Science.gov

Sample records for serbia slovakia slovenia

  1. The Role of Comparative Pedagogy in the Training of Pedagogues in Serbia and Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spasenovic, Vera; Vujisic Zivkovic, Natasa; Ermenc, Klara Skubic

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers three issues arising from the study of the development and the current state of Comparative Pedagogy in Serbia and Slovenia. First, the development of Comparative Pedagogy as a distinctive discipline in Serbia and Slovenia is discussed. Second, the role and the content of Comparative Pedagogy courses in university programmes…

  2. Who Is Responsible for Vulnerable Pupils? The Attitudes of Teacher Candidates in Serbia and Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecek, Mojca; Macura-Milovanovic, Suncica

    2012-01-01

    In the ongoing trend towards inclusive education, initial teacher education programmes must ensure that prospective teachers are prepared to teach all pupils effectively. The study presented in this paper aimed to explore the attitudes of teacher candidates in Serbia and Slovenia towards responsibility for the teaching and learning of vulnerable…

  3. Roma Pupils' Identification with School in Slovenia and Serbia: Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macura-Milovanovic, Suncica; Munda, Milanka; Pecek, Mojca

    2013-01-01

    The research presented in this paper aims to challenge the belief held by some education professionals that Roma pupils do not value education. The research sample included groups of Roma pupils from two countries (Slovenia and Serbia) and from different socio-economic backgrounds. The results suggest that the majority of the pupils are aware of…

  4. Language Policy in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak-Lukanovic, Sonja; Limon, David

    2012-01-01

    The historical background, political changes, migration processes, EU membership and the current socio-linguistic situation have all influenced language policy and language planning in Slovenia. This article presents the most important aspects of language policy in Slovenia with a focus on the concept of linguistic diversity. The ethnic make-up of…

  5. A new earthquake catalogue for seismic hazard assessment of the NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) Jaslovske Bohunice, Slovakia, site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kysel, Robert; Kristek, Jozef; Moczo, Peter; Csicsay, Kristian; Cipciar, Andrej; Srbecky, Miroslav

    2014-05-01

    According to the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) Safety Guide No. SSG-9, an earthquake catalogue should comprise all information on pre-historical, historical and seismometrically recorded earthquakes in the region which should cover geographic area not smaller than a circle with radius of 300 km around the site. Jaslovske Bohunice is an important economic site. Several nuclear facilities are located in Jaslovske Bohunice - either in operation (NPP V2, national radioactive waste repository) or in decommissioning (NPP A1, NPP V1). Moreover, a new reactor unit is being planned for the site. Jaslovske Bohunice site is not far from the Dobra Voda seismic source zone which has been the most active seismic zone at territory of Slovakia since the beginning of 20th century. Relatively small distances to Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovak capital Bratislava make the site a prominent priority in terms of seismic hazard assessment. We compiled a new earthquake catalogue for the NPP Jaslovske Bohunice region following the recommendations of the IAEA Safety Guide. The region includes parts of the territories of Slovakia, Hungary, Austria, the Czech Republic and Poland, and it partly extends up to Germany, Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia. The catalogue is based on data from six national earthquake catalogues, two regional earthquake catalogues (ACORN, CENEC) and a catalogue from the local NPP network. The primarily compiled catalogue for the time period 350 - 2011 consists of 9 142 events. We then homogenized and declustered the catalogue. Eventually we checked the catalogue for time completeness. For homogenization, we divided the catalogue into preseismometric (350 - 1900) and seismometric (1901-2011) periods. For earthquakes characterized by the epicentral intensity and local magnitude we adopted relations proposed for homogenization of the CENEC catalogue (Grünthal et al. 2009). Instead of assuming the equivalency between local magnitudes reported by the

  6. [Family policy in Slovenia].

    PubMed

    Bresar, A

    1995-01-01

    "This article presents selected socio-demographic indicators (i.e. average life expectancy, parity and mortality rates, the number of divorces, women's professional activity rates and unemployment rates among men and women) and reviews...family benefits in Slovenia. The author compares some of the information with Poland and Hungary." (EXCERPT) PMID:12292895

  7. SANITATION IN SERBIA

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Edward

    1920-01-01

    We must maintain health programs in Serbia according to Major Stuart, who tells plainly of conditions as his party found them. Serbia, with other Balkan countries, is a menace to the health of the Western world. Typhus and malaria are endemic, while tuberculosis and other communicable diseases enfeeble the people. Imagesp126-ap127-ap128-ap129-ap130-a PMID:18010245

  8. Find a Pediatrician or Pediatric Specialist

    MedlinePlus

    ... SENEGAL SERBIA SEYCHELLES SIERRA LEONE SINGAPORE SLOVAKIA SLOVENIA SOLOMON ISLANDS SOMALIA SOMALILAND SOUTH AFRICA SOUTH OSSETIA SPAIN SRI ... Informatics Breastfeeding Cardiology Child Abuse Children with special health care needs Clinical Information Technology Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics ...

  9. [History of Oncology in Slovakia].

    PubMed

    Ondruš, D; Kaušitz, J

    2016-01-01

    The history of oncology in Slovakia is closely linked to the history of St. Elizabeth Hospital, which was set up in the mid-18th century by nuns of the St. Elizabeth Order in Bratislava. In the first half of the 20th century, a unit was set up in the hospital dedicated to diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Shortly after World War II, the unit was turned into the Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment. In 1950, St. Elizabeth Hospital was nationalized, and the Cancer Research Institute of the Slovak Academy of Science and the Institute of Clinical Oncology were located there as centers for oncological diagnosis and treatment. After the restitution of church property in the early 1990s, the hospital was returned to the Order of St. Elizabeth, which set up the St. Elisabeth Cancer Institute in the hospital premises in January of 1996. This year marks the 20th anniversary of this institute in its new premises and the 85th anniversary of the Institute of Radiumtherapy founded in Bratislava, and thus the establishment of institutional healthcare for cancer patients in Slovakia is the reason for balancing. We present a view of the consecutive changes in the organization, space and staff of the Institute and evaluate the impact of celebrities on medicine who developed oncology as a clinical, scientific and educational discipline in Bratislava and in other cities and regions of Slovakia. PMID:27296401

  10. Slovenia: Health System Review.

    PubMed

    Albreht, Tit; Pribakovic Brinovec, Radivoje; Josar, Dusan; Poldrugovac, Mircha; Kostnapfel, Tatja; Zaletel, Metka; Panteli, Dimitra; Maresso, Anna

    2016-06-01

    This analysis of the Slovene health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The health of the population has improved over the last few decades. While life expectancy for both men and women is similar to EU averages, morbidity and mortality data show persistent disparities between regions, and mortality from external causes is particularly high. Satisfaction with health care delivery is high, but recently waiting times for some outpatient specialist services have increased. Greater focus on preventive measures is also needed as well as better care coordination, particularly for those with chronic conditions. Despite having relatively high levels of co-payments for many services covered by the universal compulsory health insurance system, these expenses are counterbalanced by voluntary health insurance, which covers 95% of the population liable for co-payments. However, Slovenia is somewhat unique among social health insurance countries in that it relies almost exclusively on payroll contributions to fund its compulsory health insurance system. This makes health sector revenues very susceptible to economic and labour market fluctuations. A future challenge will be to diversify the resource base for health system funding and thus bolster sustainability in the longer term, while preserving service delivery and quality of care. Given changing demographics and morbidity patterns, further challenges include restructuring the funding and provision of long-term care and enhancing health system efficiency through reform of purchasing and provider-payment systems. PMID:27467813

  11. Gemstone deposits of Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miladinović, Zoran; Simić, Vladimir; Jelenković, Rade; Ilić, Miloje

    2016-06-01

    Gemstone minerals in Serbia have never been regarded as an interesting and significant resource. Nevertheless, more than 150 deposits and occurrences have been recorded and some of them preliminarily explored in the last 50 years. The majority of deposits and occurrences are located within the Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic province and the most significant metallogenic units at the existing level of knowledge are the Fruska Gora ore district, Cer ore district, Sumadija metallogenic zone, Kopaonik metallogenic zone and Lece-Halkidiki metallogenic zone. The most important genetic type of deposits is hydrothermal, particularly in case of serpentinite/peridotite as host/parent rock. Placer deposits are also economically important. The dominant gemstones are silica minerals: chalcedony (Chrysoprase, carnelian, bluish chalcedony etc.), jasper (picture, landscape, red etc.), common opal (dendritic, green, milky white etc.), silica masses (undivided), and quartz (rock crystal, amethyst etc.). Beside silica minerals significant gemstones in Serbia include also beryl (aquamarine), garnet (almandine and pyrope), tourmaline, fluorite, rhodochrosite, carbonate-silica breccia, carbonate-silica onyx, silicified wood, howlite, serpentinite, marble onyx, and kyanite. This paper aims to present an overview of Serbian gemstone deposits and occurrences and their position based on a simplified gemstone metallogenic map of Serbia, as well as genetic-industrial classification of gemstone deposits and gemstone varieties.

  12. Curricular Framework Documents from Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vendramin, Valerija

    2004-01-01

    Slovenia is currently undergoing a process of school reform in order to extend compulsory education from eight to nine years and to lower the school entering age from 7 to 6. According to the Ministry of Education, Science and Sport, the new elementary schools will focus less on the content and more on developing cognitive and social skills. At…

  13. Geothermal eel farm in Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.; Thomka, J.; Sarlinova, K.

    1998-12-01

    Turcianske Teplice, a small town in west-central Slovakia, has written records of using thermal waters since 1281. In 1992, an eel raising farm was started on the outskirts of the town and since 1994, it has been operated by the firm of Janex Slovensko. The farm, using a specialized water recirculation system, raises a species of migrating eels (Anguilla anguilla). A 220-meter deep well at 42 C provides 48 gpm to the facility for heating through a plate heat exchanger. This is the maximum flow permitted, so as not to influence the springs and wells at the spa about 1 km away. For this reason, the flow is monitored carefully by the state. A second geothermal well at 52 C and 1,500 meters deep is used only as an observation well. Cold water, which is heated by the geothermal water, is pumped from wells near the Turiec River 1.8 km away at 8 to 12 C, depending upon the season, for use in the various holding or raising tanks. The operation of the farm is described.

  14. Students' Attitudes toward Computer Use in Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2008-01-01

    ICT has a very short history in Slovakia. A majority of Slovak schools accessed computers and internet only after 2000. Different financial support and schools' participation in various projects resulted in non-random distribution of computers across Slovakian elementary schools. We examined whether 1) attitudes toward computers could be affected…

  15. Dirofilaria infections in working dogs in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Miterpáková, M; Antolová, D; Hurníková, Z; Dubinský, P; Pavlacka, A; Németh, J

    2010-06-01

    A monitoring programme aimed at the diagnosis of subcutaneous dirofilariasis and heartworm disease in working (police and military) dogs in Slovakia has been performed during the period of September 2007 to February 2008. In co-operation with the Ministry of the Interior and the Ministry of Defence, in total, 710 dogs (591 police dogs and 119 military dogs) were investigated for the presence of microfilariae in blood. All police and military dogs in active service held on the territory of Slovakia were included. Microfilariae were detected in 118 (20.0%) police dogs and 10 (8.4%) military dogs. The most infected individuals originated from southern parts of Slovakia (Trnava region 53.6% and Nitra region 39.6%); the prevalence was low in northern regions (Zilina 3.1% and Presov 6.6%). In several districts of southern Slovakia, the prevalence of subcutaneous dirofilariasis in working dogs exceeded 40%. In all infected animals, the autochthonous origin of the disease was confirmed; however, due to the frequent movement of working dogs, it was not possible to identify the exact locality of infection. At present, a dog living in Nemsová village in Trencín district (north-western part of the country) is regarded as the northernmost localized autochthonous case of subcutaneous dirofilariasis in Slovakia. In three dogs, co-infection of Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis was detected. High prevalence rates in working dogs and the zoonotic characteristic of the disease represent an undoubtedly important veterinary and medical problem that requires the urgent introduction of prophylactic and control measures. PMID:19728899

  16. Northern Slavs from Serbia do not show a founder effect at autosomal and Y-chromosomal STRs and retain their paternal genetic heritage.

    PubMed

    Rębała, Krzysztof; Veselinović, Igor; Siváková, Daniela; Patskun, Erika; Kravchenko, Sergey; Szczerkowska, Zofia

    2014-01-01

    Studies on Y-chromosomal markers revealed significant genetic differentiation between Southern and Northern (Western and Eastern) Slavic populations. The northern Serbian region of Vojvodina is inhabited by Southern Slavic Serbian majority and, inter alia, Western Slavic (Slovak) and Eastern Slavic (Ruthenian) minorities. In the study, 15 autosomal STR markers were analysed in unrelated Slovaks, Ruthenians and Serbs from northern Serbia and western Slovakia. Additionally, Slovak males from Serbia were genotyped for 17 Y-chromosomal STR loci. The results were compared to data available for other Slavic populations. Genetic distances for autosomal markers revealed homogeneity between Serbs from northern Serbia and Slovaks from western Slovakia and distinctiveness of Serbian Slovaks and Ruthenians. Y-STR variation showed a clear genetic departure of the Slovaks and Ruthenians inhabiting Vojvodina from their Serbian neighbours and genetic similarity to the Northern Slavic populations of Slovakia and Ukraine. Admixture estimates revealed negligible Serbian paternal ancestry in both Northern Slavic minorities of Vojvodina, providing evidence for their genetic isolation from the Serbian majority population. No reduction of genetic diversity at autosomal and Y-chromosomal markers was found, excluding genetic drift as a reason for differences observed at autosomal STRs. Analysis of molecular variance detected significant population stratification of autosomal and Y-chromosomal microsatellites in the three Slavic populations of northern Serbia, indicating necessity for separate databases used for estimations of frequencies of autosomal and Y-chromosomal STR profiles in forensic casework. Our results demonstrate that regarding Y-STR haplotypes, Serbian Slovaks and Ruthenians fit in the Eastern European metapopulation defined in the Y chromosome haplotype reference database. PMID:24315599

  17. Problematic microscopic trace (?) fossils, Oligocene, Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikuláš, R.; Boorová, D.; Holcová, K.

    2013-05-01

    Meioscopic to microscopic capsules found in reddish, probably marine or brackish shales (Oligocene, Pannonian Basin; South Slovakia) are interpreted as possible trace fossils. They may represent burrows of meioscopic in-fauna. Ferruginous walls of the capsules appeared very probably as late as during diagenesis; however, the (possibly organic) matrix had to exist before the diagenetic processes. Other discussed explanations (inorganic "ironstones"; coprolites) are not plausible.

  18. An Energy Overview of Slovenia

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-10-20

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Slovenia. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resource s permit.

  19. Education Inequality in Slovakia: The Effects of Early Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelmanova, Olga; Korsnakova, Paulina; Tramonte, Lucia; Willms, J. Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Like many other countries in Central and Eastern Europe, children in Slovakia are allocated to different types of schools at an early age based upon their perceived aptitude. Part of the selection process includes an attempt to identify those children who are particularly academic-oriented. Primary and secondary education in Slovakia is divided…

  20. Heat waves and warm periods in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faško, Pavel; Bochníček, Oliver; Markovič, Ladislav; Švec, Marek

    2016-04-01

    The scenarios of climate change caused by human activity show that frequency of occurrence and extent of heat waves in the interior of Europe is increasing. Among the most exposed regions in this regard should the area of southeastern and eastern Austria and south-western Slovakia. The relatively faster increase in the number of heat waves in this area is related also to potential desertification in this region just east of the Alps, since during summer, weather fronts advancing from the west are consequently losing their original features and moderating influence. Summer weather patterns for this area should in the future more closely remind climate typical for some inland areas of southwestern, southern and southeastern Europe. A certain shift of climate zones from south to north should thus modify future climate and Slovakia. Despite the complex natural conditions the existing trends derived from results of meteorological measurements and observations are clear and they confirm warming of climate in this region. Observations and measurements in the recent years of the 21st century confirm, that heat waves are no longer rare phenomenon during summer, but are systematically appearing even in colder regions of northern Slovakia. What is very remarkable and will be necessary to pay more attention to, is the fact that these heat waves are expanding into previously unaffected areas, associated with the lack of rainfall and drought, on larger regional scale. In this study heat wave periods and individual heat events and days are statistically identified in the time series characteristics of air temperature at selected meteorological stations for the period from the mid-20th century until 2015, in case of available historical data even for longer period.

  1. Security Research and Safety Aspects in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinay, Juraj

    In 2004 the Slovak Republic joined the European Community. This accession called for changes in the new member state's internal and external processes, as well as the acceptance of the European Community regulatory framework and its implementation in Slovakian national legislation. Even though Slovakia had started with step-by-step integration of specific regulations during accession negotiations, final implementation was only concluded upon admission into the European Community. The process spanned the fields of occupational health and safety (Safety) and civil security (Security), notwithstanding that professionals in these areas had already been working in line with the European legislation.

  2. On aging and aged care in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Sevo, G; Davidovic, M; Erceg, P; Despotovic, N; Milosevic, D P; Tasic, M

    2015-06-01

    Serbia is a demographically old nation, with 17.4 % of its residents being aged 65 years and older in 2011. The previous two decades of turbulent history have significantly affected the demographic picture of this country, and their ramifications remain visible in Serbia's economic, political, cultural, and health spheres. Major demographic forces behind population aging in Serbia can be attributed to lower fertility rates, migrations, and declining mortality (reflecting improvements in overall health leading to a longer life expectancy). In Serbia, low fertility and migrations appear to play major roles, although the relative contribution of recent migrations cannot be measured with accuracy. Patterns of demographic aging vary considerably across different geographic, socioeconomic, and cultural settings. The common denominator throughout present day Serbia is extensive political and economic transition. One would expect that, given sufficient time, this process will result in improved population health, and yet, at this stage outcomes of major health care reform in Serbia are somewhat perplexing. For the second consecutive year, Serbia's health care system has been ranked at the very bottom of the scale among 34 European countries. It is then no surprise that the elderly represent particularly vulnerable population segment. This paper discusses some of the issues relevant to these demographic patterns of aging and aged care in contemporary Serbia, focusing on the period after 2000. PMID:25943380

  3. Lower Miocene plant assemblage with coastal-marsh herbaceous monocots from the Vienna Basin (Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvaček, Zlatko; Teodoridis, Vasilis; Kováčová, Marianna; Schlögl, Ján; Sitár, Viliam

    2014-06-01

    A new plant assemblage of Cerová-Lieskové from Lower Miocene (Karpatian) deposits in the Vienna Basin (western Slovakia) is preserved in a relatively deep, upper-slope marine environment. Depositional conditions with high sedimentation rates allowed exceptional preservation of plant remains. The plant assemblage consists of (1) conifers represented by foliage of Pinus hepios and Tetraclinis salicornioides, a seed cone of Pinus cf. ornata, and by pollen of the Cupressaceae, Pinaceae, Pinus sp. and Cathaya sp., and (2) angiosperms represented by Cinnamomum polymorphum, Platanus neptuni, Potamogeton sp. and lauroid foliage, by pollen of Liquidambar sp., Engelhardia sp. and Craigia sp., and in particular by infructescences (so far interpreted as belonging to cereal ears). We validate genus and species assignments of the infructescences: they belong to Palaeotriticum Sitár, including P. mockii Sitár and P. carpaticum Sitár, and probably represent herbaceous monocots that inhabited coastal marshes, similar to the living grass Spartina. Similar infructescences occur in the Lower and Middle Miocene deposits of the Carpathian Foredeep (Slup in Moravia), Tunjice Hills (Žale in Slovenia), and probably also in the Swiss Molasse (Lausanne). This plant assemblage demonstrates that the paleovegetation was represented by evergreen woodland with pines and grasses in undergrowth, similar to vegetation inhabiting coastal brackish marshes today. It also indicates subtropical climatic conditions in the Vienna Basin (central Paratethys), similar to those implied by other coeval plant assemblages from Central Europe

  4. The Cultural Responsiveness of Teacher Candidates Towards Roma Pupils in Serbia and Slovenia--Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecek, Mojca; Macura-Milovanovic, Suncica; Vujisic-Živkovic, Nataša

    2014-01-01

    In many countries, there is a growing need for teacher awareness and sensitivity to cultural differences, what is often called culturally responsive teaching. This is why teacher education institutions are making significant efforts to require student teachers to enrol in courses that focus on understanding, tolerance and acceptance of differences…

  5. When and How Does Europe Matter? Higher Education Policy Change in Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukasovic, Martina

    2014-01-01

    The study underlying this article investigates the factors under which European policy initiatives with respect to higher education (HE), such as the Bologna Process, lead to policy change at the national level. In theoretical terms, it uses institutionalist approaches to the Europeanization of public policy developed in the fields of comparative…

  6. Education Reform in Slovenia and Ukraine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutar, Sonja; Kotenko, Kateryna; Lohvynenko, Tetyana; Moyer, Joan

    2003-01-01

    Assessed the challenges faced by teacher educators from Slovenia and Ukraine as they implemented the Step by Step (SBS) initiative. Gathered information from Master Teacher Trainers about participation in educating preschool and primary children in a SBS program. Garnered important information concerning progress toward a more democratic approach…

  7. Vocational Education and Training Reform in Slovenia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report on vocational education and training (VET) in Slovenia consists of a condensed description of the present situation in VET and analysis of the main challenges facing VET reform in the country. Chapter 1 offers basic data on the country. Chapter 2 describes main features of the VET system, strategic objectives for VET, and legislative…

  8. Attitudes to Bilingual Education in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak Lukanovic, Sonja; Limon, David

    2014-01-01

    The two different models of bilingual/multilingual education that have been developed in Slovenia since the 1950s in the regions of Prekmurje (minority language Hungarian) and Slovene Istria (Italian) are the result of international agreements, education and language policies, social and demographic factors. The basic aim in both cases is to help…

  9. Q fever in Bulgaria and Slovakia.

    PubMed Central

    Serbezov, V. S.; Kazár, J.; Novkirishki, V.; Gatcheva, N.; Kovácová, E.; Voynova, V.

    1999-01-01

    As a result of dramatic political and economic changes in the beginning of the 1990s, Q-fever epidemiology in Bulgaria has changed. The number of goats almost tripled; contact between goat owners (and their families) and goats, as well as goats and other animals, increased; consumption of raw goat milk and its products increased; and goats replaced cattle and sheep as the main source of human Coxiella burnetii infections. Hundreds of overt, serologically confirmed human cases of acute Q fever have occurred. Chronic forms of Q fever manifesting as endocarditis were also observed. In contrast, in Slovakia, Q fever does not pose a serious public health problem, and the chronic form of infection has not been found either in follow-ups of a Q-fever epidemic connected with goats imported from Bulgaria and other previous Q-fever outbreaks or in a serologic survey. Serologic diagnosis as well as control and prevention of Q fever are discussed. PMID:10341175

  10. Research of Rainwater Infiltration in Eastern Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudáková, Gabriela; Zeleňáková, Martina; Tometz, Ladislav

    2015-11-01

    Today precipitation water in the majority of built up and other sealed surface areas no longer reach the water circulation system via natural routes. This can lead to long-term changes to the soil and water resources, reduce the natural local regeneration of the groundwater and have effects on the chemical and biological conditions above and below the ground surface. Reasonable rainwater management leads to maintain or recover a sound and sustainable water cycle. The purpose of this paper is to present objectives and monitoring of a drainage project in Eastern Slovakia, in Kosice city. The paper focuses on percolation facilities in the research area of campus of Technical University and measurements connected with rainwater infiltration.

  11. Transformation of the Adult Education System in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švec, Štefan

    1998-07-01

    This article examines trends in adult education in Slovakia since it became a separate republic in 1993. Economic and social transformations during this period have led to a re-thinking of the adult education system. The author describes four basic modalities for providing adult education in Slovakia: (1) schools and colleges; (2) cultural centres and similar institutions; (3) institutions for vocational training; (4) voluntary organizations such as trade unions, political parties and ethnic minority groups.

  12. Astronomy Education and Popularization in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanackovic, O.

    2013-05-01

    Astronomy education at all levels (elementary and secondary schools, universities) in Serbia is reviewed. The attempts to introduce astronomy as an elective course in elementary schools and to reintroduce astronomy as a separate subject in secondary schools are discussed. The role of the Petnica Science Center is briefly described, as well as the participation of the Serbian team in the International Astronomy Olympiads. A special emphasis is put on recent changes introduced in the accredited study programs at all five Serbian state universities. The research projects performed in two main astronomical institutions in Serbia are outlined. The numerous amateur astronomical societies in Serbia are presented and their growing activities summarized.

  13. Human Trichinella infection outbreaks in Slovakia, 1980-2008.

    PubMed

    Dubinský, Pavol; Antolová, Daniela; Reiterová, Katarína

    2016-06-01

    Trichinellosis, a parasitic zoonosis with world-wide distribution, causes serious health problems in humans and is also of economic importance. In Slovakia the most frequent species is T. britovi, causing disease mainly in wild life species. T. spiralis occurs less frequently and T. pseudospiralis only sporadically. The paper describes the epidemiology of six human Trichinella infection outbreaks recorded in Slovakia between 1980 and 2008. Before 1990 wild boar meat was the main source of infection. Later, risk farm practices, especially feeding of pigs with the wild animal´s offal contributed to the formation of synanthropic cycle and pig meat caused the epidemics in 1990, 2001 and 2008. Sausages prepared from pork and T. britovi infected dog meat and offered as a local food specialty on traditional folk festival in 1998 (Brezno district, Central Slovakia) were the source of the largest human outbreak recorded in Slovakia. The anti-Trichinella antibodies were detected in 336 event visitors. The main reason of repeated human epidemics in Slovakia has been the permanent circulation of Trichinella spp. in sylvatic cycle, especially in red foxes and wild boars. High population density of both animal species, persistent prevalence of trichinellosis in wild boars and even increasing positivity of red foxes suggest that the risk of human outbreaks in Slovakia persists. PMID:27078642

  14. [Intestinal parasitic infections in Serbia].

    PubMed

    Nikolić, A; Djurković-Djaković, O; Bobić, B

    1998-01-01

    To determine the public health significance of intestinal parasitism in Serbia today, systematic parasitologic examination of 16 regions (Kragujevac, Luchani, Zhagubica, Bor, Sjenica, Novi Pazar, Valjevo, Aleksandrovac, Pirot, Bosilegrad, Ivanjica, Golubac, Uzhice, Kladovo, Negotin, Beograd) in central Serbia were carried out over the period 1984-1993. The study involved a total of 5981 schoolchildren (2887 F, 3094 M), 7-11 years old representing 10% of the total age-matched population (N = 58,228) of the examined regions, residing in 91 settlements. Field parasitological examinations included the examination of perianal swabs for E. vermicularis and Taenia sp., and examination of a single feces sample by direct saline smear and Lugol stained smear for intestinal protozoa, and the Kato and Lörincz methods for intestinal helminths. Nine species of intestinal parasites were detected, of which five protozoan: Entamoeba histolytica (0.02%), Entamoeba hartmanni (0.02%), Entamoeba coli (1.3%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (0.02%), Giardia lamblia (6.8%), and four helminthic: Hymenolepis nana (0.06%), Enterobius vermicularis (14.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (3.3%), Trichuris trichiura (1.8%). The overall prevalence of intestinal parasite infections amounted to 24.6% (1207/4913), with a highly significant difference (p < 0.001) between particular sites (range 14.4%-43.8%) (Figure 1). Helminthic infections (810) were significantly more frequent (p < 0.001) as compared to both protozoan (296) and combined helminthic-protozoan infections (101). Of these, two species (G. lamblia, E. vermicularis) were found in all examined regions, three (E. coli, A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura) were detected in two or more, while four species (E. histolytica, E. hartmanni, I. bütschlii, H. nana) were each found in a single region (Figure 2). The predominant species (E. coli, G. lamblia, E. vermicularis, A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura) were distributed at considerably different prevalence rates, with a

  15. Tritium Measurements in Slovenia - Chronology Till 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Logar, Jasmina Kozar; Vaupotic, Janja; Kobal, Ivan

    2005-07-15

    Almost all the analyses of tritium in Slovenia have been performed by the tritium laboratory at the Jozef Stefan Institute. Nearly 90 % of its measurements have been covered by two national programs, both approved by the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration: the radioactive monitoring program in the environs of Krsko Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP) and the program of global radioactive contamination monitoring in the environment. These programs include samples of groundwaters, surface waters, precipitation and drinking waters, as well as liquid and gaseous effluents from KNPP. Tritium was determined in some research projects and in hydrological studies of thermal waters, groundwater and coalmine waters. Tritium in the Karst region was mapped as well as the springs of entire territory of Slovenia. Around 5500 samples have been analyzed up to 2004.

  16. Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist

    PubMed Central

    Kostanjšek, Rok; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The research of the spider fauna of Slovenia dates back to the very beginning of binomial nomenclature, and has gone through more and less prolific phases with authors concentrating on taxonomy, faunistics, ecology and zoogeographic reviews. Although the body of published works is remarkable for a small nation, the faunistic data has remained too scattered for a thorough understanding of regional biotic diversity, for comparative and ecological research, and for informed conservation purposes. A national checklist is long overdue. Here, a critical review of all published records in any language is provided. The species list currently comprises 738 species, is published online at http://www.bioportal.si/katalog/araneae.php under the title Araneae Sloveniae, and will be updated in due course. This tool will fill the void in cataloguing regional spider faunas and will facilitate further araneological research in central and southern Europe. PMID:25632258

  17. Brief history of medicine in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Slavec, Z Z; Kocijancic, M

    1997-12-01

    Slovenes have lived in the territory of today's Slovenia for more than 14 centuries, whilst the history of its medical culture goes back for 2000 years. The advent of Christianity in Slovenia in the eighth century AD marked an important turning point in the development of its medicine. The 500 years of the Habsburg monarchy was later to have a further impact on the development of new medical ideas. During the Renaissance, the names of the Slovene doctors Mattioli, Paracelsus, Scopoli and Hacquet, who worked among Slovenians, were to become known all over Europe. Others of Slovene origin were Perlach, Santorio, Gerbezius, Carbonarius, Plenciz, and Sagar, whose work influenced European medical culture, especially in German speaking countries. However their Slovene nationality was not acknowledged until the second half of the 19th century. PMID:11619881

  18. Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist.

