air and water temperature, show an increasing trend. While the air temperature within 50-years increased significantly by 1.5 °C, in the case of water temperature this increase was merely by 0.12 °C. On November 19, 2004, a wind-throw brushed the investigated area with an aftermath of 15.4% destroyed forest in the Bela basin, mainly along the area adjacent to the river. Therefore, in the second part of the study, the impact of the riparian vegetation growing along the river banks was evaluated for two distinctive periods, i.e. the period prior and after the wind-throw. We statistically analysed the changes in water temperature on 6-year time series of daily water temperature (November 2001 through November 2007). The results presented herein may be useful for defining boundary values for surface water temperature, as required by the EC Water Framework Directive.

  12. The first finding of Neospora caninum and the occurrence of other abortifacient agents in sheep in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Spilovská, S; Reiterová, K; Kovácová, D; Bobáková, M; Dubinský, P

    2009-10-14

    Neosporosis is an infection of animals caused by an intracellular coccidian parasite, Neospora caninum, closely related to Toxoplasma gondii. The parasite is one of important abortifacient agents of bovine abortions worldwide. The aim of the study was to detect the prevalence of anti-Neospora antibodies in dairy aborting sheep from two eastern Slovak regions and to compare it with the occurrence of other potential abortifacient agents. Sera of 382 sheep, mainly the Improved Valachian and Merino breed, were tested for the presence of anti-Neospora and anti-Toxoplasma antibodies by ELISA, anti-Leptospira sp. by micro-agglutination-assay and anti-Chlamydophila antibodies using the complement fixation test. The mean seroprevalence of N. caninum was 3.7% and of T. gondii, 24.3%. This phenomenon of higher susceptibility of sheep to T. gondii is in the opposite of N. caninum infection in cattle. Anti-Leptospira antibodies were observed in 2.9% of serum samples with titres from 800 to 1600, whereas IgG antibodies against Chlamydophila abortus were found in 13.6% with titres from 64 to 1024. Half of N. caninum positive sera were simultaneously positive for T. gondii and one sample for C. abortus. From examined abortifacient agents the most important, from the frequency point of view, were toxoplasmosis (24.3%) and chlamydiosis (13.6%). No significant association between the frequencies of the abortions and mean seroprevalence of the abortifacient agents in Kosice region was determined. Likewise, no significant differences between the mean seroprevalence of neosporosis and toxoplasmosis in the two regions were detected. The first survey of neosporosis in aborting sheep from eastern Slovakia revealed a low prevalence resulting in a lower impact on reproduction losses in these small ruminants. PMID:19540672

  13. Inorganic Arsenic and Basal Cell Carcinoma in Areas of Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia: A Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Leonardi, Giovanni; Vahter, Marie; Clemens, Felicity; Goessler, Walter; Gurzau, Eugen; Hemminki, Kari; Hough, Rupert; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Kumar, Rajiv; Rudnai, Peter; Surdu, Simona

    2012-01-01

    Background: Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a potent carcinogen, but there is a lack of information about cancer risk for concentrations < 100 ?g/L in drinking water. Objectives: We aimed to quantify skin cancer relative risks in relation to iAs exposure < 100 ?g/L and the modifying effects of iAs metabolism. Methods: The Arsenic Health Risk Assessment and Molecular Epidemiology (ASHRAM) study, a case–control study, was conducted in areas of Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia with reported presence of iAs in groundwater. Consecutively diagnosed cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin were histologically confirmed; controls were general surgery, orthopedic, and trauma patients who were frequency matched to cases by age, sex, and area of residence. Exposure indices were constructed based on information on iAs intake over the lifetime of participants. iAs metabolism status was classified based on urinary concentrations of methylarsonic acid (MA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Associations were estimated by multivariable logistic regression. Results: A total of 529 cases with BCC and 540 controls were recruited for the study. BCC was positively associated with three indices of iAs exposure: peak daily iAs dose rate, cumulative iAs dose, and lifetime average water iAs concentration. The adjusted odds ratio per 10-?g/L increase in average lifetime water iAs concentration was 1.18 (95% confidence interval: 1.08, 1.28). The estimated effect of iAs on cancer was stronger in participants with urinary markers indicating incomplete metabolism of iAs: higher percentage of MA in urine or a lower percentage of DMA. Conclusion: We found a positive association between BCC and exposure to iAs through drinking water with concentrations < 100 ?g/L. PMID:22436128

  14. [Trends in mortality in Serbia, excluding the provinces, 1973-1994].

