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Sample records for serpentine hot springs

  1. Native Healing in Alaska—Report From Serpentine Hot Springs

    PubMed Central

    Book, Patricia A.; Dixon, Mim; Kirchner, Scott

    1983-01-01

    Traditional Alaskan Native healing practices, specifically sweat bathing and hot springs bathing, have medical connotations in that they involve sociocultural factors important to practicing medicine among Alaskan Native people. At Serpentine Hot Springs in northwest Alaska, relief for arthritis, back pain, hip pain, headaches, skin rashes and other disorders was sought. The “treatment setting” was an informal bathhouse and bunkhouse and Eskimo tribal doctors and patients were assigned tasks related to healing. Continuity with traditional cultural patterns was achieved in several ways: meals tended to be traditional Eskimo fare, the predominant language spoken was Inupiaq and styles of interaction were Inupiat in character. All patients showed improvement. The experience reported herein is instructive for those seeking innovative approaches treating Native American groups. PMID:6666111

  2. Hot streak characterization in serpentine exhaust nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, Darrell S.

    Modern aircraft of the United States Air Force face increasingly demanding cost, weight, and survivability requirements. Serpentine exhaust nozzles within an embedded engine allow a weapon system to fulfill mission survivability requirements by providing denial of direct line-of-sight into the high-temperature components of the engine. Recently, aircraft have experienced material degradation and failure along the aft deck due to extreme thermal loading. Failure has occurred in specific regions along the aft deck where concentrations of hot gas have come in contact with the surface causing hot streaks. The prevention of these failures will be aided by the accurate prediction of hot streaks. Additionally, hot streak prediction will improve future designs by identifying areas of the nozzle and aft deck surfaces that require thermal management. To this end, the goal of this research is to observe and characterize the underlying flow physics of hot streak phenomena. The goal is accomplished by applying computational fluid dynamics to determine how hot streak phenomena is affected by changes in nozzle geometry. The present research first validates the computational methods using serpentine inlet experimental and computational studies. A design methodology is then established for creating six serpentine exhaust nozzles investigated in this research. A grid independent solution is obtained on a nozzle using several figures of merit and the grid-convergence index method. An investigation into the application of a second-order closure turbulence model is accomplished. Simulations are performed for all serpentine nozzles at two flow conditions. The research introduces a set of characterization and performance parameters based on the temperature distribution and flow conditions at the nozzle throat and exit. Examination of the temperature distribution on the upper and lower nozzle surfaces reveals critical information concerning changes in hot streak phenomena due to changes

  3. Hot Spring Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    López-López, Olalla; Cerdán, María Esperanza; González-Siso, María Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Hot springs have been investigated since the XIX century, but isolation and examination of their thermophilic microbial inhabitants did not start until the 1950s. Many thermophilic microorganisms and their viruses have since been discovered, although the real complexity of thermal communities was envisaged when research based on PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA genes arose. Thereafter, the possibility of cloning and sequencing the total environmental DNA, defined as metagenome, and the study of the genes rescued in the metagenomic libraries and assemblies made it possible to gain a more comprehensive understanding of microbial communities—their diversity, structure, the interactions existing between their components, and the factors shaping the nature of these communities. In the last decade, hot springs have been a source of thermophilic enzymes of industrial interest, encouraging further study of the poorly understood diversity of microbial life in these habitats. PMID:25369743

  4. 6. HOT AIR PORTION OF DAMPERS. Hot Springs National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. HOT AIR PORTION OF DAMPERS. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Lamar Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  5. Diagenetic Changes in Common Hot Spring Microfacies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinman, N. W.; Kendall, T. A.; MacKenzie, L. A.; Cady, S. D.

    2016-05-01

    The friable nature of silica hot spring deposits makes them susceptible to mechanical weathering. Rapid diagenesis must take place for these rocks to persist in the geologic record. The properties of two microfacies at two deposits were compared.

  6. Travertine Hot Springs, Mono County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Chesterman, C.W.; Kleinhampl, F.J.

    1991-08-01

    This article is an abridgement of Special Report 172, Travertine Hot Springs at Bridgeport, Mono County, California, in preparation at the California Division of Mines and Geology. The Travertine Hot Springs area is on the northern edge of what many consider to be one of the most tectonically active areas in the United States. There is abundant geothermal and seismic activity. The landscape is dotted with volcanic features- cones, craters, domes, flows, fumaroles and hot springs-indicators of unrest in the present as well as reminders of activity in the past. Travertine, also known as calcareous sinter, is limestone formed by chemical precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) from ground or surface waters. It forms stalactites and stalagmites in caves, fills some veins and spring conduits and can also be found at the mouths of springs, especially hot springs. The less compact variety is called tufa and the dense, banded variety is known as Mexican onyx, or onyx marble. True onyx, however, is a banded silicate.

  7. Geophysical Investigation of Neal Hot Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colwell, C.; Van Wijk, K.; Liberty, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    We present newly acquired geophysical data that characterizes a geothermal system at Neal Hot Springs in eastern Oregon. The hot springs are in a region of complex and intersecting fault trends associated with two major extensional events, the Oregon-Idaho Graben and the western Snake River Plain. From surface observations and several boreholes in the area, it appears that a steeply dipping normal fault forms a half-graben basin and serves as a conduit for heated water at depth to migrate to the surface at Neal Hot Springs. We identify and characterize this fault with seismic reflection, gravity, magnetic, and electrical resistivity surveys. A self-potential survey indicates that water is upwelling over the fault plane, and suggests that the fault does provide the means for heated water to migrate to the surface. Smaller scale structure is also evident in both the gravity and seismic surveys, and could interact with the migration of water, and how the hot springs recharge. These preliminary results will be built upon in the upcoming years and a solid structural understanding of Neal Hot Springs and the surrounding area will be gained through the use of geophysics.

  8. Bacterial community analysis of Indonesian hot springs.

    PubMed

    Baker, G C; Gaffar, S; Cowan, D A; Suharto, A R

    2001-06-12

    We report the first attempts to describe thermophilic bacterial communities in Indonesia's thermal springs using molecular phylogenetic analyses. 16S rRNA genes from laboratory cultures and DNA directly amplified from three hot springs in West Java were sequenced. The 22 sequences obtained were assignable to the taxa Proteobacteria, Bacillus and Flavobacterium, including a number of clades not normally associated with thermophily. PMID:11410357

  9. Corrosion in volcanic hot springs

    SciTech Connect

    Lichti, K.A.; Swann, S.J.; Sanada, N.

    1997-12-31

    Volcanic hot pool environments on White Island, New Zealand have been used to study the corrosion properties of materials which might be used for engineering plant for energy production from deep-seated and magma-ambient geothermal systems. The corrosion chemistry of hot pools encountered in natural volcanic features varies, from being of near neutral pH- or alkalie pH-chloride type waters to acidic-chloride/sulfate waters which are more aggressive to metals and alloys. Potential-pH (Pourbaix) diagram models of corrosion product phase stability for common alloy elements contained in engineering alloys have been developed for hot pool environments using thermodynamic principles and conventional corrosion theory. These diagramatic models give reasons for the observed corrosion kinetics and can be used to help to predict the performance of other alloys in similar environments. Deficiencies in the knowledge base for selection of materials for aggressive geothermal environments are identified, and directions for future research on materials having suitable corrosion resistance for deep-seated and magma-ambient production fluids which have acidic properties are proposed.

  10. Potential autotrophic metabolisms in ultra-basic reducing springs associated with present-day continental serpentinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrill, P. L.; Miles, S.; Kohl, L.; Kavanagh, H.; Ziegler, S. E.; Brazelton, W. J.; Schrenk, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    Ultra-basic reducing springs at continental sites of serpentinization act as windows into the biogeochemistry of this subsurface exothermic environment rich in H2 and CH4 gases. Biogeochemical carbon transformations in these systems are of interest because serpentinization creates conditions that are amenable to abiotic and biotic reduction of carbon. However, little is known about the metabolic capabilities of the microorganisms that live in this environment. To determine the potential for autotrophic metabolisms, bicarbonate and CO substrate addition microcosm experiments were performed using water and sediment from an ultra-basic reducing spring in the Tablelands, Newfoundland, Canada, a site of present-day continental serpentinization. CO was consistently observed to be utilized in the Live but not the Killed controlled replicates amended with 10% 13C labelled CO and non-labelled (natural C isotope abundance) CO. In the Live CO microcosms with natural C isotope abundance, the residual CO became enriched in 13C (~10 ‰) consistent with a decrease in the fraction of CO remaining. In the Killed CO controlled replicates with natural C isotope abundance the CO showed little 13C enrichment (~1.3 ‰). The data from the Live CO microcosms were well described by a Rayleigh isotopic distillation model, yielding an isotopic enrichment factor for microbial CO uptake of 15.7 ×0.5 ‰ n=2. These data suggest that there was microbial CO utilization in these experiments. The sediment and water from the 13C-labelled and non-labelled, Live and Killed microcosms were extracted for phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) to determine changes in community composition between treatments as well as to determine the microbial uptake of CO. The difference in community composition between the Live and Killed microcosms was not readily resolvable based on PLFA distributions. Additionally, the microbial uptake of 13CO had minimal to no affect on the δ13C of the cellular biomarkers, with the

  11. BLOWER MOTOR & DRIVE WHEEL. Hot Springs National Park, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLOWER MOTOR & DRIVE WHEEL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Superior Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  12. 11. INTERIOR OF THERMOSTAT. Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR OF THERMOSTAT. - Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse Row, Maurice Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  13. 2. PADDLE FAN IN PLENUM INTERIOR. Hot Springs National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PADDLE FAN IN PLENUM INTERIOR. - Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse Row, Maurice Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  14. THERMALWATER FLOW METER. Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    THERMAL-WATER FLOW METER. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Superior Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  15. DETAIL OF THERMALWATER FLOW METER. Hot Springs National Park, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THERMAL-WATER FLOW METER. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Superior Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  16. 5. HORIZONTAL COOLEDWATER STORAGE TANKS. Hot Springs National Park, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. HORIZONTAL COOLED-WATER STORAGE TANKS. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  17. 2. INDUSTRIAL IRON (LAUNDRY AREA IN BACKGROUND). Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INDUSTRIAL IRON (LAUNDRY AREA IN BACKGROUND). - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Quapaw Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  18. 2. ELEVATOR DRIVE, CABLE MOTOR, CIRCUIT BOX, Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. ELEVATOR DRIVE, CABLE MOTOR, CIRCUIT BOX, - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  19. 12. ELEVATOR DOORS AND CAB. Hot Springs National Park, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. ELEVATOR DOORS AND CAB. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  20. 10. NEEDLE SHOWER IN COOLING ROOM. Hot Springs National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. NEEDLE SHOWER IN COOLING ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  1. 1. INDUSTRIAL IRON (WORKING SIDE). Hot Springs National Park, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. INDUSTRIAL IRON (WORKING SIDE). - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Quapaw Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  2. 9. NEEDLE SHOWER IN MEN'S PACK ROOM. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. NEEDLE SHOWER IN MEN'S PACK ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse Row, Maurice Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  3. VACUUM PUMP (CONDENSATE RETURN). Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VACUUM PUMP (CONDENSATE RETURN). - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Hale Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  4. 1. BLOWER (EXTERIOR CONFIGURATION). Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BLOWER (EXTERIOR CONFIGURATION). - Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse Row, Maurice Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  5. 13. DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  6. 5. FLOW METER AND PIPING SHOWING CONNECTIONS. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. FLOW METER AND PIPING SHOWING CONNECTIONS. - Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse Row, Maurice Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  7. 4. DETAIL OF ELEVATOR DRUM AND DRIVE. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL OF ELEVATOR DRUM AND DRIVE. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  8. 11. GENERAL VIEW OF MEN'S BATH HALL. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. GENERAL VIEW OF MEN'S BATH HALL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  9. 4. VACUUM PUMP (CONDENSATE RETURN). Hot Springs National Park, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VACUUM PUMP (CONDENSATE RETURN). - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Buckstaff Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 Mile North of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  10. 9. THERMOSTAT IN LADIES MASSAGE ROOM. Hot Springs National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. THERMOSTAT IN LADIES MASSAGE ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Lamar Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  11. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a) Commercial... or carrying away of water, hot or cold, from any of the springs, fountains, or other sources...

  12. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a) Commercial... or carrying away of water, hot or cold, from any of the springs, fountains, or other sources...

  13. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a) Commercial... or carrying away of water, hot or cold, from any of the springs, fountains, or other sources...

  14. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a) Commercial... or carrying away of water, hot or cold, from any of the springs, fountains, or other sources...

  15. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a) Commercial... or carrying away of water, hot or cold, from any of the springs, fountains, or other sources...

  16. [History of hot spring bath treatment in China].

    PubMed

    Hao, Wanpeng; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Yinghong; Gu Li, A Man; Li, Ming; Zhang, Xin

    2011-07-01

    As early as the 7th century B.C. (Western Zhou Dynasty), there is a recording as 'spring which contains sulfur could treat disease' on the Wentang Stele written by WANG Bao. Wenquan Fu written by ZHANG Heng in the Easten Han Dynasty also mentioned hot spring bath treatment. The distribution of hot springs in China has been summarized by LI Daoyuan in the Northern Wei Dynasty in his Shuijingzhu which recorded hot springs in 41 places and interpreted the definition of hot spring. Bencao Shiyi (by CHEN Cangqi, Tang Dynasty) discussed the formation of and indications for hot springs. HU Zai in the Song Dynasty pointed out distinguishing hot springs according to water quality in his book Yuyin Conghua. TANG Shenwei in the Song Dynasty noted in Jingshi Zhenglei Beiji Bencao that hot spring bath treatment should be combined with diet. Shiwu Bencao (Ming Dynasty) classified hot springs into sulfur springs, arsenicum springs, cinnabar springs, aluminite springs, etc. and pointed out their individual indications. Geologists did not start the work on distribution and water quality analysis of hot springs until the first half of the 20th century. There are 972 hot springs in Wenquan Jiyao (written by geologist ZHANG Hongzhao and published in 1956). In July 1982, the First National Geothermal Conference was held and it reported that there were more than 2600 hot springs in China. Since the second half of the 20th century, hot spring sanatoriums and rehabilitation centers have been established, which promoted the development of hot spring bath treatment. PMID:22169492

  17. Geothermal Exploration in Hot Springs, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Toby McIntosh, Jackola Engineering

    2012-09-26

    The project involves drilling deeper in the Camp Aqua well dri lled in June 1982 as part of an effort to develop an ethanol plant. The purpose of the current drill ing effort is to determine if water at or above 165°F exists for the use in low temperature resource power generation. Previous geothermal resource study efforts in and around Hot Springs , MT and the Camp Aqua area (NE of Hot Springs) have been conducted through the years. A confined gravel aquifer exists in deep alluvium overlain by approximately 250 of si lt and c lay deposits from Glacial Lake Missoula. This gravel aquifer overlies a deeper bedrock aquifer. In the Camp Aqua area several wel l s exist in the gravel aquifer which receives hot water f rom bedrock fractures beneath the area. Prior to this exploration, one known well in the Camp Aqua area penetrated into the bedrock without success in intersecting fractures transporting hot geothermal water. The exploration associated with this project adds to the physical knowledge database of the Camp Aqua area. The dri l l ing effort provides additional subsurface information that can be used to gain a better understanding of the bedrock formation that i s leaking hot geothermal water into an otherwise cold water aquifer. The exi s t ing well used for the explorat ion is located within the center of the hottest water within the gravel aquifer. This lent i t sel f as a logical and economical location to continue the exploration within the existing well. Faced with budget constraints due to unanticipated costs, changing dril l ing techniques stretched the limited project resources to maximize the overa l l well depth which f e l l short of original project goals. The project goal of finding 165°F or hotter water was not achieved; however the project provides additional information and understanding of the Camp Aqua area that could prove valuable in future exploration efforts

  18. Sol Duc Hot Springs feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    Sol Duc Springs is located in the Olympic National Park in western Washington state. Since the turn of the century, the area has served as a resort, offering hot mineral baths, lodge and overnight cabin accommodations. The Park Service, in conjunction with the concessionaire, is in the process of renovating the existing facilities, most of which are approximately 50 years old. The present renovation work consists of removing all of the existing cabins and replacing them with 36 new units. In addition, a new hot pool is planned to replace the existing one. This report explores the possibility of a more efficient use of the geothermal resource to accompany other planned improvements. It is important to note that the system outlined is based upon the resource development as it exists currently. That is, the geothermal source is considered to be: the two existing wells and the hot springs currently in use. In addition, every effort has been made to accommodate the priorities for utilization as set forth by the Park Service.

  19. Portrait of a Geothermal Spring, Hunter's Hot Springs, Oregon.

    PubMed

    Castenholz, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    Although alkaline Hunter's Hot Springs in southeastern Oregon has been studied extensively for over 40 years, most of these studies and the subsequent publications were before the advent of molecular methods. However, there are many field observations and laboratory experiments that reveal the major aspects of the phototrophic species composition within various physical and chemical gradients of these springs. Relatively constant temperature boundaries demark the upper boundary of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus at 73-74 °C (the world-wide upper limit for photosynthesis), and 68-70 °C the upper limit for Chloroflexus. The upper limit for the cover of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Geitlerinema (Oscillatoria) is at 54-55 °C, and the in situ lower limit at 47-48 °C for all three of these phototrophs due to the upper temperature limit for the grazing ostracod, Thermopsis. The in situ upper limit for the cyanobacteria Pleurocapsa and Calothrix is at ~47-48 °C, which are more grazer-resistant and grazer dependent. All of these demarcations are easily visible in the field. In addition, there is a biosulfide production in some sections of the springs that have a large impact on the microbiology. Most of the temperature and chemical limits have been explained by field and laboratory experiments. PMID:25633225

  20. Nonmarine Crenarchaeol in Nevada Hot Springs

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, A.; Huang, Z.; Ingalls, A. E.; Romanek, C. S.; Wiegel, J.; Freeman, K. H.; Smittenberg, R. H.; Zhang, C. L.

    2004-01-01

    Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are core membrane lipids of the Crenarchaeota. The structurally unusual GDGT crenarchaeol has been proposed as a taxonomically specific biomarker for the marine planktonic group I archaea. It is found ubiquitously in the marine water column and in sediments. In this work, samples of microbial community biomass were obtained from several alkaline and neutral-pH hot springs in Nevada, United States. Lipid extracts of these samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Each sample contained GDGTs, and among these compounds was crenarchaeol. The distribution of archaeal lipids in Nevada hot springs did not appear to correlate with temperature, as has been observed in the marine environment. Instead, a significant correlation with the concentration of bicarbonate was observed. Archaeal DNA was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. All samples contained 16S rRNA gene sequences which were more strongly related to thermophilic crenarchaeota than to Cenarchaeum symbiosum, a marine nonthermophilic crenarchaeon. The occurrence of crenarchaeol in environments containing sequences affiliated with thermophilic crenarchaeota suggests a wide phenotypic distribution of this compound. The results also indicate that crenarchaeol can no longer be considered an exclusive biomarker for marine species. PMID:15345404

  1. Phototrophy in Mildly Acidic Hot Spring Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fecteau, K.; Boyd, E. S.; Shock, E.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial light-driven reduction of carbon in continental hydrothermal ecosystems is restricted to environments at temperatures less than 73 °C. In circumneutral and alkaline systems bacterial phototrophs (cyanobacteria and anoxygenic phototrophs) are suggested to be principally responsible for this activity whereas algal (i.e., eukaryotic) phototrophs are thought to be responsible for this activity in acidic systems. In Yellowstone National Park numerous examples of phototrophic microbial communities exist at high and low pH, while hot springs with intermediate pH (values 3-5) are rare and commonly dilute. It is thought that the transition from algal photosynthesis to bacterial photosynthesis occurs within this pH range. To test this hypothesis, we sequenced bacterial and eukaryal small subunit ribosomal RNA genes, analyzed pigments, and performed comprehensive geochemical measurements from 12 hot springs within this pH realm. At all sites, the largest phototrophic population was either comprised of Cyanobacteria or affiliated with the algal order Cyanidiales, which are ubiquitous in acidic springs, yet abundant sequences of both lineages were present in 8 of the 12 sites. Nevertheless, some of these samples exceeded the known temperature limit of the algae (56 °C), suggesting that these populations are dead or inactive. Indeed, one site yielded evidence for a large Cyanidiales population as the only phototrophs present, yet an experiment at the time of sampling failed to demonstrate light-driven carbon fixation, and analysis of extracted pigments showed a large amount of the chlorophyll degradation product pheophorbide a and very little intact chlorophyll, indicating photosynthesis occurred at this site when conditions were different. Our observations illustrate the dynamic nature of these systems that may be transiently conducive to photosynthesis, which may open niches for phototrophs of both domains and likely played a role in the evolution of photosynthesis.

  2. Hot Springs-Garrison Fiber Optic Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to upgrade its operational telecommunications system between the Hot Springs Substation and the Garrison Substation using a fiber optic system. The project would primarily involve installing 190 kilometers (120 miles) of fiber optic cable on existing transmission structures and installing new fiber optic equipment in BPA`s substation yards and control houses. BPA prepared an environmental assessment (EA) evaluating the proposed action. This EA was published in October 1994. The EA identifies a number of minor impacts that might occur as a result of the proposed action, as well as some recommended mitigation measures. This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) identifies specific measures to avoid, minimize, or compensate for impacts identified in the EA.

  3. Preliminary geothermal investigations at Manley Hot Springs, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    East, J.

    1982-04-01

    Manley Hot Springs is one of several hot springs which form a belt extending from the Seward Peninsula to east-central Alaska. All of the hot springs are low-temperature, water-dominated geothermal systems, having formed as the result of circulation of meteoric water along deepseated fractures near or within granitic intrusives. Shallow, thermally disturbed ground at Manley Hot Springs constitutes an area of 1.2 km by 0.6 km along the lower slopes of Bean Ridge on the north side of the Tanana Valley. This area includes 32 springs and seeps and one warm (29.1/sup 0/C) well. The hottest springs range in temperature from 61/sup 0/ to 47/sup 0/C and are presently utilized for space heating and irrigation. This study was designed to characterize the geothermal system present at Manley Hot Springs and delineate likely sites for geothermal drilling. Several surveys were conducted over a grid system which included shallow ground temperature, helium soil gas, mercury soil and resistivity surveys. In addition, a reconnaissance ground temperature survey and water chemistry sampling program was undertaken. The preliminary results, including some preliminary water chemistry, show that shallow hydrothermal activity can be delineated by many of the surveys. Three localities are targeted as likely geothermal well sites, and a model is proposed for the geothermal system at Manley Hot Springs.

  4. Siliceous Shrubs in Yellowstone's Hot Springs: Implications for Exobiological Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guidry, S. A.; Chafetz, H. S.

    2003-01-01

    Potential relict hot springs have been identified on Mars and, using the Earth as an analog, Martian hot springs are postulated to be an optimal locality for recognizing preserved evidence of extraterrestrial life. Distinctive organic and inorganic biomarkers are necessary to recognize preserved evidence of life in terrestrial and extraterrestrial hot spring accumulations. Hot springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, U.S.A., contain a wealth of information about primitive microbial life and associated biosignatures that may be useful for future exobiological investigations. Numerous siliceous hot springs in Yellowstone contain abundant, centimeter-scale, spinose precipitates of opaline silica (opal-A). Although areally extensive in siliceous hot spring discharge channel facies, these spinose forms have largely escaped attention. These precipitates referred to as shrubs, consist of porous aggregates of spinose opaline silica that superficially resemble miniature woody plants, i.e., the term shrubs. Shrubs in carbonate precipitating systems have received considerable attention, and represent naturally occurring biotically induced precipitates. As such, shrubs have great potential as hot spring environmental indicators and, more importantly, proxies for pre-existing microbial life.

  5. Kelley Hot Spring Geothermal Project: Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Longyear, A.B.

    1980-06-01

    The proposed core activity in the Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center is a nominal 1200 sow swine raising complex. The swine raising is to be a totally confined operation for producing premium pork in controlled environment facilities that utilize geothermal energy. The complex will include a feedmill for producing the various feed formulae required for the animals from breeding through gestation, farrowing, nursery, growing and finishing. The market animals are shipped live by truck to slaughter in Modesto, California. A complete waste management facility will include manure collection from all raising areas, transport via a water flush sysem to methane (biogas) generators, manure separation, settling ponds and disposition of the surplus agricultural quality water. The design is based upon the best commercial practices in confined swine raising in the US today. The most unique feature of the facility is the utilization of geothermal hot water for space heating and process energy throughout the complex.

  6. Microbially-influenced Fe-Cycling within high pH serpentinizing springs of the Zambales Ophiolite, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casar, C.; Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Simon, A.; Cardace, D.; Arcilla, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Zambales ophiolite region in the Philippines contains high pH springs associated with serpentinization. At the surface where calcium-saturated ­fluids mix with air, fluid becomes aerobic and diffusion of CO2 occurs. At depth, there are low concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon and O2, and high concentrations of CH4 and H2. Redox potential of iron in the fluids is largely dependent on pH. Fe2+ is unstable at a high pH, and spontaneously reacts with atmospheric O2 to form Fe3+, which is then hydrolysed to ferrihydrite. The reaction kinetics may be too rapid for microbes to harness energy for growth, however cells have been documented to act as nucleation sites for ferrihydrite precipitation in natural environments. Precipitates that sink to the subsurface act as substrates for microbes where they may carry out Fe3+ reduction in the presence of H2. Predictions made about Gibbs energy of reaction for iron metabolisms in serpentinizing systems show that Fe3+ reduction in the subsurface is energetically favorable (Fig. 1A) (Cardace, et al., 2013). Spring fluid and rock samples from the Zambales region were collected in September 2013. Time series microcosms including sample rock, spring fluid, and gas simulating the spring surface and subsurface (Fig. 1B) will investigate microbial growth rates and microbial reaction products over one year. Microcosms will undergo cell counts via fluorescence microscopy, SEM, and XRD to examine cell growth rates, microbial action on mineral surfaces, minerals forming around cells, and changes in mineralogy. After one year, microbial community structure and iron metabolizers will be identified via DNA sequencing.­­ Surface microcosms are expected to show abiotic oxidation of Fe2+ and formation of Fe3+ precipitates preferentially around cells acting as nucleation sites (except in abiotic control microcosms). Subsurface microcosms are expected to show biotic reduction of Fe3+ and signs of microbial action on mineral surfaces

  7. Kelly Hot Spring Geothermal Project: Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center preliminary design. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Longyear, A.B.

    1980-08-01

    A Phase 1 Preliminary Design, Construction Planning and Economic Analysis has been conducted for the Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center in Modoc County, California. The core activity is a 1360 breeding sow, swine raising complex that utilizes direct heat energy from the Kelly Hot Spring geothermal resource. The swine is to be a totally confined operation for producing premium pork in controlled-environment facilities. The complex contains a feed mill, swine raising buildings and a complete waste management facility that produces methane gas to be delivered to a utility company for the production of electricity. The complex produces 6.7 million pounds of live pork (29,353 animals) shipped to slaughter per year; 105,000 cu. ft. of scrubbed methane per day; and fertilizer. Total effluent is less than 200 gpm of agricultural quality-water with full odor control. The methane production rate made possible with geothermal direct heat is equivalent to at least 400 kw continuous. Sale of the methane on a co-generation basis is being discussed with the utility company. The use of geothermal direct heat energy in the complex displaces nearly 350,000 gallons of fuel oil per year. Generation of the biogas displaces an additional 300,000 gallons of fuel oil per year.

  8. Analysis of geothermal electric-power generation at Big Creek Hot Springs, Lemhi County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Struhsacker, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Big Creek Hot Springs was evaluated as a source of electrical power for the Blackbird Cobalt Mine, approximately 13 miles south of the hot spring. An evaluaton of the geothermal potential of Big Creek Hot Springs, a suggested exploration program and budget, an engineering feasibility study of power generation at Big Creek Hot Springs, an economic analysis of the modeled power generating system, and an appraisal of the institutional factors influencing development at Big Creek Hot Springs are included.

  9. Hydrological and geochemical study of Yuseong hot spring in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.; Park, C.; Cho, Y.; LEE, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Yuseong hot spring is the first modernized hot spring in 1920's that has drawn the most tourists until 2000 before decline of tourists due to the aging of facility. It is located in the mid-west of South Korea. Geologically, it is in Precambrian metamorphic complex intruded by Mesozoic granite and porphyry. Fault zones exist in the E-W and NNW-SSE directions around Yuseong hot spring. Wells lie in the E-W direction indicating the correlation between the fault zones and the hot spring distribution. Water production rate has decreased gradually from 5,200 m3/d in 1993 to 2,500 m3/d in 2011. Water depth varies from 22 m - 57 m depending on pumping. Although enforced pumping has enacted last 50 years, water depth is observed to be stable. Water temperature is measured from the highest 51.8 degree Celsius to the lowest 25 degree Celsius. Yuseong hot spring is primarily the type of Na(Ca)-HCO3 whose pH ranges from low alkaline to alkaline with sufficient silica(≥40 mg/L).

  10. Geothermal heat pump system assisted by geothermal hot spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, M.; Koizumi, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The authors propose a hybrid geothermal heat pump system that could cool buildings in summer and melt snow on the pedestrian sidewalks in winter, utilizing cold mine water and hot spring water. In the proposed system, mine water would be used as cold thermal energy storage, and the heat from the hot spring after its commercial use would be used to melt snow for a certain section of sidewalks. Neither of these sources is viable for direct use application of geothermal resources, however, they become contributing energy factors without producing any greenhouse gases. To assess the feasibility of the proposed system, a series of temperature measurements in the Edgar Mine (Colorado School of Mines' experimental mine) in Idaho Springs, Colorado, were first conducted, and heat/mass transfer analyses of geothermal hot spring water was carried out. The result of the temperature measurements proved that the temperature of Edgar Mine would be low enough to store cold groundwater for use in summer. The heat loss of the hot spring water during its transportation was also calculated, and the heat requirement for snow melt was compared with the heat available from the hot spring water. It was concluded that the heat supply in the proposed usage of hot spring water was insufficient to melt the snow for the entire area that was initially proposed. This feasibility study should serve as an example of "local consumption of locally available energy". If communities start harnessing economically viable local energy in a responsible manner, there will be a foundation upon which to build a sustainable community.

  11. Environmental assessment for Kelley Hot Spring geothermal project: Kelley Hot Spring Agricultural Center

    SciTech Connect

    Neilson, J.A.

    1981-04-01

    The environmental impacts of an integrated swine production unit are analyzed together with necessary ancillary operations deriving its primary energy from a known geothermal reservoir in accordance with policies established by the National Energy Conservation Act. This environmental assessment covers 6 areas designated as potentially feasible project sites, using as the basic criteria for selection ground, surface and geothermal water supplies. The six areas, comprising +- 150 acres each, are within a 2 mile radius of Kelley Hot Springs, a known geothermal resource of many centuries standing, located 16 miles west of Alturas, the county seat of Modoc County, California. The project consists of the construction and operation of a 1360 sow confined pork production complex expandable to 5440 sows. The farrow to finish system for 1360 sows consists of 2 breeding barns, 2 gestation barns, 1 farrowing and 1 nursery barn, 3 growing and 3 finishing barns, a feed mill, a methane generator for waste disposal and water storage ponds. Supporting this are one geothermal well and 1 or 2 cold water wells, all occupying approximately 12 acres. Environmental reconnaissance involving geology, hydrology, soils, vegetation, fauna, air and water quality, socioeconomic, archaelogical and historical, and land use aspects were carefully carried out, impacts assessed and mitigations evaluated.

  12. Acord 1-26 hot, dry well, Roosevelt Hot Springs hot dry rock prospect, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, S.S. Jr.; Pettitt, R.; Rowley, J.; Goff, F.; Mathews, M.; Jacobson, J.J.

    1983-08-01

    The Acord 1-26 well is a hot, dry well peripheral to the Roosevelt Hot Springs known geothermal resource area (KGRA) in southwestern Utah. The bottom-hole temperature in this 3854-m-deep well is 230/sup 0/C, and the thermal gradient is 54/sup 0/C/km. The basal 685 m, comprised of biotite monzonite and quartz schist and gneiss, is a likely hot, dry rock (HDR) prospect. The hole was drilled in a structural low within the Milford Valley graben and is separated from the Roosevelt KGRA to the east by the Opal Mound Fault and other basin faults. An interpretation of seismic data approximates the subsurface structure around the well using the lithology in the Acord 1-26 well. The hole was drilled with a minimum of difficulty, and casing was set to 2411 m. From drilling and geophysical logs, it is deduced that the subsurface blocks of crystalline rock in the vicinity of the Acord 1-26 well are tight, dry, shallow, impermeable, and very hot. A hydraulic fracture test of the crystalline rocks below 3170 m is recommended. Various downhole tools and techniques could be tested in promising HDR regimes within the Acord 1-26 well.

  13. Small-scale Geothermal Power Plants Using Hot Spring Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosha, T.; Osato, K.; Kiuchi, T.; Miida, H.; Okumura, T.; Nakashima, H.

    2013-12-01

    The installed capacity of the geothermal power plants has been summed up to be about 515MW in Japan. However, the electricity generated by the geothermal resources only contributes to 0.2% of the whole electricity supply. After the catastrophic earthquake and tsunami devastated the Pacific coast of north-eastern Japan on Friday, March 11, 2011, the Japanese government is encouraging the increase of the renewable energy supply including the geothermal. It needs, however, more than 10 years to construct the geothermal power plant with more than 10MW capacity since the commencement of the development. Adding the problem of the long lead time, high temperature fluid is mainly observed in the national parks and the high quality of the geothermal resources is limited. On the other hand hot springs are often found. The utilisation of the low temperature hot water becomes worthy of notice. The low temperature hot water is traditionally used for bathing and there are many hot springs in Japan. Some of the springs have enough temperature and enthalpy to turn the geothermal turbine but a new technology of the binary power generation makes the lower temp fluid to generate electricity. Large power generators with the binary technology are already installed in many geothermal fields in the world. In the recent days small-scale geothermal binary generators with several tens to hundreds kW capacity are developed, which are originally used by the waste heat energy in an iron factory and so on. The newly developed binary unit is compact suitable for the installation in a Japanese inn but there are the restrictions for the temperature of the hot water and the working fluid. The binary power unit using alternatives for chlorofluorocarbon as the working fluid is relatively free from the restriction. KOBELCO, a company of the Kobe Steel Group, designed and developed the binary power unit with an alternative for chlorofluorocarbon. The unit has a 70 MW class electric generator. Three

  14. Hot Spring Microbial Community Elemental Composition: Hot Spring and Soil Inputs, and the Transition from Biocumulus to Sinter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havig, J. R.; Prapaipong, P.; Zolotova, N.; Moore, G. M.; Fecteau, K.; Robinson, K.; Boyer, G. M.; Shock, E.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrothermal microbial communities contain some of the most deeply branching members of the tree of life, and hydrothermal environments have been present on the Earth's surface since the condensation of the ocean over four billion years ago. Hydrothermal microbial communities are a potential source for biosignatures across nearly all of Earth's history, and the most likely mode of life (past and/or present) if it had developed on other bodies in the solar system. While there are general patterns of element enrichment for hydrothermal water, the elemental composition of bulk hydrothermal microbial communities (here termed biocumulus, encompassing biomass and non-biomass material) are largely unexplored. In order to elucidate the elemental composition of hot spring biocumulus and explore the sources of those elements, we sampled 87 hot spring biocumulus in 19 hot springs along with dozens of associated soil, rock, sinter, and autochthonous biomass samples and analyzed them for 41 elements, in conjunction with a larger sampling campaign (> 1000 hot spring water samples from 11 hydrothermal areas within Yellowstone National Park). While biocumulus are of obvious biological origin, they have surprising elemental compositions. Organic carbon makes up a minor percentage of the total mass of thermophilic chemotrophic and phototrophic biocumulus. We have found that the majority of hot spring biocumulus is inorganic material, largely silica, with measurable quantities of dozens of other elements, and that the distribution of major elements mimics that of surrounding rock and soil far more closely than the hot spring fluids. Analyses indicate a consistent pattern of elemental composition for biocumulus across varying hydrothermal geochemical compositions, and a systematic loss of biologically-associated elements during diagenetic transformation of biocumulus to siliceous sinter.

  15. Biogeochemistry of Hot Spring Biofilms: Major and Trace Element Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havig, J. R.; Prapaipong, P.; Zolotova, N.; Moore, G.; Shock, E. L.

    2008-12-01

    Hot spring biofilms are of obvious biological origin, but of surprising composition. Organic carbon makes up a minor percentage of the total mass of chemotrophic and phototrophic biofilms. We have found that the majority of biofilm mass is inorganic material, largely silica, with measurable quantities of dozens of other elements, and that the distribution of major elements mimics that of surrounding rock and soil far more closely than the hot spring fluids. Comparisons of biofilms with the compositions of their geochemical surroundings help identify trace elements that are anomalously enriched or depleted. These anomalies provide insight into the processes of active or passive elemental accumulation by biofilms, which could be used to understand microbial processes of element uptake or to identify evidence for life in hydrothermal deposits in the rock record. Five separate hydrothermal systems in Yellowstone National Park were incorporated into this study: 'Bison Pool' and its outflow (siliceous-sinter depositing, temp. = 93.2 to 56.2 C, pH = 7.4 to 8.3), Flatcone Geyser and its outflow (siliceous-sinter depositing, temp. = 94.3 to 44.3 C, pH = 7.9 to 8.8, Boulder Spring and its outflow (siliceous-sinter depositing, temp. = 92.1 to 64.9 C, pH = 8.2 to 8.7), Octopus Spring and its outflow (siliceous-sinter depositing, temp. = 91.4 to 62.8 C, pH = 7.7 to 8.2), and two unnamed locations in the Obsidian Pool area we have dubbed 'Green Cheese' (temp. = 64.5 to 54.9 C, pH = 5.9 to 6.2) and 'Happy Harfer Pool' (temp. = 59.9 to 48.3 C, pH = 5.5 to 6.3). Analysis of water, biofilm, and contextual samples collected from and around these hot springs offer intriguing patterns of elemental behavior, both similar and dissimilar, among the varying systems. Examples of these patterns include elements that behave the same across all hot spring systems (B, C, Ni, Cu, Ge, Sb, and W), elements with behavior that was consistent throughout most (four of five) of the hot spring systems

  16. RECOVERY OF A HOT SPRING COMMUNITY FROM A CATASTROPHE.

    PubMed

    Brock, T D; Brock, M L

    1969-03-01

    The algal mats of a number of hot springs in the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park were destroyed by a brief violent hailstorm on August 30, 1967. The rate of recovery of the algal mat at Mushroom Spring was studied by quantitative methods. In the temperature range of 65-71 C a unicellular cyanophycean alga is the sole photosynthetic component. The doubling times during the recovery period for three stations were: Station I (71 C), 17 days; station II (68 C), 10.5 days; station III (65 C), 10 days. The algal mat had returned to apparently normal size by 152 days after the catastrophe. The significance of these observations for the conservation of hot spring communities is discussed. PMID:27097256

  17. Carbon Source Preference in Chemosynthetic Hot Spring Communities

    PubMed Central

    Urschel, Matthew R.; Kubo, Michael D.; Hoehler, Tori M.; Peters, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Rates of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), formate, and acetate mineralization and/or assimilation were determined in 13 high-temperature (>73°C) hot springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming, in order to evaluate the relative importance of these substrates in supporting microbial metabolism. While 9 of the hot spring communities exhibited rates of DIC assimilation that were greater than those of formate and acetate assimilation, 2 exhibited rates of formate and/or acetate assimilation that exceeded those of DIC assimilation. Overall rates of DIC, formate, and acetate mineralization and assimilation were positively correlated with spring pH but showed little correlation with temperature. Communities sampled from hot springs with similar geochemistries generally exhibited similar rates of substrate transformation, as well as similar community compositions, as revealed by 16S rRNA gene-tagged sequencing. Amendment of microcosms with small (micromolar) amounts of formate suppressed DIC assimilation in short-term (<45-min) incubations, despite the presence of native DIC concentrations that exceeded those of added formate by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude. The concentration of added formate required to suppress DIC assimilation was similar to the affinity constant (Km) for formate transformation, as determined by community kinetic assays. These results suggest that dominant chemoautotrophs in high-temperature communities are facultatively autotrophic or mixotrophic, are adapted to fluctuating nutrient availabilities, and are capable of taking advantage of energy-rich organic substrates when they become available. PMID:25819970

  18. Carbon source preference in chemosynthetic hot spring communities.

    PubMed

    Urschel, Matthew R; Kubo, Michael D; Hoehler, Tori M; Peters, John W; Boyd, Eric S

    2015-06-01

    Rates of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), formate, and acetate mineralization and/or assimilation were determined in 13 high-temperature (>73 °C) hot springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming, in order to evaluate the relative importance of these substrates in supporting microbial metabolism. While 9 of the hot spring communities exhibited rates of DIC assimilation that were greater than those of formate and acetate assimilation, 2 exhibited rates of formate and/or acetate assimilation that exceeded those of DIC assimilation. Overall rates of DIC, formate, and acetate mineralization and assimilation were positively correlated with spring pH but showed little correlation with temperature. Communities sampled from hot springs with similar geochemistries generally exhibited similar rates of substrate transformation, as well as similar community compositions, as revealed by 16S rRNA gene-tagged sequencing. Amendment of microcosms with small (micromolar) amounts of formate suppressed DIC assimilation in short-term (<45-min) incubations, despite the presence of native DIC concentrations that exceeded those of added formate by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude. The concentration of added formate required to suppress DIC assimilation was similar to the affinity constant (K(m)) for formate transformation, as determined by community kinetic assays. These results suggest that dominant chemoautotrophs in high-temperature communities are facultatively autotrophic or mixotrophic, are adapted to fluctuating nutrient availabilities, and are capable of taking advantage of energy-rich organic substrates when they become available. PMID:25819970

  19. Terrestrial Iron Hot Springs as Analogs for Ancient Martian Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parenteau, M. N.; Farmer, J. D.; Jahnke, L. L.; Cady, S. L.

    2010-04-01

    We have been studying a subaerial terrestrial iron hot spring as an potential analog for hydrothermal systems on Mars. In this multidisciplinary study, we have characterized the aqueous geochemistry, mineralogy, and microbial biosignatures at Chocolate Pots hot springs.

  20. Comparative Metagenomics of Eight Geographically Remote Terrestrial Hot Springs.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Peter; Gudbergsdóttir, Sóley Ruth; Rike, Anne Gunn; Lin, Lianbing; Zhang, Qi; Contursi, Patrizia; Moracci, Marco; Kristjansson, Jakob K; Bolduc, Benjamin; Gavrilov, Sergey; Ravin, Nikolai; Mardanov, Andrey; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta; Young, Mark; Krogh, Anders; Peng, Xu

    2015-08-01

    Hot springs are natural habitats for thermophilic Archaea and Bacteria. In this paper, we present the metagenomic analysis of eight globally distributed terrestrial hot springs from China, Iceland, Italy, Russia, and the USA with a temperature range between 61 and 92 (∘)C and pH between 1.8 and 7. A comparison of the biodiversity and community composition generally showed a decrease in biodiversity with increasing temperature and decreasing pH. Another important factor shaping microbial diversity of the studied sites was the abundance of organic substrates. Several species of the Crenarchaeal order Thermoprotei were detected, whereas no single bacterial species was found in all samples, suggesting a better adaptation of certain archaeal species to different thermophilic environments. Two hot springs show high abundance of Acidithiobacillus, supporting the idea of a true thermophilic Acidithiobacillus species that can thrive in hyperthermophilic environments. Depending on the sample, up to 58 % of sequencing reads could not be assigned to a known phylum, reinforcing the fact that a large number of microorganisms in nature, including those thriving in hot environments remain to be isolated and characterized. PMID:25712554

  1. 77 FR 51561 - Notice of Temporary Restriction Order for Skinny Dipper Hot Springs, Boise County, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Temporary Restriction Order for Skinny Dipper Hot Springs, Boise...: This serves as notice of a sunset-to-sunrise recreational use restriction of Skinny Dipper Hot Springs... Hot Springs, and the public lands in Lot 3, Section 25, T. 9 N., R.3 E., Boise Meridian, Boise...

  2. EXPLORATION STRATEGY FOR HOT-SPRING PRECIOUS-METAL DEPOSITS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, Byron R.; Adams, Samuel S.

    1984-01-01

    The discovery of economic precious-metal deposits related to physical-chemical processes in the near-surface portions of high-temperature hot-spring systems has led to intensive exploration efforts for this deposit type. To increase the probability of success, these exploration programs should (1) be based on the most important visually recognizable or readily measurable deposit-model criteria; (2) be able to identify specific targets within the best search areas; and (3) be able to rank the order of priority among the targets. We propose a process-recognition exploration strategy for hot-spring deposits that has been developed from data from precious-metal occurrences at several localities in the western United States. The exploration model is based on the degree to which recognizable geologic and geochemical criteria are favorable or unfavorable to the occurrence of an economic deposit, either through their presence or absence.

  3. 3D Model of the Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area

    DOE Data Explorer

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-12-31

    The Neal Hot Springs geothermal system lies in a left-step in a north-striking, west-dipping normal fault system, consisting of the Neal Fault to the south and the Sugarloaf Butte Fault to the north (Edwards, 2013). The Neal Hot Springs 3D geologic model consists of 104 faults and 13 stratigraphic units. The stratigraphy is sub-horizontal to dipping <10 degrees and there is no predominant dip-direction. Geothermal production is exclusively from the Neal Fault south of, and within the step-over, while geothermal injection is into both the Neal Fault to the south of the step-over and faults within the step-over.

  4. A silicified bird from Quaternary hot spring deposits

    PubMed Central

    Channing, Alan; Schweitzer, Mary Higby; Horner, John R; McEneaney, Terry

    2005-01-01

    The first avian fossil recovered from high-temperature hot spring deposits is a three-dimensional external body mould of an American coot (Fulica americana) from Holocene sinters of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. Silica encrustation of the carcass, feathers and colonizing microbial communities occurred within days of death and before substantial soft tissue degradation, allowing preservation of gross body morphology, which is usually lost under other fossilization regimes. We hypothesize that the increased rate and extent of opal-A deposition, facilitated by either passive or active microbial mediation following carcass colonization, is required for exceptional preservation of relatively large, fleshy carcasses or soft-bodied organisms by mineral precipitate mould formation. We suggest physico-chemical parameters conducive to similar preservation in other vertebrate specimens, plus distinctive sinter macrofabric markers of hot spring subenvironments where these parameters are met. PMID:16024344

  5. Geothermal vegetable dehydration at Brady`s Hot Springs, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1994-07-01

    This article describes the utilization of the Brady`s Springs geothermal resource for heat generation used in the food dehydration process. This geothermal system is located in the Forty-Mile Desert area of Nevada. Geothermal Food Processors, Inc. of Reno, Nevada started construction of the geothermal vegetable dehydration plant in 1978, and the plant started operations in 1979. The industrial process of vegetable dehydration at the plant is described. In July of 1992, the Brady`s Springs geothermal system began being used for power generation by the Brady`s Hot Springs geothermal power plant, operated by Oxbow Power Services, Inc. As a result, the water levels in the food processing plant wells have dropped below usable levels and the geothermal brine is now being supplied by the Oxbow power plant.

  6. Geothermal Geodatabase for Routt Hot Springs, Routt County, Colorado

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zehner, Richard

    2012-11-01

    Geothermal Geodatabase for Routt Hot Springs, Routt County, Colorado By Richard “Rick” Zehner Geothermal Development Associates Reno Nevada USA 775.737.7806 rzehner@gdareno.com For Flint Geothermal LLC, Denver Colorado Part of DOE Grant EE0002828 2013 This is an ESRI geodatabase version 10, together with an ESRI MXD file version 10.2 Data is in UTM Zone 13 NAD27 projection North boundary: approximately 4,500,000 South boundary: approximately 4,480,000 West boundary: approximately 330,000 East boundary: approximately 358,000 This geodatabase was built to cover several geothermal targets developed by Flint Geothermal in 2012 during a search for high-temperature systems that could be exploited for electric power development. Several of the thermal springs and wells in the Routt Hot Spring and Steamboat Springs areahave geochemistry and geothermometry values indicative of high-temperature systems. The datasets in the geodatabase are a mixture of public domain data as well as data collected by Flint Geothermal, now being made public. It is assumed that the user has internet access, for the mxd file accesses ESRI’s GIS servers. Datasets include: 1. Results of reconnaissance shallow (2 meter) temperature surveys 2. Air photo lineaments 3. Groundwater geochemistry 5. Georeferenced geologic map of Routt County 6. Various 1:24,000 scale topographic maps

  7. Investigations of potential microbial methanogenic and carbon monoxide utilization pathways in ultra-basic reducing springs associated with present-day continental serpentinization: the Tablelands, NL, CAN

    PubMed Central

    Morrill, Penny L.; Brazelton, William J.; Kohl, Lukas; Rietze, Amanda; Miles, Sarah M.; Kavanagh, Heidi; Schrenk, Matthew O.; Ziegler, Susan E.; Lang, Susan Q.

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-basic reducing springs at continental sites of serpentinization act as portals into the biogeochemistry of a subsurface environment with H2 and CH4 present. Very little, however, is known about the carbon substrate utilization, energy sources, and metabolic pathways of the microorganisms that live in this ultra-basic environment. The potential for microbial methanogenesis with bicarbonate, formate, acetate, and propionate precursors and carbon monoxide (CO) utilization pathways were tested in laboratory experiments by adding substrates to water and sediment from the Tablelands, NL, CAD, a site of present-day continental serpentinization. Microbial methanogenesis was not observed after bicarbonate, formate, acetate, or propionate addition. CO was consumed in the live experiments but not in the killed controls and the residual CO in the live experiments became enriched in 13C. The average isotopic enrichment factor resulting from this microbial utilization of CO was estimated to be 11.2 ± 0.2‰. Phospholipid fatty acid concentrations and δ13C values suggest limited incorporation of carbon from CO into microbial lipids. This indicates that in our experiments, CO was used primarily as an energy source, but not for biomass growth. Environmental DNA sequencing of spring fluids collected at the same time as the addition experiments yielded a large proportion of Hydrogenophaga-related sequences, which is consistent with previous metagenomic data indicating the potential for these taxa to utilize CO. PMID:25431571

  8. Nitrogen assimilation by single cells in hot springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poret-peterson, A. T.; Romaniello, S. J.; Bose, M.; Williams, P.; Elser, J. J.; Shock, E.; Anbar, A. D.; Hartnett, H. E.

    2012-12-01

    Microorganisms drive biogeochemical cycles and require nutrients, such as ammonium and nitrate, to function. As a result, following nutrient flows provides opportunities to study how microbial activity influences ecosystem-level processes. Most past measurements of microbial nutrient uptake rely on bulk measurements, which are informative but provide little information about heterogeneity among community members involved in elemental transformations, nor about possible effects of physiological state or taxonomic identity. Since microbial communities tend to be phylogenetically and physiologically diverse, it is reasonable to expect that community members will respond differently to nutrient addition. Here, we examine nitrogen assimilation (via addition of 15N-labeled ammonium or nitrate) in Yellowstone hot spring microbial communities. Using the NanoSIMS, we imaged cells at a very high spatial resolution (nanometer scale) necessary to determine 15N enrichments in single micron-sized cells. We compare the N isotopic enrichments observed in single cells to that determined in bulk sediments by standard isotope ratio mass spectrometry. NanoSIMS imaging of 56 individual cells from sediments of an acidic hot spring (pH 4.7, T=67oC) incubated with 15N-ammonium shows that about two-thirds of the cells (38) exhibited 15N-enrichment. Most cells had 15N enrichments from 0.39 to 0.91 atom %, while some cells were much more significantly enriched. Bulk analyses of sediments show that ammonium assimilation and nitrate assimilation readily occurred at this spring. These findings show that microbes in this hot spring may differentially take up ammonium, which may arise from a number of factors including differences in cellular N requirements, growth rates, and the ability to transport ammonium. This work represents some of the first single-cell isotopic measurements from an extreme environment. Efforts are underway to image sediment samples from other hot springs and to pair Nano

  9. Modeling hot spring chemistries with applications to martian silica formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, G.M.; Catling, D.C.; Crowley, J.K.; Kargel, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Many recent studies have implicated hydrothermal systems as the origin of martian minerals across a wide range of martian sites. Particular support for hydrothermal systems include silica (SiO2) deposits, in some cases >90% silica, in the Gusev Crater region, especially in the Columbia Hills and at Home Plate. We have developed a model called CHEMCHAU that can be used up to 100??C to simulate hot springs associated with hydrothermal systems. The model was partially derived from FREZCHEM, which is a colder temperature model parameterized for broad ranges of temperature (<-70 to 25??C), pressure (1-1000 bars), and chemical composition. We demonstrate the validity of Pitzer parameters, volumetric parameters, and equilibrium constants in the CHEMCHAU model for the Na-K-Mg-Ca-H-Cl-ClO4-SO4-OH-HCO3-CO3-CO2-O2-CH4-Si-H2O system up to 100??C and apply the model to hot springs and silica deposits.A theoretical simulation of silica and calcite equilibrium shows how calcite is least soluble with high pH and high temperatures, while silica behaves oppositely. Such influences imply that differences in temperature and pH on Mars could lead to very distinct mineral assemblages. Using measured solution chemistries of Yellowstone hot springs and Icelandic hot springs, we simulate salts formed during the evaporation of two low pH cases (high and low temperatures) and a high temperature, alkaline (high pH) sodic water. Simulation of an acid-sulfate case leads to precipitation of Fe and Al minerals along with silica. Consistency with martian mineral assemblages suggests that hot, acidic sulfate solutions are plausibility progenitors of minerals in the past on Mars. In the alkaline pH (8.45) simulation, formation of silica at high temperatures (355K) led to precipitation of anhydrous minerals (CaSO4, Na2SO4) that was also the case for the high temperature (353K) low pH case where anhydrous minerals (NaCl, CaSO4) also precipitated. Thus we predict that secondary minerals associated with

  10. Serpentine Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on works of art that are serpentine, which means the artist either depicts snakes or use snake-like designs. Explains that the four examples given are to motivate students to search for more examples. Discusses different ways to help students learn about serpentine designs by observing real snakes. (CMK)

  11. Legionella prevalence in hot spring recreation areas of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Bing-Mu; Chen, Chien-Hsien; Wan, Min-Tao; Cheng, Hui-Wen

    2006-10-01

    Legionella is a bacterium ubiquitous to aquatic environments. Within the genus a few species are recognized as opportunistic potential human pathogens, especially the species Legionella pneumophila, which causes pneumonia legionellosis. Outbreaks of legionellosis are frequently reported by hotel guests and hospital patients, and are spread through inhaled aerosols of contaminated institutional water systems. Contaminations in hot tubs, spas and public baths are also possible. As a result, in this study, we investigated the distribution of Legionella at seven hot spring recreational areas throughout Taiwan. We gathered data on factors potentially associated with the pathogen's distribution, including environment, facility operation, and physical and microbiological water quality parameters. Spring water was collected from 91 sites and Legionella was detected in 21 (23%). The most frequently detected was L. pneumophila, followed by uncultured Legionella species, Legionella-like amoebal pathogen. Five species, L. bozemanii, L. dumoffi, L. feelei, L. lyticum and L. oakridgenesis, were all detected once. Legionella species were found in water temperatures ranging from 22 to 50 degrees C. Optimal pH appeared to be between 5.0 and 9.0. The prevalence of Legionella also coincided with the prevalence of indicator microorganisms. Legionella detection was not proportional to the frequency of cleaning. Results of this survey confirm the ubiquity of Legionella in Taiwan spring recreation areas. L. pneumophila, the organism responsible for the majority of legionellosis outbreaks, should be considered a potential public health threat in spa areas of Taiwan. PMID:16928391

  12. Structural controls of hot-spring systems on southwestern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chadwick, Robert A.; Leonard, Robert Benjamin

    1979-01-01

    Thermal waters that issue as hot (more than 38C) springs in southwestern Montana appear to circulate to depth along Cenozoic block faults, deep fractures penetrating the dominantly crystalline rock crust, or major structural lineaments. At individual hot springs, rising thermal waters are transmitted along conduits formed by the intersection of a major fault with other faults, fracture zones, anticlinal axes (which may be faulted or fractures), or sedimentary aquifers. Step faults and other intra-valley faults may influence circulation at some springs. At others, fracture zones alone may provide the necessary vertical permeability. Normal regional heat apparently is sufficient to maintain the hydrothermal systems without enhancement from cooling igneous bodies. The thermal gradient normally is higher in low thermal conductivity sediments of the block-fault valleys than the 30C per kilometer average for crystalline rock. To attain reservoir temperatures of 60 to 120C indicated by chemical geothermometers, waters would have to circulate to depths of about 2 to 4 kilometers in crystalline rock and about 1 to 2 kilometers in valley sediments. (Kosco-USGS)

  13. Nitrogen cycling in Hot Spring Sediments and Biofilms (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Burton, M. S.; Havig, J. R.; Shock, E.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past several decades, gene-targeted analyses have revealed that microbial communities in hydrothermal environments can be surprisingly diverse. However, we know shockingly little about basic ecological functions such as carbon and nitrogen cycling or community shifts over time, or environmental parameters such as growth criteria. Previous work has shown that carbon cycling in one hot spring in Yellowstone National Park [“Bison Pool”] and its associated runoff channel functions as a complex system. Analysis of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in biofilms across a temperature and chemical gradient at this location revealed that multiple autotrophic carbon fixation pathways are functioning in this system, and nitrogen fixation varies across the chemosynthetic/photosynthetic ecotone [1]. Further, sequencing of metagenomes from multiple locations at “Bison Pool” has indicated the presence of genes involved in carbon fixation [both phototrophic and autotrophic], and heterotrophy, as well as nitrogen fixation [2]. Studies from other Yellowstone locations have also found genetic evidence for carbon and nitrogen fixation [3-5]. The role of individual microbes in nitrogen cycling as environmental conditions vary over space and time is the focus of this study. Here, we explore the diversity of nifH [nitrogen fixation], nirK [nitrite reduction] and amoA [ammonia oxidation] genes across a variety of Yellowstone environments. Environmental nucleic acids were extracted, and the presence/absence of Bacteria and Archaea determined by PCR. In addition, PCR-directed screens reveal the presence or absence of the aforementioned functional genes, indicating genetic capacity for nitrogen cycling. We have examined the transition of genetic diversity and genetic capacity within sediments and biofilms at the chemosynthetic/photosynthetic ecotone in several hot springs spanning ranges of pH and geochemical conditions. By sampling across this ecotone, changes in the genetic

  14. Diverse Thermus species inhabit a single hot spring microbial mat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nold, S. C.; Ward, D. M.

    1995-01-01

    Through an effort to characterize aerobic chemoorganotrophic bacteria in the Octopus Spring cyano-bacterial mat community, we cultivated four Thermus isolates with unique 16S rRNA sequences. Isolates clustered within existing Thermus clades, including those containing Thermus ruber, Thermus aquaticus, and a subgroup closely related to T. aquaticus. One Octopus Spring isolate is nearly identical (99.9% similar) to isolates from Iceland, and two others are closely related to a T. ruber isolated from Russia. Octopus Spring isolates similar to T. aquaticus and T. ruber exhibited optimal growth rates at high (65-70 degrees C) and low (50 degrees C) temperatures, respectively, with the most abundant species best adapted to the temperature of the habitat (50-55 degrees C). Our results display a diversity of Thermus genotypes defined by 16S rRNA within one hot spring microbial community. We suggest that specialization to temperature and perhaps other local environmental features controls the abundance of Thermus populations.

  15. By-products of the serpentinization process on the Oman ophiolite : chemical and isotopic composition of carbonate deposits in alkaline springs, and associated secondary phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sissmann, O.; Martinez, I.; Deville, E.; Beaumont, V.; Pillot, D.; Prinzhofer, A.; Vacquand, C.; Chaduteau, C.; Agrinier, P.; Guyot, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The isotopic compositions (d13C, d18O) of natural carbonates produced by the alteration of basic and ultrabasic rocks on the Oman ophiolite have been measured in order to better understand their formation mechanisms. Fossil carbonates developed on altered peridotitic samples, mostly found in fractures, and contemporary carbonates were studied. The samples bear a large range of d13C. Those collected in veins are magnesian (magnesite, dolomite) and have a carbon signature reflecting mixing of processes and important fractionation (-11‰ to 8‰). Their association with talc and lizardite suggests they are by-products of a serpentinization process, that must have occurred as a carbon-rich fluid was circulating at depth. On the other hand, the carbonates are mostly calcic when formed in alkaline springs, most of which are located in the vicinity of lithological discontinuities such as the peridotite-gabbro contact (Moho). Aragonite forms a few meters below the surface of the ponds in Mg-poor water, and is systematically associated with brucite (Mg(OH)2). This suggests most of the Mg dissolved at depth has reprecipitated during the fluid's ascension through fractures or faults as carbonates and serpentine. Further up, on the surface waters of the ponds (depleted in Mg and D.I.C.), thin calcite films precipitate and reach extremely negative d13C values (-28‰), which could reflect either a biological carbon source, or kinetic fractionation from pumping atmospheric CO2. Their formation represent an efficient and natural process for carbon dioxide mineral sequestration. The d18O signature from all samples confirm the minerals crystallized from a low-temperature fluid. The hyperalkaline conditions (pH between 11 and 12) allowing for these fast precipitation kinetics are generated by the serpentinization process occurring at depth, as indicated by the measured associated H2-rich gas flows (over 50%) seeping out to the surface.

  16. Evidence supporting biologically mediated sulfide oxidation in hot spring ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, A. D.; Shock, E.

    2011-12-01

    The sulfide concentration of fluids in hydrothermal ecosystems is one of several factors determining the transition to microbial photosynthesis (Cox et al., 2011, Chem. Geol. 280, 344-351). To investigate the loss of sulfide in Yellowstone hot spring systems, measurements of total dissolved sulfide with respect to time were made in incubation experiments conducted on 0.2-micron filtered (killed controls) vs. unfiltered hot spring water at locations with three different pH:sulfide combinations (pH 2.5 with 50 μM sulfide, 5.2 with 5.6 μM sulfide, and 8.3 with 86 μM sulfide). At the higher pH values, the experiments yielded similar rates of sulfide loss in filtered and unfiltered water of approximately 0.8 (pH 5.2) and 7.6 nmol sulfide L-1s-1 (pH 8.3). At the acidic spring, the unfiltered water lost sulfide at a rate 1.6 times that of the filtered water (8.2 vs. 5 nmol sulfide L-1s-1). These results suggest that the pelagic biomass at the pH 5.2 and 8.3 springs may not affect sulfide loss, whereas in the pH 2.5 spring there appears to be an effect. In addition, the incubation of filamentous biomass with unfiltered water increased the rate of sulfide loss by approximately two-fold at a pH of 2.5 (59 vs. 31 nmol L-1s-1; Cox et al., 2011), five-fold at a pH of 5.2 (3.9 vs. 0.8 nmol sulfide L-1s-1), and barely increased the rate of sulfide loss at a pH of 8.3 (9.1 vs. 8.4 nmol sulfide L-1s-1). Sulfide is predominately present as HS- at a pH of 8.3, which may not be taken up as easily by microorganisms as the H2S (aq) that dominates sulfide speciation at pH 2.5 and 5.2. That the loss of sulfide at acidic pH is due to biotic rather than abiotic factors is further supported by studies with whole mat samples that show greater sulfide consumption than killed controls (D'Imperio et al., 2008, AEM 74, 5802-5808). Taken together, the results of these experiments suggest that the majority of sulfide oxidation occurs in the filamentous biomass of hot spring ecosystems, although

  17. Geothermal resource assessment of Hot Sulphur Springs, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Pearl, R.H.; Zacharakis, T.G.; Ringrose, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    Approximately 10 springs whose waters are used for recreation, steam baths and laundry purposes are located at Hot Sulphur Springs. Estimated heat-flow at Hot Sulphur Springs is approximately 100 mW/m2, which is about normal for western Colorado. Recent work tends to show that surface and reduced heat flow in the mountains of northern Colorado could be high. The thermal waters have an estimated discharge of 50 gpm, a temperature that ranges from 104/sup 0/F (40/sup 0/C) to a high of 111/sup 0/F (44/sup 0/C), and a total dissolved solid content of 1200 mg/l. The waters are a sodium bicarbonate type with a large concentration of sulphate. It is estimated that the most likely reservoir temperature of this system ranges from 167/sup 0/F (75/sup 0/F) to 302/sup 0/F (150/sup 0/C) and that the areal extent of the system could encompass 1.35 sq mi (3.50 sq km) and could contain 0.698 Q's (1015 B.T.U.'s) of heat energy. Soil mercury and electrical resistivity surveys were conducted. The geophysical survey delineated several areas of low resistivity associated with the north trending fault that passes just to the west of the spring area. It appears that this fault is saturated with thermal waters and may be the conduit along which the thermal waters are moving up from depth. The appendices to this report include tables showing water temperatures required for various industrial processes, as well as dissolved minerals, trace elements and radioactivity levels found in the thermal waters. Also presented are a complete description of the factors affecting the electrical resistivity measurements, a description of the electrical resistivity equipment used, and the resistivity field procedures. Electrical resistivity calculations are also included in the appendices.

  18. Radionuclides in hot mineral spring waters in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Saqan, S A; Kullab, M K; Ismail, A M

    2001-01-01

    Hot mineral springs in Jordan are very attractive to people who seek physical healing but they are unaware of natural radioactive elements that may be contained in the hot mineral water. The activities of the natural radioactive isotopes were measured and the concentrations of the parents of their natural radioactive series were calculated. The measured radionuclides were 234Th, 226Ra, 214Pb, 214Bi, 228Ac, 228Th, 212Pb, 212Bi and 208Tl. In addition the activities of 235U and 40K were measured. The activities ranged from 0.14 to 34.8 Bq/l, while the concentrations of parent uranium and thorium isotopes ranged from 3.0 x 10(-3) to 0.59 mg/l. The results were compared with those for drinking water. PMID:11202689

  19. [Biomineralization at hot springs and mineral springs, and their significance in relation to the Earth's history].

    PubMed

    Akai, J

    2000-12-01

    Recently, there is strong interest on microbe-mineral interactions. This is related also to recent expanded knowledges on extremely severe environments in which microbes live. Interaction between microbes and minerals contains biomineralization processes. Varieties of biomineralization products are found not only in various geologic materials and processes in the earth's history but also in present surface environments. Some hot springs represent such environments similar to those of unique and extremely severe environments for life. In this short review, the author briefly shows some examples of biomineralizations at some hot springs and mineral springs, Japan. In such environments, iron ore was formed and some varieties of growing stromatolites were found. The varieties of stromatolite are siliceous, calcic and manganese types. Cyanobacteria and the other bacteria are related to form the stromatolite structure. In the Gunma iron ore, sedimentary iron ores were mineralogically described in order to evaluate the role of microorganisms and plants in ore formation. The iron ore is composed of nanocrystalline goethite. Algal fossils are clearly preserved in some ores. Various products of biomineralization are found in the present pH 2-3, Fe2(+)- and SO4(2-)-rich streams. Bacterial precipitation had variations from amorphous Fe-P-(S) precipitates near the outlet of mineral spring, to Fe-P-S precipitates and to Fe-S-(P) precipitates. Mosses and green algae are also collecting Fe precipitates in and around the living and dead cells. The Gunma Iron Ore can be said as Biologically Induced Iron Ore. At Onikobe and Akakura hot springs, growing stromatolites of siliceous and calcareous types, were found, respectively. At Onikobe, The stromatolites grow especially near the geyser. Cyanobacterial filaments in stromatolite were well preserved in the siliceous and calcic stromatolites. The filaments oriented in two directions which form the layered structures were found. At

  20. Environmental consequences of geochemical change in hot spring ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havig, J. R.; Shock, E.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrothermal systems provide a natural laboratory for studying the effects of geochemical change over time, and for testing predictions of how geochemical change will affect microbial ecology. Hot springs in hydrothermal areas that express the results of subsurface boiling, phase separation, and differential movement of liquid phase and vapor phase constituents can fluctuate in temperature and composition. Since 1999 we have sampled several fluctuating hot springs at Yellowstone National Park, and those hat experience large geochemical changes provide opportunities to quantify the effects of fluctuations on chemical energy supplies. Annual samples from Obsidian Pool (Mud Volcano Area) showed that pH increased from 6.5 (in 1999) to 6.8 (’00), steadily decreased to 4.2 (’06), and then increased to 5.2 (’09), with temperature ranging from 76.4 to 85.3°C. Simultaneously the chloride concentration increased by 65% (from 18.5 ppm in 1999 to 30.7 ppm in 2009), indicative of increased hydrothermal input, and the sulfate concentration increased by over 300% (from 50.0 ppm in 2000 to 203.8 ppm in 2009), suggesting an increased gas-phase sulfide input and subsequent oxidation. Several energy yielding reactions at a pH of 6.5 no longer yield energy at pH of 4.2. This suggests that microorganisms that use those pathways had a negative selection pressure with the drop in pH. As an example, the chemical affinity for sulfur reduction to pyrite coupled to iron oxidation to goethite changed from 7.1 (pH = 6.5) to -1.3 kcal/mol e- (pH = 4.2), and once again had a positive value at pH = 5.2. This means that microorganisms using this pathway may once again inhabit the hot spring while many others from when the pH was 6.5 still have a negative selection pressure. The pH of another hot spring in the Sylvan Springs Area steadily increased from 3.7 (’04) to 7.6 (’08) while the temp. decreased from 52.9 to 41.9°C, chloride concentration increased by 32% (from 464 to 614 ppm

  1. Binary generating units at Kelly Hot Springs, California

    SciTech Connect

    Karlsson, T.

    1984-08-01

    Temperature measurements in the wells drilled in the area around Kelly Hot Spring in northeastern California indicate the presence of an extensive aquifer covering several square miles at 1600 to 3300 feet in depth. The water temperature in the aquifer is in the range of 212/sup 0/ to 239/sup 0/F. No flow tests of wells in the area have been carried out. A proposal from Ormat Turbines, Ltd. for a binary power plant generating 1500 kW has been submitted to the owners of the area around Kelly Hot Spring. The proposal calls for a total of 1800 gpm of geothermal fluid at 220/sup 0/F and 7500 gpm of cooling water at 55/sup 0/F. Assuming that the required geothermal fluid can be produced from three production wells, each drilled to a depth of 3000 feet, an economic analysis of this project has been carried out. The results indicate that at 6.6% annual rate of interest, the project will return the initial capital investment of $5,400,000 in twenty years. This assumes full 25% investment tax credit (10% business, 15% energy) for capital investment costs other than drilling costs.

  2. Interpretation of the Hydrothermal System in Kirishima Hot Spring Village, Southern Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonekura, Yusaku; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro; Nishijima, Jun

    2014-05-01

    It is very important to understand hydrothermal systems for sustainable utilizing of hot springs. However, in Japan, most of the large hot springs are located in national parks. Therefore, explorations such as geochemical, geophysical or boring surveys to interpret the hydrothermal systems had not been conducted enough. For this reason, hydrothermal systems of some hot springs in Japan have not been made clear even now. We constructed a conceptual model to interpret the hydrothermal system of Kirishima Hot Spring Village in Kirishima national park, southern part of Kyushu, Japan. There are many hot springs in Kirishima Hot Spring Village, such as Maruo, Hayashida, and Myoban hot spring areas. Kirishima Hot Spring Village is located in southwestern part of Kirishima volcanoes, like Onami-ike volcano, and the altitude of Maruo area is about 600 m and that of Hayashida and Myoban areas is about 800 m. In order to interpret the hydrothermal system in Kirishima Hot Spring Village, we need to understand three important factors which are heat source, hot spring water, and subsurface structure. In January 2011, Shinmoe-dake volcano of Kirishima volcanoes made a large scale eruption. Then, the pressure source of Kirishima volcanoes is expected to be located in about 2 km west of Onami-ike volcano and its estimated altitude is about -7 km (Kobayashi et al., 2011). We used this pressure source for our conceptual model as a heat source. Secondary, we tried to clarify the fluid of Kirishima Hot Spring Village by considering the chemical compositions of hot spring water. In addition, we made a Na-K-Mg diagram to estimate the reservoir temperature and find that spring water has reached equilibrium or not. As a result, we supposed that hot spring water of Maruo area is magmatic, and that of Hayashida and Myoban area is consisted of sulfate and meteoric water. Thirdly, we used gravity data, which is the result from previous study and our field survey, to make a residual Bouguer

  3. Hot dry rock geothermal potential of Roosevelt Hot Springs area: review of data and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    East, J.

    1981-05-01

    The Roosevelt Hot Springs area in west-central Utah possesses several features indicating potential for hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal development. The area is characterized by extensional tectonics and a high regional heat flow of greater than 105 mW/m/sup 2/. The presence of silicic volcanic rocks as young as 0.5 to 0.8 Myr and totaling 14 km/sup 3/ in volume indicates underlying magma reservoirs may be the heat source for the thermal anomaly. Several hot dry wells have been drilled on the periphery of the geothermal field. Information obtained on three of these deep wells shows that they have thermal gradients of 55 to 60/sup 0/C/km and bottom in impermeable Tertiary granitic and Precambrian gneissic units. The Tertiary granite is the preferred HDR reservoir rock because Precambrian gneissic rocks possess a well-developed banded foliation, making fracture control over the reservoir more difficult. Based on a fairly conservative estimate of 160 km/sup 2/ for the thermal anomaly present at Roosevelt Hot Springs, the area designated favorable for HDR geothermal exploration may be on the order of seven times or more than the hydrogeothermal area currently under development.