    PubMed

    Kostanjšek, Rok; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2015-01-01

    The research of the spider fauna of Slovenia dates back to the very beginning of binomial nomenclature, and has gone through more and less prolific phases with authors concentrating on taxonomy, faunistics, ecology and zoogeographic reviews. Although the body of published works is remarkable for a small nation, the faunistic data has remained too scattered for a thorough understanding of regional biotic diversity, for comparative and ecological research, and for informed conservation purposes. A national checklist is long overdue. Here, a critical review of all published records in any language is provided. The species list currently comprises 738 species, is published online at http://www.bioportal.si/katalog/araneae.php under the title Araneae Sloveniae, and will be updated in due course. This tool will fill the void in cataloguing regional spider faunas and will facilitate further araneological research in central and southern Europe. PMID:25632258

  19. Flood Warning and Forecasting System in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leskova, Danica

    2016-04-01

    In 2015, it finished project Flood Warning and Forecasting System (POVAPSYS) as part of the flood protection in Slovakia till 2010. The aim was to build POVAPSYS integrated computerized flood forecasting and warning system. It took a qualitatively higher level of output meteorological and hydrological services in case of floods affecting large territorial units, as well as local flood events. It is further unfolding demands on performance and coordination of meteorological and hydrological services, troubleshooting observation, evaluation of data, fast communication, modeling and forecasting of meteorological and hydrological processes. Integration of all information entering and exiting to and from the project POVAPSYS provides Hydrological Flood Forecasting System (HYPOS). The system provides information on the current hydrometeorological situation and its evolution with the generation of alerts and notifications in case of exceeding predefined thresholds. HYPOS's functioning of the system requires flawless operability in critical situations while minimizing the loss of its key parts. HYPOS is a core part of the project POVAPSYS, it is a comprehensive software solutions based on a modular principle, providing data and processed information including alarms, in real time. In order to achieve full functionality of the system, in proposal, we have put emphasis on reliability, robustness, availability and security.

  20. FSU/Eastern Europe: Russia spearheads small upturn

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The paper discusses the political and legal scene in Russia, domestic restructuring, exploration, drilling, development by Western companies and by Russian companies, and production. Exploration and development in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Serbia are also discussed.

  1. Art Museum Education in Transition: Moderna Galerija in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeleznik, Adela

    2012-01-01

    This essay examines the educational practices at the Moderna galerija, a national museum of modern and contemporary art in Ljubljana, Slovenia, in the last twenty years. Its aim is to reflect on the museum education in relation to broader historical context, of the former Yugoslavia (the country Slovenia was a part of until 1991) and discuss how…

  2. Development of the mitigation plan for Slovakia energy sector

    SciTech Connect

    Mojik, I.

    1996-12-31

    According to the review of national communications from Annex I countries (FCCC/AGBM/1996/7), Slovakia is in 21st place among countries in descending order of GHG emissions. With respect to GHG emission per capita Slovakia is in 14th place and from the point of view of GHG emissions per GDP unit Slovakia is in 7th place. However, within world wide GHG emissions those originating from Slovakia are nearly negligible, but GHG emissions related to per capita or even to GDP are significantly high. Since energy production is responsible for more than 70% of GHG emissions (88% of CO{sub 2} emission) the high ranking of Slovakia is evidence of the high energy intensity of the Slovak Economy. As is common in countries with economies in transition there is no stable trend in macroeconomical values in Slovakia. Although the general shape of possible development curves is known, in fact the exact level of the real curve is not predictable. According to their analyses the Slovak Republic surely will meet the basic UN FCCC obligation for Annex I countries, i.e. to limit anthropogenic emissions of GHG in the year 2000 to the level of 1990. However, the above mentioned uncertainties are the main reason why they have no firm guaranty of fulfilling their domestic target (20% CO{sub 2} reduction in 2005 compared to 1988). Analyses made within the Country Study program have indicated that there is good possibility of reaching the domestic target but uncertainty is high and certain conditions have to be met.

  3. Complex Logistics Strategy for Industrial Companies in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horňáková, Natália; Hudák, Ján; Vidová, Helena

    2014-12-01

    Presented paper is a part of the dissertation thesis titled as "A proposal to develop Complex Logistics Strategy for industrial companies. The result of the thesis will be a methodology for developing a Complex Logistics Strategy for industrial companies in Slovakia. The main aim of the paper is to present some trends and strategies in Logistics and clarify the need of resolving the issue of Logistics Strategy based on the theoretical knowledge, case studies and analysis of current state of Logistics Strategies in industrial companies in Slovakia and other European countries.

  4. Imported parasitic infections in Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Dakić, Z.; Nikolić, A.; Lavadinović, L.; Pelemiš, M.; Klun, I.; Dulović, O.; Milošević, B.; Stevanović, G.; Ofori-Belić, I.; Poluga, J.; Pavlović, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Travel to the tropics is associated with a risk of parasitic infection, which is increasing in parallel with the rise in travel to these areas. We thus examined the prevalence and trend in the occurrence of parasitic infections in Serbian travelers. Methods A retrospective analysis of the medical records of all travelers returning from tropical and subtropical areas, who presented at the Institute for Infectious and Tropical Diseases in Belgrade between January 2001 and January 2008, was performed. Results Of a total of 2440 travelers, 169 (6.9%) were diagnosed with a parasitic infection, including malaria in 79, intestinal parasites in 84 (pathogenic species in 30 and non-pathogenic in 54), filariasis in four, and visceral leishmaniasis and fascioliasis in one patient each. Importantly, of the whole series only 583 (23.9%) were symptomatic, of which 19.4% were found to be infected with a parasite. The single pathogenic parasite occurring in asymptomatic patients was Giardia intestinalis. Conclusions Parasitic infection causing symptomatic disease among travelers returning from tropical areas to Serbia is not infrequent. In view of the expected increase in travel to the tropics, diagnostic protocols for tropical parasitic diseases should take these data into account. PMID:24466436

  5. The Miocene rodents of Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovic, Z.

    2009-04-01

    During the Miocene period a group of shallow lakes was created in depressions at the territory of present-day Serbia. This caused the present wide distribution of lacustrine sediments, which occasionally alternate with the alluvial and marsh sediments. The remains of large mammals are relatively common, while the remains of small mammals used to be known only from two localities - Mala Miliva and Sibnica. The method of sediment sieving, used during the last decade, led to discovery of 6 new localities with remains of fossil vertebrates - Sibnica 1, Vračevići, village Lazarevac, Bele Vode, Brajkovac and Tavnik. Most of the fossil material is represented by osteological and odontological remains of small mammals. The best represented group of small mammals at each of the localities was the rodents. According to the odontological material presence was proven for 35 rodent species from 6 families. MN zonation was determined according to structure of associations. The geological age of fossil-bearing sediments was determined by using the method of correlation with the sites in Europe and Turkey.

  6. Information system of mineral deposits in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hribernik, K.; Rokavec, D.; Šinigioj, J.; Šolar, S.

    2010-03-01

    At the Geologic Survey of Slovenia the need for complex overview and control of the deposits of available non-metallic mineral raw materials and of their exploitations became urgent. In the framework of the Geologic Information System we established the Database of non-metallic mineral deposits comprising all important data of deposits and concessionars. Relational database is built with program package MS Access, but in year 2008 we plan to transfer it on SQL server. In the evidence there is 272 deposits and 200 concessionars. The mineral resources information system of Slovenia, which was started back in 2002, consists of two integrated parts, mentioned relational database of mineral deposits, which relates information in tabular way so that rules of relational algebra can be applied, and geographic information system (GIS), which relates spatial information of deposits. . The complex relationships between objects and the concepts of normalized data structures, lead to the practical informative and useful data model, transparent to the user and to better decision-making by allowing future scenarios to be developed and inspected. Computerized storage, and display system is as already said, developed and managed under the support of Geological Survey of Slovenia, which conducts research on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources in order to help the Nation make informed decisions using earth-science information. Information about deposit is stored in records in approximately hundred data fields. A numeric record number uniquely identifies each site. The data fields are grouped under principal categories. Each record comprise elementary data of deposit (name, type, location, prospect, rock), administrative data (concessionar, number of decree in official paper, object of decree, number of contract and its duration) and data of mineral resource produced amount and size of exploration area). The data can also be searched, sorted and

  7. Taphonomy and diversity of Middle Miocene decapod crustaceans from the Novohrad-Nógrad Basin, Slovakia, with remarks on palaeobiography

    PubMed Central

    Hyžný, Matúš; Hudáčková, Natália; Szalma, Štefan

    2016-01-01

    Decapod crustacean assemblages from the Middle Miocene (lower ‘Badenian’=Langhian) volcanoclastic Plášťovce Beds (Sebechleby Formation) in the Slovakian part of the Novohrad-Nógrad Basin comprise five species in five families (Callianassidae, Laomediidae, Munididae, Cancridae and Retroplumidae) and are dominated by the cancrid crab Tasadia carniolica (Bittner, 1884). Munida sp. constitutes the first record of this genus from Slovakia and the second from the European Neogene. Burrowing shrimp (Jaxea kuemeli Bachmayer, 1954) are associated with burrows tentatively attributed to this species. The occurrence of Retropluma slovenica Gašparič & Hyžný, 2014, previously recorded from the Lower Miocene of Slovenia, extends both the geographical distribution and stratigraphical range of the species. Differential decapod diversity at four localities in the Plášťovce area can be explained by collecting bias and palaeoenvironmental factors. The palaeosetting is interpreted as a muddy-bottom, nearshore zone with a water depth of approximately 100 m. Abundant articulated crabs suggest rapid burial. Third maxillipeds in open posture in some specimens may indicate respiratory stress of the animals, suggesting episodic events of rapid volcanoclastic flows responsible for killing crabs and promoting their preservation. Species composition of the decapod fauna of the Plášťovce Beds further strengthens similarities with Miocene faunas from the North Sea Basin. PMID:27499675

  8. Rickettsia species in fleas collected from small mammals in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Špitalská, Eva; Boldiš, Vojtech; Mošanský, Ladislav; Sparagano, Olivier; Stanko, Michal

    2015-11-01

    Epidemiological and epizootiological studies of Rickettsia felis and other Rickettsia spp. are very important, because their natural cycle has not yet been established completely. In total, 315 fleas (Siphonaptera) of 11 species of Ceratophyllidae, Hystrichopsyllidae and Leptopsyllidae families were tested for the presence of Rickettsia species and Coxiella burnetii with conventional and specific quantitative real-time PCR assays. Fleas were collected from five rodent hosts (Myodes glareolus, Apodemus flavicollis, Apodemus agrarius, Microtus subterraneus, Microtus arvalis) and three shrew species (Sorex araneus, Neomys fodiens, Crocidura suaveolens) captured in Eastern and Southern Slovakia. Overall, Rickettsia spp. was found in 10.8% (34/315) of the tested fleas of Ctenophthalmus agyrtes, Ctenophthalmus solutus, Ctenophthalmus uncinatus and Nosopsyllus fasciatus species. Infected fleas were coming from A. flavicollis, A. agrarius, and M. glareolus captured in Eastern Slovakia. C. burnetii was not found in any fleas. R. felis, Rickettsia helvetica, unidentified Rickettsia, and rickettsial endosymbionts were identified in fleas infesting small mammals in the Košice region, Eastern Slovakia. This study is the first report of R. felis infection in C. solutus male flea collected from A. agrarius in Slovakia. PMID:26346455

  9. Stigma and Roma Education Policy Reform in Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New, William

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses reform of Roma education in Slovakia against the backdrop of continued stigmatization of Roma students. Transnational NGOs and IGOs promote rights-based solutions leading to the fullest possible inclusion of Roma students in mainstream education. The Slovak state promotes educational policies that lead to the fullest…

  10. 15 CFR 742.4 - National security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia for all..., Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South...

  11. 15 CFR 742.4 - National security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia for all..., Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South...

  12. 15 CFR 742.4 - National security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia for all..., Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South...

  13. Management of small producers waste in Slovenia

    SciTech Connect

    Fabjan, Marija; Rojc, Joze

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Radioactive materials are extensively used in Slovenia in various fields and applications in medicine, industry and research. For the managing of radioactive waste raised from these establishments the Agency for radwaste management (ARAO) was authorised as the state public service of managing the radioactive waste in 1999. The public service of the radioactive waste of small producers in Slovenia is performed in line with the Governmental decree on the Mode, Subject and Terms of Performing the Public Service of Radioactive Waste Management (Official Gazette RS No. 32/99). According to the Decree the scope of the public service includes: 'collection of the waste from small producers at the producers' premises and its transportation to the storage facility for treatment, storing and disposal', 'acceptance of radioactive waste in case of emergency situation on the premises, in case of transport accidents or some other accidents', 'acceptance of radioactive waste in cases when the producer is unknown', 'management (collection, transport, pre-treatment, storing, together with QA and radiation protection measures) of radioactive waste', 'treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste for storing and disposal', and 'operating of the Central Interim Storage for LIL waste from small producers'. After taking over the performing of the public service, ARAO first started with the project for refurbishment and modernization of the Central Interim Storage Facility, including improvements of the storage utilization and rearrangement of the stored waste. (authors)

  14. Mycobacterium spp. in wild game in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Pate, Mateja; Zajc, Urška; Kušar, Darja; Žele, Diana; Vengušt, Gorazd; Pirš, Tina; Ocepek, Matjaž

    2016-02-01

    Wildlife species are an important reservoir of mycobacterial infections that may jeopardise efforts to control and eradicate bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis. Slovenia is officially free of bTB, but no data on the presence of mycobacteria in wild animals has been reported. In this study, samples of liver and lymph nodes were examined from 306 apparently healthy free-range wild animals of 13 species in Slovenia belonging to the families Cervidae, Suidae, Canidae, Mustelidae and Bovidae. Mycobacteria were isolated from 36/306 (11.8%) animals (red deer, roe deer, fallow deer, wild boar and jackal) and identified by PCR, commercial diagnostic kits and sequencing. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria identified in five species were Mycobacterium peregrinum, M. avium subsp. hominissuis, M. intracellulare, M. confluentis, M. fortuitum, M. terrae, M. avium subsp. avium, M. celatum, M. engbaekii, M. neoaurum, M. nonchromogenicum and M. vaccae. PMID:26639827

  15. Inclusive Education--Empirical Experience from Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacevic, Jasmina; Macesic-Petrovic, Dragana

    2012-01-01

    This descriptive study finds out the problems most frequently facing the children with special needs in regular schooling. The sample included 500 teachers in elementary schools from Serbia. The results point out the problems in inclusive education. Most educational problems occur in relations and communications with their peers in typical…

  16. Differential Selection into Secondary Schools in Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baucal, Aleksandar; Pavlovic-Babic, Dragica; Willms, J. Douglas

    2006-01-01

    In Serbia there are four levels of education: pre-school (until 7 years of age); primary education consisting of eight grades (ages 7-14); secondary education lasting two, three or four years; and higher education lasting from three to six years. Primary education is compulsory for all children. It consists of two cycles, each lasting four years,…

  17. Macrodebris and microplastics from beaches in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Laglbauer, Betty J L; Franco-Santos, Rita Melo; Andreu-Cazenave, Miguel; Brunelli, Lisa; Papadatou, Maria; Palatinus, Andreja; Grego, Mateja; Deprez, Tim

    2014-12-15

    The amount of marine debris in the environment is increasing worldwide, which results in an array of negative effects to biota. This study provides the first account of macrodebris on the beach and microplastics in the sediment (shoreline and infralittoral) in relation to tourism activities in Slovenia. The study assessed the quality and quantity of macrodebris and the quality, size and quantity of microplastics at six beaches, contrasting those under the influences of tourism and those that were not. Beach cleanliness was estimated using the Clean Coast Index. Tourism did not seem to have an effect on macrodebris or microplastic quantity at beaches. Over 64% of macrodebris was plastic, and microplastics were ubiquitous, which calls for classification of plastics as hazardous materials. Standard measures for marine debris assessment are needed, especially in the form of an all-encompassing debris index. Recommendations for future assessments are provided for the Adriatic region. PMID:25440193

  18. Checklist of water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha, Gerromorpha) of Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Klementová, Barbora Reduciendo; Kment, Petr; Svitok, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The water bugs represent a significant component of the freshwater biota, play an important role in trophic webs, and may have considerable economic importance. Nevertheless, systematic research of this group has been underdeveloped in Slovakia (central Europe) for decades. This work presents a list of water bug species of Slovakia based on an exhaustive review of the literature (time span: 1808-2013) and on more than 14,000 individuals collected during extensive field campaigns (2010-2014) or obtained from insect collections. Fifty-six species belonging to 11 families of Heteroptera were recorded from a total of 767 sites. Seven species were recorded for the first time from Slovakia during our research. Among those, the first exact records of Corixa panzeri Fieber, 1848, Sigara (Subsigara) distincta (Fieber, 1848), Notonecta (Notonecta) lutea Müller, 1776, Notonecta (Notonecta) maculata Fabricius, 1794 and Microvelia (Microvelia) buenoi Drake, 1920 are provided here. Confusion concerning the records of two additional species, Arctocorisa carinata carinata (C. R. Sahlberg, 1819) and Hesperocorixa parallela (Fieber, 1860) is clarified. The water bugs species inventory appears to be nearly complete (~97 %) given an asymptotic richness estimate. The occurrence of other species is discussed taking into account their habitat requirements and distribution in neighbouring countries. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:26701521

  19. Hepatozoon canis infection in Slovakia: imported or autochthonous?

    PubMed

    Majláthová, Viktória; Hurníková, Zuzana; Majláth, Igor; Petko, Branislav

    2007-01-01

    Tissue samples from nine red foxes (four samples of striated muscle tissue and five samples of heart tissue) that originated from the Michalovce district (Slovakia), an area with endemic occurrence of canine babesiosis were examined by PCR method using primers amplifying a fragment of the 18S rRNA spanning the V4 region of Babesia and Theileria. An unexpected determination of 450 bp DNA fragment of Hepatozoon canis was found in four samples. Partial sequences of the 18S rRNA gene from the H. canis showed 100% similarity with the sequence from Brasil isolate of H. canis from a pampas fox (Pseudalopex gymnocercus) (AY471615) as well as from a fox in Spain (AY150067) and from a dog in Brazil (AY864677). In the present study, we report the first PCR detection of Hepatozoon canis in a naturally infected red fox from Slovakia, a Rhipicephalus sanguineus-free region. We assume that the infection was spread by infected R. sanguineus that might have been brought to Slovakia by travelers, by golden jackals, or by foxes migrating because of expansion of golden jackals and environmental and climate changes. PMID:17627439

  20. Radio Astronomy in Serbia: A Short Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urosevic, D.

    In this lecture, I presented a short review of: 1. the brief history of development of radio astronomy in Serbia, and 2. the present state of research and university teaching in Serbia on this interesting and modern field of astronomy. Since 1970's, the continuum observations at the lowest radio frequencies (e.g. 38 MHz) and the Galactic radio loops have been represented the topics of main research interest for the first radio astronomer in Serbia, prof. dr Jelena Milogradov-Turin. In 1983, she introduced Radio astronomy as two semester course at 4th year of studies at Department of astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade. In this moment we have radio astronomy group with 5 (mainly younger) researchers from Department of Astronomy and Belgrade Astronomical Observatory. The main fields of research interest are, as a part of tradition, the Galactic radio loops and additionally, the hydrodynamic and radio evolution of supernova remnants. Our future projects will be connected with radio evolution of nova remnants and planetary nebulae.

  1. Landsliding, topographic variables and location of cultural terraces in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komac, Blaž; Zorn, Matija

    2015-04-01

    For a large number of people living in hilly regions of Slovenia cultural terraces are important landscape elements. We know from previous studies that as many as half of vineyard terraces are built in areas which are highly susceptible to landslides, and a quarter in low landslide susceptibility areas. The contribution will present links between landslide susceptibility in terraced areas in Slovenia. Landslides are frequent element of cultural terraces-landscape. In Slovenia they are frequent in hilly and mountainous regions. The position of landslide areas is strongly influenced by the topography and thus indirectly by the construction of cultural terraces. They trigger during and after terraces construction when the drainage system is altered. Thus, agricultural activity leads to instability of slopes, and increases the production costs. Links between landsliding (Zorn and Komac 2004; 2008; 2009) and cultural terraces were determined using the geographic information systems. For the territory of Slovenia, we have already created landslide susceptibility map (Zorn and Komac 2004; 2008), while here we determined the correlation between landslides, topographic variables and location of cultural terraces. To achieve this aim, all areas of cultural terraces in Slovenia were digitized at the scale of 1:10,000. References Zorn, M., Komac B. 2004: Deterministic modeling of landslide and rockfall risk. Acta geographica Slovenica 44 (2), pp. 53-10. DOI: 10.3986/AGS44203 Zorn, M., Komac, B. 2008: Zemeljski plazovi v Sloveniji (Landslides in Slovenia). Georitem 8. Ljubljana: ZRC Publishing. Zorn, M., Komac, B. 2009: The importance of landsliding in a flysch geomorphic system: The example of the Gori\\vska brda Hills (W Slovenia). Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie N. F., Suppl. 56 (3), pp. 53-79. DOI: 10.1127/0372-8854/2012/S-00104

  2. Statistical Analysis of Streamflow Trends in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurko, M.; Kobold, M.; Mikoš, M.

    2009-04-01

    According to climate change, trends of river discharges were analyzed showing the hydrological change and future projections of hydrological behaviour in Slovenia. In last years droughts and floods are becoming more and more frequent. In the statistical analysis of streamflow trends of Slovenian rivers, available data on the low, mean and high discharges were examined using mean daily discharges and the Hydrospect software, which was developed under the auspices of WMO for detecting changes in hydrological data (Kundzewicz and Robson, 2000). The Mann-Kendall test was applied for the estimation of trends in the river flow index series. Trend analysis requires long records of observation to distinguish climate change-induced trends from climate variability. The problems of missing values, seasonal and other short-term fluctuations or anthropogenic impacts and lack of homogeneity of data due to the changes in instruments and observation techniques are frequently present in existing hydrological data sets. Therefore the analysis was carried out for 77 water gauging stations representatively distributed across Slovenia with sufficiently long and reliable continuous data sets. The average length of the data sets from the selected water gauging stations is about 50 years. Different indices were used to assess the temporal variation of discharges: annual mean daily discharge, annual maximum daily discharge, two magnitude and frequency series by peak-over-threshold (POT) approach (POT1 and POT3), and two low flow indices describing the different duration of low flows (7 and 30 days). The clustering method was used to classify the results of trends into groups. The assumption of a general decrease of water quantities in Slovenian rivers was confirmed. The annual mean daily discharges of the analyzed water gauging stations show a significant negative trend for the majority of the stations. Similar results with lower statistical significance show annual minimum 7-day and 30

  3. Modernisation of Vocational Education and Training in Slovenia. National Observatory Country Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerzina, Suzana; Vranjes, Petra; Cek, Mojca

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, Slovenia has been catching up with other developed market economies. The economic situation has improved; the unemployment rate has declined. Slovenia's criticism of the 1980s educational reform carried out in Yugoslavia (which included Slovenia until 1991) and continued discussion have led to design of a new…

  4. The Interpretation and Implementation of the Bologna Process in Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Despotovic, Miomir

    2011-01-01

    This paper neither attacks nor defends the Bologna Declaration; rather, it attempts a critical assessment of its implementation in Serbia. Review of the available data shows that the higher education system in Serbia is inefficient and in profound need of reform. Analysis of some of the reform processes shows that the Bologna Declaration as a…

  5. 31 CFR 586.304 - Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia & Montenegro); FRY (S&M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Serbia & Montenegro); FRY (S&M). 586.304 Section 586.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia & Montenegro); FRY (S&M). The term Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia & Montenegro) or FRY (S&M) means the territory of the Republics of Serbia and Montenegro....

  6. 31 CFR 585.313 - Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro); FRY (S&M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Serbia and Montenegro); FRY (S&M). 585.313 Section 585.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro); FRY (S&M). The term Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) or FRY (S&M) means the territory of Serbia and Montenegro....

  7. 31 CFR 586.308 - Government of the Republic of Serbia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Government of the Republic of Serbia... (SERBIA & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.308 Government of the Republic of Serbia. The term Government of the Republic of Serbia means the government of the Republic...

  8. Varicella susceptibility and transmission dynamics in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A cross-sectional, age-stratified study was conducted to determine varicella-zoster seroprevalence and force of infection in Slovenia. Methods 3689 serum samples were tested for VZV IgG antibodies with an enzyme immunoassay. Semiparametric and parametric modelling were used to estimate the force of infection. Results Overall, 85.6% of serum samples were seropositive. Age-specific prevalence rose rapidly in preschool children and over 90% of 8 years old tested positive for VZV. However, 2.8% of serum samples among women of childbearing age were seronegative. Semiparametric modelling yielded force of infection estimates of 0.182 (95% CI 0.158-0.206), 0.367 (95% CI 0.285-0.448) and 0.008 (95% CI 0.0-0.032) for age groups 0.5- < 6, 6-11 and ≥12 years, respectively, and 0.175 (95% CI 0.147-0.202), 0.391 (95% CI 0.303-0.480) and 0.025 (95% CI 0.003-0.046) for age groups 0.5- < 5, 5-9 and ≥10 years, respectively. Conclusions Regardless of the age grouping used, the highest transmission occurred in children in their first years of school. PMID:20573202

  9. Environmental analyse of soil organic carbon stock changes in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koco, Š.; Barančíková, G.; Skalský, R.; Tarasovičová, Z.; Gutteková, M.; Halas, J.; Makovníková, J.; Novákova, M.

    2012-04-01

    The content and quality of soil organic matter is one of the basic soil parameters on which soil production functioning depends as well as it is active in non production soil functions like an ecological one especially. Morphologic segmentation of Slovakia has significant influence of structure in using agricultural soil in specific areas of our territory. Also social changes of early 90´s of 20´th century made their impact on change of using of agricultural soil (transformation from large farms to smaller ones, decreasing the number of livestock). This research is studying changes of development of soil organic carbon stock (SOC) in agricultural soil of Slovakia as results of climatic as well as social and political changes which influenced agricultury since last 40 years. The main goal of this research is an analysis of soil organic carbon stock since 1970 until now at specific agroclimatic regions of Slovakia and statistic analysis of relation between modelled data of SOC stock and soil quality index value. Changes of SOC stock were evaluated on the basis SOC content modeling using RothC-26.3 model. From modeling of SOC stock results the outcome is that in that time the soil organic carbon stock was growing until middle 90´s years of 20´th century with the highest value in 1994. Since that year until new millennium SOC stock is slightly decreasing. After 2000 has slightly increased SOC stock so far. According to soil management SOC stock development on arable land is similar to overall evolution. In case of grasslands after slight growth of SOC stock since 1990 the stock is in decline. This development is result of transformational changes after 1989 which were specific at decreasing amount of organic carbon input from organic manure at grassland areas especially. At warmer agroclimatic regions where mollic fluvisols and chernozems are present and where are soils with good quality and steady soil organic matter (SOM) the amount of SOC in monitored time is

  10. Early medieval coinage in the territory of Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šmit, Ž.; Šemrov, A.

    2006-11-01

    Silver coins minted in the territory of present Slovenia and neighboring countries Italy and Austria between the 12th and 14th century were analyzed by PIXE. Gold and bismuth were found as predominant impurities, which allowed distribution of coins into two groups. Coins with the predominant Bi impurity were minted from silver that was very likely mined in Carinthia and diffusion of this type of silver towards the mints in eastern Slovenia was observed. This finding confirms the historical hypothesis that silver currency in this period was largely produced for the trade with the east.

  11. The Research of Historical Trusses in Northern Regions of Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenková, Renáta; Krušinský, Peter

    2014-06-01

    The blanket research of historical trusses in the territory of Slovakia has been running at our department since 2008. This research is done as teamwork in cooperation with experts from the field of conservation, and it is mainly focused on typology, construction, and the current technical and constructional state of investigated trusses. The long-time support of the grant scheme from the Ministry of Culture allows to get a fair amount of different data related to individual buildings and structures, which enables to carry out the in-depth research. In terms of their conservation and maintenance with an effort to extend their lifetime (the oldest known historical trusses in Slovakia are those of the 13th century), it is necessary to look into the microclimate impact of the under-roof space on wooden roof structures as well as to monitor the contemporary constructional and technical condition of a roof structure itself. The suitable microclimate in the under-roof space is influenced by a number of marginal conditions, constructional solutions of roof details, proper space ventilation etc

  12. Roman mystery iron blades from Serbia

    SciTech Connect

    Balos, Sebastian; Benscoter, Arlan; Pense, Alan

    2009-04-15

    A First to Forth Century Roman spear blade from Serbia was found to have an unusual microstructure inconsistent with typical Roman Period iron. An analysis of the blade undertaken at Lehigh University in the US and at the Faculty of Technical Sciences in Novi Sad, Serbia established that it was metallic in appearance, magnetic and had an external layer of red rust. But as metallographically polished, it appeared to contain multiple internal phases and internal cracking. Even after aggressive etching, no typical low carbon microstructure was developed. Scanning electron microscopy, classical and energy dispersive X-ray analysis indicated that the specimen was essentially iron, although its microhardness was too high for typical Roman iron. It was then dubbed 'Mystery Iron.' Analysis of all the data led to the proposal that it was essentially a Roman iron 'fossil' in which the iron had been converted to high temperature iron oxide while retaining the form of the blade, conversion probably occurring in a fire. Subsequent X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the blade consisted of FeO and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and the mystery of the iron fossil was at least partially solved. A hypothesis is proposed regarding a potential cause for the fire.

