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1

Euroization: what factors drive its persistence? Household data evidence for Croatia, Slovenia and Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question asked in this article is why people continue to use foreign currencies even after their economies have stabilized. Survey data for Croatia, Slovenia and Slovakia are employed to provide an answer. The results confirm the role of network effects and of remittances. Furthermore, the extent of currency substitution is found to be positively associated with the level of

Helmut Stix

2010-01-01

2

7 CFR 319.37-6 - Specific treatment and other requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Moldova, Morocco, Portugal, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovakia, Slovenia, Republic of South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, Syria, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan Brachycerus spp. and Dyspessa...

2011-01-01

3

Language Policy in Slovenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The historical background, political changes, migration processes, EU membership and the current socio-linguistic situation have all influenced language policy and language planning in Slovenia. This article presents the most important aspects of language policy in Slovenia with a focus on the concept of linguistic diversity. The ethnic make-up of…

Novak-Lukanovic, Sonja; Limon, David

2012-01-01

4

Slovakia health system review.  

PubMed

The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services, and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. The Slovak health system is a system in progress. Major health reform in the period 2002 to 2006 introduced a new approach based on managed competition. Although large improvements have been made since the 1990s (for example in life expectancy and infant mortality), health outcomes are generally still substantially worse than the average for the EU15 but close to the other Visegrad Four countries. Per capita health spending (in purchasing power parity [PPP]) was around half the EU15 average. A large share of these resources was absorbed by pharmaceutical spending (28% in 2008, compared to 16% in OECD countries). Some important utilization indicators signal plenty of resources in the system but may also indicate excess bed capacity and overutilization. The number of physicians and nurses per capita has been actively reduced since 2001 but remains above the average of the EU12 (i.e. the 12 countries that joined the EU in 2004 and 2007). An ageing workforce and professional migration may reinforce a shortage of health care workers. People have free choice of general practitioner (GP) and specialist. Their services are provided without cost-sharing from patients, with the notable exception of dental procedures. Inpatient care and specialized ambulatory care are provided in general hospitals and specialized hospitals. Pharmaceutical expenditure per capita accounts for one-third of public expenditure on health care. Long-term care is provided by health care facilities and social care facilities. Slovakia has a progressive system of financing health care. However, the health reforms of 2002 to 2006 led to an increase in the number of households that contributed more from their income and the distributive impacts were not equitable. This was mainly caused by the introduction of a reference pricing scheme for pharmaceuticals. Some key challenges remain: improving the health status of the population and the quality of care while securing the future financial sustainability of the system. PMID:21540135

Szalay, Tomás; Pazitný, Peter; Szalayová, Angelika; Frisová, Simona; Morvay, Karol; Petrovic, Marek; van Ginneken, Ewout

2011-01-01

5

BEN Sampling in Serbia  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists Bill Orem (left) and Terry Lerch (right) recording data and collecting samples at a Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) household in Serbia. BEN patients typically come from small villages and are often farmers....

2009-09-10

6

Dialect Leveling in Haloze, Slovenia  

E-print Network

description will be done in order to document the most archaic forms of the dialect and to better un? derstand where Haloze fits among the surrounding dialects and language groups. After this we will analyze Haloze from a contemporary perspective... Hungary Croatia Slovenia Ljubljana Maribor Ptuj Hal oze Italy 16 Grant H. Lundberg, Dialect Leveling in Haloze, Slovenia The hills of Haloze, which are covered with vineyards, are the most dis? tinctive geographic feature of the area, and they grow...

Lundberg, Grant H.

2013-01-01

7

BEN Sampling in Serbia  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientist Bill Orem (left) and Adrian Muntean, a colleague from Romania, sampling water from a well in a Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) household in Serbia. The scientists will analyze the water for the presence of coal-derived organic substances dissolved in the water. The USGS works closely...

2009-09-10

8

Integrated seismic monitoring in Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two seismic networks are operated on the territory of the Slovak republic by two academic institutions. The Geophysical Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences operates the Slovak National Network of Seismic Stations (SNNSS, established in 2004) and the Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University Bratislava operates the Local Seismic Network Eastern Slovakia (LSNES, established in 2007). SNNSS is focused on the regional seismicity and participates in the international data exchange on a regular basis. LSNES, designed to be compatible and complementary with the existing SNNSS infrastructure, is focused on the seismicity of the eastern Slovakia source zone. The two networks share database and archive. Thus the expenses and workload of the joint data center operation are split between the two institutions. The cooperation enhances the overall reliability of the data center while does not interfere with the original scopes of the two networks. Relational database with thin client based on the standard web browser is implemented. Maintenance requirements of clients are reduced to minimum and it is easier to manage the system integrity. The database manages parametric data, macroseismic data, waveform data, inventory data, and geographic data. The database is not only a central part of the data processing of the two institutions; it also forms a core of the warning system. The warning system functionality requires development of the modules which are additional to the standard seismic database functionality. The modules for editing, publishing and automatic processing of macroseismic questionnaires were implemented for the purpose of the warning system, and the database integrates macroseismic data with other seismic data.

Bystrický, E.; Kristeková, M.; Moczo, P.; Cipciar, A.; Fojtíková, L.; Pažák, P.; Gális, M.

2009-04-01

9

Religious education in Serbia1  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the government of the Republic of Serbia decided to introduce religious education into state schools in 2001, Serbia came into line with the neighbouring countries, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, where at the request of the dominant religious communities confessional religious education had been part of state school curricula ever since the dis- integration of the former Yugoslavia in

Bojan Aleksov

2004-01-01

10

Forest Health and Environmental Pollution in Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a mountainous and forested country (40.6% forest cover) in central Europe, Slovakia has a large variety of vegetation zones, forest types, and a rich diversity of forest tree species. The most important tree species are beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.), oak species (Quercus sp.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), European

Július Oszlányi

1997-01-01

11

ACCESSIBILITY OF THE RAILWAY NETWORK IN SLOVAKIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to point to the state of the railway network and the position of the railway transport in Slovakia; to assess the accessibility of the railway in terms of accessibility of the nearest railway station of passenger trans- port from the individual communes and to point to regional disparities in the matter. Regional disparities in

EUROPA XXI; DANIEL MICHNIAK

12

Students' Attitudes toward Computer Use in Slovakia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ICT has a very short history in Slovakia. A majority of Slovak schools accessed computers and internet only after 2000. Different financial support and schools' participation in various projects resulted in non-random distribution of computers across Slovakian elementary schools. We examined whether 1) attitudes toward computers could be affected…

Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

2008-01-01

13

Variability of the Molinion meadows in Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine vegetation types were distinguished using cluster analysis within Molinion meadows in Slovakia. Vegetation of cluster 1 occurs on most acidic soils and is characterized by the occurrence of species\\u000a of the Caricion fuscae alliance and of the Nardus grasslands. Vegetation of cluster 2 is also found on rather acidic soils but in contrast to cluster 1 vegetation it contains

Marcela ?ezní?ková

2007-01-01

14

Genus Dimerella (Coenogoniaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) in Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

currence in Slovakia. The paper, based on literature review, revision of collections (BP, BRA, PR, PRC, SAV, W, herb. Vf ezda, herb. Pi{út) and fieldwork, brings together evi- dence of two species, D. pineti and D. lutea. The first voucher specimens and published data for D. pineti date back to the second half of 19th century; 20th century records are

ANNA GUTTOVÁ

2005-01-01

15

Burden of Cancer in Serbia  

PubMed Central

Aim To provide a comprehensive assessment of burden of selected cancers in Serbia. Method We calculated disability adjusted life years (DALY) – the sum of the years of life lost (YLL) from premature mortality and the years lived with disability (YLD) – for cancers of stomach, colon and rectum, lung, breast, and cervical cancer for central Serbia and Vojvodina, Serbia and Montenegro. The obtained values were compared with the corresponding values for European region as estimated by the World Health Organization. The study was conducted between October 2002 and September 2003. The cancer burden was estimated for the year 2000. Results Observed cancers were responsible for 133?689 DALYs (73?197 for men and 60?482 for women). There were significantly more losses because of premature death than disease disability (95.2% vs 4.8% in men P<0.001, and 93.2% vs 6.8% in females, P<0.001). The cancer burden was dominated by lung cancer in men and breast cancer in women. The cancer burden was very small before the age of 35. Conclusion DALYs per 1000 population were higher in Serbia than in theEuropean region for all observed cancers except for stomach cancer. The participation of a burden caused by disability in the total burden of selected cancers was lower in Serbia than in other European countries, with the greatest differences in colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers. PMID:16489706

Vlajinac, Hristina; Sipetic-Grujicic, Sandra; Jankovic, Slavenka; Marinkovic, Jelena; Kocev, Nikola; Markovic-Denic, Ljiljana; Bjegovic, Vesna

2006-01-01

16

An Energy Overview of Slovenia  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Slovenia. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resource s permit.

anon.

2003-10-20

17

Security Research and Safety Aspects in Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2004 the Slovak Republic joined the European Community. This accession called for changes in the new member state's internal and external processes, as well as the acceptance of the European Community regulatory framework and its implementation in Slovakian national legislation. Even though Slovakia had started with step-by-step integration of specific regulations during accession negotiations, final implementation was only concluded upon admission into the European Community. The process spanned the fields of occupational health and safety (Safety) and civil security (Security), notwithstanding that professionals in these areas had already been working in line with the European legislation.

Sinay, Juraj

18

The Miocene rodents of Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Miocene period a group of shallow lakes was created in depressions at the territory of present-day Serbia. This caused the present wide distribution of lacustrine sediments, which occasionally alternate with the alluvial and marsh sediments. The remains of large mammals are relatively common, while the remains of small mammals used to be known only from two localities -

Z. Markovic

2009-01-01

19

URBAN EXTENTS Serbia and Mon  

E-print Network

URBAN EXTENTS Greece Macedonia Romania Serbia and Mon Turkey GRUMPv1 Copyright 2009. The Trustees, and Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT). Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP:http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/gpw/ ´ 0 50 100 Km Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection Urban Extent Administrative Units National

Columbia University

20

Hantaviruses in Serbia and Montenegro  

PubMed Central

Hantaviruses are endemic in the Balkan Peninsula. An outbreak of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome occurred in 2002 in Serbia and Montenegro. The epidemiologic characteristics and genetic relatedness of Dobrava/Belgrade virus strains responsible for most cases are described. PMID:16707066

Bojovic, Bojana; Antoniadis, Antonis

2006-01-01

21

Remarkable records of lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A list of 31 new records of lichenized and lichenicolous fungi for Slovenia and of 65 new records for phytogeographical regions of Slovenia, and of two otherwise interesting taxa is provided based on recent field studies and older herbarium samples. New records for Slovenia are Arthrosporum populorum, Aspicilia caesiocinerea, A. farinosa, Bacidia rosella, Botryolepraria lesdainii, Buellia aethalea, Caloplaca coccinea, C.

HELMUT MAYRHOFER; FRANC BATI?; PETER O. BILOVITZ

22

Musculoskeletal Trauma Services in Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serbia, a middle-income country, is located in southeastern Europe, with territory of 88,361 km2 and 9,400,000 inhabitants. Average month salary is US$542 and the registered unemployment rate is 22%. The country is administratively\\u000a divided into 30 districts (193 municipalities). The healthcare system is territorially organized. In the state capital there\\u000a are five clinical hospitals with musculoskeletal traumatology departments, as well as

Zoran Vukašinovi?; Duško Spasovski; Zorica Živkovi?

2008-01-01

23

Transformation of the Adult Education System in Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article examines trends in adult education in Slovakia since it became a separate republic in 1993. Economic and social transformations during this period have led to a re-thinking of the adult education system. The author describes four basic modalities for providing adult education in Slovakia: (1) schools and colleges; (2) cultural centres and similar institutions; (3) institutions for vocational training; (4) voluntary organizations such as trade unions, political parties and ethnic minority groups.

Švec, Štefan

1998-07-01

24

Dirofilariosis in Slovakia - a new endemic area in Central Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The first systematic research on canine dirofilariosis in Slovakia started in February 2007. In total 287 dogs of various\\u000a age, sex, breeds, and utilization from southern Slovakia were examined within the study until September 2007. Microfilariaemia\\u000a was detected in 99 (34.5 %) blood samples. Histochemical staining and PCR approach were used for Dirofilaria species identification. Dirofilaria repens was confirmed in

M. Miterpáková; D. Antolová; Z. Hurníková; P. Dubinský

2008-01-01

25

When and How Does Europe Matter? Higher Education Policy Change in Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study underlying this article investigates the factors under which European policy initiatives with respect to higher education (HE), such as the Bologna Process, lead to policy change at the national level. In theoretical terms, it uses institutionalist approaches to the Europeanization of public policy developed in the fields of comparative…

Vukasovic, Martina

2014-01-01

26

Education Reform in Slovenia and Ukraine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed the challenges faced by teacher educators from Slovenia and Ukraine as they implemented the Step by Step (SBS) initiative. Gathered information from Master Teacher Trainers about participation in educating preschool and primary children in a SBS program. Garnered important information concerning progress toward a more democratic approach…

Rutar, Sonja; Kotenko, Kateryna; Lohvynenko, Tetyana; Moyer, Joan

2003-01-01

27

OPERA INSTITUTI ARCHAEOLOGICI SLOVENIAE LJUBLJANA 2004  

E-print Network

of the wild carp, Cyprinus carpio: from Roman gourmets to the swim- ming flowers. ­ Aquaculture 129, 3­48. BALON, E. K. 1995b, The common carp, Cyprinus carpio: its wild origin, domestication in aquaculture of Slovenia. ­ Arh. vest. 53, 77­89. BARUS, V., M. PEÁZ in K. KOHLMANN 2001, Cyprinus carpio. ­ V/in: P. M

Cufar, Katarina

28

Attitudes to Bilingual Education in Slovenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The two different models of bilingual/multilingual education that have been developed in Slovenia since the 1950s in the regions of Prekmurje (minority language Hungarian) and Slovene Istria (Italian) are the result of international agreements, education and language policies, social and demographic factors. The basic aim in both cases is to help…

Novak Lukanovic, Sonja; Limon, David

2014-01-01

29

The Organizational Values of "Gimnazija" in Slovenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article assesses the organizational values of "gimnazija" in Slovenia and examines the factors that contribute to the building of quality management. The theoretical framework is built on Schein's model of levels of culture, Sathe's interpretation of organizational culture and Getzels and Guba's model of organizational behaviour. Based on the…

Pang, Nicholas Sun-Keung

2006-01-01

30

Tritium Measurements in Slovenia - Chronology Till 2004  

SciTech Connect

Almost all the analyses of tritium in Slovenia have been performed by the tritium laboratory at the Jozef Stefan Institute. Nearly 90 % of its measurements have been covered by two national programs, both approved by the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration: the radioactive monitoring program in the environs of Krsko Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP) and the program of global radioactive contamination monitoring in the environment. These programs include samples of groundwaters, surface waters, precipitation and drinking waters, as well as liquid and gaseous effluents from KNPP. Tritium was determined in some research projects and in hydrological studies of thermal waters, groundwater and coalmine waters. Tritium in the Karst region was mapped as well as the springs of entire territory of Slovenia. Around 5500 samples have been analyzed up to 2004.

Logar, Jasmina Kozar; Vaupotic, Janja; Kobal, Ivan [Jozef Stefan Institute (Slovenia)

2005-07-15

31

Slovak Centre of Biomass Use for Energy Wood Fired Heating Plant in Slovakia  

E-print Network

Slovak Centre of Biomass Use for Energy Slovakia 1 Wood Fired Heating Plant in Slovakia Energy energy User behaviour ESCOs Biomass Education Architects and engineers Wind Other Financial institutions countries it is already implemented for several years. #12;Slovak Centre of Biomass Use for Energy Slovakia

32

Slovak Centre of Biomass Use for Energy Wood Fired Heating Plant in Slovakia  

E-print Network

Slovak Centre of Biomass Use for Energy Slovakia 1 Wood Fired Heating Plant in Slovakia Energy energy User behaviour ESCOs Biomass Education Architects and engineers Wind Other Financial institutions;Slovak Centre of Biomass Use for Energy Slovakia 2 Biomass is considered as the most perspective

33

ICTP Public Information Office Page 1 26/03/2014 Country Total visitors Female visitors Person-months*  

E-print Network

.10 Serbia 21 14 7.82 Singapore 59 7 28.04 Slovakia 6 1 1.28 Slovenia 36 6 11.80 South Africa 63 11 38 11.15 Mali 2 0 0.46 Malta 1 0 0.20 Mauritius 2 1 0.53 Mexico 59 22 43.73 Mongolia 9 3 13.02 Morocco

34

FSU/Eastern Europe: Russia spearheads small upturn  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the political and legal scene in Russia, domestic restructuring, exploration, drilling, development by Western companies and by Russian companies, and production. Exploration and development in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Serbia are also discussed.

NONE

1996-08-01

35

Public attitudes towards brown bears ( Ursus arctos) in Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In northern Slovenia a radical change in brown bear (Ursus arctos) management – from a policy of bear suppression to a policy of bear protection – resulted in a sharp increase in sheep predation by bears. In the bear core area in southern Slovenia, on the other hand, bears have always been present, cause little damage and are an important

Petra Kaczensky; Mateja Blazic; Hartmut Gossow

2004-01-01

36

Dendrochronology of oak (Quercus spp.) in Slovenia an interim report  

E-print Network

Dendrochronology of oak (Quercus spp.) in Slovenia ­ an interim report K. Cufar1 , M. Zupancic1 , L and dating historical buildings or archaeological wood. Oak - mainly represented by pedunculate (Quercus (Abies alba) in SE Slovenia. A dendroclimatic analysis showed that tree-ring width variations

Cufar, Katarina

37

Information Science Research Agenda in Slovakia: History and Emerging Vision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents research and education in library and information science in Slovakia as an example of the history, present state, and future of information science research and collaboration in central European countries. Highlights include: the professional experience in the region since 1990, structural changes, examples of these changes, recent…

Steinerova, Jela

2003-01-01

38

First record of Myotis alcathoe (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myotis alcathoe has been recorded in the territory of Slovakia for the first time. On 2 August 2001, two individuals of the species were netted at the entrance to the Stćpová jaskyŔa cave in the basaltic plateau of the Cerová vrchovina Mts (48° 12' 23\\

Petr BENDA; Manuel RUEDI; Marcel UHRIN

39

First cases of canine dirofilariosis in Slovakia: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dogs from two locations in West Slovakia suspected to have dirofilariosis were tested with the help of microfilariae detection, histochemical identification of microfilaria species and Dirofilaria immitis specific antigen detection in the blood serum. Six out of the group of 15 dogs from Bratislava region were found positive with Dirofilaria repens microfilariae. In the second location situated farther to the

V. SVOBODOVA; Z. SVOBODOVA; V. BELADICOVA; D. VALENTOVA

2005-01-01

40

Changes of heat waves characteristics over the territory of Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study is focused on the analysis of long-term changes and trends of heat waves occurrence in selected meteorological stations in Slovakia. Changes of the temperature regime of the hydro-climatic system may have serious consequences on population health. It is expected that climate change could, in the next decades, also lead to a higher frequency and greater spatial extent of extreme heat waves in Central Europe. Heat waves can cause severe thermal environmental stress, health complications, higher hospital admission rates, and increased mortality. A larger number of consecutive warm days and nights can also lead to increased solar overheating of buildings, inhibited ventilation, etc. Detection of possible ongoing changes of the regime of heat ways is therefore of particular interest. Since heat waves can be quantitatively evaluated through their temperature range (extremity) and also according to their duration, a set of such characteristics using statistical methods were analysed using maximum and average daily air temperature time series from the 1951-2010 period in 8 meteorological stations over the territory of Slovakia. Results indicate an overall consistent (both in time and space) increase of selected heat wave characteristics in Slovakia mostly due to their occurrence in the last two decades (1991 to 2010). This period was characterised by the occurrence of the most extreme heat waves ever recorded in history of meteorological observations in Slovakia (years 1992, 1994, 1998, 2003, 2007, 2010). The absolutely longest and most extreme heat wave occurred in southern Slovakia (station Hurbanovo) in 1992, when one heat wave lasted 47 days, while the cumulative amount of the deviation from 30 °C reached over 106 ° C. Change of the heat waves character in the last two decades was also indicated. Compared with the previous decade (1991-2000), during the decade of 2001-2010, the heat waves had shorter durations, but their total extremity and the quantity increased significantly. Examples of this development in the years 2003, 2007 and 2010 were given.

Kollarikova, Patricia; Szolgay, Jan; Pecho, Jozef

2014-05-01

41

History of Mathematical Logic in Serbia Mirjana Borisavljevi  

E-print Network

History of Mathematical Logic in Serbia Mirjana Borisavljevi Dept. of Mathematics, Faculty and Statistics, Faculty of Technical Sciences, #12;History of Mathematical Logic in Serbia468 University of Novi a brief historical overview of research in the area of mathematical logic and applications in Serbia

Stojmenovic, Ivan

42

Musculoskeletal trauma services in Serbia.  

PubMed

Serbia, a middle-income country, is located in southeastern Europe, with territory of 88,361 km(2) and 9,400,000 inhabitants. Average month salary is US$542 and the registered unemployment rate is 22%. The country is administratively divided into 30 districts (193 municipalities). The healthcare system is territorially organized. In the state capital there are five clinical hospitals with musculoskeletal traumatology departments, as well as one in each of the four university centers. In addition, there are orthopaedic departments in 40 smaller hospitals throughout the country and in three military hospitals, along with several pediatric surgical departments involved in managing musculoskeletal trauma. There are 524 orthopaedic trauma surgeons (1:18,000 people), with a minor number of additionally trained general and pediatric surgeons who care for musculoskeletal problems. Bonesetters are neither recognized nor included in the healthcare system. Orthopaedic traumatology services are well organized, with variable accessibility depending on the distance between injury site and nearest medical facility. Preventive strategies are well developed and mainly consider agricultural, industrial, and traffic injuries. Distribution of medical institutions is satisfactory. Future activities should include continuing medical education of specialists, exclusion of inappropriate specialists, improvement of preventive strategies and medical transport facilities, as well as standardization of medical equipment, diagnostics, and treatment protocols. PMID:18622666

Vukasinovi?, Zoran; Spasovski, Dusko; Zivkovi?, Zorica

2008-10-01

43

Regional flood frequency analysis in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regional flood frequency analysis is mainly used for purposes of improving flood prediction. There are many examples of its application in different countries but it hasn't been used in Slovenia yet. So our main goal was to use different approaches to perform regional flood frequency analysis of maximum annual discharges for hydrological stations in Slovenia. Regional flood frequency analysis usually involves four steps. For each one there are different methods that can be used. At first, accuracy and discordance of data has to be checked. The second and also the most important step is identification of regions and checking their homogeneity. The last two steps are the choice of an appropriate frequency distribution for a region and estimation of the parameters and quantiles of the selected distribution, respectively. Maximum annual discharges for 112 hydrological stations in Slovenia that satisfied required conditions about measurement performance were considered for analysis. Time series were first checked for missing data, outliers, normality and linearity. The discordancy measure was also used. The regionalization was performed using two different approaches. The first method used was subjective partioning where the regions are formed with the goal to get concluded groups in which hydrological stations lay geographically close to each other. The second used method was cluster analysis within which two algorithms were tested (Ward method and K-means). Three data sets with different number of attributes were used for each one. The homogeneity of the regions was tested using the heterogeneity measure H. The result of the subjective partioning were 10 regions, 8 of them were acceptably homogeneous (H < 1), one was possibly heterogeneous (1 ? H < 2) and one was definitely heterogeneous (H ? 2). Among Ward method and K-means we decided to use the results of the latter one based on the data set with 4 attributes (catchment area, longitude, latitude, elevation). After some adjustments we defined 9 acceptably homogeneous regions. The best frequency distribution was estimated according to K-means adjusted regions. Different goodness-of-fit tests were used. For the whole region data the L-moment ratio diagram and the goodness-of-fit measure Z were performed. For the single station data the QQ diagram, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, PPCC (probability plot correlation coefficient) and RMSE (root mean square error) were used. After analysing different results we decided to estimate the final frequency distribution of the regions using L-moment ratio diagram, goodness-of-fit measure Z and the RMSE test. At the end we estimated also the quantiles for chosen frequency distributions using the regional L-moment algorithm based on the index-flood procedure.

Kavcic, Katarina; Brilly, Mitja; Sraj, Mojca

2014-05-01

44

Analysis of amphetamines illegally produced in Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic practice in the Republic of Serbia faced the illegal produc- tion of amphetamine for the first time in 2003. This paper presents the results of the chemical characterization of 32 batches of amphetamine samples from three separate cases, for the purpose of identification of the active components and additives. Through the profiling of impurities of all samples, using gas

VLATKA VAJS; Sonja Banovic-Stevic; Slobodan Petrovic

2008-01-01

45

Radon concentrations in a spa in Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the results of indoor radon concentration survey in 201 homes and offices in Niska Banja (the Spa of Nis), a well-known health resort and a spa in the South-East of Serbia. Radon indoor concentrations were determined by active charcoal method, according to standard EPA procedure. The indoor radon concentrations were in the range of up to 200

G. Manic; S. Petrovic; Manic Vesna; Dragana Popovic; Dragana Todorovic

2006-01-01

46

Monitoring of Pesticide Residues in Apples from Slovakia for Baby Food Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

DÖMÖTÖROVÁ M., HERCEGOVÁ A., MATISOVÁ E. (2006): Monitoring of pesticide residues in apples from Slovakia for baby food production. Czech J. Food Sci., 24: 84-92. There is a basic lack of information about the presence of pesticide residues in apples obtained from farms in Slovakia collaborating with baby food producer. Residues of several pesticides (widely used for the protection on

MILENA DÖMÖTÖROVÁ; ANDREA HERCEGOVÁ; EVA MATISOVÁ

2006-01-01

47

Regional estimation of design summer flood discharges in small catchments of northern Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design floods in ungauged small and mid-sized basins in Slovakia are usually computed from simple regional flood formulae. In this paper other regional approaches have been tested in the flysh region in northern Slovakia. Sub-regions were constructed using hydrologie reasoning based on basin properties and 7c\\

SILVIA KOHNOVÂ; JAN SZOLGAY

1999-01-01

48

Policy And Practice The Future Tenure of Rural Public Lands in Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adoption of democracy and the market economy ideology in post-communist Central and Eastern Europe is encouraging changes in rural public land policy. A system of state public land is being partly dismantled, to be replaced by private ownership.This paper exploresthe present dynamics of the rural public land reprivatization process in Slovakia. In Slovakia approximately 40% of rural public land

Gregg Paget; Martina Vagacova

1998-01-01

49

Environmental analyse of soil organic carbon stock changes in Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The content and quality of soil organic matter is one of the basic soil parameters on which soil production functioning depends as well as it is active in non production soil functions like an ecological one especially. Morphologic segmentation of Slovakia has significant influence of structure in using agricultural soil in specific areas of our territory. Also social changes of early 90´s of 20´th century made their impact on change of using of agricultural soil (transformation from large farms to smaller ones, decreasing the number of livestock). This research is studying changes of development of soil organic carbon stock (SOC) in agricultural soil of Slovakia as results of climatic as well as social and political changes which influenced agricultury since last 40 years. The main goal of this research is an analysis of soil organic carbon stock since 1970 until now at specific agroclimatic regions of Slovakia and statistic analysis of relation between modelled data of SOC stock and soil quality index value. Changes of SOC stock were evaluated on the basis SOC content modeling using RothC-26.3 model. From modeling of SOC stock results the outcome is that in that time the soil organic carbon stock was growing until middle 90´s years of 20´th century with the highest value in 1994. Since that year until new millennium SOC stock is slightly decreasing. After 2000 has slightly increased SOC stock so far. According to soil management SOC stock development on arable land is similar to overall evolution. In case of grasslands after slight growth of SOC stock since 1990 the stock is in decline. This development is result of transformational changes after 1989 which were specific at decreasing amount of organic carbon input from organic manure at grassland areas especially. At warmer agroclimatic regions where mollic fluvisols and chernozems are present and where are soils with good quality and steady soil organic matter (SOM) the amount of SOC in monitored time is still growing. At colder agroclimatic regions, at flysch region especially where cambisols are present with low of SOM stability since 1994 stability or decreasing of SOC stock is resulting. This is result of climatic impact (lower temperatures, higher humidity) as well as the way of soil management because at colder region the number of glasslands is increased in comparison to arable land. Close relationship between SOC stock and soil production potential index representing the official basis for soil quality evaluation in Slovakia was also determined and a polynomial model was found which describes the relation at the 95% confidence level. From the obtained results it can be concluded, that the amount of crop residues and farmyard manure coming to the soil both in the first and second simulation period (1970 - 1995 and 1996 - 2007) was responsible for general trends in SOC stock dynamics. Achieved results also show different amount and changes of SOC stock in different agroclimatic regions. It was also found that that value of soil production potential index generally used for soil quality assessment in Slovakia corresponds well with simulated values of SOC stocks in top-soils of cropland soils. Key words Soil organic carbon stock, modelling, agricultural soils, agroclimatic regions, Slovakia Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract No. APVV-0333-06.

Koco, Š.; Baran?íková, G.; Skalský, R.; Tarasovi?ová, Z.; Gutteková, M.; Halas, J.; Makovníková, J.; Novákova, M.

2012-04-01

50

Alcohol consumption among adolescents in Kraljevo, Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and predictors of alcohol consumption among adolescents in one town\\u000a in Central Serbia. A questionnaire was used to obtain data from 191 Serbian students aged 18 years regarding personal experience\\u000a with alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking, along with sociodemographics data. Alcohol consumption was reported by 97.4%\\u000a subjects, with 34.9% having

Natasa Djordjevic; Jelena Bogojevic; Marina Kostic

2011-01-01

51

The Research of Historical Trusses in Northern Regions of Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The blanket research of historical trusses in the territory of Slovakia has been running at our department since 2008. This research is done as teamwork in cooperation with experts from the field of conservation, and it is mainly focused on typology, construction, and the current technical and constructional state of investigated trusses. The long-time support of the grant scheme from the Ministry of Culture allows to get a fair amount of different data related to individual buildings and structures, which enables to carry out the in-depth research. In terms of their conservation and maintenance with an effort to extend their lifetime (the oldest known historical trusses in Slovakia are those of the 13th century), it is necessary to look into the microclimate impact of the under-roof space on wooden roof structures as well as to monitor the contemporary constructional and technical condition of a roof structure itself. The suitable microclimate in the under-roof space is influenced by a number of marginal conditions, constructional solutions of roof details, proper space ventilation etc

Korenková, Renáta; Krušinský, Peter

2014-06-01

52

Belgrade vs. Serbia: Spatial Re-Configurations of Belonging  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the relationship between the nation, the city, narratives, and belonging in Serbia through an analysis of narratives of a set of 30 interviews with young Belgrade intellectuals aged 23–35. I argue that what appears to be emerging in post-Milosevic Serbia is a new articulation and a new scale of belonging. Most of my informants are mobilising their

Zala Volcic

2005-01-01

53

Motivation to Learn and Teach English in Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted in Slovenia, and explored the views of a sample of 226 pupils (aged 14?15 years) regarding their motivation to learn English and the views of a sample of 95 student teachers regarding their motivation to become a teacher of English. The data consisted of two questionnaires. The first questionnaire asked the pupils to rate the importance

Chris Kyriacou; Machiko Kobori

1998-01-01

54

Adjusting to the Falling Interest in VET in Slovenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article gives an overview of the development issues of VET in Slovenia with an accent on the transition period. It shows how the dual system was gradually replaced by the school-based one and the difficulties its reintroduction faces. It also shows that despite the modernising of VET influenced by EU accession a shift has been observed in the…

Svetlik, Ivan

2004-01-01

55

Study of Autochthon Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz in Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz (Cruciferae) or false flax, an old oil-seed crop, is gaining interest because of its low environmental impact and wide possibilities of use. The tradition of growing false flax is still present in Slovenia. In folk medicine, the oil is considered a good remedy for stomach ulcers, the treatment of burns, wounds, eye inflammations and as a

Janko Rode

2002-01-01

56

UNCERTAINTY EVALUATION OF THE REFERENCE HARDNESS STANDARD OF SLOVENIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A commercial hardness testing machine has been provided to represent a reference hardness standard in Slovenia. Various hardness scales which are important for calibration purposes are realized on this machine. The evaluation of measurement uncertainty is one of the most important tasks for establishing this reference standard. Therefore the influence quantities contributing to the uncertainty are determined and the calibration

Konrad Herrmann

57

Dynamics of Forest Health Status in Slovakia from  

E-print Network

Slovakia is a mountainous and forested country (40.6 percent forest cover) in central Europe and has a large variety of vegetation zones, forest types, and a rich diversity of forest tree species. The most important tree species are beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.), oak species (Quercus sp.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.), European larch (Larix decidua Mill.), poplars and willows (Populus L. sp., Salix L. sp.), and other hardwood broadleaves. On the basis of results of the Forest Health Monitoring System from 1987 to 1994, the scientific information is presented for the following parameters: defoliation, discoloration, percentage of tree number in classes of damage, and percentage of salvage cut in the total annual cut. The percentage of trees in the defoliation classes 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 14.7, 43.5, 36.2, 4.3, and 1.3, respectively (class 0 means healthy trees; class 4 dead trees). The discoloration classes (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4) were represented by 98.0, 1.7, 0.3, 0, and 0 percent for all tree species together. The average defoliation percentage from 1987 to 1994 decreased with time and is expected to further decrease in the following years. However, the percentage of annual salvage cut in the total annual cut increased between 1987 and 1994. Various biotic and abiotic factors influence forest health in Slovakia, such as air pollution, wind and snow, damages by beetles, sucking insects, and game. Global climate change seems to be the most important among them.

Julius Oszlanyi

1987-01-01

58

Detecting changes in maximum annual discharges in Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detecting trend in hydrological long-term time series became a topic of rising scientific significance during last years. A number of floods were observed in recent years, increasing the concern about flood risk worldwide as also in the Slovak Republic. The main objective of the study was to find changes in the trend of the annual maximum discharge series. The analysis was performed on data obtained from 152 gauging stations with minimum lengths of the observations ranging from 40 years to maximum of 130 years from the whole territory of Slovakia. Time series analysis usually operates under the assumption of homogeneity, stationarity and independence; therefore the time series were tested by parametric and non-parametric tests at 5% and 10% levels of significance. The Mann-Kendall trend test, which is commonly used in hydrology to detect significance of linear trends in long term hydrological time series, and its correction for autocorrelated data were adapted in this study. The time series were analysed at different lengths of 40, 50, 60 years and for the whole observation period at significance levels of 5, 10 and 20%. The results were compared and their spatial distribution was analysed. Finally, at the territory of Slovakia, the statistically significant decreasing trend in the annual maximum discharge series during the 40 year long time period was found in the location of Strazov and Great Fatra Mountains, increasing trend in this time period was identified in the Danube and Morava River basins. In the 50 and 60- year long time periods decreasing trend was found in the Upper Hron River basin. For the whole time period, which was different for each gauging station, decreasing trend was detected in the Low Tatra, Low Fatra and Slovak Karst regions, increasing trend was found in stations located at the Danube River.

Kohnova, Silvia; Jeneiova, Katarina; Sabo, Miroslav; Hlav?ová, Kamila; Szolgay, Jan

2014-05-01

59

Roman mystery iron blades from Serbia  

SciTech Connect

A First to Forth Century Roman spear blade from Serbia was found to have an unusual microstructure inconsistent with typical Roman Period iron. An analysis of the blade undertaken at Lehigh University in the US and at the Faculty of Technical Sciences in Novi Sad, Serbia established that it was metallic in appearance, magnetic and had an external layer of red rust. But as metallographically polished, it appeared to contain multiple internal phases and internal cracking. Even after aggressive etching, no typical low carbon microstructure was developed. Scanning electron microscopy, classical and energy dispersive X-ray analysis indicated that the specimen was essentially iron, although its microhardness was too high for typical Roman iron. It was then dubbed 'Mystery Iron.' Analysis of all the data led to the proposal that it was essentially a Roman iron 'fossil' in which the iron had been converted to high temperature iron oxide while retaining the form of the blade, conversion probably occurring in a fire. Subsequent X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the blade consisted of FeO and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and the mystery of the iron fossil was at least partially solved. A hypothesis is proposed regarding a potential cause for the fire.

Balos, Sebastian [Faculty of Technical Sciences, Novi Sad, Serbia (Serbia ); Benscoter, Arlan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States); Pense, Alan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States)], E-mail: awp0@lehigh.edu

2009-04-15

60

Subcutaneous dirofilariosis in South-East Serbia--case report.  

PubMed

Human dirofilariosis is a relatively rare infection caused by filarial worms of the genus Dirofilaria. We herein report the first case of human subcutaneous dirofilariosis in the southeastern part of Serbia. A complete alive nematode was removed from a nodule in the periorbital region of a 50-year-old woman. The nematode was morphologically identified as a D. repens-like immature female. The diagnosis was confirmed with molecular methods. The patient was probably infected in the South-East Serbia as she had not travelled abroad, nor in other parts of Serbia such as Vojvodina, recently identified as a hyperendemic area for D. repens infection of dogs. PMID:21740534

Tasi?, S; Stoiljkovi?, N; Miladinovi?-Tasi?, N; Tasi?, A; Mihailovi?, D; Rossi, L; Gabrielli, S; Cancrini, G

2011-08-01

61

New and noteworthy bryophyte records from Montenegro and Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erzberger, P. & Papp, B.: New and noteworthy bryophyte records from Montenegro and Serbia. - Willdenowia 37: 339-351. - ISSN 0511-9618; Š 2007 BGBM Berlin-Dahlem. doi:10.3372\\/wi.37.37124 (available via http:\\/\\/dx.doi.org\\/) During investigations into four regions of Montenegro (Rumija Mts, Lovcen Mts, the coastal area around Kotor, Durmitor National Park) and one of Serbia (Stara Planina Mts) carried out in 2003-2005, 28

PETER ERZBERGER; BEATA PAPP

2007-01-01

62

Environmental exposure to PCBs and cancer incidence in eastern Slovakia.  

PubMed

In a population-based cross-sectional study, we compared serum levels of 15 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and three organochlorine pesticides in residents of two districts in eastern Slovakia, one with extensive environmental contamination from a former PCB production site (Michalovce) and the other matched on geography but with low (background) levels (Svidnik). The age-adjusted geometric means for sum of 15 measured PCB congeners were statistically significantly higher in subjects from the Michalovce district for both sexes: 3327.6 versus 1331.4 ng/g of lipid in males, 2751.8 versus 992.2 ng/g of lipid in females. Levels of DDE and DDT were also significantly higher, although the absolute differences were less pronounced. There was no substantial difference in HCB levels between the districts. We also conducted an ecologic study to compare cancer incidence occurring in these same two districts from 1985 through 1994. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals for each district using indirect standardization and rates from eastern Slovakia. Among males from Michalovce (exposed), but not Svidnik (unexposed), there was an excess of cancer of the tongue (SIR=1.46; 1.06-1.96), stomach (SIR=1.15; 1.00-1.32), lung (SIR=1.14; 1.04-1.24), testis (SIR=1.40; 0.97-1.97), and kidney (SIR=1.23; 0.98-1.52), and lower than expected incidence of prostate cancer (SIR=0.83; 0.69-0.97); in contrast, there was an excess of peritoneal (SIR=3.05; 1.11-6.63) and laryngeal cancer (SIR=1.43; 0.99-1.98) in Svidnik not observed Michalovce. Among females from Michalovce, but not Svidnik, there was an excess of cancer of the lip (SIR=2.54; 1.53-3.96), stomach (SIR=1.22; 1.02-1.44), and lung (SIR=1.17; 0.94-1.45); in contrast, there was an excess of kidney (SIR=1.61; 1.03-2.40) and thyroid (SIR=1.97; 1.12-3.20) cancer in Svidnik not observed in Michalovce. Taken together, these results raise the possibility that high environmental exposure to organochlorines in the Michalovce district may be associated with higher rates of certain cancers, particularly stomach and lung cancer. PMID:14659953

Pavuk, Marian; Cerhan, James R; Lynch, Charles F; Schecter, Arnold; Petrik, Jan; Chovancova, Jana; Kocan, Anton

2004-03-01

63

Vulnerability Assessment, Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Measures in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In relation to the priority tasks of the climate change measures, the Republic of Slovenia estimates that special attention needs to be devoted to the following sectors in general: - sectors that currently indicate a strong vulnerability for the current climate variability (for instance, agriculture), - sectors where the vulnerability for climate change is increased by current trends (for instance, urban development, use of space), - sectors where the adaptation time is the longest and the subsequent development changes are connected with the highest costs (for instance, use of space, infrastructural objects, forestry, urban development, building stock). Considering the views of Slovenia to the climate change problem in Europe and Slovenia, priority measures and emphasis on future adaptation to climate change, the Republic of Slovenia has especially exposed the following action areas: - sustainable and integrated management of water sources for water power production, prevention of floods, provision of water for the enrichment of low flow rates, and preservation of environmental function as well as provision of water for other needs; - sustainable management of forest ecosystems, adjusted to changes, for the provision of their environmental function as well as being a source of biomass, wood for products for the conservation of carbon, and carbon sinks; - spatial planning as one of the important preventive instruments for the adaptation to climate change through the processes of integral planning of spatial and urban development; - sustainable use and preservation of natural wealth and the preservation of biodiversity as well as ecosystem services with measures and policies that enable an enhanced resistance of ecosystems to climate change, and the role of biological diversity in integral adaptation measures; - informing and awareness on the consequences of climate change and adaptation possibilities. For years, the most endangered sectors have been agriculture and forestry; therefore, they are also the only sectors for which a national adaptation strategy was adopted.

Cegnar, T.

2010-09-01

64

Astronomy and public outreach in Serbia (1934-2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The astronomical community in Serbia has grown significantly over the last few decades, despite the departure overseas of much home-grown talent. Serbia celebrates three important anniversaries in 2007 - 150 years since the birth of Milan Nedeljkovic, who introduced the first astronomical subjects to the Faculty of Mathematics in 1884, and founded the Astronomical Observatory in Belgrade in 1887; 120 years of the Belgrade Astronomical Observatory and 75 years since the construction of the complex of buildings and telescopes at the Astronomical Observatory in Belgrade. The Astronomy Department at the Faculty of Mathematics in Belgrade has produced many excellent scientists working today at telescopes (Arecibo, Sidney, VLA, Hawaii etc.) and universities (California, Toronto, Sidney, Illinois, MIT etc.) around the world. Since 2005, students have also been able to study astronomy at the University of Novi Sad, Serbia (Faculty of Physics). Today there are more than 20 amateur astronomical societies in Serbia, two magazines of popular astronomy, one Youth Science Centre (Petnica), two Public Observatories and two Planetariums. If the social and media network formed in October 2007 can deliver even the minimum of the expected results, six million people in Serbia should easily be familiar with IYA2009 goals, related Cornerstone Projects and particular goals in Serbia for 2009.

Stanic, N.

2008-06-01

65

Natural radionuclides in drinking waters in Serbia.  

PubMed

Gross alpha and beta activities, (3)H, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activities were measured in bottled mineral water produced in Serbia in order to assess its radiological quality. In 11 samples of tap water and in 1 sample of spring waters gross alpha and beta activity were determined. The natural activity concentration of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides are within the range recommended by World Health Organization. The tritium concentration in bottled mineral waters ranged from 0.023 ą 0.012 to 0.046 ą 0.006 Bq l(-1). The activity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were below the minimum detectable activity. In order to evaluate the annual effective dose for different classes of age, a conservative dosimetric calculation was carried out. PMID:23041389

Jankovi?, Marija M; Todorovi?, Dragana J; Todorovi?, Nataša A; Nikolov, Jovana

2012-12-01

66

Biomass in Serbia - potential of beech forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As for the renewable sources for energy production, biomass from forests and wood processing industry comes to the second place. The woody biomass accounts for 1.0 Mtoe, that is equivalent with 1.0 Mtoe of oil. Due to current evaluations, the greatest part of woody biomass would be used for briquettes and pallets production. As the biomass from forests is increasingly becoming the interest of national and international market, a detailed research on overall potential of woody supply from Serbian forests is required. Beech forests account for 29.4 % of forest cover of Serbia. They also have the greatest standing volume (42.4 % of the overall standing volume) and the greatest mean annual increment (32.3 %)(Bankovic,et.al.2009). Herewith, the aim of this poster is to determine the long-term biomass production of these forests.For this purpose a management unit called Lomnicka reka has been chosen. As these beech forests have similar structural development, this location is considered representative for whole Serbia. DBH of all trees were measured with clipper and the accuracy of 0.01 mm, and the heights with a Vertex 3 device (with accuracy of 0.1 m). All measurements were performed on the fields each 500 m2 (square meters). The overall quantity of root biomass was calculated using the allometric equations. The poster shows estimated biomass stocks of beech forests located in Rasina area. Dates are evaluated using non-linear regression (Wutzler,T.et.al.2008). Biomass potential of Serbian beech forests will enable the evaluation of long-term potential of energy generation from woody biomass in agreement with principles of sustainable forest management. The biomass from such beech forests can represent an important substitution for energy production from fossil fuels (e.g. oil) and herewith decrease the CO2 emissions.

Brasanac-Bosanac, Lj.; Cirkovic-Mitrovic, T.; Popovic, V.; Jokanovic, D.

2012-04-01

67

The development of nuclear medicine in Slovenia and Ljubljana; half a century of nuclear medicine in Slovenia  

PubMed Central

Background Nuclear medicine began to be developed in the USA after 1938 when radionuclides were introduced into medicine and in Europe after radionuclides began to be produced at the Harwell reactor (England, 1947). Slovenia began its first investigations in the 1950s. This article describes the development of nuclear medicine in Slovenia and Ljubljana. The first nuclear medicine interventions were performed in Slovenia at the Internal Clinic in Ljubljana in the period 1954–1959. In 1954, Dr Jože Satler started using radioactive iodine for thyroid investigations. In the same year, Dr Bojan Varl, who is considered the pioneer of nuclear medicine in Slovenia, began systematically introducing nuclear medicine. The first radioisotope laboratories were established in January 1960 at the Institute of Oncology and at the Internal Clinic. Under the direction of Dr. Varl, the laboratory at the Internal Clinic developed gradually and in 1973 became the Clinic for Nuclear Medicine with departments for in vivo and in vitro diagnostics and for the treatment of inpatients and outpatients at the thyroid department. The Clinic for Nuclear Medicine became a teaching unit of the Medical Faculty and developed its own post-graduate programme – the first student enrolled in 1972. In the 1960s, radioisotope laboratories opened in the general hospitals of Slovenj Gradec and Celje, and in the 1970s also in Maribor, Izola and Šempeter pri Novi Gorici. Conclusions Nowadays, nuclear medicine units are modernly equipped and the staff is trained in morphological, functional and laboratory diagnostics in clinical medicine. They also work on the treatment of cancer, increased thyroid function and other diseases. PMID:22933984

Slavec, Zvonka Zupanic; Gaberscek, Simona; Slavec, Ksenija

2012-01-01

68

Serbia within the European context: An analysis of premature mortality  

PubMed Central

Background Based on the global predictions majority of deaths will be collectively caused by cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and traffic accidents over the coming 25 years. In planning future national health policy actions, inter – regional assessments play an important role. The purpose of the study was to analyze similarities and differences in premature mortality between Serbia, EURO A, EURO B, and EURO C regions in 2000. Methods Mortality and premature mortality patterns were analysed according to cause of death, by gender and seven age intervals. The study results are presented in relative (%) and absolute terms (age-specific and age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population, and age-standardized rates of years of life lost – YLL per 1,000). Direct standardization of rates was undertaken using the standard population of Europe. The inter-regional comparison was based on a calculation of differences in YLL structures and with a ratio of age-standardized YLL rates per 1,000. A multivariate generalized linear model was used to explore mortality of Serbia and Europe sub-regions with ln age-specific death rates. The dissimilarity was achieved with a p ? 0.05. Results According to the mortality pattern, Serbia was similar to EURO B, but with a lower average YLL per death case. YLL patterns indicated similarities between Serbia and EURO A, while SRR YLL had similarities between Serbia and EURO B. Compared to all Europe sub-regions, Serbia had a major excess of premature mortality in neoplasms and diabetes mellitus. Serbia had lost more years of life than EURO A due to cardiovascular, genitourinary diseases, and intentional injuries. Yet, Serbia was not as burdened with communicable diseases and injuries as were EURO B and EURO C. Conclusion With a premature mortality pattern, Serbia is placed in the middle position of the Europe triangle. The main excess of YLL in Serbia was due to cardiovascular, malignant diseases, and diabetes mellitus. The results may be used for assessment of unacceptable social risks resulting from health inequalities. Within intentions to reduce an unfavourable premature mortality gap, it is necessary to reconsider certain local polices and practices as well as financial and human resources incorporated in the prevention of disease and injury burden. PMID:19656367

Santric Milicevic, Milena; Bjegovic, Vesna; Terzic, Zorica; Vukovic, Dejana; Kocev, Nikola; Marinkovic, Jelena; Vasic, Vladimir

2009-01-01

69

Alveolar echinococcosis in a highly endemic area of Northern Slovakia between 2000 and 2013.  

PubMed

Long-term surveillance of Echinococcus multilocularis occurrence in red foxes in Slovakia revealed the existence of highly endemic areas, with an overall prevalence rate of 41.6 % in the northern part of the country. Between 2000 and 2013, 26 human cases of alveolar echinococcosis were detected and only three of them were not in endemic localities in northern Slovakia. Remarkable is the occurrence of the disease in eight people younger than 35 years, including three patients aged eight, 14 and 19 years. Occurrence of E. multilocularis in red foxes throughout the country and high incidence of alveolar echinococcosis in young people indicate high infectious pressure in the environment of northern Slovakia. It can be assumed that the real incidence of alveolar echinococcosis is significantly higher than recorded by official data due to the lack of existing registration and reporting system. For effective management of prevention and control strategies for this disease improvement of the national surveillance system and engagement of specialists outside the medical community are necessary. Our study presents a comprehensive picture of the epidemiological situation of E. multilocularis in northern Slovakia. In addition, we report the first list of confirmed human cases of this serious parasitosis in Slovakia. PMID:25188612

Antolova, D; Miterpakova, M; Rado?ak, J; Huda?kova, D; Szilagyiova, M; Za?ek, M

2014-08-28

70

31 CFR 585.313 - Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro); FRY (S&M).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO) AND BOSNIAN SERB-CONTROLLED AREAS OF THE REPUBLIC OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 585.313 Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and...

2010-07-01

71

Comparative Analysis of the Adult Education Institutional Network in Croatia and Slovenia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Republic of Croatia and Republic of Slovenia both became independent states in 1991 after separating from the former Yugoslavia. Despite their common origin, Croatia and Slovenia have very different cultures and traditions, different systems of education, and very different systems of adult education. Most of the differences between the two…

Lavrnja, Ilija; Klapan, Anita

72

Contribution to the lichen biota of Slovenia XII. Some lichens from Logarska dolina  

PubMed Central

A list of 94 species is presented including Bacidia subacerina and Lopadium disciforme as new for Slovenia and Bilimbia accedens, Lecanora leptyrodes, Megalaria grossa, Mycobilimbia epixanthoides, Rinodina efflorescens, and Sclerophora peronella as new for the alpine phytogeographical region of Slovenia. PMID:22319012

Bilovitz, Peter Othmar; Arup, Ulf; Mayrhofer, Helmut

2011-01-01

73

Contribution to the lichen biota of Slovenia XII. Some lichens from Logarska dolina.  

PubMed

A list of 94 species is presented including Bacidia subacerina and Lopadium disciforme as new for Slovenia and Bilimbia accedens, Lecanora leptyrodes, Megalaria grossa, Mycobilimbia epixanthoides, Rinodina efflorescens, and Sclerophora peronella as new for the alpine phytogeographical region of Slovenia. PMID:22319012

Bilovitz, Peter Othmar; Arup, Ulf; Mayrhofer, Helmut

2010-11-01

74

Tree-Ring Investigations in Oak and Ash from Different Sites in Slovenia  

E-print Network

Tree-Ring Investigations in Oak and Ash from Different Sites in Slovenia By Katarina CUFAR 1) & Tom, Slovenia. S u m m a r y CUFAR K. & LEVANIC T. 1999. Tree-ring investigations in oak and ash from different procedures. Cross- dating of the tree-ring series of young, fast-growing lowland oaks was generally

Cufar, Katarina

75

Rail-lex Slovenia--A Modern Railway Dictionary (Joint Venture Case Study).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rail-lex Slovenia is a project to develop a dictionary of railway terminology in the Slovenian language, part of a larger undertaking of the International Union of Railways to develop a modern, multilingual communication infrastructure. Participating organizations represent 22 European languages. Two partners in the Rail-lex Slovenia venture are…

Jakopin, Primoz

76

Applicability of the pediatric evaluation of disability inventory in Slovenia.  

PubMed

In the process of developmental (re)habilitation, determination of the functional abilities of an individual is an important step. For that we need appropriate measurement instruments. Because we do not have such measurement instruments in Slovenia, we chose the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), translated it, and applied it in daily practice to assess its usefulness and applicability. The purpose of the study was to find out whether the functional abilities of the population of Slovene children evaluated with the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory is comparable to the American normative data. We also wanted to assess the possible influence of gender, parent education, community size, and the presence of siblings on children's functional abilities. The Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory was administered in the form of a structured interview to the parents of 147 healthy children in three age groups (0.5-1 year, 3-3.5 years, and 5-5.5 years) in different health care centers in Slovenia. Data analysis showed significant differences in functional skills and caregiver assistance scale scores when comparing the Slovene sample with the American normative data, particularly in the youngest age group. Slovene children were found consistently to be different (scoring either higher or lower) from American children at comparable ages in several functional skills and caregiver assistance scales. The analysis also confirmed the importance of gender and the presence of siblings for gaining higher scores on some of the functional skills and caregiver assistance scales. The level of parent education did not prove to have a significant impact on the results. Our results suggest that the American normative data are not completely appropriate for reference purposes in Slovenia. The results are in agreement with the findings of other studies, demonstrating the importance of ascertaining intercultural differences. We believe that adaptation and norming of the Slovene version of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory are necessary before using the instrument in clinical practice in our country. PMID:15968925

Srsen, Katja Groleger; Vidmar, Gaj; Zupan, Anton

2005-05-01

77

Analysis of garnets from the archaeological sites in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Garnets (62 individual stones) originating from the Migration Period cemeteries and hilltop settlements in Slovenia were analyzed by the combined PIXE/PIGE method for their chemical composition. Typologically, the analyzed stones may be classified as almandines originating from the sites in India, belonging to types I and II according to Calligaro. A smaller group of pyraldines intermediate between almandines and pyropes was also determined; identified as type III, their source is most likely in Sri Lanka. No garnets from Bohemia (Czech Republic) have been discovered, which may be related to important political changes in the 7th c. AD, induced by Slavic and Avaric migrations.