  4. Carbonate Ion-Enriched Hot Spring Water Promotes Skin Wound Healing in Nude Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jingyan; Kang, Dedong; Wang, Yingge; Yu, Ying; Fan, Jianglin; Takashi, En

    2015-01-01

    Hot spring or hot spa bathing (Onsen) is a traditional therapy for the treatment of certain ailments. There is a common belief that hot spring bathing has therapeutic effects for wound healing, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To examine this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of Nagano hot spring water (rich in carbonate ion, 42°C) on the healing process of the skin using a nude rat skin wound model. We found that hot spring bathing led to an enhanced healing speed compared to both the unbathed and hot-water (42°C) control groups. Histologically, the hot spring water group showed increased vessel density and reduced inflammatory cells in the granulation tissue of the wound area. Real-time RT-PCR analysis along with zymography revealed that the wound area of the hot spring water group exhibited a higher expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 compared to the two other control groups. Furthermore, we found that the enhanced wound healing process induced by the carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water was mediated by thermal insulation and moisture maintenance. Our results provide the evidence that carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water is beneficial for the treatment of skin wounds. PMID:25671581

  5. Carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water promotes skin wound healing in nude rats.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jingyan; Kang, Dedong; Wang, Yingge; Yu, Ying; Fan, Jianglin; Takashi, En

    2015-01-01

    Hot spring or hot spa bathing (Onsen) is a traditional therapy for the treatment of certain ailments. There is a common belief that hot spring bathing has therapeutic effects for wound healing, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To examine this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of Nagano hot spring water (rich in carbonate ion, 42°C) on the healing process of the skin using a nude rat skin wound model. We found that hot spring bathing led to an enhanced healing speed compared to both the unbathed and hot-water (42°C) control groups. Histologically, the hot spring water group showed increased vessel density and reduced inflammatory cells in the granulation tissue of the wound area. Real-time RT-PCR analysis along with zymography revealed that the wound area of the hot spring water group exhibited a higher expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 compared to the two other control groups. Furthermore, we found that the enhanced wound healing process induced by the carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water was mediated by thermal insulation and moisture maintenance. Our results provide the evidence that carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water is beneficial for the treatment of skin wounds. PMID:25671581

  6. Geothermal Geodatabase for Rico Hot Springs Area and Lemon Hot Springs, Dolores and San Miguel Counties, Colorado

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zehner, Richard

    2012-11-01

    Geothermal Geodatabase for Rico Hot Springs Area and Lemon Hot Springs, Dolores and San Miguel Counties, Colorado By Richard “Rick” Zehner Geothermal Development Associates Reno Nevada USA For Flint Geothermal LLC, Denver Colorado Part of DOE Grant EE0002828 2013 This is an ESRI geodatabase version 10, together with an ESRI MXD file version 10.2 Data is in UTM Zone 13 NAD27 projection North boundary: approximately 4,215,000 South boundary: approximately 4,160,000 West boundary: approximately 216,000 East boundary: approximately 245,000 This geodatabase was built to cover several geothermal targets developed by Flint Geothermal in 2012 during a search for high-temperature systems that could be exploited for electric power development. Several of the thermal springs have geochemistry and geothermometry values indicative of high-temperature systems. In addition, the explorationists discovered a very young Climax-style molybdenum porphyry system northeast of Rico, and drilling intersected thermal waters at depth. The datasets in the geodatabase are a mixture of public domain data as well as data collected by Flint Geothermal, now being made public. It is assumed that the user has internet access, for the mxd file accesses ESRI’s GIS servers. Datasets include: 1. Structural data collected by Flint Geothermal 2. Point information 3. Mines and prospects from the USGS MRDS dataset 4. Results of reconnaissance shallow (2 meter) temperature surveys 5. Air photo lineaments 6. Areas covered by travertine 7. Groundwater geochemistry 8. Land ownership in the Rico area 9. Georeferenced geologic map of the Rico Quadrangle, by Pratt et al. 10. Various 1:24,000 scale topographic maps

  7. Phylogenetic Diversity Analysis of Subterranean Hot Springs in Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Marteinsson, Viggó Thór; Hauksdóttir, Sigurbjörg; Hobel, Cédric F. V.; Kristmannsdóttir, Hrefna; Hreggvidsson, Gudmundur Oli; Kristjánsson, Jakob K.

    2001-01-01

    Geothermal energy has been harnessed and used for domestic heating in Iceland. In wells that are typically drilled to a depth of 1,500 to 2,000 m, the temperature of the source water is 50 to 130°C. The bottoms of the boreholes can therefore be regarded as subterranean hot springs and provide a unique opportunity to study the subterranean biosphere. Large volumes of geothermal fluid from five wells and a mixture of geothermal water from 50 geothermal wells (hot tap water) were sampled and concentrated through a 0.2-μm-pore-size filter. Cells were observed in wells RG-39 (91.4°C) and MG-18 (71.8°C) and in hot tap water (76°C), but no cells were detected in wells SN-4, SN-5 (95 to 117°C), and RV-5 (130°C). Archaea and Bacteria were detected by whole-cell fluorescent in situ hybridization. DNAs were extracted from the biomass, and small-subunit rRNA genes (16S rDNAs) were amplified by PCR using primers specific for the Archaea and Bacteria domains. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced. The sequence analysis showed 11 new operational taxonomic units (OTUs) out of 14, 3 of which were affiliated with known surface OTUs. Samples from RG-39 and hot tap water were inoculated into enrichment media and incubated at 65 and 85°C. Growth was observed only in media based on geothermal water. 16S rDNA analysis showed enrichments dominated with Desulfurococcales relatives. Two strains belonging to Desulfurococcus mobilis and to the Thermus/Deinococcus group were isolated from borehole RG-39. The results indicate that subsurface volcanic zones are an environment that provides a rich subsurface for novel thermophiles. PMID:11526029

  8. Phylogenetic diversity analysis of subterranean hot springs in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Marteinsson, V T; Hauksdóttir, S; Hobel, C F; Kristmannsdóttir, H; Hreggvidsson, G O; Kristjánsson, J K

    2001-09-01

    Geothermal energy has been harnessed and used for domestic heating in Iceland. In wells that are typically drilled to a depth of 1,500 to 2,000 m, the temperature of the source water is 50 to 130 degrees C. The bottoms of the boreholes can therefore be regarded as subterranean hot springs and provide a unique opportunity to study the subterranean biosphere. Large volumes of geothermal fluid from five wells and a mixture of geothermal water from 50 geothermal wells (hot tap water) were sampled and concentrated through a 0.2-microm-pore-size filter. Cells were observed in wells RG-39 (91.4 degrees C) and MG-18 (71.8 degrees C) and in hot tap water (76 degrees C), but no cells were detected in wells SN-4, SN-5 (95 to 117 degrees C), and RV-5 (130 degrees C). Archaea and Bacteria were detected by whole-cell fluorescent in situ hybridization. DNAs were extracted from the biomass, and small-subunit rRNA genes (16S rDNAs) were amplified by PCR using primers specific for the Archaea and Bacteria domains. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced. The sequence analysis showed 11 new operational taxonomic units (OTUs) out of 14, 3 of which were affiliated with known surface OTUs. Samples from RG-39 and hot tap water were inoculated into enrichment media and incubated at 65 and 85 degrees C. Growth was observed only in media based on geothermal water. 16S rDNA analysis showed enrichments dominated with Desulfurococcales relatives. Two strains belonging to Desulfurococcus mobilis and to the Thermus/Deinococcus group were isolated from borehole RG-39. The results indicate that subsurface volcanic zones are an environment that provides a rich subsurface for novel thermophiles. PMID:11526029

  9. Iron Homeostasis in Yellowstone National Park Hot Spring Microbial Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, I.; Tringe, S. G.; Franklin, H.; Bryant, D. A.; Klatt, C. G.; Sarkisova, S. A.; Guevara, M.

    2010-01-01

    It has been postulated that life may have originated on Earth, and possibly on Mars, in association with hydrothermal activity and high concentrations of ferrous iron. However, it is not clear how an iron-rich thermal hydrosphere could be hospitable to microbes, since reduced iron appears to stimulate oxidative stress in all domains of life and particularly in oxygenic phototrophs. Therefore, the study of microbial diversity in iron-depositing hot springs (IDHS) and the mechanisms of iron homeostasis and suppression of oxidative stress may help elucidate how Precambrian organisms could withstand the extremely high concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by interaction between environmental Fe(2+) and O2. Proteins and clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) involved in the maintenance of Fe homeostasis found in cyanobacteria (CB) inhabiting environments with high and low [Fe] were main target of this analysis. Preliminary results of the analysis suggest that the Chocolate Pots (CP) microbial community is heavily dominated by phototrophs from the cyanobacteria (CB), Chloroflexi and Chlorobi phyla, while the Mushroom Spring (MS) effluent channel harbors a more diverse community in which Chloroflexi are the dominant phototrophs. It is speculated that CB inhabiting IDHS have an increased tolerance to both high concentrations of Fe(2+) and ROS produced in the Fenton reaction. This hypothesis was explored via a comparative analysis of the diversity of proteins and COGs involved in Fe and redox homeostasis in the CP and MS microbiomes.

  10. Geothermal Geodatabase for Wagon Wheel Hot Springs, Mineral County, Colorado

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zehner, Richard

    2012-11-01

    Geothermal Geodatabase for Wagon Wheel Hot Springs, Mineral County, Colorado By Richard “Rick” Zehner Geothermal Development Associates Reno Nevada USA 775.737.7806 rzehner@gdareno.com For Flint Geothermal LLC, Denver Colorado Part of DOE Grant EE0002828 2013 This is an ESRI geodatabase version 10, together with an ESRI MXD file version 10.2 Data is in UTM Zone 13 NAD27 projection North boundary: approximately 4,189,000 South boundary: approximately 4,170,000 West boundary: approximately 330,000 East boundary: approximately 351,000 This geodatabase was built to cover several geothermal targets developed by Flint Geothermal in 2012 during a search for high-temperature systems that could be exploited for electric power development. Several of the thermal springs at Wagon Wheel Gap have geochemistry and geothermometry values indicative of high-temperature systems. The datasets in the geodatabase are a mixture of public domain data as well as data collected by Flint Geothermal, now being made public. It is assumed that the user has internet access, for the mxd file accesses ESRI’s GIS servers. Datasets include: 1. Results of reconnaissance shallow (2 meter) temperature surveys 2. Air photo lineaments 3. Groundwater geochemistry 4. Power lines 5. Georeferenced geologic map of Routt County 6. Various 1:24,000 scale topographic maps

  11. Lee Hot Springs power project. First topical report management plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-18

    The Lee Hot Springs Project ({open_quotes}the Project{close_quotes}) will use binary cycle turbine-generators supplied by geothermal hot water to make electricity. Two clusters of three (3) 1,000 kilowatt ({open_quotes}kw{close_quotes}) projects, each cluster comprising a {open_quotes}plant,{close_quotes} will use the pumped output of one geothermal well. The plants will tie into Sierra Pacific Power Company`s ({open_quotes}Sierra`s{open_quotes}) transmission system. The Project objectives are designed to demonstrate that geothermal energy is a non-polluting, non-CO{sub 2} emitting form of generation, which if used in larger increments, will significantly reduce the emissions of greenhouse gasses. The Project will also demonstrate the use of modular, {open_quotes}non-grid{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}village{close_quotes} units which can be used throughout the world where geothermal energy is present in remote locations and power is not. The Project was conceived as a 20,000 kw Qualifying Facility, divided into two phases, a 5,000 kw phase one followed by a 15,000 kw phase two. The first phase of the Project now consists of two (2) 3,000 kw plants to generate 6,000 kws.

  12. Magnetotelluric models of the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Wannamaker, P.E.; Ward, S.H.; Hohmann, G.W.; Sill, W.R.

    1980-09-01

    The Roosevelt Hot Springs (RHS) thermal area, which includes a hotwater-dominated fracture zone prospect, near the eastern margin of the Basin-Range tectonic province, conceivably possesses a whole family of resistivity structures that includes the following: deep hot brine reservoirs, deep-seated partially molten heat sources in the crust or upper mantle that drive the convective system, near-surface hydrothermal alteration zones, wet sedimentary fill in valleys, and a regional, apparently one-dimensional resistivity profile of the crust and upper mantle. This complex resistivity makeup, particular to RHS but probably similar to that at other geothermal areas in the Great Basin, must be treated as being fully three-dimensional (3-D). In an attempt to understand these structures, broadband (10/sup -3/ to 10/sup -2/ Hz) tensor magnetotelluric (MT) data were obtained including apparent resistivities (rho/sub a/), impedance phases (phi) and vertical magnetic field transfer functions for 93 sites in the vicinity of this resource area.

  13. Portrait of a Geothermal Spring, Hunter’s Hot Springs, Oregon

    PubMed Central

    Castenholz, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    Although alkaline Hunter’s Hot Springs in southeastern Oregon has been studied extensively for over 40 years, most of these studies and the subsequent publications were before the advent of molecular methods. However, there are many field observations and laboratory experiments that reveal the major aspects of the phototrophic species composition within various physical and chemical gradients of these springs. Relatively constant temperature boundaries demark the upper boundary of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus at 73–74 °C (the world-wide upper limit for photosynthesis), and 68–70 °C the upper limit for Chloroflexus. The upper limit for the cover of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Geitlerinema (Oscillatoria) is at 54–55 °C, and the in situ lower limit at 47–48 °C for all three of these phototrophs due to the upper temperature limit for the grazing ostracod, Thermopsis. The in situ upper limit for the cyanobacteria Pleurocapsa and Calothrix is at ~47–48 °C, which are more grazer-resistant and grazer dependent. All of these demarcations are easily visible in the field. In addition, there is a biosulfide production in some sections of the springs that have a large impact on the microbiology. Most of the temperature and chemical limits have been explained by field and laboratory experiments. PMID:25633225

  14. Field observations and management strategy for hot spring wastewater in Wulai area, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, J Y; Chen, C F; Lei, F R; Hsieh, C D

    2010-01-01

    Hot springs are important centers for recreation and tourism. However, the pollution that may potentially be caused by hot spring wastewater has rarely been discussed. More than half of Taiwan's hot springs are located in areas where the water quality of water bodies is to be protected, and untreated wastewater could pollute the receiving water bodies. In this study, we investigate hot spring wastewater in the Wulai area, one of Taiwan's famous hot spring resorts. Used water from five hot spring hotels was sampled and ten sampling events were carried out to evaluate the changes in the quality of used water in different seasons, at different periods of the week, and from different types of hotels. The concentrations of different pollutants in hot spring wastewater were found to exhibit wide variations, as follows: COD, 10-250 mg/L; SS, N.D.-93 mg/L; NH(3)-N, 0.01-1.93 mg/L; TP, 0.01-0.45 mg/L; and E. coli, 10-27,500 CFU/100 mL. The quality of hot spring wastewater depends on the operation of public pools, because this affects the frequency of supplementary fresh water and the outflow volume. Two management strategies, namely, onsite treatment systems and individually packaged treatment equipment, are considered, and a multi-objective optimization model is used to determine the optimal strategy. PMID:20418628

  15. Novel division level bacterial diversity in a Yellowstone hot spring.

    PubMed

    Hugenholtz, P; Pitulle, C; Hershberger, K L; Pace, N R

    1998-01-01

    A culture-independent molecular phylogenetic survey was carried out for the bacterial community in Obsidian Pool (OP), a Yellowstone National Park hot spring previously shown to contain remarkable archaeal diversity (S. M. Barns, R. E. Fundyga, M. W. Jeffries, and N. R. Page, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:1609-1613, 1994). Small-subunit rRNA genes (rDNA) were amplified directly from OP sediment DNA by PCR with universally conserved or Bacteria-specific rDNA primers and cloned. Unique rDNA types among > 300 clones were identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism, and 122 representative rDNA sequences were determined. These were found to represent 54 distinct bacterial sequence types or clusters (> or = 98% identity) of sequences. A majority (70%) of the sequence types were affiliated with 14 previously recognized bacterial divisions (main phyla; kingdoms); 30% were unaffiliated with recognized bacterial divisions. The unaffiliated sequence types (represented by 38 sequences) nominally comprise 12 novel, division level lineages termed candidate divisions. Several OP sequences were nearly identical to those of cultivated chemolithotrophic thermophiles, including the hydrogen-oxidizing Calderobacterium and the sulfate reducers Thermodesulfovibrio and Thermodesulfobacterium, or belonged to monophyletic assemblages recognized for a particular type of metabolism, such as the hydrogen-oxidizing Aquificales and the sulfate-reducing delta-Proteobacteria. The occurrence of such organisms is consistent with the chemical composition of OP (high in reduced iron and sulfur) and suggests a lithotrophic base for primary productivity in this hot spring, through hydrogen oxidation and sulfate reduction. Unexpectedly, no archaeal sequences were encountered in OP clone libraries made with universal primers. Hybridization analysis of amplified OP DNA with domain-specific probes confirmed that the analyzed community rDNA from OP sediment was predominantly bacterial. These

  16. Novel Division Level Bacterial Diversity in a Yellowstone Hot Spring

    PubMed Central

    Hugenholtz, Philip; Pitulle, Christian; Hershberger, Karen L.; Pace, Norman R.

    1998-01-01

    A culture-independent molecular phylogenetic survey was carried out for the bacterial community in Obsidian Pool (OP), a Yellowstone National Park hot spring previously shown to contain remarkable archaeal diversity (S. M. Barns, R. E. Fundyga, M. W. Jeffries, and N. R. Page, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:1609–1613, 1994). Small-subunit rRNA genes (rDNA) were amplified directly from OP sediment DNA by PCR with universally conserved or Bacteria-specific rDNA primers and cloned. Unique rDNA types among >300 clones were identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism, and 122 representative rDNA sequences were determined. These were found to represent 54 distinct bacterial sequence types or clusters (≥98% identity) of sequences. A majority (70%) of the sequence types were affiliated with 14 previously recognized bacterial divisions (main phyla; kingdoms); 30% were unaffiliated with recognized bacterial divisions. The unaffiliated sequence types (represented by 38 sequences) nominally comprise 12 novel, division level lineages termed candidate divisions. Several OP sequences were nearly identical to those of cultivated chemolithotrophic thermophiles, including the hydrogen-oxidizing Calderobacterium and the sulfate reducers Thermodesulfovibrio and Thermodesulfobacterium, or belonged to monophyletic assemblages recognized for a particular type of metabolism, such as the hydrogen-oxidizing Aquificales and the sulfate-reducing δ-Proteobacteria. The occurrence of such organisms is consistent with the chemical composition of OP (high in reduced iron and sulfur) and suggests a lithotrophic base for primary productivity in this hot spring, through hydrogen oxidation and sulfate reduction. Unexpectedly, no archaeal sequences were encountered in OP clone libraries made with universal primers. Hybridization analysis of amplified OP DNA with domain-specific probes confirmed that the analyzed community rDNA from OP sediment was predominantly bacterial. These results

  17. Applying spatial analysis techniques to assess the suitability of multipurpose uses of spring water in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2016-04-01

    The Jiaosi Hot Spring Region is located in northeastern Taiwan and is rich in geothermal springs. The geothermal development of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region dates back to the 18th century and currently, the spring water is processed for various uses, including irrigation, aquaculture, swimming, bathing, foot spas, and recreational tourism. Because of the proximity of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region to the metropolitan area of Taipei City, the hot spring resources in this region attract millions of tourists annually. Recently, the Taiwan government is paying more attention to surveying the spring water temperatures in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region because of the severe spring water overexploitation, causing a significant decline in spring water temperatures. Furthermore, the temperature of spring water is a reliable indicator for exploring the occurrence and evolution of springs and strongly affects hydrochemical reactions, components, and magnitudes. The multipurpose uses of spring water can be dictated by the temperature of the water. Therefore, accurately estimating the temperature distribution of the spring water is critical in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region to facilitate the sustainable development and management of the multipurpose uses of the hot spring resources. To evaluate the suitability of spring water for these various uses, this study spatially characterized the spring water temperatures of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region by using ordinary kriging (OK), sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS), and geographical information system (GIS). First, variogram analyses were used to determine the spatial variability of spring water temperatures. Next, OK and SGS were adopted to model the spatial distributions and uncertainty of the spring water temperatures. Finally, the land use (i.e., agriculture, dwelling, public land, and recreation) was determined and combined with the estimated distributions of the spring water temperatures using GIS. A suitable development strategy

  18. Impacts of geothermal energy developments on hydrological environment in hot spring areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Water-energy nexus such as geothermal energy developments and its impacts on groundwater, river water, and coastal water is one of the key issues for the sustainable society. This is because the demand of both water and energy resources will be increasing in near future, and the tradeoff between both resources and conflict between stakeholders will be arisen. Geothermal power generation, hot springs heat power generation, and steam power generation, are developing in hot spring areas in Ring of Fire countries including Japan, as renewable and sustainable energy. Impacts of the wasted hot water after using hot springs heat and steam power generation on ecosystem in the rivers have been observed in Beppu, Oita prefecture, Japan. The number of the fish species with wasted hot water in the Hirata river is much less than that without wasted hot water in Hiyakawa river although the dominant species of tilapia was found in the Hirata river with wasted hot water. The water temperature in Hirata rive is increased by wasted hot water by 10 degree C. The impacts of the developments of steam power generations on hot spring water and groundwater in downstream are also evaluated in Beppu. The decreases in temperature and volume of the hot spring water and groundwater after the development are concerning. Stakeholder analysis related to hot spa and power generation business and others in Beppu showed common interests in community development among stakeholders and gaps in prerequisite knowledge and recognition of the geothermal resource in terms of economic/non-economic value and utilization as power generation/hot-spring. We screened stakeholders of four categories (hot spring resorts inhabitants, industries, supporters, environmentalists), and set up three communities consisting of 50 persons of the above categories. One remarkable result regarding the pros and cons of geothermal power in general terms was that the supporter count increased greatly while the neutralities count

  19. Microbial Metabolic Landscapes Derived from Complementary Mineralogical, Aqueous Geochemical, and Gas Data Associated with High pH, Actively Serpentinizing Springs in the Coast Range Ophiolite (CA,USA) and Zambales and Palawan Ophiolites (Philippines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardace, D.; Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Arcilla, C. A.; Hoehler, T. M.; McCollom, T. M.; Schrenk, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    We applied x-ray diffraction and thin section petrography to profile the mineralogy of serpentinites and relict peridotites pertinent to the Coast Range Ophiolite Microbiological Observatory (CROMO, an array of 8 water monitoring wells installed in serpentinizing ultramafic rocks, sited at the UC-Davis McLaughlin Natural Reserve, Lower Lake, CA) and Zambales and Palawan ophiolites in the Philippines. In general, serpentinization in near surface samples was extensive, obscuring many protolith characteristics, but relict olivine grains are apparent. Upwelling serpentinizing formation fluids react to varying degrees with shallow hydrological regimes impacted by meteoric inputs. In the vicinity of CROMO, modest pH (7 to 8.5) waters form spring deposits. In the Philippines ophiolites, high pH (10.8 to 11. 3) waters form extensive travertines near Manleluag Springs and newly faulted sections of the Poon Bato River. Travertine fabric and chemistry indicate episodic spring flow and suggest that ambient water chemistry shifts over time. A multiprobe meter simultaneously measured pH, temperature, conductivity, oxidation-reduction potential, and dissolved oxygen at selected springs. Filtered water samples from monitoring wells and springs were analyzed for major elements and some ions. Dissolved gases and gas bubbles were captured and transported for analysis of H2, CO, and CH4. Aqueous and gas geochemistry data were transformed into activity data using EQ3: A Computer Program for Geochemical Aqueous Speciation-Solubility Calculations (Wolery, 1992) and the Gibbs Energy values for selected metabolic reactions, given the environmental conditions, were calculated. Metabolisms considered were: methanogenesis, methane oxidation, ferric iron reduction, ferrous iron oxidation, oxidation of S in pyrite, nitrification, denitrification, and N-fixation. At all sites tapping waters sourced in actively serpentinizing systems, regardless of geography, ferrous iron oxidation was the most

  20. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of hot springs along the along the Neogene Malawi rift.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atekwana, E. A.; Tsokonombwe, G. W.; Elsenbeck, J.; Wanless, V. D.; Atekwana, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    We measured the concentrations of major ions and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and the stable isotopes of carbon (δ13CDIC), hydrogen (δD) and oxygen (δ18O) of hot springs along the Neogene Malawi rift. We compared the results with those of streams and a cold spring. We aimed to assess the hot springs for evidence of addition of mantle mass, specifically water and carbon and (2) determine the processes that control the chemical and isotopic evolution of the hot springs. Understanding the source(s) of heat for the springs and if the chemical and isotopic characteristics show evidence of mantle processes is an important goal of the Project for Rift Initiation, Development and Evolution (PRIDE). The temperature of the hot springs ranged from 35 to 80 ºC. High temperature anomalies are observed between latitudes 10 to 11, 12 to 13 and 15 to 16 degrees south along the rift axis. The δD and δ18O for the cold spring, hot springs and streams had a similar range, were positively correlated and lie on the trend of the local meteoric water line. We suggest negligible contribution of water from a connate or magmatic source and limited oxygen exchange from water-rock interaction or CO2 exchange from deep sedimentary carbonates. The DIC concentrations of the hot springs are higher (5 to 61 mg C/L) than those of streams (2 to 28 mg C/L) indicating addition of carbon to the DIC pool during the circulation of some springs. The range in the δ13CDIC of the hot springs (-17 to -8‰) is broader and lower compared to streams (-12 to -5‰) due to addition of carbon with a δ13CDIC of -15‰ to the spring water during circulation. Our results indicate that (1) the source of water for the hot springs is meteoric, (2) the hot springs have not experienced extensive water-rock interaction due to fast circulation suggesting highly permeable fault zones, (3) the source of carbon in the DIC of the hot springs is mostly CO2(g) from the soil zone and (4) the springs are heated by normal

  1. Spatial relationship between earthquakes, hot-springs and faults in Odisha, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Biswajeet; Jena, Ratiranjan

    2016-06-01

    Odisha is famous for Mineral rich Eastern-Ghat mobile belt, hot springs and cultural Heritage. The hot springs are known for centuries and are used by public as a place for worship. Odisha falls under the II and III seismic zones in India. Most of the seismicity in Odisha is due to motion along some active normal faults along the Mahanadi Graben. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the active faults and understand spatial distribution of seismic activity in Odisha. It is also important to understand the Earthquakes and their relation with the Geology of Odisha and understand the neo-tectonic activity. There are 7 major hot springs found along the North Odisha Boundary Fault and Mahanadi Shear Zone. The hot water percolates deep into the Earth through porous and permeable fractured rocks along the fault. Depth of source for most of the hot springs in Odisha must be some few feets to few meters; however most of these observations are not based on scientific geophysical data. Therefore, spatial relationship between thermal springs, earthquakes, and geology of Odisha may provide better understanding of the hot-spring setting. By using the earthquake and fault data, the sense of motion along faults can be easily interpreted. All these information can explain the spatial distribution and inter-relation between hot-springs, faults and earthquakes in Odisha.

  2. Mixing of hydrothermal water and groundwater near hot springs, Yellowstone National Park (USA): hydrology and geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Matthew L.; Hinman, Nancy W.

    2013-06-01

    Studies of hot springs have focused mainly on the properties of fluids and solids. Fewer studies focus on the relationship between the hot springs and groundwater/surface-water environments. The differences in temperature and dissolved solids between hot-spring water and typical surface water and groundwater allow interactions to be traced. Electromagnetic terrain (EMT) conductivity is a nonintrusive technique capable of mapping mixing zones between distinct subsurface waters. These interactions include zones of groundwater/surface-water exchange and groundwater mixing. Herein, hydrogeological techniques are compared with EMT conductivity to trace hot-spring discharge interactions with shallow groundwater and surface water. Potentiometric-surface and water-quality data determined the hydrogeochemistry of two thermally influenced areas in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming (USA). Data from the sites revealed EMT conductivity contrasts that reflected the infiltration of conductive hot-spring discharge to local groundwater systems. The anomalies reflect higher temperatures and conductivity for Na+-Cl--rich hydrothermal fluids compared to the receiving groundwater. EMT conductivity results suggested hot springs are fed by conduits largely isolated from shallow groundwater; mixing of waters occurs after hot-spring discharge infiltrates groundwater from the surface and, generally, not by leakage in the subsurface. A model was proposed to explain the growth of sinter mounds.

  3. Using Hydrogen Isotopes to Distinguish Allochthony and Autochthony in Hot Springs Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hungate, J.; DeSousa, T. M.; Ong, J. C.; Caron, M. M.; Brown, J. R.; Patel, N.; Dijkstra, P.; Hedlund, B. P.; Hungate, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    Hot springs are hosts to abundant and diverse microbial communities. Above the temperature threshold for photosynthesis (~73 degrees C), a variety of chemosynthetic organisms support autochthonous primary production in hot springs ecosystems. These organisms are thought to drive the carbon and energy budgets of these ecosystems, but the importance of energy inputs from the surrounding terrestrial environments - allochthonous inputs - is not well known. Here, we tested the efficacy of stable isotopes of hydrogen in distinguishing autochthonous from allochthonous sources of organic matter in hot springs ecosystems. Under laboratory conditions and in pure culture, we grew autotrophic, mixotrophic, and heterotrophic organisms from the Great Boiling Springs in northern Nevada as well as organisms typical of other hot springs environments. We measured the δ2H composition of biomass, water and organic matter sources used by the organisms to produce that biomass. We also surveyed organic matter in and around hot springs in Nevada and in the Tengchong geothermal region in China, sampling terrestrial plants at the hot springs margin, microorganisms (either scraped from surfaces or in the water column), and organic matter in the sediment accruing in the spring itself as an integrative measure of the relative importance of organic matter sources to the spring ecosystem. We found that autotrophic production in culture results in strongly depleted δ2H signatures, presumably because of fractionation against 2H-H2O during chemosynthesis. The observed difference between microbial biomass and water was larger than that typically found for terrestrial plants during photosynthesis, setting the stage for using δ2H to distinguish allochthonous from autochthonous sources of productivity in hot springs. In surveys of natural hot springs, microbial biomass sampled from the water column or from surfaces was often strongly depleted in δ2H, consistent with in situ chemosynthesis. Organic

  4. Flood of July 16-17, 1963, in vicinity of Hot Springs, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilstrap, R.C.; Christensen, R.C.

    1964-01-01

    On July 16, 1963, the city of Hot Springs had severe flooding, which, from all reports, was exceeded only by a flood that occurred in May 1923. The storm, which caused the flooding, was centered in the vicinity of Hot Springs and covered an area including most of Garland County and parts of Hot Spring and Saline Counties. The towns of Owensville, Jessieville, Pleasant Hill, and Malvern were on the outer fringe of the storm area. Flood damage exceeded $2 million in the storm area.

  5. Boiling Water at Hot Creek - The Dangerous and Dynamic Thermal Springs in California's Long Valley Caldera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrar, Christopher D.; Evans, William C.; Venezky, Dina Y.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Oliver, Lynn K.

    2007-01-01

    The beautiful blue pools and impressive boiling fountains along Hot Creek in east-central California have provided enjoyment to generations of visitors, but they have also been the cause of injury or death to some who disregarded warnings and fences. The springs and geysers in the stream bed and along its banks change location, temperature, and flow rates frequently and unpredictably. The hot springs and geysers of Hot Creek are visible signs of dynamic geologic processes in this volcanic region, where underground heat drives thermal spring activity.

  6. Geothermal-resource assessment of the Steamboat-Routt Hot Springs area, Colorado. Resources Series 22

    SciTech Connect

    Pearl, R.H.; Zacharakis, T.G.; Ringrose, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    An assessment of the Steamboat Springs region in northwest Colorado was initiated and carried out in 1980 and 1981. The goal of this program was to delineate the geological features controlling the occurrence of the thermal waters (temperatures in excess of 68/sup 0/F (20/sup 0/C)) in this area at Steamboat Springs and 8 miles (12.8 km) north at Routt Hot Springs. Thermal waters from Heart Spring, the only developed thermal water source in the study area, are used in the municipal swimming pool in Steamboat Springs. The assessment program was a fully integrated program consisting of: dipole-dipole, Audio-magnetotelluric, telluric, self potential and gravity geophysical surveys, soil mercury and soil helium geochemical surveys; shallow temperature measurements; and prepartion of geological maps. The investigation showed that all the thermal springs appear to be fault controlled. Based on the chemical composition of the thermal waters it appears that Heart Spring in Steamboat Springs is hydrologically related to the Routt Hot Springs. This relationship was further confirmed when it was reported that thermal waters were encountered during the construction of the new high school in Strawberry Park on the north side of Steamboat Springs. In addition, residents stated that Strawberry Park appears to be warmer than the surrounding country side. Geological mapping has determined that a major fault extends from the Routt Hot Springs area into Strawberry Park.

  7. Bacterial composition of microbial mats in hot springs in Northern Patagonia: variations with seasons and temperature.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Roy; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Díez, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal shifts in bacterial diversity of microbial mats were analyzed in three hot springs (39-68 °C) of Patagonia, using culture-independent methods. Three major bacterial groups were detected in all springs: Phyla Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes, and Order Thermales. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Green Non-Sulfur Bacteria were also detected in small amounts and only in some samples. Thermophilic filamentous heterocyst-containing Mastigocladus were dominant Cyanobacteria in Porcelana Hot Spring and Geyser, and Calothrix in Cahuelmó, followed by the filamentous non-heterocyst Leptolyngbya and Oscillatoria. Bacteroidetes were detected in a wide temperature range and their relative abundance increased with decreasing temperature in almost all samples. Two Meiothermus populations with different temperature optima were found. Overall, fingerprinting analysis with universal bacterial primers showed high similarities within each hot spring despite differences in temperature. On the other hand, Cahuelmó Hot Spring showed a lower resemblance among samples. Porcelana Hot Spring and Porcelana Geyser were rather similar to each other, possibly due to a common geological substrate given their geographic proximity. This was even more evident with specific cyanobacterial primers. The different geological substrate and the seawater influence in Cahuelmó might have caused the differences in the microbial community structure with the other two hot springs. PMID:23208511

  8. CRISPR Spacer Arrays for Detection of Viral Signatures from Acidic Hot Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, J. C.; Bateson, M. M.; Suciu, D.; Young, M. J.

    2010-04-01

    Viruses are the most abundant life-like entities on the planet Earth. Using CRISPR spacer sequences, we have developed a microarray-based approach to detecting viral signatures in the acidic hot springs of Yellowstone.

  9. Siliceous algal and bacterial stromatolites in hot spring and geyser effluents of yellowstone national park.

    PubMed

    Walter, M R; Bauld, J; Brock, T D

    1972-10-27

    Growing algal and bacterial stromatolites composed of nearly amorphous silica occur around hot springs and geysers in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Some Precambrian stromatolites may be bacterial rather than algal, which has important implications in atmospheric evolution, since bacterial photo-synthesis does not release oxygen. Conophyton stromatolites were thought to have become extinct at the end of the Precambrian, but are still growing in hot spring effluents. PMID:17815363

  10. Subaqueous hot springs in Köyceǧiz Lake and Dalyan Channel (SW Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avşar, Özgür; Avşar, Ulaş; Kurtuluş, Bedri; Arslan, Şebnem; Güleç, Nilgün

    2014-05-01

    The preliminary investigations within the scope of a subaqueous geothermal exploration project revealed a total of seven underwater hot springs in the Köyceǧiz Lake and through its outlet, namely Dalyan Channel. Within the scope of this project, horizontal temperature and electrical conductivity profiles of the lake water were obtained by using an YSI CTD probe along a dense survey grid. Any anomaly in the temperature and/or electrical conductivity profiles was inspected by scuba divers in detail, and water samples were taken from the explored hot springs by using a syringe type sampler. Four of these explored hot springs are located on the southern shore of Köyceǧiz Lake and the remaining ones are on the northern part of the Dalyan Channel. The temperature of the subaqueous hot springs range from 26.41 to 29.57 °C, which is slightly lower than the temperature range of the on-land hot springs in the region (i.e., 30-39 °C). Discovery of subaqueous hot springs and investigation of chemistry of these sources will lead a more comprehensive assessment of the hydrogeochemistry of the region.

  11. Mercury in water and biomass of microbial communities in hot springs of Yellowstone National Park, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, S.A.; Behnke, S.; Slack, K.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Burr, M.D.; Striegl, R.G.

    2006-01-01

    Ultra-clean sampling methods and approaches typically used in pristine environments were applied to quantify concentrations of Hg species in water and microbial biomass from hot springs of Yellowstone National Park, features that are geologically enriched with Hg. Microbial populations of chemically-diverse hot springs were also characterized using modern methods in molecular biology as the initial step toward ongoing work linking Hg speciation with microbial processes. Molecular methods (amplification of environmental DNA using 16S rDNA primers, cloning, denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) screening of clone libraries, and sequencing of representative clones) were used to examine the dominant members of microbial communities in hot springs. Total Hg (THg), monomethylated Hg (MeHg), pH, temperature, and other parameters influential to Hg speciation and microbial ecology are reported for hot springs water and associated microbial mats. Several hot springs indicate the presence of MeHg in microbial mats with concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 ng g-1 (dry weight). Concentrations of THg in mats ranged from 4.9 to 120,000 ng g-1 (dry weight). Combined data from surveys of geothermal water, lakes, and streams show that aqueous THg concentrations range from l to 600 ng L-1. Species and concentrations of THg in mats and water vary significantly between hot springs, as do the microorganisms found at each site. ?? 2006.

  12. Microscopic physical biomarkers in carbonate hot springs: implications in the search for life on Mars.

    PubMed

    Allen, C C; Albert, F G; Chafetz, H S; Combie, J; Graham, C R; Kieft, T L; Kivett, S J; McKay, D S; Steele, A; Taunton, A E; Taylor, M R; Thomas-Keprta, K L; Westall, F

    2000-09-01

    Physical evidence of life (physical biomarkers) from the deposits of carbonate hot springs were documented at the scale of microorganisms--submillimeter to submicrometer. The four moderate-temperature (57 to 72 degrees C), neutral pH springs reported on in this study, support diverse communities of bacteria adapted to specific physical and chemical conditions. Some of the microbes coexist with travertine deposits in endolithic communities. In other cases, the microbes are rapidly coated and destroyed by precipitates but leave distinctive mineral fabrics. Some microbes adapted to carbonate hot springs produce an extracellular polymeric substance which forms a three-dimensional matrix with living cells and cell remains, known as a biofilm. Silicon and iron oxides often coat the biofilm, leading to long-term preservation. Submicrometer mineralized spheres composed of calcium fluoride or silica are common in carbonate hot spring deposits. Sphere formation is biologically mediated, but the spheres themselves are apparently not fossils or microbes. Additionally, some microbes selectively weather mineral surfaces in distinctive patterns. Hot spring deposits have been cited as prime locations for exobiological exploration of Mars. The presence of preserved microscopic physical biomarkers at all four sites supports a strategy of searching for evidence of life in hot spring deposits on Mars. PMID:11543582

  13. Microscopic physical biomarkers in carbonate hot springs: implications in the search for life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. C.; Albert, F. G.; Chafetz, H. S.; Combie, J.; Graham, C. R.; Kieft, T. L.; Kivett, S. J.; McKay, D. S.; Steele, A.; Taunton, A. E.; Taylor, M. R.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Westall, F.

    2000-01-01

    Physical evidence of life (physical biomarkers) from the deposits of carbonate hot springs were documented at the scale of microorganisms--submillimeter to submicrometer. The four moderate-temperature (57 to 72 degrees C), neutral pH springs reported on in this study, support diverse communities of bacteria adapted to specific physical and chemical conditions. Some of the microbes coexist with travertine deposits in endolithic communities. In other cases, the microbes are rapidly coated and destroyed by precipitates but leave distinctive mineral fabrics. Some microbes adapted to carbonate hot springs produce an extracellular polymeric substance which forms a three-dimensional matrix with living cells and cell remains, known as a biofilm. Silicon and iron oxides often coat the biofilm, leading to long-term preservation. Submicrometer mineralized spheres composed of calcium fluoride or silica are common in carbonate hot spring deposits. Sphere formation is biologically mediated, but the spheres themselves are apparently not fossils or microbes. Additionally, some microbes selectively weather mineral surfaces in distinctive patterns. Hot spring deposits have been cited as prime locations for exobiological exploration of Mars. The presence of preserved microscopic physical biomarkers at all four sites supports a strategy of searching for evidence of life in hot spring deposits on Mars.

  14. Microscopic Physical Biomarkers in Carbonate Hot Springs: Implications in the Search for Life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Albert, Fred G.; Chafetz, Henry S.; Combie, Joan; Graham, Catherine R.; Kieft, Thomas L.; Kivett, Steven J.; McKay, David S.; Steele, Andrew; Taunton, Anne E.; Taylor, Michael R.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Westall, Frances

    2000-09-01

    Physical evidence of life (physical biomarkers) from the deposits of carbonate hot springs were documented at the scale of microorganisms—submillimeter to submicrometer. The four moderate-temperature (57 to 72°C), neutral pH springs reported on in this study, support diverse communities of bacteria adapted to specific physical and chemical conditions. Some of the microbes coexist with travertine deposits in endolithic communities. In other cases, the microbes are rapidly coated and destroyed by precipitates but leave distinctive mineral fabrics. Some microbes adapted to carbonate hot springs produce an extracellular polymeric substance which forms a three-dimensional matrix with living cells and cell remains, known as a biofilm. Silicon and iron oxides often coat the biofilm, leading to long-term preservation. Submicrometer mineralized spheres composed of calcium fluoride or silica are common in carbonate hot spring deposits. Sphere formation is biologically mediated, but the spheres themselves are apparently not fossils or microbes. Additionally, some microbes selectively weather mineral surfaces in distinctive patterns. Hot spring deposits have been cited as prime locations for exobiological exploration of Mars. The presence of preserved microscopic physical biomarkers at all four sites supports a strategy of searching for evidence of life in hot spring deposits on Mars.

  15. Quantification of Dynamic Water-Rock-Microbe Interactions in a Travertine-Depositing Hot Spring, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMott, L. M.; Sivaguru, M.; Fried, G.; Sanford, R. A.; Fouke, B. W.

    2014-12-01

    Filamentous microbial mats in a travertine-depositing hot spring at Mammoth Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park exert primary controls on the growth rate, mineralogy, and crystal fabric of calcium carbonate minerals (travertine) that precipitate in the spring. Filaments directly affect porosity and permeability of travertine by providing a structural framework consisting of "ropes" of microbial cells around which carbonate minerals precipitate, creating a uniquely biogenetic mineral fabric characterized by horizontal layers of large tubular pores. Nanometer scale microscopy reveals that these mineral fabrics may be directly tied to microbial activities, as aragonite crystals precipitating directly on filaments are smaller and more densely packed than crystals precipitating on extra-polymeric substances (EPS) between filaments. In order to more closely examine the processes which control calcium carbonate crystallization dynamics in this system, a high-resolution transect of water and travertine was sampled for geochemistry, microscopy, and microbial biomass along the primary flow path from upstream to downstream of Narrow Gauge spring at Mammoth Hot Springs. Travertine samples were analyzed for petrography using transmitted light, cathodoluminescence, and laser confocal microscopy to examine crystal morphology and associations with microbial filaments and provide insight on pore network distributions. Additionally, travertine and spring water geochemistry was also analyzed for major and trace ions, δ34S, δ13C, and δ18O, to identify any trends that may relate to crystallization rates, microbial biomass, or crystal habit. Total biomass was determined using dried weight. Water-rock-microbe interactions result in upstream-to-downstream variations in travertine crystal morphology and water chemistry that are directly related to systematic changes in microbial biomass and community respiration. Geochemical modeling lends insight into the biogeochemical reactions

  16. Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum in Acidic Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park▿

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Ricardo; Fernandes, João; Fernandes, Nuno; Oliveira, Fernanda; Cadete, Manuela

    2007-01-01

    Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum was found in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, in a system composed of two acidic (pH 3.0) springs with temperatures between 56°C at the source and 40°C at the confluence of both springs. Growth and survival assays at 56°C for 60 days were performed, confirming the origin of the strain. PMID:17557859

  17. Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum in acidic hot springs in Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Santos, Ricardo; Fernandes, João; Fernandes, Nuno; Oliveira, Fernanda; Cadete, Manuela

    2007-08-01

    Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum was found in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, in a system composed of two acidic (pH 3.0) springs with temperatures between 56 degrees C at the source and 40 degrees C at the confluence of both springs. Growth and survival assays at 56 degrees C for 60 days were performed, confirming the origin of the strain. PMID:17557859

  18. Roosevelt Hot Springs/hot-dry-rock prospect and evaluation of the Acord 1-26 well

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, S.S. Jr.; Goff, F.; Rowley, J.C.; Pettitt, R.A.; Vuataz, F.D.

    1983-01-01

    Previous hot, dry rock (HDR) geothermal resource evaluation efforts have identified the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA as a prime HDR target. The size of the HDR resource is estimated to be at least eight times larger than the adjacent hydrothermal resource. Further research activities to evaluate this HDR resource have involved review of data from the Acord hot dry well, the seismic structure of the area, fluid geochemistry, and hydrology of a shallow aquifer. These recent results are summarized and the most likely HDR prospect area is identified.

  19. Metagenomic Study of Iron Homeostasis in Iron Depositing Hot Spring Cyanobacterial Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, I.; Franklin H.; Tringe, S. G.; Klatt, C. G.; Bryant, D. A.; Sarkisova, S. A.; Guevara, M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: It is not clear how an iron-rich thermal hydrosphere could be hospitable to cyanobacteria, since reduced iron appears to stimulate oxidative stress in all domains of life and particularly in oxygenic phototrophs. Therefore, metagenomic study of cyanobacterial community in iron-depositing hot springs may help elucidate how oxygenic prokaryotes can withstand the extremely high concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by interaction between environmental Fe2+ and O2. Method: Anchor proteins from various species of cyanobacteria and some anoxygenic phototrophs were selected on the basis of their hypothetical role in Fe homeostasis and the suppression of oxidative stress and were BLASTed against the metagenomes of iron-depositing Chocolate Pots and freshwater Mushroom hot springs. Results: BLASTing proteins hypothesized to be involved in Fe homeostasis against the microbiomes from the two springs revealed that iron-depositing hot spring has a greater abundance of defensive proteins such as bacterioferritin comigratory protein (Bcp) and DNA-binding Ferritin like protein (Dps) than a fresh-water hot spring. One may speculate that the abundance of Bcp and Dps in an iron-depositing hot spring is connected to the need to suppress oxidative stress in bacteria inhabiting environments with high Fe2+ concnetration. In both springs, Bcp and Dps are concentrated within the cyanobacterial fractions of the microbial community (regardless of abundance). Fe3+ siderophore transport (from the transport system permease protein query) may be less essential to the microbial community of CP because of the high [Fe]. Conclusion: Further research is needed to confirm that these proteins are unique to photoautotrophs such as those living in iron-depositing hot spring.

  20. Characterizing Hot Spring Connectivity Using Aqueous Geochemistry in the River Group Springs, Yellowstone NP, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aunan, M. M.; Lindsey, C.; Price, A. N.; Fairley, J. P., Jr.; Larson, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract We analyzed the aqueous geochemical components of 11 springs in the River Group, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. For the springs sampled, we found pHs ranging from a low of ˜4.8 to a high of ˜9.6; TDS (as inferred from electrical conductivity measurements) was roughly correlated to pH, with the lowest pH spring being the most dilute (373 µS) and the highest pH spring having the second highest conductivity (1384 µS). In combination with a shallow ground temperature survey and visual observations of the relative water levels in the springs, the spring chemistries support a conceptual model of fracture-controlled fluid flow in which individual springs demonstrate a surprising level of flowpath isolation. We hypothesize that variations in flowpath permeability lead to steam-heating of low-pH springs, while nearby circumneutral springs are heated by upwelling liquid hydrothermal fluids, high in chlorid and other dissolved components. If our hypothesis is correct, it implies that vaporand liquid-dominated zones of Model III hydrothermal systems can coexist in close proximity, resulting in a complex surface expression of acid-sulfate and chloride-rich circum-neutral springs.

  1. 76 FR 16810 - Notice of Realty Action: Non-Competitive (Direct) Sale of Public Land in Hot Springs County, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Non-Competitive (Direct) Sale of Public Land in Hot...: A 10-acre parcel of public land in Hot Springs County, Wyoming is being considered for non... following described public land in Hot Springs County, Wyoming has been examined and found suitable for...

  2. Biomediated Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate in a Slightly Acidic Hot Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, L.

    2015-12-01

    A slightly acidic hot spring named "Female Tower" (T=73.5 °C, pH=6.64) is located in the Jifei Geothermal Field, Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The precipitates in the hot spring are composed of large amounts of calcite, aragonite, and sulfur. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses revealed that the microbial mats were formed of various coccoid, rod-shaped, and filamentous microbes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the intracellular sulfur granules were commonly associated with these microbes. A culture-independent molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the majority of the bacteria in the spring were sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. In the spring water, H2S concentration was up to 60 ppm, while SO42- concentration was only about 10 ppm. We speculated that H2S might be utilized by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in this hot spring water, leading to the intracellular formation of sulfur granules. In the meantime, this reaction increased the pH in the micron-scale microdomains, which fostered the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the microbial mats. The results of this study indicated that the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria could play an important role in calcium carbonate precipitation in slightly acidic hot spring environments.

  3. Biomediated Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate and Sulfur in a Faintly Acidic Hot Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, L.; Peng, X.; Qiao, H.

    2014-12-01

    A faintly acidic hot spring named "female Tower" (T=73.5 ℃, pH=6.64 ) is located in the Jifei Geothermal Field,Yunnan province, Southwest China. The precipitates in the hot spring are composed of large amounts of calcite and sulfur, as reveals by XRD analysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis show the microbial mats are formed of various coccoid, rod and filamentous microbes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis show that intracellular sulfur granules are commonly associated with these microbes. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) analysis shows that the surface of microbes are mainly composed of Ca, C, O and S. A culture-independent molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrates the majority of bacteria in the spring are sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. In the spring water, H2S concentration was up to 60 ppm, while SO42- concentration was only about 10 ppm. We suggest that H2S might be utilized by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in this hot spring water, leading to the formation of sulfur granules intracellularly and extracellularly. In the meantime, this reaction increases the pH in ambient environments, which fosters the precipitation of calcium carbonate precipitation in the microbial mats. This study suggests that the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria could play an important role in calcium carbonate precipitation in faintly acidic hot spring environments.

  4. Water quality parameters associated with prevalence of Legionella in hot spring facility water bodies.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Wu, Shu-Fen; Fan, Cheng-Wei; Shih, Feng-Cheng; Lin, Yung-Chang; Ji, Dar-Der

    2010-09-01

    Some species of Legionella are recognized as opportunistic potential human pathogens, such as Legionella pneumophila, which causes legionnaires disease. Indeed, outbreaks of legionellosis are frequently reported in areas in which the organism has been spread via aerosols from contaminated institutional water systems. Contamination in hot tubs, spas and public baths are also possible. As a result, in this study, we investigated the distribution of Legionella at six hot spring recreation areas throughout Taiwan. Legionella were detected in all six hot spring recreation areas, as well as in 20 of the 72 samples that were collected (27.8%). Seven species of Legionella identified from samples by the direct DNA extraction method were unidentified Legionella spp., Legionella anisa, L. pneumophila, Legionella erythra, Legionella lytica, Legionella gresilensis and Legionella rubrilucen. Three species of Legionella identified in the samples using the culture method were L. pneumophila, unidentified Legionella spp. and L. erythra. Legionella species were found in water with temperatures ranging from 22.7 °C to 48.6 °C. The optimal pH appeared to range from 5.0 to 8.0. Taken together, the results of this survey confirmed the ubiquity of Legionella in Taiwan spring recreational areas. Therefore, a long-term investigation of the health of workers at hot spring recreational areas and the occurrence of Legionella in hot spring recreational areas throughout Taiwan are needed. PMID:20727568

  5. Nanoarchaeota, Their Sulfolobales Host, and Nanoarchaeota Virus Distribution across Yellowstone National Park Hot Springs

    PubMed Central

    Munson-McGee, Jacob H.; Field, Erin K.; Bateson, Mary; Rooney, Colleen; Stepanauskas, Ramunas

    2015-01-01

    Nanoarchaeota are obligate symbionts with reduced genomes first described from marine thermal vent environments. Here, both community metagenomics and single-cell analysis revealed the presence of Nanoarchaeota in high-temperature (∼90°C), acidic (pH ≈ 2.5 to 3.0) hot springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) (United States). Single-cell genome analysis of two cells resulted in two nearly identical genomes, with an estimated full length of 650 kbp. Genome comparison showed that these two cells are more closely related to the recently proposed Nanobsidianus stetteri from a more neutral YNP hot spring than to the marine Nanoarchaeum equitans. Single-cell and catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) analysis of environmental hot spring samples identified the host of the YNP Nanoarchaeota as a Sulfolobales species known to inhabit the hot springs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Nanoarchaeota are widespread in acidic to near neutral hot springs in YNP. An integrated viral sequence was also found within one Nanoarchaeota single-cell genome and further analysis of the purified viral fraction from environmental samples indicates that this is likely a virus replicating within the YNP Nanoarchaeota. PMID:26341207

  6. Nanoarchaeota, Their Sulfolobales Host, and Nanoarchaeota Virus Distribution across Yellowstone National Park Hot Springs.

    PubMed

    Munson-McGee, Jacob H; Field, Erin K; Bateson, Mary; Rooney, Colleen; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Young, Mark J

    2015-11-01

    Nanoarchaeota are obligate symbionts with reduced genomes first described from marine thermal vent environments. Here, both community metagenomics and single-cell analysis revealed the presence of Nanoarchaeota in high-temperature (∼90°C), acidic (pH ≈ 2.5 to 3.0) hot springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) (United States). Single-cell genome analysis of two cells resulted in two nearly identical genomes, with an estimated full length of 650 kbp. Genome comparison showed that these two cells are more closely related to the recently proposed Nanobsidianus stetteri from a more neutral YNP hot spring than to the marine Nanoarchaeum equitans. Single-cell and catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) analysis of environmental hot spring samples identified the host of the YNP Nanoarchaeota as a Sulfolobales species known to inhabit the hot springs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Nanoarchaeota are widespread in acidic to near neutral hot springs in YNP. An integrated viral sequence was also found within one Nanoarchaeota single-cell genome and further analysis of the purified viral fraction from environmental samples indicates that this is likely a virus replicating within the YNP Nanoarchaeota. PMID:26341207

  7. Microbial communities and arsenic biogeochemistry at the outflow of an alkaline sulfide-rich hot spring.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhou; Li, Ping; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhang, Ping; Zhou, Jizhong; Wang, Yanhong; Dai, Xinyue; Zhang, Rui; Jiang, Dawei; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-01-01

    Alkaline sulfide-rich hot springs provide a unique environment for microbial community and arsenic (As) biogeochemistry. In this study, a representative alkaline sulfide-rich hot spring, Zimeiquan in the Tengchong geothermal area, was chosen to study arsenic geochemistry and microbial community using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Over 0.26 million 16S rRNA sequence reads were obtained from 5-paired parallel water and sediment samples along the hot spring's outflow channel. High ratios of As(V)/AsSum (total combined arsenate and arsenite concentrations) (0.59-0.78), coupled with high sulfide (up to 5.87 mg/L), were present in the hot spring's pools, which suggested As(III) oxidation occurred. Along the outflow channel, AsSum increased from 5.45 to 13.86 μmol/L, and the combined sulfide and sulfate concentrations increased from 292.02 to 364.28 μmol/L. These increases were primarily attributed to thioarsenic transformation. Temperature, sulfide, As and dissolved oxygen significantly shaped the microbial communities between not only the pools and downstream samples, but also water and sediment samples. Results implied that the upstream Thermocrinis was responsible for the transformation of thioarsenic to As(III) and the downstream Thermus contributed to derived As(III) oxidation. This study improves our understanding of microbially-mediated As transformation in alkaline sulfide-rich hot springs. PMID:27126380

  8. Investigations on microbial diversity of Jakrem hot spring, Meghalaya, India using cultivation-independent approach

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Amrita Kumari; Bisht, Satpal Singh; Kumar, Nachimuthu Senthil; De Mandal, Surajit

    2015-01-01

    Jakrem hot water spring is located in the West Khasi Hill District of the state of Meghalaya, and is one of the most popular hot springs of the state. There is a populist belief among the inhabitants and people that the hot spring water has got curative properties against various skin ailments. This is the first report on V3 hyper-variable region of 16S rDNA metagenome sequence employing Illumina platform to profile the microbial community of this less known hot spring from Meghalaya, India. Metagenome comprised of 10, 74,120 raw sequences with a sequence length of 151 bp and 56.35% G + C content. Metagenome sequence information is now available at NCBI, SRA database accession no. SRP056897. A total of 8, 77, 364 pre-processed reads were clustered into 694 OTUs (operational taxonomical units) comprising of 14 bacterial phyla including unknown phylum demonstrating 49 families. Hot spring bacterial community is dominated by Firmicutes (61.60%), Chloroflexi (21.37%), Cyanobacteria (12.96%) and unclassified bacteria (1.2%) respectively. PMID:26484205

  9. Preservation Potential of Life in Little Hot Creek, California: Implications for the use of Hot Spring Systems as Astrobiological Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago Ramos, D. P.; Rempfert, K. R.; Nascimento, G. S.; Zhang, F.; Loyd, S. J.; Piazza, O.; Bertran, E.; Stamps, B. W.; Stevenson, B. S.; Spear, J. R.; Corsetti, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    Hot spring deposits have long been considered astrobiological targets; modern springs display diverse and abundant life and rapid mineralization is thought to increase biosignature preservation potential. Volcano-associated, silica-rich, mineral deposits have been identified on Mars, so the study of terrestrial examples is warranted. We studied a hot spring in Long Valley Caldera near Little Hot Creek, California, as part of the 2015 Geobiology Summer Course to characterize biological diversity and the potential for biosignature preservation in the rock record. Subsurface hydrothermal waters interact with the rhyolitic Bishop Tuff and feed Little Hot Creek, which exhibits progressively decreasing temperatures (~82-71°C) and rising pH (6.7-7.6) along a 23 m spatial transect. Creek water and sediment samples were collected along the entire transect, in addition to rim-encrusting carbonate-silica structures located ~6 m downstream from the creek source. 16S rRNA sequencing of both water and sediment samples yielded operational taxonomic units (OTUs) reflecting the potential capability for autotrophic thiosulfate oxidation and reduction, hydrogen oxidation, and sulfur oxidation near the creek source. Despite the obvious presence of life in the creek, the preservation potential of biosignatures in mineral deposits has proven ambiguous in at least three ways: 1. Sulfur isotope fractionation between aqueous sulfate and sulfide (~0.3‰) is consistent with both biotic and abiotic sulfur oxidation; 2. The increasing d13C of DIC down the transect can be solely explained by CO2 degassing; and 3. The d13C of rim-encrusting carbonates likely record a similar degassing signal. However, amorphous silica precipitates do exhibit textural evidence of life, with low inheritance between layers and lack of isopachous layering. Our results suggest that mineral deposits in Little Hot Creek show little potential for biosignature preservation; hence, further consideration of hot springs

  10. Geophysical investigation of hot springs in the vicinity of Shoshone, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziedzorm, Ziwu Felix

    Magnetic and gravity surveys were conducted in the vicinity of Shoshone, California to test a hypothesis from investigating hotsprings within Tecopa and Saratoga which states that deep faults must intersect with a specific orientation relative to the regional stress field in order to create hot springs along the Amargosa River. Three isolated basalt flows with different gravity and magnetic properties were identified near the Shoshone hot spring. Two of the flows have very low magnetic anomalies and the remaining one has a high magnetic anomaly. The high magnetic anomaly basalt flow also has a significantly higher Bouguer anomaly than the other two flows associated with the low magnetic anomalies. These observations suggest that the flows were formed by different time volcanic activity with the low magnetic anomaly basalts cooling during a magnetic reversal and the high magnetic anomaly basalt cooling during normal magnetic era. The deepest part of the Tecopa basin in the study area was identified as a region with low Bouguer anomaly and associated magnetic high. These properties suggest the basin fill includes highly vesicular basalts which would give the low density. Generally regions of high magnetic anomalies also have high Bouguer anomalies which indicate the possible existence of igneous rocks in the region. The low magnetic anomalies are mainly seen in the regions of thicker sedimentary deposits such as in the Resting Springs range where Precambrian and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks are preserved. From the magnetic and gravity surveys, this research support the testing hypothesis based on the identified intersecting faults of the appropriate orientation associated with the Shoshone hot spring. Faults were also identified at places with no evidence of hot springs and this could be due to the presence of thicker sediments preventing the springs from flowing to the surface. An alternative possibility is that the faults are not deep enough to tap the hot water

  11. The relationship between spring soil moisture and summer hot extremes over North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lingyun; Zhang, Jingyong

    2015-12-01

    The increase in the occurrence of hot extremes is known to have resulted in serious consequences for human society and ecosystems. However, our ability to seasonally predict hot extremes remains poor, largely due to our limited understanding of slowly evolving earth system components such as soil moisture, and their interactions with climate. In this study, we focus on North China, and investigate the relationship of the spring soil moisture condition to summer hot extremes using soil moisture data from the Global Land Data Assimilation System and observational temperature for the period 1981-2008. It is found that local soil moisture condition in spring is closely linked to summer hot days and heat waves over North China, accounting for 19%-34% of the total variances. Spring soil moisture anomalies can persist to the summer season, and subsequently alter latent and sensible heat fluxes, thus having significant effects on summer hot extremes. Our findings indicate that the spring soil moisture condition can be a useful predictor for summer hot days and heat waves over North China.

  12. Geochemistry and geothermometry of non-volcanic hot springs in West Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baioumy, Hassan; Nawawi, Mohd; Wagner, Karl; Arifin, Mohd Hariri

    2015-01-01

    Although more than sixty hot springs have been reported in West Malaysia, their geochemistry, geothermometry and utilization as a potential energy source have not been considered yet. This study reports the geochemistry, geothermometry and mineral saturation indices of a number of hot springs in West Malaysia. The potential of these hot springs as a source of geothermal energy as well as their origin and possible mixing with surface cold waters have been discussed. Surface temperatures of the studied hot springs range from 41 to 99 °C and pH values vary between 5.5 and 9. Geochemical data showed that among cations, Si, Na, Ca and K occur in relatively high contents, while Mg and Fe show very low concentrations. On the other hand, HCO3 is present in relatively high concentration compared to other anions (SO4, Cl and F). Data also illustrated that most of the studied hot springs are K-Na-bicarbonate rich waters although they represent different geological provenances in West Malaysia reflecting homogeneity in the geological formations and/or hydrochemical processes governing the characteristics of these waters. This homogeneity also indicates the insignificant effect of local geology on the chemistry of the studied hot springs. Saturation indices calculations of the studied thermal waters indicate that most of the secondary mineral phases such as goethite and hematite are apparently supersaturated while quartz and chalcedony are saturated. Conversely, amorphous silica is slightly under-saturated. These results suggest similar rock-water interactions for both geothermal and non-geothermal waters. The geological settings of the studied hot springs either in or close to granitic masses or along the major fault or shear zones as well as the Na-bicarbonate nature of the waters and low sulfate concentrations suggest their non-volcanic origin. They are also similar in their geological setting and water chemistry to other non-volcanic hot springs in other parts of the world

  13. Geology and Thermal History of Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bargar, Keith E.

    1978-01-01

    Mammoth Hot Springs, located about 8 km inside the north entrance to Yellowstone National Park, consists of nearly 100 hot springs scattered over a score of steplike travertine terraces. The travertine deposits range in age from late Pleistocene to the present. Sporadic records of hot-spring activity suggest that most of the current major springs have been intermittently active since at least 1871. Water moving along the Norris-Mammoth fault zone is heated by partly molten magma and enriched in calcium and bicarbonate. Upon reaching Mammoth this thermal water (temperature about 73?C) moves up through the old terrace deposits along preexisting vertical linear planes of weakness. As the water reaches the surface, pressure is released, carbon dioxide escapes as a gas, and bicarbonate in the water is partitioned into more carbon dioxide and carbonate; the carbonate then combines with calcium to precipitate calcium carbonate, forming travertine. The travertine usually precipitates rapidly from solution and is lightweight and porous; however, dense travertine, such as is found in core from the 113-m research drill hole Y-10 located on one of the upper terraces, forms beneath the surface by deposition in the pore spaces of older deposits. The terraces abound with unusual hot-spring deposits such as terracettes, cones, and fissure ridges. Semicircular ledges (ranging in width from about 0.3 m to as much as 2.5 m), called terracettes, formed by deposition of travertine around slowly rising pools. Complex steplike arrangements of terracettes have developed along runoff channels of some hot springs. A few hot springs have deposited cone-shaped mounds, most of which reach heights of 1-2 m before becoming dormant. However, one long-inactive cone named Liberty Cap attained a height of about 14 m. Fissure ridges are linear mounds of travertine deposited from numerous hot-spring vents along a medial fracture zone. The ridges range in height from about 1 to 6 m and in length from a

  14. Reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, Churchill County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Voegtly, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    A geological reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas (KGRA's), resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. This reconnaissance took place during June-December 1975. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the basis of radiometric dates of volcanic rocks by US Geological Survey personnel and others. The Hot Springs Mountains are in the western part of the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by east-west crustal extension and associated normal faulting. In the surrounding Trinity, West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Desert Mountains, Cenozoic rocks overlie basement rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. A similar relation is inferred in the Hot Springs Mountains. Folding and faulting have taken place from the late Tertiary to the present.

  15. Thermopolis hydrothermal system with an analysis of Hot Springs State Park

    SciTech Connect

    Hinckley, B.S.; Heasler, H.P.; King, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    Thermopolis is the site of Hot Springs State Park, where numerous hot springs produce nearly 3000 gallons per minute (gpm) of 130/sup 0/F (54/sup 0/C) water. The University of Wyoming Geothermal Resource Assessment Group has studied a 1700-square-mile area centered roughly on the State Park. Available literature, bottom-hole temperatures from over 400 oil well logs, 62 oil field drill stem tests, the Wyoming State Engineer's water well files, 60 formation water analyses, thermal logs of 19 holes, and field investigations of geology and hydrology form the basis of this report.

  16. Catalog of known hot springs and thermal place names for Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, R.C.

    1986-08-01

    Thermal place names were compiled from all 1:50,000 topographic quadrangle maps for the Republic of Honduras as of July 1986, from other published maps, and from several sources of unpublished data. Known hot spring sites include those visited by Empresa Nacional de Energia Electrica (Honduras) geologists, sites visited by Los Alamos geologists in 1985, and other sites known to R.C. Finch. The number of known hot spring sites in Honduras with temperatures >30/sup 0/C is 125. In addition, 56 thermal sites are suspected on the basis of thermal place names. The total number of geothermal sites, known and suspected, is 181.

  17. Hot-spring sinter deposits in the Alvord-Pueblo Valley, Harney County, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, M.L.; St. John, A.M. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Silica sinter deposits occur at Borax Lake, Alvord Hot Springs, and Mickey Springs in the Alvord-Pueblo Valley. Although the sinter deposits occur in areas of active hot springs, sinter is not being deposited. Hot springs are localized along faults that have been active since the Pleistocene. The sinter deposits formed after the drying of glacial Lake Alvord, but before and during extensive wind deflation of glacial-lacustrine sediments. At Mickey Springs, sinter rests directly on unaltered, unconsolidated lithic-rich sand. At Borax Lake, sinter overlies unaltered diatomite, but some armoring, presumably by silica, of the 30 m vent has developed. Field relations suggest rapid dumping of silica from solution without alteration of the country rock at the vent. Discharge of thermal fluids and cold groundwater along the same structure may have produced colloidal silica carried in a solution stripped of dissolved silica. Sinter is composed of opal-a, traces of detrital feldspar and quartz, and evaporation-related boracite. The concentration of Sb is similar among the three sinter deposits (20 to 70 ppm); however, As, Cs, and Br are highest at Borax Lake (5 to 560 ppm; 26 to 118 ppm; 5 to 1,040 ppm) while Hg is highest at Mickey Springs (1.0 to 5.2 ppm).

  18. Initial characterization of carbon flows through microbial communities in Beowulf spring, an acidic hot spring in Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreuzer, H.; Moran, J.; Ehrhardt, C.; Melville, A.; Kranz, A.; Inskeep, W. P.

    2011-12-01

    Beowulf Springs are acidic, sulfidic hot springs in Yellowstone National Park. Visual inspection of the springs reveals distinct geochemical regions starting with a sulfur deposition zone followed by a transition to iron oxide deposition downstream. The relatively rapid sulfur and iron oxide deposition rates in this spring suggests the processes are microbially mediated (since, for instance, abiotic iron oxidation is kinetically slow at this temperature and pH) and previous diversity studies identify microbial communities consistent with the observed metabolic products (namely sulfur and iron oxide). While the energetics of sulfide and iron oxidation are sufficient for supporting microbial activity, a suitable carbon source remains undocumented. The temperatures in Beowulf approach 80 °C, which is above the photosynthetic upper temperature limit thus precluding photosynthetic-based autotrophy within the spring itself. Observed potential carbon sources in Beowulf include dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and methane. We are employing geochemical and stable isotope techniques to assess carbon inventories in the system. With thorough analysis we hope to identify both the major carbon stores in the system and track how they are transferred between microbial components in Beowulf. Initial stable isotope measurements focused on bulk isotope analysis of major carbon pools; both directly in the spring and in surrounding areas that may affect the spring water through runoff or ground water migration. We are analyzing bulk carbon isotopes of different microbial groups in the spring, the dissolved organic and inorganic carbon in the spring, and surrounding soils and potential plant inputs. Isotopic similarity between dissolved organic carbon and soil organic carbon is consistent with a common carbon source (local vegetation) but has not yet been confirmed as such. Correlation between δ13C of microbial biomass and dissolved organic carbon are suggestive

  19. Geochemical and sulfur isotope signatures of microbial activity in acidic and sulfuric hot springs, northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Chen, K.; Cheng, T.; Hsieh, H.; Lin, L.

    2009-12-01

    Acidic and sulfuric hot springs are natural habitats for thermophilic sulfur-utilizing microorganisms. Integration of bioenergetic evaluation, molecular analysis and stable isotopic signatures may be able to exhibit a full view of microbial activity in such an extreme environment. Widely distributed hot springs hosted by the Tatung volcano group in northern Taiwan provide a chance to evaluate the interplay between geochemical variation and microbial metabolism especially for sulfur. Several hot spring ponds varying in sizes and geochemical characteristics were studied to reveal the possible control of fluid compositions on microbial metabolisms, and vice versa. Sulfate, sulfide, elemental sulfur and dissolved organic carbon were available in spring water and sediments in the ponds. Dominant microbial metabolisms inferred from the bioenergetic evaluation were aerobic oxidations of various reduced compounds, including elemental sulfur, pyrite, ferrous iron and organic carbon. Sulfate and sulfur reductions were thermodynamically favorable but provided less energy flux, while sulfur disproportionation was thermodynamically incapable. The analyses of 16S rRNA genes extracted from the spring water and sediments indicated that aerobic oxidation of sulfur, hydrogen or organic carbon and anaerobic elemental sulfur reduction were possible metabolisms. Since the major portion of 16S rRNA sequences were affiliated with unclassified environmental sequences, their potential metabolisms remained obscure. Sulfur isotopic compositions of dissolved sulfate, pyrite and elemental sulfur exhibited significant variations among the different hot spring ponds. Apparently, the microbial effects on the sulfur isotopic signatures were various. A disproportionation reaction of volcanic gas was required to account for high sulfur isotope difference between sulfate and reduced sulfur in the large hot ponds. In contrary, abiotic or microbial oxidation of reduced sulfur might be dominant in the

  20. Exploration and assessment of the geothermal resources in the Hammam Faraun hot spring, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaher, Mohamed Abdel; Saibi, Hakim; Nishijima, Jun; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro; Mesbah, Hany; Ehara, Sachio

    2012-02-01

    The tectonic position of Egypt in the northeastern corner of the African continent suggests that it may possess significant geothermal resources, especially along its eastern margin. The most promising areas for geothermal development in the northwest Red Sea-Gulf of Suez rift system are located where the eastern shore of the Gulf of Suez is characterized by superficial thermal manifestations, including a cluster of hot springs with varied temperatures. Magnetotelluric and gravity-reconnaissance surveys were carried out over the geothermal region of Hammam Faraun to determine the subsurface electric resistivity and the densities that are related to rock units. These surveys were conducted along profiles. One-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) inversion model techniques were applied on the MT data, integrating the 2D inversion of gravity data. The objectives of these surveys were to determine and parameterize the subsurface source of the Hammam Faraun hot spring and to determine the origin of this spring. Based on this data, a conceptual model and numerical simulation were made of the geothermal area of Hammam Faraun. The numerical simulation succeeded in determining the characteristics of the heat sources beneath the Hammam Faraun hot spring and showed that the hot spring originates from a high heat flow and deep ground water circulation in the subsurface reservoir that are controlled by faults. These studies were followed by an assessment of the geothermal potential for electric generation from the Hammam Faraun hot spring. The value of the estimated potential is 28.34 MW, as the reservoir is assumed to be only 500 m thick. This value would be enough for the desalination of water for both human and agricultural consumption.

  1. East pacific rise: hot springs and geophysical experiments.

    PubMed

    Spiess, F N; Macdonald, K C; Atwater, T; Ballard, R; Carranza, A; Cordoba, D; Cox, C; Garcia, V M; Francheteau, J; Guerrero, J; Hawkins, J; Haymon, R; Hessler, R; Juteau, T; Kastner, M; Larson, R; Luyendyk, B; Macdougall, J D; Miller, S; Normark, W; Orcutt, J; Rangin, C

    1980-03-28

    Hydrothermal vents jetting out water at 380 degrees +/- 30 degrees C have been discovered on the axis of the East Pacific Rise. The hottest waters issue from mineralized chimneys and are blackened by sulfide precipitates. These hydrothermal springs are the sites of actively forming massive sulfide mineral deposits. Cooler springs are clear to milky and support exotic benthic communities of giant tube worms, clams, and crabs similar to those found at the Galápagos spreading center. Four prototype geophysical experiments were successfully conducted in and near the vent area: seismic refraction measurements with both source (thumper) and receivers on the sea floor, on-bottom gravity measurements, in situ magnetic gradiometer measurements from the submersible Alvin over a sea-floor magnetic reversal boundary, and an active electrical sounding experiment. These high-resolution determinations of crustal properties along the spreading center were made to gain knowledge of the source of new oceanic crust and marine magnetic anomalies, the nature of the axial magma chamber, and the depth of hydrothermal circulation. PMID:17779602

  2. Depositional facies and aqueous-solid geochemistry of travertine-depositing hot springs (Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, USA)

    SciTech Connect

    Fouke, B.W.; Farmer, J.D.; Des Marais, D.J.; Pratt, L.; Sturchio, N.C.; Burns, P.C.; Discipulo, M.K.

    2000-05-01

    Petrographic and geochemical analyses of travertine-depositing hot springs at Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, have been used to define five depositional facies along the spring drainage system. Spring waters are expelled in the vent facies at 71 to 73 C and precipitate mounded travertine composed of aragonite needle botryoids. The apron and channel facies (43--72 C) is floored by hollow tubes composed of aragonite needle botryoids that encrust sulfide-oxidizing Aquificales bacteria. The travertine of the pond facies (30--62 C) varies in composition from aragonite needle shrubs formed at higher temperatures to ridged networks of calcite and aragonite at lower temperatures. Calcite ice sheets, calcified bubbles, and aggregates of aragonite needles (fuzzy dumbbells) precipitate at the air-water interface and settle to pond floors. The proximal-slope facies (28--54 C), which forms the margins of terracette pools, is composed of arcuate aragonite needle shrubs that create small microterracettes on the steep slope face. Finally, the distal-slope facies (28--30 C) is composed of calcite spherules and calcite feather crystals. Despite the presence of abundant microbial mat communities and their observed role in providing substrates for mineralization, the compositions of spring-water and travertine predominantly reflect abiotic physical and chemical processes. Vigorous CO{sub 2} degassing causes a +2 unit increase in spring water pH, as well as Rayleigh-type covariations between the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon and corresponding {delta}{sup 13}C. Travertine {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O are nearly equivalent to aragonite and calcite equilibrium values calculated from spring water in the higher-temperature ({approximately}50--73 C) depositional facies. Conversely, travertine precipitating in the lower-temperature (<{approximately}50 C) depositional facies exhibits {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O values that are as

  3. Depositional facies and aqueous-solid geochemistry of travertine-depositing hot springs (Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fouke, B. W.; Farmer, J. D.; Des Marais, D. J.; Pratt, L.; Sturchio, N. C.; Burns, P. C.; Discipulo, M. K.