  13. Space Radar Image of Belgrade, Serbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image of Belgrade, Serbia, illustrates the variety of land use patterns that can be observed with a multiple wavelength radar system. Belgrade, the capital of Serbia and former capital of Yugoslavia, is the bright area in the center of the image. The Danube River flows from the top to the bottom of the image, and the Sava River flows into the Danube from the left. Agricultural fields appear in shades of dark blue, purple and brown in outlying areas. Vegetated areas along the rivers appear in light blue-green, while dense forests in hillier areas in the lower left appear in a darker shade of green. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 2, 1994. The image is centered at 44.5 degrees north latitude and 20.5 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The image shows an area 36 kilometers by 32 kilometers 22 miles by 20 miles). The colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  14. Students' Readiness for On-Line Distance Education in Slovenia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulcic, Viktorija; Lesjak, Dusan

    Online distance education is being introduced at the Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Maribor (Slovenia) for an e-business course within which an experience about students' acceptability of online distance education was conducted. In spring 2001, an experiment with online materials (in place of regular lectures) for an e-business…

  15. Groundwater Quality in Mura Valley (Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajc Benda, T.; Souvent, P.; Bračič Železnik, B.; Čenčur Curk, B.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater quality is one of the most important parameters in drinking water supply management. For safe drinking water supply, the quality of groundwater in the water wells on the recharge area has to be controlled. Groundwater quality data will be presented for one test area in the SEE project CC-WaterS (Climate Change and Impacts on Water Supply) Mura valley, which lies in the northeastern part of Slovenia. The Mura valley is a part of the Pannonian basin tectonic unit, which is filled with Tertiary and Quaternary gravel and sand sediments. The porous aquifer is 17 m thick in average and recharges from precipitation (70 %) and from surface waters (30 %). The aquifer is the main source of drinking water in the area for almost 53.000 inhabitants. Most of the aquifer lies beneath the agricultural area what represents the risk of groundwater quality. The major groundwater pollutants in the Mura valley are nitrates, atrazine, desethyl-atrazine, trichloroethane and tetrachloroethene. National groundwater quality monitoring is carried out twice a year, so some polluting events could be missed. The nitrate concentrations in the past were up to 140 mg/l. Concentration trends are decreasing and are now below 60 mg/l. Concentrations of atrazine and desethyl-atrazine, are decreasing as well and are below 0,1 µg/l. Trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene were detected downstream of main city in Mura valley, in the maximum concentrations of 280 μg/l in June 2005 (trichloroethene) and 880 μg/l in October 1997 (tetrachloroethene). So, it can be summarized that the trends for most pollutants in the Mura valley are decreasing, what is a good prediction for the future. Input estimation of the total nitrogen (N) (mineral and organic fertilizers) in the Mura valley shows, that the risk of leaching is enlarged in the areas, where the N input is larger than 250 kg/ha, this is at 6,3 % of all agricultural areas. Prediction for the period 2021-2050 indicates that the leaching of N

  16. Slovenia: A Study of the Educational System of the Republic of Slovenia. Working Paper. PIER World Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickey, Karlene N.

    This volume offers a full country study of the structure and content of the educational system of Slovenia, together with a formal set of placement recommendations for admissions officers placing Slovenian students in U.S. higher education institutions. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Overview" (of the Slovenian system); (3) "Preschool…

  17. Suicide prevention program in the Army of Serbia and Montenegro.

    PubMed

    Dedic, Gordana; Gordana, Dedic J; Panic, Milivoje; Milivoje, Panic

    2007-05-01

    Suicide, as one of the greatest problems of maladjustment to the military environment, has been a subject of investigation in the Army of Serbia and Montenegro (former Yugoslav Army) for more than six decades. The Suicide Prevention Program was implemented in December 2003. The aim of the study was to follow-up the application of the Suicide Prevention Program in the Army of Serbia and Montenegro and its effect on the suicide rate and to compare its incidence in civilians. Results of the program application showed that the number of suicides in the Army of Serbia and Montenegro was constantly reducing over the period 2004 to 2005. For soldiers, it was even four times less than in the civilian male population, particularly in the period of adaptation to the military environment. Since the Suicide Prevention Program in the Army of Serbia and Montenegro proved to be successful in decreasing the suicide number, it should be further improved and routinely applied. PMID:17521110

  18. Preliminary list of horse flies (Diptera, Tabanidae) of Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Krčmar, Stjepan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Thirty six species of horse flies (Tabanidae) were previously known from Serbia (Europe). The present faunistic study of horse flies (Tabanidae) has resulted in the recording of the 4 new species Atylotus fulvus (Meigen, 1804); Tabanus miki Brauer in Brauer and Bergenstamm, 1880; Tabanus unifasciatus Loew, 1858; and Heptatoma pellucens (Fabricius, 1776), in the fauna of Serbia. The genus Heptatoma Meigen, 1803 is cited for the first time in the fauna of Serbia. 40 species are currently known from Serbia, belonging to nine genera. The fauna can be considered relatively poorly studied. Most of the species belong to the Boreal-Eurasian type of fauna 23, followed by the South European group with 8 species, the Mediterranean group with 6 species, European group with 2 species and Central European group with 1 species. PMID:21998507

  19. GPR Application for Road Management System in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitonak, Martin; Filipovsky, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Road Management System in Slovakia was established in 1996. Data for database are collected from Falling Weight Deflectometer, Skiddometer and Profilograph from 25 separated sections with average length of 30 km on yearly basis. The focus is especially on roads that have been built before the year 1996. In September 2014 the Slovak Road Administration announced the new project task which involved additional data request such as structure thicknesses, application to determine the thicknesses of bound layers and base layers, rutting analysis, transverse and longitudinal roughness and cross fall, ditch depths, the road width and pavement width. The request for data processing included the interpretation of the data in graphical display. The requested delivery of the final project data was in December 2014. The presentation summarizes the experiences and results of the data collection methods and technologies, data processing and evaluation methods and finally presenting the results. Also key new finding will be presented.

  20. Extreme daily precipitation: the case of Serbia in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tošić, Ivana; Unkašević, Miroslava; Putniković, Suzana

    2016-02-01

    The extreme daily precipitation in Serbia was examined at 16 stations during the period 1961-2014. Two synoptic situations in May and September of 2014 were analysed, when extreme precipitation was recorded in western and eastern Serbia, respectively. The synoptic situation from 14 to 16 May 2014 remained nearly stationary over the western and central Serbia for the entire period. On 15 May 2014, the daily rainfall broke previous historical records in Belgrade (109.8 mm), Valjevo (108.2 mm) and Loznica (110 mm). Precipitation exceeded 200 mm in 72 h, producing the most catastrophic floods in the recent history of Serbia. In Negotin (eastern Serbia), daily precipitation of 161.3 mm was registered on 16 September 2014, which was the maximum value recorded during the period 1961-2014. The daily maximum in 2014 was registered at 6 out of 16 stations. The total annual precipitation for 2014 was the highest for the period 1961-2014 at almost all stations in Serbia. A non-significant positive trend was found for all precipitation indices: annual daily maximum precipitation, the total precipitation in consecutive 3 and 5 days, the total annual precipitation, and number of days with at least 10 and 20 mm of precipitation. The generalised extreme value distribution was fitted to the annual daily maximum precipitation. The estimated 100-year return levels were 123.4 and 147.4 mm for the annual daily maximum precipitation in Belgrade and Negotin, respectively.

  1. Spatio-temporal patterns of precipitation in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gocic, Milan; Trajkovic, Slavisa

    2014-08-01

    The monthly precipitation data from 29 synoptic stations for the period 1946-2012 were analyzed using a number of different multivariate statistical analysis methods to investigate the spatial variability and temporal patterns of precipitation across Serbia. R-mode principal component analysis was used to study the spatial variability of the precipitation. Three distinct sub-regions were identified by applying the agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis to the two component scores: C1 includes the north and the northeast part of Serbia, while C2 includes the western part of Central Serbia and southwestern part of Serbia and C3 includes central, east, south and southeast part of Serbia. The analysis of the identified sub-regions indicated that the monthly and seasonal precipitation in sub-region C2 had the values above average, while C1 and C3 had the precipitation values under average. The analysis of the linear trend of the mean annual precipitation showed an increasing trend for the stations located in Serbia and three sub-regions. From the result of this analysis, one can plan land use, water resources and agricultural production in the region.

  2. Airborne radioiodine in northern Serbia from Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Bikit, Istvan; Mrda, Dusan; Todorovic, Natasa; Nikolov, Jovana; Krmar, Miodrag; Veskovic, Miroslav; Slivka, Jaroslav; Hansman, Jan; Forkapic, Sofija; Jovancevic, Nikola

    2012-12-01

    The results obtained with the monitoring system set up to assess the impact of the Fukushima accident on the environment of Vojvodina (Northern Province of Serbia) are presented and discussed. Aerosol, rain, fresh milk and spinach samples were collected daily in the weeks following the accident. In the aerosol samples, (131)I activity concentrations of several mBq m(-3) were measured, while in rain, milk and spinach samples, (131)I levels had values in a range of (0.3-1.7) Bq kg(-1). These are the first results on the impact of the Fukushima accident on the Pannonian basin region. Our results are compared with the reported values from other parts of the world. PMID:22326020

  3. Canine Babesioses in Noninvestigated Areas of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, Simona; Otašević, Suzana; Ignjatović, Aleksandra; Savić, Sara; Fraulo, Maurizio; Arsić-Arsenijević, Valentina; Momčilović, Stefan; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2015-09-01

    During the years 2012-2014, a total of 158 outdoor dogs from Pančevo and Đurđevo (northern Serbia) and Niš and Prokuplje (southern Serbia) were submitted to molecular analyses (PCR and sequencing) for canine babesioses. An overall prevalence of 21.5% was found, due to the species Babesia sp. 'spanish dog' (10.1%), B. gibsoni (5.7%), B. canis vogeli (1.9%), B. caballi (1.9%), and B. microti (1.9%). In addition, sequence analysis showed the presence of Hepatozoon canis in a dog from Niš. No significant difference between infected and noninfected dogs was found by age, sex, and place of residence, whereas there was difference regarding the presence of ticks (p<0.005) and application of preventive measures such as applying of antitick drugs/devices. Moreover, a significant difference was established by area: Dogs from Prokuplje showed infection rates (59.1%) higher than dogs from Pančevo (11.9%), Niš (4.5), and Đurđevo (where infected dogs were not found), and a different geographical distribution of the species was found. The presence of so many Babesia species and the first identification of H. canis will allow investigations on the pathogenic role played by each one and suggests entomological studies on the tick species that are more suitable vectors for each of them. Finally, the presence of so many infected dogs offers the opportunity of evaluating the hypothesis of a possible zoonotic role of babesial species affecting dogs. PMID:26348245

  4. Biomass in Serbia - potential of beech forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasanac-Bosanac, Lj.; Cirkovic-Mitrovic, T.; Popovic, V.; Jokanovic, D.

    2012-04-01

    As for the renewable sources for energy production, biomass from forests and wood processing industry comes to the second place. The woody biomass accounts for 1.0 Mtoe, that is equivalent with 1.0 Mtoe of oil. Due to current evaluations, the greatest part of woody biomass would be used for briquettes and pallets production. As the biomass from forests is increasingly becoming the interest of national and international market, a detailed research on overall potential of woody supply from Serbian forests is required. Beech forests account for 29.4 % of forest cover of Serbia. They also have the greatest standing volume (42.4 % of the overall standing volume) and the greatest mean annual increment (32.3 %)(Bankovic,et.al.2009). Herewith, the aim of this poster is to determine the long-term biomass production of these forests.For this purpose a management unit called Lomnicka reka has been chosen. As these beech forests have similar structural development, this location is considered representative for whole Serbia. DBH of all trees were measured with clipper and the accuracy of 0.01 mm, and the heights with a Vertex 3 device (with accuracy of 0.1 m). All measurements were performed on the fields each 500 m2 (square meters). The overall quantity of root biomass was calculated using the allometric equations. The poster shows estimated biomass stocks of beech forests located in Rasina area. Dates are evaluated using non-linear regression (Wutzler,T.et.al.2008). Biomass potential of Serbian beech forests will enable the evaluation of long-term potential of energy generation from woody biomass in agreement with principles of sustainable forest management. The biomass from such beech forests can represent an important substitution for energy production from fossil fuels (e.g. oil) and herewith decrease the CO2 emissions.

  5. The Customer Relationship Management in Terms of Business Practice in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urdziková, Jana; Jakábová, Martina; Saniuk, Sebastian

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the article is to present the results of the research on focus on the customer in relation to the use of customer relationship management in selected business subjects in Slovakia. The main goal of the research is the mapping of current state to ensure the principle of customer orientation and utilizing of CRM in organizations and industrial enterprises in Slovakia. This is the mapping of the current situation of that problem in practical conditions and determines potential opportunities for improvement.

  6. Long-term survey on Trichinella prevalence in wildlife of Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Hurníková, Z; Dubinský, P

    2009-02-23

    In Slovakia, monitoring the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in wildlife was performed since 2000 in the main reservoir animals, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and wild boar (Sus scrofa), using artificial digestion method as recommended by International Commission on Trichinellosis. The results of investigation performed in 5270 red foxes showed that Trichinella infection is widespread across Slovakia and prevalence increased significantly from 4.9% in 2000 to 20.5% in 2007. Recently, a higher Trichinella prevalence (0.11%) in wild boars was also demonstrated. The results indicate that foxes and wild boars are involved in the spread of Trichinella, although the latter host species seems to play a secondary role in the maintenance of the sylvatic cycle in Slovakia. Trichinella britovi is the predominant species circulating in Slovakia, both in foxes and wild boars, and Trichinella spiralis occurs only sporadically. Mixed infections of T. britovi and Trichinella pseudospiralis were recorded in 2005 in one wild boar from Eastern Slovakia and in 2006 in one red fox from the same region. These findings are important with respect to an outbreak caused by T. pseudospiralis in a pig farm in the same district 3 years ago. This study provides a complex picture on Trichinella occurrence in all regions of Slovakia and may be a good basis for evaluating the risk of parasite transmission to the domestic cycle and human beings. PMID:19042089

  7. Serbia within the European context: An analysis of premature mortality

    PubMed Central

    Santric Milicevic, Milena; Bjegovic, Vesna; Terzic, Zorica; Vukovic, Dejana; Kocev, Nikola; Marinkovic, Jelena; Vasic, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Background Based on the global predictions majority of deaths will be collectively caused by cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and traffic accidents over the coming 25 years. In planning future national health policy actions, inter – regional assessments play an important role. The purpose of the study was to analyze similarities and differences in premature mortality between Serbia, EURO A, EURO B, and EURO C regions in 2000. Methods Mortality and premature mortality patterns were analysed according to cause of death, by gender and seven age intervals. The study results are presented in relative (%) and absolute terms (age-specific and age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population, and age-standardized rates of years of life lost – YLL per 1,000). Direct standardization of rates was undertaken using the standard population of Europe. The inter-regional comparison was based on a calculation of differences in YLL structures and with a ratio of age-standardized YLL rates per 1,000. A multivariate generalized linear model was used to explore mortality of Serbia and Europe sub-regions with ln age-specific death rates. The dissimilarity was achieved with a p ≤ 0.05. Results According to the mortality pattern, Serbia was similar to EURO B, but with a lower average YLL per death case. YLL patterns indicated similarities between Serbia and EURO A, while SRR YLL had similarities between Serbia and EURO B. Compared to all Europe sub-regions, Serbia had a major excess of premature mortality in neoplasms and diabetes mellitus. Serbia had lost more years of life than EURO A due to cardiovascular, genitourinary diseases, and intentional injuries. Yet, Serbia was not as burdened with communicable diseases and injuries as were EURO B and EURO C. Conclusion With a premature mortality pattern, Serbia is placed in the middle position of the Europe triangle. The main excess of YLL in Serbia was due to cardiovascular, malignant diseases, and diabetes mellitus. The results

  8. Hierarchization and segmentation of informal care markets in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Hrženjak, Majda

    2012-01-01

    The article is the result of qualitative research of informal care markets in Slovenia in the field of childcare, elder care, and cleaning. The author assesses Slovenia's position in the “global care chain” and finds that “local care chains” prevail in the field of childcare and elder care, while a co-occurrence of female gender, “other” ethnicity, and poverty is typical in the field of household cleaning. The main emphasis of the article is on the analysis of hierarchization of the informal market of care work according to following two criteria: social reputation of individual type of care work and citizenship status of care workers. PMID:22611572

  9. Quality assurance of environmental gamma radiation monitoring in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Stuhec, M; Zorko, B; Mitić, D; Miljanić, S; Ranogajec-Komor, M

    2006-01-01

    Environmental gamma radiation monitoring established in Slovenia consists of a network of multifunctional gamma monitors (MFMs) based on pairs of Geiger-Müller counters and a network of measuring sites with high-sensitive thermoluminiscence dosemeters. The measuring points are evenly spread across Slovenia, located at the meteorological stations and more densely on additional locations around the Krsko NPP. The MFM network has a 2-fold function with one sensor used for the purpose of early warning system in near surroundings of the NPP and the other, more sensitive, for natural radiation monitoring. The paper summarises activities to establish quality assurance of the environmental gamma radiation measurements in Slovenia, with a critical view of the results in comparison with the international standards and recommendations. While the results of linearity and energy dependence tests were satisfying, on-field intercomparison showed that the inherent signal of one of the monitors (MFM) has to be taken into account in the range of environmental background radiation. PMID:16410289

  10. 31 CFR 585.418 - Vessels of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). 585.418 Section 585.418 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO) AND BOSNIAN SERB-CONTROLLED AREAS OF THE REPUBLIC OF BOSNIA... Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). Any vessel in which a majority or controlling interest is held by...

  11. The development of nuclear medicine in Slovenia and Ljubljana; half a century of nuclear medicine in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Slavec, Zvonka Zupanic; Gaberscek, Simona; Slavec, Ksenija

    2012-01-01

    Background Nuclear medicine began to be developed in the USA after 1938 when radionuclides were introduced into medicine and in Europe after radionuclides began to be produced at the Harwell reactor (England, 1947). Slovenia began its first investigations in the 1950s. This article describes the development of nuclear medicine in Slovenia and Ljubljana. The first nuclear medicine interventions were performed in Slovenia at the Internal Clinic in Ljubljana in the period 1954–1959. In 1954, Dr Jože Satler started using radioactive iodine for thyroid investigations. In the same year, Dr Bojan Varl, who is considered the pioneer of nuclear medicine in Slovenia, began systematically introducing nuclear medicine. The first radioisotope laboratories were established in January 1960 at the Institute of Oncology and at the Internal Clinic. Under the direction of Dr. Varl, the laboratory at the Internal Clinic developed gradually and in 1973 became the Clinic for Nuclear Medicine with departments for in vivo and in vitro diagnostics and for the treatment of inpatients and outpatients at the thyroid department. The Clinic for Nuclear Medicine became a teaching unit of the Medical Faculty and developed its own post-graduate programme – the first student enrolled in 1972. In the 1960s, radioisotope laboratories opened in the general hospitals of Slovenj Gradec and Celje, and in the 1970s also in Maribor, Izola and Šempeter pri Novi Gorici. Conclusions Nowadays, nuclear medicine units are modernly equipped and the staff is trained in morphological, functional and laboratory diagnostics in clinical medicine. They also work on the treatment of cancer, increased thyroid function and other diseases. PMID:22933984

  12. Contamination by moulds of grape berries in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Mikusová, P; Ritieni, A; Santini, A; Juhasová, G; Srobárová, A

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes the first map, albeit partial, of toxigenic fungi re-isolated from grape berries collected in three out of the six most important Slovakia winemaking areas in two different periods of the harvest year 2008. Low temperatures and high relative humidity during July 2008 favoured the development of grape fungal diseases that cause rots such as Plasmopara, Uncinula, Botrytis, Metasphaeria, Elsinoë, and Saccharomycetes. In the analysed samples, the following genera of toxigenic fungi were identified in the range of 1-4%: Aspergillus, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Ulocladium, and Trichoderma Trichothecium, while the genera Aspergillus, Alternaria, Fusarium, and Penicillium were in the range 11-29%. A. niger, A. carbonarius, some strains of A. carbonarius-with 'crystals' and strains of A. uvarum-uniseriate were identified; these species are considered ochratoxigenic (able to produce variable amounts of toxins). In addition, a non-ochratoxigenic strain of A. ibericus and a Fusarium strain able to biosynthesize small amount of fumonisins, beauvericin, and enniatins were identified. P. expansum, able to produce citrinin, represents 29.7%, of the Penicillium genus together with P. verrucosum, P. glabrum, P. citrinum, and P. crustosum. An analysis for the identification and quantification of the main toxins: ochratoxin A, fumonisins, beauvericin, enniatins, and fusaproliferin was performed on grape samples; it was consistent with the results of the mycological analysis. Toxigenic fungi should be checked throughout the years and their occurrence compared with all environmental factors to avoid health risks. PMID:20349371

  13. Lifelong Learning and the Professional Development of Geography Teachers: A View from Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolenc Kolnik, Karmen

    2010-01-01

    Lifelong learning and continuing professional development (CPD) are considered important activities for geography teachers. However, research in Slovenia shows that many lose their enthusiasm for these activities when they leave university and enter professional practice. In Slovenia, whilst geography teachers have a sound undergraduate education,…

  14. Rail-lex Slovenia--A Modern Railway Dictionary (Joint Venture Case Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakopin, Primoz

    Rail-lex Slovenia is a project to develop a dictionary of railway terminology in the Slovenian language, part of a larger undertaking of the International Union of Railways to develop a modern, multilingual communication infrastructure. Participating organizations represent 22 European languages. Two partners in the Rail-lex Slovenia venture are…

  15. Limestone types used from the classic Karst region in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramar, Sabina; Mirtič, Breda; Mladenović, Ana; Rožič, Boštjan; Bedjanič, Mojca; Kortnik, Jože; Šmuc, Andrej

    2014-05-01

    The paper presents a variety of limestones from the Karst Region that is one of the most interesting areas containing reserves of natural stones in Slovenia. The region is mainly composed of Cretaceous shallow-water limestone, with the most common type currently excavated being the rudist limestone of the Lipica Formation, which dates to the Santonian to Campanian. Limestones of this formation are mainly represented by a light grey, thick-bedded to massive Lipica limestone rich in (largely fragmented) rudists. Rudist shells can be either relatively well preserved (such as in Lipica Fiorito quarried limestone) or almost completely disintegrated and intensively endolitised (Lipica Unito quarried limestone). Beside the Lipica Formation, natural stone types have been excavated from two other formations or members in the Karst region: the Repen Formation (Repen and Kopriva limestones), and the Tomaj Limestone (dark, laminated limestone within the Lipica Formation). As documented, the region has been associated with the quarrying and processing of stone at least for over two thousand years, i.e. since the Roman period. Although a large number of quarries in all mentioned formations are documented in the Karst region, many are inactive nowadays. Some of the quarries are declared as geological monuments of national importance or officially protected as a natural monument. Karst limestones are considered the highest quality calcareous natural stones in Slovenia. They are characterised by high density, low water absorption and low open porosity; consequently they also exhibit high frost and salt resistance as well as high compressive and flexural strength. Besides in the Karst region and other parts of Slovenia, the Karst limestones were used in the construction of several important buildings and monuments in many other European Countries, and worldwide. Nowadays, they are most commonly used in the construction of façade cladding, pavements, window sills, staircases, indoor

  16. Atmospheric /sup 222/Rn in tourist caves of Slovenia, Yugoslavia

    SciTech Connect

    Kobal, I.; Smodis, B.; Burger, J.; Skofljanec, M.

    1987-04-01

    Radon-222 concentrations in the air of 12 tourist caves in Slovenia, Yugoslavia were measured. In almost all the caves concentrations are higher than in the outdoor air, with the highest concentration in the Tabor Cave at about 6000 Bq m-3. From the /sup 222/Rn concentrations obtained, the activity of /sup 222/Rn inhaled by a visitor breathing cave air was calculated, and the bronchial dose was estimated. The inhaled activity and the bronchial dose were highest in the Tabor Cave with values of 10 kBq and 540 microSv, respectively.

  17. Prognosis of groundwater drought occurrence in selected catchments of Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojkovova, M.; Machlica, A.; Bara, M.

    2009-04-01

    The paper contains results on prognosis of groundwater drought occurrence in six selected catchments of Slovakia with different geological, hydrogeological and climatic conditions. Prognoses were made using BILAN model. Climatic scenarios CCCM1997, CCCM2000 (Canadian model CGCM.1 and CGCM.2 modified on conditions in Slovakia) and GISS1998 were used. Groundwater drought occurrence was assessed for time-frames 2030 and 2075. Each year of the whole assessed period of 24 years (1982-2005) was classified according to the water bearing degree of the stream taking into account the yearly precipitation amounts (Majercakova, et al., 2007). Three types of dry years - very dry, medium dry and moderately dry were defined. The prognosis values for 2030 and 2075 were compared with the reference period 1971-1990. Chvojnica River catchment (Lopasov profile), located in Neogene sedimentary rocks is characterized by occurrence of 26 % of dry years (very dry, medium or moderately dry) within the period 1982-2005. Prognosis of the groundwater runoff changes showed not very expressive decrease, in about 3.6-4 % in comparison with the reference period. Tuzina River catchment (Tuzina profile), located in crystalline, Mesozoic and Neogene sedimentary rocks, is characterized by occurrence of 25 % of dry years. Values of the groundwater runoff would decrease not very expressively, in about 5-7 %. These two catchments were assessed using GISS1998 climate change scenario. Groundwater changes in four other catchments were evaluated using CCCM scenarios. Topla River catchment (Bardejov profile), located in Paleogene flysh rocks, is characterized by occurrence of 58 % of dry periods. Values of the groundwater runoff would decrease importantly - in about 59-88 %. Bela River catchment (Podbanske profile), built by granitic and glaciofluvial rocks, is characterized by occurrence of 13 % of dry periods. Values of the groundwater runoff would decrease in about 42-63 %. Boca River catchment (Kralova

  18. Illegal Drug Use among Female University Students in Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Matejovičová, Barbora; Trandžík, Jozef; Schlarmannová, Janka; Boledovičová, Mária; Velemínský, Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Background This study is focused on the issue of illegal drug use among female university students preparing to become teachers. The main aim was to determine the frequency of drug abuse in a group of young women (n=215, mean age 20.44 years). Material/Methods Using survey methods, we determined that 33.48% of female university students in Slovakia use illegal drugs and 66.51% of students have never used illegal drugs. Differences between these groups were determined using statistical analysis, mostly in 4 areas of survey questions. Results We determined that education of parents has a statistically significant influence on use of illegal drugs by their children (χ2=10.14; P<0.05). Communication between parents and children and parental attention to children have a significant role in determining risky behavior (illegal drug use, χ2=8.698, P<0.05). Parents of students not using illegal drugs were interested in how their children spend their free time (68.53%). We confirmed the relationship between consumption of alcohol and illegal drug use (χ2=16.645; P<0.001) and smoking (χ2=6.226; P<0.05). The first contact with drugs occurs most frequently at high school age. The most consumed “soft” drug in our group of female university students is marijuana. Conclusions Our findings are relevant for comparison and generalization regarding causes of the steady increase in number of young people using illegal drugs. PMID:25602526

  19. Flashiness of mountain streams in Slovakia and Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holko, Ladislav; Parajka, Juraj; Kostka, Zdeno; Škoda, Peter; Blöschl, Günter

    2011-08-01

    SummaryThis article evaluates the spatial and temporal changes in streamflow flashiness in 122 mountain catchments in Slovakia and Austria. The flashiness is quantified by the Richards-Baker flashiness index ( FI), which is the ratio of absolute day-to-day fluctuations of streamflow relative to total flow in a year. The analysis is based on daily streamflow data from the period 1976 to 2005. The results show that the average day-to-day fluctuations of streamflow vary from 6% to 43%, depending on the catchment. The spatial pattern of the FI reflects the variations in the main geological units and generally shows a trend of decreasing flashiness with increasing size of the catchment. Statistically significant temporal trends in flashiness are found in 7 Slovak and 22 Austrian catchments. Most of these trends are related to anthropogenic effects, while, in a few catchments, the change in annual flashiness appears to be caused by changes in precipitation seasonality. A multivariate statistical analysis of FI indicates negative correlations with catchment area, mean catchment elevation, percents of forest cover, agricultural land and Quaternary geology. Positive correlations are found between FI and Tertiary and Calcareous geologies. Extrapolating the regression models beyond the observed range of catchment attributes used in the estimation leads to significant prediction errors. In order to better interpret the FI values, a statistically significant relationship was found between the FI and the frequency of peak flows exceeding the long-term mean as well as between the FI and the 5% quantile of daily streamflow.

  20. Physician-Based Tobacco Smoking Cessation Counseling in Belgrade, Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Ray; Harmon, Tanner; Gagon, Heather

    2009-01-01

    This study examined physician attitudes and practices pertaining to patient counseling about smoking in Belgrade, Serbia. Data were collected using a cross-sectional survey of 86 physicians at multiple health care facilities. Approximately 74% of physicians agreed that they should routinely ask patients about their smoking habits and 79% agreed…

  1. Early Childhood Professionalism in Serbia: Current Issues and Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bankovic, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    This article explores early childhood professionalism in the Republic of Serbia. The concept of professionalism in this context is examined in light of current international debates about professionalism. More specifically, how the use of specific nomenclature, the existence of multi-professional teams of practitioners and state-regulated but…

  2. 31 CFR 586.204 - Prohibited new investment within Serbia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... persons designated in or pursuant to 31 CFR § 587.201(a), the new investment activities of United States... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited new investment within... (SERBIA & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 586.204 Prohibited new investment...

  3. Student Background Factors Influencing Student Achievement in Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teodorovic, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes student-level findings of the first large-scale comprehensive school effectiveness study of the primary education in Serbia. Twenty-five student-level variables were examined in a three-level HLM model using a study sample of almost 5000 students, over 250 classrooms and over 100 schools. Differences between the students were…

  4. A sustainability analysis of an incineration project in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Mikic, Miljan; Naunovic, Zorana

    2013-11-01

    The only option for municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment adopted so far in Serbia is landfilling. Similarly to other south-eastern European countries, Serbia is not recovering any energy from MSW. Fifty percent of electricity in Serbia is produced in coal-fired power plants with emission control systems dating from the 1980s. In this article, the option of MSW incineration with energy recovery is proposed and examined for the city of Novi Sad. A sustainability analysis consisting of financial, economic and sensitivity analyses was done in the form of a cost-benefit analysis following recommendations from the European Commission. Positive and negative social and environmental effects of electricity generation through incineration were valuated partly using conversion factors and shadow prices, and partly using the results of previous studies. Public aversion to MSW incineration was considered. The results showed that the incineration project would require external financial assistance, and that an increase of the electricity and/or a waste treatment fee is needed to make the project financially positive. It is also more expensive than the landfilling option. However, the economic analysis showed that society would have net benefits from an incineration project. The feed-in tariff addition of only €0.03 (KWh)(-1) to the existing electricity price, which would enable the project to make a positive contribution to economic welfare, is lower than the actual external costs of electricity generation from coal in Serbia. PMID:23690538

  5. The Geographic Information System (GIS) in Secondary Education in Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komlenovic, Djurdjica; Manic, Emilija; Malinic, Dusica

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the application of new educational technologies in geography classes. The research involved 126 students from vocational secondary schools in Serbia taking geography as a compulsory subject. We developed and applied a questionnaire for this research. The results indicate that out of several ICTs available, the majority of…

  6. The survey of ecologically acceptable flows in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolar-Žvanut, Nataša; Burja, Darko

    2008-11-01

    Excessive water abstractions from watercourses constitute a negative impact on the structure and functioning of aquatic and riparian ecosystems. In order to preserve and improve the aquatic ecosystems it is therefore necessary to maintain adequate quantity and quality of water in watercourses, which can be ensured by providing ecologically acceptable flow (EAF). In Slovenia, a large diversity of watercourses regarding their hydrologic, morphological and ecological characteristics dictates the determination of EAF separately for individual sections of watercourses. Since 1994, the determination of EAF in Slovenia has been carried out primarily for the existing water abstractions such as hydroelectric power plants, fish farms, and to a lesser extent for the abstractions for drinking water, process water, recreation facilities and at the outflows from reservoirs. The results of EAF value analyses showed that the EAF values for individual water abstractions differed widely both with respect to the values of the mean annual minimum flow and the values of the mean daily flow. The results of analyses support the basis for the determination of EAF used in most EU countries, namely that EAF must be determined through interdisciplinary approach where the hydrologic data represent the benchmark values for the determination of EAF.