    PubMed

    Vlajinac, H; Marinkovi?, J; Kocev, N; Adanja, B; Sipeti?, S; Pekmezovi?, T; Zivaljevi?, V

    2000-01-01

    The war and break up of former Yugoslavia began in 1991. In May 1992 the United Nations imposed economic sanctions on Serbia and Montenegro which were suspended only in November 1995. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of the war and UN sanctions on health of the population of Serbia without the provinces of Vojvodina and Kosovo. The period 1973-1994 was studied. Mortality data were derived from unpublished and published materials of the Federal Institute of Statistics [1]. Refugees, who, because of civil war, came to Serbia and Montenegro from other parts of former Yugoslavia, were not counted as a part of the population when mortality rates were calculated. Mortality rates were standardized directly using the "European population" as the standard [2]. The least square method was used to fit mortality rates to different trend curves. Linear trend was used whenever it significantly (p < 0.05) demonstrated the existing mortality rates. To measure the possible effect of the war and sanctions (WAS) on mortality between 1991 and 1994, dummy variable (variable WAS) consisting of 0's and 1's was made to signify the passage from the period before and the period after the beginning of the war and sanctions [3]. Over the period 1991-1994, characterized by the war and UN sanctions, in women aged 25-34, 35-44 and 75-84, total mortality was significantly higher than expected on the basis of the trend for the preceding period (p = 0.006, p = 0.000 and p = 0.015 respectively). The opposite effect was found in the age group 85+ (p = 0.012)/Table 2. Of major causes of death, in age group 25-34, mortality from endocrine diseases increased more rapidly in both sexes (p = 0.000) and mortality from urogenital diseases in women decreased more slowly than expected (p = 0.006). On the other hand, in age group 85+ mortality was significantly lower for cardiovascular diseases in both sexes (p = 0.035 and p = 0.006), for respiratory diseases in men (p = 0.011) and for neoplasms in women (p = 0.006)/Table 4. In addition, in the years 1991 and 1992 the increase in mortality from injuries and poisoning was evident in men aged 15-24, 25-34 and 85+ years (Graph 5). Our results show that over the period 1991-1994 changes in mortality were present in some age groups and were caused by certain groups of diseases. In men, besides mortality of infectious disease which decreased more slowly during 1991-1993 than expected, [4], the main departures were found in the mortality from injuries and poisoning and in mortality from endocrine diseases. The excess of death due to injuries and poisoning in the age group 15-34 can be explained as a direct consequence of the war. There were no military operations on the territory of Serbia, but young men from Serbia were nevertheless engaged in the war in other republics of former Yugoslavia. The outstanding increase in mortality caused by injuries and poisoning in men aged 85+ has two explanations. The first is the fact that suicide rate which was on an average of 86 per 100,000 over the period 1984-1990 rose to 140 per 100,000 during the period 1991-1993. In the year 1994 it fell to 92 per 100,000. Since there were no great differences in percent distribution of suicides among all deaths caused by injuries and poisoning in the two periods (27% in 1984-1990 and 20% in 1991-1993), it is clear that the rise of suicidal rate cannot be the only explanation for increased mortality from injuries and poisoning. In a situation when medical services were badly overextended (lack of medical equipment and proper maintenance of the existing equipment, lack of drugs and other medical inputs, a large number of wounded coming from Bosnia as well as numerous refugees) [5, 6], priority had to be given to younger age groups. Higher mortality due to endocrine diseases in men and women aged 25-34 years and higher mortality due to urogenital diseases in women of the same ages can be most probably attributed to poor medical supplies. Although formally excluded from the international economic blockade medical sup

  15. A Late-Quaternary stalagmite record from Vernjikica Cave, Carpatho-Balkans, Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, I.; Burns, S. J.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, L.; McCoy, W. D.; Markovic, S. B.; Endlicher, W.