    2000-01-01

    Petrographic and geochemical analyses of travertine-depositing hot springs at Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, have been used to define five depositional facies along the spring drainage system. Spring waters are expelled in the vent facies at 71 to 73 degrees C and precipitate mounded travertine composed of aragonite needle botryoids. The apron and channel facies (43-72 degrees C) is floored by hollow tubes composed of aragonite needle botryoids that encrust sulfide-oxidizing Aquificales bacteria. The travertine of the pond facies (30-62 degrees C) varies in composition from aragonite needle shrubs formed at higher temperatures to ridged networks of calcite and aragonite at lower temperatures. Calcite "ice sheets", calcified bubbles, and aggregates of aragonite needles ("fuzzy dumbbells") precipitate at the air-water interface and settle to pond floors. The proximal-slope facies (28-54 degrees C), which forms the margins of terracette pools, is composed of arcuate aragonite needle shrubs that create small microterracettes on the steep slope face. Finally, the distal-slope facies (28-30 degrees C) is composed of calcite spherules and calcite "feather" crystals. Despite the presence of abundant microbial mat communities and their observed role in providing substrates for mineralization, the compositions of spring-water and travertine predominantly reflect abiotic physical and chemical processes. Vigorous CO2 degassing causes a +2 unit increase in spring water pH, as well as Rayleigh-type covariations between the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon and corresponding delta 13C. Travertine delta 13C and delta 18O are nearly equivalent to aragonite and calcite equilibrium values calculated from spring water in the higher-temperature (approximately 50-73 degrees C) depositional facies. Conversely, travertine precipitating in the lower-temperature (< approximately 50 degrees C) depositional facies exhibits delta 13C and delta 18O

  4. Submarine hot springs and the origin of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Stanley L.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    1988-01-01

    The popular hypothesis that life originally arose in hydrothermal vents at oceanic ridge crests is examined. It is shown that the high temperatures in the vents would not allow synthesis of organic compounds, but would decompose them, unless the exposure time at vent temperature was short. Even if the essential organic molecules were available in the hot hydrothermal waters, the subsequent steps of polymerization and the conversion of these polymers into the first organisms would not occur as the vent waters were quenched to the colder temperatures of the primitive oceans.

  5. Linking geochemistry to microbial ecology in hot springs: examples from southeastern Asia (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, H.; Jiang, H.; Hou, W.; Wang, S.; Huang, Q.; Briggs, B. R.; Huang, L.; Hust, W.; Hedlund, B. P.; Zhang, C.; Hartnett, H. E.; Dijkstra, P.; Hungate, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    Despite recent advances in our understanding of microbial ecology in high temperature environments, important questions remain as to how geochemical conditions shape microbial ecology in hot springs. In the past three years, we have surveyed a large number of hot springs in three regions of southeastern Asia: Tengchong of Yunnan Province, China; Tibet in China; and the Philippines. These springs possess large gradients in pH (2.5-9.4), temperature (22.1-93.6oC), and water and sediment geochemistry. Within each region, these geochemical conditions are important in shaping microbial community structure and diversity. For example, in the Rehai geothermal field of Tengchong, dominant taxa within the dominant bacterial phylum Aquificae and archaeal phylum Crenarchaeota depended on pH (2.5-9.4), temperature (55.1-93.6), Na-Cl-HCO3 water type and silicate rock lithology. In the Ruidian geothermal region, springs with circum-neutral pH (6.71-7.29), moderate temperature (50-82oC), Na-HCO3 water type, and carbonate-dominated lithology, Hydrogenobacter of Aquificae dominated spring water, but the microbial community in sediments was diverse with abundant novel groups. In Tibet springs with low-moderate temperature (22-75oC) and circum-neutral pH (7.2-8.1), temperature appeared to be the most important factor in determining diversity and community structure. In acidic hot springs of the Philippines (Temperature: 60-92°C, pH 3.72-6.58), microbial communities were predominated by those related to sulfur metabolism, which are different from those in acidic springs of Tengchong. When these three regions are considered together, environmental conditions play a major role in controlling microbial community structure, but geographical location appears to be an important factor as well.

  6. TISSUE ASSAYS AND POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS OF ROOSEVELT HOT SPRINGS' ANIMALS (1977-1978)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geothermal energy exploration is being conducted at several locations in the United States including a site at Roosevelt Hot Springs in southwest Utah. To assess any possible impact and to help design a monitoring strategy for geothermal development, element concentrations in ani...

  7. 78 FR 14911 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hot Springs, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... controlled airspace at Hot Springs Municipal Airport (77 FR 68716) Docket No. FAA-2012-0655. Interested...) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26...), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. ] Sec. 71.1 0 2....

  8. 77 FR 68716 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hot Springs, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory Evaluation...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hot Springs,...

  9. Draft Genome of a Novel Chlorobi Member Assembled by Tetranucleotide Binning of a Hot Spring Metagenome

    PubMed Central

    Stamps, Blake W.; Corsetti, Frank A.; Spear, John R.

    2014-01-01

    The genome of a member of the phylum Chlorobi was assembled from a shotgun metagenomic sequence of a hot spring in Mammoth Lakes, CA. This organism appears to be a novel, aerobic, photosynthetic Chlorobi member, expanding the knowledge of this underrepresented phylum. PMID:25212621

  10. Significant role of climatic trends on hydrothermal activity Coso Hot Springs, California

    SciTech Connect

    Lofgren, B.E. )

    1990-05-01

    The hydrothermal features of Coso Hot Springs have attracted visitors for 130 yr and scientific investigators for two decades. In 1978, anticipating effects of major geothermal developments nearby, the Naval Weapons Center (NWC) initiated a comprehensive monitoring program at a dozen hydrothermal sites in the Coso Hot Springs area. Nine years of monitoring preceded power production in the nearby Coso geothermal field in July 1987. During this period, steam was rising from numerous vents and gently boiling mud pots. Local rainfall caused increased boiling activity in several mud pots, with some overflowing during wet periods. Then in August 1988, a year after geothermal power production began major changes in hot spring activity commenced. Small mud pots and steamers started to grow and coalesce. In March 1989, mud-pot activity became more violent. Many buried wells failed causing surface activity in other areas to diminish. During ensuing months, large mud cones developed and much of the steam and boiling water occurred in a few major pots. Because the abrupt changes in hydrothermal activity followed so closely after nearby geothermal production began, the obvious cause has been attributed to geothermal developments. Studies of NWC baseline monitoring data indicate, however, that no effects of geothermal developments have been felt in the hot springs area. Rainfall and barometric effects account for most of the fluctuations in records of the past decade. Early accounts and field evidence suggest similar changes have occurred in the past.

  11. GEOTHERMAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT BASELINE STUDY: VEGETATION AND SOILS OF THE ROOSEVELT HOT SPRINGS GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identification and elemental concentrations of indigenous soil and plant systems found on the Roosevelt Hot Spring KGRA are described. Twenty-three different soils and five separate plant communities are geographically mapped and identified. One hundred forty-seven plant species ...

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of the Sulfolobales Archaeon AZ1, Obtained through Metagenomic Analysis of a Mexican Hot Spring

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2014-01-01

    The Sulfolobales archaea have been found inhabiting acidic hot springs all over the world. Here, we report the 1.798-Mbp draft genome sequence of the thermoacidophilic Sulfolobales archaeon AZ1, reconstructed from the metagenome of a Mexican hot spring. Sequence-based comparisons revealed that the Sulfolobales archaeon AZ1 represents a novel candidate genus. PMID:24604657

  13. Serpentine metal gasket

    DOEpatents

    Rothgeb, Timothy Moore; Reece, Charles Edwin

    2009-06-02

    A metallic seal or gasket for use in the joining of cryogenic fluid conduits, the seal or gasket having a generally planar and serpentine periphery defining a central aperture. According to a preferred embodiment, the periphery has at least two opposing elongated serpentine sides and two opposing arcuate ends joining the opposing elongated serpentine sides and is of a hexagonal cross-section.

  14. Microbial communities and arsenic biogeochemistry at the outflow of an alkaline sulfide-rich hot spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhou; Li, Ping; van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhang, Ping; Zhou, Jizhong; Wang, Yanhong; Dai, Xinyue; Zhang, Rui; Jiang, Dawei; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-04-01

    Alkaline sulfide-rich hot springs provide a unique environment for microbial community and arsenic (As) biogeochemistry. In this study, a representative alkaline sulfide-rich hot spring, Zimeiquan in the Tengchong geothermal area, was chosen to study arsenic geochemistry and microbial community using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Over 0.26 million 16S rRNA sequence reads were obtained from 5-paired parallel water and sediment samples along the hot spring’s outflow channel. High ratios of As(V)/AsSum (total combined arsenate and arsenite concentrations) (0.59–0.78), coupled with high sulfide (up to 5.87 mg/L), were present in the hot spring’s pools, which suggested As(III) oxidation occurred. Along the outflow channel, AsSum increased from 5.45 to 13.86 μmol/L, and the combined sulfide and sulfate concentrations increased from 292.02 to 364.28 μmol/L. These increases were primarily attributed to thioarsenic transformation. Temperature, sulfide, As and dissolved oxygen significantly shaped the microbial communities between not only the pools and downstream samples, but also water and sediment samples. Results implied that the upstream Thermocrinis was responsible for the transformation of thioarsenic to As(III) and the downstream Thermus contributed to derived As(III) oxidation. This study improves our understanding of microbially-mediated As transformation in alkaline sulfide-rich hot springs.

  15. Microbial communities and arsenic biogeochemistry at the outflow of an alkaline sulfide-rich hot spring

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhou; Li, Ping; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhang, Ping; Zhou, Jizhong; Wang, Yanhong; Dai, Xinyue; Zhang, Rui; Jiang, Dawei; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-01-01

    Alkaline sulfide-rich hot springs provide a unique environment for microbial community and arsenic (As) biogeochemistry. In this study, a representative alkaline sulfide-rich hot spring, Zimeiquan in the Tengchong geothermal area, was chosen to study arsenic geochemistry and microbial community using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Over 0.26 million 16S rRNA sequence reads were obtained from 5-paired parallel water and sediment samples along the hot spring’s outflow channel. High ratios of As(V)/AsSum (total combined arsenate and arsenite concentrations) (0.59–0.78), coupled with high sulfide (up to 5.87 mg/L), were present in the hot spring’s pools, which suggested As(III) oxidation occurred. Along the outflow channel, AsSum increased from 5.45 to 13.86 μmol/L, and the combined sulfide and sulfate concentrations increased from 292.02 to 364.28 μmol/L. These increases were primarily attributed to thioarsenic transformation. Temperature, sulfide, As and dissolved oxygen significantly shaped the microbial communities between not only the pools and downstream samples, but also water and sediment samples. Results implied that the upstream Thermocrinis was responsible for the transformation of thioarsenic to As(III) and the downstream Thermus contributed to derived As(III) oxidation. This study improves our understanding of microbially-mediated As transformation in alkaline sulfide-rich hot springs. PMID:27126380

  16. Characteristics and origins of hot springs in the Tatun Volcano Group, northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, S.; Liu, C.; Tsao, S.

    2009-12-01

    This paper systematically surveys the distributions, field occurrences of 14 hot springs and sampling for geochemical investigations in geothermal area of Tatun Volcano Group (TVG). Based on the Piper diagram, pH value, field occurrence and water-rock interaction, these hot springs are classified into three types: (1) Type I, the SO42--rich acidic water including the LFK, QG, SYK, TYK, SHP, and BY thermal springs which the reservoir is located in the Wuchishan Formation; (2) Type II, the near neutral spring including the TBQ, HS, MT, and LSK thermal waters, which the reservoir is located in volcanic rock body (andesite); and (3) Type III, the Cl--rich acidic one consisting of the SPT, TP and JT thermal waters except CC hot spring, which is the Cl--rich near neutral solution, and the reservoir is located in the Wuchishan Formation. For the isotopic ratio, the δD and δ18O values are close to the right of meteoric water line of the Tatun areas with the values ranging from -26.2 ‰ to -3.5 ‰ and -3.2 ‰ to 1.6 ‰, respectively. However, the δD and δ18O values of hot springs for the samples away from the meteoric water line of Tatun area are -28.4 ‰ to -13.6 ‰ and -5.5 ‰ to -4.2 ‰, respectively. In addition, the δ34S value of thermal water can be distinguished into two groups: one ranges from 25‰ to 29‰ and the other from 1‰ to 8‰. Based on the field occurrences and geochemical characteristics, a model has been provided to illustrate the origin of those geothermal waters.

  17. Presence of Balamuthia mandrillaris in hot springs from Mazandaran province, northern Iran.

    PubMed

    Latifi, A R; Niyyati, M; Lorenzo-Morales, J; Haghighi, A; Seyyed Tabaei, S J; Lasjerdi, Z

    2016-08-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is an opportunistic free-living amoeba that has been reported to cause cutaneous lesions and Balamuthia amoebic encephalitis. The biology and environmental distribution of B. mandrillaris is still poorly understood and isolation of this pathogen from the environment is a rare event. Previous studies have reported that the presence of B. mandrillaris in the environment in Iran may be common. However, no clinical cases have been reported so far in this country. In the present study, a survey was conducted in order to evaluate the presence of B. mandrillaris in hot-spring samples of northern Iran. A total of 66 water samples were analysed using morphological and molecular tools. Positive samples by microscopy were confirmed by performing PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene of B. mandrillaris. Sequencing of the positive amplicons was also performed to confirm morphological data. Two of the 66 collected water samples were positive for B. mandrillaris after morphological and molecular identification. Interestingly, both positive hot springs had low pH values and temperatures ranging from 32 °C to 42 °C. Many locals and tourists use both hot springs due to their medicinal properties and thus contact with water bodies containing the organism increases the likelihood of infection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation of B. mandrillaris from hot-spring sources related to human activity. Therefore, B. mandrillaris should be considered as a possible causative agent if cases of encephalitis are suspected following immersion in hot springs in addition to Acanthamoeba and Naegleria. PMID:27086943

  18. Sr isotope diversity of hot spring and volcanic lake waters from Zao volcano, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Hiromasa; Ohba, Tsukasa; Fujimaki, Hirokazu

    2007-09-01

    The ratio of 87Sr/ 86Sr was measured from different water samples of thermal/mineral (hot spring as well as crater lake) and meteoric origins, in order to specify the location and to verify the detailed model of a volcano-hydrothermal system beneath Zao volcano. The ratio showed a trimodal distribution for the case of thermal/mineral water: 0.7052-0.7053 (Type A, Zao hot spring), 0.7039-0.7043 (Type B, Okama crater lake and Shin-funkiko hot spring), and 0.7070-0.7073 (Type C, Gaga, Aone, and Togatta hot springs), respectively. However, in comparison, the ratio was found to be higher for meteoric waters (0.7077-0.7079). The water from the central volcanic edifice (Type B) was found to be similar to that of nearby volcanic rocks in their Sr isotopic ratio. This indicates that the Sr in water was derived from shallow volcanic rocks. The 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio for water from the Zao hot spring (Type A) was intermediate between those of the pre-Tertiary granitic and the Quaternary volcanic rocks, thus suggesting that the water had reacted with both volcanic and granitic rocks. The location of the vapor-liquid separation was determined as the boundary of the pre-Tertiary granitic and the Quaternary volcanic rocks by comparing the results of this strontium isotopic study with those of Kiyosu and Kurahashi [Kiyosu, Y., Kurahashi, M., 1984. Isotopic geochemistry of acid thermal waters and volcanic gases from Zao volcano in Japan. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 21, 313-331.].

  19. Natural radioactivity in geothermal waters, Alhambra Hot Springs and nearby areas, Jefferson County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, Robert B.; Janzer, Victor J.

    1978-01-01

    Radioactive hot springs issue from a fault zone in crystalline rock of the Boulder batholith at Alhambra, Jefferson County, in southwestern Montana. The discharge contains high concentrations of radon, and the gross alpha activity and the concentration of adium-226 exceed maximum levels recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. Part of the discharge is diverted for space heating, bathing, and domestic use. The radioactive thermal waters at measured temperatures of about 60°C are of the sodium bicarbonate type and saturated with respect to calcium carbonate. Radium-226 in the rock and on fractured surfaces or coprecipitated with calcium carbonate probably is the principal source of radon that is dissolved in the thermal water and discharged with other gases from some wells and springs. Local surface water and shallow ground water are of the calcium bicarbonate type and exhibit low background activity. The temperature, percent sodium, and radioactivity of mixed waters adjacent to the fault zone increase with depth. Samples from most of the major hot springs in southwestern Montana have been analyzed for gross alpha and beta activity. The high level of radioactivity at Alhambra appears to be related to leaching of radioactive material from siliceous veins by ascending thermal waters and is not a normal characteristic of hot springs issuing from fractured crystalline rock in Montana.

  20. Microbial mercury methylation in the Ngawha hot springs and the abandoned Puhipuhi mine, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gionfriddo, C. M.; Ogorek, J. M.; Thompson, C. D.; Power, J.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Stott, M. B.; Moreau, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Hot springs and fumaroles release significant quantities of aqueous and gaseous mercury into the environment. Yet few studies have focused on the biogeochemical cycling of mercury in geothermal settings. In this study, we investigated the abundance, speciation, and partitioning of mercury in geothermal waters and sediments in the Ngawha geothermal field and Puhipuhi region of New Zealand. The Ngawha geothermal field contains over 20 hot springs with variable chemistry (pH 2.9 - 7.1, ORP 15.7 to 249.1 mV, 22-40.5°C), from which approximately 530 kg of mercury is released annually from deep geological sources, most of which remains in the local surficial waters and sediments. Puhipuhi is the site of an historic mercury mining operation located about 22 miles southeast of Ngawha. The mercury-bearing geological deposits at Ngawha and Puhipuhi were formed over the same period and are connected to the young basalt flows of the region. Puhipuhi no longer hosts active hot springs, but is transected by a stream that varies in chemistry (pH 5.1-7.2, ORP -3.8-115.3 mV, ~22°C). Total- and methylmercury concentrations were measured using ICP-MS and CVAFS. Preliminary analyses of dissolved total- and methylmercury levels across the hot springs ranged from 5-10,000 ng/L and 0.6-23.5 ng/L, respectively, indicating a wide range of environmental conditions exist and may support a diverse array of microbial communities. Due to their high mercury content, geothermal settings may hold clues about the evolution of microbial mercury resistance (detoxification response to environmental Hg), as the ancestral mer operon evolved in thermophilic bacteria such as Thermus thermophilus and Methylacidophilum infernorum. Thus, the Ngawha hot springs provide an opportunity to investigate the evolution of microbial responses to mercury. Adjacent sites often display radically different chemical traits, with implications for changes in microbial community structure and genetic responses to mercury

  1. Distribution of cultivated and uncultivated cyanobacteria and Chloroflexus-like bacteria in hot spring microbial mats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff-Roberts, A. L.; Kuenen, J. G.; Ward, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    Oligodeoxynucleotide hybridization probes were developed to complement specific regions of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA sequences of cultivated and uncultivated cyanobacteria and Chloroflexus-like bacteria, which inhabit hot spring microbial mats. The probes were used to investigate the natural distribution of SSU rRNAs from these species in mats of Yellowstone hot springs of different temperatures and pHs as well as changes in SSU rRNA distribution resulting from 1-week in situ shifts in temperature, pH, and light intensity. Synechococcus lividus Y-7c-s SSU rRNA was detected only in the mat of a slightly acid spring, from which it may have been initially isolated, or when samples from a more alkaline spring were incubated in the more acid spring. Chloroflexus aurantiacus Y-400-fl SSU rRNA was detected only in a high-temperature mat sample from the alkaline Octopus Spring or when lower-temperature samples from this mat were incubated at the high-temperature site. SSU rRNAs of uncultivated species were more widely distributed. Temperature distributions and responses to in situ temperature shifts suggested that some of the uncultivated cyanobacteria might be adapted to high-, moderate-, and low-temperature ranges whereas an uncultivated Chloroflexus-like bacterium appears to have broad temperature tolerance. SSU rRNAs of all uncultivated species inhabiting a 48 to 51 degrees C Octopus Spring mat site were most abundant in the upper 1 mm and were not detected below a 2.5-to 3.5-mm depth, a finding consistent with their possible phototrophic nature. However, the effects of light intensity reduction on these SSU rRNAs were variable, indicating the difficulty of demonstrating a phototrophic phenotype in light reduction experiments.

  2. Distribution of cultivated and uncultivated cyanobacteria and Chloroflexus-like bacteria in hot spring microbial mats.

    PubMed Central

    Ruff-Roberts, A L; Kuenen, J G; Ward, D M

    1994-01-01

    Oligodeoxynucleotide hybridization probes were developed to complement specific regions of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA sequences of cultivated and uncultivated cyanobacteria and Chloroflexus-like bacteria, which inhabit hot spring microbial mats. The probes were used to investigate the natural distribution of SSU rRNAs from these species in mats of Yellowstone hot springs of different temperatures and pHs as well as changes in SSU rRNA distribution resulting from 1-week in situ shifts in temperature, pH, and light intensity. Synechococcus lividus Y-7c-s SSU rRNA was detected only in the mat of a slightly acid spring, from which it may have been initially isolated, or when samples from a more alkaline spring were incubated in the more acid spring. Chloroflexus aurantiacus Y-400-fl SSU rRNA was detected only in a high-temperature mat sample from the alkaline Octopus Spring or when lower-temperature samples from this mat were incubated at the high-temperature site. SSU rRNAs of uncultivated species were more widely distributed. Temperature distributions and responses to in situ temperature shifts suggested that some of the uncultivated cyanobacteria might be adapted to high-, moderate-, and low-temperature ranges whereas an uncultivated Chloroflexus-like bacterium appears to have broad temperature tolerance. SSU rRNAs of all uncultivated species inhabiting a 48 to 51 degrees C Octopus Spring mat site were most abundant in the upper 1 mm and were not detected below a 2.5-to 3.5-mm depth, a finding consistent with their possible phototrophic nature. However, the effects of light intensity reduction on these SSU rRNAs were variable, indicating the difficulty of demonstrating a phototrophic phenotype in light reduction experiments. Images PMID:11536630

  3. Thermopolis hydrothermal system, with an analysis of Hot Springs State Park. Preliminary report No. 20

    SciTech Connect

    Hinckley, B.S.; Heasler, H.P.; King, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    Thermopolis is the site of Hot Springs State Park, where numerous hot springs produce nearly 3000 gallons per minute (gpm) of 130/sup 0/F (54/sup 0/C) water. The University of Wyoming Geothermal Resource Assessment Group has studied a 1700-square-mile area centered roughly on the State Park. Available literature, bottom-hole temperatures from over 400 oil well logs, 62 oil field drill stem tests, the Wyoming State Engineer's water well files, 60 formation water analyses, thermal logs of 19 holes, and field investigations of geology and hydrology form the basis of this report. Analysis of thermal data reveals that temperatures of up to 161/sup 0/F (72/sup 0/C) occur along the crest of the Thermopolis Anticline within 500 feet of the surface. The hydrology and heat flow of these geothermal anomalies was studied.

  4. [Comment on “Submarine hot springs: Origin of life?”] Hydrothermal vents revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Sarah

    It was gratifying to read Peter Bell's synopsis of our paper [Corliss et al., 1981] in the March 23 issue of Eos (Submarine hot springs: Origin of life?) however, in the last sentence, he wrote, ‘They note that microorganisms found in recent expeditions to the submarine hot springs of the East Pacific Rise would be evidence that the processes are still occurring.’In our final paragraph we actually said that while “events leading to the formation of complex organic compounds and “protocell” structures may still be occurring in present-day oceanic hydrothermal systems … the complex communities of bacteria in modern oceanic environments would outcompete and consume abiotically synthesized protocells…” Modern-day vent microbiota will probably mask or destroy any evidence for abiotic synthesis in the hydrothermal vents.

  5. Ecological differentiation in planktonic and sediment-associated chemotrophic microbial populations in Yellowstone hot springs.

    PubMed

    Colman, Daniel R; Feyhl-Buska, Jayme; Robinson, Kirtland J; Fecteau, Kristopher M; Xu, Huifang; Shock, Everett L; Boyd, Eric S

    2016-09-01

    Chemosynthetic sediment and planktonic community composition and sizes, aqueous geochemistry and sediment mineralogy were determined in 15 non-photosynthetic hot springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). These data were used to evaluate the hypothesis that differences in the availability of dissolved or mineral substrates in the bulk fluids or sediments within springs coincides with ecologically differentiated microbial communities and their populations. Planktonic and sediment-associated communities exhibited differing ecological characteristics including community sizes, evenness and richness. pH and temperature influenced microbial community composition among springs, but within-spring partitioning of taxa into sediment or planktonic communities was widespread, statistically supported (P < 0.05) and could be best explained by the inferred metabolic strategies of the partitioned taxa. Microaerophilic genera of the Aquificales predominated in many of the planktonic communities. In contrast, taxa capable of mineral-based metabolism such as S(o) oxidation/reduction or Fe-oxide reduction predominated in sediment communities. These results indicate that ecological differentiation within thermal spring habitats is common across a range of spring geochemistry and is influenced by the availability of dissolved nutrients and minerals that can be used in metabolism. PMID:27306555

  6. Factors controlling the colors of aragonite in pumping pipe of hot spring, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yi-Chia; Song, Sheng-Rong; Huang, Lin

    2010-05-01

    Hot spring of Ho-Ya SPA hotel, located in Rui-Shui, Hualien County of east Taiwan, is the sodium bicarbonate with iron in composition, It is reputed as 'Kingly Golden Amber Spring', because the spring is always amber red in color due to the Fe2+ be oxidized to Fe3+ as soon as the spring water meeting with air,. This study investigates controlling factors of the sinter's colors in the pumping pipe of Ho-Ye hot spring, which displays gray, white and gray from outside to inside. Precipitated minerals of pipe sinter from Ho-Ya hot spring are predominantly composed of aragonite (>99%) with preferred orientation by Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD). We also used acid to dissolve the sample and took the concentrations of Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results show that there are little or no relationships between strip colors with these ions and crystal's orientation. The images were photoed by SEM (mag. X150) with EBSD to count the porosity, average size of pores and crystal size distributions in every colorful strip of pumping pipe from the Ho-Ye hot spring by software named Image J. It shows that the higher the porosity is the larger the average size of pores. It also displays that the whitest strip has the highest porosity (26%), and the largest average size of pores., In addition, it also has the biggest crystal size with few calcite. Oppositely, the darkest gray has the lowest porosity (< 1%) and smallest crystal size. Those results can be explained by optics theory. The bigger the crystal and pore are, the more light could be passed through them to display the whiter in color. In contrast, the smaller and less pores are, the crystals generate more contact with each other to block or reflect the light through them. The more light are blocked or reflected, the darker color can be observed in the strip aragonite.

  7. Recovery Act Validation of Innovative Exploration Techniques Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Holdmann, Gwen

    2015-04-30

    Drilling and temperature logging campaigns between the late 1970's and early 1980’s measured temperatures at Pilgrim Hot Springs in excess of 90°C. Between 2010 and 2014 the University of Alaska used a variety of methods including geophysical surveys, remote sensing techniques, heat budget modeling, and additional drilling to better understand the resource and estimate the available geothermal energy.

  8. The cyanobacterium Mastigocladus fulfills the nitrogen demand of a terrestrial hot spring microbial mat.

    PubMed

    Estrella Alcamán, María; Fernandez, Camila; Delgado, Antonio; Bergman, Birgitta; Díez, Beatriz

    2015-10-01

    Cyanobacteria from Subsection V (Stigonematales) are important components of microbial mats in non-acidic terrestrial hot springs. Despite their diazotrophic nature (N2 fixers), their impact on the nitrogen cycle in such extreme ecosystems remains unknown. Here, we surveyed the identity and activity of diazotrophic cyanobacteria in the neutral hot spring of Porcelana (Northern Patagonia, Chile) during 2009 and 2011-2013. We used 16S rRNA and the nifH gene to analyze the distribution and diversity of diazotrophic cyanobacteria. Our results demonstrate the dominance of the heterocystous genus Mastigocladus (Stigonematales) along the entire temperature gradient of the hot spring (69-38 °C). In situ nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction), nitrogen fixation rates (cellular uptake of (15)N2) and nifH transcription levels in the microbial mats showed that nitrogen fixation and nifH mRNA expression were light-dependent. Nitrogen fixation activities were detected at temperatures ranging from 58 °C to 46 °C, with maximum daily rates of 600 nmol C2H4 cm(-2) per day and 94.1 nmol N cm(-2) per day. These activity patterns strongly suggest a heterocystous cyanobacterial origin and reveal a correlation between nitrogenase activity and nifH gene expression during diurnal cycles in thermal microbial mats. N and C fixation in the mats contributed ~3 g N m(-2) per year and 27 g C m(-2) per year, suggesting that these vital demands are fully met by the diazotrophic and photoautotrophic capacities of the cyanobacteria in the Porcelana hot spring. PMID:26230049

  9. Deciphering the microbiota of Tuwa hot spring, India using shotgun metagenomic sequencing approach.

    PubMed

    Mangrola, Amitsinh; Dudhagara, Pravin; Koringa, Prakash; Joshi, C G; Parmar, Mansi; Patel, Rajesh

    2015-06-01

    Here, we report metagenome from the Tuwa hot spring, India using shotgun sequencing approach. Metagenome consisted of 541,379 sequences with 98.7 Mbps size with 46% G + C content. Metagenomic sequence reads were deposited into the EMBL database under accession number ERP009321. Community analysis presented 99.1% sequences belong to bacteria, 0.3% of eukaryotic origin, 0.2% virus derived and 0.05% from archea. Unclassified and unidentified sequences were 0.4% and 0.07% respectively. A total of 22 bacterial phyla include 90 families and 201 species were observed in the hot spring metagenome. Firmicutes (97.0%), Proteobacteria (1.3%) and Actinobacteria (0.4%) were reported as dominant bacterial phyla. In functional analysis using Cluster of Orthologous Group (COG), 21.5% drops in the poorly characterized group. Using subsystem based annotation, 4.0% genes were assigned for stress responses and 3% genes were fit into the metabolism of aromatic compounds. The hot spring metagenome is very rich with novel sequences affiliated to unclassified and unidentified lineages, suggesting the potential source for novel microbial species and their products. PMID:26484204

  10. Deciphering the microbiota of Tuwa hot spring, India using shotgun metagenomic sequencing approach

    PubMed Central

    Mangrola, Amitsinh; Dudhagara, Pravin; Koringa, Prakash; Joshi, C.G.; Parmar, Mansi; Patel, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report metagenome from the Tuwa hot spring, India using shotgun sequencing approach. Metagenome consisted of 541,379 sequences with 98.7 Mbps size with 46% G + C content. Metagenomic sequence reads were deposited into the EMBL database under accession number ERP009321. Community analysis presented 99.1% sequences belong to bacteria, 0.3% of eukaryotic origin, 0.2% virus derived and 0.05% from archea. Unclassified and unidentified sequences were 0.4% and 0.07% respectively. A total of 22 bacterial phyla include 90 families and 201 species were observed in the hot spring metagenome. Firmicutes (97.0%), Proteobacteria (1.3%) and Actinobacteria (0.4%) were reported as dominant bacterial phyla. In functional analysis using Cluster of Orthologous Group (COG), 21.5% drops in the poorly characterized group. Using subsystem based annotation, 4.0% genes were assigned for stress responses and 3% genes were fit into the metabolism of aromatic compounds. The hot spring metagenome is very rich with novel sequences affiliated to unclassified and unidentified lineages, suggesting the potential source for novel microbial species and their products. PMID:26484204

  11. Case studies on developing local industry by using hot spring water and geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Akira; Umetsu, Yoshio; Narita, Eiichi

    1997-12-31

    We have investigated the new ways to develop local industries by using hot spring water, geothermal water and geothermal energy from the Matsukawa Geothermal Power Plant in Iwate Prefecture, which is the first geothermal power plant established in Japan. The new dyeing technique, called {open_quotes}Geothermal Dyeing{close_quotes} was invented in which hydrogen sulfide in the water exhibited decoloration effect. By this technique we succeeded to make beautiful color patterns on fabrics. We also invented the new way to make the light wight wood, called {open_quotes}Geo-thermal Wood{close_quotes} by using hot spring water or geothermal water. Since polysaccharides in the wood material were hydrolyzed and taken out during the treatment in the hot spring water, the wood that became lighter is weight and more porous state. On the bases of these results, we have produced {open_quotes}Wooded Soap{close_quotes} on a commercial scale which is the soap, synthesized in the pore of the treated wood in round slice. {open_quotes}Collapsible Wood Cabin{close_quotes} was also produced for enjoyable outdoor life by using the modified properties of Geothermal Wood.

  12. Characterizing Novel Thermophilic Amylase Producing Bacteria From Taptapani Hot Spring, Odisha, India

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Sudip Kumar; Raut, Sangeeta; Satpathy, Soumya; Rout, Prangya Ranjan; Bandyopadhyay, Bidyut; Das Mohapatra, Pradeep Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Amylases play a vital role in biotechnological studies and rank an important position in the world enzyme market (25% to 33%). Bioprocess method of amylase production is more effective than the other sources, since the technique is easy, cost effective, fast, and the enzymes of required properties can be procured. Objectives: The current study aimed to report the characteristics of novel amylase producing bacterial strains isolated from Taptapani hot spring, Odisha, India. Materials and Methods: Bacterial strains were isolated by dilution plating method from the water samples collected from Taptapani Hot Spring, Odisha and screened for amylase production through starch hydrolysis. The bacterial isolates were identified morphologically, biochemically, and finally by 16S rDNA profiling. Results: Based on the morphological, physiological, biochemical characteristics and the molecular characterization, the isolates SS1, SS2, and SS3 were identified as Bacillus barbaricus, Aeromonas veroni, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, respectively. The approximate molecular weight of enzymes from SS1, SS2, and SS3 strains were 19 kDa, 56 kDa and 49 kDa, respectively. Conclusions: The current report isolates, characterizes, and demonstrates the novel heat-adapted amylase-producing bacteria SS1, SS2 and SS3 from Taptapani hot spring, indicating its potentiality and stability under acidic conditions. PMID:25741425

  13. Three-dimensional Q -1 model of the Coso Hot Springs Known Geothermal Resource Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Chi-Yuh; Ward, Ronald W.

    1980-05-01

    Observations of teleseismic P waves above geothermal systems exhibit travel time delays and anomalously high seismic attenuation, which is extremely useful in estimating the thermal regime and the potential of the system. A regional telemetered network of sixteen stations was operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Coso Hot Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA) for such studies from September 1975 to October 1976. Subsequently, they deployed a portable Centipede array of 26 three-component stations near the center of the anomaly. The seismograms of 44 events recorded by the telemetered array and nine events by the Centipede array were analyzed using the reduced spectral ratio technique to determine the differential attenuation factor δt* for the events recorded with the highest signal-to-noise ratio. The δt* variation observed across the Coso Hot Springs KGRA were small (<0.2 s). A three-dimensional generalized linear inversion of the δt* observations was performed using a three-layer model. A shallow zone of high attenuation exists within the upper 5 km in a region bounded by Coso Hot Springs, Devils Kitchen, and Sugarloaf Mountain probably corresponding to a shallow vapor liquid mixture or `lossy' near surface lithology. No zones of significantly high attenuation occur between 5- and 12- km depth. Between the depth of 12-20 km a thick zone of high attenuation (Q <50) exists, offset toward the east from the surface anomaly.

  14. Hot spring deposits on a cliff face: A case study from Jifei, Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Brian; Peng, Xiaotong

    2014-04-01

    A cliff face in the Jifei karst area, southwest China, is covered by a spectacular succession of precipitates that formed from the hot spring water that once flowed down its surface. This layered succession is formed of aragonite layers that are formed largely of “fountain dendrites”, calcite layers that are formed mostly of “cone dendrites”, and microlaminated layers that contain numerous microbes and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Many of the aragonite crystals are hollow due to preferential dissolution of their cores. The calcite cone dendrites are commonly covered with biofilms, reticulate Si-Mg coatings, and other precipitates. The microbial layers include dodecahedral calcite crystals and accessory minerals that include opal-A, amorphous Si-Mg coatings, trona, barite, potassium sulfate crystals, mirabillite, and gaylussite. Interpretation of the δ18O(calcite) and δ18O(aragonite) indicates precipitation from water with a temperature of 54 to 66 °C. The active hot spring at the top of the cliff presently ejects water at a temperature of 65 °C. Layers, 1 mm to 6 cm thick, record temporal changes in the fluids from which the precipitates formed. This succession is not, however, formed of recurring cycles that can be linked to diurnal or seasonal changes in the local climate. Indeed, it appears that the climatic contrast between the wet season and the dry season had little impact on precipitation from the spring waters that flowed down the cliff face. Integration of currently available evidence suggests that the primary driving force was aperiodic changes in the CO2 content of the spring waters because that seems to be the prime control on the saturation levels that underpinned precipitation of the calcite and aragonite as well as the dissolution of the aragonite. Such variations in the CO2 content of the spring water were probably due to changes that took place in the subterranean plumbing system of the spring.

  15. Microbial metabolism and the geochemistry of bioactive gases in Kamchatka and Lassen hot springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, B.; Robb, F. T.; Colman, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    Thermophilic and hyperthermophilic metabolisms include several pathways that involve dissolved gases as carbon sources, energy sources, and/or waste products. In hot springs, dissolved gas concentrations are often compared with concentrations predicted based upon equilibration with free phase gases bubbling up in the same springs. This comparison guides the inference of metabolic modes in the subsurface, spring vents, and outflow channels. Supersaturation is invoked as a signal of a biogenic source for the gas, while undersaturation is interpreted to indicate microbial consumption. However, these conventional interpretations of disequilibria between dissolved and free phase gases can be misleading. They ignore the decoupling of water and free phase gas transport in terrestrial hot springs and the effects on gas solubility of thermal and pressure gradients that exist as fluids travel from depth to vent. We have surveyed two significant geothermal regions: Lassen Volcanic National Park (LVNP), California, USA (July, 2009), and Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka, Russia (August, 2010) in past years. We collected and analyzed both free phase and dissolved gas composition from a number of hot springs in each region. We used Henry's Law to calculate apparent saturation state of the dissolved gases with respect to the free phases gases bubbling up in the springs. We then constructed a 1-D gas exchange-transport model to examine the thermodynamic drivers and potential kinetic hindrances to gas exchange and equilibration in water and gases ascending continental hot spring systems. Specifically, this model takes into account: (1) the vertical gradient in temperature and pressure, (2) interaction between the bioactive gases via water gas shift reaction, and (3) fluid transport from subsurface to vent. We have modeled several end-member transport-exchange scenarios: (1) gas and spring water co-ascend in a closed system, with instantaneous equilibration between free phase and dissolved

  16. High Prevalence, Genetic Diversity and Intracellular Growth Ability of Legionella in Hot Spring Environments

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Haijian; Wang, Huanxin; Xu, Ying; Zhao, Mingqiang; Guan, Hong; Li, Machao; Shao, Zhujun

    2013-01-01

    Background Legionella is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, and hot springs are a major source of outbreaks of this disease. It is important from a public health perspective to survey hot spring environments for the presence of Legionella. Methods Prospective surveillance of the extent of Legionella pollution was conducted at three hot spring recreational areas in Beijing, China in 2011. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and sequence-based typing (SBT) were used to describe the genetic polymorphism of isolates. The intracellular growth ability of the isolates was determined by interacting with J774 cells and plating the dilutions onto BCYE agar plates. Results Overall, 51.9% of spring water samples showed Legionella-positive, and their concentrations ranged from 1 CFU/liter to 2,218 CFU/liter. The positive rates of Legionella were significantly associated with a free chlorine concentration of ≥0.2 mg/L, urea concentration of ≥0.05 mg/L, total microbial counts of ≥400 CFU/ml and total coliform of ≥3 MPN/L (p<0.01). The Legionella concentrations were significantly associated with sample temperature, pH, total microbial counts and total coliform (p<0.01). Legionella pneumophila was the most frequently isolated species (98.9%), and the isolated serogroups included serogroups 3 (25.3%), 6 (23.4%), 5 (19.2%), 1 (18.5%), 2 (10.2%), 8 (0.4%), 10 (0.8%), 9 (1.9%) and 12 (0.4%). Two hundred and twenty-eight isolates were analyzed by PFGE and 62 different patterns were obtained. Fifty-seven L. pneumophila isolates were selected for SBT analysis and divided into 35 different sequence types with 5 main clonal groups. All the 57 isolates had high intracellular growth ability. Conclusions Our results demonstrated high prevalence and genetic polymorphism of Legionella in springs in Beijing, China, and the SBT and intracellular growth assay results suggested that the Legionella isolates of hot spring environments were pathogenic. Improved control and

  17. Jurassic hot spring deposits of the Deseado Massif (Patagonia, Argentina): Characteristics and controls on regional distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guido, Diego M.; Campbell, Kathleen A.

    2011-06-01

    The Deseado Massif, Santa Cruz Province, Argentinean Patagonia, hosts numerous Middle to Late Jurassic age geothermal and epithermal features represented by siliceous and calcareous chemical precipitates from hot springs (sinters and travertines, respectively), hydrothermal breccias, quartz veins, and widespread hydrothermal silicification. They indicate pauses in explosive volcanic activity, marking the final stages in the evolution of an extensive Jurassic (ca. 178-151 Ma) volcanic complex set in a diffuse extensional back-arc setting heralding the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. Published paleo-hot spring sites for the Deseado Massif, plus additional sites identified during our recent field studies, reveal a total of 23 locations, five of which were studied in detail to determine their geologic and facies associations. They show structural, lithologic, textural and biotic similarities with Miocene to Recent hot spring systems from the Taupo and Coromandel volcanic zones, New Zealand, as well as with modern examples from Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A. These comparisons aid in the definition of facies assemblages for Deseado Massif deposits - proximal, middle apron and distal siliceous sinter and travertine terraces and mounds, with preservation of many types of stromatolitic fabrics - that likely were controlled by formation temperature, pH, hydrodynamics and fluid compositions. Locally the mapped hot spring deposits largely occur in association with reworked volcaniclastic lacustrine and/or fluvial sediments, silicic to intermediate lava domes, and hydrothermal mineralization, all of which are related to local and regional structural lineaments. Moreover, the numerous geothermal and significant epithermal (those with published minable resources) deposits of the Deseado Massif geological province mostly occur in four regional NNW and WNW hydrothermal-structural belts (Northwestern, Northern, Central, and Southern), defined here by alignment of five or more hot

  18. Tracing Hot-Spring Facies and thier Geothermally Silicified Microbial Textures into the Geologic Record: Relevance for Mars Biosignature Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, K. A.; Guido, D. M.; Farmer, J. D.; Van Kranendonk, M. J.; Ruff, S. W.; Westall, F.

    2016-05-01

    Siliceous hot-spring deposits (sinters) in terrestrial volcanic terrains preserve robust microbial textures, owing to early mineralization, in the geologic record as far back as 3.48 billion years ago. Some resemble features at Columbia Hills.

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Chelatococcus sambhunathii Strain HT4T (DSM 18167T) Isolated from a Hot Spring in India.

    PubMed

    Badhai, Jhasketan; Whitman, William B; Das, Subrata K

    2016-01-01

    The moderately thermophilic bacterium Chelatococcus sambhunathii strain HT4(T) was isolated from hot spring sediment. Based upon the draft genome sequence, the genome is 4.4 Mb and encodes 4,147 proteins. PMID:27516514

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Chelatococcus sambhunathii Strain HT4T (DSM 18167T) Isolated from a Hot Spring in India

    PubMed Central

    Badhai, Jhasketan; Whitman, William B.

    2016-01-01

    The moderately thermophilic bacterium Chelatococcus sambhunathii strain HT4T was isolated from hot spring sediment. Based upon the draft genome sequence, the genome is 4.4 Mb and encodes 4,147 proteins. PMID:27516514

  1. The Role of Sulfur Oxidation in Carbonate Precipitation and Dissolution Within Sulfidic Hot Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alford, S. E.; Kapitulčinová, D.; Kotrc, B.; Langerhuus, A. T.; Berelson, W.; Dawson, S.; Corsetti, F.; Hanselmann, K.; Johnson, H.; Spear, J.; Stevenson, B. S.; de La Torre, J.; 2008, G.

    2008-12-01

    Geothermal waters that have interacted with subsurface limestones often precipitate aragonite and calcite (travertine) upon cooling and degassing of CO2, forming terraced travertine deposits like those at Mammoth Hot Springs (MHS) in Yellowstone National Park. It has been shown that surfaces of filamentous microbial "Aquificales-dominated streamer communities" comprising the Apron and Channel Facies in these systems can act as nucleation sites for carbonate precipitation leading to the fine-scale tubular micro-structures consistently observed in travertine terraces, modern and ancient. The expected carbonate precipitates were found on streamer communities on the proximal Slope facies, however, ESEM imaging and EDX analysis revealed sulfur crystals, rather than carbonate precipitates, in association with Aquificales-dominated communities collected near the mouth of Narrow Gauge (pH 6.43, T 73.5°C), a sulfidic bicarbonate spring within the MHS system. Thermodynamic analysis of geochemical spring water datasets (data from Angel Terrace Spring applied to the Narrow Gauge site) demonstrates that lowering of the acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) of spring waters can be achieved by sulfur oxidation. Although the first step of oxidation from H2S to S° cannot account for the lack of aragonite on the streamer biofilms, oxidation of even small amounts of S° to S2O32- and further to SO42- markedly decreases ANC. This microbially mediated reaction may lead to a shift in the local pH and a shift in the ion activity product (IAP) for Ca2+ x CO32- to below the solubility product (Ksp) of CaCO3. Our calculations suggest that this reaction, sulfur oxidation with oxygen to sulfate, can liberate sufficient protons to drive aragonite to undersaturation, if the initial sulfur concentration is 5 mM, and the [Ca] and [CO3] concentrations are initially 0.01 M and 1-10 uM, respectively. The potential importance of sulfur oxidation in hot springs, the molecular signatures of this process

  2. The impact of thermal energy and materials derived from the hot spring drainage on the fish community near the estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, M.; Shoji, J.; Mishima, T.; Honda, H.; Fujii, M.; Ohsawa, S.; Taniguchi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Beppu is a region with many hot springs in Japan. Some of environmental studies of the rivers in this region (e.g. Kawano et al., 1998, Ohsawa et al., 2008) show that hot spring drainage flows into a river and then flow into the coastal are, and it strongly affects the river water quality. On the other hands, several kinds of tropical fish lives in those rivers (Hiramatu et al., 1995). We can easily have watched those fish there. Although the relationship between hot spring drainage and the fish community had not been investigated in the past in this area, it is easily assumed that thermal energy and materials derived from the hot spring drainage strongly affect the ecosystem. However, the impact of the hot spring drainage on the ecosystem in river and coastal area is not clear. We investigated the river water quality and physical property of six rivers in this region. Additionally, we investigated the fish community near the estuary at two rivers which are strongly affected by the hot spring drainage and not the influence of the hot spring at all. We tried an evaluation about the influence of thermal energy and materials derived from the hot spring drainage on the fish community near the estuary.The results of chemical and physical data in these rivers are as follows. The size of influence of hot spring drainage on river is different every river. In this region, Hirata River is most strongly affected by the hot spring drainage. The water temperature of Hirata River maintains 25 degrees Celsius or more through the year and the concentrations of dissolved component is very high. On the other hand, the water temperature and the concentrations of dissolved component of Hiya Rive is low. These data are similar to data of the upper side of Hirata River. The results of investigating the fish community indicate that Oreochromis niloticus and Rhinogobius giurinus is the dominant species at Hirata River and Hiya River respectively. In addition, there is more the number of

  3. Hydrocarbon occurrences near Kyle Hot Springs, Buena Vista Valley, Pershing County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ehni, W.J.; McCarthy, H.; Neumann, W.H.

    1995-06-01

    Buena Vista Valley is a small Tertiary Basin located in Northwestern Nevada. Oil was discovered in a mineral exploration hole drilled by Independence Mining Company Inc. (IMC) during October, 1993 near Kyle Hot Springs in Buena Vista Valley. The hole flowed unchecked for four and a half days, producing an estimated 500 barrels of oil with large volumes of hot water, before it was plugged and abandoned. In August of 1994 a continuous core hole was drilled by Barton/Evans to further evaluate the oil occurrences in the IMC hole. Two oil zones were found in the Barton/Evans hole, both of which have similar characteristics to the oil produced in the IMC hole. Pristane and phytane ratios (pr/ph) for oil samples from both holes are low (<0.1) which suggests that the source rock for this oil is from non marine lacustrine Tertiary sediments. There are no detectable hydrocarbons in the gas emanating from Kyle Hot Springs which indicates that the current day geothermal system is not in direct contact with any oil accumulations. Organic rich Triassic marine rocks which outcrop west of Buena Vista Valley, are over mature which supports the hypothesis that unexposed organic rich Tertiary rocks occurring in the deeper portions of the basin acted as the source for the oil occurrences in the IMC hole and in the Barton/Evans hole. In 1974, Standard Oil drilled an 11,000 foot well south of Buena Vista Valley in the Carson Sink and encountered organic rich Tertiary sediments at about 3500`. If this organic rich unit extends north into Buena Vista Valley, local geothermal anomalies might play an important role in the generation of oil. Earlier researches have reported that such anomalies do exist with temperature gradients approaching 100 C per kilometer west of Kyle Hot Springs in an area where gravity data suggest a relatively thick interval of Tertiary rocks have accumulated.

  4. Lake Bogoria, Kenya: Hot and warm springs, geysers and Holocene stromatolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCall, Joseph

    2010-11-01

    I carried out the first regional geological survey of the central Gregory Rift Valley in Kenya in 1958-60, and review here the numerous subsequent specialised studies focused on the unique endoreic Lake Bogoria (formerly Hannington), studies which embraced the sedimentology of the Holocene sediments around the lake shores, the hot-spring and geyser activities and the coring of the sediments beneath the lake. I focus on the occurrences of stromatolites in a hydrothermal environment, both in two closely spaced late Holocene (~ 4500 yr BP) generations at the lake margin, associated with algae and cyanobacteria, which represent a final more humid climatic phase after the several interglacial more humid phases (also represented by stromatolite occurrences in other rift valley lakes); and also at present being formed, at the edge of the now highly saline lake, in the very hot springs in association with thermophilic bacteria and with silica. I briefly mention the older occurrences in Lake Magadi to the south, which are quite different; and form three generations; and also present-day occurrences of stromatolites in a flood-plain environment, unlike the present-day environment at Lake Bogoria. Other stromatolite occurrences are mentioned, around Lake Turkana and the former lake in the Suguta River valley to the north. I suggest that the hot waterfall at Kapedo, at the head of the Suguta River, and the central island of Ol Kokwe (with hot springs, amidst the fresh water Lake Baringo) could well be investigated for stromatolite occurrences. Lake Bogoria, an empty wilderness occupied only by flamingos when I mapped it, is now more accessible and provides a unique open-air laboratory for such researches, but like all the Rift Valley lakes, is unique, sui generis. Results of detailed investigations of the type reviewed here, can only be applied to other occurrences of stromatolites elsewhere in the rift system or beyond the rift system with reservation.

  5. Stable isotope labeling confirms mixotrophic nature of streamer biofilm communities at alkaline hot springs

    PubMed Central

    Schubotz, Florence; Hays, Lindsay E.; Meyer-Dombard, D'Arcy R.; Gillespie, Aimee; Shock, Everett L.; Summons, Roger E.

    2015-01-01

    Streamer biofilm communities (SBC) are often observed within chemosynthetic zones of Yellowstone hot spring outflow channels, where temperatures exceed those conducive to photosynthesis. Nearest the hydrothermal source (75–88°C) SBC comprise thermophilic Archaea and Bacteria, often mixed communities including Desulfurococcales and uncultured Crenarchaeota, as well as Aquificae and Thermus, each carrying diagnostic membrane lipid biomarkers. We tested the hypothesis that SBC can alternate their metabolism between autotrophy and heterotrophy depending on substrate availability. Feeding experiments were performed at two alkaline hot springs in Yellowstone National Park: Octopus Spring and “Bison Pool,” using various 13C-labeled substrates (bicarbonate, formate, acetate, and glucose) to determine the relative uptake of these different carbon sources. Highest 13C uptake, at both sites, was from acetate into almost all bacterial fatty acids, particularly into methyl-branched C15, C17 and C19 fatty acids that are diagnostic for Thermus/Meiothermus, and some Firmicutes as well as into universally common C16:0 and C18:0 fatty acids. 13C-glucose showed a similar, but a 10–30 times lower uptake across most fatty acids. 13C-bicarbonate uptake, signifying the presence of autotrophic communities was only significant at “Bison Pool” and was observed predominantly in non-specific saturated C16, C18, C20, and C22 fatty acids. Incorporation of 13C-formate occurred only at very low rates at “Bison Pool” and was almost undetectable at Octopus Spring, suggesting that formate is not an important carbon source for SBC. 13C-uptake into archaeal lipids occurred predominantly with 13C-acetate, suggesting also that archaeal communities at both springs have primarily heterotrophic carbon assimilation pathways. We hypothesize that these communities are energy-limited and predominantly nurtured by input of exogenous organic material, with only a small fraction being sustained

  6. Stable isotope labeling confirms mixotrophic nature of streamer biofilm communities at alkaline hot springs.

    PubMed

    Schubotz, Florence; Hays, Lindsay E; Meyer-Dombard, D'Arcy R; Gillespie, Aimee; Shock, Everett L; Summons, Roger E

    2015-01-01

    Streamer biofilm communities (SBC) are often observed within chemosynthetic zones of Yellowstone hot spring outflow channels, where temperatures exceed those conducive to photosynthesis. Nearest the hydrothermal source (75-88°C) SBC comprise thermophilic Archaea and Bacteria, often mixed communities including Desulfurococcales and uncultured Crenarchaeota, as well as Aquificae and Thermus, each carrying diagnostic membrane lipid biomarkers. We tested the hypothesis that SBC can alternate their metabolism between autotrophy and heterotrophy depending on substrate availability. Feeding experiments were performed at two alkaline hot springs in Yellowstone National Park: Octopus Spring and "Bison Pool," using various (13)C-labeled substrates (bicarbonate, formate, acetate, and glucose) to determine the relative uptake of these different carbon sources. Highest (13)C uptake, at both sites, was from acetate into almost all bacterial fatty acids, particularly into methyl-branched C15, C17 and C19 fatty acids that are diagnostic for Thermus/Meiothermus, and some Firmicutes as well as into universally common C16:0 and C18:0 fatty acids. (13)C-glucose showed a similar, but a 10-30 times lower uptake across most fatty acids. (13)C-bicarbonate uptake, signifying the presence of autotrophic communities was only significant at "Bison Pool" and was observed predominantly in non-specific saturated C16, C18, C20, and C22 fatty acids. Incorporation of (13)C-formate occurred only at very low rates at "Bison Pool" and was almost undetectable at Octopus Spring, suggesting that formate is not an important carbon source for SBC. (13)C-uptake into archaeal lipids occurred predominantly with (13)C-acetate, suggesting also that archaeal communities at both springs have primarily heterotrophic carbon assimilation pathways. We hypothesize that these communities are energy-limited and predominantly nurtured by input of exogenous organic material, with only a small fraction being sustained by

  7. A controlled source audiomagnetotelluric investigation of the Ennis Hot Springs Geothermal Area, Ennis, Montana: Final report: Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Emilsson, G.R.

    1988-06-01

    A controlled-source audiomagnetotelluric survey (CSAMT) at the Ennis Hot Springs geothermal area revealed a low resistivity anomaly (3 ohm-m to 10 ohm-m) in the vicinity of the hot springs. The hot springs issue from the base of a gravel terrace on the west side of the Madison Valley. Low apparent resistivities extend to the west under the gravel terrace as well as to the north in an elongated ''plume''. To the southwest the apparent resistivity increases rapidly due to an uplift in the valley basement. One-dimensional inverse modeling in the center of the valley indicates a buried conductive layer probably due to a thick layer of clay-bearing sediments since a nearby test well does not show elevated temperatures. Near the hot springs, one-dimensional inverse modeling did not prove useful, partly because of the two and three-dimensional nature of the structure. Two-dimensional forward modeling near the hot springs provides a more quantitative delineation of the low resistivity zone and of the faulted basement uplifts to the west and south. Details of the structure beneath the conductive zone near the hot springs are difficult to resolve and most of the model control in this region is provided by well logs and seismic data. A technique for correcting data collected in the region close to the transmitter where the plane wave assumption is not valid has derived and has been applied to the low frequency data. 29 refs., 35 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Using MEMS sensor arrays to measure temperature at small spatial scales in hot spring environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oiler, J.; Schliep, K.; Hartnett, H. E.; Shock, E.; Yu, H.

    2011-12-01

    In situ measurement of temperature across the transition zones between chemosynthetic and photosynthetic microbial communities, or between different photosynthetic microbial communities in hot springs, can be ambiguous using current robust bulk measurement techniques due to the small spatial scale at of the transitions. Outflow channels are often narrow and shallow as they transport water away from the source, creating additional constraints on the size of the instrument and measurement technique used. Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology is well-suited to take measurements of temperature within hot spring environments or other chemical parameters such as conductivity or pH. With recent advances in materials and fabrication techniques, devices can be fabricated to be chemically and thermally tolerant to the conditions present in the hot springs. The small size of the sensing elements (micron scale) provides the high spatial resolution necessary to interrogate the sharp transition zones between chemotrophic and photosynthetic communities. Owing to the small size of each sensor and the ability to batch-fabricate many sensors at once, an array of sensors can be made to measure a particular parameter simultaneously at short spatial intervals. Arrays of MEMS sensors were fabricated to measure temperature changes at intervals of ~1 cm. Our sensors consist of thermistors fabricated from a bi-layer of titanium and platinum. When heated, the electrical resistance of the thermistors will increase, and through calibration the resistance value is paired to a temperature value. The sensors and wires are covered with an inert biocompatible water-resistant polymer, Parylene-C, that protects them from chemical attack in the hot spring water. Using the arrays, a two-dimensional map of depth and distance was created at the Geothermal Explosion site in Tengchong, China, by placing the array vertically into a channel at spatial intervals of ~2 cm. Vertical measurements

  9. Water geochemistry and hydrogeology of the shallow aquifer at Roosevelt Hot Springs, southern Utah: A hot dry rock prospect

    SciTech Connect

    Vuataz, F.D.; Goff, F.

    1987-12-01

    On the western edge of the geothermal field, three deep holes have been drilled that are very hot but mostly dry. Two of them (Phillips 9-1 and Acord 1-26 wells) have been studied by Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) resources evaluation program. A review of data and recommendations have been formulated to evaluate the HDR geothermal potential at Roosevelt. The present report is directed toward the study of the shallow aquifer of the Milford Valley to determine if the local groundwater would be suitable for use as make-up water in an HDR system. This investigation is the result of a cooperative agreement between Los Alamos and Phillips Petroleum Co., formerly the main operator of the Roosevelt Hot Springs Unit. The presence of these hot dry wells and the similar setting of the Roosevelt area to the prototype HDR site at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, make Roosevelt a very good candidate site for creation of another HDR geothermal system. This investigation has two main objectives: to assess the water geochemistry of the valley aquifer, to determine possible problems in future make-up water use, such as scaling or corrosion in the wells and surface piping, and to assess the hydrogeology of the shallow groundwaters above the HDR zone, to characterize the physical properties of the aquifer. These two objectives are linked by the fact that the valley aquifer is naturally contaminated by geothermal fluids leaking out of the hydrothermal reservoir. In an arid region where good-quality fresh water is needed for public water supply and irrigation, nonpotable waters would be ideal for an industrial use such as injection into an HDR energy extraction system. 50 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. A Natural View of Microbial Biodiversity within Hot Spring Cyanobacterial Mat Communities

    PubMed Central

    Ward, David M.; Ferris, Michael J.; Nold, Stephen C.; Bateson, Mary M.

    1998-01-01

    This review summarizes a decade of research in which we have used molecular methods, in conjunction with more traditional approaches, to study hot spring cyanobacterial mats as models for understanding principles of microbial community ecology. Molecular methods reveal that the composition of these communities is grossly oversimplified by microscopic and cultivation methods. For example, none of 31 unique 16S rRNA sequences detected in the Octopus Spring mat, Yellowstone National Park, matches that of any prokaryote previously cultivated from geothermal systems; 11 are contributed by genetically diverse cyanobacteria, even though a single cyanobacterial species was suspected based on morphologic and culture analysis. By studying the basis for the incongruity between culture and molecular samplings of community composition, we are beginning to cultivate isolates whose 16S rRNA sequences are readily detected. By placing the genetic diversity detected in context with the well-defined natural environmental gradients typical of hot spring mat systems, the relationship between gene and species diversity is clarified and ecological patterns of species occurrence emerge. By combining these ecological patterns with the evolutionary patterns inherently revealed by phylogenetic analysis of gene sequence data, we find that it may be possible to understand microbial biodiversity within these systems by using principles similar to those developed by evolutionary ecologists to understand biodiversity of larger species. We hope that such an approach guides microbial ecologists to a more realistic and predictive understanding of microbial species occurrence and responsiveness in both natural and disturbed habitats. PMID:9841675

  11. A natural view of microbial biodiversity within hot spring cyanobacterial mat communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, D. M.; Ferris, M. J.; Nold, S. C.; Bateson, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    This review summarizes a decade of research in which we have used molecular methods, in conjunction with more traditional approaches, to study hot spring cyanobacterial mats as models for understanding principles of microbial community ecology. Molecular methods reveal that the composition of these communities is grossly oversimplified by microscopic and cultivation methods. For example, none of 31 unique 16S rRNA sequences detected in the Octopus Spring mat, Yellowstone National Park, matches that of any prokaryote previously cultivated from geothermal systems; 11 are contributed by genetically diverse cyanobacteria, even though a single cyanobacterial species was suspected based on morphologic and culture analysis. By studying the basis for the incongruity between culture and molecular samplings of community composition, we are beginning to cultivate isolates whose 16S rRNA sequences are readily detected. By placing the genetic diversity detected in context with the well-defined natural environmental gradients typical of hot spring mat systems, the relationship between gene and species diversity is clarified and ecological patterns of species occurrence emerge. By combining these ecological patterns with the evolutionary patterns inherently revealed by phylogenetic analysis of gene sequence data, we find that it may be possible to understand microbial biodiversity within these systems by using principles similar to those developed by evolutionary ecologists to understand biodiversity of larger species. We hope that such an approach guides microbial ecologists to a more realistic and predictive understanding of microbial species occurrence and responsiveness in both natural and disturbed habitats.

  12. Hot Spring Monitoring at Lassen Volcanic National Park, California 1983-1985

    SciTech Connect

    Sorey, Michael L.

    1986-01-21

    Data collected on several occasions between 1983 and 1985 as part of a hydrologic monitoring program by the U.S. Geological Survey permit preliminary estimation of the natural variability in the discharge characteristics of hydrothermal features in Lassen Volcanic National Park and the Lassen KGRA in northern California. The total rate of discharge of high-chloride hot springs along Mill Creek and Canyon Creek in the Lassen KGRA has averaged 20.9 {+-} 1.7 L/s, based on seven measurements of the flux of chloride in these streams. Measured chloride flux does not appear to increase with streamflow during the spring-summer snowmelt period, as observed at Yellowstone and Long Valley Caldera. The corresponding fluxes of arsenic in Mill Creek and Canyon Creek decrease within distances of about 2 km downstream from the hot springs by approximately 30%, most likely due to chemical absorption on streambed sediments. Within Lassen Volcanic National Park, measurements of sulfate flux in streams draining steam-heated thermal features at Sulphur Works and Bumpass Hell have averaged 7.5 {+-} 1.0 and 4.0 {+-} 1.5 g/s, respectively. Calculated rates of steam upflow containing, dissolved H{sub 2}S to supply these sulfate fluxes are 1.8 kg/s at Sulphur Works and 1.0 kg/s at Bumpass Hell.

  13. Experimental Simulation of Evaporation-Driven Silica Sinter Formation and Microbial Silicification in Hot Spring Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lalonde, Stefan V.; Konhauser, Kurt O.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Evaporation of silica-rich geothermal waters is one of the main abiotic drivers of the formation of silica sinters around hot springs. An important role in sinter structural development is also played by the indigenous microbial communities, which are fossilized and eventually encased in the silica matrix. The combination of these two factors results in a wide variety of sinter structures and fabrics. Despite this, no previous experimental fossilization studies have focused on evaporative-driven silica precipitation. We present here the results of several experiments aimed at simulating the formation of sinters through evaporation. Silica solutions at different concentrations were repeatedly allowed to evaporate in both the presence and absence of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. Without microorganisms, consecutive silica additions led to the formation of well-laminated deposits. By contrast, when microorganisms were present, they acted as reactive surfaces for heterogeneous silica particle nucleation; depending on the initial silica concentration, the deposits were then either porous with a mixture of silicified and unmineralized cells, or they formed a denser structure with a complete entombment of the cells by a thick silica crust. The deposits obtained experimentally showed numerous similarities in terms of their fabric to those previously reported for natural hot springs, demonstrating the complex interplay between abiotic and biotic processes during silica sinter growth. Key Words: Silica—Cyanobacteria—Fossilization—Hot springs—Stromatolites. Astrobiology 13, 163–176. PMID:23384170

  14. Quantifying Rates of Complete Microbial Iron Redox Cycling in Acidic Hot Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St Clair, B.; Pottenger, J. W.; Shock, E.

    2013-12-01

    Large accumulations of iron oxide commonly occur in shallow outflows of acidic hot springs, and culturing, molecular techniques, and microscopy by others indicate that this iron oxide (often ferrihydrite) is largely biogenic in Yellowstone National Park. The hot springs that support iron mats have several consistent geochemical features including combinations of pH, temperature, sulfide, dissolved oxygen, depth and ferrous iron concentration appropriate to support iron oxidation. These springs nearly always have a point source leading to a large shallow outflow apron. Microbial zones often, but not always, include a small clear zone near the source, followed by a sulfide oxidation zone, iron mat, and finally photosynthesis. The yellow sulfide oxidation zone is separated from the red iron mat by a sharp transition resulting from increasing dissolved oxygen from atmospheric contact and microbial depletion of sulfide. The iron mat is typically the largest microbial zone in the feature by area. Further down the outflow, iron oxidation appears to be outcompeted by phototrophs as the temperature cools. Occasionally there is overlap in these zones, but one metabolism always appears dominant. Our experiments at diverse hot springs indicate that microbial reduction is less geochemically restricted than oxidation, requiring only organic carbon, ferric minerals and an anoxic environment. With iron oxidizers fixing carbon and producing layers of ferric minerals that become rapidly anoxic with depth, iron reduction is invariably proximal to where biogenic iron oxides are forming. To characterize the interplay of oxidation and reduction rates that permit oxide accumulation, we conducted rate experiments at geochemically diverse Yellowstone hot springs featuring visible iron oxides in thermal areas throughout the park. These experiments were performed during two summer field seasons to determine in situ and maximum rates of iron oxidation and reduction by measuring changing

  15. Noncrystallographic calcite dendrites from hot-spring deposits at Lake Bogoria, Kenya

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.; Renaut, R.W.

    1995-01-02

    Complex calcite crystals are an integral component of precipitates that form around the orifices of the Loburu and Mawe Moto hot springs on the shores of Lake bogoria, Kenya. Two types of large (up to 4 cm long) noncrystallographic dendrites are important components of these deposits. Feather dendrites are characterized by multiple levels of branching with individual branches developed through crystal splitting and spherulitic growth. Scandulitic (from Latin meaning shingle) dendrites are formed of stacked calcite crystals and are generally more compact than feather dendrites. These developed through the incremental stacking of rectangular-shaped calcite crystals that initially grew as skeletal crystals. Feather and scandulitic dendrites precipitated from the same waters in the same springs. The difference in morphology is therefore related to microenvironments in which they grew. Feather dendrites grew in any direction in pools of free-standing water provided that they were in constant contact with the solute. Conversely, scandulitic dendrites grew on rims of dams where water flowed over the surface in concert with the pulses of spring water. Thus, each calcite crystal in these dendrites represents one episode of crystal growth. The orientation of the component crystals in scandulitic dendrites is controlled by the topography of the dam or surface, not crystallographic criteria. The noncrystallographic dendrites formed from spring waters with initial temperatures of 90--99 C. Surficial water cooling, loss of CO{sub 2}, and presence of other elements that can interfere with crystal growth contributed to the formation of these unusual crystals.

  16. The distribution and abundance of archaeal tetraether lipids in U.S. Great Basin hot springs

    PubMed Central

    Paraiso, Julienne J.; Williams, Amanda J.; Huang, Qiuyuan; Wei, Yuli; Dijkstra, Paul; Hungate, Bruce A.; Dong, Hailiang; Hedlund, Brian P.; Zhang, Chuanlun L.

    2013-01-01

    Isoprenoidal glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (iGDGTs) are core membrane lipids of many archaea that enhance the integrity of cytoplasmic membranes in extreme environments. We examined the iGDGT profiles and corresponding aqueous geochemistry in 40 hot spring sediment and microbial mat samples from the U.S. Great Basin with temperatures ranging from 31 to 95°C and pH ranging from 6.8 to 10.7. The absolute abundance of iGDGTs correlated negatively with pH and positively with temperature. High lipid concentrations, distinct lipid profiles, and a strong relationship between polar and core lipids in hot spring samples suggested in situ production of most iGDGTs rather than contamination from local soils. Two-way cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS) of polar iGDGTs indicated that the relative abundance of individual lipids was most strongly related to temperature (r2 = 0.546), with moderate correlations with pH (r2 = 0.359), nitrite (r2 = 0.286), oxygen (r2 = 0.259), and nitrate (r2 = 0.215). Relative abundance profiles of individual polar iGDGTs indicated potential temperature optima for iGDGT-0 (≤70°C), iGDGT-3 (≥55°C), and iGDGT-4 (≥60°C). These relationships likely reflect both physiological adaptations and community-level population shifts in response to temperature differences, such as a shift from cooler samples with more abundant methanogens to higher-temperature samples with more abundant Crenarchaeota. Crenarchaeol was widely distributed across the temperature gradient, which is consistent with other reports of abundant crenarchaeol in Great Basin hot springs and suggests a wide distribution for thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA). PMID:24009605

  17. Coordinating Environmental Genomics and Geochemistry Reveals Metabolic Transitions in a Hot Spring Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Swingley, Wesley D.; Meyer-Dombard, D’Arcy R.; Shock, Everett L.; Alsop, Eric B.; Falenski, Heinz D.; Havig, Jeff R.; Raymond, Jason

    2012-01-01

    We have constructed a conceptual model of biogeochemical cycles and metabolic and microbial community shifts within a hot spring ecosystem via coordinated analysis of the “Bison Pool” (BP) Environmental Genome and a complementary contextual geochemical dataset of ∼75 geochemical parameters. 2,321 16S rRNA clones and 470 megabases of environmental sequence data were produced from biofilms at five sites along the outflow of BP, an alkaline hot spring in Sentinel Meadow (Lower Geyser Basin) of Yellowstone National Park. This channel acts as a >22 m gradient of decreasing temperature, increasing dissolved oxygen, and changing availability of biologically important chemical species, such as those containing nitrogen and sulfur. Microbial life at BP transitions from a 92°C chemotrophic streamer biofilm community in the BP source pool to a 56°C phototrophic mat community. We improved automated annotation of the BP environmental genomes using BLAST-based Markov clustering. We have also assigned environmental genome sequences to individual microbial community members by complementing traditional homology-based assignment with nucleotide word-usage algorithms, allowing more than 70% of all reads to be assigned to source organisms. This assignment yields high genome coverage in dominant community members, facilitating reconstruction of nearly complete metabolic profiles and in-depth analysis of the relation between geochemical and metabolic changes along the outflow. We show that changes in environmental conditions and energy availability are associated with dramatic shifts in microbial communities and metabolic function. We have also identified an organism constituting a novel phylum in a metabolic “transition” community, located physically between the chemotroph- and phototroph-dominated sites. The complementary analysis of biogeochemical and environmental genomic data from BP has allowed us to build ecosystem-based conceptual models for this hot spring

  18. Seismic baseline and induction studies: Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah and Raft River, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Zandt, G.; McPherson, L.; Schaff, S.; Olsen, S.

    1982-05-01

    Local seismic networks were established at the Roosevelt Hot Springs geothermal area, utah and at Raft River geothermal area, Idaho to monitor the background seismicity prior to initiation of geothermal power production. The Raft River study area is currently seismically quiet down to the level of approximately magnitude one. The Roosevelt Hot Springs area has low-level seismic activity for M/sub L/ greater than about two; however, microearthquake (M/sub L/ less than or equal to 2) swarms appear to be relatively common. One swarm occurred adjacent to the Roosevelt geothermal area during the summer of 1981. From June 27 to August 28, 1044 microearthquakes (M/sub L/ less than or equal to 1.5) were recorded from which 686 earthquakes were located and analysed. The main cluster of microearthquakes was located about 2 km east of the production field at a depth of about 5 km. A few small events were located in the production field at shallow depths (< 2 km). Three of the four largest earthquakes in the swarm (M/sub L/ 1.5-2.0) were located 4 to 5 km further east along a n-NW trend beneath the flank of the adjacent Mineral Mountains. Focal mechanism solutions indicate primarily normal faulting due to the regional E-W extension which characterizes this portion of the eastern Basin and Range province. Hence, the Mineral Mountain swarm appears to be a natural release of tectonic stress in this area. Nevertheless, the occurrence of natural earthquake swarms indicates a potential for induced seismicity at Roosevelt Hot Springs after major production operations are initiated.