  7. Report on radio observation of meteors (Iža, Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolinský, Peter; Dorotovič, Ivan; Vidovenec, Marian

    2014-02-01

    During the period from 1 to 17 August 2014 meteors were experimentally registered using radio waves. This experiment was conducted in the village of Iža, Slovakia. Its main objective was to test the technical equipment intended for continuous registration of meteor echoes, which will be located in the Slovak Central Observatory in Hurbanovo. These tests are an indirect continuation of previous experiments of observation of meteor showers using the technology available in Hurbanovo at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century. The device consists of two independent receiver systems. One recorded echoes of the transmitter Graves 143.050 MHz (N47.3480° E5.5151°, France) and the second one recorded echoes of the TV transmitter Lviv 49.739583 MHz (N49.8480° E24.0369°, Ukraine). The apparatus for tracking radio echoes of the transmitter Graves consists of a 9-element Yagi antenna with vertical polarization (oriented with an elevation of 0° at azimuth 270°), the receiver Yaesu VR-5000 in CW mode, and a computer with registration using the program HROFFT v1.0.0f. The second apparatus recording the echoes of the transmitter Lviv consists of a LP (log-periodic) antenna with horizontal polarization (elevation of 0° and azimuth of 90°), the receiver ICOM R-75 in the CW mode, and also a computer with registration using HROFFT v1.0.0f. A total of about 78000 echoes have been registered during around 700 hours of registration. Probably not all of them are caused by meteors. These data were statistically processed and compared with visual observations in the IMO database. Planned own visual observations could not be performed due to unfavourable weather conditions lasting from 4 to 13 August 2014. The registered data suggest that observations were performed in the back-scatter mode in this configuration and not in the planned forward-scatter mode. Deeper analysis and longer data sets are, however, necessary to calibrate the observation system and this will

  8. Stochastic Flood Frequency Analysis Using the SCHADEX Method in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valent, Peter; Výleta, Roman; Szolgay, Ján; Paquet, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    between minimum and maximum estimated flood spread from 80 m3/s (from 166 to 232 m3/s) for a 10-year flood to as much as 600 m3/s (from 644 to 1391 m3/s) for a 10000-year flood. Despite of this uncertainty the SCHADEX method gives better results than traditionally used flood estimation methods used in Slovakia which was demonstrated by comparing estimated with reconstructed historical floods.

  9. Phonetic problems with Slovak in foreign students studying medicine in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Dzuganova, B; Balkova, D

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays more and more foreign students come to Slovakia to study medicine at Slovak universities. Besides specialized subjects studied in English they have to learn Slovak. The authors of this article have focused their attention to the most serious problems, the Slovak language causes to foreign students studying medicine at Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin (Ref. 6) Full Text (Free, PDF). PMID:17685013

  10. Alternative Civil Enculturation: Political Disenchantment and Civic Attitudes in Minority Schools in Estonia, Latvia, and Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golubeva, Maria; Austers, Ivars

    2011-01-01

    The article investigates the ways in which minority schools in Latvia, Estonia, and Slovakia resist the dominant narratives of nation and citizenship and provide an alternative model of civil enculturation for students. It provides evidence to support the hypothesis that differences between competing narratives of statehood and nationhood among…

  11. European Gender Lessons: Girls and Boys at Scout Camps in Denmark, Portugal, Russia and Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Harriet Bjerrum

    2004-01-01

    The article investigates the tensions between and within models of gender equality and gender complementarity by studying children who are in the midst of learning to apply these gender models in practice. Children (aged 11-15 years) were observed and interviewed while they participated in scout camps in Denmark, Portugal, Slovakia and Russia.…

  12. Teaching Translation and Interpreting in Slovakia: Is There Anything Other than Levý and Popovic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biloveský, Vladimír; Djovcoš, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Institutional translation and interpreting training has a long lasting tradition in Slovakia mainly thanks to such significant translation scholars as Anton Popovic, František Miko, Ján Vilikovský and many others. However the situation has changed after the Velvet Revolution in 1989 and the education needed to start adapting to the new market…

  13. Recombination in Tula Hantavirus Evolution: Analysis of Genetic Lineages from Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Sibold, Claus; Meisel, Helga; Krüger, Detlev H.; Labuda, Milan; Lysy, Jan; Kozuch, Oto; Pejcoch, Milan; Vaheri, Antti; Plyusnin, Alexander

    1999-01-01

    To examine the evolution of Tula hantavirus (TUL), carried by the European common vole (Microtus arvalis and M. rossiaemeridionalis), we have analyzed genetic variants from Slovakia, the country where the virus is endemic. Phylogenetic analysis (PHYLIP) based on either partial (nucleotides [nt] 441 to 898) or complete N-protein-encoding sequences divided Slovakian TUL variants into two main lineages: (i) strains from eastern Slovakia, which clustered with Russian strains, and (ii) strains from western Slovakia situated closer to those from the Czech Republic. We found genetic diversity of 19% between the two groups and 4% within the western Slovakian TUL strains. Phylogenetic analysis of the 3′ noncoding region (3′-NCR), however, placed the eastern Slovakian strains closer to those from western Slovakia and the Czech Republic, with a greater distance to the Russian strains, suggesting a recombinant nature of the S segment in the eastern Slovakian TUL lineage. A bootscan search of the S-segment sequences of TUL strains revealed at least two recombination points in the S sequences of eastern Slovakian TUL strains (nt 400 to 415 and around 1200) which agreed well with the pattern of amino acid substitutions in the N protein and deletions/insertions in the 3′-NCR of the S segment. These data suggest that homologous recombination events occurred in the evolution of hantaviruses. PMID:9847372

  14. Seismic Station Functionality Improvements of Seismic Network of Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sincic, Peter; Tasic, Izidor; Mali, Marko; Pancur, Luka; Vidrih, Renato

    2010-05-01

    The Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, the Office of Seismology and Geology is responsible for the fast and reliable information about earthquakes, originating in the area of Slovenia and nearby. The Seismic Network of Slovenia, which covers the entire Slovenian territory, involving an area of 20,256 km2, consists of 26 seismic stations equipped with broadband seismometers (CMG-40T, CMG-3ESPC, CMG-3T and STS2) and Quanterra Q730 data loggers. The seismic data is transmitted in real-time to the Data Center in Ljubljana (DCL). Leased lines, xDSL and satellite communication are used for data transfer from stations to DCL. When an event occurs main earthquake parameters (magnitude and the location of the epicenter) can be evaluated at sufficient accuracy only if data from several seismic stations is available. In case of temporary communication failure loss of important seismic data can occur. The duration of communication failure, which exceeds 2 hours can cause data loss. This is due to low memory storage of Quanterra Q730 acquisition unit. In this paper our solution for extending storage capabilities of particular seismic station to several months is presented (momentarily the storage capabilities of particular seismic station lies between 1 and 2 hours). To extend storage capabilities we used a special Industrial Computer (JetBox 8100), which runs on Linux. To collect seismic data from the Q730 unit the acquisition software SeiComP is used. The combination of Q730 and JetBox 8100 assures that in case of temporary communication failure there will be no data loss. Seismic data is simply retrieved from JetBox 8100 (from ring buffer that is generated by SeiComP acquisition software) after communication is once again established. Moreover, an advanced state of health system was build and installed on JetBox 8100, that makes identifying, predicting and solving of different problems quick and effective. With combining Q730 data logger and JetBox 8100 we did

  15. National study of illicit drug use in Slovakia based on wastewater analysis.

    PubMed

    Mackuľak, Tomáš; Skubák, Jaroslav; Grabic, Roman; Ryba, Jozef; Birošová, Lucia; Fedorova, Ganna; Spalková, Viera; Bodík, Igor

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze illicit drugs and their metabolites in wastewater from eight selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Slovakia. The effect of two of the biggest music festivals in Slovakia on illicit drugs in wastewater was also investigated. Urinary bio-markers of amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, cannabis and ecstasy use were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We then compared our results with data obtained in other parts of Europe and the world. This study demonstrates that Slovakia has one of highest methamphetamine consumption rates in Europe. Within Slovakia, the highest level of methamphetamine consumption was found in Petržalka, where the mean specific load of this drug in sewage was 169 mg/day/1000 inhabitants; the next highest loads were detected in Piešťany (128 mg/day/1000 inhabitants) and Bratislava (124 mg/day/1000 inhabitants). Amphetamine, ecstasy and cannabis consumption in our study were comparable to that found in other European cities, whereas cocaine consumption was lower. We also analyzed the pattern of drug consumption over the course of a week. The load of the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine in wastewater increased during the weekend. The use of this drug was most common in the capital of Slovakia. Increased consumption was also found during a folk festival in Piešťany. The ecstasy load in wastewater from larger cities also significantly increased over the weekend. An increase of drug consumption was also detected during a music festival in Trenčín, especially for ecstasy. The specific load of ecstasy during this festival increased from 3mg/day/1000 inhabitants to 29 mg/day/1000 inhabitants. The possible influence of music styles on the consumption of certain drugs was also observed. During a folk festival, methamphetamine and cocaine were more commonly used. PMID:25046607

  16. Epidemiological trends of hormone-related cancers in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Zadnik, Vesna; Krajc, Mateja

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of hormone-related cancers tends to be higher in the developed world than in other countries. In Slovenia, six hormone-related cancers (breast, ovarian, endometrial, prostate, testicular, and thyroid) account for a quarter of all cancers. Their incidence goes up each year, breast and prostate cancer in particular. The age at diagnosis is not decreasing for any of the analysed cancer types. The risk of breast cancer is higher in the western part of the country, but no differences in geographical distribution have been observed for other hormone-related cancers. Furthermore, areas polluted with endocrine-disrupting chemicals that affect hormone balance such as PCBs, dioxins, heavy metals, and pesticides, do not seem to involve a greater cancer risk. We know little about how many cancers can be associated with endocrine disruptors, as there are too few reliable exposure studies to support an association. PMID:27331295

  17. Prognostic factors of choroidal melanoma in Slovenia, 1986–2008

    PubMed Central

    Budihna, Marjan; Drnovsek-Olup, Brigita; Andrejcic, Katrina Novak; Zupancic, Irena Brovet; Pahor, Dusica

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Choroidal melanoma is the most common primary malignancy of the eye, which frequently metastasizes. The Cancer Registry of Slovenia reported the incidence of choroid melanoma from 1983 to 2009 as stable, at 7.8 cases/million for men and 7.4/million for women. The aim of the retrospective study was to determinate the prognostic factors of survival for choroidal melanoma patients in Slovenia. Patients and methods From January 1986 to December 2008 we treated 288 patients with malignant choroidal melanoma; 127 patients were treated by brachytherapy with beta rays emitting ruthenium-106 applicators; 161 patients were treated by enucleation. Results Patients with tumours thickness < 7.2 mm and base diameter < 16 mm were treated by brachytherapy and had 5- and 10-year overall mortality 13% and 32%, respectively. In enucleated patients, 5- and 10-year mortality was higher, 46% and 69%, respectively, because their tumours were larger. Thirty patients treated by brachytherapy developed local recurrence. Twenty five of 127 patients treated by brachytherapy and 86 of 161 enucleated patients developed distant metastases. Patients of age ≥ 60 years had significantly lower survival in both treatment modalities. For patients treated by brachytherapy the diameter of the tumour base and treatment time were independent prognostic factors for overall survival, for patients treated by enucleation age and histological type of tumour were independent prognosticators. In first few years after either of treatments, the melanoma specific annual mortality rate increased, especially in older patients, and then slowly decreased. Conclusions It seems that particularly younger patients with early tumours can be cured, whereby preference should be given to eyesight preserving brachytherapy over enucleation. PMID:27069456

  18. Renal replacement therapy in Slovenia: excerpts from 2011 data.

    PubMed

    Buturović-Ponikvar, Jadranka; Gubenšek, Jakob; Arnol, Miha; Adamlje, Tone; Blanuša, Danica; Ceglar, Zlata; Steklasa, Sonja Cimerman; Černe, Senka; Čufer, Andrej; Drozg, Andrej; Ekart, Robert; Guček, Andrej; Kandus, Aljoša; Kapun, Sonja; Kralj-Lopert, Simona; Klančič, Dimitrij; Kunc-Rešek, Natalija; Kralj, Stojan; Malovrh, Marko; Močivnik, Marjan; Novljan, Gregor; Ponikvar, Rafael; Rus, Igor; Saksida, Silvan; Vujkovac, Bojan

    2013-08-01

    This report provides a summary of the 2011 Slovenian renal replacement therapy (RRT) data. Data were obtained from 24 renal centers: 23 dialysis and one transplant center, referred as of 31 December 2011, with 100% response rate to individual patient questionnaires. Slovenia has a population of approximately 2 million (2 052 496 in 2011). The total number of patients treated by RRT was 2011,that is, 980 per million of population (pmp); 0.4% decrease compared to 2010. 1347 (67.0%) were treated by hemodialysis, 60 (3.0%) by peritoneal dialysis, and 604 (30.0%) had a functioning kidney graft. A total of 236 incident patients, 115 pmp (at day one), started RRT, their median age was 68 years, 64.8% were men, 36.4% were diabetics. Regarding hemodialysis patients, 59.3% were treated with on-line hemodiafiltration, 86% with ultrapure dialysis fluid. Median weekly duration of hemodialysis was 12.5 h, median dry body weight 70 kg, mean blood flow 275 ± 46 mL/min, 7.1% were dialyzed in a single-needle mode. Vascular accesses were native arteriovenous fistula in 79%, polytetrafluoroethylene graft in 6%, and catheter in 15%. The crude death rate was 15.9% in dialysis patients, 1.9% in transplant recipients, and 12.0% in all RRT patients (both dialysis and transplant, incident patients at day 1 included). Slovenia has been a member of Eurotransplant since 2000. Forty-six kidney transplantations were performed in 2011, all from deceased donors. A slight decrease in prevalent number of RRT patients was observed in 2011, for the first time in 40 years. The number and proportion of patients with functioning kidney grafts is increasing, reaching 30% in 2011. PMID:23931871

  19. Spatial Pattern of Rainfall Trends in Serbia (1961-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukovic, J.; Bajat, B.; Blagojevic, D.; Kilibarda, M.

    2013-12-01

    This paper examines a spatial pattern of annual, seasonal and monthly rainfall trends in Serbia. The study used data from 63 meteorological stations between 1961 and 2009. The rainfall series was analyzed applying nonparametric method of the Mann Kendall test and Sen's method to determine the significance and magnitude of the trends. Interactive WEB maps were produced to obtain detailed insight in the spatial distribution of rainfall trends in Serbia. Seasonal trends at the confidence level of 95%, however, indicate a slight decrease in winter and spring precipitation and an increase in autumn precipitation. Results for monthly rainfall trends also generally showed non- significant trend, except positive for October (9 stations out of 63) and negative for May (6 stations out of 63). Calculated global autocorrelation statistics (Moran's I) indicate, in general, a random spatial pattern of rainfall trends on annual, seasonal and monthly time scales with exceptions for March, June and November.

  20. Mapping the governance of human resources for health in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Santric Milicevic, Milena; Vasic, Milena; Edwards, Matt

    2015-12-01

    This article maps the current governance of human resources for health (HRH) in relation to universal health coverage in Serbia since the health sector reforms in 2003. The study adapts the Global Health Workforce Alliance/World Health Organization four-dimensional framework of HRH in the context of governance for universal health coverage. A set of proxies was established for the availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of HRH. Analysis of official HRH documentation from relevant institutions and reports were used to construct a governance profile of HRH for Serbia from the introduction of the reform in 2003 up to 2013. The results show that all Serbian districts (except Sremski) surpass the availability threshold of 59.4 skilled midwives, nurses and physicians per 10,000 inhabitants. District accessibility of health workforce greatly differed from the national average with variances from +26% to -34%. Analysis of national averages and patient load of general practitioners showed variances among districts by ± 21%, whilst hospital discharges per 100 inhabitants deviated between +52% and -45%. Pre-service and in-service education of health workforce is regulated and accredited. However, through its efforts to respond to population health needs Serbia lacks a single coordinating entity to take overall responsibility for effective and coordinated HRH planning, management and development within the broader landscape of health strategy development. PMID:26358245

  1. Human giardiasis in Serbia: asymptomatic vs symptomatic infection*

    PubMed Central

    Nikolić, A.; Klun, I.; Bobić, B.; Ivović, V.; Vujanić, M.; Živković, T.; Djurković-Djaković, O.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the public health importance of giardiasis in all of Europe, reliable data on the incidence and prevalence in Western Balkan Countries (Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro and FYR Macedonia) are scarce, and the relative contribution of waterborne and food-borne, or person-to-person and/or animalto- person, transmission of human giardiasis is not yet clear. To provide baseline data for the estimation of the public health risk caused by Giardia, we here review the information available on the epidemiological characteristics of asymptomatic and symptomatic human infection in Serbia. Although asymptomatic cases of Giardia represent a major proportion of the total cases of infection, high rates of Giardia infection were found in both asymptomatic and symptomatic populations. No waterborne outbreaks of giardiasis have been reported, and it thus seems that giardiasis mostly occurs sporadically in our milieu. Under such circumstances, control measures to reduce the high prevalence of giardiasis in Serbia have focused on person-to-person transmission, encouraging proper hygiene, but for more targeted intervention measures, studies to identify other risk factors for asymptomatic and symptomatic infections are needed. PMID:21678797

  2. ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS ENTOMOPHAGA MAIMAIGA AND INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT IN SERBIA.

    PubMed

    Tabaković-Tosić, Mara

    2015-01-01

    During the latest outbreak of the gypsy moth in Serbia (2009-2014), some areas of Central Serbia were particularly endangered, and one of them was Krusevac region, where the forests give way to orchards in the pattern resembling the tiger's skin. Since the number of the laid egg masses in the autumn 2013 guaranteed the defoliation of both forest tree species and agricultural crops, and the presence of E. maimaigo, in Central Serbia had already been determined, at 30 selected plots the assisted spread of it was performed, through the introduction of the infectious inoculum in the beech and oak forests which border the orchards. Since there was dealt with the living organism--fungus, which is particularly susceptible to the weather conditions (temperature and air humidity, as well as the precipitation), and under the conditions of the global warming and great drought, the special recipe for the preparation of inoculum was made. In the following year the mass epizootic of the gypsy moth caterpillars, of the younger instars (L2 and L3), occurred, which implies that E. maimaiga caused the crash of the outbreak of this most harmful species of the defoliating insects of the forests and orchards. PMID:27145580

  3. Topographic maps of Serbia prior to the WWI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, B.

    2009-04-01

    Compilation of high or medium scale topographic surveys always played an important role in the geosciences of newly independent countries. Serbia formally has gained back its independency from the Turkish Empire sortly after the 1878 Congress of Berlin. The newly founded Institute of Military Geography in Beograd made efforts to complete a topographic series of 1:75,000 scale. Actually two serieses have been completed prior to the Balkan Wars of 1912-13, one with Latin and the other with the Cyrillic name descriptions, in French and Serbian languages, respectively. The scale of these map systems are identical to the Habsburg general mapping of Central Europe, covering also Serbia. As the Habsburg maps used the prime meridian of Ferro, their Serbian counterparts were using the one of Paris, which is a mere longitude shift of 20 degrees in round numbers. The geodetic basis behind the Serbian maps is probably the Habsburg triangulation in the Balkans (1871-75) - this would explain why the Vienna-centered Hermannskogel datum has been used also in Yugoslavia and Serbia even till nowadays. The French language series has red planar graphic elements (only the names, elevations and the railroad lines are written or drawn in back), blue, brown and green prints were used for waters, contours and vegetation. The Serbian language series mostly reminds to the modern maps albeit it has only three colors (black, brown and green).

  4. Trends of cold and heat waves in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unkašević, Miroslava; Tošić, Ivana

    2014-05-01

    The series of the daily minimum and maximum temperatures at fifteen stations in Serbia were used to calculate the cold and warm spell duration indicators, from which the duration and severity of the cold and heat waves were estimated. The trend analysis for all seasons was presented using the data from 1949 to 2012. The most important result of this study is the significant decreasing trends in the frequency of cold waves and increasing trends of heat waves in Serbia. An analysis of the daily minimum temperatures almost at all meteorological stations revealed that the longest and most severe cold waves were observed in winter of 1956, spring of 1987, summer of 1962 and 1996, and during the autumn 1983 and 1988. The longest and most severe heat waves, based on the analysis of the daily maximum temperatures, were recorded in winter of 2007, spring of 2003, summer of 2012, and after 1989 during the autumn. The longest heat waves observed in 2012 did not reach the severity of the heat waves in 2007 at ten of fifteen stations. The obtained results indicated that the warming in Serbia was more related to increase in frequency of heat waves than to reduction in cold waves.

  5. Environmental Issues in the Didactic Materials in Schools in Republic of Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maravic, Milutin; Ivkovic, Sonja; Segedinac, Mirjana; Adamov, Jasna

    2014-01-01

    The main task of the examination is to establish environmental issues in the didactic materials for primary and secondary school in Republic of Serbia. Environmental issues in the secondary school curriculum in Serbia, according to the current educational curricula and educational programs, is limited to general subjects (chemistry and biology…

  6. Maize redness in Serbia caused by stolbur phytoplasma is transmitted by Reptalus panzeri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize redness (MR) causes midrib, leaf and stalk reddening and abnormal ear development in maize in Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria. High populations of the ciixid Reptalus panzeri were found in MR affected maize fields in the southern Banat region of Serbia in 2005 and 2006, and stolbur phytoplasma w...

  7. Empowering Schools to Serve as Safety Nets for Children with Behavior Problems in Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutlesic, Vesna

    2011-01-01

    Children with special needs have been a focus of institutional reforms in Serbia for nearly two decades. Historically, as in other Eastern European countries, children with severe developmental, emotional, and/or behavior disorders in Serbia were often placed in institutions far from their families for much of their lives. Since the fall of…

  8. Monitoring of Landslide Activity in Slovakia Territory Using Multi-Temporal InSAR Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakon, M.; Papco, J.; Perissin, D.; Lazecky, M.; Sousa, J. J.; Hlavacova, I.; Batorova, K.; Ondrejka, P.; Liscak, P.; Paudits, P.; Real, N.

    2015-05-01

    Slope deformations are the most important geohazards in Slovakia which annually cause an extensive economic damage of significant influence. About 22000 slope deformations have been registered so far, covering an area of almost 2600 km2 . Since 2010, 639 new slope failures have been witnessed and their activation was driven mainly by the climatic anomalies such as extraordinary rainfalls. Many of these landslides currently represent a direct threat to the lives, health and property of the residents in the affected areas. The landslide Nizna Mysla is considered to be the second most catastrophic landslide in the history of Slovakia. Damages to buildings and engineering networks had not been identified in the ‘90s of the last century when the first problems with the slope stability appeared. Up-to-now monitoring techniques has currently been reassessed to account for the results from satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) techniques.

  9. The struggle to address woman battering in Slovakia: stories from service providers.

    PubMed

    Miller, Susan L; Wasileski, Gabriela

    2015-06-01

    Following the fall of communism, Slovakia found itself in a challenging position: to openly acknowledge the existence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and its disproportionate effect on women and children without an infrastructure to address victim safety, and provide resources and legal help. With collaboration with non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the government responded by developing shelters and introducing legislation that criminalized IPV and created social services for victims. To assess implementation efforts, we conducted in-depth interviews with governmental officials and NGO personnel who provide services for battered women. We focus on the operation and efficacy of shelters to discover what services are most needed for battered women, the criminal justice system's response to IPV, and what long-range goals will facilitate more permanent solutions to the social problem of violence against women in Slovakia. PMID:25845616

  10. Experience Of Implementing The Integrated Management System In Manufacturing Companies In Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestyánszka Škůrková, Katarína; Kučerová, Marta; Fidlerová, Helena

    2015-06-01

    In corporate practice, the term of Integrated Management System means a system the aim of which is to manage an organization regarding the quality, environment, health and safety at work. In the first phase of the VEGA project No. 1/0448/13 "Transformation of ergonomics program into the company management structure through interaction and utilization QMS, EMS, HSMS", we focused on obtaining information about the way or procedure of implementing the integrated management systems in manufacturing companies in Slovakia. The paper considers characteristics of integrated management system, specifies the possibilities for successive integration of the management systems and also describes the essential aspects of the practical implementation of integrated management systems in companies in Slovakia.

  11. Canine dirofilariosis endemic in Central Europe-10 years of epidemiological study in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Miterpáková, Martina; Iglódyová, Adriana; Čabanová, Viktória; Stloukal, Eduard; Miklisová, Dana

    2016-06-01

    The study presents the comprehensive results of a detailed epidemiological study on canine dirofilariosis in Slovakia, Central Europe. More than 4000 dogs were investigated, and several epidemiological factors were considered. The mean prevalence in individual regions ranged from 2.0 % in northern Slovakia to more than 25.0 % in the south-western part of the country, with the nematode Dirofilaria repens confirmed as the dominant causative agent. Canine dirofilariosis occurred more often in animals more than 3 years old and in dogs of large and giant breed sizes. Short-haired animals were infected more often than dogs with a long coat. Also, the infection was significantly more prevalent in animals kept in rural areas in comparison with urban environments.Counts of microfilariae (mf) in peripheral blood reached their highest levels in May and August and corresponded to activity peaks and population maximums of potential vectors, the mosquito species Aedes vexans and Culex pipiens, the two most prevalent species in Slovakia. Moreover, two dogs naturally infested with D. repens were included in the experiment in order to monitor daily microfilarial periodicity. This fluctuation showed the same tendency in both animals, with a peak of circulating mf recorded at 4 a.m. and minimal mf counts at 4 p.m. PMID:27021185

  12. Programs and measures to reduce GHG emissions in agriculture and waste treatment in Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    Mareckova, K.; Bratislava, S.; Kucirek, S.

    1996-12-31

    Slovakia is a UN FCCC Annex I country and is obliged to limit its anthropogenic GHG emissions in the year 2000 to 1990 level. The key greenhouse gas in Slovakia is CO{sub 2} resulting mainly from fuel combustion processes. However the share of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O is approximately 20% of the total emissions on GWP basis. These gases are occurring mainly in non-energy sectors. The construction of the non-CO{sub 2} emission scenarios to reduce GHG and the uncertainty in N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emission estimation are discussed focusing on agriculture and waste treatment. The presentation will also include information on emission trends of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O since 1988. There are already implemented measures reducing GHG emissions in Slovakia, however, not motivated by global warming. A short view of implemented measures with an assessment of their benefit concerning non-CO{sub 2} GHG emissions reduction and some proposed mitigation options for agriculture and waste treatment are shown. Expected difficulties connected with preparing scenarios and with implementation of reducing measures are discussed.

  13. Analysis of Drug Policy in the Republic of Slovenia and in the EU Context: A Platform for Prevention in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvaternik, Ines; Rihter, Liljana

    2012-01-01

    Aims: This article presents an overview of the strategies and measures used in the context of school-based prevention in Slovenia, both on a declaratory and on a practical level. Methods: A review of the Resolution on the National Programme on Drugs in the Republic of Slovenia [ReNPPD (2004). Resolucija o nacionalnem programu na podrocju drog…

  14. Permanent soil monitoring system as a basic tool for protection of soils and sustainable land use in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobza, J.