Šmit, Ž.; Fajfar, H.; Jeršek, M.; Knific, T.; Lux, J.

2014-06-01

78

Serbia and Montenegro: Together Forever or One-Night Stand.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Throughout the 1990s the republics of the former Yugoslavia fought a civil war resulting in the worst atrocities seen on European soil since World War II. The international community stood idly by while combatants in Slovenia and, especially, Croatia used...

M. S. Tarquinto

2005-01-01

79

Stochastic Flood Frequency Analysis Using the SCHADEX Method in Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods for derived flood frequency analysis often use a stochastic weather generator to derive a continuous rainfall runoff model in order to simulate long series of artificial flows. Time series of synthetic precipitations generated by a weather generator should have the same statistical properties than an observed time series. This is true if the weather generator is properly set up which is not an easy task. The rainfall-runoff modelling in mountainous regions also requires a time series of temperatures to simulate snow melting processes, which must be generated alongside the precipitations. A French method SCHADEX avoids these problems and is the only one combining the advantages of continuous rainfall-runoff modelling and event-based synthetic precipitations. This work presents results of the application of the SCHADEX probabilistic method for extreme flood estimation. SCHADEX has been developed at Electricité de France (EDF) for dam spillway design. The method uses a continuous rainfall-runoff model for simulation of catchment responses to synthetic precipitation events generated by a stochastic rainfall model. The rainfall model utilizes a Multi-Exponential Weather Pattern (MEWP) distribution to account for both seasonal variation and the type of weather pattern. The application of the SCHADEX method is illustrated with the example of the River Hron at Banská Bystrica (1768 km2). The daily (from 1981 to 2010) and hourly (from 1988 to 2002) datasets were used to estimate 24 and 1 hour floods with various return periods. The uncertainty of the whole methodology has been assessed by using 100 various hydrological models, where parameters of each model were obtained by using different period for model calibration. The hydrological models were then used to simulate synthetic rainfall events generated by the same stochastic rainfall model. As expected the variation of the estimated floods was substantial especially in the high return periods. The difference between minimum and maximum estimated flood spread from 80 m3/s (from 166 to 232 m3/s) for a 10-year flood to as much as 600 m3/s (from 644 to 1391 m3/s) for a 10000-year flood. Despite of this uncertainty the SCHADEX method gives better results than traditionally used flood estimation methods used in Slovakia which was demonstrated by comparing estimated with reconstructed historical floods.

Valent, Peter; Výleta, Roman; Szolgay, Ján; Paquet, Emmanuel

2014-05-01

80

Molecular and genetic characteristics of small ruminant lentiviruses in Slovenia.  

PubMed

Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) are spread throughout the world, including Slovenia, where the first evidence of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection was found in 1996. This study was conducted to investigate the molecular and genetic characteristics of SRLV infection in Slovenia in order to classify our strains in relation to other known SRLV strains worldwide as well as to establish molecular techniques in concordance with serology. In this study, 340 goats and sheep were tested. Serological examination revealed that 57% of the goats and only 14% of the sheep were seropositive. The results of this study also show that the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) used in this study is less reliable than ELISA, with only 60.6% of the seropositive animals being PCR positive. Thirty-eight nucleotide sequences of the gag region encoding the matrix protein were determined and compared to sequences derived from the GenBank, revealing that Slovenian SRLV strains belong to sequence groups A and B, being maedivisna virus (MVV) and CAEV-like, respectively. In one goat herd, the presence of more than one genotype was confirmed and the majority of goat SRLV sequences were more closely related to MVV than to CAEV prototype strains. PMID:23439298

Kuhar, Urška; Barli?-Maganja, Darja; Zadnik, Tomaž; Grom, Jože

2013-03-01

81

Regional Methods for Design Flood Computation in Slovakia (Review and Comparison)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent floods in Central Europe have resulted in concerns about the reliability of flood frequency estimates in the region. As a consequence, also the currently used regional flood frequency estimation methods are being re- visited. In the study several regional flood frequency estimation approaches were compared with annual and seasonal floods using flood data from 251 basins in Slovakia.

Silvia Kohnová

82

Spatially distributed assessment of solar resources for energy applications in Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial and temporal distribution of available solar energy depends on several factors. Besides latitude and astronomical factors it is strongly influenced by climate factors (e.g. cloudiness, turbidity) and topography. This paper presents a solar database of Slovakia containing spatially-distributed solar energy resource data necessary for planning, sitting and forecasting of solar device installations. The database consists of several data sets

Jaroslav HOFIERKA

2008-01-01

83

Are renewables an alternative to nuclear power? An analysis of the Austria\\/Slovakia discussions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Politicians and publics throughout Europe have different views on nuclear power and renewable energy sources. Countries such as Austria and Denmark which have no nuclear power are rather hostile towards this energy source, and at the same time view renewable energy sources as one of the solutions in curbing CO2 emissions. Other countries, such as Slovakia, which is less endowed

Ragnar Lofstedt

2008-01-01

84

SPREAD OF DODDER (CUSCUTA SPP.) IN THE AGROECOSYSTEMS OF SLOVAKIA: IS IT AN EMERGING PROBLEM?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary During 2000, field surveys of dodder (Cuscuta spp.) occurred at cropland were done in Slovakia. From among 150 localities surveyed, 96 have been found infested by dodder. The existence of four dodder species was revealed: Cuscuta campestris Yuncker, infested vegetable crops (potato, sugar beet, alfalfa and tobacco) and variety of weeds (together 18 species, especially Polygonum spp.), C. epithymum

Peter TÓTH; A. Hlinku

85

THE DETERMINATION OF PHENOLICS COMPOUNDS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF MINTS AND BALMS CULTIVATED IN SLOVAKIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the content of the main polyphenolic constituens of different mints and balms cultivated in the conditions of South-West Slovakia were examined and compared. All plants were harvested in two harvest times. Free radical scavenging activity of 50 %-hydroalcoholic extracts of leaves of three Mentha L. species (M. × piperita L., M. spicata L., M. longifolia (L.) Huds.

Tomus LV

86

European Gender Lessons: Girls and Boys at Scout Camps in Denmark, Portugal, Russia and Slovakia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article investigates the tensions between and within models of gender equality and gender complementarity by studying children who are in the midst of learning to apply these gender models in practice. Children (aged 11-15 years) were observed and interviewed while they participated in scout camps in Denmark, Portugal, Slovakia and Russia.…

Nielsen, Harriet Bjerrum

2004-01-01

87

Surviving Stalin to Be Done in by Disney? Children's Literature in Slovakia (Reading around the World).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the paradoxical situation regarding children's literature in Slovakia since the 1989 revolution. Notes that what had been forbidden suddenly was available. Decries the proliferation of Disney and other second-rate books from the West to the detriment of quality Slovak indigenous literature. (SR)

Bloem, Patricia L.

1994-01-01

88

From convergence to fragmentation: uneven regional development, industrial restructuring, and the 'transition to capitalism' in Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transition from the state socialist model of development to one based upon a form of market capitalism is being met with a profound restructuring of the space-economies of Central and East European societies. This paper is an examination of the experience of this 'transition' in Slovakia. It is argued that, whereas a process of regional convergence took place under

A Smith

1996-01-01

89

Costs, Commitment and Compliance: The Impact of EU Democratic Conditionality on Latvia, Slovakia and Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

'Democratic conditionality' is the core strategy of the EU to induce candidate states to comply with its human rights and democracy standards. How does it work and when is it effective? This article reports findings of a comparative study of 'hard cases': Slovakia under Meciar; Turkey; and Latvia. We argue that EU democratic conditionality is a strategy of 'reinforcement by

Frank Schimmelfennig; Stefan Engert; Heiko Knobel

2003-01-01

90

Epiphytic lichen mycota of the virgin forest reserve Rajhenavski Rog (Slovenia)  

PubMed Central

A list of 128 taxa (127 species) of lichens, 6 species of lichenicolous fungi and 2 non-lichenized fungi traditionally included in lichenological literature from the virgin forest Rajhenavski Rog and its surroundings in the southeastern part of Slovenia is presented. The lichen Gyalecta derivata, the lichenicolous fungus Homostegia piggotii, and the non-lichenized fungus Mycomicrothelia pachnea are new to Slovenia. The lichenized fungi Chaenotheca trichialis, C. xyloxena, Lecanactis abietina, Lecanora thysanophora, Pertusaria ophthalmiza, the lichenicolous fungi Monodictys epilepraria, Tremella hypogymniae, Taeniolella friesii, and the non-lichenized fungus Chaenothecopsis pusilla are new to the Dinaric phytogeographical region of Slovenia. PMID:22942459

Bilovitz, Peter O.; Batic, Franc; Mayrhofer, Helmut

2012-01-01

91

National study of illicit drug use in Slovakia based on wastewater analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyze illicit drugs and their metabolites in wastewater from eight selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Slovakia. The effect of two of the biggest music festivals in Slovakia on illicit drugs in wastewater was also investigated. Urinary bio-markers of amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, cannabis and ecstasy use were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We then compared our results with data obtained in other parts of Europe and the world. This study demonstrates that Slovakia has one of highest methamphetamine consumption rates in Europe. Within Slovakia, the highest level of methamphetamine consumption was found in Petržalka, where the mean specific load of this drug in sewage was 169 mg/day/1000 inhabitants; the next highest loads were detected in Pieš?any (128 mg/day/1000 inhabitants) and Bratislava (124 mg/day/1000 inhabitants). Amphetamine, ecstasy and cannabis consumption in our study were comparable to that found in other European cities, whereas cocaine consumption was lower. We also analyzed the pattern of drug consumption over the course of a week. The load of the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine in wastewater increased during the weekend. The use of this drug was most common in the capital of Slovakia. Increased consumption was also found during a folk festival in Pieš?any. The ecstasy load in wastewater from larger cities also significantly increased over the weekend. An increase of drug consumption was also detected during a music festival in Tren?ín, especially for ecstasy. The specific load of ecstasy during this festival increased from 3mg/day/1000 inhabitants to 29 mg/day/1000 inhabitants. The possible influence of music styles on the consumption of certain drugs was also observed. During a folk festival, methamphetamine and cocaine were more commonly used. PMID:25046607

Macku?ak, Tomáš; Skubák, Jaroslav; Grabic, Roman; Ryba, Jozef; Birošová, Lucia; Fedorova, Ganna; Spalková, Viera; Bodík, Igor

2014-10-01

92

Student Background Factors Influencing Student Achievement in Serbia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes student-level findings of the first large-scale comprehensive school effectiveness study of the primary education in Serbia. Twenty-five student-level variables were examined in a three-level HLM model using a study sample of almost 5000 students, over 250 classrooms and over 100 schools. Differences between the students were…

Teodorovic, Jelena

2012-01-01

93

Topographic maps of Serbia prior to the WWI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compilation of high or medium scale topographic surveys always played an important role in the geosciences of newly independent countries. Serbia formally has gained back its independency from the Turkish Empire sortly after the 1878 Congress of Berlin. The newly founded Institute of Military Geography in Beograd made efforts to complete a topographic series of 1:75,000 scale. Actually two serieses

B. Kovács

2009-01-01

94

Physician-Based Tobacco Smoking Cessation Counseling in Belgrade, Serbia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined physician attitudes and practices pertaining to patient counseling about smoking in Belgrade, Serbia. Data were collected using a cross-sectional survey of 86 physicians at multiple health care facilities. Approximately 74% of physicians agreed that they should routinely ask patients about their smoking habits and 79% agreed…

Merrill, Ray; Harmon, Tanner; Gagon, Heather

2009-01-01

95

A sustainability analysis of an incineration project in Serbia.  

PubMed

The only option for municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment adopted so far in Serbia is landfilling. Similarly to other south-eastern European countries, Serbia is not recovering any energy from MSW. Fifty percent of electricity in Serbia is produced in coal-fired power plants with emission control systems dating from the 1980s. In this article, the option of MSW incineration with energy recovery is proposed and examined for the city of Novi Sad. A sustainability analysis consisting of financial, economic and sensitivity analyses was done in the form of a cost-benefit analysis following recommendations from the European Commission. Positive and negative social and environmental effects of electricity generation through incineration were valuated partly using conversion factors and shadow prices, and partly using the results of previous studies. Public aversion to MSW incineration was considered. The results showed that the incineration project would require external financial assistance, and that an increase of the electricity and/or a waste treatment fee is needed to make the project financially positive. It is also more expensive than the landfilling option. However, the economic analysis showed that society would have net benefits from an incineration project. The feed-in tariff addition of only €0.03 (KWh)(-1) to the existing electricity price, which would enable the project to make a positive contribution to economic welfare, is lower than the actual external costs of electricity generation from coal in Serbia. PMID:23690538

Mikic, Miljan; Naunovic, Zorana

2013-11-01

96

The Geographic Information System (GIS) in Secondary Education in Serbia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the application of new educational technologies in geography classes. The research involved 126 students from vocational secondary schools in Serbia taking geography as a compulsory subject. We developed and applied a questionnaire for this research. The results indicate that out of several ICTs available, the majority of…

Komlenovic, Djurdjica; Manic, Emilija; Malinic, Dusica

2013-01-01

97

Ecotourism - A Tool for Sustainable Tourism Development in Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

summary The circumstances for tourism development in Serbia in the period 1989 - 2000 were very specific comparing to the overall tourism business practice in the world. D uring that period, due to the known reasons out of the tourism sphere, the decrease of total tourist flow was 36,6%, expressed by the number of overnights, of which 30,1% in domestic

Jovan Popesku

98

Serbia within the European context: An analysis of premature mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Based on the global predictions majority of deaths will be collectively caused by cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and traffic accidents over the coming 25 years. In planning future national health policy actions, inter – regional assessments play an important role. The purpose of the study was to analyze similarities and differences in premature mortality between Serbia, EURO A, EURO B,

Milena Santric Milicevic; Vesna Bjegovic; Zorica Terzic; Dejana Vukovic; Nikola Kocev; Jelena Marinkovic; Vladimir Vasic

2009-01-01

99

Homogenisation of Mean Air Temperature Data Series from Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Standard Normal Homogeneity Test (SNHT) was applied for the detection of inhomogeneities in the time series of mean monthly moving average air temperature data at 2 m above ground for 29 stations in Serbia for the period 1949-2008. In time series of nine stations missing data have been found, but gaps do not exceed 5% of dataset. These gaps have been filled in with values from the three best correlated neighbouring stations. Twenty-nine series of the moving average multi-annual mean air temperature have been investigated. For inhomogeneity detection of these time series AnClim software package has been used, while further analysis used various statistical methods. Reference series have been chosen from 2 to 10 stations, based on distance, similar latitudes and correlation coefficient higher than 0.7. SNHT has been applied for detecting abrupt homogeneity breaks. The critical value of this test was 95%. Detected break points were compared to metadata records in order to diagnose causes of featured inhomogeneities. That type of information was crucial for applying calculated corrections of investigated series. After the homogenisation process, the adjustment values have been analysed. The highest positive and negative homogeneity adjustments have been detected in East part of Serbia. Differences between homogenised and original raw twenty-nine moving average time series are mostly within range from 0 to 0.5°C. Differences between total linear trends for the homogenised and original 29 series have been calculated. According to low difference data, the results present very similar trends of homogenised and original time series for Serbia. Still, there is a significant change of spatial trend distribution pattern. The pattern for homogenised series is more regular, due to successful application of homogenisation process, making the image of climate variations in Serbia more reliable. Key words: mean air temperature series, homogenisation, SNHT, metadata, Serbia

Savic, Stevan; Petrovic, Predrag; Milovanovic, Bosko

2010-05-01

100

Evidence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in game animals from Slovenia.  

PubMed

Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen responsible for granulocytic anaplasmosis in mammalian hosts including humans. Wild animals may play an important role in the epidemiology of this disease. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of infection with A. phagocytophilum among wildlife in Slovenia. Serum samples (n = 376) from the most important game species [red deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), wild boar (Sus scrofa), chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) and brown bear (Ursus arctos)] were examined by A. phagocytophilum-specific indirect fluorescent-antibody assay (IFA) and wild boar spleen samples (n = 160) were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A. phagocytophilum-specific antibodies were found in 72% of sera and A. phagocytophilum DNA was present in 6.2% of spleens. The data indicate that A. phagocytophilum is present and widespread in Slovenian game animals and that game species are involved in the natural life cycle of A. phagocytophilum. PMID:23160026

Zele, Diana; Avberšek, Jana; Gruntar, Igor; Ocepek, Matjaž; Vengušt, Gorazd

2012-12-01

101

Classical Karst hydrodynamics: a shared aquifer within Italy and Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The classical Karst transboundary aquifer is a limestone plateau of 750 km2 that extends from Brkini hills in Slovenia to Isonzo River in Italy. For 20 years, and especially in the last two years, the Mathematic and Geosciences Department of Trieste University has run a monitoring project in order to better understand the groundwater hydrodynamics and the relation between the fracture and conduit systems. A total of 14 water points, including caves, springs and piezometers are monitored and temperature, water level and EC data are recorded. Two sectors are highlighted: the southeastern sector mainly influenced by the sinking of the Reka River, and a northwestern sector connected to the influent character of the Isonzo River. Water table fluctuations are significant, with risings of > 100 m. During floods most of the circuits are under pressure, and only a comparative analysis of water levels, temperature and EC permits a precise evaluation of the water transit times in fractured and/or karstified volumes.

Zini, L.; Calligaris, C.; Zavagno, E.

2014-09-01

102

Why do general practitioners not screen and intervene regarding alcohol consumption in Slovenia? A focus group study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  AIM: To identify barriers influencing general practitioners' decisions regarding alcohol screening and brief intervention\\u000a (SBI) in Slovenia. Background: Slovenia occupies third place in a league of 51 European countries with respect to alcohol\\u000a consumption. General practitioners in Slovenia have the majority of contacts with patients in primary healthcare but they\\u000a rarely or never ask patients about their drinking habits. METHOD:

Tonka Poplas Susi?; Janko Kersnik; Marko Kolšek

2010-01-01

103

Dental Disease as an Indicator of Ecological Factors in Medieval Skeletal Populations from Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: This paper summarizes results of previous odontological research into the medieval (7th- 15th c. A.D.) populations in Slovakia and presents conclusions concerning the diachronic and geographical differences in their dental disease. The dental remains from 16 cemeteries were used. The remains were divided into four chronological (Avar Period, Great-Moravian Period, Hungarian Conquest Period, Arpadian Period) and two geographical groups

Milan Thurzo; Stanislav Katina; Július Jakab

104

Focal Mechanisms of Dobra Voda Source Zone in the Male Karpaty Mts., Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dobra Voda area is one of the most seismically active zones in the territory of Slovakia. In the 20th century, the most prominent earthquakes with the epicenters in Dobra Voda occurred in January 9, 1906, in January 16, 1906, and in March 13, 1930 with magnitudes of 5.7, 5.1 and 5.0, respectively. Since 1985, the seismic activity is monitored by

L. Fojtíková; V. Vavrycuk; A. Cipciar; J. Madarás

2009-01-01

105

Morphometry of non-native black bullhead Ameiurus melas from Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study on the external morphology of the non-native black bullhead (Ameiurus melas) was carried out on a population from Slovakia, based on triple regression and geometrical analysis. The breakpoints distribution\\u000a in distance-based morphometric characters indicated that black bullhead reached its definitive phenotype early in ontogeny.\\u000a Ontogenetic changes in external morphology occurred continuously throughout the whole size-range of the sample

Andrea Novomeská; Vladimír Ková?; Stanislav Katina

2010-01-01

106

A numerical-taxonomic study of the Juncus bufonius aggregate ( Juncaceae ) in Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of 34 populations of theJuncus bufonius aggregate in Slovakia have been submitted to a numerical-taxonomic treatment. Three species corresponding to three known cytodemes, i.e.J. bufonius L. s. str. (2n = c. 100–110),J. ambiguusGuss. (2n = 34) andJ. minutulus (Alb. etJahan.)Prain et al. emend.Snog. (2n = c. 72), have been confirmed for the study area. A survey of quantitative characters

Karol Mi?ieta; Ladislav Mucina

1983-01-01

107

Plant remains from an early Neolithic settlement at Moravany (eastern Slovakia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of the investigation of macroscopic plant remains from the early Neolithic site of Moravany,\\u000a Slovakia, dated to the third quarter of the 6th millennium cal b.c., from which 141 samples of burnt clay were examined. The most abundant remains belonged to Triticum dicoccon. Two other cereals were found, T. monococcum and Hordeum vulgare. Fifty-five soil

Maria Lity?ska-Zaj?c; Magdalena Moskal-Del Hoyo; Marek Nowak

2008-01-01

108

Trends in hydrological drought in eastern Slovakia by analysis of low flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important function in both engineering hydrology and integrated catchment area management is performed by statistical analysis. This paper presents the trend analysis of low water flows in selected rivers in Eastern Slovakia. There are many statistical methods for data evaluation. The most of useful, presented in this paper, is the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test. This analysis was carried out for statistical data from 63 river stations lying in the eastern part of Slovakia, namely in Hornád, Poprad, Bodva, Bodrog river basins. The data were obtained from the Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute, Regional Centre Košice. Because the low flow data are not comparable for the individual stations, normally it is only possible to do the statistical analysis for each river station separately. The relative sizes of the low stream flow trends in individual river stations were calculated as directives of the trend lines. Using ArcView GIS 3.2 was created thematic map from geographical map of Eastern Slovakia.

Zelenakova, Martina; Solakova, Tatiana; Purcz, Pavol; Simonova, Dorota; Kuzevicova, Zofia

2014-05-01

109

Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the groundwater quality in Serbia.  

PubMed

Various chemometric techniques were used to analyze the quality of groundwater data sets. Seventeen water quality parameters: the cations Na, K, Ca, Mg, the anions Cl, SO4, NO3, HCO3 and nine trace elements Pb, As, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cd, Fe, Zn and Cr were measured at 66 different key sampling sites in ten representative areas (low land-Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina and central Serbia) for the summer period of 2009. HCA grouped the sample sites into four clusters based on the similarities of the characteristics of the groundwater quality. DA showed two parameters, HCO3 and Zn, affording more than 90% correct assignments in the spatial analysis of four/three different regions in Serbia. Factor analysis was applied on the log-transformed data sets and allowed the identification of a reduced number of factors with hydrochemical meaning. The results showed severe pollution with Mn, As, NO3, Ni, Pb whereby anthropogenic origin of these contaminants was indicated. The pollution comes from both scattered point sources (industrial and urban effluent) and diffuse source agricultural activity. These samples may not be suitable for human consumption; the water quality belongs to class III/IV (contaminated). The Fe anomalies (7.1mg/L) in the water from the Vetrnica site can be attributed to natural sources, such as the dissolution of rock masses and rock fragments. The serious groundwater contamination with As (25.7-137.8 ?g/L) in the area of Banat (Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina) and a sample No. 9 at the Great Morava River requires urgent attention. PMID:24080418

Devic, Gordana; Djordjevic, Dragana; Sakan, Sanja

2014-01-15

110

Radionuclides and heavy metals in Borovac, Southern Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  The paper presents the complex approach to the assessment of the state of the environment in Southern Serbia, surroundings\\u000a of Bujanovac, the region which is of great concern as being exposed to contamination by depleted uranium (DU) ammunition during\\u000a the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) attacks in 1999. It includes studies on concentrations of radionuclides and\\u000a heavy

Dragana Popovic; Dragana Todorovic; Marina Frontasyeva; Jelena Ajtic; Mirjana Tasic; Slavica Rajsic

2008-01-01

111

Topographic maps of Serbia prior to the WWI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compilation of high or medium scale topographic surveys always played an important role in the geosciences of newly independent countries. Serbia formally has gained back its independency from the Turkish Empire sortly after the 1878 Congress of Berlin. The newly founded Institute of Military Geography in Beograd made efforts to complete a topographic series of 1:75,000 scale. Actually two serieses have been completed prior to the Balkan Wars of 1912-13, one with Latin and the other with the Cyrillic name descriptions, in French and Serbian languages, respectively. The scale of these map systems are identical to the Habsburg general mapping of Central Europe, covering also Serbia. As the Habsburg maps used the prime meridian of Ferro, their Serbian counterparts were using the one of Paris, which is a mere longitude shift of 20 degrees in round numbers. The geodetic basis behind the Serbian maps is probably the Habsburg triangulation in the Balkans (1871-75) - this would explain why the Vienna-centered Hermannskogel datum has been used also in Yugoslavia and Serbia even till nowadays. The French language series has red planar graphic elements (only the names, elevations and the railroad lines are written or drawn in back), blue, brown and green prints were used for waters, contours and vegetation. The Serbian language series mostly reminds to the modern maps albeit it has only three colors (black, brown and green).

Kovács, B.

2009-04-01

112

Systematic survey of natural radioactivity of soil in Slovenia.  

PubMed

Soil samples, from 70 points uniformly distributed over entire Slovenia, were analysed for (40)K, (232)Th and (226)Ra using gamma spectrometry, and for (234)U and (238)U using alpha spectrometry. The following ranges and averages of activity concentrations (Bq kg(-1)) were obtained: 98-2600 and 800 ą 520 for (40)K, 9-170 and 77 ą 33 for (232)Th, 12-270 and 63 ą 44 for (226)Ra, 12-84 and 34 ą 19 for (234)U, and 11-90 and 34 ą 19 for (238)U. With respect to lithology, the highest average values for (40)K and (232)Th were found at clastic sediments containing clay and for (226)Ra on carbonate rocks. Based on the measured activity concentrations, terrestrial gamma dose rates were calculated. The total dose rate ranged from 15 to 260 nGy h(-1), with arithmetic mean of 110 ą 49 nGy h(-1), being the highest over carbonates. PMID:23558252

Kovács, Tibor; Szeiler, Gábor; Fábián, Ferenc; Kardos, Richárd; Gregori?, Asta; Vaupoti?, Janja

2013-08-01

113

Intestinal parasites of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Slovenia.  

PubMed

In the present study, 428 foxes were collected and examined for intestinal helminths using the washing-out method. Parasites were found in 93.2% of the examined animals. The most frequently identified nematodes were Uncinaria stenocephala (58.9%), Toxocara canis (38.3%) and Molineus patens (30.6%). Other nematodes found were Pterygodermatites affinis (4.2%), Capillaria sp. (2.8%), Crenosoma vulpis (2.8%), Toxascaris leonina (2.5%), Trichuris vulpis (0.7%) and Physaloptera sp. (0.2%). Mesocestoides sp. (27.6%) and Taenia crassiceps (22.2%) were the most prevalent cestodes, followed by T. polyacantha (6.5%), Hymenolepis nana (2.1%), T. pisiformis (2.1%) and Dipylidium caninum (1.4%). The study also revealed four trematode species: Rossicotrema donicum (1.6%), Heterophyes heterophyes (1.1%), Metagonimus yokogawai (1.1%), Prohemistomum appendiculatum (0.4%) and two protozoan species: oocysts of Sarcocystis (2.8%) and Isospora (0.4%). This is the first extensive study on the intestinal parasites of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Slovenia. The 2.6% prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in the same sample population as investigated herein has been reported previously (Vergles Rataj et al., 2010). PMID:23974942

Vergles Rataj, Aleksandra; Posedi, Janez; Zele, Diana; Vengušt, Gorazd

2013-12-01

114

Colorado potato beetle [ Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)] resistance to organophosphates and carbamates in Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), the Colorado potato beetle (potato beetle), is the most destructive potato pest in Serbia. Up to four pesticide treatments are necessary for its control. Insecticide resistance of the potato beetle in Serbia is well-investigated and documented, especially to organophosphates and carbamates. Toxicity of chlorpyriphos (organophosphates) and carbosulfan (carbamates) was investigated by topical application, using adults of the

S. Stankovi?; A. Zabel; M. Kostic; B. Manojlovic; S. Rajkovic

2004-01-01

115

The consequences of land-cover changes on soil erosion distribution in Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil erosion is a complex process determined by mutual interaction of numerous factors. The aim of erosion research at regional scales is a general evaluation of the landscape susceptibility to soil erosion by water, taking into account the main factors influencing this process. One of the key factors influencing the susceptibility of a region to soil erosion is land cover. Natural as well as human-induced changes of landscape may result in both the diminishment and acceleration of soil erosion. Recent studies of land-cover changes indicate that during the last decade more than 4.11% of Slovak territory has changed. The objective of this study is to assess the influence of land-cover and crop rotation changes over the 1990-2000 period on the intensity and spatial pattern of soil erosion in Slovakia. The assessment is based on principles defined in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) modified for application at regional scale and the use of the CORINE land cover (CLC) databases for 1990 and 2000. The C factor for arable land has been refined using statistical data on the mean crop rotation and the acreage of particular agricultural crops in the districts of Slovakia. The L factor has been calculated using sample areas with parcels identified by LANDSAT TM data. The results indicate that the land-cover and crop rotation changes had a significant influence on soil erosion pattern predominately in the hilly and mountainous parts of Slovakia. The pattern of soil erosion changes exhibits high spatial variation with overall slightly decreased soil erosion risks. These changes are associated with ongoing land ownership changes, changing structure of crops, deforestation and afforestation.

Cebecauer, Tomáš; Hofierka, Jaroslav

2008-06-01

116

Transboundary Groundwater Body Karavanke/Karawanken Between Austria and Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large part of the border region between Republic of Slovenia and Republic of Austria is represented by high east west extended mountainous ridge of Karavanke/Karawanken. It is a range extending along the Slovenian-Austrian border for almost 150 km. Its terrain consists of long and prominent ridges, whose slopes steeply fall to the northern and southern side. Ridges are interrupted by long, deep and narrow valleys. The highest peaks reach over 2000 m above sea level. In the entire range prominent ridges with mountain meadows and forests prevail. The area is scarcely populated, the main economic activities are grazing and forestry, in some places tourism is also developing, especially winter sports centres. Karavanke/Karawanken lies on the contact between two continental plates, the large European plate in the north and the smaller Adriatic plate in the south. When the Adriatic plate was thrusted over the European one towards the north, the collision resulted in the folding of sediments previously deposited in the space between the plates. The contact of both plates caused large lateral displacements, causing the rocks of both plates to fold and fault and then extend along the contact. This is the area of Periadriatic lineament, dividing Karavanke/Karawanken range into their north and south part. Periadriatic lineament is large stripe slip tectonic structure along which on the northern side rocks were extruded to the east and on the southern side to the west. Along the lineament metamorphic (e.g. biotitic and feldsparic para-gneis, amfibolites) and magmatic (e.g. diabaz, granite and tonalite) rocks of various ages are present. Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks cover large part of the mountain ridge. The oldest are Silurian and Ordovician limestone on the northern border followed by Devonian ridge limestones. They are covered by molasse sedimentation in Carbon and shallow marine and river predominantly clastic sedimentation in Perm. The most abundant and with numerous varieties are rocks from Triassic age. In general they can be divided into rocks of Northern and Southern Karavanke/Karawanken deposited in different sedimentation basins. In lower part clastic rocks prevail, going into the upper part of Triassic age more and more carbonate rocks are present. In Southern Karavanke/Karawanken sedimentary rocks formed in the deeper part as well as on the carbonate platform are present, however in Northern Karavanke/Karawanken sedimentary rocks of shallower sedimentary environment are predominant. In the upper Triassic part of Northern Karavanke/Karawanken large zinc and lead ore deposits were formed. Among younger rocks only small patches are present. The most abundant are Rosenbacher coal-bearing beads of Jauntal/Juna in Austria of Miocen age where the uplift history of Karavanke/Karawanken is very well reflected. Extensive Quaternary sediments are present as slope sediments and sediments filling deep valleys. At the end of the 20th century decision was made to construct a 7,8 km long road tunnel through Karavanke/Karawanken between Hrušica on the Slovenian side and Rosenbach/Podrožca on the Austrian side. It was established already during the construction that waters flowing from the tunnel represent an important water resource. In Slovenia some of these springs were captured and led into the water supply network, while in Austria they remained well protected water resource for the future. Such important water resources require protection, which in turn demands knowledge about their recharge areas. This fact stimulated authorities of both countries to support the beginning of hydrogeological investigations in the west Karavanke/Karawanken region through the common ''Drava/Drau water-management commission'' and subcommission "Drinking water reserves of Karavanke/Karawanken mountains". During hydrogeological investigations detailed hydrogeological mapping of the whole Karavanke/Karawanken ridge was made. Sampling of important springs and low water discharge measurements followed this stage. Samples were taken for basic ch

Brencic, M.; Poltnig, W.

2009-04-01

117

Screening for Diabetes Among Roma People Living in Serbia  

PubMed Central

Aim To investigate the prevalence of diabetes in the Roma population in Serbia. Methods We screened 11 urban and 8 rural Roma communities from October 2006 to May 2008 for the presence of diabetes. Blood glucose values, name, age, sex, presence of diabetes, family history, and obesity were recorded. Results We analyzed the data from 1465 Roma people, 953 women and 512 men (785 in urban and 680 in rural communities), with mean age of 42.42?ą?15.69 years. Abdominal obesity was present in 600 (41%) participants. Eighty seven participants (5.9%) already had diabetes and there were 76 (5.2%) newly discovered cases of diabetes type 2. Participants with diabetes were significantly older (F?=?28.33; P?Serbia may possibly be higher than in the general population of Serbia and needs further investigation. PMID:20401957

Beljic Zivkovic, Teodora; Marjanovic, Milica; Prgomelja, Stela; Soldatovic, Ivan; Koprivica, Branka; Ackovic, Dragoljub; Zivkovic, Rodoljub

2010-01-01

118

Risk factors for childhood malnutrition in Roma settlements in Serbia  

PubMed Central

Background Children living in Roma settlements in Central and Eastern Europe face extreme levels of social exclusion and poverty, but their health status has not been well studied. The objective of this study was to elucidate risk factors for malnutrition in children in Roma settlements in Serbia. Methods Anthropometric and sociodemographic measures were obtained for 1192 Roma children under five living in Roma settlements from the 2005 Serbia Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. Multiple logistic regression was used to relate family and child characteristics to the odds of stunting, wasting, and underweight. Results The prevalence of stunting, wasting, and underweight was 20.1%, 4.3%, and 8.0%, respectively. Nearly all of the children studied fell into the lowest quintile of wealth for the overall population of Serbia. Children in the lowest quintile of wealth were four times more likely to be stunted compared to those in the highest quintile, followed by those in the second lowest quintile (AOR = 2.1) and lastly by those in the middle quintile (AOR = 1.6). Children who were ever left in the care of an older child were almost twice as likely to stunted as those were not. Children living in urban settlements showed a clear disadvantage with close to three times the likelihood of being wasted compared to those living in rural areas. There was a suggestion that maternal, but not paternal, education was associated with stunting, and maternal literacy was significantly associated with wasting. Whether children were ever breastfed, immunized or had diarrhoeal episodes in the past two weeks did not show strong correlations to children malnutrition status in this Roma population. Conclusions There exists a gradient relationship between household wealth and stunting even within impoverished settlements, indicating that among poor and marginalized populations socioeconomic inequities in child health should be addressed. Other areas on which to focus future research and public health intervention include maternal literacy, child endangerment practices, and urban settlements. PMID:20727212

2010-01-01

119

BRYOPHYTE FLORA OF THE UVAC RIVER GORGE (SOUTHWEST SERBIA)  

E-print Network

Abstract – In the examined area, 165 taxa were found and identified: 139 taxa from the class Bryopsida and 26 taxa from the class Marchantiopsida. Nine species are red-listed in Serbia. Material was collected from 62 localities, which were analyzed for similarity of chorological and ecological features using the Jaccard similarity index. Analysis of floristic elements and phytogeographic distribution showed that the greatest number of taxa are temperate elements with Holarctic distribution. Results of ecological analysis showed that in regard to the substratum aspect, terricolous, basophilous, and indifferent species were dominant. In relation to the ecological parameter humidity, most species were mesophilous. The majority of identified bryophytes were sciophilous taxa.

M. Velji?; P. D. Marin; D. Lakuši?; Biljana Ljubi?

120

Constitutional Environment and Entrepreneurship: An Empirical Study  

E-print Network

Mali Marshall Islands Mexico Mongolia Morocco Nepal New Zealand Norway Paraguay Philippines Portugal Russia Serbia Slovakia South AfricaMali Marshall Islands Mexico Mongolia Morocco Nepal New Zealand Norway Paraguay Philippines Portugal Russia Serbia Slovakia South AfricaMali Marshall Islands Mexico Mongolia Morocco Nepal New Zealand Norway Paraguay Philippines Portugal Russia Serbia Slovakia South Africa

Zhang, Wei

2012-01-01

121

Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe: Tackling Social and Cultural Inequalities. Slovenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Slovenia has a single structure of preschool education system providing comprehensive education and care (educare) for children aged one to six (more precisely, from the end of maternity leave to the child's entering compulsory school). It is offered mostly by public preschool institutions (vrtci). Preschool education is a part of the whole system…

Turnsek, Nada; Batistic, Marcela Zorec

2008-01-01

122

What Motivates Consumers to Buy Organic Food: Comparison of Croatia, Bosnia Herzegovina, and Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowing consumers' wishes is an important condition for making an efficient sales concept.The goal of this article is to determine the consumer attitudes about organic food, their buying motives, and satisfaction with the offer of organic food products in the markets of Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Slovenia. Comparing data collected for three countries will give insight into common and specific characteristics

Marija Cerjak; Željka Mesi?; Marko Kopi?; Damir Kova?i?; Jerko Markovina

2010-01-01

123

Implementing Change in Architectural Design in Elementary School Art Education in Slovenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a study of the effects of an action research project that aimed to improve the practice of teaching art in elementary schools in Slovenia. The specific focus was on the planning and execution of art tasks relating to architectural design. The planned improvements were based on the process of architectural design from…

Batic, Janja

2014-01-01

124

BRYOPHYTE SPECIES DIVERSITY OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS IN SLOVENIA (INTENSIVE MONITORING PROGRAMME)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Intensive Monitoring Programme (IM) of Forest Ecosystems in Slovenia, the bryophyte flora and vegetation have been studied on 11 IM plots and 64 vegetation sub-plots (10×10 m). On the IM plots, high species diversity of bryophytes has been assessed. The total number of bryophytes was 109; among them 82 species belonging to the mosses (Bryophyta) and

Lado KUTNAR

125

Negotiating Rural Tourism Development at the Local Level : A case study in Pisece, Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the policy and politics of the development of rural tourism at the local level in Slovenia. Its purpose was to increase our understanding of the socio-political dimensions of the rural tourism development process at the local community level by contributing to the current methods of investigating, describing and understanding of rural tourism.This dissertation argues that sustainable rural

A. Verbole

1999-01-01

126

Extreme hydrological events in karst areas of Slovenia, the case of the Unica River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study presents natural hazards in Slovenia's karst, focusing on flooding in karst poljes. A specific study was done on the flood dynamics of two typical and connected karst poljes (Cerknica and Planina) of the Classical Karst region. In the case of particularly extreme hydrological conditions in the autumn of 2008, detailed analyses of the recharge-discharge regime and the interrelationship

Gregor Kovacic; Nataša x Nataša Ravbar

2010-01-01

127

The origin and recycling of sedimented biogenic debris in a subalphine eutrophic lake (Lake Bled, Slovenia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The areal distribution of organic C contents, d13C values, total N and P and biogenic Si contents in surficial sediments were used to study the distribution, origin and diagenetic transformations of sedimented biogenic debris in the eutrophic subalpine Lake Bled (Slovenia), which for most of the yearhas an anoxic hypolimnion. The influence of an allochthonous input, restricted to the western

B. ?ermelj; J. Faganeli; B. Ogorelec; T. Dolenec; J. Pezdi?; B. Smodiš

1996-01-01

128

Philosophy of Education in Post-Soviet Societies of Eastern Europe: Poland, Lithuania and Slovenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the role of philosophy of education in three post-Soviet societies of Eastern Europe: Poland, Lithuania and Slovenia. The characteristic themes and approaches of philosophical reflection about education in these societies are explored with reference to three periods: the pre-Soviet, Soviet and post-Soviet periods.

Godon, Rafal; Juceviciene, Palmira; Kodelja, Zdenko

2004-01-01

129

Taxation Systems in Estonia, Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to investigate the structure of the tax system for the accession states Estonia, Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and Slovenia in this same format. This involves: Identification of appropriate data sources and description of the available data, Drawing up an inventory of all taxes for each country, Construction of a tax revenue database, Classification

Lorenz Jarass; Gustav M. Obermair

2000-01-01

130

Hydrological Balance of High Mountainous Lake on Karstified Plateau of Julian Alps - Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

High mountainous lake Jezero na Planini pri Jezeru is located in the Triglav National Park at the Julian Alps in Slovenia. It fills a depression covered with Pleistocene fine-grained sediments and glacial till on intensively karstified plateau. In the past many investigations were performed on the lake and its surrounding without knowledge about hydrological balance. The goal of the present

N. Rman; J. Ratej; M. Brencic

2009-01-01

131

The concept of hydropower certification in Italy and Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River regulation by building a hydropower plants (HPPs) is one of the most stressful factor influencing the aquatic and riparian ecosystem. In many countries a development of HPPs is often opposed by public bodies and NGOs, worried about the risk of adverse effects on the "good status" of water bodies, that, according to the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC, WFD), has to be reached by year 2015. The paper describes a technically and economically feasible certification procedure for existing hydro power generation facilities of higher environmental standard, being explicitly coherent with the requirements of the WFD, to be implemented in "green labelled" electricity products, and being integrated, as much as possible, with existing EU tools, such as Ecolabel, EMAS, EIA and SEA. The methodology was developed for Italy and Slovenia and it will be tested in different types of HPPs in both countries. In order to be certified, a given HPP has to commit to carry out appropriate measures in order to mitigate its impacts on specified environmental objectives, in such a way to fulfil predefined environmental targets and prescriptions. These measures have to be described through a specific management programme, based upon a dedicated environmental study, supported mainly by existing data, but complemented by ad-hoc assessment/monitoring when necessary. The realization of both the environmental study and the management programme must be supported by public consultation; both documents must be approved through an auditing process. For some types of HPPs, operating in totally artificial networks and not entailing direct or indirect impact on water related ecosystems, a simplified procedure is foreseen, where detailed environmental analysis, related management programme and stakeholders involvement are not requested, but just a description of the system and proof of fulfilment of the conditions and of specific prescriptions. HPPs impacting water bodies defined as Artificial or Heavily Modified (following the definitions of the WFD) in most cases have to fulfil more limited environmental targets. The involvement of local stakeholders must be ensured along the whole certification procedure and, when completed, during the lifespan of the label. The methodology includes a predefined framework where pressure factors due to hydropower production are related to potentially impacted environmental quality elements. For each of these cause-effect relationships possible mitigation measures are suggested. In the long run, it is expected that the certification will have a positive impact on hydro power generation in Europe, will help focusing the conception of new HPPs towards more sustainable solutions and making easier authorization procedure.

Smolar-Zvanut, Natasa; Goltara, Andrea; Conte, Gulio

2010-05-01

132

Future Groundwater Use in Ljubljana Field and Mura Valley (Slovenia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ljubljana field is a part of Ljubljana basin in the central part of the country. Mura valley, in the north eastern part of the country, belongs to Mura basin. Both are important "storages" of groundwater and main source of drinking water for more than 380.000 inhabitants. In an unconfined porous Ljubljana field aquifer the thickness exceeds 100 m, the groundwater is recharging from rainfall (50 %) and from the river Sava (50 %). The three quarters of the aquifer lie beneath the urbanised and agricultural area. The Mura valley porous aquifer is shallower, the average thickness is 17 m, the groundwater is recharging mainly from precipitation and most of the aquifer lies beneath the agricultural area. Ljubljana field and Mura valley were chosen as test areas in the project Climate Change and Impacts on Water Supply (CC-WaterS) . The aim of the project is to estimate the impact of climate change on drinking water supply in the Alpine region, middle and lower Danube and Adriatic sea coastal areas. In Slovenia two test areas were chosen because different land uses require different anthropogenic activities which modify the entire aquifer areas, impact the hydrological balance, reduce the aquifer recharge, influence the groundwater flow characteristics, change the water source availability and restoration and influence the quality of groundwater. For the two test areas, climate change scenarios were made on the basis of the SRES A1B emissions scenario on which three different models were used: ALADIN, RegCM3 and PROMES. Temperature and precipitation were modeled and ETP was calculated for the future periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100. Water use data were obtained from the local public companies for drinking water supply and for other water use from the water permits, since, especially in Mura valley, many people pump drinking water from private wells and therefore public companie's data are not sufficient. Data sets from the public companie's vary a lot, as for Ljubljana field the data sets of water use are available for the past 50 years, but only for a few past years for the Mura valley. From the past water use data and most plausible climate change scenario, estimates of possible future water use in the test areas were made. It is expected that the water use in Mura valley will decrease after the most plausible scenario, because of diminishing trend of household's water use due to emigration. The water use for industry and agriculture will most likely remain the same. In Ljubljana field, the scenario is contrary. The water use will increase, because of a higher use of water for households (immigration).

Zajc Benda, T.; Bra?i? Železnik, B.; Souvent, P.; ?en?ur Curk, B.

2012-04-01

133

Glioblastoma patients in Slovenia from 1997 to 2008  

PubMed Central

Background Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumour. It has a poor prognosis despite some advances in treatment that have been achieved over the last ten years. In Slovenia, 50 to 60 glioblastoma patients are diagnosed each year. In order to establish whether the current treatment options have any influence on the survival of the Slovenian glioblastoma patients, their data in the period from the beginning of the year 1997 to the end of the year 2008 have been analysed. Patients and methods All patients treated at the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana from 1997 to 2008 were included in the retrospective study. Demographics, treatment details, and survival time after the diagnosis were collected and statistically analysed for the group as a whole and for subgroups. Results From 1997 to 2008, 527 adult patients were diagnosed with glioblastoma and referred to the Institute of Oncology for further treatment. Their median age was 59 years (from 20 to 85) and all but one had the diagnosis confirmed by a pathologist. Gross total resection was reported by surgeons in 261 (49.5%) patients; good functional status (WHO 0 or 1) after surgery was observed in 336 (63.7%) patients, radiotherapy was performed in 422 (80.1%) patients, in 317 (75.1%) of them with radical intent, and 198 (62.5 %) of those received some form of systemic treatment (usually temozolomide). The median survival of all patients amounted to 9.7 months. There was no difference in median survival of all patients or of all treated patients before or after the chemo-radiotherapy era. However, the overall survival of patients treated with radical intent was significantly better (11.4 months; p < 0.05). A better survival was also noticed in radically treated patients who received additional temozolomide therapy (11.4 vs. 13.1 months; p = 0.014). The longer survival was associated with a younger age and a good performance status as well as with a more extensive tumour resection. In patients treated with radical intent, having a good performance status, and receiving radiotherapy and additional temozolomide therapy, the survival was significantly longer, based on multivariate analysis. Conclusions We observed a gradual increase in the survival of glioblastoma patients who were treated with radical intent over the last ten years. Good functional surgery, advances in radiotherapy and addition of temozolomide all contributed to this increase. Though the increased survival seems to be more pronounced in certain subgroups, we have still not been able to exactly define them. Further research, especially in tumour biology and genetics is needed. PMID:24587783

Smrdel, Uros; Kovac, Viljem; Popovic, Mara; Zwitter, Matjaz

2014-01-01

134

Lessons learned from the decommissioning process affected by an accident during operation. The case of A1 NPP in Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decommissioning of NPP's with standard shutdown is currently well known process. The A1 NPP in Slovakia was shutdown in 1977 after the accident in the core which caused the damage of the fuel and contamination of systems. Long period from 1977 to 2008 was needed to manage issues resulting from affecting the systems and structures of A1 NPP and the

Vladimir Daniska; Jan Timulak; Anton Pekar; Vojtech Niznansky; Ladislav Konecny

2007-01-01

135

The 32nd International Acoustical Conference -EAA SYMPOSIUM "ACOUSTICS BANSK STIAVNICA 2002" September 10 -12, 2002 SLOVAKIA  

E-print Network

The 32nd International Acoustical Conference - EAA SYMPOSIUM "ACOUSTICS BANSKÁ STIAVNICA 2002" September 10 - 12, 2002 SLOVAKIA 109 Auditory Localization in Rooms: Acoustic Analysis and Behavior Norbert and a KEMAR acoustic manikin at four different listener positions in the room and multiple source positions

Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.

136

Place of death in the Czech Republic and Slovakia: a population based comparative study using death certificates data  

PubMed Central

Background Place of death represents an important indicator for end-of-life care policy making and is related to the quality of life of patients and their families. The aim of the paper is to analyse the place of death in the Czech Republic and Slovakia in 2011. Research questions were focused on factors influencing the place of death and specifically the likelihood of dying at home. Methods Whole population data from death certificates for all deaths in the Czech Republic and Slovakia in 2011 were used for bivariate and multivariate analyses. Separate analysis using binary logistic regression was conducted for subpopulation of patients who died from chronic conditions. Results The majority of population in both countries died in hospitals (58.4% the Czech Republic, 54.8% Slovakia), less than one-third died at home. In case of chronic conditions, death at home was significantly associated with underlying cause of death (cancer and heart failure), being male, age (older than 85, Slovakia only) and higher education (the Czech Republic only). Cancer and heart failure patients had higher chances to die at home than other chronic conditions. Conclusions Czech and Slovak patients with chronic conditions are more likely to die in hospitals than in some other European Union member countries. This finding should be addressed by policy makers in promoting home hospice care services and education in palliative care for staff in nursing homes and other end-of-life settings. PMID:24650214

2014-01-01

137

K DIVERZITE CYANOLIŠAJNÍKOV NA VYBRANÝCH TERESTRICKÝCH BIOTOPOCH SLOVENSKA A contribution on cyanolichens of selected terrestrial biotopes of Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occurrence of cyanolichens was studied in seminatural and anthropogenic secondary terrestrial biotopes in Slovakia. The first group represents inland salt meadows and sand dunes, the second one mostly includes roads and paths. Eight species were recorded: Collema crispum, C. limosum, C. tenax, Lempholemma chalazanum, Leptogium biatorinum, L. schraderi, L. tenuissimum and Psorotichia lutophila; Leptogium biatorinum is being reported for the

Anna Guttová

2006-01-01

138

In situ monitoring of clastogenicity of ambient air in Bratislava, Slovakia using the Tradescantia micronucleus assay and pollen abortion assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of this study was to monitor the genotoxic effects of polluted air in Bratislava (Slovakia) with the Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MN) test. In situ monitoring was carried out at five locations during two seasons (years 2003 and 2004). Flower pots with Tradescantia paludosa (clone 03) plants were exposed for 6–8 weeks at the different sites each year. The highest MN

Miroslav Mišík; Martina Solenská; Karol Mi?ieta; Katarína Mišíková; Siegfried Knasmüller

2006-01-01

139

31 CFR 585.418 - Vessels of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO) AND BOSNIAN SERB-CONTROLLED AREAS OF THE REPUBLIC OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 585.418 Vessels of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia...

2010-07-01

140

Trends in the Presence and Roles of Women Physicists in Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In general, the portion of women in physics has been increasing in recent years in Serbia, as well as their presence in research and academic institutions. The percentage of women who earned BSc degrees in physics is greater than men. In this respect the situation in Serbia is different from most other countries. But more men than women earned MSc and PhD degrees.

Kapor, Agneš; Savi?, Ilija; Davidovi?, Milena; Knezevi?, Dragica; Boži?, Mirjana

2009-04-01

141

Industry turns its attention south  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the outlook for the gas and oil industries in the Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Significant foreign investment continues to elude Russia`s oil and gas industry, so the Caspian nations of Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan are picking up the slack, welcoming the flow of foreign capital to their energy projects. Separate evaluations are given for Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Moldova, Tajikstan, Uzbekistan, Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Serbia.

Marhefka, D. [Russian Petroleum Investor, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1997-08-01

142

Radioactivity in the indoor building environment in Serbia.  

PubMed

Measurement of activity concentrations of radionuclides in building materials and radon in indoor space is important in the assessment of population exposures, as most individuals spend 80 % of their time indoors. This paper presents the results of activity concentration measurements of: radon emanated from the soil, radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil, indoor radon in the city of Novi Sad (the capital city of Vojvodina) using charcoal canisters and indoor radon in the Vojvodina region using alpha-track detectors and the radioactivity of some building materials. Influences of floor level, space under the rooms, boarding, and the heating system on indoor radon accumulation in the Vojvodina province, situated in the northern part of Serbia, are also presented in this paper. The total effective dose and the activity concentration index are calculated applying the dose criteria recommended by the European Union for building materials. PMID:24030143

Todorovi?, Natasa; Bikit, Istvan; Veskovi?, Miroslav; Krmar, Miodrag; Mr?a, Dusan; Forkapi?, Sofija; Hansman, Jan; Nikolov, Jovana; Bikit, Kristina

2014-01-01

143

First detection and genotyping of human-associated microsporidia in wild waterfowl of Slovakia.  