  19. The distribution and abundance of archaeal tetraether lipids in U.S. Great Basin hot springs.

    PubMed

    Paraiso, Julienne J; Williams, Amanda J; Huang, Qiuyuan; Wei, Yuli; Dijkstra, Paul; Hungate, Bruce A; Dong, Hailiang; Hedlund, Brian P; Zhang, Chuanlun L

    2013-01-01

    Isoprenoidal glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (iGDGTs) are core membrane lipids of many archaea that enhance the integrity of cytoplasmic membranes in extreme environments. We examined the iGDGT profiles and corresponding aqueous geochemistry in 40 hot spring sediment and microbial mat samples from the U.S. Great Basin with temperatures ranging from 31 to 95°C and pH ranging from 6.8 to 10.7. The absolute abundance of iGDGTs correlated negatively with pH and positively with temperature. High lipid concentrations, distinct lipid profiles, and a strong relationship between polar and core lipids in hot spring samples suggested in situ production of most iGDGTs rather than contamination from local soils. Two-way cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS) of polar iGDGTs indicated that the relative abundance of individual lipids was most strongly related to temperature (r (2) = 0.546), with moderate correlations with pH (r (2) = 0.359), nitrite (r (2) = 0.286), oxygen (r (2) = 0.259), and nitrate (r (2) = 0.215). Relative abundance profiles of individual polar iGDGTs indicated potential temperature optima for iGDGT-0 (≤70°C), iGDGT-3 (≥55°C), and iGDGT-4 (≥60°C). These relationships likely reflect both physiological adaptations and community-level population shifts in response to temperature differences, such as a shift from cooler samples with more abundant methanogens to higher-temperature samples with more abundant Crenarchaeota. Crenarchaeol was widely distributed across the temperature gradient, which is consistent with other reports of abundant crenarchaeol in Great Basin hot springs and suggests a wide distribution for thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA). PMID:24009605

  20. Coordinating environmental genomics and geochemistry reveals metabolic transitions in a hot spring ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Swingley, Wesley D; Meyer-Dombard, D'Arcy R; Shock, Everett L; Alsop, Eric B; Falenski, Heinz D; Havig, Jeff R; Raymond, Jason

    2012-01-01

    We have constructed a conceptual model of biogeochemical cycles and metabolic and microbial community shifts within a hot spring ecosystem via coordinated analysis of the "Bison Pool" (BP) Environmental Genome and a complementary contextual geochemical dataset of ~75 geochemical parameters. 2,321 16S rRNA clones and 470 megabases of environmental sequence data were produced from biofilms at five sites along the outflow of BP, an alkaline hot spring in Sentinel Meadow (Lower Geyser Basin) of Yellowstone National Park. This channel acts as a >22 m gradient of decreasing temperature, increasing dissolved oxygen, and changing availability of biologically important chemical species, such as those containing nitrogen and sulfur. Microbial life at BP transitions from a 92 °C chemotrophic streamer biofilm community in the BP source pool to a 56 °C phototrophic mat community. We improved automated annotation of the BP environmental genomes using BLAST-based Markov clustering. We have also assigned environmental genome sequences to individual microbial community members by complementing traditional homology-based assignment with nucleotide word-usage algorithms, allowing more than 70% of all reads to be assigned to source organisms. This assignment yields high genome coverage in dominant community members, facilitating reconstruction of nearly complete metabolic profiles and in-depth analysis of the relation between geochemical and metabolic changes along the outflow. We show that changes in environmental conditions and energy availability are associated with dramatic shifts in microbial communities and metabolic function. We have also identified an organism constituting a novel phylum in a metabolic "transition" community, located physically between the chemotroph- and phototroph-dominated sites. The complementary analysis of biogeochemical and environmental genomic data from BP has allowed us to build ecosystem-based conceptual models for this hot spring, reconstructing

  1. In situ production of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in a great basin hot spring (USA)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chuanlun L.; Wang, Jinxiang; Dodsworth, Jeremy A.; Williams, Amanda J.; Zhu, Chun; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Zheng, Fengfeng; Hedlund, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs) are predominantly found in soils and peat bogs. In this study, we analyzed core (C)-bGDGTs after hydrolysis of polar fractions using liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry and analyzed intact P-bGDGTs using total lipid extract (TLE) without hydrolysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-multiple stage mass spectrometry. Our results show multiple lines of evidence for the production of bGDGTs in sediments and cellulolytic enrichments in a hot spring (62–86°C) in the Great Basin (USA). First, in situ cellulolytic enrichment led to an increase in the relative abundance of hydrolysis-derived P-bGDGTs over their C-bGDGT counterparts. Second, the hydrolysis-derived P- and C-bGDGT profiles in the hot spring were different from those of the surrounding soil samples; in particular, a monoglycosidic bGDGT Ib containing 13,16-dimethyloctacosane and one cyclopentane moiety was detected in the TLE but it was undetectable in surrounding soil samples even after sample enrichments. Third, previously published 16S rRNA gene pyrotag analysis from the same lignocellulose samples demonstrated the enrichment of thermophiles, rather than mesophiles, and total bGDGT abundance in cellulolytic enrichments correlated with the relative abundance of 16S rRNA gene pyrotags from thermophilic bacteria in the phyla Bacteroidetes, Dictyoglomi, EM3, and OP9 (“Atribacteria”). These observations conclusively demonstrate the production of bGDGTs in this hot spring; however, the identity of organisms that produce bGDGTs in the geothermal environment remains unclear. PMID:23847605

  2. Phase equilibria constraints on the chemistry of hot spring fluids at mid-ocean ridges

    SciTech Connect

    Seyfried, W.E. Jr.; Ding, K.; Berndt, M.E. )

    1991-12-01

    Recent advances in experimental and theoretical geochemistry have made it possible to assess both homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria involving a wide range of aqueous species at temperatures and pressures appropriate to model hydrothermal alteration processes at mid-ocean ridges. The authors have combined selected aspects of the chemistry of hot spring fluids with constraints imposed by a geologically reasonable assemblage of minerals in the system Na{sub 2}O-K{sub 2}O-CaO-MgO-FeO-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O-HCl-H{sub 2}S to assess the effect of temperature on the composition of the aqueous phase and the activities of mineral components in plagioclase and epidote solid solutions. Assuming fO{sub 2(g)} and fS{sub 2(g)} controlled by pyrite-pyrrhotite-magnetite equilibria, a constant dissolved Ca concentration, and a dissolved Cl concentration equivalent to that of seawater, increasing temperature from 250 to 400C at 500 bars results in systematic changes in the composition of mineral phases, which in turn constrain pH and the distribution of aqueous species. The model predicts that dissolved concentrations of Fe, SiO{sub 2}, K, H{sub 2}S, and H{sub 2} increase, while Na and pH{sub (25C)} decrease with increasing temperature. That many hot springs vent fluids are characterized by variable degrees of conductive heat loss renders measured temperatures unreliable as indicators of the maximum temperature of subseafloor hydrothermal alteration processes. The implications of this are significant for hot spring fluids which reveal large Cl variations relative to seawater, since likely mechanisms to account for such variability typically require temperatures in excess of those inferred for subseafloor reaction zones by simply correcting measured temperatures for the effects of adiabatic cooling.

  3. Studying Prokaryotic Communities in Iron Depositing Hot Springs (IDHS): Implication for Early Mars Habitability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkisova, S. A.; Tringe, S. G.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Allen, C. c.; Garrison, D. H.; McKay, David S.; Brown, I. I.

    2010-01-01

    We speculate that both external and intracellular iron precipitate in iron-tolerant CB might be involved in oxidative stress suppression shown by [9]. Significant differences are apparent between a set of proteins involved in the maintenance of Fe homeostasis and oxidative stress protection in iron-tolerant and fresh-water and marine CB. Correspondingly, these properties may help to make iron-tolerant CB as dominant organisms in IDHS and probably on early Earth and Mars. Further comparative analyses of hot springs metagenomes and the genomes of iron-tolerant microbes versus fresh-water/marine ones may point out to different habitable zones on early Mars.

  4. Environmental assessment of the proposed nonelectric application of geothermal resources at Desert Hot Springs, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, L.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents an environmental analysis performed in evaluating various proposed geothermal demonstration projects at Desert Hot Springs. These are categorized in two ways: (1) indirect, or (2) direct uses. Among the former are greenhouses, industrial complexes, and car washes. The latter include aquaculture, a cascaded agribusiness system, and a mobile home park. Major categories of environmental impact covered are: (1) site, (2) construction of projects, and (3) the use of the geothermal source. Attention is also given to the disposal of the geothermal fluid after use. Finally, it is concluded that there are no major problems forseen for each project, and future objectives are discussed.

  5. Investigation of the microbial community in the Odisha hot spring cluster based on the cultivation independent approach

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Archana; Subudhi, Enketeswara; Sahoo, Rajesh Kumar; Gaur, Mahendra

    2016-01-01

    Deulajhari hot spring is located in the Angul district of Odisha. The significance of this hot spring is the presence of the hot spring cluster adjacent to the cold spring which attracts the attention of microbiologists to understand the role of physio-chemical factors of these springs on bacterial community structure. Next-generation sequencing technology helps us to depict the pioneering microflora of any ecological niche based on metagenomic approach. Our study represents the first Illumina based metagenomic study of Deulajhari hot spring DH1, and DH2 of the cluster with temperature 65 °C to 55 °C respectively establishing a difference of 10 °C. Comprehensive study of microbiota of these two hot springs was done using the metagenomic sequencing of 16S rRNA of V3‐V4 region extracting metagenomic DNA from the two hot spring sediments. Sequencing community DNA reported about 28 phyla in spring DH1 of which the majority were Chloroflexi (22.98%), Proteobacteria (15.51%), Acidobacteria (14.51%), Chlorobi (9.52%), Nitrospirae (8.54%), and Armatimonadetes (7.07%), at the existing physiochemical conditions like; temperature 65 °C, pH 8.06, electro conductivity 0.020 dSm− 1, and total organic carbon (TOC) 3.76%. About 40 phyla were detected in cluster DH2 at the existing physiochemical parameters like temperature 55 °C, pH 8.10, electro conductivity 0.019 dSm− 1, and total organic carbon (TOC) 0.58% predominated with Chloroflexi (41.98%), Proteobacteria (10.74%), Nitrospirae (10.01%), Chlorobi (8.73%), Acidobacteria (6.73%) and Planctomycetes (3.73%). Approximately 68 class, 107 order, 171 genus and 184 species were reported in cluster DH1 but 102 class, 180 order, 375 genus and 411 species in cluster DH2. The comparative metagenomics study of the Deulajhari hot spring clusters DH1, and DH2 depicts the differential profile of the microbiota. Metagenome sequences of these two hot spring clusters are deposited to the SRA database and are available in

  6. Diversity of Cultured Thermophilic Anaerobes in Hot Springs of Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, L.; Lu, Y.; Dong, X.; Liu, X.; Wei, Y.; Ji, X.; Zhang, C.

    2010-12-01

    Thermophilic anaerobes including Archaea and Bacteria refer to those growing optimally at temperatures above 50°C and do not use oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor for growth. Study on thermophilic anaerobes will help to understand how life thrives under extreme conditions. Meanwhile thermophilic anaerobes are of importance in potential application and development of thermophilic biotechnology. We have surveyed culturable thermophilic anaerobes in hot springs (pH6.5-7.5; 70 - 94°C) in Rehai of Tengchong, Bangnazhang of Longlin, Eryuan of Dali,Yunnan, China. 50 strains in total were cultured from the hot springs water using Hungate anaerobic technique, and 30 strains were selected based on phenotypic diversity for analysis of 16S rDNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 28 strains belonged to the members of five genera: Caldanaerobacter, Calaramator, Thermoanaerobacter, Dictyoglomus and Fervidobacterium, which formed five branches on the phylogenetic tree. Besides, 2 strains of methanogenic archaea were obtained. The majority of the isolates were the known species, however, seven strains were identified as novel species affiliated to the five genera based on the lower 16S rDNA sequence similarities (less than 93 - 97%) with the described species. This work would provide the future study on their diversity, distribution among different regions and the potential application of thermophilic enzyme. Supported by State Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences(SKLMR-080605)and the Foundation of State Natural Science (30660009, 30960022, 31081220175).

  7. Geothermal resources in the Banbury Hot Springs area, Twin Falls County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, R.E.; Young, Harold William

    1982-01-01

    Thermal water 30.0 degrees to 72.0 degrees Celsius is produced from 26 wells and 2 springs in the vicinity of Banbury Hot Springs near Buhl, Idaho. Thermal water is used for residence heating, catfish and tropical fish production, greenhouse operation, swimming pools, and therapeutic baths. In 1979, 10,300 acre-feet of thermal water was utilized; heat discharged convectively from the geothermal system was about 1.1 x 107 calories per second. Decline in artesian head and discharge apparent in recorder charts from two wells may represent seasonal fluctuations or may reflect reservoir response to development of the resource. The thermal waters sampled are sodium carbonate or bicarbonate in character and slightly alkaline. Mixing of hot (72 degrees Celsius) water with local cooler ground water can be shown from various relations among stable isotopes, chloride, and enthalpy. On the basis of concentration of tritium, the age of most of the water sampled is at least 100 years and perhaps more than 1,000 years. Some water (33 degrees Celsius) may be as young as 29 years. On the basis of silica, sodium-potassium-calcium, and sulfate-water geothermometers, the best estimate of the maximum reservoir temperature for the thermal water is between 70 degrees and 100 degrees Celsius.

  8. Geothermal resources in the Banbury Hot Springs area, Twin Falls County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, R.E.; Young, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal water (30.0 to 72.0 degrees Celsius) is produced from 26 wells and 2 springs in the vicinity of Banbury Hot Springs near Buhl, Idaho. Thermal water is used for space heating of private residences, catfish and tropical fish production, greenhouse operation, swimming pools, and therapeutic baths. In 1979, 10 ,300 acre-feet of thermal water was utilized; heat discharged convectively from the geothermal system was about 1.09 x 10 to the 7th power calories per second. Decline in artesian head and discharge apparent in recorder charts from two wells may represent seasonal fluctuations or may reflect aquifer response to development of the resource. Thermal waters sampled are sodium bicarbonate in character and slightly alkaline. Mixing of a hot (72 degrees Celsius) water with local, cooler ground water can be shown from various relations between stable isotopes, chloride, and enthalpy. On the basis of concentration of trituim , age of the waters sampled is at least 100 years an perhaps more than 1,000 years. One water (33 degress Celsius) may be as young as 29 years. On the basis of silica, sodium-potassium-calcium, and sulfate-water geothermometers, best estimate of the maximum reservoir temperature for the thermal waters is between about 70 and 100 degrees Celsius. (USGS)

  9. Viral assemblage composition in Yellowstone acidic hot springs assessed by network analysis.

    PubMed

    Bolduc, Benjamin; Wirth, Jennifer F; Mazurie, Aurélien; Young, Mark J

    2015-10-01

    Understanding of viral assemblage structure in natural environments remains a daunting task. Total viral assemblage sequencing (for example, viral metagenomics) provides a tractable approach. However, even with the availability of next-generation sequencing technology it is usually only possible to obtain a fragmented view of viral assemblages in natural ecosystems. In this study, we applied a network-based approach in combination with viral metagenomics to investigate viral assemblage structure in the high temperature, acidic hot springs of Yellowstone National Park, USA. Our results show that this approach can identify distinct viral groups and provide insights into the viral assemblage structure. We identified 110 viral groups in the hot springs environment, with each viral group likely representing a viral family at the sub-family taxonomic level. Most of these viral groups are previously unknown DNA viruses likely infecting archaeal hosts. Overall, this study demonstrates the utility of combining viral assemblage sequencing approaches with network analysis to gain insights into viral assemblage structure in natural ecosystems. PMID:26125684

  10. Diversity of putative archaeal RNA viruses in metagenomic datasets of a yellowstone acidic hot spring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongming; Yu, Yongxin; Liu, Taigang; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

    2015-01-01

    Two genomic fragments (5,662 and 1,269 nt in size, GenBank accession no. JQ756122 and JQ756123, respectively) of novel, positive-strand RNA viruses that infect archaea were first discovered in an acidic hot spring in Yellowstone National Park (Bolduc et al., 2012). To investigate the diversity of these newly identified putative archaeal RNA viruses, global metagenomic datasets were searched for sequences that were significantly similar to those of the viruses. A total of 3,757 associated reads were retrieved solely from the Yellowstone datasets and were used to assemble the genomes of the putative archaeal RNA viruses. Nine contigs with lengths ranging from 417 to 5,866 nt were obtained, 4 of which were longer than 2,200 nt; one contig was 204 nt longer than JQ756122, representing the longest genomic sequence of the putative archaeal RNA viruses. These contigs revealed more than 50% sequence similarity to JQ756122 or JQ756123 and may be partial or nearly complete genomes of novel genogroups or genotypes of the putative archaeal RNA viruses. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the archaeal RNA viruses are genetically diverse, with at least 3 related viral lineages in the Yellowstone acidic hot spring environment. PMID:25918685

  11. Remarkable archaeal diversity detected in a Yellowstone National Park hot spring environment

    SciTech Connect

    Barns, S.M.; Fundyga, R.E.; Jeffries, M.W.; Pace, N.R.

    1994-03-01

    Of the three primary phylogenetic domains - Archaea (archaebacteria), Bacteria (eubacteria), and Eucarya (eukaryotes) - Archaea is the least understood in terms of its diversity, physiologies, and ecological panorama. Although many species of Crenarchaeota have been isolated, they constitute a relatively tight-knit cluster of lineages in phylogenetic analyses of rRNA sequences. It seemed possible that this limited diversity is merely apparent and reflects only a failure to culture organisms, not their absence. The authors reported here phylogenetic characterization of many archaeal small subunit rRNA gene sequences obtained by polymerase chain reaction amplification of mixed population DNA extracted directly from sediment of a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park. This approach obviates the need for cultivation to identify organisms. The analyses document the existence not only of species belonging to well-characterized crenarchaeal genera or families but also of crenarchaeal species for which no close relatives have so far been found. The large number of distinct archaeal sequence types retrieved from this single hot spring was unexpected and demonstrates that Crenarchaeota is a much more diverse group than was previously suspected. The results have impact on concepts of the phylogenetic organization of Archaea.

  12. Silicifying Biofilm Exopolymers on a Hot-Spring Microstromatolite: Templating Nanometer-Thick Laminae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handley, Kim M.; Turner, Sue J.; Campbell, Kathleen A.; Mountain, Bruce W.

    2008-08-01

    Exopolymeric substances (EPS) are an integral component of microbial biofilms; however, few studies have addressed their silicification and preservation in hot-spring deposits. Through comparative analyses with the use of a range of microscopy techniques, we identified abundant EPS significant to the textural development of spicular, microstromatolitic, siliceous sinter at Champagne Pool, Waiotapu, New Zealand. Examination of biofilms coating sinter surfaces by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed contraction of the gelatinous EPS matrix into films (approximately 10 nm thick) or fibrillar structures, which is common in conventional SEM analyses and analogous to products of naturally occurring desiccation. Silicification of fibrillar EPS contributed to the formation of filamentous sinter. Matrix surfaces or dehydrated films templated sinter laminae (nanometers to microns thick) that, in places, preserved fenestral voids beneath. Laminae of similar thickness are, in general, common to spicular geyserites. This is the first report to demonstrate EPS templation of siliceous stromatolite laminae. Considering the ubiquity of biofilms on surfaces in hot-spring environments, EPS silicification studies are likely to be important to a better understanding of the origins of laminae in other modern and ancient stromatolitic sinters, and EPS potentially may serve as biosignatures in extraterrestrial rocks.

  13. Tissue assays and population characteristics of Roosevelt Hot Springs' animals (1977-1978). Project report

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Z.C.; Sutton, W.W.

    1981-08-01

    Geothermal energy exploration is being conducted at several locations in the United States including a site at Roosevelt Hot Springs in southwest Utah. To assess any possible impact and to help design a monitoring strategy for geothermal development, element concentrations in animal tissues and selected animal population characteristics were determined at Roosevelt Hot Springs for the 1977-1978 period. The information can be used as baseline data as it was collected before any extensive industrial development had taken place. Concentrations of barium, boron, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, strontium and zinc were determined for livestock and wildlife samples. In some cases, concentration values for additional elements (e.g., arsenic, lithium, magnesium, potassium and sodium) were also established. Small mammal populations (primarily rodents and lagamorphs) were also characterized as part of the effort to conduct baseline surveys prior to extensive geothermal development. Objectives of the limited population survey were to present information on habitat associations and species diversity as well as to provide an estimate of animal abundance both adjacent to and distant from the KGRA (Known Geothermal Resource Area).

  14. Evolution of thermotolerance in hot spring cyanobacteria of the genus Synechococcus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, S. R.; Castenholz, R. W.

    2000-01-01

    The extension of ecological tolerance limits may be an important mechanism by which microorganisms adapt to novel environments, but it may come at the evolutionary cost of reduced performance under ancestral conditions. We combined a comparative physiological approach with phylogenetic analyses to study the evolution of thermotolerance in hot spring cyanobacteria of the genus Synechococcus. Among the 20 laboratory clones of Synechococcus isolated from collections made along an Oregon hot spring thermal gradient, four different 16S rRNA gene sequences were identified. Phylogenies constructed by using the sequence data indicated that the clones were polyphyletic but that three of the four sequence groups formed a clade. Differences in thermotolerance were observed for clones with different 16S rRNA gene sequences, and comparison of these physiological differences within a phylogenetic framework provided evidence that more thermotolerant lineages of Synechococcus evolved from less thermotolerant ancestors. The extension of the thermal limit in these bacteria was correlated with a reduction in the breadth of the temperature range for growth, which provides evidence that enhanced thermotolerance has come at the evolutionary cost of increased thermal specialization. This study illustrates the utility of using phylogenetic comparative methods to investigate how evolutionary processes have shaped historical patterns of ecological diversification in microorganisms.

  15. Biochemical comparison between radon effects and thermal effects on humans in radon hot spring therapy.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro; Hanamoto, Katsumi; Shibuya, Koichi; Mori, Shuji; Tanizaki, Yoshiro; Sugita, Katsuhiko

    2004-03-01

    The radioactive and thermal effects of radon hot spring were biochemically compared under a sauna room or hot spring conditions with a similar chemical component, using the parameters that are closely involved in the clinic for radon therapy. The results showed that the radon and thermal therapy enhanced the antioxidation functions, such as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, which inhibit lipid peroxidation and total cholesterol produced in the body. Moreover the therapy enhanced concanavalin A (ConA)-induced mitogen response and increased the percentage of CD4 positive cells, which is the marker of helper T cells, and decreased the percentage of CD8 positive cells, which is the common marker of killer T cells and suppressor T cells, in the white blood cell differentiation antigen (CD8/CD4) assay. Furthermore, the therapy increased the levels of alpha atrial natriuretic polypeptide (alpha ANP), beta endorphin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), insulin and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), and it decreased the vasopression level. The results were on the whole larger in the radon group than in the thermal group. The findings suggest that radon therapy contributes more to the prevention of life-style-related diseases related to peroxidation reactions and immune suppression than to thermal therapy. Moreover, these indicate what may be a part of the mechanism for the alleviation of hypertension, osteoarthritis (pain), and diabetes mellitus brought about more by radon therapy than by thermal therapy. PMID:15133294

  16. Spatial distribution of radioisotopes in the coast of Suez Gulf, southwestern Sinai and the impact of hot springs.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Kh A; Seddeek, M K; Elnimr, T; Sharshar, T; Badran, H M

    2011-06-01

    This work describes the concentrations of radioisotopes in soil, sediment, wild plants and groundwater in southwestern Sinai. The study area extends from Suez to Abu Rudies along the eastern part of the Suez Gulf. It included two hot springs: Ayun Musa and Hammam Faraoun. No dependence of ¹³⁷Cs concentrations on any of the measured sand characteristics was found, including calcium carbonate. The enrichment of ²²⁶Ra in Hammam Faraoun hot spring was the most prominent feature. The ²²⁶Ra concentration in hot springs of Ayun Musa and Hammam Faraoun were 68 and 2377 Bq kg⁻¹ for sediments, 3.5 and 54.0 Bq kg⁻¹ for wild plants and 205 and 1945 mBq l⁻¹ for the groundwater, respectively. In addition, ²²⁶Ra activity concentration in local sand in the area of Hammam Faraoun was ∼14 times that of Ayun Musa. On the other hand, the ²³²Th concentrations were comparable in the two hot springs, while ¹³⁷Cs concentrations were relatively higher in Ayun Musa. The characteristics and radioelements studies support possible suggestions that the waters in the two hot springs have different contributions of sea and groundwaters crossing different geological layers where the water-rock interaction takes place. PMID:21148168

  17. Environmental inputs that can influence carbon isotopic compositions of hot spring biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donatelli, J. L.; Havig, J. R.; Shock, E.

    2011-12-01

    The carbon isotopic compositions of hydrothermal biofilms are influenced by microbial carbon cycling, and can be correlated with the presence or absence of specific genes in environmental genomic analyses (Havig et al., 2011, JGR). Additional isotopic data on potential environmental sources of carbon will enable further tests of the specific pathways of carbon assimilation and cycling throughout hydrothermal ecosystems. Hot springs at Yellowstone National Park (YNP) are often located in open meadows or forested areas with varying amounts of vegetation and exposed soil surrounding the pools. These pools are open systems which have the potential to accumulate allochthonous materials via physical and biogenic processes. These inputs may affect the δ13C signatures of the hot spring waters and the biofilms associated with them. In the YNP hot springs we have studied since 2003, biofilms range in δ13C from -1.2 to -30.7%. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in coexisting fluids ranges from 4.3 to -3.9%. The heaviest biofilms typically show minimal isotopic fractionation from the DIC in coexisting fluids. DIC values are strongly influenced by inputs from magma degassing, water-rock reactions in the hydrothermal system, and the atmosphere. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) values for the coexisting fluids range from -16.5 to -26.8%, which are within the range of biofilm δ13C values. DOC values will also be affected by diverse processes as precipitation infiltrates, reacts, and eventually returns to the surface as hydrothermal fluids, but may also be influenced by biologically derived inputs from the local environments where hot springs occur. In an effort to characterize the environmental context of hot springs, we have collected isotopic data on lodgepole pine needles, grasses, soils, insects and bison feces. Of these, the δ13C data for bison feces (-27.7 to -29.6%) are lighter than any of the DOC data. Pine needles (-26.3 to -29.1%) and soils (-24.8 to -27.1%) overlap with

  18. Patterns of biomediated CaCO3 crystal bushes in hot spring deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xiaotong; Jones, Brian

    2013-08-01

    In the Eryuan hot spring, located in south China, the vent pool is covered with “crystal bushes”, up to 2 cm high, 1 cm in diameter, that grew in the biofilms that thrive in the spring waters that have a pH of 7.5 and a temperature of 88 °C. The biofilms are formed largely of phototrophic purple bacteria and green bacteria. Growth of the crystal bushes, which are formed of aragonite crystals (wheat-sheaves, radiating clusters), rhombohedral and dodecahedral calcite crystals, amorphous CaCO3 (ACC), and opal-A, is attributed to precipitation in the micro-domains of the biofilms where physiochemical conditions can vary on the sub-micron scale. There is no evidence that the calcite was formed through recrystallization of the metastable aragonite and most of the calcite crystals developed as mesocrystals that are characterized by incomplete growth and porous crystal faces. With the onset of diagenesis, there is a high probability that the crystal bushes will lose much of their identity as the (1) biofilm is lost through decay, (2) ACC and aragonite change to calcite, (3) identities of the mesocrystals and incompletely formed crystals are lost through continued precipitation and/or recrystallization, and (4) porous crystal faces are converted to solid crystal faces. This means that most of the features considered indicative of biomediated calcite precipitation have a low preservation potential and that the recognition of biomediated precipitates in old spring deposits may remain problematical.

  19. Hydrogen-isotopic variability in fatty acids from Yellowstone National Park hot spring microbial communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osburn, Magdalena R.; Sessions, Alex L.; Pepe-Ranney, Charles; Spear, John R.

    2011-09-01

    We report the abundances and hydrogen-isotopic compositions (D/H ratios) of fatty acids extracted from hot-spring microbial mats in Yellowstone National Park. The terrestrial hydrothermal environment provides a useful system for studying D/H fractionations because the numerous microbial communities in and around the springs are visually distinct, separable, and less complex than those in many other aquatic environments. D/H fractionations between lipids and water ranged from -374‰ to +41‰ and showed systematic variations between different types of microbial communities. Lipids produced by chemoautotrophic hyperthermophilic bacteria, such as icosenoic acid (20:1), generally exhibited the largest and most variable fractionations from water (-374‰ to -165‰). This was in contrast to lipids characteristic of heterotrophs, such as branched, odd chain-length fatty acids, which had the smallest fractionations (-163‰ to +41‰). Mats dominated by photoautotrophs exhibited intermediate fractionations similar in magnitude to those expressed by higher plants. These data support the hypothesis that variations in lipid D/H are strongly influenced by central metabolic pathways. Shifts in the isotopic compositions of individual fatty acids across known ecological boundaries show that the isotopic signature of specific metabolisms can be recognized in modern environmental samples, and potentially recorded in ancient ones. Considering all sampled springs, the total range in D/H ratios is similar to that observed in marine sediments, suggesting that the trends observed here are not exclusive to the hydrothermal environment.

  20. Geothermal heating from Pinkerton Hot Springs at Colorado Timberline Academy, Durango, Colorado. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, C.C.; Allen, R.W.; Beldock, J.

    1981-11-08

    The efforts to establish a greater pool of knowledge in the field of low temperature heat transfer for the application of geothermal spring waters to space heating are described. A comprehensive set of heat loss experiments involving passive radiant heating panels is conducted and the results presented in an easily interpretable form. Among the conclusions are the facts that heating a 65 to 70 F/sup 0/ space with 90 to 100 F/sup 0/ liquids is a practical aim. The results are compared with the much lower rates published in the American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers SYSTEMS, 1976. A heat exchange chamber consisting of a 1000 gallon three compartment, insulated and buried tank is constructed and a control and pumping building erected over the tank. The tank is intended to handle the flow of geothermal waters from Pinkerton Hot Springs at 50 GPM prior to the wasting of the spring water at a disposal location. Approximately 375,000 Btu per hour should be available for heating assuming a 15 F/sup 0/ drop in water temperature. A combination of the panel heat loss experiments, construction of the heat exchange devices and ongoing collection of heat loss numbers adds to the knowledge available to engineers in sizing low temperature heat systems, useful in both solar and geothermal applications where source temperature may be often below 110 F/sup 0/.

  1. A spring-driven press device for hot embossing and thermal bonding of PMMA microfluidic chips.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi; Zhang, Luyan; Chen, Gang

    2010-08-01

    A novel spring-driven press device was designed and manufactured for hot embossing and thermal bonding of PMMA microfluidic chips in this work. This simple device consisted of two semi-cylinder silicone rubber press heads, three steel clamping plates, and three compression springs that were assembled together using two screw bolts and two butterfly nuts. The three springs were clamped between the upper and the middle clamping plates, whereas the two press heads were assembled between the middle and the lower clamping plates. After an epoxy template covered by a PMMA plate or a PMMA channel plate together with a cover were sandwiched between two microscopic glass slides for embossing or bonding, respectively, they were clamped between the two elastic press heads of the press device by fastening the screw nuts on the upper clamping plate. Because the convex press heads applied pressure along the middle line of the glass slides, they would deform resulting in a negative pressure gradient from the middle to the sides so that air bubbles between the sandwiched parts could be squeezed out during embossing and bonding processes. High-quality PMMA microfluidic chips were prepared by using this unique device and were successfully applied in the electrophoretic separation of several cations. PMID:20665912

  2. Preferential soft-tissue preservation in the Hot Creek carbonate spring deposit, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainey, Dustin K.; Jones, Brian

    2010-05-01

    The relict Holocene Hot Creek carbonate spring deposit in southeast British Columbia is characterized by excellent preservation of soft-tissue organisms (e.g. cyanobacteria), but poor preservation of organisms with hard-tissue (e.g. wood, diatoms). The deposit is formed mainly of calcified cyanobacteria, with fewer mineralized macrophytes (plants), bryophytes (mosses), wood, and diatoms. Cyanobacteria grew as solitary filaments ( Lyngbya) and as radiating hemispherical colonies ( Rivularia). Both were preserved by encrustation and encapsulation while alive, and as casts after filament death and decay. Sheath impregnation was rare to absent. Filament encrustation, whereby calcite crystals nucleated on, and grew away from the sheath exterior, produced moulds that replicated external filament morphology, but hastened filament decay. Filament encapsulation, whereby calcite nucleated in the vicinity of, and grew towards the encapsulated filament, promoted sheath preservation even after trichome decay. Subsequent calcite precipitation inside the hollow sheath generated sheath casts. The inability of mineralizing spring water to penetrate durable cell walls meant that bryophytes, macrophytes, and most wood was preserved by encrustation. Some wood resisted complete decay for several thousand years, and its lignified cell walls allowed rare permineralizations. Diatoms were not preserved in the relict deposit because the frustules were dissolved by the basic spring water. Amorphous calcium carbonate produced by photosynthetic CO 2 removal may have acted as nucleation sites for physicochemically precipitated calcite. Thus, metabolic activities of floral organisms probably initiated biotic mineralization, but continuous inorganic calcite precipitation on and in flora ensured that soft tissues were preserved.

  3. Lipid Biomarkers and Stable Isotope Signatures of Microbial Mats in Hot Springs of Kamchatka, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanek, C. S.; Mills, G. L.; Jones, M. E.; Paddock, L.; Li, Y.; Zhang, C. L.; Wiegel, J.

    2004-12-01

    Various hot springs of the Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka, were analyzed for their chemical and stable isotope composition to better understand the relationship(s) between thermophilic microorganisms and the environments in which they live. The springs had water temperatures ranging from 40-90\\deg C and pH ranging from 5.6-5.9. Gases that emanated from the springs were composed predominantly of CO2 (20 to 90%), with lesser amounts of CH4, (< 20%), H2, NH3 and SO2. Because the springs were acidic, they contained little dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC: millimol L-1) and sulfide (< 200 ppb), yet in some cases where microbial activity was relatively high, these constituents reached the millimol L-1 and ppm range, respectively. Total biomass displayed a relatively large range of carbon isotope compositions that ranged from -5.7 to -22.4 per mil, which may reflect the large range of carbon sources, varied CO2 fixation pathways, or other unknown mechanisms. Microbial mats were freeze-dried and extracted for lipid biomarker analysis. The lipids were separated into hydrocarbon, sterol, ether lipid, free fatty acid, and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) fractions. Among these fractions, PLFA indicated the community structure and abundance for Bacteria while the ether lipid fraction provided analogous information for Archaea. Results of PLFA showed 16:0 as the most abundant fatty acid (33-44%), which is universal in all living organisms. Other significant biomarkers included 18:1ω (19 to 24%), 18:2ω (5 to 13%), 16:1ω (3 to 12%), and 18:0 (2 to 7%). These biomarkers are characteristic of cyanobacteria, green-sulfur bacteria, and green non-sulfur bacteria, respectively, which are common autotrophic organisms in terrestrial hot springs. On the other hand, biomarkers of heterotrophic bacteria, such as iso- and anteiso-15:0 were low (2-8%), indicating that the bacterial carbon cycle was dominated by autotrophic organisms. Analogous archaeal constituents were present in significant

  4. In situ ecophysiology of Aigarchaeota from an oxic, hot-spring filamentous 'streamer' community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beam, J.; Jay, Z.; Tringe, S. G.; Glavina del Rio, T.; Rusch, D.; Schmid, M.; Wagner, M.; Inskeep, W.

    2014-12-01

    The candidate phylum Aigarchaeota contains thermophilic archaea from terrestrial, subsurface, and marine geothermal ecosystems. The phylogeny and metabolic potential of Aigarchaeota has been deduced from several recent single-cell amplified genomes; however, an accurate description of their metabolism, potential ecological interactions, and role in biogeochemical cycling is lacking. Here we report possible ecological interactions and the in situ metabolism of an uncultivated lineage of Aigarchaeota from an oxic, terrestrial hot-spring filamentous 'streamer' community (Octopus Spring, pH = 8; T = 78 - 84 °C, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was combined with detailed genomic and transcriptomic reconstruction to elucidate the ecophysiological role of Aigarchaeota in these streamer communities. This novel population of Aigarchaeota are filamentous (~500 nm diameter by ~10-30 μm length), which is consistent with the morphology predicted by the presence and transcription of a single actin-encoding gene. Aigarchaeota filaments are intricately associated with other community members, which include both thermophilic bacteria and archaea. Metabolic reconstruction suggests that this aigarchaeon is an aerobic, chemoorganotroph. A single heme copper oxidase complex was identified in de novo genome assemblies, and was highly transcribed in environmental samples. Potential electron donors include acetate, fatty acids, sugars, peptides, and aromatic compounds. Transcripts related to genes specific to each of these potential electron donors were identified, indicating that this population of Aigarchaeota likely utilizes a broad range of reduced carbon substrates. Potential electron donors for this population may include extracellular polymeric substances produced by other microorganisms in close proximity. Flagellum genes were also highly transcribed, which suggests a potential mechanism for motility and/or cell-cell attachment

  5. Factors controlling the distribution of archaeal tetraethers in terrestrial hot springs.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Ann; Pi, Yundan; Zhao, Weidong; Li, WenJun; Li, Yiliang; Inskeep, William; Perevalova, Anna; Romanek, Christopher; Li, Shuguang; Zhang, Chuanlun L

    2008-06-01

    Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) found in hot springs reflect the abundance and community structure of Archaea in these extreme environments. The relationships between GDGTs, archaeal communities, and physical or geochemical variables are underexamined to date and when reported often result in conflicting interpretations. Here, we examined profiles of GDGTs from pure cultures of Crenarchaeota and from terrestrial geothermal springs representing a wide distribution of locations, including Yellowstone National Park (United States), the Great Basin of Nevada and California (United States), Kamchatka (Russia), Tengchong thermal field (China), and Thailand. These samples had temperatures of 36.5 to 87 degrees C and pH values of 3.0 to 9.2. GDGT abundances also were determined for three soil samples adjacent to some of the hot springs. Principal component analysis identified four factors that accounted for most of the variance among nine individual GDGTs, temperature, and pH. Significant correlations were observed between pH and the GDGTs crenarchaeol and GDGT-4 (four cyclopentane rings, m/z 1,294); pH correlated positively with crenarchaeol and inversely with GDGT-4. Weaker correlations were observed between temperature and the four factors. Three of the four GDGTs used in the marine TEX(86) paleotemperature index (GDGT-1 to -3, but not crenarchaeol isomer) were associated with a single factor. No correlation was observed for GDGT-0 (acyclic caldarchaeol): it is effectively its own variable. The biosynthetic mechanisms and exact archaeal community structures leading to these relationships remain unknown. However, the data in general show promise for the continued development of GDGT lipid-based physiochemical proxies for archaeal evolution and for paleo-ecology or paleoclimate studies. PMID:18390673

  6. Active Serpentinization and the Potential for a Diverse Subsurface Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canovas, P. A.; Shock, E.

    2013-12-01

    The ubiquitous nature of serpentinization and the unique fluids it generates have major consequences for habitat generation, abiotic organic synthesis, and biosynthesis. The production of hydrogen from the anaerobic hydrolysis of ultramafic minerals sets the redox state of serpentinizing fluids to be thermodynamically favorable for these processes. Consequently, a host of specialized microbial populations and metabolisms can be sustained. Active low-temperature serpentinizing systems, such as the Samail ophiolite in Oman, offer an ideal opportunity to investigate biogeochemical processes during the alteration of ultramafic minerals. At the Samail ophiolite in particular, serpentinization may provide the potential for an active subsurface microbial community shielded from potentially unfavorable surface conditions. Support for this assertion comes from geochemical data including Mg, Ca, CH4 (aq), and H2 (aq) abundances indicating that methane is a product of serpentinization. To further investigate viable metabolic strategies, affinity calculations were performed on both the surface waters and the hyperalkaline springs, which may be considered as messengers of processes occurring in the subsurface. Almost all sites yield positive affinities (i.e., are thermodynamically favorable) for a diverse suite of serpentinization metabolisms including methanogenesis, anammox, and carbon monoxide, nitrate, and sulfate reduction with hydrogen, as well as anaerobic methanotrophy coupled to nitrate, nitrite, and sulfate reduction. Reaction path modeling was performed to ascertain the extent to which serpentinization and mixing of surface waters with hyperalkaline spring waters in the subsurface can generate suitable habitats. The serpentinization model simulates the reaction of pristine Oman harzburgite with surface water to quantify the redox state and generation of hyperalkaline spring water. Preliminary results show that water-rock ratios as high as 100 could effectively reduce

  7. Methanogenesis and Methanotrophy in Serpentinizing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shock, E.; Poret-Peterson, A.; Canovas, P. A.; Robinson, K.; Marsala, P.

    2012-12-01

    Serpentinization leads to habitat generation, most obviously through the production of hydrogen and methane. These compounds, on the other hand, can be made by microbes and their production may be facilitated by conditions generated through serpentinization. The Samail ophiolite in northern Oman, hosts a number of hyperalkaline springs (pH>10) with fluids enriched in methane and hydrogen and severely depleted in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), relative to neighboring surface waters. Reaction path modeling of mixing between surface water and serpentinizing fluids, using data from our recent field work in Oman, shows that methanogenesis is promoted when small inputs of surface water (up to 20% of the total mixture) contribute DIC, and that methanotrophy is promoted by higher mixing ratios of surface water to serpentinizing fluids owing to the increasing abundance of dissolved oxygen. Whether methane and hydrogen originate from abiotic serpentinization, microbial metabolism, or a combination of biotic and abiotic processes in these springs remains an open question, which can be addressed in part through analysis of genes for methane and hydrogen metabolism. We amplified genes for methanogenesis (methyl coenzyme M reductase; mcrA), hydrogen metabolism (hydrogenase; hydA), and aerobic methane oxidation (particulate methane monooxygenase; pmoA) from hyperalkaline spring sediments. The genes we retrieved are most similar to sequences already obtained from deep subsurface (mcrA) or alkaline (hydA and pmoA) environments. Biological methanogenesis in hyperalkaline spring sediments is likely mediated by hydrogenotrophic methanogens based on the affiliation of the mcrA genes, and consistent with our reaction path modeling. Hydrogenase genes were most closely related to sequences from cultured organisms belonging to the orders Clostridiales and Bacteroidales and the class Deltaproteobacteria. Aerobic methane oxidation is likely mediated by alphaproteobacterial methanotrophs

  8. Disturbance, A Mechanism for Increased Microbial Diversity in a Yellowstone National Park Hot Spring Mixing Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howells, A. E.; Oiler, J.; Fecteau, K.; Boyd, E. S.; Shock, E.

    2014-12-01

    The parameters influencing species diversity in natural ecosystems are difficult to assess due to the long and experimentally prohibitive timescales needed to develop causative relationships among measurements. Ecological diversity-disturbance models suggest that disturbance is a mechanism for increased species diversity, allowing for coexistence of species at an intermediate level of disturbance. Observing this mechanism often requires long timescales, such as the succession of a forest after a fire. In this study we evaluated the effect of mixing of two end member hydrothermal fluids on the diversity and structure of a microbial community where disturbance occurs on small temporal and spatial scales. Outflow channels from two hot springs of differing geochemical composition in Yellowstone National Park, one pH 3.3 and 36 °C and the other pH 7.6 and 61 °C flow together to create a mixing zone on the order of a few meters. Geochemical measurements were made at both in-coming streams and at a site of complete mixing downstream of the mixing zone, at pH 6.5 and 46 °C. Compositions were estimated across the mixing zone at 1 cm intervals using microsensor temperature and conductivity measurements and a mixing model. Qualitatively, there are four distinct ecotones existing over ranges in temperature and pH across the mixing zone. Community analysis of the 16S rRNA genes of these ecotones show a peak in diversity at maximal mixing. Principle component analysis of community 16S rRNA genes reflects coexistence of species with communities at maximal mixing plotting intermediate to communities at distal ends of the mixing zone. These spatial biological and geochemical observations suggest that the mixing zone is a dynamic ecosystem where geochemistry and biological diversity are governed by changes in the flow rate and geochemical composition of the two hot spring sources. In ecology, understanding how environmental disruption increases species diversity is a foundation

  9. Microbial Metabolic Diversity Study of the Kuantzuling Mud Hot Spring in the Southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.; Wang, P.; Lin, L.

    2009-12-01

    Organic carbon, sulfate, methane, and hydrogen are available for microorganisms to carry on diverse metabolisms in the Kuantzuling mud hot spring, southwestern Taiwan. On the basis of bioenergetic evaluations and environmental DNA analyses, previous studies have inferred diverse metabolic capabilities, including methanogenesis, sulfate reduction, fermentation, aerobic heterotrophy and methanotrophy. However, active metabolisms have never been confirmed by cultivation-based analysis. Due to the temperature fluctuation of the Kuantzuling mud spring, this study performed a set of enrichment experiments at temperatures ranging from 25oC to 80oC to understand the activity and interaction among microorganisms at various temperatures. Pure stains were also isolated along with their physiological tests to reveal their possible roles in this terrestrial hot spring ecosystem. According to the geochemical and molecular data, nine types of media were designed to enrich different kinds of metabolisms in the slurry. Positive enrichments were obtained in all types of media, but not at all investigated temperatures. Methanogens using acetate, methanol, and hydrogen and carbon dioxide, sulfate reducers, thiosulfate reducers, fermenters, aerobic heterotrophs could be enriched at temperatures higher than 50oC and even 80oC. Methanogen using methylamine and aerobic methanotroph can only be enriched at temperatures lower than 50 oC. This result is generally consistent with previous energetic evaluation and molecular analysis. It also inferred that microbial assemblages possessing diverse metabolisms were either competitive or collaborative to each other for degradation of organic carbon or carbon cycling. Two strains were isolated from aerobic heterotrophic media. The 16S rDNA gene sequence of one strain exhibited a very close affiliation (at a similarity of 99%) with Meiothermus ruber strain SPS242 and that of the other showed an affiliation to that of Rhodobacter vinaykumarii JA123

  10. Comparative study of the silica and cation geothermometry of the Malawi hot springs: Potential alternative energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulanya, Zuze; Morales-Simfors, Nury; Sivertun, Åke

    2010-06-01

    Malawi is one of the poorest countries in the world and one of the most densely populated in south-eastern Africa. Its major power source is hydro-electricity. During the past few years, the power generation capacity has been reduced, which has impacted negatively on the socio-economic development of the country. The country holds an enormous potential to generate geothermal energy due to the country's position within the Great African Rift valley. This could contribute to economic growth, poverty reduction and technological development in Malawi. The paper presents findings of research on comparisons between silica (quartz and chalcedony) and cation geothermometers (Na-K, Na-K-Ca and K-Mg) of hot springs in the Malawi Rift, in order to deduce the temperature at depth of selected hot springs. The saturation indices of most springs have a bearing on the geology of the areas where these hot springs are found. The Na-K geothermometers are, in general, higher than the Na-K-Ca geothermometer and the K-Mg geothermometer shows temperatures that are too low to be considered. The difference in the results between the different geothermometers may indicate shallow conditions of mixing with groundwater. Results also indicate that some hot springs have sufficient heat-generating capabilities and warrant further exploration work to assess their suitability for energy generation.

  11. Origin of methane in serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal systems: The CH4-H2-H2O hydrogen isotope systematics of the Hakuba Happo hot spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suda, Konomi; Ueno, Yuichiro; Yoshizaki, Motoko; Nakamura, Hitomi; Kurokawa, Ken; Nishiyama, Eri; Yoshino, Koji; Hongoh, Yuichi; Kawachi, Kenichi; Omori, Soichi; Yamada, Keita; Yoshida, Naohiro; Maruyama, Shigenori

    2014-01-01

    Serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal systems have attracted considerable attention as sites of abiotic organic synthesis and as habitats for the earliest microbial communities. Here, we report a systematic isotopic study of a new serpentinite-hosted system: the Hakuba Happo hot spring in the Shiroumadake area, Japan (36°42‧N, 137°48‧E). We collected water directly from the hot spring from two drilling wells more than 500 m deep; all water samples were strongly alkaline (pH>10) and rich in H2 (201-664 μmol/L) and CH4 (124-201 μmol/L). Despite the relatively low temperatures (50-60 °C), thermodynamic calculations suggest that the H2 was likely derived from serpentinization reactions. Hydrogen isotope compositions for Happo #1 (Happo #3) were found to be as follows: δD-H2=-700‰ (-710‰), δD-CH4=-210‰ (-300‰), and δD-H2O=-85‰ (-84‰). The carbon isotope compositions of methane from Happo #1 and #3 were found to be δC13=-34.5‰ and -33.9‰, respectively. The CH4-H2-H2O hydrogen isotope systematics indicate that at least two different mechanisms were responsible for methane formation. Happo #1 has a similar hydrogen isotope compositions to other serpentinite-hosted systems reported previously. The elevated δD-CH4 (with respect to the equilibrium relationship) suggests that the hydrogen of the Happo #1 methane was not sourced from molecular hydrogen but was derived directly from water. This implies that the methane may not have been produced via the Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT) synthesis but possibly by the hydration of olivine. Conversely, the depleted δD-CH4 (with respect to the equilibrium relationship) in Happo #3 suggests the incorporation of biological methane. Based on a comparison of the hydrogen isotope systematics of our results with those of other serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal systems, we suggest that abiotic CH4 production directly from H2O (without mediation by H2) may be more common in serpentinite-hosted systems. Hydration of olivine

  12. Aquaculture facility potential at Boulder Hot Springs, Boulder, Montana. GTA Report No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.G.

    1981-11-01

    The potential of using geothermal water to develop a commercial aquaculture facility to raise channel catfish at Boulder Hot Springs, Montana is examined. Maximum catfish growth occurs in water with a temperature from 80/sup 0/F to 85/sup 0/F. This temperature can be maintaned when the 175/sup 0/F geothermal water is mixed with the available 55/sup 0/F water. The only economically viable culture considered was the raceway culture. The 4000 gpm supply of 55/sup 0/F water could supply 7 to 8 raceways with a total production of 269,000 to 307,000 pounds of catfish per year. This operation, discounting the purchase of land, would cost about $150,000 (1980).

  13. Subsurface temperature trend in response to exploitation of thermal water in Jiashi Hot Spring, northeastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wenfu; Chiang, Hsiehtang

    2015-04-01

    Temperature monitoring provides important information for sustainable management of a geothermal field. Previous studies show that decline of aquifer pressure is an obviously indicator of overexploitation for a thermal aquifer. However, many thermal water producing aquifers don't show pressure declining but with subtle temperature change. How to detect the temperature trend is an important topic for sustainable management of a geothermal field. In this study, we use borehole temperatures measured over a half year interval from 2011 to 2014 and Mann-Kendall method to determine the trends of subsurface temperature in Jiashi Hot Spring, northeastern Taiwan. Our results show that trends of subsurface temperature are related to the hydrogeology and flow field of groundwater. Flow directions of groundwater/thermal water are impacted by exploitation of thermal water of production wells, according to the depths and distribution. Repeatedly measured borehole temperature profiles provide important information to depict the trends of subsurface temperature change.

  14. Arsenic(III) fuels anoxygenic photosynthesis in hot spring biofilms from Mono Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulp, T.R.; Hoeft, S.E.; Asao, M.; Madigan, M.T.; Hollibaugh, J.T.; Fisher, J.C.; Stolz, J.F.; Culbertson, C.W.; Miller, L.G.; Oremland, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis indicates that microbial arsenic metabolism is ancient and probably extends back to the primordial Earth. In microbial biofilms growing on the rock surfaces of anoxic brine pools fed by hot springs containing arsenite and sulfide at high concentrations, we discovered light-dependent oxidation of arsenite [As(III)] to arsenate [As(V)] occurring under anoxic conditions. The communities were composed primarily of Ectothiorhodospira-like purple bacteria or Oscillatoria-like cyanobacteria. A pure culture of a photosynthetic bacterium grew as a photoautotroph when As(III) was used as the sole photosynthetic electron donor. The strain contained genes encoding a putative As(V) reductase but no detectable homologs of the As(III) oxidase genes of aerobic chemolithotrophs, suggesting a reverse functionality for the reductase. Production of As(V) by anoxygenic photosynthesis probably opened niches for primordial Earth's first As(V)-respiring prokaryotes.

  15. North Western Spain hot springs are a source of lipolytic enzyme-producing thermophilic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Deive, Francisco J; Alvarez, María S; Sanromán, M Angeles; Longo, Maria A

    2013-02-01

    Several hot springs in Galicia (North Western Spain) have been investigated as potential sources of lipolytic enzyme-producing thermophilic microorganisms. After isolating 12 esterase producing strains, 9 of them were assured to be true lipase producers, and consequently grown in submerged cultures, obtaining high extracellular activities by two of them. Furthermore, a preliminary partial characterization of the crude lipase, obtained by ultrafiltration of the cell-free culture supernatant, was carried out at several pH and temperature values. It is outstanding that several enzymes turned out to be multiextremozymes, since they had their optimum temperature and pH at typical values from thermoalkalophiles. The thermal stability in aqueous solution of the crude enzymes was also assayed, and the influence of some potential enzyme stabilizing compounds was tested. Finally, the viability of the selected microorganisms has been demonstrated at bioreactor scale. PMID:22763779

  16. Bipole-dipole survey at Roosevelt Hot Springs, Thermal Area, Beaver County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Frangos, W.; Ward, S.H.

    1980-09-01

    A bipole-dipole electrical resistivity survey at Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area, Beaver County, Utah was undertaken to evaluate the technique in a well-studied Basin and Range geothermal prospect. The major electrical characteristics of the area are clearly revealed but are not particularly descriptive of the geothermal system. More subtle variations of electrical resistivity accompanying the geothermal activity are detectable, although the influence of near-surface lateral resistivity variations imposes upon the survey design the necessity of a high station density. A useful practical step is to conduct a survey using transmitter locations and orientations which minimize the response of known features such as the resistivity boundary due to a range front fault. Survey results illustrate the effects of transmitter orientation and placement, and of subtle lateral resistivity variations. A known near-surface conductive zone is detected while no evidence is found for a deep conductive region.

  17. Cellulolytic Activity of Thermophilic Bacilli Isolated from Tattapani Hot Spring Sediment in North West Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Priya, Indu; Dhar, M K; Bajaj, B K; Koul, Sanjana; Vakhlu, Jyoti

    2016-06-01

    Eight thermophilic bacterial strains were isolated from Tattapani Hot spring and screened for various hydrolytic enzymes including cellulases. The isolated bacterial strains were identified as Geobacillus thermodenitrificans IP_WH1(KP842609), Bacillus licheniformis IP_WH2(KP842610), B. aerius IP_WH3(KP842611), B. licheniformis IP_WH4(KP842612), B. licheniformis IP_60Y(KP842613), G. thermodenitrificans IP_60A1(KP842614), Geobacillus sp. IP_60A2(KP842615) and Geobacillus sp. IP_80TP(KP842616) after 16S ribotying. Out of the eight isolates Geobacillus sp. IP_80TP grew best at 80 °C whereas rest of the isolates showed optimal growth at 60 °C. G. thermodenitrificans IP_WH1 produced a thermotolerant cellulase with maximum activity at 60 °C. PMID:27570317

  18. Conceptual geologic model and native state model of the Roosevelt Hot Springs hydrothermal system

    SciTech Connect

    Faulder, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    A conceptual geologic model of the Roosevelt Hot Springs hydrothermal system was developed by a review of the available literature. The hydrothermal system consists of a meteoric recharge area in the Mineral Mountains, fluid circulation paths to depth, a heat source, and an outflow plume. A conceptual model based on the available data can be simulated in the native state using parameters that fall within observed ranges. The model temperatures, recharge rates, and fluid travel times are sensitive to the permeability in the Mineral Mountains. The simulation results suggests the presence of a magma chamber at depth as the likely heat source. A two-dimensional study of the hydrothermal system can be used to establish boundary conditions for further study of the geothermal reservoir.

  19. Legionella thermalis sp. nov., isolated from hot spring water in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Naoto; Sogawa, Kazuyuki; Inoue, Hiroaki; Agata, Kunio; Edagawa, Akiko; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Fukuyama, Masafumi; Furuhata, Katsunori

    2016-03-01

    Strain L-47(T) of a novel bacterial species belonging to the genus Legionella was isolated from a sample of hot spring water from Tokyo, Japan. The 16S rRNA gene sequences (1477 bp) of this strain (accession number AB899895) had less than 95.0% identity with other Legionella species. The dominant fatty acids of strain L-47(T) were a15:0 (29.6%) and the major ubiquinone was Q-12 (71.1%). It had a guanine-plus-cytosine content of 41.5 mol%. The taxonomic description of Legionella thermalis sp. nov. is proposed to be type strain L-47(T) (JCM 30970(T)  = KCTC 42799(T)). PMID:26865126

  20. The hot spring and geyser sinters of El Tatio, Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Turiel, J. L.; Garcia-Valles, M.; Gimeno-Torrente, D.; Saavedra-Alonso, J.; Martinez-Manent, S.

    2005-10-01

    The siliceous sinter deposits of El Tatio geothermal field in northern Chile have been examined petrographically and mineralogically. These sinters consist of amorphous silica (opal-A) deposited around hot springs and geysers from nearly neutral, silica-saturated, sodium chloride waters. Water cooling and evaporation to dryness are the main processes that control the opal-A deposition in both subaqueous and subaerial settings, in close spatial relation to microbial communities. All fingerprints of organisms observed in the studied sinter samples represent microbes and suggest that the microbial community is moderately diverse (cyanobacteria, green bacteria, and diatoms). The most important ecological parameter is the temperature gradient, which is closely related to the observed depositional settings: 1) Geyser setting: water temperature = 70-86 °C (boiling point at El Tatio: 4200 m a.s.l.); coarse laminated sinter macrostructure with rapid local variations; biota comprises non-photosynthetic hyperthermophilic bacteria. 2) Splash areas around geysers: water temperature = 60-75 °C; laminated spicule and column macrostructure, locally forming cupolas (< 30 cm); predominant Synechococcus-like cyanobacteria. 3) Hot spring setting: water temperature = 40-60 °C; laminated spicules and columns and subspherical oncoids characterize the sinter macrostructure; filamentous cyanobacteria Phormidium and diatoms (e.g., Synedra sp.) are the most characteristic microbes. 4) Discharge environments: water temperature = 20-40 °C; sinter composed of laminated spicules and oncoids of varied shape; cyanobacterial mats of Phormidium and Calothrix and diatoms (e.g., Synedra sp.) are abundant. El Tatio is a natural laboratory of great interest because the sedimentary macrostructures and microtextures reflect the geological and biological processes involved in the primary deposition and early diagenesis of siliceous sinters.

  1. Genome Analysis of a New Rhodothermaceae Strain Isolated from a Hot Spring

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Kian Mau; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lim, Soon Wee; Liew, Kok Jun; Chan, Chia Sing; Shamsir, Mohd Shahir; Ee, Robson; Adrian, Tan-Guan-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    A bacterial strain, designated RA, was isolated from water sample of a hot spring on Langkawi Island of Malaysia using marine agar. Strain RA is an aerophilic and thermophilic microorganism that grows optimally at 50–60°C and is capable of growing in marine broth containing 1–10% (w/v) NaCl. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated that this strain is most closely related (<90% sequence identity) to Rhodothermaceae, which currently comprises of six genera: Rhodothermus (two species), Salinibacter (three species), Salisaeta (one species), Rubricoccus (one species), Rubrivirga (one species), and Longimonas (one species). Notably, analysis of average nucleotide identity (ANI) values indicated that strain RA may represent the first member of a novel genus of Rhodothermaceae. The draft genome of strain RA is 4,616,094 bp with 3630 protein-coding gene sequences. Its GC content is 68.3%, which is higher than that of most other genomes of Rhodothermaceae. Strain RA has genes for sulfate permease and arylsulfatase to withstand the high sulfur and sulfate contents of the hot spring. Putative genes encoding proteins involved in adaptation to osmotic stress were identified which encode proteins namely Na+/H+ antiporters, a sodium/solute symporter, a sodium/glutamate symporter, trehalose synthase, malto-oligosyltrehalose synthase, choline-sulfatase, potassium uptake proteins (TrkA and TrkH), osmotically inducible protein C, and the K+ channel histidine kinase KdpD. Furthermore, genome description of strain RA and comparative genome studies in relation to other related genera provide an overview of the uniqueness of this bacterium. PMID:27471502

  2. Geochemistry of hot springs and fumarolic gases from the Banda Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poorter, R. P. E.; Varekamp, J. C.; Sriwana, T.; Van Bergen, M. J.; Erfan, R. D.; Suharyono, K.; Wirakusumah, A. D.; Vroon, P. Z.

    Geothermometry carried out on hot springs occurring on the volcanic non-active Islands of Ambon and Haruku indicates minimum subsurface temperatures of 180°C; for Alor Island we obtained a temperature of 170°C. The hydrothermal systems of these islands are likely crack and fault dominated. Hot springs on the islands with active volcanism indicate subsurface temperatures of 180 to 250°C. The chemical and isotopic compositions of fumarolic gases from the active volcanoes Banda Api in the Banda Archipelago, Serawerna on Teon, Wurlali on Damar and Ili Lewotolo on Lomblen are reported here for the first time. The measured fumarolic gas temperatures ranged from 98°C to 170°C for Banda Api, Laworkawra, Legatala, Serawerna, Wurlali and Sirung volcanoes and reached 490°C for Ili Lewotolo volcano. The main gas components are H 2O, CO 2 and SO 2; CO 2 predominates over (SO 22 + H 2S). The calculated gas equilibrium temperature for Wurlali is 700°C and for Ili Lewotolo more than 1000°C. Stable carbon isotope data for Wurlali ( δ13C = -3.3 % 0) and for Ili Lewotolo ( δ13C = -2.9 % 0) volcanoes are similar to those for other Indonesian volcanoes. The bulk sulfur is relatively rich in the heavy isotope. The 3He/ 4He (R/R A) ratios vary between 1.0 and 3.6, which is low for subduction related volcanoes. A contribution from continental crust or sediment-derived radiogenic 4He is suggested.

  3. Nitrification of archaeal ammonia oxidizers in a high- temperature hot spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shun; Peng, Xiaotong; Xu, Hengchao; Ta, Kaiwen

    2016-04-01

    The oxidation of ammonia by microbes has been shown to occur in diverse natural environments. However, the link of in situ nitrification activity to taxonomic identities of ammonia oxidizers in high-temperature environments remains poorly understood. Here, we studied in situ ammonia oxidation rates and the diversity of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) in surface and bottom sediments at 77 °C in the Gongxiaoshe hot spring, Tengchong, Yunnan, China. The in situ ammonia oxidation rates measured by the 15N-NO3- pool dilution technique in the surface and bottom sediments were 4.80 and 5.30 nmol N g-1 h-1, respectively. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) indicated that the archaeal 16S rRNA genes and amoA genes were present in the range of 0.128 to 1.96 × 108 and 2.75 to 9.80 × 105 gene copies g-1 sediment, respectively, while bacterial amoA was not detected. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed high sequence similarity to thermophilic Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii, which represented the most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTU) in both surface and bottom sediments. The archaeal predominance was further supported by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) visualization. The cell-specific rate of ammonia oxidation was estimated to range from 0.410 to 0.790 fmol N archaeal cell-1 h-1, higher than those in the two US Great Basin hot springs. These results suggest the importance of archaeal rather than bacterial ammonia oxidation in driving the nitrogen cycle in terrestrial geothermal environments.

  4. Diversity of thermophiles in a Malaysian hot spring determined using 16S rRNA and shotgun metagenome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chia Sing; Chan, Kok-Gan; Tay, Yea-Ling; Chua, Yi-Heng; Goh, Kian Mau

    2015-01-01

    The Sungai Klah (SK) hot spring is the second hottest geothermal spring in Malaysia. This hot spring is a shallow, 150-m-long, fast-flowing stream, with temperatures varying from 50 to 110°C and a pH range of 7.0–9.0. Hidden within a wooded area, the SK hot spring is continually fed by plant litter, resulting in a relatively high degree of total organic content (TOC). In this study, a sample taken from the middle of the stream was analyzed at the 16S rRNA V3-V4 region by amplicon metagenome sequencing. Over 35 phyla were detected by analyzing the 16S rRNA data. Firmicutes and Proteobacteria represented approximately 57% of the microbiome. Approximately 70% of the detected thermophiles were strict anaerobes; however, Hydrogenobacter spp., obligate chemolithotrophic thermophiles, represented one of the major taxa. Several thermophilic photosynthetic microorganisms and acidothermophiles were also detected. Most of the phyla identified by 16S rRNA were also found using the shotgun metagenome approaches. The carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen metabolism within the SK hot spring community were evaluated by shotgun metagenome sequencing, and the data revealed diversity in terms of metabolic activity and dynamics. This hot spring has a rich diversified phylogenetic community partly due to its natural environment (plant litter, high TOC, and a shallow stream) and geochemical parameters (broad temperature and pH range). It is speculated that symbiotic relationships occur between the members of the community. PMID:25798135

  5. Light stable isotope study of the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area, Southwestern Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Rohrs D.T.; Bowman, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    The isotopic composition of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon has been determined for regional cold springs, thermal fluids, and rocks and minerals from the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area. The geothermal system has developed within plutonic granitic rocks and amphibolite facies gneiss, relying upon fracture-controlled permeability for the migration of the thermal fluids. Probably originating as meteoric waters in the upper elevations of the Mineral Mountains, the thermal waters sampled in the production wells display an oxygen isotopic shift of at least +1.2. Depletions of delta /sup 18/O in wole rock, K-feldspar, and biotite have a positive correlation with alteration intensity. W/R mass ratios, calculated from the isotopic shifts of rock and water, range up to 3.0 in a producing horizon of one well, although the K-feldspar has experienced only 30% exchange with the thermal waters. While veinlet quartz has equilibrated with the thermal waters, the /sup 18/O values of K-mica clay, an alteration product of plagioclase, mimic the isotopic composition of K-feldspar and whole rock. This suggests that locally small W/R ratios enable plagioclase to influence its alteration products by isotopic exchange.

  6. Microelectrode Studies of Interstitial Water Chemistry and Photosynthetic Activity in a Hot Spring Microbial Mat

    PubMed Central

    Revsbech, Niels P.; Ward, David M.

    1984-01-01

    Microelectrodes were used to measure oxygen, pH, and oxygenic photosynthetic activity in a hot spring microbial mat (Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park), where the cyanobacterium Synechococcus lividus and the filamentous bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus are the only known phototrophs. The data showed very high biological activities in the topmost layers of the microbial mat, resulting in extreme values for oxygen and pH. At a 1-mm depth at a 55°C site, oxygen and pH reached 900 μM and 9.4, respectively, just after solar noon, whereas anoxic conditions with a pH of 7.2 were measured before sunrise. Although diurnal changes between these extremes occurred over hours during a diurnal cycle, microbial activity was great enough to give the same response in 1 to 2 min after artificial shading. Oxygenic photosynthesis was confined to a 0.5- to 1.1-mm layer at sites with temperatures at or above about 50°C, with maximum activities in the 55 to 60°C region. The data suggest that S. lividus is the dominant primary producer of the mat. PMID:16346607

  7. Thioarsenate transformation by filamentous microbial mats thriving in an alkaline, sulfidic hot spring.

    PubMed

    Härtig, Cornelia; Cornelia, Härtig; Planer-Friedrich, Britta; Britta, Planer-Friedrich

    2012-04-17

    Thioarsenates dominate arsenic speciation in sulfidic geothermal waters, yet little is known about their fate in the environment. At Conch Spring, an alkaline hot spring in Yellowstone National Park, trithioarsenate transforms to arsenate under increasingly oxidizing conditions along the drainage channel, accompanied by an initial increase, then decrease of monothioarsenate and arsenite. On-site incubation tests were conducted using sterile-filtered water with and without addition of filamentous microbial mats from the drainage channel to distinguish the role of abiotic and biotic processes for arsenic species transformation. Abiotically, trithioarsenate was desulfidized to arsenate coupled to sulfide oxidation. Monothioarsenate, however, was inert. Biotic incubations proved that the intermediate accumulation of arsenite in the drainage channel is microbially catalyzed. In the presence of sulfide, microbially enhanced sulfide oxidation coupled to reduction of arsenate to arsenite could simply enhance abiotic desulfidation of trithioarsenate and potentially also monothioarsenate. However, we were also able to show, in sulfide-free medium, direct microbial transformation of monothioarsenate to arsenate. Some arsenite formed intermediately, which was subsequently also microbially oxidized to arsenate. This study is the first evidence for microbially mediated thioarsenate species transformation by (hyper)thermophilic prokaryotes. PMID:22380721

  8. Complex polar lipids of a hot spring cyanobacterial mat and its cultivated inhabitants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, D. M.; Panke, S.; Kloppel, K. D.; Christ, R.; Fredrickson, H.

    1994-01-01

    The complex polar lipids of the hot spring cyanobacterial mat in the 50 to 55 degrees C region of Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park, and of thermophilic bacteria cultivated from this or similar habitats, were compared in an attempt to understand the microbial sources of the major lipid biomarkers in this community. Intact complex lipids were analyzed directly by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS), two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography (TLC), and combined TLC-FAB-MS. FAB-MS and TLC gave qualitatively similar results, suggesting that the mat contains major lipids most like those of the cyanobacterial isolate we studied, Synechococcus sp. strain Y-7c-s. These include monoglycosyl, diglycosyl, and sulfoquinosovyl diglycerides (MG, DG, and SQ, respectively) and phosphatidyl glycerol (PG). Though Chloroflexus aurantiacus also contains MG, DG, and PG, the fatty acid chain lengths of mat MGs, DGs, and PGs resemble more those of cyanobacterial than green nonsulfur bacterial lipids. FAB-MS spectra of the lipids of nonphototrophic bacterial isolates were distinctively different from those of the mat and phototrophic isolates. The lipids of these nonphototrophic isolates were not detected in the mat, but most could be detected when added to mat samples. The mat also contains major glycolipids and aminophospholipids of unknown structure and origin. FAB-MS and TLC did not always give quantitatively similar results. In particular, PG and SQ may give disproportionately high FAB-MS responses.

  9. Archaeal Community Structures in the Solfataric Acidic Hot Springs with Different Temperatures and Elemental Compositions

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Keiko; Yamamoto, Hideo; Yamamoto, Shuichi

    2013-01-01

    Archaeal 16S rRNA gene compositions and environmental factors of four distinct solfataric acidic hot springs in Kirishima, Japan were compared. The four ponds were selected by differences of temperature and total dissolved elemental concentration as follows: (1) Pond-A: 93°C and 1679 mg L−1, (2) Pond-B: 66°C and 2248 mg L−1, (3) Pond-C: 88°C and 198 mg L−1, and (4) Pond-D: 67°C and 340 mg L−1. In total, 431 clones of 16S rRNA gene were classified into 26 phylotypes. In Pond-B, the archaeal diversity was the highest among the four, and the members of the order Sulfolobales were dominant. The Pond-D also showed relatively high diversity, and the most frequent group was uncultured thermoacidic spring clone group. In contrast to Pond-B and Pond-D, much less diverse archaeal clones were detected in Pond-A and Pond-C showing higher temperatures. However, dominant groups in these ponds were also different from each other. The members of the order Sulfolobales shared 89% of total clones in Pond-A, and the uncultured crenarchaeal groups shared 99% of total Pond-C clones. Therefore, species compositions and biodiversity were clearly different among the ponds showing different temperatures and dissolved elemental concentrations. PMID:23710131

  10. Microelectrode studies of interstitial water chemistry and photosynthetic activity in a hot spring microbial mat

    SciTech Connect

    Revsbech, N.P.; Ward, D.M.

    1984-08-01

    Microelectrodes were used to measure oxygen, pH, and oxygenic photosynthetic activity in a hot spring microbial mat (Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park), where the cyanobacterium Synechoccus lividus and the filamentous bacteria Chloroflexus aurantiacus are the only known phototrophs. The data showed very high biological activities in the topmost layers of the microbial mat, resulting in extreme values for oxygen and pH. At a 1-mm depth at a 55 C site, oxygen and pH reached 900 micro M and 9.4, respectively, just after solar noon, whereas anoxic conditions with pH of 7.2 were measured before sunrise. Although diurnal changes between these extremes occurred over hours during a diurnal cycle microbial activity was great enough to give the same response in 1 to 2 mm after artificial shading. Oxygenic photosynthesis was confined to a 0.5- to 1.1-mm layer at sites with temperatures at or above about 50 C, with maximum activities in the 55 to 60 C region. The data suggest that S. lividus is the dominant primary producer of the mat. 30 references, 5 figures.

  11. Biodiversity within hot spring microbial mat communities: molecular monitoring of enrichment cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, D. M.; Santegoeds, C. M.; Nold, S. C.; Ramsing, N. B.; Ferris, M. J.; Bateson, M. M.

    1997-01-01

    We have begun to examine the basis for incongruence between hot spring microbial mat populations detected by cultivation or by 16S rRNA methods. We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to monitor enrichments and isolates plated therefrom. At near extincting inoculum dilutions we observed Chloroflexus-like and cyanobacterial populations whose 16S rRNA sequences have been detected in the 'New Pit' Spring Chloroflexus mat and the Octopus Spring cyanobacterial mat. Cyanobacterial populations enriched from 44 to 54 degrees C and 56 to 63 degrees C samples at near habitat temperatures were similar to those previously detected in mat samples of comparable temperatures. However, a lower temperature enrichment from the higher temperature sample selected for the populations found in the lower temperature sample. Three Thermus populations detected by both DGGE and isolation exemplify even more how enrichment may bias our view of community structure. The most abundant population was adapted to the habitat temperature (50 degrees C), while populations adapted to 65 degrees C and 70 degrees C were 10(2)- and 10(4)-fold less abundant, respectively. However, enrichment at 70 degrees C favored the least abundant strain. Inoculum dilution and incubation at the habitat temperature favored the more numerically relevant populations. We enriched many other aerobic chemoorganotrophic populations at various inoculum dilutions and substrate concentrations, most of whose 16S rRNA sequences have not been detected in mats. A common feature of numerically relevant cyanobacterial, Chloroflexus-like and aerobic chemorganotrophic populations, is that they grow poorly and resist cultivation on solidified medium, suggesting plating bias, and that the medium composition and incubation conditions may not reflect the natural microenvironments these populations inhabit.

  12. Complete metagenome sequencing based bacterial diversity and functional insights from basaltic hot spring of Unkeshwar, Maharashtra, India.

    PubMed

    Mehetre, Gajanan T; Paranjpe, Aditi S; Dastager, Syed G; Dharne, Mahesh S

    2016-03-01

    Unkeshwar hot springs are located at geographical South East Deccan Continental basalt of India. Here, we report the microbial community analysis of this hot spring using whole metagenome shotgun sequencing approach. The analysis revealed a total of 848,096 reads with 212.87 Mbps with 50.87% G + C content. Metagenomic sequences were deposited in SRA database with accession number (SUB1242219). Community analysis revealed 99.98% sequences belonging to bacteria and 0.01% to archaea and 0.01% to Viruses. The data obtained revealed 41 phyla including bacteria and Archaea and including 719 different species. In taxonomic analysis, the dominant phyla were found as, Actinobacteria (56%), Verrucomicrobia (24%), Bacteriodes (13%), Deinococcus-Thermus (3%) and firmicutes (2%) and Viruses (2%). Furthermore, functional annotation using pathway information revealed dynamic potential of hot spring community in terms of metabolism, environmental information processing, cellular processes and other important aspects. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis of each contig sequence by assigning KEGG Orthology (KO) numbers revealed contig sequences that were assigned to metabolism, organismal system, Environmental Information Processing, cellular processes and human diseases with some unclassified sequences. The Unkeshwar hot springs offer rich phylogenetic diversity and metabolic potential for biotechnological applications. PMID:26981391

  13. Difference in the action mechanism of radon inhalation and radon hot spring water drinking in suppression of hyperuricemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Etani, Reo; Kataoka, Takahiro; Kanzaki, Norie; Sakoda, Akihiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ishimori, Yuu; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2016-06-01

    Although radon therapy is indicated for hyperuricemia, the underlying mechanisms of action have not yet been elucidated in detail. Therefore, we herein examined the inhibitory effects of radon inhalation and hot spring water drinking on potassium oxonate (PO)-induced hyperuricemia in mice. Mice inhaled radon at a concentration of 2000 Bq/m(3) for 24 h or were given hot spring water for 2 weeks. Mice were then administrated PO at a dose of 500 mg/kg. The results obtained showed that serum uric acid levels were significantly increased by the administration of PO. Radon inhalation or hot spring water drinking significantly inhibited elevations in serum uric acid levels through the suppression of xanthine oxidase activity in the liver. Radon inhalation activated anti-oxidative functions in the liver and kidney. These results suggest that radon inhalation inhibits PO-induced hyperuricemia by activating anti-oxidative functions, while hot spring water drinking may suppress PO-induced elevations in serum uric acid levels through the pharmacological effects of the chemical compositions dissolved in it. PMID:27021217

  14. Complete metagenome sequencing based bacterial diversity and functional insights from basaltic hot spring of Unkeshwar, Maharashtra, India

    PubMed Central

    Mehetre, Gajanan T.; Paranjpe, Aditi S.; Dastager, Syed G.; Dharne, Mahesh S.