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of soil monitoring system in Slovakia is to better protect the soils with regard to sustainable land use. The main object is the observation of soil parameters indicative of change to the equilibrium of soil system as far as to the irreversible change with possible development of degradation processes in soil. The soil monitoring system in Slovakia has been running since 1993. Its importance consists of providing the information on changing spatial and temporal variations of soil parameters as well as the evolution of soil quality in topsoil and subsoil. The soil monitoring network in Slovakia is constructed using ecological principles, taking into account all main soil types and subtypes, soil organic matter, climatic regions, emission regions, polluted and non-polluted regions as well as various other land uses. The results of soil monitoring of 318 sites on agricultural land in Slovakia have been presented. Soil properties are evaluated according to the main threats to soil relating to European Commission recommendation for European soil monitoring performance as follows: soil erosion, soil compaction, decline in soil organic matter, soil salinization and sodification and soil contamination. The most significant change has been determined in physical properties of soils. The physical degradation was especially manifested in compacted and the eroded soils. On the basis of our results about 40%of agricultural land is potentially affected by soil erosion in Slovakia. In addition, decline in soil organic matter and available nutrients indicate seriousness of soil degradation processes observed during the last monitoring period in Slovakia. Measured data and required outputs are reported to Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra(Italy) and European Environmental Agency (EEA) in Copenhagen (Denmark). Finally, the soil monitoring system thus becomes a basic tool for protection of soils and sustainable land use as well as for the creation of legislation not

  15. Post-socialist forest disturbance in the Carpathian border region of Poland, Slovakia, and Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Kuemmerle, Tobias; Hostert, Patrick; Radeloff, Volker C; Perzanowski, Kajetan; Kruhlov, Ivan

    2007-07-01

    Forests provide important ecosystem services, and protected areas around the world are intended to reduce human disturbance on forests. The question is how forest cover is changing in different parts of the world, why some areas are more frequently disturbed, and if protected areas are effective in limiting anthropogenic forest disturbance. The Carpathians are Eastern Europe's largest contiguous forest ecosystem and are a hotspot of biodiversity. Eastern Europe has undergone dramatic changes in political and socioeconomic structures since 1990, when socialistic state economies transitioned toward market economies. However, the effects of the political and economic transition on Carpathian forests remain largely unknown. Our goals were to compare post-socialist forest disturbance and to assess the effectiveness of protected areas in the border triangle of Poland, Slovakia, and Ukraine, to better understand the role of broadscale political and socioeconomic factors. Forest disturbances were assessed using the forest disturbance index derived from Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+ images from 1978 to 2000. Our results showed increased harvesting in all three countries (up to 1.8 times) in 1988-1994, right after the system change. Forest disturbance rates differed markedly among countries (disturbance rates in Ukraine were 4.5 times higher than in Poland, and those in Slovakia were 4.3 times higher than in Poland), and in Ukraine, harvests tended to occur at higher elevations. Forest fragmentation increased in all three countries but experienced a stronger increase in Slovakia and Ukraine (approximately 5% decrease in core forest) than in Poland. Protected areas were most effective in Poland and in Slovakia, where harvesting rates dropped markedly (by nearly an order of magnitude in Slovakia) after protected areas were designated. In Ukraine, harvesting rates inside and outside protected areas did not differ appreciably, and harvests were widespread immediately before the

  16. Intestinal parasites of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Vergles Rataj, Aleksandra; Posedi, Janez; Zele, Diana; Vengušt, Gorazd

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, 428 foxes were collected and examined for intestinal helminths using the washing-out method. Parasites were found in 93.2% of the examined animals. The most frequently identified nematodes were Uncinaria stenocephala (58.9%), Toxocara canis (38.3%) and Molineus patens (30.6%). Other nematodes found were Pterygodermatites affinis (4.2%), Capillaria sp. (2.8%), Crenosoma vulpis (2.8%), Toxascaris leonina (2.5%), Trichuris vulpis (0.7%) and Physaloptera sp. (0.2%). Mesocestoides sp. (27.6%) and Taenia crassiceps (22.2%) were the most prevalent cestodes, followed by T. polyacantha (6.5%), Hymenolepis nana (2.1%), T. pisiformis (2.1%) and Dipylidium caninum (1.4%). The study also revealed four trematode species: Rossicotrema donicum (1.6%), Heterophyes heterophyes (1.1%), Metagonimus yokogawai (1.1%), Prohemistomum appendiculatum (0.4%) and two protozoan species: oocysts of Sarcocystis (2.8%) and Isospora (0.4%). This is the first extensive study on the intestinal parasites of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Slovenia. The 2.6% prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in the same sample population as investigated herein has been reported previously (Vergles Rataj et al., 2010). PMID:23974942

  17. Renal Replacement Therapy in Slovenia: Excerpts From 2013 Data.

    PubMed

    Buturović-Ponikvar, Jadranka; Gubenšek, Jakob; Arnol, Miha; Adamlje, Tone; Ceglar, Zlata; Damevska, Gabriela; Globokar, Mateja; Černe, Senka; Čufer, Andrej; Drozg, Andrej; Ekart, Robert; Knap, Bojan; Kandus, Aljoša; Kapun, Sonja; Kralj-Lopert, Simona; Klančič, Dimitrij; Kunc-Rešek, Natalija; Kralj, Stojan; Malovrh, Marko; Močivnik, Marjan; Novljan, Gregor; Romozi, Karmen; Rus, Igor; Saksida, Silvan; Vujkovac, Bojan; Ponikvar, Rafael

    2016-06-01

    This report provides a summary of the 2013 Slovenian renal replacement therapy (RRT) data, obtained from 24 renal centers: 23 dialysis and one transplant center, referring from 31 December 2013, with 100% response rate to individual patient questionnaires. Slovenia had a population of 2 061 085 on 1 January 2014. The total number of patients treated by RRT was 2077, i.e. 1008.3 per million of population (pmp); 1349 (65%) were treated by hemodialysis, 52 (2.5%) by peritoneal dialysis, and 676 (32.5%) had a functioning kidney graft. A total of 260 incident patients, 126.2 pmp (at day one), started RRT, their median age was 69 years, 59.8% were men,. 58.5% of hemodialysis patients were treated with on-line hemodiafiltration. Vascular access was arteriovenous fistula in 79%, polytetrafluoroethylene graft in 8%, and catheter in 13% of patients, mean blood flow 276 ± 41 mL/min, 5.5% dialyzed in a single-needle mode. The crude death rate was 11.4% in all RRT patients (incident patients day 1 included, 15.9% in hemodialysis, 12.3% in peritoneal dialysis, 2.1% in transplant recipients). 60 kidney transplantations were performed in 2013, from deceased donors. PMID:27312905

  18. Astronomy in Primary and Secondary Education in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomboc, Andreja

    2015-08-01

    I will present the status of astronomy in educational system in Slovenia. In primary schools astronomy is offered as an optional course in the last 3 grades (12-15 yrs old), while in secondary schools a few astronomical topics are present only as part of other subjects (e.g. physics, geography). I will describe a pilot project of an astronomy course in secondary schools, which was carried out in the school year 2013/14. The main focus of my presentation will be the experience gained with organisation of the Slovenian National Astronomy Competition. It is organised by the Slovenian Society of Mathematicians, Physicists and Astronomers since 2009, building on an extensive network of over 200 primary and secondary school teachers who participated in IYA2009 activities, and who now represent majority of mentors for the competition. In 2013, only 5 years after the start of competition, our pupils attended the International Olympiad on Astronomy and Astrophysics for the first time and with great success. Supporting activities include the Slovenian version of the Portal to the Universe (www.portalvvesolje.si) and translation of Space Scoop astronomy news for children.

  19. Modelling cave flow hydraulics in the Notranjski Kras, Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Georg; Gabrovsek, Franci

    2015-04-01

    The Notranjski Kras region is a karst region in western Slovenia, developed in Cretaceous limestone. The region is characterised by hilly relief, with peaks reaching 1300 m elevation. Several well-developed cave systems drain the karst aquifer, providing preferential flow pathes along two sections: The Pivka River, which sinks into Postojnska Jama and reappears in Planinska Jama, and the Stržen and Cerkniščica rivers, which sink into Karlovica Jama, flow through Zelške Jama and Tkalca Jama and also reappear in Planinska Jama. Both sub-surface flow pathes merge in Planinska Jama, providing water for the Unica river. The Unica river leaves Planinska Jama via a large karst srping and passes through Planinsko Polje, disappearing again through two groups of ponors, finally emerging in the Ljubljanka Springs at around 300 m asl. The sub-surface flow path through the Postojnska Jama cave system has been monitored with 7 stations distributed along the flow path, monitoring stage and temperature. We have used the stage data to model flow through the cave system with the program package SWMM, simulating the active parts of Postojnska Jama with simplified geometry. From the comparison of stage observations and predictions, we identified key sections in the cave, which control the sub-surface flow, such as passage constrictions, sumps and by-passes. Using a formal inverse procedure, we determined the geometry of this key sections by fitting predicted to observed stages, and we achieved a very high degree of correlation.

  20. The Status of Nursing Documentation in Slovenia: a Survey.

    PubMed

    Rajkovič, Uroš; Kapun, Marija Milavec; Dinevski, Dejan; Prijatelj, Vesna; Zaletel, Marija; Šušteršič, Olga

    2016-09-01

    Health documentation is a prerequisite for good and sustainable health and social care. It is especially important for patient involvement and their empowerment. A transition from paper to e-documentation together with the electronic patient record should be based on thorough knowledge of the current state of documentation and its usages. The main objective of this paper was to analyse which documents and work methods of documenting processes within nursing are being used within different environments. Furthermore, what are the main reasons for their discrepancies from theoretical approaches and best practices. The analysis is based on a survey carried out on all three levels of healthcare. The survey questionnaire consisted of 12 questions to which responded 286 nursing teams from community health centres, hospitals and retirement homes in Slovenia. The results point to diversity in documenting as well as lack of interoperability. This is reflected in a great number of different documents. All phases of the nursing process were being documented in only 31.8 % of cases. The main reasons for this can be attributed to work organisation, different definitions of data-set requirements and inadequate knowledge by nurses. Survey results pointed out a need for the renewal of nursing documentation towards a more uniform system based on contemporary health technologies. PMID:27460383

  1. Historical Review of Astro-Geodetic Observations in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogrizovic, V.; Delcev, S.; Vasilic, V.; Gucevic, J.

    2008-10-01

    Astro-geodetic determinations of vertical deflections in Serbia began during the first years of 20th century. The first field works were led by S. Bo\\vsković. After the 2nd World War, Military Geographic Institute, Department of Geodesy from the Faculty of Civil Engineering, and Federal Geodetic Directorate continued the determinations, needed for reductions of terrestrial geodetic measurements and the astro-geodetic geoid determination. Last years improvements of the astro-geodetic methods are carried out in the area of implementing modern measurement equipment and technologies.

  2. Do Admission Criteria for Teacher Education Institutions Matter? A Comparative Study on Beliefs of Student Teachers from Serbia and Slovenia about Inclusive Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecek, Mojca; Macura-Milovanovic, Suncica

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between admissions criteria, the preparation provided by teacher education programmes and student teachers' (STs) beliefs about inclusive education (IE) are rarely made explicit. The paucity of data regarding this relationship leads us to question whether teacher candidates' prior beliefs matter relative to admissions…

  3. Public participation in recovery after earthquakes in Friuli (NE Italy) and the Upper Soča Valley (NW Slovenia) in 1976, 1998, and 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipan, P.; Zorn, M.

    2013-05-01

    The article deals with public participation in recovery after earthquakes in the border region of Friuli (NE Italy) and the Upper Soča Valley (NW Slovenia) in 1976 (magnitude 6.4, 6 May; magnitude 6.1, 15 September), 1998 (magnitude 6.0, 12 April), and 2004 (magnitude 4.9, 7 July). It highlights the differences in the concepts of the post-earthquake recovery, taking into consideration the different political systems between the two countries (capitalist Italy vs. communist Slovenia in 1976) and changes in recovery after the change of political system in Slovenia (communist Slovenia in 1976 vs. capitalist Slovenia in 1998 and 2004).

  4. Prevalence of antibodies to Rickettsiae in different regions of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Samardzic, Svetomir; Marinkovic, Tatjana; Marinkovic, Dragan; Djuricic, Bosiljka; Ristanovic, Elizabeta; Simovic, Tatjana; Lako, Branislav; Vukov, Biljana; Bozovic, Bojana; Gligic, Ana

    2008-04-01

    We assayed the presence of antibodies specific for Rickettsia typhi, R. akari, and R. conorii in sera of persons from several localities in Serbia with different geographic, climatic, and lifestyle characteristics. Sera from 140 patients with unclear clinical symptoms and 273 healthy persons were tested for the presence of rickettsiae-specific antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assay. In this study, for the first time we detected the presence of rickettsiae from the spotted fever group in Serbia. We detected the presence of antibodies against R. conorii in the samples from all tested localities. The proportion of positive cases was low in the plain agricultural areas but reached up to 23% in the mountain areas. We also observed a significant number of cases positive for antibodies against R. akari. Antibodies specific for the antigens of R. typhi were detected in only 2 samples from the municipality of Pec (Kosovo region). These findings contribute to the prevalence of Rickettsia species in Southeast Europe. Our study also revealed a dramatic lack of awareness of rickettsioses among medical personnel and pointed to the need for urgent measures that would help improve the current situation in the region. PMID:18240971

  5. Toxoplasmosis in Serbia: time for an action plan.

    PubMed

    Djurković-Djaković, O; Bobić, B; Klun, I

    2010-09-01

    Known for a century, Toxoplasma gondii has been studied in Serbia half this time, ever since the introduction of the Sabin-Feldman test at the Institute for Medical Research (IMR) in 1959. However, despite 50 years of continuous efforts, exact data on the frequency of acute clinical disease, acute infections in pregnancy and congenital infection in the offspring are still lacking, due to the vague regulatory provision that toxoplasmosis is subject to reporting "in case of epidemiological indications". It is, however, clear that the major Toxoplasma-induced public health issue in Serbia, like elsewhere in Europe, is congenital toxoplasmosis (CT). Continuous monitoring of particular patient groups showed a dramatic decrease in the prevalence of infection over the past two decades, and a consequently increased proportion of women susceptible to infection in pregnancy, suggesting a potential increase in the incidence of CT. Studies of risk factors for infection transmission have provided data to guide national health education campaigns. It is expected that the recent appointment of the National Reference Laboratory for Toxoplasmosis as the focal point for the collection of data from the primary level, will provide the means for accurate assessment of the measure of the problem, which is a prerequisite of an evidence-based nation-wide prevention program. In the meantime, health education of all pregnant women, focused at risk factors of major local significance, is advocated as a sound and financially sustainable option to reduce congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:21073140

  6. Torrential floods and town and country planning in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristić, R.; Kostadinov, S.; Abolmasov, B.; Dragićević, S.; Trivan, G.; Radić, B.; Trifunović, M.; Radosavljević, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Torrential floods are the most frequent natural catastrophic events in Serbia, causing the loss of human lives and huge material damage, both in urban and rural areas. The analysis of the intra-annual distribution of maximal discharges aided in noticing that torrential floods have a seasonal character. The erosion and torrent control works (ETCWs) in Serbia began at the end of the 19th century. Effective protection from torrential floods encompasses biotechnical works on the slopes in the watershed and technical works on the torrent beds, within a precisely defined administrative and spatial framework in order to achieve maximal safety for people and their property. Cooperation to overcome the conflicts between the sectors of the water resources management, forestry, agriculture, energetics, environmental protection and local economic development groups is indispensable at the following levels: policy, spatial planning, practice, investments and education. The lowest and most effective level is through the Plans for Announcement of Erosive Regions (PAERs) and the Plans for Protection from Torrential Floods (PPTFs), with Hazard Zones (HZs) and Threatened Areas (TAs) mapping on the basis of the hydrologic, hydraulic and spatial analysis of the factors that are important for the formation of torrential floods. Solutions defined through PAERs and PPTFs have to be integrated into Spatial Plans at local and regional levels.

  7. Determination of micro-organic contaminants in groundwater (Maribor, Slovenia).

    PubMed

    Koroša, A; Auersperger, P; Mali, N

    2016-11-15

    Micro-organic (MO) contaminants in groundwater can have adverse effects on both the environment and on human health. They enter the natural environment as a result of various processes, their presence in groundwater is the result of current anthropogenic activity and pollution loads from the past. A study on the occurrence and concentrations levels of selected contaminants in water was performed in the city of Maribor, Slovenia. A total of 56 groundwater and 4 surface water samples were collected in together four rounds in different hydrogeological periods (dry and wet seasons), and a total of 13 selected contaminants were analysed in this study. Carbamazepine, propyphenazone, caffeine, 2-methyl-2H-benzotriazole (2-MBT) and 2.4-dimethyl-2H-benzotriazole (2.4-DMBT) were determined as indicators of urban pollution, while pesticides and their metabolites (atrazine, desethylatrazine, deisopropylatrazine, terbuthylazine, desethylterbuthylazine, metolachlor, simazine, propazine) were mainly defined as indicators of crop production. All of the selected MO contaminants were detected both in the aquifer and Drava River. The most frequently detected MO compounds in groundwater were desethylatrazine (frequency of detection 98.2%; max. concentration 103.0ngL(-1)), atrazine (94.6%; 229ngL(-1)), 2.4-DMBT (92.9%; 273ngL(-1)), carbamazepine (80.4%; 88.00ngL(-1)), desethylterbuthylazine (76.8%; 7.0ngL(-1)) and simazine (76.8%; 29.6ngL(-1)), whereas propyphenazone (14.3%; 10.7ngL(-1)) was the least frequently detected. Detected MO concentrations in the study were compared with results published elsewhere around the world. Concentrations in groundwater indicate specific land use in their recharge areas. On the basis of correlations and the spatial distribution of selected MOs, groundwater origin for every sampling point was determined. Sampling sites were divided into three different groups for which indicative groundwater quality properties were defined. PMID:27395079

  8. Transboundary Groundwater Body Karavanke/Karawanken Between Austria and Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brencic, M.; Poltnig, W.

    2009-04-01

    Large part of the border region between Republic of Slovenia and Republic of Austria is represented by high east west extended mountainous ridge of Karavanke/Karawanken. It is a range extending along the Slovenian-Austrian border for almost 150 km. Its terrain consists of long and prominent ridges, whose slopes steeply fall to the northern and southern side. Ridges are interrupted by long, deep and narrow valleys. The highest peaks reach over 2000 m above sea level. In the entire range prominent ridges with mountain meadows and forests prevail. The area is scarcely populated, the main economic activities are grazing and forestry, in some places tourism is also developing, especially winter sports centres. Karavanke/Karawanken lies on the contact between two continental plates, the large European plate in the north and the smaller Adriatic plate in the south. When the Adriatic plate was thrusted over the European one towards the north, the collision resulted in the folding of sediments previously deposited in the space between the plates. The contact of both plates caused large lateral displacements, causing the rocks of both plates to fold and fault and then extend along the contact. This is the area of Periadriatic lineament, dividing Karavanke/Karawanken range into their north and south part. Periadriatic lineament is large stripe slip tectonic structure along which on the northern side rocks were extruded to the east and on the southern side to the west. Along the lineament metamorphic (e.g. biotitic and feldsparic para-gneis, amfibolites) and magmatic (e.g. diabaz, granite and tonalite) rocks of various ages are present. Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks cover large part of the mountain ridge. The oldest are Silurian and Ordovician limestone on the northern border followed by Devonian ridge limestones. They are covered by molasse sedimentation in Carbon and shallow marine and river predominantly clastic sedimentation in Perm. The most abundant and with numerous

  9. HIV and risk behaviour among men who have sex with men in Slovakia (2008-2009).

    PubMed

    Staneková, Danica; Kramárová, Patrícia; Wimmerová, Soňa; Hábeková, Monika; Takáčová, Mária; Mojzesová, Mária

    2014-12-01

    The HIV infection remains a major public health issue in the world and especially in those countries where there exists unprotected sexual intercourse between people of the same sex. It is namely the category of men having sex with men (MSM) that still represents a group at high risk of being infected with HIV or transmitting the virus. The aim of our study was to present HIV 2nd generation surveillance data on MSM in Slovakia in the period between the years 2008 and 2009. Time-location sampling (TLS) was used to recruit participants and oral fluid samples together with completed anonymous questionnaires were collected simultaneously. The oral fluids were tested with use of the Genscreen HIV ½ version 2, (Bio-Rad) and Western Blot (Genlabs) diagnostic kits. The data analysis was performed using Stata version 8. Saliva testing revealed HIV prevalence of 6.1% (21/349) among MSM in Slovakia. 75% of HIV-positive cases were undiagnosed. The high-risk behaviour of MSM in respect to the number of their sexual partners as well as drug and condom usage did not correspond with their relatively high knowledge about HIV/AIDS. People's attitude towards MSM was found to be the worst in the religious context. Though our results reflect a relative good knowledge of MSM about HIV/AIDS infection, new HIV-positive cases and high-risk behaviour still appear, suggesting the need for more effective HIV prevention among members of this high-risk group in Slovakia. PMID:25622481

  10. Allele frequencies and population data for 11 Y-chromosome STRs in samples from Eastern Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Petrejčíková, Eva; Soták, Miroslav; Bernasovská, Jarmila; Bernasovský, Ivan; Rębała, Krzysztof; Sovičová, Adriana; Boroňová, Iveta; Bôžiková, Alexandra; Gabriková, Dana; Svíčková, Petra; Mačeková, Soňa; Carnogurská, Jana; Lohaj, Roman; Vlček, Dávid

    2011-06-01

    Haplotype data of 11 Y-STR loci (DYS391, DYS389I, DYS439, DYS389II, DYS438, DYS437, DYS19, DYS392, DYS393, DYS390 and DYS385) was obtained from 629 Slovak Caucasian men living in Eastern Slovakia. A total of 474 haplotypes were identified, of which 395 were unique. The haplotype diversity value was 0.9982. Pairwise haplotype distances showed that the Eastern Slovak Caucasian population is not significantly different from the Slavs populations and is separated from the Balkan nations and the German speaking populations. PMID:20837407

  11. A database of mitochondrial DNA hypervariable regions I and II sequences of individuals from Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Lehocký, Ivan; Baldovic, Marian; Kádasi, Ludevít; Metspalu, Ene

    2008-09-01

    In order to identify polymorphic positions and to determine their frequencies and the frequency of haplotypes in the human mitochondrial control region, two hypervariable regions (HV1 and HV2) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 374 unrelated individuals from Slovakia were amplified and sequenced. Sequence comparison led to the identification of 284 mitochondrial lineages as defined by 163 variable sites. Genetic diversity (GD) was estimated at 0.997 and the probability of two randomly selected individuals from population having identical mtDNA types (random match probability, RMP) for the both regions is 0.60%. PMID:19083829

  12. Detection of West Nile virus and tick-borne encephalitis virus in birds in Slovakia, using a universal primer set.

    PubMed

    Csank, Tomáš; Bhide, Katarína; Bencúrová, Elena; Dolinská, Saskia; Drzewnioková, Petra; Major, Peter; Korytár, Ľuboš; Bocková, Eva; Bhide, Mangesh; Pistl, Juraj

    2016-06-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne neurotropic pathogen that presents a major public health concern. Information on WNV prevalence and circulation in Slovakia is insufficient. Oral and cloacal swabs and bird brain samples were tested for flavivirus RNA by RT-PCR using newly designed generic primers. The species designation was confirmed by sequencing. WNV was detected in swab and brain samples, whereas one brain sample was positive for tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). The WNV sequences clustered with lineages 1 and 2. These results confirm the circulation of WNV in birds in Slovakia and emphasize the risk of infection of humans and horses. PMID:27001305

  13. Molecular screening for bacteria and protozoa in great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) nesting in Slovakia, central Europe.

    PubMed

    Víchová, Bronislava; Reiterová, Katarína; Špilovská, Silvia; Blaňarová, Lucia; Hurníková, Zuzana; Turčeková, Ĺudmila

    2016-09-01

    This study brings the data about the occurrence of bacterial and protozoan pathogens in 32 great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis), representing approximately 20% of the population nesting in the surroundings of water basin Liptovská Mara (northern part of Central Slovakia). A survey revealed the presence of tick-borne bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilum (6.25%) and parasitic protozoa Toxoplasma gondii (3.1%). These data indicate an infectious status of the great cormorant population nesting in Slovakia; they might suggest a degree of environmental contamination by infectious agents and demonstrate the role of migratory seabirds in the circulation and dispersal of pathogens with zoonotic potential. PMID:27447224

  14. 31 CFR 586.306 - Government of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) means the government of the FRY (S&M), its agencies... entities organized or located in the FRY (S&M) as of June 9, 1998, any successors to such entities,...

  15. Variability of the honey bee mite Varroa destructor in Serbia, based on mtDNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Gajic, Bojan; Radulovic, Zeljko; Stevanovic, Jevrosima; Kulisic, Zoran; Vucicevic, Milos; Simeunovic, Predrag; Stanimirovic, Zoran

    2013-09-01

    Only two mitochondrial haplotypes (Korea and Japan) of Varroa destructor, the ectoparasitic honey bee mite, are known to be capable of infesting and successfully reproducing in Apis mellifera colonies worldwide. Varroa destructor (then called Varroa jacobsoni) was observed in Serbia for the first time in 1976. In order to obtain insight into the genetic variability of the mites parasitizing A. mellifera we analyzed 45 adult female mites sampled from nine localities dispersed throughout Serbia. Four fragments within cox1, atp6, cox3 and cytb mtDNA genes were sequenced. The Korea haplotype of V. destructor was found to be present at all localities, but also two new haplotypes (Serbia 1 and Peshter 1) were revealed, based on cox1 and cytb sequence variability. The simultaneous occurrence of Korea and Serbia 1 haplotypes was observed at five localities, whereas Peshter 1 haplotype was identifed at only one place. PMID:23471517

  16. The Changing Role of the National Library Advisory Service in Slovenia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bizjak, Vilenka Jakac; Novljan, Silva

    The National Library in Slovenia was fully authorized to develop on the national level the library network made up of all types of libraries. To fulfill the tasks, a special advisory center/service was founded to perform advising and developing tasks, as well as supervisory tasks. In the last decade, a significant change of its role has come…

  17. Tick-borne encephalitis associated with consumption of raw goat milk, Slovenia, 2012.

    PubMed

    Hudopisk, Neda; Korva, Miša; Janet, Evgen; Simetinger, Marjana; Grgič-Vitek, Marta; Gubenšek, Jakob; Natek, Vladimir; Kraigher, Alenka; Strle, Franc; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana

    2013-05-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) developed in 3 persons in Slovenia who drank raw milk; a fourth person, who had been vaccinated against TBE, remained healthy. TBE virus RNA was detected in serum and milk of the source goat. Persons in TBE-endemic areas should be encouraged to drink only boiled/pasteurized milk and to be vaccinated. PMID:23697658

  18. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing in Slovenia: availability, ethical dilemmas and legislation

    PubMed Central

    Vrecar, Irena; Peterlin, Borut; Teran, Natasa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Over the last few years, many private companies are advertising direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC GT), mostly with no or only minor clinical utility and validity of tests and without genetic counselling. International professional community does not approve provision of DTC GT and situation in some EU countries has been analysed already. The aim of our study was to analyse current situation in the field of DTC GT in Slovenia and related legal and ethical issues. Materials and methods Information was retrieved through internet search, performed independently by two authors, structured according to individual private company and the types of offered genetic testing. Results Five private companies and three Health Insurance Companies offer DTC GT and it is provided without genetic counselling. Available tests include testing for breast cancer, tests with other health-related information (complex diseases, drug responses) and other tests (nutrigenetic, ancestry, paternity). National legislation is currently being developed and Council of Experts in Medical Genetics has issued an opinion about Genetic Testing and Commercialization of Genetic Tests in Slovenia. Conclusions Despite the fact that Slovenia has signed the Additional protocol to the convention on human rights and biomedicine, concerning genetic testing for health purposes, DTC GT in Slovenia is present and against all international recommendations. There is lack of or no medical supervision, clinical validity and utility of tests and inappropriate genetic testing of minors is available. There is urgent need for regulation of ethical, legal, and social aspects. National legislation on DTC GT is being prepared. PMID:25672471

  19. Cross-Cultural Study on the Rights of the Child in Slovenia: The First Ten Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlovic, Zoran

    2001-01-01

    Briefly outlines Slovenia's young democracy and describes Children's Parliament as an example of cooperation of the state and non-governmental organizations in the field of children's rights. Presents main findings of the Cross-Cultural Study on the Rights of the Child in which a nationally representative sample of children, their teachers, and…

  20. The Influence of Nutrition Education on the Food Consumption and Nutrition Attitude of Schoolchildren in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostanjevec, Stojan; Jerman, Janez; Koch, Verena

    2012-01-01

    In Slovenia, nutrition education is included in the compulsory education curriculum of the nine-year elementary school. The aim of nutrition education is for schoolchildren to acquire knowledge on nutrition to help them form healthy nutritional habits. This research aims at establishing whether the formal nutrition education carried out at schools…

  1. "I Need Instant Help": Assessing the Mentoring Needs of New Primary Head Teachers in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, J. Tim; Erculj, Justina; Tranavcevic, Anita

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we describe a peer mentoring program for new elementary school head teachers in Slovenia. First, the results of a preliminary needs assessment are reported, and the dissonance between new head teacher expectations and the realities of their work are described. We then present an overview of the two cross-cutting themes that emerged,…

  2. Development Trends in the Fields of Education and Care for Vulnerable Groups in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobolt, Alenka; Pavel, Jana Rapus

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the main developments in education and care for vulnerable groups of children and youth in Slovenia over the past twenty years. It describes the education system and provides an overview of the development of social pedagogy as a discipline and the practice of working with some groups of vulnerable young people. The trends can…

  3. Reforming Higher Education in "Transition": Between National and International Reform Initiatives--The Case of Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zgaga, Pavel; Miklavic, Klemen

    2011-01-01

    The article analyzes the last two decades of higher education reforms in Slovenia. During the "period of transition," they were led by national as well as international initiatives. At an early stage, the national initiatives were mainly based on criticisms of the last reform made by the former regime, although the generation of new ideas and…

  4. Development of Mobile Communications in Slovenia: Looking to the Future Global Information (Mobile/Internet) Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonic, Tomaz; Mlinar, Tomi

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the planning and provision of mobile communications in Slovenia and suggests areas that will be developed in the future. Topics include the global mobile market; digital mobile networks; evolution from voice to multimedia services; wireless application protocol; the Internet; general packet radio service; and universal mobile…

  5. Implementing Change in Architectural Design in Elementary School Art Education in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batic, Janja

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a study of the effects of an action research project that aimed to improve the practice of teaching art in elementary schools in Slovenia. The specific focus was on the planning and execution of art tasks relating to architectural design. The planned improvements were based on the process of architectural design from…

  6. Philosophy of Education in Post-Soviet Societies of Eastern Europe: Poland, Lithuania and Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godon, Rafal; Juceviciene, Palmira; Kodelja, Zdenko

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the role of philosophy of education in three post-Soviet societies of Eastern Europe: Poland, Lithuania and Slovenia. The characteristic themes and approaches of philosophical reflection about education in these societies are explored with reference to three periods: the pre-Soviet, Soviet and post-Soviet periods.