PubMed

A total of 47 avian faecal samples of wild waterfowl (great cormorant - Phalacrocorax carbo, great crested grebe - Podiceps cristatus, white stork - Ciconia ciconia) trapped in the eastern Slovakia were screened for the presence of human pathogenic microsporidia by microscopy and real-time SYBR Green PCR method using species primers and sequenced. Microscopic analysis showed presence in 32 samples (29 cormorants, 3 dippers). Microsporidial DNA (Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype I) was identified in 19 faeces samples (40.4%) namely cormorants in 17 out of 40, one dipper of 5 and a stork out of 2. The present work describes three new host species of the bird population in microsporidium Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype I which confirms the theory of low specificity of this species. PMID:23377906

Mal?eková, B; Valen?áková, A; Molnár, L; Ko?išová, A

2013-03-01

144

Effects of 1-D versus 3-D velocity models on moment tensor inversion in the Dobr Voda locality at the Little Carpathians region, Slovakia  

E-print Network

;1. Introduction and motivation The mountain region of Little Carpathians in western Slovakia, especially the zone elevation, while its southern border with the DobrĂĄ Voda depression is represented by the distinctive DobrĂĄ

Cerveny, Vlastislav

145

Community Structure and the Evolution of Interdisciplinarity in Slovenia's Scientific Collaboration Network  

PubMed Central

Interaction among the scientific disciplines is of vital importance in modern science. Focusing on the case of Slovenia, we study the dynamics of interdisciplinary sciences from to . Our approach relies on quantifying the interdisciplinarity of research communities detected in the coauthorship network of Slovenian scientists over time. Examining the evolution of the community structure, we find that the frequency of interdisciplinary research is only proportional with the overall growth of the network. Although marginal improvements in favor of interdisciplinarity are inferable during the 70s and 80s, the overall trends during the past 20 years are constant and indicative of stalemate. We conclude that the flow of knowledge between different fields of research in Slovenia is in need of further stimulation. PMID:24728345

Lužar, Borut; Levnaji?, Zoran; Povh, Janez; Perc, Matjaž

2014-01-01

146

Mercury in Small Freshwater Lakes: A Case Study: Lake Velenje, Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Velenje is located in one of the most polluted regions ofSlovenia, the Šalek Valley. The major source of pollution is the coal-fired thermal power plant in Šoštanj (ŠTPP). In the past, dumping of coal ash directly into Lake Velenje and drainage water from the ash disposal site resulted in unique chemical characteristics of the lake water, such as very

Jože Kotnik; Milena Horvat; Vesna Fajon; Martina Logar

2002-01-01

147

The globalization of genderAlly McBeal in post-socialist Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article looks at the American TV series Ally McBeal and the meaning of the lead character for young college audiences in post-socialist Slovenia. Critical examinations of the series have pointed to the problematic construction of the character’s gender identity based on the notion of liberated femininity. This notion has been seen as especially problematic with reference to feminist politics.

Ksenija Vidmar-Horvat

2005-01-01

148

The Conservation Knowledge and Attitudes of Teenagers in Slovenia toward the Eurasian Otter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on human-otter interactions in Slovenia. The aim of the study was to obtain data about secondary-school students' knowledge of and attitudes toward the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and its conservation. The survey was carried out in fall 2008 and winter 2008-09 and included 273 teenagers. Their average age was 15.57 (SD = 1.01,…

Torkar, Gregor; Mohar, Petra; Gregorc, Tatjana; Nekrep, Igor; Adamic, Marjana Honigsfeld

2010-01-01

149

The isotope altitude effect reflected in groundwater: a case study from Slovenia.  

PubMed

This paper presents the stable isotope data of oxygen (?(18)O) and hydrogen (?(2)H) in groundwater from 83 sampling locations in Slovenia and their interpretation. The isotopic composition of water was monitored over 3 years (2009-2011), and each location was sampled twice. New findings on the isotopic composition of sampled groundwater are presented, and the data are also compared to past studies regarding the isotopic composition of precipitation, surface water, and groundwater in Slovenia. This study comprises: (1) the general characteristics of the isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen in groundwater in Slovenia, (2) the spatial distribution of oxygen isotope composition (?(18)O) and d-excess in groundwater, (3) the groundwater isotope altitude effect, (4) the correlation between groundwater d-excess and the recharge area altitude of the sampling location, (5) the relation between hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in groundwater in comparison to the global precipitation isotope data, (6) the groundwater isotope effect of distance from the sea, and (7) the estimated relation between the mean temperature of recharge area and ?(18)O in groundwater. PMID:24437700

Mezga, Kim; Urbanc, Janko; Cerar, Sonja

2014-01-01

150

The vegetation of metalliferous and non-metalliferous grasslands in two former mine regions in Central Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the composition of the vegetation in two former mining regions in Central Slovakia: Banská Štiavnica with\\u000a predominant Pb-Zn contamination and Staré Hory with a very high Cu content in the soil. Old heaps rich in heavy metals are\\u000a covered with specific vegetation. On the Cu-rich spoil heaps, species-poor plant communities with prevailing Agrostis stolonifera, Avenella flexuosa, Acetosella vulgaris,

Viera Banásová; Othmar Horak; Milada ?iamporová; Miriam Nadubinská; Irene Lichtscheidl

2006-01-01

151

The paleolimnological analysis of sediments from high mountain lake Nižné Terianske pleso in the High Tatras (Slovakia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sedimentological climate proxies and a 200-year long climate record, reconstructed using a data-set of European-wide meteorological data, have been compared at the high mountain lake Nižné Terianske pleso in the High Tatras, Slovakia. Diatoms, chrysophyte stomatocysts, chironomids, plant pigments and spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs) were analysed as well as sediment lithostratigraphic parameters. Using a radiometric approach the sediment core was

F. Šporka; E. Štefková; P. Bitušík; A. R. Thompson; A. Agustí-Panareda; P. G. Appleby; J. A. Grytnes; C. Kamenik; I. Krno; A. Lami; N. Rose; N. E. Shilland

2002-01-01

152

Three new species of the ectoparasitic mites of the genus Syringophiloidus Kethley, 1970 (Acari: Syringophilidae) from passeriform birds from Slovakia.  

PubMed

Three new quill mite species of the genus Syringophiloidus Kethley, 1970 (Acari: Syringophilidae) from Slovakia are described and figured: S. bombycillae sp. n. from the waxwing Bombycilla garrulus (L.) (Passeriformes: Bombycillidae), S. schoeniclus sp. n. from the reed bunting Emberiza schoeniclus L. (Passcriformes: Emberizidae) and S. montanus sp. n. from the tree sparrow Passer monlanus (L.) (Passeriformes: Ploceidae). A key to all known species of the genus Syringophiloidus is given. PMID:12641205

Skoracki, Maciej

2002-01-01

153

Estimation of flash floods in small ungauged basins in Slovakia: case studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper application of a methodology for analysis of flash flood events in several ungauged small basins in Slovakia was evaluated. The methodology proposed within the framework of the FP6 HYDRATE project (www.hydrate.tesaf.unipd.it) is based on the post-event surveying and hydrological modelling, using a spatially distributed hydrological model with a high spatial resolution of rainfall data and physiographical basin properties. Six large flash floods which occurred in Slovakia during the last 10 years were selected, with the emphasis on their extremity and different physical and geographical basins properties. The estimation of the maximum flood peaks and flood wave volumes was provided on the base of the post-event analysis after the flood events. The areas of channel's cross-profiles were measured for maximal water level, longitudinal slope of water level was approximated to the bottom slope and roughness was estimated according to the river banks and channel bottoms. Flow velocities were estimated using Chézy equation and Manning roughness coefficient. The reconstructed flood waves were compared with the simulated discharges using the distributed event-based rainfall-runoff model KLEM. The distributed hydrological model KLEM is based on the availability of raster information of the landscape's topography, soil and vegetation properties, and radar rainfall data. The SCS-Curve Number procedure is applied on a grid for the spatially-distributed representation of runoff-generating processes, a description of the drainage system response is used for representing the runoff's routing. Digital elevation models as well as soil, geology, land use and rainfall data for the basins were prepared in the grid form (resolution of 20 m). Radar rainfall data or maps of isohyets in 15-minutes time step or were used as input precipitation in the model. Comparison of the results achieved by the KLEM model and the post-event analysis for floods showed the consistency of simulated and estimated discharges both in time and space, and the methodology has proven its applicability for practical purposes.

Hlavcova, Kamila; Horvat, Oliver; Kohnova, Silvia; Szolgay, Jan; Roncak, Peter

2013-04-01

154

Selected characteristics of meteorological elements and their trends since the mid-20th century in Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of some characteristics of air temperature, air humidity, precipitation and snow cover at selected meteorological stations located in different regions of Slovakia was performed for the period 1951 to 2012. Stations represent lowland regions (up to 300 meters), mid-altitude regions (300 to 800 meters) and high altitude mountain regions (above 1000 m). Series of highest annual maximum air temperature show obvious gradual increase from 80s of the 20th century on all selected stations and also the occurrence of new record values in the last years of the analyzed period 1951 -2012. In most stations the absolute maximum air temperature for 1951 - 2012 period was recorded during July 2007, whereas the highest annual maximum temperatures were recorded predominantly during the month of August in Slovakia. Values of annual maximum of mean daily temperature show evident upward trend and at some stations the highest mean daily temperature was recorded just in recent years (e.g. at station Slia? in 2012). Positive trends of the lowest annual minimum temperature at selected stations in the period 1951-2012 are not so significant and it is evident that the lowest annual minimum air temperature didn't drop as low as in the past, respectively they didn't reach record values as in the 50s or 80s of the 20-th century. Changes of minimum and maximum monthly precipitation totals during the year indicate that the number of cases with extremely low monthly total was increasing. Although frequency of occurrence of extremely high monthly precipitation totals was rather chaotic, in some recent years the observed values of monthly precipitation totals represented the absolutely highest monthly values for entire analyzed period 1951-2012. On the other hand, towards the end of this period, cases when minimum monthly precipitation totals were close to zero also became more common. Very significant is the trend in the lowest annual relative humidity in the 1951-2012 period, particularly at city airport stations (stations Bratislava airport and Kosice airport), but also at peak stations Chopok and Lomnický štít. Total snow cover in the valleys and lower altitudes in the late 20th and early 21st century is less stable from the end of 90s. The comparison of annual maximum depth of total snow cover and new snow cover shoved similar and in some years even identical values. It was quite common that a significant snowfall especially at lower altitudes was immediately followed by quick thaw and melting of new snow cover, eliminating further accumulation of snow.

Fasko, Pavel; Švec, Marek; Š?astný, Pavel; Kajaba, Peter

2014-05-01

155

Selected sociodemographic factors and related differences in patterns of alcohol use among university students in Slovakia  

PubMed Central

Background Alcohol use and misuse and their relation to sociodemograhic factors are well studied among university students in Western European countries and the USA, but less is known about students in Eastern Europe. The historical past as communistic countries might have affected the social life among these populations, which is again one of the main factors determining the alcohol consumption among university students. The aim of our study was to assess the association of selected sociodemographic factors with different patterns of alcohol use among university students in Slovakia. Methods A sample of 813 young adults (mean age 21.1 years, 63.8% females; response rate of 71%) from four universities in Kosice answered questions about their sociodemographic background and about alcohol use. To obtain a detailed picture of different aspects, alcohol use was measured by four variables: frequency of alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking, frequency of drunkenness and problem drinking. Four separate logistic regression models were used to assess the association between sociodemographic and alcohol-related variables. To assess the potentially different effects in both genders, all two-way interactions with gender were tested. Results While 41% of the students drank alcohol once a week or more often, 77% reported heavy episodic drinking and 49% had been drunk more than once in the last month. Problem drinking existed in 23.3% of the sample. Gender was consistently associated with all four alcohol-related variables, with males being at higher risk. A higher study year was associated only with lower levels of heavy episodic drinking, but displayed no association with the other studied variables. Living with parents during the semester was consistently associated with less frequent heavy episodic drinking, drunkenness episodes, and problem drinking while having an intimate relationship was associated with less problem drinking only. Conclusions Our findings for the university students from Slovakia are in line with previous studies in Western Europe. Additionally, it appears that frequent alcohol use, excessive alcohol use (heavy episodic drinking and drunkenness) and problem drinking among university students represent a continuum and are influenced by the same sociodemographic factors. PMID:22067135

2011-01-01

156

Optimization of heavy metals total emission, case study: Bor (Serbia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The town of Bor (Serbia) is one of the most polluted towns in southeastern Europe. The copper smelter which is situated in the centre of the town is the main pollutant, mostly because of its old technology, which leads to environmental pollution caused by higher concentrations of SO 2 and PM 10. These facts show that the word is about a very polluted region in Europe which, apart from harming human health in the region itself, poses a particular danger for wider area of southeastern Europe. Optimization of heavy metal's total emission was undertaken because years of long contamination of the soil with heavy metals of anthropogenic origin created a danger that those heavy metals may enter the food chains of animals and people, which can lead to disastrous consequences. This work represents the usage of Geographic Information System (GIS) for establishing a multifactor assessment model to quantitatively divide polluted zones and for selecting control sites in a linear programming model, combined with PROMETHEE/GAIA method, Screen View modeling system, and linear programming model. The results show that emissions at some control sites need to be cut for about 40%. In order to control the background of heavy metal pollution in Bor, the ecological environment must be improved.

Ili?, Ivana; Bogdanovi?, Dejan; Živkovi?, Dragana; Miloševi?, Novica; Todorovi?, Boban

2011-07-01

157

Which Are My Future Career Priorities and What Influenced My Choice of Studying Science, Technology, Engineering or Mathematics? Some Insights on Educational Choice--Case of Slovenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is addressing the problem of under-representation of young people in general, and females in particular, in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in Slovenia. It has two main objectives: (1) to identify which priorities male and female STEM students in Slovenia seek in their future careers, and (2) to…

Cerinsek, Gregor; Hribar, Tina; Glodez, Natasa; Dolinsek, Slavko

2013-01-01

158

Which are my Future Career Priorities and What Influenced my Choice of Studying Science, Technology, Engineering or Mathematics? Some Insights on Educational Choice—Case of Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is addressing the problem of under-representation of young people in general, and females in particular, in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in Slovenia. It has two main objectives: (1) to identify which priorities male and female STEM students in Slovenia seek in their future careers, and (2) to identify different important factors (i.e. key

Gregor Cerinsek; Tina Hribar; Natasa Glodez; Slavko Dolinsek

2012-01-01

159

Presence of Leishmania and Brucella species in the golden jackal Canis aureus in Serbia.  

PubMed

The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010-02/2013) from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as the tissue to proceed; all samples were tested for Leishmania species and Brucella species by real-time PCR. Of the 216 samples collected, 15 (6.9%) were positive for Leishmania species, while four (1.9%) were positive for B. canis. The potential epidemiologic role of the golden jackal in carrying and dispersing zoonotic diseases in Serbia should be taken under consideration when applying surveillance monitoring schemes. PMID:24967397

Cirovi?, Duško; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tomanovi?, Snežana; Sukara, Ratko; Penezi?, Aleksandra; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

2014-01-01

160

Association of Borrelia garinii and B. valaisiana with Songbirds in Slovakia  

PubMed Central

In Europe, 6 of the 11 genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato are prevalent in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks. In most parts of Central Europe, B. afzelii, B. garinii, and B. valaisiana are the most frequent species, whereas B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. bissettii, and B. lusitaniae are rare. Previously, it has been shown that B. afzelii is associated with European rodents. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify reservoir hosts of B. garinii and B. valaisiana in Slovakia. Songbirds were captured in a woodland near Bratislava and investigated for engorged ticks. Questing I. ricinus ticks were collected in the same region. Both tick pools were analyzed for spirochete infections by PCR, followed by DNA-DNA hybridization and, for a subsample, by nucleotide sequencing. Three of the 17 captured songbird species were infested with spirochete-infected ticks. Spirochetes in ticks that had fed on birds were genotyped as B. garinii and B. valaisiana, whereas questing ticks were infected with B. afzelii, B. garinii, and B. valaisiana. Furthermore, identical ospA alleles of B. garinii were found in ticks that had fed on the birds and in questing ticks. The data show that songbirds are reservoir hosts of B. garinii and B. valaisiana but not of B. afzelii. This and previous studies confirm that B. burgdorferi sensu lato is host associated and that this bacterial species complex contains different ecotypes. PMID:12732554

Hanincová, Klára; Taragelová, Veronika; Koci, Juraj; Schäfer, Stefanie M.; Hails, Rosie; Ullmann, Amy J.; Piesman, Joseph; Labuda, Milan; Kurtenbach, Klaus

2003-01-01

161

The nanoparticulate nature of invisible gold in arsenopyrite from Pezinok (Slovakia)  

SciTech Connect

Arsenopyrite is the most common sulfide host of invisible gold. Yet, despite many studies, the position of such gold in the structure of arsenopyrite has not been resolved conclusively. Here we report a multitechnique study of arsenopyrite samples from the Pezinok deposits (Slovakia) with moderate gold concentrations of 7-10 {micro}g/g. Secondary ion mass spectrometry showed that the invisible gold occurs as either (1) almost uniform, low-concentration of 'dispersed' gold, or as (2) hot spots along fractures. X-ray absorption spectra at the Au L{sub III} edge were collected from such hot spots. The spectra document metallic character of gold although no discrete gold particles were seen even after careful re-examining in back-scattered electron images. We conclude that such occurrences are most readily explained by the presence of gold nanoparticles. We suggest that the dispersed gold is the chemically-bound gold previously detected in these deposits by 197Au Moessbauer spectroscopy. The concentration of the dispersed gold is too low for X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

Majzlan, Juraj; Chovan, Martin; Andráš , Peter; Newville, Matthew; Wiedenbeck, Michael (Institute of Geosciences, Germany)

2010-04-09

162

Case study of a severe windstorm over Slovakia and Hungary on 25 June 2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system of thunderstorms approached the Slovakia and Hungary in the late evening hours of 25 June 2008, causing extensive damage and peak wind gusts up to 40 m/s. This study examines the macro- and mesosynoptic conditions for the windstorm using soundings, analyses, and forecasts of numerical models (ALADIN, ECMWF). A derecho-like character of the event is discussed. Meteosat Second Generation imagery and convective indices inferred from satellite and model data are used to assess the humidity distribution and the conditional instability of the thunderstorm environment. An intrusion of the environmental dry air into the convective system and intensification of downdrafts is considered to be one of the reasons for the damaging winds observed at some areas. This is supported by the radar imagery showing a sudden drop of radar reflectivity and creation of line echo wave patterns and bow echoes. A numerical simulation provided by the non-hydrostatic MM5 model indicated the development of meso-? scale vortices embedded in the convective system. The genesis and a possible role of such vortices in creating rear-inflow jets and intensifying the low level winds are investigated with the help of the vorticity equation and several other diagnostic parameters. In addition, the effect of various physical parameterisations on the forecast of the windstorm is evaluated.

Simon, André; Ka?ák, Ján; Sokol, Alois; Putsay, Mária; Uhrínová, Lucia; Csirmaz, Kálmán; Okon, ?uboslav; Habrovský, Richard

2011-06-01

163

Sulfur and nitrogen emissions in the Czech Republic and Slovakia from 1850 till 2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The respective rates of SO 2, NO x, and NH 3 anthropogenic emissions in the former Czechoslovakia (the Czech Republic and Slovakia (CS)) were <10, <5, and 33 mmol m -2 yr -1 in 1850, increased slowly until 1950 and rapidly in the 1950-1980 period, and peaked at ˜380, ˜180 and ˜80 mmol m -2 yr -1 in the 1980s. The emissions declined markedly after the political and economical changes in 1989 due to (1) restructuring of industry and farming in the early 1990s (˜35% decrease in energy production and 50-60% decrease in cattle numbers and fertilization rate of farmland), (2) sulfur emission controls, (3) changes in fuel supply, and (4) optimization of combustion regimes at stationary sources of NO x. The CS emission rates of SO 2, NO x, and NH 3 were 87%, 51%, and ˜44% lower, respectively, in 2000 than in 1985. Emissions of SO 2 declined linearly throughout the 1990s (to 47 mmol m -2 yr -1 in 2000), while NO x and NH 3 emissions declined rapidly during 1989-1994 and then slowly to ˜85 and ˜44 mmol m -2 yr -1, respectively, in 2000. Similar declines in SO 2 and NO x emissions occurred in the entire central European region, while NH 3 emission decreased less over a wider region due predominantly to more stable emission rates of NH 3 in Germany. Emission rates of S and N compounds correlated tightly ( P<0.001) with their deposition in the CS region.

Kopá?ek, Ji?í; Veselý, Josef

164

Gypsy Phenylketonuria: A point mutation of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in Gypsy families from Slovakia  

SciTech Connect

A direct mutational analysis of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene (PAH) in Gypsy families with phenylketonuria (PKU) has not yet been presented. However, they obviously represent a group at high risk for this inherited disease. The authors analyzed the PAH loci of 65 Gypsies originating from Eastern Slovakia by a combination of PCR amplification, direct sequencing and ASO hybridization. These studies uncovered 10 {open_quotes}classical PKU{close_quotes} patients to be homozygous for a R252W (CGG-TGG) transition, and 29 heterozygous carriers of this mutation. Fifteen control Caucasoid PKU patients from the Czech and Slovak Republics were selected. In this group they detected R252W mutation in two subjects (6.67% of all mutant alleles). Both were compound heterozygous for two different mutations. Previous haplotype studies of Welsh Gypsies with PKU were uninformative in the determination of heterozygosity. ASO hybridization served effectively for the consequent analyses in Gypsy PKU-related families and to identify the carriers among the unrelated subjects. 19 refs., 2 figs.

Kalanin, J. [Institute for Clinical and Experical Medicine, Praha (Czechoslovakia); Takarada, Y. [Toyobo Research Center, Shiga (Japan); Kagawa, S.; Yamashita, K.; Ohtsuka, N.; Matsuoka, A. [Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan)

1994-01-15

165

Case study: A severe hailstorm and strong downbursts over northeastern Slovenia on June 16th 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction A strong isolated storm complex with bow echo feature crossed northeastern Slovenia in the late afternoon hours and caused extensive damage due to severe wind gusts near 30m/s, excessive rainfalls and large hail. Synoptic situation On June 16th 2009, an upper-level ridge persists over southern Europe while a positively tilted short-wave trough, connected to a complex deep trough over northern Europe, crosses central Europe. Accompanied by this trough, a cold front is extending southwestwards towards the Alps. A relatively strong jet steak wraps around the trough axis and creates strong shear environment which overlaps with a narrow band of unstable airmass present ahead of the coming frontal boundary. Behind this trough/front over central Europe, a high pressure area is developing with stable conditions. Over Slovenia, strong surface heating was on going through the day but lack of near-surface convergence zones, limited moisture and strong capping inversion surpressed any storm initiation in the afternoon. Presentation of research This case study will go through a research of damaging bow echo which caused extensive damage due to severe winds, excessive rainfalls and large hail over much of northeastern Slovenia. Numerous trees were down or uprooted and numerous roofs were blown off or were seriously damaged due to severe wind gusts near or exceeding 30m/s. At first stages, when an isolated severe storm entered Slovenia, it had classic high precipitation supercell features while it transformed into a powerful bow echo later on. Very large hail up to 6cm in diameter was first observed in southeast Austria and near the border with Slovenia, while later on the main threat was very strong wind gusts and intense rainfalls. This research paper will show a detailed analysis of the synoptic situation including analysis of satellite, radar and surface observations. Radar imagery clearly showed isolated storm trailing along the near-surface frontal boundary as a bow echo and also satellite imagery showed signs of extremely severe storm as overshooting tops, "cold ring" and "U-shape" features were observed. References - Skywarn Austria forum: (http://www.skywarn.at/forum/) - EARS radar and SFC observations archive (http://www.arso.gov.si) - EARS article: Porocilo o neurjih 16. junija 2009 - OSMER FVG (http://www.meteo.fvg.it) - ESSL/ESWD database (www.essl.org) - ESTOFEX convective maps (www.estofex.org) - EUMETSAT satellite imagery (www.eumetsat.int) - 24ur.com/RTVSLO web portal (www.24ur.com, www.rtvslo.si) - Sobota Info web portal (www.sobotainfo.com) - Pomurje web portal (www.pomurje.si) - Administration of the Republic of Slovenia for Civil Protection and Disaster Relief, www.sos112.si - Worldwide Skew-t diagrams (http://weather.uwyo.edu/upperair/europe.html)

Korosec, M.

2009-09-01

166

Late Pleistocene voles (Arvicolinae, Rodentia) from the Baranica Cave (Serbia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Baranica is a cave system situated in the south-eastern part of Serbia, four kilometers south to Knjaževac, on the right bank of the Trgovi\\vski Timok. The investigations in Baranica were conducted from 1994 to 1997 by the Faculty of Philosophy from Belgrade and the National Museum of Knjaževac. Four geological layers of Quaternary age were recovered. The abundance of remains of both large and small mammals was noticed in the early phase of the research. In this paper, the remains of eight vole species are described: Arvicola terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758), Chionomys nivalis (Martins, 1842), Microtus (Microtus) arvalis (Pallas, 1778) and Microtus (Microtus) agrestis (Linnaeus, 1761), Microtus (Stenocranius) gregalis (Pallas, 1779), Microtus (Terricola) subterraneus (de Sélys-Longchamps, 1836), Clethrionomys glareolus (Schreber, 1780) and Lagurus lagurus (Pallas, 1773). Among them, steppe and open area inhabitants prevail. Based on the evolutionary level and dimensions of the Arvicola terrestris molars, as well as the overall characteristics of the fauna, it was concluded that the deposits were formed in the last glacial period of the Late Pleistocene. These conclusions are rather consistent with the absolute dating of large mammal bones (23.520 ą 110 B.P. for Layer 2 and 35.780 ą 320 B.P. for Layer 4).

Bogi?evi?, Katarina; Nenadi?, Draženko; Mihailovi?, Dušan

2012-02-01

167

Seasonal Analysis of Combined Climate Indices in Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Joint distributions of two weather variables, such as temperature and precipitation, better reflect the weather conditions than temperature or precipitation statistics taken separately (Beniston 2010). Hence, the seasonal analysis of combined climate indices in Serbia is presented using Warm/Dry (WD), Warm/Wet (WW), Cold/Dry (CD) and Cold/Wet (CW) days. The present study is based on the collection of the daily mean temperatures and precipitation at seven stations from the observational network of the Serbian Meteorological Service during the period 1961 - 2010. Day is conceived as warm (cold) if the daily mean temperature is greater (less) than the 75th (25th) percentile. Day is considered as dry (wet) if the daily precipitation sums are below the 25th percentile (higher than the 75th percentile). Temperature percentiles were calculated for each day in a year, while precipitation percentiles were calculated for each season. It is obtained that the number of WW days is small for all seasons. An increasing tendency of WD and decreasing tendencies of CD and CW are observed. Correlation between the combined climatic indices and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are examined. It was found that the connection existed between the NAO index and CW and WD during the winter, CD during the autumn and WD during the summer. Our results are in accordance with previous results of Beniston (2009), who revealed a systematic change at nine European cities in the course of the 20th century with significant declines in the frequency of occurrence of the "cold" modes and a sharp rise in that of the "warm" modes. Beniston, M., 2009: Trends in joint quantiles of temperature and precipitation in Europe since 1901 and projected for 2100. Geophysical Research Letters, 36, L07707 Beniston, M., 2010: Impacts of climatic change on water and associated economic activities in the Swiss Alps. Journal of Hydrology, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2010.06.046

Arsenovic, Pavle; Tosic, Ivana; Unkasevic, Miroslava

2014-05-01

168

Monitoring West Nile virus (WNV) infection in wild birds in Serbia during 2012: first isolation and characterisation of WNV strains from Serbia.  

PubMed

West Nile virus (WNV), a neurovirulent mosquito-transmissible zoonotic virus, has caused recent outbreaks in Europe, including Serbia from August until October 2012. Although humans can be infected, birds are the main natural WNV reservoir. To assess WNV circulation in northern Serbia, 133 wild birds were investigated. These comprised resident and migratory birds, collected between January and September 2012 in the Vojvodina province. The birds belonged to 45 species within 27 families. Blood sera (n=92) and pooled tissues from respective birds (n=81) were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), plaque reduction neutralisation test (PRNT) and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). WNV antibodies were detected in seven (8%) sera: four from Mute Swans (Cygnus olor), two from White-tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicillas), and one from a Common Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus). Five sera neutralised WNV but not Usutu virus. For the first time in Serbia, WNV RNA was detected by RT-qPCR in pooled tissue samples of eight respective birds. WNV RNA was also derived from an additional bird, after a serum sample resulted infective in cell culture. The total nine WNV RNA positive birds included three Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis), two White-tailed Eagles, one Legged Gull (Larus michahelis), one Hooded Crow (Corvus cornix), one Bearded Parrot-bill (Panarus biramicus), and one Common Pheasant. Phylogenetic analysis of partial E region sequences showed the presence of, at least, two lineage 2 Serbian clusters closely related to those responsible for recent human and animal outbreaks in Greece, Hungary and Italy. Full genomic sequence from a goshawk isolate corroborated this data. These results confirm WNV circulation in Serbia and highlight the risk of infection for humans and horses, pointing to the need for implementing WNV surveillance programmes. PMID:24176657

Petrovi?, T; Blazquez, A B; Lupulovi?, D; Lazi?, G; Escribano-Romero, E; Fabijan, D; Kapetanov, M; Lazi?, S; Saiz, Jc

2013-01-01

169

Women's Expectations of Healthcare Professionals in Case of Intimate Partner Violence in Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women who have experienced intimate partner violence use health care services more often than non-abused women, but it is unclear what they expect from physicians in relation to their intimate partner violence experience. In this study the authors explored whether women in Serbia expect physicians to help them after having experienced intimate partner violence, what kind of help the women

Bosiljka Djikanovic; Sylvie Lo Fo Wong; Snezana Stevanovic; Halime Celik

2011-01-01

170

Prospects of wind energy sector development in Serbia with relevant regulatory framework overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of the renewable energy sector in the world in the first decade of the twenty-first century was rapid. Wind energy sector was one of the fastest growing renewable energy technologies. In this paper, authors have tried to review the current state of wind power utilization in Serbia as one of the most penetrating RES technologies in the world.

Dragan Komarov; Slobodan Stupar; Aleksandar SimonoviÄ; Marija StanojeviÄ

2012-01-01

171

Monitoring of the Roundup Ready soybean in the Vojvodina province in Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vojvodina province is the most important agricultural area of the Republic of Serbia and is its largest soybean producer. Serbian low forbids the introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMO) into the environment and demands labeling of food containing more than 0.9% GMO. This aim of this study is to monitor the Roundup Ready (RR) soybean in fields and in

Zorica Nikoli?; Ksenija Taški-Ajdukovi?; Mladen Tati?; Svetlana Baleševi?-Tubi?

2009-01-01

172

“State Pride”: Politics of LGBT Rights and Democratisation in “European Serbia”  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses from an anthropological perspective the 2010 Belgrade Pride Parade, the first state-supported Parade in Serbia, as a part of the building of a democratic and European Serbian nation. In their discursive framing of the Parade and making claims on the state to take it under its auspices, the organising NGOs bound the event to the EU integration

Marek Mikuš

2011-01-01

173

Prospects for Inclusive Education in European Countries Emerging from Economic and Other Trauma: Serbia and Albania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines recent historical, social and economic factors in Albania and Serbia, identifying similarities and differences that have a bearing on the provision of education. The focus is on the education of children with difficulties in learning and/or disabilities (the term "special needs" is used for brevity). The paper provides a…

Radoman, Vesna; Nano, Virxhil; Closs, Alison

2006-01-01

174

Protection and Assistance to Victims of Human Trafficking in Serbia: Recent Developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews recent developments in the system of protection, assistance and support of victims of human trafficking in Serbia. The establishment of the Agency for Co-ordination of Protection of Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings in 2003, the issuing of the Instruction on Conditions for Obtaining Temporary Residence Permit for Foreign Citizens — Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings

Biljana Simeunovic-Patic; Sanja Copic

2010-01-01

175

Barriers to cervical cancer screening: A qualitative study with women in Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serbia employs opportunistic approaches to cervical cancer screening, leading to inequitable health care access. To better understand the health care needs of women, we investigated their knowledge of and perceived barriers to cervical cancer screening. Data reported in the paper arise from nine focus group discussions with 62 women from diverse socio-economic backgrounds. They were recruited in two cities with

Milica Markovic; Vesna Kesic; Lidija Topic; Bojana Matejic

2005-01-01

176

Religion, Politics and Gender in the Context of Nation-State Formation: the case of Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that nationalism has connected religion with secular politics in Serbia but that their rapprochement has been a gradual process. In order to demonstrate the transition from a limited influence of religion on politics to a much tighter relationship between the two, this article discusses the abortion legislation reform and the introduction of religious education in public schools,

Rada Drezgi?

2010-01-01

177

Variability in chemical composition and abundance of the rare tertiary relict Pinus heldreichii in Serbia.  

PubMed

The particular significance of the whitebark pine (Pinus heldreichii Christ.) stems from the fact that it is a tertiary relict and Balkanic subendemite covering a very narrow and intermittent area in Serbia. A representative pool of 48 adult trees originating from three populations, one recently discovered natural (Population I) and two planted populations (Populations II and III) was investigated in order to evaluate the intra- and interpopulation variability of the essential oil of the complete fund of P. heldreichii in Serbia. In the pine-needle-terpene profile, 104 compounds were detected, 84 of which could be identified. Among the essential-oil constituents, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes dominated, comprising ca. 90% of the essential oil. The terpenic profile of Population I was characterized by a predominance of monoterpenes (e.g., limonene (1), ?-pinene, and ?(3) -carene (4)), while sesquiterpenes (e.g., germacrene D (2) and ?-caryophyllene (3)) obviously preponderated in the profile of Populations II and III. This study also demonstrated that the abundance of whitebark pines in Serbia had significantly changed over the last few decades. The number of individuals in the natural population had increased, while the number of individuals in the planted populations had decreased. Today, the whitebark pine fund in Serbia comprises less than 250 trees. PMID:21922664

Bojovi?, Srdjan; Nikoli?, Biljana; Risti?, Mihailo; Orlovi?, Saša; Veselinovi?, Milorad; Rakonjac, Ljubinko; Draži?, Dragana

2011-09-01

178

Exploitation of geothermal energy as a priority of sustainable energetic development in Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The actual global economic crisis, including all other well-known problems of sustainable development, reflects the direction of development of all countries in the world. Serbia, as a European country in its early stage of development, is trying to synchronize its progress with experience of other countries from the field of sustainable development and in accordance with rules in the field

Mirjana Golusin; Olja Munitlak Ivanovic; Ivan Bagaric; Sanja Vranjes

2010-01-01

179

Last glacial aeolian dynamics at the Titel loess plateau (Vojvodina, Serbia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Titel loess plateau (Vojvodina, Serbia) is situated at the confluence of the rivers Danube and Tisa, in the southeastern part of the Backa subregion. Various phases of fluvial erosion have shaped the ellipsoid form of the plateau, which is characterized by steep slopes on the margins. The Titel loess plateau is a unique geomorphologic feature, further emphasising the wide

S. B. Markovic; M. P. Bokhorst; B. Machalett; D. Strbac; U. Hambach; B. Basarin; Z. Svircev; T. Stevens; M. Frechen; J. Vandenberghe

2009-01-01

180

Torrent floodplain mapping and torrent flood control in Serbia in the conditions of economic crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serbia is a country that is endangered by flooding of the largest European river, the Danube and its largest tributaries, as well as by countless torrents. During the 19th and 20th centuries, an imposing scope of protection structures was constructed. The existence of the protection system created the conviction that flood protection was achieved and that it should only be

Z. Gavrilovic; M. Stefanovic

2009-01-01

181

Hydrological heritage in the geoheritage and nature protection system of Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with nature protection system in Serbia with activities for protection of nature sites and their complex contents, management, expert surveillance, education and promotion. Special attention is paid to protection of surface waters in the light of great strategic significance of water resources and absolutely certain drinking water crisis in near future. A new term has been introduced

Sava SIMIC; Srdjan BELIJ

2008-01-01

182

The impact of educational reform and categorization of scientific journals and scientists on physics in Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The trend of the increasing participation and importance of female physicists in Serbia continues. Many women have taken leading position in research and faculty governance and are contributing significantly to educational reform and the improvement of physics education in the primary and secondary schools.

Boži?, Mirjana; Davidovi?, Milena; Kapor, Agneš; Kneževi?, Dragica; Pavkov-Hrvojevi?, Milica; Pua?, Nevena; Savi?, Ilija; Stojanovi?, Maja; Markovi?-Topalovi?, Tatjana

2013-03-01

183

Host specificity of microsporidia pathogenic to the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.): field studies in Slovakia.  

PubMed

Several species of microsporidia are important chronic pathogens of Lymantria dispar in Europe but have never been recovered from North American gypsy moth populations. The major issue for their introduction into North American L. dispar populations is concern about their safety to native non-target insects. In this study, we evaluated the susceptibility of sympatric non-target Lepidoptera to two species of microsporidia, Nosema lymantriae and Vairimorpha disparis, isolated from European populations of L. dispar and applied in field plots in Slovakia. Application of ultra low volume sprays of the microsporidia maximized coverage of infective spores in a complex natural environment and, thus, exposure of non-target species to the pathogens. Of 653 non-target larvae collected from plots treated with V. disparis in 2002, 18 individual larvae representing nine species in four families were infected. These plots were monitored for two subsequent seasons and V. disparis was not recovered from non-target species. Of 2571 non-target larvae collected in N. lymantriae-treated sites, one larva was found to be infected. Both species of microsporidia, particularly N. lymantriae, appear to have a very narrow host range in the field, even when an inundative technique is used for their introduction. V. disparis infections in L. dispar exceeded 40% of recovered larvae in the treated study sites; infection rates were lower in sites sprayed with N. lymantriae. Several naturally-occurring pathogens were recorded from the non-target species. The most common pathogen, isolated from 21 species in eight families, was a microsporidium in the genus Cystosporogenes. PMID:20435042

Solter, Leellen F; Pilarska, Daniela K; McManus, Michael L; Zúbrik, Milan; Patocka, Jan; Huang, Wei-Fone; Novotný, Julius

2010-09-01

184

Preliminary business plan: District Heating Company for the city of Handlova, Slovakia  

SciTech Connect

The city of Handlova, Slovakia, needs to replace its district heating system, which is old, unreliable, and expensive to maintain. The current plant is owned by a state-run utility, the Slovensky Energeticky Podnik (SEP). The plan is to privatize the heating plant, acquire capital to rehabilitate the central plant (converting it to a cogeneration facility), install a new hot-water distribution system, and implement an extensive energy efficiency effort in the residential buildings on the system. System capacity is 100 MWt, with annual heat sales estimated to be 450,000 gigajoules per year (GJ/yr). The capital necessary for system improvements is estimated to be 465 million Slovakian Krowns (SK) (in 1997 price levels). The total market value of existing fixed assets that will survive the rehabilitation effort as part of the new systems is estimated at 342 million SK. There has been substantial analysis and preparation for this activity, which is documented in demand-side and supply-side technical and economic analyses, an integrated demand/supply report, and this preliminary business plan. The preparation includes investigation of ownership, management, and technology alternatives; estimation of the market value of existing assets and investment requirements; and forecasting of future cash flows. These preliminary projections indicate that the cost of heating from the new system will be reasonable from both a cost per unit of energy basis (SK/GJ) and, form the perspective of an apartment dweller in Handlova, on a total cost per year basis. Delivering heat at the projected cost will, however, require a substantial change in the way that the heating plant is run, with proportionally very large reductions in labor, operations and maintenance, and overhead charges. In addition, there will need to be significant revenues from the sale of electricity to the national grid.

NONE

1996-06-01

185

ASSESSMENT OF THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT AND IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH IN ROMA VILLAGES IN SLOVAKIA AND ROMANIA  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Objectives The objective of this paper is to provide information on indoor air quality and on the quality of the broader indoor environment of the houses in Roma villages in Slovakia and Romania and to discuss possible implications for health. Methods Indoor air was sampled in 11 houses in a Romanian Roma village and in 19 houses in a Slovakian Roma village. Levels of Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), total particulate matter (PM), temperature and humidity were measured. A questionnaire and a checklist were used to obtain additional information on the indoor environment and behavioural factors. We have sampled the same houses in winter and in summer. Results Levels of CO and CO2 were higher in winter in both countries as compared to summer. The limit value of 10 mg/m3 CO was exceeded in a few cases in both countries. In general, levels of CO, CO2 and PM were higher in Romania. Further environmental and behavioural hazards such as indoor smoking, pets inside or lack of ventilation were found. The reported self-perceived quality of the indoor environment was poor in many aspects. Conclusions Our findings of CO, CO2 and PM levels suggest that indoor air pollution in Roma settlements has the potential to be a health threat. The fact that the inhabitants spend a relatively long time inside the houses and that a number of additional environmental and behavioural hazards were identified by our study emphasizes the importance of the indoor air quality for health and thus priority attention should be paid to these issues by health authorities and researchers. Further research is essential and study designs must consider cultural background and specific characteristics of the community, especially in order to obtain valid data on health outcomes. PMID:23285520

Majdan, Marek; Coman, Alexandru; Gallová, Eva; ?uricová, Janka; Kállayová, Daniela; Kvaková, Mária; Bošák, ?uboš

2013-01-01

186

Radon concentration in soil gas and radon exhalation rate at the Ravne Fault in NW Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ravne tectonic fault in north-west (NW) Slovenia is one of the faults in this region, responsible for the elevated seismic activity at the Italian-Slovene border. Five measurement profiles were fixed in the vicinity of the Ravne fault, four of them were perpendicular and one parallel to the fault. At 18 points along these profiles the following measurements have been carried out: radon activity concentration in soil gas, radon exhalation rate from ground, soil permeability and gamma dose rate. The radon measurements were carried out using the AlphaGuard equipment, and GammaTracer was applied for gamma dose rate measurements. The ranges of the obtained results are as follows: 0.9-32.9 kBq m-3 for radon concentration (CRn), 1.1-41.9 mBq m-2 s-1 for radon exhalation rate (ERn), 0.5-7.4×10-13 m2 for soil permeability, and 86-138 nSv h-1 for gamma dose rate. The concentrations of 222Rn in soil gas were found to be lower than the average for Slovenia. Because the deformation zones differ not only in the direction perpendicular to the fault but also along it, the behaviour of either CRn or ERn at different profiles differ markedly. The study is planned to be continued with measurements being carried out at a number of additional points.

Vaupoti?, J.; Gregori?, A.; Kobal, I.; Žvab, P.; Kozak, K.; Mazur, J.; Kochowska, E.; Grzä Dziel, D.

2010-04-01

187

Isotopic variations in precipitation in Slovenia and Croatia - basic data for catchment studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precipitation is of major interest in the hydrologic cycle as it is the ultimate source of water to catchments. The terrestrial portion of the hydrologic cycle begins when the precipitation reaches the ground. Therefore, the understanding of the formation of precipitation, as well as knowledge of temporal and spatial variations in the amount and mode of precipitation are important for basin-wide water balance studies. Similarly, understanding how isotopic composition (18O, 2H and 3H content) is controlled by the formation of precipitation, and knowledge of the temporal and spatial variations in isotopic ratios of precipitation are equally important. Within the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) organized by IAEA and WMO monitoring of isotopic composition of monthly precipitation that includes measurements of stable isotopes (18O, 2H) and radioactive isotope (3H) is performed in Ljubljana (Slovenia) and Zagreb (Croatia) since 1981 and 1976, respectively. Within the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Program Isotopic Composition of Precipitation in the Mediterranean Basin in Relation to Air Circulation Patterns and Climate the network has been extended since October 2000 to several stations along the Adriatic coast (2 in Slovenia, 5 in Croatia). In this work we will present long-term records of monthly isotopic composition for Ljubljana and Zagreb, as well as 2-year long records for other stations along the Adriatic coast together with meteorological data (precipitation amount, air temperature).

Vreca, P.; Krajcar Bronic, I.; Horvatincic, N.

2003-04-01

188

Best Practice for Rainfall Measurement, Torrential Flood Monitoring and Real Time Alerting System in Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Serbia occupies 88.000 km2 and its confined zone menaced with torrent flood occupies 50.000km2. Floods on large rivers and torrents are the most frequent natural disasters in Serbia. This is the result of a geographic position and relief of Serbia. Therefore, defense from these natural disasters has been institutionalized since the 19th century. Through its specialized bodies and public companies, the State organized defense from floods on large rivers and protection of international and other main roads. The Top?iderska River is one of a number of rivers in Serbia that is a threat to both urban and rural environments. In this text, general characteristics of this river will be illustrated, as well as the historical natural hazards that have occurred in the part of Belgrade near Top?iderska River. Belgrade is the capital of Serbia, its political, administrative and financial center, which means that there are significant financial capacities and human resources for investments in all sectors, and specially in the water resources sector. Along the Top?iderska catchment there are many industrial, traffic and residential structures that are in danger of floods and flood protection is more difficult with rapid high flows. The goal is to use monitoring on the Top?iderska River basin to set up a modern system for monitoring in real time and forecast of torrential floods. This paper represents a system of remote detection and monitoring of torrential floods and rain measurements in real time on Topciderka river and ready for a quick response.

Stefanovic, Milutin; Milojevic, Mileta; Zlatanovic, Nikola

2014-05-01

189

DO TURLOUGHS OCCUR IN SLOVENIA? ALI SO V SLOVENIJI OB?ASNA KRAŠKA JEZERA TIPA ťTURLOUGHŤ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

UDC 551.432.5 (497.4) Micheline Shehy Skeffington & Nick. E. Scott: Do turloughs occur in Slovenia? Turloughs are karst basins that fill seasonally with mostly groundwater and drain, usually in summer, to reveal a sedge or grassland community. They are often described as being virtually unique to Ireland. The much larger seasonal poljes of the Slovenian karst are considered different to

Nick. E. SCOTT

190

Career plans and gender-role attitudes of college students in the United States, Japan, and Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attitudes about careers and gender role attitudes were examined in samples of female and male college students from the United States (n=156), Japan (n=621), and Slovenia (n=157). Factor analyses indicated that career values formed different factors within each country and gender group and that factors for men and women were relatively similar in Japan, but differed by gender more in

Yasuko Morinaga; Irene Hanson Frieze; Anuska Ferligoj

1993-01-01

191

Career Plans and Gender-Role Attitudes of College Students in the United States, Japan, and Slovenia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines attitudes about careers and gender roles for 156 college students from the United States, 621 from Japan, and 157 from Slovenia. A factor analysis indicates that career values form different factors within each country and gender. In all three countries, women are less traditional in gender role attitudes than men. (SLD)

Morinaga, Yasuko; And Others

1993-01-01

192

31 CFR 585.414 - Services performed in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) or by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO) AND BOSNIAN SERB-CONTROLLED AREAS OF THE REPUBLIC OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 585.414 Services performed in the Federal Republic of...

2010-07-01

193

Occurrence of IgG antibodies to Anaplasma phagocytophilum in humans suspected of Lyme borreliosis in eastern Slovakia.  

PubMed

Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) and Lyme borreliosis (LB) are tick-borne and emerging infectious diseases caused by the Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi species. In Europe, including Slovakia, the principal vector of both pathogens is the common tick - Ixodes ricinus, in which double infections with these pathogens have been reported. The aim of our study was evidence of IgG antibodies against A. phagocytophilum in blood sera of humans with suspects LB from several Clinics of University Hospitals, and the evaluation of the possibility of B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum co-infection in examined patients. The serological method ELISA was used to detect IgM and IgG antibodies against B. burgdorferi. Anti-A. phagocytophilum IgG antibodies were analyzed by the A. phagocytophilum Indirect Immunofluorescence Antibody (IFA) IgG test. A total of 214 human samples (91 men, 123 women) were obtained from patients living in Kosice town and in villages around Kosice (Eastern Slovakia). IgG antibodies against A. phagocytophilum were detected in 15 cases (6 men, 9 women), which represented 7.0 % positivity. Two cases of the co-infection B. burgdorferi with A. phagocytophilum, which equals 0.93 % of the total number, were found. PMID:20047263

Kalinova, Zuzana; Halanova, Monika; Cislakova, Lydia; Sulinova, Zlatana; Jarcuska, Pavol

2009-12-01

194

New distribution data and population structure of the European mudminnow Umbra krameri in Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.  

PubMed

Seventy-six individuals of the European mudminnow Umbra krameri from two recent populations from Serbia (Bakreni Batar and Lugomir) and one from Bosnia and Herzegovina (Gromiželj) were analysed for habitat preferences and population structure. The population from Lugomir is a newly recorded population in Serbia. Besides this new record, it is noteworthy that all three studied locations are outside the currently known species distribution range limits. PMID:23991880

Sekuli?, N; Mari?, S; Galambos, L; Radoševi?, D; Krpo-?etkovi?, J

2013-09-01

195

Part I: International and Regional Management Arrangements Global Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)  

E-print Network

, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova

196

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 740 - Country Groups  

...Jamaica Japan Jordan Kenya Kiribati Korea, South Kosovo Kuwait Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia... Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Sudan, Republic of Spain Sri Lanka Surinam...

2014-01-01

197

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 740 - Country Groups  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Jamaica Japan Jordan Kenya Kiribati Korea, South Kosovo Kuwait Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia... Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Sudan, Republic of Spain Sri Lanka Surinam...

2013-01-01

198

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 740 - Country Groups  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Jamaica Japan Jordan Kenya Kiribati Korea, South Kosovo Kuwait Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia... Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Sudan, Republic of Spain Sri Lanka Surinam...

2012-01-01

199

Psychotropic medication use among elderly nursing home residents in Slovenia: cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Aim To determine the prevalence of psychotropic medication prescribing in elderly nursing home residents in Slovenia and to explore the residents’, physicians’, and nursing home characteristics associated with prescribing. Methods In a cross-sectional study, we collected the data for 2040 nursing home residents aged 65 years and older in 12 nursing homes in Slovenia between September 25 and November 30, 2006. Prescribed medications lists were retrieved from patients’ medical records. Psychotropic medications were coded according to Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification 2005, which we adjusted for the purposes of the study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the residents’, physicians’, and nursing home characteristics associated with prescribing. Results Residents were from 65 to 104 years old (median, 83 years) and 1606 (79%) of them were female. A total of 970 (48%) residents had dementia and 466 had depression (23%). In 1492 (73%) residents, at least one psychotropic medication was prescribed. Nine hundred sixty residents were prescribed hypnotics and sedatives (47%), 572 (28%) antipsychotics, 460 (23%) antidepressants, and 432 (21%) anxiolytics. Residents’ characteristics associated with psychotropic medication use were female sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.80), age (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95-0.98), permanent restlessness (OR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.71-3.78), dementia (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.33-2.34), depression (OR, 5.51; 95% CI, 3.50-7.58), and the number of prescribed medications (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.23-1.35). Of physicians’ characteristics (sex, age, specialization in general practice, years of working experiences as a general practitioner, and years of experiences working in a nursing home), male sex was associated with psychotropic medication prescribing (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.17-2.76). Conclusion Frequency of psychotropic medication prescribing in elderly nursing home residents in Slovenia is high and is comparable to Western European countries. Our next step should be optimizing the prescribing in patients with the highest prescription rate. PMID:21328716

Petek Šter, Marija; Cedilnik Gorup, Eva

2011-01-01

200

Physician and nurse supply in Serbia using time-series data  

PubMed Central

Background Unemployment among health professionals in Serbia has risen in the recent past and continues to increase. This highlights the need to understand how to change policies to meet real and projected needs. This study identified variables that were significantly related to physician and nurse employment rates in the public healthcare sector in Serbia from 1961 to 2008 and used these to develop parameters to model physician and nurse supply in the public healthcare sector through to 2015. Methods The relationships among six variables used for planning physician and nurse employment in public healthcare sector in Serbia were identified for two periods: 1961 to 1982 and 1983 to 2008. Those variables included: the annual total national population; gross domestic product adjusted to 1994 prices; inpatient care discharges; outpatient care visits; students enrolled in the first year of medical studies at public universities; and the annual number of graduated physicians. Based on historic trends, physician supply and nurse supply in the public healthcare sector by 2015 (with corresponding 95% confidence level) have been modeled using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) / Transfer function (TF) models. Results The ARIMA/TF modeling yielded stable and significant forecasts of physician supply (stationary R2 squared = 0.71) and nurse supply (stationary R2 squared = 0.92) in the public healthcare sector in Serbia through to 2015. The most significant predictors for physician employment were the population and GDP. The supply of nursing staff was, in turn, related to the number of physicians. Physician and nurse rates per 100,000 population increased by 13%. The model predicts a seven-year mismatch between the supply of graduates and vacancies in the public healthcare sector is forecasted at 8,698 physicians - a net surplus. Conclusion The ARIMA model can be used to project trends, especially those that identify significant mismatches between forecasted supply of physicians and vacancies and can be used to guide decision-making for enrollment planning for the medical schools in Serbia. Serbia needs an inter-sectoral strategy for HRH development that is more coherent with healthcare objectives and more accountable in terms of professional mobility. PMID:23773678

2013-01-01

201

Pupilla pratensis (Gastropoda: Pupillidae) in the Czech Republic and Slovakia and its distinction from P. muscorum and P. alpicola based on multidimensional analysis of shell measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pupilla pratensis (Clessin, 1871) was recently confirmed as a distinct species based on morphological, ecological and molecular evidence. The\\u000a main purpose of this study is to publish the first reliable data on the occurrence of P. pratensis in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The second goal is to analyse conchometry of P. pratensis, P. muscorum (L., 1758), and P. alpicola

Michal Horsák; Jana Škodová; Jan Myšák; Tomᚠ?ejka; Vojen Ložek; Jaroslav ?. Hlavá?

2010-01-01

202

DISTRIBUTION OF OROBAMCHE ALBA STEPHAN EX WILLD - POTENTIAL HOST OF PHYTOPHAGOUS ANIMALS AND PATHOGENS ATTACKING THE PEST OROBANCHE RAMOSA L. IN SLOVAKIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary During 2002 and 2003, the survey of distribution of wild broomrapes (Orobanche sp.), as potential hosts of phytophagous animals and pathogens, was done in Slovakia. 50 localities were checked and broomrapes occurred on 30 of them. One of the most abundant broomrape species was Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd., which infested plants from the genus Thymus L. and was

Peter TÓTH; A. Hlinku

203

Prevalence of pigeon circovirus infections in feral pigeons in Ljubljana, Slovenia.  