    2011-12-01

    Many speleothem records of Holocene (MIS 1) and Eemian (MIS 5e) climate evolution have been investigated, but there is very little work being done in the Balkan region, despite the fact that the area is very rich in limestone caves with speleothems. Here we present a first proxy record from a stalagmite collected in Vernjikica Cave, Serbia (Carpatho-Balkan, ~400m asl). The studied stalagmite, Vernjikica-4.2, extends conically from the base to the top and presents one distinct growth hiatus that separates the upper 12 cm spanning the period from 63 ka to 107 ka (BP), and the lower 32 cm, spanning from 107 ka to 113 ka. The stable oxygen and carbon isotope ratios (?18O and ?13C) display opposing gradual trends with ?18O decreasing from averagely -8.5 % (PDB) to about -9.4 % and with ?13C increasing from -8.8 % to about -6.0 %. The long-term record of ?18O and ?13C shows frequent simultaneous and distinct high-amplitude shifts towards more positive values that coincide with pronounced accumulations of denser and darker laminae. In regard to present isotopic compositions in rainfall in the study area, the Vernjikica-4.2 proxy record shows a change from more humid to drier environmental conditions. The distinct increases in stable isotopic ratios reflect short warm and dry intervals during which calcite precipitation is affected by non-equilibrium conditions. The data mirrors both global climatic signals as seen in ?18O variations from the NGRIP ice-core record, and regional climatic signals as seen in ?18O from speleothems from Soreq Cave and Peqiin Cave (Israel) as well as in aeolian dust records from the Vojvodina in North Serbia. Altogether, the proxy record reflects alternating precipitation regimes and/or processes, likely connected to long-term shifts in the relative position of the Polar Front and to short-term shifts of the subtropical high-pressure ridge and their seasonal duration. Once the temporal resolution of the Vernjikica-4.2 record is improved, the precise timing and duration of described events in the proxy record, including the observed shorter-termed increases in ?18O as well as ?13C, will be fully explored. Eventually, the proxy record will be complemented with additional stalagmites from Vernjikica Cave extending the record from 38 ka to 121 ka.

  16. Geological and geochemical characteristics of sedimentary rocks in Kremna, basin (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perunovi?, Tamara; Jovan?i?evi?, Branimir; Br?eski, Ilija; Šajnovi?, Aleksandra; Stojanovi?, Ksenija; Simi?, Vlada; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica

    2014-05-01

    Studying lacustrine sediments is important because of their potential economic value since they often bear coal, oil shales and non-metallic mineral raw materials. Besides this, lacustrine sediments offer valuable information on the climate conditions which existed during the sedimentation. In Serbia there are 14 lacustrine basins spanning in age from Oligocene to Lower Pliocene. The aim of this study was to examine Lower Miocene Kremna basin, located in southwest Serbia. Kremna basin is a small basin, covering 15km2, but sedimentologically very interesting. For the purpose of this study, 43 sediment samples were taken from a borehole at different depths, from surface to 343 m depth of the basin. The borehole ended in weathered serpentinite. Mineralogical composition of sediments was determined using thin-sections and X-ray diffraction analysis, contents of macro-and microelements and rare-earth elements were determined by ICP-ES and ICP-MS techniques. Also, elemental analysis was applied to determine the contents of carbon, sulphur and nitrogen and n-alkanes, isoprenoide aliphatic alkanes and bitumen were also determined using GC-MS technique. Mineralogical analyses proved presents of several lithological types in Kremna basin: clastic sediments, tuffs, tuffaceous sediments, marlstones, dolomites, magnezites, and coal of non-economic value. Occurrence of sirlezite and sepiolite was also determined. Furthermore, according to all obtained results two faciae were determined: alluvial-marginal lacustrine and intrabasinal. Alluvial-marginal facies originated from predominantly ultramafic rocks which underlie the basin. Magnezites and Mg-marls and Mg-dolomites are dominant sediments in this facies. These sediments formed under arid, slightly saline conditions. Intrabasinal facies is represented mostly with marls, Mg-marls and dolomitic limestones. These sediments were deposited under a more humid climate with increase in paleoproductivity. The uppermost sediments of Kremna basin are represented with marly dolomite. Due to the swallowing of the basin sediments became relatively rich in predominantly land plant material. Tuffs and tuffaceous sediments were determined in both faciae.

  17. Regional air pollution caused by a simultaneous destruction of major industrial sources in a war zone. The case of April Serbia in 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukmirovi?, Zorka B.; Unkaševi?, Miroslava; Lazi?, Lazar; Toši?, Ivana

    During NATO's 78-day Kosovo war, 24 March-10 June 1999, almost daily attacks on major industrial sources have caused numerous industrial accidents in Serbia. These accidents resulted in releases of many hazardous chemical substances including the persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Detection of some important POPs in fine aerosol form took place at Xanthi in Greece and reported to the scientific world. The paper focuses on two pollution episodes: (a) 6-8 April; and (b) 18-20 April. Using the Eta model trajectory analysis, the regional pollutant transport from industrial sites in Northern Serbia (Novi Sad) and in the Belgrade vicinity (Pan?evo), respectively, almost simultaneously bombed at midnight between 17 and 18 April, corroborated measurements at Xanthi. At the same time the pollutant puff was picked up at about 3000 m and transported to Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Moldavia and the Black Sea. The low-level trajectories from Pan?evo below 1000 m show pollutant transport towards Belgrade area in the first 12 h. The POP washout in central and southern Serbia in the second episode was deemed to have constituted the principal removal mechanism. Maximum POP wet deposition was found in central Serbia and along the 850 hPa trajectory towards south-eastern Serbia and the Bulgarian border.