  7. The New Evangelisation and Adult Religious Education in Slovenia: Challenges and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegu, Tadej

    2015-01-01

    The Catholic Church in Slovenia is facing the challenge of the new evangelisation in the area of religious education which, at present, is mainly confined to the parish catechesis. She recognises the urgent need to pass from the religious education of children to adult catechesis. The latter is already being implemented in various forms by a…

  8. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Slovenia 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plevnik, Primoz; Podobnik, Ursula

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Slovenia's arts and cultural education. The Ministry of Education and Sport is responsible for laying down the aims for cultural and creative dimensions of education. Concerning the creation of the curriculum related to culture and creativity (both within education) and the arts curriculum, most curricular decisions are made…

  9. Geochemical and isotopic characteristics of groundwater from Velenje Basin, Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanduč, Tjaša; Grassa, Fausto; Mori, Nataša; Verbovšek, Timotej

    2016-04-01

    The Velenje Basin in Slovenia is one of the largest actively mined coal basins in central Europe, producing around 4 million tons of lignite per year. Large amounts of groundwater are extracted from aquifers to facilitate underground mining of coal, and coal seam gas outbursts are a serious mine safety concern. This study analyses the geochemical and isotopic composition of groundwater to provide a general understanding of hydrogeological and geochemical processes in groundwater. Thirty-eight groundwater samples were taken from dewatering objects in the mine and at the surface in years 2014-2015. Groundwater in the Triassic aquifer is dominated by hydrogen carbonate, calcium, magnesium and isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon in the range from -19.3 to -2.8‰ indicating degradation of soil organic matter and dissolution of carbonate minerals. In contrast, groundwater in the Pliocene aquifers is enriched in magnesium, sodium, calcium, potassium, and silicon, and has high alkalinity, with isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon in the range of -14.4 to +4.6‰ . Based on isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon values in all aquifers (Pliocene and Triassic), influencing processes are the dissolution of carbonate minerals and dissolution of organic matter, and additionally methanogenesis in the Pliocene aquifers. Based on the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) we can conclude that following different types of groundwater in Velenje Basin could be distinguished based on geochemical and isotopic data: Triassic aquifers with higher pH and lower conductivity and chloride, Pliocene, Pliocene 1 and Pliocene 2 aquifers with lower pH and higher conductivity and chloride contents, and Pliocene 3 and Pliocene 2, 3 aquifers with the highest pH and lowest conductivity and chloride contents. Major dissolved gas component in groundwater are carbon dioxide, nitrogen and methane. Concentrations of dissolved gases dewatering Triassic strata are low

  10. The concept of hydropower certification in Italy and Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolar-Zvanut, Natasa; Goltara, Andrea; Conte, Gulio

    2010-05-01

    River regulation by building a hydropower plants (HPPs) is one of the most stressful factor influencing the aquatic and riparian ecosystem. In many countries a development of HPPs is often opposed by public bodies and NGOs, worried about the risk of adverse effects on the "good status" of water bodies, that, according to the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC, WFD), has to be reached by year 2015. The paper describes a technically and economically feasible certification procedure for existing hydro power generation facilities of higher environmental standard, being explicitly coherent with the requirements of the WFD, to be implemented in "green labelled" electricity products, and being integrated, as much as possible, with existing EU tools, such as Ecolabel, EMAS, EIA and SEA. The methodology was developed for Italy and Slovenia and it will be tested in different types of HPPs in both countries. In order to be certified, a given HPP has to commit to carry out appropriate measures in order to mitigate its impacts on specified environmental objectives, in such a way to fulfil predefined environmental targets and prescriptions. These measures have to be described through a specific management programme, based upon a dedicated environmental study, supported mainly by existing data, but complemented by ad-hoc assessment/monitoring when necessary. The realization of both the environmental study and the management programme must be supported by public consultation; both documents must be approved through an auditing process. For some types of HPPs, operating in totally artificial networks and not entailing direct or indirect impact on water related ecosystems, a simplified procedure is foreseen, where detailed environmental analysis, related management programme and stakeholders involvement are not requested, but just a description of the system and proof of fulfilment of the conditions and of specific prescriptions. HPPs impacting water bodies defined as Artificial

  11. Molecular characterization of 'Candidatus Rickettsia vini' in Ixodes arboricola from the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Novakova, Marketa; Bulkova, Alexandra; Costa, Francisco B; Kristin, Anton; Krist, Milos; Krause, Frantisek; Liznarova, Eva; Labruna, Marcelo B; Literak, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of rickettsiae in the tree-hole tick Ixodes arboricola in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. During May to September of 2009 and 2013, bird boxes belonging to three different areas were screened for ticks. In total, 454 nestlings and 109 nests of 10 hole-breeding bird species were examined. Ticks were found on Ficedula albicollis, Parus major, Cyanistes caeruleus and Sitta europaea and/or in their nests. In total, 166 ticks (17 nymphs, 10 males and 139 females) were found at 3 areas (arithmetic mean±standard error: 55.3±45.9). All ticks were tested for the presence of Rickettsia species by polymerase chain reaction targeting the rickettsial genes gltA, ompA, ompB and htrA and amplicon sequencing. All individuals except 3 nymphs were infected with 'Candidatus Rickettsia vini'. Multilocus sequence typing showed closest proximity to Rickettsia japonica and Rickettsia heilongjiangensis cluster. The presence of 'Ca. R. vini' is reported for the first time in Slovakia. PMID:25769386

  12. Wastewater analysis: the mean of the monitoring of frequently prescribed pharmaceuticals in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Mackuľak, Tomáš; Birošová, Lucia; Gál, Miroslav; Bodík, Igor; Grabic, Roman; Ryba, Jozef; Škubák, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    The estimation of medication use is based on the statistical data from pharmacies and hospitals. Excessive use or misuse of some compounds, especially psychoactive medications, has not yet been monitored in Slovakia. Wastewater analysis provides useful data about the medication use and misuse in individual regions. This study is focused on the analysis of 23 substances in the wastewaters of Slovakia. The monitoring programme has included stimulants, opioid and morphine derivatives, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, drug precursors and their metabolites. Urinary markers of these compounds were analysed at WWTP influent in seven regions (Bratislava, Košice, Zvolen, Banská Bystrica, Trenčín, Prešov a Piešťany) using LC-MS/MS technique. The analysis was performed from March to October 2013. The pattern in use of these compounds was also monitored. Tramadol and venlafaxine were found to be the most concentrated compounds among of all studied psychoactive pharmaceuticals. The highest specific loads of tramadol were detected in Piešťany (409 mg/day/1000 inhabitants) and Zvolen (366 mg/day/1000 inhabitants). There is a considerable number of spa facilities (hotels) situated in these cities and this fact contributes to a higher occurrence of these psychoactive compounds in respective wastewaters. PMID:26650204

  13. Comparative health risks of domestic waste combustion in urban and rural Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová, Jana; Eschenroeder, Alan Q

    2007-10-01

    This paper addresses the health risk incurred by two alternative waste management schemes: open burning of household waste in barrels practiced in rural Slovakia and controlled municipal waste combustion in the city of Bratislava. Using agricultural land use data and village population data we formulate three prototype villages, each representing about one-third of the rural population. The two configurations of the controlled combustion are an outdated municipal waste incinerator (MWI) and a modern waste-to-energy (WTE) plant equipped with modern air pollution control devices. These configurations actually exist(ed) in Bratislava, Slovakia at the same site, but in different time frames. The CALPUFF model provides direct exposure data and the EMERAM software (developed in this paper) computes indirect exposure. A major source of uncertainty is that of the fraction of waste burned in the open. The analysis presented here assumed 10%. At this level, the cancer risk from open burning ranges from 10 to 80 times the commonly regarded de minimus value of one in a million. This means that underthe U.S. contemporary regulatory culture, some regulatory action to control or enforce the burning ban would be expected. Cancer risks from the incinerator ranged from 7 to 371 in a million while the WTE risks were below 1 in a million. Cancer risks from open burning are higher than those of the WTE plant and at the same time affect a larger portion of concerned population. PMID:17969705

  14. Holocaust Education in the "Black Hole of Europe": Slovakia's Identity Politics and History Textbooks Pre- and Post-1989

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaels, Deborah L.

    2013-01-01

    Holocaust education in Slovakia stands at the confluence of diverse discourses of state and supra-national legitimation. Principles of national self-determination, minority rights, and political ideologies inform and lend credence to how Slovaks' national and state identities are narrated in Slovak history textbooks. For small nation-states with…

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF PORCINE PARVOVIRUS TYPE 3 AND PORCINE CIRCOVIRUS TYPE 2 IN WILD BOARS (SUS SCROFA) IN SLOVAKIA.

    PubMed

    Sliz, Ivan; Vlasakova, Michaela; Jackova, Anna; Vilcek, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    As the number of free-living wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) continues to rise in Slovakia, the probability of pathogen transmission between susceptible species increases. We investigated the distribution and genetic characterization of porcine parvovirus type 3 (PPV3), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), and their coinfection in wild boars. Among 194 animals tested, 19.1% were positive for PPV3 and 43.8% for PCV2. Similar rates of coinfection with both viruses reaching 11.0% and 11.8% were observed in juvenile and mature wild boars, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of PPV3 sequences from VP1 and NS1 genomic regions revealed a close genetic relationship among isolates from Slovakia and those sampled worldwide. Prevalence of PCV2 in wild boars was lower than that reported in domestic pigs in Slovakia. The PCV2 variants originating from sylvatic and domestic hosts in Slovakia were grouped in the same clusters, namely PCV2b-1A/1B and PCV2a-2D. PMID:25973618

  16. Executive Functioning in Three Groups of Pupils in D-KEFSs: Selected Issues in Adapting the Test Battery for Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferjencík, Ján; Slavkovská, Miriam; Kresila, Juraj

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports on the adaptation of a D-KEFS test battery for Slovakia. Drawing on concrete examples, it describes and illustrates the key issues relating to the transfer of test items from one socio-cultural environment to another. The standardisation sample of the population of Slovak pupils in the fourth year of primary school included 250…

  17. Industry turns its attention south

    SciTech Connect

    Marhefka, D.

    1997-08-01

    The paper discusses the outlook for the gas and oil industries in the Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Significant foreign investment continues to elude Russia`s oil and gas industry, so the Caspian nations of Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan are picking up the slack, welcoming the flow of foreign capital to their energy projects. Separate evaluations are given for Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Moldova, Tajikstan, Uzbekistan, Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Serbia.

  18. Molecular detection of emerging tick-borne pathogens in Vojvodina, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Potkonjak, Aleksandar; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Savić, Sara; Vračar, Vuk; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Jurišić, Aleksandar; Kleinerman, Gabriela; Rojas, Alicia; Petrović, Aleksandra; Baneth, Gad; Harrus, Shimon

    2016-02-01

    Ticks play an important role in disease transmission globally due to their capability to serve as vectors for human and animal pathogens. The Republic of Serbia is an endemic area for a large number of tick-borne diseases. However, current knowledge on these diseases in Serbia is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of new emerging tick-borne pathogens in ticks collected from dogs and the vegetation from different parts of Vojvodina, Serbia. A total of 187 ticks, including 124 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 45 Ixodes ricinus and 18 Dermacentor reticulatus were collected from dogs. In addition, 26 questing I. ricinus ticks were collected from the vegetation, using the flagging method, from 4 different localities in Vojvodina, Serbia. DNA was extracted from each tick individually and samples were tested by either conventional or real-time PCR assays for the presence of Rickettsia spp.-DNA (gltA and ompA gene fragments), Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp.-DNA (16S rRNA gene fragment) and Hepatozoon spp./Babesia spp.-DNA (18S rRNA gene fragment). In addition, all I. ricinus DNA samples were tested for Bartonella spp.-DNA (ITS locus) by real-time PCR. In this study, the presence of novel emerging tick-borne pathogens including Rickettsia raoultii, Rickettsia massiliae, Babesia venatorum, Babesia microti, Hepatozoon canis and Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis was identified for the first time in Serbia. Our findings also confirmed the presence of Rickettsia monacensis, Babesia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ticks from Serbia. The findings of the current study highlight the great diversity of tick-borne pathogens of human and animal importance in Serbia. Physicians, public health workers and veterinarians should increase alertness to the presence of these tick-borne pathogens in this country. PMID:26565929

  19. Determination of soil degradation from flooding for estimating ecosystem services in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavcova, Kamila; Szolgay, Jan; Karabova, Beata; Kohnova, Silvia

    2015-04-01

    Floods as natural hazards are related to soil health, land-use and land management. They not only represent threats on their own, but can also be triggered, controlled and amplified by interactions with other soil threats and soil degradation processes. Among the many direct impacts of flooding on soil health, including soil texture, structure, changes in the soil's chemical properties, deterioration of soil aggregation and water holding capacity, etc., are soil erosion, mudflows, depositions of sediment and debris. Flooding is initiated by a combination of predispositive and triggering factors and apart from climate drivers it is related to the physiographic conditions of the land, state of the soil, land use and land management. Due to the diversity and complexity of their potential interactions, diverse methodologies and approaches are needed for describing a particular type of event in a specific environment, especially in ungauged sites. In engineering studies and also in many rainfall-runoff models, the SCS-CN method has remained widely applied for soil and land use-based estimations of direct runoff and flooding potential. The SCS-CN method is an empirical rainfall-runoff model developed by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly called the Soil Conservation Service or SCS). The runoff curve number (CN) is based on the hydrological soil characteristics, land use, land management and antecedent saturation conditions of soil. Since the method and curve numbers were derived on the basis of an empirical analysis of rainfall-runoff events from small catchments and hillslope plots monitored by the USDA, the use of the method for the conditions of Slovakia raises uncertainty and can cause inaccurate results in determining direct runoff. The objective of the study presented (also within the framework of the EU-FP7 RECARE Project) was to develop the SCS - CN methodology for the flood conditions in Slovakia (and especially for the RECARE pilot site

  20. Mycobiota of Underground Habitats: Case Study of Harmanecká Cave in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Ogórek, Rafał; Višňovská, Zuzana; Tančinová, Dana

    2016-01-01

    Harmanecká Cave is located in the Harmanec Valley to the northwest of Banská Bystrica city, in the southern part of the Great Fatra Mountains, Slovakia. This cave is the most important underground locality of bat occurrence in Slovakia (population of 1000 to 1500 individuals). The study aimed at mycological evaluation of the air, the water, and the rock surface of Harmanecká Cave in Slovakia. The samples were taken on 24 July 2014. To examine the air, the Air Ideal 3P sampler was used. Microbiological evaluation of the rock surface was performed using swab sampling and the water by using the serial dilution technique. The authors observed a relationship between air temperature and the concentration of fungi. The concentration of airborne fungi increased with the increase in the air temperature and decreased with distance from the entrance to the cave. The density of airborne fungi isolated from the outdoor air samples was 810.5 colony-forming units (CFU) per 1 m3 of air and from 27.4 to 128.5 CFU for the indoor air samples. From the rock surface inside the cave, 45.0 to 106.6 CFU per 1 cm2 were isolated, whereas from the water, 29.9 CFU per 1 ml were isolated. Seven species of filamentous fungi were isolated from the external air samples and 12 species of filamentous fungi and 3 species of yeast-like fungi from the internal air samples. From the surface of the rocks inside the cave, 5 species of filamentous fungi and 1 species of yeast-like fungi were cultured, whereas from the water samples, 6 species of filamentous fungi were cultured. Cladosporium spp. were the fungi most frequently isolated from the external air; from the internal air, Penicillium urticae was most frequently isolated; from the rock surface, it was Gliocladium roseum; and from the water, it was P. chrysogenum. The species found in the cave can be pathogenic for humans and animals, especially for immunocompromised persons, and they can also cause biodegradation of the rocks. However, the

  1. Impact of the North Atlantic Oscillation on winter precipitation totals in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leskova, Livia; Stastny, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the most important circulation mode in the Northern Hemisphere, which impacts climate in Europe in various ways. The strongest impacts of oscillation on air temperature and precipitation regime are detected in Scandinavia and Mediterranean region, but impacts have opposite effect. Therefore, assessment of the relation between NAO and precipitation totals seems to be interesting in Slovakia, because of the country location in the centre between above mentioned regions. Our former research detected only the relation between NAO and a winter precipitation totals in Slovakia. More detailed aspects of this relation is analysed in this paper. A correlation method was used at two resolution levels, which detected opposite spatial impact of NAO on above mentioned seasonal precipitation. The first generalised level was based on the precipitation regions, which were distinguished on the base of characteristic precipitation regime of individual regions. The second level was more detailed and the correlation method was applied on data of every individual rain gauge station from the set of 202 rain gauge stations with complete data for period 1901 - 2010 in Slovakia. In the northern part of the country (Orava and Kysuce regions), there was found the positive correlation. Increase in the winter precipitation totals was recorded in the same regions and general precipitation trend in this area was similar to the trend in used Hurrell oscillation index. It means, following the increasing trend in oscillation course, we can also expect the increase in precipitation totals in these regions in the near future. In a southward direction, this correlation changed to the negative values and the most negative correlation coefficients were reached in the lowland regions (Podunajská and Východoslovenská nížina) and in the region of Juhoslovenská kotlina. This last mentioned region is located in multiple precipitation shadow of Carpathians

  2. 31 CFR 586.514 - Divestiture of U.S. person's equity investment in the territory of the Republic of Serbia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... investment in the territory of the Republic of Serbia. 586.514 Section 586.514 Money and Finance: Treasury... TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses... the territory of the Republic of Serbia. Notwithstanding the prohibition in § 586.204 against...

  3. Drought analysis in Serbia using the Standardized Precipitation Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosic, I.; Krzic, A.; Djurdjevic, V.; Unkasevic, M.; Rajkovic, B.

    2010-09-01

    Many quantitative measures of drought have been developed. McKee et al. (1993) introduced the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) to quantify precipitation deficits on multiple time scales (1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 months). The different time scales for which the index is computed address the various types of drought: the shorter seasons for agricultural and meteorological drought, the longer seasons for hydrological drought. Computation of the SPI involves fitting a gamma probability density function to a given frequency distribution of precipitation totals. The parameters of the gamma distribution are used to find the cumulative probability of a precipitation event. An equiprobability transformation is then made from the cumulative distribution to the standard normal distribution with a mean of zero and variance of one. This transformed probability is the SPI value, which varies between +2.0 and -2.0. The SPI is a dimensionless index where negative values indicate drought while positive values, wet conditions. The rainfall series for the present (1961-1990) and future (2071-2100) period were simulated using the Eta Belgrade University - Princeton Ocean Model (EBU-POM). The EBU-POM is a two-way coupled regional climate model, with the Eta/NCEP limited area model as its atmospheric part and POM as its ocean part (Djurdjevic and Rajkovic, 2008). Atmospheric model horizontal resolution was 0.25° and ocean model horizontal resolution was 0.2°. Concentrations of the greenhouse gasses were changed following the A2 scenario. First, a gamma probability density function is fitted to the precipitation data during the period 1961-1990 (the calibration period). The SPI time series with the 12-month time scale (SPI12) for Belgrade and Niš were analyzed and compared with observations. August in 2000 was exceptionally dry in the greater Belgrade area and in northern and eastern Serbia (Unkasevic et al, 2004). The monthly totals were between 5 and 10 mm. Since, the maps of

  4. Relation between primary liver cancer occurrence and freshwater Cyanobacterial blooms in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svirčev, Z.; Miladinov-Mikov, M.; Simeunović, J.; Vidović, M.; Stojanović, D.

    2009-04-01

    Since 1980 cyanobacterial blooms occurred in a large number of reservoirs, lakes and running water ecosystems (rivers and channels) in Serbia. Among 49 reservoirs examined, 32 were found in blooming condition almost every year during last 2 decades. All natural lakes and 12 river and channel localities in Vojvodina province (agricultural part) proved to be sites with cyanobacterial proliferation. The part of Central Serbia is very problematic for ground water supply. For that reason 21 reservoirs serve as drinking water suppliers. Significant and persistant cyanobacterial blooms have been recognized in 9 of them. Samples for cyanotoxin analyses were taken during and after blooms in Celije Reservoir and in drinking water in Krusevac town 2 days later. Concentratins of Microcystin-LR were 460 µg•L-1 and for Microcystin-RR 170 µg•L-1. Drinking water contained 2 and 0.6 µg•L-1, respectively. Serbia consists of 30 administrative units, in three of which studies for Primary Liver Cancer (PLC) were conducted independently: Vojvodina, where drinking-water is supplied only from deep wells where 7 regions were studied, Kosovo with a few high mountain reservoirs for water supply without cyanobacterial proliferation where 6 regions were studied, and Central Serbia, where 17 regions were studied. Central Serbia showed 7 regions with extremly high PLC incidence and 8 regions with lower PLC incidence. In the two investigated periods, the high PLC mortality of 11.6 in 1980-1995 and extremely high PLC incidence of 26 in 2000 was observed in the regions affected by heavy cyanobacterial blooms. In contrast, the regions not affected by the blooms, PLC mortality and incidence rates were substantially lower: from 1980-1995 mortality rate ammounted to 2.7 in Kosovo, 7.6 in Vojvodina, and 8.5 in the non-affected regions of Central Serbia, and in 2000 incidence rate ammounted to 4.1 (Kosovo), 6.6 (Vojvodina), and 7.5 in the non-affected regions of Central Serbia. The uneven

  5. Community structure and the evolution of interdisciplinarity in Slovenia's scientific collaboration network.

    PubMed

    Lužar, Borut; Levnajić, Zoran; Povh, Janez; Perc, Matjaž

    2014-01-01

    Interaction among the scientific disciplines is of vital importance in modern science. Focusing on the case of Slovenia, we study the dynamics of interdisciplinary sciences from 1960 to 2010. Our approach relies on quantifying the interdisciplinarity of research communities detected in the coauthorship network of Slovenian scientists over time. Examining the evolution of the community structure, we find that the frequency of interdisciplinary research is only proportional with the overall growth of the network. Although marginal improvements in favor of interdisciplinarity are inferable during the 70s and 80s, the overall trends during the past 20 years are constant and indicative of stalemate. We conclude that the flow of knowledge between different fields of research in Slovenia is in need of further stimulation. PMID:24728345

  6. Development of integrated water information system as a support tool in water management in slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmar, A.; Globevnik, L.; Brilly, M.

    2003-04-01

    The integral digital information on the waters of Slovenia is developed. This is a system of aggregated, verified and logically integrated information on the state of waters in Slovenia, the pressures on the water environments and its protection. Data sources are national information evidence and monitoring systems managed by public service organisations and other expert institutions. The information system is a source for planning in water management, environmental state reporting, and performance indicators evaluation. It is based on country based catchment register. The system incorporates 31 information thematic layers that are organised in the DPSIR (driving forces, pressure, state, impact, and response) system. Data for the information themes are organised with the AutoCad MAP 4.5 GIS tool and prepared for browsing with Internet.

  7. Assertive outreach in Slovenia; identification of target group and goals of treatment in a new program.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Mirjana

    2009-09-01

    A team from the Rehabilitation unit of Ljubljana psychiatric clinic attended a course on community care in London in October and November 2005. Because we decided that the methods presented to us could be of great use in Slovenia where the Health system is lacking such services we decided to implement them after our return. Immediately after we returned we started to carry out our plan. We designated our target group which were patients who poorly participated in treatment or had multiple and severe difficulties functioning and retaining their progress after discharge. Our goals were to improve patient participation in treatment before and after discharge, less and shorter hospitalizations and better integration of patients into society. Initial results are very positive, which leaves me much hope for further implementation of assertive outreach and community care in Slovenia. PMID:19789482

  8. First molecular identification of Babesia gibsoni in dogs from Slovakia, central Europe.

    PubMed

    Víchová, Bronislava; Horská, Mária; Blaňarová, Lucia; Švihran, Milan; Andersson, Martin; Peťko, Branislav

    2016-02-01

    Canine babesiosis is a severe and potentially life threatening infection. In Europe, Babesia canis is considered to be the most common species responsible for the disease. We report two cases of babesiosis caused by Babesia gibsoni. The polymerase chain reaction, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and further sequencing of 18S rRNA gene fragments from blood samples of both dogs revealed the identity of isolates with B. gibsoni genotypes from other dogs worldwide. This species was previously not known to infect dogs in Slovakia. It is resistant to traditional anti-babesial therapy. Therefore, correct diagnosis is crucial for the successful treatment, especially in dogs with hemolytic anemia and febrile conditions. PMID:26304014

  9. Engineering-Geological Maps of Geological Factors of the Environment in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baliak, František; Brček, Martin

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, we have witnessed very frequent natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, storms and similar. In most cases, disasters are caused by geological factors, especially geobarriers. Geobarriers threaten the life and works of man or reduce the effectiveness of the construction and operation of technical works, or harm the environment by negative anthropogenic influences. An important task in assessing the technical and environmental aspects of particular engineering activity is to assess the impact of constructions on the production and protection of the environment. The important part of the environment is the geological environment. In this paper, we give an overview of geological factors of the environment and the way how they are illustrated in the engineering-geological maps made in Slovakia.

  10. Dark stains on rock surfaces in Driny Cave (Little Carpathian Mountains, Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Ogórek, Rafał; Dyląg, Mariusz; Kozak, Bartosz

    2016-09-01

    Mycobiota are important in underground ecology. In 2014, we discovered dark stains on clayey sediments on the walls of Driny Cave, Slovakia. Our description is based on the morphology of the fungus and the phylogenetic relationships of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. In addition, data on its capacity for the production of extracellular enzymes, growth, and survival in vitro at different temperatures are reported. Our analyses revealed that this dark stains on the wall was produced by Penicillium glandicola. The fungus was able to synthesize amylases, proteases and cellulases, but not pectinases and keratinases. The vegetative structures of mycelium of this fungus are viable in vitro after storage at cool temperatures (from -72 to 5 °C), and show active growth at temperatures from 5 to 25 °C, but without spore germination, and without active growth at 30 and 37 °C. Penicillium glandicola is a psychrotolerant species and belong to var. glandicola. PMID:27315167

  11. Roles of Stolbur phytoplasma and Reptalus panzeri (Cixiinae, Auchenorrhyncha) in the epidemiology of Maize redness in Serbia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize redness (MR), a disease causing midrib, leaf and stalk reddening and abnormal ear development in maize, has been reported from Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria for 50 years. Recent epiphytotics reduced yields by 40-90% in southern Banat, Serbia. MR was recently associated with the presence of th...

  12. 75 FR 33376 - Determination Related to Serbia Under Section 7072(c) of the Department of State, Foreign...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Determination Related to Serbia Under Section 7072(c) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... determine and certify that the Government of Serbia is: (1) Cooperating with the International...

  13. Roles of Stolbur Phytoplasma and Reptalus Panzeri (Cixiinae, Auchenorrhyncha) in the Epidemiology of Maize Redness in Serbia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize redness (MR), a disease causing midrib, leaf and stalk reddening and abnormal ear development in maize, has been reported from Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria for 50 years. Recent epiphytotics reduced yields by 40-90% in southern Banat, Serbia. MR was recently associated with the presence of th...

  14. Changes in hydrological regime under changed climate and forest conditions in mountainous basins in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavcova, Kamila; Roncak, Peter; Maliarikova, Marcela; Latkova, Tamara; Korbelova, Lenka

    2016-04-01

    The impacts of land use and climate change on hydrological regime have been an important field of research in recent decades, especially with respect to runoff formation. Land use directly impacts basic hydrological processes, such as evapotranspiration, infiltration and runoff. The study focuses on estimating impact of land use and climate changes on runoff generation in selected mountainous basins in Slovakia. Changes in land use were represented by changes in forest distribution and composition induced by changed climate. Two climate scenarios of the daily air temperatures, specific air humidity and precipitation (KNMI A1B and MPI A1B) regionally downscaled for the territory of Slovakia until the time horizon of 2075 were applied. For simulations of runoff and other components of hydrological balance under changed conditions a distributed rainfall-runoff model was used. The simulations were done with an emphasis on the parameterization of the land cover properties (spatially distributed model parameters) and calibration of global parameters of the hydrological model in changed conditions. The outcomes of the runoff simulations indicate that changes in the long-term mean monthly discharges are expected. During the winter and early spring periods, an increase in the long-term mean monthly runoff could be assumed. The period of an increase in runoff could occur from November/December to February/April. This increase could be caused by an increase in air temperature and a shift in the snow melting period from the spring months to the winter period. The period of a decrease in runoff could occur from March/April to September/November. The increase in winter runoff and the decrease in summer runoff are expected to be more extreme for the later time horizons.

  15. Increasing Incidence of Geomyces destructans Fungus in Bats from the Czech Republic and Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Martínková, Natália; Bačkor, Peter; Bartonička, Tomáš; Blažková, Pavla; Červený, Jaroslav; Falteisek, Lukáš; Gaisler, Jiří; Hanzal, Vladimír; Horáček, Daniel; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Jahelková, Helena; Kolařík, Miroslav; Korytár, L'uboš; Kubátová, Alena; Lehotská, Blanka; Lehotský, Roman; Lučan, Radek K.; Májek, Ondřej; Matějů, Jan; Řehák, Zdeněk; Šafář, Jiří; Tájek, Přemysl; Tkadlec, Emil; Uhrin, Marcel; Wagner, Josef; Weinfurtová, Dita; Zima, Jan; Zukal, Jan; Horáček, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Background White-nose syndrome is a disease of hibernating insectivorous bats associated with the fungus Geomyces destructans. It first appeared in North America in 2006, where over a million bats died since then. In Europe, G. destructans was first identified in France in 2009. Its distribution, infection dynamics, and effects on hibernating bats in Europe are largely unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We screened hibernacula in the Czech Republic and Slovakia for the presence of the fungus during the winter seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. In winter 2009/2010, we found infected bats in 76 out of 98 surveyed sites, in which the majority had been previously negative. A photographic record of over 6000 hibernating bats, taken since 1994, revealed bats with fungal growths since 1995; however, the incidence of such bats increased in Myotis myotis from 2% in 2007 to 14% by 2010. Microscopic, cultivation and molecular genetic evaluations confirmed the identity of the recently sampled fungus as G. destructans, and demonstrated its continuous distribution in the studied area. At the end of the hibernation season we recorded pathologic changes in the skin of the affected bats, from which the fungus was isolated. We registered no mass mortality caused by the fungus, and the recorded population decline in the last two years of the most affected species, M. myotis, is within the population trend prediction interval. Conclusions/Significance G. destructans was found to be widespread in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, with an epizootic incidence in bats during the most recent years. Further development of the situation urgently requires a detailed pan-European monitoring scheme. PMID:21079781

  16. The Conservation Knowledge and Attitudes of Teenagers in Slovenia toward the Eurasian Otter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torkar, Gregor; Mohar, Petra; Gregorc, Tatjana; Nekrep, Igor; Adamic, Marjana Honigsfeld

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on human-otter interactions in Slovenia. The aim of the study was to obtain data about secondary-school students' knowledge of and attitudes toward the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and its conservation. The survey was carried out in fall 2008 and winter 2008-09 and included 273 teenagers. Their average age was 15.57 (SD = 1.01,…

  17. Road accidents in Slovenia involving a pedestrian, cyclist or motorcyclist and a car.

    PubMed

    Simoncic, M

    2001-03-01

    We analyse the group of road traffic accidents in Slovenia in which a car driver and a pedestrian, cyclist or motorcyclist are involved. At the beginning some basic data are presented from the available database on traffic accidents. The selected group is then analysed by use of the logistic regression method. Based on the obtained results, some guidelines for transport policy action--aimed at decreasing the number of accidents with severe injury or fatality--are identified. PMID:11204884

  18. The current knowledge on centipedes (Chilopoda) in Slovenia: faunistic and ecological records from a national database.