PubMed

Pigeon circovirus (PiCV) was detected by real-time PCR in cloacal swabs, pharyngeal swabs, and serum samples taken from 74 feral pigeons (Columba livia var. domestica) that were caught at various locations in the city of Ljubljana, Slovenia. PiCV infections were detected in the majority of the tested birds. The highest (74.3%) detection rate was observed in the cloacal swabs and the lowest (31.1%) in serum samples. PiCV DNA was more readily detected in the cloacal swabs, pharyngeal swabs, and serum samples of birds younger than 1 yr. Molecular analysis of partial open reading frame V1 sequences showed that PiCV strains detected in feral pigeons share high nucleotide and amino acid sequence identities with PiCV strains detected in ornamental, racing, meat, and feral pigeons. PMID:22856208

Krapez, Uros; Slavec, Brigita; Steyer, Adela Fratnik; Pintaric, Stefan; Dobeic, Martin; Rojs, Olga Zorman; Dovc, Alenka

2012-06-01

204

The HBV spatially distributed flash flood forecasting model - The Slovenia case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The HBV distributed flash flood forecasting model which is in operational use in northern Austria is applied to a watershed in northwest Slovenia, a case study for the FP6 project HYDRATE. The selected watershed consists of 6 sub-basins with a total area of 646 Km2. Model setup and calibration was performed in this watershed and three long duration rainfall - runoff periods were simulated in order to examine the efficiency of the model. The selected periods included rainfall events that produced high outflows on the exit of the watershed, such as the September 2007 event that caused a flash flooding and severe damages to the towns of Zali Log and Zelezniki. The model uses 1km grid rainfall and temperature data of fifteen minute time intervals in order to simulate the rainfall - runoff process. Inverse distance weighting interpolation is used in order to generate the spatially distributed rainfall and temperature while the hydrological parameters are defined for each 1km grid cell that correspond to one hydrological response units (HRU - areas with analogous hydrogeological characteristics). The basic calibration of the HBV model is based on hydrological parameters of each HRU, parameters that control the rainfall - runoff process within the basin and non HRU parameters that control the river routing between the basins. The model performance is based on seven efficiency criteria that were selected as appropriate for long simulation periods, e.g. coefficient of determination R2 and Nash Sutcliffe efficiency E. The HBV model produced satisfactory results for the three rainfall periods and could be used as an operational model in Slovenia as well.

Tsanis, I. K.; Grillakis, M. G.; Blöschl, G.; Poga?nik, N.

2009-04-01

205

Religion, politics and gender in the context of nation-state formation: the case of Serbia.  

PubMed

This article argues that nationalism has connected religion with secular politics in Serbia but that their rapprochement has been a gradual process. In order to demonstrate the transition from a limited influence of religion on politics to a much tighter relationship between the two, this article discusses the abortion legislation reform and the introduction of religious education in public schools, respectively. It argues that, while illustrative of different types of connection between religion and politics, these two issues had similar implications for gender equality-they produced discourses that recreated and justified patriarchal social norms. After religion gained access to public institutions, its (patriarchal) discourses on gender were considerably empowered. The article points to some tangible evidence of a re-traditionalisation and re-patriarchalisation of gender roles within the domestic realm in Serbia. PMID:20857571

Drezgi?, Rada

2010-01-01

206

Therapeutic Fascism: re-educating communists in Nazi-occupied Serbia, 1942-44.  

PubMed

This article probes the relationship between psychoanalysis and right-wing authoritarianism, and analyses a unique psychotherapeutic institution established by Serbia's World War II collaborationist regime. The extraordinary Institute for compulsory re-education of high-school and university students affiliated with the Communist resistance movement emerged in the context of a brutal civil war and violent retaliations against Communist activists, but its openly psychoanalytic orientation was even more astonishing. In order to stem the rapid spread of Communism, the collaborationist state, led by its most extreme fascistic elements, officially embraced psychotherapy, the 'talking cure' and Freudianism, and conjured up its own theory of mental pathology and trauma - one that directly contradicted the Nazi concepts of society and the individual. In the course of the experiment, Serbia's collaborationists moved away from the hitherto prevailing organicist, biomedical model of mental illness, and critiqued traditional psychiatry's therapeutic pessimism. PMID:24594820

Antic, Ana

2014-03-01

207

Fear and anger as predictors of motivation for intergroup aggression: Evidence from Serbia and Republika Srpska  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the relationship between emotions of fear and anger and people’s motivation for intergroup aggression within the context of Serbian—Albanian relations in Serbia (Study 1) and Serbian—Bosniak intergroup relations in Bosnia (Study 2). Serbian students in Belgrade and Banja Luka completed a survey that assessed their attitudes towards Albanians or Bosniaks. We found that fear of the outgroup was

Marija Spanovic; Brian Lickel; Thomas F. Denson; Nebojsa Petrovic

2010-01-01

208

Socioeconomic features of commercial fishery in the bordering upper Danube River area of Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multidisciplinary socio-economic study of fisheries in the bordering part of the Danube River between Serbia and Croatia\\u000a (at the following sites: Apatin, Ba?ka Palanka, Ba?ko Novo Selo, Bezdan, and Sombor) that was performed in order to investigate\\u000a various aspects of fish resource utilization (management, policy of protection and exploitation of freshwater fishery resources,\\u000a present fisheries legislation, catch statistics), was

Marija Smederevac-Lali?; Radmilo Peši?; Slobodan Cveji?; Predrag Simonovi?

209

General mental ability in South Asians: Data from three Roma (Gypsy) communities in Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine whether the Roma (Gypsy) population of Serbia, like other South Asian population groups, average lower than Europeans on g, the general factor of intelligence, we tested 323 16- to 66-year-olds (111 males; 212 females) in three different communities over a two-year-period on the Raven's Colored and\\/or Standard Progressive Matrices and four measures of executive function. Out of the

J. Philippe Rushton; Jelena ?vorovi?; Trudy Ann Bons

2007-01-01

210

Factors associated with intimate partner violence against women in Serbia: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThis study aimed to identify factors associated with intimate partner violence against women living in Belgrade, Serbia.MethodA cross-sectional, population based household survey was conducted in Belgrade as part of the WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence, using a standard questionnaire. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 1456 women aged 15–49 years. Data used in this study were from

Bosiljka Djikanovic; Henrica A F M Jansen; Stanislava Otasevic

2010-01-01

211

Tendencies for the amounts of chemical material used for cloud seeding in Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weather modification activities are performed predominantly by cloud seeding. Some operational projects have been performed for more than half a century and cover planetary scales. These activities lead to a large amount of deposited chemical materials (seeding agents) at the ground level during precipitation. These deposits depend on the amount of the seeding agent. In the future, increased amounts of seeding agent deposits could be a serious problem due to various negative effects on the human environment. Therefore, the main intent of this paper is to determine trends for the seeding agent amount over certain areas of Serbia. Four areas covered by the Hail Suppression Project in Serbia are considered: the target area in central Serbia and areas in western and central Serbia, which are well-known hailfall regions. The annual seeding agent amounts show a slow decreasing trend because fewer seedings were performed during the last decade of the last century, which was due to economic reasons. In contrast, the annual seeding agent amounts of the other analysed areas indicate an increasing trend induced by the transfer of rockets to these hailfall regions. The main difference among small areas is the mean agent amount and its maximum time position as a consequence of the high spatial and time variability of the hail. However, a sharp decreasing trend that is influenced by the implementation of new methodologies, seeding agents and delivery tools may also be a factor in the implementation of cloud seeding projects. The given method is not only strictly applicable locally and may be applied to any other cloud seeding scenario and seeding area. Dominantly increasing trends in the agent amount indicate that the importance of weather modifications in the future will be greater than ever and will have both positive and negative effects.

?uri?, Mladjen; Janc, Dejan

2014-02-01

212

A survey of bacillary dysentery in a rural community in Serbia  

PubMed Central

The findings from an epidemiological survey of bacillary dysentery in three villages in south-west Serbia are reported. Factors in the transmission of infection—in particular, living conditions and standards of hygiene—are discussed, and an attempt is made to assess the value of various popular remedies, such as herbal decoctions, and the diet generally followed. Data are given on the bacteriological examination of faecal cultures; the results of sulfonamide and serum therapy are described. PMID:13150170

Snajder, K.

1954-01-01

213

Pancreatic cancer mortality in Serbia from 1991-2010 - a joinpoint analysis  

PubMed Central

Aim To analyze the trends of pancreatic cancer mortality in Serbia. Methods The study covered the population of Serbia in the period 1991 to 2010. Mortality trends were assessed by the joinpoint regression analysis by age and sex. Results Age-standardized mortality rates ranged from 5.93 to 8.57 per 100?000 in men and from 3.51 to 5.79 per 100?000 in women. Pancreatic cancer mortality in all age groups was higher among men than among women. It was continuously increasing since 1991 by 1.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1 to 2.0) yearly in men and by 2.2% (95% CI 1.7 to 2.7) yearly in women. Changes in mortality were not significant in younger age groups for both sexes. In older men (?55 years), mortality was increasing, although in age groups 70-74 and 80-84 the increase was not significant. In 65-69 years old men, the increase in mortality was significant only in the period 2004 to 2010. In ?50 years old women, mortality significantly increased from 1991 onward. In 75-79 years old women, a non-significant decrease in the period 1991 to 2000 was followed by a significant increase from 2000 to 2010. Conclusion Serbia is one of the countries with the highest pancreatic cancer mortality in the world, with increasing mortality trend in both sexes and in most age groups. PMID:23986278

Ilic, Milena; Vlajinac, Hristina; Marinkovic, Jelena; Kocev, Nikola

2013-01-01

214

Economic analysis of social services for the elderly in Serbia: two sides of the same coin.  

PubMed

According to demographic trends, the ratio of senior citizens in the overall population of the Republic of Serbia is rising. This generates the need to create socially acceptable and economically sustainable models for the protection of the elderly. The goal of this paper is to stress the necessity of analyzing and evaluating the efficiency of social protection services aimed at senior citizens. The first part of the paper underlines the need for economic analysis of these services; while the second part features the analysis of the two most frequently provided services for the elderly in Serbia: admission to social protection institutions and home care for senior citizens. Based on the research results, the paper also provides a comparative overview of the efficiency of the services mentioned. This overview clearly confirms that both services prove to be economically justifiable from a social perspective; nevertheless, it also indicates that the cost of home care per user is considerably lower than the cost of putting a senior citizen into a nursing home. After presenting and discussing the results of the studies, the paper also offers recommendations aimed at enhancing the development and sustainability of the social protection system for the elderly in Serbia. PMID:24681299

Mihic, Marko M; Todorovic, Marija Lj; Obradovic, Vladimir Lj

2014-08-01

215

Cartographic evidence of the disastrous ice flood of 1809 and its aftermath (Danube River, Slovakia).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 18th and early 19th century river maps are important data sources for studying past landscapes. This is not only as a result of improved surveying techniques, but also because they depict landscape during probably the most important climatic and land-use changes since the Middle Ages. In this phase of the increased river activity during the last onset of the so-called Little Ice Age period, several major flood events occured. Local manuscript maps, which often depict the channel in major detail, help us to obtain a better understanding of their geomorphic and other impacts. The catastrophic ice flood, which occured on the Middle Danube river at the end of January 1809 was undoubtedly the most disastrous event of its kind in Slovakia, although it also hit a number of settlements in Lower Austria and Hungary. Several people drowned and the flood also resulted in great damage to settlements and livestock. Devastating effects of this flood particularly as to the towns of Bratislava and Komárno/Komárom were comparable with effects of disastrous floods of February 1830 in Vienna (Austria), March 1838 in Buda/Pest (Hungary) or 1845 flood in Prague (Czech Republic), respectively. In case of the present Slovakian capital Bratislava, on January 29, 1809, two ice barriers suddenly rose the water up to 10 m above the zero level and the river quickly overflowed its banks inundating the low-lying parts of the town. The flood blacked out communications with neighbouring regions. Record-breaking height of water led to breaches of the important right-bank embankment (constructed in 1770s). Through several openings water flooded the right bank, almost completely destroying the adjacent village of Petržalka/Engerau. The damage to Vienna highway levee was so massive that it only could be repaired 16 years later, in 1825-6 (although this was also due to Napoleonic wars). The flood also reactivated the Chorvátske rameno anabranch, 33 years after its abandonment. A number of local manuscript maps depict the river before and after this event. Combined with written literary reports, the maps allow us to describe the course, the devastating effects and the aftermath consequences of the 1809 flood precisely, particularly as to the territory of the city of Bratislava itself. Moreover, many of these maps comprise a wealth of information about flood in their detailed explanatory legends and remarks. The most important maps and plans are those currently deposited in the National Archives of Hungary (= maps from the collection of former Governing Council, the central supervisory authority of the Habsburgs for the Hungarian Kingdom), in the Municipial Archives of Bratislava and the Slovak National Archives, respectively. Effects of the 1809 ice flood, as evidenced by historical maps and plans, can be generally summarised as follows: a) direct destruction (by ice floes) or collapse of houses, bridges, buildings, boat mills, groynes and bank revetments b) heavy lateral erosion of the river channel during this single event (then referred to as „damage to banks") c) breaches of protective dikes d) formation of new water bodies - temporary lakes - created by spilled water on the landside of levees e) reactivation of upstream entrances of some side channels f) pronounced changes of flooplain configuration g) damage to floodplain forest. This research was supported by the Slovak Scientific Grant agency VEGA (Project N. 1/0362/09).

Pišút, P.

2009-04-01

216

Significantly higher occurrence of Cryptosporidium infection in Roma children compared with non-Roma children in Slovakia.  

PubMed

Cryptosporidiosis is considered to be a widespread world zoonosis. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium species was investigated in Roma children in a district of Eastern Slovakia and, at the same time, also in children of non-Roma parents. In total, 103 children (54 boys and 49 girls) between 0 and 14 years of age were involved in this study. Fifty-three were Roma children and 50 children represented a non-Roma control group. Fecal samples were examined: immunologically [enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test to prove antigen in the feces] and by molecular analysis [nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR)]. After the sequencing of the PCR, the products were identified as species of Cryptosporidium muris. Based on the results, the relative risk (RR) of the Cryptosporidium infection occurrence was calculated and we came to the conclusion that the risk of Cryptosporidium infection was almost 12 times higher in the Roma children compared to the non-Roma children. PMID:24619113

Hasajová, A; Valen?áková, A; Mal?eková, B; Danišová, O; Halán, M; Goldová, M; Sak, B; Kv?to?ová, D; Kvá?, M; Halánová, M

2014-08-01

217

Effect of heavy metals on soil enzyme activity at different field conditions in middle spis mining area (slovakia).  

PubMed

Heavy metals concentrations were measured in the former mining area located in Hornad river valley (Slovakia). Soil samples were taken in 2012 from 20 sites at two field types (grasslands, heaps of waste material) and two different areas. Total content of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Hg), urease (URE), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), soil reaction (pH) were changing depending on the field/area type. The tailing pond and processing plants have been found as the biggest sources of pollution. URE, ACP and ALP activities significantly decreased while the heavy metal contents increased. Significant differences were found among area types in the heavy metal contents and activity of URE. No statistical differences in the content of heavy metals but significant statistical differences for soil pH were found for field types (grassland and heaps). Significant negative correlation was found for URE-Pb, URE-Zn and also between soil reaction and ACP and ALP. PMID:25293393

Angelovi?ová, Lenka; Lodenius, Martin; Tulisalo, Esa; Fazekašová, Danica

2014-12-01

218

Return period estimation of extraordinary flash flood events in Slovakia: regional frequency analysis using a Bayesian MCMC approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A regional frequency analysis including reconstructed major flash flood events on ungauged catchments that occurred in Slovakia during the past few decades is carried out. These events are characterized by extremely high discharge values, largely exceeding the highest the values recorded on the gauged catchments (e.g., the Štrba Creek event, June 24, 2001, had a peak discharge of 65 m3/s related to the catchment area of only 2.5 km2). The regional analysis is based on 40 small catchments from the northern and north-eastern parts of Slovakia that belong to the arch of the Western Carpathians. Groups of sites (regions) are delineated, which meet (i) the criterion of regional homogeneity of the dimensionless growth curves of flood peaks, assessed by the H1 test of Hosking and Wallis, and (ii) the hypothesis of unique scaling relation between the index flood and the catchment area assessed using a modified Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. The observations within a given region rescaled by the index flood are then merged with the rescaled extraordinary flood events that have been observed in ungauged basins in the same region. In order to better estimate the return period of these reconstructed flash floods, a sensitivity analysis is conducted using a Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) approach that allows for a joint analysis of the systematic information from a regular network of streamflow gauges, and extraordinary events either from ungauged sites or historical records on gauged sites. Problems of the assumption of the simple scaling, the extrapolation to the domain of the very small catchment sizes, and the choice of the fitted statistical distribution function are discussed. This work is conducted within the European research project HYDRATE (Contract GOCE 037024).

Gaál, L.; Gaume, E.; Viglione, A.; Szolgay, J.; Blöschl, G.

2009-04-01

219

PCDD, PCDF, PCB and PBDE concentrations in breast milk of mothers residing in selected areas of Slovakia.  

PubMed

The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) in 33 breast milk samples collected in 2006-2007 from primipara mothers close to four industrial areas of Slovak Republic were determined. The total PCDDs/PCDFs and dl-PCBs expressed as TEQ based on WHO TEFs 1998 in breast milk samples varied from 5.0 to 51.8 pg g(-1) fat (median: 13.1 pg g(-1) fat; mean: 18.0 pg g(-1) fat). The measurements of seven PBDE congeners (IUPAC No. 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, and 183) were performed for the first time in human milk from Slovakia. PBDE levels ranged between 0.22 and 1.62 ng g(-1) fat, with median and mean value of 0.43 ng g(-1) fat and 0.57 ng g(-1) fat respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed between studied areas in total PBDE concentrations. Furthermore, this study presents first results concerning the daily intake (DI) of PCDDs/PCDFs and dioxin-like compounds for the most vulnerable breast-fed infant population in Slovakia. The total PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB DI for an infant during the first 2 months of life was estimated in a range from 14.4 to 230 pg TEQ kg(-1)b.w., with a median value of 58.9 pg TEQ kg(-1)b.w.. The DI values substantially exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) 1-4 pg TEQ kg(-1)b.w. recommended by WHO. The dietary infant intake concerning PBDEs was estimated to be between 0.69 and 7.1 ng kg(-1)b.w.d(-1), with median value of 1.7 ng kg(-1)b.w.d(-1). PMID:21474162

Chovancová, Jana; ?onka, Kamil; Ko?an, Anton; Sejáková, Zuzana Stachová

2011-05-01

220

The 1998 and 2004 Bovec-Krn (Slovenia) seismic sequences: aftershock pattern, focal mechanisms and static stress changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the main seismotectonic aspects of the Bovec-Krn sequences (northwestern Slovenia), caused by the 1998 April 12 MD 5.6 and the 12 July 2004 MD 5.1 earthquakes. The seismicity occurred along an extended right-lateral strike-slip fault zone, trending NW-SE. The analysis involves the aftershock pattern, the focal mechanism of the largest events and the stress changes induced by the

G. Bressan; G. F. Gentile; B. Perniola; S. Urban

2009-01-01

221

75 FR 2879 - Identification of Foreign Countries Whose Nationals Are Eligible To Participate in the H-2A and H...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Honduras, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Jamaica, Japan, Lithuania, Mexico, Moldova, The Netherlands, Nicaragua, New Zealand, Norway, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, South...

2010-01-19

222

A comparison of sediment quality results with acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) ratio in Vojvodina (Serbia) sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acid-volatile sulfide (AVS), simultaneously extracted metals (SEM), total metals, and pore-water metal concentrations were studied in Vojvodina (Serbia) sediments. In Serbia, there are no regulations concerning sediment quality standards and sediment management. Harmonization of legislation in the domain of environmental protection with EU requirements will increase the significance of the sediment issue. Sediment quality was assessed according to Dutch

M. Prica; B. Dalmacija; S. Ron?evi?; D. Kr?mar; M. Be?eli?

2008-01-01

223

High prevalence of enteric viruses in untreated individual drinking water sources and surface water in Slovenia.  

PubMed

Waterborne infections have been shown to be important in outbreaks of gastroenteritis throughout the world. Although improved sanitary conditions are being progressively applied, fecal contaminations remain an emerging problem also in developed countries. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of fecal contaminated water sources in Slovenia, including surface waters and groundwater sources throughout the country. In total, 152 water samples were investigated, of which 72 samples represents groundwater from individual wells, 17 samples from public collection supplies and 63 samples from surface stream waters. Two liters of untreated water samples were collected and concentrated by the adsorption/elution technique with positively charged filters followed by an additional ultracentrifugation step. Group A rotaviruses, noroviruses (genogroups I and II) and astroviruses were detected with real-time RT-PCR method in 69 (45.4%) out of 152 samples collected, of which 31/89 (34.8%) drinking water and 38/63 (60.3%) surface water samples were positive for at least one virus tested. In 30.3% of drinking water samples group A rotaviruses were detected (27/89), followed by noroviruses GI (2.2%; 2/89) and astroviruses (2.2%; 2/89). In drinking groundwater samples group A rotaviruses were detected in 27 out of 72 tested samples (37.5%), genogroup I noroviruses in two (2.8%), and human astroviruses in one (1.4%) samples. In surface water samples norovirus genogroup GII was the most frequently detected (41.3%; 26/63), followed by norovirus GI (33.3%; 21/63), human astrovirus (27.0%; 17/63) and group A rotavirus (17.5%; 11/63). Our study demonstrates relatively high percentage of groundwater contamination in Slovenia and, suggests that raw groundwater used as individual drinking water supply may constitute a possible source of enteric virus infections. In the future, testing for enteric viruses should be applied for drinking water sources in waterborne outbreaks. PMID:21665537

Steyer, Andrej; Torkar, Karmen Godi?; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Ion; Poljšak-Prijatelj, Mateja

2011-09-01

224

The paleolimnological analysis of sediments from high mountain lake NiÓ Ó Ó Ó Óné Terianske pleso in the High Tatras (Slovakia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sedimentological climate proxies and a 200-year long climate record, reconstructed using a data-set of European- wide meteorological data, have been compared at the high mountain lake NiÓné Terianske pleso in the High Tatras, Slovakia. Diatoms, chrysophyte stomatocysts, chironomids, plant pigments and spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs) were analysed as well as sediment lithostratigraphic parameters. Using a radiometric approach the sedi- ment

F. Šporka; E. Štefková; P. Bitušík; A. R. Thompson; A. Agustí-Panareda; P. G. Appleby; J. A. Grytnes; C. Kamenik; I. Krno; A. Lami; N. Rose; N. E. Shilland

2002-01-01

225

Early Variscan magmatism in the Western Carpathians: U–Pb zircon data from granitoids and orthogneisses of the Tatra Mountains (Slovakia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the first U–Pb zircon data on granitoid basement rocks of the Tatra Mountains, part of the Western Carpathians\\u000a (Slovakia). The Western Carpathians belong to the Alpine Carpathian belt and constitute the eastern continuation of the Variscides.\\u000a The new age data thus provide important time constraints for the regional geology of the Carpathians as well as for their

U. Poller; M. Janák; M. Kohút; W. Todt

2000-01-01

226

Lazulite and Ba, Sr, Ca, K-rich phosphates–sulphates in quartz veins from metaquartzites of Tribe? Mountains, Western Carpathians, Slovakia: Compositional variations and evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phosphate–sulphate mineralization occurs in quartz veins in Lower Triassic metaquartzites of the Tribe? Mts., Central Western Carpathians, Slovakia. The mineralization comprises of lazulite, Ba, Sr, Ca, K-rich phosphates–sulphates and barite in an association with muscovite, hematite, locally rutile, zircon, chlorite and tourmaline. The most widespread lazulite forms up to 10 cm large pale to deep blue aggregates in massive quartz.

Pavel Uher; TomᚠMikuš; Rastislav Milovský; Adrian Biron; Ján Spisiak; Jozef Lipka; Ján Jahn

2009-01-01

227

Earthquake Hazard for the Czech Republic, Poland andSlovakia – Contribution to the ILC\\/IASPEI Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cross-bordering earthquake hazard mapfor three Central European countries, the CzechRepublic, Poland and Slovakia (CZ-PL-SK) in thesense of the Global Seismic Hazard AssessmentProgram (GSHAP) was elaborated both in terms ofmacroseismic intensities and in terms of peak groundaccelerations (PGA). A new earthquake parametriccatalogue for CZ-PL-SK (Schenková et al., 1999)allows the source regions to be delineated withrespect to tectonic structures. Regions for

V. Schenk; Z. Schenková; P. Kottnauer; B. Guterch; P. Labák

2000-01-01

228

Mineral and chemical composition of the Jezersko meteorite—A new chondrite from Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jezersko meteorite is a newly confirmed stony meteorite found in 1992 in the Karavanke mountains, Slovenia. The meteorite is moderately weathered (W2), indicating short terrestrial residence time. Chondrules in partially recrystallized matrix are clearly discernible but often fragmented and have mean diameter of 0.73 mm. The meteorite consists of homogeneous olivine (Fa19.4) and low-Ca pyroxenes (Fs16.7Wo1.2), of which 34% are monoclinic, and minor plagioclase (Ab83An11Or6) and Ca-pyroxene (Fs6Wo45.8). Troilite, kamacite, zoned taenite, tetrataenite, chromite, and metallic copper comprise about 16.5 vol% of the meteorite. Phosphates are represented by merrillite and minor chlorapatite. Undulatory extinction in some olivine grains and other shock indicators suggests weak shock metamorphism between stages S2 and S3. The bulk chemical composition generally corresponds to the mean H chondrite composition. Low siderophile element contents indicate the oxidized character of the Jezersko parent body. The temperatures recorded by two-pyroxene, olivine-chromite, and olivine-orthopyroxene geothermometers are 854 °C, 737-787 °C, and 750 °C, respectively. Mg concentration profiles across orthopyroxenes and clinopyroxenes indicate relatively fast cooling at temperatures above 700 °C. A low cooling rate of 10 °C Myr-1 was obtained from metallographic data. Considering physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties, meteorite Jezersko was classified as an H4 S2(3) ordinary chondrite.

Miler, Miloš; Ambroži?, Bojan; Mirti?, Breda; Gosar, Mateja; Ĺ turm, Sašo.; Dolenec, Matej; Jeršek, Miha

2014-10-01

229

Seismic microzonation of Breginjski kot (NW Slovenia) based on detailed engineering geological mapping.  

PubMed

Breginjski kot is among the most endangered seismic zones in Slovenia with the seismic hazard assessed to intensity IX MSK and the design ground acceleration of 0.250 g, both for 500-year return period. The most destructive was the 1976 Friuli Mw = 6.4 earthquake which had maximum intensity VIII-IX. Since the previous microzonation of the area was based solely on the basic geological map and did not include supplementary field research, we have performed a new soil classification of the area. First, a detailed engineering geological mapping in scale 1 : 5.000 was conducted. Mapped units were described in detail and some of them interpreted anew. Stiff sites are composed of hard to medium-hard rocks which were subjected to erosion mainly evoked by glacial and postglacial age. At that time a prominent topography was formed and different types of sediments were deposited in valleys by mass flows. A distinction between sediments and weathered rocks, their exact position, and thickness are of significant importance for microzonation. On the basis of geological mapping, a soil classification was carried out according to the Medvedev method (intensity increments) and the Eurocode 8 standard (soil factors) and two microzonation maps were prepared. The bulk of the studied area is covered by soft sediments and nine out of ten settlements are situated on them. The microzonation clearly points out the dependence of damage distribution in the case of 1976 Friuli earthquake to local site effects. PMID:24453884

Kokošin, Jure; Gosar, Andrej

2013-01-01

230

Small mammals as biomonitors of metal pollution: a case study in Slovenia.  

PubMed

The transfer of lead, cadmium, zinc, mercury, copper and molybdenum from soil to the tissues of small mammals inhabiting differently polluted areas in Slovenia was investigated. Metals were determined in soil samples and in the livers of 139 individuals of five small mammal species, collected in 2012 in the vicinity of a former lead smelter, the largest Slovenian thermal power plant, along a main road and in a control area. The area in the vicinity of former lead smelter differs considerably from other study areas. The soil from that area is heavily polluted with Pb and Cd. The mean metal concentrations in the liver, irrespective of species, varied in the following ranges-Pb: 0.40-7.40 mg/kg fw and Cd: 0.27-135 mg/kg fw and reached effect concentrations at which toxic effects can be expected in a significant proportion of the livers of the small mammal specimens (Pb 40 %, Cd 67 %). These findings indicate that the majority of small mammals trapped in the area of the former lead smelter are at risk of toxic effects due to the very high bioaccumulation of Pb and Cd in the organism. On the contrary, Pd and Cd concentrations in the livers of small mammals sampled in the vicinity of the thermal power plant and along the main road were comparable with reference values and considerably lower than effect concentrations. Additionally, the study suggests that Apodemus flavicollis and Myodes glareolus are very suitable biomonitors of metal pollution. PMID:24619365

Al Sayegh Petkovšek, Samar; Kopušar, Nataša; Kryštufek, Boris

2014-07-01

231

XANES speciation of mercury in three mining districts - Almadén, Asturias (Spain), Idria (Slovenia).  

PubMed

The mobility, bioavailability and toxicity of mercury in the environment strongly depend on the chemical species in which it is present in soil, sediments, water or air. In mining districts, differences in mobility and bioavailability of mercury mainly arise from the different type of mineralization and ore processing. In this work, synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) has been taken advantage of to study the speciation of mercury in geological samples from three of the largest European mercury mining districts: Almadén (Spain), Idria (Slovenia) and Asturias (Spain). XANES has been complemented with a single extraction protocol for the determination of Hg mobility. Ore, calcines, dump material, soil, sediment and suspended particles from the three sites have been considered in the study. In the three sites, rather insoluble sulfide compounds (cinnabar and metacinnabar) were found to predominate. Minor amounts of more soluble mercury compounds (chlorides and sulfates) were also identified in some samples. Single extraction procedures have put forward a strong dependence of the mobility with the concentration of chlorides and sulfates. Differences in efficiency of roasting furnaces from the three sites have been found. PMID:20157269

Esbrí, José Maria; Bernaus, Anna; Avila, Marta; Kocman, David; García-Noguero, Eva M; Guerrero, Beatriz; Gaona, Xavier; Alvarez, Rodrigo; Perez-Gonzalez, Gustavo; Valiente, Manuel; Higueras, Pablo; Horvat, Milena; Loredo, Jorge

2010-03-01

232

Carbonate Chemistry and Isotope Characteristics of Groundwater of Ljubljansko Polje and Ljubljansko Barje Aquifers in Slovenia  

PubMed Central

Ljubljansko polje and Ljubljansko Barje aquifers are the main groundwater resources for the needs of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia. Carbonate chemistry and isotope analysis of the groundwater were performed to acquire new hydrogeological data, which should serve as a base for improvement of hydrogeological conceptual models of both aquifers. A total of 138 groundwater samples were collected at 69 sampling locations from both aquifers. Major carbonate ions and the stable isotope of oxygen were used to identify differences in the recharging areas of aquifers. Four groups of groundwater were identified: (1) Ljubljansko polje aquifer, with higher Ca2+values, as limestone predominates in its recharge area, (2) northern part of Ljubljansko Barje aquifer, with prevailing dolomite in its recharge area, (3) central part of Ljubljansko Barje aquifer, which lies below surface cover of impermeable clay and is poor in carbonate, and (4) Brest and Iški vršaj aquifer in the southern part of Ljubljansko Barje with higher Mg2+ in groundwater and dolomite prevailing in its recharge area. The radioactive isotope tritium was also used to estimate the age of groundwater. Sampled groundwater is recent with tritium activity between 4 and 8 TU and residence time of up to 10 years. PMID:24453928

2013-01-01

233

Hydrological analysis of high waters and flash floods occurred in September 2007 in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy and intense precipitation which fell in just a few hours across the western, north-western and northern Slovenia on 18 September 2007, caused quick rise of river discharges especially in the region of Baška grapa, Dav?a, the Cerkljansko and Škofja Loka hills. In that area the streams caused huge destruction on infrastructure, homes, business buildings and other property. More than 300 mm of rain was recorded on some precipitation measurement stations. The return period of the highest precipitation was more than 100 years. The amount of precipitation decreased from the west to the east of the country where above 100 mm of precipitation was recorded and torrential streams and rivers flooded in the region of Karavanke and foothills of the Kamnik-Savinja Alps, Kranj and Domžale fields, the Tuhinj valley and extensive Celje region. Observed discharges of streams and rivers on the most affected area exceeded periodical maximum discharges. The simulation of flood hydrograph for Železniki was done by HEC-1 model. The return period of floods was more than 100 years. Besides flooding many landslides were triggered. The result of this catastrophe was enormous economic damage and loss of six people's lives.

Kobold, M.; Sušnik, M.; Robi?, M.; Ulaga, F.; Lali?, B.

2008-11-01

234

Heat transfer in shallow subsurface under different climate conditions in Europe (Czechia, Slovenia, Portugal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-term records of soil and air temperatures collected at several geothermal observatories in Prague, Bedrichov, Svojsice (Czechia), Malence (Slovenia) and Evora (Portugal) were used to analyze the surface air temperature (SAT) vs soil temperature coupling at several depth levels. The work assesses (a) the influence of solar radiation, vegetation or snow cover, as well as the precipitation and albedo of the surface on mean annual air - surface temperature offset and (b) the heat transfer within the shallow subsurface. As thermal diffusivity (TD) plays a fundamental role in heat transfer in soil, two different methods based on attenuation and phase shift of annual temperature wave and on modeling of thermal response by error function solution of heat conduction equation were used to estimate TD in particular soil levels. It was found that low-frequency changes of the surface temperature such as the annual wave and/or multi-year and secular variations propagate downwards mainly by the heat conduction contrary to high-frequency (diurnal wave) where the convective heat transport during wet periods plays an important role. Significant seasonal changes of thermal diffusivity of upper soil layer caused by rotating of long wet and dry periods in Evora produce negative offset values between ground and soil mean annual temperature.

Dedecek, Petr; Cermak, Vladimir; Safanda, Jan; Correia, Antonio; Rajver, Dusan

2014-05-01

235

Carbonate chemistry and isotope characteristics of groundwater of Ljubljansko polje and Ljubljansko Barje aquifers in Slovenia.  

PubMed

Ljubljansko polje and Ljubljansko Barje aquifers are the main groundwater resources for the needs of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia. Carbonate chemistry and isotope analysis of the groundwater were performed to acquire new hydrogeological data, which should serve as a base for improvement of hydrogeological conceptual models of both aquifers. A total of 138 groundwater samples were collected at 69 sampling locations from both aquifers. Major carbonate ions and the stable isotope of oxygen were used to identify differences in the recharging areas of aquifers. Four groups of groundwater were identified: (1) Ljubljansko polje aquifer, with higher Ca(2+)values, as limestone predominates in its recharge area, (2) northern part of Ljubljansko Barje aquifer, with prevailing dolomite in its recharge area, (3) central part of Ljubljansko Barje aquifer, which lies below surface cover of impermeable clay and is poor in carbonate, and (4) Brest and Iški vršaj aquifer in the southern part of Ljubljansko Barje with higher Mg(2+) in groundwater and dolomite prevailing in its recharge area. The radioactive isotope tritium was also used to estimate the age of groundwater. Sampled groundwater is recent with tritium activity between 4 and 8 TU and residence time of up to 10 years. PMID:24453928

Cerar, Sonja; Urbanc, Janko

2013-01-01

236

Identification of SARS-like coronaviruses in horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus hipposideros) in Slovenia.  

PubMed

Bats have been identified as a natural reservoir for an increasing number of emerging zoonotic viruses, such as Hendra virus, Nipah virus, Ebola virus, Marburg virus, rabies and other lyssaviruses. Recently, a large number of viruses closely related to members of the genus Coronavirus have been associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and detected in bat species. In this study, samples were collected from 106 live bats of seven different bat species from 27 different locations in Slovenia. Coronaviruses were detected by RT-PCR in 14 out of 36 horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros) fecal samples, with 38.8% virus prevalence. Sequence analysis of a 405-nucleotide region of the highly conserved RNA polymerase gene (pol) showed that all coronaviruses detected in this study are genetically closely related, with 99.5-100% nucleotide identity, and belong to group 2 of the coronaviruses. The most closely related virus sequence in GenBank was SARS bat isolate Rp3/2004 (DQ071615) within the SARS-like CoV cluster, sharing 85% nucleotide identity and 95.6% amino acid identity. The potential risk of a new group of bat coronaviruses as a reservoir for human infections is highly suspected, and further molecular epidemiologic studies of these bat coronaviruses are needed. PMID:20217155

Rihtaric, Danijela; Hostnik, Peter; Steyer, Andrej; Grom, Joze; Toplak, Ivan

2010-04-01

237

The invasion history, distribution and colour pattern forms of the harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pall.) (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) in Slovakia, Central Europe.  

PubMed

The harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) has invaded and established in Slovakia. Following unintentional introduction in 2008, the spread of the alien coccinellid was very fast. By the end of 2009, it was recorded across the whole country, and by the end of 2012 it was widely distributed and common in various habitats, particularly gardens, orchards and urban areas, where it was most frequent on trees. The rate of eastward spread was approximately 200 km year(-1), similar to the overall rate of spread in Europe. Between 2008 and 2012, the coccinellid was recorded in a total of 153 localities, in altitudes ranging from 98 to 1,250 m. Most records of this species were made in lowlands, hilly areas and valleys separating mountain ridges. However, it was only rarely documented in areas above 700 m a.s.l. The non-melanic colour form (f. succinea) was dominant along a longitudinal transect including eight urban areas across Slovakia, with the frequency of melanic forms (f. spectabilis and f. conspicua together) between 6.3 and 19.2% and a median equal to 10.5%. The invasion history and distribution of H. axyridis in Slovakia are discussed with regard to the time sequence of records, rate of spread, altitudinal distribution, anthropogenic dispersal, effective recording, proportion of melanic forms and other relevant aspects associated with the spread of this successful invader. PMID:24899863

Panigaj, Lubomír; Zach, Peter; Hon?k, Alois; Nedv?d, Old?ich; Kulfan, Ján; Martinková, Zdenka; Selyemová, Diana; Viglášová, Sandra; Roy, Helen E

2014-01-01

238

The invasion history, distribution and colour pattern forms of the harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pall.) (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) in Slovakia, Central Europe  

PubMed Central

Abstract The harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) has invaded and established in Slovakia. Following unintentional introduction in 2008, the spread of the alien coccinellid was very fast. By the end of 2009, it was recorded across the whole country, and by the end of 2012 it was widely distributed and common in various habitats, particularly gardens, orchards and urban areas, where it was most frequent on trees. The rate of eastward spread was approximately 200 km year-1, similar to the overall rate of spread in Europe. Between 2008 and 2012, the coccinellid was recorded in a total of 153 localities, in altitudes ranging from 98 to 1,250 m. Most records of this species were made in lowlands, hilly areas and valleys separating mountain ridges. However, it was only rarely documented in areas above 700 m a.s.l. The non-melanic colour form (f. succinea) was dominant along a longitudinal transect including eight urban areas across Slovakia, with the frequency of melanic forms (f. spectabilis and f. conspicua together) between 6.3 and 19.2% and a median equal to 10.5%. The invasion history and distribution of H. axyridis in Slovakia are discussed with regard to the time sequence of records, rate of spread, altitudinal distribution, anthropogenic dispersal, effective recording, proportion of melanic forms and other relevant aspects associated with the spread of this successful invader. PMID:24899863

Panigaj, ?ubomír; Zach, Peter; Hon?k, Alois; Nedv?d, Old?ich; Kulfan, Ján; Martinková, Zdenka; Selyemová, Diana; Viglášová, Sandra; Roy, Helen E.

2014-01-01

239

Soil fertility status and spatial distribution of selected trace elements in south-western Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil fertility status and spatial distribution of selected trace elements in south-western Serbia V. Mrvic, Lj. Kostic-Kravljanac, D. ?akmak, R. Pivi?, E. Saljnikov, M. Nikoloski, V. Perovi? Institute of Soil Science, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia (vesnavmrvic@yahoo.com) Main characteristic of surface soil layer (pH in KCl, humus, available P and K), and content of trace elements (Ni, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, As, Hg) were analysed on area of southwestern Serbia, covering total 959 000 ha (one sample represents 1000 ha) . About 30 % of samples have very acid reaction. Main portion of soil samples (86%) is poorly suplied with available phosphorus (<8 mg/100g), and these are located under forests, meadows, pastures and orchards. Supplies of available potasium and humus are well. On the other hand, in small number of soil samples (4%), mostly on fertile alluvial soils, there are high P and K concentration, which are consequence of inadequate usage of mineral fertilizers. Content of trace elements in 70 % of soil samples is bellow maximum allowed concentration (MAC). The most frequente potential pollutants are Cr and Ni, which is assosiated with mafic and ultramafic rocks, which are common in this region (mountains naerby river Ibar - Troglav, Stolovi, ?emerno, Željin, Golija, Kopaonik; near Sjenica- peridotites of mn. Ozren). There are dominace of Eutric Leptosols soil type, with Ni content above 100 mg/kg, and in some samples above 1000 mg/kg. In smaller number of samples arsenic and lead exceed MAC, while other elements exceed MAD very rarelly. There are elevated Pb content in Kopaonik mountain area, and elevated As content besides this region, are in mine zone of Golija and Cemerno. These are mountain soils formed on acid igneous and metamorphic rocks, which are enriched with ores of Pb, Zn and other elements. Eventually negative influences of these elements on plants and other components of ecosystem may be esstimated only after detalied investigation.

Mrvic, Vesna; Kostic-Kravljanac, Ljiljana; Cakmak, Dragan; Pivic, Radmila; Saljnikov, Elmira; Nikoloski, Mile; Perovic, Veljko

2010-05-01

240

Skeletal Manifestations of Hydatid Disease in Serbia: Demographic Distribution, Site Involvement, Radiological Findings, and Complications  

PubMed Central

Although Serbia is recognized as an endemic country for echinococcosis, no information about precise incidence in humans has been available. The aim of this study was to investigate the skeletal manifestations of hydatid disease in Serbia. This retrospective study was conducted by reviewing the medical database of Institute for Pathology (Faculty of Medicine in Belgrade), a reference institution for bone pathology in Serbia. We reported a total of 41 patients with bone cystic echinococcosis (CE) during the study period. The mean age of 41 patients was 40.9ą18.8 years. In 39% of patients, the fracture line was the only visible radiological sign, followed by cyst and tumefaction. The spine was the most commonly involved skeletal site (55.8%), followed by the femur (18.6%), pelvis (13.9%), humerus (7.0%), rib (2.3%), and tibia (2.3%). Pain was the symptom in 41.5% of patients, while some patients demonstrated complications such as paraplegia (22.0%), pathologic fracture (48.8%), and scoliosis (9.8%). The pathological fracture most frequently affected the spine (75.0%) followed by the femur (20.0%) and tibia (5.0%). However, 19.5% of patients didn't develop any complication or symptom. In this study, we showed that bone CE is not uncommon in Serbian population. As reported in the literature, therapy of bone CE is controversial and its results are poor. In order to improve the therapy outcome, early diagnosis, before symptoms and complications occur, can be contributive. PMID:24039289

Bracanovic, Djurdja; Sopta, Jelena; Djonic, Danijela; Lujic, Nenad

2013-01-01

241

Skeletal manifestations of hydatid disease in Serbia: demographic distribution, site involvement, radiological findings, and complications.  

PubMed

Although Serbia is recognized as an endemic country for echinococcosis, no information about precise incidence in humans has been available. The aim of this study was to investigate the skeletal manifestations of hydatid disease in Serbia. This retrospective study was conducted by reviewing the medical database of Institute for Pathology (Faculty of Medicine in Belgrade), a reference institution for bone pathology in Serbia. We reported a total of 41 patients with bone cystic echinococcosis (CE) during the study period. The mean age of 41 patients was 40.9ą18.8 years. In 39% of patients, the fracture line was the only visible radiological sign, followed by cyst and tumefaction. The spine was the most commonly involved skeletal site (55.8%), followed by the femur (18.6%), pelvis (13.9%), humerus (7.0%), rib (2.3%), and tibia (2.3%). Pain was the symptom in 41.5% of patients, while some patients demonstrated complications such as paraplegia (22.0%), pathologic fracture (48.8%), and scoliosis (9.8%). The pathological fracture most frequently affected the spine (75.0%) followed by the femur (20.0%) and tibia (5.0%). However, 19.5% of patients didn't develop any complication or symptom. In this study, we showed that bone CE is not uncommon in Serbian population. As reported in the literature, therapy of bone CE is controversial and its results are poor. In order to improve the therapy outcome, early diagnosis, before symptoms and complications occur, can be contributive. PMID:24039289

Bracanovic, Djurdja; Djuric, Marija; Sopta, Jelena; Djonic, Danijela; Lujic, Nenad

2013-08-01

242

Malignant Lymphatic and Hematopoietic Neoplasms Mortality in Serbia, 1991-2010: A Joinpoint Regression Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Limited data on mortality from malignant lymphatic and hematopoietic neoplasms have been published for Serbia. Methods The study covered population of Serbia during the 1991–2010 period. Mortality trends were assessed using the joinpoint regression analysis. Results Trend for overall death rates from malignant lymphoid and haematopoietic neoplasms significantly decreased: by ?2.16% per year from 1991 through 1998, and then significantly increased by +2.20% per year for the 1998–2010 period. The growth during the entire period was on average +0.8% per year (95% CI 0.3 to 1.3). Mortality was higher among males than among females in all age groups. According to the comparability test, mortality trends from malignant lymphoid and haematopoietic neoplasms in men and women were parallel (final selected model failed to reject parallelism, P?=?0.232). Among younger Serbian population (0–44 years old) in both sexes: trends significantly declined in males for the entire period, while in females 15–44 years of age mortality rates significantly declined only from 2003 onwards. Mortality trend significantly increased in elderly in both genders (by +1.7% in males and +1.5% in females in the 60–69 age group, and +3.8% in males and +3.6% in females in the 70+ age group). According to the comparability test, mortality trend for Hodgkin's lymphoma differed significantly from mortality trends for all other types of malignant lymphoid and haematopoietic neoplasms (P<0.05). Conclusion Unfavourable mortality trend in Serbia requires targeted intervention for risk factors control, early diagnosis and modern therapy. PMID:25333862

Ilic, Milena; Ilic, Irena

2014-01-01

243

Clinical pattern of ocular toxoplasmosis treated in a referral centre in Serbia  

PubMed Central

Purpose To analyze the clinical pattern of ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) in a referral centre in Serbia. Patients and methods The medical records of consecutive patients admitted for OT to the single referral centre for uveitis in Serbia between 2006 and 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. OT was diagnosed on the basis of typical fundus lesions and positive serology for Toxoplasma. Results In a total of 457 uveitis patients, OT was the third leading cause, with 59 patients (12.9%). Most OT cases (73%) were monocular. An active primary retinal lesion was observed in 36% and recurrent OT in 64% patients. Localization of lesions was central/paracentral (44%), juxtapapillar (27%), peripheral (19%), and multifocal (10%). Other ocular manifestations of inflammation included vitritis (44%), anterior uveitis (19%), and retinal vasculitis (10%). Complications included choroidal neovascularization in two and exudative retinal detachment with cataract, glaucoma, and cystoid macular oedema in one patient each. The detection of Toxoplasma-specific IgM antibodies in a single patient indicates a low rate of OT concomitant with acute infection. After treatment, the mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) increased significantly. However, 14 (24%) patients ended up legally blind in the affected eye, of which 2 (3%) with bilateral blindness, all with a very poor BCVA (0.047ą0.055) at presentation. Visual impairment and treatment outcome were both associated with central localization of lesions (P<0.0001 and P=0.006, respectively). Conclusion OT is a significant cause of posterior uveitis in Serbia. Patients should be aware of the recurring nature of OT and react immediately if symptoms occur. PMID:22361847

Kovacevic-Pavicevic, D; Radosavljevic, A; Ilic, A; Kovacevic, I; Djurkovic-Djakovic, O

2012-01-01

244

Torrent floodplain mapping and torrent flood control in Serbia in the conditions of economic crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Serbia is a country that is endangered by flooding of the largest European river, the Danube and its largest tributaries, as well as by countless torrents. During the 19th and 20th centuries, an imposing scope of protection structures was constructed. The existence of the protection system created the conviction that flood protection was achieved and that it should only be complemented on a great number of unregulated torrents. Such an opinion and practice are possible only in the countries with powerful economies. However, for almost two decades, Serbia has been going through the conditions of economic crisis. The floods which occurred in Serbia during that period pointed to the problem of maintenance of the existing protection system and to the impossibility of building the new projects. Floodplain mapping, although prescribed by the Law, was postponed because of the high price of the classical geodetic surveying. The postponing of this activity, in the conditions of a stable and good economic situation, was explained by the achieved flood protection on large rivers and by low probability that the system could fail. On the other hand, small torrents were partly regulated in the zones of roads and towns, so in this case also it was thought that the protection was accomplished. It was overlooked that the majority of torrents in Serbia was not regulated by any protection system. Urbanisation was progressing unrestrainedly. The State could not afford the construction of the necessary protection system, so numerous settlements remained at risk, without any protection. Floods did not forgive and forget any mistakes and the awareness of the necessity of collecting the data on floodplains and protection against floods became an indispensable task, but in the conditions of economic crisis, difficult to realise. For this reason, a rational method of floodplain mapping was searched, as well as the method of reducing the damage caused by floods, but not requiring high investments. This paper will present the realised results of low-budget mapping of flood zones of torrents and other waterways and the realised preventive techniques of torrential flood control, which were successfully implemented during the great flood of the Danube in 2006. On that occasion, numerous torrential floods endangered the defence system of the river Danube. Key words: Floodplain, flood, torrent, flood defence.

Gavrilovic, Z.; Stefanovic, M.

2009-04-01

245

Access to primary healthcare services for the Roma population in Serbia: a secondary data analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Serbia has proclaimed access to healthcare as a human right. In a context wherein the Roma population are disadvantaged, the aim of this study was to assess whether the Roma population are able to effectively access primary care services, and if not, what barriers prevent them from doing so. The history of the Roma in Serbia is described in detail so as to provide a context for their current vulnerable position. Methods Disaggregated data were analyzed from three population groups in Serbia; the general population, the Roma population, and the poorest quintile of the general population not including the Roma. The effective coverage framework, which incorporates availability, affordability, accessibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of health services, was used to structure the secondary data analysis. Acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children less than five years of age was used as an example as this is the leading cause of death in children under 5 years old in Serbia. Results Roma children were significantly more likely to experience an ARI than either the general population or the poorest quintile of the general population, not including the Roma. All three population groups were equally likely to not receive the correct treatment regime of antibiotics. An analysis of the factors that affect quality of access to health services reveal that personal documentation is a statistically significant problem; availability of health services is not an issue that disproportionately affects the Roma; however the geographical accessibility and affordability are substantive issues that disproportionately affect the Roma population. Affordability of services affected the Roma and the poorest quintile and affordability of medications significantly affected all three population groups. With regards to acceptability, mothers from all three population groups are equally likely to recognize the importance of seeking treatment. Conclusions The Roma should be assisted in applying for personal documentation, the geographical accessibility of clinics needs to be addressed, and the costs of healthcare visits and medications should be reviewed. Areas for improvement specific to ARI are the costs of antibiotics and the diagnostic accuracy of providers. A range of policy recommendations are outlined. PMID:21851632

2011-01-01

246

Mechanism of cross-sectoral coordination between nature protection and forestry in the Natura 2000 formulation process in Slovakia.  

PubMed

Nature protection as a policy sector is not isolated and is directly or indirectly influenced by many other sectors (e.g. forestry, water management, rural development, energy, etc.). These policy sectors are neither completely segmented nor unaffected by the decisions taken in other policy sectors. Policy formulation in nature protection is therefore also influenced by different sectors. For that reason it is inevitable to stress the need for inter-sectoral coordination to assure their policy coherence. The aim of this article is to describe the mechanism and modes of cross-sectoral coordination and to analyze the relevant actors and their interaction, using the case of the Natura 2000 formulation process in Slovakia. The European Union (EU) set up an ecological network of special protected areas, known as Natura 2000 to ensure biodiversity by conserving natural habitats and wild fauna and flora in the territory of the Member States. An optimized nature protection must therefore carefully consider existing limits and crossdisciplinary relationships at the EU, national and regional levels. The relations between forestry and biodiversity protection are analyzed using the advocacy coalition framework (ACF). The ACF is used for analyzing how two coalitions, in this case ecological and forest owners' coalitions, advocate or pursue their beliefs from the nature protection and forestry policy field. The whole process is illustrated at the regional scale on the case study of Natura 2000 sites formulation in the Slovak Republic. For better reliability and validity of research, a combination of various empiric research methods was used, supported by existing theories. So called triangulation of sociological research or triangulation of methods consists of mutual results testing of individual methodological steps through identifying corresponding political-science theories, assessing their formal points using primary and secondary document analysis and assessing their informal points with standardized interviews with experts. We can conclude that adequate cross-sectoral coordination represented by new modes is missing and the formulation of the Natura 2000 network in Slovakia shows deficits resulting from different policy beliefs concerning nature protection and forestry coalition. PMID:22771263

Sarvašová, Zuzana; Sálka, Jaroslav; Dobšinská, Zuzana

2013-09-01

247

Simulating rainfall-runoff dynamics of selected flash flood events in Slovakia using the KLEM hydrological model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The HYDRATE project (Hydrometeorological Data Resources and Technologies for Effective Flash Flood Forecasting) objective is to improve the scientific basis of flash flood forecasting by extending the understanding of past flash flood events and developing a coherent set of technologies and tools for effective early warning systems. To understand rainfall-runoff processes during selected extreme flash floods occurred in the past in Slovakia, runoff responses during selected major events were examined by using the spatially distributed hydrologic model KLEM (Kinematic Local Excess Model (Borga et al., 2007)). The distributed hydrological model is based on availability of raster information of the landscape topography, the soil and vegetation properties and radar rainfall data. In the model, the SCS-Curve Number procedure is applied on a grid way for the spatially distributed representation of runoff generating processes. For representing runoff routing a description of the drainage system response is used. In Slovakia, 3 extreme events selected from the HYDRATE flash-flood database were simulated by the model. Three selected major flash floods occurred 20th of July 1998 in the Malá Svinka and Dubovický creeks, 24th of July 2001 in the Štrbský Creek (both with more than 1000-years return period) and 19th of June 2004 in the Turniansky Creek (with 100-years return period). Rainfall-runoff characteristics of the floods in the Malá Svinka, Dubovický and Štrbský creek basins were similar and the floods had a similar progress. A value of runoff coefficient varied from 0.39 to 0.56. Opposite to them, the highest runoff coefficient in the Turniansky Creek Basin only reached a value equal to 0.26. The simulated values by the KLEM model were comparable with maximum peaks estimated on the base of post event surveying. The consistency of the estimated and simulated values by the KLEM model was evident both in time and space and the methodology has shown its applicability for practical purposes. It was concluded that for short duration of the storm events temporal variability seems to be less important than the spatial variability.

Horvat, O.; Hlavcova, K.; Kohnova, S.; Szolgay, J.; Remiasova, R.