    2015-01-01

    Unkeshwar hot springs are located at geographical South East Deccan Continental basalt of India. Here, we report the microbial community analysis of this hot spring using whole metagenome shotgun sequencing approach. The analysis revealed a total of 848,096 reads with 212.87 Mbps with 50.87% G + C content. Metagenomic sequences were deposited in SRA database with accession number (SUB1242219). Community analysis revealed 99.98% sequences belonging to bacteria and 0.01% to archaea and 0.01% to Viruses. The data obtained revealed 41 phyla including bacteria and Archaea and including 719 different species. In taxonomic analysis, the dominant phyla were found as, Actinobacteria (56%), Verrucomicrobia (24%), Bacteriodes (13%), Deinococcus-Thermus (3%) and firmicutes (2%) and Viruses (2%). Furthermore, functional annotation using pathway information revealed dynamic potential of hot spring community in terms of metabolism, environmental information processing, cellular processes and other important aspects. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis of each contig sequence by assigning KEGG Orthology (KO) numbers revealed contig sequences that were assigned to metabolism, organismal system, Environmental Information Processing, cellular processes and human diseases with some unclassified sequences. The Unkeshwar hot springs offer rich phylogenetic diversity and metabolic potential for biotechnological applications. PMID:26981391

  15. Genome Sequence of the Red Pigment-Forming Meiothermus taiwanensis Strain RP Isolated from Paniphala Hot Spring, India

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Trinetra; Bose, Sucharita; Sen, Urmimala; Roy, Chayan; Rameez, Moidu Jameela; Ghosh, Wriddhiman

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the draft genome sequence of Meiothermus taiwanensis strain RP (MCC 2966), isolated from the Paniphala hot spring of India, which contains genes encoding for enzymes of the methyl erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis and carotenoid backbone synthesis. PMID:27365353

  16. Difference in the action mechanism of radon inhalation and radon hot spring water drinking in suppression of hyperuricemia in mice

    PubMed Central

    Etani, Reo; Kataoka, Takahiro; Kanzaki, Norie; Sakoda, Akihiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ishimori, Yuu; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2016-01-01

    Although radon therapy is indicated for hyperuricemia, the underlying mechanisms of action have not yet been elucidated in detail. Therefore, we herein examined the inhibitory effects of radon inhalation and hot spring water drinking on potassium oxonate (PO)–induced hyperuricemia in mice. Mice inhaled radon at a concentration of 2000 Bq/m3 for 24 h or were given hot spring water for 2 weeks. Mice were then administrated PO at a dose of 500 mg/kg. The results obtained showed that serum uric acid levels were significantly increased by the administration of PO. Radon inhalation or hot spring water drinking significantly inhibited elevations in serum uric acid levels through the suppression of xanthine oxidase activity in the liver. Radon inhalation activated anti-oxidative functions in the liver and kidney. These results suggest that radon inhalation inhibits PO-induced hyperuricemia by activating anti-oxidative functions, while hot spring water drinking may suppress PO-induced elevations in serum uric acid levels through the pharmacological effects of the chemical compositions dissolved in it. PMID:27021217

  17. Genome Sequence of the Red Pigment-Forming Meiothermus taiwanensis Strain RP Isolated from Paniphala Hot Spring, India.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Trinetra; Bose, Sucharita; Sen, Urmimala; Roy, Chayan; Rameez, Moidu Jameela; Ghosh, Wriddhiman; Mukhopadhyay, Subhra Kanti

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the draft genome sequence of Meiothermus taiwanensis strain RP (MCC 2966), isolated from the Paniphala hot spring of India, which contains genes encoding for enzymes of the methyl erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis and carotenoid backbone synthesis. PMID:27365353

  18. Impacts of temperature and pH on the distribution of archaeal lipids in Yunnan hot springs, China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weiyan; Zhang, Chuanlun L.; Wang, Huanye; He, Liu; Li, Wenjun; Dong, Hailiang

    2013-01-01

    In culture experiments and many low temperature environments, the distribution of isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) commonly shows a strong correlation with temperature; however, this is often not the case in hot springs. We studied 26 hot springs in Yunnan, China, in order to determine whether temperature or other factors control the distribution of GDGTs in these environments. The hot springs ranged in temperature from 39.0 to 94.0°C, and in pH from 2.35 to 9.11. Water chemistry including nitrogen-, sulfur-, and iron species was also determined. Lipids from the samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS). Distributions of GDGTs in these hot springs were examined using cluster analysis, which resulted in two major groups. Group 1 was characterized by the lack of dominance of any individual GDGTs, while Group 2 was defined by the dominance of GDGT-0 or thaumarchaeol. Temperature was the main control on GDGT distribution in Group 1, whereas pH played an important role in the distribution of GDGTs in Group 2. However, no correlations were found between the distribution of GDGTs and any of the nitrogen-, sulfur-, or iron species. Results of this study indicate the dominance of temperature or pH control on archaeal lipid distribution, which can be better evaluated in the context of lipid classification. PMID:24194734

  19. Geological, geochemical, and geophysical survey of the geothermal resources at Hot Springs Bay Valley, Akutan Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Motyka, R.J.; Wescott, E.M.; Turner, D.L.; Swanson, S.E.; Romick, J.D.; Moorman, M.A.; Poreda, R.J.; Witte, W.; Petzinger, B.; Allely, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    An extensive survey was conducted of the geothermal resource potential of Hot Springs Bay Valley on Akutan Island. A topographic base map was constructed, geologic mapping, geophysical and geochemical surveys were conducted, and the thermal waters and fumarolic gases were analyzed for major and minor element species and stable isotope composition. (ACR)

  20. Imaging Near-Surface Controls on Hot Spring Expression Using Shallow Seismic Refraction in Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, A. N.; Lindsey, C.; Fairley, J. P., Jr.; Larson, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    We used shallow seismic refraction to image near-surface materials in the vicinity of a small group of hot springs, located in the Morning Mist Springs area of Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Seismic velocities in the area surveyed range from a low of 0.3 km/s to a high of approximately 2.5 km/s. The survey results indicate an irregular surface topography overlain by silty sediments. The observed seismic velocities are consistent with a subsurface model in which sorted sands and gravels, probably outwash materials from the Pinedale glaciation, are overlain by silts and fine sands deposited in the flat-lying areas of the Morning Springs area. These findings are supported by published geologic maps of the area and well logs from a nearby borehole. The near-surface materials appear to be saturated with discharging hydrothermal fluids of varying temperature, and interbedded with semi-lithified geothermal deposits (sinter). We hypothesize that the relatively low-conductivity deposits of fines at the surface may serve to confine a shallow, relatively low-temperature (sub-boiling) hydrothermal aquifer, and that the distribution of sinter in the shallow subsurface plays an important role in determining the geometry of hydrothermal discharge (hot springs) at the land surface. Few studies of the shallow controls on hot spring expression exist for the Yellowstone caldera, and the present study therefore offers a unique glimpse into near-subsurface fluid flow controls.

  1. Microbial Diversity of Acidic Hot Spring (Kawah Hujan B) in Geothermal Field of Kamojang Area, West Java-Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Aditiawati, Pingkan; Yohandini, Heni; Madayanti, Fida; Akhmaloka

    2009-01-01

    Microbial communities in an acidic hot spring, namely Kawah Hujan B, at Kamojang geothermal field, West Java-Indonesia was examined using culture dependent and culture independent strategies. Chemical analysis of the hot spring water showed a characteristic of acidic-sulfate geothermal activity that contained high sulfate concentrations and low pH values (pH 1.8 to 1.9). Microbial community present in the spring was characterized by 16S rRNA gene combined with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The majority of the sequences recovered from culture-independent method were closely related to Crenarchaeota and Proteobacteria phyla. However, detail comparison among the member of Crenarchaeota showing some sequences variation compared to that the published data especially on the hypervariable and variable regions. In addition, the sequences did not belong to certain genus. Meanwhile, the 16S Rdna sequences from culture-dependent samples revealed mostly close to Firmicute and gamma Proteobacteria. PMID:19440252

  2. Multielement geochemistry of solid materials in geothermal systems and its applications. Part 1. Hot-water system at the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Bamford, R.W.; Christensen, O.D.; Capuano, R.M.

    1980-02-01

    Geochemical studies of the geothermal system at Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah, have led to development of chemical criteria for recognition of major features of the system and to a three-dimensional model for chemical zoning in the system. Based on this improved level of understanding several new or modified geochemical exploration and assessment techniques have been defined and are probably broadly applicable to evaluation of hot-water geothermal systems. The main purpose of this work was the development or adaptation of solids geochemical exploration techniques for use in the geothermal environment. (MHR)

  3. Parallel geochemical and metagenomic datasets reveal biogeochemical cycling in a hot spring ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Swingley, W.; Raymond, J.; Shock, E.

    2012-12-01

    Environmental sequence data (2,321 16S rRNA clones and 470 megabases of "metagenome" sequence) were produced from biofilms at five sites in the outflow of "Bison Pool" (BP), an alkaline hot spring in the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park. The outflow of BP is characterized by decreasing temperature, increasing pH, increasing dissolved oxygen, decreasing total sulfide, and changing availability of biological nutrients. Microbial life along a 22 m gradient at BP transitions from a 92°C chemotrophic streamer biofilm community in the source pool to a 56°C phototrophic mat community. Coordinated analysis of the BP Environmental Genome and a complementary contextual geochemical dataset of ~75 parameters has revealed biogeochemical cycling and metabolic and microbial community shifts within a hot spring ecosystem (1). In the BP outflow, genes diagnostic for sulfide oxidation, attributed to Aquificales in the chemosynthetic zone and Deinococcus-Thermus at the photosynthetic fringe, decrease in total number downstream. Geochemical data indicate that biological sulfide oxidation, an energy-yielding process in BP, occurs over this same range. While the genetic capacity for sulfate reduction in Thermoproteales at high temperature was found, inorganic sulfate reduction is only minimally energy-yielding at BP suggesting limited activity of these genes. Presence of apr, sat, and dsr genes in the photosynthetic mats may indicate sulfate reduction in micro-niches at depth within the biofilms, perhaps in response to increased availability of organic solutes. Carbon fixation tactics shift downstream in BP as well, as evidenced by the presence of genes associated with specific pathways and carbon isotope ratios. Capacity for the rTCA cycle, attributed to Aquificales and Thermoproteales, and the acetyl co-A pathway are found throughout BP, but are most prevalent in highest temperature sites. At lower temperature sites, fewer total carbon fixation genes were observed

  4. The effects on human health and hydrogeochemical characteristics of the Kirkgeçit and Ozancik Hot Springs, Canakkale, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Pehlivan, Rustem

    2003-06-01

    This investigation was carried out to determine the hydrogeochemical characteristics of the Kirkgeçit and Ozancik hot springs. The study areas are located northeast and southwest of the town of Can, Canakkale. During the investigation, geological maps of the hot springs and its surroundings were prepared, and hot waters and rock samples were collected from the study sites. The Paleogene-Neogene aged andesite, trachyandesite, andesitic tuff, silicified tuff and tuffites form the basement rocks in the Ozancik hot spring area. In the Kirkgeçit hot spring area, there are Lower Triassic aged mica and quartz schists at the basement rocks. The unit is covered by limestones and marbles of the same age. They are overlain by Quaternary alluvial deposits. A chemical analysis of the Kirkgeçit hot water indicates that it is rich in SO(4)2- (1200.2 mgL-1), Cl- (121.7 mgL-1), HCO3- (32.5 mg L-1), Na+ (494 mg L-1), K+ (30.2 mg L-1), Ca2+ (102 mg L-1), Mg2+ (15.2 mg L-1), and SiO2 (65.22 mg L-1). Chemical analysis of the Ozancik hot water indicates that it is rich in SO(4)2- (575 mg L-1), Cl- (193.2 mg L-1), HCO3- (98.5 mg L-1), Na+ (315 mg L-1), K+ (7.248 mg L-1), Ca2+ (103 mg L-1), Mg2+ (0.274 mg L-1), and SiO2 (43.20 mg L-1). The distribution of ions in the hot waters on the Schoeller diagram has an arrangement of r(Na(+) + K+) > rCa2+ > rMg2+ and r(SO(4)2-) > rCl- > r(HCO3-). In addition, the inclusion of Fe2+, Cu2+, Cr3+, Mn2+, Ni2+ and Hg2+ in the hot water samples indicates potential natural inorganic contamination. The water analysis carried out following the ICPMS-200 technique was evaluated according to the World Health Organisation and Turkish Standards. The use and the effects of the hot water on human health are also discussed in the paper. PMID:12901166

  5. Hot spring siliceous stromatolites from Yellowstone National Park: assessing growth rate and laminae formation.

    PubMed

    Berelson, W M; Corsetti, F A; Pepe-Ranney, C; Hammond, D E; Beaumont, W; Spear, J R

    2011-09-01

    Stromatolites are commonly interpreted as evidence of ancient microbial life, yet stromatolite morphogenesis is poorly understood. We apply radiometric tracer and dating techniques, molecular analyses and growth experiments to investigate siliceous stromatolite morphogenesis in Obsidian Pool Prime (OPP), a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park. We examine rates of stromatolite growth and the environmental and/or biologic conditions that affect lamination formation and preservation, both difficult features to constrain in ancient examples. The "main body" of the stromatolite is composed of finely laminated, porous, light-dark couplets of erect (surface normal) and reclining (surface parallel) silicified filamentous bacteria, interrupted by a less-distinct, well-cemented "drape" lamination. Results from dating studies indicate a growth rate of 1-5 cm year(-1) ; however, growth is punctuated. (14)C as a tracer demonstrates that stromatolite cyanobacterial communities fix CO(2) derived from two sources, vent water (radiocarbon dead) and the atmosphere (modern (14)C). The drape facies contained a greater proportion of atmospheric CO(2) and more robust silica cementation (vs. the main body facies), which we interpret as formation when spring level was lower. Systematic changes in lamination style are likely related to environmental forcing and larger scale features (tectonic, climatic). Although the OPP stromatolites are composed of silica and most ancient forms are carbonate, their fine lamination texture requires early lithification. Without early lithification, whether silica or carbonate, it is unlikely that a finely laminated structure representing an ancient microbial mat would be preserved. In OPP, lithification on the nearly diurnal time scale is likely related to temperature control on silica solubility. PMID:21777367

  6. Production and early preservation of lipid biomarkers in iron hot springs.

    PubMed

    Parenteau, Mary N; Jahnke, Linda L; Farmer, Jack D; Cady, Sherry L

    2014-06-01

    The bicarbonate-buffered anoxic vent waters at Chocolate Pots hot springs in Yellowstone National Park are 51-54°C, pH 5.5-6.0, and are very high in dissolved Fe(II) at 5.8-5.9 mg/L. The aqueous Fe(II) is oxidized by a combination of biotic and abiotic mechanisms and precipitated as primary siliceous nanophase iron oxyhydroxides (ferrihydrite). Four distinct prokaryotic photosynthetic microbial mat types grow on top of these iron deposits. Lipids were used to characterize the community composition of the microbial mats, link source organisms to geologically significant biomarkers, and investigate how iron mineralization degrades the lipid signature of the community. The phospholipid and glycolipid fatty acid profiles of the highest-temperature mats indicate that they are dominated by cyanobacteria and green nonsulfur filamentous anoxygenic phototrophs (FAPs). Diagnostic lipid biomarkers of the cyanobacteria include midchain branched mono- and dimethylalkanes and, most notably, 2-methylbacteriohopanepolyol. Diagnostic lipid biomarkers of the FAPs (Chloroflexus and Roseiflexus spp.) include wax esters and a long-chain tri-unsaturated alkene. Surprisingly, the lipid biomarkers resisted the earliest stages of microbial degradation and diagenesis to survive in the iron oxides beneath the mats. Understanding the potential of particular sedimentary environments to capture and preserve fossil biosignatures is of vital importance in the selection of the best landing sites for future astrobiological missions to Mars. This study explores the nature of organic degradation processes in moderately thermal Fe(II)-rich groundwater springs--environmental conditions that have been previously identified as highly relevant for Mars exploration. PMID:24886100

  7. Microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction potential in Chocolate Pots hot spring, Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Fortney, N W; He, S; Converse, B J; Beard, B L; Johnson, C M; Boyd, E S; Roden, E E

    2016-05-01

    Chocolate Pots hot springs (CP) is a unique, circumneutral pH, iron-rich, geothermal feature in Yellowstone National Park. Prior research at CP has focused on photosynthetically driven Fe(II) oxidation as a model for mineralization of microbial mats and deposition of Archean banded iron formations. However, geochemical and stable Fe isotopic data have suggested that dissimilatory microbial iron reduction (DIR) may be active within CP deposits. In this study, the potential for microbial reduction of native CP Fe(III) oxides was investigated, using a combination of cultivation dependent and independent approaches, to assess the potential involvement of DIR in Fe redox cycling and associated stable Fe isotope fractionation in the CP hot springs. Endogenous microbial communities were able to reduce native CP Fe(III) oxides, as documented by most probable number enumerations and enrichment culture studies. Enrichment cultures demonstrated sustained DIR driven by oxidation of acetate, lactate, and H2 . Inhibitor studies and molecular analyses indicate that sulfate reduction did not contribute to observed rates of DIR in the enrichment cultures through abiotic reaction pathways. Enrichment cultures produced isotopically light Fe(II) during DIR relative to the bulk solid-phase Fe(III) oxides. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes from enrichment cultures showed dominant sequences closely affiliated with Geobacter metallireducens, a mesophilic Fe(III) oxide reducer. Shotgun metagenomic analysis of enrichment cultures confirmed the presence of a dominant G. metallireducens-like population and other less dominant populations from the phylum Ignavibacteriae, which appear to be capable of DIR. Gene (protein) searches revealed the presence of heat-shock proteins that may be involved in increased thermotolerance in the organisms present in the enrichments as well as porin-cytochrome complexes previously shown to be involved in extracellular electron transport. This analysis offers

  8. Consideration of Thermoelectric Power Generation by Using Hot Spring Thermal Energy or Industrial Waste Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Keiichi; Horikawa, Daisuke; Goto, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Today, we face some significant environmental and energy problems such as global warming, urban heat island, and the precarious balance of world oil supply and demand. However, we have not yet found a satisfactory solution to these problems. Waste heat recovery is considered to be one of the best solutions because it can improve energy efficiency by converting heat exhausted from plants and machinery to electric power. This technology would also prevent atmospheric temperature increases caused by waste heat, and decrease fossil fuel consumption by recovering heat energy, thus also reducing CO2 emissions. The system proposed in this research generates electric power by providing waste heat or unharnessed thermal energy to built-in thermoelectric modules that can convert heat into electric power. Waste heat can be recovered from many places, including machinery in industrial plants, piping in electric power plants, waste incineration plants, and so on. Some natural heat sources such as hot springs and solar heat can also be used for this thermoelectric generation system. The generated power is expected to be supplied to auxiliary machinery around the heat source, stored as an emergency power supply, and so on. The attributes of this system are (1) direct power generation using hot springs or waste heat; (2) 24-h stable power generation; (3) stand-alone power system with no noise and no vibration; and (4) easy maintenance attributed to its simple structure with no moving parts. In order to maximize energy use efficiency, the temperature difference between both sides of the thermoelectric (TE) modules built into the system need to be kept as large as possible. This means it is important to reduce thermal resistance between TE modules and heat source. Moreover, the system's efficiency greatly depends on the base temperature of the heat sources and the material of the system's TE modules. Therefore, in order to make this system practical and efficient, it is necessary to

  9. Production and Early Preservation of Lipid Biomarkers in Iron Hot Springs

    PubMed Central

    Jahnke, Linda L.; Farmer, Jack D.; Cady, Sherry L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The bicarbonate-buffered anoxic vent waters at Chocolate Pots hot springs in Yellowstone National Park are 51–54°C, pH 5.5–6.0, and are very high in dissolved Fe(II) at 5.8–5.9 mg/L. The aqueous Fe(II) is oxidized by a combination of biotic and abiotic mechanisms and precipitated as primary siliceous nanophase iron oxyhydroxides (ferrihydrite). Four distinct prokaryotic photosynthetic microbial mat types grow on top of these iron deposits. Lipids were used to characterize the community composition of the microbial mats, link source organisms to geologically significant biomarkers, and investigate how iron mineralization degrades the lipid signature of the community. The phospholipid and glycolipid fatty acid profiles of the highest-temperature mats indicate that they are dominated by cyanobacteria and green nonsulfur filamentous anoxygenic phototrophs (FAPs). Diagnostic lipid biomarkers of the cyanobacteria include midchain branched mono- and dimethylalkanes and, most notably, 2-methylbacteriohopanepolyol. Diagnostic lipid biomarkers of the FAPs (Chloroflexus and Roseiflexus spp.) include wax esters and a long-chain tri-unsaturated alkene. Surprisingly, the lipid biomarkers resisted the earliest stages of microbial degradation and diagenesis to survive in the iron oxides beneath the mats. Understanding the potential of particular sedimentary environments to capture and preserve fossil biosignatures is of vital importance in the selection of the best landing sites for future astrobiological missions to Mars. This study explores the nature of organic degradation processes in moderately thermal Fe(II)-rich groundwater springs—environmental conditions that have been previously identified as highly relevant for Mars exploration. Key Words: Lipid biomarkers—Photosynthesis—Iron—Hot springs—Mars. Astrobiology 14, 502–521. PMID:24886100

  10. Silicon isotope fractionation during silica precipitation from hot-spring waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geilert, Sonja; Vroon, Pieter; Keller, Nicole; Gudbrnadsson, Snorri; Stefánsson, Andri; van Bergen, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    Hot-spring systems in the Geysir geothermal area, Iceland, have been studied to explore silicon isotope fractionation in a natural setting where sinter deposits are actively formed over a temperature interval between 20° and 100° C. The SiO2(aq)concentrations in spring and stream waters range between 290 and 560ppm and stay relatively constant along downstream trajectories, irrespective of significant cooling gradients. The waters are predominantly oversaturated in amorphous silica at the temperatures measured in the field. Correlations between the saturation indices, temperature and amounts of evaporative water loss suggest that cooling and evaporation are the main causes of subaqueous silica precipitation. The δ30Si values of dissolved silica in spring water and outflowing streams average around +1o probably due to the small quantities of instantaneously precipitating silica relative to the dissolved amount. Siliceous sinters, in contrast, range between -0.1o to -4.0o consistent with a preferred incorporation of the light silicon isotope and with values for precipitated silica becoming more negative with downstream decreasing temperatures. Larger fractionation magnitudes are inversely correlated with the precipitation rate, which itself is dependent on temperature, saturation state and the extent of a system. The resulting magnitudes of solid-fluid isotopic fractionation generally decline from -3.5o at 10° C to -2.0o at 90° C. These values confirm a similar relationship between fractionation magnitude and temperature that we found in laboratory-controlled silica-precipitation experiments. However, a relatively constant offset of ca. -2.9o between field and experimental fractionation values indicates that temperature alone cannot be responsible for the observed shifts. We infer that precipitation kinetics are a prominent control of silicon isotope fractionation in aqueous environments, whereby the influence of the extent of the system on the precipitation

  11. Thermophilic bacteria in Moroccan hot springs, salt marshes and desert soils

    PubMed Central

    Aanniz, Tarik; Ouadghiri, Mouna; Melloul, Marouane; Swings, Jean; Elfahime, Elmostafa; Ibijbijen, Jamal; Ismaili, Mohamed; Amar, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of thermophilic bacteria was investigated in four hot springs, three salt marshes and 12 desert sites in Morocco. Two hundred and forty (240) thermophilic bacteria were recovered, identified and characterized. All isolates were Gram positive, rod-shaped, spore forming and halotolerant. Based on BOXA1R-PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the recovered isolates were dominated by the genus Bacillus (97.5%) represented by B. licheniformis (119), B. aerius (44), B. sonorensis (33), B. subtilis (subsp. spizizenii (2) and subsp. inaquosurum (6)), B. amyloliquefaciens (subsp. amyloliquefaciens (4) and subsp. plantarum (4)), B. tequilensis (3), B. pumilus (3) and Bacillus sp. (19). Only six isolates (2.5%) belonged to the genus Aeribacillus represented by A. pallidus (4) and Aeribacillus sp. (2). In this study, B. aerius and B. tequilensis are described for the first time as thermophilic bacteria. Moreover, 71.25%, 50.41% and 5.41% of total strains exhibited high amylolytic, proteolytic or cellulolytic activity respectively. PMID:26273259

  12. Iron isotope characteristics of Hot Springs at Chocolate Pots, Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lingling; Brucker, Rebecca Poulson; Beard, Brian L; Roden, Eric E; Johnson, Clark M

    2013-11-01

    Chocolate Pots Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park is a hydrothermal system that contains high aqueous ferrous iron [∼0.1 mM Fe(II)] at circumneutral pH conditions. This site provides an ideal field environment in which to test our understanding of Fe isotope fractionations derived from laboratory experiments. The Fe(III) oxides, mainly produced through Fe(II) oxidation by oxygen in the atmosphere, have high ⁵⁶Fe/⁵⁴Fe ratios compared with the aqueous Fe(II). However, the degree of fractionation is less than that expected in a closed system at isotopic equilibrium. We suggest two explanations for the observed Fe isotope compositions. One is that light Fe isotopes partition into a sorbed component and precipitate out on the Fe(III) oxide surfaces in the presence of silica. The other explanation is internal regeneration of isotopically heavy Fe(II) via dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction farther down the flow path as well as deeper within the mat materials. These findings provide evidence that silica plays an important role in governing Fe isotope fractionation factors between reduced and oxidized Fe. Under conditions of low ambient oxygen, such as may be found on early Earth or Mars, significantly larger Fe isotope variations are predicted, reflecting the more likely attainment of Fe isotope equilibrium associated with slower oxidation rates under low-O₂ conditions. PMID:24219169

  13. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing based microbial diversity assessment of Lasundra hot spring, India.

    PubMed

    Mangrola, Amit V; Dudhagara, Pravin; Koringa, Prakash; Joshi, C G; Patel, Rajesh K

    2015-06-01

    This is the first report on the metagenomic approach for unveiling the microbial diversity of Lasundra hot spring, Gujarat State, India. High-throughput sequencing of community DNA was performed on an Ion Torrent PGM platform. Metagenome consisted of 606,867 sequences represent 98,567,305 bps size with an average length of 162 bps and 46% G + C content. Metagenome sequence information is available at EBI under EBI Metagenomic database with accession no. ERP009313. MG-RAST assisted community analysis revealed that 99.21% sequences were bacterial origin, 0.43% was fit to eukaryotes and 0.11% belongs to archaea. A total of 29 bacterial, 20 eukaryotic and 4 archaeal phyla were detected. Abundant genera were Bacillus (86.7%), Geobacillus (2.4%), Paenibacillus (1.0%), Clostridium (0.7%) and Listeria (0.5%), that represent 91.52% in metagenome. In functional analysis, Cluster of Orthologous Group (COG) based annotation revealed that 45.4% was metabolism connected and 19.6% falls in poorly characterized group. Subsystem based annotation approach suggests that the 14.0% was carbohydrates, 7.0% was protein metabolism and 3.0% genes for various stress responses together with the versatile presence of commercially useful traits. PMID:26484181

  14. [Determination of natural radioactive nuclides in the travertine samples from Tamagawa hot spring].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, T; Masumura, S; Takahashi, K; Sotobayashi, T

    1982-07-01

    The determination of natural radioactive nuclides was carried out for 7 travertine samples collected from Tamagawa hot spring by means of the non-distructive gamma-ray spectrometry and of the alpha-ray spectrometry. From the former measurements, the relative activity strength, due to 223Ra, 226Ra, and 228Th, and their ratios was obtained in comparison with the photopeak strength due to respective daughters, 228Ac, 214Bi, and 212Pb, and with the results from a monazite sand standard. One travertine sample was engaged to the alpha-ray spectrometric determination of Th isotopes after the chemical purification using a 234Th-yield tracer. On the basis of the resultant absolute content of 228Th, the 228Ra and 228Th contents in the remainder samples were evaluated to be the range of 3 approximately 80 Bq (81 approximately 2160 pCi)/g and 2 approximately 20 Bq (54 approximately pCi)/g respectively. These radioactive nuclides were verified to exist almost within a Hokutolite small crystals up to 90% and there are apparently the radioactive disequilibrium relations between 228Ra and 228Th among freshly deposited travertines. The presence of 227Ac in Hokutolite was also suggested from the detection of 227Th owing to 215Po-alpha peak. PMID:7178540

  15. Ecophysiology of an uncultivated lineage of Aigarchaeota from an oxic, hot spring filamentous 'streamer' community.

    PubMed

    Beam, Jacob P; Jay, Zackary J; Schmid, Markus C; Rusch, Douglas B; Romine, Margaret F; Jennings, Ryan de M; Kozubal, Mark A; Tringe, Susannah G; Wagner, Michael; Inskeep, William P

    2016-01-01

    The candidate archaeal phylum 'Aigarchaeota' contains microorganisms from terrestrial and subsurface geothermal ecosystems. The phylogeny and metabolic potential of Aigarchaeota has been deduced from several recent single-cell amplified genomes; however, a detailed description of their metabolic potential and in situ transcriptional activity is absent. Here, we report a comprehensive metatranscriptome-based reconstruction of the in situ metabolism of Aigarchaeota in an oxic, hot spring filamentous 'streamer' community. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that these newly discovered Aigarchaeota are filamentous, which is consistent with the presence and transcription of an actin-encoding gene. Aigarchaeota filaments are intricately associated with other community members, which include both bacteria (for example, filamentous Thermocrinis spp.) and archaea. Metabolic reconstruction of genomic and metatranscriptomic data suggests that this aigarchaeon is an aerobic, chemoorganoheterotroph with autotrophic potential. A heme copper oxidase complex was identified in the environmental genome assembly and highly transcribed in situ. Potential electron donors include acetate, fatty acids, amino acids, sugars and aromatic compounds, which may originate from extracellular polymeric substances produced by other microorganisms shown to exist in close proximity and/or autochthonous dissolved organic carbon (OC). Transcripts related to genes specific to each of these potential electron donors were identified, indicating that this aigarchaeon likely utilizes several OC substrates. Characterized members of this lineage cannot synthesize heme, and other cofactors and vitamins de novo, which suggests auxotrophy. We propose the name Candidatus 'Calditenuis aerorheumensis' for this aigarchaeon, which describes its filamentous morphology and its primary electron acceptor, oxygen. PMID:26140529

  16. Tepidimonas taiwanensis sp. nov., a novel alkaline-protease-producing bacterium isolated from a hot spring.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tien-Lai; Chou, Yi-Ju; Chen, Wen-Ming; Arun, Bhagwath; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2006-02-01

    The bacterial strain designated I1-1(T) was isolated from a hot spring located in the Pingtung area, southern Taiwan. Cells of this organism were Gram reaction negative rods, motile by a single polar flagellum. Optimum conditions for growth were 55 degrees C and pH 7. Strain I1-1(T) grew well in lower nutrient media such as 5-10% Luria-Bertani broth, and its extracellular products expressed alkaline protease activity. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicates that strain I1-1(T) is a member of beta-Proteobacteria. On the basis of a phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences, DNA-DNA similarity data, whole-cell protein analysis, physiological and biochemical characteristics, as well as fatty acid compositions, the organism belonged to the genus Tepidimonas and represented a novel species within this genus. The predominant cellular fatty acids of strain I1-1(T) were 16:0 (about 41%), 18:1 omega7c (about 13%), and summed feature 3 [16:1 omega7c or 15:0 iso 2OH or both (about 26%)]. Its DNA base ratio was 68.1 mol%. We propose to classify strain I1-1(T) (=BCRC 17406(T)=LMG 22826(T)) as Tepidimonas taiwanensis sp. nov. PMID:16215773

  17. Alicyclobacillus vulcanalis sp. nov., a thermophilic, acidophilic bacterium isolated from Coso Hot Springs, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Simbahan, Jessica; Drijber, Rhae; Blum, Paul

    2004-09-01

    A thermo-acidophilic Gram-positive bacterium, strain CsHg2T, which grows aerobically at 35-65 degrees C (optimum 55 degrees C) and at pH 2.0-6.0 (optimum 4.0), was isolated from a geothermal pool located in Coso Hot Springs in the Mojave Desert, California, USA. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that this bacterium was most closely related to the type strains of Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius (97.8 % identity) and Alicyclobacillus sendaiensis (96.9 %), three Japanese strains denoted as UZ-1, KHA-31 and MIH 332 (96.1-96.5 %) and Alicyclobacillus genomic species FR-6 (96.3 %). Phenotypic characteristics including temperature and pH optima, G+C composition, acid production from a variety of carbon sources and sensitivity to different metal salts distinguished CsHg2T from A. acidocaldarius, A. sendaiensis and FR-6. The cell lipid membrane was composed mainly of omega-cyclohexyl fatty acid, consistent with membranes from other Alicyclobacillus species. Very low DNA-DNA hybridization values between CsHg2T and the type strains of Alicyclobacillus indicate that CsHg2T represents a distinct species. On the basis of these results, the name Alicyclobacillus vulcanalis sp. nov. is proposed for this organism. The type strain is CsHg2T (ATCC BAA-915T = DSM 16176T). PMID:15388732

  18. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing based microbial diversity assessment of Lasundra hot spring, India

    PubMed Central

    Mangrola, Amit V.; Dudhagara, Pravin; Koringa, Prakash; Joshi, C.G.; Patel, Rajesh K.

    2015-01-01

    This is the first report on the metagenomic approach for unveiling the microbial diversity of Lasundra hot spring, Gujarat State, India. High-throughput sequencing of community DNA was performed on an Ion Torrent PGM platform. Metagenome consisted of 606,867 sequences represent 98,567,305 bps size with an average length of 162 bps and 46% G + C content. Metagenome sequence information is available at EBI under EBI Metagenomic database with accession no. ERP009313. MG-RAST assisted community analysis revealed that 99.21% sequences were bacterial origin, 0.43% was fit to eukaryotes and 0.11% belongs to archaea. A total of 29 bacterial, 20 eukaryotic and 4 archaeal phyla were detected. Abundant genera were Bacillus (86.7%), Geobacillus (2.4%), Paenibacillus (1.0%), Clostridium (0.7%) and Listeria (0.5%), that represent 91.52% in metagenome. In functional analysis, Cluster of Orthologous Group (COG) based annotation revealed that 45.4% was metabolism connected and 19.6% falls in poorly characterized group. Subsystem based annotation approach suggests that the 14.0% was carbohydrates, 7.0% was protein metabolism and 3.0% genes for various stress responses together with the versatile presence of commercially useful traits. PMID:26484181

  19. New findings: a very high natural radiation area in Afra hot springs, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Ajlouni, Abdul-Wali; Abdelsalam, Manal; Abu-Haija, Osama; Joudeh, Bassam

    2009-01-01

    A high natural radiation zone was investigated for the first time in Afra hot springs of Jordan. The radiation levels were measured using a portable Geiger-Muller counter and an Na(Tl) detector. The measured absorbed dose rates in air ranged from 10 to 1800 nGy h(-1), suggesting that the concentration of natural radioactive materials is very high compared with their normal abundance in crustal rocks. A single high-radiation zone was also found in a nearby area where a gamma radiation dose rate of 4.0 mGy h(-1) was measured. On the basis of this measurement, the area was marked as a high-radiation zone. This region is far from tourist areas and not easily reached. No intervention measures are needed to protect people because the spa area is not well inhabited, having only daily visitors (average frequency of 10 days per year per individual). The dose received by workers in the spa area should be considered and the worker should be monitored by personal radiation dosimeters, such as thermoluminescent dosimeters. PMID:19297533

  20. Thermophilic bacteria in Moroccan hot springs, salt marshes and desert soils.

    PubMed

    Aanniz, Tarik; Ouadghiri, Mouna; Melloul, Marouane; Swings, Jean; Elfahime, Elmostafa; Ibijbijen, Jamal; Ismaili, Mohamed; Amar, Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    The diversity of thermophilic bacteria was investigated in four hot springs, three salt marshes and 12 desert sites in Morocco. Two hundred and forty (240) thermophilic bacteria were recovered, identified and characterized. All isolates were Gram positive, rod-shaped, spore forming and halotolerant. Based on BOXA1R-PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the recovered isolates were dominated by the genus Bacillus (97.5%) represented by B. licheniformis (119), B. aerius (44), B. sonorensis (33), B. subtilis (subsp. spizizenii (2) and subsp. inaquosurum (6)), B. amyloliquefaciens (subsp. amyloliquefaciens (4) and subsp. plantarum (4)), B. tequilensis (3), B. pumilus (3) and Bacillus sp. (19). Only six isolates (2.5%) belonged to the genus Aeribacillus represented by A. pallidus (4) and Aeribacillus sp. (2). In this study, B. aerius and B. tequilensis are described for the first time as thermophilic bacteria. Moreover, 71.25%, 50.41% and 5.41% of total strains exhibited high amylolytic, proteolytic or cellulolytic activity respectively. PMID:26273259

  1. Probability-based classifications for spatially characterizing the water temperatures and discharge rates of hot springs in the Tatun Volcanic Region, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2015-05-01

    Accurately classifying the spatial features of the water temperatures and discharge rates of hot springs is crucial for environmental resources use and management. This study spatially characterized classifications of the water temperatures and discharge rates of hot springs in the Tatun Volcanic Region of Northern Taiwan by using indicator kriging (IK). The water temperatures and discharge rates of the springs were first assigned to high, moderate, and low categories according to the two thresholds of the proposed spring classification criteria. IK was then used to model the occurrence probabilities of the water temperatures and discharge rates of the springs and probabilistically determine their categories. Finally, nine combinations were acquired from the probability-based classifications for the spatial features of the water temperatures and discharge rates of the springs. Moreover, various combinations of spring water features were examined according to seven subzones of spring use in the study region. The research results reveal that probability-based classifications using IK provide practicable insights related to propagating the uncertainty of classifications according to the spatial features of the water temperatures and discharge rates of the springs. The springs in the Beitou (BT), Xingyi Road (XYR), Zhongshanlou (ZSL), and Lengshuikeng (LSK) subzones are suitable for supplying tourism hotels with a sufficient quantity of spring water because they have high or moderate discharge rates. Furthermore, natural hot springs in riverbeds and valleys should be developed in the Dingbeitou (DBT), ZSL, Xiayoukeng (XYK), and Macao (MC) subzones because of low discharge rates and low or moderate water temperatures. PMID:25917185

  2. The nature of serpentine endemism.

    PubMed

    Anacker, Brian L

    2014-02-01

    Serpentine soils are a model system for the study of plant adaptation, speciation, and species interactions. Serpentine soil is an edaphically stressful, low productivity soil type that hosts stunted vegetation and a spectacular level of plant endemism. One of the first papers on serpentine plant endemism was by Arthur Kruckeberg, titled "Intraspecific variability in the response of certain native plant species to serpentine soil." Published in the American Journal of Botany in 1951, it has been cited over 100 times. Here, I review the context and content of the paper, as well as its impact. On the basis of the results of reciprocal transplant experiments in the greenhouse, Kruckeberg made three important conclusions on the nature of serpentine plant endemism: (1) Plants are locally adapted to serpentine soils, forming distinct soil ecotypes; (2) soil ecotypes are the first stage in the evolutionary progression toward serpentine endemism; and (3) serpentine endemics are restricted from more fertile nonserpentine soils by competition. Kruckeberg's paper inspired a substantial amount of research, especially in the three areas reviewed here: local adaptation and plant traits, speciation, and the interaction of climate and soil in plant endemism. In documenting soil ecotypes, Kruckeberg identified serpentine soils as a potent selective factor in plant evolution and helped establish serpentine soils as a model system in evolution and ecology. PMID:24509800

  3. Comprehensive study of LASL Well C/T-2 Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA, Utah, and applications to geothermal well logging

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, W.E.; Hulen, J.B.; Nielson, D.L.

    1981-02-01

    Utah State Geothermal Well 9-1 in the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA, Beaver County, Utah, has been donated by Phillips Petroleum Company for calibration and testing of well-logging equipment in the hot, corrosive, geothermal environment. It is the second Calibration/Test Well (C/T-2) in the Geothermal Log Interpretation Program. A study of cuttings and well logs from Well C/T-2 was completed. This synthesis and data presentation contains most of the subsurface geologic information needed to effect the total evaluation of geophysical logs acquired in this geothermal calibration/test well, C/T-2.

  4. Cultivable diversity of thermophilic arsenite/ferrous-oxidizing microorganisms in hot springs of Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, G.; Lin, Y.; Chang, Y.; Wang, P.; Lin, L.

    2009-12-01

    which are AH3, AH2S3 and ACC3 from almost all sampling sites. Positive heterotrophic enrichments at 80oC were also obtained from almost all sampling sites. Coccus was the dominant morphotype in this enrichment. One 16S rDNA sequence affiliated with Sulfolobus tokodaii was detected from MT enrichments at 80oC. Alicyclobacillus, Geobacillus, Thermus and Meiothermus related strains were purified from 50oC and 70oC heterotrophic enrichments for samples from LH05 SYK, MT and KTL. Physiological tests indicated that these Alicyclobacillus-related strains are firstly reported to be capable of relying solely on arsenite as the energy source. Hydrogenobaculum-related strains were isolated from AH2S3. Both H2 and S were required for growth. Their 16S rRNA sequences resembled Hydrogenobaculum acidophilum H55 obtained from the Yellowstone National Park of USA. The results expand the current view about the diversity of arsenite-resistant microbes in high temperature environments. More molecular and microscopic works are undergoing to characterize interactions between mineral and microbe in enrichments and natural settings and to place better constraints on the biological effect for Fe/As cycling in hot spring.

  5. Carbon-Isotope Fractionations of Autotrophic Bacteria: Relevance to Primary Production and Microbial Evolution in Hot Springs and Hydrothermal Vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C. L.; Romanek, C. S.; Mills, G.

    2004-12-01

    Terrestrial hot springs and marine hydrothermal vents are often dominated by autotrophic microorganisms. Species of the Bacteria Domain in these environments are known to use different pathways for CO2 fixation. These may include the Calvin cycle, the Acetyl CoA pathway, the reverse TCA cycle, and the 3-HP pathway. Each cycle or pathway may be characterized by distinct patterns of carbon isotope fractionation. This presentation will summarize isotope fractionation patterns associated with known autotrophic bacteria and to use these patterns for interpreting natural isotopic variations. Examples will include hot springs from the Yellowstone National Park and Nevada desert, USA and Kamchatka, Russia, and hydrothermal vents from the East Pacific Rise. An attempt will be made to discuss isotopic variations within a particular pathway in the context of species evolution through horizontal gene transfer.

  6. Chemical, isotopic, and dissolved gas compositions of the hot springs of the Owyhee Uplands, Malheur County, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mariner, R.H.; Young, H.W.; Evans, William C.

    1994-01-01

    Hot springs along the Owyhee River in southeastern Oregon between Three Forks and Lake Owyhee could be part of a north flowing regional system or a series of small separate geothermal systems Heat for the waters could be from a very young (Holocene) volcanic activity (basalt flows) of the Owyhee Uplands or the regional heat flow. The springs discharge warm to hot, dilute, slightly alkaline, sodium bicarbonate water. Chemically they are similar to the dilute thermal water at Bruneau Grand View and Twin Falls, Idaho. Maximum aquifer temperatures in the Owyhee Uplands, estimated from chemical geothermometry, are about 100°C. Dissolved helium concentrations, carbon 14 activity, and chemical and isotope data are examined fro systematic trends which would indicate a geothermal system of regional extent.

  7. Geochemical and hydrologic considerations and the use of enthalpy-chloride diagrams in the prediction of underground conditions in hot-spring systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.

    1979-01-01

    Thermal water ascending in a hot-spring system may cool by conduction of heat to the surrounding rock, by boiling, by mixing with cooler water, or by a combination of these processes. Complete or partial chemical reequilibration may occur as a result of this cooling. In spite of these complexities, in many places chemical compositions of hot-spring waters may be used to estimate underground conditions. A plot of enthalpy versus chloride is particularly useful for determining underground temperatures, salinities, and boiling and mixing relations. The utility of this approach is illustrated using hot-spring composition data from Cerro Prieto, Mexico, Orakeikorako, New Zealand, and Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. ?? 1979.

  8. Flow rates in the East Pacific rise (21/sup 0/N) hot springs, and numerical investigations of two regimes of hydrothermal circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Converse, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    Flow rates of 0.7 to 2.4 m/s were measured in the hot springs on the East Pacific Rise (21/sup 0/N). We estimate that the Southwest, National Geographic, and the OBS vents collectively discharge 2 x 10/sup 8/ watts and 150 kg H/sub 2/O/S. The lifetimes of hot springs can not exceed 40,000 years because of the limited heat supply. Mechanical or chemical clogging of the flow routes may shorten these lifetime significantly. We predict that less than 3% of the sulfide particles debouched by the hot springs settle near the vents.

  9. Using Phospholipids and Stable Carbon Isotopes to Assess Microbial Community Structures and Carbon Cycle Pathways in Kamchatka Hot Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, W.; Romanek, C. S.; Burgess, E. A.; Wiegel, J.; Mills, G.; Zhang, C. L.

    2006-12-01

    Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and stable carbon isotopes were used to assess the microbial community structures in Kamchatka hot springs. Eighteen mats or surface sediments were collected from hot springs having temperatures of 31 to 91°C and pHs of 4.9 to 8.5. These samples were clearly separated into three groups according to the bacterial PLFA: 1) those dominated by terminally branched odd-numbered fatty acids, 2) those dominated by C18:1 and 3) those dominated by C20:1. With support from other minor PLFA components, group 2 may be used as biomarkers for Chloroflexales or other phototrophic bacteria and group 3 for Aquificales, respectively. Among the sampled hot springs, the Arkashin pool represents the simplest microbial structure with members of Aquificales being the dominant primary producers. On the other hand, the Zavarzin pool may represent the most heterogeneous pool that may include members of Chloroflexales and Aquificales as primary producers. Bacterial 16S rDNA clone libraries confirmed the presence of these microbial groups in the two pools. Results of stable carbon isotope fractionation between CO2 source, bulk biomass and total PLFA showed that primary producers in the Arkashin pool primarily used the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle (e.g., members of Aquificales); whereas the Zavarzin pool may be a mixture of the 3-hydroxypropionate (3-HP) pathway (e.g. members of Chloroflexales) and the rTCA cycle. Bacterial contribution using the Calvin cycle was not significant and may be less important in Kamchatka hot springs.

  10. CS2 and COS in soil gases of the Roosevelt Hot Springs Known Geothermal Resource Area, Beaver County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, Margaret E.; Harms, Thelma F.

    1978-01-01

    Soil-gas samples were collected in two parallel traverses across the Dome fault zone of the Roosevelt Hot Springs Known Geothermal Resource Area. Gas chromatographic analyses of the samples showed anomalous concentrations of CS3 and COS east of the Dome fault; higher concentrations of CS2 and COS also occurred over an area in which the hydrothermal system is close to the surface. Measurement of these gases may be useful in exploration for new geothermal sources.

  11. Ammonia oxidation driven by archaea rather than bacteria in the hot spring at Tengchong geothermal field, China.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shun; Peng, Xiaotong; Xu, Hengchao; Li, Jiwei; Ta, Kaiwen

    2015-04-01

    The occurrence of microbial mediated ammonia oxidation and these organisms are present in large numbers in natural environments indicated a potential biogeochemical role for them in the global nitrogen cycle. However, very little is understood about their role and contribution to nitrification in the high temperature extreme environments. Here we explore the ammonia oxidation rates and abundance of potential ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in upper and bottom sediments from Gongxiaoshe hot spring, Tengchong, Yunnan, China. The 15N-incorporating AOA cells and cell aggregated were detected with Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and Nano secondary ion mass spectrometry (Nano-SIMS). Ammonia oxidation rates measured using 15N-NO3- pool dilution in upper and bottom sediments (without NH4+ stimulated) were 4.8 and 5.3 nmol N g-1h-1, respectively. Close relatives of the autotrophic, ammonia-oxidizing archaeon 'Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii' represented the most abundant OTU in both of the two spring sediments by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Furthermore, it should be noted that no ammonia-oxidizing bacterial clones detected in this study. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) indicated that AOA and 16S rRNA genes were present at 2.75-9.80×105 and 0.128-1.96×108 gene copies g-1 sediment. Based on the reaction rates and AOA abundance, we estimated the cell-specific nitrification rates were 0.41 to 0.79 fmol N archaeal cell-1 h-1, which are comparable to those observed in estuary environment. We suggest that AOA have the responsibility in nitrification in this hot spring, and these archaea rather than bacteria may be considered as a driver in nitrogen cycling in terrestrial hot ecosystems. Key words: ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA); nitrification; ammonia-oxidizing rate; hot spring;

  12. Hot and Saline Spring Behaviour in the Taupo Volcanic Zone and the North-East German Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacace, M.; Kissling, W.

    2012-04-01

    Hot springs occur in geothermal regions worldwide, and often have important economic or cultural values which can be threatened by geothermal developments. In this paper we describe models of hot springs in the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) in New Zealand, and of saline springs in the Northeast German Basin (NEGB). In New Zealand, the operation of the Wairakei geothermal power station in the 1950's and early 1960's lead to the collapse of the thermal area known as 'Geyser Valley', and more recently, the spring and Geyser activity in Rotorua was threatened by the widespread and uncontrolled drawoff of geothermal water for domestic use. Similarly, in the NEGB, discharge of saline springs poses serious challenges for groundwater management for agricultural and domestic use, having additional implications for future geothermal energy projects. Despite their obviously very different nature the springs in NEGB and TVZ do have some common characteristics: they both feed fluid to the surface from deeper (geothermal) aquifers through embedded hydrogeological heterogeneities (e.g. fracture systems, erosional gaps and unconformities in the internal stratigraphic sequence), and data shows that they both exhibit irregular flowrates, temperatures and chemistries. Currently used models of hot/saline springs do not show these types of behaviour and offer no understanding of the mechanisms of variability in either setting, or indeed the nature of the connections to deeper aquifers. In this paper we present early results from a study aimed at identifying the most important physical mechanisms governing the dynamics of these systems. We use the simulation code NaCl-Tough2 (Kissling, 2005a,b) to accurately represent the thermodynamics of fluids in both systems. Though relatively simplistic in terms of the modelled geometry these models provide new important insights into the variability of the observed flow dynamics as well as in their causative processes at depths. The results obtained

  13. Three-dimensional Q/sup -1/ model of the Coso Hot Springs known geothermal resource area

    SciTech Connect

    Young, C.; Ward, R.W.

    1980-05-10

    Observations of teleseismic P waves above geothermal systems exhibit travel time delays and anomalously high seismic attenuation, which is extremely useful in estimating the thermal regime and the potential of the system. A regional telemetered network of sixteen stations was operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Coso Hot Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA) for such studies from September 1975 to October 1976. Subsequently, they deployed a portable Centipede array of 26 three-component stations near the center of anomaly. The seismograms of 44 events recorded by the telemetered array and nine events by the Centipede array were analyzed using the reduced spectral ratio technique to determine the differential attenuation factordeltat* for the events recorded with the highest signal-to-noise ratio. The deltat* variation observed across the Coso Hot Springs KGRA were small (<0.2 s). A three-dimensional generalized linear inversion of the deltat* observations was performed using a three-layer model. A shallow zone of high attenuation exists within the upper 5 km in a region bounded by Coso Hot Springs, Devils Kitchen, and Sugarloaf Mountain probably corresponding to a shallow vapor liquid mixture or 'lossy' near surface lithology. No zones of significantly high attenuation occur between 5- and 12-km depth. Between the depth of 12--20 km a thick zone of high attenuation (Q<50) exists, offset toward the east from the surface anomaly.

  14. Redistribution of radionuclides between a microbial mat and a carbonate body at the Garga hot spring (Baikal Rift Zone)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazareva, E. V.; Zhmodik, S. M.; Melgunov, M. S.; Petrova, I. V.; Bryanskaya, A. V.

    2011-08-01

    The features of present deposits that form in the vicinity of hot springs can provide clues to the parameters of paleowaters in places of past hydrothermal activity marked by remnant carbonate and/or siliceous sinter. We investigated a large carbonate body at the Garga hot spring developing in the Baikal zone of nitric hydrotherms in the Barguzin Rift Zone valley. The main focus was on the structure of the carbonate mound, as well as on the partitioning of radioactive elements between the cyanobacterial mat and the inorganic component of the body (the issue that has never been explored before). The cyanobacterial community of the Garga spring is an active biosorbent of 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb. The radionuclides accumulated by biosorption become preserved in minerals that form within the bacterial community. The reported data of mineral formation in the cyanobacterial mat along with the mineralogy and structure of the carbonate mound of the Garga spring have implications for the complex history of the Garga body. It has been produced jointly by precipitation from the venting thermal water (opal-calcite-fluorite-barite-celestine assemblage) and microbial metabolic activity (coarse calcite and thin black encrustation rich in Mn minerals).

  15. Effects of geochemical changes on microbial community structure in a hot spring ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havig, J. R.; Hamilton, T. L.; Boyd, E. S.; Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Shock, E.

    2011-12-01

    Microbial community structure analysis is often conducted as a snap-shot of an ecosystem, and can be linked to the geochemistry of its environment at that time. What is less known is how a microbial community may change over time as a result of shifts in geochemical parameters. Hot springs are the surficial expression of subsurface boiling, phase separation, and differential movement of liquid-phase and vapor-phase constituents, which means that hot springs can fluctuate in temperature and composition over short periods of time, providing ideal natural laboratories for testing how microbial community structure changes as a result of geochemical environmental drivers. Geochemical samples from Obsidian Pool (Mud Volcano Area, Yellowstone National Park) collected annually from 2000 to 2010 document variations in the amount of vapor phase and liquid phase input into the system over that time. Chloride concentration increased by 104% (from 14.5 ppm in 2000 to 34.0 ppm in 2010), indicative of increased hydrothermal input, and the sulfate concentration increased by 586% (from 37.3 ppm to 256.2 ppm), suggesting an increased gas-phase sulfide input and subsequent oxidation. These changes were far from monotonic. Chloride and SO4-2 concentrations increased from 1999 to 2004, dropped from 2004 to 2006/2007, and then increased again through 2010. The overall increase in sulfate from sulfide oxidation resulted in a decrease in the pH from 6.8 in 1999 to 4.2 in 2006, with an increase to 5.2 in 2009, and then a drop back down to 4.3 in 2010. Over this time span, temperatures ranged from 76.4 to 85.3°C, with no clearly-evident trend. Microbial community 16S rRNA genes were amplified from total DNA extracted from samples collected from Obsidian Pool in 2000, 2001, 2005, 2009, and 2010, coinciding with geochemical samples. Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction analysis of archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA genes show that bacterial 16S rRNA gene copy numbers decreased from 4.9E6 in

  16. Trace element and REE geochemistry of Red Butte, Oregon: a gold-bearing hot spring system

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, C.S.; Cummings, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    Red Butte, 60 km south of Vale, Oregon is an Au-bearing hot spring deposit of intercalated lacustrine and fluvial Mio-Pliocene volcaniclastic sediments and basalt flows. Topography of the butte is controlled by a 30-60 m thick cap of silicified sediments which is cut by N and NW-trending faults. Anomalous Au, As, Sb, and Hg occur in fault controlled quartz veins, quartz-adularia veins, silicified sediments and rarely in calcite-quartz veins cutting basalt. Distribution of these elements away from the veins is controlled by permeability of the host rock. REE concentrations were normalized to chondritic abundances for 73 sediment, basalt, and vein samples. Silicified sediments from the butte top and unsilicified sediments from the east slope of the butte have similar LREE enriched patterns with strong negative Eu anomalies reflecting their felsic volcanic source. Silicified sediments are depleted in all REEs relative to fresh sediments indicating dilution by silica deposition. Basalt REE patterns are much closer to chondritic ratios. Patterns of veined basalt mirror those for fresh basalts but are relatively depleted in all REEs. Quartz-adularia and quartz veins have REE abundances 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than fresh sediments, and REE patterns unlike either the sediments or basalts. Mobility of REEs in the hydrothermal fluid is seen in La/Sm and Sa/Yb ratios of the veins. The La/Sm ratio for sediments averages 3.70. In veins this ratio drops to 1.65. The average La/Yb ratio is 9.1 in sediments and falls to 1.65 in quartz veins. Fluids depositing quartz and adularia in veins carried REEs in low abundance and deposited them in ratios that do not reflect the host rock. Any movement of REEs in host rock may have been masked by original high REE content combined with silica dilution.

  17. Evaluation of arabinofuranosidase and xylanase activities of Geobacillus spp. isolated from some hot springs in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Canakci, Sabriye; Inan, Kadriye; Kacagan, Murat; Belduz, Ali Osman

    2007-08-01

    Some hot springs located in the west of Turkey were investigated with respect to the presence of thermophilic microorganisms. Based on phenotyping characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, 16 of the isolates belonged to the genus Geobacillus and grew optimally at about 60 degrees C on nutrient agar. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that these isolates resembled Geobacillus species by > or = 97%, but SDS-PAGE profiles of these 16 isolates differ from some of the other species of the genus Geobacillus. However, it is also known that analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences may be insufficient to distinguish between some species. It is proposed that recN sequence comparisons could accurately measure genome similarities for the Geobacillus genus. Based on recN sequence analysis, isolates 11, IT3, and 12 are strains of G stearothermophilus; isolate 14.3 is a strain of G thermodenitrificans; isolates 9.1, IT4.1, and 4.5 are uncertain and it is required to make further analysis. The presence of xylanase and arabinofuranosidase activities, and their optimum temperature and pH were also investigated. These results showed that 7 of the strains have both xylanase and arabinofuranosidase activities, 4 of them has only xylanase, and the remaning 5 strains have neither of these activities. The isolates 9.1, 7.1, and 3.3 have the highest temperature optima (80 degrees C), and 7.2, 9.1, AO4, 9.2, and AO17 have the highest pH optima (pH 8) of xylanase. Isolates 7.2, AO4, AC15, and 12 have optimum arabinofuranosidase activities at 75 degrees C, and only isolate AC 15 has the lowest pH of 5.5. PMID:18051594

  18. A Metastable Equilibrium Model for the Relative Abundances of Microbial Phyla in a Hot Spring

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Jeffrey M.; Shock, Everett L.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies link the compositions of microbial communities to their environments, but the energetics of organism-specific biomass synthesis as a function of geochemical variables have rarely been assessed. We describe a thermodynamic model that integrates geochemical and metagenomic data for biofilms sampled at five sites along a thermal and chemical gradient in the outflow channel of the hot spring known as “Bison Pool” in Yellowstone National Park. The relative abundances of major phyla in individual communities sampled along the outflow channel are modeled by computing metastable equilibrium among model proteins with amino acid compositions derived from metagenomic sequences. Geochemical conditions are represented by temperature and activities of basis species, including pH and oxidation-reduction potential quantified as the activity of dissolved hydrogen. By adjusting the activity of hydrogen, the model can be tuned to closely approximate the relative abundances of the phyla observed in the community profiles generated from BLAST assignments. The findings reveal an inverse relationship between the energy demand to form the proteins at equal thermodynamic activities and the abundance of phyla in the community. The distance from metastable equilibrium of the communities, assessed using an equation derived from energetic considerations that is also consistent with the information-theoretic entropy change, decreases along the outflow channel. Specific divergences from metastable equilibrium, such as an underprediction of the relative abundances of phototrophic organisms at lower temperatures, can be explained by considering additional sources of energy and/or differences in growth efficiency. Although the metabolisms used by many members of these communities are driven by chemical disequilibria, the results support the possibility that higher-level patterns of chemotrophic microbial ecosystems are shaped by metastable equilibrium states that depend on both the

  19. Amphiplicatus metriothermophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermotolerant alphaproteobacterium isolated from a hot spring.

    PubMed

    Zhen-Li, Zhang; Xin-Qi, Zhang; Nan, Wu; Wen-Wu, Zhang; Xu-Fen, Zhu; Yi, Cao; Min, Wu

    2014-08-01

    A thermotolerant, Gram-strain-negative, non-spore-forming and strictly aerobic bacterium, designated GU51(T), was isolated from Guhai hot spring in Jimsar county, Xinjiang province, north-west China. Each cell of strain GU51(T) consisted of an oval body and two symmetrical long (3-6 µm) prosthecae. The strain moved by polar flagellum. Oxidase and catalase were produced. Strain GU51(T) grew within the ranges of 37-65 °C (optimum 48-50 °C), 0.5-7.5% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2-3%) and pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.5). The major respiratory quinone detected was ubiquinone 10 (U-10) and the genomic DNA G+C content was 66.7±0.4 mol%. Major fatty acids (>5%) were C(16 : 0), C(18 : 1)ω7c and 11-methyl C(18 : 1)ω7c. The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, five glycolipids, phosphatidylglycerol and an unknown phospholipid. Phylogenetic analysis showed the closest relatives of strain GU51(T) were members of the genus Parvularcula with 92.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. On the basis of this polyphasic taxonomic characterization, it is suggested that strain GU51(T) represents a novel species of a new genus in the family 'Parvularculaceae', for which the name Amphiplicatus metriothermophilus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is GU51(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12710(T) = JCM 19779(T)). PMID:24867176

  20. Production and Early Preservation of Lipid Biomarkers in Iron Hot Springs

    SciTech Connect

    Parenteau, Mary N.; Jahnke, Linda L.; Farmer, Jack D.; Cady, Sherry L.

    2014-06-01

    The bicarbonate-buffered anoxic vent waters at Chocolate Pots hot springs in Yellowstone National Park are 51–54°C, pH 5.5–6.0, and are very high in dissolved Fe(II) at 5.8–5.9 mg/L. The aqueous Fe(II) is oxidized by a combination of biotic and abiotic mechanisms and precipitated as primary siliceous nanophase iron oxyhydroxides (ferrihydrite). Four distinct prokaryotic photosynthetic microbial mat types grow on top of these iron deposits. Lipids were used to characterize the community composition of the microbial mats, link source organisms to geologically significant biomarkers, and investigate how iron mineralization degrades the lipid signature of the community. The phospholipid and glycolipid fatty acid profiles of the highest-temperature mats indicate that they are dominated by cyanobacteria and green nonsulfur filamentous anoxygenic phototrophs (FAPs). Diagnostic lipid biomarkers of the cyanobacteria include midchain branched mono- and dimethylalkanes and, most notably, 2-methylbacteriohopanepolyol. Diagnostic lipid biomarkers of the FAPs (Chloroflexus and Roseiflexus spp.) include wax esters and a long-chain tri-unsaturated alkene. Surprisingly, the lipid biomarkers resisted the earliest stages of microbial degradation and diagenesis to survive in the iron oxides beneath the mats. Understanding the potential of particular sedimentary environments to capture and preserve fossil biosignatures is of vital importance in the selection of the best landing sites for future astrobiological missions to Mars. Finally, this study explores the nature of organic degradation processes in moderately thermal Fe(II)-rich groundwater springs—environmental conditions that have been previously identified as highly relevant for Mars exploration.

  1. Thermoactinomyces khenchelensis sp. nov., a filamentous bacterium isolated from soil sediment of a terrestrial hot spring.

    PubMed

    Mokrane, Salim; Bouras, Noureddine; Meklat, Atika; Lahoum, Abdelhadi; Zitouni, Abdelghani; Verheecke, Carol; Mathieu, Florence; Schumann, Peter; Spröer, Cathrin; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2016-02-01

    A novel thermophilic filamentous bacterium, designated strain T36(T), was isolated from soil sediment sample from a hot spring source collected in Khenchela province, Algeria. Strain T36(T) was identified as a member of the genus Thermoactinomyces by a polyphasic approach. Strain T36(T) was observed to form white aerial mycelium and non-coloured to pale yellow substrate mycelium, both producing endospores, sessile or borne by short sporophores. The optimum growth temperature and pH were found to be 37-55 °C and 7.0-9.0, respectively and the optimum NaCl concentration for growth was found to be 0-7 % (w/v). The diagnostic diamino acid in the cell wall peptidoglycan was identified as meso-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinone of strain T36(T) was identified as MK-7 (H0). The major fatty acids were found to be iso-C15:0 and iso-C17:0. The phospholipids detected were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphoglycolipid. The chemotaxonomic properties of strain T36(T) are consistent with those shared by members of the genus Thermoactinomyces. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the sequence similarities between strain T36(T) and Thermoactinomyces species with validly published names were less than 98 %. Based on the combined genotypic and phenotypic evidence, it is proposed that strain T36(T) should be classified as representative of a novel species, for which the name Thermoactinomyces khenchelensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is T36(T) (=DSM 45951(T) = CECT 8579(T)). PMID:26678783

  2. Metallosphaera tengchongensis sp. nov., an acidothermophilic archaeon isolated from a hot spring.

    PubMed

    Peng, Tang-Jian; Liu, Li-Jun; Liu, Chang; Yang, Zhi-Fang; Liu, Shuang-Jiang; Jiang, Cheng-Ying

    2015-02-01

    Two novel acidothermophilic archaea, strains Ric-A(T) and Ric-F, were isolated from muddy water samples of a sulfuric hot spring located in Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, PR China. The strains were aerobic and facultatively chemolithoautotrophic. Both strains could oxidize S(0) and K2S4O6 for autotrophic growth, and could use organic materials for heterotrophic growth. Growth was observed at 55-75 °C and pH 1.5-6.5. The strains could oxidize metal sulfide ores, showing their potential in bioleaching. The DNA G+C contents of strains Ric-A(T) and Ric-F were 41.8 and 41.6 mol%, respectively. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the two strains shared 99.8 % sequence similarity to each other, but <97 % to other known species of the genus Metallosphaera. DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that the isolates were different strains of a novel species of the genus Metallosphaera. Strains Ric-A(T) and Ric-F also shared a number of physiological and biochemical characteristics that distinguished them from recognized species of the genus Metallosphaera. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic comparisons with their closest relatives, it was concluded that strains Ric-A(T) and Ric-F represent a novel species of the genus Metallosphaera, for which the name Metallosphaera tengchongensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Ric-A(T) ( = NBRC 109472(T) = CGMCC 1.12287(T)). PMID:25404480

  3. Thermus amyloliquefaciens sp. nov., isolated from a hot spring sediment sample.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tian-Tian; Ming, Hong; Yao, Ji-Cheng; Zhou, En-Min; Park, Dong-Jin; Hozzein, Wael N; Kim, Chang-Jin; Wadaan, Mohammed A M; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-08-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic bacterium, designated strain YIM 77409T, was isolated from the Niujie hot spring in the Eryuan county of Dali, Yunnan province, south-west China. Cells of the strain were rod-shaped and colonies were yellow and circular. The strain grew at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and 50-70°C (optimum, 60-65°C). The predominant menaquinone was MK-8 and the DNA G+C content was 66.4 mol%. Major fatty acids (>10 %) were iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0.The polar lipids consisted of one aminophospholipid, one phospholipid and two glycolipids. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain YIM 77409T formed a cluster with Thermus scotoductus DSM 8553T, Thermus antranikianii DSM 12462T, Thermus caliditerrae YIM 77925T and Thermus tengchongensis YIM 77924T, with highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to T. scotoductus DSM 8553T (97.57%). However, DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that strain YIM 77409T should be viewed as a representative of a novel species, as there was only 30.6 ± 1.6% reassociation with T. scotoductus DSM 8553T. On the basis of the morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, as well as the genotypic data, it is proposed that strain YIM 77409T represents a novel species of the genus Thermus, with the name Thermus amyloliquefaciens sp. nov. The type strain is YIM 77409T ( = DSM 25898T = KCTC 32024T). PMID:25920724

  4. Caldicoprobacter guelmensis sp. nov., a thermophilic, anaerobic, xylanolytic bacterium isolated from a hot spring.

    PubMed

    Bouanane-Darenfed, Amel; Ben Hania, Wajdi; Hacene, Hocine; Cayol, Jean-Luc; Ollivier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2013-06-01

    A hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacterium, designated D2C22(T), was isolated from the hydrothermal hot spring of Guelma in north-east Algeria. The isolate was a Gram-stain-positive, non-sporulating, non-motile rod, appearing singly or in pairs (0.3-0.4 × 8.0-9.0 µm). Strain D2C22(T) grew anaerobically at 45-85 °C (optimum 65 °C), at pH 5-9 (optimum pH 6.8) and with 0-20 g NaCl l(-1). Strain D2C22(T) used glucose, galactose, lactose, fructose, ribose, xylose, arabinose, maltose, cellobiose, mannose, melibiose, sucrose, xylan and pyruvate (only in the presence of yeast extract or biotrypticase) as electron donors. The end products from glucose fermentation were acetate, lactate, CO2 and H2. Nitrate, nitrite, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfate and sulfite were not used as electron acceptors. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0 and iso-C17:0. The DNA G+C content was 41.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain D2C22(T) was most closely related to Caldicoprobacter oshimai JW/HY-331(T), Caldicoprobacter algeriensis TH7C1(T) and Acetomicrobium faecale DSM 20678(T) (95.5, 95.5 and 95.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively). Based on phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain D2C22(T) is proposed to be a representative of a novel species of the genus Caldicoprobacter within the order Clostridiales, for which the name Caldicoprobacter guelmensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is D2C22(T) (=DSM 24605(T)=JCM 17646(T)). PMID:23041645

  5. A metastable equilibrium model for the relative abundances of microbial phyla in a hot spring.

    PubMed

    Dick, Jeffrey M; Shock, Everett L

    2013-01-01

    Many studies link the compositions of microbial communities to their environments, but the energetics of organism-specific biomass synthesis as a function of geochemical variables have rarely been assessed. We describe a thermodynamic model that integrates geochemical and metagenomic data for biofilms sampled at five sites along a thermal and chemical gradient in the outflow channel of the hot spring known as "Bison Pool" in Yellowstone National Park. The relative abundances of major phyla in individual communities sampled along the outflow channel are modeled by computing metastable equilibrium among model proteins with amino acid compositions derived from metagenomic sequences. Geochemical conditions are represented by temperature and activities of basis species, including pH and oxidation-reduction potential quantified as the activity of dissolved hydrogen. By adjusting the activity of hydrogen, the model can be tuned to closely approximate the relative abundances of the phyla observed in the community profiles generated from BLAST assignments. The findings reveal an inverse relationship between the energy demand to form the proteins at equal thermodynamic activities and the abundance of phyla in the community. The distance from metastable equilibrium of the communities, assessed using an equation derived from energetic considerations that is also consistent with the information-theoretic entropy change, decreases along the outflow channel. Specific divergences from metastable equilibrium, such as an underprediction of the relative abundances of phototrophic organisms at lower temperatures, can be explained by considering additional sources of energy and/or differences in growth efficiency. Although the metabolisms used by many members of these communities are driven by chemical disequilibria, the results support the possibility that higher-level patterns of chemotrophic microbial ecosystems are shaped by metastable equilibrium states that depend on both the

  6. Ruegeria intermedia sp. nov., a moderately thermophilic bacterium isolated from a coastal hot spring.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, P; Arun, A B; Rekha, P D; Busse, H-J; Young, C-C; Glaeser, S P

    2013-07-01

    A cream-coloured, Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile moderately thermophilic, rod-to-irregular-shaped bacterium, CC-GIMAT-2(T), was isolated from a coastal hot spring of Green Island (Lutao), located off Taituang, Taiwan, on marine agar 2216. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and subsequent comparisons showed that it was placed into the genus Ruegeria with 97.4 % similarity to Ruegeria lacuscaerulensis ITI-1157(T), and a lower sequence similarity to all other species of the genus Ruegeria. Reconstruction of phylogenetic trees indicated that strain CC-GIMAT-2(T) clustered within the genus Ruegeria. Robust tree topology for the genus Ruegeria including the new strain was only obtained by including all Rhodobacteraceae type strains but not if the analysis was limited to few selected taxa. The quinone system contained exclusively ubiquinone Q-10 and the fatty acid profile consisted mainly of C18 : 1ω7c, 11-methyl C18 : 1ω7c and C12 : 0 3-OH. The predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified aminolipid. Other lipids were detected in moderate to minor amounts. The characteristic feature of the polyamine pattern was the predominant triamine spermidine. On the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and of the chemotaxonomic and physiological data, strain CC-GIMAT-2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Ruegeria, for which the name Ruegeria intermedia sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CC-GIMAT-2(T) ( = CCUG 59209(T) = LMG 25539(T) = CCM 7758(T)). PMID:23243093

  7. Slip and Dilation Tendency Anlysis of Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area

    DOE Data Explorer

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-12-31

    Slip and Dilation Tendency in focus areas Critically stressed fault segments have a relatively high likelihood of acting as fluid flow conduits (Sibson, 1994). As such, the tendency of a fault segment to slip (slip tendency; Ts; Morris et al., 1996) or to dilate (dilation tendency; Td; Ferrill et al., 1999) provides an indication of which faults or fault segments within a geothermal system are critically stressed and therefore likely to transmit geothermal fluids. The slip tendency of a surface is defined by the ratio of shear stress to normal stress on that surface: Ts = τ / σn (Morris et al., 1996). Dilation tendency is defined by the stress acting normal to a given surface: Td = (σ1-σn) / (σ1-σ3) (Ferrill et al., 1999). Slip and dilation were calculated using 3DStress (Southwest Research Institute). Slip and dilation tendency are both unitless ratios of the resolved stresses applied to the fault plane by ambient stress conditions. Values range from a maximum of 1, a fault plane ideally oriented to slip or dilate under ambient stress conditions to zero, a fault plane with no potential to slip or dilate. Slip and dilation tendency values were calculated for each fault in the focus study areas at, McGinness Hills, Neal Hot Springs, Patua, Salt Wells, San Emidio, and Tuscarora on fault traces. As dip is not well constrained or unknown for many faults mapped in within these we made these calculations using the dip for each fault that would yield the maximum slip tendency or dilation tendency. As such, these results should be viewed as maximum tendency of each fault to slip or dilate. The resulting along-fault and fault-to-fault variation in slip or dilation potential is a proxy for along fault and fault-to-fault variation in fluid flow conduit potential. Stress Magnitudes and directions Stress field variation within each focus area was approximated based on regional published data and the world stress database (Hickman et al., 2000; Hickman et al., 1998

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Anoxybacillus suryakundensis Strain JS1T (DSM 27374T) Isolated from a Hot Spring in Jharkhand, India.

    PubMed

    Deep, Kamal; Poddar, Abhijit; Whitman, William B; Das, Subrata K

    2016-01-01

    Anoxybacillus suryakundensis strain JS1(T), a facultative anaerobic, moderately thermophilic, alkalitolerant bacterium, was isolated from a hot spring. The estimated genome is 2.6 Mb and encodes 2,668 proteins. PMID:27516513

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Anoxybacillus suryakundensis Strain JS1T (DSM 27374T) Isolated from a Hot Spring in Jharkhand, India

    PubMed Central

    Deep, Kamal; Poddar, Abhijit; Whitman, William B.