    PubMed

    Ravnjak, Blanka; Kos, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    In spite of Slovenia's very high biodiversity, it has only a few animal groups that have been significantly investigated and are well known in this area. Slovenian researchers have studied only about half of the species known to be living in the country (Mršić 1997), but among well investigated species are centipedes. All available data about centipedes in Slovenia collected from 1921 to 2014 have been consolidated and constitute a general electronic database called "CHILOBIO", which was created to provide an easy overview of the Slovenian centipede fauna and to allow entry and interpretation of new data collected in future research. The level of investigation has been studied with this database, in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS). In the study period, 109 species were identified from 350 localities in 109 of the 236 UTM 10 × 10 km quadrants which cover the study area. The south-central part of the country has been the subject of the best investigations, whereas there is an absence of data from the south-eastern, eastern and north-eastern regions The highest number of species (52) has been recorded near the Iška valley (Central Slovenia, quadrant VL68). In 48% of the UTM quadrants investigated fewer than 10 species were recorded and just 5 species were found in one locality. Seventeen species were reported only in the Dinaric region, 4 in the Prealpine-subpannonian region and 7 in the Primorska-submediterranean region. PMID:26257545

  19. The only gay in the village? Everyday life of gays and lesbians in rural Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Kuhar, Roman; Svab, Alenka

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the comparison of the characteristics, experiences, and perceptions of everyday life of gays and lesbians living in rural and urban areas of Slovenia. We focus on the following thematic aspects: (1) coming out; (2) intimate partnerships; (3) the access and the use of gay infrastructure; and (4) violence against gays and lesbians. The article also addresses and discusses the urban/rural divide as a Western construct that might not be completely applicable to other social and cultural contexts. Taking Slovenia as an example, this article questions the self-evidence of rural/urban divide as an analytical concept. On the basis of our research, we conclude that this concept requires continuous revisions and reinterpretations in a concrete social and cultural context(s). The characteristics of gay and lesbian everyday life either in rural or in urban context in Slovenia lead to the conclusion that even within a specific social and cultural context, the concept of urban/rural divide should be used carefully, taking into account complexities of everyday lives and various factors that influence them. PMID:24359463

  20. Monitoring presence and streaming patterns of Icelandic volcanic ash during its arrival to Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, F.; Stanič, S.; Bergant, K.; Bolte, T.; Coren, F.; He, T.-Y.; Hrabar, A.; Jerman, J.; Mladenovič, A.; Turšič, J.; Veberič, D.; Iršič Žibert, M.

    2011-08-01

    The eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano starting on 14 April 2010 resulted in the spreading of volcanic ash over most parts of Europe. In Slovenia, the presence of volcanic ash was monitored using ground-based in-situ measurements, lidar-based remote sensing and airborne in-situ measurements. Volcanic origin of the detected aerosols was confirmed by subsequent spectral and chemical analysis of the collected samples. The initial arrival of volcanic ash to Slovenia was first detected through the analysis of precipitation, which occurred on 17 April 2010 at 01:00 UTC and confirmed by satellite-based remote sensing. At this time, the presence of low clouds and occasional precipitation prevented ash monitoring using lidar-based remote sensing. The second arrival of volcanic ash on 20 April 2010 was detected by both lidar-based remote sensing and airborne in-situ measurements, revealing two or more elevated atmospheric aerosol layers. The ash was not seen in satellite images due to lower concentrations. The identification of aerosol samples from ground-based and airborne in-situ measurements based on energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed that a fraction of particles were volcanic ash from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. To explain the history of the air masses bringing volcanic ash to Slovenia, we analyzed airflow trajectories using ECMWF and HYSPLIT models.

  1. Lead and cadmium in meat and organs of game in Slovenia

    SciTech Connect

    Doganoc, D.Z.; Gacnik, K.S.

    1995-01-01

    Pollution of the environment and contamination of animals including game with Pb and Cd are serious problems in most countries. Our many-years results of Pb and Cd residues in meat and organs of game show us, that the herbaceous game, which feed only with various herbs are more contaminated than other animals - cattle and pigs. They really seem to be a good environmental contamination indicator. The aim of our research was to establish contamination levels of game with Pb and Cd. Two different regions of Slovenia, an industrial region with a lead mine and smeltry in Koroska and an unindustrial one a Ilirska Bistrica were chosen to study contamination of game. Muscle tissues, heart muscles, kidneys and livers of roe-deer, chamois, red-deer and wild boards were analysed. The correlation between the animals` age and cadmium content in kidney was researched and a positive correlation was established. We have found out to which extent the meat and organs of game correspond with our available tolerances for each single residue and whether they are unfit for human consumption. The results of investigations concerning Pb and Cd content in game analysed in Slovenia in the last four years were shown, too. Results were taken from the reports of the Residue monitoring and surveillance which is performed in the Republic Slovenia for more than ten years. 6 refs., 5 tabs.

  2. Administering the Sarcoidosis Health Questionnaire to sarcoidosis patients in Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Mihailović-Vučinić, Violeta; Gvozdenović, Branislav; Stjepanović, Mihailo; Vuković, Mira; Marković-Denić, Ljiljana; Milovanović, Aleksandar; Videnović-Ivanov, Jelica; Žugić, Vladimir; Škodrić-Trifunović, Vesna; Filipović, Snežana; Omčikus, Maja

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to use a Serbian-language version of the disease-specific, self-report Sarcoidosis Health Questionnaire (SHQ), which was designed and originally validated in the United States, to assess health status in sarcoidosis patients in Serbia, as well as validating the instrument for use in the country. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 346 patients with biopsy-confirmed sarcoidosis. To evaluate the health status of the patients, we used the SHQ, which was translated into Serbian for the purposes of this study. We compared SHQ scores by patient gender and age, as well as by disease duration and treatment. Lower SHQ scores indicate poorer health status. Results: The SHQ scores demonstrated differences in health status among subgroups of the sarcoidosis patients evaluated. Health status was found to be significantly poorer among female patients and older patients, as well as among those with chronic sarcoidosis or extrapulmonary manifestations of the disease. Monotherapy with methotrexate was found to be associated with better health status than was monotherapy with prednisone or combination therapy with prednisone and methotrexate. Conclusions: The SHQ is a reliable, disease-specific, self-report instrument. Although originally designed for use in the United States, the SHQ could be a useful tool for the assessment of health status in various non-English-speaking populations of sarcoidosis patients. PMID:27167430

  3. OCCUPATIONAL DOSE ASSESSMENT IN INTERVENTIONAL CARDIOLOGY IN SERBIA.

    PubMed

    Kaljevic, J; Ciraj-Bjelac, O; Stankovic, J; Arandjic, D; Bozovic, P; Antic, V

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the occupational dose in interventional cardiology in a large hospital in Belgrade, Serbia. A double-dosimetry method was applied for the estimation of whole-body dose, using thermoluminescent dosemeters, calibrated in terms of the personal dose equivalent Hp(10). Besides the double-dosimetry method, eye dose was also estimated by means of measuring ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), and doses per procedure were reported. Doses were assessed for 13 physicians, 6 nurses and 10 radiographers, for 2 consequent years. The maximum annual effective dose assessed was 4.3, 2.1 and 1.3 mSv for physicians, nurses and radiographers, respectively. The maximum doses recorded by the dosemeter worn at the collar level (over the apron) were 16.8, 11.9 and 4.5 mSv, respectively. This value was used for the eye lens dose assessment. Estimated doses are in accordance with or higher than annual dose limits for the occupational exposure. PMID:26464526

  4. Optimization of heavy metals total emission, case study: Bor (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilić, Ivana; Bogdanović, Dejan; Živković, Dragana; Milošević, Novica; Todorović, Boban

    2011-07-01

    The town of Bor (Serbia) is one of the most polluted towns in southeastern Europe. The copper smelter which is situated in the centre of the town is the main pollutant, mostly because of its old technology, which leads to environmental pollution caused by higher concentrations of SO 2 and PM 10. These facts show that the word is about a very polluted region in Europe which, apart from harming human health in the region itself, poses a particular danger for wider area of southeastern Europe. Optimization of heavy metal's total emission was undertaken because years of long contamination of the soil with heavy metals of anthropogenic origin created a danger that those heavy metals may enter the food chains of animals and people, which can lead to disastrous consequences. This work represents the usage of Geographic Information System (GIS) for establishing a multifactor assessment model to quantitatively divide polluted zones and for selecting control sites in a linear programming model, combined with PROMETHEE/GAIA method, Screen View modeling system, and linear programming model. The results show that emissions at some control sites need to be cut for about 40%. In order to control the background of heavy metal pollution in Bor, the ecological environment must be improved.

  5. Annual and seasonal variability of precipitation in Vojvodina, Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tošić, Ivana; Hrnjak, Ivana; Gavrilov, Milivoj B.; Unkašević, Miroslava; Marković, Slobodan B.; Lukić, Tin

    2014-07-01

    Annual and seasonal variability of precipitation observed at 92 stations in Vojvodina (Serbia) were analyzed during the period 1946-2006. The rainfall series were examined by means of the empirical orthogonal functions (EOF). The first set of singular vectors explains from 68.8 % (in summer) to 81.8 % (in winter) of the total variance. The temporal variability of the time series associated with the main EOF configurations (the principal components, PCs) was examined using the Mann-Kendall test and the spectral analysis. The time series of PC1 revealed decreasing trend in the winter and spring precipitation and increasing trend in the autumn, summer, and annual precipitation. The relationships between the first PC and circulation patterns, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the East Atlantic (EA) pattern, and East Atlantic/West Russia pattern, were also investigated. The PC1, displaying temporal behavior of the first mode, demonstrated evident correspondence with the NAO index in analysis of the annual, winter, and autumn precipitation. Power spectra of the PC1 show statistically significant oscillations of about 3.3 years for the spring precipitation and about 8 and 15 years for the winter precipitation. Comparisons with spectral analysis of authors for some regions in Europe, most of them in the Mediterranean domain, show that similar periodicities are detected.

  6. Circulation weather types and their influence on precipitation in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putniković, Suzana; Tošić, Ivana; Đurđević, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    An objective classification scheme of atmospheric circulation, in which daily circulation is determined by the strength, direction, and vorticity of geostrophic flow, has been applied to the atmosphere over Serbia for the time period 1961-2010. The results for the sea level and isobaric level of 500 hPa for winter and summer are presented. The 26 circulation types (eight pure direction, 16 hybrid, cyclonic, and anticyclonic types) are determined and described. Each of the circulation types has a distinct underlying synoptic pattern that produces the expected type and direction of flow over the study area. The relative frequencies of the circulation types, and the relationship between the precipitation and circulation types at three stations on a seasonal time scale are analyzed. The anticyclonic weather type dominates in winter (18.93 %) and summer (18.70 %), followed by the northeasterly type (16.65 %) in summer, and the cyclonic type (12.83 %) in winter. The cyclonic types (C and hybrid) have a higher than average probability of rain at all stations. Conversely, the anticyclonic types are associated with a lower than average probability and intensity of rainfall.

  7. Phytochemical fingerprints of lime honey collected in serbia.

    PubMed

    Gašić, Uroš; Šikoparija, Branko; Tosti, Tomislav; Trifković, Jelena; Milojković-Opsenica, Dušanka; Natić, Maja; Tešić, Živoslav

    2014-01-01

    Composition of phenolic compounds and the sugar content were determined as the basis for characterization of lime honey from Serbia. Particular attention was given to differences in phytochemical profiles of ripe and unripe lime honey and lime tree nectar. Melissopalynological analysis confirmed domination of Tilia nectar in all analyzed samples. Phenolic acids, abscisic acid, flavonoids, and flavonoid glycosides were determined by means of ultra-HPLC coupled with a hybrid mass spectrometer (UHPLC-OrbiTrap). Sugar content was determined using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with amperometric detection. Similar phenolic compounds characterized unripe and ripe honeys, while the lime tree nectar profile showed notable differences. Compared to lime tree nectar, a high amount of chrysin, pinocembrin, and galangin were detected in both ripe and unripe lime honey. Fructose and glucose were the major constituents of all investigated samples, and amounts were within the limits established by European Union legislation. Sucrose content in the nectar sample was up to two-fold higher when compared to all honey samples. Isomaltose and gentiobiose with turanose content were different in analyzed production stages of lime honey. PMID:25902974

  8. Professional stress and health among critical care nurses in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Milutinović, Dragana; Golubović, Boris; Brkić, Nina; Prokeš, Bela

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and analyse professional stressors, evaluate the level of stress in nurses in Intensive Care Units (ICU), and assess the correlation between the perception of stress and psychological and somatic symptoms or diseases shown by nurses. The research, designed as a cross-sectional study, was carried out in the Intensive Care Units (ICU), in health centres in Serbia. The sample population encompassed 1000 nurses. Expanded Nursing Stress Scale (ENSS) was used as the research instrument. ENSS revealed a valid metric characteristic within our sample population. Nurses from ICUs rated situations involving physical and psychological working environments as the most stressful ones, whereas situations related to social working environment were described as less stressful; however, the differences in the perception of stressfulness of these environments were minor. Socio-demographic determinants of the participants (age, marital status and education level) significantly affected the perception of stress at work. Significant differences in the perception of stressfulness of particular stress factors were observed among nurses with respect to psychological and somatic symptoms (such as headache, insomnia, fatigue, despair, lower back pain, mood swings etc.) and certain diseases (such as hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes mellitus etc). In view of permanent escalation of professional stressors, creating a supportive working environment is essential for positive health outcomes, prevention of job-related diseases and better protection of already ill nurses. PMID:22728799

  9. Celiac disease prevalence in epileptic children from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Djurić, Zlatko; Nagorni, Aleksandar; Jocić-Jakubi, Bosa; Dimić, Milena; Novak, Martin; Milićević, Radovan; Radenković, Goran

    2012-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a genetically determined autoimmune enteropathy, induced by gluten ingestion. To date, different prevalences of CD in children with epilepsy have been reported. The aim of this study was to determine CD prevalence in our patients with epilepsy, using anti-tissue transglutaminase (tTG) antibodies as a screening test. One hundred twenty-five children (72 girls, 53 boys; age range: 2-18 years, mean age: 10.51 +/- 3.53) with idiopathic epilepsy from South East Serbia were tested for immunoglobulin (IgA) tTG antibodies. All positive patients were offered endoscopic small bowel biopsy. Biopsies were examined histopathologically in order to confirm the CD diagnosis. The control group consisted of 150 healthy children. Three patients with epilepsy were positive for IgA tTG antibodies. In all of them, small bowel biopsy was performed, and only one was proven to have CD by histopathology (Marsh IIIa grade). The prevalence of biopsy-proven CD in children with epilepsy was not significantly higher in the study group compared to controls (0.8% vs.0.6%, p > 0.05). The results of this study indicate that children with idiopathic epilepsy from our region should not be routinely tested for CD. PMID:23094534

  10. Violence, dignity and HIV vulnerability: street sex work in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Simić, Milena; Rhodes, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Sex work can be contextualized by violence, social and material inequality, and HIV vulnerability. We undertook a qualitative study to explore female and transvestite sex workers' accounts (n = 31) of HIV risk environment in Belgrade and Pancevo, Serbia. Violence emerged as a key theme. Accounts emphasise the ubiquity of multiple forms of everyday violence - physical, emotional, social - in street sex work scenes, linked to police as much as clients. We highlight the salience of emotions in sex work risk management, in which the preservation of dignity is of prime importance. Accounts draw upon narratives of hygiene and responsibility which, we argue, seek to resist portrayals, normative to this setting, of sex workers as contaminated and irresponsible. Findings highlight how the ubiquity of the risk of violence in street sex work scenes reflects institutionalised social inequalities and injustices. Sex workers are inevitably participant in the cycle of symbolic violence they seek to resist. The challenges for HIV prevention are therefore considerable, and require interventions which not only seek to foster safer micro-environments of sex work but structural changes in the welfare, criminal justice and other social institutions which reproduce the cycle of violence faced by sex workers day to day. PMID:19144087

  11. Bioaccumulation of metals in the trees of Novi Sad, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Štrbac, Snežana; Gavrilović, Marjana; Budakov, Ljiljana

    2016-01-01

    In urban and industrial areas, higher plants are used as biomonitors of exposure. The objective of this study was to assess metals accumulation in leaves of dendroflora for the city of Novi Sad, Serbia, in May and September. The investigation was conducted at three sites in the urban area of Novi Sad. Determination of metals concentration for Al, As, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in the sample was performed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES). In the leaves of the examined tree species the highest concentrations were obtained for: Al, Fe, Mn, and Zn. The highest mean concentrations of metals were present in leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum in September. Trees from Liman and the Danube Park contained higher mean concentrations of metals in the leaves. In A. hippocastanum and Platanus hybrida an increase of al., As, Cr, Fe, and Pb concentrations occurred from May to September, with higher concentrations of Al and Fe noted in May. However, in Celtis australis, Juglans regia, and Tilia platypyllos there was a reduction in Al, Mn, Fe, and Zn from May to September. The basis for these findings requires further investigation, but diverse washing procedures may account partially for these observations. PMID:27459035

  12. Fractures in late medieval skeletal populations from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Djurić, Marija P; Roberts, Charlotte A; Rakocević, Zoran B; Djonić, Danijela D; Lesić, Aleksandar R

    2006-06-01

    Bone fractures were analyzed from skeletal remains of 861 adult individuals from six cemeteries dating to the Late Medieval period in Serbia. Results of the study were compared to other cemetery populations (635 individual skeletons) of the same date and region in an attempt to understand fracture patterns. The association of types of fractures and their prevalence with sex, age at death, cemetery site, and information deriving from historical sources are discussed. Results showed that the long bone fracture frequency was 0.7%, and the majority of the fractures were the result of direct force. This rate is similar to some studies of contemporary British skeletal samples. However, it is much lower than for some other Old World sites. Cranial vault fractures had a rate of 6.7%, and of the facial skeleton, 1.3%; the frontal bone was the most affected of bones of the cranial vault. Injuries were more common on the upper extremities (0.8%) compared to the lower (0.6%). However, the fibula was the most fractured bone (2.8%), followed by the ulna (2.4%). This pattern is similar to three of six Late Medieval urban sites in Britain. These findings suggest that this rural community was exposed to a low risk of trauma, probably related mostly to accidents sustained during farming, and rarely to interpersonal violence. PMID:16365855

  13. Genetic detection of Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus in the edible dormouse (Glis glis) in central Serbia.

    PubMed

    Stanojevic, M; Nikolic, V; Stajkovic, N; Stamenkovic, G; Bozovic, B; Cekanac, R; Marusic, P; Gligic, A

    2015-01-01

    Hantaviruses are endemic in the Balkans, particularly in Serbia, where sporadic cases and/or outbreaks of hantaviral human disease have been reported repeatedly, and evidenced serologically. Here, we present genetic detection of Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) hantaviral sequences in wild rodents trapped in central Serbia. All the animals were pre-screened serologically by indirect immunofluorescence (IF) test and only those with a positive finding of hantaviral antigens were further tested by polymerase chain reaction. Of the total of 104 trapped animals, 20 were found to be IF positive and of those three were positive for hantaviral RNA: one Microtus arvalis for Tula virus, and one each of Apodemus agrarius and Glis glis for DOBV. Phylogenetic analysis of the obtained sequences implies putative DOBV spillover infection of A. agrarius and G. glis from Apodemus flavicollis. However, future investigations should help to identify the most common natural host and geographical distribution of DOBV in its reservoir hosts in Serbia. PMID:24762257

  14. Presence of Leishmania and Brucella Species in the Golden Jackal Canis aureus in Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Ćirović, Duško; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tomanović, Snežana; Sukara, Ratko; Penezić, Aleksandra; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010–02/2013) from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as the tissue to proceed; all samples were tested for Leishmania species and Brucella species by real-time PCR. Of the 216 samples collected, 15 (6.9%) were positive for Leishmania species, while four (1.9%) were positive for B. canis. The potential epidemiologic role of the golden jackal in carrying and dispersing zoonotic diseases in Serbia should be taken under consideration when applying surveillance monitoring schemes. PMID:24967397

  15. Presence of Leishmania and Brucella species in the golden jackal Canis aureus in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Cirović, Duško; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tomanović, Snežana; Sukara, Ratko; Penezić, Aleksandra; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010-02/2013) from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as the tissue to proceed; all samples were tested for Leishmania species and Brucella species by real-time PCR. Of the 216 samples collected, 15 (6.9%) were positive for Leishmania species, while four (1.9%) were positive for B. canis. The potential epidemiologic role of the golden jackal in carrying and dispersing zoonotic diseases in Serbia should be taken under consideration when applying surveillance monitoring schemes. PMID:24967397

  16. Spatial Pattern of North Atlantic Oscillation Impact on Rainfall in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukovic, J.; Blagojevic, D.; Kilibarda, M.; Bajat, B.

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the spatial pattern of relationships between annual, seasonal and monthly rainfall in Serbia, and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) for the period of 1961-2009. The first correlation analysis between rainfall and the NAO was performed using a Pearson product-moment test. Results suggested negative, mainly statistically significant correlations at annual and winter scales as was expected. However, the highest percentage of stations showed significant result in October suggesting a strong impact of a large scale atmospheric mode throughout a wet season in Serbia. Further spatial analysis that incorporated a spatial autocorrelation statistic of correlation coefficients showed significant clustering at all temporal scales.

  17. Checklist and distribution of ciliates from the family Euplotidae Ehrenberg, 1838 (Protista: Ciliophora: Spirotrichea) in Slovakia, Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Tirjaková, Eva; Botlíková, Simona; Vďačný, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A checklist of ciliates from the family Euplotidae recorded in the territory of Slovakia, Central Europe was assembled. Altogether, 11 species belonging to three genera of the family Euplotidae have been reported there: Euplotes alatus, Euplotes charon, Euplotes moebiusi, Euplotoides aediculatus, Euplotoides eurystomus, Euplotoides patella, Euplotoides woodruffi, Euplotopsis affinis, Euplotopsis finki, Euplotopsis muscicola, and Euplotopsis novemcarinata. However, records of the marine species E. alatus and E. charon are doubtful and very likely represent misidentifications of E. moebiusi. Since the euryhaline species E. woodruffi was found for the first time in Slovakia, its morphology is described. Based on the literature data and our own observations, the present checklist is also accompanied with distribution data on the 11 aforementioned species. As concerns ecology, Slovak euplotids typically occurred in freshwater bodies having higher trophic levels. Only two species, E. finki and E. muscicola, were isolated from terrestrial habitats, especially, from mosses, leaf-litter, and decaying wood mass. PMID:25781253

  18. Giardia duodenalis and Giardia enterica in children: first evidence of assemblages A and B in Eastern Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Štrkolcová, G; Goldová, M; Maďar, M; Čechová, L; Halánová, M; Mojžišová, J

    2016-05-01

    For an overview on the occurrence of Giardia assemblages in children in Eastern Slovakia, we examined 259 faecal samples of children from the segregated settlement in Medzev, 30 samples of children from the orphanage in Medzev and 40 samples of children with autism from the Special Elementary School in Košice. Thirty-eight samples (14.67 %) from the segregated settlement, 19 samples (63.33 %) from the orphanage and two samples (5.0 %) from the Special Elementary School were positive for Giardia by flotation. The initial microscopic diagnostics were completed by the genotyping of the triosephosphate isomerase-gene loci (tpi genes) which revealed the existence of two Giardia assemblages in Slovak population, namely Giardia duodenalis (assemblage A) and Giardia enterica (assemblage B). These results represent the first evidence of A and B assemblages in children in Slovakia. Epidemiological significance and the impact on the public health of Giardia infection are highlighted. PMID:26818944

  19. [A fourth-generation doctor - Hans Selye and his origins from Felvidék (today Slovakia)].

    PubMed

    Kiss, László

    2016-08-01

    Hans Selye regarded himself as the fourth generation of medical dynasty, but in his books he did not name his ancestors. Based on facts from archives and contemporary literature the author demonstrated that the grandfather of Hans Selye was called Schlesinger and he worked in Pruszka (county Trencsén; (today: Pruské, county Trenčín, Slovakia) as a district physician. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(33), 1331-1333. PMID:27523317

  20. Which Are My Future Career Priorities and What Influenced My Choice of Studying Science, Technology, Engineering or Mathematics? Some Insights on Educational Choice--Case of Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerinsek, Gregor; Hribar, Tina; Glodez, Natasa; Dolinsek, Slavko

    2013-01-01

    This paper is addressing the problem of under-representation of young people in general, and females in particular, in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in Slovenia. It has two main objectives: (1) to identify which priorities male and female STEM students in Slovenia seek in their future careers, and (2) to…

  1. Seasonal Analysis of Combined Climate Indices in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenovic, Pavle; Tosic, Ivana; Unkasevic, Miroslava

    2014-05-01

    Joint distributions of two weather variables, such as temperature and precipitation, better reflect the weather conditions than temperature or precipitation statistics taken separately (Beniston 2010). Hence, the seasonal analysis of combined climate indices in Serbia is presented using Warm/Dry (WD), Warm/Wet (WW), Cold/Dry (CD) and Cold/Wet (CW) days. The present study is based on the collection of the daily mean temperatures and precipitation at seven stations from the observational network of the Serbian Meteorological Service during the period 1961 - 2010. Day is conceived as warm (cold) if the daily mean temperature is greater (less) than the 75th (25th) percentile. Day is considered as dry (wet) if the daily precipitation sums are below the 25th percentile (higher than the 75th percentile). Temperature percentiles were calculated for each day in a year, while precipitation percentiles were calculated for each season. It is obtained that the number of WW days is small for all seasons. An increasing tendency of WD and decreasing tendencies of CD and CW are observed. Correlation between the combined climatic indices and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are examined. It was found that the connection existed between the NAO index and CW and WD during the winter, CD during the autumn and WD during the summer. Our results are in accordance with previous results of Beniston (2009), who revealed a systematic change at nine European cities in the course of the 20th century with significant declines in the frequency of occurrence of the "cold" modes and a sharp rise in that of the "warm" modes. Beniston, M., 2009: Trends in joint quantiles of temperature and precipitation in Europe since 1901 and projected for 2100. Geophysical Research Letters, 36, L07707 Beniston, M., 2010: Impacts of climatic change on water and associated economic activities in the Swiss Alps. Journal of Hydrology, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2010.06.046

  2. DRIHM Project: Floods in Serbia in May 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivkovic, Marija; Dimitrijevic, Vladimir; Dekic, Ljiljana; Mihalovic, Ana; Pejanovic, Goran

    2015-04-01

    The central parts of Balkans were affected with very deep cyclone named "Tamara" form 13th until 16th of May. Stations in western parts of Serbia recorded precipitation four times greater than average precipitation sums. Two third of that amount has felt in three days. Devastating floods occurred on Sava, Kolubara and Jadar river basins causing damage of 1.7 billion Euros, and loss of 24 human lives. Three days before the event, a first warning was issued pointing that the precipitation amounts will exceed 40 mm of rain for 12 hours, accompanied with the hydrological information that the water level on Sava and Kolubara rivers will significantly rise. Within the DRIHM project and its e-infrastructure it was possible to test a combination of different Numerical Weather Prediction models together with stochastic downscaling algorithms to enable the production of more effective quantitative rainfall predictions for this severe meteorological event. Hydrometeorological models in DRIHM are building blocks that can be easily linked together in a form of hydrometeorological chain. For this case the HBV model, distributed hydrological model, was used as the hydrological component in the model chain and RainFARM as stochastic downscaling tool. Results obtained with these models are shown and compared with Hyprom, one of the hydrological models also used in RHMSS with the aim of scoping the current capabilities for the early warning of the extreme events. The information where and when the High Impact Weather Event (HIWE) can occur is very important for the proper overview of the possible overall influence. Different precipitation distribution both in space and in time is allowing us to estimate the future state of the system but also to see the range of the possible outcomes.

  3. Late Pleistocene voles (Arvicolinae, Rodentia) from the Baranica Cave (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogićević, Katarina; Nenadić, Draženko; Mihailović, Dušan

    2012-02-01

    Baranica is a cave system situated in the south-eastern part of Serbia, four kilometers south to Knjaževac, on the right bank of the Trgovi\\vski Timok. The investigations in Baranica were conducted from 1994 to 1997 by the Faculty of Philosophy from Belgrade and the National Museum of Knjaževac. Four geological layers of Quaternary age were recovered. The abundance of remains of both large and small mammals was noticed in the early phase of the research. In this paper, the remains of eight vole species are described: Arvicola terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758), Chionomys nivalis (Martins, 1842), Microtus (Microtus) arvalis (Pallas, 1778) and Microtus (Microtus) agrestis (Linnaeus, 1761), Microtus (Stenocranius) gregalis (Pallas, 1779), Microtus (Terricola) subterraneus (de Sélys-Longchamps, 1836), Clethrionomys glareolus (Schreber, 1780) and Lagurus lagurus (Pallas, 1773). Among them, steppe and open area inhabitants prevail. Based on the evolutionary level and dimensions of the Arvicola terrestris molars, as well as the overall characteristics of the fauna, it was concluded that the deposits were formed in the last glacial period of the Late Pleistocene. These conclusions are rather consistent with the absolute dating of large mammal bones (23.520 ± 110 B.P. for Layer 2 and 35.780 ± 320 B.P. for Layer 4).