2009-04-01

248

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 710 - States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic* Slovenia Solomon Islands South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of...

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15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 745 - States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling...  

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...Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Solomon Islands South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand The United Arab...

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15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 745 - States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling...  

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15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 710 - States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic* Slovenia Solomon Islands South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of...

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15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 745 - States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

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15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 710 - States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling...  

...Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic* Slovenia Solomon Islands South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of...

2014-01-01

254

Clinical and Economic Burden of Community-Acquired Pneumonia among Adults in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia  

PubMed Central

We estimate and describe the incidence rates, mortality, and cost of CAP (community-acquired pneumonia), in both inpatient and outpatient settings, in the Czech Republic (CZ), Slovakia (SK), Poland (PL), and Hungary (HU). A retrospective analysis was conducted on administrative data from the health ministry and insurance reimbursement claims with a primary diagnosis of pneumonia in 2009 to determine hospitalization rates, costs, and mortality in adults ?50 years of age. Patient chart reviews were conducted to estimate the number of outpatient cases. Among all adults ?50 years, the incidence of hospitalized CAP per 100,000 person years was: 456.6 (CZ), 504.6 (SK), 363.9 (PL), and 845.3 (HU). The average fatality rate for all adults ?50 is 19.1%, and for each country; 21.7% (CZ), 20.9% (SK), 18.6% (PL), 17.8% (HU). Incidence, fatality, and likelihood of hospitalization increased with advancing age. Total healthcare costs of CAP in EUR was 12,579,543 (CZ); 9,160,774 (SK); 22,409,085 (PL); and 18,298,449 (HU); with hospitalization representing over 90% of the direct costs of treatment. The burden of CAP increases with advancing age in four CEE countries, with hospitalizations driving the costs of CAP upwards in the elderly population. Mortality rates are generally higher than reported in Western EU countries. PMID:23940743

Tichopad, Ales; Roberts, Craig; Gembula, Igor; Hajek, Petr; Skoczynska, Anna; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Jahnz-Rozyk, Karina; Prymula, Roman; Solovi?, Ivan; Kolek, Vit?zslav

2013-01-01

255

Elemental and mineral inventory of tailing impoundments near Pezinok, Slovakia and possible courses of action for their remediation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An effective remediation strategy for a polluted site should take the absolute amount of the pollutant(s) into account. Here, we present an elemental budget for As, Sb and Fe in two tailing impoundments of the former Sb-Au deposit near Pezinok, Slovakia. The two impoundments contain 5,740×103 kg As, 6,360×103 kg Sb and 50,105×103 kg Fe. An estimated total Au content in the impoundments is 132 kg. The most abundant minerals in the tailings are quartz, illite, and chlorite. The content of carbonates in the tailings is 3.5-10.5 wt% calcite equivalent and we estimate that the carbonates are sufficiently abundant to buffer the pH at circumneutral values, up to the point when all pyrite decomposes. The possible courses of action are i) do nothing, ii) build an active barrier to capture the released As and Sb, iii) isolate the impoundments from rain and ground water and iv) use the impoundments as a source of Sb and redeposit the waste in a safer form. The simplest approach is to do nothing, which seems to be the most likely course of events, given the current economic, political and societal state of the Slovak Republic. Although this action costs nothing in the short term, it may cause significant damage to the environment, especially to the alluvial sediments and associated water resources in the long term.

Majzlan, Juraj; Brecht, Björn; Lalinská, Bronislava; Chovan, Martin; Moravanský, Daniel; Uhlík, Peter

2010-01-01

256

Publication of PWV and ZTD time series and models of PWV and nPWV over Slovakia and vicinity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 50 permanent GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) stations are processed continually within the Central European Permanent Network at the Slovak University of Technology, Department of Theoretical Geodesy. Zenith Total Delay (ZTD), one of the processing outputs, reflects delay of the GNSS signal caused by troposphere. Precipitable Water Vapour (PWV) is calculated if ground meteorological observations are available. Model of PWV over Slovakia and vicinity is produced using digital terrain model data for height correction in grid points. Real variation of PWV over the area shows model of normalized PWV (nPWV) created from PWV values reduced by theoretical PWV value corresponding to altitude and latitude of the station. Mathematical background for computing PWV and nPWV models will be presented. All computations on the way from discrete ZTD values to PWV time series and models are realized using Perl scripts. Time series of ZTD and PWV since 1996 and models of PWV and nPWV are published on the server freely available in the internet using Web Map Service, PHP, JavaScript and other web technologies. All the data are available in one hour interval. Data are continually updated and can be downloaded for scientific applications.

Igondova, Miroslava; Hefty, Jan; Cibulka, Dusan

2010-05-01

257

'Avoidable' mortality: a measure of health system performance in the Czech Republic and Slovakia between 1971 and 2008.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND Post-communist health care reforms and the break-up of Czechoslovakia have been studied from various perspectives, but little research has addressed the impact on health system performance. This paper investigates the quality and performance of the Slovak and Czech health systems before and after 1989, including the year of separation in 1993, using the concept of 'avoidable' mortality. METHODS Age-standardized mortality rates for mortality from 'avoidable' and other (non-avoidable) causes have been calculated through indirect standardization to study national and regional trends between 1971 and 2008. RESULTS The paper shows that 'avoidable' mortality in both countries has been continuously decreasing while mortality from other causes has remained unchanged or increased slightly. For some 'avoidable' conditions, mortality rates of the two countries converge while for others divergence can be observed, with either the Czech Republic or Slovakia performing better. CONCLUSION Declines in overall 'avoidable' mortality suggest improvements in the health system's performance and quality of care in both countries, compared with mortality from other causes where factors outside the control of the health care system may be stronger determinants. For conditions where 'avoidable' mortality rates stagnate or increase, more in-depth research should be carried out to identify problems in the delivery of timely and effective prevention and treatment, and to establish steps that would reduce the numbers of unnecessary deaths. PMID:23002250

Kossarova, Lucia; Holland, Walter; Mossialos, Elias

2013-08-01

258

Human Leukocyte Antigen-B27 and Disease Susceptibility in Vojvodina, Serbia  

PubMed Central

There are numerous studies showing the role of human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) related with susceptibility or resistance to certain diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the association of HLA-B27 with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), polyarthralgia, lumboishialgia, acute anterior uveitis (AAU), psoriatic arthritis (PA), synovitis coxae and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in patients from Vojvodina, Serbia. An HLA I class typing was performed by the serological immunomagnetic two-color fluorescence method using peripheral blood T lymphocytes in 97 patients and 224 healthy controls from the population of Vojvodina, Serbia. We calculated HLA-B27 frequencies, relative risk (RR), ethiologic fraction (EF), e.g., population attributive risk, when RR was greater than 1, while, preventive fraction (PF) was calculated when RR was lower than 1. This study revealed the strongest association of AS with HLAB27 antigen: RR = 25.0, while the EF was greater than 0.15, respectively. The ?2 test showed the significant difference (p <0.05) in HLA-B27 in patients with AS in comparison to controls (?2 = 52.5). It was concluded that there is a positive association of HLA-B27 with AS and that HLA-B27 can serve as a marker for predisposition to diseases. PMID:24052732

Vojvodic, S; Ademovic-Sazdanic, D; Busarcevic

2012-01-01

259

Non-dioxin-like PCBs in crops and related products: Levels and intakes in Serbia.  

PubMed

Levels of six non-dioxin-like indicator PCBs in 36 composite samples of agricultural crops, related by-products and foodstuffs were pooled from a total of 938 individual samples collected in Serbia in 2002 and 2004. After extraction and cleanup, PCBs were determined by capillary GC using ECD. The highest total PCB levels were found in dried sugar beet pulp (2.89 ng g(-1) whole weight (ww)) and crude sunflower oil (1.83 ng g(-1) lipid), while the lowest levels were found in molasses (0.05 ng g(-1) ww). The calculated daily intake of PCBs for the crop products included in this study were compared with the maximum permissible risk (MPR) level established by the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment. Cereal products (flour, bread, pastry, pasta, cookies) were made a relatively large contribution (23% of MPR), while sugar (2% of MPR) and oil (4% of MPR) made a low and fairly uniform contribution to intake. The levels and intake of PCBs in Serbia were compared with data from other recent international surveys. PMID:17487606

Skrbic, Biljana; Durisic-Mladenovic, Natasa

2007-06-01

260

Molecular and phenotypic characteristics of patients with phenylketonuria in Serbia and Montenegro.  

PubMed

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most common inborn error of amino acid metabolism in Caucasians. PKU is caused by mutations in the gene encoding phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) enzyme. Here, we report the spectrum and the frequency of mutations in the PAH gene and discuss genotype-phenotype correlation in 34 unrelated patients with PKU from Serbia and Montenegro. Using both polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and 'broad-range' denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis/DNA sequencing analysis, 19 disease-causing mutations were identified, corresponding to mutation detection rate of 97%. The most frequent ones were L48S (21%), R408W (18%), P281L (9%), E390G (7%) and R261Q (6%), accounting for 60% of all mutant alleles. The genotype-phenotype correlation was studied in homozygous and functionally hemizygous patients. We found that the most frequent mutation, L48S, was exclusively associated with the classical (severe) PKU phenotype. The mutation E390G gave rise to mild PKU. For the mutation R261Q, patients had been recorded in two phenotype categories. Considering allele frequencies, PKU in Serbia and Montenegro is heterogeneous, reflecting numerous migrations over the Balkan Peninsula. PMID:16879198

Stojiljkovic, M; Jovanovic, J; Djordjevic, M; Grkovic, S; Cvorkov Drazic, M; Petrucev, B; Tosic, N; Karan Djurasevic, T; Stojanov, L; Pavlovic, S

2006-08-01

261

Economic Sanctions, Military Activity, and Road Traffic Crashes in Vojvodina, Serbia  

PubMed Central

Objectives Political violence has not been examined as a risk factor for traumatic injuries from road traffic crashes. We identify trends in road traffic crashes related to war-related military activity and international economic sanctions in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Serbia. Methods Overall road traffic crashes and crashes leading to hospitalization and fatality in Vojvodina, Serbia were examined from 1996 through 2001. Rates were calculated per 100,000 population and per 10,000 registered vehicles. Three time periods were examined: years with international sanctions and military activity; years with international sanctions but no military activity; and, years with neither sanctions nor military activity. Results Compared to the period with neither sanctions nor military activity, severe injury crashes were 1.23 times more frequent (95% CI = 1.19 – 1.27) during the period with sanctions and military activity and 1.21 times more frequent (95% CI= 1.16 – 1.27) during the period with sanctions but no military activity. Conclusions Our data suggest that vehicle travel became safer following the end of military action and economic sanctions. Road traffic safety needs to be a priority both during periods of political unrest and its recovery phase. PMID:19074242

?uric, Predrag; Peek-Asa, Corinne

2008-01-01

262

The use of NEOPLANTA model for evaluating the UV index in the Vojvodina region (Serbia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increase in ultraviolet (UV) radiation in the last several decades caused intensive activities in its monitoring and forecast all over the world. Due to lack of ground measurements of UV index (UVI) in the Vojvodina region (Serbia), the numerical methods are an alternative to estimate its value. The values of the UVI in one hour time resolutions are calculated using the NEOPLANTA model. Model outputs have been compared with measurements recorded, during the spring and summer period of 2006, with the Yankee UVB-1 biometer located at the campus of the University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad (Serbia). Obtained results show a good agreement with the UVI values for low cloudiness, while the largest uncertainties are associated with the higher amounts of ones. The strong correlation (0.815) and small absolute value of the difference of standard deviations in the simulations and the observations (0.102) for data with cloudiness ? 6 and UVI ? 3 indicates good model performances. Based on the overall results it can be concluded, in an acceptable level of accuracy, that the outputs of the NEOPLANTA model are an acceptable data source in the monitoring program of the UV radiation in the Vojvodina region in places having no actual measurements.

Malinovic-Milicevic, Slavica; Mihailovic, Dragutin T.

2011-08-01

263

Higher Education in Serbia: From Socialism to the Free Market Economy and Implications for the Labour Market  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the relationships between higher education and the labour market in Serbia. In order to understand this relationship better, this paper will first provide a brief history of the country and the history of its higher education structures. The paper will then discuss higher education from post Second World War until the fall of…

Smirnov, Lidija

2008-01-01

264

Educating Educators in a Volatile Climate--The Challenge of Modernising Higher Business Schools in Serbia and Montenegro  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is set in the rapidly changing higher educational environment that has ensued in Serbia and Montenegro in the post Milosevic era. Its primary focus is a "Training Trainers" initiative, mounted by the GTZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit/Society for Technical Co-operation), designed to upgrade the teaching capacity of…

Hollinshead, Graham

2006-01-01

265

The Role of Social Identity in Resistance to International Criminal Law: The Case of Serbia and the ICTY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores antipathy to the International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia (ICTY) by Serbians, who feel that not just Slobodan Milosevic but the whole country of Serbia is on trial. The author proposes that social identity and self-categorization, as elaborated primarily by Henri Tajfel and John Turner, are intervening mechanisms that help explain this negative social reaction to international criminal

Emily Shaw

2003-01-01

266

Concentration and characteristics of depleted uranium in water, air and biological samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Balkan conflicts, in 1995 and 1999, depleted uranium (DU) rounds were employed and were left in the battlefield. Health concern is related to the risk arising from contamination of the environment with DU penetrators and dust. In order to evaluate the impact of DU on the environment and population in Serbia and Montenegro, radiological surveys of DU in

Guogang Jia; Maria Belli; Umberto Sansone; Silvia Rosamilia; Stefania Gaudino

2005-01-01

267

Deposition of heavy metals (Pb, Sr and Zn) in the county of Obrenovac (Serbia) using mosses as bioindicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the deposition of three heavy metals (Pb, Sr and Zn) in the county of Obrenovac (Serbia) in four moss taxa (Bryum argenteum, Bryum capillare, Brachythecium sp. and Hypnum cupressiforme) is presented. Distribution of average heavy metal content in all mosses in the county of Obrenovac is presented in maps, while long term atmospheric deposition (in mosses Bryum

Marko Sabovljevi; Vanja Vukojevi; Aneta Sabovljeviand Milorad Vujii

268

Ability to Work and Employability of Patients in Opioid Substitution Treatment Programs in Slovenia  

PubMed Central

Aim To assess the ability to work and employability of individuals taking part in opioid substitution treatment programs (OSTP). Methods The study was composed of two surveys. In the first survey, 237 of 480 patients enrolled in OSTP responded to the questionnaire about their employment status, opinion about employment, and perception of assignments before and during OSTP. In the second survey, 66 of 100 employers responded to the questionnaire on the occurrence, perception, and management of addiction problems in their companies. Results Unemployment rate in individuals enrolled in OSTP was 43.5% and decreased during OSTP by 10.5% (P?=?0.027). Irregular use of OSTP medications was the most important factor for unemployment (odds ratio, 2.44; P?=?0.016). OSTP was highly effective in achieving a positive change in patients’ perception of different kinds of assignments previously perceived as beyond their abilities. Thus, perception of mentally demanding assignments (P?Slovenia was effective in increasing both employability and OSTP patients’ ability to work. To facilitate complete rehabilitation, particularly in obtaining employment for the patients, the process must involve the society as a whole. PMID:19090610

Bilban, Marjan; Kastelic, Andrej; Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana

2008-01-01

269

Water, Biodiversity and Climate Change Studies in International Schools Network of the Park Škocjan Caves, Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As UNESCO World Heritage Site, Ramsar Site and Biosphere Reserve the Park Škocjan Caves strongly believes in development of quality educational programme in order to fulfill the guidelines of international conventions and also provide for awareness and development in the future. Ten years ago we started with water analysis projects and performed several projects related to natural, cultural and social aspect of water protection. We developed a special model of training the teachers and educating the children. Together we have accomplished two international projects, two national project and several research projects dealing with The Reka river and karst phenomena. In 2003 we officially established the schools network, where we join in research education programmes five elementary schools form Slovenia and two from Italy. They are all located beside the surface and underground flow of the Reka River. Fifteen teachers and more than hundred children are involved in educational programme every year. Our work in the schools network enables us to bring science to society in a comprehensive way including the scientists and their work in preparation and implementation of projects. With teachers help we promote science studies but also encourage children to do social projects in order to keep intergeneration connections and gain knowledge of past experience and life from our grandparents. The paper will present the role of protected area in public awareness and education with special emphasis on natural phenomena of water in the Karst region as a toll for joint work in the field for scientists and school children. Chemical and biological analysis of the Reka River and other water bodies will be presented and accompanied with the biodiversity survey and climate change research projects. New approach of performing the research studies and presentation of results for schoolchildren will be explained.

Debevec Gerjevic, Vanja

2010-05-01

270

Atmospheric distribution and deposition of mercury in the Idrija Hg mine region, Slovenia.  

PubMed

The atmospheric distribution and deposition of Hg in the area of the former Idrija Hg-mine, Slovenia, were investigated. Mapping of air Hg(0) concentrations was performed to assess the spatial distribution and major sources of mercury to the atmosphere in the area. In addition, analyses of mercury speciation in the air over Idrija were performed during a 4-day sampling campaign in September 2006 to better understand the fate and transformation of Hg in the atmosphere of this specific mercury polluted site. The speciation results were then compared to the results of mercury speciation in the wet and throughfall deposition sampled on a precipitation event basis from October 2006 to September 2007. The Hg(0) concentration in air was mostly below 10 ng m(-3), with the highest concentration in the area of the former smelter complex exceeding 5000 ng m(-3). Mercury-bearing airborne particles (TPM) seem to dominate the atmospheric Hg deposition, which revealed noticeable variations between precipitation events (11-76 ng m(-2)day(-1)), mostly as a function of the amount of precipitation. Hg in precipitation was largely (? 50%) associated with the particulate phase (THg(P)). No correlation was found between the THg(P) and the dissolved phases (THg(D)), suggesting that particulate phase Hg is mostly the result of dry deposition. In the throughfall, significantly higher (2-10 fold) Hg concentrations than in associated event precipitation were observed, mostly due to Hg in the particulate phase (? 70% THg). As shown by SEM/EDXS microscopy, an important amount of mercury in the precipitation and throughfall samples is due to the presence of cinnabar particles as a result of the aeolian erosion of cinnabar-containing surfaces in the area. PMID:21112585

Kocman, David; Vre?a, Polona; Fajon, Vesna; Horvat, Milena

2011-01-01

271

A campaign to increase the vaccination rate in a highly endemic tick-borne encephalitis region of Slovenia.  

PubMed

Slovenia is one of the countries with the highest incidence of thick-borne encephalitis (TBE) (13.5/100,000) and has one of the lowest immunisation rates (3.1%). Gorenjska (approximately 10% Slovene inhabitants) is a region of Slovenia with the highest incidence (30/100,000). The Institute of Public Health Kranj in collaboration with Lions club Brnik and mayors of the municipalities initiated a campaign aimed to improve the vaccination rate. By obtaining funds that covered the expenses for the vaccination team we managed to reduce the price of vaccination by 30%. The vaccination events were held on Saturdays in primary schools of the towns/villages with the highest TBE incidence. Over the course of the 12 events, 5599 doses were injected. Most of people (92%) were vaccinated for the first time with two doses. In addition, we offered free-of-charge vaccinations for 850 children from socially underprivileged families. The charity project added a significant increase to the number of protected persons. PMID:23246549

Košnik, Irena Grmek; Lah, Andreja Krt

2013-01-21

272

Drafting New Curricula in South-East Europe. Final Report of the Regional Seminar (Bohinj, Slovenia, April 26-28, 2002).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the regional seminar on curriculum renewal, held in Bohinj, Slovenia in April 2002 was to contribute to human resource development and capacity-building in the field of curriculum development. It is currently widely recognized that curriculum renewal is an important component in the reform and in improving the quality of education. The…

Rozemeijer, Saskia, Ed.

273

Impact of Air Pollution on Genetic Material of Shallot ( Allium cepa L. var. ascalonicum ) Exposed at Differently Polluted Sites in Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Test shallot plants Allium cepa L. var. ascalonicum were exposed to field conditions at six research plots in the most polluted areas in Slovenia in the vegetation seasons in 1999 and 2000. The intention of this research was to evaluate the influence of air pollution on mitotic activity and frequency of chromosomal aberrations in meristematic tissues of root tips of

Erika Glasen?nik; Cvetka Ribari?-Lasnik; Karin Savinek; Meta Zaluberšek; Maria Mueller; Franc Bati?

2004-01-01

274

OSNOVNI VZROKI SMRTI S KAZALNIKI UMRLJIVOSTI V SLOVENIJI V LETU 2001 THE UDERLYING CAUSES OF DEATH WITH MORTALITY INDICES IN SLOVENIA IN 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract - Abstract - Abstract - Abstract - Background. Mortality rates are one of the basic measures for population health estimation. The mortality data in Slovenia are collected according to well-defined me- thodology. Thus our results can be easily compared with the results of other countries. The purpose of this article is to dis- play the most important causes of

Vesna Zadnik

275

Actors, Discourses and Interfaces of Rural Tourism Development at the Local Community Level in Slovenia: Social and Political Dimensions of the Rural Tourism Development Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the policy and politics of the development of rural tourism at the local level in Slovenia and links it to the issue of sustainability. Since gaining its inde- pendence in 1991 the government has been formulating policies for the development of tourism and rural development. Using an actor perspective, this paper focuses on the different local social

Alenka Verbole

2000-01-01

276

A 548-YEAR TREE-RING CHRONOLOGY OF OAK (QUERCUS SPP.) FOR SOUTHEAST SLOVENIA AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE AS A DATING TOOL  

E-print Network

A 548-YEAR TREE-RING CHRONOLOGY OF OAK (QUERCUS SPP.) FOR SOUTHEAST SLOVENIA AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE, Leuschnerstr. 91, D-21031 Hamburg, Germany ABSTRACT Tree-ring series of oak, from both living trees (Quercus activities (e.g. Dean 1996). In Central and Western Europe, oak (Quer- cus spp.) is the most important tree

Cufar, Katarina

277

Variability analysis for effectiveness and improvement in classrooms and schools in upper secondary education in Slovenia: Assessment of\\/for Learning Analytic Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1995, data on students' achievement in schools (i.e., teacher's grades) and all data on achievement in the 5-subject group certificate – the Matura exam – have been systematically gathered for the entire yearly cohort of students in upper secondary education in Slovenia. This paper describes an on-line data selection system and data analysis tool designed for national subject testing

Darko Zupanc; Matjaž Urank; Matevž Bren

2009-01-01

278

Draft Genome Sequence of the Mercury-Resistant Bacterium Acinetobacter idrijaensis Strain MII, Isolated from a Mine-Impacted Area, Idrija, Slovenia  

PubMed Central

We report here the first draft assembly for the genome of Acinetobacter idrijaensis strain MII, isolated from the Idrija mercury mine area (Slovenia). This strain shows a strikingly high tolerance to mercury, and the genome sequence shows genes involved in the mechanisms for heavy metal tolerance pathways and multidrug efflux pumps. PMID:25395645

Caballero Pérez, Juan; Cruz Medina, Julio Alfonso; Molina Vera, Carlos; Salas Rosas, Luz María; Limpens Gutiérrez, Citlalli; García Salinas, Isaac; Hernández Ramírez, Miriam Rebeca; Soto Alonso, Gerardo; Cruz Hernández, Andrés; Saldańa Gutiérrez, Carlos; Romero Gómez, Sergio; Pastrana Martínez, Xóchitl; Álvarez Hidalgo, Erika; Gosar, Mateja; Dizdarevi?, Tatjana

2014-01-01

279

Molecular detection of co-infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and/or Babesia canis canis in Dirofilaria-positive dogs from Slovakia.  

PubMed

Recently, several arthropod-borne infections have been introduced into previously non-endemic regions in Europe as the result of various global changes. At the same time, endemic regions are expanding and the risk of co-infections is rising, due to climate change that allows vectors to move and spread infectious diseases into new areas. The aim of the current study was to confirm simultaneous infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and/or Babesia canis canis in Dirofilaria-infected dogs from Slovakia, central Europe. Genomic DNA was isolated from 366 blood samples of microfilaraemic dogs without clinical signs of infection. Samples were further screened for the presence of canine tick-borne pathogens using PCR and sequencing. This survey revealed co-infection with four arthropod-borne pathogens, in particular, Dirofilaria repens, Dirofilaria immitis, A. phagocytophilum, and B. canis canis. While D. repens, responsible for canine subcutaneous dirofilariosis, is scattered through the whole territory of the country, D. immitis occurs only in endemic areas of southeastern and southwestern Slovakia in mixed infection with D. repens. Co-infection with A. phagocytophilum was reported in 3.27% of the dogs positive for D. repens; mixed infection with D. repens and B. canis canis was detected in 3.55% of the tested blood samples. Eastern Slovak Lowland represents a natural focus of B. canis canis and is a highly endemic area for canine dirofilariosis. The presence of triple infection with D. repens, A. phagocytophilum, and B. canis canis was detected in one dog originating from the eastern lowland region of Slovakia. This study highlights the importance of co-infected, clinically healthy dogs in the spreading of several different arthropod-borne pathogens and the necessity for detailed epidemiological surveys, especially in newly infested areas. PMID:24630708

Víchová, Bronislava; Miterpáková, Martina; Iglódyová, Adriana

2014-06-16

280

Exposure to Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls (OH-PCBs) in the Prenatal Period and Subsequent Neurodevelopment in Eastern Slovakia  

PubMed Central

Background Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs), unlike PCBs, are in general readily excreted yet are still detected in humans and animals. Active transport of OH-PCBs across the placenta and hydroxylation of PCBs by the fetus suggest the potential for greater impact on the fetus compared with the parent PCB compounds, but little is known about their health effects, particularly in humans. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between prenatal OH-PCB exposure and neurodevelopment in children at 16 months of age in eastern Slovakia. Methods A birth cohort (n = 1,134) was enrolled during 2002–2004. We analyzed six OH-PCB metabolites (4-OH-CB-107, 3-OH-CB-153, 4-OH-CB-146, 3?-OH-CB-138, 4-OH-CB-187, and 4?-OH-CB-172) in a subset of the cohort. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development were administered to the children at the 16-month follow-up visit. We developed multiple linear regression models predicting standardized scores for the Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) from maternal (n = 147) and cord (n = 80) serum OH-PCB concentrations, adjusting for sex of child, district, HOME (Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment) score, and maternal score on Raven’s Progressive Matrices. Results Cord 4-OH-CB-107 was significantly associated with lower MDI (? = ?2.27; p = 0.01) and PDI (? = ?4.50; p = 0.004). Also, maternal 4-OH-CB-107 was significantly associated with lower MDI (? = ?1.76; p = 0.03) but not PDI. No other OH-PCB metabolites were associated with decreased PDI or MDI. Conclusions Our findings showed a significant association of 4-OH-CB-107 with decreased MDI, which can possibly be mediated by endocrine disruption, altered neurotransmitter functions, or reduced thyroid hormone concentrations in brain. PMID:20019912

Park, Hye-Youn; Park, June-Soo; Sovcikova, Eva; Kocan, Anton; Linderholm, Linda; Bergman, Ake; Trnovec, Tomas; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

2009-01-01

281

Inorganic Arsenic and Basal Cell Carcinoma in Areas of Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia: A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a potent carcinogen, but there is a lack of information about cancer risk for concentrations < 100 ?g/L in drinking water. Objectives: We aimed to quantify skin cancer relative risks in relation to iAs exposure < 100 ?g/L and the modifying effects of iAs metabolism. Methods: The Arsenic Health Risk Assessment and Molecular Epidemiology (ASHRAM) study, a case–control study, was conducted in areas of Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia with reported presence of iAs in groundwater. Consecutively diagnosed cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin were histologically confirmed; controls were general surgery, orthopedic, and trauma patients who were frequency matched to cases by age, sex, and area of residence. Exposure indices were constructed based on information on iAs intake over the lifetime of participants. iAs metabolism status was classified based on urinary concentrations of methylarsonic acid (MA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Associations were estimated by multivariable logistic regression. Results: A total of 529 cases with BCC and 540 controls were recruited for the study. BCC was positively associated with three indices of iAs exposure: peak daily iAs dose rate, cumulative iAs dose, and lifetime average water iAs concentration. The adjusted odds ratio per 10-?g/L increase in average lifetime water iAs concentration was 1.18 (95% confidence interval: 1.08, 1.28). The estimated effect of iAs on cancer was stronger in participants with urinary markers indicating incomplete metabolism of iAs: higher percentage of MA in urine or a lower percentage of DMA. Conclusion: We found a positive association between BCC and exposure to iAs through drinking water with concentrations < 100 ?g/L. PMID:22436128

Leonardi, Giovanni; Vahter, Marie; Clemens, Felicity; Goessler, Walter; Gurzau, Eugen; Hemminki, Kari; Hough, Rupert; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Kumar, Rajiv; Rudnai, Peter; Surdu, Simona

2012-01-01

282

[Genetic diagnosis of phenylketonuria. IV. Mutations of phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in Caucasian and Gypsy populations in Czech and Slovakia Republics].  

PubMed

Direct sequencing was conducted on the regions of the exon 7 and 12 in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene amplified by the polymerase chain reaction, using solid-phase technology involving the biotin streptavidin system. A novel mutation and seven previously known mutations were identified in the PAH genes among 15 Caucasians and 10 Gypsies in the Czech and Slovakia republics, affected with classical phenylketonuria (PKU). Two of these substitutions (R243X and G272X) resulted in the generation of a premature stop codon, and a single base transition of G to A at codon 261 resulted in the substitution of Arg for Gln (R261Q). These three mutations together accounted for 16.7% of PKU alleles among 15 Caucasians. The R252W mutation was detected in these two groups: two Caucasians were compound heterozygous for the P281L or R408W mutations (6.7% of all mutant alleles). However, all 10 Gypsy PKU patients were homozygous for the R252W transition. The R408W mutation accounted for 43% of PKU alleles in 15 Caucasian PKU patients. A novel heterozygous C-to-G transversion at the third base of codon 263 in the exon 7, resulting in the substitution of Phe for Leu (F263L), was detected in a Caucasian PKU patient (3.3% of all mutant alleles). In this study, we revealed a novel PKU mutation of the F263L in Caucasian populations and a high-risk PKU mutation of the R252W in Gypsy populations. PMID:7844888

Takarada, Y; Yamashita, K; Kalanin, J; Kagawa, S; Matsuoka, A

1994-11-01

283

Long-term trend and multi-annual variability of water temperature in the pristine Bela River basin (Slovakia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryBiological processes in surface waters appreciably depend on temperature of water. This paper summarizes our investigations of water temperature in the Bela River. The Bela River is a mountainous stream not influenced by direct human activities, draining the headwaters of the Vah River basin in the Tatra National Park (TANAP), Slovakia. Our primary aim was to identify the long-term trends and multi-annual variability of the annual water temperature at the Podbanske gauging station, using temperature readings taken at 7.00 am for the period of 50 years (1959-2008). Long-term mean of the annual water temperature of the Bela River at the Podbanske gauging station (922 m a.s.l.) was 4.2 °C, the air temperature at Podbanske meteorological station (972 m a.s.l.) was 5.0 °C. Both, air and water temperature, show an increasing trend. While the air temperature within 50-years increased significantly by 1.5 °C, in the case of water temperature this increase was merely by 0.12 °C. On November 19, 2004, a wind-throw brushed the investigated area with an aftermath of 15.4% destroyed forest in the Bela basin, mainly along the area adjacent to the river. Therefore, in the second part of the study, the impact of the riparian vegetation growing along the river banks was evaluated for two distinctive periods, i.e. the period prior and after the wind-throw. We statistically analysed the changes in water temperature on 6-year time series of daily water temperature (November 2001 through November 2007). The results presented herein may be useful for defining boundary values for surface water temperature, as required by the EC Water Framework Directive.

Pekárová, Pavla; Miklánek, Pavol; Halmová, Dana; Onderka, Milan; Pekár, Ján; Ku?árová, Katarína; Liová, So?a; Škoda, Peter

2011-04-01

284

Histological and molecular confirmation of the fourth human case caused by Dirofilaria repens in a new endemic region of Slovakia.  

PubMed

Dirofilariosis is considered to be the arthropod vector-borne disease with the fastest spread in Europe. Slovakia belongs to new endemic regions for canine and human infections. This paper reports the fourth human case, where diagnosis was confirmed using computed tomography (CT), histological and molecular examinations - for the first time in this endemic region. The epidemiological history of this case indicated the autochthonous origin, and infection manifested by intense swelling in the periocular region, where a subcutaneous nodule was localized. Microscopic analysis of cross-sections of the surgically removed nodule confirmed the presence of a single male worm of Dirofilaria repens, indicated by the external cuticular ridges, the robust muscle cells and a single male sex organ seen as one tube beside the intestine. Considering that the worm morphology was partially damaged, molecular study was performed using DNA isolated from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections of the worm. In polymerase chain reactions (PCR) a set of primers specific for D. repens DNA for the CO1-encoding gene amplified the expected 246 bp product using a high concentration of DNA template. Our diagnostic approach, involving molecular techniques, showed that identification of D. repens from excised tissues is possible even when the morphology of the worm and DNA are damaged during tissue processing. It is expected that the spread of this disease will continue due to climatic changes in central Europe. This warrants higher awareness among clinicians, who will initially be approached by patients, and better co-operation with parasitologists in newly endemic countries. PMID:22335934

Hr?kova, G; Kuchtová, H; Miterpáková, M; Ondriska, F; Cibí?ek, J; Kovacs, S

2013-03-01

285

State of Water Molecules and Silanol Groups in Opal Minerals: a Near Infrared Spectroscopic Study of Opals from Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently near infrared spectroscopy in combination with double derivative technique has been effectively used by Christy [1] to differentiate between free silanol groups and hydrogen bonded silanol groups on silica gel. The method has given some insight into the type of functionalities and their location in silica gel samples. The inportant information in this respect comes from the overtones of the OH groups of water molecules hydrogen bonded to free silanol groups, and hydrogen bonded silanol groups absorbing in the region 5500- 5100 Cm-1 region. The approach was adapted to study the state of water and silanol functionalities and their locations in opals from Slovakia. Twenty opal samples classified into CT and A classes and one quartz sample were used in this work. The samples were crushed using a hydrolic press and powderised. Each sample was then subjected to evacuation process to remove surface adsorbed water at 200°C and the near infrared spectrum of the sample was measured using a Perkin Elmer NTS near infrared spectrometer equipped with a transflectance accessory. The detailed analysis of the sample was carried out using the second derivative profile of the spectrum. The samples were also heated to 750°C to study the state of water molecules in Opal minerals. The results indicate that the opal samples contain 1) surface adsorbed water 2) free and hydrogen bonded silanol groups on the surface 3) Trapped water in the bulk 4) free and hydrogen bonded silanol groups in the cavity surfaces in the bulk. A part of the water molecules found in the bulk of opal minerals are free molecules and the rest are found in hydrogen bonded state to free and hydrogen bonded silanol groups. [1] A. A. Christy, New insights into the surface functionalities and adsorption evolution of water molecules on silica gel surface: A study by second derivative Near Infrared Spectroscopy, Vib. Spectrosc. 54 (2010) 42-49.

Bobon, Miroslav; Christy, Alfred A.; Kluvanec, Daniel; Illasova, L'udmila

2011-06-01

286

Surface and groundwater drought evaluation with respect to aquatic habitat quality in the upper Nitra River Basin in Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrological drought is being broadly studied within last decades in many countries. It is because of increasing frequency of drought periods occurrence also in mild climate conditions, leading to unexpected and undesired consequences for environment and various spheres of the state economy. Drought affects water availability for plants, animals and human society. Natural conditions of drought occurrence are often combined with human activities strengthening drought consequences. Lack of water in the nature, connected to meteorological and hydrological drought occurrence, increases at the same time needs for surface and groundwater in many types of human activities (agriculture, industrial production, electric power generation…). Drought can be identified within the low flow phase of the flow regime. Flow regime is considered for one of the most important conditions influencing quality of the river ecosystems. Occurrence of meteorological, surface and groundwater droughts was analyzed for the upper part of the Nitra River catchment in Slovakia. Drought occurrence was studied in two gauging profiles on the Nitra River - in Klacno and Nedozery, both representing the headwater profiles. The threshold level method was used for groundwater drought analysis. Base flow values were separated from the discharge hydrograms using the HydroOffice 2010 statistical program package. The influence of surface water drought on groundwater level was analyzed. Habitat suitability curves derived according to IFIM methodology were constructed for different fish species at Nedozery profile. The influence of different low flow values from 600 to 150 L/s on fish amount, size and species variability was studied. In the end, the minimum flow, bellow which unfavourable life conditions occur, was estimated. The results showed the necessity of taking into account the ecological parameters when estimating the ecological status of surface water bodies. Such an approach is fully compatible with the requirements of the Directive 2000/60/EC and with the integrated water resources management strategy. Acknowledgment: The research was done with the financial support of the VEGA project grant No. 1/1327/12.

Fendekova, M.; Fendek, M.; Macura, V.; Kralova, J.

2012-04-01

287

Hydrogeological Conditions of Coastal Carbonate Aquifer in Lucija - Portorož (Gulf of Trieste, N Adriatic Sea, Slovenia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 1994 801 m deep borehole Lu 1/94 very close to the sea in Lucija near Portorož (Piranski zaliv - Gulf of Trieste) was drilled through the 257 m deep sequence of flysh rocks after which it enters the limestone of Palaeogene and Cretaceous age. The aquifer where borehole is constructed is classified as high yield and highly permeable confined carbonate aquifer with fissured porosity. During drilling and final pumping test after the borehole completion groundwater samples were taken. The results of these analyses were compared with groundwater samples from the wider Portorož environs. It was established that groundwater in the well Lu-1/94 is result of seawater freshwater mixing and due to the presence of high organic content in the aquifer subject to highly redox conditions. Groundwater from the carbonate aquifer is highly over saturated with respect to calcite, dolomite, iron sulphides and carbonate, with the presence of H2S and NH4+. In the carbonate aquifer seawater is represented with 33% and in the flysh part with 6%. In the shallower part Ca2+ - Na+ - Cl- - SO42- - HCO3- hydrogeochemical facies is present followed by Na+ - Ca2+ - Cl-- SO42- - HCO3- facies in the other part of the borehole. In the carbonate part of the borehole Na+ - Ca2+ - Cl- - SO42- facies is present. Based on the comparison with other boreholes similar stratification is interpreted in the whole coastal aquifer around Portorož. Seawater is not distinctly separated from the freshwater flowing on it as it can be deduced from the hydrodynamical theory. Transition from freshwater to seawater is gradual and hydrogeochemicaly stratified. Hydrogeochemical stratification is very much related with the geological structure where big differences in physical and chemical properties among flysh and limestone rocks are present. Delta-18O values show that fresh groundwater is recharged from the hinterland and this can be supported also with structural interpretations. Based on these results we can conclude that in the area of southwestern Slovenia deep and extensive groundwater flow in the direction from the northeast to the southeast exist and discharges as submarine seepage into the eastern part of Gulf of Trieste. Above this regional groundwater flow many local perched aquifers exists with different hydrogeochemistry that is mainly controlled with simple Ca2+ Mg2+ CO2 H2O open system.

Brencic, M.

2009-04-01

288

The response of Corylus avellana L. phenology to rising temperature in north-eastern Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of plant-weather relationships can improve crop management, resulting in higher quality and more stable crop yields. The annual timing of spring phenophases in mid-latitudes is largely a response to temperature, and reflects the thermal conditions of previous months. The effect of air temperature on the variability of hazelnut ( Corylus avellana L.) phenophases (leafing, flowering) was investigated. Meteorological and phenological data for five cultivars were analysed over the periods 1969-1979 (P1) and 1994-2007 (P2) in Maribor, Slovenia. Phenological data series were correlated strongly to the temperature of the preceding months ( R 2: 0.64-0.98) and better correlated to daily maximum and mean temperatures than to daily minimum temperatures. About 75% of phenophases displayed a tendency towards earlier appearance and a shorter flowering duration during P2, which could be explained by the significant temperature changes (+0.3°C/decade) from December to April between 1969 and 2007. An increase in air temperature of 1°C caused an acceleration in leafing by 2.5-3.9 days, with flowering showing higher sensitivity since a 1°C increase promoted male flowering by 7.0-8.8 days and female flowering by 6.3-8.9 days. The average rate of phenological change per degree of warming (days earlier per +1°C) did not differ significantly between P1 and P2. An estimation of chilling accumulation under field conditions during 1993-2009, between 1 November and 28 February, showed that all four of these months contributed approximately similar amounts of accumulated chilling units. The growing degree days (GDD) to flowering were calculated by an estimated base temperature of 2°C and 1 January as a starting date, given the most accurate calculations. In general, thermal requirements were greater in P2 than in P1, although this difference was not significant. Longer-time series data extended to other agricultural and wild plants would be helpful in tracking possible future changes in phenological responses to local climate.

?repinšek, Zalika; Štampar, Franci; Kajfež-Bogataj, Lu?ka; Solar, Anita

2012-07-01

289

Availability of mental health service providers and suicide rates in Slovenia: a nationwide ecological study  

PubMed Central

Aim To investigate the influence of socioeconomic factors, mental health service availability, and prevalence of mental disorders on regional differences in the suicide rate in Slovenia. Methods The effects of different socioeconomic factors, mental health service availability, and mental disorders factors on suicide rates from 2000-2009 were analyzed using a general linear mixed model (GLMM). Pearson correlations were used to explore the direction and magnitude of associations. Results Among socioeconomic factors, unemployment rate ranked as the most powerful predictor of suicide and an increase of one unit in the unemployment rate increased regional suicide rate by 2.21 (??=?2.21, 95% confidence intervals [CI]?=?1.87-2.54, P?

Korosec Jagodic, Helena; Rokavec, Tatjana; Agius, Mark; Pregelj, Peter

2013-01-01

290

Early late Visean ammonoid faunas from the Jadar Block (NW Serbia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The outcrop at Milivojevi?a Kamenjar in Družeti? (Jadar Block, Vardar Zone, NW Serbia), which exposes a fossiliferous limestone olistolith, is one of the key sites for Carboniferous stratigraphy and paleogeography in the Balkan Peninsula. Its age has been debated several times, and re-examination of the succession was required. Based on ammonoids and conodonts, an interval spanning from the latest Devonian to the basal Serpukhovian is represented. From the early late Visean portion of the section, the new ammonoid genus and species Ubites filipovici gen. nov. et sp. nov. is described. Entogonites tetragonus (Kullmann, 1962), a formerly misinterpreted ammonoid species, is revised.

Korn, Dieter; Jovanovi?, Divna; Novak, Matevž; Sudar, Milan N.

2010-10-01

291

Mapping average annual precipitation in Serbia (1961-1990) by using regression kriging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The appearence of geostatistics and geographical information systems has made it possible to analyze complex spatial patterns of meteorological elements over large areas in the applied climatology. The objective of this study is to use geostatistics to characterize the spatial structure and map the spatial variation of average values of precipitation for a 30-year period in Serbia. New, recently introduced, geostatistical algorithms facilitate utilization of auxiliary variables especially remote sensing data or freely available global datasets. The data from Advanced Spaceborn Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer global digital elevation model are incorporated as ancillary variables into spatial prediction of average annual precipitation using geostatistical method known as regression kriging. The R 2 value of 0.842 proves high performance result of the prediction of the proposed method.

Bajat, Branislav; Pejovi?, Milutin; Lukovi?, Jelena; Manojlovi?, Predrag; Duci?, Vladan; Mustafi?, Sanja

2013-04-01

292

Daily and seasonal radon variability in the underground low-background laboratory in Belgrade, Serbia.  

PubMed

Radon time-series analysis, based on the short-term indoor radon measurements performed worldwide, shows two main periodicity: daily and seasonal. The information obtained from time series of the measured radon values is the results of the complex radon dynamics that arises from the influence of the large number of different parameters (the state of the indoor atmosphere (temperature, pressure and relative humidity, aerosol concentration), the exchange rate between indoor and outdoor air and so on). In this paper we considered daily radon variability in the underground low-background laboratory in Belgrade, Serbia. The results are originated from the radon time-series analysis based on the 3 y of the continuous short-term indoor radon measurements. At the same time, we obtained the time series of the temperature, pressure and relative humidity in the laboratory. We also tried to find the correlation between different time series. PMID:24707001

Udovi?i?, V; Filipovi?, J; Dragi?, A; Banjanac, R; Jokovi?, D; Maleti?, D; Grabež, B; Veselinovi?, N

2014-07-01

293

Barriers to cervical cancer screening: a qualitative study with women in Serbia.  

PubMed

Serbia employs opportunistic approaches to cervical cancer screening, leading to inequitable health care access. To better understand the health care needs of women, we investigated their knowledge of and perceived barriers to cervical cancer screening. Data reported in the paper arise from nine focus group discussions with 62 women from diverse socio-economic backgrounds. They were recruited in two cities with contrasting social settings, Belgrade, the Serbian capital, and a regional town, Smederevo. Thematic analysis identified that the interplay of social and personal barriers influenced women's poor presentation for screening. Inadequate public health education, lack of patient-friendly health services, socio-cultural health beliefs, gender roles, and personal difficulties were the most salient barriers to screening. We suggest how within the context of opportunistic screening patient education may be employed. The introduction of compulsory cervical cancer screening, suggested by some participants, is also discussed. PMID:15953668

Markovic, Milica; Kesic, Vesna; Topic, Lidija; Matejic, Bojana

2005-12-01

294

Dosimetric verification of radiotherapy treatment planning systems in Serbia: national audit  

PubMed Central

Background Independent external audits play an important role in quality assurance programme in radiation oncology. The audit supported by the IAEA in Serbia was designed to review the whole chain of activities in 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) workflow, from patient data acquisition to treatment planning and dose delivery. The audit was based on the IAEA recommendations and focused on dosimetry part of the treatment planning and delivery processes. Methods The audit was conducted in three radiotherapy departments of Serbia. An anthropomorphic phantom was scanned with a computed tomography unit (CT) and treatment plans for eight different test cases involving various beam configurations suggested by the IAEA were prepared on local treatment planning systems (TPSs). The phantom was irradiated following the treatment plans for these test cases and doses in specific points were measured with an ionization chamber. The differences between the measured and calculated doses were reported. Results The measurements were conducted for different photon beam energies and TPS calculation algorithms. The deviation between the measured and calculated values for all test cases made with advanced algorithms were within the agreement criteria, while the larger deviations were observed for simpler algorithms. The number of measurements with results outside the agreement criteria increased with the increase of the beam energy and decreased with TPS calculation algorithm sophistication. Also, a few errors in the basic dosimetry data in TPS were detected and corrected. Conclusions The audit helped the users to better understand the operational features and limitations of their TPSs and resulted in increased confidence in dose calculation accuracy using TPSs. The audit results indicated the shortcomings of simpler algorithms for the test cases performed and, therefore the transition to more advanced algorithms is highly desirable. PMID:22971539

2012-01-01

295

Consequences of an unusual flood event: case study of a drainage canal breach on a fluvial plain in NE Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On November 4-6 2012 heavy precipitation resulted in floods in the middle and lower course of Drava River in NE Slovenia causing damage to many properties in the flooded area. The meteorological situation that led to consequent floods was characterized by high precipitation, fast snowmelt, SW wind and relatively high air temperature. The weather event was part of a cyclone which was spreading over the area of North, West and Central Europe in the direction of Central Europe and carried with it the passing of a cold front through Slovenia on November 4 and 5. The flood wave travelled on the Drava River from Austria to Slovenia past the 11 hydroelectric power plants after eventually moving over the Slovenian-Croatian border. The river discharge increased in the early morning of November 5 reaching 3165 m3/s. This work focuses on a single event in the Ptujsko polje where among other damage caused by the flooding, the river broke through the drainage canal of the Formin hydroelectric power plant and changed its course. The Ptujsko polje contains two fluvial terraces. In the area of Formin HPP, the lower terrace is 1.5 km wide and the surface as well as the groundwater gradient shift from west to east with the groundwater flowing parallel to the river. These characteristics contributed to the flooding and consequential breach in the embankment of the drainage canal. Several aspects of the recent floods are discussed including a critical reflection of data accessibility, possible causes and mechanisms behind it as well as the possibility of its forecasting. Synthesis of accessible data from open domain sources is performed with emphasis on geological conditions. Discharge and precipitation data from the data base of Slovenian Environment Agency are collected, reviewed and analyzed. The flood event itself is analyzed and described in detail. It is determined that the flood wave was different from the ones regulated by natural processes which points to an anthropogenic influence. In the paper we are focusing not only on the characteristics of a single event but try to interpret it in the context of a broader time scale using sources of similar past events of high precipitation and discharge, recorded flood events in the past and general flood characteristics of a river environment.

Vidmar, Ines; Ambroži?, Bojan; Debeljak, Barbara; Dolžan, Erazem; Gregorin, Špela; Grom, Nina; Herman, Polona; Keršmanc, Teja; Mencin, Eva; Mernik, Natalija; Švara, Astrid; Trobec, Ana; Turnšek, Anita; Vodeb, Petra; Torkar, Anja; Bren?i?, Mihael

2013-04-01

296

Role of the Science Society in the Project Ruka u Testu (La main 30 la pate) in Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The operation "Ruka u testu" found in Serbia a favourable ground for its development. Started in 2001, it received a broad echo in the public opinion, well beyond the teacher's world. The operation was also supported by many institutions as well as a great number of university professors and researchers. Since 2003, the Serbian Ministry of Education decided to propose an option "Ruka u testu - Discovering the World" for pupils of 6-8 years old. This option allows children to enter a process of self-discovery of sciences by experimenting. The first South-East European Summer School for Hands on Primary Science Education, has been organized in Serbia. The help of Pierre Léna during all our activities was very important and estimable.

Jokic, S.

297

SURFACE VERSUS UNDERGROUND MEASUREMENTS OF ACTIVE TECTONIC DISPLACEMENTS DETECTED WITH TM 71 EXTENSOMETERS IN WESTERN SLOVENIA PRIMERJAVA POVRŠINSKIH IN PODZEMELJSKIH MERITEV AKTIVNIH TEKTONSKIH PREMIKOV DOLO?ENIH S TM 71 EKSTENZIOMETRI V ZAHODNI SLOVENIJI  

Microsoft Academic Search

UDC 551.24(497.4-15) Andrej Gosar, Stanka Šebela, Blahoslav Koš?ák & Josef Stem- berk: Surface versus underground measurements of active tec- tonic displacements with TM 71 exstensometers in Slovenia The tectonic setting of W Slovenia is characterised by NW-SE trending dextral strike-slip fault systems and moderate seis- micity. Monitoring of tectonic movements along five presum - ably active faults or in their

Andrej GOSAR; Josef STEMBERK

298

Nymphoides peltata (Gmel.) Kuntze, Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Ceratophyllum demersum L. biomass dynamics in Lake Provala (the Vojvodina Province, Serbia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty-five plant species have been found in Lake Provala (the Vojvodina Province, Serbia) and its riparian zone. Among them,\\u000a three hydrophytes were dominant: Nymphoides peltata, Myriophyllum spicatum and Ceratophyllum demersum. As interactions between different ecological factors, especially light, temperature and nutrient level, are of prime importance\\u000a for productivity of macrophytes, we analyzed the main physical and chemical indicators of water

Ljiljana Nikoli?; Katarina ?obanovi?; Dejana Lazi?

2007-01-01

299

West Nile virus surveillance in mosquitoes, April to October 2013, Vojvodina province, Serbia: implications for the 2014 season.  

PubMed

After the West Nile virus (WNV) outbreak in 2012, we collected mosquito samples from Vojvodina province, Serbia, in 2013. We found high WNV infection rate in two species, Culex pipiens and Anopheles maculipennis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Serbian WNV strains from 2013 were most closely related to Italian and Greek strains isolated in 2012 and 2010, respectively. Public health authorities should be aware of a potentially increased risk of WNV activity during the 2014 season. PMID:24786260

Kemenesi, G; Krtini?, B; Milankov, V; Kutas, A; Dallos, B; Oldal, M; Somogyi, N; Nemeth, V; Banyai, K; Jakab, F

2014-01-01

300

Nutrition and environment in medieval Serbia: charred cereal, weed and fruit remains from the fortress of Ras  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the results of archaeobotanical examination of remains from the medieval complex of Ras in Serbia. The\\u000a samples were collected from the fortress situated on the hilltop (Gradina) and from a settlement below (Podgradje) during\\u000a the archaeological excavations of 1972–1984. They were taken primarily from the buildings containing charred cereals dating\\u000a to the 12th and 13th centuries. The

Ksenija Borojevi?

2005-01-01

301

Fractionation of natural radionuclides in soils from the vicinity of a former uranium mine Zirovski vrh, Slovenia.  

PubMed

As a result of former uranium mining and milling activities at Zirovski vrh, Slovenia, 0.6 million tons of uranium mill tailings (UMT) were deposited onto a nearby waste pile Borst. Resulting enhanced levels of natural radionuclides in UMT could pose threat for the surrounding environment. Therefore, sequential extraction protocol was performed to assess mobility and bioavailability of (238)U, (234)U, (230)Th and (226)Ra in soils from the waste pile and its surrounding. The radionuclides associated with exchangeable, organic, carbonate, Fe/Mn oxides and residual fraction, respectively, were determined. Results showed that the highest activity concentrations for the studied radionuclides were on the bottom of the waste pile. In non-contaminated locations, about 80% of all radionuclides were in the residual fraction. Considering activity concentrations in the UMT, (238)U and (234)U are the most mobile. Mobility of (226)Ra is suppressed by high sulphate concentrations and is similar to mobility of (230)Th. PMID:19762128

Strok, Marko; Smodis, Borut

2010-01-01

302

An outbreak of Microsporum canis in two elementary schools in a rural area around the capital city of Slovenia, 2012.  