    2016-01-01

    Anoxybacillus suryakundensis strain JS1T, a facultative anaerobic, moderately thermophilic, alkalitolerant bacterium, was isolated from a hot spring. The estimated genome is 2.6 Mb and encodes 2,668 proteins. PMID:27516513

  10. Genome Sequence of Thermoanaerobaculum aquaticum MP-01T, the First Cultivated Member of Acidobacteria Subdivision 23, Isolated from a Hot Spring

    PubMed Central

    Stamps, Blake W.; Losey, Nathaniel A.; Lawson, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Thermoanaerobaculum aquaticum MP-01T is currently the only cultivated and described member of Acidobacteria subdivision 23. Here, we report the genome sequence for this novel microorganism that was isolated from a hot spring. PMID:24926055

  11. PCR detection and analysis of the free-living amoeba Naegleria in hot springs in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Kathy B; Fagg, Jennifer A; Ferris, Michael J; Henson, Joan M

    2003-10-01

    Free-living thermotolerant amoebae pose a significant health risk to people who soak and swim in habitats suitable for their growth, such as hot springs. In this survey of 23 different hot springs in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks, we used PCR with primer sets specific for Naegleria to detect three sequence types that represent species not previously described, as well as a fourth sequence type identified as the pathogen Naegleria fowleri. PMID:14532044

  12. Temperature Adaptations in the Terminal Processes of Anaerobic Decomposition of Yellowstone National Park and Icelandic Hot Spring Microbial Mats

    PubMed Central

    Sandbeck, Kenneth A.; Ward, David M.

    1982-01-01

    The optimum temperatures for methanogenesis in microbial mats of four neutral to alkaline, low-sulfate hot springs in Yellowstone National Park were between 50 and 60°C, which was 13 to 23°C lower than the upper temperature for mat development. Significant methanogenesis at 65°C was only observed in one of the springs. Methane production in samples collected at a 51 or 62°C site in Octopus Spring was increased by incubation at higher temperatures and was maximal at 70°C. Strains of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum were isolated from 50, 55, 60, and 65°C sites in Octopus Spring at the temperatures of the collection sites. The optimum temperature for growth and methanogenesis of each isolate was 65°C. Similar results were found for the potential rate of sulfate reduction in an Icelandic hot spring microbial mat in which sulfate reduction dominated methane production as a terminal process in anaerobic decomposition. The potential rate of sulfate reduction along the thermal gradient of the mat was greatest at 50°C, but incubation at 60°C of the samples obtained at 50°C increased the rate. Adaptation to different mat temperatures, common among various microorganisms and processes in the mats, did not appear to occur in the processes and microorganisms which terminate the anaerobic food chain. Other factors must explain why the maximal rates of these processes are restricted to moderate temperatures of the mat ecosystem. PMID:16346109

  13. Trigonal dendritic calcite crystals forming from hot spring waters at Waikite, North Island, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.; Renault, R.W.; Rosen, M.R.

    2000-05-01

    Amorphous silica and calcite form the deposits in the vent and on the discharge apron of Waikite Spring 100 (WS-100), which is located in the Waikite Geothermal area on North Island, New Zealand. These precipitates formed from spring water that has a temperature of >90 C and a pH of 8.1--8.8. The opaline silica is restricted to areas around the vent where cooling and evaporation of the spring water triggered precipitation. The calcite deposits in the spring vent and on the discharge apron are formed of large (up to 15 cm long) asymmetrical dendrite crystals that are characterized by multiple levels of branching. Branches grew preferentially from the downflow side of their parent branch. All branches have a trigonal transverse cross section except in areas where competition for growth space induced merger of neighboring crystals. The primary branches of the dendrite crystals are (sub)perpendicular to the substrate even in areas where the discharge apron slopes at a high angle (up to 80{degree}). On the steeper parts of the discharge apron, the plate-like primary branches form the floors of the small terrace pools whereas their distal edges form the rims of the pools. Growth of these dendrite crystals is attributed to abiotic processes. High levels of saturation with respect to calcite were caused by rapid CO{sub 2} degassing of the sheets of spring water that flowed down the steep discharge apron. Calcite crystals with different crystal morphologies characterize other springs near this spring. The variation in crystal morphologies from spring to spring is attributed to different levels of saturation that are related to the initial PCO{sub 2} of the spring water upon discharge and the rate of CO{sub 2} degassing at each spring.

  14. Identification And Survival Of Bacteriohopanepolyol In A Hot Spring Microbial Mat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janke, Linda L.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The polar lipids of a hot spring microbial mat located in Yellowstone National Park were examined for the presence of bacteriohopanepolvols (BHP). BHP are a group of molecules consisting of a hopanoid (peotacyclic triterpene) linked via a n-alkyl polyhydroxylated chain to a variety of polar end groups. BHP have been isolated in varying amounts from phylogenetically diverse eubacterial groups including cyanobacteria, methanotrophs and the Rhodospirillaceae. The hopanoids are excellent biomarkers and have been detected in sedimentary rocks as old as 1.7 bya. In order to interpret the ancient organic record, it is important to understand the abundance, source and fate of such biomarker compounds in microbial mats. A 40 sq cm mat section was taken from a 52 to 55 C site in the effluent channel of Octopus Spring and was sampled vertically over approximately 16 mm. The first 5-6 mm was sectioned into a top green layer (310 mg dry weight) and several subjacent, deep orange layers (240 and 250 mg, respectively). The lower 10 mm of the mat was sectioned into two gelatinous orange layers containing a siliceous gritty material (260 and 440 mg) which increased with depth, and a bottom layer composed almost exclusively of siliceous sinter (4.1 g). The progressive decrease in total organic carbon from 45% in the top green layer to only 4% in the bottom layer reflects the observed increase in siliceous deposition. GC-MS analysis of the phospholipid and glycolipid fatty acids yielded predominantly saturated normal chain acids, n-15 to n-18, and iso-branched acids, i-15 to i-17. Small amounts of unsaturated fatty acids (16:1, two positional isomers of 18:1, and two cyclopropyl acids, C(sub 17) and C(sub 19)) were present mainly in the top layer. Esterified fatty acid which is a good index for intact cellular membrane, i.e. viable organisms, was highest in the top two layers (203 and 231 micro g/mg total lipid, respectively) and gradually decreased to 66 micro g/mg total lipid in

  15. "Cold" and "hot" thermal anomalies/events during spring and autumn in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graczyk, Dariusz; Szwed, Małgorzata; Choryński, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Regular air temperatures' changes, as an effect of succession of the seasons, are a part of people's everyday life. When winters and summers are not characterised by extreme thermal conditions, people are well prepared and there are no losses for agriculture and economy or human health consequences observed. A similar situation takes place in case of typical springs and autumns, where normally no too low or too high air temperatures occur. The situation becomes totally different when the air temperature significantly exceeds frames of typical temperature for particular months or seasons. Appearance of winter conditions during months in which they are not expected may lead to losses in different branches of the economy e.g. transport or agriculture. Heat in non-summer months potentially brings less damages for the economy, but it might be a great threat for human health, especially for those with cardiological diseases, and it may result in thermal discomfort. If these conditions last for sufficient period of time, they may cause disorders in plant vegetation cycles. One element of the discussion held on the global warming which has been observed since the half of the twentieth century, is the question of how this effects the occurrence of climatic anomalies. Does it result in an decrease of "cold" thermal anomalies and in an increase of frequency of "hot" anomalies? Or does it increase the occurrence of both types of these events? In this research there will be performed an analysis of the occurrence of conditions typical for winter months, outside the climatic winter (December, January, February) at ten locations in the area of Poland. During the months directly close to this period (November and March) the threshold for winter conditions will be maximum temperature below 0 oC which means occurrence of frost all day long. For other non-summer months the threshold will be mean daily temperature below 0 oC meaning low temperatures during the day, not only morning

  16. Nocardioides pakistanensis sp. nov., isolated from a hot water spring of Tatta Pani in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Amin, Arshia; Ahmed, Iftikhar; Habib, Neeli; Abbas, Saira; Xiao, Min; Hozzein, Wael N; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-08-01

    A Gram-staining positive, non-spore forming, non-pigmented and non-motile bacterium, designated as NCCP-1340(T), was isolated from a hot water spring, Tatta Pani, Pakistan. Cells of strain NCCP-1340(T) were observed to be aerobic, rod shaped, catalase and urease positive but H2S production and oxidase negative. Growth was observed at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and at 20-40 °C (optimum 37 °C). The strain could tolerate 0-8 % NaCl (optimum 2 %, w/v). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that strain NCCP-1340(T) belongs to the genus Nocardioides and is closely related to Nocardioides iriomotensis JCM 17985(T) (96.8 %), Nocardioides daedukensis KCTC 19601(T) (96.6 %), Nocardioides jensenii KCTC 9134(T) (96.1 %) and Nocardioides daejeonensis KCTC 19772(T) (96.1 %). The DNA-DNA relatedness values of strain NCCP-1340(T) with N. iriomotensis JCM 17985(T), N. daedukensis KCTC 19601(T) and N. jensenii KCTC 9134(T) were found to be less than 53 %. The DNA G+C content of strain NCCP-1340(T) was determined to be 71.8 mol  %. The affiliation of strain NCCP-1340(T) to the genus Nocardioides was further supported by chemotaxonomic data which showed the presence of MK-8(H4) as major menaquinone system; iso-C16:0, C17:0, C16:0 10-methyl, iso-C15:0 and C 15:0 as major cellular fatty acids; and diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and unidentified glycolipids and polar lipids in the polar lipids profile. The cell wall peptidoglycan contained LL-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic amino acid. On the basis of physiological and biochemical characteristics and the phylogenetic analyses, strain NCCP-1340(T) can be distinguished from the closely related taxa and thus represents a novel species of the genus Nocardioides, for which the name Nocardioides pakistanensis sp. nov. is proposed with the type strain NCCP-1340(T) (= DSM 29942(T) = JCM 30630(T)). PMID:27170166

  17. [An outbreak of legionellosis in a new facility of hot spring bath in Hiuga City].

    PubMed

    Yabuuchi, Eiko; Agata, Kunio

    2004-02-01

    Following cerebrating ceremony in 20 June 2002, for the completion of Hiuga Sun-Park Hot Spring Bath "Ofunade-no-Yu" facilities, Miyazaki Prefecture, Kyushu Island, 200 neighbors were invited each day to experience bathing on 20 and 21 June. The Bath "Ofunade-no-Yu" officially opened on 1 July 2002. On 18 July, Hiuga Health Center was informed that 3 suspected Legionella pneumonia patients in a hospital and all of them have bathing history of "Ofunade-no-Yu". Health Center officers notified Hiuga City, the main proprietor of the Bath business, that on-site inspection on sanitary managements will be done next day and requested the City to keep the bath facilities as they are. On 19 July, Health Center officers collected bath water from seven places and recommended voluntary-closing of "Ofunade-no-Yu" business. Because of various reasons, Hiuga City did not accept the recommendation and continued business up to 23 July. Because Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains from 4 patients' sputa and several bath water specimens were determined genetically similar by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis of Sfi I-cut DNA. "Ofunede-no-Yu" was regarded as the source of infection of this outbreak. On 24 July, "Ofunade-no-Yu" accepted the Command to prohibit the business. Among 19,773 persons who took the bath during the period from 20 June to 23 July, 295 became ill, and 7 died. Among them, 34 were definitely diagnosed as Legionella pneumonia due to L. pneumophila SG 1, by either one or two tests of positive sputum culture, Legionella-specific urinary antigen, and significant rise of serum antibody titer against L. pneumophila SG 1. In addition to the 8 items shown by Miyazaki-Prefecture Investigation Committee as the cause of infection. Hiuga City Investigation Committee pointed out following 3 items: 1) Insufficient knowledge and understanding of stuffs on Legionella and legionellosis; 2) Residual water in tubing system after trial runs might lead multiplication of legionellae

  18. Anoxybacillus suryakundensis sp. nov, a Moderately Thermophilic, Alkalitolerant Bacterium Isolated from Hot Spring at Jharkhand, India

    PubMed Central

    Deep, Kamal; Poddar, Abhijit; Das, Subrata K.

    2013-01-01

    Four closely related facultative anaerobe, moderately thermophilic, Gram positive rods (JS1T, JS5, JS11, and JS15) were isolated from sediment samples from a hot spring at Suryakund, Jharkhand, India. Colonies were pale yellow, rough surface with uneven edges on TSA after 72 h incubation. Heterotrophic growth was observed at 40-60°C and pH 5.5-11.5; optimum growth occurred at 55°C and pH 7.5. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed the strains belong to genus Anoxybacillus. DNA-DNA homology values among strains were above 70% and showed distinct ERIC and REP PCR profile. On the basis of morphology and biochemical characteristics, strain JS1T was studied further. Strain JS1T showed 99.30% sequence similarity with A. flavithermus subsp. yunnanensis, 99.23% with A. mongoliensis, 99.16% with A. eryuanensis, 98.74% with A. flavithermus subsp. flavithermus, 98.54% with A. tengchongensis, 98.51% with A. pushchinoensis, 97.91% with A. thermarum, 97.82% with A. kaynarcensis, 97.77% with A. ayderensis and A. kamchatkensis, 97.63% with A. salavatliensis, 97.55% with A. kestanbolensis, 97.48% with A. contaminans, 97.27% with A. gonensis and 97.17% with A. voinovskiensis. In 16S rRNA secondary structure based phylogenetic comparison, strain JS1T was clustered with Anoxybacillus eryuanensis, A. mongoliensis, and A. flavithermus subsp. yunnanensis and showed 15 species specific base substitutions with maximum variability in helix 6. Moreover, DNA-DNA relatedness between JS1T and the closely related type strains were well below 70%. The DNA G+C content was 42.1 mol%. The major fatty acids were C15:0 iso, C16:0 iso and C17:0iso. The polar lipids were a phosphatidylgylycerol, a diphosphatidylglycerol, a phosphatidylethnolamine, a phosphatidylcholine, a phosphatidyl monomethylethanolamine and four unknown lipids. Based on polyphasic approach, strain JS1T represent a novel species of the genus Anoxybacillus for which Anoxybacillus suryakundensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type

  19. Sub-glacial Origin of the Hot Springs Bay Valley hydrothermal System, Akutan, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelling, P. L.; Tobin, B.; Knapp, P.

    2015-12-01

    Exploration for geothermal energy in Hot Springs Bay Valley (HSBV) on Akutan Island, Alaska, has revealed a rich hydrothermal history, including what appears to be a stage of peak activity during a significant glacial period. Alteration mineralogy observed in 754 m of drill core recovered from the outflow zone is dominated by chlorite and includes minor smectite clays, a suite of zeolite species and several moderately high-temperature hydrothermal minerals (epidote/clinozoisite, prehnite, adularia and wairakite). The latter minerals each have minimum formation temperatures exceeding 200 oC, and fluid inclusion results in related calcite crystals indicate temperatures of formation to be as high as 275 oC, some 100 oC hotter than the modern boiling point with depth (BPD) curve at that depth (>62 m). In order to maintain liquid temperatures this high, the pressure during mineralization must have been substantially greater (~680 bar), a pressure change equivalent to erosion of ~280 m of rock (ρ=2.5 g/cm3). Although glacial erosion rates are too low (0.034 mm/yr; Bekele et al., 2003) for this amount of erosion to occur in a single glaciation, glacial melting and ablation are substantially more rapid (~100 mm/yr; Bekele et al., 2003; Person et al., 2012). Thus, a more probable scenario than pure erosion is that peak hydrothermal conditions occurred during a large glacial event, with the added pressure from the overlying ice allowing the high temperature minerals to form closer to the ground surface. Subsequent melting of the ice eroded upper tributary valleys and upper levels of the originally smectite-rich alteration assemblage, explaining the paucity of swelling clays in the region. We present mineralogical, fluid inclusion and geochronologic evidence to support these conclusions, and discuss the general implications of sub-glacial hydrothermal system formation and geothermal resource potential. References: Bekele, E., Rostron, B. and Person, M. (2003) Fluid pressure

  20. Caloramator quimbayensis sp. nov., an anaerobic, moderately thermophilic bacterium isolated from a terrestrial hot spring.

    PubMed

    Rubiano-Labrador, Carolina; Baena, Sandra; Díaz-Cárdenas, Carolina; Patel, Bharat K C

    2013-04-01

    An anaerobic, moderately thermophilic, terminal-spore-forming bacterium, designated strain USBA A(T), was isolated from a terrestrial hot spring located at an altitude of 2683 m in the Andean region of Colombia (04° 50' 14.0″ N 75° 32' 53.4″ W). Cells of strain USBA A(T) were Gram-stain-positive, straight to slightly curved rods (0.9×2.5 µm), that were arranged singly or in pairs, and were motile by means of flagella. Growth occurred at 37-55 °C and pH 6.0-8.0, with a doubling time of 2 h under the optimal conditions (50 °C and pH 7.0). Glucose fermentation in strain USBA A(T) required yeast extract or peptone (each at 0.2 %, w/v). The novel strain fermented sugars, amino acids, Casamino acids, propanol, propionate, starch and dextrin, but no growth was observed on galactose, lactose, xylose, histidine, serine, threonine, benzoate, butyrate, lactate, pyruvate, succinate, methanol, ethanol, glycerol, casein, gelatin or xylan. The end products of glucose fermentation were formate, acetate, ethanol and lactate. Strain USBA A(T) did not grow autotrophically (with CO2 as carbon source and H2 as electron donor) and did not reduce thiosulfate, sulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite, vanadium (V) or Fe (III) citrate. Growth of strain USBA A(T) was inhibited by ampicillin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, penicillin and streptomycin (each at 10 µg ml(-1)). The predominant fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 and the genomic DNA G+C content was 32.6 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain USBA A(T) belonged in the phylum Firmicutes and that its closest relative was Caloramator viterbiensis JW/MS-VS5(T) (95.0 % sequence similarity). A DNA-DNA relatedness value of only 30 % was recorded in hybridization experiments between strain USBA A(T) and Caloramator viterbiensis DSM 13723(T). Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic evidence and the results of the DNA-DNA hybridization experiments, strain USBA A

  1. Microbial Fe(III) Oxide Reduction in Chocolate Pots Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortney, N. W.; Roden, E. E.; Boyd, E. S.; Converse, B. J.

    2014-12-01

    Previous work on dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) has focused on high temperature, low pH environments where soluble Fe(III) is utilized as an electron acceptor for respiration. Much less attention has been paid to DIR in lower temperature, circumneutral pH environments, where solid phase Fe(III) oxides are the dominant forms of Fe(III). This study explored the potential for DIR in the warm (ca. 40-50°C), circumneutral pH Chocolate Pots hot springs (CP) in YNP. Most probable number (MPN) enumerations and enrichment culture studies confirmed the presence of endogenous microbial communities that reduced native CP Fe(III) oxides. Enrichment cultures demonstrated sustained DIR coupled to acetate and lactate oxidation through repeated transfers over ca. 450 days. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes indicated that the dominant organisms in the enrichments were closely affiliated with the well known Fe(III) reducer Geobacter metallireducens. Additional taxa included relatives of sulfate reducing bacterial genera Desulfohalobium and Thermodesulfovibrio; however, amendment of enrichments with molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction, suggested that sulfate reduction was not a primary metabolic pathway involved in DIR in the cultures. A metagenomic analysis of enrichment cultures is underway in anticipation of identifying genes involved in DIR in the less well-characterized dominant organisms. Current studies are aimed at interrogating the in situ microbial community at CP. Core samples were collected along the flow path (Fig. 1) and subdivided into 1 cm depth intervals for geochemical and microbiological analysis. The presence of significant quantities of Fe(II) in the solids indicated that DIR is active in situ. A parallel study investigated in vitro microbial DIR in sediments collected from three of the coring sites. DNA was extracted from samples from both studies for 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic sequencing in order to obtain a

  2. Volatile emissions and gas geochemistry of Hot Spring Basin, Yellowstone National Park, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner, C.; Hurwitz, S.; Evans, William C.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Bergfeld, D.; Heasler, H.; Jaworowski, C.; Hunt, A.

    2008-01-01

    We characterize and quantify volatile emissions at Hot Spring Basin (HSB), a large acid-sulfate region that lies just outside the northeastern edge of the 640??ka Yellowstone Caldera. Relative to other thermal areas in Yellowstone, HSB gases are rich in He and H2, and mildly enriched in CH4 and H2S. Gas compositions are consistent with boiling directly off a deep geothermal liquid at depth as it migrates toward the surface. This fluid, and the gases evolved from it, carries geochemical signatures of magmatic volatiles and water-rock reactions with multiple crustal sources, including limestones or quartz-rich sediments with low K/U (or 40*Ar/4*He). Variations in gas chemistry across the region reflect reservoir heterogeneity and variable degrees of boiling. Gas-geothermometer temperatures approach 300????C and suggest that the reservoir feeding HSB is one of the hottest at Yellowstone. Diffuse CO2 flux in the western basin of HSB, as measured by accumulation-chamber methods, is similar in magnitude to other acid-sulfate areas of Yellowstone and is well correlated to shallow soil temperatures. The extrapolation of diffuse CO2 fluxes across all the thermal/altered area suggests that 410 ?? 140??t d- 1 CO2 are emitted at HSB (vent emissions not included). Diffuse fluxes of H2S were measured in Yellowstone for the first time and likely exceed 2.4??t d- 1 at HSB. Comparing estimates of the total estimated diffuse H2S emission to the amount of sulfur as SO42- in streams indicates ~ 50% of the original H2S in the gas emission is lost into shallow groundwater, precipitated as native sulfur, or vented through fumaroles. We estimate the heat output of HSB as ~ 140-370??MW using CO2 as a tracer for steam condensate, but not including the contribution from fumaroles and hydrothermal vents. Overall, the diffuse heat and volatile fluxes of HSB are as great as some active volcanoes, but they are a small fraction (1-3% for CO2, 2-8% for heat) of that estimated for the entire

  3. Modeling fluid flow and heat transfer at Basin and Range faults: preliminary results for Leach hot springs, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    López, Dina L.; Smith, Leslie; Storey, Michael L.

    1994-01-01

    The hydrothermal systems of the Basin and Range Province are often located at or near major range bounding normal faults. The flow of fluid and energy at these faults is affected by the advective transfer of heat and fluid from an to the adjacent mountain ranges and valleys, This paper addresses the effect of the exchange of fluid and energy between the country rock, the valley fill sediments, and the fault zone, on the fluid and heat flow regimes at the fault plane. For comparative purposes, the conditions simulated are patterned on Leach Hot Springs in southern Grass Valley, Nevada. Our simulations indicated that convection can exist at the fault plane even when the fault is exchanging significant heat and fluid with the surrounding country rock and valley fill sediments. The temperature at the base of the fault decreased with increasing permeability of the country rock. Higher groundwater discharge from the fault and lower temperatures at the base of the fault are favored by high country rock permabilities and fault transmissivities. Preliminary results suggest that basal temperatures and flow rates for Leach Hot Springs can not be simulated with a fault 3 km deep and an average regional heat flow of 150 mW/m2 because the basal temperature and mass discharge rates are too low. A fault permeable to greater depths or a higher regional heat flow may be indicated for these springs.

  4. Hydrochemistry of the hot springs in western Sichuan province related to the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi; Du, Jianguo; Zhou, Xiaocheng; Yi, Li; Liu, Lei; Xie, Chao; Cui, Yueju; Li, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogeochemistry of 32 hot springs in the western Sichuan Province after the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake was investigated by analyzing the concentrations of cation and anion and the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen. The water samples of the hot springs were collected four times from June 2008 to April 2010. Hydrogeochemical data indicated the water samples can be classified into 9 chemical types. Values of δ D and δ(18)O indicated that the spring waters were mainly derived from meteoric precipitation and affected by water-rock interaction and mixture of deep fluids. Concentrations of K(+)and SO4(-) of the samples from the Kangding district exhibited evident increases before the Wenchuan earthquake, indicating more supplement of deep fluids under the increase of tectonic stress. The chemical and isotopic variations of the water samples from the area closer to the epicenter area can be attributed to variation of regional stress field when the aftershock activities became weak. PMID:24892106

  5. Hydrochemistry of the Hot Springs in Western Sichuan Province Related to the Wenchuan MS 8.0 Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi; Zhou, Xiaocheng; Yi, Li; Liu, Lei; Xie, Chao; Cui, Yueju; Li, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogeochemistry of 32 hot springs in the western Sichuan Province after the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake was investigated by analyzing the concentrations of cation and anion and the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen. The water samples of the hot springs were collected four times from June 2008 to April 2010. Hydrogeochemical data indicated the water samples can be classified into 9 chemical types. Values of δD and δ18O indicated that the spring waters were mainly derived from meteoric precipitation and affected by water-rock interaction and mixture of deep fluids. Concentrations of K+and SO4− of the samples from the Kangding district exhibited evident increases before the Wenchuan earthquake, indicating more supplement of deep fluids under the increase of tectonic stress. The chemical and isotopic variations of the water samples from the area closer to the epicenter area can be attributed to variation of regional stress field when the aftershock activities became weak. PMID:24892106

  6. Calculating Hot Spring/Atmospheric Coupling Using the Coefficient of Convective Heat Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, C.; Price, A. N.; Fairley, J. P., Jr.; Larson, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    We calculated the correlation between discharge temperature and wind speed for multiple hydrothermal springs, both in the Alvord Basin of southeast Oregon and our primary field location in Yellowstone National Park, using spring temperatures, wind speeds, and air temperatures logged at three minute intervals for multiple days. We find that some hydrothermal springs exhibit strong coupling with wind speed and/or air temperatures. The three springs described in this work display this strong coupling, with correlations between wind speed and spring temperature as high as 70 percent; as a result, we can use the changes in spring temperature as a proxy for changes in the coefficient of convective heat transfer (h) between the springs and the atmosphere. The coefficient of convective heat transfer is a complex parameter to measure, but is a necessary input to many heat and mass flux analyses. The results of this study provide a way to estimate h for springs with strong atmospheric coupling, which is a critical component of a total energy balance for hydrothermal discharge areas.

  7. Biological Sources of Branched Glycerol Dialkyl Glycerol Tetraethers (brGDGTs) in Terrestrial Hot Springs: A Possible Link Between Nitrogen-cycling Bacteria and brGDGT Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. X.; Xie, W.; Boyd, E. S.; Hedlund, B. P.; Zhang, C.

    2014-12-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are common in peat, soil, lakes, rivers and hot springs. To seek the potential biological sources of brGDGTs in geothermal environments, we investigated 65 hot springs in the Yellowstone National Park (USA) and Tengchong (China). Together with previously published data from hot springs in the Great Basin (USA) and Tibet (China), we found that the abundance of brGDGTs tended to peak in springs with pH > 8. This contrasts with previous observations indicating an abundance of brGDGTs in acidic soils and peat bogs, suggesting a different biological source and function for lipids in these environments. In support of this hypothesis, a comparison of Cyclization ratios of Branched Tetraethers (CBT) between hot springs and surrounding soils indicated that more brGDGTs with cyclopentane moieties were produced in alkaline hot springs than in nearby low-temperature soils. Since Acidobacteria (the likely source of brGDGTs in peat bog environments) tend to have low CBT ratios, these data suggest a different source for brGDGTs in hot spring environments. RDA and regression analysis integrating brGDGT compounds and nitrogen species indicate that Bacteria involved in the nitrogen biogeochemical cycle (ammonia oxidation and nitrite reduction) may be related to the production of brGDGTs in terrestrial hot springs. However, direct evidence showing the link between nitrogen-cycling bacteria and brGDGT production has yet to be demonstrated under laboratory conditions. Nevertheless, our study expands the possibility of brGDGT sources into bacterial communities in terrestrial geothermal systems where Acidobacteria are absent or only a minor component.

  8. Sulfur geochemistry of hydrothermal waters in Yellowstone National Park: I. The origin of thiosulfate in hot spring waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, Y.; Schoonen, M.A.A.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Cunningham, K.M.; Ball, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Thiosulfate (S2O2-3), polythionate (SxO2-6), dissolved sulfide (H2S), and sulfate (SO2-4) concentrations in thirty-nine alkaline and acidic springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) were determined. The analyses were conducted on site, using ion chromatography for thiosulfate, polythionate, and sulfate, and using colorimetry for dissolved sulfide. Thiosulfate was detected at concentrations typically less than 2 ??mol/L in neutral and alkaline chloride springs with low sulfate concentrations (C1-/SO2-4 > 25). The thiosulfate concentration levels are about one to two orders of magnitude lower than the concentration of dissolved sulfide in these springs. In most acid sulfate and acid sulfate-chloride springs (Cl-/SO2-4 < 10), thiosulfate concentrations were also typically lower than 2 ??mol/L. However, in some chloride springs enriched with sulfate (Cl-/SO2-4 between 10 to 25), thiosulfate was found at concentrations ranging from 9 to 95 ??mol/L, higher than the concentrations of dissolved sulfide in these waters. Polythionate was detected only in Cinder Pool, Norris Geyser basin, at concentrations up to 8 ??mol/L, with an average S-chain-length from 4.1 to 4.9 sulfur atoms. The results indicate that no thiosulfate occurs in the deeper parts of the hydrothermal system. Thiosulfate may form, however, from (1) hydrolysis of native sulfur by hydrothermal solutions in the shallower parts (<50 m) of the system, (2) oxidation of dissolved sulfide upon mixing of a deep hydrothermal water with aerated shallow groundwater, and (3) the oxidation of dissolved sulfide by dissolved oxygen upon discharge of the hot spring. Upon discharge of a sulfide-containing hydrothermal water, oxidation proceeds rapidly as atmospheric oxygen enters the water. The transfer of oxygen is particularly effective if the hydrothermal discharge is turbulent and has a large surface area.

  9. Geothermal reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope compositions of dissolved sulfate and water from hot springs and shallow drillholes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, W.F.; Truesdell, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    The oxygen isotope compositions of dissolved sulfate and water from hot springs and shallow drillholes have been tested as a geothermometer in three areas of the western United States. Limited analyses of spring and borehole fluids and existing experimental rate studies suggest that dissolved sulfate and water are probably in isotopic equilibrium in all reservoirs of significant size with temperatures above ca. 140??C and that little re-equilibration occurs during ascent to the surface. The geothermometer is, however, affected by changes in ??18O of water due to subsurface boiling and dilution and by addition of sulfate of nearsurface origin. Methods are described to calculate the effects of boiling and dilution. The geothermometer, is applied to thermal systems of Yellowstone Park, Wyoming, Long Valley, California, and Raft River, Idaho to estimate deep reservoir temperatures of 360, 240, and 142??C, respectively. ?? 1976.

  10. Calculation of the Relative Chemical Stabilities of Proteins as a Function of Temperature and Redox Chemistry in a Hot Spring

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Jeffrey M.; Shock, Everett L.

    2011-01-01

    Uncovering the chemical and physical links between natural environments and microbial communities is becoming increasingly amenable owing to geochemical observations and metagenomic sequencing. At the hot spring known as Bison Pool in Yellowstone National Park, the cooling of the water in the outflow channel is associated with an increase in oxidation potential estimated from multiple field-based measurements. Representative groups of proteins whose sequences were derived from metagenomic data also exhibit an increase in average oxidation state of carbon in the protein molecules with distance from the hot-spring source. The energetic requirements of reactions to form selected proteins used in the model were computed using amino-acid group additivity for the standard molal thermodynamic properties of the proteins, and the relative chemical stabilities of the proteins were investigated by varying temperature, pH and oxidation state, expressed as activity of dissolved hydrogen. The relative stabilities of the proteins were found to track the locations of the sampling sites when the calculations included a function for hydrogen activity that increases with temperature and is higher, or more reducing, than values consistent with measurements of dissolved oxygen, sulfide and oxidation-reduction potential in the field. These findings imply that spatial patterns in the amino acid compositions of proteins can be linked, through energetics of overall chemical reactions representing the formation of the proteins, to the environmental conditions at this hot spring, even if microbial cells maintain considerably different internal conditions. Further applications of the thermodynamic calculations are possible for other natural microbial ecosystems. PMID:21853048

  11. Metabolic characteristics of dominant microbes and key rare species from an acidic hot spring in Taiwan revealed by metagenomics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lin, Kuei -Han; Liao, Ben -Yang; Chang, Hao -Wei; Huang, Shiao -Wei; Chang, Ting -Yan; Yang, Cheng -Yu; Wang, Yu -Bin; Lin, Yu-Teh Kirk; Wu, Yu -Wei; Tang, Sen -Lin; et al

    2015-12-03

    Microbial diversity and community structures in acidic hot springs have been characterized by 16S rRNA gene-based diversity surveys. However, our understanding regarding the interactions among microbes, or between microbes and environmental factors, remains limited. In the present study, a metagenomic approach, followed by bioinformatics analyses, were used to predict interactions within the microbial ecosystem in Shi-Huang-Ping (SHP), an acidic hot spring in northern Taiwan. Characterizing environmental parameters and potential metabolic pathways highlighted the importance of carbon assimilatory pathways. Four distinct carbon assimilatory pathways were identified in five dominant genera of bacteria. Of those dominant carbon fixers, Hydrogenobaculum bacteria outcompeted othermore » carbon assimilators and dominated the SHP, presumably due to their ability to metabolize hydrogen and to withstand an anaerobic environment with fluctuating temperatures. Furthermore, most dominant microbes were capable of metabolizing inorganic sulfur-related compounds (abundant in SHP). However, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was the only species among key rare microbes with the capability to fix nitrogen, suggesting a key role in nitrogen cycling. In addition to potential metabolic interactions, based on the 16S rRNAs gene sequence of Nanoarchaeum-related and its potential host Ignicoccus-related archaea, as well as sequences of viruses and CRISPR arrays, we inferred that there were complex microbe-microbe interactions. In conclusion, our study provided evidence that there were numerous microbe-microbe and microbe-environment interactions within the microbial community in an acidic hot spring. We proposed that Hydrogenobaculum bacteria were the dominant microbial genus, as they were able to metabolize hydrogen, assimilate carbon and live in an anaerobic environment with fluctuating temperatures.« less

  12. Metabolic characteristics of dominant microbes and key rare species from an acidic hot spring in Taiwan revealed by metagenomics

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Kuei -Han; Liao, Ben -Yang; Chang, Hao -Wei; Huang, Shiao -Wei; Chang, Ting -Yan; Yang, Cheng -Yu; Wang, Yu -Bin; Lin, Yu-Teh Kirk; Wu, Yu -Wei; Tang, Sen -Lin; Yu, Hon -Tsen

    2015-12-03

    Microbial diversity and community structures in acidic hot springs have been characterized by 16S rRNA gene-based diversity surveys. However, our understanding regarding the interactions among microbes, or between microbes and environmental factors, remains limited. In the present study, a metagenomic approach, followed by bioinformatics analyses, were used to predict interactions within the microbial ecosystem in Shi-Huang-Ping (SHP), an acidic hot spring in northern Taiwan. Characterizing environmental parameters and potential metabolic pathways highlighted the importance of carbon assimilatory pathways. Four distinct carbon assimilatory pathways were identified in five dominant genera of bacteria. Of those dominant carbon fixers, Hydrogenobaculum bacteria outcompeted other carbon assimilators and dominated the SHP, presumably due to their ability to metabolize hydrogen and to withstand an anaerobic environment with fluctuating temperatures. Furthermore, most dominant microbes were capable of metabolizing inorganic sulfur-related compounds (abundant in SHP). However, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was the only species among key rare microbes with the capability to fix nitrogen, suggesting a key role in nitrogen cycling. In addition to potential metabolic interactions, based on the 16S rRNAs gene sequence of Nanoarchaeum-related and its potential host Ignicoccus-related archaea, as well as sequences of viruses and CRISPR arrays, we inferred that there were complex microbe-microbe interactions. In conclusion, our study provided evidence that there were numerous microbe-microbe and microbe-environment interactions within the microbial community in an acidic hot spring. We proposed that Hydrogenobaculum bacteria were the dominant microbial genus, as they were able to metabolize hydrogen, assimilate carbon and live in an anaerobic environment with fluctuating temperatures.

  13. Identification of Novel Positive-Strand RNA Viruses by Metagenomic Analysis of Archaea-Dominated Yellowstone Hot Springs

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin Bolduc; Daniel P. Shaughnessy; Yuri I. Wolf; Eugene V. Koonin; Francisco F. Roberto; Mark Young

    2012-05-01

    There are no known RNA viruses that infect Archaea. Filling this gap in our knowledge of viruses will enhance our understanding of the relationships between RNA viruses from the three domains of cellular life and, in particular, could shed light on the origin of the enormous diversity of RNA viruses infecting eukaryotes. We describe here the identification of novel RNA viral genome segments from high-temperature acidic hot springs in Yellowstone National Park in the United States. These hot springs harbor low-complexity cellular communities dominated by several species of hyperthermophilic Archaea. A viral metagenomics approach was taken to assemble segments of these RNA virus genomes from viral populations isolated directly from hot spring samples. Analysis of these RNA metagenomes demonstrated unique gene content that is not generally related to known RNA viruses of Bacteria and Eukarya. However, genes for RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), a hallmark of positive-strand RNA viruses, were identified in two contigs. One of these contigs is approximately 5,600 nucleotides in length and encodes a polyprotein that also contains a region homologous to the capsid protein of nodaviruses, tetraviruses, and birnaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses of the RdRps encoded in these contigs indicate that the putative archaeal viruses form a unique group that is distinct from the RdRps of RNA viruses of Eukarya and Bacteria. Collectively, our findings suggest the existence of novel positive-strand RNA viruses that probably replicate in hyperthermophilic archaeal hosts and are highly divergent from RNA viruses that infect eukaryotes and even more distant from known bacterial RNA viruses. These positive-strand RNA viruses might be direct ancestors of RNA viruses of eukaryotes.

  14. Recent drilling activities at the earth power resources Tuscarora geothermal power project's hot sulphur springs lease area.

    SciTech Connect

    Goranson, Colin

    2005-03-01

    Earth Power Resources, Inc. recently completed a combined rotary/core hole to a depth of 3,813 feet at it's Hot Sulphur Springs Tuscarora Geothermal Power Project Lease Area located 70-miles north of Elko, Nevada. Previous geothermal exploration data were combined with geologic mapping and newly acquired seismic-reflection data to identify a northerly tending horst-graben structure approximately 2,000 feet wide by at least 6,000 feet long with up to 1,700 feet of vertical offset. The well (HSS-2) was successfully drilled through a shallow thick sequence of altered Tertiary Volcanic where previous exploration wells had severe hole-caving problems. The ''tight-hole'' drilling problems were reduced using drilling fluids consisting of Polymer-based mud mixed with 2% Potassium Chloride (KCl) to reduce Smectite-type clay swelling problems. Core from the 330 F fractured geothermal reservoir system at depths of 2,950 feet indicated 30% Smectite type clays existed in a fault-gouge zone where total loss of circulation occurred during coring. Smectite-type clays are not typically expected at temperatures above 300 F. The fracture zone at 2,950 feet exhibited a skin-damage during injection testing suggesting that the drilling fluids may have caused clay swelling and subsequent geothermal reservoir formation damage. The recent well drilling experiences indicate that drilling problems in the shallow clays at Hot Sulphur Springs can be reduced. In addition, average penetration rates through the caprock system can be on the order of 25 to 35 feet per hour. This information has greatly reduced the original estimated well costs that were based on previous exploration drilling efforts. Successful production formation drilling will depend on finding drilling fluids that will not cause formation damage in the Smectite-rich fractured geothermal reservoir system. Information obtained at Hot Sulphur Springs may apply to other geothermal systems developed in volcanic settings.

  15. Identification of novel positive-strand RNA viruses by metagenomic analysis of archaea-dominated Yellowstone hot springs.

    PubMed

    Bolduc, Benjamin; Shaughnessy, Daniel P; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V; Roberto, Francisco F; Young, Mark

    2012-05-01

    There are no known RNA viruses that infect Archaea. Filling this gap in our knowledge of viruses will enhance our understanding of the relationships between RNA viruses from the three domains of cellular life and, in particular, could shed light on the origin of the enormous diversity of RNA viruses infecting eukaryotes. We describe here the identification of novel RNA viral genome segments from high-temperature acidic hot springs in Yellowstone National Park in the United States. These hot springs harbor low-complexity cellular communities dominated by several species of hyperthermophilic Archaea. A viral metagenomics approach was taken to assemble segments of these RNA virus genomes from viral populations isolated directly from hot spring samples. Analysis of these RNA metagenomes demonstrated unique gene content that is not generally related to known RNA viruses of Bacteria and Eukarya. However, genes for RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), a hallmark of positive-strand RNA viruses, were identified in two contigs. One of these contigs is approximately 5,600 nucleotides in length and encodes a polyprotein that also contains a region homologous to the capsid protein of nodaviruses, tetraviruses, and birnaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses of the RdRps encoded in these contigs indicate that the putative archaeal viruses form a unique group that is distinct from the RdRps of RNA viruses of Eukarya and Bacteria. Collectively, our findings suggest the existence of novel positive-strand RNA viruses that probably replicate in hyperthermophilic archaeal hosts and are highly divergent from RNA viruses that infect eukaryotes and even more distant from known bacterial RNA viruses. These positive-strand RNA viruses might be direct ancestors of RNA viruses of eukaryotes. PMID:22379100

  16. Carbon Monoxide Cycling in Hot Spring Microbial Communities and Links to the Composition of the Archean Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colman, A. S.; Techtmann, S.; He, B.; Robb, F.

    2010-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) budgets for the Archean atmosphere generally treat the early biosphere as a major sink for CO, thereby preventing the development of a “CO runaway” atmosphere. Indeed, hydrogenogenic carboxydotrophy (CO + H2O → CO2 + H2) is an anaerobic metabolism that appears to be geographically widespread in hydrothermal microbial ecosystems, including those we have studied at hot springs in Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka, Russia. Carboxydotrophs have been isolated that can use CO as sole carbon and energy source in culture medium with headspace CO partial pressures ranging from ≤ 10-4 atm to ≥ 2 atm. In modern environments, this metabolism was thought to depend on CO supplied as a dissolved and free phase constituent of geothermal fluids. Recent dissolved and free phase gas measurements in Uzon hot springs, coupled with rate determinations of CO consumption in hot spring microbial mats, indicate that the supply of CO from volcanic gases is insufficient to meet the needs of the microbial communities in hot spring sediments. Instead, proximal biological production of CO by environmental microbial consortia must be invoked. The plausibility of widespread biogenic production of CO in natural microbial communities is supported by recent pure culture work that has shown small but ecologically significant CO production by certain methanogens and sulfate reducers. In the Archean, leakage to the atmosphere of even a small fraction of the biologically produced CO would have exceeded the volcanic outgassing flux. Biogenic CO production would also have diminished the biospheric sink for atmospheric CO. This would have had a major influence on the chemistry of the Archean atmosphere, possibly enabling CO concentrations to reach percent levels in the atmosphere. Elevated atmospheric CO concentrations in the Archean would have exerted significant pressures on the early biosphere. Futhermore, CO in the Archean atmosphere would have titrated OH radical, influencing the

  17. Isolation of a new thermohalophilic Thermus thermophilus strain from hot spring, able to grow on a renewable source of polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Romano, Ida; Lama, Licia; Moriello, Vincenzo Schiano; Poli, Annarita; Gambacorta, Agata; Nicolaus, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    A thermohalophilic strain, Samu-Sal, isolated from hot springs of the Mount Grillo (Baia, Naples, Italy) at a depth of 60 m, according to its genotypic analyses is related to Thermus genus and should be classified as a new strain of Thermus thermophilus. Strain Samu-SA1 grew using, as sole carbon source, a polysaccharide extracted from waste industrial tomato process with a yield of 3.5 g l(-1). Strain Samu-SA1 synthesized several alpha- and beta-glycosidases. PMID:15005151

  18. Diverse subaerial and sublacustrine hot spring settings of the Cerro Negro epithermal system (Jurassic, Deseado Massif), Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guido, Diego M.; Campbell, Kathleen A.

    2012-06-01

    The Late Jurassic (~ 150 Ma) Cerro Negro volcanic-epithermal-geothermal system (~ 15 km2 area), Deseado Massif, Patagonia, Argentina, includes two inferred volcanic emission centers characterized by rhyolitic domes linked along NW-SE regional faults that are associated with deeper level Au/Ag mineralization to the NW, and with shallow epithermal quartz veins and mainly travertine surface hot spring manifestations to the SE. Some travertines are silica-replaced, and siliceous and mixed silica-carbonate geothermal deposits also are found. Five hot spring-related facies associations were mapped in detail, which show morphological and textural similarities to Pleistocene-Recent geothermal deposits at Yellowstone National Park (U.S.A.), the Kenya Rift Valley, and elsewhere. They are interpreted to represent subaerial travertine fissure ridge/mound deposits (low-flow spring discharge) and apron terraces (high-flow spring discharge), as well as mixed silica-carbonate lake margin and shallow lake terrace vent-conduit tubes, stromatolitic mounds, and volcano-shaped cones. The nearly 200 mapped fossil vent-associated deposits at Cerro Negro are on a geographical and numerical scale comparable with subaerial and sublacustrine hydrothermal vents at Mammoth Hot Springs, and affiliated with Yellowstone Lake, respectively. Overall, the Cerro Negro geothermal system yields paleoenvironmentally significant textural details of variable quality, owing to both the differential preservation potential of particular subaerial versus subaqueous facies, as well as to the timing and extent of carbonate diagenesis and silica replacement of some deposits. For example, the western fault associated with the Eureka epithermal quartz vein facilitated early silicification of the travertine deposits in the SE volcanic emission center, thereby preserving high-quality, microbial macro- and micro-textures of this silica-replaced "pseudosinter." Cerro Negro provides an opportunity to reconstruct

  19. Geochemistry, Comparative Analysis, and Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Thermal Waters East of Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas, 2006-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Hays, Phillip D.

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted by the U.S Geological Survey in cooperation with the Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department to characterize the source and hydrogeologic conditions responsible for thermal water in a domestic well 5.5 miles east of Hot Springs National Park, Hot Springs, Arkansas, and to determine the degree of hydraulic connectivity between the thermal water in the well and the hot springs in Hot Springs National Park. The water temperature in the well, which was completed in the Stanley Shale, measured 33.9 degrees Celsius, March 1, 2006, and dropped to 21.7 degrees Celsius after 2 hours of pumping - still more than 4 degrees above typical local groundwater temperature. A second domestic well located 3 miles from the hot springs in Hot Springs National Park was discovered to have a thermal water component during a reconnaissance of the area. This second well was completed in the Bigfork Chert and field measurement of well water revealed a maximum temperature of 26.6 degrees Celsius. Mean temperature for shallow groundwater in the area is approximately 17 degrees Celsius. The occurrence of thermal water in these wells raised questions and concerns with regard to the timing for the appearance of the thermal water, which appeared to coincide with construction (including blasting activities) of the Highway 270 bypass-Highway 70 interchange. These concerns were heightened by the planned extension of the Highway 270 bypass to the north - a corridor that takes the highway across a section of the eroded anticlinal complex responsible for recharge to the hot springs of Hot Springs National Park. Concerns regarding the possible effects of blasting associated with highway construction near the first thermal well necessitated a technical review on the effects of blasting on shallow groundwater systems. Results from available studies suggested that propagation of new fractures near blasting sites is of limited extent. Vibrations from blasting can result in

  20. Pseudomonas guguanensis sp. nov., a gammaproteobacterium isolated from a hot spring.

    PubMed

    Liu, You-Cheng; Young, Li-Sen; Lin, Shih-Yao; Hameed, Asif; Hsu, Yi-Han; Lai, Wei-An; Shen, Fo-Ting; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2013-12-01

    An aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterium (designated strain CC-G9A(T)), motile by a polar-flagellum, was isolated from a hot spring water sample in Taiwan. Strain CC-G9A(T) could grow at 20-42 °C, pH 6.0-10.0 and tolerate up to 7% (w/v) NaCl. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strain CC-G9A(T) showed pairwise sequence similarity to Pseudomonas mendocina LMG 1223(T) (97.7%), Pseudomonas alcaligenes ATCC 14909(T) (97.8 %), Pseudomonas alcaliphila DSM 17744(T) (97.8 %), Pseudomonas toyotomiensis JCM 15604(T) (97.6 %), Pseudomonas oleovorans subsp. lubricantis DSM 21016(T) (97.6 %) and Pseudomonas argentinensis BCRC 17807(T) (97.5 %), and lower sequence similarity to other species of the genus Pseudomonas. According to DNA-DNA association analysis, the relatedness of strain CC-G9A(T) to P. mendocina BCRC 10458(T), P. alcaliphila DSM 17744(T), P. alcaligenes BCRC 11893(T), P. oleovorans subsp. lubricantis DSM 21016(T), P. argentinensis BCRC 17807(T) and P. oleovorans subsp. oleovorans BCRC 11902 was 55.1±3.1, 13.7±1.5, 14.1±1.8, 58.5±1.1, 28.9±2.0 and 28.6±1.8 %, respectively. The evolutionary trees reconstructed based on 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoB gene sequences revealed varying phylogenetic neighbourhoods of strain CC-G9A(T) with regard to the most closely related type strains. The predominant quinone system was ubiquinone (Q-9) and the DNA G+C content was 64.3±1.3 mol%. The major fatty acids were C10 : 0 3-OH, C12 : 0, C12 : 0 3-OH, C16 : 0 and summed features 3 and 8 consisting of C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c and C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c, respectively. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. According to distinct phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic features, strain CC-G9A(T) is proposed to represent a novel species within the genus Pseudomonas for which the name Pseudomonas guguanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type

  1. Archaeal and bacterial communities in three alkaline hot springs in Heart Lake Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    PubMed Central

    Bowen De León, Kara; Gerlach, Robin; Peyton, Brent M.; Fields, Matthew W.

    2013-01-01

    The Heart Lake Geyser Basin (HLGB) is remotely located at the base of Mount Sheridan in southern Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming, USA and is situated along Witch Creek and the northwestern shore of Heart Lake. Likely because of its location, little is known about the microbial community structure of springs in the HLGB. Bacterial and archaeal populations were monitored via small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene pyrosequencing over 3 years in 3 alkaline (pH 8.5) hot springs with varying temperatures (44°C, 63°C, 75°C). The bacterial populations were generally stable over time, but varied by temperature. The dominant bacterial community changed from moderately thermophilic and photosynthetic members (Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi) at 44°C to a mixed photosynthetic and thermophilic community (Deinococcus-Thermus) at 63°C and a non-photosynthetic thermophilic community at 75°C. The archaeal community was more variable across time and was predominantly a methanogenic community in the 44 and 63°C springs and a thermophilic community in the 75°C spring. The 75°C spring demonstrated large shifts in the archaeal populations and was predominantly Candidatus Nitrosocaldus, an ammonia-oxidizing crenarchaeote, in the 2007 sample, and almost exclusively Thermofilum or Candidatus Caldiarchaeum in the 2009 sample, depending on SSU rRNA gene region examined. The majority of sequences were dissimilar (≥10% different) to any known organisms suggesting that HLGB possesses numerous new phylogenetic groups that warrant cultivation efforts. PMID:24282404

  2. Archaeal and bacterial communities in three alkaline hot springs in Heart Lake Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Bowen De León, Kara; Gerlach, Robin; Peyton, Brent M; Fields, Matthew W

    2013-01-01

    The Heart Lake Geyser Basin (HLGB) is remotely located at the base of Mount Sheridan in southern Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming, USA and is situated along Witch Creek and the northwestern shore of Heart Lake. Likely because of its location, little is known about the microbial community structure of springs in the HLGB. Bacterial and archaeal populations were monitored via small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene pyrosequencing over 3 years in 3 alkaline (pH 8.5) hot springs with varying temperatures (44°C, 63°C, 75°C). The bacterial populations were generally stable over time, but varied by temperature. The dominant bacterial community changed from moderately thermophilic and photosynthetic members (Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi) at 44°C to a mixed photosynthetic and thermophilic community (Deinococcus-Thermus) at 63°C and a non-photosynthetic thermophilic community at 75°C. The archaeal community was more variable across time and was predominantly a methanogenic community in the 44 and 63°C springs and a thermophilic community in the 75°C spring. The 75°C spring demonstrated large shifts in the archaeal populations and was predominantly Candidatus Nitrosocaldus, an ammonia-oxidizing crenarchaeote, in the 2007 sample, and almost exclusively Thermofilum or Candidatus Caldiarchaeum in the 2009 sample, depending on SSU rRNA gene region examined. The majority of sequences were dissimilar (≥10% different) to any known organisms suggesting that HLGB possesses numerous new phylogenetic groups that warrant cultivation efforts. PMID:24282404

  3. Shielded serpentine traveling wave tube deflection structure

    DOEpatents

    Hudson, C.L.; Spector, J.

    1994-12-27

    A shielded serpentine slow wave deflection structure is disclosed having a serpentine signal conductor within a channel groove. The channel groove is formed by a serpentine channel in a trough plate and a ground plane. The serpentine signal conductor is supported at its ends by coaxial feed through connectors. A beam interaction trough intersects the channel groove to form a plurality of beam interaction regions wherein an electron beam may be deflected relative to the serpentine signal conductor. 4 figures.

  4. Structural and functional insights from the metagenome of an acidic hot spring microbial planktonic community in the Colombian Andes.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Chaves, Diego; Montaña, José Salvador; Osorio-Forero, Cesar; Junca, Howard; Zambrano, María Mercedes; Baena, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    A taxonomic and annotated functional description of microbial life was deduced from 53 Mb of metagenomic sequence retrieved from a planktonic fraction of the Neotropical high Andean (3,973 meters above sea level) acidic hot spring El Coquito (EC). A classification of unassembled metagenomic reads using different databases showed a high proportion of Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria (in total read affiliation), and through taxonomic affiliation of 16S rRNA gene fragments we observed the presence of Proteobacteria, micro-algae chloroplast and Firmicutes. Reads mapped against the genomes Acidiphilium cryptum JF-5, Legionella pneumophila str. Corby and Acidithiobacillus caldus revealed the presence of transposase-like sequences, potentially involved in horizontal gene transfer. Functional annotation and hierarchical comparison with different datasets obtained by pyrosequencing in different ecosystems showed that the microbial community also contained extensive DNA repair systems, possibly to cope with ultraviolet radiation at such high altitudes. Analysis of genes involved in the nitrogen cycle indicated the presence of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to N2 (narGHI, nirS, norBCDQ and nosZ), associated with Proteobacteria-like sequences. Genes involved in the sulfur cycle (cysDN, cysNC and aprA) indicated adenylsulfate and sulfite production that were affiliated to several bacterial species. In summary, metagenomic sequence data provided insight regarding the structure and possible functions of this hot spring microbial community, describing some groups potentially involved in the nitrogen and sulfur cycling in this environment. PMID:23251687

  5. San Andreas fault geometry at Desert Hot Springs, California, and its effects on earthquake hazards and groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Catchings, R.D.; Rymer, M.J.; Goldman, M.R.; Gandhok, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Mission Creek and Banning faults are two of the principal strands of the San Andreas fault zone in the northern Coachella Valley of southern California. Structural characteristics of the faults affect both regional earthquake hazards and local groundwater resources. We use seismic, gravity, and geological data to characterize the San Andreas fault zone in the vicinity of Desert Hot Springs. Seismic images of the upper 500 m of the Mission Creek fault at Desert Hot Springs show multiple fault strands distributed over a 500 m wide zone, with concentrated faulting within a central 200 m wide area of the fault zone. High-velocity (up to 5000 m=sec) rocks on the northeast side of the fault are juxtaposed against a low-velocity (6.0) earthquakes in the area (in 1948 and 1986) occurred at or near the depths (~10 to 12 km) of the merged (San Andreas) fault. Large-magnitude earthquakes that nucleate at or below the merged fault will likely generate strong shaking from guided waves along both fault zones and from amplified seismic waves in the low-velocity basin between the two fault zones. The Mission Creek fault zone is a groundwater barrier with the top of the water table varying by 60 m in depth and the aquifer varying by about 50 m in thickness across a 200 m wide zone of concentrated faulting.

  6. Structural and Functional Insights from the Metagenome of an Acidic Hot Spring Microbial Planktonic Community in the Colombian Andes

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Chaves, Diego; Montaña, José Salvador; Osorio-Forero, Cesar; Junca, Howard; Zambrano, María Mercedes; Baena, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    A taxonomic and annotated functional description of microbial life was deduced from 53 Mb of metagenomic sequence retrieved from a planktonic fraction of the Neotropical high Andean (3,973 meters above sea level) acidic hot spring El Coquito (EC). A classification of unassembled metagenomic reads using different databases showed a high proportion of Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria (in total read affiliation), and through taxonomic affiliation of 16S rRNA gene fragments we observed the presence of Proteobacteria, micro-algae chloroplast and Firmicutes. Reads mapped against the genomes Acidiphilium cryptum JF-5, Legionella pneumophila str. Corby and Acidithiobacillus caldus revealed the presence of transposase-like sequences, potentially involved in horizontal gene transfer. Functional annotation and hierarchical comparison with different datasets obtained by pyrosequencing in different ecosystems showed that the microbial community also contained extensive DNA repair systems, possibly to cope with ultraviolet radiation at such high altitudes. Analysis of genes involved in the nitrogen cycle indicated the presence of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to N2 (narGHI, nirS, norBCDQ and nosZ), associated with Proteobacteria-like sequences. Genes involved in the sulfur cycle (cysDN, cysNC and aprA) indicated adenylsulfate and sulfite production that were affiliated to several bacterial species. In summary, metagenomic sequence data provided insight regarding the structure and possible functions of this hot spring microbial community, describing some groups potentially involved in the nitrogen and sulfur cycling in this environment. PMID:23251687

  7. Microbial Diversity, Distribution and Insight into Their Role in S, Fe and N Biogeochemical Cycling in the Hot Springs at Tengchong Geothermal Fields, Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Peng, X.; Zhang, L.

    2014-12-01

    Ten sediment samples collected from one acidic and three alkaline high temperature hot springs at Tengchong terrestrial geothermal field, Southwest China, were examined by the mineralogical, geochemical, and molecular biological techniques. The mineralogical and geochemical analyses suggested that these hot springs contain relative high concentrations of S, Fe and N chemical species. Specifically, the acidic hot spring was rich in Fe2+, SO42- and NH4+, while the alkaline hot springs were high in NO3-, H2S and S2O3-. Analyses of 16S rRNA sequences showed their bacterial communities were dominated by Aquificae, Cyanobacteria, Deinococci-Thermus, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Thermodesulfobacteria, while the archeal clone libraries were dominated by Desulfurococcales, Sulfolobales, and Thermoproteales. Among them, the potential S-, N- and Fe-related oxidizing and reducing prokaryote were presenting as a relative high proportion but with a great difference in diversity and metabolic approaches of each sample. These findings provide some significant implications for the microbial function in element biogeochemical cycles within the Tengchong geothermal environments: i). the distinct differences in abundance and diversity of microbial communities of geothermal sediments were related to in situ different physicochemical conditions; ii). the S-, N- and Fe-related prokaryote would take advantage of the strong chemical disequilibria in the hot springs; iii). in return, their metabolic activities can promote the transformation of S, Fe and N chemical species, thus founded the bases of biogeochemical cycles in the terrestrial geothermal environments.

  8. Chemical indicators of subsurface temperature applied to hot spring waters of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.; Truesdell, A.H.

    1970-01-01

    Under favorable conditions the chemistry of hot springs may give reliable indications of subsurface temperatures and circulation patterns. These chemical indicators can be classified by the type of process involved: {A table is presented}. All these indicators have certain limitations. The silica geothermometer gives results independent of the local mineral suite and gas partial pressures, but may be affected by dilution. Alkali ratios are strongly affected by the local mineral suite and the formation of complex ions. Carbonate-chloride ratios are strongly affected by subsurface PCO2. The relative concentration of volatiles can be very misleading in high-pressure liquid systems. In Yellowstone National Park most thermal waters issue from hot, shallow aquifers with pressures in excess of hydrostatic by 2 to 6 bars and with large flows (the flow of hot spring water from the Park is greater than 4000 liters per second). These conditions should be ideal for the use of chemical indicators to estimate aquifer temperatures. In five drill holes aquifer temperatures were within 2??C of that predicted from the silica content of nearby hot springs; the temperature level off at a lower value than predicted in only one hole, and in four other holes drilling was terminated before the predicted aquifer temperature was reached. The temperature-Na/K ratio relationship does not follow any published experimental or empirical curve for water-feldspar or water-clay reactions. We suspect that ion exchange reactions involving zeolites in the Yellowstone rocks result in higher Na/K ratios at given temperatures than result from feldspar or clay reactions. Comparison of SiO2 and Cl/(HCO3 + CO3) suggest that because of higher subsurface PCO2 in Upper Geyser Basin a given Cl/(HCO3 + CO3) ratio there means a higher temperature than in Lower Geyser Basin. No correlation was found in Yellowstone Park between the subsurface regions of highest temperature and the relative concentration of volatile

  9. Enrichment culture and microscopy conceal diverse thermophilic Synechococcus populations in a single hot spring microbial mat habitat.

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, M J; Ruff-Roberts, A L; Kopczynski, E D; Bateson, M M; Ward, D M

    1996-01-01

    Recent molecular studies have shown a great disparity between naturally occurring and cultivated microorganisms. We investigated the basis for disparity by studying thermophilic unicellular cyanobacteria whose morphologic simplicity suggested that a single cosmopolitan species exists in hot spring microbial mats worldwide. We found that partial 16S rRNA sequences for all thermophilic Synechococcus culture collection strains from diverse habitats are identical. Through oligonucleotide probe analysis and cultivation, we provide evidence that this species is strongly selected for in laboratory culture to the exclusion of many more-predominant cyanobacterial species coexisting in the Octopus Spring mat in Yellowstone National Park. The phylogenetic diversity among Octopus Spring cyanobacteria is of similar magnitude to that exhibited by all cyanobacteria so far investigated. We obtained axenic isolates of two predominant cyanobacterial species by diluting inocula prior to enrichment. One isolate has a 16S rRNA sequence we have not yet detected by cloning. The other has a 16S rRNA sequence identical to a new cloned sequence we report herein. This is the first cultivated species whose 16S rRNA sequence has been detected in this mat system by cloning. We infer that biodiversity within this community is linked to guild structure. PMID:11536748

  10. Silicon isotope fractionation during silica precipitation from hot-spring waters: Evidence from the Geysir geothermal field, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geilert, Sonja; Vroon, Pieter Z.; Keller, Nicole S.; Gudbrandsson, Snorri; Stefánsson, Andri; van Bergen, Manfred J.

    2015-09-01

    This study aims to explore the extent and controls of silicon isotope fractionation in hot spring systems of the Geysir geothermal area (Iceland), a setting where sinter deposits are actively formed. The δ30Si values of dissolved silica measured in the spring water and sampling sites along outflowing streams, covering a temperature range between 20 and 100 °C, were relatively constant around +0.2‰, whereas the δ30Si signatures of associated opaline sinters from the streambeds were between -0.1‰ and -4.0‰, becoming progressively more negative in the downstream parts of the aprons. Here, the deposited sinters represent some of the most 30Si depleted abiotically produced terrestrial materials documented to date. Compared to the data reported for Icelandic basalts, considered to be the source of the silicon, the δ30Si values of the fluids and sinter deposits are higher and lower, respectively. The resulting values for apparent solid-water isotope fractionation (Δ30Sisolid-water) decreased with decreasing temperature from ca. -0.7‰ at ∼80 °C to -3.7‰ at ∼20 °C, locally down to -4.4‰. This temperature relationship was reproducible in each of the investigated hot spring systems and is qualitatively consistent with recent findings in laboratory experiments on kinetic fractionation for a flowing fluid. However, the apparent fractionation magnitudes observed in the field are ca. -2‰ more negative and thus significantly larger. We infer that solid-water silicon isotope fractionation during deposition of amorphous silica from a flowing fluid correlates inversely with temperature, but is essentially a function of the precipitation rate, such that the fractionation factor decreases with increasing rate. As an important corollary, the effective fractionation behavior during precipitation of silica from saturated solutions is a system-dependent feature, which should be taken into account when using silicon isotopes for paleo-environmental reconstructions.

  11. Metagenomic evaluation of bacterial and archaeal diversity in the geothermal hot springs of manikaran, India.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Sonu; Batra, Navneet; Pathak, Ashish; Green, Stefan J; Joshi, Amit; Chauhan, Ashvini

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial and archaeal diversity in geothermal spring water were investigated using 16S rRNA gene amplicon metagenomic sequencing. This revealed the dominance of Firmicutes, Aquificae, and the Deinococcus-Thermus group in this thermophilic environment. A number of sequences remained taxonomically unresolved, indicating the presence of potentially novel microbes in this unique habitat. PMID:25700403

  12. Metagenomic Evaluation of Bacterial and Archaeal Diversity in the Geothermal Hot Springs of Manikaran, India

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Ashish; Green, Stefan J.; Joshi, Amit; Chauhan, Ashvini

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial and archaeal diversity in geothermal spring water were investigated using 16S rRNA gene amplicon metagenomic sequencing. This revealed the dominance of Firmicutes, Aquificae, and the Deinococcus-Thermus group in this thermophilic environment. A number of sequences remained taxonomically unresolved, indicating the presence of potentially novel microbes in this unique habitat. PMID:25700403

  13. Korarchaeota diversity, biogeography, and abundance in Yellowstone and Great Basin hot springs and ecological niche modeling based on machine learning.

    PubMed

    Miller-Coleman, Robin L; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Ross, Christian A; Shock, Everett L; Williams, Amanda J; Hartnett, Hilairy E; McDonald, Austin I; Havig, Jeff R; Hedlund, Brian P

    2012-01-01

    Over 100 hot spring sediment samples were collected from 28 sites in 12 areas/regions, while recording as many coincident geochemical properties as feasible (>60 analytes). PCR was used to screen samples for Korarchaeota 16S rRNA genes. Over 500 Korarchaeota 16S rRNA genes were screened by RFLP analysis and 90 were sequenced, resulting in identification of novel Korarchaeota phylotypes and exclusive geographical variants. Korarchaeota diversity was low, as in other terrestrial geothermal systems, suggesting a marine origin for Korarchaeota with subsequent niche-invasion into terrestrial systems. Korarchaeota endemism is consistent with endemism of other terrestrial thermophiles and supports the existence of dispersal barriers. Korarchaeota were found predominantly in >55°C springs at pH 4.7-8.5 at concentrations up to 6.6×10(6) 16S rRNA gene copies g(-1) wet sediment. In Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Korarchaeota were most abundant in springs with a pH range of 5.7 to 7.0. High sulfate concentrations suggest these fluids are influenced by contributions from hydrothermal vapors that may be neutralized to some extent by mixing with water from deep geothermal sources or meteoric water. In the Great Basin (GB), Korarchaeota were most abundant at spring sources of pH<7.2 with high particulate C content and high alkalinity, which are likely to be buffered by the carbonic acid system. It is therefore likely that at least two different geological mechanisms in YNP and GB springs create the neutral to mildly acidic pH that is optimal for Korarchaeota. A classification support vector machine (C-SVM) trained on single analytes, two analyte combinations, or vectors from non-metric multidimensional scaling models was able to predict springs as Korarchaeota-optimal or sub-optimal habitats with accuracies up to 95%. To our knowledge, this is the most extensive analysis of the geochemical habitat of any high-level microbial taxon and the first application of a C-SVM to

  14. Sulfur geochemistry of hydrothermal waters in Yellowstone National Park. 1: The origin of thiosulfate in hot spring waters

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Y.; Schoonen, M.A.A.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Cunningham, K.M.; Ball, J.W.

    1998-12-01

    Thiosulfate (S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}), polythionate (S{sub x}O{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}}), dissolved sulfide (H{sub 2}S), and sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}) concentrations in thirty-nine alkaline and acidic springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) were determined. The analyses were conducted on site, using ion chromatography for thiosulfate, polythionate, and sulfate, and using colorimetry for dissolved sulfide. Thiosulfate was detected at concentrations typically less than 2 {micro}mol/L in neutral and alkaline chloride springs with low sulfate concentrations (Cl{sup {minus}}/SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} > 25). The thiosulfate concentration levels are about one to two orders of magnitude lower than the concentration of dissolved sulfide in these springs. In most acid sulfate and acid sulfate-chloride springs (Cl{sup {minus}}/SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} < 10), thiosulfate concentrations were also typically lower than 2 {micro}mol/L. However, in some chloride springs enriched with sulfate (Cl{sup {minus}}/SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} between 10 and 25), thiosulfate was found at concentrations ranging from 9 to 95 {micro}mol/L, higher than the concentrations of dissolved sulfide in these waters. Polythionate was detected only in Cinder Pool, Norris Geyser basin, at concentrations up to 8 {micro}mol/L, with an average S-chain-length from 4.1 to 4.9 sulfur atoms. The results indicate that no thiosulfate occurs in the deeper parts of the hydrothermal system. Thiosulfate may form, however, from (1) hydrolysis of native sulfur by hydrothermal solutions in the shallower parts (<50 m) of the system, (2) oxidation of dissolved sulfide upon mixing of a deep hydrothermal water with aerated shallow groundwater, and (3) the oxidation of dissolved sulfide by dissolved oxygen upon discharge of the hot spring. Upon discharge of a sulfide-containing hydrothermal water, oxidation proceeds rapidly as atmospheric oxygen enters the water. The transfer of oxygen is particularly effective if the

  15. Korarchaeota Diversity, Biogeography, and Abundance in Yellowstone and Great Basin Hot Springs and Ecological Niche Modeling Based on Machine Learning

    PubMed Central

    Miller-Coleman, Robin L.; Dodsworth, Jeremy A.; Ross, Christian A.; Shock, Everett L.; Williams, Amanda J.; Hartnett, Hilairy E.; McDonald, Austin I.; Havig, Jeff R.; Hedlund, Brian P.

    2012-01-01

    Over 100 hot spring sediment samples were collected from 28 sites in 12 areas/regions, while recording as many coincident geochemical properties as feasible (>60 analytes). PCR was used to screen samples for Korarchaeota 16S rRNA genes. Over 500 Korarchaeota 16S rRNA genes were screened by RFLP analysis and 90 were sequenced, resulting in identification of novel Korarchaeota phylotypes and exclusive geographical variants. Korarchaeota diversity was low, as in other terrestrial geothermal systems, suggesting a marine origin for Korarchaeota with subsequent niche-invasion into terrestrial systems. Korarchaeota endemism is consistent with endemism of other terrestrial thermophiles and supports the existence of dispersal barriers. Korarchaeota were found predominantly in >55°C springs at pH 4.7–8.5 at concentrations up to 6.6×106 16S rRNA gene copies g−1 wet sediment. In Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Korarchaeota were most abundant in springs with a pH range of 5.7 to 7.0. High sulfate concentrations suggest these fluids are influenced by contributions from hydrothermal vapors that may be neutralized to some extent by mixing with water from deep geothermal sources or meteoric water. In the Great Basin (GB), Korarchaeota were most abundant at spring sources of pH<7.2 with high particulate C content and high alkalinity, which are likely to be buffered by the carbonic acid system. It is therefore likely that at least two different geological mechanisms in YNP and GB springs create the neutral to mildly acidic pH that is optimal for Korarchaeota. A classification support vector machine (C-SVM) trained on single analytes, two analyte combinations, or vectors from non-metric multidimensional scaling models was able to predict springs as Korarchaeota-optimal or sub-optimal habitats with accuracies up to 95%. To our knowledge, this is the most extensive analysis of the geochemical habitat of any high-level microbial taxon and the first application of a C-SVM to

  16. Hyperspatial Thermal Imaging of Surface Hydrothermal Features at Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska using a small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haselwimmer, C. E.; Wilson, R.; Upton, C.; Prakash, A.; Holdmann, G.; Walker, G.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal remote sensing provides a valuable tool for mapping and monitoring surface hydrothermal features associated with geothermal activity. The increasing availability of low-cost, small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) with integrated thermal imaging sensors offers a means to undertake very high spatial resolution (hyperspatial), quantitative thermal remote sensing of surface geothermal features in support of exploration and long-term monitoring efforts. Results from the deployment of a quadcopter sUAS equipped with a thermal camera over Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska for detailed mapping and heat flux estimation for hot springs, seeps, and thermal pools are presented. Hyperspatial thermal infrared imagery (4 cm pixels) was acquired over Pilgrim Hot Springs in July 2013 using a FLIR TAU 640 camera operating from an Aeryon Scout sUAS flying at an altitude of 40m. The registered and mosaicked thermal imagery is calibrated to surface temperature values using in-situ measurements of uniform blackbody tarps and the temperatures of geothermal and other surface pools acquired with a series of water temperature loggers. Interpretation of the pre-processed thermal imagery enables the delineation of hot springs, the extents of thermal pools, and the flow and mixing of individual geothermal outflow plumes with an unprecedented level of detail. Using the surface temperatures of thermal waters derived from the FLIR data and measured in-situ meteorological parameters the hot spring heat flux and outflow rate is calculated using a heat budget model for a subset of the thermal drainage. The heat flux/outflow rate estimates derived from the FLIR data are compared against in-situ measurements of the hot spring outflow rate recorded at the time of the thermal survey.

  17. Serpentine in active subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynard, Bruno

    2013-09-01

    Serpentinization is a key phenomenon for understanding the geodynamics of subduction zones in the 10-200 km depth range. Serpentines are a major water carrier, and their rheological properties have a strong influence on deformation partitioning and seismicity at depths. I review experimental investigations that have been conducted on serpentines, with emphasis on the large body of data acquired over the past decade. Determinations of physical properties at the pressure and temperature conditions of subductions allow interpreting geophysical data in active subduction in terms of mineralogy and petrology, and to link the presence of serpentinites with deformation and fluid circulation. The fluid budget can be partially constrained from geophysical data. Elasticity data provide a quantitative basis for mapping serpentinization in the mantle wedge and slab from seismic tomography. Anisotropy suggests the existence of thin serpentinite channels above the plate interface, that account for mechanical decoupling inferred from down-dip limit of the seismogenic zone and heat flow. Strain-rate dependent rheology of antigorite serpentine is consistent with stable deformation of this thin layer or channel over timescales ranging from those of the seismic cycle to those of thermal equilibration and exhumation of high-pressure rocks, and with the geological record of subduction-related deformation. Circulation of serpentinizing fluids depends on the permeability structure, and is imaged by electrical conductivity tomography. It could be controlled by fracturing in the undeformed cold nose of the mantle wedge, and by plastic deformation along the plate interface. Fluid migration mechanisms are similar to those inferred from petrological and geochemical data on exhumed serpentinites. Estimation of the fluid budget associated with serpentine formation will rely on numerical simulations for which coupling of kinetics of hydration and dehydration at scales ranging from grain size up

  18. Diversity of Culturable Thermophilic Actinobacteria in Hot Springs in Tengchong, China and Studies of their Biosynthetic Gene Profiles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lan; Salam, Nimaichand; Jiao, Jian-Yu; Jiang, Hong-Chen; Zhou, En-Min; Yin, Yi-Rui; Ming, Hong; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-07-01

    The class Actinobacteria has been a goldmine for the discovery of antibiotics and has attracted interest from both academics and industries. However, an absence of novel approaches during the last few decades has limited the discovery of new microbial natural products useful for industries. Scientists are now focusing on the ecological aspects of diverse environments including unexplored or underexplored habitats and extreme environments in the search for new metabolites. This paper reports on the diversity of culturable actinobacteria associated with hot springs located in Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, southwestern China. A total of 58 thermophilic actinobacterial strains were isolated from the samples collected from ten hot springs distributed over three geothermal fields (e.g., Hehua, Rehai, and Ruidian). Phylogenetic positions and their biosynthetic profiles were analyzed by sequencing 16S rRNA gene and three biosynthetic gene clusters (KS domain of PKS-I, KSα domain of PKS-II and A domain of NRPS). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis, the 58 strains were affiliated with 12 actinobacterial genera: Actinomadura Micromonospora, Microbispora, Micrococcus, Nocardiopsis, Nonomuraea, Promicromonospora, Pseudonocardia, Streptomyces, Thermoactinospora, Thermocatellispora, and Verrucosispora, of which the two novel genera Thermoactinospora and Thermocatellisopora were recently described from among these strains. Considering the biosynthetic potential of these actinobacterial strains, 22 were positive for PCR amplification of at least one of the three biosynthetic gene clusters (PKS-I, PKS-II, and NRPS). These actinobacteria were further subjected to antimicrobial assay against five opportunistic human pathogens (Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis). All of the 22 strains that were positive for PCR amplification of at least one of the biosynthetic gene domains exhibited

  19. Chemical studies of selected trace elements in hot-spring drainages of Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, R.E.; Jenne, E.A.; Ball, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    Intensive chemical studies were made of S(-II), O/sub 2/, Al, Fe, Mn, P, As(III), As(V), and Li in waters from two high-Cl, low Ca-Mg hotspring drainages in the Lower Geyser Basin, a warm spring system rich in Ca and Mg in the Yellowstone Canyon area, and the Madison River system above Hebgen Lake. Analyses were also made of other representative thermal waters from the Park.