  4. SELF-REPORTED DRUG ALLERGIES IN SURGICAL POPULATION IN SERBIA.

    PubMed

    Velicković, Jelena; Palibrk, Ivan; Miljković, Bojana; Velicković, Dejan; Jovanović, Bojan; Bumbasirević, Vesna; Djukanović, Marija; Sljukić, Vladimir

    2015-12-01

    History of drug allergy is of major concern during perioperative period. Medical records usually lack documents confirming the stated allergy. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of self-reported drug allergies and their characteristics in adult Serbian surgical population, and to analyze their influence on drug prescription during perioperative period. The study enrolled patients scheduled for general surgery during a one-year period at a tertiary care hospital. They were questioned using a structured questionnaire about the existence of drug allergy and its nature. Medical records were examined after discharge to assess medical prescription during hospitalization. Of 1126 patients evaluated during the study period, 434 (38.5%) reported a total of 635 drug reactions. The most common allergy claim was to antibiotics (68%), nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (16.4%) and iodine (3.9%). Women, urban residents and herbal drug consumers were more likely to state an allergy. The majority of reported reactions were cutaneous (72%) and respiratory (34%), while anaphylaxis was reported by 3.2% of patients. Only 38 (8.7%) patients had previously undergone any allergology testing. Retrospective chart review revealed that 26 (6%) patients were administered the drug to which they had reported allergic reaction in the past, with no adverse effects. Drug allergies are frequently self-reported in surgical population in Serbia, which is in contrast to a very low rate of explored and documented allergies. In order not to deny an effective treatment or postpone a surgery, health care practitioners should pay more attention to an accurate classification of adverse drug reactions. PMID:27017725

  5. Monitoring West Nile virus (WNV) infection in wild birds in Serbia during 2012: first isolation and characterisation of WNV strains from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Petrović, T; Blazquez, A B; Lupulović, D; Lazić, G; Escribano-Romero, E; Fabijan, D; Kapetanov, M; Lazić, S; Saiz, Jc

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), a neurovirulent mosquito-transmissible zoonotic virus, has caused recent outbreaks in Europe, including Serbia from August until October 2012. Although humans can be infected, birds are the main natural WNV reservoir. To assess WNV circulation in northern Serbia, 133 wild birds were investigated. These comprised resident and migratory birds, collected between January and September 2012 in the Vojvodina province. The birds belonged to 45 species within 27 families. Blood sera (n=92) and pooled tissues from respective birds (n=81) were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), plaque reduction neutralisation test (PRNT) and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). WNV antibodies were detected in seven (8%) sera: four from Mute Swans (Cygnus olor), two from White-tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicillas), and one from a Common Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus). Five sera neutralised WNV but not Usutu virus. For the first time in Serbia, WNV RNA was detected by RT-qPCR in pooled tissue samples of eight respective birds. WNV RNA was also derived from an additional bird, after a serum sample resulted infective in cell culture. The total nine WNV RNA positive birds included three Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis), two White-tailed Eagles, one Legged Gull (Larus michahelis), one Hooded Crow (Corvus cornix), one Bearded Parrot-bill (Panarus biramicus), and one Common Pheasant. Phylogenetic analysis of partial E region sequences showed the presence of, at least, two lineage 2 Serbian clusters closely related to those responsible for recent human and animal outbreaks in Greece, Hungary and Italy. Full genomic sequence from a goshawk isolate corroborated this data. These results confirm WNV circulation in Serbia and highlight the risk of infection for humans and horses, pointing to the need for implementing WNV surveillance programmes. PMID:24176657

  6. Selected characteristics of meteorological elements and their trends since the mid-20th century in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasko, Pavel; Švec, Marek; Šťastný, Pavel; Kajaba, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of some characteristics of air temperature, air humidity, precipitation and snow cover at selected meteorological stations located in different regions of Slovakia was performed for the period 1951 to 2012. Stations represent lowland regions (up to 300 meters), mid-altitude regions (300 to 800 meters) and high altitude mountain regions (above 1000 m). Series of highest annual maximum air temperature show obvious gradual increase from 80s of the 20th century on all selected stations and also the occurrence of new record values in the last years of the analyzed period 1951 -2012. In most stations the absolute maximum air temperature for 1951 - 2012 period was recorded during July 2007, whereas the highest annual maximum temperatures were recorded predominantly during the month of August in Slovakia. Values of annual maximum of mean daily temperature show evident upward trend and at some stations the highest mean daily temperature was recorded just in recent years (e.g. at station Sliač in 2012). Positive trends of the lowest annual minimum temperature at selected stations in the period 1951-2012 are not so significant and it is evident that the lowest annual minimum air temperature didn't drop as low as in the past, respectively they didn't reach record values as in the 50s or 80s of the 20-th century. Changes of minimum and maximum monthly precipitation totals during the year indicate that the number of cases with extremely low monthly total was increasing. Although frequency of occurrence of extremely high monthly precipitation totals was rather chaotic, in some recent years the observed values of monthly precipitation totals represented the absolutely highest monthly values for entire analyzed period 1951-2012. On the other hand, towards the end of this period, cases when minimum monthly precipitation totals were close to zero also became more common. Very significant is the trend in the lowest annual relative humidity in the 1951-2012 period

  7. Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Their Hydroxylated Metabolites (OH-PCBs) in Pregnant Women from Eastern Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Park, June-Soo; Linderholm, Linda; Charles, M. Judith; Athanasiadou, Maria; Petrik, Jan; Kocan, Anton; Drobna, Beata; Trnovec, Tomas; Bergman, Åke; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2007-01-01

    Objective Our aim in the present study was to characterize and quantify the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and specific polychlorobiphenylol (OH-PCB) metabolites in maternal sera from women delivering in eastern Slovakia. Design During 2002–2004, blood samples were collected from women delivering in two Slovak locations: Michalovce district, where PCBs were formerly manufactured, and Svidnik and Stropkov districts, about 70 km north. Participants A total of 762 and 341 pregnant women were sampled from Michalovce and Svidnik/Stropkov, respectively, and OH-PCBs were measured in 131 and 31. Evaluation/Measurements We analyzed PCBs using gas chromatography (GC)/electron capture detection. OH-PCBs and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were determined as methyl derivatives using GC-electron capture negative ionization/mass spectrometry. We characterized distributions in the full cohort using inverse sampling weights. Results The concentrations of both PCBs and OH-PCB metabolites of Michalovce mothers were about two times higher than those of the Svidnik/Stropkov mothers (p < 0.001). The median weighted maternal serum levels of the sum of PCBs (∑PCBs) were 5.73 ng/g wet weight (Michalovce) and 2.82 ng/g wet weight (Svidnik/Stropkov). The median sum of OH-PCBs (∑OH-PCBs) was 0.55 ng/g wet weight in Michalovce mothers and 0.32 ng/g wet weight in Svidnik/Stropkov mothers. 4-OH-2,2′ ,3,4′ ,5,5′ ,6-Heptachlorobiphenyl (4-OH-CB187) was a primary metabolite, followed by 4-OH-2,2′ ,3,4′ ,5,5′ -hexachlorobiphenyl (4-OH-CB146). Only four PCB congeners—CBs 153, 138, 180, and 170—had higher concentrations than 4-OH-CB187 and 4-OH-CB146 (p < 0.001). The median ratio of the ∑OH-PCBs to the ∑PCBs was 0.10. Conclusions Mothers residing in eastern Slovakia are still highly exposed to PCBs, and their body burdens of these pollutants and OH-PCB metabolites may pose a risk for adverse effects on health for themselves and their children. PMID:17366814

  8. Long-term variability and changes in thunderstorm induced extreme precipitation in Slovakia over 1951-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecho, J.; Faško, P.; Bližák, V.; Kajaba, P.; Košálová, J.; Bochníček, O.; Lešková, L.

    2012-04-01

    It is well known that extreme precipitation associated with intensive rains, in summer induced mostly by local thunderstorm activity, could cause very significant problems in economical and social spheres of the countries. Heavy precipitation and consecutive flash-floods are the most serious weather-related hazards over the territory of Slovakia. The extreme precipitation analyses play a strategic role in many climatological and hydrological evaluations designed for the wide range of technical and engineering applications as well as climate change impact assessments. A thunderstorm, as a violent local storm produced by a cumulonimbus cloud and accompanied by thunder and lightning, represents extreme convective activity in the atmosphere depending upon the release of latent heat, by the condensation of water vapor, for most of its energy. Under the natural conditions of Slovakia the incidence of thunderstorms has been traditionally concentrated in the summer or warm half-year (Apr.-Sept.), but increasing air temperature resulting in higher water vapor content and more intense short-term precipitation is associated with more frequent thunderstorm occurrence in early spring as well as autumn. It is the main reason why the studies of thunderstorm phenomena have increased in Slovakia in recent years. It was found that thunderstorm occurrence, in terms of incidence of storm days, has profoundly changed particularly in spring season (~ 30 % in April and May). The present contribution is devoted to verifying the hypothesis that recently the precipitation has been more intense and significant shifts in seasonal incidence have occurred in particular regions in Slovakia. On the basis of the 60-year (1951-2010) meteorological observation series obtained from more than 20 synoptic stations, the analysis of trends and long-term variability of the days with thunderstorms and the accompanying precipitation for seasons was undertaken. Contribution also attempts to explain the main

  9. Application of SMOS and ASCAT soil moisture estimations to hydrological modelling in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlatanovic, Nikola; Ivkovic, Marija; Drobnjak, Aleksandar

    2016-04-01

    This study explores the performance of satellite-based soil moisture products from satellites SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity, measuring brightness temperatures in the L-Band at 1.4 GHz) and ASCAT (Advanced SCATterometer, measuring surface backscattering coefficients in the C-band at 5.255 GHz) for hydrological application. Firstly, SMOS and ASCAT Level 2 soil moisture data were compared to in situ data over Serbia at available sites. All available in situ ground-based point measurements of soil moisture, from the Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia and other independent stations, were collected for the overlapping period with satellite observations and compared against remotely sensed satellite-based soil moisture products. Two approaches are presented in this study to evaluate the applicability of satellite-based SMOS and ASCAT soil moisture products to basin-scale hydrological modelling in a case study catchment in Serbia. The first approach was based on a continuous conceptual forecast-based rainfall-runoff model (using distributed HBV model), where satellite-based soil moisture data helped perform corrections to calculated model soil moisture. The second approach analysed individual event-based rainfall-runoff modelling (using HEC-HMS), where initial (pre-event) model parameters were estimated using satellite-based soil moisture data. Both approaches involved calibration of the hydrological models with and without satellite-based soil moisture data on a case study in Serbia.

  10. Prospects for Inclusive Education in European Countries Emerging from Economic and Other Trauma: Serbia and Albania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radoman, Vesna; Nano, Virxhil; Closs, Alison

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines recent historical, social and economic factors in Albania and Serbia, identifying similarities and differences that have a bearing on the provision of education. The focus is on the education of children with difficulties in learning and/or disabilities (the term "special needs" is used for brevity). The paper provides a…

  11. Architecture of Primary Schools in Serbia in the 21st Century: A Critical Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brkovic, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Since 2000, when education reform in Serbia began education goals, teachers' training, curriculum and teaching/learning methods have been modernised and improved. However, a closer examination of the schools built from 2000 onwards reveals that architectural design of primary schools rests on standardised school design schemes from socialist…

  12. The Impact of Leadership on the Communication Satisfaction of Primary School Teachers in Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terek, Edit; Glušac, Dragana; Nikolic, Milan; Tasic, Ivan; Gligorovic, Bojana

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research into the effects of leadership on the communication satisfaction of teachers. The data was obtained by giving questionnaires to 362 teachers from 57 primary schools in Serbia. Leadership is shown to have a strong and positive impact on the communication satisfaction of teachers in Serbian primary…

  13. Teaching for Humanity in a Neoliberal World: Visions of Education in Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dull, Laura J.

    2012-01-01

    In Serbia, teachers and policy makers express different and sometimes competing visions of education. Teachers express their desire to "awaken" students by using progressive pedagogies, while European Union and World Bank reformers appropriate progressive education in the service of neoliberal goals. The research findings presented here indicate…

  14. The impact of educational reform and categorization of scientific journals and scientists on physics in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Božić, Mirjana; Davidović, Milena; Kapor, Agneš; Knežević, Dragica; Pavkov-Hrvojević, Milica; Puač, Nevena; Savić, Ilija; Stojanović, Maja; Marković-Topalović, Tatjana

    2013-03-01

    The trend of the increasing participation and importance of female physicists in Serbia continues. Many women have taken leading position in research and faculty governance and are contributing significantly to educational reform and the improvement of physics education in the primary and secondary schools.

  15. Seasonal analysis of cold and heat waves in Serbia during the period 1949-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unkašević, Miroslava; Tošić, Ivana

    2015-04-01

    Climate change has become one of the subjects most analysed by researchers, mainly because of the numerous extreme events that have hit the globe. A series of daily minimum and maximum temperatures at 15 stations in Serbia were used to calculate temperature indices, from which the duration and severity of cold and heat waves were estimated. Seasonal analysis was based on data from 1949 to 2012. The year 2012 saw severe cooling in Serbia, the longest heat waves during the summer and the worst drought since observations began — three major climate anomalies all in 1 year. An analysis of the daily minimum temperatures at almost all meteorological stations during the winter season revealed that the longest cold waves were observed in 1956. The longest heat waves were observed during the summer of 2012 in Serbia at ten out of 15 stations, but they did not reach the severity of those in July 2007. In addition, the main characteristics of the circulation conditions which caused the longest cold and heat waves in Serbia were analysed.

  16. Structure of Vocational Interests in Serbia: Evaluation of the Spherical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedrih, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    To explore the structure of vocational interests in Serbia, 1063 participants of various age, education and gender completed the Serbian version of the Personal Globe Inventory [PGI, Tracey, T. (2002). "Personal Globe Inventory: Measurement of the spherical model of interests and competence beliefs." "Journal of Vocational Behavior," 6, 113-172].…

  17. Case study: A severe hailstorm and strong downbursts over northeastern Slovenia on June 16th 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korosec, M.

    2009-09-01

    Introduction A strong isolated storm complex with bow echo feature crossed northeastern Slovenia in the late afternoon hours and caused extensive damage due to severe wind gusts near 30m/s, excessive rainfalls and large hail. Synoptic situation On June 16th 2009, an upper-level ridge persists over southern Europe while a positively tilted short-wave trough, connected to a complex deep trough over northern Europe, crosses central Europe. Accompanied by this trough, a cold front is extending southwestwards towards the Alps. A relatively strong jet steak wraps around the trough axis and creates strong shear environment which overlaps with a narrow band of unstable airmass present ahead of the coming frontal boundary. Behind this trough/front over central Europe, a high pressure area is developing with stable conditions. Over Slovenia, strong surface heating was on going through the day but lack of near-surface convergence zones, limited moisture and strong capping inversion surpressed any storm initiation in the afternoon. Presentation of research This case study will go through a research of damaging bow echo which caused extensive damage due to severe winds, excessive rainfalls and large hail over much of northeastern Slovenia. Numerous trees were down or uprooted and numerous roofs were blown off or were seriously damaged due to severe wind gusts near or exceeding 30m/s. At first stages, when an isolated severe storm entered Slovenia, it had classic high precipitation supercell features while it transformed into a powerful bow echo later on. Very large hail up to 6cm in diameter was first observed in southeast Austria and near the border with Slovenia, while later on the main threat was very strong wind gusts and intense rainfalls. This research paper will show a detailed analysis of the synoptic situation including analysis of satellite, radar and surface observations. Radar imagery clearly showed isolated storm trailing along the near-surface frontal boundary as

  18. Reassessing the Aurignacian of Slovenia: techno-economic behaviour and direct dating of osseous projectile points.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Luc; Odar, Boštjan; Higham, Tom; Horvat, Aleksander; Pirkmajer, Darja; Turk, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Palaeolithic of southern Central Europe has a long history of archaeological research. Particularly, the presence of numerous osseous projectile points in many early Upper Palaeolithic (EUP) assemblages in this region has attracted the attention of the international research community. However, the scarcity of properly identified and well-dated Aurignacian contexts represents an obstacle for investigation of the nature and timing of the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition. In this context, the question of whether Neandertals made Aurignacian osseous projectile points, either on their own or as a consequence of cultural interaction with anatomically modern humans (AMH), still remains an open issue. Here we reassess the EUP record of Slovenia by evaluating the Aurignacian character of the assemblages from Potočka zijalka, Mokriška jama and Divje babe I in the light of their suggested roots in the local Mousterian. We provide a comprehensive description of the lithic industry from Potočka zijalka, which represents one of the rare EUP assemblages of southern Central Europe with a representative number of lithic artefacts to be analysed from the perspective of lithic technology and raw material economy. Our re-analysis of the Slovenian assemblages is backed by a series of 11 new ultrafiltered collagen 14C dates obtained directly on associated osseous projectile points from the studied assemblages. The Aurignacian of Potočka zijalka underlines the remarkable consistency of the Early Aurignacian with low typo-technological variability across Europe, resulting from a marked dependence on transported toolkits and raw material conservation. The new radiocarbon determinations for the Aurignacian of Slovenia appear to post-date the 34-32 ka BP (thousands of years before present) threshold for the last Neandertals in the region. Although not falsified, the hypothesis of Aurignacian bone tools in southern Central Europe as a product of late Neandertals is not

  19. Health impact assessment of agriculture and food policies: lessons learnt from the Republic of Slovenia.

    PubMed Central

    Lock, Karen; Gabrijelcic-Blenkus, Mojca; Martuzzi, Marco; Otorepec, Peter; Wallace, Paul; Dora, Carlos; Robertson, Aileen; Zakotnic, Jozica Maucec

    2003-01-01

    The most important public health priority in agricultural policy-making is currently food safety, despite the relatively higher importance of food security, nutrition, and other agricultural-related health issues in terms of global burden of disease. There is limited experience worldwide of using health impact assessment (HIA) during the development of agriculture and food policies, which perhaps reflects the complex nature of this policy sector. This paper presents methods of HIA used in the Republic of Slovenia, which is conducting a HIA of proposed agricultural and food policies due to its accession to the European Union. It is the first time that any government has attempted to assess the health effects of agricultural policy at a national level. The HIA has basically followed a six-stage process: policy analysis; rapid appraisal workshops with stakeholders from a range of backgrounds; review of research evidence relevant to the agricultural policy; analysis of Slovenian data for key health-related indicators; a report on the findings to a key cross-government group; and evaluation. The experience in Slovenia shows that the HIA process has been a useful mechanism for raising broader public health issues on the agricultural policy agenda, and it has already had positive results for policy formation. HIA is one useful approach to more integrated policy-making across sectors, but clearly it is not the only mechanism to achieve this. A comparison of the approach used in Slovenia with HIA methods in other countries and policy contexts shows that there are still many limitations with HIA application at a government level. Lessons can be learnt from these case studies for future development and application of HIA that is more relevant to policy-makers, and assists them in making more healthy policy choices. PMID:12894321

  20. Alcohol Drinking Among the Students of the University of Maribor, Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    KOLŠEK, Marko; KLEMENC KETIŠ, Zalika

    2015-01-01

    Background Hazardous and harmful alcohol drinking is an important health, social and economic issue in Slovenia amongst all age groups. While drinking in Slovenia has been well researched amongst elementary and high school students, there is a lack of research on drinking amongst university students. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among first- and fourth-year students of the University of Maribor, Slovenia, attending the mandatory preventive health check between October 2009 and May 2010. During this health check, they filled in a non-anonymous lifestyle questionnaire. AUDIT–C questionnaire on alcohol use and questions on smoking and illicit drug use were also included. Results 3.130 students were included in the analysis, 1219 (38.9%) were males. There were 871 (27.8%) students that were screened as risky drinkers. The highest percentage of risky drinkers attended the Faculty for Wood Technology and the lowest the Faculty for Health Sciences. Students, recognized as healthier by the physicians, reported risky drinking significantly less often (p=0.015). Students with higher BMI reported risky drinking significantly more often (p=0.012). Variables, proved to be independently associated with the risky drinking in the multivariate analysis, were: bad health status (p=0.044), male sex (p<0.001), daily consumption of fried food (p=0.017), smoking (p<0.001), illicit drugs (p<0.001), attending the Faculty for Civil Engineering (p=0.006), not attending the Faculty for Health Sciences (p=0.002) Conclusions While the prevalence of risky drinking among students in this study is high, a structured preventive programme should be implemented for students, which will include also illicit drug use and smoking.

  1. Case study of a severe windstorm over Slovakia and Hungary on 25 June 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, André; Kaňák, Ján; Sokol, Alois; Putsay, Mária; Uhrínová, Lucia; Csirmaz, Kálmán; Okon, Ľuboslav; Habrovský, Richard

    2011-06-01

    A system of thunderstorms approached the Slovakia and Hungary in the late evening hours of 25 June 2008, causing extensive damage and peak wind gusts up to 40 m/s. This study examines the macro- and mesosynoptic conditions for the windstorm using soundings, analyses, and forecasts of numerical models (ALADIN, ECMWF). A derecho-like character of the event is discussed. Meteosat Second Generation imagery and convective indices inferred from satellite and model data are used to assess the humidity distribution and the conditional instability of the thunderstorm environment. An intrusion of the environmental dry air into the convective system and intensification of downdrafts is considered to be one of the reasons for the damaging winds observed at some areas. This is supported by the radar imagery showing a sudden drop of radar reflectivity and creation of line echo wave patterns and bow echoes. A numerical simulation provided by the non-hydrostatic MM5 model indicated the development of meso-γ scale vortices embedded in the convective system. The genesis and a possible role of such vortices in creating rear-inflow jets and intensifying the low level winds are investigated with the help of the vorticity equation and several other diagnostic parameters. In addition, the effect of various physical parameterisations on the forecast of the windstorm is evaluated.

  2. Region-specific differences in colorectal cancer: Slovakia and Hungary have highest incidence in Europe.

    PubMed

    Simko, V; Ginter, E

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological data on colorectal cancer (CRC) exhibit high incidence in Central East Europe. Hungary, Slovakia and Croatia represent the lead. For decades it was the Czech Republic but it attained the fourth rank after the mid-2000. Remarkably, the Ashkenazi Jews who imigrated to the USA from Central Europe have the highest incidence of CRC among US minorities. They also have high incidence of inflammatory bowel disease, a risk for CRC. Notably, countries surrounding the Central European focus of CRC, Austria, Germany, Poland, Romania, Ukraine and Russia have substantially lower incidence. CRC in Central Europe has higher incidence than CRC among the highest at-risk cohort in the USA, the elderly blacks. Research and the genome wide screening identified genetic mutations associated with CRC in Ashkenazis from Central Europe. Some risk factors for CRC are non genotypic as evidenced by wide variation in CRC incidence in the course of only a few decades. Recent trends offer hope that identification of the non-innate pathogenic mechanisms would potentially reduce the burden of this third most lethal malignancy (Tab. 1, Fig. 4, Ref. 40). PMID:26830034

  3. Ecophysiological and ultrastructural effects of dust pollution in lichens exposed around a cement plant (SW Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Paoli, Luca; Guttová, Anna; Grassi, Alice; Lackovičová, Anna; Senko, Dušan; Sorbo, Sergio; Basile, Adriana; Loppi, Stefano

    2015-10-01

    The study investigated the ecophysiological and ultrastructural effects of dust pollution from a cement industry in the lichen species Evernia prunastri and Xanthoria parietina, which were exposed for 30, 90 and 180 days around a cement mill, two quarries, and inhabited and agricultural sites in SW Slovakia. The results showed that dust deposition from quarrying activities and cement works at the cement mill (mainly enriched in Ca, Fe and Ti) significantly affected the photosynthetic apparatus of E. prunastri (sensitive to dust and habitat eutrophication), while X. parietina (tolerant to dust and habitat eutrophication) adapted to the new environment. The length of the exposure strongly affected the vitality of the mycobiont (measured as dehydrogenase activity) in transplanted lichens. Dust deposition led to ultrastructural alterations, including lipid droplets increase, swelling of cellular components, thylakoid degeneration and sometimes plasmolysis, which, on the whole, gave the cells an aged appearance. Photosynthetic parameters deserve further attention as potential indicators for monitoring early biological symptoms of the air pollution caused during cement production. PMID:26044142

  4. Long-term corrosion study at nuclear power plant Bohunice (Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slugen, V.; Lipka, J.; Dekan, J.; Tóth, I.; Smieško, I.

    2010-03-01

    Steam generators of four VVER-440 units at nuclear power plants V-1 and V-2 in Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia) were gradually changed by new original "Bohunice" design in period 1994-1998. Corrosion processes before and after these design and material changes in Bohunice secondary circuit were studied using Mössbauer spectroscopy during last 25 years. Innovations in the feed water pipeline design as well as material composition improvements were evaluated positively. Mössbauer spectroscopy studies of phase composition of corrosion products were performed on real specimens scrapped from water pipelines or in form of filter deposits. The corrosion of new feed water pipelines system (from austenitic steel) in combination to innovated operation regimes goes dominantly to magnetite. The hematite presence is mostly on the internal surface of steam generator body and its concentration increases towards the top of the body. In the results interpretation it is necessary to consider also erosion as well as scope and type of maintenance activities. The long-term study of phase composition of corrosion products at VVER reactors is one of precondition for the safe operation over the projected NPP lifetime.

  5. An annotated and revised checklist of pleurostome ciliates (Protista: Ciliophora: Litostomatea) from Slovakia, Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Vďačný, Peter; Rajter, L'ubomír

    2014-01-01

    Pleurostomatids are predatory ciliates, living especially in the periphyton and benthos of various freshwater and marine habitats. In the present work, we provide an annotated and revised checklist of this ciliate group from the territory of Slovakia. Altogether 29 pleurostome species belonging to five genera have been reported there: Acineria incurvata, Ac. punctata, Ac. uncinata, Amphileptus claparedii, Am. falcatus, Am. fusiformis, Am. parafusidens, Am. pleurosigma, Am. procerus, Am. punctatus, A. rotundus, Litonotus alpestris, Li. anguilla, Li. carinatus, Li. crystallinus, Li. cygnus, Li. fasciola, Li. fusidens, Li. hirundo, Li. lamella, Li. minisculus, Li. muscorum, Li. obtusus, Li. triqueter, Li. varsaviensis, Loxophyllum helus, Lo. meleagris, Lo. rostratum, and Siroloxophyllum utriculariae. We have catalogued these records providing the following data for each species: (1) author(s) and date of publication; (2) name(s) of the species as appeared in the publication(s) followed by chronologically listed references including relevant page(s) in literature; (3) nomenclatural and taxonomic notes if needed; (4) main morphological characters; (5) morphological data on Slovak populations if available; and (6) all faunistic records. PMID:24870102

  6. Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol in Wheat in Slovakia during 2010 and 2011

    PubMed Central

    Šliková, Svetlana; Gavurníková, Soňa; Šudyová, Valéria; Gregová, Edita

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a total of 299 grain samples of wheat were collected from four production regions: the maize, sugar beet, potato and feed sectors of Slovakia. The samples were analyzed for deoxynivalenol (DON) content by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay Ridascreen® Fast DON. Analysis of variance revealed a significant difference between years in DON contents (p < 0.027). The occurrence of samples with DON was 82.2% in 2010, with maximum DON content of 7.88 mg kg−1, and 70.7% in 2011, with maximum DON content of 2.12 mg·kg−1. The total mean DON content was 0.62 mg·kg−1; in the feed region 0.22 mg·kg−1; 0.63 mg·kg−1 in the maize region; 0.78 mg·kg−1 in the sugar beet region; 0.45 mg·kg−1 the potato region. The limit of 1.25 mg·kg−1 imposed by the European Union (EU) for DON content was exceeded in 13.7% of the studied samples. The average monthly rainfall for May to June played a critical role in DON content of wheat grains for maize and sugar beet producing regions. The present results indicate that DON content was at a high level in grains from wheat grown during 2010. PMID:23917334

  7. Astronomy development in Serbia in view of the IAU Strategic Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanacković, Olga

    2015-03-01

    An overview of astronomy development in Serbia in view of the goals envisaged by the IAU Strategic Plan is given. Due attention is paid to the recent reform of education at all levels. In the primary schools several extra topics in astronomy are introduced in the physics course. Attempts are made to reintroduce astronomy as a separate subject in the secondary schools. Special emphasis is put to the role and activities of the Petnica Science Center the biggest center for informal education in SE Europe, and to a successful participation of the Serbian team in International astronomy olympiads. Astronomy topics are taught at all five state universities in Serbia. At the University of Belgrade and Novi Sad students can enroll in astronomy from the first study year. The students have the training at the Ondrejov Observatory (Czech Republic) and at the astronomical station on the mountain Vidojevica in southern Serbia. Astronomy research in Serbia is performed at the Astronomical Observatory, Belgrade and the Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade. There are about 70 researchers in astronomy in Serbia (and about as many abroad) who participate in eight projects financed by the Ministry of Education and Science and in several international cooperations and projects: SREAC, VAMDC, Belissima (recruitment of experienced expatriate researchers), Astromundus (a 2-year joint master program with other four European universities), LSST. One of the goals in near future is twinning between universities in the SEE region and worldwide. The ever-increasing activities of 20 amateur astronomical societies are also given.

  8. Best Practice for Rainfall Measurement, Torrential Flood Monitoring and Real Time Alerting System in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanovic, Milutin; Milojevic, Mileta; Zlatanovic, Nikola

    2014-05-01

    Serbia occupies 88.000 km2 and its confined zone menaced with torrent flood occupies 50.000km2. Floods on large rivers and torrents are the most frequent natural disasters in Serbia. This is the result of a geographic position and relief of Serbia. Therefore, defense from these natural disasters has been institutionalized since the 19th century. Through its specialized bodies and public companies, the State organized defense from floods on large rivers and protection of international and other main roads. The Topčiderska River is one of a number of rivers in Serbia that is a threat to both urban and rural environments. In this text, general characteristics of this river will be illustrated, as well as the historical natural hazards that have occurred in the part of Belgrade near Topčiderska River. Belgrade is the capital of Serbia, its political, administrative and financial center, which means that there are significant financial capacities and human resources for investments in all sectors, and specially in the water resources sector. Along the Topčiderska catchment there are many industrial, traffic and residential structures that are in danger of floods and flood protection is more difficult with rapid high flows. The goal is to use monitoring on the Topčiderska River basin to set up a modern system for monitoring in real time and forecast of torrential floods. This paper represents a system of remote detection and monitoring of torrential floods and rain measurements in real time on Topciderka river and ready for a quick response.

  9. The Significance of Podpe limestone in the Cultural Heritage of Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramar, Sabina; Bedjanič, Mojca; Mirtič, Breda; Mladenović, Ana; Rožič, Boštjan; Skaberne, Dragomir; Zupančič, Nina

    2013-04-01

    Podpeč limestone is characterized by its dark grey, or nearly black colour, with white fossil shells of the Lithiotis. These beds, which have been dated as Lower Jurassic, occur in southern and south-western Slovenia, and are particularly common in areas southwest of Ljubljana. The main quarry, which is not active, is located next to the village of Podpeč near Ljubljana, and has been declared as a geological natural value of national importance; as such, it is officially protected as a natural monument. In the close vicinity of the village there are some other smaller quarries, but all of them have been abandoned. With its very low porosity (0.9%) and water absorption (0.13 - 0.30 % by mass), but relatively high compressive strength (185 MPa), this limestone is quite durable, although its colouring becomes somewhat bleached when situated outdoors. The use of Podpeč limestone was first documented in the case of the Roman period in Slovenia, when it was used for funerary stelae, votive altars, boundary stones, and other artefacts. At the end of the 5th Century AD, with the fall of the Roman Empire, stone-cutting ceased at Podpeč for the next few centuries. Before 1850 Podpeč limestone had no special value. Only very few portals or pilasters made of this stone are known, and no evidence has been found in churches. However, towards the end of the 19th Century Podpeč limestone became better-known, although before the first half of the 20th Century there were no significant stonecutting workshops in Podpeč. After this, stone was supplied progressively from the main quarry. Large numbers of buildings in Ljubljana and central Slovenia have sills, lintels and jambs made of Podpeč limestone. Production stopped in 1967. The internationally renowned Slovenian architect Jože Plečnik (1872-1957) used Podpeč limestone in various Slovenian buildings - the central stadium in Ljubljana, the National University Library, many altars and churches (Bogojina, the Ši\\vska and

  10. Distribution of lead, cadmium, and zinc in tissues of hens and chickens from Slovenia

    SciTech Connect

    Doganoc, D.Z.

    1996-12-01

    Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are environmental contaminants which are present in almost all living organisms and are non-essential for plants, animals and human beings. Zinc (Zn) is an essential element which occurs together with Cd and is linked with it. Little information exists about the contamination of tissues of hens and chickens with these elements. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of lead, cadmium, and zinc in different tissues of poultry and eggs in Slovenia. 10 refs., 7 tabs.