PubMed

SUMMARY An outbreak of Microsporum canis infection affected 12 persons in two elementary schools over a period of 48 days in 2012 in Slovenia. Epidemiological, microbiological, and animal investigations were conducted. We defined cases as pupils or employees with skin lesions and confirmed or probable M. canis infection, attending one of the implicated elementary schools. Two clusters of six primary and six secondary cases were included in an unmatched case-control study. Contact with an adopted stray kitten at a birthday party was identified as the most probable source of infection. Secondary cases were more likely to have participated in gymnastic classes with a primary case than controls and were also more likely to have touched an infected child. Prompt communication and implementation of adequate control measures after the primary cases occurred would have prevented the secondary cases in another school. PMID:24512846

Subelj, M; Marinko, J Sveti?i?; U?akar, V

2014-12-01

303

Integrating quantitative and qualitative methodologies for the assessment of health care systems: emergency medicine in post-conflict Serbia  

PubMed Central

Background Due to the complexity of health system reform in the post-conflict, post-disaster, and development settings, attempts to restructure health services are fraught with pitfalls that are often unanticipated because of inadequate preliminary assessments. Our proposed Integrated Multimodal Assessment – combining quantitative and qualitative methodologies – may provide a more robust mechanism for identifying programmatic priorities and critical barriers for appropriate and sustainable health system interventions. The purpose of this study is to describe this novel multimodal assessment using emergency medicine in post-conflict Serbia as a model. Methods Integrated quantitative and qualitative methodologies – system characterization and observation, focus group discussions, free-response questionnaires, and by-person factor analysis – were used to identify needs, problems, and potential barriers to the development of emergency medicine in Serbia. Participants included emergency and pre-hospital personnel from all emergency medical institutions in Belgrade. Results Demographic data indicate a loosely ordered network of part-time emergency departments supported by 24-hour pre-hospital services and an academic emergency center. Focus groups and questionnaires reveal significant impediments to delivery of care and suggest development priorities. By-person factor analysis subsequently divides respondents into distinctive attitudinal types, compares participant opinions, and identifies programmatic priorities. Conclusions By combining quantitative and qualitative methodologies, our Integrated Multimodal Assessment identified critical needs and barriers to emergency medicine development in Serbia and may serve as a model for future health system assessments in post-conflict, post-disaster, and development settings. PMID:15715917

Nelson, Brett D; Dierberg, Kerry; Scepanovic, Milena; Mitrovic, Mihajlo; Vuksanovic, Milos; Milic, Ljiljana; VanRooyen, Michael J

2005-01-01

304

The Clinic of Neurosurgery at the Clinical Center of Serbia in Belgrade--building on the past.  

PubMed

Neurosurgery as an independent discipline in Serbia has a distinguished history, beginning in 1938 when Dr. Milivoje Kostic, Professor and Chairman of Surgery, opened the Department of Neurosurgery within the Clinic of Surgery in Belgrade. Since then, thanks to the founding fathers' efforts and their successors' work, the Clinic for Neurosurgery in Belgrade has become a highly specialized health, scientific, and educational institution that is part of the University of Belgrade and is a referral center for all neurosurgical clinics in Serbia. Currently, the Clinic for Neurosurgery, with 160 patient beds, is one of the largest European institutions of its kind. Neurosurgery at the Clinical Center of Serbia (CCS) involves a wide range of patients and resources, with an average daily inpatient census of 15 to 20 patients. Each year, there are more than 3000 admissions at the neurosurgical service. Approximately 3500 operations per year are performed in the main campus neurosurgical operating rooms of CCS, while approximately 15,000 patients alone are evaluated in emergency room or inpatient consultations. Despite economic restraints, the department continues to grow in strength, and we remain optimistic of exciting times ahead for neurosurgery at the CCS. PMID:23994133

Savic, Dragan; De Angelis, Michelangelo; Grujicic, Danica

2014-01-01

305

The formation, structure, and ageing of As-rich hydrous ferric oxide at the abandoned Sb deposit Pezinok (Slovakia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abandoned Sb deposit Pezinok in Slovakia is a significant source of As and Sb pollution that can be traced in the upper horizons of soils kilometers downstream. The source of the metalloids are two tailing impoundments which hold ˜380,000 m 3 of mining waste. The tailings and the discharged water have circumneutral pH values (7.0 ą 0.6) because the acidity generated by the decomposition of the primary sulfides (pyrite, FeS 2; arsenopyrite, FeAsS; berthierite, FeSb 2S 4) is rapidly neutralized by the abundant carbonates. The weathering rims on the primary sulfides are iron oxides which act as very efficient scavengers of As and Sb (with up to 19.2 wt% As and 23.7 wt% Sb). In-situ ?-XANES experiments indicate that As in the weathering rims is fully oxidized (As 5+). The pore solutions in the impoundment body contain up to 81 ppm As and 2.5 ppm Sb. Once these solutions are discharged from the impoundments, they precipitate or deposit masses of As-rich hydrous ferric oxide (As-HFO) with up to 28.3 wt% As 2O 5 and 2.7 wt% Sb. All As-HFO samples are amorphous to X-rays. They contain Fe and As in their highest oxidation state and in octahedral and tetrahedral coordination, respectively, as suggested by XANES and EXAFS studies on Fe K and As K edges. The iron octahedra in the As-HFO share edges to form short single chains and the chains polymerize by sharing edges or corners with the adjacent units. The arsenate ions attach to the chains in a bidentate-binuclear and monodentate fashion. In addition, hydrogen-bonded complexes may exist to satisfy the bonding requirements of all oxygen atoms in the first coordination sphere of As 5+. Structural changes in the As-HFO samples were traced by chemical analyses and Fe EXAFS spectroscopy during an ageing experiment. As the samples age, As becomes more easily leachable. EXAFS spectra show a discernible trend of increasing number of Fe-Fe pairs at a distance of 3.3-3.5 Ĺ, that is, increasing polymerization of the iron octahedra to form larger units with fewer adsorption sites. Therefore, although ferrihydrite is an excellent material for capturing arsenic, its use as a medium for a long-term storage of As has to be considered with a great caution because it will tend to release arsenic as it ages.

Majzlan, Juraj; Lalinská, Bronislava; Chovan, Martin; Jurkovi?, L.'ubomír; Milovská, Stanislava; Göttlicher, Jörg

2007-09-01

306

State of water molecules and silanol groups in opal minerals: a near infrared spectroscopic study of opals from Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, near infrared spectroscopy in combination with double derivative technique has been effectively used by Christy (Vib Spectrosc 54:42-49, 2010) to study and differentiate between free and hydrogen bonded silanol groups on silica gel surface. The method has given some insight into the type of functionalities, their location in silica gel samples, and the way the water molecules bind onto the silanol groups. The important information in this respect comes from the overtones of the OH groups of water molecules hydrogen-bonded to free silanol groups, and hydrogen-bonded silanol groups absorbing in the region 5,500-5,100 cm-1. Chemically, opal minerals are hydrated silica and the same approach was adapted to study the state of water molecules, silanol functionalities, and their locations in opal samples from Slovakia. Twenty opal samples classified into CT and A classes and one quartz sample were used in this work. The samples were crushed using a hydraulic press and powderized. Each sample was then subjected to evacuation process to remove surface-adsorbed water at 200°C, and the near infrared spectrum of each sample was measured using a Perkin Elmer NTS FT-NIR spectrometer equipped with a transflectance accessory and a DTGS detector. The samples were also heated to 750°C to remove the hydrogen-bonded silanol groups on the surface to reveal their locality. Second derivative profiles of the near infrared reflectance spectra were obtained using the instrument's software and used in the detailed analysis of the samples. The analysis of the near infrared spectra and their second derivative profiles had the aim in finding relationships between the surface chemical structure and the classification of opal samples. The dry opal samples were also tested for their surface adsorption effectivity toward water molecules. The results indicate that the opal samples contain (1) surface-adsorbed water, (2) free and hydrogen-bonded silanol groups on the surface, (3) trapped water molecules in the bulk, and (4) free and hydrogen-bonded silanol groups in the cavity surfaces in the bulk. A part of the water molecules in the bulk of opal minerals are found as free molecules and the rest are found in hydrogen-bonded state to either free or vicinal or geminal silanol groups.

Bobo?, Miroslav; Christy, Alfred A.; Kluvanec, Daniel; Illášová, L'udmila

2011-12-01

307

In situ monitoring of clastogenicity of ambient air in Bratislava, Slovakia using the Tradescantia micronucleus assay and pollen abortion assays.  

PubMed

Aim of this study was to monitor the genotoxic effects of polluted air in Bratislava (Slovakia) with the Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MN) test. In situ monitoring was carried out at five locations during two seasons (years 2003 and 2004). Flower pots with Tradescantia paludosa (clone 03) plants were exposed for 6-8 weeks at the different sites each year. The highest MN levels were observed in the vicinity of an agrochemical factory (3.1 times higher than background level in 2003 and 2.7 times higher in 2004). Lower effects were seen when plants were exposed to urban traffic emissions or in the vicinity of a glass-producing plant (the MN frequencies ranged between 2.8 and 4.4 per 100 tetrads, respectively, while the control frequencies were 2.1-2.6 per 100 tetrads); exposure near a petrochemical plant had no significant effects. In pollen abortion assays, three wild growing species were used, namely, chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), old man's beard (Clematis vitalba L.) and common toadflax (Linaria vulgaris Mill.). Again, the strongest effects were observed close to the agrochemical industry (reduction of fertile pollen by 5.6%, 11.1% and 8.3% in chicory, old mans beard and in toadflax, respectively). Cichorium intybus was the most sensitive species and the number of abortive pollen grains was 5.1 times higher in specimens collected near the agrochemical factory than that seen at the control location. These observations indicate that contaminated urban air has an impact on the fertility of wild plants. Furthermore, it is interesting that the same rank order of effects was seen in pollen abortion assays as in the Trad-MN test (agrochemical industry>technical glass industry>/=traffic>city incinerator/petrochemical plant). These results confirm the sensitivity of the Tradescantia MN test and pollen abortion assays for the detection of air pollution, and show that distinct differences exist in genotoxicity of different sources of pollutants. PMID:16702021

Misík, Miroslav; Solenská, Martina; Micieta, Karol; Misíková, Katarína; Knasmüller, Siegfried

2006-06-16

308

Source parameters scaling of the 2004 Kobarid (Western Slovenia) seismic sequence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Source parameters of the mainshock (ML = 5.3) and of 165 aftershocks (0.8 < ML < 3.5) of the 2004 Kobarid (Western Slovenia) seismic sequence are investigated in order to determine the corresponding source scaling relations. Data recorded from July to December 2004 by the Friuli and Veneto seismic network (FV), managed by the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS) and installed in Northeastern Italy, are employed to obtain the SH-wave amplitude Fourier spectra of the selected earthquakes. For source spectra computation, we consider only records with significant values of the signal-to-noise ratio and, to account for local amplifications, we compute standard H/V spectral ratios (HVSR) for all the stations of the network. After correction for attenuation effects, source spectra obtained at stations with negligible site effects show a good fit with a ?-square model. We adopt different approaches to compute the source parameters and final results are chosen based on the obtained misfits between observed and theoretical source spectra. For 21 earthquakes of the sequence the obtained results are confirmed by the Empirical Green Function (EGF) technique, applied by estimating the spectral ratios of couples of events with hypocentral distance differences smaller than 500 m and magnitude differences greater than 1. The mainshock of the sequence is characterized by a seismic moment of 3.5 × 1016 Nm and a corner frequency of 0.8 Hz, corresponding, in the Brune's model (1970), to a fault radius of 1465 m and a stress drop of 4.9 MPa. Aftershocks have seismic moments in the range [3.3 × 1011, 1.8 × 1014] Nm, corner frequencies between 1.9 and 12.4 Hz (Brune radii between 95 and 638 m) and stress drops in the range [0.03, 1.55] MPa. The observed scaling of seismic moment (M0) with the local magnitude (ML) is consistent with the trend: Log M0 = 1.06ML + 10.56. The Brune radius (rB) increases with the seismic moment according to: Log rB = 0.22 Log M0 - 0.40. Moreover, in spite of the high dispersion that characterizes the estimates of the Brune stress drop (??B), we observe also an increase of ??B with M0. The mainshock is characterized by 2.4 × 1012 J radiated energy (ES) and 1.9 MPa apparent stress (?a). Aftershocks have energies between 2.0 × 105 and 7.4 × 108 J and apparent stress values increasing with the seismic moment in the range [0.01, 0.48] MPa. Radiated energies increase with seismic moments according to the empirical relationship: Log ES = 1.53 Log M0 - 12.47. The scaling of both ??B and ?a with M0 in the range of magnitude between 0.8 and 5.3, evidences the non-self-similarity characteristics of the 2004 Kobarid seismic sequence. Similar results have been obtained by previous studies concerning the source parameter scaling of the background seismicity and of other seismic sequences of the area.

Franceschina, Gianlorenzo; Gentili, Stefania; Bressan, Gianni

2013-09-01

309

[Trends in mortality in Serbia, excluding the provinces, 1973-1994].  

PubMed

The war and break up of former Yugoslavia began in 1991. In May 1992 the United Nations imposed economic sanctions on Serbia and Montenegro which were suspended only in November 1995. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of the war and UN sanctions on health of the population of Serbia without the provinces of Vojvodina and Kosovo. The period 1973-1994 was studied. Mortality data were derived from unpublished and published materials of the Federal Institute of Statistics [1]. Refugees, who, because of civil war, came to Serbia and Montenegro from other parts of former Yugoslavia, were not counted as a part of the population when mortality rates were calculated. Mortality rates were standardized directly using the "European population" as the standard [2]. The least square method was used to fit mortality rates to different trend curves. Linear trend was used whenever it significantly (p < 0.05) demonstrated the existing mortality rates. To measure the possible effect of the war and sanctions (WAS) on mortality between 1991 and 1994, dummy variable (variable WAS) consisting of 0's and 1's was made to signify the passage from the period before and the period after the beginning of the war and sanctions [3]. Over the period 1991-1994, characterized by the war and UN sanctions, in women aged 25-34, 35-44 and 75-84, total mortality was significantly higher than expected on the basis of the trend for the preceding period (p = 0.006, p = 0.000 and p = 0.015 respectively). The opposite effect was found in the age group 85+ (p = 0.012)/Table 2. Of major causes of death, in age group 25-34, mortality from endocrine diseases increased more rapidly in both sexes (p = 0.000) and mortality from urogenital diseases in women decreased more slowly than expected (p = 0.006). On the other hand, in age group 85+ mortality was significantly lower for cardiovascular diseases in both sexes (p = 0.035 and p = 0.006), for respiratory diseases in men (p = 0.011) and for neoplasms in women (p = 0.006)/Table 4. In addition, in the years 1991 and 1992 the increase in mortality from injuries and poisoning was evident in men aged 15-24, 25-34 and 85+ years (Graph 5). Our results show that over the period 1991-1994 changes in mortality were present in some age groups and were caused by certain groups of diseases. In men, besides mortality of infectious disease which decreased more slowly during 1991-1993 than expected, [4], the main departures were found in the mortality from injuries and poisoning and in mortality from endocrine diseases. The excess of death due to injuries and poisoning in the age group 15-34 can be explained as a direct consequence of the war. There were no military operations on the territory of Serbia, but young men from Serbia were nevertheless engaged in the war in other republics of former Yugoslavia. The outstanding increase in mortality caused by injuries and poisoning in men aged 85+ has two explanations. The first is the fact that suicide rate which was on an average of 86 per 100,000 over the period 1984-1990 rose to 140 per 100,000 during the period 1991-1993. In the year 1994 it fell to 92 per 100,000. Since there were no great differences in percent distribution of suicides among all deaths caused by injuries and poisoning in the two periods (27% in 1984-1990 and 20% in 1991-1993), it is clear that the rise of suicidal rate cannot be the only explanation for increased mortality from injuries and poisoning. In a situation when medical services were badly overextended (lack of medical equipment and proper maintenance of the existing equipment, lack of drugs and other medical inputs, a large number of wounded coming from Bosnia as well as numerous refugees) [5, 6], priority had to be given to younger age groups. Higher mortality due to endocrine diseases in men and women aged 25-34 years and higher mortality due to urogenital diseases in women of the same ages can be most probably attributed to poor medical supplies. Although formally excluded from the international economic blockade medical sup

Vlajinac, H; Marinkovi?, J; Kocev, N; Adanja, B; Sipeti?, S; Pekmezovi?, T; Zivaljevi?, V

2000-01-01

310

Access to biologic treatment for rheumatoid arthritis in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The aim of this study was to assess and compare patients’ access to biologic anti-RA drugs in selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries and to analyze the determinants of differences between countries. Material/Methods This is a multi-country survey study, based on a combination of desk research and direct contact with national RA stakeholders. Data was collected using a pre-defined questionnaire. Affordability was measured using an affordability index, calculated comparing the index of health care expenditures to the price index, using Poland as an index of 1. Results The percentage of patients on biologic treatment in 2009 was highest in Hungary (5% RA patients on biologic treatment), followed by Slovenia (4.5%), Slovakia (3.5%), Czech Republic (2.92%), Romania (2.2%), Estonia (1.8%), and Croatia, Serbia, Poland (below 1.5%). Infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab and rituximab were included in the reimbursement system in all countries, but abatacept and tocilizumab were included only in Slovakia. In Slovenia, public payer covered 75% of the price, and 25% is covered by supplementary health insurance; in Bulgaria public payer covered 50% of etanercept and adalimumab costs, and 75% of rituximab cost. In other countries, biologic drugs are reimbursed at 100%. Affordability index for biologic drugs was the lowest in Slovenia (0.4). In each country national guidelines define which patients are eligible for biologic treatment. Disease Activity Score (DAS28) of over 5.1 and failure of 2 or more disease-modifying anti-RA drugs, including methotrexate, are commonly used criteria. Conclusions The most important factors limiting access to biologic anti-RA treatment in the CEE region are macroeconomic conditions and restrictive treatment guidelines. PMID:21455121

Orlewska, Ewa; Ancuta, Ioan; Anic, Branimir; Codrenau, Catalin; Damjanov, Nemanja; Djukic, Predrag; Ionescu, Ruxandra; Marinchev, Lubomir; Nasonov, Evgeny L.; Peets, Tonu; Praprotnik, Sonja; Rashkov, Rasho; Skoupa, Jana; Tlustochowicz, Witold; Tlustochowicz, Malgorzata; Tomsic, Matija; Veldi, Tiina; Vojinovic, Jelena; Wiland, Piotr

2011-01-01

311

Geological and geochemical characteristics of sedimentary rocks in Kremna, basin (Serbia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studying lacustrine sediments is important because of their potential economic value since they often bear coal, oil shales and non-metallic mineral raw materials. Besides this, lacustrine sediments offer valuable information on the climate conditions which existed during the sedimentation. In Serbia there are 14 lacustrine basins spanning in age from Oligocene to Lower Pliocene. The aim of this study was to examine Lower Miocene Kremna basin, located in southwest Serbia. Kremna basin is a small basin, covering 15km2, but sedimentologically very interesting. For the purpose of this study, 43 sediment samples were taken from a borehole at different depths, from surface to 343 m depth of the basin. The borehole ended in weathered serpentinite. Mineralogical composition of sediments was determined using thin-sections and X-ray diffraction analysis, contents of macro-and microelements and rare-earth elements were determined by ICP-ES and ICP-MS techniques. Also, elemental analysis was applied to determine the contents of carbon, sulphur and nitrogen and n-alkanes, isoprenoide aliphatic alkanes and bitumen were also determined using GC-MS technique. Mineralogical analyses proved presents of several lithological types in Kremna basin: clastic sediments, tuffs, tuffaceous sediments, marlstones, dolomites, magnezites, and coal of non-economic value. Occurrence of sirlezite and sepiolite was also determined. Furthermore, according to all obtained results two faciae were determined: alluvial-marginal lacustrine and intrabasinal. Alluvial-marginal facies originated from predominantly ultramafic rocks which underlie the basin. Magnezites and Mg-marls and Mg-dolomites are dominant sediments in this facies. These sediments formed under arid, slightly saline conditions. Intrabasinal facies is represented mostly with marls, Mg-marls and dolomitic limestones. These sediments were deposited under a more humid climate with increase in paleoproductivity. The uppermost sediments of Kremna basin are represented with marly dolomite. Due to the swallowing of the basin sediments became relatively rich in predominantly land plant material. Tuffs and tuffaceous sediments were determined in both faciae.

Perunovi?, Tamara; Jovan?i?evi?, Branimir; Br?eski, Ilija; Šajnovi?, Aleksandra; Stojanovi?, Ksenija; Simi?, Vlada; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica

2014-05-01

312

Identifying gaps between current and expected ICT competencies of nurses in Serbia.  

PubMed

Introducing of ICT in the health care system in Serbia started 19 years ago and systematic training of nurses and technicians has not been realized yet. The primary objective of this paper is to determine the gap between the sets of ICT competencies of nurses and technicians acquiring education and experience and the necessary skill set required for their daily work. The qualitative research included questioning of the focus group of experts and 400 nurses and technicians employed in secondary and tertiary health institutions in Serbia. Based on the analysis of existing literature we choose the Informatics competencies for nurses at four levels of practice (Staggers, Gassert, Curran, 2001), and for the purposes of this study, we used a list of competencies of the first, and partially of the second and third level. At the start, the group of 12 experts had the task to eliminate some of listed competencies to express the subjective expectations of the ICT competencies of nurses. After that nurses and medical technicians were expected to grade, by Likert scale, their level of knowledge and skills for each of the 39 competencies, respectively. The answers were analyzed using measure of central tendency and distribution of results was done by median. Comparison of perceived competence of the nurses and the desired/expected level by managers shows that there is difference in 25 of the 39 offered statements. Managers expect that nurses are great users of administrative applications for staff scheduling and for maintaining employee records, while nurses declared that these programs they use relatively poorly or not at all. The larger gap is also observed when it comes to computer skill for documenting patient care--experts expect that nurses do it well, and nurses, again, estimate that their documentation skills are relatively poor. The same situation is with use of ICT for patient education. It can be concluded that further training is required in the field of ICT, either through additional training in the workplace, either through formal education. Due to the fact that ICT competencies are becoming part of the basic, functional sets, it should be considered the correction of curricula of secondary schools for nurses. PMID:25160171

Paunic, Sanja; Stojkovic, Ivana

2014-01-01

313

A Late-Quaternary stalagmite record from Vernjikica Cave, Carpatho-Balkans, Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many speleothem records of Holocene (MIS 1) and Eemian (MIS 5e) climate evolution have been investigated, but there is very little work being done in the Balkan region, despite the fact that the area is very rich in limestone caves with speleothems. Here we present a first proxy record from a stalagmite collected in Vernjikica Cave, Serbia (Carpatho-Balkan, ~400m asl). The studied stalagmite, Vernjikica-4.2, extends conically from the base to the top and presents one distinct growth hiatus that separates the upper 12 cm spanning the period from 63 ka to 107 ka (BP), and the lower 32 cm, spanning from 107 ka to 113 ka. The stable oxygen and carbon isotope ratios (?18O and ?13C) display opposing gradual trends with ?18O decreasing from averagely -8.5 % (PDB) to about -9.4 % and with ?13C increasing from -8.8 % to about -6.0 %. The long-term record of ?18O and ?13C shows frequent simultaneous and distinct high-amplitude shifts towards more positive values that coincide with pronounced accumulations of denser and darker laminae. In regard to present isotopic compositions in rainfall in the study area, the Vernjikica-4.2 proxy record shows a change from more humid to drier environmental conditions. The distinct increases in stable isotopic ratios reflect short warm and dry intervals during which calcite precipitation is affected by non-equilibrium conditions. The data mirrors both global climatic signals as seen in ?18O variations from the NGRIP ice-core record, and regional climatic signals as seen in ?18O from speleothems from Soreq Cave and Peqiin Cave (Israel) as well as in aeolian dust records from the Vojvodina in North Serbia. Altogether, the proxy record reflects alternating precipitation regimes and/or processes, likely connected to long-term shifts in the relative position of the Polar Front and to short-term shifts of the subtropical high-pressure ridge and their seasonal duration. Once the temporal resolution of the Vernjikica-4.2 record is improved, the precise timing and duration of described events in the proxy record, including the observed shorter-termed increases in ?18O as well as ?13C, will be fully explored. Eventually, the proxy record will be complemented with additional stalagmites from Vernjikica Cave extending the record from 38 ka to 121 ka.

John, I.; Burns, S. J.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, L.; McCoy, W. D.; Markovic, S. B.; Endlicher, W.

2011-12-01

314

Association of PRKAG3 and CAST genetic polymorphisms with traits of interest in dry-cured ham production: Comparative study in France, Slovenia and Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two genes (PRKAG3 and CAST) were screened for genotype incidence and their effect on green ham traits in pigs suitable for dry-cured ham production from three commercial crosses (in three countries France, Slovenia and Spain). Hams were genotyped for PRKAG3 Ile199Val, CAST Lys249Arg and CAST Ser638Arg polymorphisms and the traits of interest (green ham weight and fat thickness, pH in

M. Škrlep; M. ?andek-Potokar; T. Kavar; B. Žlender; M. Hortós; P. Gou; J. Arnau; G. Evans; O. Southwood; A. Diestre; N. Robert; C. Dutertre; V. Santé-Lhoutellier

2010-01-01

315

Molecular analyses of Erwinia amylovora strains isolated in Russia, Poland, Slovenia and Austria describing further spread of fire blight in Europe.  

PubMed

Fire blight, a bacteriosis of apple and pear, was assayed with molecular tools to associate its origin in Russia, Slovenia and south-eastern Austria with neighboring countries. The identification of all investigated strains was confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy except one. Independent isolation was verified by the level of amylovoran synthesis and by the number of short sequence DNA repeats in plasmid pEA29. DNA of gently lysed E. amylovora strains from Russia, Slovenia, Austria, Hungary, Italy, Spain, Croatia, Poland, Central Europe and Iran was treated with restriction enzymes XbaI and SpeI to create typical banding patterns for PFGE analysis. The pattern Pt2 indicated that most Russian E. amylovora strains were related to strains from Turkey and Iran. Strains from Slovenia exhibited patterns Pt3 and Pt2, both present in the neighboring countries. Strains were also probed for the recently described plasmid pEI70 detected in Pt1 strains from Poland and in Pt3 strains from other countries. The distribution of pattern Pt3 suggests distribution of fire blight from Belgium and the Netherlands to Central Spain and Northern Italy and then north to Carinthia. The PFGE patterns indicate that trade of plants may have introduced fire blight into southern parts of Europe proceeded by sequential spread. PMID:23570971

Jock, Susanne; Wensing, Annette; Pulawska, Joanna; Drenova, Nataliya; Dreo, Tanja; Geider, Klaus

2013-08-25

316

Patients' reported quality of life in chronic venous disease in an outpatient service in Belgrade, Serbia.  

PubMed

Chronic venous disease (CVD) has been reported to substantially affect patients' quality of life (QoL). To evaluate the impact of CVD on patient-reported QoL in a patient series in Serbia, a cross-sectional study of 570 CVD patients, classified according to the CEAP clinical classification into classes (C) 1-6, was performed in a Belgrade outpatient clinic. QoL was assessed by the general short-form (SF)-36 questionnaire, and additionally by a brief CVD-specific questionnaire. The SF-36 scores for all QoL dimensions showed a progressive reduction from C1 to C6. Class 5 and 6 patients scored the lowest across all dimensions, with significant (p < 0.05) reductions in physical functioning, role-physical, general health, vitality and mental health. The score for bodily pain decreased from C1 to C4, but increased in C5 and C6 as compared to C4 patients. Interestingly, despite an increasing rate of aesthetic concerns as the disease progresses, no variations were found in the social functioning and emotional role scores across the groups. There were no age or gender differences in any QoL item across the classes. The data presented show that QoL of CVD patients decreases, particularly after the appearance of skin changes, and suggest that even patients in the early stages consider CVD a disease and not merely a cosmetic problem. PMID:19737727

Duni?, Ivana; Medenica, Ljiljana; Bobi?, Branko; Djurkovi?-Djakovi?, Olgica

2009-01-01

317

Determinants of Fruit, Vegetable, and Dairy Consumption in a Sample of Schoolchildren, Northern Serbia, 2012  

PubMed Central

Introduction Insufficient intake of fresh fruits, vegetables, and dairy products among children is a serious nutrition-related concern. The aim of our study was to determine behavioral and environmental factors that influence fruit, vegetable, and dairy consumption among Serbian schoolchildren. Methods We used 24-hour recall to measure fruit, vegetable, and dairy intake of schoolchildren (N = 212) aged 8 to 11 years from 2 elementary schools in a local community in Serbia. We evaluated potential determinants of intake by using a 48-item questionnaire that asked about children’s behaviors, perceptions of others’ expectations and behaviors, reinforcement of children’s behaviors, and availability of fruits, vegetables, and dairy at home and school. Children completed written questionnaires during 1 school class under teacher supervision. Binary logistic regression was used to analyze determinants of fruit, vegetable, and dairy intake. Results Negative predictors of fruit intake were expectations from teacher and parents (P <.001) to eat fruit and availability of fruit in school. Vegetable intake was positively related to paternal modeling behavior (P <.001) and availability of vegetables at home (P = .04). Dairy intake was positively influenced by parental reinforcement (P = .03). Conclusion Various personal and environmental factors are associated with children’s intake of fruits, vegetables, and dairy. Interventions to promote fruit, vegetable, and dairy consumption in Serbian schoolchildren should focus on modeling and reinforcement by parents and teachers and increasing availability at school and at home. PMID:24176082

Novakovic, Budimka

2013-01-01

318

Relationship between overweight, obesity and socioeconomic factors of adolescents in Vojvodina, Serbia.  

PubMed

Obesity is a very important issue in developed societies and depends on many factors. The aim of this paper was to determine a possible relationship between overweight, obesity and socioeconomic factors among adolescents in Vojvodina. A cross-sectional anthropometric study was carried out from 2001 to 2004 in towns of Vojvodina, northern Serbia. The research included height and body weight measurements as well as body mass index (BMI) of 1236 schoolboys and 1414 schoolgirls aged 15-18 years. The socioeconomic factors (SES) included parents' level of education and monthly income per family member. The overweight prevalence of about 10% (8595) were recorded in both male and female adolescents. A significant correlation (p<0.01) between all socioeconomic factors was observed in male subjects, although there were no significant differences in the prevalence of overweight and obesity when different categories of subjects set by SES were compared. In females lower rates of the prevalence of overweight and obesity were detected in the subjects whose parents had a university education, but the difference was not significant. Regarding the prevalence of obesity, a significant difference was recorded between females with high and low incomes, those with a high income showing significantly greater prevalence of obesity than females coming from low income families. The results of the research indicate that in Vojvodina the family income is the only factor that significantly correlates with female obesity. PMID:21565341

Rakic, R; Bozic-Krstic, V; Pavlica, T

2011-08-01

319

Environmental radioactivity in southern Serbia at locations where depleted uranium was used.  

PubMed

In the 1999 bombing of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, NATO forces used ammunition containing depleted uranium. The cleaning of depleted uranium that followed was performed in southern Serbia by the Vin?a Institute of Nuclear Sciences between 2002 and 2007 at the locations of Plja?kovica, Borovac, Bratoselce, and Reljan. This paper presents detailed results of radioactivity monitoring four years after cleaning (2011), which included the determination of gamma emitters in soil, water, and plant samples, as well as gross alpha and beta activities in water samples. The gamma spectrometry results showed the presence of natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, 235U, 238U, and the produced radionuclide 137Cs (from the Chernobyl accident). In order to evaluate the radiological hazard from soil, the radium equivalent activity, the gamma dose rate, the external hazard index, and the annual effective dose were calculated. Considering that a significant number of people inhabit the studied locations, the periodical monitoring of radionuclide content is vital. PMID:24778342

Sarap, Nataša B; Jankovi?, Marija M; Todorovi?, Dragana J; Nikoli?, Jelena D; Kova?evi?, Milojko S

2014-06-01

320

A conceptual model of mildly alkaline water discharging from the Zlatibor ultramafic massif, western Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultramafic rocks are generally taken to be `waterless' or bearing little water. The mountain Zlatibor, western Serbia, largely built of Upper Jurassic ultramafics, is without perennial springs. However, in Gruda, an area on the NE side of Zlatibor, there are two perennial ascending springs with uniform discharge: Bijela ?esma and Hajdu?ko Vrelo. The water from both springs is naturally mildly alkaline (pH ˜8.4), of Mg-HCO3 type, and temperature ˜11 °C. The springs have been investigated with respect to derivation, dynamics and chemistry with a view to commercial use of the water. The results indicate zones of rocks fractured during tectonic events and/or under lithostatic pressure. Deep ultramafic rocks, equivalent to abyssal peridotites (the least depleted rocks of the upper mantle, rich in magnesium), include fractured aquifers characterized by heterogeneity and anisotropy. Groundwater arriving at the land surface derives from atmospheric precipitation, and its quality is converted through the process of serpentine acid hydrolysis into mildly alkaline Mg-HCO3 water. Both quantity and quality of water from these springs are stable and are unaffected by atmospheric precipitation or other external influences. A conceptual model of the structure, hydrogeological character of the aquifer, and the mechanism of groundwater derivation is developed for both springs.

Niki?, Zoran; Sre?kovi?-Bato?anin, Danica; Burazer, Milenko; Risti?, Ratko; Papi?, Petar; Nikoli?, Vesna

2013-08-01

321

Comparison of spectrolyser device measurements with standard analysis of wastewater samples in Novi Sad, Serbia.  

PubMed

On-line monitoring was performed using spectrolyser equipment, coupled with laboratory analysis for samples collected from wastewater discharge in the city of Novi Sad, Serbia, during first 24 h of three and 48 h of six monitoring campaigns from December of 2012 to April of 2013. Significant correlation with R(2) > 0.9 was observed between laboratory analysis and spectrolyser measurements for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) concentrations. COD/BOD5 ratio in combined industrial and municipal wastewater ranged from 1.2 to 2.0 indicating the presence of biodegradable organic matter which could be easily removed using aeration treatment process. Micro/trace element and/or heavy metals in wastewater samples were within the limits as per the standard prescribed for wastewater, and should not pose any serious hazard risk. However BOD, COD, ammonia and total phosphorus concentrations were measured above the limit value according to Serbian and EU legislation and should be reduced before discharging wastewater directly into the Danube River. PMID:24990395

Mihajlovi?, I; Pap, S; Srema?ki, M; Brbori?, M; Babunski, D; Dogo, M

2014-09-01

322

Levels of organochlorine pesticides in crops and related products from Vojvodina, Serbia: estimated dietary intake.  

PubMed

Levels of 16 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were investigated in 39 composite samples of agricultural crops, related by-products, and foodstuffs collected in Vojvodina, Serbia, in 2002 through 2004. After extraction and cleanup, OCPs were determined by capillary gas chromatography using electron-capture detection. The highest mean level of 0.971 ng/g whole weight (ww) was found for alpha-HCH in wheat flour samples. OCPs levels were well lower than the respective maximum residue limits set by current European and Serbian regulations. Mean OCP levels were low (<1 ng/g ww) for all sample types. The most frequently determined residue was 4,4'-DDT (identified in 76.9% of all samples analyzed), followed by gamma-HCH (66.7%), beta-HCH (48.7%), and endosulfan II (41.0%). OCP levels were compared with data from other international surveys. Calculated daily intakes of OCPs by way of consumption of the crop products included in this study according to data of the Serbian National Institute for Statistics were compared with the acceptable daily intakes established by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization. The average level of contamination of the Vojvodina diet was believed to be harmless regarding the studied food commodities. PMID:18197356

Skrbi?, B; Predojevi?, Z

2008-05-01

323

Follow-up study of prevalence and control of ascariasis in swine populations in Serbia.  

PubMed

The cause of the most significant helminth diseases in swine - Ascaris suum, can also causes infections in humans. The use of swine manure in agriculture renders the eggs of this ascaridida an accessible source of infection, thus posing a significant risk factor for human health. With the objective of proving the prevalence of infection with A. suum nematodes in the territory of Serbia, investigations were carried out in the period between 2007-2011 in the territories of five districts: North Ba?ka, South Banat, Brani?evo, Zlatibor and Nišava. The investigations covered coprological examinations of 1031 feces samples of swine originating from farms owned by individual breeders. The samples were examined using the standard flotation method with a saturated water solution of NaCl. The established prevalence of ascariasis infection amounted to 47.62% (1031/491). The biggest prevalence of infection was determined in the territory of the Brani?evo District, 65.78% (301/198), and the smallest in the territory of the Nišava District, 32.24% (183/59). In spite of its prevalence and vast economic importance, there is still insufficient information about the key aspects of the biology and epidemiology of A. suum. Viewed from the aspect of epizootiology, it is very important to know the prevalence of swine infections with Ascaris because of the possible infection of humans by its migrating larvae. PMID:23990423

Ili?, Tamara; Becskei, Zsolt; Tasi?, Aleksandar; Dimitrijevi?, Sanda

2013-09-01

324

Phenotypic variability in five Aceria spp. (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea) inhabiting Cirsium species (Asteraceae) in Serbia.  

PubMed

From about 250 Cirsium spp., only two Aceria spp. (Acari: Eriophyoidea) have been described, Aceria anthocoptes (Nal.) and Aceria cirsii Pet. B. & Shi. Host specificity, which generally characterizes eriophyoid mites, potentially leads to speciation, so we may expect more than two Aceria spp. and/or other infraspecific taxa. Furthermore, studies on host-related variability in the morphology of Aceria mites are generally lacking. The purpose of this study was to investigate quantitative morphological traits of five Aceria populations inhabiting five Cirsium spp. in Serbia. MANOVA analysis revealed significant differences in 23 commonly used morphological traits as well as four additional traits related to the prodorsal shield design. In addition, the most important qualitative traits using scanning electron microphotographs were studied in order to clarify phenotypic differences among five Aceria spp. Discriminant analysis identified eight traits that significantly differentiate five populations. UPGMA cluster analysis of the squared Mahalanobis distances indicates that A. cirsii was morphologically the most divergent, while A. anthocoptes populations from Cirsium arvense and Aceria sp. from Cirsium heterophyllum were isolated from the branch clustering Aceria spp. populations from Cirsium eriophorum and Cirsium creticum. Analysis of qualitative traits using SEM confirmed results obtained from the analysis of morphometric features. PMID:20309722

Vidovi?, Biljana; Stanisavljevi?, Ljubisa; Petanovi?, Radmila

2010-10-01

325

Distribution of natural radionuclides in surface soils in the vicinity of abandoned uranium mines in Serbia.  

PubMed

The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in soils from the area affected by uranium mining at Stara Planina Mountain in Serbia were studied and compared with the results obtained from an area with no mining activities (background area). In the affected area, the activity concentrations ranged from 1.75 to 19.2 mg kg(-1) for uranium and from 1.57 to 26.9 mg kg(-1) for thorium which is several-fold higher than those in the background area. The Th/U, K/U, and K/Th activity ratios were also determined and compared with data from similar studies worldwide. External gamma dose rate in the air due to uranium, thorium, and potassium at 1 m above ground level in the area affected by uranium mining was found to be 91.3 nGy h(-1), i.e., about two-fold higher than that in background area. The results of this preliminary study indicate the importance of radiological evaluation of the area and implementation of remedial measures in order to prevent further dispersion of radionuclides in the environment. PMID:22527467

Mom?ilovi?, Milan; Kova?evi?, Jovan; Tani?, Milan; Dor?evi?, Milan; Ba?i?, Goran; Dragovi?, Snežana

2013-02-01

326

Interaction between different extracts of Hypericum perforatum L. from Serbia and pentobarbital, diazepam and paracetamol.  

PubMed

Herb-drug interactions are an important safety concern and this study was conducted regarding the interaction between the natural top-selling antidepressant remedy Hypericum perforatum (Hypericaceae) and conventional drugs. This study examined the influence of acute pretreatment with different extracts of Hypericum perforatum from Serbia on pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, impairment of motor coordination caused by diazepam and paracetamol pharmacokinetics in mice. Ethanolic extract, aqueous extract, infusion, tablet and capsule of Hypericum perforatum were used in this experiment. The profile of Hypericum perforatum extracts as well as paracetamol plasma concentration was determined using RP-HPLC analysis. By quantitative HPLC analysis of active principles, it has been proven that Hypericum perforatum ethanolic extract has the largest content of naphtodianthrones: hypericin (57.77 ľg/mL) and pseudohypericin (155.38 ľg/mL). Pretreatment with ethanolic extract of Hypericum perforatum potentiated the hypnotic effect of pentobarbital and impairment of motor coordination caused by diazepam to the greatest extent and also increased paracetamol plasma concentration in comparison to the control group. These results were in correlation with naphtodianthrone concentrations. The obtained results have shown a considerable influence of Hypericum perforatum on pentobarbital and diazepam pharmacodynamics and paracetamol pharmacokinetics. PMID:24686576

Raškovi?, Aleksandar; Cveji?, Jelena; Stilinovi?, Nebojša; Golo?orbin-Kon, Svetlana; Vukmirovi?, Saša; Mimica-Duki?, Neda; Mikov, Momir

2014-01-01

327

Changes in chromosomal polymorphism and global warming: The case of Drosophila subobscura from Apatin (Serbia)  

PubMed Central

In this study, chromosomal inversion polymorphism data for a natural population of Drosophila subobscura from a swampy region near the town of Apatin (Serbia) were compared with data for the same population collected approximately 15 years earlier. The pattern of chromosomal inversion polymorphism changed over time. There were significant increases in the frequency of characteristic southern latitude (“warm” adapted) chromosomal arrangements and significant decreases in the frequency of characteristic northern latitude (“cold” adapted) chromosomal arrangements in the O and U chromosomes. The chromosomal arrangements O3+4 and O3+4+22 (derived from the O3+4 arrangement) showed significant increases in 2008 and 2009 with regard to the 1994 sample. There was also a significant increase (?50%) in the U1+2 arrangement, while U1+8+2 (a typical southern arrangement) was detected for the first time. Since the Apatin swampy population of D. subobscura has existed for a long time in a stable habitat with high humidity that has not been changed by man our results indicate that natural selection has produced chromosomal changes in response to the increase in temperature that has occurred in the Balkan Peninsula of central southeastern European. PMID:21931524

Zivanovic, Goran; Mestres, Francesc

2011-01-01

328

Heterogeneous extrusion and exhumation of deep-crustal Variscan assembly: Geochronology of the Western Tatra Mountains, northern Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature and style of mid-crustal assembly and exhumation during continental collision has been investigated in the Tatra Mountains of the Western Carpathians. The pre-Alpine basement of the Western Carpathians represents the easternmost exposure of the Variscan orogen in Europe, which marks the collision of Laurasia with Gondwanian-affiliated terranes during the Palaeozoic. The Tatric crystalline unit of the Western Tatra in northern Slovakia displays an inverted metamorphic sequence where a high-grade unit comprising migmatites with relicts of eclogite has been thrust over a lower-grade mica schist unit. New geochronological and thermochronological data together with published thermobarometry illuminate the metamorphic history of the Western Tatra. The Upper Unit eclogites with occasionally preserved omphacite record near isothermal decompression from 1.6 GPa to 1.0-1.2 GPa at 750-800 °C which lead to intensive re-equilibration at high-pressure granulite facies conditions, comparable to the peak metamorphic conditions of the host migmatite. Both eclogite and migmatite shared a retrograde P-T path following the insertion of the eclogite assemblage into the migmatites. The metamorphic evolution of the Lower Unit mica schist is constrained to peak P-T conditions of 0.6-0.8 GPa and 640 and 660 °C followed by retrogression. This suggests that different rock types of the Western Tatra metamorphic core shared only their exhumation path from mid-crustal levels. ID-TIMS Sm-Nd dating of garnet from eclogite yields a whole rock-garnet isochron age of 337 ą 10 Ma, with an initial ?Nd isotopic composition of + 8.3. In situ U-Pb dating of monazite from a migmatite surrounding the eclogite shows one age population of c. 380 Ma whereas monazite from a migmatite away from the eclogite preserves a robust 340 ą 11 Ma age which is indistinguishable from Sm-Nd garnet age and U-Pb age of zircons in the anatectic leucosome of the migmatite (347 ą 7 Ma). A younger monazite age population from the migmatite of 300 ą 16 Ma is consistent with 40Ar/39Ar mica ages of c. 310 Ma. This argues for a contemporaneous, and likely shared, exhumation path of the assemblage pair. In situ monazite total-Pb analyses from the Lower Unit mica schists yields xenocrystic and c. 370 Ma ages, but no geochronologic evidence for peak Variscan tectonism. Exhumation of the deep crustal root occurred most probably in a two-stage process. The timing of the high-pressure, eclogite facies metamorphism before the onset of exhumation into the mid crust, was likely between c. 380 Ma and 360 Ma. Subsequent exhumation into the middle crust was coeval with migmatite generation at c. 340 Ma and garnet diffusion modeling suggest ~ 30 °C/Ma cooling rates. The exhumation was likely tectonically forced by the action of a rigid indentor, which prompted the weak lower crust to be heterogeneously extruded to mid-crustal levels at a time coeval with anatexis and subsequently extruded with mid-crustal material to the upper crust.

Moussallam, Y.; Schneider, D. A.; Janák, M.; Thöni, M.; Holm, D. K.

2012-07-01

329

Cytogeography of Pilosella officinarum (Compositae): Altitudinal and Longitudinal Differences in Ploidy Level Distribution in the Czech Republic and Slovakia and the General Pattern in Europe  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Pilosella officinarum (syn. Hieracium pilosella) is a highly structured species with respect to the ploidy level, with obvious cytogeographic trends. Previous non-collated data indicated a possible differentiation in the frequency of particular ploidy levels in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Therefore, detailed sampling and ploidy level analyses were assessed to reveal a boundary of common occurrence of tetraploids on one hand and higher ploids on the other. For a better understanding of cytogeographic differentiation of P. officinarum in central Europe, a search was made for a general cytogeographic pattern in Europe based on published data. Methods DNA-ploidy level and/or chromosome number were identified for 1059 plants using flow cytometry and/or chromosome counting on root meristem preparations. Samples were collected from 336 localities in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and north-eastern Hungary. In addition, ploidy levels were determined for plants from 18 localities in Bulgaria, Georgia, Ireland, Italy, Romania and Ukraine. Key Results Four ploidy levels were found in the studied area with a contrasting pattern of distribution. The most widespread cytotype in the western part of the Czech Republic is tetraploid (4x) reproducing sexually, while the apomictic pentaploids and mostly apomictic hexaploids (5x and 6x, respectively) clearly prevail in Slovakia and the eastern part of the Czech Republic. The boundary between common occurrence of tetraploids and higher ploids is very obvious and represents the geomorphologic boundary between the Bohemian Massif and the Western Carpathians with the adjacent part of Pannonia. Mixed populations consisting of two different ploidy levels were recorded in nearly 11% of localities. A statistically significant difference in a vertical distribution of penta- and hexaploids was observed in the Western Carpathians and the adjacent Pannonian Plain. Hexaploid populations tend to occur at lower elevations (usually below 500 m), while the pentaploid level is more or less evenly distributed up to 1000 m a.s.l. For the first time the heptaploid level (7x) was found on one site in Slovakia. In Europe, the sexual tetraploid level has clearly a sub-Atlantic character of distribution. The plants of higher ploidy level (penta- and hexa-) with mostly apomictic reproduction prevail in the northern part of Scandinavia and the British Isles, the Alps and the Western Carpathians with the adjacent part of Pannonia. A detailed overview of published data shows that extremely rare records on existence of diploid populations in the south-west Alps are with high probability erroneous and most probably refer to the closely related diploid species P. peleteriana. Conclusions The recent distribution of P. officinarum in Europe is complex and probably reflects the climatic changes during the Pleistocene and consequent postglacial migrations. Probably both penta- and hexaploids arose independently in central Europe (Alps and Carpathian Mountains) and in northern Europe (Scandinavia, Great Britain, Ireland), where the apomictic plants colonized deglaciated areas. We suggest that P. officinarum is in fact an amphidiploid species with a basic tetraploid level, which probably originated from hybridizations of diploid taxa from the section Pilosellina. PMID:17998212

Mraz, Patrik; Singliarova, Barbora; Urfus, Tomas; Krahulec, Frantisek

2008-01-01

330

Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Magnetic Fluids (ICMF 11) (Košice, Slovakia, 23-27 July 2007).  

PubMed

The 11th International Conference on Magnetic Fluids (ICMF 11) was held in Košice, Slovakia between 23-27 July 2007. Attendance at the conference was high and its motivation was in line with the ten previous ICMF conferences organized in Udine, Orlando, Bangor, Sendai-Tokyo, Riga, Paris, Bhavnagar, Timisoara, Bremen and Guarujá. The conference in Slovakia reflected the scientific community's enthusiasm and worldwide support, with 256 participants, from 30 countries attending.The main objective of ICMF 11 was to promote progress and knowledge in the field of magnetic fluids regarding their chemistry, physical and magnetic properties, heat and mass transfer, surface phenomena, as well as their technological and biomedical applications. As research on magnetic fluids is essentially interdisciplinary, experts from related areas were invited to present their contributions with a view to increasing knowledge in the field and highlighting new trends. Submitted communications were refereed by members of the Scientific Organizing Committee and abstracts were assembled in a book of abstracts. Participants presented 180 posters in two poster sessions and 56 oral presentations. All presentations contributed to a greater understanding of the area, and helped to bridge the gap between physics, chemistry, technology, biology and medical sciences. Contributions to this conference are presented in 115 scientific papers, with some published in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter and the rest in Magnetohydrodynamics. The organization of the conference was made possible by generous support from the Institute of Experimental Physics and Institute of Geotechnics of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, the University of Pavol Jozef Šafárik and the Slovak Physical Society. Financial support from Ferrotec, Cryosoft Ltd, Mikrochem, Liquids Research Ltd, Askony and US Steel Košice, is also gratefully acknowledged. PMID:21694229

Kop?anský, Peter; Timko, Milan; Ková?, Josef; Václavíková, Miroslava; Odenbach, Stefan

2008-05-21

331

Variability of the needle essential oils of Pinus peuce from different populations in Montenegro and Serbia.  

PubMed

The essential-oil composition of Pinus peuce Griseb. is reported at the population level. Macedonian pine is endemic high-mountain Balkan pine relict of an anthropogenically reduced area, with large morphological diversity and insufficiently clear taxonomic position. In the pine-needle terpene profile of two populations from Montenegro and one from Serbia, 78 compounds were detected, 56 of which are identified (Table 3). The dominant constituents were alpha-pinene (36.5%) and germacrene D (11.4%). The following 20 additional components were found to be present in medium-to-high amounts (0.5-10%): camphene (8.5%), bornyl acetate (6.8%), beta-pinene (6.8%), beta-caryophyllene (5.2%), beta-phellandrene (4.7%), terpinen-4-ol acetate (1.6%), (E)-hex-2-enal (1.5%), alpha-muurolene (1.2%), beta-gurjunene (1.1%), beta-myrcene (1.0%), alpha-terpinyl acetate (0.9%), alpha-phellandrene (0.8%), delta-cadinene (0.8%), alpha-humulene (0.8%), sabinene (0.7%), aromadendrene (0.6%), alpha-thujene (0.6%), gamma-muurolene (0.6%), gamma-cadinene (0.6%), alpha-terpinolene (0.5%), and one unknown component (0.5%). The similarity of the populations and the within-population variability were visualized by principle-component analysis (PCA) and genetic analysis of selected terpenes in 90 tree samples. Our study suggests a closer connection between populations II and III compared to population I. Based on the profile of the main terpene components, the studied populations are more similar to populations from Kosovo and Greece than to the population from Mt. Mokra (Montenegro) and the population in France. PMID:18649304

Nikoli?, Biljana; Risti?, Mihailo; Bojovi?, Srdjan; Marin, Petar D

2008-07-01

332

Non-dioxin-like PCBs in ten different fish species from the Danube river in Serbia.  

PubMed

This work has been developed to examine the level of non-dioxin-like (ndl) PCBs (28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180) in (a) ten different freshwater fish species from the Danube river, (b) two sampling points: up and downstream of the industrial zone of the city of Pancevo (ecological hot spot in Serbia) and (c) two time points i.e., in 2001 and 2006. Obtained results would serve to analyse spatial, temporal and congener profile characteristics of ndl PCBs cumulated in fish tissues due to environmental pollution. Sixty-four samples of the following species were collected: wels (Silirus glanus), pike (Esox lucius), bream (Abramis brama), crucian carp (Carassius carassius), pike pearch (Stizostedion lucioperca), barbel (Barbus barbus), tench (Tinca tinca), sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis). Gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector was used for analysis of ndl PCBs. Total ndl PCBs content in upstream samples ranged from 2.7 to 98.1 ng/g and from 4.9 to 68.3 ng/g in 2001 and 2006, respectively. During the 5 years, ndl PCBs content increased significantly in downstream samples i.e., ndl PCBs varied from 13.7 to 46.1 ng/g and from 14.4 to 107.2 ng/g in 2001 and 2006, respectively. PCBs 138 and 180 were predominant congeners in 2001, while in 2006 the most abundant PCB congeners were 138 and 153. In 2006, the presence of PCB 28 and PCB 52 has indicated a recent contamination event. Data on continual monitoring of PCBs in all relevant environmental compartments together with appropriate biomonitoring data are expected to give comprehensive insight into the fate and behaviour profile of these contaminants. PMID:21161586

Jankovi?, Saša; Cur?i?, Marijana; Radi?evi?, Tatjana; Stefanovi?, Sr?an; Lenhardt, Mirjana; Durgo, Ksenija; Antonijevi?, Biljana

2011-10-01

333

Levels of some microelements and essential heavy metals in herbal teas in Serbia.  

PubMed

Levels of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo, Co, Ni, Se, Sn and Al were determined in 14 medicinal plants from Serbia, which are widely used in phytopharmacy as herbal teas. The following plants were investigated: yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), basil (Ocimum hasilicum L.), St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.), field horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.), stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.), thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.), maize silk (Zea mays L. - Maydis stigma), hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), rosehip/dog rose (Rosa canina L.), winter savory (Satureja montana L.) and spearmint (Mentha spicata L.). A total of 16 samples of different parts of medicinal plants (root, leaf, flower, herba) were examined, whereby 13 samples were delivered in original package and three samples were loose leaf herbs. Samples were prepared using the microwave digestion technique, and measurements were performed applying the atomic absorption spectrometry and mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. Contents of microelements in the examined samples were in the range: Mn (23.86 - 453.71 mg/kg); Fe (61.87 - 673.0 mg/kg); Cu (6.68 - 24.46 mg/kg); Zn (16.11 - 113.81 mg/kg); Mo (0.576 - 4.265 mg/kg); Co (0.039 - 0.532 mg/kg); Se (0.036 - 0.146 mg/kg); Ni (0.738 - 6.034 mg/kg); Al (154.0 - 3015.0 mg/kg) and Sn (2.68 - 10.22 mg/kg). According to determined amounts of microelements, the investigated samples of herbal teas are considered safe for human consumption. PMID:25265817

Mihaljev, Zeljko; Zivkov-Balos, Milica; Cupi?, Zeljko; Jaksi?, Sandra

2014-01-01

334

Toxoplasma gondii infection in slaughter pigs in Serbia: seroprevalence and demonstration of parasites in blood.  