  20. Wide distribution of autochthonous branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs) in U.S. Great Basin hot springs

    PubMed Central

    Hedlund, Brian P.; Paraiso, Julienne J.; Williams, Amanda J.; Huang, Qiuyuan; Wei, Yuli; Dijkstra, Paul; Hungate, Bruce A.; Dong, Hailiang; Zhang, Chuanlun L.

    2013-01-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs) are membrane-spanning lipids that likely stabilize membranes of some bacteria. Although bGDGTs have been reported previously in certain geothermal environments, it has been suggested that they may derive from surrounding soils since bGDGTs are known to be produced by soil bacteria. To test the hypothesis that bGDGTs can be produced by thermophiles in geothermal environments, we examined the distribution and abundance of bGDGTs, along with extensive geochemical data, in 40 sediment and mat samples collected from geothermal systems in the U.S. Great Basin (temperature: 31–95°C; pH: 6.8–10.7). bGDGTs were found in 38 out of 40 samples at concentrations up to 824 ng/g sample dry mass and comprised up to 99.5% of total GDGTs (branched plus isoprenoidal). The wide distribution of bGDGTs in hot springs, strong correlation between core and polar lipid abundances, distinctness of bGDGT profiles compared to nearby soils, and higher concentration of bGDGTs in hot springs compared to nearby soils provided evidence of in situ production, particularly for the minimally methylated bGDGTs I, Ib, and Ic. Polar bGDGTs were found almost exclusively in samples ≤70°C and the absolute abundance of polar bGDGTs correlated negatively with properties of chemically reduced, high temperature spring sources (temperature, H2S/HS−) and positively with properties of oxygenated, low temperature sites (O2, NO−3). Two-way cluster analysis and nonmetric multidimensional scaling based on relative abundance of polar bGDGTs supported these relationships and showed a negative relationship between the degree of methylation and temperature, suggesting a higher abundance for minimally methylated bGDGTs at high temperature. This study presents evidence of the widespread production of bGDGTs in mats and sediments of natural geothermal springs in the U.S. Great Basin, especially in oxygenated, low-temperature sites (≤70°C). PMID:23964271

  1. Microbiology and geochemistry of great boiling and mud hot springs in the United States Great Basin.

    PubMed

    Costa, Kyle C; Navarro, Jason B; Shock, Everett L; Zhang, Chuanlun L; Soukup, Debbie; Hedlund, Brian P

    2009-05-01

    A coordinated study of water chemistry, sediment mineralogy, and sediment microbial community was conducted on four >73 degrees C springs in the northwestern Great Basin. Despite generally similar chemistry and mineralogy, springs with short residence time (approximately 5-20 min) were rich in reduced chemistry, whereas springs with long residence time (>1 day) accumulated oxygen and oxidized nitrogen species. The presence of oxygen suggested that aerobic metabolisms prevail in the water and surface sediment. However, Gibbs free energy calculations using empirical chemistry data suggested that several inorganic electron donors were similarly favorable. Analysis of 298 bacterial 16S rDNAs identified 36 species-level phylotypes, 14 of which failed to affiliate with cultivated phyla. Highly represented phylotypes included Thermus, Thermotoga, a member of candidate phylum OP1, and two deeply branching Chloroflexi. The 276 archaeal 16S rDNAs represented 28 phylotypes, most of which were Crenarchaeota unrelated to the Thermoprotei. The most abundant archaeal phylotype was closely related to "Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii", suggesting a role for ammonia oxidation in primary production; however, few other phylotypes could be linked with energy calculations because phylotypes were either related to chemoorganotrophs or were unrelated to known organisms. PMID:19247786

  2. In Situ Gene Expression Responsible for Sulfide Oxidation and CO2 Fixation of an Uncultured Large Sausage-Shaped Aquificae Bacterium in a Sulfidic Hot Spring

    PubMed Central

    Tamazawa, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Kyosuke; Takasaki, Kazuto; Mitani, Yasuo; Hanada, Satoshi; Kamagata, Yoichi; Tamaki, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the in situ gene expression profile of sulfur-turf microbial mats dominated by an uncultured large sausage-shaped Aquificae bacterium, a key metabolic player in sulfur-turfs in sulfidic hot springs. A reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that the genes responsible for sulfide, sulfite, and thiosulfate oxidation and carbon fixation via the reductive TCA cycle were continuously expressed in sulfur-turf mats taken at different sampling points, seasons, and years. These results suggest that the uncultured large sausage-shaped bacterium has the ability to grow chemolithoautotrophically and plays key roles as a primary producer in the sulfidic hot spring ecosystem in situ. PMID:27297893

  3. In Situ Gene Expression Responsible for Sulfide Oxidation and CO2 Fixation of an Uncultured Large Sausage-Shaped Aquificae Bacterium in a Sulfidic Hot Spring.

    PubMed

    Tamazawa, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Kyosuke; Takasaki, Kazuto; Mitani, Yasuo; Hanada, Satoshi; Kamagata, Yoichi; Tamaki, Hideyuki

    2016-06-25

    We investigated the in situ gene expression profile of sulfur-turf microbial mats dominated by an uncultured large sausage-shaped Aquificae bacterium, a key metabolic player in sulfur-turfs in sulfidic hot springs. A reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that the genes responsible for sulfide, sulfite, and thiosulfate oxidation and carbon fixation via the reductive TCA cycle were continuously expressed in sulfur-turf mats taken at different sampling points, seasons, and years. These results suggest that the uncultured large sausage-shaped bacterium has the ability to grow chemolithoautotrophically and plays key roles as a primary producer in the sulfidic hot spring ecosystem in situ. PMID:27297893

  4. Discovery and Characterization of a Thermostable and Highly Halotolerant GH5 Cellulase from an Icelandic Hot Spring Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Zarafeta, Dimitra; Kissas, Dimitrios; Sayer, Christopher; Gudbergsdottir, Sóley R.; Ladoukakis, Efthymios; Isupov, Michail N.; Chatziioannou, Aristotelis; Peng, Xu; Littlechild, Jennifer A.; Skretas, Georgios; Kolisis, Fragiskos N.

    2016-01-01

    With the ultimate goal of identifying robust cellulases for industrial biocatalytic conversions, we have isolated and characterized a new thermostable and very halotolerant GH5 cellulase. This new enzyme, termed CelDZ1, was identified by bioinformatic analysis from the genome of a polysaccharide-enrichment culture isolate, initiated from material collected from an Icelandic hot spring. Biochemical characterization of CelDZ1 revealed that it is a glycoside hydrolase with optimal activity at 70°C and pH 5.0 that exhibits good thermostability, high halotolerance at near-saturating salt concentrations, and resistance towards metal ions and other denaturing agents. X-ray crystallography of the new enzyme showed that CelDZ1 is the first reported cellulase structure that lacks the defined sugar-binding 2 subsite and revealed structural features which provide potential explanations of its biochemical characteristics. PMID:26741138

  5. Discovery and Characterization of a Thermostable and Highly Halotolerant GH5 Cellulase from an Icelandic Hot Spring Isolate.

    PubMed

    Zarafeta, Dimitra; Kissas, Dimitrios; Sayer, Christopher; Gudbergsdottir, Sóley R; Ladoukakis, Efthymios; Isupov, Michail N; Chatziioannou, Aristotelis; Peng, Xu; Littlechild, Jennifer A; Skretas, Georgios; Kolisis, Fragiskos N

    2016-01-01

    With the ultimate goal of identifying robust cellulases for industrial biocatalytic conversions, we have isolated and characterized a new thermostable and very halotolerant GH5 cellulase. This new enzyme, termed CelDZ1, was identified by bioinformatic analysis from the genome of a polysaccharide-enrichment culture isolate, initiated from material collected from an Icelandic hot spring. Biochemical characterization of CelDZ1 revealed that it is a glycoside hydrolase with optimal activity at 70°C and pH 5.0 that exhibits good thermostability, high halotolerance at near-saturating salt concentrations, and resistance towards metal ions and other denaturing agents. X-ray crystallography of the new enzyme showed that CelDZ1 is the first reported cellulase structure that lacks the defined sugar-binding 2 subsite and revealed structural features which provide potential explanations of its biochemical characteristics. PMID:26741138

  6. Lamination Formation, CO2 Uptake And Environmental Effects On Morphology: Siliceous Stromatolite Formation In A Hot Spring, Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsetti, F. A.; Berelson, W.; Spear, J. R.; Hammond, D. E.; Pepe-Ranney, C.; Beaumont, W.

    2010-12-01

    Siliceous stromatolites were collected from a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park in order to investigate stromatolite morphogenesis and growth rate. The majority of the stromatolite is composed of relatively porous light and dark layers of silica-coated filaments. The light layers (~150 μm) predominantly consist of surface normal filaments and the dark layers (~50 μm) are composed of reclining filaments. The main body lamination is interrupted by another style that drapes the entire structure, contains coccoidal as well as filamentous microbial forms, is well-cemented with silica, and includes a significant population of pennate diatoms. Over the course of stromatolite growth, the main body style and the drape style lamination alternated, but the majority of the growth is composed of the light/dark couplets. Radiometric dating (228Th/228Ra, 228Ra/226Ra, and 137Cs) indicate that the growth of a 5 cm stromatolite occurred on the order of years (not tens or hundreds of years), and in situ growth experiments reveal that the light/dark laminae couples do not represent daily, weekly or seasonal cycles. 14C analysis reveals that organic matter from the main body consistently contains lower Δ14C versus the drape fabric. As CO2 from the hydrothermal vent waters is radio-carbon dead (which would result in lower Δ14C values), we interpret the main body to have formed when spring level was deeper or flowing more vigorously, resulting in a greater influence from spring derived CO2 during photosynthetic CO2 uptake, and the drape to have formed when spring level was shallower or less vigorous, resulting in a greater incorporation of atmospheric CO2. More vigorous flow is likely to also affect the spring temperature. Combining the radiometric age dating, in situ growth experiments, and Δ14C analysis suggests that growth of the light/dark couplets is sporadic and linked to rising water levels, whereas formation of the drape style lamination represents falling water levels

  7. Microbial contributions to coupled arsenic and sulfur cycling in the acid-sulfide hot spring Champagne Pool, New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Hug, Katrin; Maher, William A.; Stott, Matthew B.; Krikowa, Frank; Foster, Simon; Moreau, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Acid-sulfide hot springs are analogs of early Earth geothermal systems where microbial metal(loid) resistance likely first evolved. Arsenic is a metalloid enriched in the acid-sulfide hot spring Champagne Pool (Waiotapu, New Zealand). Arsenic speciation in Champagne Pool follows reaction paths not yet fully understood with respect to biotic contributions and coupling to biogeochemical sulfur cycling. Here we present quantitative arsenic speciation from Champagne Pool, finding arsenite dominant in the pool, rim and outflow channel (55–75% total arsenic), and dithio- and trithioarsenates ubiquitously present as 18–25% total arsenic. In the outflow channel, dimethylmonothioarsenate comprised ≤9% total arsenic, while on the outflow terrace thioarsenates were present at 55% total arsenic. We also quantified sulfide, thiosulfate, sulfate and elemental sulfur, finding sulfide and sulfate as major species in the pool and outflow terrace, respectively. Elemental sulfur concentration reached a maximum at the terrace. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes from metagenomic sequencing revealed the dominance of Sulfurihydrogenibium at all sites and an increased archaeal population at the rim and outflow channel. Several phylotypes were found closely related to known sulfur- and sulfide-oxidizers, as well as sulfur- and sulfate-reducers. Bioinformatic analysis revealed genes underpinning sulfur redox transformations, consistent with sulfur speciation data, and illustrating a microbial role in sulfur-dependent transformation of arsenite to thioarsenate. Metagenomic analysis also revealed genes encoding for arsenate reductase at all sites, reflecting the ubiquity of thioarsenate and a need for microbial arsenate resistance despite anoxic conditions. Absence of the arsenite oxidase gene, aio, at all sites suggests prioritization of arsenite detoxification over coupling to energy conservation. Finally, detection of methyl arsenic in the outflow channel, in conjunction with

  8. Microbial contributions to coupled arsenic and sulfur cycling in the acid-sulfide hot spring Champagne Pool, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Hug, Katrin; Maher, William A; Stott, Matthew B; Krikowa, Frank; Foster, Simon; Moreau, John W

    2014-01-01

    Acid-sulfide hot springs are analogs of early Earth geothermal systems where microbial metal(loid) resistance likely first evolved. Arsenic is a metalloid enriched in the acid-sulfide hot spring Champagne Pool (Waiotapu, New Zealand). Arsenic speciation in Champagne Pool follows reaction paths not yet fully understood with respect to biotic contributions and coupling to biogeochemical sulfur cycling. Here we present quantitative arsenic speciation from Champagne Pool, finding arsenite dominant in the pool, rim and outflow channel (55-75% total arsenic), and dithio- and trithioarsenates ubiquitously present as 18-25% total arsenic. In the outflow channel, dimethylmonothioarsenate comprised ≤9% total arsenic, while on the outflow terrace thioarsenates were present at 55% total arsenic. We also quantified sulfide, thiosulfate, sulfate and elemental sulfur, finding sulfide and sulfate as major species in the pool and outflow terrace, respectively. Elemental sulfur concentration reached a maximum at the terrace. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes from metagenomic sequencing revealed the dominance of Sulfurihydrogenibium at all sites and an increased archaeal population at the rim and outflow channel. Several phylotypes were found closely related to known sulfur- and sulfide-oxidizers, as well as sulfur- and sulfate-reducers. Bioinformatic analysis revealed genes underpinning sulfur redox transformations, consistent with sulfur speciation data, and illustrating a microbial role in sulfur-dependent transformation of arsenite to thioarsenate. Metagenomic analysis also revealed genes encoding for arsenate reductase at all sites, reflecting the ubiquity of thioarsenate and a need for microbial arsenate resistance despite anoxic conditions. Absence of the arsenite oxidase gene, aio, at all sites suggests prioritization of arsenite detoxification over coupling to energy conservation. Finally, detection of methyl arsenic in the outflow channel, in conjunction with

  9. Phototrophs in high-iron-concentration microbial mats: physiological ecology of phototrophs in an iron-depositing hot spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, B. K.; Parenteau, M. N.; Griffin, B. M.

    1999-01-01

    At Chocolate Pots Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park the source waters have a pH near neutral, contain high concentrations of reduced iron, and lack sulfide. An iron formation that is associated with cyanobacterial mats is actively deposited. The uptake of [(14)C]bicarbonate was used to assess the impact of ferrous iron on photosynthesis in this environment. Photoautotrophy in some of the mats was stimulated by ferrous iron (1.0 mM). Microelectrodes were used to determine the impact of photosynthetic activity on the oxygen content and the pH in the mat and sediment microenvironments. Photosynthesis increased the oxygen concentration to 200% of air saturation levels in the top millimeter of the mats. The oxygen concentration decreased with depth and in the dark. Light-dependent increases in pH were observed. The penetration of light in the mats and in the sediments was determined. Visible radiation was rapidly attenuated in the top 2 mm of the iron-rich mats. Near-infrared radiation penetrated deeper. Iron was totally oxidized in the top few millimeters, but reduced iron was detected at greater depths. By increasing the pH and the oxygen concentration in the surface sediments, the cyanobacteria could potentially increase the rate of iron oxidation in situ. This high-iron-content hot spring provides a suitable model for studying the interactions of microbial photosynthesis and iron deposition and the role of photosynthesis in microbial iron cycling. This model may help clarify the potential role of photosynthesis in the deposition of Precambrian banded iron formations.

  10. Composition of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and their contribution to nitrification in a high-temperature hot spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.; Peng, X.-T.; Xu, H.-C.; Ta, K.-W.

    2015-10-01

    The oxidation of ammonia by microbes and associated organisms has been shown to occur in diverse natural environments. However, the contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea to nitrification in high-temperature environments remains unclear. Here, we studied in situ ammonia oxidation rates and the abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in surface and bottom sediments at 77 °C in the Gongxiaoshe hot spring, Tengchong, Yunnan, China. The in situ ammonia oxidation rates measured by the 15N-NO3- pool dilution technique in the surface sinter and bottom sediments were 4.8 and 5.3 nmol N g-1 h-1, respectively. Relative abundances of Crenarchaea in both samples were determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed high sequence similarity to thermophilic "Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii", which represented the most abundant operation taxonomic units (OTU) in both sediments. Furthermore, bacterial amoA was not detected in this study. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) indicated that AOA and 16S rRNA genes were present in the range of 2.75 to 9.80 × 105 and 0.128 to 1.96 × 108 gene copies g-1 sediment. The cell-specific nitrification rates were estimated to be in the range of 0.41 to 0.79 fmol N archaeal cell-1 h-1, which is consistent with earlier estimates in estuary environments. This study demonstrated that AOA were widely involved in nitrification in this hot spring. It further indicated the importance of archaea rather than bacteria in driving the nitrogen cycle in terrestrial geothermal environments.

  11. Dehydration kinetics of shocked serpentine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyburczy, James A.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental rates of dehydration of shocked and unshocked serpentine were determined using a differential scanning calorimetric technique. Dehydration rates in shocked serpentine are enhanced by orders of magnitude over corresponding rates in unshocked material, even though the impact experiments were carried out under conditions that inhibited direct impact-induced devolatilization. Extrapolation to temperatures of the Martian surface indicates that dehydration of shocked material would occur 20 to 30 orders of magnitude more rapidly than for unshocked serpentine. The results indicate that impacted planetary surfaces and associated atmospheres would reach chemical equilibrium much more quickly than calculations based on unshocked material would indicate, even during the earliest, coldest stages of accretion. Furthermore, it is suggested that chemical weathering of shocked planetary surfaces by solid-gas reactions would be sufficiently rapid that true equilibrium mineral assemblages should form.

  12. Serpentine Nanotubes in CM Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zega, Thomas J.; Garvie, Laurence A. J.; Dodony, Istvan; Buseck, Peter R.

    2004-01-01

    The CM chondrites are primitive meteorites that formed during the early solar system. Although they retain much of their original physical character, their matrices and fine-grained rims (FGRs) sustained aqueous alteration early in their histories [1- 3]. Serpentine-group minerals are abundant products of such alteration, and information regarding their structures, compositions, and spatial relationships is important for determining the reactions that produced them and the conditions under which they formed. Our recent work on FGRs and matrices of the CM chondrites has revealed new information on the structures and compositions of serpentine-group minerals [4,5] and has provided insights into the evolution of these primitive meteorites. Here we report on serpentine nanotubes from the Mighei and Murchison CM chondrites [6].

  13. Raman and SEM analysis of a biocolonised hot spring travertine terrace in Svalbard, Norway

    PubMed Central

    Jorge-Villar, Susana E; Benning, Liane G; Edwards, Howell GM

    2007-01-01

    Background A profile across 8 layers from a fossil travertine terrace from a low temperature geothermal spring located in Svalbard, Norway has been studied using both Raman spectroscopy and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) techniques to identify minerals and organic life signals. Results Calcite, anatase, quartz, haematite, magnetite and graphite as well as scytonemin, three different carotenoids, chlorophyll and a chlorophyll-like compound were identified as geo- and biosignatures respectively, using 785 and/or 514 nm Raman laser excitation wavelengths. No morphological biosignatures representing remnant microbial signals were detected by high-resolution imaging, although spectral analyses indicated the presence of organics. In contrast, in all layers, Raman spectra identified a series of different organic pigments indicating little to no degradation or change of the organic signatures and thus indicating the preservation of fossil biomarker compounds throughout the life time of the springs despite the lack of remnant morphological indicators. Conclusion With a view towards planetary exploration we discuss the implications of the differences in Raman band intensities observed when spectra were collected with the different laser excitations. We show that these differences, as well as the different detection capability of the 785 and 514 nm laser, could lead to ambiguous compound identification. We show that the identification of bio and geosignatures, as well as fossil organic pigments, using Raman spectroscopy is possible. These results are relevant since both lasers have been considered for miniaturized Raman spectrometers for planetary exploration. PMID:17697380

  14. Geologic Map of the Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area - GIS Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-03-31

    Neal Hot Springs—ESRI Geodatabase (ArcGeology v1.3): - Contains all the geologic map data, including faults, contacts, folds, unit polygons, and attitudes of strata and faults. - List of stratigraphic units and stratigraphic correlation diagram. - Three cross‐sections. - Locations of production, injection, and exploration wells. - Locations of 40Ar/39Ar samples. - Location of XRF geochemical samples. - 3D model constructed with EarthVision using geologic map data, cross‐sections, drill‐hole data, and geophysics (model not in the ESRI geodatabase).

  15. Biogenicity of silica precipitation around geysers and hot-spring vents, North Island, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.; Renaut, R.W.; Rosen, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    Before anthropogenic modifications, Ohaaki Pool (Broadlands-Ohaaki) and Dragon`s Mouth Geyser (Wairakei) emitted waters at temperatures of 93--98 C. The siliceous sinter that precipitated around their vents has the characteristics of geyserite, a dense laminated deposit of presumed abiogenic origin, that was precipitated from waters too hot (>73C) to support microbes other than thermophilic bacteria. Petrographic and SEM examinations of the sinters show that they incorporate columnar stromatolites and silicified, laminated stromatolitic mats that contain well-preserved filamentous microbes. At both localities the microbes lack evidence of desiccation or shrinkage, which implies that they were silicified rapidly at or shortly after their death. Although boiling and very hot (>90 C) waters were discharged, temperatures at many sites surrounding the vents remained sufficiently low and moist to support a microbial community that included thermophilic bacteria and cyanobacteria. In these cooler niches, the microbes and their biofilms served as highly favorable templates for the nucleation and growth of amorphous silica, and collectively provided a microbial framework for the laminated accretionary sinter. Some columnar, spicular, and stratiform geyserites are probably not abiotic precipitates, but are true silica stromatolites.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Tepidiphilus thermophilus Strain JHK30T (JCM 19170T) Isolated from a Terrestrial Hot Spring in India.

    PubMed

    Poddar, Abhijit; Lepcha, Rinchen T; Whitman, William B; Das, Subrata K

    2016-01-01

    Tepidiphilus thermophilus strain JHK30(T) was isolated from a hot spring at Surajkund, Jharkhand, India. It is a Gram-negative rod, nonsporulating, aerobic, and motile. The estimated genome is 2.3 Mb, with 2,186 protein-coding sequences. PMID:27516519

  17. Distribution of Sequence-Based Types of Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1 Strains Isolated from Cooling Towers, Hot Springs, and Potable Water Systems in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Haijian; Ren, Hongyu; Guan, Hong; Li, Machao; Zhu, Bingqing

    2014-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 causes Legionnaires' disease. Water systems contaminated with Legionella are the implicated sources of Legionnaires' disease. This study analyzed L. pneumophila serogroup 1 strains in China using sequence-based typing. Strains were isolated from cooling towers (n = 96), hot springs (n = 42), and potable water systems (n = 26). Isolates from cooling towers, hot springs, and potable water systems were divided into 25 sequence types (STs; index of discrimination [IOD], 0.711), 19 STs (IOD, 0.934), and 3 STs (IOD, 0.151), respectively. The genetic variation among the potable water isolates was lower than that among cooling tower and hot spring isolates. ST1 was the predominant type, accounting for 49.4% of analyzed strains (n = 81), followed by ST154. With the exception of two strains, all potable water isolates (92.3%) belonged to ST1. In contrast, 53.1% (51/96) and only 14.3% (6/42) of cooling tower and hot spring, respectively, isolates belonged to ST1. There were differences in the distributions of clone groups among the water sources. The comparisons among L. pneumophila strains isolated in China, Japan, and South Korea revealed that similar clones (ST1 complex and ST154 complex) exist in these countries. In conclusion, in China, STs had several unique allelic profiles, and ST1 was the most prevalent sequence type of environmental L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates, similar to its prevalence in Japan and South Korea. PMID:24463975

  18. Analysis of the metatranscriptome of microbial communities of an alkaline hot sulfur spring revealed different gene encoding pathway enzymes associated with energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Swetaleena; Padhi, Soumesh Kumar; Mohanty, Sriprakash; Samanta, Mrinal; Maiti, Nikhil Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Alkaline sulfur hot springs notable for their specialized and complex ecosystem powered by geothermal energy are abundantly rich in different chemotrophic and phototrophic thermophilic microorganisms. Survival and adaptation of these organisms in the extreme environment is specifically related to energy metabolism. To gain a better understanding of survival mechanism of the organisms in these ecosystems, we determined the different gene encoding enzymes associated with anaerobic pathways of energy metabolism by applying the metatranscriptomics approach. The analysis of the microbial population of hot sulfur spring revealed the presence of both aerobic and anaerobic organisms indicating dual mode of lifestyle of the community members. Proteobacteria (28.1 %) was the most dominant community. A total of 988 reads were associated with energy metabolism, out of which 33.7 % of the reads were assigned to nitrogen, sulfur, and methane metabolism based on KEGG classification. The major lineages of hot spring communities were linked with the anaerobic pathways. Different gene encoding enzymes (hao, nir, nar, cysH, cysI, acs) showed the involvement of microbial members in nitrification, denitrification, dissimilatory sulfate reduction, and methane generation. This study enhances our understanding of important gene encoding enzymes involved in energy metabolism, required for the survival and adaptation of microbial communities in the hot spring. PMID:27290724

  19. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Hot Springs Mobile Home Park in Willard, Utah - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents activities performed for and results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Hot Springs Mobile Home Park (HSMHP) in Willard, UT. The objectives of the project were to evaluate the effectiveness of Adsorbsia™ GTO™...

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Tepidiphilus thermophilus Strain JHK30T (JCM 19170T) Isolated from a Terrestrial Hot Spring in India

    PubMed Central

    Poddar, Abhijit; Lepcha, Rinchen T.; Whitman, William B.

    2016-01-01

    Tepidiphilus thermophilus strain JHK30T was isolated from a hot spring at Surajkund, Jharkhand, India. It is a Gram-negative rod, nonsporulating, aerobic, and motile. The estimated genome is 2.3 Mb, with 2,186 protein-coding sequences. PMID:27516519

  1. Distribution of sequence-based types of legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains isolated from cooling towers, hot springs, and potable water systems in China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Tian; Zhou, Haijian; Ren, Hongyu; Guan, Hong; Li, Machao; Zhu, Bingqing; Shao, Zhujun

    2014-04-01

    Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 causes Legionnaires' disease. Water systems contaminated with Legionella are the implicated sources of Legionnaires' disease. This study analyzed L. pneumophila serogroup 1 strains in China using sequence-based typing. Strains were isolated from cooling towers (n = 96), hot springs (n = 42), and potable water systems (n = 26). Isolates from cooling towers, hot springs, and potable water systems were divided into 25 sequence types (STs; index of discrimination [IOD], 0.711), 19 STs (IOD, 0.934), and 3 STs (IOD, 0.151), respectively. The genetic variation among the potable water isolates was lower than that among cooling tower and hot spring isolates. ST1 was the predominant type, accounting for 49.4% of analyzed strains (n = 81), followed by ST154. With the exception of two strains, all potable water isolates (92.3%) belonged to ST1. In contrast, 53.1% (51/96) and only 14.3% (6/42) of cooling tower and hot spring, respectively, isolates belonged to ST1. There were differences in the distributions of clone groups among the water sources. The comparisons among L. pneumophila strains isolated in China, Japan, and South Korea revealed that similar clones (ST1 complex and ST154 complex) exist in these countries. In conclusion, in China, STs had several unique allelic profiles, and ST1 was the most prevalent sequence type of environmental L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates, similar to its prevalence in Japan and South Korea. PMID:24463975

  2. U, Th, and Pb isotopes in hot springs on the Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. H.

    1987-01-01

    Concentrations and isotopic compositions of U, Th, and Pb in three hydrothermal fluids from the Juan de Fuca Ridge were determined from samples obtained by the Alvin submersible. The samples were enriched in Pb and Th relative to deep-sea water, and were deficient in U. No clear relationship with Mg was found, suggesting nonideal mixing between the hot hydrothermal fluids and the cold ambient seawater. Values for U-234/U-238 have a seawater signature, and show a U-234 enrichment relative to the equilibrium value. The Pb isotopic composition has a uniform midocean ridge basalt signature, and it is suggested that Pb in these fluids may represent the best average value of the local oceanic crust.

  3. Serpentinization and Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley; 2003/2005 Science Teams, D. S.

    2005-12-01

    The serendipitous discovery of the Lost City Hydrothermal Field at 30N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge significantly changed our views about where and how life is sustained on our planet. Investigation of this site shows that it is like no other yet discovered, hosting carbonate chimneys that tower up to 60 m above the seafloor. The field rests on 1-2 my old crust, at a water depth of 800 m and is underlain by variably deformed and altered peridotite with lesser gabbro. An intense interdisciplinary field program in 2003 and a follow-on investigation in 2005 show that geological, biological, and chemical processes are strongly intertwined at this site. Serpentinization reactions in the subsurface produce pH 9-11, 40- 91° C fluids enriched in methane, hydrogen, and other hydrocarbons. Mixing of the high pH fluids with seawater forms nearly monomineralic towers of calcite, aragonite, and brucite. In contrast to the rich diversity of microorganisms typically found in black smoker environments, the warm, porous interiors of the chimneys are dominated by a single phylotype of organisms related to Methanosarcinales, which may be capable of both methane oxidation and production. Other microbes, including an organism related to an anaerobic methane-oxidizing phylotytpe (ANME-1) are present in moderate temperature environments such as the flanges (40° C to 70° C), where there is sustained mixing of pure vent fluids and seawater. They are also present in cool carbonate vein environments (<40° C) that cut the serpentinite bedrock. Bacterial colonies grow on the outside of diffusely venting chimneys where they form white to light grey filamentous strands several centimeters in length. Based on 16S rDNA clone libraries there is a relatively high diversity of organisms in these zones that include Eubacteria as well as Archaea. In contrast to the dense macrofaunal assemblages that typify most known high-temperature vent environments, the biomass at Lost City is much smaller. The

  4. Microbial diversity in The Cedars, an ultrabasic, ultrareducing, and low salinity serpentinizing ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shino; Ishii, Shun’ichi; Wu, Angela; Cheung, Andrea; Tenney, Aaron; Wanger, Greg; Kuenen, J. Gijs; Nealson, Kenneth H.

    2013-01-01

    The Cedars, in coastal northern California, is an active site of peridotite serpentinization. The spring waters that emerge from this system feature very high pH, low redox potential, and low ionic concentrations, making it an exceptionally challenging environment for life. We report a multiyear, culture-independent geomicrobiological study of three springs at The Cedars that differ with respect to the nature of the groundwater feeding them. Within each spring, both geochemical properties and microbial diversity in all three domains of life remained stable over a 3-y period, with multiple samples each year. Between the three springs, however, the microbial communities showed considerable differences that were strongly correlated with the source of the serpentinizing groundwater. In the spring fed solely by deep groundwater, phylum Chloroflexi, class Clostridia, and candidate division OD1 were the major taxa with one phylotype in Euryarchaeota. Less-abundant phylotypes include several minor members from other candidate divisions and one phylotype that was an outlier of candidate division OP3. In the springs fed by the mixture of deep and shallow groundwater, organisms close to the Hydrogenophaga within Betaproteobacteria dominated and coexisted with the deep groundwater community members. The shallow groundwater community thus appears to be similar to those described in other terrestrial serpentinizing sites, whereas the deep community is distinctly different from any other previously described terrestrial serpentinizing community. These unique communities have the potential to yield important insights into the development and survival of life in these early-earth analog environments. PMID:24003156

  5. Microbial diversity in The Cedars, an ultrabasic, ultrareducing, and low salinity serpentinizing ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shino; Ishii, Shun'ichi; Wu, Angela; Cheung, Andrea; Tenney, Aaron; Wanger, Greg; Kuenen, J Gijs; Nealson, Kenneth H

    2013-09-17

    The Cedars, in coastal northern California, is an active site of peridotite serpentinization. The spring waters that emerge from this system feature very high pH, low redox potential, and low ionic concentrations, making it an exceptionally challenging environment for life. We report a multiyear, culture-independent geomicrobiological study of three springs at The Cedars that differ with respect to the nature of the groundwater feeding them. Within each spring, both geochemical properties and microbial diversity in all three domains of life remained stable over a 3-y period, with multiple samples each year. Between the three springs, however, the microbial communities showed considerable differences that were strongly correlated with the source of the serpentinizing groundwater. In the spring fed solely by deep groundwater, phylum Chloroflexi, class Clostridia, and candidate division OD1 were the major taxa with one phylotype in Euryarchaeota. Less-abundant phylotypes include several minor members from other candidate divisions and one phylotype that was an outlier of candidate division OP3. In the springs fed by the mixture of deep and shallow groundwater, organisms close to the Hydrogenophaga within Betaproteobacteria dominated and coexisted with the deep groundwater community members. The shallow groundwater community thus appears to be similar to those described in other terrestrial serpentinizing sites, whereas the deep community is distinctly different from any other previously described terrestrial serpentinizing community. These unique communities have the potential to yield important insights into the development and survival of life in these early-earth analog environments. PMID:24003156

  6. Giant Serpentine Aneurysms: Multidisciplinary Management

    PubMed Central

    Anshun, W.; Feng, L.; Daming, W.

    2000-01-01

    Summary Sixty-five cases of intracranial giant serpentine aneurysms (GSΛs), including 61 cases reported in the literature and four additional cases presented in this study were reviewed. The clinical presentation, possible causes, natural history, and especially management of GSAs are discussed with emphasis on the need for aggressive intervention and multidisciplinary management. PMID:20667180

  7. Cultivation of aerobic chemoorganotrophic proteobacteria and gram-positive bacteria from a hot spring microbial mat.

    PubMed Central

    Nold, S C; Kopczynski, E D; Ward, D M

    1996-01-01

    The diversity of aerobic chemoorganotrophic bacteria inhabiting the Octopus Spring cyanobacterial mat community (Yellowstone National Park) was examined by using serial-dilution enrichment culture and a variety of enrichment conditions to cultivate the numerically significant microbial populations. The most abundant bacterial populations cultivated from dilutions to extinction were obtained from enrichment flasks which contained 9.0 x 10(2) primary producer (Synechococcus spp.) cells in the inoculum. Two isolates exhibited 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences typical of beta-proteobacteria. One of these isolates contained a 16S rRNA sequence identical to a sequence type previously observed in the mat by molecular retrieval techniques. Both are distantly related to a new sequence directly retrieved from the mat and contributed by a beta-proteobacterial community member. Phenotypically diverse gram-positive isolates genetically similar to Bacillus flavothermus were obtained from a variety of dilutions and enrichment types. These isolates exhibited identical 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences through a variable region of the molecule. Of the three unique sequences observed, only one had been previously retrieved from the mat, illustrating both the inability of the cultivation methods to describe the composition of a microbial community and the limitations of the ability of molecular retrieval techniques to describe populations which may be less abundant in microbial communities. PMID:8899976

  8. Community ecology of hot spring cyanobacterial mats: predominant populations and their functional potential

    PubMed Central

    Klatt, Christian G; Wood, Jason M; Rusch, Douglas B; Bateson, Mary M; Hamamura, Natsuko; Heidelberg, John F; Grossman, Arthur R; Bhaya, Devaki; Cohan, Frederick M; Kühl, Michael; Bryant, Donald A; Ward, David M

    2011-01-01

    Phototrophic microbial mat communities from 60 °C and 65 °C regions in the effluent channels of Mushroom and Octopus Springs (Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA) were investigated by shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Analyses of assembled metagenomic sequences resolved six dominant chlorophototrophic populations and permitted the discovery and characterization of undescribed but predominant community members and their physiological potential. Linkage of phylogenetic marker genes and functional genes showed novel chlorophototrophic bacteria belonging to uncharacterized lineages within the order Chlorobiales and within the Kingdom Chloroflexi. The latter is the first chlorophototrophic member of Kingdom Chloroflexi that lies outside the monophyletic group of chlorophototrophs of the Order Chloroflexales. Direct comparison of unassembled metagenomic sequences to genomes of representative isolates showed extensive genetic diversity, genomic rearrangements and novel physiological potential in native populations as compared with genomic references. Synechococcus spp. metagenomic sequences showed a high degree of synteny with the reference genomes of Synechococcus spp. strains A and B′, but synteny declined with decreasing sequence relatedness to these references. There was evidence of horizontal gene transfer among native populations, but the frequency of these events was inversely proportional to phylogenetic relatedness. PMID:21697961

  9. A preliminary study of older hot spring alteration in Sevenmile Hole, Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River, Yellowstone Caldera, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, P.B.; Phillips, A.; John, D.; Cosca, M.; Pritchard, C.; Andersen, A.; Manion, J.

    2009-01-01

    Erosion in the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River, Yellowstone Caldera (640??ka), Wyoming, has exposed a cross section of older hydrothermal alteration in the canyon walls. The altered outcrops of the post-collapse tuff of Sulphur Creek (480??ka) extend from the canyon rim to more than 300??m beneath it. The hydrothermal minerals are zoned, with an advanced argillic alteration consisting of an association of quartz (opal) + kaolinite ?? alunite ?? dickite, and an argillic or potassic alteration association with quartz + illite ?? adularia. Disseminated fine-grained pyrite or marcasite is ubiquitous in both alteration types. These alteration associations are characteristic products of shallow volcanic epithermal environments. The contact between the two alteration types is about 100??m beneath the rim. By analogy to other active geothermal systems including active hydrothermal springs in the Yellowstone Caldera, the transition from kaolinite to illite occurred at temperatures in the range 150 to 170????C. An 40Ar/39Ar age on alunite of 154,000 ?? 16,000??years suggests that hydrothermal activity has been ongoing since at least that time. A northwest-trending linear array of extinct and active hot spring centers in the Sevenmile Hole area implies a deeper structural control for the upflowing hydrothermal fluids. We interpret this deeper structure to be the Yellowstone Caldera ring fault that is covered by the younger tuff of Sulphur Creek. The Sevenmile Hole altered area lies at the eastern end of a band of hydrothermal centers that may mark the buried extension of the Yellowstone Caldera ring fault across the northern part of the Caldera. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  10. A preliminary study of older hot spring alteration in Sevenmile Hole, Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River, Yellowstone Caldera, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Peter B.; Phillips, Allison; John, David; Cosca, Michael; Pritchard, Chad; Andersen, Allen; Manion, Jennifer

    2009-11-01

    Erosion in the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River, Yellowstone Caldera (640 ka), Wyoming, has exposed a cross section of older hydrothermal alteration in the canyon walls. The altered outcrops of the post-collapse tuff of Sulphur Creek (480 ka) extend from the canyon rim to more than 300 m beneath it. The hydrothermal minerals are zoned, with an advanced argillic alteration consisting of an association of quartz (opal) + kaolinite ± alunite ± dickite, and an argillic or potassic alteration association with quartz + illite ± adularia. Disseminated fine-grained pyrite or marcasite is ubiquitous in both alteration types. These alteration associations are characteristic products of shallow volcanic epithermal environments. The contact between the two alteration types is about 100 m beneath the rim. By analogy to other active geothermal systems including active hydrothermal springs in the Yellowstone Caldera, the transition from kaolinite to illite occurred at temperatures in the range 150 to 170 °C. An 40Ar/ 39Ar age on alunite of 154,000 ± 16,000 years suggests that hydrothermal activity has been ongoing since at least that time. A northwest-trending linear array of extinct and active hot spring centers in the Sevenmile Hole area implies a deeper structural control for the upflowing hydrothermal fluids. We interpret this deeper structure to be the Yellowstone Caldera ring fault that is covered by the younger tuff of Sulphur Creek. The Sevenmile Hole altered area lies at the eastern end of a band of hydrothermal centers that may mark the buried extension of the Yellowstone Caldera ring fault across the northern part of the Caldera.

  11. Incipient silicification of recent conifer wood at a Yellowstone hot spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellawell, Jo; Ballhaus, Chris; Gee, Carole T.; Mustoe, George E.; Nagel, Thorsten J.; Wirth, Richard; Rethemeyer, Janet; Tomaschek, Frank; Geisler, Thorsten; Greef, Karin; Mansfeldt, Tim

    2015-01-01

    A branch of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) from a silica sinter apron of Cistern Spring, Yellowstone National Park, is partially mineralized with silica gel. The distribution of Si mapped in transverse sections of the branch suggests that mineralization was episodic. Early silica-rich solutions used the cellular structures in the wood as pathways, in particular the axial tracheids and rays. Later solutions infiltrated into the branch through shrinkage cracks along the decorticated branch's periphery. Among the tracheids, a distinct preference is noted for silica precipitates to line lumina of the earlywood tracheids, suggesting that this differential concentration in silica may reflect seasonal growth and water uptake in a live tree. Raman spectroscopy identifies the silica phases as amorphous silica gel. Secondary electron images of radial sections along the tracheids demonstrate that the distribution of silica is heterogeneous on a micrometer scale. Silica gel precipitates form micro spheroids with a spherical substructure that extends down to the sub-nanometer scale. All cell walls are templated with a monolayer consisting of closely spaced silica gel nano spheres around 100 nm in diameter. Transmission electron microscopy of focused ion beam sections through cell walls of partially mineralized tracheids reveals that the permineralization of cellular structures and the replacement of organic material by silica are processes that go hand in hand. The branch is dated with the 14C chronometer to 140 ± 33 years, underlining that the silicification reactions that preserve wood in the fossil record can be very rapid. Textural considerations of Si distribution in the wood suggest that the early stages of silicification in this branch date from a time when the pine tree was still alive.

  12. Crenotalea thermophila gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Chitinophagaceae isolated from a hot spring.

    PubMed

    Hanada, Satoshi; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Kazunori; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2014-04-01

    A thermophilic aerobic bacterium designated strain STH-1-Y1(T) was isolated from sulfur-turf in a Japanese hot spring (Okuhodaka hot spring, Gifu Pref.). Colonies of strain STH-1-Y1(T) were yellow and low convex morphology with a slightly irregular fringe. Cells were slender long rods, 0.4-0.6 µm wide and 1.2-3.0 µm long. The isolate was an obligate aerophilic organism, and could not grow by fermentation or nitrate respiration. The isolate had a thermophilic trait, and could grow at 35-60 °C and pH 5.5-7.5; maximum growth occurred at 55 °C and pH 7.0 with a doubling time of 1.9 h. The Biolog and API tests suggested that strain STH-1-Y1(T) was able to use various sugars such as glucose, lactose, mannose, maltose, trehalose, cellobiose and sucrose, but could not use sugar alcohols other than glycerol, i.e. adonitol, arabitol, erythritol, inositol, mannitol, sorbitol and xylitol. Lactate and glutamate could be used, but other fatty acids, i.e. acetate, citrate, propionate and succinate could not. Gelatin, casein, starch and glycogen were hydrolysed, but neither chitin nor agar was degraded. Cells lacked flexirubin and showed oxidase and catalase activities. The major respiratory quinone was menaquinone-7 (MK-7), and major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, iso-C17 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. No unsaturated fatty acids were detected. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain STH-1-Y1(T) was closely related to the family Chitinophagaceae within the phylum Bacteroidetes. However, the isolate was evenly distant from all members in this family with sequence similarities of 87-89 %. These significantly low sequence similarities strongly suggested that strain STH-1-Y1(T) represents a novel species in a new genus of the family Chitinophagaceae within the phylum Bacteroidetes. Based on phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, the name Crenotalea thermophila gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type

  13. U, Th, and Pb isotopes in hot springs on the Juan de Fuca Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.H.

    1987-10-10

    The concentrations and isotopic compositions of U, Th, and Pb in three hydrothermal fluids from the Juan de Fuca Ridge were determined. The samples consisted of 10.2--57.6% of the pure hydrothermal end-members based on Mg contents. The Pb contents of the samples ranged from 34 to 87 ng/g, U from 1.3 to 3.0 ng/g, and Th from 0.2 to 7.7 pg/g. These samples showed large enrichments of Pb and Th relative to deep-sea water and some depletion of U. They did not show coherent relationships with Mg, however, indicating nonideal mixings between the hot hydrothermal fluids and cold ambient seawater. Particles filtered from these hydrothermal fluids contained significant amounts of Th and Pb which may effectively increase the concentration of these elements in the fluids when acidified. The /sup 234/U//sup 238/U values in all samples show a /sup 234/U enrichment relative to the equilibrium value and have a seawater signature. The Pb isotopic composition of the Juan de Fuca hydrothermal fluids resembles that of 21 /sup 0/N East Pacific Rise and has a uniform mid-ocean ridge basalt signature. The hydrothermal systems at oceanic spreading ridges have circulated through a large volume of basalts. Therefore Pb in these fluids may represent the best average value of the local oceanic crust. From the effects of U deposition from seawater to the crust and Pb extraction from rock to the ocean, the U/Pb ratio in the hydrothermally altered oceanic crust may be increased significantly. copyright American Geophysical Union 1987

  14. Hydrochemical characteristics of the hot spring waters in the Kangding district related to the Lushan MS 7.0 earthquake in Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z.; Zhou, X.; Du, J.; Xie, C.; Liu, L.; Li, Y.; Yi, L.; Liu, H.; Cui, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrogeochemistry of 10 hot springs in the Kangding district was investigated by analyzing cation and anion concentrations of the spring waters. The water samples were collected within 5 days after the Lushan earthquake. The spring waters are classified into 7 chemical types based on the hydrochemical compositions. Comparison with the hydrochemical data before the Lushan earthquake, concentrations of Ca2+, HCO3- and TDS of the waters from the Guanding, Erdaoqiao, Gonghe, Erhaoying, Tianwanhe and Caoke springs evidently increased, which resulted from enhancing interaction between deep-earth fluids and carbonate rocks by the increment of dissolved CO2 in the groundwater. Concentrations of Na+, Cl- and SO42- of the waters from the Guanding, zheduotang, Xinxing and Gonghe springs were decreased, indicating dilution of precipitation water. Concentrations of Na+ and SO42- of the Erhaoying spring water increased, which may be attributed to the more supplement of fluids enriched in sulfur. The results indicate that hydrochemical components of spring water can be used as an effective indicator for earthquakes.

  15. Hydrochemical characteristics of hot spring waters in the Kangding district related to the Lushan MS = 7.0 earthquake in Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z.; Zhou, X.; Du, J.; Xie, C.; Liu, L.; Li, Y.; Yi, L.; Liu, H.; Cui, Y.

    2015-06-01

    Hydrogeochemistry of 10 hot springs in the Kangding district was investigated by analyzing cation and anion concentrations in the spring water. The water samples were collected in the 5 days after the Lushan MS = 7.0 earthquake, which occurred on 20 April 2013. The spring waters are classified into seven chemical types based on their hydrochemical compositions. Compared with hydrochemical data before the Lushan earthquake, concentrations of Ca2+, HCO3- and total dissolved solid (TDS) in water samples from the Guanding, Erdaoqiao, Gonghe, Erhaoying, Tianwanhe and Caoke springs significantly increased, which may be the result of a greater increase in groundwater from carbonate rocks, and water-carbonate rock interactions, enhanced by the increment of CO2. Concentrations of Na+, Cl- and SO42- in water samples from the Guanding, Zheduotang, Xinxing and Gonghe springs decreased, indicating a dilution of shallow waters. Concentrations of Na+ and SO42- in water samples from the Erhaoying spring water increased, which may be attributed to water-granite interactions enhanced by H2S. The results indicated that hydrochemical components of spring water could be used as an effective indicator for earthquakes.

  16. Chemistry of Hot Spring Pool Waters in Calamba and Los Banos and Potential Effect on the Water Quality of Laguna De Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balangue, M. I. R. D.; Pena, M. A. Z.; Siringan, F. P.; Jago-on, K. A. B.; Lloren, R. B.; Taniguchi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Since the Spanish Period (1600s), natural hot spring waters have been harnessed for balneological purposes in the municipalities of Calamba and Los Banos, Laguna, south of Metro Manila. There are at more than a hundred hot spring resorts in Brgy. Pansol, Calamba and Tadlac, Los Banos. These two areas are found at the northern flanks of Mt. Makiling facing Laguna de Bay. This study aims to provide some insights on the physical and chemical characteristics of hot spring resorts and the possible impact on the lake water quality resulting from the disposal of used water. Initial ocular survey of the resorts showed that temperature of the pool water ranges from ambient (>300C) to as high as 500C with an average pool size of 80m3. Water samples were collected from a natural hot spring and pumped well in Los Banos and another pumped well in Pansol to determine the chemistry. The field pH ranges from 6.65 to 6.87 (Pansol springs). Cation analysis revealed that the thermal waters belonged to the Na-K-Cl-HCO3 type with some trace amount of heavy metals. Methods for waste water disposal are either by direct discharge down the drain of the pool or by discharge in the public road canal. Both methods will dump the waste water directly into Laguna de Bay. Taking in consideration the large volume of waste water used especially during the peak season, the effect on the lake water quality would be significant. It is therefore imperative for the environmental authorities in Laguna to regulate and monitor the chemistry of discharges from the pool to protect both the lake water as well as groundwater quality.

  17. Impact of Hot Spring Resort Development on the Groundwater Discharge in the Southeast Part of Laguna De Bay, Luzon, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siringan, F. P.; Lloren, R. B.; Mancenido, D. L. O.; Jago-on, K. A. B.; Pena, M. A. Z.; Balangue-Tarriela, M. I. R.; Taniguchi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Direct groundwater seepage in a lake (DGSL) can be a major component to its water and nutrient budget. Groundwater extraction around a lake may affect the DGSL, thus it can be expected that it would also impact the lake. In the Philippines, Laguna de Bay which is the second largest freshwater lake in South-east Asia and used primarily for fisheries, is under significant water development pressure. Along the southern coast of the lake, in the Calamba-Los Banos area, rapid urbanization and development of the water resort industry, including hot spring spas, are expected to have led to a rapid increase in groundwater extraction. This study aims to establish the effect of this development to the DGSL in this part of the lake. As a first step, we utilized towed electrical resistivity (ER) profiling to identify and map the potential and type of groundwater seepage off the southern coast of the lake. SRTM digital elevation models and synthetic aperture radar images were used to delineate lineaments which are potential fractures that cut across the study area. ER profiles indicate widespread occurrence of GDL across the shallower parts of the lake. In the more offshore, deeper parts of the lake, DGSL appears to be more limited possibly due to more muddy sediments there. However, in this area, narrow, vertical high resistivity columns cut through the lake floor suggesting more discrete GDLs possibly controlled by faults.

  18. Big George to Carter Mountain 115-kV transmission line project, Park and Hot Springs Counties, Wyoming. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) is proposing to rebuild, operate, and maintain a 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line between the Big George and Carter Mountain Substations in northwest Wyoming (Park and Hot Springs Counties). This environmental assessment (EA) was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The existing Big George to Carter Mountain 69-kV transmission line was constructed in 1941 by the US Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, with 1/0 copper conductor on wood-pole H-frame structures without an overhead ground wire. The line should be replaced because of the deteriorated condition of the wood-pole H-frame structures. Because the line lacks an overhead ground wire, it is subject to numerous outages caused by lightning. The line will be 54 years old in 1995, which is the target date for line replacement. The normal service life of a wood-pole line is 45 years. Under the No Action Alternative, no new transmission lines would be built in the project area. The existing 69-kV transmission line would continue to operate with routine maintenance, with no provisions made for replacement.

  19. Pyrobaculum ferrireducens sp. nov., a hyperthermophilic Fe(III)-, selenate- and arsenate-reducing crenarchaeon isolated from a hot spring.

    PubMed

    Slobodkina, G B; Lebedinsky, A V; Chernyh, N A; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, E A; Slobodkin, A I

    2015-03-01

    A novel hyperthermophilic, anaerobic, archaeon was isolated from a terrestrial hot spring at Uzon Caldera, Kronotsky Nature Reserve, Kamchatka, Russia. The isolate, strain 1860(T), grew optimally at 90-95 °C and pH 6.0-7.0. The cells were non-motile straight rods, 1.5-5.0 µm in length, covered with surface-layer lattice. Strain 1860(T) utilized complex proteinaceous compounds as electron donors and ferrihydrite, Fe(III) citrate, nitrate, thiosulfate, selenite, selenate and arsenate as electron acceptors for growth. The sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of strain 1860(T) had 97.9-98.7 % similarity with those of members of the genus Pyrobaculum. On the basis of its physiological properties and phylogenetic analyses including in silico genome to genome hybridization, the isolate is considered to represent a novel species, for which the name Pyrobaculum ferrireducens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1860(T) ( = DSM 28942(T) = VKM B-2856(T)). PMID:25510975

  20. Partial characterization of xylanase produced by Caldicoprobacter algeriensis, a new thermophilic anaerobic bacterium isolated from an Algerian hot spring.

    PubMed

    Bouacem, Khelifa; Bouanane-Darenfed, Amel; Boucherba, Nawel; Joseph, Manon; Gagaoua, Mohammed; Ben Hania, Wajdi; Kecha, Mouloud; Benallaoua, Said; Hacène, Hocine; Ollivier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2014-11-01

    To date, xylanases have expanded their use in many processing industries, such as pulp, paper, food, and textile. This study aimed the production and partial characterization of a thermostable xylanase from a novel thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Caldicoprobacter algeriensis strain TH7C1(T) isolated from a northeast hot spring in Algeria. The obtained results showed that C. algeriensis xylanase seems not to be correlated with the biomass growth profile whereas the maximum enzyme production (140.0 U/ml) was recorded in stationary phase (18 h). The temperature and pH for optimal activities were 70 °C and 11.0, respectively. The enzyme was found to be stable at 50, 60, 70, and 80 °C, with a half-life of 10, 9, 8, and 4 h, respectively. Influence of metal ions on enzyme activity revealed that Ca(+2) enhances greatly the relative activity to 151.3 %; whereas Hg(2+) inhibited significantly the enzyme. At the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the production of xylanase by the thermophilic bacterium C. algeriensis. This thermo- and alkaline-tolerant xylanase could be used in pulp bleaching process. PMID:25161038

  1. Bioinformatics data supporting revelatory diversity of cultivable thermophiles isolated and identified from two terrestrial hot springs, Unkeshwar, India.

    PubMed

    Rekadwad, Bhagwan N; Khobragade, Chandrahasya N

    2016-06-01

    A total of 21 thermophilic bacteria were isolated and identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing method. Sequences were submitted to NCBI website. Short DNA sequences JN392966-JN392972; KC120909-KC120919; KM998072-KM998074 and KP053645 strains were downloaded from NCBI BioSample database. ENDMEMO GC calculating tool was used for calculation of maximum, minimum and average GC percentage and graphical representation of GC content. Data generated indicate 20 short DNA sequences have maximum GC content ranged from 60% to 100% with an average GC content 52.5-59.8%. It is recorded that Bacillus sp. W7, Escherichia coli strain NW1 and Geobacillus thermoleovorans strain rekadwadsis strains showed GC content maximum up to 70%; Actinobacterium EF_NAK1-7 up to 85.7%, while Bacillus megaterium and E. coli strain NW2 showed GC content maximum to 100%. Digital data on thermophilic bacteria isolated from Unkeshwar hot springs would be useful for interpretation of presence of biodiversity in addition to phenotypic, physiological characteristics and data generated through 16S rRNA gene sequencing technology. PMID:27182549

  2. Complete genome sequence of the thermophilic Thermus sp. CCB_US3_UF1 from a hot spring in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Teh, Beng Soon; Lau, Nyok-Sean; Ng, Fui Ling; Abdul Rahman, Ahmad Yamin; Wan, Xuehua; Saito, Jennifer A; Hou, Shaobin; Teh, Aik-Hong; Najimudin, Nazalan; Alam, Maqsudul

    2015-01-01

    Thermus sp. strain CCB_US3_UF1 is a thermophilic bacterium of the genus Thermus, a member of the family Thermaceae. Members of the genus Thermus have been widely used as a biological model for structural biology studies and to understand the mechanism of microbial adaptation under thermal environments. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Thermus sp. CCB_US3_UF1 isolated from a hot spring in Malaysia, which is the fifth member of the genus Thermus with a completely sequenced and publicly available genome (Genbank date of release: December 2, 2011). Thermus sp. CCB_US3_UF1 has the third largest genome within the genus. The complete genome comprises of a chromosome of 2.26 Mb and a plasmid of 19.7 kb. The genome contains 2279 protein-coding and 54 RNA genes. In addition, its genome revealed potential pathways for the synthesis of secondary metabolites (isoprenoid) and pigments (carotenoid). PMID:26457128

  3. Detection and characterization of a bacteriocin, putadicin T01, produced by Pseudomonas putida isolated from hot spring water.

    PubMed

    Ghrairi, Taoufik; Braiek, Olfa Ben; Hani, Khaled

    2015-03-01

    Pseudomonas strains isolated from hot spring water were tested for bacteriocin-like substance (BLS) production using a target panel of closely related microorganisms and other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Molecular identification was carried out through specific PCR and 16S RNA sequence analysis. Isolates were identified as Brevundimonas diminuta and Pseudomonas putida, the latter exhibited antimicrobial activity. Pseudomonas putida strains produce an inhibitory substance against other Pseudomonas strains and other species including food-borne pathogens. The BLS was sensitive to the proteolytic action of proteinase K, pronase E and trypsin but resistant to α-amylase, RNase and lipase C, reflecting its proteinaceous nature. The BLS was stable at 100 °C and also after thermal treatment at 121 °C for 15 min. Additionally, it was stable within a wide range of pH (2-10). The substance from P. putida T01 strain was bactericidal to Escherichia coli. SDS-PAGE analysis of the partial purified supernatant of strain T01 revealed a BLS with an approximate molecular mass of 8 kDa. Therefore, the results of this study show that P. putida strain T01 produces a BLS with a higher activity spectrum, which may find application in human medicine and in minimally processed food preservation. PMID:25556393

  4. Bioinformatics data supporting revelatory diversity of cultivable thermophiles isolated and identified from two terrestrial hot springs, Unkeshwar, India

    PubMed Central

    Rekadwad, Bhagwan N.; Khobragade, Chandrahasya N.

    2016-01-01

    A total of 21 thermophilic bacteria were isolated and identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing method. Sequences were submitted to NCBI website. Short DNA sequences JN392966–JN392972; KC120909–KC120919; KM998072–KM998074 and KP053645 strains were downloaded from NCBI BioSample database. ENDMEMO GC calculating tool was used for calculation of maximum, minimum and average GC percentage and graphical representation of GC content. Data generated indicate 20 short DNA sequences have maximum GC content ranged from 60% to 100% with an average GC content 52.5–59.8%. It is recorded that Bacillus sp. W7, Escherichia coli strain NW1 and Geobacillus thermoleovorans strain rekadwadsis strains showed GC content maximum up to 70%; Actinobacterium EF_NAK1-7 up to 85.7%, while Bacillus megaterium and E. coli strain NW2 showed GC content maximum to 100%. Digital data on thermophilic bacteria isolated from Unkeshwar hot springs would be useful for interpretation of presence of biodiversity in addition to phenotypic, physiological characteristics and data generated through 16S rRNA gene sequencing technology. PMID:27182549

  5. Identification of sulfur sources and isotopic equilibria in submarine hot-springs using multiple sulfur isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermott, Jill M.; Ono, Shuhei; Tivey, Margaret K.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Solow, Andrew R.

    2015-07-01

    disproportionation is an additional process that contributes sulfur to a different back-arc system and to acid spring-type hydrothermal fluid circulation. At the sedimented Guaymus Basin, near-zero Δ33S values are also observed, despite negative δ34S values that indicate inputs of biogenic pyrite for some samples. In contrast with previous studies reporting isotope disequilibrium between H2S and chalcopyrite, the δ34S values of chalcopyrite sampled from the inner 1-2 mm of a chimney wall are within ±1‰ of δ34S values for H2S in the paired vent fluid, suggesting equilibrium fluid-mineral sulfur isotope exchange at 300-400 °C. Isotopic equilibrium between hydrothermal fluid H2S and precipitating chalcopyrite implies that sulfur isotopes in the chalcopyrite lining across a chimney wall may accurately record past hydrothermal activity.

  6. Experimental Study of Serpentinization Reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Brearley, A. J.; Ganguly, J.; Liermann, H.-P.; Keil, K.

    2004-01-01

    Current carbonaceous chondrite parent-body thermal models [1-3] produce scenarios that are inconsistent with constraints on aqueous alteration conditions based on meteorite mineralogical evidence, such as phase stability relationships within the meteorite matrix minerals [4] and isotope equilibration arguments [5, 6]. This discrepancy arises principally because of the thermal runaway effect produced by silicate hydration reactions (here loosely called serpentinization, as the principal products are serpentine minerals), which are so exothermic as to produce more than enough heat to melt more ice and provide a self-sustaining chain reaction. One possible way to dissipate the heat of reaction is to use a very small parent body [e.g., 2] or possibly a rubble pile model. Another possibility is to release this heat more slowly, which depends on the alteration reaction path and kinetics.

  7. Serpentine Robots for Inspection Tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Choset, Howie

    2003-09-11

    Serpentine robots are snake like devices that can use their internal degrees of freedom to thread through tightly packed volumes accessing locations that people or conventional machinery cannot. These devices are ideally suited for minimally invasive inspection tasks where the surrounding areas do not have to be disturbed. Applications for these devices are therefore inspection of underground tanks and other storage facilities for classification purposes. This work deals with the design, construction, and control of a serpentine robot. The challenges lie in developing a device that can lift itself in three dimensions, which is necessary for the inspection tasks. The other challenge in control deals with coordinating all of the internal degrees of freedom to exact purposeful motion.

  8. Isotope hydrology of El Chichón volcano-hydrothermal system; a coupled system of crater lake and hot springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peiffer, L.; Taran, Y.; Rouwet, D.

    2010-12-01

    The catastrophic 1982 eruption of El Chichón (>1.5 km3 of erupted material) opened the upper hundred meters of the existing volcano-hydrothermal system. In the new formed 200m-deep crater a large shallow crater lake and numerous hot springs were formed. The lake existence and its salinity depend on the precipitation (~4000 mm/y) as well as a group of geyser-like neutral saline springs (source of Cl and SO4) and hydrothermal steam vents discharging into the lake (source of SO4). The chemistry of these “Soap Pool” (SP) springs evolved from >13,000 ppm of Cl in 1995 to ~2000-3000 ppm of Cl in 2006. Since 2006, this Cl-concentration in SP waters is constant. Similar concentrations of Cl are observed in most flank hot springs located at altitudes of ~ 600 m asl, 2-3 km from the crater. Therefore, it can be suggested that the flank springs, crater lake and crater hot springs are manifestations of the upper, relatively shallow volcano-hydrothermal system developed beneath the crater in the volcano edifice. Water isotopic composition of all types of thermal and fresh waters including fumarolic steam condensates (>100 samples collected in 1995-2010) allow to classify and distinguish different processes of shallow mixing, boiling, evaporation and water-rock isotope exchange. All spring waters from the upper system have meteoric origin, with the isotopic composition plotting close to the meteoric water line. Crater waters are strongly evolved due to shallow boiling and loss of steam. Isotopic composition of water from the lower, deep hydrothermal system is characterized by a significant positive oxygen isotopic shift and a strong Cl-d18O linear correlation. Waters from numerous cold springs that drain pyroclastic deposits demonstrate a clear negative oxygen shift. Some problems related to water isotopic composition are still remain unresolved: (1) we cannot find any traces of the infiltrated isotopically heavy lake waters, i.e., the seepage from the lake at the volcano

  9. Digital data for Quick Response (QR) codes of thermophiles to identify and compare the bacterial species isolated from Unkeshwar hot springs (India)

    PubMed Central

    Rekadwad, Bhagwan N.; Khobragade, Chandrahasya N.

    2015-01-01

    16S rRNA sequences of morphologically and biochemically identified 21 thermophilic bacteria isolated from Unkeshwar hot springs (19°85′N and 78°25′E), Dist. Nanded (India) has been deposited in NCBI repository. The 16S rRNA gene sequences were used to generate QR codes for sequences (FASTA format and full Gene Bank information). Diversity among the isolates is compared with known isolates and evaluated using CGR, FCGR and PCA i.e. visual comparison and evaluation respectively. Considerable biodiversity was observed among the identified bacteria isolated from Unkeshwar hot springs. The hyperlinked QR codes, CGR, FCGR and PCA of all the isolates are made available to the users on a portal https://sites.google.com/site/bhagwanrekadwad/. PMID:26793757

  10. Fluid-inclusion evidence for previous higher temperatures in the SUNEDCO 58-28 drill hole near Breitenbush hot springs, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bargar, Keith E.

    1993-01-01

    The SUNEDCO 58-28 geothermal exploration drill hole was completed in 1981 to a depth of 2, 457 m near Breitenbush Hot Springs in the Western Cascade Mountains of northern Oregon. One hundred thirteen liquid-rich fluid inclusions (mostly secondary) were analyzed from drill cuttings samples of hydrothermal quartz, calcite, and anhydrite, as well as primary quartz phenocrysts. Except for one hydrothermal quartz specimen, minimum homogenization temperature (Th) measurements of fluid inclusions plot very close to the present measured temperatures for the drill hole. Fluid-inclusion data from near the bottom of the drill hole suggest that these rocks were altered by water of significantly greater salinity than Breitenbush Hot Springs water.

  11. Investigation of Microbial Diversity in Geothermal Hot Springs in Unkeshwar, India, Based on 16S rRNA Amplicon Metagenome Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Mehetre, Gajanan T; Paranjpe, Aditi; Dastager, Syed G; Dharne, Mahesh S

    2016-01-01

    Microbial diversity in geothermal waters of the Unkeshwar hot springs in Maharashtra, India, was studied using 16S rRNA amplicon metagenomic sequencing. Taxonomic analysis revealed the presence of Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, Archeae, and OD1 phyla. Metabolic function prediction analysis indicated a battery of biological information systems indicating rich and novel microbial diversity, with potential biotechnological applications in this niche. PMID:26950332

  12. Feasibility study for a 10 MM GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot Springs, Nevada. Volume II. Geothermal resource, agricultural feedstock, markets and economic viability

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The issues of the geothermal resource at Brady's Hot Springs are dealt with: the prospective supply of feedstocks to the ethanol plant, the markets for the spent grain by-products of the plant, the storage, handling and transshipment requirements for the feedstocks and by-products from a rail siding facility at Fernley, the probable market for fuel ethanol in the region, and an assessment of the economic viability of the entire undertaking.

  13. Investigation of Microbial Diversity in Geothermal Hot Springs in Unkeshwar, India, Based on 16S rRNA Amplicon Metagenome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Mehetre, Gajanan T.; Paranjpe, Aditi; Dastager, Syed G.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial diversity in geothermal waters of the Unkeshwar hot springs in Maharashtra, India, was studied using 16S rRNA amplicon metagenomic sequencing. Taxonomic analysis revealed the presence of Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, Archeae, and OD1 phyla. Metabolic function prediction analysis indicated a battery of biological information systems indicating rich and novel microbial diversity, with potential biotechnological applications in this niche. PMID:26950332

  14. Nitrification and CO2 fixation in hot springs in the presence and absence of a nitrification inhibitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hungate, B. A.; Dijkstra, P.; Brown, J.; Mau, R. L.; Thomas, S.; Dodsworth, J. A.; Hedlund, B. P.; Boyd, E. S.; de la Torre, J. R.; Jewell, T.

    2012-12-01

    Ammonium oxidation occurs in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and from temperatures approaching freezing to close to 80 °C. This reaction is catalyzed by ammonium oxidase associated with both Bacteria and Archaea, although those associated with Archaea appear dominant at temperatures above ~ 60°C. For bacteria, this process is coupled to active CO2 uptake, although whether Archaea use this reaction in situ to drive C fixation has yet to be definitively established. For some hot spring communities, the Thaumarcheota (specifically close relatives of Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii) represent a substantial proportion of the microbial community. We conducted gross nitrification and CO2 fixation measurements to determine 1- the upper in situ temperature limit for nitrification and 2- the contribution of ammonium oxidizers to the community C fixation by inhibiting nitrification using allylthiourea (ATU). We used 15NO3- pool dilution to determine nitrification in sediment slurries and incubated sediment with 14C-labeled bicarbonate to measure C fixation. Sediment samples were collected from the Great Boiling Spring near Gerlach, Nevada. The water temperature ranged between 83 and 50°C depending on the location in the main pool. We collected samples at 82, 72, 59, and 51 °C. The sediment was homogenized, 15NO3- was added. The nitrification inhibitor ATU was added before adding the 15N label. One sample was immediately stored cold, while another was incubated overnight at the collection temperature. In parallel experiments, 14C bicarbonate was added to the headspace and likewise incubated in situ for several hours in the presence and absence of ATU. We observed significant nitrification at temperatures from 51-72 °C, but not at 82 °C. This nitrification was blocked by ATU. We also observed significant CO2 fixation at 51 and 59 °C, but not at higher temperature. CO2 fixation was not blocked by the nitrification inhibitor. We conclude that 1- ammonium oxidizers are

  15. The water that runs within us - how Geography can be learned through volcanic calderas, fumaroles and hot springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Ana; Luís Gaspar, João

    2014-05-01

    "Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better." Albert Einstein Teaching Geography within the classroom walls is always a challenge, especially if it is done in S. Miguel Island. Its breath-taking scenery invites us to dive into the wilderness and learn from it directly! Located in the Atlantic Ocean, the Azorean Archipelago is a privileged volcanic region, which makes it an open and unique resource for geosciences lesson to anyone, especially for 10th grade students whose curricula is not based on Geography as the main subject. The challenge, for their Geography teacher is, therefore, greater. Being an islander makes us sometimes forget the importance of one of the most basic resources - water. My students asked me "It's everywhere we look, so why should we bother?" when they were told the theme of our project was water. The more obvious it is, the harder it gets - making them aware of how privileged they are by living in a region where rare natural phenomena occur, such as hot springs and geothermal spring. Moreover, water is a content of their two-year curricula. Being a major topic on the 10th grade curricula, with me as their Geography teacher, and engaging in the poster session "Science in tomorrow's classroom" (during the GIFT 2014 Workshop), as well as the choice of our main theme "The water that runs within us", seem like natural stages that had to happen, as in the cycle of water. Therefore, for two years, experimental activities will take place both inside and outside of the classroom in order to study the availability of water in lakes, streams, underwater and hydrothermal reservoirs, as well as to enhance its importance for geothermal centrals, but also to local tourism as a main income of the economy of the region. Natural hazards associated with water will be studied on the second year of this project. Nothing of this would be possible without the cooperation of certain local agents, such as the Centre for Volcanology and

  16. Mirrored serpentine flow channels for fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Rock, Jeffrey Allan

    2000-08-08

    A PEM fuel cell having serpentine flow field channels wherein the input/inlet legs of each channel border the input/inlet legs of the next adjacent channels in the same flow field, and the output/exit legs of each channel border the output/exit legs of the next adjacent channels in the same flow field. The serpentine fuel flow channels may be longer, and may contain more medial legs, than the serpentine oxidant flow channels.

  17. Radiocarbon Ages and Environments of Deposition of the Wono and Trego Hot Springs Tephra Layers in the Pyramid Lake Subbasin, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.V.; Smoot, J.P.; Kashgarian, Michaele; Sarna-Wojcicki, A.; Burdett, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Uncalibrated radiocarbon data from core PLC92B taken from Wizards Cove in the Pyramid Lake subbasin indicate that the Trego Hot Springs and Wono tephra layers were deposited 23,200 ?? 300 and 27,300 ??300 14C yr B.P. (uncorrected for reservoir effect). Sedimentological data from sites in the Pyramid Lake and Smoke Creek-Black Rock Desert subbasins indicate that the Trego Hot Springs tephra layer was deposited during a relatively dry period when Pyramid Lake was at or below its spill point (1177 m) to the Winnemucca Lake subbasin. The Wono tephra layer was deposited when lake depth was controlled by spill across Emerson Pass sill (1207 m) to the Smoke Creek-Black Rock Desert subbasin. 18O data from core PLC92B also support the concept that the Trego Hot Springs tephra fell into a relatively shallow Pyramid Lake and that the Wono tephra fell into a deeper spilling lake. ?? 1997 University of Washington.

  18. Comparison of the microbial communities of hot springs waters and the microbial biofilms in the acidic geothermal area of Copahue (Neuquén, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Urbieta, María Sofía; González-Toril, Elena; Bazán, Ángeles Aguilera; Giaveno, María Alejandra; Donati, Edgardo

    2015-03-01

    Copahue is a natural geothermal field (Neuquén province, Argentina) dominated by the Copahue volcano. As a consequence of the sustained volcanic activity, Copahue presents many acidic pools, hot springs and solfataras with different temperature and pH conditions that influence their microbial diversity. The occurrence of microbial biofilms was observed on the surrounding rocks and the borders of the ponds, where water movements and thermal activity are less intense. Microbial biofilms are particular ecological niches within geothermal environments; they present different geochemical conditions from that found in the water of the ponds and hot springs which is reflected in different microbial community structure. The aim of this study is to compare microbial community diversity in the water of ponds and hot springs and in microbial biofilms in the Copahue geothermal field, with particular emphasis on Cyanobacteria and other photosynthetic species that have not been detected before in Copahue. In this study, we report the presence of Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi and chloroplasts of eukaryotes in the microbial biofilms not detected in the water of the ponds. On the other hand, acidophilic bacteria, the predominant species in the water of moderate temperature ponds, are almost absent in the microbial biofilms in spite of having in some cases similar temperature conditions. Species affiliated with Sulfolobales in the Archaea domain are the predominant microorganism in high temperature ponds and were also detected in the microbial biofilms. PMID:25605537

  19. Shielded serpentine traveling wave tube deflection structure

    DOEpatents

    Hudson, Charles L.; Spector, Jerome

    1994-01-01

    A shielded serpentine slow wave deflection structure (10) having a serpene signal conductor (12) within a channel groove (46). The channel groove (46) is formed by a serpentine channel (20) in a trough plate (18) and a ground plane (14). The serpentine signal conductor (12) is supported at its ends by coaxial feed through connectors 28. A beam interaction trough (22) intersects the channel groove (46) to form a plurality of beam interaction regions (56) wherein an electron beam (54) may be deflected relative to the serpentine signal conductor (12).