  18. Molecular analyses of Erwinia amylovora strains isolated in Russia, Poland, Slovenia and Austria describing further spread of fire blight in Europe.

    PubMed

    Jock, Susanne; Wensing, Annette; Pulawska, Joanna; Drenova, Nataliya; Dreo, Tanja; Geider, Klaus

    2013-08-25

    Fire blight, a bacteriosis of apple and pear, was assayed with molecular tools to associate its origin in Russia, Slovenia and south-eastern Austria with neighboring countries. The identification of all investigated strains was confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy except one. Independent isolation was verified by the level of amylovoran synthesis and by the number of short sequence DNA repeats in plasmid pEA29. DNA of gently lysed E. amylovora strains from Russia, Slovenia, Austria, Hungary, Italy, Spain, Croatia, Poland, Central Europe and Iran was treated with restriction enzymes XbaI and SpeI to create typical banding patterns for PFGE analysis. The pattern Pt2 indicated that most Russian E. amylovora strains were related to strains from Turkey and Iran. Strains from Slovenia exhibited patterns Pt3 and Pt2, both present in the neighboring countries. Strains were also probed for the recently described plasmid pEI70 detected in Pt1 strains from Poland and in Pt3 strains from other countries. The distribution of pattern Pt3 suggests distribution of fire blight from Belgium and the Netherlands to Central Spain and Northern Italy and then north to Carinthia. The PFGE patterns indicate that trade of plants may have introduced fire blight into southern parts of Europe proceeded by sequential spread. PMID:23570971

  19. The frequency of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutations in Slovak and Roma (Gypsy) ethnic group of Eastern Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Bôžiková, Alexandra; Gabriková, Dana; Sovi?ová, Adriana; Behulová, Regina; Ma?eková, So?a; Boro?ová, Iveta; Petrej?íková, Eva; Soták, Miroslav; Bernasovská, Jarmila; Bernasovský, Ivan

    2012-10-01

    Factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A are the two most prevalent causes of inherited thrombophilia. The prevalence of these mutations varies widely in healthy Caucasian population. The aim of our study was to determine the frequency of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutations in Slovak and Roma ethnic group from Eastern Slovakia. We analyzed 540 asymptomatic individuals (269 individuals of Slovak ethnicity and 271 individuals of Roma ethnicity) by real-time PCR method. The detected allele frequencies were 2.97 versus 6.64 % for factor V Leiden (p = 0.0049), and 0.74 versus 0.92 % for prothrombin mutation (p = 0.7463) in Slovak and Roma population, respectively. The Roma ethnic group had significantly higher prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation when compared to Slovak ethnic group. The allele frequency of factor V Leiden in ethnic Romanies from Eastern Slovakia was one of the highest in Europe. Our results confirm an uneven geographical and ethnic distribution of factor V Leiden. PMID:22562116

  20. Groundwater management by riverbank filtration and an infiltration channel: the case of Obrenovac, Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polom?i?, Dušan; Hajdin, Bojan; Stevanovi?, Zoran; Baji?, Dragoljub; Hajdin, Katarina

    2013-11-01

    The Vi? Bare groundwater source is used to supply water to the population and industry of Obrenovac, one of the municipalities of Belgrade (the capital of Serbia). It is a typical riverbank filtration site; exploitation is performed through 30 drilled wells and two radial wells located in the meander of the Sava River. The established hydraulic connection between the river and tapped aquifer is so great that the river regime has a dominant influence on the aquifer. As a consequence of this, water-delivery reduction occurs in the dry months (summer-autumn), when the population needs water the most. Based on the data associated with the river’s gauges, precipitation, quantity of pumped water and groundwater-level fluctuation, a simulation of the groundwater regime for non-steady-state flow conditions has been undertaken through a numerical model. To overcome problems of water shortage during the dry season, the possibility of artificial recharge using an infiltration channel, made up of two connected parts, was analyzed. During the dry months, 80 % of the wells receive water partly from the infiltration channel. In this way, possibilities for extracting additional water are created. The application of this concept is discussed.