PubMed

A seroepizootiological study of Toxoplasma gondii infection involving a total of 488 slaughter pigs (468 market-weight pigs and 20 sows) in the Belgrade area, also included examination of the presence of T. gondii in the blood. Blood sampled at the slaughter line was examined for specific antibodies by modified direct agglutination, and blood clots of those seropositive at titres of 1:50-1:12800 were bioassayed in mice. The overall seroprevalence was 9.2%, significantly higher (p = 0.0063) in sows (30.0%) than in market-weight pigs (8.3%). Amongst the 22 bioassays performed, a total of 16 (72.7%) were positive, by observation of T. gondii cysts (12), seropositivity (7, including 3 in which cysts were not detected), and/or detection of T. gondii DNA by real-time PCR (12, including one otherwise negative). The positive bioassays originated from the blood of 12 market-weight pigs and 4 sows. Despite a general increase in the rate of demonstration of T. gondii with the increase in the specific antibody level, the association was not significant (p = 0.101). The risk of infection was 41-fold increased in sows vs market-weight pigs, and 15-fold in pigs from smallholders' finishing type farms vs those from large farrow-to-finish farms. The presence of viable T. gondii in a proportion of the samples indicates that some of the pigs had an active parasitaemia at the time of slaughter, which, along with the seroprevalence established, points to a potential source of human infection in Serbia. This is the first report on parasitaemia in naturally infected swine. PMID:21314900

Klun, Ivana; Vujani?, Marija; Yera, Hélčne; Nikoli?, Aleksandra; Ivovi?, Vladimir; Bobi?, Branko; Bradonji?, Siniša; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Djurkovi?-Djakovi?, Olgica

2011-01-01

335

Ten years survey of primary HIV-1 resistance in Serbia: the occurrence of multiclass resistance.  

PubMed

In Serbia, the first cases of HIV infection were reported in 1985, whereas antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has been in use since 1987. With this study we aimed to assess the occurrence and pattern of HIV resistance mutations among newly diagnosed patients in the period 2002-2011. The study prospectively included 181 adult patients. Genotypic HIV-1 drug resistance testing was performed and drug resistance was scored according to the 2009 WHO list for surveillance of drug resistance mutations (SDRMs). A bioinformatic approach was used to estimate the duration of infection by calculating the percentage of ambiguous basecalls per sequence, with a cutoff of 0.47% as the delimiter for recent infection. The overall prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) found in the study was 8.8% (16/181, 95% CI=5.5-13.8). Thirty-one percent of resistant samples contained multiple SDRMs. In particular, 5/16 patients with resistance carried viral strains with SDRMs to multiple ARV classes, hence one-third of resistant strains were multiclass resistant, including non-B strains. A total of 51.9% of samples (94/181) were classified as recent infection, with a significant increase in the second part of the study period. However, the prevalence of TDR in recent infection was 6.4% (6/94, 95% CI=2.9-13.2), not statistically different from that found in nonrecent infection. We showed a changing pattern of TDR mutations over the study period, with a substantial occurrence of multiclass resistance, across different HIV subtypes. Our results highlight the need for continued surveillance of primary resistance. PMID:24635515

Stanojevic, Maja; Siljic, Marina; Salemovic, Dubravka; Pesic-Pavlovic, Ivana; Zerjav, Sonja; Nikolic, Valentina; Ranin, Jovan; Jevtovic, Djordje

2014-07-01

336

Bioaccumulation of metals in sediments, fish and plant from Tisza river (Serbia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the aquatic environments metals originate from various natural and anthropogenic sources. The purpose of the study was to assess the bioaccumulation level of metals in sediments fish and common reed at four different localities of the Tisza River stretch in Serbia. For purpose of this study concentrations of Al, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr and Zn were determined in sediment, common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. 1841) and four ecologically different fish species (piscivorous northern pike (Esox lucius L.), benthivorous sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.) silver bream (Brama brama L.), omnivorous common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)). Analysis of metals was carried out for liver, gills, brain, testicles and ovaries in fish and in the rhizome, stem and leaves of the common reed and sediment fraction <0,0063mm. The concentrations of metals have been assessed using the Inductively Coupled Plasma - optical emission spectrometry. Obtained results revealed that Al and Fe had the highest concentrations in sediment, fish and common reed samples. The research proved a strong positive correlation between the concentrations of all metals in the sediment, fish and common reed. The highest concentration of heavy metals was recorded in omnivorous common carp Cyprinus carpio, and organs that the most intensively accumulated the greatest number of them were liver and gills. Accumulated metals in the common reed were not distributed evenly, but there are target organs for bioaccumulation. Concentrations in below-ground organs were usually higher than above-ground organs, and the general decreasing trend of element content was rhizome>leaves>stems. Obtained results indicate that the location does not have impact to the level of bioaccumulation. On the basis of this research the under-ground organ (rhizome) of common reed, liver and gills and omnivorous fish species could be recommended as environmental indicators for the presence of metals during environmental monitoring.

Štrbac, Snežana; Gajica, Gordana; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica; Šajnovi?, Aleksandra; Vasi?, Nebojša; Jovan?i?evi?, Branimir; Simonovi?, Predrag

2014-05-01

337

Radionuclides in some edible and medicinal macrofungal species from Tara Mountain, Serbia.  

PubMed

Edible and medicinal macrofungi used in human diet represent not only important sources of nutritive elements but toxic substances as well (heavy metals and radionuclides). Radioactivity levels of four radionuclides ((40)K, (137)Cs, (226)Ra, (228)Ra) were determined in the basidiomata (fruiting bodies of a Basidiomycetes) of six lignicolous (Fomitopsis pinicola, Ganoderma applanatum, Hericium clathroides, Megacollybia platyphylla, Pluteus cervinus, Trametes gibbosa) and three mycorrhizal (Boletus luridus, Boletus sp. 1, Boletus sp. 2) species as well as their soil (wood) substrates by gamma spectrometry (high-resolution high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector). The aim was to investigate their ability for radionuclide absorption according to transfer factors (from soil and wood), to predict potential bioindicator species as well as species with potential risk for human use. Samples were taken during years 2011 and 2012, at two sites in forest ecosystem of Tara Mountain (Serbia). Observed concentration ranges per dry weight were as follows: 29-3,020 Bq/kg ((40)K), 21.9-735 Bq/kg ((137)Cs), 3-39 Bq/kg ((226)Ra), and 2.0-18 Bq/kg ((228)Ra). Obtained results indicate that the type of basidiome (fleshy/tough), most likely due to a different metabolic rate, has a very important role in radionuclide accumulation. The highest activity concentrations of all analyzed radionuclides were found in species with fleshy basidiomata-P. cervinus, H. clathroides, M. platyphylla, and Boletus species. A species-specific influence on radionuclide uptake was more prominent comparing to habitat differences and the role of fungal trophic mode. No significant variations were observed regarding radionuclide activity among the same fungal species from different sampling sites. PMID:24801292

Raki?, Milana; Karaman, Maja; Forkapi?, Sofija; Hansman, Jan; Kebert, Marko; Bikit, Kristina; Mrdja, Dušan

2014-10-01

338

Comparative analysis of essential oils of six Anthemis taxa from Serbia and Montenegro.  

PubMed

The essential-oil composition of six Anthemis taxa from several populations in Serbia and Montenegro, Anthemis triumfetti (L.) DC., A. tinctoria L., A. austriaca Jacq., A. ruthenica Bieb., A. cotula L., and A. cretica ssp. carpatica (Willd.) Grierson were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The main constituents have been identified as follows: camphor (13.8-15.4%), alpha-pinene (5.2-9.3%), beta-pinene (4.9-7.8%), and (E)-caryophyllene (7.3-9.8%) in three populations, and cis-chrysanthenol (27.0%) and 1,8-cineole (8.4%) in one population of A. triumfetti; 1,8-cineole (9.0-25.8%) in the oils of five populations, and borneol (16.0%) and spatulenol (16.0%) in the oil of one population of A. tinctoria; cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (17.5-22.0%), beta-pinene (8.6-13.2%), and 1,8-cineole (7.2-10.4%) in the oils of A. austriaca; germacrene D (8.3-11.3%) and terpinen-4-ol (6.3-7.3%) in A. ruthenica oils; beta-cedrene (10.3-19.0%), (E)-beta-farnesene (7.8-13.5%), and germacrene D (5.2-9.1%) in the oils of A. cotula; cis-thujone (39.0%), trans-thujone (13.5%), and yomogi alcohol (7.1%) in the oil of A. cretica ssp. carpatica. The essential oil of A. austriaca was studied for the first time. A cluster analysis based on the relative percentages of all components of the essential oils was used to determine the distances between taxa and populations. PMID:20491079

Pavlovi?, Milica; Lakusi?, Dmitar; Kovacevi?, Nada; Tzakou, Olga; Couladis, Maria

2010-05-01

339

Canine Dirofilaria Infections in Two Uninvestigated Areas of Serbia: Epidemiological and Genetic Aspects  

PubMed Central

Abstract In 2009 canine filarial infections were investigated in two northern areas of Serbia (Pan?evo and Veliko Gradište), applying morphometry, biochemical staining, and immunological kit to detect Dirofilaria immitis antigens, and two home-made ELISAs to detect antibodies to D. repens and D. immitis somatic/metabolic polyproteins. Moreover, molecular tools were applied to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of the isolates. The microfilariae detected in 21/122 dogs (17.2%) were identified as D. repens (n=21) and D. immitis (n=2). D. immitis antigens were found in another 13 animals with occult infection. All of the 15 heartworm-positive dogs also had antibodies to this parasite, which were detected in another 13 subjects, indicating an overall D. immitis seroprevalence rate of 22.9%. Serology for D. repens revealed evidence of antibodies in 42.6% of the dogs, but was negative for 4 microfilaremic dogs. As for the two different areas, the prevalence of microfilariae and/or D. immitis antigens, mainly due to D. repens microfilaremic animals, was not significantly higher in Veliko Gradište (33.3%) than in Pan?evo (22%). However, serology showed a different epidemiological picture. Heartworm infection occurred more often in both areas, and antibodies to dirofilarial nematodes were detected in 72.9% of dogs living in Pan?evo, a rate higher than in those living in Veliko Gradište (57.1%). No risk factors for infection were found, confirming the uselessness of prophylactic drugs against D. repens, and suggesting the presence in these areas of sunrise- or sunset-biting mosquitoes as important vectors. The results indicate the need for both appropriate entomological studies and further research on the intra-species variability shown by D. repens. PMID:23127188

Tasic, Aleksandar; Tasic-Otasevic, Suzana; Gabrielli, Simona; Miladinovic-Tasic, Natasa; Ignjatovic, Aleksandra; ?or?evic, Jovana; Dimitrijevic, Sanda

2012-01-01

340

Vegetation of the aquatic and marshland habitats in the Orava region, including the first records of Potametum alpini, Potametum zizii and Ranunculo-Juncetum bulbosi in the territory of Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vegetation of the aquatic and marshland habitats of the Orava region (north of Slovakia) was studied in 2009, using traditional\\u000a phytosociological methods. Sixteen aquatic and eighteen marsh plant communities were described within 96 phytosociological\\u000a relevés by using TWINSPAN with the application of the dominance principle. Three associations, Potametum alpini, Potametum zizii and Ranunculo-Juncetum bulbosi, were found as new communities

Richard Hrivnák; Judita Kochjarová; Helena O?ahe?ová

2011-01-01

341

Morphological variation in different populations of Aceria anthocoptes (Acari: Eriophyoidea) associated with the Canada thistle, Cirsium arvense, in Serbia.  

PubMed

The russet mite, Aceria anthocoptes (Nal.), is the only eriophyid that has been recorded on Canada thistle, Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. It has been noted in several European countries and recently in the USA. With its apparent host specificity and because of the damage it causes to its host plant, A. anthocoptes is being studied as a potential candidate for classical biological control. The aim of the present study was to examine quantitative morphological traits in four populations of A. anthocoptes living on two infraspecific host plant taxa (C. arvense var. arvense and C. arvense var. vestitum) in two geographically separate areas of Serbia in order to test the hypothesis of absence of the possible host plant impact on mite morphology. MANOVA analysis revealed significant differences between populations from different localities in Serbia. Populations of A. anthocoptes inhabiting two thistle varieties in the vicinity of Belgrade differed significantly from mites inhabiting the same two host varieties in the vicinity of the town of Ivanjica. Canonical discriminant analysis showed that the trait which best discriminates the populations of A. anthocoptes is the number of dorsal annuli. It was not possible to ascribe morphological differences to the impact of the host plant. PMID:17611806

Magud, Biljana D; Stanisavljevi?, Ljubisa Z; Petanovi?, Radmila U

2007-01-01

342

Analysis of solid waste from ships and modeling of its generation on the river Danube in Serbia.  

PubMed

This study focuses on the issues related to the waste management in river ports in general and, particularly, in ports on the river Danube's flow through Serbia. The ports of Apatin, Bezdan, Backa Palanka, Novi Sad, Belgrade, Smederevo, Veliko Gradiste, Prahovo and Kladovo were analyzed. The input data (number of watercrafts, passengers and crew members) were obtained from harbor authorities for the period 2005-2009. The quantities of solid waste generated on both cruise and cargo ships are considered in this article. As there is no strategy for waste treatment in the ports in Serbia, these data are extremely valuable for further design of equipment for waste treatment and collection. Trends in data were analyzed and regression models were used to predict the waste quantities in each port in next 3 years. The obtained trends could be utilized as the basis for the calculation of the equipment capacities for waste selection, collection, storage and treatment. The results presented in this study establish the need for an organized management system for this type of waste, as well as suggest where the terminals for collection, storage and treatment of solid waste from ships should be located. PMID:23460543

Ulnikovi?, Vladanka Presburger; Vuki?, Marija; Milutinovi?-Nikoli?, Aleksandra

2013-06-01

343

An Ecophysiological Study of Plants Growing on the Fly Ash Deposits from the “Nikola Tesla–A” Thermal Power Station in Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This ecophysiological research on the ash deposits from the “Nikola Tesla–A” thermal power station in Serbia covered 10 plant species ( Tamarix gallica, Populus alba, Spiraea van-hauttei, Ambrosia artemisifolia, Amorpha fruticosa, Eupatorium cannabinum, Crepis setosa, Epilobium collinum, Verbascum phlomoides, and Cirsium arvense). This paper presents the results of a water regime analysis, photosynthetic efficiency and trace elements (B, Cu, Mn,

Pavle Pavlovi?; Miroslava Mitrovi?; Lola Djurdjevi?

2004-01-01

344

Mathematics Curriculum Changes in Republic of Serbia for Grades 5-8 After the Break-Up of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in the mathematics curriculum for grades 5-8 in the Republic of Serbia after the break-up of SFRY. In particular, the research sought to identify the changes in the mathematics curriculum in terms of curriculum content and learning objectives, textbooks, and high school entrance examination…

Vlajic, Jovana

2011-01-01

345

Determination of heavy metal deposition in the county of Obrenovac (Serbia) using mosses as bioindicators: I. Aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), and boron (B)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the deposition of three heavy metals (Al, As and B) in the county of Obrenovac (Serbia) is determined using four moss taxa (Bryum argenteum, Bryum capillare, Brachythecium sp., and Hypnum cupressiforme) as bioindicators. Distribution of average heavy metal content in all mosses in the county of Obrenovac is presented in maps, while long-term atmospheric deposition (in

M. Sabovljevic; V. Vukojevic; Nevena Mihajlovic; Gordana Drazic; Z. Vucinic

2005-01-01

346

Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in northern Serbia and Bosnia-Herzegovina studied by the moss biomonitoring, neutron activation analysis and GIS technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results on atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other trace elements using the moss biomonitoring technique in the northern part of Serbia and some areas of Bosnia-Herzegovina are presented. Samples of Hypnum cupressiforme along with some other moss types were collected at 92 sites during the summer of 2000. A total of 44 elements were determined by INAA using

M. V. Frontasyeva; T. Ye. Galinskaya; M. Krmar; M. Matavuly; S. S. Pavlov; E. A. Povtoreyko; D. Radnovic; E. Steinnes

2004-01-01

347

Determination of heavy metal deposition in the county of Obrenovac (Serbia) using mosses as bioindicators, III: Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe) and Mercury (Hg)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the deposition of three heavy metals (Cu, Fe and Hg) in four moss taxa (Bryum argenteum, Bryum capillare, Brachythecium sp. and Hypnum cupressiforme) in the county of Obrenovac (Serbia) is presented. The distribution of average heavy metal content in all mosses in the county of Obrenovac is presented on maps, while long- term atmospheric deposition (in the

M. Sabovljevic; V. Vukojevic; Aneta Sabovljevic; Nevena Mihajlovic; Gordana Drazic; Z. Vucinic

2007-01-01

348

15 CFR 740.7 - Computers (APP).  

...may not be released to nationals of Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Sudan, or Syria. (3) Computers and software eligible for License...Martin), Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Surinam, Swaziland,...

2014-01-01

349

15 CFR 740.16 - Additional permissive reexports (APR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland...of the EAR. (i) Reexports to Sudan of items controlled by ECCNs...indirectly, in whole or in part to Sudan is prohibited without a...

2011-01-01

350

15 CFR 740.7 - Computers (APP).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...may not be released to nationals of Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Sudan, or Syria. (3) Computers and software eligible for License...Martin), Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Surinam, Swaziland,...

2012-01-01

351

15 CFR 740.16 - Additional permissive reexports (APR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland...of the EAR. (i) Reexports to Sudan of items controlled by ECCNs...indirectly, in whole or in part to Sudan is prohibited without a...

2010-01-01

352

Find an ACFAS Physician  

MedlinePLUS

... Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the SSI Spain Sri Lanka St Vincent and Grenadines Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland ...

353

Find a Board-Certified Neurosurgeon  

MedlinePLUS

... Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia/Sandwich Islands Spain Sri Lanka St Vincent and The Grenadines St. Helena St. Pierre and Miquelon Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Isl. Swaziland Sweden ...

354

ASGE: Find a Doctor  

MedlinePLUS

... Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the SSI Spain Sri Lanka St Vincent and Grenadines Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland ...

355

Find an Allergist/Immunologist  

MedlinePLUS

... Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the SSI Spain Sri Lanka St Vincent and Grenadines Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland ...

356

15 CFR 740.16 - Additional permissive reexports (APR).  

...Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland...of the EAR. (i) Reexports to Sudan of items controlled by ECCNs...indirectly, in whole or in part to Sudan is prohibited without a...

2014-01-01

357

15 CFR 740.16 - Additional permissive reexports (APR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland...of the EAR. (i) Reexports to Sudan of items controlled by ECCNs...indirectly, in whole or in part to Sudan is prohibited without a...

2012-01-01

358

15 CFR 740.16 - Additional permissive reexports (APR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland...of the EAR. (i) Reexports to Sudan of items controlled by ECCNs...indirectly, in whole or in part to Sudan is prohibited without a...

2013-01-01

359

15 CFR 740.7 - Computers (APP).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...may not be released to nationals of Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Sudan, or Syria. (3) Computers and software eligible for License...Martin), Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Surinam, Swaziland,...

2013-01-01

360

Trend of values and culmination time of the seasonal maximum total snow cover depth in Slovakia since the mid-20th century.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The maximum depth of the total snow cover is one of the significant characteristics of snow cover. Analogous to maximum precipitation totals whose belong to the most analyzed characteristics of precipitation, the maximum depth of the total snow cover has dominant position among other snow characteristics too. High values of the total snow cover depth in relation to the potentially high value of its water equivalent are frequently used in engineering practice. There are indications that in recent years a number of anomalies in the seasonal regime and in the values of maximum depth of the total snow cover may have occurred. Total snow cover is among one of the meteorological elements that could be most affected by global warming. In such a complex natural conditions of Slovakia, this could mean the occurrence of opposing tendencies even within relatively small regions between lower and higher elevation levels, respectively between valley locations and surrounding slopes. In the paper maximum values of total snow cover in the winter seasons 1981/1982 - 2011/2012 from 353 meteorological stations within Slovakia were processed, while on 15 stations the analysis was extended to the period 1951/1952 - 2011/2012. Trends in the maximum monthly values of the total snow cover and seasonal tendencies in occurrence of the total snow cover maximum were evaluated in the individual months of the winter season. The effects of precipitation increase in winter season respectively in the transitional seasons are reflected in the trends of monthly maximum values of the total snow cover as well as the effects of changing temperature conditions. The results point to prevailing upward trends of the maximum monthly values of total snow cover, but not for all months. The regional aspect and altitude effect are also considerable. In the regime of the seasonal total snow cover maximum at lower altitudes there are tendencies of shifting maxima to months outside of the traditional winter peak period. In high mountain areas there are tendencies of shifting occurrence of the seasonal total snow cover maximum to a later period.

Fasko, Pavel; Svec, Marek; Stastny, Pavel; Bochnicek, Oliver; Kajaba, Peter; Nejedlik, Pavol; Pecho, Jozef; Nechaj, Pavol

2013-04-01

361

New constrains on the thermal history of the Miocene Jarando basin (Southern Serbia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jarando basin, located in the internal Dinarides, formed in the course of the Miocene extension affecting the whole Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaride system (Schmid et al., 2008). In the study area Miocene extension led to the formation of a core-complex in the Kopaonik area (Schefer et al., 2011) with the Jarando basin located in the hanging wall of the detachment fault. The Jarando basin is characterized by the presence of bituminous coals, whereas in the other intramontane basins in Serbia coalification did not exceed the subbituminous stage within the same stratigraphic level. Furthermore, the basin hosts boron mineralizations (borates and howlite) and a magnesite deposit, which again implies elevated temperatures. This thermal overprint is possibly due to post-magmatic activity related to the emplacement of Oligocene I-type Kopaonik and Miocene S-type Polumir granitoid (Schefer et al., 2011.). This research project is aimed at providing new information about the thermal history of the Jarando basin. Fifteen core samples from three boreholes and 10 samples from the surrounding outcrops were processed for apatite fission-track analysis. Additionally, vitrinite reflectance was measured for 11 core samples of shales from one borehole and 5 samples of coal from an underground mine. VR data of Early to Middle Miocene sediments reveal a strong post-depositional overprint. Values increase with the depth from 0.66-0.79% to 0.83-0.90%. Thus organic matter reached the bituminous stage and experienced temperatures of around 110-120?C (Barker and Pawlewicz, 1994). FT single grain ages for apatite scatter between 45 Ma to 10 Ma with a general trend towards younger ages with depth. Both, the spread in single grain ages together with the bimodal track lengths distribution clearly point to partial annealing of the detrital apatites. With the temperature given from the VR values the partial annealing points to a rather short-lived thermal event. This is assisted by thermal modelling of our fission track data indicating that maximum temperatures of <120°C around 15-12 Ma. We correlate the thermal event with the extension and core-complex formation followed by the syn-extensional intrusion of the Polumir granite. Later cooling from 10 Ma onwards is related to basin inversion and erosion.

Andri?, Nevena; Životi?, Dragana; Fügenschuh, Bernhard; Cvetkovi?, Vladica

2013-04-01

362

Statistical analyses of soil properties on a quaternary terrace sequence in the upper sava river valley, Slovenia, Yugoslavia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Alpine glaciations, climatic changes and tectonic movements have created a Quaternary sequence of gravely carbonate sediments in the upper Sava River Valley, Slovenia, Yugoslavia. The names for terraces, assigned in this model, Gu??nz, Mindel, Riss and Wu??rm in order of decreasing age, are used as morphostratigraphic terms. Soil chronosequence on the terraces was examined to evaluate which soil properties are time dependent and can be used to help constrain the ages of glaciofluvial sedimentation. Soil thickness, thickness of Bt horizons, amount and continuity of clay coatings and amount of Fe and Me concretions increase with soil age. The main source of variability consists of solutions of carbonate, leaching of basic cations and acidification of soils, which are time dependent and increase with the age of soils. The second source of variability is the content of organic matter, which is less time dependent, but varies more within soil profiles. Textural changes are significant, presented by solution of carbonate pebbles and sand, and formation is silt loam matrix, which with age becomes finer, with clay loam or clayey texture. The oldest, Gu??nz, terrace shows slight deviation from general progressive trends of changes of soil properties with time. The hypothesis of single versus multiple depositional periods of deposition was tested with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) on a staggered, nested hierarchical sampling design on a terrace of largest extent and greatest gravel volume, the Wu??rm terrace. The variability of soil properties is generally higher within subareas than between areas of the terrace, except for the soil thickness. Observed differences in soil thickness between the areas of the terrace could be due to multiple periods of gravel deposition, or to the initial differences of texture of the deposits. ?? 1991.

Vidic, N.; Pavich, M.; Lobnik, F.

1991-01-01

363

Methadone-Related Deaths - Epidemiological, Pathohistological, and Toxicological Traits in 10-year Retrospective Study in Vojvodina, Serbia.  

PubMed

The number of methadone-related deaths (MRDs) during a 10-year period (2002-2011) in the region of Vojvodina, Serbia, was increased. The cases were evaluated according to epidemiological parameters, pathohistological findings, and toxicological screening. The majority of victims were men, aged from 20 to 38. Pathohistologically, the signs of acute focal myocardial damage were present in the heart of victims with drug abuse history shorter than 2 years, while both signs of recent and chronic focal myocardial damage were developed among victims with longer drug abuse history (2-5 years). In postmortem blood samples of 54.84% of victims, methadone was detected in combination with diazepam, both in therapeutic range. Alcohol was absent in most cases. Other detected drugs were antipsychotics and antidepressants in therapeutic concentrations. These findings raise the attention to the concomitant use of methadone and benzodiazepines with the need for further studies to clarify the mechanism of death in such cases. PMID:24502699

Mijatovi?, Vesna; Samojlik, Isidora; Ajdukovi?, Nikša; Durendi?-Brenesel, Maja; Petkovi?, Stojan

2014-09-01

364

Measurement and evaluation of the environmental noise levels in the urban areas of the city of Nis (Serbia).  

PubMed

The environmental noise level represents one of the key factors of life quality in urban areas of modern cities. A continuous monitoring of the noise levels and the analysis of results have become a necessity when we discuss a possible recovery of those areas with high levels of noise pollution, and particularly, those zones which were designed for specific activities, e.g., areas around hospitals and schools. The city of Nis, Serbia, owing to the permanent long-term noise monitoring, possesses a database containing figures related to the noise levels at relevant locations in the city, which can serve as a basis for an analysis of the change of conditions, their tendencies in the future, and recognizing factors which influence the danger of noise pollution. The paper involves an analysis of the environmental noise level collected during the previous years. PMID:24197556

Prascevic, Momir R; Mihajlov, Darko I; Cvetkovic, Dragan S

2014-02-01

365

Nonterrorist suicides using hand grenades on the territory of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Serbia, from 1990 to 2009.  

PubMed

Suicides using hand grenades are very rare. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the cases of nonterrorist suicides using hand grenades according to the number of cases per year, sex, age categories, season of the year, day of the week, ethanol blood level, type of hand grenade, pattern of injuries, risk factors, and suicide place over a 20-year period, from 1990 to 2009 in Vojvodina, Serbia. The total number of the cases in this period was 81, with the highest number of cases in 1997 and 2002. Twelwe victims were part of six double suicides, where one grenade was used to commit suicide to both victims. The results highlighted male predominance of the victims, sober state, the use of military hand grenades (M75 and M52 type), posttraumatic stress disorder due to participation in military clashes as the main risk factor, and countryside as the place of suicide. PMID:22395922

Petkovi?, Stojan; Maletin, Miljen; Draškovi?, Dragan

2013-01-01

366

Secondary metabolites from the aerial parts of Centaurea pannonica (Heuff.) Simonk. from Serbia and their chemotaxonomic importance.  

PubMed

The non polar extract of Centaurea pannonica (Heuff.) Simonk., growing wild in Serbia, was studied and twenty-five compounds including 14 sesquiterpene lactones, 7 flavonoids, 3 lignans and 1 phenylpropanoid glycoside were isolated. All compounds were isolated for the first time from this species. Among them, one germacranolide 2?-hydroxy, 8-dehydroxy 15-O-methacrylate salonitenolide (1) and two guaianolides 2?,8?-dihydroxy-dehydrocostus lactone (2) and pannonin (3) are new natural compounds. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, HREIMS and 1D & 2D NMR). The chemical profile of C. pannonica, which belongs to the "Centaurea jacea" group, was compared to previously studied taxa of the same group and used to assess the phylogenetic relationships in the group. PMID:23827325

Miloševi? Ifantis, Tanja; Soluji?, Slavica; Pavlovi?-Muratspahi?, Dragana; Skaltsa, Helen

2013-10-01

367

Development of orthopaedics in Slovenia and the history of the Orthopaedic Department Ljubljana University Hospital--on the occasion of the WHO "Bone and Joint Decade" (2000-2010).  

PubMed

In Slovenia, orthopaedics started to develop at the end of WWI, when the number of the handicapped increased. Dr Anton Brecelj, who in 1919 laid the groundwork for the welfare of handicapped and sent a Czech doctor Franc Mina? to specialise in orthopaedic surgery. When Mina? returned to Ljubljana in 1923, he established an orthopaedic unit within surgery and in 1937 took over its management. Orthopaedics developed very quickly after 1945, when Ljubljana University set up a School of Medicine, a Department of Orthopaedics and Physical Medicine within the School, and Orthopaedic Clinic of the University Hospital. Orthopaedic surgeons from Ljubljana participated in the establishment of a hospital for osteoarticular tuberculosis in Valdoltra, (which later became the largest orthopaedic hospital in Slovenia), specialised clinics and orthopaedic hospital departments throughout Slovenia, schools for physiotherapists in Ljubljana, the Slovenian Rehabilitation Institute - So?a, the Home for Disabled Children in Kamnik, and the spa and rehabilitation centre in Laško. In 2011, orthopaedics in Slovenia holds 600 hospital beds and has about 75 orthopaedic surgeons who annually treat around 50,000 patients. PMID:22292545

Zupanic Slavec, Zvonka; Herman, Srecko; Slavec, Ksenija

2011-01-01

368

The effects of a new traffic safety law in the Republic of Serbia on driving under the influence of alcohol.  

PubMed

The aim of the study presented here has been to see what the effects of the new traffic safety law are, 2 years into its initial implementation, on driving under the influence of alcohol. Until the end of 2009, the legal limit for blood concentration for drivers in Serbia was 0.5g/l; however, the new traffic safety law stipulates the new limit to be 0.3g/l. A retrospective autopsy study was performed over a 6-year period (from 2006 to 2011) whose sample covered cases of fatally injured drivers who had died at the scene of the incident, before being admitted to hospital. A total of 161 fatally injured drivers were examined for their blood alcohol concentration. The average age for these drivers was 40.2ą15.4 years, with a significant male predominance of 152 men to 9 women (?(2)=152.000, p<0.001). This study has shown no decrease in the ratio of drivers under the influence of alcohol vs. all drivers (Pearson ?(2)=4.415, df=5, p=0.491), nor in the number of drivers under the influence of alcohol (Pearson ?(2)=6.629, df=5, p=0.250), nor a decrease in the mean blood alcohol concentration in drivers (1.72ą0.87 vs. 1.68ą0.95g/l, t=0.177, df=80, p=0.860). The conclusion of this study is that the new law has had a limited effect on driving under the influence of alcohol, which still remains one of the major human factors, responsible for road-traffic crashes in Serbia. PMID:23434844

Zivkovi?, Vladimir; Nikoli?, Slobodan; Luki?, Vera; Zivadinovi?, Nenad; Babi?, Dragan

2013-04-01

369

Rujevac Sb-Pb-Zn-As polymetallic deposit, Boranja orefield, Western Serbia: native arsenic and arsenic mineralization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rujevac is a low-temperature hydrothermal polymetallic Sb-Pb-Zn-As vein-type ore deposit, hosted within a volcanogenic-sedimentary zone situated in the Rujevac-Crvene Stene-Brezovica Diabase-Chert Formation (DCF) of the Podrinje Metallogenic District (PMD), Serbia. It is located several kilometers SE from the Boranja contact aureole, which is an integral part of the PMD in Western Serbia. Genetically related to the Tertiary granodioritic magma, the mineral assemblages are characterized by specific features. The mineral association of this deposit consists of sulfides, Pb-Sb(As) sulfosalts, native metals, oxides, hydroxides and gangue minerals. Chemical composition of the ore is very complex, where contents of valuable metals range as follows: Sb (0.17-24.31 wt.%), Zn (0.21-6.29 wt.%), Pb (0.15-6.33 wt.%), As (0.06-1.28 wt.%), Cd (25-747 ppm), Ag (7-408 ppm), Hg (13-473 ppm), and Tl (<1-29 ppm). Electron Probe Microanalyses (EPMA) of native arsenic from both the Rujevac and Stragari deposits showed contents of As up to 98.8 and 97.1 wt.%, with impurity contents of Sb up to 1.3 and 6.6 wt.%, and Tl up to 2 and 1.3 wt.%, respectively. Rhombohedral unit-cell parameters for native arsenic from Rujevac and Stragari deposits amount to: a = 3.760(2), c = 10.555(3) Ĺ, V = 129.23(7) Ĺ3 and a = 3.763(1), c = 10.560(5) Ĺ, V = 129.48(8) Ĺ3, respectively. Mineral assemblages, deposition order and genesis of the Rujevac polymetallic deposit were also discussed in detail. Native arsenic mineralization here has been additionally compared with similar well-known global deposits.

Radosavljevi?, Slobodan A.; Stojanovi?, Jovica N.; Radosavljevi?-Mihajlovi?, Ana S.; Vukovi?, Nikola S.

2014-02-01

370

Rujevac Sb-Pb-Zn-As polymetallic deposit, Boranja orefield, Western Serbia: native arsenic and arsenic mineralization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rujevac is a low-temperature hydrothermal polymetallic Sb-Pb-Zn-As vein-type ore deposit, hosted within a volcanogenic-sedimentary zone situated in the Rujevac-Crvene Stene-Brezovica Diabase-Chert Formation (DCF) of the Podrinje Metallogenic District (PMD), Serbia. It is located several kilometers SE from the Boranja contact aureole, which is an integral part of the PMD in Western Serbia. Genetically related to the Tertiary granodioritic magma, the mineral assemblages are characterized by specific features. The mineral association of this deposit consists of sulfides, Pb-Sb(As) sulfosalts, native metals, oxides, hydroxides and gangue minerals. Chemical composition of the ore is very complex, where contents of valuable metals range as follows: Sb (0.17-24.31 wt.%), Zn (0.21-6.29 wt.%), Pb (0.15-6.33 wt.%), As (0.06-1.28 wt.%), Cd (25-747 ppm), Ag (7-408 ppm), Hg (13-473 ppm), and Tl (<1-29 ppm). Electron Probe Microanalyses (EPMA) of native arsenic from both the Rujevac and Stragari deposits showed contents of As up to 98.8 and 97.1 wt.%, with impurity contents of Sb up to 1.3 and 6.6 wt.%, and Tl up to 2 and 1.3 wt.%, respectively. Rhombohedral unit-cell parameters for native arsenic from Rujevac and Stragari deposits amount to: a = 3.760(2), c = 10.555(3) Ĺ, V = 129.23(7) Ĺ3 and a = 3.763(1), c = 10.560(5) Ĺ, V = 129.48(8) Ĺ3, respectively. Mineral assemblages, deposition order and genesis of the Rujevac polymetallic deposit were also discussed in detail. Native arsenic mineralization here has been additionally compared with similar well-known global deposits.

Radosavljevi?, Slobodan A.; Stojanovi?, Jovica N.; Radosavljevi?-Mihajlovi?, Ana S.; Vukovi?, Nikola S.

2013-05-01

371

Determinants of Performance of Manufacturing Firms in Seven European Transition Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We document the operational performance of (former and current) state enterprises over the 1992-1995 period for seven countries in Central and Eastern Europe (Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia) using large samples of firm level data and a consistent methodology. We find that @ in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia have the highest factor

Stijn Claessens; Simeon Djankov; Gerhard Pohl

1997-01-01

372

Petrological, geochemical and isotopic characteristics of lignite and calcified lignite from mining area Pesje, Velenje Basin, Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lignite (organic rich) and calcified lignite (inorganic rich) samples from excavation field -50c mining area Pesje, Velenje Basin, Slovenia were investigated. During geological and structural mapping lignite and calcified lignite samples were systematically taken for determination of their petrological, geochemical and isotopic characteristics. Lignite is composed of fine detritical gelified matrix. At least five different types of calcified lignite were recognized forming laminations, calcifications after wood, petrified wood and complete replacements of lignite with carbonate. All measured parameters so far indicate geochemical processes during sedimentation of the Velenej Basin. After macroscopic description samples were split to organic and inorganic component (Ward, 1984) and powdered in an agate mortar for geochemical and isotopic analyses. Major and trace elements (As, B, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Sb, Se, Th, U, Zn) in these samples were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using k-0 standardization method (Ja?imovi? et al, 2002). The isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen was determined using a Europa 20-20 continuous flow IRMS ANCA-SL preparation module. A 1 mg amount of a sample was weighed in a tin capsule for carbon and 10 mg for nitrogen analysis. Samples for carbon analyses were pretreated with 1 M HCl to remove carbonates. Carbonate samples from carbonate-rich strata and calcified xylite were first roasted at 450 deg C (Krantz et al., 1987). Three miligrams of carbonate sample was transformed into CO2 by reaction with anhydrous H3PO4 at 55 deg C under vacuum (McCrea, 1950) and measured with GV 2003 isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Measured isotopic composition of oxygen as VPDB values was recalculated to the VSMOW reference standard to enable the comparison with data from other coal basins. SEM/EDXS of carbonate rich sediments was performed with JEOL JSM 5800 electron microanalyzer scanning electron microscope energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy at the Department of Ceramics at the Jožef Stefan Institute. Geochemical characteristics of major and trace elements indicate that the values of major and trace elements are comparable to world average coal (Zhang et al., 2004). Isotopic composition of carbon and isotopic composition of nitrogen of investigated samples indicate values from to -29.4o to -23.7o and 1.8o to 5.9o respectively. Lower value of isotopic composition of carbon indicates higher gelification (values up to -29.4) and higher value of isotopic composition of nitrogen (values up to 5.9) indicate higher mineralization. The results of SEM/EDXS microscopy revealed that in calcified lignite chemical composition of calcite prevails. Traces of diagenetic pyrite were also found, indicating localized anoxic conditions during sedimentation. Values of isotopic composition of CCaCO3 range from -2 to +13 and indicate temperature of precipitation from 17.3 to 35 deg C, which is similar to results obtained in previous studies (Kandu? et al., 2012). References Krantz, D.E., Williams, D.F., Jones, D.S., 1987: Ecological and paleoenvironmental information using stable isotope profiles from living and fossil mollusks. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 58, 249-266. Kandu? T., Marki? M., Zavšek S., McIntosh J. 2012: carbon cycling in the Pliocene Velenje Coal Basin, Slovenia, inferred from stable carbon isotopes. International Journal of Coal Geology 89, 70-83. Ja?imovi?, R., Lazaru, A., Mihajlovi?, D., Ili?, R., Stafilov, T., 2002: Determination of major and trace elements in some minerals by k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis. Journal of Radioanalytical Nuclear Chemistry, 253, 427-434. McCrea, JM., 1950. On the isotopic chemistry of carbonates and a paleotemperature scale. Journal of Chemical Physics 18, 849. Ward C.R. (Ed.), 1984: Coal Geology and Coal Technology. Black-well, Oxford, 345 pp. Zhang J.Y., Zheng C.G., Ren D.Y., Chou C.L., Zheng R.S., Wang Z.P., Zhao F. H., Ge Y.T. 2004: Distribution of potentially hazardous trace elements in co

Vrabec, Mirijam; Marki?, Miloš; Vrabec, Marko; Ja?imovi?, Radojko; Kandu?, Tjaša

2014-05-01

373

Contributions of doctors from Serbia to the establishment and initial development of the Faculty of Medicine in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia.  

PubMed

(Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). Aim: To analyse and present the milestone activities and actors, with special emphasis on the contribution of doctors from Serbia to the establishment and initial development of the Faculty of Medicine in Skopje, Macedonia, in the period 1947-60 and beyond. Method: A retrospective study based on archive materials, encyclopedias and jubilee publications of the Faculty of Medicine and Faculty of Dentistry in Skopje, other relevant sources of information, and a review of the relevant literature. Results: The Faculty of Medicine in Skopje was founded in 1947 and the first meeting of the Teachers' Council of the Faculty was held on March 17, 1947. The first generation of 153 students was enrolled in the autumn of 1947 and the first lecture was delivered on November 3, 1947. More than 20 doctors from Serbia, half of them faculty staff, had joined the initiative of the Government of Macedonia for establishing the Faculty of Medicine in Skopje in 1947. They played leading roles in creating a number of the faculty departments/chairs, establishing 6 institutes and 6 clinics within the newly established Faculty of Medicine in Skopje in 1947 and in the first 10-15 years of its development. Conclusion: The Faculty of Medicine in Skopje, founded in 1947, played a crucial role in the education of medical professionals, in improving the poor health status of the population and the overall further development of the health system and provision of health care to the population of Macedonia. The contribution of the doctors from Serbia to the establishment and initial development of the Faculty of Medicine in Skopje, during the period 1947-1960 and beyond, was remarkable and important. Key words: faculty, medical; establishment, initial development; education, medical; teaching; Republic of Macedonia; doctors from Serbia. PMID:22983067

Donev, D; Polenakovic, M

2012-07-01

374

Improving survey methods in sero-epidemiological studies of injecting drug users: a case example of two cross sectional surveys in Serbia and Montenegro  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of HIV or HCV in injecting drug users (IDUs) in Serbia and Montenegro. We measured prevalence of antibodies to HIV (anti-HIV) and hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), and risk factors for anti-HCV, in community-recruited IDUs in Belgrade and Podgorica, and determined the performance of a parallel rapid HIV testing algorithm. METHODS: Respondent driven sampling

Ali Judd; Tim Rhodes; Lisa G Johnston; Lucy Platt; Violeta Andjelkovic; Danijela Simi?; Boban Mugosa; Milena Simi?; Sonja Žerjav; Ruth P Parry; John V Parry

2009-01-01

375

Paleofloristic and paleofaunistic analysis of Dudváh River oxbow and implication for Late Holocene paleoenvironmental development of the Žitný ostrov Island (SW Slovakia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Žitný ostrov, the largest island of the Danube River (SW Slovakia) gained its present shape in the Neoholocene period. As a result of increased flood and geomorphological Danube river activity dated to 1378-1528 AD, the Lower Dudváh River was abandoned and its alluvium became a part of the Žitný ostrov. Study of a Dudváh terrestrialized paleomeander by means of pollen and macrofossil analysis provides new information about the paleoenvironments of the Danubian Plain. The meander under study was cut-off during the Sub-Boreal period when the land was mostly covered by oak-dominated mixed forest with a notable high frequency of Fagus and Abies. In low-lying depressions, Alnus glutinosa formed typical alder carrs. The largest decline of the mixed forest occurred during the Sub-Atlantic period. Until the mid-19th century the region was strongly influenced by shallow groundwater and periodical floods, as reflected by pollen of aquatics and marsh species. Amongst non-arboreal taxa, pollen of Cyperaceae, Brassicaceae/Cuscuta, Poaceae and Apiaceae prevailed. Local successional changes started with i) stage of abandoned oxbow still with influx of moving water, poor in both macrophytes and molluscs, ii) shallow eutrophic oxbow lake with slowly flowing or stagnant water overgrown with aquatics (Ranunculus subgen. Batrachium, Potamogeton sp., Ceratophyllum demersum etc.) and abundant molluscs, iii) an open marsh dominated by Cyperaceae (mainly Carex riparia) with Atriplex prostrata, supporting diverse molluscan and Ostracod fauna. Present-day habitat is a result of landscape changes, which have been associated with draining, intensified agriculture, ruderalisation and spread of invasive species.

Pišút, Peter; B?ízová, Eva; ?ejka, Tomáš; Pipík, Radovan

2010-12-01

376

Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic thermal evolution of the northern part of the Central Western Carpathians (Slovakia): revealed by zircon and apatite fission track thermochronology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tectono-thermal evolution of the northern part of Central Western Carpathians (Slovakia) was revealed by zircon and apatite fission track thermochronology of Neogene deposits, volcanic rocks, and crystalline basement. New fission track ages combined with previous geochronological data are correlated with main tectonic events and important palaeogeographic changes. (1) The palaeo-Alpine burial to more than 10 km depths, heating (> 320 °C) and low-grade metamorphism of the crystalline basement was caused by crustal thickening due to nappe stacking driven by the collisional processes (~ 90-75 Ma). (2) Extensional collapse and exhumation of basement complexes during the Late Cretaceous to Middle Eocene (~ 75-40 Ma). (3) The extension process resulted in a new sedimentary cycle of the Central Carpathian Palaeogene Basin (~ 40-25 Ma) in the northern part of the Central Western Carpathians. During the ensuing burial under the thick sedimentary cover, the crystalline basement of the northern zone resided at ‘hotter’ conditions (ca. > 120 °C and < 200 °C) which led to full annealing of apatite single-grain ages. In the meanwhile the southern zone of the crystalline basement was gradually exhumed to the depth of 5-3 km and occasionally appeared at the erosion surface. (4) Disintegration of the Central Carpathian Palaeogene Basin (~ 25-20 Ma) was closely connected with a partial exhumation of the Central Western Carpathians and intensive denudation. (5) The Middle to Late Miocene (~ 20-9 Ma) subduction of the Outer Carpathians substratum had crucial consequences for the tectonic evolution of the hinterland that was located in the upper crustal plate. The most external zone of the hinterland basement domain (Lú?anská and Krivánska Fatra Mts.) was exhumed to the 5-3 km depth and the intramontane basins were opened. (6) New fission track data and geomorphological criteria refer to the Pliocene-Quaternary mountain building processes in the external zones of the Central Western Carpathians.

Králiková, Silvia; Vojtko, Rastislav; Andriessen, Paul; Ková?, Michal; Fügenschuh, Bernhard; Hók, Jozef; Minár, Jozef

2014-03-01

377

An Open Source approach to automated hydrological analysis of ungauged drainage basins in Serbia using R and SAGA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drainage basins are for the most part ungauged or poorly gauged not only in Serbia but in most parts of the world, usually due to insufficient funds, but also the decommission of river gauges in upland catchments to focus on downstream areas which are more populated. Very often, design discharges are needed for these streams or rivers where no streamflow data is available, for various applications. Examples include river training works for flood protection measures or erosion control, design of culverts, water supply facilities, small hydropower plants etc. The estimation of discharges in ungauged basins is most often performed using rainfall-runoff models, whose parameters heavily rely on geomorphometric attributes of the basin (e.g. catchment area, elevation, slopes of channels and hillslopes etc.). The calculation of these, as well as other paramaters, is most often done in GIS (Geographic Information System) software environments. This study deals with the application of freely available and open source software and datasets for automating rainfall-runoff analysis of ungauged basins using methodologies currently in use hydrological practice. The R programming language was used for scripting and automating the hydrological calculations, coupled with SAGA GIS (System for Automated Geoscientivic Analysis) for geocomputing functions and terrain analysis. Datasets used in the analyses include the freely available SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) terrain data, CORINE (Coordination of Information on the Environment) Land Cover data, as well as soil maps and rainfall data. The choice of free and open source software and datasets makes the project ideal for academic and research purposes and cross-platform projects. The geomorphometric module was tested on more than 100 catchments throughout Serbia and compared to manually calculated values (using topographic maps). The discharge estimation module was tested on 21 catchments where data were available and compared to results obtained by frequency analysis of annual maximum discharge. The geomorphometric module of the calculation system showed excellent results, saving a great deal of time that would otherwise have been spent on manual processing of geospatial data. This type of automated analysis presented in this study will enable a much quicker hydrologic analysis on multiple watersheds, providing the platform for further research into spatial variability of runoff.

Zlatanovic, Nikola; Milovanovic, Irina; Cotric, Jelena

2014-05-01

378

The Geochemistry of a Newly Discovered Permo-Triassic Section in Serbia: A Tale of Catastrophic Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present geochemical data from a newly discovered (2011) Permo-Triassic (PT) section exposed along a road cut in the Jadar Block tectonostratigraphic unit in Serbia approximately 100 km SW of Belgrade. This Serbian PT section is lithologically different than other Serbian PT sections which are typically composed of dolomite micro-breccia. Importantly, this new PT section appears to be continuous across the PT Boundary and is lithologically similar to the Bellerophone-Tesero Oolite PT sections in the eastern Alps. During the Permian-Triassic period this Serbia PT section was situated in the paleo-Tethys along the passive margin of Laurasia. The upper Permian at this location is characterized by interbedding calcisiltite and dark gray shale similar to the Bellerophone formation. The PT boundary (PTB) is composed of a 30cm lensitic oolitic limestone similar to the Tesero horizon, and the lower Triassic is calcareous shale interbedded with calcisiltite similar to the Werfen formation. In the lower Triassic, the first stromatolite occurs approximately 5m above the PTB. Oolite suggests that this region experienced a regression event coincident with the PT extinction. Geochemically the oolitic limestone is characterized by a positive Eu anomaly which may be associated with volcanism. Interestingly, the oolitic limestone has a similar geochemical signature to erosional layers at Rizvanuša PT section in Croatia and Spiti Valley in the Himalayas that are also suggestive of a regression event. In this study, we present stable isotope (C,N, S), mineralogy, major and trace element geochemistry of this new Serbian PT section. Geochemical proxies and mineralogy of the section suggest changes in provenance and environmental conditions occurring in the upper Permian prior to the deposition of the oolitic limestone. This data suggest catastrophic environmental conditions persisted prior to the eruption of the Siberian Traps, and that volcanism was not the only contributor to the largest mass extinction in Earth's history. In the lower Triassic, geochemical proxies provide evidence of prolonged anoxia, and storm deposits similar to those found in the Guryul Ravine section of Kashmir. The origin of the storm deposits may be link to the eruption of the Siberian Traps.

Williams, J. C.; Stebbins, A.; Sudar, M.; Jovanovic, D.; Brookfield, M. E.; Algeo, T. J.; Hannigan, R.; Berman, M.

2013-12-01

379

Estimation of an upper limit on prehistoric horizontal peak ground acceleration using the parameters of intact stalagmites and the mechanical properties of broken stalagmites in Domica cave, Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The examination of special shaped, vulnerable, intact stalagmites in Domica cave (Slovakia) is the continuation of our previous examination of speleothems in Baradla cave (north eastern Hungary). (The Domica and Baradla caves really are two different parts of the same cave system.) The aim of our investigation is to estimate the upper limit for horizontal peak ground acceleration generated by paleoearthquake. There are many vulnerable, special shaped (high, slim and more or less cylindriform) stalagmites in Domica cave. The most vulnerable of these stalagmites have 5 m height and 6 or less than 6 cm diameter at the profile of cylinder, which we have found in Devil's Hall of Domica cave.. The method of our investigation is the same as before: the density, the Young's modulus and the tensile failure stress of the samples originating from broken stalagmites (lying on the ground of Domica cave) have been measured in mechanical laboratory, whereas the natural frequency of intact stalagmite was determined by in situ observation. The value of horizontal ground acceleration resulting in failure and the natural frequency of stalagmite were assessed by theoretical calculations. Our results show, that the tensile failure stress of the samples originating from Devil's Hall of Domica cave higher, than the tensile failure stress of the samples originating from Olimposz Hall of Baradla cave, however the value of Young-modulus is lower. The age of the samples taken from a stalagmite standing in Domica cave have been determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis (MC-ICPMS). Our measurements show that this stalagmite is still growing and the oldest and bottommost part of it is not older than 117 000 years. The age of the oldest part of stalagmite in Domica nearly the same (130 000 years) as the 5.1 m high stalagmite situated in Olimposz Hall of Baradla cave. The ag value (upper limit for horizontal peak ground acceleration) coming from theoretical calculation is almost the same (0.06g) as it is in the case of stalagmite in Olimposz Hall. On the grounds of our measurements and theoretical calculations, we can state that the geological structures close to Baradla and Domica caves did not excite such paleoearthquakes in the last thousand years, which would have produced horizontal ground acceleration larger than 0.06g This value can arise even in case of moderate sized earthquakes. The natural frequency of this stalagmite --situated in Devil's Hall-- is low, about 1 Hz. Since this low value is in the frequency range of nearby earthquakes, therefore resonance effect can occur. Because of the resonance the failure acceleration can be even smaller.

Gribovszki, Katalin; Brimich, Ladislav; Varga, Péter; Kovács, Károly; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Kele, Sándor; Török, Ákos; Novák, Attila

2013-04-01

380

The influence of the East Atlantic Oscillation to climate indices based on the daily minimum temperatures in Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the influence of the East Atlantic Oscillation (EAO) on the climate indices based on the daily minimum temperature at eight stations in Serbia was examined. The following climate indices were analyzed: frost days (FD), cold nights (TN10p), warm nights (TN90p), minimum value of daily minimum temperature (TNn), tropical nights (TR), and cold spell duration indice (CSDI). Analysis of correlation between the East Atlantic Index (EAI) and the geopotential at 500 hPa, as well as between the EAI and climate indices was realized for all seasons and months during the period 1950-2009. Two characteristic situations for the extreme positive and negative values of the EAI were analyzed. Seasonal and monthly trend analyses of climate indices were performed. Decreases of FD and TN10p and increases of TN90p and TR were observed. It was found that the negative correlation prevailed between the EAI and TN10p/FD, and positive one between the EAI and TN90p/TR for all seasons and months. The highest correlation was observed between the EAI and TN90p in February.

Kneževi?, S.; Toši?, I.; Unkaševi?, M.; Pejanovi?, G.

2014-05-01

381

Exploring the park-people relation: collection of Vaccinium myrtillus L. by local people from Kopaonik National Park in Serbia.  