  20. Investigating the potential for subsurface primary production fueled by serpentinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazelton, W. J.; Nelson, B. Y.; Schrenk, M. O.

    2011-12-01

    Ultramafic rocks in the Earth's mantle represent a tremendous reservoir of carbon and reducing power. Tectonic uplift of these materials into the crust can result in serpentinization, a highly exothermic geochemical reaction that releases hydrogen gas (H2) and promotes the abiogenic synthesis of organic molecules. The extent and activity of microbial communities in serpentinite-hosted subsurface habitats is almost entirely unknown, but they clearly have great potential to host extensive sunlight-independent primary production fueled by H2 and abiotic carbon compounds. We have been testing this hypothesis at several sites of serpentinization around the globe utilizing a suite of techniques including metagenomics, 16S rRNA pyrotag sequencing, and stable isotope tracing experiments. All four of our study sites, which include deep-sea hydrothermal vents, terrestrial alkaline springs, and continental drill holes, are characteristically low in archaeal and bacterial genetic diversity. In carbonate chimneys of the Lost City hydrothermal field (Mid-Atlantic Ridge), for example, a single archaeal phylotype dominates the biofilm community. Stable isotope tracing experiments indicated that these archaeal biofilms are capable of both production and anaerobic oxidation of methane at 80C and pH 10. Both production and oxidation were stimulated by H2, suggesting a possible syntrophic relationship among cells within the biofilm. Preliminary results from similar stable isotope tracing experiments at terrestrial alkaline seeps at the Tablelands Ophiolite (Newfoundland), Ligurian springs (Italy), and McLaughlin Reserve (California) have indicated the potential for microbial activity fueled by H2 and acetate. Furthermore, recent metagenomic sequencing of fluids from the Tablelands and Ligurian springs have revealed genomic potential for chemolithotrophy powered by iron reduction with H2. In summary, these data support the potential for extensive microbial activity fueled by

  1. Identification and significance of Naegleria fowleri isolated from the hot spring which related to the first primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) patient in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tung, Min-Che; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Tao, Chi-Wei; Lin, Wei-Chen; Tsai, Hsiu-Feng; Ji, Dar-Der; Shen, Shu-Min; Chen, Jung-Sheng; Shih, Feng-Cheng; Huang, Yu-Li

    2013-08-01

    Naegleria fowleri can cause primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, a rapidly developing and highly lethal infectious disease. The first confirmed case of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in Taiwan was reported in November 2011, in which the patient visited a thermal spring recreational area 1 week prior to hospitalisation. Water sampling was performed to verify the presence of Naegleria at the facility. According to our results, 32% and 20% of recreational water samples were contaminated with Naegleria spp. and Acanthamoeba spp., respectively. The genotypes of Naegleria identified at the hot spring included N. fowleri, Naegleria australiensis and Naegleria lovaniensis. Using PCR, it was determined that the strain of N. fowleri in one sample possessed the same genotype 2 as the clinical isolate. Thus, the thermal spring was suggested to be the likely source of infection. This is the first known instance of simultaneously isolating N. fowleri from both a patient as well as from a hot spring in Taiwan. Following this initial study, the pools at the thermal spring recreational area were drained, scrubbed and disinfected, and a follow-up study was performed 1 month later. Naegleria fowleri was not detected in follow-up testing; however, other Naegleria spp. were identified. We postulate that the biofilm in the waterlines may have provided a reservoir for free-living amoebae. The presence/absence of Acanthamoeba and Naegleria spp. did not differ significantly with any measured parameters related to water quality; however, a high percentage of the thermal water pool samples were contaminated with Naegleria or Acanthamoeba. Thus, amoebic contamination may present a serious threat to the health of humans who engage in leisure activities at thermal springs. PMID:23665128

  2. Recombination Does Not Hinder Formation or Detection of Ecological Species of Synechococcus Inhabiting a Hot Spring Cyanobacterial Mat

    PubMed Central

    Melendrez, Melanie C.; Becraft, Eric D.; Wood, Jason M.; Olsen, Millie T.; Bryant, Donald A.; Heidelberg, John F.; Rusch, Douglas B.; Cohan, Frederick M.; Ward, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies of bacterial speciation have claimed to support the biological species concept—that reduced recombination is required for bacterial populations to diverge into species. This conclusion has been reached from the discovery that ecologically distinct clades show lower rates of recombination than that which occurs among closest relatives. However, these previous studies did not attempt to determine whether the more-rapidly recombining close relatives within the clades studied may also have diversified ecologically, without benefit of sexual isolation. Here we have measured the impact of recombination on ecological diversification within and between two ecologically distinct clades (A and B') of Synechococcus in a hot spring microbial mat in Yellowstone National Park, using a cultivation-free, multi-locus approach. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries were constructed from mat samples collected at 60°C and 65°C. Analysis of multiple linked loci near Synechococcus 16S rRNA genes showed little evidence of recombination between the A and B' lineages, but a record of recombination was apparent within each lineage. Recombination and mutation rates within each lineage were of similar magnitude, but recombination had a somewhat greater impact on sequence diversity than mutation, as also seen in many other bacteria and archaea. Despite recombination within the A and B' lineages, there was evidence of ecological diversification within each lineage. The algorithm Ecotype Simulation identified sequence clusters consistent with ecologically distinct populations (ecotypes), and several hypothesized ecotypes were distinct in their habitat associations and in their adaptations to different microenvironments. We conclude that sexual isolation is more likely to follow ecological divergence than to precede it. Thus, an ecology-based model of speciation appears more appropriate than the biological species concept for bacterial and archaeal diversification

  3. Ecophysiology of an uncultivated lineage of Aigarchaeota from an oxic, hot spring filamentous ‘streamer’ community

    SciTech Connect

    Beam, Jacob P.; Jay, Zackary J.; Schmid, Markus C.; Rusch, Douglas B.; Romine, Margaret F.; Jennings, Ryan de M.; Kozubal, Mark A.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Wagner, Michael; Inskeep, William P.

    2015-07-03

    In this study, the candidate archaeal phylum ‘Aigarchaeota’ contains microorganisms from terrestrial and subsurface geothermal ecosystems. The phylogeny and metabolic potential of Aigarchaeota has been deduced from several recent single-cell amplified genomes; however, a detailed description of their metabolic potential and in situ transcriptional activity is absent. Here, we report a comprehensive metatranscriptome-based reconstruction of the in situ metabolism of Aigarchaeota in an oxic, hot spring filamentous ‘streamer’ community. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that these newly discovered Aigarchaeota are filamentous, which is consistent with the presence and transcription of an actin-encoding gene. Aigarchaeota filaments are intricately associated with other community members, which include both bacteria (for example, filamentous Thermocrinis spp.) and archaea. Metabolic reconstruction of genomic and metatranscriptomic data suggests that this aigarchaeon is an aerobic, chemoorganoheterotroph with autotrophic potential. A heme copper oxidase complex was identified in the environmental genome assembly and highly transcribed in situ. Potential electron donors include acetate, fatty acids, amino acids, sugars and aromatic compounds, which may originate from extracellular polymeric substances produced by other microorganisms shown to exist in close proximity and/or autochthonous dissolved organic carbon (OC). Transcripts related to genes specific to each of these potential electron donors were identified, indicating that this aigarchaeon likely utilizes several OC substrates. Characterized members of this lineage cannot synthesize heme, and other cofactors and vitamins de novo, which suggests auxotrophy. We propose the name Candidatus ‘Calditenuis aerorheumensis’ for this aigarchaeon, which describes its filamentous morphology and its primary electron acceptor, oxygen.

  4. Ecophysiology of an uncultivated lineage of Aigarchaeota from an oxic, hot spring filamentous ‘streamer’ community

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Beam, Jacob P.; Jay, Zackary J.; Schmid, Markus C.; Rusch, Douglas B.; Romine, Margaret F.; Jennings, Ryan de M.; Kozubal, Mark A.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Wagner, Michael; Inskeep, William P.

    2015-07-03

    In this study, the candidate archaeal phylum ‘Aigarchaeota’ contains microorganisms from terrestrial and subsurface geothermal ecosystems. The phylogeny and metabolic potential of Aigarchaeota has been deduced from several recent single-cell amplified genomes; however, a detailed description of their metabolic potential and in situ transcriptional activity is absent. Here, we report a comprehensive metatranscriptome-based reconstruction of the in situ metabolism of Aigarchaeota in an oxic, hot spring filamentous ‘streamer’ community. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that these newly discovered Aigarchaeota are filamentous, which is consistent with the presence and transcription of an actin-encoding gene. Aigarchaeota filaments are intricately associated with othermore » community members, which include both bacteria (for example, filamentous Thermocrinis spp.) and archaea. Metabolic reconstruction of genomic and metatranscriptomic data suggests that this aigarchaeon is an aerobic, chemoorganoheterotroph with autotrophic potential. A heme copper oxidase complex was identified in the environmental genome assembly and highly transcribed in situ. Potential electron donors include acetate, fatty acids, amino acids, sugars and aromatic compounds, which may originate from extracellular polymeric substances produced by other microorganisms shown to exist in close proximity and/or autochthonous dissolved organic carbon (OC). Transcripts related to genes specific to each of these potential electron donors were identified, indicating that this aigarchaeon likely utilizes several OC substrates. Characterized members of this lineage cannot synthesize heme, and other cofactors and vitamins de novo, which suggests auxotrophy. We propose the name Candidatus ‘Calditenuis aerorheumensis’ for this aigarchaeon, which describes its filamentous morphology and its primary electron acceptor, oxygen.« less

  5. Recombination Does Not Hinder Formation or Detection of Ecological Species of Synechococcus Inhabiting a Hot Spring Cyanobacterial Mat.

    PubMed

    Melendrez, Melanie C; Becraft, Eric D; Wood, Jason M; Olsen, Millie T; Bryant, Donald A; Heidelberg, John F; Rusch, Douglas B; Cohan, Frederick M; Ward, David M

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of bacterial speciation have claimed to support the biological species concept-that reduced recombination is required for bacterial populations to diverge into species. This conclusion has been reached from the discovery that ecologically distinct clades show lower rates of recombination than that which occurs among closest relatives. However, these previous studies did not attempt to determine whether the more-rapidly recombining close relatives within the clades studied may also have diversified ecologically, without benefit of sexual isolation. Here we have measured the impact of recombination on ecological diversification within and between two ecologically distinct clades (A and B') of Synechococcus in a hot spring microbial mat in Yellowstone National Park, using a cultivation-free, multi-locus approach. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries were constructed from mat samples collected at 60°C and 65°C. Analysis of multiple linked loci near Synechococcus 16S rRNA genes showed little evidence of recombination between the A and B' lineages, but a record of recombination was apparent within each lineage. Recombination and mutation rates within each lineage were of similar magnitude, but recombination had a somewhat greater impact on sequence diversity than mutation, as also seen in many other bacteria and archaea. Despite recombination within the A and B' lineages, there was evidence of ecological diversification within each lineage. The algorithm Ecotype Simulation identified sequence clusters consistent with ecologically distinct populations (ecotypes), and several hypothesized ecotypes were distinct in their habitat associations and in their adaptations to different microenvironments. We conclude that sexual isolation is more likely to follow ecological divergence than to precede it. Thus, an ecology-based model of speciation appears more appropriate than the biological species concept for bacterial and archaeal diversification. PMID

  6. Thermoterrabacterium ferrireducens gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermophilic anaerobic dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium from a continental hot spring.

    PubMed

    Slobodkin, A; Reysenbach, A L; Strutz, N; Dreier, M; Wiegel, J

    1997-04-01

    A strain of a thermophilic, anaerobic, dissimilatory, Fe(III)-reducing bacterium, Thermoterrabacterium ferrireducens gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain JW/AS-Y7T; DSM 11255), was isolated from hot springs in Yellowstone National Park and New Zealand. The gram-positive-staining cells occurred singly or in pairs as straight to slightly curved rods, 0.3 to 0.4 by 1.6 to 2.7 microns, with rounded ends and exhibited a tumbling motility. Spores were not observed. The temperature range for growth was 50 to 74 degrees C with an optimum at 65 degrees C. The pH range for growth at 65 degrees C was from 5.5 to 7.6, with an optimum at 6.0 to 6.2. The organism coupled the oxidation of glycerol to reduction of amorphous Fe(III) oxide or Fe(III) citrate as an electron acceptor. In the presence as well as in the absence of Fe(III) and in the presence of CO2, glycerol was metabolized by incomplete oxidation to acetate as the only organic metabolic product; no H2 was produced during growth. The organism utilized glycerol, lactate, 1,2-propanediol, glycerate, pyruvate, glucose, fructose, mannose, and yeast extract as substrates. In the presence of Fe(III) the bacterium utilized molecular hydrogen. The organism reduced 9,10-anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid, fumarate (to succinate), and thiosulfate (to elemental sulfur) but did not reduce MnO2, nitrate, sulfate, sulfite, or elemental sulfur. The G + C content of the DNA was 41 mol% (as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography). The 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis placed the isolated strain as a member of a new genus within the gram-type-positive Bacillus-Clostridium subphylum. PMID:9103646

  7. Production and Consumption of Hydrogen in Hot Spring Microbial Mats Dominated by a Filamentous Anoxygenic Photosynthetic Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Otaki, Hiroyo; Everroad, R. Craig; Matsuura, Katsumi; Haruta, Shin

    2012-01-01

    Microbial mats containing the filamentous anoxygenic photosynthetic bacterium Chloroflexus aggregans develop at Nakabusa hot spring in Japan. Under anaerobic conditions in these mats, interspecies interaction between sulfate-reducing bacteria as sulfide producers and C. aggregans as a sulfide consumer has been proposed to constitute a sulfur cycle; however, the electron donor utilized for microbial sulfide production at Nakabusa remains to be identified. In order to determine this electron donor and its source, ex situ experimental incubation of mats was explored. In the presence of molybdate, which inhibits biological sulfate reduction, hydrogen gas was released from mat samples, indicating that this hydrogen is normally consumed as an electron donor by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Hydrogen production decreased under illumination, indicating that C. aggregans also functions as a hydrogen consumer. Small amounts of hydrogen may have also been consumed for sulfur reduction. Clone library analysis of 16S rRNA genes amplified from the mats indicated the existence of several species of hydrogen-producing fermentative bacteria. Among them, the most dominant fermenter, Fervidobacterium sp., was successfully isolated. This isolate produced hydrogen through the fermentation of organic carbon. Dispersion of microbial cells in the mats resulted in hydrogen production without the addition of molybdate, suggesting that simultaneous production and consumption of hydrogen in the mats requires dense packing of cells. We propose a cyclic electron flow within the microbial mats, i.e., electron flow occurs through three elements: S (elemental sulfur, sulfide, sulfate), C (carbon dioxide, organic carbon) and H (di-hydrogen, protons). PMID:22446313

  8. Desulfurococcus fermentans sp. nov., a novel hyperthermophilic archaeon from a Kamchatka hot spring, and emended description of the genus Desulfurococcus.

    PubMed

    Perevalova, A A; Svetlichny, V A; Kublanov, I V; Chernyh, N A; Kostrikina, N A; Tourova, T P; Kuznetsov, B B; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, E A

    2005-05-01

    An obligately anaerobic, hyperthermophilic, organoheterotrophic archaeon, strain Z-1312(T), was isolated from a freshwater hot spring of the Uzon caldera (Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia). The cells were regular cocci, 1-4 microm in diameter, with one long flagellum. The cell envelope was composed of a globular layer attached to the cytoplasmic membrane. The temperature range for growth was 63-89 degrees C, with an optimum between 80 and 82 degrees C. The pH range for growth at 80 degrees C was 4.8-6.8, with an optimum at pH 6.0. Strain Z-1312(T) grew by hydrolysis and/or fermentation of a wide range of polymeric and monomeric substrates, including agarose, amygdalin, arabinose, arbutin, casein hydrolysate, cellulose (filter paper, microcrystalline cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose), dextran, dulcitol, fructose, lactose, laminarin, lichenan, maltose, pectin, peptone, ribose, starch and sucrose. No growth was detected on glucose, xylose, mannitol or sorbitol. Growth products when sucrose or starch were used as the substrate were acetate, H(2) and CO(2). Elemental sulfur, thiosulfate and nitrate added as potential electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration did not stimulate growth when tested with starch as the substrate. H(2) at 100 % in the gas phase did not inhibit growth on starch or peptone. The G+C content of the DNA was 42.5 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis placed the isolated strain Z-1312(T) as a member of the genus Desulfurococcus, where it represented a novel species, for which the name Desulfurococcus fermentans sp. nov. (type strain Z-1312(T) = DSM 16532 (T) = VKM V-2316(T)) is proposed. PMID:15879224

  9. Thermoterrabacterium ferrireducens gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermophilic anaerobic dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium from a continental hot spring

    SciTech Connect

    Slobodkin, A.; Wiegel, J.; Reysenbach, A.L.

    1997-04-01

    A strain of a thermophilic, anaerobic, dissimilatory, Fe(III)-reducing bacterium, Thermoterrabacterium ferrireducens gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain JW/AS-Y7{sup T}; DSM 11255), was isolated from hot springs in Yellowstone National Park and New Zealand. The gram-positive-staining cells occurred singly or in pairs as straight to slightly curved rods, 0.3 to 0.4 by 1.6 to 2.7 {mu}m, with rounded ends and exhibited a tumbling motility. Spores were not observed. The temperature range for growth was 50 to 74{degrees}C with an optimum at 65{degrees}C. The pH range for growth at 65{degrees}C was from 5.5 to 7.6, with an optimum at 6.0 to 6.2. The organism coupled the oxidation of glycerol to reduction of amorphous Fe(III) oxide or Fe(III) citrate as an electron acceptor. In the presence as well as in the absence of Fe(III) and in the presence of CO{sub 2}, glycerol was metabolized by incomplete oxidation to acetate as the only organic metabolic product; no H{sub 2} was produced during growth. The organism utilized glycerol, lactate, 1,2-propanediol, glycerate, pyruvate, glucose, fructose, mannose, and yeast extract as substrates. In the presence of Fe(III) the bacterium utilized molecular hydrogen. The organism reduced 9,10-anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid, fumarate (to succinate), and thiosulfate (to elemental sulfur) but did not reduce MnO{sub 2}, nitrate, sulfate, sulfite, or elemental sulfur. The G+C content of the DNA was 41 mol% (as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography). The 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis placed the isolated strain as a member of a new genus within the gram-type positive Bacillus-Clostridium subphylum.

  10. Ecophysiology of an uncultivated lineage of Aigarchaeota from an oxic, hot spring filamentous ‘streamer' community

    PubMed Central

    Beam, Jacob P; Jay, Zackary J; Schmid, Markus C; Rusch, Douglas B; Romine, Margaret F; M Jennings, Ryan de; Kozubal, Mark A; Tringe, Susannah G; Wagner, Michael; Inskeep, William P

    2016-01-01

    The candidate archaeal phylum ‘Aigarchaeota' contains microorganisms from terrestrial and subsurface geothermal ecosystems. The phylogeny and metabolic potential of Aigarchaeota has been deduced from several recent single-cell amplified genomes; however, a detailed description of their metabolic potential and in situ transcriptional activity is absent. Here, we report a comprehensive metatranscriptome-based reconstruction of the in situ metabolism of Aigarchaeota in an oxic, hot spring filamentous ‘streamer' community. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that these newly discovered Aigarchaeota are filamentous, which is consistent with the presence and transcription of an actin-encoding gene. Aigarchaeota filaments are intricately associated with other community members, which include both bacteria (for example, filamentous Thermocrinis spp.) and archaea. Metabolic reconstruction of genomic and metatranscriptomic data suggests that this aigarchaeon is an aerobic, chemoorganoheterotroph with autotrophic potential. A heme copper oxidase complex was identified in the environmental genome assembly and highly transcribed in situ. Potential electron donors include acetate, fatty acids, amino acids, sugars and aromatic compounds, which may originate from extracellular polymeric substances produced by other microorganisms shown to exist in close proximity and/or autochthonous dissolved organic carbon (OC). Transcripts related to genes specific to each of these potential electron donors were identified, indicating that this aigarchaeon likely utilizes several OC substrates. Characterized members of this lineage cannot synthesize heme, and other cofactors and vitamins de novo, which suggests auxotrophy. We propose the name Candidatus ‘Calditenuis aerorheumensis' for this aigarchaeon, which describes its filamentous morphology and its primary electron acceptor, oxygen. PMID:26140529

  11. Metagenomics of an Alkaline Hot Spring in Galicia (Spain): Microbial Diversity Analysis and Screening for Novel Lipolytic Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    López-López, Olalla; Knapik, Kamila; Cerdán, Maria-Esperanza; González-Siso, María-Isabel

    2015-01-01

    A fosmid library was constructed with the metagenomic DNA from the water of the Lobios hot spring (76°C, pH = 8.2) located in Ourense (Spain). Metagenomic sequencing of the fosmid library allowed the assembly of 9722 contigs ranging in size from 500 to 56,677 bp and spanning ~18 Mbp. 23,207 ORFs (Open Reading Frames) were predicted from the assembly. Biodiversity was explored by taxonomic classification and it revealed that bacteria were predominant, while the archaea were less abundant. The six most abundant bacterial phyla were Deinococcus-Thermus, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Aquificae, and Chloroflexi. Within the archaeal superkingdom, the phylum Thaumarchaeota was predominant with the dominant species “Candidatus Caldiarchaeum subterraneum.” Functional classification revealed the genes associated to one-carbon metabolism as the most abundant. Both taxonomic and functional classifications showed a mixture of different microbial metabolic patterns: aerobic and anaerobic, chemoorganotrophic and chemolithotrophic, autotrophic and heterotrophic. Remarkably, the presence of genes encoding enzymes with potential biotechnological interest, such as xylanases, galactosidases, proteases, and lipases, was also revealed in the metagenomic library. Functional screening of this library was subsequently done looking for genes encoding lipolytic enzymes. Six genes conferring lipolytic activity were identified and one was cloned and characterized. This gene was named LOB4Est and it was expressed in a yeast mesophilic host. LOB4Est codes for a novel esterase of family VIII, with sequence similarity to β-lactamases, but with unusual wide substrate specificity. When the enzyme was purified from the mesophilic host it showed half-life of 1 h and 43 min at 50°C, and maximal activity at 40°C and pH 7.5 with p-nitrophenyl-laurate as substrate. Interestingly, the enzyme retained more than 80% of maximal activity in a broad range of pH from 6.5 to 8. PMID:26635759

  12. Carboxydothermus siderophilus sp. nov., a thermophilic, hydrogenogenic, carboxydotrophic, dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium from a Kamchatka hot spring.

    PubMed

    Slepova, Tatiana V; Sokolova, Tatyana G; Kolganova, Tatyana V; Tourova, Tatyana P; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A

    2009-02-01

    A novel anaerobic, thermophilic, Fe(III)-reducing, CO-utilizing bacterium, strain 1315(T), was isolated from a hot spring of Geyser Valley on the Kamchatka Peninsula. Cells of the new isolate were Gram-positive, short rods. Growth was observed at 52-70 degrees C, with an optimum at 65 degrees C, and at pH 5.5-8.5, with an optimum at pH 6.5-7.2. In the presence of Fe(III) or 9,10-anthraquinone 2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), the bacterium was capable of growth with CO and yeast extract (0.2 g l(-1)); during growth under these conditions, strain 1315(T) produced H(2) and CO(2) and Fe(II) or AQDSH(2), respectively. Strain 1315(T) also grew by oxidation of yeast extract, glucose, xylose or lactate under a N(2) atmosphere, reducing Fe(III) or AQDS. Yeast extract (0.2 g l(-1)) was required for growth. Isolate 1315(T) grew exclusively with Fe(III) or AQDS as an electron acceptor. The generation time under optimal conditions with CO as growth substrate was 9.3 h. The G+C content of the DNA was 41.5+/-0.5 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis placed the organism in the genus Carboxydothermus (97.8 % similarity with the closest relative). On the basis of physiological features and phylogenetic analysis, it is proposed that strain 1315(T) should be assigned to a novel species, Carboxydothermus siderophilus sp. nov., with the type strain 1315(T) (=VKPM 9905B(T) =VKM B-2474(T) =DSM 21278(T)). PMID:19196756

  13. Mantle to Surface Fluid Transfer Above a Flat Slab Subduction Zone: Isotopic Evidence from Hot Springs in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, D. L.; Jessup, M. J.; Hilton, D. R.; Shaw, C. A.; Hughes, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Thermal springs in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, provide geochemical evidence for deeply circulated hydrothermal fluids that carry significant mantle-derived helium. The Cordillera Blanca is a ~200 km-long NNW-SSE trending mountain range in the Peruvian Andes located above an amagmatic flat-slab subduction segment. The west side of the range is bounded by the Cordillera Blanca detachment that preserves a progression of top to the west ductile shear to brittle normal faulting since ~5 Ma. We report aqueous and stable isotope geochemical results from fluid and gas samples collected in 2013 and 2015 from 13 hot springs emanating from the Cordillera Blanca detachment and associated hanging wall faults. Most springs are vigorously bubbling (degassing), and range in temperature, pH, and conductivity from 17-89 °C, 5.95-8.87, and 0.17-21.5 mS, respectively. The hottest springs issue directly from the northern segment of the detachment. Geochemically, springs are CO2-rich, alkaline-chloride to alkaline-carbonate waters, with elevated trace metal contents including Fe, Cu, As, Zn, Sb, and Tl. Notably, As contents are ≤11 ppm, indicating that thermal waters may be adversely impacting local water quality. Water δ18O and δD, trends in elemental chemistry, and cation geothermometry collectively demonstrate mixing of hot (200-260 °C) saline fluid with cold meteoric recharge along the fault. Helium isotope ratios (3He/4He) for dissolved gases in the hot springs range from 0.62 to 1.98 RC/RA, indicating the presence of ~25% mantle-derived helium, assuming mixing of an asthenospheric end-member with the crustal helium reservoir. CO2/3He and carbon stable isotope ratios indicate a carbon source derived from mixing of crustal sources with minor mantle carbon. Overall, the volatile signature overlaps with orogen-wide datasets where crustal overprinting has modified mantle contributions at active arc volcanoes. Given the long duration since active magmatism in the Cordillera

  14. The occurrence of chlorine in serpentine minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miura, Y.; Rucklidge, J.; Nord, G.L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Partially serpentinized dunites containing small amounts of Chlorine (< 0.5%) from Dumont, Quebec, and Horoman, Hokkaido, Japan, and one containing less than 0.05% Chlorine from Higashi-Akaishi-Yama, Ehime, Japan have been examined using the electron probe microanalyzer and scanning transmission electron microscope with X-ray analytical capabilities. Chlorine was found together with Si, Mg, Ca and Fe in the serpentine minerals of the Dumont and Hokkaido dunites but not in the Ehime dunite. Chlorine is found associated only with the most finely crystalline facies of the serpentine (grain size less than 10 nm). The Ehime dunite contained no such fine grained serpentine, and was thus effectively chlorine-free, as are the coarser grained serpentines of the other samples. The finegrained chlorine-bearing serpentine also has a much higher concentration of Fe, and can contain smaller amounts of Ca, Ni and Mn than the coarse-grained variety as well as minute awaruite (FeNi3) grains. This fine-grained serpentine probably represents an early stage in the transformation of olivine to serpentine, with chlorine from hydrothermal solutions assisting the necessary chemical changes. The Cl increases the reaction rate by lowering the activation barrier to reaction by the introduction of reaction steps. ?? 1981 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Near-wall serpentine cooled turbine airfoil

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ching-Pang

    2014-10-28

    A serpentine coolant flow path is formed by inner walls in a cavity between pressure and suction side walls of a turbine airfoil, the cavity partitioned by one or more transverse partitions into a plurality of continuous serpentine cooling flow streams each having a respective coolant inlet.

  16. Desulfosoma caldarium gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium from a terrestrial hot spring.

    PubMed

    Baena, Sandra; Perdomo, Natalia; Carvajal, Catalina; Díaz, Carolina; Patel, Bharat K C

    2011-04-01

    A thermophilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium, designated strain USBA-053(T), was isolated from a terrestrial hot spring located at a height of 2500 m in the Colombian Andes (5° 45' 33.29″ N 73° 6' 49.89″ W), Colombia. Cells of strain USBA-053(T) were oval- to rod-shaped, Gram-negative and motile by means of a single polar flagellum. The strain grew autotrophically with H(2) as the electron donor and heterotrophically on formate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, isovalerate, lactate, pyruvate, ethanol, glycerol, serine and hexadecanoic acid in the presence of sulfate as the terminal electron acceptor. The main end products from lactate degradation, in the presence of sulfate, were acetate, CO(2) and H(2)S. Strain USBA-053(T) fermented pyruvate in the absence of sulfate and grew optimally at 57 °C (growth temperature ranged from 50 °C to 62 °C) and pH 6.8 (growth pH ranged from 5.7 to 7.7). The novel strain was slightly halophilic and grew in NaCl concentrations ranging from 5 to 30 g l(-1), with an optimum at 25 g l(-1) NaCl. Sulfate, thiosulfate and sulfite were used as electron acceptors, but not elemental sulfur, nitrate or nitrite. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 56±1 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain USBA-053(T) was a member of the class Deltaproteobacteria, with Desulfacinum hydrothermale MT-96(T) as the closest relative (93 % gene sequence similarity). On the basis of physiological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis, it is suggested that strain USBA-053(T) represents a new genus and novel species for which the name Desulfosoma caldarium gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is USBA-053(T) ( = KCTC 5670(T) = DSM 22027(T)). PMID:20418410

  17. Archaeal and bacterial diversity in two hot springs from geothermal regions in Bulgaria as demostrated by 16S rRNA and GH-57 genes.

    PubMed

    Stefanova, Katerina; Tomova, Iva; Tomova, Anna; Radchenkova, Nadja; Atanassov, Ivan; Kambourova, Margarita

    2015-12-01

    Archaeal and bacterial diversity in two Bulgarian hot springs, geographically separated with different tectonic origin and different temperature of water was investigated exploring two genes, 16S rRNA and GH-57. Archaeal diversity was significantly higher in the hotter spring Levunovo (LV) (82°C); on the contrary, bacterial diversity was higher in the spring Vetren Dol (VD) (68°C). The analyzed clones from LV library were referred to twenty eight different sequence types belonging to five archaeal groups from Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. A domination of two groups was observed, Candidate Thaumarchaeota and Methanosarcinales. The majority of the clones from VD were referred to HWCG (Hot Water Crenarchaeotic Group). The formation of a group of thermophiles in the order Methanosarcinales was suggested. Phylogenetic analysis revealed high numbers of novel sequences, more than one third of archaeal and half of the bacterial phylotypes displayed similarity lower than 97% with known ones. The retrieved GH-57 gene sequences showed a complex phylogenic distribution. The main part of the retrieved homologous GH-57 sequences affiliated with bacterial phyla Bacteroidetes, Deltaproteobacteria, Candidate Saccharibacteria and affiliation of almost half of the analyzed sequences is not fully resolved. GH-57 gene analysis allows an increased resolution of the biodiversity assessment and in depth analysis of specific taxonomic groups. [Int Microbiol 18(4):217-223 (2015)]. PMID:27611674

  18. New evidence on the hydrothermal system in Long Valley caldera, California, from wells, fluid sampling, electrical geophysics, and age determinations of hot-spring deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorey, M.L.; Suemnicht, G.A.; Sturchio, N.C.; Nordquist, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    Data collected since 1985 from test drilling, fluid sampling, and geologic and geophysical investigations provide a clearer definition of the hydrothermal system in Long Valley caldera than was previously available. This information confirms the existence of high-temperature (> 200??C) reservoirs within the volcanic fill in parts of the west moat. These reservoirs contain fluids which are chemically similar to thermal fluids encountered in the central and eastern parts of the caldera. The roots of the present-day hydrothermal system (the source reservoir, principal zones of upflow, and the magmatic heat source) most likely occur within metamorphic basement rocks beneath the western part of the caldera. Geothermometer-temperature estimates for the source reservoir range from 214 to 248??C. Zones of upflow of hot water could exist beneath the plateau of moat rhyolite located west of the resurgent dome or beneath Mammoth Mountain. Lateral flow of thermal water away from such upflow zones through reservoirs in the Bishop Tuff and early rhyolite accounts for temperature reversals encountered in most existing wells. Dating of hot-spring deposits from active and inactive thermal areas confirms previous interpretations of the evolution of hydrothermal activity that suggest two periods of extensive hot-spring discharge, one peaking about 300 ka and another extending from about 40 ka to the present. The onset of hydrothermal activity around 40 ka coincides with the initiation of rhyolitic volcanism along the Mono-Inyo Craters volcanic chain that extends beneath the caldera's west moat. ?? 1991.

  19. Correlation of gold in siliceous sinters with 3He 4He in hot spring waters of Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.; Kennedy, B.M.; Aoki, M.; Thompson, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Opaline sinter samples collected at Yellowstone National Park (YNP) were analyzed for gold by neutron activation and for other trace elements by the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) method. No correlation was found between Au and As, Sb, or total Fe in the sinters, although the sample containing the highest Au also contains the highest Sb. There also was no correlation of Au in the sinter with the H2S concentration in the discharged hot spring water or with the estimated temperature of last equilibration of the water with the surrounding rock. The Au in rhyolitic tuffs and lavas at YNP found within the Yellowstone caldera show the same range in Au as do those outside the caldera, while thermal waters from within this caldera all have been found to contain relatively low dissolved Au and to deposit sinters that contain relatively little Au. Therefore, it is not likely that variations in Au concentrations among these sinters simply reflect differences in leachable Au in the rocks through which the hydrothermal fluids have passed. Rather, variations in [H2S], the concentration of total dissolved sulfide, that result from different physical and chemical processes that occur in different parts of the hydrothermal system appear to exert the main control on the abundance of Au in these sinters. Hydrothermal fluids at YNP convect upward through a series of successively shallower and cooler reservoirs where water-rock chemical and isotopic reactions occur in response to changing temperature and pressure. In some parts of the system the fluids undergo decompressional boiling, and in other parts they cool conductively without boiling. Mixing of ascending water from deep in the system with shallow groundwaters is common. All three processes generally result in a decrease in [H2S] and destabilize dissolved gold bisulfide complexes in reservoir waters in the YNP system. Thus, different reservoirs in rocks of similar composition and at similar

  20. A new tropical active serpentinization end-member discovered in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Murillo, R.; Gazel, E.; Boll, J.; Schwarzenbach, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    Serpentinization is a planetary process where ultramafic rocks react with fluids with important consequences on global biogeochemical cycles through formation of H2 and CH4. Exposed sections of upper-mantle rocks on continents, where meteoric water interacts with the ultramafic rocks, provide natural laboratories to study present-day serpentinization. Here, we present geochemical evidence of active serpentinization and methane vents in the Santa Elena Ophiolite (comprising 250 km2 of ultramafic rocks) in Costa Rica. The system is sustained by peridotites with a 50% degree of serpentinization. Two alkaline spring systems were discovered. The alkaline fluids pH ranged from 11.01 to 11.18. Mean hydroxide and carbonate concentrations were 52 mg/L and 38 mg/L. Mean dissolved calcium was 104 mg/L with a maximum of 167 mg/L. These springs are also characterized by low Mg (< 1 mg/L) and K (2.35 mg/L) and relatively high Na (21.4 mg/L) and chloride (27.1 mg/L) concentrations. Average spring temperature was 29.1°C. Active CH4 vents (24.3% volume) coupled with extensive carbonate deposits (magnesite and calcite with isotopic compositions within the range of similar ultramafic hosted systems) also provide strong evidence of active serpentinization. Groundwater and alkaline spring's hydrological connectivity was explored using stable isotope as natural tracers. Isotope composition of the alkaline fluids (d18O = -7.9‰, d2H = -51.4‰) was remarkably similar to the groundwater signature from 10 deep wells (30-70 m) (d18O = -7.6‰; dD = -48.0‰) sampled in local watersheds. These results support the hypothesis that during prolonged dry periods these alkaline springs are fed by deep subsurface storage. Mean electrical conductivity of the alkaline fluids (622 uS/cm) was considerably higher than of surface waters (470 uS/cm); this significant difference may be additional evidence of active serpentinization in the area. Overall, Santa Elena's varying weather conditions between

  1. Seasonal distributions of dominant 16S rRNA-defined populations in a hot spring microbial mat examined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, M J; Ward, D M

    1997-01-01

    Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene segments was used to examine the distributions of bacterial populations within a hot spring microbial mat (Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park). Populations at sites along the thermal gradient of the spring's effluent channel were surveyed at seasonal intervals. No shift in the thermal gradient was detected, and populations at spatially or temperature-defined sites exhibited only slight changes over the annual sampling period. A new cyanobacterial 16S rRNA sequence type was detected at temperatures from 63 to 75 degrees C. A new green nonsulfur bacterium-like sequence type was also detected at temperatures from 53 to 62 degrees C. Genetically unique though closely related cyanobacterial and green nonsulfur bacterium-like populations were successively distributed along the thermal gradient of the Octopus Spring effluent channel. At least two cyanobacterial populations were detected at each site; however, a limited ability to detect some cyanobacterial populations suggests that only dominant populations were observed. PMID:9097434

  2. Physiological and genomic features of highly alkaliphilic hydrogen-utilizing Betaproteobacteria from a continental serpentinizing site

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shino; Kuenen, J. Gijs; Schipper, Kira; van der Velde, Suzanne; Ishii, Shun’ichi; Wu, Angela; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Tenney, Aaron; Meng, XianYing; Morrill, Penny L.; Kamagata, Yoichi; Muyzer, Gerard; Nealson, Kenneth H.

    2014-01-01

    Serpentinization, or the aqueous alteration of ultramafic rocks, results in challenging environments for life in continental sites due to the combination of extremely high pH, low salinity and lack of obvious electron acceptors and carbon sources. Nevertheless, certain Betaproteobacteria have been frequently observed in such environments. Here we describe physiological and genomic features of three related Betaproteobacterial strains isolated from highly alkaline (pH 11.6) serpentinizing springs at The Cedars, California. All three strains are obligate alkaliphiles with an optimum for growth at pH 11 and are capable of autotrophic growth with hydrogen, calcium carbonate and oxygen. The three strains exhibit differences, however, regarding the utilization of organic carbon and electron acceptors. Their global distribution and physiological, genomic and transcriptomic characteristics indicate that the strains are adapted to the alkaline and calcium-rich environments represented by the terrestrial serpentinizing ecosystems. We propose placing these strains in a new genus ‘Serpentinomonas’. PMID:24845058

  3. Seismic velocity structure in the Hot Springs and Trifurcation areas of the San Jacinto fault zone, California, from double-difference tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allam, A. A.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Kurzon, I.; Vernon, F.

    2014-08-01

    We present tomographic images of crustal velocity structures in the complex Hot Springs and Trifurcation areas of the San Jacinto Fault Zone (SJFZ) based on double-difference inversions of earthquake arrival times. We invert for VP, VS and hypocentre location within 50 × 50 × 20 km3 volumes, using 266 969 P and 148 249 S arrival times. We obtain high-fidelity images of seismic velocities with resolution on the order of a few kilometres from 2 to 12 km depth and validate the results using checkerboard tests. Due to the relatively large proportion of S-wave arrival times, we also obtain stable maps of VP/VS ratios in both regions. The velocity of the Trifurcation Area as a whole is lower than adjacent unfaulted material. We interpret a 4-km-wide low velocity zone with high VP/VS ratio in the trifurcation itself as related to fault zone damage. We also observe clear velocity contrasts across the Buck Ridge, Clark and Coyote Creek segments of the SJFZ. The Anza segment of the SJFZ, to the NW of the trifurcation area, displays a strong (up to 27 per cent) contrast of VS from 2 to 9 km depth. In the Hot Springs area, a low velocity zone between the Claremont and Casa Loma Strands narrows with depth, with clear velocity contrasts observed across both segments. A roughly 10-km-wide zone of low velocity and low VP/VS ratio at the NW tip of the Hot Springs fault is indicative of either unconsolidated sediments associated with the San Jacinto basin, or fluid-filled cracks within a broad deformation zone. High VP/VS ratios along the Anza segment could indicate a preferred nucleation location for future large earthquakes, while the across-fault velocity contrast suggests a preferred northwest rupture propagation direction for such events.

  4. Feasibility study for a 10-MM-GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot Springs, Nevada. Volume 1. Process and plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    An investigation was performed to determine the technical and economic viability of constructing and operating a geothermally heated, biomass, motor fuel alcohol plant at Brady's Hot Springs. The results of the study are positive, showing that a plant of innovative, yet proven design can be built to adapt current commerical fermentation-distillation technology to the application of geothermal heat energy. The specific method of heat production from the Brady's Hot Spring wells has been successful for some time at an onion drying plant. Further development of the geothermal resource to add the capacity needed for an ethanol plant is found to be feasible for a plant sized to produce 10 million gallons of motor fuel grade ethanol per year. A very adequate supply of feedgrains is found to be available for use in the plant without impact on the local or regional feedgrain market. The effect of diverting supplies from the animal feedlots in Northern Nevada and California will be mitigated by the by-product output of high-protein feed supplements that the plant will produce. The plant will have a favorable impact on the local farming economies of Fallon, Lovelock, Winnemucca and Elko, Nevada. It will make a positive and significant socioeconomic contribution to Churchill County, providing direct employment for an additional 61 persons. Environmental impact will be negligible, involving mostly a moderate increase in local truck traffic and railroad siding activity. The report is presented in two volumes. Volume 1 deals with the technical design aspects of the plant. The second volume addresses the issue of expanded geothermal heat production at Brady's Hot Springs, goes into the details of feedstock supply economics, and looks at the markets for the plant's primary ethanol product, and the markets for its feed supplement by-products. The report concludes with an analysis of the economic viability of the proposed project.

  5. Numerical quantification of habitability in serpentinizing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Som, S.; Alperin, M. J.; Hoehler, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    The likely presence of liquid water in contact with olivine-bearing rocks on Mars, the detection of serpentine minerals and of methane emissions possibly consistent with serpentinization, and the observation of serpentine-associated methane-cycling communities on Earth have all led to excitement over the potential of such systems to host life on Mars, even into the present day. However, the habitability of subsurface serpentinizing systems on Mars does not necessarily follow from these qualitative observations. In particular, while the production of H2 during serpentinization could provide methanogens with a needed substrate, the alkaline conditions and corresponding potential for carbon limitation that arise in concert are negatives against which H2 supply must be balanced. We considered this balance via a coupled geochemical-bioenergetic model that weighs the outputs of serpentinization against the metabolic requirements of methanogenesis, in an energetic frame of reference. Serpentinization is modeled using the "Geochemist's Workbench" (GWB) whereby ultramafic harzburgite rocks are reacted with oxygen and sulfate depleted seawater. Reaction kinetics are not explicitly considered, but comparable effects of partial reaction are approximated by assuming post-reaction dilution of equilibrated fluids. The output of GWB serves as the input to the bioenergetic model, which calculates methanogenic energy yields based on spherically-symmetrical diffusion of substrates to a cell followed by reaction at the diffusion-limited rate. Membrane selectivity for substrate transport is explicitly considered. Results will be report updates for two scenarios: (i) High temperature serpentinization followed by cooling and transport of equilibrated fluid to a lower temperature regime accessible to biology; (ii) Serpentinization within the biologically-tolerated range of temperatures. Such coupled models demonstrate that environmental variability with respect to both water-rock reaction

  6. Arsenic, nitrate, iron, and hardness in ground water, Chena Hot Springs Road, Steele Creek Road, and Gilmore Trail areas, (T.1N., R.1E., FM), Fairbanks, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krumhardt, Andrea P.

    1982-01-01

    This report presents all data on arsenic, nitrate, iron, and hardness in well water in the Chena Hot Springs Road, Steele Creek Road, and Gilmore Trail area of Fairbanks, Alaska, collected through October 1981. Concentrations range as follows: arsenic - 0 to 5,100 micrograms per liter; nitrate - 0 to 53 milligrams per liter; iron - 0 to 50 milligrams per liter, and hardness - 12 to 1,000 milligrams per liter. The percentage of samples exceeding limits set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are as follows: arsenic - 13%; nitrate - 14%, and iron - 80%. (USGS)

  7. Complete genome of the potential thermozyme producer Anoxybacillus gonensis G2(T) isolated from the Gönen hot springs in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yan Lue; Chan, Kok-Gan; Ee, Robson; Belduz, Ali Osman; Canakci, Sabriye; Kahar, Ummirul Mukminin; Yaakop, Amira Suriaty; Goh, Kian Mau

    2015-10-20

    Anoxybacillus gonensis type strain G2(T) (=NCIMB 13,933(T) =NCCB 100040(T)) has been isolated from the Gönen hot springs in Turkey. This strain produces a number of well-studied, biotechnologically important enzymes, including xylose isomerase, carboxylesterase, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase. In addition, this strain is an excellent candidate for the bioremediation of areas with heavy metal pollution. Here, we present a high-quality, annotated, complete genome of A. gonensis G2(T). Furthermore, this report provides insights into several novel enzymes of strain G2(T) and their potential industrial applications. PMID:26297905

  8. Bacillus licheniformis BT5.9 Isolated from Changar Hot Spring, Malang, Indonesia, as a Potential Producer of Thermostable α-amylase

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Darah; Zhu, Han Li; Yusof, Nuraqilah; Isnaeni; Hong, Lim Sheh

    2013-01-01

    A total of 34 bacterial isolates were obtained from soil samples collected from Changar Hot Spring, Malang, Indonesia. Of these, 13 isolates produced a zone of hydrolysis in starch-nutrient agar medium and generated various amylases in liquid medium. One isolate was selected as the best amylase producer and was identified as Bacillus licheniformis BT5.9. The improvement of culture conditions (initial medium pH of 5.0, cultivation temperature of 50°C, agitation speed of 100 rpm and inoculum size of 1.7 × 109 cells/ml) provided the highest amylase production (0.327 U/ml). PMID:24575243

  9. Coupled reactions and silica diffusion during serpentinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogasawara, Yuichi; Okamoto, Atsushi; Hirano, Nobuo; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi

    2013-10-01

    Silica activity is one of the key factors in controlling reaction paths of serpentinization. We conducted hydrothermal experiments in the olivine (Ol)-orthopyroxene (Opx)-H2O system at 250 °C and at a vapor-saturated pressure of 3.98 MPa to explore the role of silica diffusion in aqueous fluids during serpentinization. Olivine (Fo91), orthopyroxene (En91), or their composite powders (with Ol/Opx/Ol zones) were set in tube-in-tube vessels, and solution chemistry and the extent of serpentinization were analyzed in detail. In the Ol-H2O experiments, the product changed from serpentine + magnetite to serpentine + brucite + magnetite, accompanied by a Si-drop in the solutions. Serpentinization proceeded uniformly throughout the reaction tube, indicating that the supply of water was not the rate-determining process. In the Opx-H2O experiments, orthopyroxenes were dissolved along the cleavages, and the amount of newly formed serpentine was very small. The silica activity of the solutions in the Opx-H2O experiments was 1-3 orders higher than in the Ol-H2O experiments. In the Ol-Opx-H2O experiments, serpentinization proceeded in both the Ol and Opx zones. In the Opx zone, the extent of serpentinization was constant, whereas in the Ol zone, serpentinization was most extensive along the boundary between the Ol and Opx zones, and it decreased gradually away from the boundary. Serpentinization in the Ol-Opx-H2O experiments was modeled simply by coupled processes involving silica diffusion and two serpentinization reactions: a silica-consuming reaction after olivine and a silica-releasing reaction after orthopyroxene. The spatial pattern of the extent of serpentinization was controlled by the diffusion coefficient of silica in aqueous solution, DSiO2,aq, and the apparent reaction rate constants k'Ol in the olivine zone, and k'Opx in the orthopyroxene zone. Assuming DSiO2,aq = 2.0 × 10-4 cm2/s, the observed variation in the extent of serpentinization after a run of 1512 h is

  10. Chemolithoautotrophic arsenite oxidation by a thermophilic Anoxybacillus flavithermus strain TCC9-4 from a hot spring in Tengchong of Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Dawei; Li, Ping; Jiang, Zhou; Dai, Xinyue; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yanhong; Guo, Qinghai; Wang, Yanxin

    2015-01-01

    A new facultative chemolithoautotrophic arsenite (AsIII)-oxidizing bacterium TCC9-4 was isolated from a hot spring microbial mat in Tengchong of Yunnan, China. This strain could grow with AsIII as an energy source, CO2–HCO3- as a carbon source and oxygen as the electron acceptor in a minimal salts medium. Under chemolithoautotrophic conditions, more than 90% of 100 mg/L AsIII could be oxidized by the strain TCC9-4 in 36 h. Temperature was an important environmental factor that strongly influenced the AsIII oxidation rate and AsIII oxidase (Aio) activity; the highest Aio activity was found at the temperature of 40∘C. Addition of 0.01% yeast extract enhanced the growth significantly, but delayed the AsIII oxidation. On the basis of 16S rRNA phylogenetic sequence analysis, strain TCC9-4 was identified as Anoxybacillus flavithermus. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of arsenic (As) oxidation by A. flavithermus. The Aio gene in TCC9-4 might be quite novel relative to currently known gene sequences. The results of this study expand our current understanding of microbially mediated As oxidation in hot springs. PMID:25999920

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus strain Y4.12MC10, a Novel Paenibacillus lautus strain Isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring in Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Mead, David A; Lucas, Susan; Copeland, Alex; Lapidus, Alla; Cheng, Jan-Feng; Bruce, David C; Goodwin, Lynne A; Pitluck, Sam; Chertkov, Olga; Zhang, Xiaojing; Detter, John C; Han, Cliff S; Tapia, Roxanne; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren J; Chang, Yun-Juan; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Ivanova, Natalia N; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Woyke, Tanja; Brumm, Catherine; Hochstein, Rebecca; Schoenfeld, Thomas; Brumm, Phillip

    2012-07-30

    Paenibacillus sp.Y412MC10 was one of a number of organisms isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring, Yellowstone National Park, Montana, USA under permit from the National Park Service. The isolate was initially classified as a Geobacillus sp. Y412MC10 based on its isolation conditions and similarity to other organisms isolated from hot springs at Yellowstone National Park. Comparison of 16 S rRNA sequences within the Bacillales indicated that Geobacillus sp.Y412MC10 clustered with Paenibacillus species, and the organism was most closely related to Paenibacillus lautus. Lucigen Corp. prepared genomic DNA and the genome was sequenced, assembled, and annotated by the DOE Joint Genome Institute. The genome sequence was deposited at the NCBI in October 2009 (NC_013406). The genome of Paenibacillus sp. Y412MC10 consists of one circular chromosome of 7,121,665 bp with an average G+C content of 51.2%. Comparison to other Paenibacillus species shows the organism lacks nitrogen fixation, antibiotic production and social interaction genes reported in other paenibacilli. The Y412MC10 genome shows a high level of synteny and homology to the draft sequence of Paenibacillus sp. HGF5, an organism from the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) Reference Genomes. This, combined with genomic CAZyme analysis, suggests an intestinal, rather than environmental origin for Y412MC10. PMID:23408395

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus strain Y4.12MC10, a Novel Paenibacillus lautus strain Isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring in Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, David; Lucas, Susan; Copeland, A; Lapidus, Alla L.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Chertkov, Olga; Zhang, Xiaojing; Detter, J. Chris; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Chang, Yun-Juan; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Ivanova, N; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Woyke, Tanja; Brumm, Catherine; Hochstein, Rebecca; Schoenfeld, Thomas; Brumm, Phillip

    2012-01-01

    Paenibacillus speciesY412MC10 was one of a number of organisms initially isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring, Yellowstone National Park, Montana, USA. The isolate Y412MC10 was initially classified as a Geobacillus sp. based on its isolation conditions and similarity to other organisms isolated from hot springs at Yellowstone National Park. Comparison of 16 S rRNA sequences within the Bacillales indicated that Geobacillus sp.Y412MC10 clustered with Paenibacillus species and not Geobacillus; the 16S rRNA analysis indicated the organism was a strain of Paenibacillus lautus. Lucigen Corp. prepared genomic DNA and the genome was sequenced, assembled, and annotated by the DOE Joint Genome Institute. The genome of Paenibacillus lautus strain Y412MC10 consists of one circular chromosome of 7,121,665 bp with an average G+C content of 51.2%. The Paenibacillus sp.Y412MC10 genome sequence was deposited at the NCBI in October 2009 (NC{_}013406). Comparison to other Paenibacillus species shows the organism lacks nitrogen fixation, antibiotic production and social interaction genes reported in other Paenibacilli. Over 25% of the proteins predicted by the Y412MC10 genome share no identity with the closest sequenced Paenibacillus species; most of these are predicted hypothetical proteins and their specific function in the environment is unknown.

  13. How important is hydrotherapy? Effects of dynamic action of hot spring water as a rehabilitative treatment for burn patients in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Moufarrij, S; Deghayli, L; Raffoul, W; Hirt-Burri, N; Michetti, M; de Buys Roessingh, A; Norberg, M; Applegate, L A

    2014-12-31

    Burn rehabilitation using hydrotherapy can have multiple benefits for the burn patient. The therapy uses specific mineral enriched hot spring water and water jets with varied hydro-pressure to combat hypertrophy, inflammatory reaction signs, abnormal pigmentation, and, more specifically, redness and scarring. Standard operating procedures for burn rehabilitation have been developed and integrated into the Standard of Care at the CHUV hospital using localized hydro-mechanical stimulation of burn sites (20 minutes of alternating anatomical sites) followed by constant pressure large-bore and filiform showers targeting specific scarred areas. These therapeutic regimens are repeated daily for 2 to 3 weeks. Patients showed lasting effects from this regimen (up to 3-6 months), the results becoming permanent with more uniform skin structure, color and visco-elasticity in addition to a decrease in pruritus. The specifications of clinical protocols are described herein along with the virtues of hot spring hydro-pressure therapy for burn rehabilitation. The use of hydrotherapy, which has been a controversial topic among burn units across the world, is also discussed. In North America, hydrotherapy is defined only within the scope of in-patient wound cleansing and is thought to lead to microbial auto-contamination and bacterial resistance. In Switzerland and France the emphasis of hydrotherapy is on rehabilitation after the wound has closed. PMID:26336365

  14. How important is hydrotherapy? Effects of dynamic action of hot spring water as a rehabilitative treatment for burn patients in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Moufarrij, S.; Deghayli, L.; Raffoul, W.; Hirt-Burri, N.; Michetti, M.; de Buys Roessingh, A.; Norberg, M.; Applegate, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Burn rehabilitation using hydrotherapy can have multiple benefits for the burn patient. The therapy uses specific mineral enriched hot spring water and water jets with varied hydro-pressure to combat hypertrophy, inflammatory reaction signs, abnormal pigmentation, and, more specifically, redness and scarring. Standard operating procedures for burn rehabilitation have been developed and integrated into the Standard of Care at the CHUV hospital using localized hydro-mechanical stimulation of burn sites (20 minutes of alternating anatomical sites) followed by constant pressure large-bore and filiform showers targeting specific scarred areas. These therapeutic regimens are repeated daily for 2 to 3 weeks. Patients showed lasting effects from this regimen (up to 3-6 months), the results becoming permanent with more uniform skin structure, color and visco-elasticity in addition to a decrease in pruritus. The specifications of clinical protocols are described herein along with the virtues of hot spring hydro-pressure therapy for burn rehabilitation. The use of hydrotherapy, which has been a controversial topic among burn units across the world, is also discussed. In North America, hydrotherapy is defined only within the scope of in-patient wound cleansing and is thought to lead to microbial auto-contamination and bacterial resistance. In Switzerland and France the emphasis of hydrotherapy is on rehabilitation after the wound has closed. PMID:26336365

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus strain Y4.12MC10, a Novel Paenibacillus lautus strain Isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring in Yellowstone National Park

    PubMed Central

    Mead, David A.; Lucas, Susan; Copeland, Alex; Lapidus, Alla; Cheng, Jan-Feng; Bruce, David C.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Chertkov, Olga; Zhang, Xiaojing; Detter, John C.; Han, Cliff S.; Tapia, Roxanne; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren J.; Chang, Yun-juan; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Woyke, Tanja; Brumm, Catherine; Hochstein, Rebecca; Schoenfeld, Thomas; Brumm, Phillip

    2012-01-01

    Paenibacillus sp.Y412MC10 was one of a number of organisms isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring, Yellowstone National Park, Montana, USA under permit from the National Park Service. The isolate was initially classified as a Geobacillus sp. Y412MC10 based on its isolation conditions and similarity to other organisms isolated from hot springs at Yellowstone National Park. Comparison of 16 S rRNA sequences within the Bacillales indicated that Geobacillus sp.Y412MC10 clustered with Paenibacillus species, and the organism was most closely related to Paenibacillus lautus. Lucigen Corp. prepared genomic DNA and the genome was sequenced, assembled, and annotated by the DOE Joint Genome Institute. The genome sequence was deposited at the NCBI in October 2009 (NC_013406). The genome of Paenibacillus sp. Y412MC10 consists of one circular chromosome of 7,121,665 bp with an average G+C content of 51.2%. Comparison to other Paenibacillus species shows the organism lacks nitrogen fixation, antibiotic production and social interaction genes reported in other paenibacilli. The Y412MC10 genome shows a high level of synteny and homology to the draft sequence of Paenibacillus sp. HGF5, an organism from the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) Reference Genomes. This, combined with genomic CAZyme analysis, suggests an intestinal, rather than environmental origin for Y412MC10. PMID:23408395

  16. Borrowed alleles and convergence in serpentine adaptation.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Brian J; Lahner, Brett; DaCosta, Jeffrey M; Weisman, Caroline M; Hollister, Jesse D; Salt, David E; Bomblies, Kirsten; Yant, Levi

    2016-07-19

    Serpentine barrens represent extreme hazards for plant colonists. These sites are characterized by high porosity leading to drought, lack of essential mineral nutrients, and phytotoxic levels of metals. Nevertheless, nature forged populations adapted to these challenges. Here, we use a population-based evolutionary genomic approach coupled with elemental profiling to assess how autotetraploid Arabidopsis arenosa adapted to a multichallenge serpentine habitat in the Austrian Alps. We first demonstrate that serpentine-adapted plants exhibit dramatically altered elemental accumulation levels in common conditions, and then resequence 24 autotetraploid individuals from three populations to perform a genome scan. We find evidence for highly localized selective sweeps that point to a polygenic, multitrait basis for serpentine adaptation. Comparing our results to a previous study of independent serpentine colonizations in the closely related diploid Arabidopsis lyrata in the United Kingdom and United States, we find the highest levels of differentiation in 11 of the same loci, providing candidate alleles for mediating convergent evolution. This overlap between independent colonizations in different species suggests that a limited number of evolutionary strategies are suited to overcome the multiple challenges of serpentine adaptation. Interestingly, we detect footprints of selection in A. arenosa in the context of substantial gene flow from nearby off-serpentine populations of A. arenosa, as well as from A. lyrata In several cases, quantitative tests of introgression indicate that some alleles exhibiting strong selective sweep signatures appear to have been introgressed from A. lyrata This finding suggests that migrant alleles may have facilitated adaptation of A. arenosa to this multihazard environment. PMID:27357660

  17. Borrowed alleles and convergence in serpentine adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Brian J.; Lahner, Brett; DaCosta, Jeffrey M.; Weisman, Caroline M.; Hollister, Jesse D.; Salt, David E.; Bomblies, Kirsten; Yant, Levi

    2016-01-01

    Serpentine barrens represent extreme hazards for plant colonists. These sites are characterized by high porosity leading to drought, lack of essential mineral nutrients, and phytotoxic levels of metals. Nevertheless, nature forged populations adapted to these challenges. Here, we use a population-based evolutionary genomic approach coupled with elemental profiling to assess how autotetraploid Arabidopsis arenosa adapted to a multichallenge serpentine habitat in the Austrian Alps. We first demonstrate that serpentine-adapted plants exhibit dramatically altered elemental accumulation levels in common conditions, and then resequence 24 autotetraploid individuals from three populations to perform a genome scan. We find evidence for highly localized selective sweeps that point to a polygenic, multitrait basis for serpentine adaptation. Comparing our results to a previous study of independent serpentine colonizations in the closely related diploid Arabidopsis lyrata in the United Kingdom and United States, we find the highest levels of differentiation in 11 of the same loci, providing candidate alleles for mediating convergent evolution. This overlap between independent colonizations in different species suggests that a limited number of evolutionary strategies are suited to overcome the multiple challenges of serpentine adaptation. Interestingly, we detect footprints of selection in A. arenosa in the context of substantial gene flow from nearby off-serpentine populations of A. arenosa, as well as from A. lyrata. In several cases, quantitative tests of introgression indicate that some alleles exhibiting strong selective sweep signatures appear to have been introgressed from A. lyrata. This finding suggests that migrant alleles may have facilitated adaptation of A. arenosa to this multihazard environment. PMID:27357660

  18. Geochemistry of a continental site of serpentinization, the Tablelands Ophiolite, Gros Morne National Park: A Mars analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szponar, Natalie; Brazelton, William J.; Schrenk, Matthew O.; Bower, Dina M.; Steele, Andrew; Morrill, Penny L.

    2013-06-01

    The presence of aqueously altered, olivine-rich rocks along with carbonate on Mars suggest that serpentinization may have occurred in the past and may be occurring presently in the subsurface, and possibly contributing methane (CH4) to the martian atmosphere. Serpentinization, the hydration of olivine in ultramafic rocks, yields ultra-basic fluids (pH ⩾ 10) with unique chemistry (i.e. Ca2+-OH- waters) and hydrogen gas, which can support abiogenic production of hydrocarbons (i.e. Fischer-Tropsch Type synthesis) and subsurface chemosynthetic metabolisms. Mars analogue sites of present-day serpentinization can be used to determine what geochemical measurements are required for determining the source methane at sites of serpentinization on Earth and possibly on Mars. The Tablelands Ophiolite is a continental site of present-day serpentinization and a Mars analogue due to the presence of altered olivine-rich ultramafic rocks with both carbonate and serpentine signatures. This study describes the geochemical indicators of present-day serpentinization as evidenced by meteoric ultra-basic reducing groundwater discharging from ultramafic rocks, and travertine and calcium carbonate sediment, which form at the discharge points of the springs. Dissolved hydrogen concentrations (0.06-1.20 mg/L) and methane (0.04-0.30 mg/L) with δ13CCH4 values (-28.5‰ to -15.6‰) were measured in the spring fluids. Molecular and isotopic analyses of CH4, ethane, propane, butane, pentane and hexane suggest a non-microbial source of methane, and attribute the origin of methane and higher hydrocarbon gases to either thermogenic or abiogenic pathways.

  19. Temperature trends for reaction rates, hydrogen generation, and partitioning of iron during experimental serpentinization of olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollom, Thomas M.; Klein, Frieder; Robbins, Mark; Moskowitz, Bruce; Berquó, Thelma S.; Jöns, Niels; Bach, Wolfgang; Templeton, Alexis

    2016-05-01

    A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to examine how partitioning of Fe among solid reaction products and rates of H2 generation vary as a function of temperature during serpentinization of olivine. Individual experiments were conducted at temperatures ranging from 200 to 320 °C, with reaction times spanning a few days to over a year. The extent of reaction ranged from <1% to ∼23%. Inferred rates for serpentinization of olivine during the experiments were 50-80 times slower than older studies had reported but are consistent with more recent results, indicating that serpentinization may proceed more slowly than previously thought. Reaction products were dominated by chrysotile, brucite, and magnetite, with minor amounts of magnesite, dolomite, and iowaite. The chrysotile contained only small amounts of Fe (XFe = 0.03-0.05, with ∼25% present as ferric Fe in octahedral sites), and displayed little variation in composition with reaction temperature. Conversely, the Fe contents of brucite (XFe = 0.01-0.09) increased steadily with decreasing reaction temperature. Analysis of the reaction products indicated that the stoichiometry of the serpentinization reactions varied with temperature, but remained constant with increasing reaction progress at a given temperature. The observed distribution of Fe among the reaction products does not appear to be entirely consistent with existing equilibrium models of Fe partitioning during serpentinization, suggesting improved models that include kinetic factors or multiple reaction steps need to be developed. Rates of H2 generation increased steeply from 200 to 300 °C, but dropped off at higher temperatures. This trend in H2 generation rates is attributable to a combination of the overall rate of serpentinization reactions and increased partitioning of Fe into brucite rather than magnetite at lower temperatures. The results suggest that millimolal concentration of H2 could be attained in moderately hot hydrothermal

  20. Highly Ordered Vertical Structure of Synechococcus Populations within the One-Millimeter-Thick Photic Zone of a Hot Spring Cyanobacterial Mat

    PubMed Central

    Ramsing, Niels Birger; Ferris, Mike J.; Ward, David M.

    2000-01-01

    A variety of contemporary techniques were used to investigate the vertical distribution of thermophilic unicellular cyanobacteria, Synechococcus spp., and their activity within the upper 1-mm-thick photic zone of the mat community found in an alkaline siliceous hot spring in Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming. Detailed measurements were made over a diel cycle at a 61°C site. Net oxygenic photosynthesis measured with oxygen microelectrodes was highest within the uppermost 100- to 200-μm-thick layer until midmorning, but as the day progressed, the peak of net activity shifted to deeper layers, stabilizing at a depth of 300 μm from midday throughout the afternoon. Examination of vertical thin sections by bright-field and autofluorescence microscopy revealed the existence of different populations of Synechococcus which form discrete bands at different vertical positions. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene segments from horizontal cryosections obtained at 100-μm-thick vertical intervals also suggested vertical stratification of cyanobacterial, green sulfur bacterium-like, and green nonsulfur bacterium-like populations. There was no evidence of diel migration. However, image analysis of vertical thin sections revealed the presence of a narrow band of rod-shaped Synechococcus cells in which the cells assumed an upright position. These upright cells, located 400 to 800 μm below the surface, were observed only in mat samples obtained around noon. In mat samples obtained at other time points, the cells were randomly oriented throughout the mat. These combined observations reveal the existence of a highly ordered structure within the very thin photic zone of this hot spring microbial mat, consisting of morphologically similar Synechococcus populations that are likely to be differentially adapted, some co-occurring with green sulfur bacterium-like populations, and all overlying green nonsulfur bacterium-like populations. PMID

  1. Highly ordered vertical structure of Synechococcus populations within the one-millimeter-thick photic zone of a hot spring cyanobacterial mat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsing, N. B.; Ferris, M. J.; Ward, D. M.

    2000-01-01

    A variety of contemporary techniques were used to investigate the vertical distribution of thermophilic unicellular cyanobacteria, Synechococcus spp., and their activity within the upper 1-mm-thick photic zone of the mat community found in an alkaline siliceous hot spring in Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming. Detailed measurements were made over a diel cycle at a 61 degrees C site. Net oxygenic photosynthesis measured with oxygen microelectrodes was highest within the uppermost 100- to 200-microm-thick layer until midmorning, but as the day progressed, the peak of net activity shifted to deeper layers, stabilizing at a depth of 300 microm from midday throughout the afternoon. Examination of vertical thin sections by bright-field and autofluorescence microscopy revealed the existence of different populations of Synechococcus which form discrete bands at different vertical positions. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene segments from horizontal cryosections obtained at 100-microm-thick vertical intervals also suggested vertical stratification of cyanobacterial, green sulfur bacterium-like, and green nonsulfur bacterium-like populations. There was no evidence of diel migration. However, image analysis of vertical thin sections revealed the presence of a narrow band of rod-shaped Synechococcus cells in which the cells assumed an upright position. These upright cells, located 400 to 800 microm below the surface, were observed only in mat samples obtained around noon. In mat samples obtained at other time points, the cells were randomly oriented throughout the mat. These combined observations reveal the existence of a highly ordered structure within the very thin photic zone of this hot spring microbial mat, consisting of morphologically similar Synechococcus populations that are likely to be differentially adapted, some co-occurring with green sulfur bacterium-like populations, and all overlying green nonsulfur bacterium

  2. Bar-coded pyrosequencing reveals shared bacterial community properties along the temperature gradients of two alkaline hot springs in Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Miller, Scott R; Strong, Aaron L; Jones, Kenneth L; Ungerer, Mark C

    2009-07-01

    An understanding of how communities are organized is a fundamental goal of ecology but one which has historically been elusive for microbial systems. We used a bar-coded pyrosequencing approach targeting the V3 region of the bacterial small-subunit rRNA gene to address the factors that structure communities along the thermal gradients of two alkaline hot springs in the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park. The filtered data set included a total of nearly 34,000 sequences from 39 environmental samples. Each was assigned to one of 391 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified by their unique V3 sequence signatures. Although the two hot springs differed in their OTU compositions, community resemblance and diversity changed with strikingly similar dynamics along the two outflow channels. Two lines of evidence suggest that these community properties are controlled primarily by environmental temperature. First, community resemblance decayed exponentially with increasing differences in temperature between samples but was only weakly correlated with physical distance. Second, diversity decreased with increasing temperature at the same rate along both gradients but was uncorrelated with other measured environmental variables. This study also provides novel insights into the nature of the ecological interactions among important taxa in these communities. A strong negative association was observed between cyanobacteria and the Chloroflexi, which together accounted for approximately 70% of the sequences sampled. This pattern contradicts the longstanding hypothesis that coadapted lineages of these bacteria maintain tightly cooccurring distributions along these gradients as a result of a producer-consumer relationship. We propose that they instead compete for some limiting resource(s). PMID:19429553

  3. Changes in the community structure of microbial mats along chemical and temperature gradients in a Yellowstone hot spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, E. A.; Eilers, K. G.; Ulrich, S. M.; Wenk, C.; MacKenzie, L. A.; Dawson, S.; Spear, J. R.; de la Torre, J. R.; 2010 Usc International Geobiology Course

    2010-12-01

    Environmental factors that influence the structure of microbial communities, such as pH or temperature, often occur over spatial gradients in nature; however, microbial community shifts along such gradients are not well understood. Imperial Geyser (IM) is a silica-rich hydrothermal spring in Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA, which contains laminated microbial mats, up to 12 cm thick, that extend from the source spring down a hundred meter outflow channel. The microbial mats within the channel provide an opportunity to assess how community composition of microbial mats changes along gradients of temperature, stream chemistry, light and pH. In this study, microbial communities from each distinct layer of the mat at five sites along the outflow channel were analyzed by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA gene tags amplified using barcoded PCR primers. The microbial mats were dominated by Chloroflexi (17%), Cyanobacteria (17%), Proteobacteria (13%), Bacteroidetes (8%) and Acidobacteria (7%). Deeper layers of the mat (below 8 cm) predominantly contained sequences related to uncultivated, deeply-branching crenarchaeal lineages (up to 30% of sequences). Aquaficales were dominant in the spring water, but rare in the mats. While the water samples clustered separately from the mats, communities within the mats clustered neither by site nor by layer. Community structure was not influenced by pH or temperature as was anticipated.. The abundance of photosynthetic taxa decreased in the lower layers at all sites, likely driven by decreasing light intensity away from the surface. Microbial diversity also decreased in the lower layers at all sites. The results of this study provide new insights into a previously uncharted ecosystem and demonstrate that multiple factors may drive bacterial community structure in thermal environments.

  4. Microfluidic serpentine antennas with designed mechanical tunability.

    PubMed

    Huang, YongAn; Wang, Yezhou; Xiao, Lin; Liu, Huimin; Dong, Wentao; Yin, Zhouping

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes the design and characterization of microfluidic serpentine antennas with reversible stretchability and designed mechanical frequency modulation (FM). The microfluidic antennas are designed based on the Poisson's ratio of the elastomer in which the liquid alloy antenna is embedded, to controllably decrease, stabilize or increase its resonance frequency when being stretched. Finite element modelling was used in combination with experimental verification to investigate the effects of substrate dimensions and antenna aspect ratios on the FM sensitivity to uniaxial stretching. It could be designed within the range of -1.2 to 0.6 GHz per 100% stretch. When the aspect ratio of the serpentine antenna is between 1.0 and 1.5, the resonance frequency is stable under stretching, bending, and twisting. The presented microfluidic serpentine antenna design could be utilized in the field of wireless mobile communication for the design of wearable electronics, with a stable resonance frequency under dynamic applied strain up to 50%. PMID:25144304

  5. Selective mineralization of microbes in Fe-rich precipitates (jarosite, hydrous ferric oxides) from acid hot springs in the Waiotapu geothermal area, North Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Brian; Renaut, Robin W.

    2007-01-01

    A group of small springs that are informally called "Orange Spring", located near Hakereteke Stream in the northern part of the Waiotapu geothermal area, feed hot (˜ 80 °C), acidic (pH: 2.1 - 2.4), As-rich sulfate waters into a discharge channel that is up to 25 cm deep. Submerged reddish-brown precipitates on the channel floor are formed largely of noncrystalline As-rich hydrous ferric oxide (HFO: mainly goethite), poorly crystalline lepidocrocite, and crystalline jarosite. Well-preserved coccoid and rod-shaped microbes are found in the As-rich HFO, but not in the lepidocrocite or jarosite. The jarosite was probably precipitated when the water had a low pH (< 3) and high SO 4 content, whereas the goethite and lepidocrocite were probably precipitated when the water had a slightly higher pH (> 4) and lower SO 4 content. The fluctuations in the pH and SO 4 content, which led to precipitation of the different mineral phases, may reflect mixing of the spring water with stream water that flowed through the channel when Hakereteke Stream was in flood stage. The goethite probably formed when coccoid and rod-shaped bacteria ( Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans?) mediated rapid oxidization of the Fe 2+ to Fe 3+ that was then immediately coprecipitated with the As. Such rapid precipitation promoted mineralization of the microbes. The lack of mineralized microbes and the lower As in the lepidocrocite and jarosite may reflect precipitation rates that were slower than the decay rates of the microbes, or ecological factors that limited their growth.

  6. Weakening of dunite by serpentine dehydration.

    PubMed

    Riecker, R E; Rooney, T P

    1966-04-01

    A shear press has been used to determine the mechanical behavior of serpentinized dunite and forsterite at normal pressures to 50 kilobars, temperatures to 900 degrees C; and strain rates from 10(-1) to 10(-4) per second. The shear strength of dunite, containing less than 5 percent by volume of serpentine, is reduced by at least 30 percent as the temperature is raised from 300 degrees to 520 degrees C. Abundant kink bands develop at normal pressures above 35 kilobars at 27 degrees C and at lower pressures as the temperature is increased. PMID:17741630

  7. Geothermal Reservoir Assessment Case Study: Northern Basin and Range Province, Leach Hot Springs Area, Pershing County, Nevada. Final report, April 1979-December 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    A Geothermal Reservoir Assessment Case Study was conducted in the Leach Hot Springs Known Geothermal Resource Area of Pershing County, Nevada. The case study included the drilling of twenty-three temperature gradient wells, a magnetotelluric survey, seismic data acquisition and process