PubMed

Exploitation of certain resources within a protected area on a sustainable basis could contribute to higher living standards of rural people, particularly those in poor countries, and decrease conflicts between these populations and park authorities. This article presents data from a case study of Kopaonik National Park (NP), Serbia, which is a park with natural resources, most notably bilberries, which have always been relied on by local people. Vaccinium myrtillus traditionally has been collected for decades in Kopaonik NP and used by local people. However, little is known about the socioeconomic and ecological relations that affect the collection and use of this species. The aim of the present study was to understand how local people collect bilberries in Kopaonik NP and what their attitudes toward the park are. Household questionnaire data were used to examine how local people collect bilberries and how to improve the relations between local people and NP authorities. The survey questionnaire included 52 households from 7 local communities, and we applied a purposive sampling strategy. In addition, expert interviews were conducted, and from these data we obtained a broader understanding of the relation between local people and NP authorities. The results indicate that in Kopaonik NP, there is a conflict between pickers and NP authorities. Sustainable management should be directed toward the protection of bilberries. Education of local people is a key element in the sustainable collection and protection of natural resources. PMID:21800263

Tomi?evi?, Jelena; Bjedov, Ivana; Obratov-Petkovi?, Dragica; Milovanovi?, Marina

2011-10-01

382

Spatial modeling of ecological areas by fitting the limiting factors for As in the vicinity of mine, Serbia.  

PubMed

Elevated arsenic (As) concentrations in soil are often found in the vicinity of certain mineral deposits that have been, or are currently, under exploitation, regardless of the target resource. Detailed study of such areas for safe agriculture requires considerable financial costs and long periods of time. Application of an appropriate spatial model that describes the behavior of arsenic in soil and plants can significantly ease the whole investigation process. This paper presents a model of ecological security of an area that, in the past, was an antimony mine and has a naturally high content of arsenic. For simulation and modeling the geographic information science (GIS) technology with the inserted predictors influencing the accessibility of As and its content in plants was used. The results obtained were the following: (1) a categorization of contaminated soils according to soil properties was developed; (2) the proposed methodology allows focusing on particular suspect area saving an energy and human resource input; and (3) new safe areas for growing crops in contaminated area were modeled. The application of the proposed model of As solubility to various crops grown around a former antimony mine near the village of Lisa, southwest Serbia showed that significant expansion of the areas suitable for growing potato, raspberry, and pasture was possible. PMID:24281676

Cakmak, Dragan; Perovic, Veljko; Saljnikov, Elmira; Jaramaz, Darko; Sikiric, Biljana

2014-03-01

383

Heavy metal and trace element bioaccumulation in target tissues of four edible fish species from the Danube River (Serbia).  

PubMed

Pikeperch (Sander lucioperca), European catfish (Silurus glanis), burbot (Lota lota), and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were collected from the Danube River (Belgrade section, Serbia), and samples of liver, muscle, and gills were analyzed for Al, As, B, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) to highlight the importance of species and tissue selection in monitoring research, contaminant studies, and human health research. The Kruskal-Wallis test revealed significant differences between fish species in regard to metal levels in liver, muscle, and gills. The principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the studied fish species could be grouped on the basis of the level of analyzed elements in liver and gills. The Mann-Whitney test showed two subsets (one comprising two piscivorous species, pikeperch and catfish, and the other, two polyphagous species, burbot and carp) in regard to Cr and Hg levels in liver (higher levels in piscivorous species), as well as B, Fe, and Hg in gills (B and Fe with higher levels in polyphagous and Hg in piscivorous species), and As in muscle (higher levels in polyphagous species). Carp had distinctly higher levels of Cd, Cu, and Zn in liver in comparison to other three species. None of the elements exceeded the maximum acceptable concentrations (MAC). However, since Hg levels are close to the prescribed MAC levels, the consumption of these fishes can be potentially hazardous for humans. PMID:24054751

Suboti?, Sr?an; Spasi?, Sla?ana; Višnji?-Jefti?, Zeljka; Hegediš, Aleksandar; Krpo-?etkovi?, Jasmina; Mi?kovi?, Branislav; Skori?, Stefan; Lenhardt, Mirjana

2013-12-01

384

Influence of coal ash and slag dumping on dump waste waters of the Kostolac power plants (Serbia)  

SciTech Connect

The content of selected trace and major elements in the river water used for transport, as well as in the subcategories of the waste waters (overflow and drainage) were analyzed in order to establish the influence of transport and dumping of coal ash and slag from the 'Kostolac A' and 'Kostolac B' power plants located 100 km from Belgrade (Serbia). It was found that during transport of coal ash and slag to the dump, the water used for transport becomes enriched with manganese, nickel, zinc, chromium, vanadium, titanium, cobalt, arsenic, aluminum, and silicon, while more calcium, iron, cadmium, and lead are adsorbed by the ash and slag than is released from them. There is also an equilibrium between the release and adsorption processes of copper and magnesium during transport. The vertical penetration of the water used for transport results in a release of calcium, magnesium, manganese, and cadmium to the environment, while iron, nickel, zinc, chromium, copper, lead, vanadium, titanium, cobalt, and arsenic are adsorbed by the fractions of coal ash and slag in the dump.

Popovic, A.; Djinovic, J. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia)

2006-10-01

385

The accumulation and distribution of metals in water, sediment, aquatic macrophytes and fishes of the Gruža Reservoir, Serbia.  

PubMed

The concentrations of iron, lead, cadmium, copper, manganese, mercury and arsenic were measured in water, sediment, five macrophytes (Typha angustifolia, Iris pseudacorus, Polygonum amphybium, Myriophyllum spicatum and Lemna gibba) and five fish species (Sander lucioperca, Abramis brama, Carassius gibelio, Silurus glanis and Arystichtys nobilis) in the Gruža Reservoir, used for water supply and recreational fishing. The concentrations of all examined elements were higher in sediment than in water. The values of the ratio between element concentrations in the sediment and those in the water were the highest for Fe and As. Among the five plant species, the highest concentrations of Pb and Mn were observed in T. angustifolia, while the highest concentrations of Fe, Cu and Hg were in L. gibba. I. pseudacorus and P. amphybium had the highest concentrations of Cd and As, respectively. Among the fish species, C. gibelio showed the highest tendency of element accumulation (Fe, Cd, Cu), followed by S. lucioperca (Pb, Hg), A. brama (Mn) and A. nobilis (As). The average concentrations of elements in fish muscle, except for As in A. nobilis (2.635 ą 0.241 mg kg(-1) ww), were below the limits that are considered safe for human consumption in accordance with the European Commission Regulation and Official Gazette of Serbia. PMID:23412697

Miloškovi?, Aleksandra; Brankovi?, Snežana; Simi?, Vladica; Kova?evi?, Simona; ?irkovi?, Miroslav; Manojlovi?, Dragan

2013-05-01

386

The diet of Eneolithic (Copper Age, Fourth millennium cal b.c .) pile dwellers and the early formation of the cultural landscape south of the Alps: a case study from Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses were performed of plant remains from the Late Neolithic (in Slovenian terminology corresponding to Eneolithic or\\u000a Copper Age, ca. 4300–2300 b.c.) pile dwelling Ho?evarica in the Ljubljansko barje (Ljubljana Moor), Slovenia. This settlement existed between ca. 3650\\u000a and 3550 cal b.c. Seeds, fruits, wooden piles, macroscopic charcoal and pollen from the cultural layers were analysed. The remains of domestic

Marjeta Jeraj; Anton Veluš?ek; Stefanie Jacomet

2009-01-01

387

Prevalence and concordance of high cardiovascular disease scores in HIV/AIDS patients from Croatia and Serbia with four international algorithms  

PubMed Central

Introduction We evaluated cardiovascular risks in HIV-infected patients from Croatia and Serbia and the eligibility for statin therapy as recommended by the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines, European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) Guidelines and European Society of Cardiology and the European Atherosclerosis Society (ESC/EAS) guidelines for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention [1–3]. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional analysis of consecutive patients between 40 and 79 years old who had received antiretroviral therapy for at least 12 months was performed. Results Of 254 (132 from Croatia and 122 from Serbia) persons included in the study, 76% were male; median age was 49 years. Up to 51.6% of persons had a high CVD risk. The prevalence of current smoking was 42.9%, hypertension 31.5% and hypercholesterolaemia (>6.2 mmol/L) 35.4%. Statins would be recommended to 21.3% (95% CI, 16.3% to 27.4%) of persons by the EACS, 25.6% (95% CI, 20.2% to 31.9%) by ESC/EAS and 37.9% (95% CI, 31.6 to 44.6%) by the ACC/AHA guidelines. A high 5-year data collection on adverse effects of anti-HIV drugs study risk score (>5%) had a moderate agreement with the high (?20%) 10-year CVD Framingham risk score (kappa=0.47) and high (?5%) 10-year European systematic coronary risk evaluation score algorithm (kappa=0.47), and substantial agreement with the elevated (?7.5%) 10-year Pooled Cohort Atherosclerotic CVD risk equation score (kappa=0.63). Conclusion We found a high prevalence of CVD risks in patients from Croatia and Serbia. The ACC/AHA guideline would recommend statins more often than ESC/EAS and EACS guidelines. PMID:25394056

Begovac, Josip; Dragovic, Gordana; Viskovic, Klaudija; Kusic, Jovana; Perovic Mihanovic, Marta; Lukas, Davorka; Jevtovic, Djordje

2014-01-01

388

Habitat modeling for brown trout population in alpine region of Slovenia with focus on determination of preference functions, fuzzy rules and fuzzy sets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water withdrawals and consequently reduction of discharges in river streams for different water uses (hydro power, irrigation, etc.) usually impoverish habitat suitability for naturally present river fish fauna. In Slovenia reduction of suitable habitats resulting from water abstractions frequently impacts local brown trout (Salmo truta) populations. This is the reason for establishment of habitat modeling which can qualitatively and quantitatively support decision making for determination of the environmental flow and other mitigation measures. Paper introduces applied methodology for habitat modeling where input data preparation and elaboration with required accuracy has to be considered. For model development four (4) representative and heterogeneous sampling sites were chosen. Two (2) sampling sections were located within the sections with small hydropower plants and were considered as sections affected by water abstractions. The other two (2) sampling sections were chosen where there are no existing water abstractions. Precise bathymetric mapping for chosen river sections has been performed. Topographic data and series of discharge and water level measurements enabled establishment of calibrated hydraulic models, which provide data on water velocities and depths for analyzed discharges. Brief field measurements were also performed to gather required data on dominant and subdominant substrate size and cover type. Since the accuracy of fish distribution on small scale is very important for habitat modeling, a fish sampling method had to be selected and modified for existing river microhabitats. The brown trout specimen's locations were collected with two (2) different sampling methods. A method of riverbank observation which is suitable for adult fish in pools and a method of electro fishing for locating small fish and fish in riffles or hiding in cover. Ecological and habitat requirements for fish species vary regarding different fish populations as well as eco and hydro morphological types of streams. Therefore, if habitat modeling for brown trout in Slovenia should be applied, it is necessary to determine preference requirements for the locally present brown trout populations. For efficient determination of applied preference functions and linked fuzzy sets/rules, beside expert determination, calibration according to field sampling must also be performed. After this final step a model is prepared for the analysis to support decision making in the field of environmental flow and other mitigation measures determination.

Santl, Saso; Carf, Masa; Preseren, Tanja; Jenic, Aljaz

2013-04-01

389

Intestinal helminths infection of rats (Ratus norvegicus) in the Belgrade area (Serbia): the effect of sex, age and habitat*  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal helminths of Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) from the Belgrade area were studied as a part of a wider ecological research of rats in Serbia (data on the distribution, population ecology, economic and epizoothiological-epidemiological importance, and density control). Rats were captured from May 2005 to July 2009 at both urban and suburban-rural sites. Of a total of 302 trapped rats 48% were males and 52% females, with 36.5% and 38.8% of juvenile-subadult individuals, per sex respectively. Intestinal helminth infection was noted in 68.5% of rats, with a higher prevalence in male hosts and in adult individuals. Higher numbers of infected juveniles-subadults were noted in suburban-rural habitats, while an opposite tendency was noted in adult rats. Seven helminth species were recovered, of which five were nematode (Heterakis spumosa, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Capillaria sp., Trichuris muris and Syphacia muris) and two cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta and Rodentolepis fraterna). The most prevalent parasites were Heterakis spumosa (36.7%) and Hymenolepis diminuta (30.5%). Sex and habitat-related differences were noted in the prevalence of infection with Capillaria sp. and Trichuris muris, while there were no age-related differences in the prevalence of infection with any individual helminth species. Significantly higher prevalence of infection was noted in summer as compared to spring or winter, with a tendency to be higher in autumn as compared to spring. The only significant difference in the prevalence of infection between habitat-related was noted during spring. H. spumosa was most prevalent in summer, while H. diminuta and N. brasiliensis in autumn. The mean intensity of infection with H. spumosa, R. fraterna, S. muris and T. muris was higher in autumn than in the other seasons, while N. brasiliensis and Capillaria sp. occured in winter. No more than four helminth species were found in one host. PMID:21678796

Kataranovski, M.; Mirkov, I.; Belij, S.; Popov, A.; Petrovic, Z.; Gacic, Z.; Kataranovski, D.

2011-01-01

390

Update on rickettsioses in Slovakia.  

PubMed

The reported incidence of vector-borne diseases including various cases of Rickettsioses in humans is increasing due to a combination of climatic and social factors, escalating the opportunities for contact between people and ticks, fleas or lice. Many of the emerging infectious diseases currently challenging human health in Europe are transmitted by ticks which normally feed on domestic or wild animals. Each Rickettsia spp. has one or several tick vectors, and their geographical distribution varies according to geographical conditions; e.g.; altitude or temperature, which is gradually changing due to a global warming. Evidence of Rickettsia spp. particularly of a newly discovered species is a strong indication that a great number of diseases may be caused by so far undetected or unrecognized organisms. Their diagnosis relies mostly on rare "spot like" cooperation of clinicians with scientists, the members of the working groups that are devoted to the scientific studies of the corresponding research areas. The clinical picture of the disease caused by rickettsiae varies significantly from flu like symptoms to severe fatal outcomes, reflecting the various factors, e.g. a variability of virulence of rickettsial species due to cell invasion, dissemination of rickettsiae, genomics, immune response of an infected organism, or a tricky impact of a treatment. Several major reviews on rickettsioses have been previously published, e.g. in 1997 (Raoult and Roux, 1997a), in 2005 (Parola et al., 2005), and in 2011 (Botelho-Nevers and Raoult, 2011). In this work we intend to present a short historical overview and to describe new trends in research studies of rickettsiology. The main focus will be on rickettsioses affecting Europe?s population. PMID:23600876

Sekeyová, Z; Socolovschi, C; Spitalská, E; Kocianová, E; Boldiš, V; Diaz, M Quevedo; Berthová, L; Bohácsová, M; Valáriková, J; Fournier, P Edouard; Raoult, D

2013-01-01

391

Accretionary wedge harzburgite serpentinization and rodingitization constrained by perovskite U/Pb SIMS age, trace elements and Sm/Nd isotopes: Case study from the Western Carpathians, Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perovskite-bearing harzburgites occur in a “mélange” type blueschist-bearing accretionary wedge complex of the Inner Western Carpathians Meliata Unit in Slovakia. Although dark rounded, slightly hydrated relic “cores” of harzburgite boulders are perovskite-free, perovskite (Prv) occurrence in the surrounding serpentinites and rodingites enabled dating of hydration, resulting in two metamorphic-metasomatic Prv generations. Perovskite (1) grows parallel to relic clinopyroxene exsolution lamellae or forms randomly oriented grain clusters in serpentinized orthopyroxene (Opx1) porphyroclasts, often accompanied by tiny andradite lamellae clusters, or it is partly replaced by Ti-andradite. Perovskite crystallization indicates evolving rodingitization fluids pervading the boundary between the harzburgite “cores” and Prv-free serpentinite. This strictly limited occurrence of Prv (1) within a 1 to 20-cm across-zone implies slightly postponed Prv crystallization to serpentinization by LREE(Ce,La), Ca2+, Ti/Fe3+-enriched aqueous fluids. A grain scale metasomatic mechanism partitioned Ca and Ti from the host orthopyroxene porphyroclasts, spinel (Ti) and grain-boundary pervasive fluids to Prv. In contrast, Prv (2) occurs in a 1 to 3 cm across chlorite-rich blackwall zone between hosting serpentinite and rodingite veins, thus indicating channelled rodingitization fluid flow and accompanying hydraulic fracturing. Here, Prv (2) is ingrown by chlorite and apatite. Part of this Prv (2) formed in a rodingite vein mineral assemblage composed of diopside, andradite, vesuvianite, epidote/zoisite, apatite and chlorite. Both perovskite 1 and 2 are replaced by pyrophanite along the grain rims and interiors; most likely via fluid-aided coupled dissolution-reprecipitation at increased Si-Fe-Mn-Al element solubility in rodingitization fluids pervading serpentinized harzburgite. Both Prv generations, especially Prv (2), can be partly to almost totally replaced by (Ti-) Adr. Overgrowths of spinel by andradite are occasionally observed in contact zones between the serpentinites and rodingites. LA-ICP-MS study revealed strong depletion in LREE from Prv (1) to Prv (2), and a more typically positive Eu anomaly for Prv (2). Our spider diagram depicts relative enrichment in U, Nb, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, and decreased Rb, Ba, Th, Ta, Pb, Sr, Zr in both Prv generations. The U/Pb SIMS concordia ages of Prv (1) from 3 samples range from 137 ą 1 Ma to 135 ą 1 Ma, with a mean of 135.6 ą 0.58 Ma, while Prv (2) was dated at 133.7 ą 5.4 Ma. Such negligible age differences imply a relatively short-lived rodingitization event responsible for crystallization of both Prv generations. The 143Nd/144Nd mean value of Prv (1) is 0.512153 ą 0.000017 by LA-MC-ICP-MS, thus corresponding to the initial ?Nd(t = 135) = - 8.2 ą 0.4 (math's mean). This suggests that the subducted and dehydrated continental crust was the main source of the interactive fluids which initiated serpentinization and rodingitization in the Neotethyan Meliatic accretionary wedge following closure of the Meliata-Hallstatt Triassic to Jurassic oceanic back-arc basin and the high-pressure metamorphism dated at ca. 160-150 Ma by 40Ar/39Ar.

Li, Xian-Hua; Putiš, Marián; Yang, Yue-Heng; Koppa, Matúš; Dyda, Marian

2014-09-01

392

Out-of-pocket payments for public healthcare services by selected exempted groups in Serbia during the period of post-war healthcare reforms.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on the exemption mechanism that accompanies patient co-payments for outpatient and inpatient hospital care in Serbia. The objective was to investigate the level and dynamics of out-of-pocket payments for this type of services by exempted groups (older than 65?years, younger than 15?years, unemployed, disabled and individuals with low family income) compared with that by other groups. For this purpose, we use empirical household data collected in the Serbian Living Standards Measurement Study carried out in 2002, 2003 and 2007. These years correspond to the start of the recent reforms in the Serbian healthcare sector and 1 and 5?years after the start of the reform. Our results show that people who belong to exempted groups were paying for healthcare in 2002, 2003 and 2007. They report different types of out-of-pocket payments for outpatient and inpatient hospital care. Thus, despite the ambition of the Ministry of Health in Serbia to promote equity in healthcare as a leading aim of the reforms, the implementation of the exemption mechanism fails to protect the targeted groups. Future exemption mechanism should be pro-poor oriented but should also exempt those whose health status requires a frequent healthcare use. Copyright Š 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23788401

Arsenijevic, Jelena; Pavlova, Milena; Groot, Wim

2014-10-01

393

DOI:10.2298/ABS1002301G NATURAL AND ANTHROPOGENIC RADIOACTIVITY OF FEEDSTUFFS, MOSSES AND SOIL IN THE BELGRADE ENVIRONMENT, SERBIA  

E-print Network

was determined in samples of soil, alfalfa, maize and moss on six sites in the surroundings of Belgrade. Natural radionuclides in the soil were at the level characteristic for Serbia, whereas a relatively high level of activity of 137 Cs (around 30 Bq kg-1) was determined. On the other hand, in plant samples mostly used as feed (such as alfalfa and maize) the concentration of natural radio-nuclide activity and 137 Cs was relatively low, i.e. below the range of detection. The content of natural radio-nuclides in moss was within the standard range of values specific for Serbia. However, the activity level of 137 Cs in moss gathered from the wider area around Belgrade, was high, the highest measured level being in the Avala-Zuce area (158-221 Bq kg-1). Our results show that this radio-nuclide is still present in the living environment of Belgrade even 20 years after the Chernobyl disaster, and that moss is a good indicator of living environment 137 Cs contamination.

unknown authors

394

Origin and significance of high nickel and chromium concentrations in pliocene lignite of the Kosovo Basin, Serbia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trace element data from 59 Pliocene lignite cores from the lignite field in the Kosovo Basin, southern Serbia, show localized enrichment of Ni and Cr (33-304 ppm and 8-176 ppm, respectively, whole-coal basis). Concentrations of both elements decrease from the western and southern boundaries of the lignite field. Low-temperature ash and polished coal pellets of selected bench and whole-coal samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analyses. These analyses show that most of the Ni and Cr are incorporated in detrital and, to a lesser degree, in authigenic minerals. The Ni- and Cr-bearing detrital minerals include oxides, chromites, serpentine-group minerals and rare mixed-layer clays. Possible authigenic minerals include Ni-Fe sulfates and sulfides. Analyses of three lignite samples by a supercritical fluid extraction technique indicate that some (1-11%) of the Ni is organically bound. Ni- and Cr-bearing oxides, mixed-layer clays, chromites and serpentine-group minerals were also identified in weathered and fresh samples of laterite developed on serpentinized Paleozoic peridotite at the nearby Glavica and C??ikatovo Ni mines. These mines are located along the western and northwestern rim, respectively, of the Kosovo Basin, where Ni contents are highest. The detrital Ni- and Cr-bearing minerals identified in lignite samples from the western part of the Kosovo Basin may have been transported into the paleoswamp by rivers that drained the two Paleocene laterites. Some Ni may have been transported directly into the paleoswamp in solution or, alternatively, Ni may have been leached from detrital minerals by acidic peat water and adsorbed onto organic matter and included into authigenic mineral phases. No minable source of Ni and Cr is known in the southern part of the lignite field; however, the mineral and chemical data from the lignite and associated rocks suggest that such a source area may exist.

Ruppert, L.; Finkelman, R.; Boti, E.; Milosavljevic, M.; Tewalt, S.; Simon, N.; Dulong, F.

1996-01-01

395

Protholithic age and geochemistry of magmatic rocks from the Serbo-Macedonian massif (south Serbia, southwest Bulgaria and east Macedonia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Serbo-Macedonian Massif (SMM) represents a complex crystalline terrane situated between the two diverging branches of the Eastern Mediterranean Alpine orogenic system, the northeast-vergent Carpatho-Balkanides and the southwest-vergent Dinarides and the Hellenides. It is outcropping from the Pannonian basin in the north, to the Agean Sea in the south, along the central and southeastern Serbia, southwestern Bulgaria, eastern Macedonia and southern Greece. It's affiliation to European and/or African plate basement is still questionable due to the lack of reliable geochronological data and a detailed structural investigation. The SMM is the key area for understanding the bipolarity of the Alpine orogenic system, as well as the interaction of the Pannonian and Aegean back-arc extension during the Cenozoic time. The SMM is generally considered to comprise an Upper (low-grade) and a Lower (medium to high-grade) unit (Dimitrijevi?, 1959). The protoliths of both units are reported as volcano-sedimentary successions, which have been later intruded by magmatic rocks during several pulses. On our mission to discern the main magmatic episodes and the geodynamic evolution of the SMM; we have analysed zircon grains of metamorphic rocks from both units, as well as undeformed igneous rocks. LA-ICP-MS analyses were carried out on zircon grains in order to obtain the protolith ages and geochemical analyses were carried out on the total of nineteen samples from different magmatic rocks. Our first results reveal the presence of the Permo-Triassic (253ą13 Ma) and a late Variscan magmatism (Carboniferous; 315ą9 Ma) in the Serbian part of the SMM; additionally, the Ordovician (490-440 Ma) and the Cadomian (Cambrian; 505 Ma and older) event complete the magmatic evolution in the Serbian part of the SMM. The new geochronological constraints, together with the field relationships, allowed us to conclude: a) The Lower SMM consists of a Cadomian (Ediacaran-early Cambrian) volcano-sedimentary sequences and magmatics, which were intruded by Ordovician magmatic rocks; b) The Upper SMM (Vlasina and Morava unit) contains a volcano-sedimentary sequence, which is intruded by the Cadomian magmatic rocks; c) In contrast to the Lower complex, no Ordovician age magmatics were documented in the Upper unit, and d) Lower and Upper SMM were covered by Silurian-Devonian sedimentary sequence. The youngest magmatic event in the SMM occurred in the late Eocene, it is related to the intrusion of Surdulica granodiorite and subsequent latitic volcanism.

Anti?, M.; Peytcheva, I.; von Quadt, A.; Kounov, A.; Trivi?, B.; Serafimovski, T.; Tasev, G.; Gerdjikov, I.

2012-04-01

396

ICOM2012: 3rd International Conference on the Physics of Optical Materials and Devices (Belgrade, Serbia, 2-6 September 2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3rd International Conference on the Physics of Optical Materials and Devices (ICOM2012) was held in Belgrade (Serbia) from 2 to 6 September 2012 (figure 1). The conference was organized by the Vin?a Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade (Serbia) and the Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matičre Condensée de Paris (France), and supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia and Optical Society of America. ICOM2012 was a follow-up to the two previous, successful ICOM conferences held in Herceg Novi in 2006 and 2009. The conference aimed at providing a forum for scientists in optical materials to debate on: • Luminescent materials and nanomaterials • Hybrid optical materials (organic/inorganic) • Characterization techniques of optical materials • Luminescence mechanisms and energy transfers • Theory and modeling of optical processes • Ultrafast-laser processing of materials • Optical sensors • Medical imaging • Advanced optical materials in photovoltaics and biophotonics • Photothermal and photoacoustic spectroscopy and phenomena The conference stressed the value of a fundamental scientific understanding of optical materials. A particular accent was put on wide band-gap materials in crystalline, glass and nanocrystalline forms. The applications mainly involved lasers, scintillators and phosphors. Rare earth and transition metal ions introduced as dopants in various hosts were considered, and their impact on the optical properties were detailed in several presentations. This volume contains selected contributions of speakers and participants of the ICOM2012 conference. The conference provided a unique opportunity for about 200 scientists from 32 countries to discuss recent progress in the field of optical materials. During the three and half days, 21 invited talks and 52 contributed lectures were given, with a special event in memory of our dear colleague Professor Dr Tsoltan Basiev (Russia). In addition, 183 posters were presented and the two Young Scientist Awards were announced at the closing ceremony. Acknowledgments We thank all the authors for their valuable research contribution presented in this volume. We express our acknowledgements to all reviewers with a special thanks to Dr G Watt, then Publisher of the journal, for accepting the publication of these papers in a special issue of Physica Scripta . We wish to express our gratitude to the members of the ICOM scientific advisory committee and organizing committee for their excellent work and commitment for the success of ICOM2012.

Drami?anin, Miroslav D.; Anti?, Željka; Viana, Bruno

2013-11-01

397

Rare-element granitic pegmatite of Miocene age emplaced in UHP rocks from Visole, Pohorje Mountains (Eastern Alps, Slovenia): accessory minerals, monazite and uraninite chemical dating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The granitic pegmatite dike intruded the Cretaceous UHP rocks at Visole, near Slovenska Bistrica, in the Pohorje Mountains (Slovenia). The rock consists mainly of K-feldspar, albite and quartz, subordinate muscovite and biotite, while the accessory minerals include spessartine-almandine, zircon, ferrocolumbite, fluorapatite, monazite- (Ce), uraninite, and magnetite. Compositions of garnet (Sps48-49Alm45-46Grs + And3-4 Prp1.5-2), metamict zircon with 3.5 to 7.8 wt. % HfO2 [atom. 100Hf/(Hf + Zr) = 3.3-7.7] and ferrocolumbite [atom. Mn/(Mn + Fe) = 0.27-0.43, Ta/(Ta + Nb) = 0.03-0.46] indicate a relatively low to medium degree of magmatic fractionation, characteristic of the muscovite - rare-element class or beryl-columbite subtype of the rare-element class pegmatites. Monazite-(Ce) reveals elevated Th and U contents (?11 wt. % ThO2, ?5 wt. % UO2). The monazite-garnet geothermometer shows a possible precipitation temperature of ~495 ą 30 °C at P~4 to 5 kbar. Chemical U-Th-Pb dating of the monazite yielded a Miocene age (17.2 ą 1.8 Ma), whereas uraninite gave a younger (~14 Ma) age. These ages are comtemporaneous with the main crystallization and emplacement of the Pohorje pluton and adjacent volcanic rocks (20 to 15 Ma), providing the first documented evidence of Neogene granitic pegmatites in the Eastern Alps. Consequently, the Visole pegmatite belongs to the youngest rare-element granitic pegmatite populations in Europe, together with the Paleogene pegmatite occurrences along the Periadriatic (Insubric) Fault System in the Alps and in the Rhodope Massif, as well as the Late Miocene to Pliocene pegmatites in the Tuscany magmatic province (mainly on the Island of Elba).

Uher, Pavel; Janák, Marian; Kone?ný, Patrik; Vrabec, Mirijam

2014-04-01

398

The CEGRN 2011 Campaign and the densification of ETRF2000 in Central Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CEGRN 2011 Campaign took place from 20 to 25 June 2011. It was a coordinated effort of 14 Central European Countries: Austria, Bosnia Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Rumania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Ukraine, with the involvement of some 85 stations. Data processing with state of the art software, and IGS08 orbits and antenna models according to the EPN standards is being completed by independent Analysis Centers in Austria, Hungary, Italy and Slovakia, with the Center in Graz acting as a Combination Center. The paper presents the results of the analysis and of the multiyear combination, with time series spanning a timeline of up to 17 years (1994-2011). Since all data up to and including the 2009 Campaign have been re-analysed with the reprocessed orbits and IGS05 antenna models, the derived velocity field represents a particularly valid example of evolution of the ITRF reference frame in Central Europe. The addition of the 2011 data set, based on IGS08, is not obvious. In a first step the solution, inclusive of the 2011 campaign, can be aligned to the EPN (European Permanent Network of EUREF) cumulative solution in ITRF2005 and can be transformed into the ETRF2000 frame. In a second step, the CEGRN campaigns are planned to be reprocessed with the IGS08 antenna models, provided the IGS and EPN reprocessing solutions (REPRO2) are available for the orbits. Once completed, a densification of the European regional velocity field will become available for both geodynamic studies and widespread dissemination of the ETRS89 standard of coordinates, in compliance with the EU Directive INSPIRE.

Caporali, A.; Barlik, M.; Becker, M.; Gerhatova, L.; Grenerczy, G.; Hefty, J.; Krauss, A.; Legovini, P.; Medac, D.; Milev, G.; Mojzes, M.; Mulic, M.; Odalovic, O.; Rus, T.; Simek, J.; Sledzinski, J.; Stangl, G.; Stopar, B.; Vespe, F.; Virag, G.

2012-04-01

399

Evaluation of High School Programme for Gifted Pupils in Physics and Sciences in Serbia - Experience in Regional Cooperation -- SEENET-MTP Network  

E-print Network

The "High school class for students with special abilities in physics" was founded in Nis, Serbia (http://tesla.pmf.ni.ac.rs/f_odeljenje/) in 2003. The basic aim of this project has been introducing a broadened curriculum of physics, mathematics, computer science, as well as chemistry and biology. Now, eight years after establishing of this specialized class, we present analyses of the pupils' skills in solving rather problem oriented test, as PISA test, and compare their results with the results of pupils who study under standard curricula. Also, an external evaluation conducted more recently, shows that Special physics class students performed higher on science knowledge test in comparison with students from control groups (grammar school and special math class students). Establishing of the Special physics class as an interesting educational experiment and its development has been connected, in a sense, with activities of the Southeastern European Network in Mathematical and Theoretical Physics. We present...

Djordjevic, Goran S; Stankovic, Jelena

2011-01-01

400

New Radiometric Ages for the BH-1 Hominin from Balanica (Serbia): Implications for Understanding the Role of the Balkans in Middle Pleistocene Human Evolution  

PubMed Central

Newly obtained ages, based on electron spin resonance combined with uranium series isotopic analysis, and infrared/post-infrared luminescence dating, provide a minimum age that lies between 397 and 525 ka for the hominin mandible BH-1 from Mala Balanica cave, Serbia. This confirms it as the easternmost hominin specimen in Europe dated to the Middle Pleistocene. Inferences drawn from the morphology of the mandible BH-1 place it outside currently observed variation of European Homo heidelbergensis. The lack of derived Neandertal traits in BH-1 and its contemporary specimens in Southeast Europe, such as Kocaba?, Vasogliano and Ceprano, coupled with Middle Pleistocene synapomorphies, suggests different evolutionary forces acting in the east of the continent where isolation did not play such an important role during glaciations. PMID:23405085

Rink, William J.; Mercier, Norbert; Mihailovic, Dusan; Morley, Mike W.; Thompson, Jeroen W.; Roksandic, Mirjana

2013-01-01

401

Community response to noise: research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States.  

PubMed

The systems of public complaints on environmental noise were reviewed in seven countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), South-East Europe (SEE), and Newly Independent States (NIS). Public complaints remain an important issue due to differences in public sensitivity to noise and due to several cases where a measurement of noise intensity does not give a satisfying solution to the problem. The unresolved problem remaining in the residential neighborhoods is the noise from pubs and restaurants that are open until late in the night. In our review, we compiled information on the institutions responsible for the implementation of environmental noise legislation and organizations that are responsible for dealing with public complaints. Information on activities for increasing public awareness on hazards rising from environmental noise and the role of civil initiative was explored. In seven countries, and among them, Slovenia, Lithuania, Latvia, Slovakia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Serbia, and Poland, the responsibilities and duties are shared among different institutions at national and regional levels, depending on the noise source. The problem of gathering information on complaints and using it for improving the wellbeing and health of citizens remains often difficult and unsolved. PMID:23412576

Jeram, Sonja; Lekaviciute, Jurgita; Krukle, Zanda; Argalasova-Sobotova, Lubica; Ristovska, Gordana; Paunovic, Katarina; Pawlaczyk-Luszczynska, Malgorzata

2013-01-01

402

Long Term Seasonality Changes and Short Term Climate Variability Recorded in Eurasian Loess: Examples from Serbia, Romania, Kazakhstan, and China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Past climate dynamics associated with the Eurasian continent are well studied. However, the impact of intra-hemispheric-scale climate variability on the entire Eurasian landmass, as well as the self-generated effects of the continent on the global climate system, is still a matter of considerable debate. While western Atlantic polar and tropical air masses penetrate into the continent and are modified and transformed as they cross Eurasia, the interior regions of Eurasia strongly influence Earth's climate system. Significant cooling and heating of Central and High Asia drive interactions between atmosphere and ocean processes and regulate teleconnection patterns of the Northern Hemisphere. The distribution of Eurasian loess deposits allows interregional palaeoclimatic investigations along a west-east transect across the entire Eurasian loess belt of the Northern Hemisphere, offering the potential to reconstruct Pleistocene atmospheric circulation patterns and aeolian dust dynamics on a wide spatial scale. This paper utilizes high resolution particle size data from several loess sequences across Eurasia (Serbia, Romania, Kazakhstan, and China) that provide a detailed signal of glacial-interglacial atmospheric dynamics and long term, semi-continuous trends in the aeolian dust record since marine isotope stage 10. In consideration of the modern synoptic atmospheric circulation patterns and aeolian dust transport across the Eurasian landmass, we propose that the observed data reflect oscillations superimposed on a long term signal of seasonality, triggered by changes in duration and permanency of the seasonal shift of the Eurasian polar front during the middle to late Pleistocene. As the activity of the polar front jet is intimately connected with the high level planetary frontal zone (HPFZ), the Eurasian loess archives may also serve as a recorder of intra-hemispheric climate connections in past atmospheric circulation. Although there are large scale similarities in the dust transport record from numerous sites across Eurasia, the data reveal distinct differences in short-term climate variability along the studied transect from SE Europe over Central Asia to China. In Central and East Asia the observed dynamics in aeolian dust transport closely mirror ?18O and fine dust variations seen in Greenland ice cores, suggesting a correlation with short-term climate oscillations (DO events) recorded therein. An Asian origin of fine aeolian dust preserved in Greenland ice cores has been discussed previously, and recent papers reveal a close link between Asian aeolian dust dynamics and DO events recorded in Greenland ice cores. In this context, the presented data represent the first Central and East Asian aeolian dust records in which DO events are recorded, providing a means to verify hypothesized links between short-term climate variability recorded in Greenland and associated climate dynamics at Asian dust source areas. Ultimately, the data extend existing theories, suggesting that the Central and High Asian mountains are a crucial element within the sensitive glacier-desert-dust response system in interior Eurasia and may be considered a pacemaker of suborbital global climate changes and an initiator of abrupt climate oscillations in the Northern Hemisphere.

Machalett, B.; Oches, E. A.; Haam, E.; Lai, Z. P.; Endlicher, W.

2012-04-01

403

Effect of extremely high specific flow rates on the removal of NOM and arsenic from groundwater with an ion-exchange resin: A pilot-scale study in Northern Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale study was performed to explore the possibility of the removal of natural organic matter (NOM) and arsenic from groundwater in the village of Melenci (Northern Serbia) using strongly basic, macroporous ion-exchange resin, commercially available as Amberlite IRA 958-Cl. The influences of the specific flow rate (SFR) and a broad range of contact times were studied using native groundwater

Miroslav Kuku?ka; Nikoleta Kuku?ka; Mirjana Vojinovi?-Miloradov; Željko Tomi?; Mario Šiljeg

2011-01-01

404

A brittle tectonic history of the Internal Dinarides: an inference based on the paleostress study in the Valjevo area (western Serbia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Internal Dinarides is part of a complex suture zone situated in the central Balkan Peninsula, which present-day tectonic pattern is a result of Late Cretaceous subduction followed by Cenozoic post-collisional and neotectonic phases. Since the Late Miocene, the most important factor controlling regional tectonic processes in this area has been the counterclockwise rotation and northward motion of the Adria plate in respect to the Dinaric orogen. In Serbia, this tectonic process is manifested through constant moderate seismic activity, where stronger earthquakes are recorded mostly along well-known fault systems active in the neotectonic period. However, brittle fault kinematics in this part of the Internal Dinarides is poorly documented. In this research we performed a calculation of the tectonic stress tensors in order to determine brittle tectonic regimes acting in western Serbia (Valjevo mountains range), as well as their relative chronology. Fault-slip data have been collected in geological units of different age and lithology: Permian, Triassic and Cretaceous limestones and Jurassic peridotites and serpentinites. Slip was determined using linear indicators like "carrot shaped" markings, gouging grain grooves and calcite and magnesite fibres. Relative brittle history was determined using criteria of cross-cutting relationships, fracture mineralization and structural features of the brittle overprint of rocks. We distinguished four brittle deformation phases. Phase D1 is characterized by N-S compression, which is indicated by thrust faulting of NE- and NW-trending faults. Phases D2 and D3, are both extensional. However, since we had clear indicators that phase D3 overprints all the previous deformation phases, we suppose that the two extensional phases occurred separately, rather than acting as a single radial extension phase. Deformation phase D2 is characterized by N-S to NE-SW extension, while D3 phase is represented by NW-SE (orogen parallel) extension. Strike-slip deformation phase D4, was indicated by sinistral faulting along N- to NE-trending faults, and dextral faulting along generally E-trending faults. This deformation phase is characterized by N-S compression and E-W extension.

Mladenovi?, Ana; Trivi?, Branislav; Cvetkovi?, Vladica; Pavlovi?, Radmila

2014-05-01

405

Sulfur isotope variations from orebody to hand-specimen scale at the Mežica lead-zinc deposit, Slovenia: a predominantly biogenic pattern  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) Pb-Zn ore district at Mežica is hosted by Middle to Upper Triassic platform carbonate rocks in the Northern Karavanke/Drau Range geotectonic units of the Eastern Alps, northeastern Slovenia. The mineralization at Mežica covers an area of 64 km2 with more than 350 orebodies and numerous galena and sphalerite occurrences, which formed epigenetically, both conformable and discordant to bedding. While knowledge on the style of mineralization has grown considerably, the origin of discordant mineralization is still debated. Sulfur stable isotope analyses of 149 sulfide samples from the different types of orebodies provide new insights on the genesis of these mineralizations and their relationship. Over the whole mining district, sphalerite and galena have ? 34 S values in the range of -24.7 to -1.5‰ VCDT (-13.5 ą 5.0‰) and -24.7 to -1.4‰ (-10.7 ą 5.9‰), respectively. These values are in the range of the main MVT deposits of the Drau Range. All sulfide ? 34 S values are negative within a broad range, with ? 34 S pyrite < ? 34 S sphalerite < ? 34 S galena for both conformable and discordant orebodies, indicating isotopically heterogeneous H2S in the ore-forming fluids and precipitation of the sulfides at thermodynamic disequilibrium. This clearly supports that the main sulfide sulfur originates from bacterially mediated reduction (BSR) of Middle to Upper Triassic seawater sulfate or evaporite sulfate. Thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) by organic compounds contributed a minor amount of 34S-enriched H2S to the ore fluid. The variations of ? 34 S values of galena and coarse-grained sphalerite at orefield scale are generally larger than the differences observed in single hand specimens. The progressively more negative ? 34 S values with time along the different sphalerite generations are consistent with mixing of different H2S sources, with a decreasing contribution of H2S from regional TSR, and an increase from a local H2S reservoir produced by BSR (i.e., sedimentary biogenic pyrite, organo-sulfur compounds). Galena in discordant ore (-11.9 to -1.7‰; -7.0 ą 2.7‰, n = 12) tends to be depleted in 34 S compared with conformable ore (-24.7 to -2.8‰, -11.7 ą 6.2‰, n = 39). A similar trend is observed from fine-crystalline sphalerite I to coarse open-space filling sphalerite II. Some variation of the sulfide ? 34 S values is attributed to the inherent variability of bacterial sulfate reduction, including metabolic recycling in a locally partially closed system and contribution of H2S from hydrolysis of biogenic pyrite and thermal cracking of organo-sulfur compounds. The results suggest that the conformable orebodies originated by mixing of hydrothermal saline metal-rich fluid with H2S-rich pore waters during late burial diagenesis, while the discordant orebodies formed by mobilization of the earlier conformable mineralization.

Herlec, Uroš; Spangenberg, Jorge E.; Lavri?, Jošt V.

2010-08-01

406

Subtype analysis of Cryptosporidium parvum isolates from calves on farms around Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro, using the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene sequences.  

PubMed

Cryptosporidium parvum is composed of multiple subtypes, which appear to be zoonotic or anthroponotic. Therefore, in order to understand the molecular epidemiology of this species and to control the zoonotic transmission, it is essential to identify the isolates at the subtype level. In the present study, 60.2% of 103 examined dairy calves from 10 farms in the Belgrade area were positive for Cryptosporidium infection by PCR, and all of them were identified as C. parvum by PCR-RFLP of SSUrRNA and COWP genes. Eighteen C. parvum isolates selected randomly from 9 positive farms were classified by molecular phylogenetic analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene sequences into 3 subtype allele families, IIa and IId, which are known to be zoonotic, and a new family IIj. Furthermore 10 isolates in IIa were classified into 3 subtypes IIaA16G1R1b, IIaA18G1R1, IIaA20G1R1, 2 in IId into IIdA18G1b, and 6 in IIj into IIjA16R2 and IIjA17R2. The last 2 subtypes in IIa and 2 subtypes in IIj were new subtypes. These results suggest that C. parvum isolates harboured in calves in the Belgrade area have zoonotic potential and C. parvum is genetically diverse only in a limited area. This is the first molecular epidemiological report about Cryptosporidium infection in Serbia and Montenegro. PMID:17076920

Misic, Z; Abe, N

2007-03-01

407

Determination of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in river sediments and corresponding surface and ground water in the Danube River and tributaries in Serbia.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was the development of analytical methods for the simultaneous determination of 25 selected pharmaceuticals, metabolites, and pesticides, belonging to the various chemical classes, in river sediments and their corresponding surface and ground water with the purpose of monitoring the contamination levels. The methods were based on the solid-phase extraction as the sample preparation method for water samples, and the ultrasonic solvent extraction for the sediment samples, followed by the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. High recoveries were achieved for extraction from both water and sediment samples for the majority of analytes. Low limits of detection were achieved for all investigated compounds in the water sample (1-5 ng L(-1)) as well as in the sediment (1-3 ng g(-1)). Applicability of the developed methods was demonstrated by determination of pharmaceutical and pesticide residues in 30 surface water, 44 groundwater, and 5 sediment samples from the Danube River Basin in Serbia. Sixty percent of target compounds were detected in environmental samples. The most frequently detected analytes in river sediments were the pesticides dimethoate and atrazine, while carbamazepine and metamizole metabolites 4-AAA and 4-FAA were the most frequently found in water samples. PMID:25400028

Radovi?, Tanja; Gruji?, Svetlana; Petkovi?, An?elka; Dimki?, Milan; Lauševi?, Mila

2015-01-01

408

Glutathione S-transferase T1 and M1 polymorphisms and risk of uterine cervical lesions in women from central Serbia.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the frequencies of GSTT1 and GSTM1 deletion polymorphisms in newly-diagnosed patients with uterine cervical lesions from central Serbia. Polymorphisms of GST genes were genotyped in 97 patients with cervical lesions and 50 healthy women using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The GSTM1 null genotype was significantly more prominent among the patients than in controls (74.2% vs 56.0%), the risk associated with lesions being almost 2.3-fold increased (OR=2.26, 95%CI=1.10-4.65, p=0.03) and 3.17-fold higher in patients above >45 years old (95%CI=1.02-9.79, p=0.04). The analysis of the two genotypes demonstrated that GSTM1 null genotype significantly increased risk only for low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion-LSIL (OR=2.81, 95%CI=1.03-7.68, p=0.04). GSTT1 null genotype or different genotype combinations were not found to be risk factors, irrespective to lesion stages, age or smoking. We found that the risk of cervical lesions might be significantly related to the GSTM1 null genotype, especially in women aged above 45 years. Furthermore, the GSTM1 polymorphism might have greater role in development of early stage lesions. PMID:24815471

Stosic, Ivana; Grujicic, Darko; Arsenijevic, Slobodan; Brkic, Marija; Milosevic-Djordjevic, Olivera

2014-01-01

409

Women in physics in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slovenian female physicists have been organized in the "Neformalna Mreža Slovenskih Fizi?ark" (Informal Network of Female Physicists) since 2002. The network incorporates more than 120 women working in research, academia, government, and industry. In the last three years we have been active in promoting physics among young girls, educating the public on progress in nuclear science for peaceful use, public discussion on the situation of women in science, and distribution of the book Fizika, Moj Poklic (Physics, My Profession), published in 2007. We have a representative on the National Commission of Women in Science at the Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology. In the Commission we proposed a research survey with gender sensitivity on the current situation of researchers with PhD degrees, which was performed in 2010. Here we present the main results of this survey for respondents of both genders working in the natural sciences.

Remskar, Maja; Gunde, Marta Klanjsek; Zeleznik, Nadja; Kralj, Veronika Iglic; Janzekovic, Helena; Gomboc, Andreja

2013-03-01

410

FLOOD PROTECTION IN THE TISZA RIVER BASIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tisza River Basin is shared by five nations: Ukraine, Romania, Slovakia, Hungary and Serbia-Montenegro. The river itself\\u000a is the frontier along several kilometers between Ukraine and Romania, Ukraine and Hungary and between Slovakia and Hungary.\\u000a All blessings and all disasters a river can bring are also shared by the five nations. For people living close to the river,\\u000a it

ZOLTAN BALINT; SÁNDOR TÓTH

411

An ecophysiological study of plants growing on the fly ash deposits from the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermal power station in Serbia.  

PubMed

This ecophysiological research on the ash deposits from the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermal power station in Serbia covered 10 plant species (Tamarix gallica, Populus alba, Spiraea van-hauttei, Ambrosia artemisifolia, Amorpha fruticosa, Eupatorium cannabinum, Crepis setosa, Epilobium collinum, Verbascum phlomoides, and Cirsium arvense). This paper presents the results of a water regime analysis, photosynthetic efficiency and trace elements (B, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb, and Cd) content in vegetative plant parts. Water regime parameters indicate an overall stability in plant-water relations. During the period of summer drought, photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm) was low, ranging from 0.429 to 0.620 for all the species that were analyzed. An analysis of the tissue trace elements content showed a lower trace metal concentration in the plants than in the ash, indicating that heavy metals undergo major concentration during the combustion process and some are not readily taken up by plants. The Zn and Pb concentrations in all of the examined species were normal whereas Cu and Mn concentrations were in the deficiency range. Boron concentrations in plant tissues were high, with some species even showing levels of more than 100 microg/g (Populus sp., Ambrosia sp., Amorpha sp., and Cirsium sp.). The presence of Cd was not detected. In general, it can be concluded from the results of this research that biological recultivation should take into account the existing ecological, vegetation, and floristic potential of an immediate environment that is abundant in life forms and ecological types of plant species that can overgrow the ash deposit relatively quickly. Selected species should be adapted to toxic B concentrations with moderate demands in terms of mineral elements (Cu and Mn). PMID:15503386

Pavlovi?, Pavle; Mitrovi?, Miroslava; Djurdjevi?, Lola

2004-05-01

412

List of codes Language abbreviation codes  

E-print Network

Portugal MT Malta GR Greece SE Sweden TR Turkey Country codes for the ERASMUS Institutional Identification Hungary SI Slovenia F France P Portugal LT Lithuania SK Slovakia FL Liechtenstein S Sweden G Greece S F authority (regional) PUB.3 Public authority (national) IND Private company (manufacturing) SER Private

413

Next in Line – Romanians at the Gates of the EU (emigrants, border control, legislation)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first of May 2004 marked an important date in the history of Europe as a political, geographic, and social entity. After years of negotiations, ten European countries joined the European Union, bringing in their potential and expectations, adding a total population of 75 million people and a territory of 738,000 square kilometres: Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovenia, Slovakia,

Ovidiu SIMINA

2005-01-01

414

P E R F O R M I N G A R T S M A N A G E M E N T 0 2 / 2 0 1 1 S o u t h P a c i f i c O c e a n  

E-print Network

Tonga Togo Thailand Tanzania Tajikistan Syria Switz. Sweden Swaziland Suriname Sudan Sri Lanka Spain South Africa Somalia Solomon Islands Slovenia Slovakia Singapore Sierra Leone Senegal Saudi Arabia Libya Liberia Lesotho Lebanon Latvia Laos Kyrgyzstan Kuwait South Korea North Korea Kenya Kazakhstan

Hart, Gus

415

Dobrava-Belgrade virus in Apodemus flavicollis and A. uralensis mice, Turkey.  

PubMed

In 2009, human Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) infections were reported on the Black Sea coast of Turkey. Serologic and molecular studies of potential rodent reservoirs demonstrated DOBV infections in Apodemus flavicollis and A. uralensis mice. Phylogenetic analysis of DOBV strains showed their similarity to A. flavicollis mice-borne DOBV in Greece, Slovenia, and Slovakia. PMID:24377763

Oktem, I Mehmet Ali; Uyar, Yavuz; Dincer, Ender; Gozalan, Aysegul; Schlegel, Mathias; Babur, Cahit; Celebi, Bekir; Sozen, Mustafa; Karatas, Ahmet; Ozkazanc, Nuri Kaan; Matur, Ferhat; Korukluoglu, Gulay; Ulrich, Rainer G; Ertek, Mustafa; Ozkul, Aykut

2014-01-01

416

Dobrava-Belgrade Virus in Apodemus flavicollis and A. uralensis Mice, Turkey  

PubMed Central

In 2009, human Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) infections were reported on the Black Sea coast of Turkey. Serologic and molecular studies of potential rodent reservoirs demonstrated DOBV infections in Apodemus flavicollis and A. uralensis mice. Phylogenetic analysis of DOBV strains showed their similarity to A. flavicollis mice–borne DOBV in Greece, Slovenia, and Slovakia. PMID:24377763

Oktem, I. Mehmet Ali; Uyar, Yavuz; Dincer, Ender; Gozalan, Aysegul; Schlegel, Mathias; Babur, Cahit; Celebi, Bekir; Sozen, Mustafa; Karatas, Ahmet; Ozkazanc, Nuri Kaan; Matur, Ferhat; Korukluoglu, Gulay; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Ertek, Mustafa

2014-01-01

417

Comparing palaeolimnological and instrumental evidence of climate change for remote mountain lakes over the last 200 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares the palaeolimnological evidence for climate change over the last 200 years with instrumental climate data for the same period at seven European remote mountain lakes. The sites are Řvre Neĺdalsvatn (Nor- way), Saanajärvi (Finland), Gossenköllesee (Austria), Hagelseewli (Switzerland), Jezero v Ledvici (Slovenia), Estany Redó (Spain, Pyrenees), and NiÓné Terianske Pleso (Slovakia). We used multiple regression analysis to

Richard W. Battarbee; John-Arvid Grytnes; Roy Thompson; Peter G. Appleby; Jordi Catalan; Atte Korhola; H. J. B. Birks; Einar Heegaard; Andrea Lami

2002-01-01

418

Incidence of bovine tuberculosis in wild and domestic animals other than cattle in six Central European countries during 1990-1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was undertaken in Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia laying between Baltic and Adriatic seas on 610 402 km 2 . Mycobacterium bovis infection was diagnosed in 70 animals belonging to 17 species other than cattle. The set of wild animals comprised 12 European bison (Bison bonasus), one red deer (Cervus elaphus), five wild boars (Sus

I. PAVLIK; M. MACHACKOVA; W. YAYO AYELE; J. LAMKA; I. PARMOVA; I. MELICHAREK; M. HANZLIKOVA; B. KÖRMENDY; G. NAGY; Z. CVETNIC; M. OCEPEK; M. LIPIEC

2002-01-01

419

During19822007,alveolarechinococcosis(AE)was diagnosedin407patientsinFrance,acountrypreviously  

E-print Network

by the larval stage of the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocu- laris. In human infections, after a person ingests eggs, the metacestode cells of E. multilocularis proliferate in the liver, inducing a hepatic, Slovakia, Lithuania, Slovenia, Belgium, and Hungary (7,8). Molecular typing of E. multilocularis specimens

Boyer, Edmond